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A REVIEW OF THE PRIMATES, 

Daniel Giraud Elliot. 3 vols. Vol. I, 
Lemuroidea, Anthropoidea; Vol. II, An- 
thropoidea; Vol. Ill, Anthropoidea. 
American Museum of Natural History, 
1913. Paper, $35.00; Cloth, $37.00; 

Morocco, $60.00 



Volume 



Frontispiece 




Frontispiece Seniocebus meticulosus Elliot. 



9 L 

737 

fk KM 



4 /« 

REVIEW 




OF 



THE PRIMATES 



BY 
DANIEL GIRAUD ELLIOT, D. Sc, F. R. S. E., &C. 

Commander of the Royal Orders of the Crown of Italy, of Frederic of Wurtemburg, and of 
Charles the Third of Spain; Knight of the Imperial and Royal Orders of Francis Joseph 
of Austria, of the Dannebrog of Denmark, of the Albert Order of Saxony, of St. 
Maurice and St. Lazare of Italy, of Isabella the Catholic of Spain, of Christ of 
Portugal, of Philip the Magnanimous of Hesse, etc., etc.; Fellow of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, of the Zoological Society of London; A Founder and 
ex-Vice-President of the Zoological Society of France; A Founder and 
ex-President of the American Ornithologists' Union; Honorary Member 
of, the Nuttall Ornithological Club; of the Linnaan Society cf 
New York; of the New York Zoological Society; Member of 
the Imperial Leopoldino-Carolina Academy of Germany, of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, of the 
Academy of Sciences of New York, of the Societe 
D'Acclimatation of Paris, of the New York His- 
torical Society; Corresponding Member of the 
Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, of the 
Natural History Society of Boston, etc., etc. 



MONOGRAPH NO. 1 
VOLUME I 



LEMUROIDEA 
Daubentonia to Indris 

ANTHROPOIDEA 
Seniocebus to Saimiri 



FEB C4 1993 

UfiRAglt* 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
NEW YORK, U. S. A. 

MCMXII 



Vertebrate Paleontology 



V 



PREFACE. 



This "Review of the Primates" is the result of a casual suggestion 
of my friend Frank M. Chapman, Esq., that I should "write a book 
on Monkeys." The magnitude of the task — to compel all the described 
forms of the Primates to present themselves in their representatives 
for critical examination and comparison — was thoroughly appreciated, 
and also it was equally well understood that no Institution in the 
world contained a collection of these animals sufficiently large to permit 
a work like the present to be successfully completed by its aid alone. 
For over a century the Primates have been a subject of careful study 
by Naturalists of all lands, some most eminent Zoologists having 
devoted their investigations to them almost exclusively, and con- 
sequently the types of the many species were scattered throughout 
the various Museums of the world. To examine and compare these 
important examples was a necessity, for without a thorough knowledge 
of their characteristics no satisfactory progress toward the solution 
of their proper scientific standing could be reached. With representa- 
tives of the Primates, either from the eastern or western hemispheres, 
the Museums of the United States were but poorly provided, and a reli- 
ance for the material to prosecute the work was therefore to be 
placed upon the collections contained in European Museums and 
Zoological Gardens, and also in those of Eastern lands. Consequently 
the Author was obliged to visit all these various Institutions and study 
their collections. Twice were the Museums of England and the 
Continent visited, and many months passed each time examining the 
collections, and during a journey around the world, the Museums and 
Gardens of the far East were also visited and their collections care- 
fully studied. The Author has seen and taken a description of nearly 
all the types of the Primates extant in the world to-day, and there is 
not a collection of these animals of any importance existing at the 
present time with which he is not familiar. 

The results of five years' continuous study are therefore embodied 
in this work, and the conclusions given, no matter how they may dis- 
agree at times with the opinions expressed by other laborers in the 
same field, have in every case been reached only after careful and 
patient investigation. 

Even with the collections of the world at one's service, material 
in numerous genera is still greatly lacking; and in some of these, 



in 



iv PREFACE 

whose members are prone to almost indefinite individual variation, it 
is exceedingly doubtful if material will ever be gathered together 
sufficient to enable the question, of how many separate forms actually 
do exist, to be satisfactorily and definitely determined. 

A number of the types of the earlier describers, as well as some 
of later date have disappeared, and on account of this misfortune the 
species they represented cannot be established, and this is especially 
unfortunate when the name given has, for many years, been adopted 
and applied to the evidently wrong animal. To correct such errors 
will probably be a slow process, as it is difficult to overcome a bad 
habit once formed. Again numerous examples that served for types, 
by the passing of the many years since they received their names, have 
so deteriorated — from the accumulation of dust, the loss of their fur, 
and fading of their colors from unwise exposure to light — as to be no 
longer recognizable or of any value as the special representative of 
some particular species, and such cases are particularly to be regretted 
when the original description was so brief as to convey but a faint 
idea of the appearance of the animal. 

The earlier writers seem to have depended mainly for the charac- 
ters of their species on the colors of the pelage and its distribution, 
and rarely considered the more important characters of the crania. 
Their limited material gave them no idea of the great variation, mainly 
individual, that existed in the coloring of the pelage among members 
of numerous genera, and so were misled into believing their examples 
represented more than one species, when it was only the individual 
eccentricities of a very variable form that they were unknowingly 
considering. 

Notwithstanding the vast accumulation of examples of the Pri- 
mates from all parts of the world in the last twenty years, a number 
of important facts cannot yet be settled, nor will they be until much 
additional material is received. 

In the recognition of apparently distinct forms, subspecies in only 
comparatively few cases have been accepted, because intermediates 
between what are recorded as species have rarely been found in this 
Order, and neither of two forms, no matter how closely they are evi- 
dently related can properly be deemed a subspecies, no intermediates 
having been observed. Also the Author has not seen his way to estab- 
lish a subspecies between the dweller of an island and one of the main- 
land, because, no communication being possible, the appearance of 
intermediates would seem most improbable. Not so however, with the 
dwellers of contiguous islands which may at one time have been por- 



PREFACE v 

tions of a larger island, or where communication between the islands 
may be, or at an earlier period, has been, possible. Under such condi- 
tions subspecific forms may be found; but on the mainland where 
there is no evidence of a gradation from one form to another, sub- 
species may not be accepted. 

The Author has dwelt upon this point, because it may occasion 
surprise to some who examine these volumes, to find how few sub- 
species comparatively have been accepted, and it seemed best to explain 
how these are regarded, and what, as the Author conceives it, is the 
only method by which they can be produced. In the present work there 
are altogether fifty-five complete monographs, with about six hundred 
species, for it was deemed best that every genus should be treated 
monographically. Of course these vary greatly in importance and in 
the number of their species, from one only, to over eighty, but the 
average would be about twelve to a genus. Each member of the Order 
has been treated after the following method. First a general review is 
held of the genus accepted, the type fixed and description given ; then 
remarks are made on the appearance and general habits of the species 
the genus contains, followed by a review of the literature and the 
geographical distribution, and a key by means of which it is possible 
that all the species of that particular genus may be recognized. Then 
each species is taken up in regular sequence, its synonymy given and 
the type locality and geographical distribution recorded ; the present 
location of the type if existing, is then told, after which the peculiar 
characters of the species if it possesses any, are given, followed by 
such remarks as may be necessary, upon the relationship the species 
under review may have with some other in the genus ; then a full 
description and measurements of the type if possible, concluding with 
an account of the habits so far as they may be unquestionably known. 

Of course it is not to be expected that a work such as this can be 
produced solely by the unaided efforts of one individual no matter 
how long or conscientiously he may labor, and many times he is obliged 
to rely upon the aid of his colleagues as the work progresses. Con- 
sequently during the past five years the Author has been assisted in 
many ways by a large number of his scientific friends. And here he 
may be permitted to express the great pleasure and gratification he 
felt at the universal courtesy and kindness he received at all the great 
Museums in Europe and the East, as well as in those of his own land, 
by the officers who had charge of the great collections. Every possible 
facility was given him and unrestricted access to the collections at all 
times ; and wherever the Author went, his simple request proved to be 



vi PREFACE 

an 'open sesame' to the treasures he desired to see, and everything was 
done to forward his investigations and make his visit profitable as 
well as agreeable. 

Among the large number therefore to whom the Author feels 
especially indebted beginning in his own land, he would first mention 
his distinguished friend, Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn, LL.D., 
D.Sc, Sc.D., etc., President of the American Museum of Natural 
History, who from the beginning has taken a deep interest in this 
work, and through whose efforts solely its publication in the present 
attractive form has been made possible. The Author desires there- 
fore to express his lively appreciation of a scientific colleague's aid 
in making accessible to mammalogists throughout the world a contri- 
bution, the result of much weary labor, towards the elucidation of the 
members of the most important Order in the Animal Kingdom. 

To Dr. J. A. Allen, Curator of Mammalogy and Ornithology, and 
Dr. W. K. Gregory, Assistant in Vertebrate Paleontology in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, the Author is 
indebted ; especially to Dr. W. K. Gregory who gave the most careful 
supervision to the publication of the work, as well as to the illustra- 
tions that so much enhance the value of the volumes, a labor that was 
by no means slight nor free from various difficulties. To Witmer 
Stone, Esq., Curator of Ornithology in the Philadelphia Academy of 
Natural Sciences ; to G. S. Miller, Esq., Assistant Curator Department 
of Mammals, and N. Hollister, Esq., Assistant in the same Department 
of the United States National Museum the Author is under many obli- 
gations. And finally his thanks are due to F. J. V. Skiff, Esq., Director 
of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, for the loan of 
skulls from that Institution. 

In England he would express his great obligation to Oldfield 
Thomas, Esq., Head of the Department of Mammals in the British 
Museum, where the collection of the Primates, regarding it in a general 
sense, is probably the finest and most complete in the world, the Author 
was permitted to work as if it were his personal property, Mr. Thomas 
only insisting that all novelties discovered should be described by the 
Author, and not as would naturally be expected, by the Head of the 
Department. Also to Guy Dollman, Esq., Assistant in Mammalogy 
in the same Institution, who aided the writer in many ways, and 
whose intimate knowledge of the collection and especially the location 
of the specimens by which much time was saved, was of the greatest 
advantage. Also to R. Lydekker, Esq., who permitted the removal 
from the cases of many mounted specimens, all of which were in his 



PREFACE vii 

keeping. In Paris, Monsieur le Docteur E. L. Trouessart, in whose 
charge is the magnificent collection of Mammals in the National 
Museum of the Jardin des Plantes, assisted the Author by every means 
in his power, and placed at his disposal that wonderful collection of the 
Primates which contains so many of the types of the old Authors, an 
intimate knowledge of which is necessary for the determination of 
the species they represent. In the great Museum at Leyden, Holland, 
so rich in specimens of the Lemuroidea and examples of other Pri- 
mates from the islands of the Eastern Archipelago, the Director, Dr. 
F. A. Jentink, and in his absence Administrator Vesteroon Wulver- 
horst made the Author's labors in the Institution easy and pleasant. 
In Berlin, Herr Paul Matschie, Curator of Mammalogy, placed the 
grand collection of Primates so rich in examples of African species 
especially of Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Guenons, (Lasiopyga) and Colo- 
bus or Guerezas, at the Author's service, and aided him in every way 
possible. Also to Herr O. Neumann for information concerning the 
new species of monkeys obtained by him in East Africa and which 
were deposited in the Museum. The collection of Chimpanzees in this 
Institution is the largest in the world, and exhibits the wonderful indi- 
vidual variation that exists in the skulls and coloring of the skins of 
these apes ; variations that serve more to perplex than to enlighten the 
observer on the mystery of species, and what really constitutes such a 
rank. In Dresden the Author's thanks are due to Dr. A. Jacobi, the 
Director of the Museum, who aided him in becoming familiar with 
certain important types in the collection under his charge ; and in the 
splendid Museum in Vienna, to the Director Dr. F. Steindachner, and 
custodian Dr. L. R. Lorenz, the Author is greatly indebted for many 
attentions and assistance in examining the collection which comprises 
the examples procured by Natterer during his sojourn in Brazil, as 
well as important specimens of the Gorilla procured by Du Chaillu in 
the Gaboon, West Africa. 

To Professor Dr. R. Hertwig, Director; Dr. W. Leizewitz and 
Dr. C. Hellmayer, Custodians of the Zoological Museum, Munich, in 
the collection of which are contained Spix's types, and a very large 
number of examples of the crania of Bornean Ourangs obtained by 
Selenka, the Author is under many obligations for their courtesy dur- 
ing his sojourn in their city. In Frankfort-on-the-Main, by the cour- 
tesy of the Acting Director, Dr. Drevermann of the Senckenbergian 
Museum, the Author was enabled to examine the skins and skeletons 
of Pseudogorilla mayema? which, from the disappearance of the 
type, are the only specimens known in Europe at the pfesent time. 



viii PREFACE 

In Calcutta, Dr. N. Annandale, the Superintendent of the Natural 
History Section of the Indian Museum, unfortunately was absent in 
Burma, but access to the collections was afforded, and every facility 
for inspecting the types of Blyth and other of the earlier Indian 
Naturalists, which still survived. In the various Zoological Gardens 
of Europe and the East many interesting and valuable species were 
seen, and in the Zoological Gardens at Antwerp was discovered the 
handsome Monkey which the Director, M. l'Hoest, kindly permitted 
the Author to describe under the name of C. insignis. In the Gardens 
at Cairo, Egypt, under the pilotage of his friend Captain Flower, 
the Director, several specimens of the rare monkeys of the genus 
Erythrocebus were shown to the writer and descriptions taken. It 
was the skins of these same animals that, some eighteen months later in 
the British Museum, served the Author as the types for two new 
species. In the Calcutta Gardens were some fine examples of Hylo- 
bates hoolock and the Author's ears were deafened by their powerful 
voices ; and also a splendid specimen of the somewhat rare Pithecus 
andamanensis was seen ; and in the Zoological Gardens of Kyoto, 
Japan, were numerous living examples of the peculiar Japanese species 
P. fuscatus, and one very fine adult male Magus ochreatus. The 
Author also desires to express his thanks to Mr. R. I. Pocock, Super- 
intendent of the Gardens of the Zoological Society in Regent's Park, 
London, for his assistance in examining the Primates under his charge. 

As it was not possible to assemble in one locality all the material 
it was desirable to employ for ilustrating the work, photographs of the 
crania had to be taken in different places. Those of the crania of 
Pseudogorilla mayema ? were most kindly sent to the Author by 
Dr. O. zur Strassen, Director of the Senckenbergian Museum at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main ; those of the Ourang crania were executed at 
the Zoological Museum in Munich ; those of Gorilla gorilla, G. g. 
jacobi and G. g. matschie, from the crania in the Berlin Museum. A 
certain number were also obtained from the American Museum of 
Natural History, the United States National Museum, the Field Mu- 
seum of Natural History, Chicago, the Philadelphia Academy of 
Sciences, and especially the British Museum. 

The Author cannot refrain from calling attention to the illustra- 
tions produced by the methods and greatly improved instruments 
invented by the Special Photographer of the American Museum, Mr. 
Abram E. Anderson, which for clearness and perfection of detail, 
have possibly not been heretofore equalled. Mr. Anderson was sent 
to London expressly to photograph the crania in the British Museum, 



PREFACE ix 

and the illustrations given in the plates exhibit faithfully the particular 
characteristics of the genera and subgenera. Those skulls which are 
lacking are fortunately very few. 

The colored illustrations have been selected from those published 
in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, chiefly by the 
great artist, my friend the late Joseph Wolf, and, through the kindness 
of the Council of the Society, it is permitted to reproduce them in this 
work. Those of the different species from life were taken by Mr. 
Lewis Medland, F.Z.S., of London, and certain excellent figures taken 
by Mr. E. L. Sanborn from animals living in the menagerie of the 
New York Zoological Society, and presented by the Trustees for this 
work. Measurements of the Primates, such as those confined to the 
dimensions of the skin removed from the body, are of comparatively 
little value as there is probably considerable difference in size between 
the average stuffed specimen and the living animal. But those given 
of the crania are reliable and important, and not subject to variation 
after the death of their owners. Body measurements in these volumes, 
unless followed by (Collector), are taken from the dried skins, and are 
always given in millimetres. Those of the hands and feet, as the skin 
of these members usually contains the bones, are reliable for length, 
but the figures given for dimensions of the body and tail can, in the 
majority of cases, only be regarded as approximate. Mammals, unlike 
birds, vary greatly in their dimensions even among examples of the 
same species, and therefore, equal importance, when taken from the 
skin, cannot be attached to them. 

When a species in this work is mentioned, the name adopted is 
printed in capital letters, but in italics for subspecies and synoptical 
names. Measurements are always given in millimetres. 

All the species and races known to the Author that have been 
described prior to June 1st, 1912, are included in the three volumes. 
After the date mentioned, the advanced state of the press work did not 
permit of any additions, except in an Appendix to the third volume. 

June 1st, 1912. D. G. E. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Primates, which is the first of the Linnaean Orders of the 
Mammalia, was originally composed of four genera Homo, Simia, 
Lemur and Vespertilio, Man, Monkeys, Lemurs and Bats. The last 
has been dropped by general consent, and the Order as now con- 
stituted combines the Bimana and Quadrumana. 

Some Naturalists have contended that the Lemurs should be 
placed in a separate Order, and my friend the late Prof. A. Milne- 
Edwards enumerates the following characters as justifying this view: 
The bell-shaped, diffused and non-deciduate placenta, vast size of the 
allantois, uncovered condition of the cerebellum, cranial structure, 
inferior incisors, and structure of the extremities, (developed pollux, 
and discoidal terminations of the fingers). 

While admitting the importance of these characters, *St. George 
Mivart has made some critical remarks regarding the decision of Prof. 
A. Milne-Edwards, and fairly well establishes the fact that the better 
course would be to leave the Lemuroidea as a Suborder of the Pri- 
mates as "there can be no doubt that Man- Apes, (including Baboons 
and Monkeys), and Half- Apes together constitute a group capable of 
convenient and very distinct Zoological definition," and he defines the 
group as follows : "Unguiculate, claviculate placental mammals, with 
orbits encircled by bone; three kinds of teeth, at least at one time of 
life; brain always with a posterior lobe and calcarine -fissure; the inner- 
most digits of at least one pair of extremities opposable; hallux with 
a Hat nail or none; a well-developed caecum; penis pendulous ; testes 
scrotal; always two pectoral mammce." 

The Order Primates then comprises two Suborders Lemuroidea 
and Anthropoidea. The first contains the singular nocturnal animals 
known as Lemurs which are distinguished from the members of the 
other Suborder by the following characters: 

Orbit opening into the temporal fossa beneath the postorbital 
bar, (Tarsius excepted). The lachrymal foramen situated outside the 
orbital margin. The second digit of the hand may be merely a rudi- 
ment, but the same digit of the foot has a long pointed claw. The 
cerebrum does not overlap the cerebellum, and the hemispheres have 



♦Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 504. 

xi 



xii INTRODUCTION 

few convolutions. Posterior cornu of lateral ventricle very small ; 
pollux large ; posterior cornu of hyoid shorter than anterior ; clitoris 
perforated by the urethra; uterus two-horned; placenta bell-shaped, 
diffused, non-deciduate ; allantois very large ; transverse portion of 
colon convoluted on itself. Abdominal mammae sometimes present. 

The Lemuroidea contains three Families, the first two aberrant; 
Daubentoniims with its single species the curious Aye-Aye, and 
Tarsiid.^e, for a long time supposed to have also a single species, but 
several additional ones have been lately recognized. The third Family 
is NYCTiciBiDyE with four Subfamilies, Lorisin^e, the Slow Lemurs 
with four genera : Loris with two species ; Nycticebus with eleven 
species ; Arctocebus with two species ; and Perodicticus with five 
species. The last genus, Perodicticus, for over two hundred years 
was represented by only one species, Bosman's Potto, discovered by 
that traveller in 1705 ; but within a brief period no less than four 
others have been described, showing how easy it is to overlook distinct 
forms among these nocturnal animals, even though their habitats had 
been often penetrated by zealous Naturalists eager to make known the 
creatures that had heretofore escaped all research. In this same Sub- 
family is the genus Arctocebus with its single species from Old 
Calabar, remarkable for its strongly flexed fingers, which require 
considerable force to extend them, and when this is taken away they 
at once become flexed again. The second Subfamily is Galagin^, the 
Bush Babys, with one genus and twenty-three species and six sub- 
species, followed by Lemurin^e, the true Lemurs, with seven genera 
and thirty-eight species. The last Subfamily is Indrisin^e with three 
genera including the Woolly Lemur, Safakas, and Indris, having in all 
five species and five subspecies. 

While Madagascar alone possesses the Aye-Aye and the species 
of the Subfamilies Lemurin^e and Indrisinve, none of those con- 
tained in Galagin^e are found on that island but belong to the near-by 
African Continent. The Tarsier are natives of the islands of the Indo- 
Malayan Archipelago and the Philippines, while the Slow Lemurs 
(Lorisin^:) are met with in the southern part of the Indian Peninsula 
and the Island of Ceylon. 

The second Suborder, ANTHROPOIDEA, is distinguished from 
LEMUROIDEA by its members having the orbit separated from the 
temporal fossa by a bone which is united to the postorbital bar ; and 
the lachrymal foramen is inside the orbital margin. The second digit of 
the hand is well developed, and the same digit of the foot has usually a 
flat nail, except in Callitrichid/E. The cerebrum almost completely 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

covers the cerebellum, and the hemispheres are considerably con- 
voluted. Placenta deciduate, discoidal. Allantois small, uterus not 
two-horned, anterior cornu of the hyoid shorter than the posterior, no 
abdominal mammae present, and the transverse portion of the colon not 
convoluted. 

This great Suborder, containing, as it does, all the existing Apes, 
Baboons and Monkeys, is divided into two groups: 1st, the Platyr- 
rhine, those species having the nose flat, septum wide and the nostrils 
directed outward, and embracing all the Monkeys of the New World ; 
and 2nd, the Cratarrhine, having the nose narrow, nostrils directed 
downward and the septum narrow, including all the species of the Old 
World. 

As may well be imagined the variations in size to be witnessed 
among the members of this Suborder are very great, the extremes being 
the Gorilla and the small, delicate Marmoset or Titi. And with the 
difference in size, there is also great variety in the shape of head and 
body, and length of limbs and tail. This last appendage is entirely 
absent in the great Apes of the Families Hylobatim: and Pongiid^e ; 
is of varying length from a mere knob, to longer than head and body 
in Pithecus ; much longer than head and body in many species of 
Lasiopyga and Pygathrix, and nearly three times the body's length in 
Ateleus. The heads of the Primates also are remarkable for their 
many shapes from the round head of Ateleus, the occipital protruding 
skull of Saimiri, the almost human braincase of Pan, to the narrow 
high-crested crania of Gorilla and Pongo. The rostrum also exhibits 
many shapes producing conspicuous differences in the physiognomy 
of the many species, the extremes perhaps being the nearly flat-faced 
members of the Cebid^; and the greatly lengthened muzzle of many of 
the Baboons as P. cynocephalus and P. sphinx, the latter exhibiting 
a rostrum covered with prominent ridges, and decorated with brilliant 
and highly contrasted colors. Many of the Lasiopygid^e have ischiatic 
callosities, some brilliantly colored, and these at certain seasons become 
enormously developed covering not only the buttocks, but also extend- 
ing on to the tail which is greatly swollen. However attractive this may 
be to Baboons, to human eyes such exhibitions are repellent. The nose, 
save in one exceptional case, is not a very prominent member among 
the Primates, although, as in Man, it has many shapes, from the 
aquiline in Hylobates, most pronounced in H. hoolock, the retrousse 
nose of Rhinopithecus, and the extraordinarily lengthened member 
of Nasalis. The limbs of the Primates show great diversity when 
compared between distinct species, or between the fore and hind limbs 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

of one individual. Thus we have the rather short stout limbs of equal 
length in Pithecus, the lengthened slender limbs of Ateleus, the long 
arms and short legs of Hylobates and Symphalangus, and carried 
to an extreme, considering the difference in size, in Pongo, where arms 
and hands reach nearly to the ankles when the animal is in an erect 
position. All kinds of texture characterize the pelage of the Primates, 
from velvety softness to one that is coarse and harsh. The hair 
assumes various arrangements, sometimes forming coronal or occipital 
crests, occasionally both, or fringing the face with obtrusive whiskers, 
or projecting over the forehead like the peak of a cap. Long curled 
moustaches are rarely present, as in a species of Leontocebus, 
exhibiting a remarkable growth. In many species the hair of the head 
is short and compact, sometimes with horn-like erections over the 
forehead, or on the sides of the head as in Cebus, while in one species 
Pithecus albibarbatus, the entire face is surrounded and the head 
covered by long hair in the semblance of a huge wig. On the body the 
hair is often long over the shoulders forming a mantle, and in other 
cases falls from the sides or over the rump in long graceful fringes 
as in most of the black species of Colobus. The tail as a rule 
is covered by short hair, but the end is sometimes tufted as in Rhino- 
pithecus and Colobus, and these tufts or tassels in some species of 
the last genus are greatly enlarged, equal in one species to one third 
the length of the tail. Only one species has a bare tail with end tufted 
Simias concolor, an extraordinary animal. All colors are shown in 
the different pelages many of vivid and contrasting hues, and while 
some one member of nearly all the genera has bright coloring, probably 
Lasiopyga, embracing as it does such a large number of species, con- 
tains more highly colored members than any other genus of the Pri- 
mates. 

Beards are not infrequently met with, in fact in Alouatta this 
appendage to the face of the species is rather characteristic of the 
genus; and in all the Families, save Pongiid.e, the hairs of the arms 
are directed towards the wrist, but in the members of that Family the 
hairs of arm and forearm grow in opposite directions the first down- 
ward and the latter upward meeting at the elbow, and as it is supposed 
these great Apes usually sit with their arms crossed, Darwin imagined 
that this peculiar arrangement of the hair was to permit the rain to 
run off at the elbow. Ears of the Primates are well developed and 
pointed, but the lobe is absent, the Gorilla alone having it present in 
a rudimentary condition. The voice of the Apes is described in the 
Gorilla as a roar, but in the Chimpanzee as a gruff bark-like tone. 



INTRODUCTION xv 

Some of the small Monkeys of the New World emit a whistling note, 
often plaintive, but the most wonderful voices are those possessed by 
the species of Alouatta in South America, and of Hylobates of the 
eastern hemisphere. In these the throat is large and thick and the 
larynx greatly developed. The basihyal is much enlarged and is ex- 
panded into a bony capsule which is lined by a continuation of the 
thyroid sac, and this peculiar formation enables the animal to produce 
a volume of sound that can be carried, it has been estimated, for a 
distance of three miles. 

The brain of the great Apes is slightly more than half the size of 
that of Man. The Gorilla, like all of the Quadrumana, has the brain 
fully developed before the permanent set of teeth are completed. At 
that period the animal has not, of course, its full stature, and the skull 
continues to grow with the animal, but the brain does not, the skull 
becoming heavier and thicker in bone with broader and longer crest, 
but the brain itself is stationary. . *"The relative size of the brain 
varies inversely with the size of the whole body, but this is the case 
with warm-blooded vertebrates generally. The extreme length of the 
cerebrum never exceeds, as it does in Man, two and a quarter times 
the length of the basi-cranial axis. The proportions borne by the 
brain to its nerves are less in the Apes than in Man as also is that borne 
by the cerebrum to the cerebellum. In general structure and form 
the brain of Apes greatly resembles that of Man. Each half of the 
cerebrum contains a tri-radiate lateral ventricle, and though in some 
Lasiopygid^e the posterior cornu is relatively shorter than in Man, it 
again becomes elongated in the Cebid^e, and in many of the latter it is 
actually longer relatively than it is in Man. The posterior lobes of the 
cerebrum are almost always so much developed as to cover over the 
cerebellum, the only exceptions being the strangely different forms 
Mycetes, (Alouatta), and Hylobates, (Symphalangia), syndac- 
tylus. In the latter the cerebellum is slightly uncovered, but it is so 
considerably in the former. In Chrysothrix, (Saimiri), the posterior 
lobes are much more largely developed relatively than they are in Man. 
The cerebrum has almost always a convoluted external surface. In 
this group, however, as in mammals generally, a much convoluted 
cerebrum is correlated with a considerable absolute bulk of body. 
Thus in Hapale, (Callithrix), (and there only), we find the cere- 
brum quite smooth, the only groove being that which represents the 
Sylvian fissure. In Simia, (Pongo), and Gorilla, and Anthropo- 



*St. George Mivart, Encycl. Britan., 9th Ed., Article Ape. 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

pithecus, (Pan), on the contrary, it is very richly convoluted. A 
hippocampus minor is present in all Apes, and in some of the Cebhxe 
it is much larger relatively than it is in Man, and is absolutely larger 
than the hippocampus major. Of all Apes the Ourang has a brain 
which is most like that of Man ; indeed it may be said to be like Man's 
in all respects, save that it is much inferior in size and weight, and 
that the cerebrum is more symmetrically convoluted and less com- 
plicated with secondary and tertiary convolutions. If the brain of 
Simia, (Pongo), be compared with that of Gorilla, and Anthropo- 
pithecus, (Pan), we find the height of the cerebrum in front 
greater in proportion in the former than in the latter ; also the 
bridging convolutions, though small, are still distinguishable, while 
they are absent in the Chimpanzee. Nevertheless the character cannot 
be of much importance since it reappears in Ateles, ( !) while two 
kinds of the genus Cebus (so closely allied as to have been sometimes 
treated as one species) differ strangely from each other in this respect. 
The corpus callosum in Apes generally, does not extend so far back as 
in Man, and it is very short in Pithecia. In the Ourang and Chim- 
panzee there are, as in Man, two corpora albicantia, while in the lower 
Monkeys there is but one. The vermis of the cerebellum gives off 
a small lobule, which is received into a special fossa of the petrous 
bone. Certain prominences of the medulla oblongata, termed corpora 
trapezoidea, which are found in the lower mammals, begin to make 
their appearance in the Cebid^e." 

The number of pairs of ribs varies considerably among the genera 
of the Primates. The Gorilla and Pan have thirteen; the Ourang 
twelve same as Man ; Hylobates thirteen, but sometimes sixteen 
(Flower and Lydekker) ; Colobus twelve; Pygathrix and Cercoce- 
bus twelve, sometimes thirteen ; Lasiopyga and Erythrocebus twelve ; 
Pithecus twelve, sometimes thirteen, (P. nemestrinus) ; Papio thir- 
teen; Cynopithecus twelve; Magus twelve; Alouatta, Lago- 
thrix, and Ateleus fourteen ; Cebus fourteen, but last pair very 
short almost rudimentary in some species ; Pithecia twelve and thir- 
teen (P. chiropotes) ; Callicebus and Callithrix twelve or thirteen ; 
Aotus fourteen; Saimiri thirteen; Nycticebus sixteen; Perodicticus 
fifteen. Of the vertebrae Pan, Pongo and Gorilla have 4 lumbar, 3 
sacral, and 5 caudal ; Hylobates has 5 lumbar ; Colobus 7 lumbar, 3 
sacral and 28 caudal ; Pygathrix 6 and 7 lumbar and 3 sacral ; Lasi- 
opyga 6 and 7 lumbar, 3 sacral, 26 caudal ; Pithecus, Magus and 
Cynopithecus 7 lumbar and 3 sacral, while Magus has 8 caudal, 
and Cynopithecus has 5 ; Papio 6 lumbar and 3 sacral ; Alouatta 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

5 lumbar, while Lagothrix and Ateleus have but 4; Cebus has 
5 and 6 lumbar, while Aotus has 8, and 24 caudal ; Pithecia 6 lumbar ; 
Callicebus and Saimiri 7 lumbar, the last genus with 28 to 30 caudal ; 
Callithrix has 6 and 7 lumbar, and 27 to 33 caudal ; Nycticebus 6 
and 8 lumbar, and 8 and 11 caudal, and Perodicticus 7 lumbar and 
20 caudal vertebrae. 

The Apes and Monkeys of the eastern hemisphere have thirty-two 
teeth, the same as in Man, but the Primates of the western hemisphere, 
excepting those of the Family Callitrichim: which also have thirty- 
two, have thirty-six, the excess being two pairs of premolars, one pair 
each in the upper and lower jaws. The canines in the males of all 
Primates are large and extend beyond the tooth rows, and are separated 
from the incisors by a diastema. 

The ANTHROPOIDEA have been divided by Authors into five 
Families, Callitrichid^e, (usually designated as Hapalidce), Cebid^e, 
CercopithecidcB, (Lasiopyghxe), Simiida (Pongiid/E of this work) 
and Homonidce. To these in the present work has been added Hylo- 
batid^e comprising the Gibbons, which on account of their structure 
and mode of life seem more properly separated from, than united with, 
the great Apes. The Gibbons are the only Apes that habitually walk 
in an upright posture. 

The Monkeys of the New World, excepting those of the genus 
Cacajao, differ from all others, besides the number of the teeth in 
having more or less prehensile tails, this member being frequently bare 
beneath for a greater or less space at the tip, forming a grasping 
surface and preventing slipping ; and the members of the genus 
Ateleus are so expert with this organ as to make it serve the purpose 
of a fifth hand, not only for holding on to the limbs of trees, even 
suspending the animal without any other support, but often for con- 
veying food to the mouth. Members of other genera, as Brachy- 
teleus, Alouatta, Lagothrix, Cebus, etc., are provided with pre- 
hensile tails but not all have a bare surface beneath at the tip, 
consequently the grasp is much less firm and secure, and their dexterity 
in the use of this organ much less. The species of Cacajao have very 
short tails of no use to their owners either to assist them in their 
various movements, or for adornment. 

There is much difference in size among the American Monkeys 
from the small Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri) and the Douroucouli 
(Aotus), to the Howlers (Alouatta) the largest species in the New 
World. These last are remarkable for the great development of the 
mandible especially of the angle and ascending ramus, particularly 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

noticeable in the male, and is designed to protect and enclose the vocal 
organs which are of very great size. 

The shape of body and the manner in which the limbs are pro- 
portioned to it, vary to a considerable degree in these American 
Monkeys, and it would be difficult to find a greater contrast than the 
slender, slim-waisted body, and long, attenuated limbs of Ateleus 
covered with smooth straight hair, and the thick-set, robust body, 
moderately long, stout limbs, and woolly coat of Alouatta. 

The genus with the largest number of species in the New World 
is Cebus containing the well known Capuchin Monkeys, remarkable 
for their restless, mischievous dispositions, and the wonderful diversity 
they exhibit in the coloring of their coats. 

No American Monkey possesses either cheek pouches or callosities, 
nor is the external auditory meatus ever present. 

The species of the Cratarrhine group are very different in appear- 
ance from the Monkeys of the New World. The limbs are sometimes 
of equal length, but generally the legs are longer than the arms except 
in the great Apes whose arms are invariably longer than the legs. The 
thumb when present is opposable to the fingers, as is also the great 
toe to the digits of the foot, and is always shorter than the other toes. 
The tails vary in length from a mere knob to one exceeding the head 
and body. Many of the species possess cheek pouches, and callosities 
are also present in many, sometimes of large dimensions and colored 
with the most brilliant hues. The Family Lasiopygid^;, to which 
precedence is given in the arrangement of the Suborder, contains the 
Baboon, Guenons, Langurs, Guerezas, etc., in fact all the Old World 
species of ANTHROPOIDEA except the Man-like Apes of the 
Families Pongihxe and HylobatidvE. 

The Baboons, which come first in the arrangement of the Families 
are, besides other physical traits, characterized by an elongate muzzle, 
which in one species at least is decorated by brilliant coloring, (P. 
sphinx Linn.). The limbs are nearly equal, but the tails are very 
variable in length and in the density of their hairy covering. The 
canine teeth are very long, in some cases prodigiously so, and capable 
of inflicting a wound as serious as that of almost any dagger. The 
cheek pouches, in all species that have them, are constructed of folds 
of skin which expand when food is forced into them, contracting again 
when emptied and then giving no indication of their presence. These 
pouches, being placed on the outer side of the jaw, are no hindrance 



INTRODUCTION xix 

to the mastication of any food, and are employed mainly for the storage 
of such edibles as the animal does not desire to consume at the moment. 
These receptacles even when full are no obstruction to the voice. 
Besides these pouches large air sacs are present in the neck. The 
species of the two genera Magus and Cynopithecus, although ranged 
among the Baboons are generally known as Apes, probably on account 
of the practical absence of a tail, resembling, as they do, in this respect, 
the great Man-like Apes. The coat of the Baboon varies considerably 
in texture from short silk-like hairs to almost a woolly fur observed in 
those inhabiting a cold clime. The Mangabeys of the genus Cerco- 
cebus, in some respects, are intermediate between the true Baboons 
(Papio), and the Guenons (Pygathrix). They have no laryngeal 
sacs, but possess the posterior fifth cusp in the last molar of each lower 
jaw. Their form is more slender than that of the Baboons, resembling 
the Guenons', and like them they have long tails, but the often brilliant 
coloring of the Guenon is not seen in the coat of the Mangabey. The 
genus Rhinostigma contains but one species remarkable for its 
peculiar physiognomy; the long white stripe from the forehead over 
the nose to the upper lip, and the presence of a fifth posterior cusp 
on each of the last lower molars, cause it to be a link between the Man- 
gabeys and Guenons. The Guenons are the most numerous in species 
of any of the groups belonging to the Lasiopygid^e, are more slender in 
form than the Mangabeys, have not the last cusp on the posterior lower 
molar, and possess coats of many colors some with strongly contrasting 
hues, and long tails. Miopithecus has two species the smallest of the 
Guenons, and Erythrocebus follows with a dozen species, long- 
legged and frequenters of the plains, rarely sojourning in forests. 
The Langurs, Pygathrix, placed in a separate subfamily, are also of 
a slender form with the legs longer than the arms, very long tail, 
cheek pouches absent, and a sacculated stomach of great complexity. 
*Sir William Flower has described this organ as follows : "An ordinary 
stomach must be supposed to be immensely elongated and gradually 
tapering from the cardiac end to a very prolonged pyloric extremity. 
Then two longitudinal muscular bands, corresponding in situation to 
the greater and lesser curvature of an ordinary stomach — the former 
commencing just below the fundus, and the latter at the cardiac orifice, 
and both proceeding toward the pylorus — are developed so as to 
pucker up the cavity into a number of pouches, exactly on the same 
principle as the human colon is puckered up by its three longitudinal 



""Animals Living and Extinct, p. 725. 



xx INTRODUCTION 

bands. These pouches are largest and most strongly marked at the 
oesophageal end, and becoming less and less distinct, quite cease 
several inches before the pylorus is reached, the last part of the 
organ being a simple, smooth-walled tube. The fundus or cardiac 
end of the stomach is formed by a single large sac, slightly constricted 
on its under surface by the prolongation of the inferior longitudinal 
band, or that corresponding to the great curvature. The oesophagus 
enters into the upper part of the left, or pyloric end of this sac, or 
rather at the point of junction between it and the second (also a very 
large) sacculus. Furthermore the whole of this elongated sacculated 
organ is, by the brevity, as it were of the long curvature, coiled upon 
itself in an irregular spiral manner, so that when in situ the pylorus 
comes to be placed very near the oesophageal entrance." 

The Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis) is unique in one respect, the 
nose elongate to such a degree as to make it appear a caricature, other- 
wise the animal resembles in form the Langurs. The Guerezas, (Col- 
obus), are chiefly noted for the rudimentary condition of the pollux 
or its absence altogether ; the long hairs falling as a fringe along the 
side or over the back, and the long tails usually with a conspicuous tuft. 

The species of Rhinopithecus and Simias are noted for the 
diminutive nose turned up at the tip. The Hylobatuxe or Gibbons 
possess a skull not produced at the vertex, long arms with the hands 
reaching to the ground when the animal stands erect, short legs and 
small ischial callosities. The species of the genus Symphalangus 
differ from those of Hylobates in having the second and third digits 
of the foot united by webs as far as the last joint. 

The great Apes form the family Pongiid.e, and have the skull 
produced at the vertex in Pongo, but not in Gorilla or Pan. Ischial 
callosities are absent ; arms longer than legs ; hands reaching to the 
ankles in the Ourang when the animal is erect, only to the knees in the 
Gorillas and Chimpanzees. Upright bony crests are never seen on the 
crania of the last named, but the other two have frequently con- 
spicuously large bony crests in adult males. The Ourang possesses an 
os centrali but this, as in Man, is absent in the other two genera. 

As in the rest of the ANTHROPOIDEA the skull of the male can 
always be recognized by the elongate canines. When walking, the 
Gorillas and Chimpanzees go on the knuckles of the hands and the 
soles of the feet; but the Ourangs proceed chiefly by swinging from 
tree to tree by the assistance of their long arms. 



INTRODUCTION 
CLASSIFICATION. 



The Order Primates containing, as it does, Man and the creatures 
which are nearest allied to him, must be regarded as the most important 
of all those recognized as belonging to the Animal Kingdom. The 
various species contained within it, from Man to Marmoset, form a 
fairly homogeneous group, with which the Lemuroids are associated in 
a subordinal division. It is a moot point with some whether the Lemurs 
should be considered members of the Order, having any rank whatever 
within it, as about the only claim they have to the position is the 
possession of the opposable great toe, which however is also found in 
a species of an altogether different Order, the Opossum of the Car- 
nivores. But, no matter how slight may be the pretensions of the 
Lemurs for admission to the ranks of the Primates, yet, by the almost 
general acquiescence of Mammal ogists, they have of late been accepted 
as occupying a recognizable place in the Order. 

The Lemuroids are divided into three Families with four Sub- 
families, having twenty genera and subgenera embracing one hundred 
and six species forming the Suborder Lemuroidea. The remaining 
Primates are separated into two divisions containing respectively the 
Old World and New World Species, designated as the Cratarrhine 
and Platarrhine. The first, in this work is divided into three Families 
with two Subfamilies containing twenty-two genera, and about 320 
species ; the second with two Families, having four Subfamilies, 
thirteen genera and about 150 Species. The dentition observed in the 
Order is both diphydont and heterodont ; the members living in the 
eastern hemisphere possessing thirty-two teeth, those of the western 
hemisphere having thirty-six, except the members of the Family Calli- 
tbj.ch.idm which have thirty-two, the excess in the others being 
accounted for by the presence of an extra pair of premolars in each 
jaw. In the arrangement adopted the species ascend from the lowest 
form to the one considered as holding the highest rank, exclusive of 
Man, but standing nearest to him. 

The two aberrant forms of the Lemuroidea, Daubentonia and 
Tarsius head the list, the former remarkable for the peculiar struc- 
ture of the limbs and the specialized second finger, and the rodent 
teeth ; the latter for its lengthened legs, digits provided with discs, 
and large eyes. These comprise the Families Daubentoniid^:, and 
Tarsiioe. Following these but still of a low order in the Family 
Nycticibid/E, Subfamily Lorisin^e, come Loris and Nycticebus, the 
Slender and Slow Lori, with large expressionless eyes, pointed noses 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

and tailless bodies. Arctocebus succeeds with its reflexed finger, wide 
spreading thumb and rudimentary tail, to be followed by Perodicticus 
whose tail is about one third the length of the body and having long 
slender processes from the anterior dorsal vertebrae projecting through 
the skin. The Subfamily Galagin^e follows with its genera Galago 
with three subgenera and thirty species, having the curious power of 
folding the ears at will ; and Hemigalago. Next comes the Subfamily 
Lemuriisle containing the true Lemurs and their near allies. It has 
seven genera, with, altogether, thirty-five species. The members of the 
seven genera present many characteristic differences from each other, 
in size, coloration, and peculiarities of crania. The members of one 
genus, Chirogale, afford a transition between Galago and Lemur. 
This genus and Microcebus have been considered by some Authors 
as not divisible, and while their members bear a resemblance to each 
other, yet they each exhibit sufficient characters to make it advisable 
to keep them in different genera. They are small animals, some of 
them the most minute of the Lemuroidea. The last Subfamily of this 
Suborder is Indrisijsle containing the largest member of the Lemur- 
oidea yet known. The adults have thirty teeth, and the toes, except the 
hallux, are united to the end of the first phalanx by a fold of skin. 
The Subfamily has but three genera, Indris with one species, the 
largest of all the Lemurs, distinguished by absence of tail and excessive 
variability in the color of pelage; Propithecus with two species and 
five subspecies. Like Indris the species of this genus are subject to 
much variation in color, and this has been productive of great con- 
fusion in discriminating between the different forms. They are large 
animals, with powerful hind limbs enabling them to leap amazing dis- 
tances. When walking on the ground they assume an erect posture 
and, like the Gibbons, balance themselves by holding the arms over 
their heads. The last genus is Lichanotus with one species. It is 
a small animal with a rather long tail, and woolly fur. It is slow in 
its movements but when on the ground like the other members of 
Indrisin^e it walks upright. 

The second Suborder ANTHROPOIDEA contains the remainder 
of the Primates, including Man. As the consideration of Homo is 
excluded in this Review, we pass to the Monkeys, Baboons, Apes, etc., 
which compose the rest of the Suborder. The Monkeys of the New 
World and those of the Old, save in one Family, Callitrichuxe, are 
separated by two characters, the number of teeth, and more or less 
prehensile tails. They are all contained in two Families, the one just 
mentioned above, and Cebwm. The first contains the smaller, less 



INTRODUCTION xxiii 

intelligent species, delicate of frame and constitution, unable to bear 
captivity, and soon succumb when taken from their accustomed environ- 
ment. Callitrichim: contains six genera with about sixty species 
and subspecies. The members of this Family have only thirty-two teeth 
and in this respect resemble the species of the Old World, and differ 
from the rest of the Monkeys indigenous to the western hemisphere. 
The first genus is Seniocebus with three species, with the head partly 
bald, and long occipital crest, and without a mane or ruff ; next Cer- 
COpithecus with three species having a mantle; then Leontocebus 
having nineteen species, possessing a ruff on neck, and fourth, CEdi- 
pomidas with three species having the head crested and the hairs on 
the nape elongate. The fifth genus is Callithrix with thirteen species. 
These are small creatures, among the most delicate of all the members 
of the Order, have small canines, tails with long hair, and the angle 
of the mandible expanded as in Pithecia. Callicebus the sixth genus 
has twenty-two species, closely allied to the previous genus, and 
agreeing with it in certain of its characteristics. 

We now come to Monkeys that are distinctively American with 
one pair of extra premolars in both jaws, the nostrils directed outward, 
and the prehensile tail. They are all included in the Family Cebid^e 
with its four Subfamilies. The first of these is Alouattin^e having 
but one genus Alouatta with eleven species, and two subspecies, some 
of them being the largest in size of the New World Monkeys. They 
are of low intelligence, morose in disposition, heavy in body and with 
a wonderfully powerful voice. The second Subfamily, Pithecin^:, 
containing the Sakis, Uakari and Squirrel Monkeys, has three 
genera the first of which is Pithecia with eight species. These are 
animals of moderate size, of a more slender figure than the species of 
Alouatta, with the hair on head, frequently standing upright, long 
and thick and with a median part. A thick beard hangs from the 
chin, especially noticeable in the male, and there is also a lengthened 
bushy tail. In certain species the hair of head is coarse, loosely set, 
and is directed forward forming a kind of hood around the face. The 
second genus is Cacajao with only three species characterized by 
having the face and a large portion of the head naked and brightly 
colored, becoming more intense and vivid when the animal becomes 
excited. The tail is very short and the mandible is dilated posteriorly. 
The *"caecum in C. calvus is upwards of ten inches along the greater 
curvature ; it is separated from the colon by a very marked constriction ; 



♦Beddard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 119. 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

it is not sacculated, and when fully distended with air is curved on 
itself into little less than a circle ; it is furnished with a well developed 
median f renum carrying blood vessels." 

The last genus is Saimiri having eight species. These are small 
active animals with large eyes, and the occipital region of the skull 
projected posteriorly. 

The third Subfamily is Aotin^e with a single genus Aotus con- 
taining fourteen species. These are eminently nocturnal animals, of 
small size, and with large eyes placed close together. The fourth Sub- 
family is Cebin^e with four genera; the first Ateleus, generally 
known as 'Spider Monkeys,' on account of their slender bodies 
and long limbs, with twelve species. The pollux is usually absent, and 
the tail prehensile, the animals of this genus being so expert in the use 
of this organ as to make it perform the service of an extra hand. The 
next genus is Brachyteleus with only one species ; a long limbed, 
heavy bodied creature, with, like Ateleus, the thumb usually wanting. 
It is closely allied to the 'Spider Monkeys.' The third genus is Lago- 
thrix having six species. Unlike the members of the two previous 
genera, the species of this one have a well developed thumb. The body 
is heavy, the round head covered thickly with short hairs, and best 
described as 'bullet-headed.' The animals are slow in movement, of a 
gentle disposition, and a delicate constitution. The fourth genus 
being the last of the American Monkeys is Cebus with twenty-two 
species and two subspecies. On account of the great variability in the 
coloring assumed by individuals, the members of this genus are the 
most difficult to determine of the Primates. They also, by certain of 
the species, are most generally known of all Monkeys. The face is 
flat, the muzzle not protruding. The brain has numerous convolutions, 
and the animals are intelligent, vivacious and very mischievous. 

The Apes, Baboons and Monkeys of the Old World comprise the 
Cratarrhine section of the Primates, or those with, among other 
characters, the nostrils directed downward. There are only three 
Families and two Subfamilies possessing, altogether, twenty-two 
genera. The first Family is Lasiopygid.e with eleven genera. Papio, 
the first genus, has nineteen species including the dog-faced baboons, 
so called on account of their long muzzle. These are large, powerful 
animals, associating in herds, commanded by one or more patriarchal 
members, and are formidable antagonists when attacked. Thero- 
pithecus contains but two species, large in size and heavily maned, in 
this respect allies of Papio hamadryas. The third genus is Cyno- 
pithecus the black Apes of Celebes ; peculiar looking animals without 



INTRODUCTION xxv 

tails, and very broad rostrum, and the head crested. They are not 
very closely allied to any of the species of the Primates, but are as 
well placed here as anywhere, for, although there are many characters 
to separate them, yet they are probably nearer the species of the genus 
Magus than any other. One species only is here recognized. Magus 
with three species serves as a link connecting Cynopithecus and 
Pithecus. While outwardly resembling the black Ape of Celebes, yet 
its narrower rostrum, lack of crest on head, which is covered with 
short hairs, indicate an affinity for the Macaques, and its tailless con- 
dition is similar to that of Simia sylvanus, the only species of that 
genus. Pithecus is one of the largest genera of the Primates having 
fifty-three recognized species and subspecies. These vary greatly in 
appearance, with tails either short and thick, or slender and longer than 
the head and body. The Macaques are noted for their nude buttocks 
which are often most highly colored, eyes close together and surmounted 
by a bony ridge which gives them a scowling expression. The canines 
are long and make formidable weapons, and the brain is small. The 
seventh genus is Cercocebus. It has nine species and two subspecies, 
of a more slender form than the Macaques and with shorter rostrum 
and longer limbs, but as in Pithecus the last lower molar has five 
cusps. Much confusion has existed in the synonymy which, it is hoped, 
has at length been corrected. Rhinostigma is the next genus, with 
one species, allied to both the members of Cercocebus and Lasiopyga, 
and forming a link between them. This last named genus is the largest 
of all and has eighty-five species and subspecies. These monkeys have 
frequently a pelage of many brilliant colors, have slender bodies and 
long limbs and tails, and are very active in their movements. The ninth 
genus is Miopithecus containing only two species of small stature 
and inconspicuous coloring. Erythrocebus the last genus of the Sub- 
family, had, at one time, its members, like those of the one preceding, 
included in Lasiopyga; they, however, differ in many ways from the 
Langurs, have longer legs, differently shaped skulls, and dwell upon 
the ground, being frequenters of the plains rather than of the forests, 
and go in small companies. Twelve species are recognized. 

The second Subfamily is Colobin^:, frequently named Semno- 
pithecince with five genera. The first, Pygathrix, has fifty-eight 
species and subspecies. They are delicate animals, and feed chiefly 
on leaves and shoots. Their forms are slender and they have no cheek 
pouches, and their pelage is much less gaily colored than that of the 



xxvi INTRODUCTION 

species of Lasiopyga. The Langurs, as they are called, are rarely seen 
in Zoological Gardens as their delicate constitutions cause them easily 
to succumb when held in captivity. 

Rhinopithecus is the second genus with three species, large 
animals with the nasal portion of the face depressed, the nose very 
small and the end turned upward giving a very bizarre expression to 
the countenance. One species has bright colors, roxellan^e, the others 
are garbed in more sober hues, but their size makes them imposing, and 
to rank among the finest species of the Primates in the Family to which 
they belong. The next genus Simias contains but one species, a 
curious creature apparently, a connecting link between Rhinopithecus 
and Nasalis as it possesses characters peculiar to each. Thus, it has 
the upturned nose of the members of the first genus, and also similar 
teeth, with cranial characters resembling those of the Proboscis 
monkey. It is altogether, considering the above mentioned peculiarities 
and its short naked tail with the terminal tuft, not comparable with any 
species of the Order; a very remarkable animal. 

Nasalis is the fourth genus with an equally extraordinary species, 
its greatly lengthened nose turned downward. This organ has a 
depression in the center and is capable of being dilated. The laryngeal 
sac is large, and there is a beard on the chin. There is but one species 
known. The last genus of the Family is Colobus containing the 
Guerezas of which there are thirty species, composed of the red and 
black Guerezas, the former constituting about two thirds the entire 
number. These animals have the thumb absent or rudimentary. They 
are large in size, and the black Guerezas are ornamented on different 
parts of the body, with long white hairs falling like a fringe, and the 
tails are more or less tufted with white. The fourth Family is Hylo- 
bathxe containing the Gibbons, with two genera, Hylobates with 
twelve species, and Symphalangia with one species and two sub- 
species, one of which, continentis is somewhat doubtful. These flying 
Apes are, among other characters, remarkable for the length of their 
arms, which, when the animal is erect, permit the hands to reach the 
ground. They walk erect, balancing themselves somewhat awkwardly 
by holding the arms, crooked at the elbow, over the head. The ischial 
callosities are small and they are the last of the large Ape-like species to 
possess them. The species and subspecies of Symphalangia are the 
largest in size, and differ from those of Hylobates in having the second 
and third toes united by skin up to their last joint, and the skin of the 
throat is distensible and overlies the laryngeal sac by the thyro-hyoid 
membrane. 



INTRODUCTION xxvii 

The last Family is that of Pongiioe containing the great Apes, 
represented by three genera, arranged according as their species are 
considered nearest to Man. In this Review the Ourang-utan is placed 
lowest in the scale or farthest from Man; and the genus Pongo is 
considered to possess but one species certainly, and one very doubtful. 
The Author is fully aware that this opinion is by no means shared by 
some of his colleagues, who would recognize a large number of species, 
but after examining all the material of Ourangs contained in all the 
large Museums of the world, the writer was able to discover no char- 
acter that would prove the existence of more than one species. The 
opinions as to the position the Ourang should occupy in reference to 
Man have varied greatly yet despite the views of so great an authority 
as that of his friend the late Sir Richard Owen, who would place the 
Ourang before the Gorilla in its relation to Man, the Author, from the 
result of his own studies, and the evidence produced by others, con- 
siders that the testimony in its entirety shows that the Gorilla, low as 
he may be in the scale of intelligence, has more of an affinity for 
Man than the Ourang, while both are far exceeded in man-like qualities 
by the Chimpanzee. The second genus then is Gorilla with certainly 
two species, and seven subspecies of more or less distinctive value. 
Pseudogorilla has one species, connecting Gorilla and Pan. The last 
genus is Pan, containing the Chimpanzees, nearest in the scale to Man 
of all existing earth born creatures. There are at present eleven 
scheduled species and three not yet named, but how many of these will 
eventually be able to prove their right to be regarded as distinct species 
cannot as yet be determined. 



GENERA. 



The genera bestowed upon the Primates have been many and of 
varied importance. Some of course are necessary in order to properly 
recognize natural divisions of a Family ; a few are useful to segregate, 
as subgeneric groups, certain portions of a genus which seem to have 
in common, characters not possessed by other species of the same 
genus ; but a considerable number of the proposed terms find no legiti- 
mate place, and only help to swell the list of synonyms. In the follow- 
ing arrangement the genera proposed are placed in the various Families 
to which they belong according to the year in which they were first 
published, beginning with Linnaeus in 1758, earlier than whom no 
Author may be recognized. 



xxviii INTRODUCTION 

LEMUROIDEA. 



1758. Lemur Linnaeus, Syst. Natur., pp. 29, 30. Type Lemur catta 

Linnaeus. 
1762. Prosimia Brisson, Regn. Anim., pp. 13, 156-158. Type Lemur 

catta Linnaeus. 
1780. Procebus Storr, Prodr. Method. Mamm., pp. 32, 33. Type 

Lemur catta Linnaeus. 

Tarsius Storr, Prodr. Meth. Mamm., pp. 33, 34. Type Lemur 

tarsius Erxleben, undeterminable. 
1784. Tardigradus Bodd., (nee Briss.), Elench. Anim., pp. 43-47. 

Type Lemur tardigradus Linnaeus. 

1795. Bradicebus Cuv. et Geoff., Mag. Encycloped., No. 6, (Palmer). 
Not in this list. No. 6 is Papio. 

Daubentonia E. Geoff., Decad. Philos. et Lift., p. 195. Type 

Sciurus madagascariensis Gmelin. 

Scolecophagus E. Geoff., Decad. Philos. et Litt., p. 196. Type 

Sciurus madagascariensis Gmelin. 

Pavianus Frisch, Nat. Syst. vierfiiss Thiere in Tabellen, p. 

19, 1775. Type "Der Pavian." 

1796. Indri ( !) E. Geoff., Mag. Encycloped., Paris, I, p. 46. Type 
Lemur indri ( !) Gmelin. 

Loris E. Geoff., Mag. Encycloped., Paris, I, p. 48. Type Loris 
gracilis? E. Geoff roy. 

Galago E. Geoff., Mag. Encycloped., Paris, I, p. 49. Type 
Galago senegalensis E. Geoffroy. 

1799. Aye-Aye Laceped., Tabl. Mamm., p. 6. Type Sciurus mada- 
gascariensis Gmelin. 

1800. Cheiromys (Chiromys) G. Cuv., Legons Anat. Comp., I, Tabl. 
1. Type Sciurus madagascariensis Gmelin. 

1806. Catta Link, Beschreib. Nat. Samm. Univers. Bostock, I, pp. 

7, 8. Type Catta mococo Link, = Lemur catta Linnaeus. 
1811. Lichanotus Ulig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. Av., p. 72. Type 

Lemur laniger Gmelin. 

Stenops Ulig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. Av., p. 73. Type Lemur 

tardigradus Linnaeus. 

Otolicnus Ulig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. Av., p. 74. Type Lemur 

galago Schreber !, not mentioned by that Author. 

Macropus Fisch., Mem. Imp. Soc. Mosc. Zoogn., II. p. 566. 

New name for Galago. 



INTRODUCTION xxix 

1812. Cheirogaleus (!) E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
XIX, p. 172, pi. X. Type Cheirogaleus ( !) major E. Geoffroy. 
Nycticebus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, p. 
163. Type Nycticebus bengalensis E. Geoff., = Tardigradus 
coucang Boddaert. 

1815. Indrium Rafin., Analys. Nat., p. 54. New name for Indri. 
Type Lemur indri Gmelin. 

Loridium Rafin., Analys. Nat., p. 54. New name for Loris. 
Type none given. 

1816. Psilodactylus Oken, Lehrb. Natur., 3te Theil, Zool., 2te 
Abth., pp. 116-165. Type Sciurus madagascariensis Gmelin. 

1819. Maki Muirhead, Brewst., Edinb. Encycloped., XIII p. 405. 

Type Lemur macaco Linnaeus ? 
1821. Rabienus Gray, Lond. Med. Repos., XV, p. 299. Type Lemur 

spectrum Pallas. Undeterminable. 
1828. Microcebus E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., lime Legon. 

Type Lemur pusillus E. Geoffroy, = Microcebus murinus 

(Miller). 

1831. Perodicticus Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 109. Type 
Perodicticus geoffroyi Bennett, = Nycticebus potto Geoffroy. 

1832. Propithecus Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 20. Type 
Propithecus diadema Bennett. 

1833. Galagoides A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ., 2nd Ser., II, p. 
32. Type Galago demidoffi A. Smith. 

Macrotarsus Link, Beytr. Naturg., I, Pt. II, pp. 51, 65, 66. 

Type Macrotarsus buffoni = Tarsius ? 

Myspithecus Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Livr. XXXII, pi. 
Type Myspithecus typus A. Smith, = Cheirogaleus ( !) major 
E. Geoffroy. 

1834. Avahi Jourd., L'Institut., II, p. 231. Type Lemur laniger 
Gmelin. 

Microrhynchus Jourd., These inaug. a la Faculte de Science de 
Grenoble. Type Lemur laniger Gmelin. 

1835. Cephalopachus Swains., Nat. Hist, and Class. Quad., p. 352. 
Type Tarsius bancanus Horsfield. 

Scartes Swains., Nat. Hist, and Class. Quad., p. 352. Type 
Lemur murinus Miller. 
1839. Habrocebus Wagn., Schreb., Siiugth. Suppl., I, pp. IX, V bis, 
257, tab. XLII. Type Lemur lanatus Schreb., = Lemur laniger 
Gmelin. 



xxx INTRODUCTION 

Myspithecus nee Cuv., Blainv., Osteog., I, p. 33. New name 
for Chiromys Lacepede, 1799. 

Bradylemur Blainv., Osteog., p. 239. Type Lemur tardi- 
gradus Blainv., = Nycticebus coucang Boddaert. 

1840. Arachnocebus Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 207, 243. Type 
Nycticebus lori Fischer, = Lemur tardigradus Linnaeus. 
Cebugale Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 207, 213. Type Lemur 
commersoni Wolf, = Cheirogaleus ( !) major E. Geoffroy. 
Gliscebus Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 207. 216. Type Lemur 
murinus Miller. 

Myoxicebus Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 207, 218. Type Mioxi- 

cebus ( !) griseus (Less.), = Lemur griseus E. Geoffroy. 

Myscebus Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 207, 214. Type Myscebus 

palmarum Less., = Lemur murinus Miller. 

Pithelemur Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 207, 208. Type Lemur 

indri Gmelin. 

Potto Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 207, 237. Type Potto bosmani 

Less., = Perodicticus potto E. Geoffroy. 

Hypsicebus Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 207, 253. Type Tarsius 

bancanus Horsfield. 

Semnocebus Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 207, 209. Type Lemur 

laniger Gmelin. 

1841. Iropocus Gloger, Hand. u. Hilfsb. Nat., I, pp. XXVIII, 43. 
Type Iropocus laniger, = Lemur laniger Gmelin. 
Myslemur Blainv., Diet. Univ. Hist. Nat., Paris, VIII, p. 559. 
New name for Myspithecus Blainville. 

1851. Hapalemur (!) I. Geoff., L'lnstit, 19me Ann., p. 341. (foot- 
note). Type Lemur griseus E. Geoffroy. 
Lepilemur (!) I. Geoff., L'lnstit... 19me Ann., p. 341, (foot- 
note). Type Lepilemur (!) mustelinus I. Geoffroy. 

1855. Galeocebus Wagn., Schreb., Siiugth. Suppl., V, pp. XII, 147. 
Type Lepilemur ( !) mustelinus I. Geoffroy. 

1857. Hemigalago Dahlb., Zool. Stud., I, Tredje Haftet. p. 224. 
Type Galago demidofh Fischer. 

1859. Otolemur Coquerel, Rev. Mag. Zool., 2me Ser., XI, p. 458. 
Type Otolemur agisymbanus Coq., = Galago crassicaudatus 
E. Geoffroy. 

1865. Varecia Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 135. Type Lemur 
varius E. Geoffroy, = Lemur varicgatus Kerr. 
Otogale Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 139. Type Otolicnus 
garnetti Ogilby. 



INTRODUCTION xxxi 

Euoticus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 140. Type Otogale 

pallida Gray. 

Caixotus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 145. Type Galago 

monteiri Bartlett. 

Arctocebus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 150. Type Pero- 

dicticus calabarensis Smith. 
1868. Andropithecus Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., p. 286. 

Nomen nudum. 
1870. Azema Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., pp. 132, 134. Type Chirogaleus ( !) smithi Gray, 

= Microcebus murinus (Miller). 

Prolemur Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., p. 135. Type Hapalemur ( !) simus Gray. 

Murilemur Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 

Bats, Brit. Mus., p. 134. Type Lemur murinus Miller. 

Mirza Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., p. 135. Type Microcebus coquereli Schlegel and 

Pollen. 

Phaner Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., p. 135. Type Lemur furcifer Blainville. 
1872. Opolemur Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 853, fig. I, pi. 

LXX. Type Cheirogaleus ( !) milii E. Geoff., = Cheiroga- 

leus ( ! ) major E. Geoff roy. 

Sciurocheirus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 857, fig. 5. 

Type Galago alleni Waterhouse. 
1874. Mixocebus Peters, Monatsb. K. Preus. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 

690. Type Mixocebus caniceps Peters. 
1878. Mococo Trouess., Rev. Mag. Zool., VI, 3me Ser., No. 6, p. 163, 

as synonym of Lemur. 
1911. Altililemur D. G. Elliot, Rev. Primates, p. 111. Type Cheiro- 
galeus ( !) medius E. Geoffroy. 

ANTHROPOIDEA. 



1758. Simia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., I, p. 25. Type Simia 

sylvanus Linnaeus. 
1763. Cercopithecus Gronov., Zooph., I, p. 5. Type Simia midas 

Linnaeus. 



xxxii INTRODUCTION 

1775. Pavianus Frisch, Das Nat. Syst. vierp. Thiere in Tabellen, 

p. 19. Type ? "Der Pavian." 

Papio Frisch, Das Nat. Syst. vierp. Thiere in Tabellen, p. 19. 

Type ? "Der Pavian." 

1777. Papio Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., p. 15. Type Papio sphinx 

Erxleben, = Cynocephalus papio Desmarest. 

Cercopithecus Erxl., (nee Gronov.), Syst. Reg. Anim., p. 22. 

Type Simia mona Schreber. 

Cebus Erxleb., Syst. Reg. Anim., p. 44. Type Simia capucina 

Linnaeus. 

Callithrix Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., p. 55. Type Simia 

jacchus Linnaeus. 
1779. Cercopithecus (nee. Gronov.), Blumenb., Handb. Naturg., I, 

p. 68. Two species Simia paniscus type of Ateleus, and 5". 

jacchus type of Callithrix. 
1792. Sapajus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., Mamm., I, p. 74. Type none 

indicated. 

Sagoinus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., Mamm., I, p. 80. Type none 

indicated. 
1795. Cynocephalus Cuv. et E. Geoff., Mag. Encycloped., Ill, p. 

458, Genus VI. Type Simia cynocephalus Linnaeus. 

Pithecus Cuv. et E. Geoff., Mag. Encycloped., Ill, p. 462, 

Genus IV. Type Simia sinica Linnaeus. 
1799. Pongo Laceped., Tabl. Mamm., p. 4. Type Pongo borneo 

Lacepede, = Simia pygmcea Hoppius. 

Sagouin Laceped.. Tabl. Mamm., p. 4. Type Simia jacchus 

Linnaeus. 

Alouatta Laceped., Tabl. Mamm., p. 4. Type Simla beelzebul 

Linnaeus. 

Macaca Laceped., Tabl. Mamm., p. 4. Type Simia inuus 

Linnaeus. 
1804. Pithecia Desmar., Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., XXIV, p. 8. Type 

Simia pithecia Linnaeus. 
1806. Ateles ( !) E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XII, p. 262. 

Type Simia paniscus Linnaeus. 

Atelocheirus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, VII, p. 

272. Type Simia paniscus Linnaeus. 

1811. Lasiopyga Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Av., p. 68. Type 
Simia nictitans Linnaeus. 

1812. Troglodytes E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, p. 
87. Type Simia troglodytes Linnaeus. 



INTRODUCTION xxxiii 

Nasalis E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, p. 90. 
Type Cercopithecus larvatus Wurmb. 

Pygathrix E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, p. 90. 
Type Simla nemcsus Linnaeus. 

Inuus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, p. 96. 
Type Simla sylvanus Linnaeus. 

Cercocebus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, p. 97. 
Type Cercocebus fullglnosus E. Geoffroy, = Simla cethlops 
Schreber. 

Lagothrix E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, p. 106. 
Type Lagothrix cana E. Geoffroy. 

Stentor E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, p. 107. 
Type Simla senlculus Linnaeus. 

Jacchus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, p. 118. 
Type Simla jacchus Linnaeus. 

Midas E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, p. 120. 
Type Simla midas Linnaeus. 
1813. Lophotus G. Fischer, Zoogn., II, pp. IX, 547. Type Pongo 
zvurmbi Tiedemann, = Pongo pygmceus (Hoppius). 
Ateleus Fischer, Zoogn., II, pp. 529-532. Emendation of 
A teles E. Geoffroy. 

1815. Agipan Rafin., Analy. Nat., p. 53. New name for Cebus 
Erxleben, 1777. 

Paniscus Rafin., Analy. Nat., p. 53. Type Simla panlscus 
Linnaeus. 

Sajus Rafin., Analy. Nat., p. 53. New name for Callithrix 
Cuv., (Part.). 

Sylvanus Rafin., Analy. Nat., p. 53. New name for Calli- 
thrix Cuv., (Part.). 

Cebus (nee Erxl.), Rafin., Analy. Nat., p. 53. New name for 
Cercopithecus Gronovius. 

Sakinus Rafin., Analy. Nat., p. 219. New name for Sylvanus 
Rafinesque. 

1816. Sylvanus Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., 3ter Theil, Zool., 2te Abth. 
Type Inuus ecaudatus E. Geoff., = Simla sylvanus Linnaeus. 
Satyrus Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., 3te Theil, Zool., 2te Abth., pp. 
XI, 1225. Type Satyrus rufus Less., = Simia pygmcea Hop- 
pius. 

Faunus Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., 3te Theil, Zool., 2te Abth., pp. 
XI, 1227. Type Faunus indlcus = Simla pygmcea Hoppius. 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

Pan Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., 3te Theil, Zool., 2te Abth., pp. XI, 
1230. Type Pan africanus Oken, = Simla satyrus Linnaeus. 

1819. Sylvanus Virey, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 2nd ed., XXXI, p. 275. 
Type Sim,ia sylvanus Linnaeus. 

Arctopithecus Virey, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 2nd ed., XXXI, 
p. 279. A subgeneric term for Hapale Illiger. 

1820. Silenus Goldfuss, Handb. Zool., II, p. 479. Type Cynoceph- 
alus silenus (Schreber), = Pithecus albibarbatus (Kerr). 

1821. Homo Gray, Lond. Med. Repos., XV, p. 297. Type Simia 
nasica Schreber, = Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb). 

Laratus Gray, Lond. Med. Repos., XV, p. 297. Type Homo 

lar Linnaeus. 

Daunus Gray, Lond. Med. Repos., XV, p. 298. Type Simia 

nemceus Linnaeus. 

Presbytis Eschscholtz, Kotzeb. Entdeck-Reise Sud See u. 

nach Berings-Str., Ill, p. 196. Type Presbytis mitrata Esch., = 

Simia aygula Linnaeus. 

1823. Brachyurus Spix, Sim. Vespert. Bras., p. 11, pi. VII. Type 
Brachyurus israelita ? Spix. 

Nyctipithecus Spix, Sim. Vespert. Bras., p. 24, pi. XVIII, 

XIX. Type Nyctipithecus felinus Spix, = Aotus infulatus 

Kuhl. 

*Brachyteles ( !) Spix, Sim. Vespert. Bras., p. 36, pi. XXVII. 

Type Brachyteles ( !) macrotarsus Spix, = Ateles ( !) arach- 

noides E. Geoffroy. 

Gastrimargus Spix. Sim. Vespert. Bras., p. 39, pis. XXVIII, 

XXIX. Type Gastrimargus infumatus Spix, = Lagothrix in- 

fumata (Spix). 

1824. Nocthora F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm, V, Livr. XLIII, pi. 
Type Simia trivirgata Humboldt. 

Magotus Ritgen, Nat. Entheil, Saugth., p. 33. Type ? 

none specified. 

Mandrillus Ritgen, Nat. Entheil, Saugth., p. 33. Type 

? none specified. 

1825. Semnopithecus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Ill, Livr. XXX, 
pi. Type Simia melalophus ( !) Raffles. 

1827. Magus Less., Man. Mamm., p. 43. Type Magus maurus F. 
Cuvier. 



*See page 49, footnote. 



INTRODUCTION xxxv 

1828. Theranthropus Brookes, Cat. Anat. and Zool. Mus. of Joshua 
Brookes, Lond., p. 28. Type Troglodytes niger E. Geoffroy, = 
Simla satyrus Linnaeus. 

Cheiron Burnett, Quart. Journ. Sci. Litt. and Art, XXVI, p. 

307. Type Homo lar Linnaeus. 

Ouistitis Burnett, Quart. Journ. Sci. Litt. and Art, XXVI, p. 

307. Type Simla ]acchus Linnaeus. 

Pithes ( !) Burnett, Quart. Journ. Sci. Litt. and Art, XXVI, 

p. 307. Type Simla sylvanus Linnaeus. 

Macrobates Billb., Faun. Scandin., I, Mamm., Consp. A. New 

name for Pongo. 

Cl^tes Billb., Faun. Scandin., I, Mamm., Consp. A. Type 

Simla apella? Linnaeus. 

1829. Geopithecus Less., Diet. Class. Hist. Nat., XV, p. 52. Type 
none given. 

Eriodes I. Geoff., Diet. Class. Hist. Nat., XV, p. 143. Type 

Erlodes arachnoldes I. Geoffroy. 
1831. Mandril Voigt, Cuv. Das Thierreich, I, p. 88. Type Simla 

sphinx Linnaeus, (nee Auct). 

Saimiri Voigt, Cuv. Das Thierreich, I, p. 95. Type Simla 

sclurea Linnaeus. 
1835. Chrysothrix Kaup, Das Thierreich, I, p. 50, fig. text. Type 

Simla sclurea Linnaeus. 

Cynopithecus I. Geoff., Belang., Voy. Ind. Orient., Zool., p. 

66. Type Cynocephalus nlger Desmarest. 

1838. Anthropopithecus Blainv., Ann. Fran<j. et £trang. d'Anat. et 
Physiol., Paris, II, p. 330. Type Simla troglodytes Gmelin, = 
Simla satyrus Linnaeus. 

1839. Brachiopithecus Senech., Diet. Pitt. Hist. Nat., 2nd Pt., p. 
428. Type none given. 

Maimon Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., pp. IV bis, 141. Type 

none given. 

Leontocebus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, pp. IX, V bis. 

Type Hapale chrysomelas Kuhl. 

Liocephalus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, pp. IX, V bis. 

Type Jacchus melanurus Geoff., = Simla argentata Linnaeus. 

Mormon Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, pp. 164-168. Type 

Simla mormon Alstromer, = Simla sphinx Linnaeus. 

Ch^ropithecus Blainv., "Lemons Orales." Type "Les Cyno- 

cephales." 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION 

1840. Rhesus Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 49, 95. Type Macacus rhesus 
Desmarest. 

Hamadryas Less., Spec. Mamm., p. 107. Type Simla hama- 

dryas Gmelin? 

Pithesciurus ( !) Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 116, 157. Type 

Pithesciurus saimiri Less., = Simla sclurea Linnaeus. 

Yarkea Less., Spec. Mamm., p. 176. Type Simla leucocephala 

Audebert. 

Chiropotes Less., Spec. Mamm., p. 178. Type Chlropotes 

cuxlo Less., = Simla satanas Hoffmannsegg. 

Cacajao Less., Spec. Mamm., p. 181. Type Simla melano- 

cephala E. GeofFroy. 

Mico Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 184, 192. Type Simla argentata 

Linnaeus. 

CEdipus Less., Spec. Mamm., pp. 184, 197. Type CEdipus tltl 

Less., = Simla oedlpus Linnaeus. 

1841. Hylanthropus Glog., Hand. u. Hilfsb. Naturg., I, pp. XXVII, 
34. Type Simla troglodytes Gmelin, = Simla satyrus Linnaeus. 
Symphalangus Glog., Hand. u. Hilfsb. Naturg., I, pp. XXVII, 
34. Type Plthecus syndactylus Desmarest. 

Salmacis Glog., Hand. u. Hilfsb. Naturg., I, pp. XXVII, 35. 

Type none given. New name for Macaca Lacepede. 

Rhinalazon Glog., Handb. u. Hilfsb. Naturg., I, pp. XXVII, 

36. Type Nasalls larvatus Wurmb. 

CEthiops Martin, Gen. Intro. Nat. Hist. Mamm. Anim., p. 506. 

Type none given. 

Mandrillus (nee Ritgen), Milne-Edw., Kruger's Handb. Zool. 

nach 2ten Franz. Ausg., I. Type Cynocephalus porcarlus 

Boddaert. 

Pithex Hodg., Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., IX, Pt. II, p. 1212. 

Type Macacus olnops Hodg., = Plthecus rhesus (Audebert). 

1842. Syndactylus Boit., Jard. Plantes, p. 55. Type Plthecus syn- 
dactylus Desmarest. 

Miopithecus I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., Paris, XV, p. 720. Type 
Cercoplthecus talapoln Erxleben. 

1843. Siamanga Gray, List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 1. Type 
Plthecus syndactylus Desmarest. 

Theropithecus I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, II, 
p. 576. Type Macaca gelada Riippell. 

Gelada Gray, List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 103. Type 
Macacus gelada Riippell. 



INTRODUCTION xxxvii 

Sphinx Gray, List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. XVII. Type 
none given. 

1848. Lyssodes Gistel, Naturg. Thierreich f. hohere Schulen, p. IX. 
Type Macacas speciosus F. Cuvier. 

1849. Ouakaria Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 9, fig. Type 
Brachyurus ouakary Spix. 

18S2. Gorilla I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., Paris, XXXIV, p. 84. Type 

Troglodytes gorilla Savage. 
1857. Rhynchopithecus Dahlb., Zool. Stud., I, Andra Haftet, pp. 

83, 91. New name for Nasalis. 
1860. Pseudanthropus Reichenb., Fortsetz. Vollstand. Naturg. New 

name for Troglodytes E. Geoffroy, 1812. 
1862. GEdipomidas Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, p. 5, pi. II, 

figs. 18-20. Type Simia cedipus Linnaeus. 

Marikina Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, p. 7, pi. II, figs. 

25-31. Type Simia rosalia? Linnaeus. 

Otocebus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, p. 55, pis. VII, 

VIII, figs. 124, 126-135. No type declared. Subgenus of 

Cebus. 

Pseudocebus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, p. 55, pis. 

VI, VII, figs. 83, 84, 89, 90, 108. No type declared. Subgenus 
of Cebus. 

Eucebus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, p. 56, pis. VI, 

VII, figs. 86-88, 91, 92, 110, 111, 113, 115. No type declared. 
Subgenus of Cebus. 

Calyptrocebus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, p. 55, pis. 

VI, VII, figs. 85, 93-107, 109, 114, 116-122. Subgenus of 

Cebus. 

Kasi Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, pp. 101, 103, pi. 

XVII, figs. 234, 235 ; 240, 241. No type declared. Subgenus of 
Pygathrix. 

Diademia Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, pp. 107-109, pis. 

XVIII, XIX, figs. 262-270. Subgenus of Lasiopyga. 

Mona Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, pp. 109-113, pis. 

XIX, XX, figs. 271-282. Subgenus of Lasiopyga. 
Vetulus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, p. 125, pi. XXII, 
fig. 321. Type Simia silenus? Gmel., = Pithecus albibar- 
batus (Kerr). 

Cynamolgos Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, p. 130. No 
type declared. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION 

Zati Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, pp. 130-133, pi. 

XXIII, figs. 327-331. Type Simia sinica Linnaeus. 

Nemestrina Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, pp. 130-140, 

pi. XXIV, figs. 349-353, 359-363. Type Simia nemestrinus 

Linnaeus. 

Petaurista Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, pp. 105-107, 

pi. XVIII, figs. 251-261. Type Cercopithecus petaurista 

Schreber. 

Drill. Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, p. 162. Type 

Simia leucophcea F. Cuvier. 

Trachypithecus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen. No 

type declared. Subgenus of Pygathrix. 

1865. Cebuella Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 734. Type Hapale 
pygmcea Spix. 

1866. Engeco Haeckel, Gen. Morph. Organ., II, CIX, footnote. Type 
Simia troglodytes Gmelin, = Simia satyrus Linnaeus. 
Gymnopyga Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 202. Type 
Macacus inornatus Gray, = Macacus maurus F. Cuvier. 

1870. Chlorocebus Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-eat. Bats, Brit. Mus. 
pp. 5, 24. Type Simia pygerythra F. Cuvier. 
Guereza Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-eat. Bats, Brit. Mus., pp 
5, 19. Type Colobus guereza Ruppell. 

Ch^eropithecus Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-eat. Bats, Brit. Mus. 
pp. 5, 35. Type Simia leucophcea F. Cuvier. 
Entellus Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-eat. Bats, Brit. Mus., p 
14. Type Semnopithecus johnii (Fischer). 
Cynocebus Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-eat. Bats, Brit. Mus. 
p. 26. Type Cercopithecus cynosurus Geoffroy. 
Semnocebus (nee Less.), Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-eat. Bats 
Brit. Mus., p. 27. Type Pygathrix albigena (Gray). 
Hapanella Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-eat. Bats, Brit. Mus. 
p. 65. Type Hapale geoffroyi Pucheran. 
Mystax Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-eat. Bats, Brit. Mus., p 
66. Type Midas mystax Spix. 

Tamarin Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-eat. Bats, Brit. Mus., p. 68 
Type Midas ursulus Geoffroy. 

Seniocebus Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-eat. Bats, Brit. Mus., p 
68. Type Midas bicolor Spix. 

Micoella Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-eat. Bats, Brit. Mus., p 
130. Type Mico sericeus Gray, = Callithrix chrysoleuca 
Wagner. 



INTRODUCTION xxxix 

1872. Rhinopithecus A. Milne-Ed., Recher. Mamm., p. 233, pis. 
XXXVI, XXXVII. Type Semnopithecus roxellance A. Milne- 
Edwards. 

1878. Lophopithecus Trouess., Rev. Mag. Zool., VI, 3me Ser., p. 
53. Type Simia melanolopha Raffles. 

Diana Trouess.. Rev. Mag. Zool., VI, 3me Ser., p. 124. Type 
Simia diana Linnaeus. 

Brachyurus (nee Fisch., Rodentia), Trouess., Rev. Mag. Zool., 
VI, 3me Ser., p. 135. Type Brachyurus calvus I. Geoffroy. 

1879. Presbypithecus Trouess., Rev. Mag. Zool., VII, 3me Ser., pp. 

52, 56. Type Simia cephaloptera ( !) Zimmermann. 
Corypithecus Trouess., Rev. Mag. Zool., VII, 3me Ser., p. 

53. Type Semnopithecus frontatus Miiller. 

1886. Procolobus Rochebr., Faun. Senegamb., Suppl. Vert., fasc. I, 

p. 95. Type Colobus verus Van Beneden. 

Tropicolobus Rochebr., Faun. Senegamb., Suppl. Vert., fasc. 

I, p. 102. Type Colobus rufomitratus Peters. 

Piliocolobus Rochebr., Faun. Senegamb., Suppl. Vert., fasc. 

I, p. 105. Type Colobus ferrugineus Illiger. 

Stachycolobus Rochebr., Faun. Senegamb., Suppl. Vert., fasc. 

I, p. 114. Type Colobus satanas Waterhouse. 

Pterycolobus Rochebr., Faun. Senegamb., Suppl. Vert., fasc. 

I, p. 125. Type Colobus vellerosus I. Geoffroy. 
1891. Uacaria Flow, and Lydekk., Mamm. Living and Extinct, p. 

712. Type Brachyurus ouakary Spix. 
1895. Lophocolobus Pousarg., Rev. Mag. Zool., p. 53. Type Colobus 

verus Van Beneden. 
1897. Rhinostictus Trouess., Cat. Mamm. Viv. et Foss., I, p. 17. 

Type Cercopithecus petaurista Schreber. 

Erythrocebus Trouess., Cat. Mamm. Viv. et Foss., I, p. 19. 

Type Simia patas ( ?) Schreber. No type designated. 

Otopithecus Trouess., Cat. Mamm. Viv. et Foss., I, p. 22. 

Type Cercopithecus grayi Fraser. 
1899. Mamatelesus Herrere, Sinon., Vul. y Cient. Prin. Vert. Mex., 

p. 19. New name for Ateleus. 

Cothurus (nee Champ. Coleopt.), Palmer, Scien., X, New 

Ser., p. 403. Type Brachyurus calvus Geoffroy. 
1903 Callicebus Thos , Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 7th Ser., XII, p. 456. 

Type Callithrix personatus Geoffroy. 

Neocothurus Palmer, Scien., XVII, New Ser., p. 873. New 

name for Cothurus Palmer. 



xl INTRODUCTION 

Lophocebus Palmer, Scien., XVII, New Ser., p. 873 New 
name for Semnocebus Gray. 

Simias Miller, Smith. Misc. Coll., XLIX, p. 66. Type Sitnias 
concolor Miller. 
1912. Rhinostigma D. G. Elliot, Rev. Primates, Vol. II, p. 273. 
Type Cercopithecus hamlyni Pocock. 

Allochrocebus D. G. Elliot, Rev. Primates, Vol. II, p. 297. 
Type Cercopithecus I'hoesti Sclater. Subgenus of Lasiopyga. 
Neocebus D. G. Elliot, Rev. Primates, Vol. II, p. 319. Type 
Simla cephus Linnaeus. Subgenus of Lasiopyga. 
Insignicebus D. G. Elliot, Rev. Primates, Vol. II, p. 359. 
Type Cercopithecus albigularis Sykes. Subgenus of Lasiopyga. 
Pygathrix D. G. Elliot, Rev. Primates, Vol. Ill, p. 98. Type 
P. nemceus E. Geoff. Subgenus of Pygathrix. 
Pseudogorilla D. G. Elliot, Rev. Primates, Vol. Ill, p. 224. 
Type Gorilla mayema? Alix et Bouvier. 



INTRODUCTION 



xli 



The following arrangement is adopted for this work : 

ORDER PRIMATES. 

SUBORDER I. LEMUROIDEA. 

FAMILY I. Daubentoniid^;. 

Genus Daubentonia — Aye-Aye. 

FAMILY II. Tarsiiml. 

Genus Tarsius — Tarsiers. 

FAMILY III. Nycticibid^:. 

Subfamily I. Lorisin^e. 

Genus I. Loris — Slender Loris. 

Genus II. Nycticebus — Slow Loris. 

Genus III. Arctocebus — The Amantibo. 

Genus IV. Perodicticus — Pottos. 



Subfamily II. 

Genus I. 
Genus II. 

Subfamily III. 



I. 
II. 



Genus 
Genus 
Genus III. 
Genus IV. 
Genus 
Genus 



V. 
VI. 
Genus VII. 

Subfamily IV. 
Genus I. 



Genus 
Genus 



II. 
III. 



Galagin^e. 

Galago — Bush Babys. 
Hemigalago — Bush Babys. 

Lemurin^e. 

Chirogale — Mouse Lemurs. 
Microcebus — Dwarf Lemurs. 
Mixocebus — The Hattock. 
Altililemur — Fat Lemurs. 
Lepidolemur — Sportive Lemurs. 
Myoxicebus — Gentle Lemurs. 
Lemur — True Lemurs. 

Indrisin^e. 

Lichanotus — Woolly Avahi. 
Propithecus — Safakas. 
Indris — The Endrina. 



xlii INTRODUCTION 

SUBORDER II. ANTHROPOIDEA. 
FAMILY I. Callitrichid^. 

Genus I. Seniocebus — Bald-headed Tam- 

arins. 
Genus II. Cercopithecus — Black Tamar- 

ins. 
Genus III. Leontocebus — Tamarins. 
Genus IV. GEdipomidas — Marmosets. 
Genus V. Callithrix — True Marmosets. 
Genus VI. Callicebus — Titi Monkeys. 



FAMILY II. Cebims. 

Subfamily I. Alouattin^:. 
Genus Alouatta — Howlers. 

Subfamily II. Pithecin^:. 



Genus I. Pithecia — Sakis. 

Genus II. Cacajao — Uakari. 

Genus III. Saimiri — Squirrel Monkeys. 



Subfamily III. Aotin^e. 
Genus Aotus — Douroucouli. 



Subfamily IV. Cebin^e. 

Genus I. Ateleus — Spider Monkeys. 
Genus II. Brachyteleus — Woolly Spider 

Monkeys. 
Genus III. Lagothrix — Woolly Monkeys. 
Genus IV. Cebus — Capuchins. 



INTRODUCTION 



xliii 



FAMILY III. Lasiopygims. 



Subfamily I. Lasiopygin^e. 



Genus 


I. 


Papio — Baboons. 


Genus 


II. 


Theropithecus — Geladas. 


Genus 


III. 


Cynopithecus — Black Apes. 


Genus 


IV. 


Magus — Celebes Macaques. 


Genus 


V. 


Si mi a — Tailless Macaque. 


Genus 


VI. 


Pithecus — Macaques. 


Genus 


VII. 


Cercocebus — Mangabeys. 


Genus VIII. 


Rhinostigma — Hamlyn's Mon 






key. 


Genus 


IX. 


Lasiopyga — Guenons. 


Genus 


X. 


Miopithecus — Talapoins. 


Genus 


XI. 


Erythrocebus — Red Guenons. 


jbfamil 


if II. 


Colobin^e. 


Genus 


I. 


Pygathrix — Langurs. 


Genus 


II. 


Rhinopithecus — Retrousse- 
nosed Monkeys. 


Genus 


III. 


Simias — Retrousse-nosed Mon 
keys. 


Genus 


IV. 


Nasalis — Proboscis Monkey. 


Genus 


V. 


Colobus — Guerezas. 



FAMILY IV. Hylobatid^e. 

Genus I. 
Genus II. 



Hylobates — Gibbons. 
Symphalangus — Gibbons. 



FAMILY V. Pongiime. 



Genus I. Pongo — Ourang-utan. 

Genus II. Gorilla — Gorilla. 

Genus III. Pseudogorilla — Mayema Ape. 

Genus IV. Pan — Chimpanzees 



xliv INTRODUCTION 



The species that are recognized in this work may be arranged as 
follows, the subgeneric groups being placed under their respective 
genera. 

ORDER PRIMATES. 

SUBORDER I. LEMUROIDEA 

Family DAUBENTONiiDiE. 

Genus Daubentonia. 

Daubentonia E. Geoff., Decad. Philos. et Litt., 1795, p. 
195. Type Sciurus madagascariensis Gmelin. 

1. Daubentonia madagascariensis Vol. I, 1 

Family Tarsiim:. 

Genus Tarsius. 

Tarsius Storr, Prodr. Meth. Mamm, 1780, p. 33, Tab. A. 
Type Lemur tarsius Erxl. 

2. Tarsius philippinensis Vol 

3. Tarsius fraterculus 

4. Tarsius sanghirensis 

5. Tarsius saltator 

6. Tarsius borneanus 

7. Tarsius bancanus 

8. Tarsius fuscus 



Family Nycticibid^:. 

Subfamily LoRisiNiE. 

Genus Loris. 

Loris E. Geoff., Mag. Encycloped., 2me Ann., I, 1796, p. 48. 
Type Loris gracilis E. Geoffroy. 

9. Loris tardigradus Vol. I, 18 

10. Loris lydekkerianus " I, 19 



ol. I 


10 


" I 


12 


" I 


12 


" I 


13 


" I 


13 


" I 


14 


" I 


15 



INTRODUCTION 



xlv 





Nycticebus 




1812, p. 


11. 


Nycticebus 


12. 


Nycticebus 


13. 


Nycticebus 


14. 


Nycticebus 


15. 


Nycticebus 


16. 


Nycticebus 


17. 


Nycticebus 


18. 


Nycticebus 


19. 


Nycticebus 


20. 


Nycticebus 


21. 


Nycticebus 



Genus Nycticebus. 

E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
162. Type Tardigradus coucang Boddaert. 

BORNEANUS Vol 

BANCANUS " 

TENASSERIMENSIS " 

COUCANG " 

C. CINEREUS " 

JAVANICUS " 

NATUN.E " 

MALAIANUS " 

HILLERI " 

MENAGENSIS " 

PYGM^US " 



Page 



24 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
29 
31 
32 
33 



22. 
23. 



Genus Arctocebus. 

Arctocebus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 150. 
Type Perodicticus calabarensis Smith. 

Arctocebus calabarensis Vol. I, 35 

Arctocebus aureus " I, 36 



Genus Perodicticus. 

Perodicticus Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1831, p. 109. 
Type Nycticebus potto E. Geoffroy. 

24. Perodicticus potto Vol. I, 39 

25. Perodicticus ju-ju " I, 41 

26. Perodicticus ibeanus " I, 41 

27. Perodicticus faustus " I, 42 

28. Perodicticus edwardsi " I, 42 



Subfamily Galagin^e. 

Genus Galago. 

Galago E. Geoff., Mag. Encycloped., I, 1796, p. 49. Type 
Galago senegalensis E. Geoffroy. 

Subgenus Otolemur. 

29. Galago crassicaudatus Vol. I, 54 

30. Galago zuluensis " I, 56 



xlvi INTRODUCTION 

Page 

31. Galago panganensis Vol. I, 57 

32. Galago garnetti 

33. Galago badius 

34. Galago monteiri 

35. Galago kirki 

36. Galago lasiotis 

37. Galago hindsi 

38. Galago kikuyuensis 

Subgenus Otolicnus. 

39. Galago alleni Vol. I, 63 

40. Galago a. cameronensis " I, 65 

41. Galago a. gabonensis " I, 65 

42. Galago a. batesi " I, 66 

43. Galago zanzibaricus " I, 67 

44. Galago talboti " I, 67 



" I, 


57 


" I, 


58 


" I, 


59 


" I, 


60 


" I, 


61 


" I, 


62 


" I, 


63 



Subgenus Otogale. 

45. Galago gallarum Vol. I 

46. Galago braccatus " I 

47. Galago b. albipes " I 

48. Galago dunni " I 

49. Galago nyass^e " I 

50. Galago granti " I 

51. Galago senegalensis " I 

52. Galago sennaariensis " I 

53. Galago mosambicus " I 

54. Galago pupulus " I 

55. Galago elegantulus " I 

56. Galago e. tonsor " I 

57. Galago e. pallidus " I 

58. Galago e. apicalis " I 

Genus Hemigalago. 



68 
68 
69 
70 
70 
71 
72 
74 
76 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 



59. Hemigalago demidoffi Vol. I, 82 

60. Hemigalago d. poensis " I, 84 

61. Hemigalago anomurus " I, 84 

62. Hemigalago thomasi " I, 85 



INTRODUCTION xlvii 

Subfamily Lemurin./E. 

Genus Chirogale. 

Cheirogaleus ( !) E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 

XIX, 1812, p. 172, pi. X. Type Cheirogaleus (!) 

major E. Geoffroy. 

Page 

63. Chirogale major Vol. I, 92 

64. Chirogale melanotis " I, 95 

65. Chirogale sibreei " I, 95 

66. Chirogale crossleyi " I, 96 

67. Chirogale trichotis " I, 96 

Genus Microcebus. 

Microcebus E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 
24, lime Legon. Type Lemur pusillus E. Geoffroy, = 
Lemur pusillus Miller. 

68. Microcebus murinus Vol. I, 102 

69. Microcebus myoxinus " I, 106 

70. Microcebus coquereli " I, 107 

71. Microcebus furcifer " I, 108 

Genus Mixocebus. 

Mixocebus Peters, Monatsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Ber- 
lin, 1874, p. 690. Type Mixocebus caniceps Peters. 

72. Mixocebus caniceps Vol. I, 110 

Genus Altililemur. 

Altililemur D. G. Elliot, Rev. Primates, 1912, p. 111. 
Type Altililemur medius (E. Geoffroy). 

73. Altililemur medius Vol. I, 112 

74. Altililemur thomasi " I, 113 

Genus Lepidolemur. 

Lepilemur (sic) I. Geoff., Cat. Meth. Mamm. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, Ire Part, 1851, p. 75. Type Lepilemur ( !) 
mustelinus I. Geoffroy. 

75. Lepidolemur globiceps Vol. I, 117 

76. Lepidolemur grandidieri " I, 118 

77. Lepidolemur leucopus " I, 118 



xlviii INTRODUCTION 

78. Lepidolemur mustelinus Vol. 

79. Lepidolemur microdon " 

80. Lepidolemur ruficaudatus " 

81. Lepidolemur edwardsi " 



Page 
I, 119 
I, 121 
I, 122 
I, 123 



82. 
83. 

84. 



Genus Myoxicebus. 

Mioxicebus ( !) Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 207. Type 
Lemur griseus E. Geoffroy. 

Myoxicebus griseus Vol. I, 125 

Myoxicebus olivaceus " I, 127 

Myoxicebus simus " I, 128 



Genus Lemur. 

Lemur Linn., Syst. Nat, I, 1758, p. 59. Type Lemur catta 
Linnaeus. 

85. Lemur mongos Vol. I 



86. Lemur coronatus . 

87. Lemur nigrifrons . 

88. Lemur fulvus 

89. Lemur rufifrons . . 

90. Lemur rubriventer 

91. Lemur rufus 

92. Lemur albifrons . . 

93. Lemur cinereiceps . 

94. Lemur macaco 

95. Lemur nigerrimus . 

96. Lemur catta 

97. Lemur variegatus . 

98. Lemur v. ruber . . . 



141 
144 
145 
147 
150 
151 
153 
154 
156 
156 
157 
158 
160 
162 



Subfamily Indrisinje. 

Genus Lichanotus. 

Lichanotus Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Av., 1811, p. 72. 
Type Lemur laniger Gmelin. 



99. Lichanotus laniger Vol. I, 163 



ol. I 


168 


" I 


170 


" I 


171 


" I 


171 


" I 


172 


" I 


173 


" I 


174 



INTRODUCTION xlix 

Genus Propithecus. 

Propithecus Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1832, p. 20. 

Type Propithecus diadema Bennett. 

Page 

100. Propithecus diadema Vol. 

101. Propithecus d. edwardsi 

102. Propithecus d. sericeus 

103. Propithecus verrauxi 

104. Propithecus v. deckeni 

105. Propithecus v. coquereli 

106. Propithecus v. coronatus 

Genus Indris. 

Indri (sic) E. Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., I, 1796, p. 46. Type 
Lemur indri Gmelin. 

107. Indris indris Vol. I, 175 

SUBORDER ANTHROPOIDEA. 

Family Callitrichid^e. 

Genus Seniocebus. 

Seniocebus Gray, Cat. Monk. Lem. F-Eat. Bats, Brit. 
Mus., 1870, p. 68. Type Midas bicolor Spix. 

108. Seniocebus bicolor Vol. I, 186 

109. Seniocebus meticulosus " I, 188 

110. Seniocebus martinsi " I, 189 

Genus Cercopithecus. 

Cercopithecus Gronov., Zoophyl., p. 5. Type Simia midas 
Linnaeus. 

111. * Cercopithecus midas Vol. I, 190 

112. Cercopithecus rufimanus " I, 191 

113. Cercopithecus ursulus " I, 192 



*See p. 256, Vol. Ill, Appendix, for Cercopithecus m. egens (Thomas). 



INTRODUCTION 



Genus Leontocebus. 

Subgenus Tamarinus. 

Leontocebus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1839 
p. IX. Type Hapale chrysomelas Wied. 

114. Leontocebus labiatus 

115. Leontocebus pileatus 

116. Leontocebus thomasi 

1 17. Leontocebus nigrifrons 

118. Leontocebus nigricollis 

119. Leontocebus chrysopygus 

120. Leontocebus mystax 

121. Leontocebus weddeli 

122. Leontocebus devellii 

123. Leontocebus apiculatus 

124. Leontocebus illigeri 

125. Leontocebus tripartitus 

126. Leontocebus lagonotus 

127. Leontocebus fuscicollis 

128. Leontocebus graellsi 

129. Leontocebus imperator 





Page 


ol. I, ) 


" I 


197 


" I 


198 


" I 


198 


" I 


199 


" I 


200 


" I 


201 


" I 


202 


" I 


203 


" I 


204 


" I 


205 


" I 


206 


" I 


206 


" I 


207 


" I 


, 208 


" I 


, 209 



Subgenus Marikina. 

130. Leontocebus rosalia Vol. I, 209 

131. Leontocebus leoninus " I, 210 

132. Leontocebus chrysomelas " I, 211 

Genus GIdipomidas. 

GiDrpoMiDAs Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 5, 
pi. II, figs. 18-20. Type Simia cedipus Linnaeus. 

133. QEdipomidas cedipus Vol. I, 213 

134. GiDIPOMIDAS GEOFFROYI " I, 214 

135. CEdipomidas salaquiensis Vol. Ill, Appendix 

Genus Callitiirix. 

Callithrix Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777. p. 55. Type 
Simia jacchus Linnaeus. 

136. Callithrix argentata Vol. I, 221 

137. Callithrix leucopus " I, 222 



INTRODUCTION t li 

Page 

138. Callithrix chrysoleuca Vol. I, 223 

139. Callithrix goeldi " I, 224 

140. Callithrix santaremensis " I, 224 

141. Callithrix aurita " I, 225 

142. Callithrix penicillata " I, 226 

143. Callithrix p. jordani " I, 227 

144. Callithrix jacchus " I, 228 

145. Callithrix flaviceps " I, 229 

146. Callithrix leucocephala " I, 229 

147. Callithrix humeralifer " I, 230 

148. Callithrix albicollis " I, 231 

149. Callithrix pygm^ea " I, 232 





Callicebus 




1903, p. 


150. 


Callicebus 


151. 


Callicebus 


152. 


Callicebus 


153. 


Callicebus 


154. 


Callicebus 


155. 


Callicebus 


156. 


Callicebus 


157. 


Callicebus 


158. 


Callicebus 


159. 


Callicebus 


160. 


Callicebus 


161. 


Callicebus 


162. 


Callicebus 


162a 


Callicebus 


163. 


Callicebus 


164. 


Callicebus 


165. 


Callicebus 


166. 


Callicebus 


167. 


Callicebus 


168. 


Callicebus 


169. 


Callicebus 


170. 


Callicebus 



Genus Callicebus. 

Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 7th Ser., XII, 
456. Type Callithrix personata (E Geoffroy). 

TORQUATUS Vol. I, 239 

AMICTUS 

USTO-FUSCUS 

CUPREUS 

CALLIGATUS 

MELANOCHIR 

P^ENULATUS 

EGERIA 

LEUCOMETOPA 

SUBRUFUS 

HOFFMANNSI 

ORNATUS 

REMULUS 

DONACOPHILUS 

EMILIA 

PALLESCENS 

MOLOCH 

CINERASCENS 

NIGRIFRONS 

GIGOT 

PERSONATUS 

BRUNNEUS 



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Hi 



INTRODUCTION 



Family Cebim:. 



Subfamily A. Alouattin^e. 



Genus Alouatta. 



Alouatta Laceped., Tabl. Div. Sous-div. Ordres et Genr 
Maram., 1799, p. 4. Type Simia beelzebul Linnaeus. 

171. Alouatta caraya Vol. 

172. Alouatta ululata 

173. Alouatta villosus 

174. Alouatta beelzebul 

175. Alouatta palliata 

176. Alouatta p. mexicana 

177. Alouatta p. coibensis 

178. Alouatta .equatorialis 

179. Alouatta ursina 

180. Alouatta seniculus 

181. Alouatta macconnelli 

182. Alouatta insulanus 

183. Alouatta juara 

184. Alouatta sara 





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" I 


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Subfamily B. Pithecin^;. 



Genus Pithecia. 



Pithecia Desmar., Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., XXIV, 1804, 
p. 8. Type Simia pithecia Linnaeus. 

185. Pithecia monacha Vol 

186. Pithecia capillimentosa 

187. Pithecia albicans 

188. Pithecia pithecia 

189. Pithecia chrysocephala 

190. Pithecia albinasa 

191. Pithecia satanas 

192. Pithecia chiropotes 



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297 



INTRODUCTION 
Genus Cacajao. 



liii 



Cacajao Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 181. Type Simla 
melanocephala E. Geoffroy. 

193. Cacajao calvus Vol. I, 301 

194. Cacajao rubicundus " I, 304 

195. Cacajao melanocephalus " I, 305 

Genus Saimiri. 

Saimiri Voigt, Cuv. Thierr., I, 1831, p. 95. Type Simla 
sclurea Linnaeus. 

196. Saimiri sciureus Vol. I, 310 

197. Saimiri cassiquiarensis 

198. Saimiri macrodon 

199. Saimiri madeira 

200. Saimiri ustus 

201. Saimiri boliviensis 

202. Saimiri b. nigriceps 

203. Saimiri cerstedi 



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315 


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Subfamily C. Aotin^e. 

Genus Aotus. 

Aotus Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool. et Anat. Comp., 1811, 
(1815), pp. 306, 356, pi. XXVIII. Type Simla trlvlr- 
gata Humboldt. 

204. Aotus infulatus Vol. II, 5 

205. Aotus nigriceps 

206. Aotus senex 

207. Aotus rufipes 

208. Aotus roberti 

209. Aotus miriquouina 

210. Aotus boliviensis 

211. Aotus lanius 

212. Aotus vociferans 

213. Aotus griseimembra 



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liv INTRODUCTION 

Page 

214. AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS Vol. II, 16 

215. Aotus OSERYI " II, 17 

216. Aotus gularis " II, 18 

217. Aotus microdon " II, 18 

218. Aotus spixi " II, 19 

Subfamily D. Cebin^e. 

Genus Ateleus. 

Ateles ( !) E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, VII, 
1806, p. 262. Type Simla paniscus Linnaeus. 

219. Ateleus paniscus Vol. II, 28 

220. Ateleus ater II, 30 

221. Ateleus variegatus " II, 31 

222. Ateleus marginatus " II, 34 

223. Ateleus rufiventris " II, 36 

224. Ateleus grisescens II, 37 

225. Ateleus cucullatus II, 38 

226. Ateleus belzebuth II, 39 

227. Ateleus pan " II, 41 

228. Ateleus fusciceps " II, 43 

229. Ateleus geoffroyi " II, 44 

230. Ateleus hybridus " II, 47 

Genus Brachyteleus. 

Brachyteles ( !) Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 36, 
pi. XXVII. Type Brachyteles ( !) macrotarsus Spix, 
= Brachyteles (!) arachnoides (E. Geoffroy). 

231. Brachyteleus arachnoides Vol. II, 50 

Genus Lagothrix. 

Lagothrix E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 106. Type Lagothrix cana E. Geoffroy. 

232. Lagothrix lagotricha Vol. II, 56 

233. Lagothrix lugens 

234. Lagothrix thomasi 

235. Lagothrix ubericola 

236. Lagothrix cana 

237. Lagothrix infumata 



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58 


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60 


" II, 


60 


" II. 


62 



INTRODUCTION 



lv 



Genus Cebus. 

Cebus Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 44. Type Simia 
capucina Linnaeus, (nee Auct). p 

238. Cebus apella Vol. II, 78 

239. Cebus capucinus " II, 82 

240. Cebus c. nigripectus " II, 86 

241. Cebus frontatus " II, 86 

242. Cebus albifrons " II, 88 

243. Cebus unicolor " II, 91 

244. Cebus u. cuscinus " II, 92 

245. Cebus flavus " II, 93 

246. Cebus castaneus " II, 94 

247. Cebus variegatus " II, 95 

248. Cebus malitiosus " II, 98 

249. Cebus chrysopus " II, 99 

250. Cebus apiculatus " II, 100 

251. Cebus libidinosus " II, 101 

252. Cebus fatuellus " II, 102 

253. Cebus f. peruana " II, 103 

254. Cebus macrocephalus " II, 103 

255. Cebus versuta " II, 104 

256. Cebus azar-e " II, 107 

257. Cebus a. pallidus " II, 108 

258. Cebus cirrifer " II, 109 

259. Cebus crassiceps " II, 111 

260. Cebus caliginosus " II, 112 

261. Cebus vellerosus " II, 113 



FAMILY LASIOPYGIOE. 

Subfamily Lasiopygins:. 

Genus Papio. 

Papio Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 15. Type Papio 
sphinx Erxl., (nee Linn.), = Papio papio Desm. 

Subgenus Papio. 

262. Papio Nigeria Vol. II, 125 

263. Papio doguera " II, 126 

264. Papio tessellatum " II, 127 



lvi 



INTRODUCTION 



265. 
266. 
267. 
268. 
269. 
270. 



271. 
272. 
273. 
274. 



275. 
276. 
277. 



278. 
279. 
280. 



281. 
282. 



283. 



284. 
285. 
286. 



Papio fueax Vol 

Papio yokoensis 

Papio heuglini 

Papio papio 

Papio ibeanus 

Papio porcarius 

Subgenus Cynocephalus. 

Papio cynocephalus Vol. 

Papio neumanni " 

Papio strepitus " 

Papio pruinosus " 



Subgenus Hamadryas. 



Papio hamadryas 
Papio h. arabicus 
Papio brockmani 



.Vol. 





Page 


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Subgenus Mormon. 

Papio sphinx Vol. 

Papio planirostris " 

Papio leucophjeus " 

Genus Theropithecus. 

Theropithecus I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
II, 1843, p. 576. Type Macacus gelada Riippell. 

Theropithecus gelada Vol. II, 155 

Theropithecus obscurus " II, 157 

Genus Cynopithecus. 

Cynopithecus I. Geoff., Resum. Leg. Mamm., 1835, p. 16. 
Type Cynopithecus niger Desmarest. 

Cynopithecus niger Vol. II, 162 

Genus Magus. 

Magus Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, pp. 43, 44. Type Macacus 
maurus F. Cuvier. 

Magus ochreatus Vol. II, 167 

Magus maurus " II, 169 

Magus tonkeanus " II, 170 



bl. II, 


190 


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196 


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200 



INTRODUCTION lvii 

Genus Simia. 

Simia Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 25. Type Simia syl- 

vanus Linnaeus. 

Page 

287. Simia sylvanus Vol. II, 173 

Genus Pithecus. 

Pithecus E. Geoff., Mag. Encycloped., Ill, 1795, p. 462. 
Type Simia sinica Linnaeus. 

288. Pithecus speciosus Vol 

289. Pithecus harmandi 

290. Pithecus rufescens 

291. Pithecus fuscatus 

292. Pithecus thibetanum 

293. Pithecus vestitus 

294. Pithecus sancti-johannis 

295. Pithecus lasiotis 

296. Pithecus pagensis 

Subgenus Nemestrinus. 

297. Pithecus viixosus Vol. II, 200 

298. Pithecus littoralis " II, 201 

299. Pithecus cyclopsis " II, 202 

300. Pithecus nemestrinus " II, 205 

301. Pithecus adustus " II, 206 

302. Pithecus insulanus " II, 207 

303. Pithecus andamanensis " II, 208 

304. Pithecus assamensis " II, 209 

305. Pithecus rhesus " II, 213 

306. Pithecus brevicaudus " II, 216 

Subgenus Vetulus. 

307. Pithecus albibarbatus Vol. II, 218 

Subgenus Zati. 

308. Pithecus sinicus Vol. II, 221 

309. Pithecus pileatus " II, 223 

310. Pithecus resimus " II, 224 

311. Pithecus validus " II, 225 

312. Pithecus alacer " II, 226 



Iviii 



INTRODUCTION 



Page 

313. PlTHECUS KARIMONI Vol. II, 227 

314. PlTHECUS FUSCUS " II, 228 



Subgenus Macacus. 

315. PlTHECUS UMBROSUS Vol 

316. PlTHECUS IRUS 

317. PlTHECUS MORDAX 

318. PlTHECUS FASCICULARIS 

319. PlTHECUS MANDIBULARS 

320. PlTHECUS CAPITALIS 

321. PlTHECUS L.ETUS 

322. PlTHECUS LINGUNGENSIS 

323. PlTHECUS LAUTENSIS 

324. PlTHECUS SIRHASSENENSIS 

325. PlTHECUS VITUS 

326. PlTHECUS CARIMAT.E 

327. PlTHECUS BAWEANUS 

328. PlTHECUS CUPIDUS 

329. PlTHECUS AGNATUS 

330. PlTHECUS PH^URUS 

331. PlTHECUS LAPSUS 

332. PlTHECUS LING.E 

333. PlTHECUS IMPUDENS 

334. PlTHECUS BINTANGENSIS 

335. PlTHECUS DOLLMANI 

336. PlTHECUS PHILIPPINENSIS 

337. PlTHECUS P. APOENSIS 

338. PlTHECUS CAGAYANUS 

339. PlTHECUS PUMILLUS 

340. plthecus suluensis 

Genus Cercocebus. 

Cercocebus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 97. Type Cercocebus fuliginosus E. Geoff roy. 

Subgenus Cercocebus. 

341. Cercocebus torquatus Vol. II, 260 

342. Cercocebus ^thiops " II. 261 

343. Cercocebus lunulatus " II. 263 

344. Cercocebus chrysogaster " II. 264 



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INTRODUCTION lix 

Page 

345. Cercocebus agilis Vol. II, 264 

346. Cercocebus hagenbecki " II, 265 

347. Cercocebus galeritus " II, 265 

Subgenus Lophocebus. 

348. Cercocebus albigena Vol. II, 266 

349. Cercocebus a. johnstoni " II, 267 

350. Cercocebus a. zenkeri " II, 269 

351. Cercocebus aterrimus " II, 270 

Genus Rhinostigma. 

Rhinostigma Elliot, Rev. Primates, 1912, p. 273. Type 
Cercopithecus hamlyni Pocock. 

352. Rhinostigma hamlyni Vol. II, 273 

Genus Lasiopyga. 

Lasiopyga Illig., Prodr. Mamm. Av., 1811, p. 168. Type 
Simia nic titans Linnaeus. 

Subgenus Allochrocebus. 

353. Lasiopyga i/hoesti Vol. II, 297 

354. Lasiopyga insolita " II, 298 

Subgenus Rhinostictus. 

355. Lasiopyga petaurista Vol. II, 299 

356. Lasiopyga fantiensis 

357. Lasiopyga erythrogaster 

358. Lasiopyga buttikoferi 

359. Lasiopyga ascanius 

360. Lasiopyga a. whitesidei 

361. Lasiopyga signata 

362. Lasiopyga schmidti 

Subgenus Melanocebus. 

363. Lasiopyga leucampyx Vol. II, 308 

364. Lasiopyga pluto " II, 308 

365. Lasiopyga nigrigenis " II, 310 

366. Lasiopyga boutourlini " II, 310 

367. Lasiopyga opisthosticta " II, 311 



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301 


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302 


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305 


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306 



lx 



INTRODUCTION 



368. Lasiopyga aurora Vol. 

369. Lasiopyga stuhlmanni 

370. Lasiopyga neumanni 

371. Lasiopyga doggetti 

372. Lasiopyga princeps 

373. Lasiopyga carruthersi 

374. Lasiopyga nictitans 

375. Lasiopyga n. laglaizi 

376. Lasiopyga sticticeps 

377. Lasiopyga martini 



Subgenus Neopithecus. 

378. Lasiopyga cephus Vol. 

379. Lasiopyga cephodes " 

380. Lasiopyga inobservata " 

381. Lasiopyga sclateri " 

382. Lasiopyga erythrotis " 

Subgenus Chlorocebus. 

383. Lasiopyga matschie Vol. 

384. Lasiopyga hilgerti 

385. Lasiopyga djamdjamensis 

386. Lasiopyga tantalus 

387. Lasiopyga t. budgetti 

388. Lasiopyga t. griseisticta 

389. Lasiopyga t. alexandri 

390. Lasiopyga callitrichus 

391. Lasiopyga werneri 

392. Lasiopyga griseoviridis 

393. Lasiopyga cynosura 

394. Lasiopyga pygerythra 

395. Lasiopyga rufoviridis 

396. Lasiopyga rubella 

397. Lasiopyga callida 

398. Lasiopyga centralis 

399. Lasiopyga c. vvhytei 

400. Lasiopyga c. johnstoni 

401. Lasiopyga c. lutea 

402. Lasiopyga silacea 

403. Lasiopyga nigroviridis 



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II, 312 

II, 312 
II, 313 
II, 314 
II, 315 
II, 315 
II, 316 
II, 317 
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II, 319 
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II, 326 
II, 327 
II, 327 
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II, 338 
II, 341 
II, 342 
II, 343 
II, 344 
II, 344 
II, 346 
II, 346 
II, 347 
II, 348 



INTRODUCTION 



lxi 



Subgenus Mona. 

Page 

404. Lasiopyga mona Vol. II, 350 

405. Lasiopyga denti " II, 351 

406. Lasiopyga wolfi " II, 351 

407. Lasiopyga campbelli " II, 352 

408. Lasiopyga burnetti " II, 353 

409. Lasiopyga pogonias " II, 354 

410. Lasiopyga p. nigripes " II, 354 

411. Lasiopyga grayi " II, 355 

412. Lasiopyga g. pallida " II, 356 

413. Lasiopyga petronell^e " II, 358 



Subgenus Insignicebus. 

414. Lasiopyga albitorquata Vol. 

415. Lasiopyga kolbi 

416. Lasiopyga k. nubila 

417. Lasiopyga k. hindei 

418. Lasiopyga albigularis 

419. Lasiopyga a. beirensis 

420. Lasiopyga a. kinobotensis 

421. Lasiopyga rufilata 

422. Lasiopyga moloneyi 

423. Lasiopyga francesc^e 

424. Lasiopyga preussi 

425. Lasiopyga p. insularis 

426. Lasiopyga thomasi 

427. Lasiopyga kandti 

428. Lasiopyga insignis 

429. Lasiopyga stairsi 

430. Lasiopyga s. mosambicus 

431. Lasiopyga rufitincta 

432. Lasiopyga labiata 

Subgenus Pogonocebus. 

433. Lasiopyga neglecta Vol. II, 376 

434. Lasiopyga brazz^e " II, 378 

435. Lasiopyga diana " II, 380 

436. Lasiopyga roloway " II, 381 

437. Lasiopyga temminckii " II, 382 



ol. II, 


360 


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lxii 



INTRODUCTION 



Genus Miopithecus. ' 

Miopithecus I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XV, 1842, p. 1037. 

Type Simla talapoin Schreber. 

Page 

438. Miopithecus talapoin Vol. Ill, 1 

439. Miopithecus ansorgei " III, 3 

Genus Erythrocebus. 

Erythrocebus Trouess., Cat. Mamm. Viv. et Foss., I, 1897, 
p. 17. Type none designated. Simia patas? Schreber. 

440. Erythrocebus patas Vol 

441. Erythrocebus pyrrhonotus 

442. Erythrocebus formosus 

443. Erythrocebus poliophyEus 

444. Erythrocebus whitei 

445. Erythrocebus kerstingi 

446. Erythrocebus zecki 

447. Erythrocebus langeldi 

448. Erythrocebus albigenis 

449. Erythrocebus sannio 

450. Erythrocebus circumcinctus 

451. Erythrocebus baumstarki 



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Subfamily II. Colobin^e. 

Genus A. Pygathrix. 

Pygathrix E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 90. Type Simia nemcsus Linnaeus. 

Subgenus Lophopithecus. 

452. Pygathrix melanolopha Vol. Ill, 32 

453. Pygathrix nobilis " III, 34 

454. Pygathrix rubicunda " III, 35 

455. Pygathrix carimat^e " III, 38 

Subgenus Corypithecus. 

456. Pygathrix frontata " III, 38 

457. Pygathrix nudifrons " III, 40 

458. Pygathrix cruciger " III, 41 



INTRODUCTION Ixiii 

Page 

459. Pygathrix chrysomelas Vol. Ill, 42 

460. Pygathrix sumatrana " III, 43 

461. Pygathrix batuana " III, 44 

462. Pygathrix percura " III, 44 

463. Pygathrix femoralis " III, 45 

464. Pygathrix melamera " III, 47 

465. Pygathrix barbei " III, 48 

466. Pygathrix holotophrea " III, 49 

467. Pygathrix phayrei " III, 49 

468. Pygathrix flavicauda " III, 50 

469. Pygathrix robinsoni " III, 51 

470. Pygathrix obscura " III, 52 

471. Pygathrix carbo " III, 54 

472. Pygathrix sanctorum " III, 55 

473. Pygathrix nubigena " III, 55 

474. Pygathrix dilecta " III, 56 

475. Pygathrix natun^e " III, 57 

476. Pygathrix rhionis " III, 58 

477. Pygathrix cana " III, 58 

478. Pygathrix siamensis " III, 59 

479. Pygathrix catamana " III, 60 

480. Pygathrix aygula " III, 60 

481. Pygathrix fuscomurina " III, 62 

482. Pygathrix sabana " III, 63 

483. Pygathrix everetti " III, 63 

484. Pygathrix hosei " III, 64 

485. Pygathrix thomasi " III, 65 

486. Pygathrix potenziani " III, 67 

487. Pygathrix franqoisi " III, 68 

Subgenus Presbypithecus. 

488. Pygathrix cephaloloptera Vol. Ill, 68 

489. Pygathrix c. monticola " III, 71 

490. Pygathrix senex " III, 71 

491. Pygathrix johni " III, 72 

492. Pygathrix ursina " III, 74 

Subgenus Trachypithecus. 

493. Pygathrix aurata Vol. Ill, 75 

494. Pygathrix cristata " III, 79 



lxiv 



INTRODUCTION 



495. 
496. 
497. 
498. 
499. 
500. 



501. 
502. 
503. 
504. 
505. 
506. 
507. 



508. 
509. 



510. 
511. 
512. 
513. 



514. 



Pygathrix 
Pygathrix 
Pygathrix 
Pygathrix 
Pygathrix 
Pygathrix 



Pygathrix 
Pygathrix 
Pygathrix 
Pygathrix 
Pygathrix 
Pygathrix 
Pygathrix 



Page 


ol. Ill, 


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81 


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81 


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" III, 


84 


" III, 


85 



C. PULLATA Vol 

ULTIMA 

margarita 

germaini 

crepuscula 

c. wroughtoni 

Subgenus Semnopithecus. 

ENTELLUS Vol. Ill, 86 

ALBIPES 

SCHISTACEUS 

LANIA 

PILEATA 

HYPOLEUCA 

PRIAMUS 



Ill, 91 
III, 92 
III, 93 
III, 94 
III, 95 
III, 96 



Subgenus Pygathrix. 



515. 



Pygathrix nem^eus Vol. Ill, 98 

Pygathrix nigripes " III, 100 

Genus Rhinopithecus. 

Rhinopithecus A. Milne-Ed., Recherch. Mamm., 1872, 
p. 233, pis. XXXVI, XXXVII. Type Rhinopithecus 
roxellance A. Milne-Edwards. 

Rhinopithecus roxellan^e Vol. Ill, 102 

Rhinopithecus bieti " III, 103 

Rhinopithecus brelichi " III, 105 

Rhinopithecus avunculus " III, 106 

Genus Simias. 

Simias Miller, Misc. Coll. Smith. Inst. Wash., 1903. Type 
Simias concolor Miller. 

Simias concolor Vol. Ill, 109 

Genus Nasalis. 

Nasalis E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812. 
p. 90. Type Cercopithecus larvatus Wurmb. 

Nasalis larvatus Vol. Ill, 111 



INTRODUCTION 



lxv 



516. 



Genus Colobus. 

Colobus Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Av., 1811, p. 69. 
Type Simia polycomus Schreber. 

Subgenus Procolobus. 
Colobus verus Vol. Ill, 122 



517. 
518. 
519. 
570 


Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 

Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 

Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 
Colobus 


Subgenus Tropicolobus. „ 

Page 

RUFOMITRATUS Vol. Ill, 123 

tephrosceles " III, 124 

ELLIOTI " TT. 1 26 


521 


PREUSSI ' 


' III, 127 


522 


KIRKI ' 


' III, 128 


523 


BOUVIERI ' 


' III, 128 


524 


THOLLONI ' 


' III, 129 


575 


TEMMINCKI ' 


' III, 130 


526 


FOAI ' 


' III, 130 


527 


GRAUERI ' 


' III, 132 


578 


OUSTALETI ' 


' TTT 132 


529. 
530. 
531 


Subgenus Piliocolobus. 
rufoniger " iii, 136 


537 


PENNANTI " III, 136 


533 


GODONORUM " TT 1 37 


534. 

535 


Subgenus Stachycolobus. 

RUWENZORI ' 


)1. Ill, 138 
' III, 138 


536. 

S37 


POLYCOMUS ' 


« III, 139 
' III, 140 


538 


PALLIATUS ' 


' III, 141 


539 


SHARPEI ' 


' III, 142 


540 


ANGOLENSIS ' 


' III, 143 


541 


ABYSSINICUS ' 


' III, 143 


547 


OCCIDENTALS ' 


' III, 144 


543 


POLIURUS ' 


' III, 145 


544 


CAUDATUS ' 


' III, 146 


545. 




* III, 148 



Ixvi 



INTRODUCTION 



FAMILY HYLOBATIDvE. 

Genus Hylobates. 

Hylobates Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Av., 1811, p. 67. 
Type Homo lar Linnaeus. 

546. Hylobates nasutus Vol 

547. Hylobates hoolock 

548. Hylobates lar 

549. Hylobates henrici 

550. Hylobates leucogenys 

551. Hylobates gabrielli 

552. Hylobates leuciscus 

553. Hylobates agilis 

554. Hylobates pileatus 

555. Hylobates concolor 

556. Hylobates funereus 

557. Hylobates fuscus 

Genus Symphalangus. 

Symphalangus Glog., Hand. u. Hilfsb., I, 1841, pp. 
XXVII, 34. Type Pithecus syndactylus Desmarest. 

558. Symphalangus syndactylus Vol. Ill, 177 

559. Symphalangus s. continentis " III, 179 

560. Symphalangus kxossi " III, 180 





Page 


ol. Ill, 


" III 


156 


" III 


161 


" III 


165 


" III 


165 


" III 


166 


" III 


166 


" III 


168 


" III 


170 


" III 


171 


" III 


174 


" III 


175 



561. 



FAMILY PONGIID^. 

Genus Pongo. 

Pongo Laceped., Tabl. Mamm., 1799, p. 4. Type Pongo 
borneo Laceped., = Simia pygmceus Hoppius. 

Pongo pygmceus Vol. Ill, 192 



562. Pongo abelii 



III, 194 



Genus Gorilla. 

Gorilla I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XXXIV, 1852, p. 84. 
Type Troglodytes gorilla Wyman. 

563. Gorilla gorilla Vol. Ill, 213 

564. Gorilla g. matschie " III, 218 



" III, 


219 


" III, 


220 


" III, 


220 


" III, 


222 


" III, 


223 



INTRODUCTION lxvii 

Page 

565. Gorilla g. diehli Vol. Ill, 218 

566. Gorilla g. jacobi 

567. Gorilla g. castaneiceps 

568. Gorilla g. ? 

569. Gorilla g. ? 

570. Gorilla beringeri 

Genus Pseudogorilla. 

Pseudogorilla Elliot Rev. Primates, 1912, p. 224. Type 
Gorilla Mayema Alix et Bouvier. 

571. Pseudogorilla mayema ? Vol. Ill, 225 

Genus Pan. 

. Pan Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., 3 Theil, Zool., 2te Abth., 1816, 
pp. XI, 1230. Type Simia satyrus Linn. 

572. Pancalvus Vol. Ill, 234 

573. Pan fuliginosus " III, 240 

574. Pan satyrus " III, 241 

575. Pan kooloo-kamba " III, 242 

576. Pan leucoprymnus " III, 244 

577. Pan chimpanse " III, 245 

578. Pan schweinfurthi " III, 245 

579. Pan s. marungensis " III, 248 

580. Pan aubryi " III, 249 

581. Pan vellerosus " III, 250 

582. Pan fuscus " III, 251 

583. Pan ? ex Basho, northwestern Cameroon " III, 252 

584. Pan ? ex Dunne, interior of southern 

Cameroon " III, 252 

585. Pan • ? ex Lomie, interior of Cameroon . . " III, 253 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES 

By drawing a line across the American Continent north of Mexico, 
then passing to the east across the Atlantic and southward around the 
Cape of Good Hope, (leaving the African Continent to the north), 
then by Wallace's line between the Indian and Papuan divisions of the 
Malay Archipelago, (the boundary going between Formosa and the 
Philippines), and then south and east to the Samoan Archipelago, 



lxviii INTRODUCTION 

Huxley has divided the globe into a northern and southern portion 
called respectively Arctogaea and Notogaea. North of this line in the 
Nearctic Region no species of the Primates dwells, while in the Eastern 
Hemisphere only those species belonging to certain islands of the 
Australian Region are found to the south and east of it. Beginning 
with the Old World, so called, we find that both Suborders are repre- 
sented, Lemuroidea being entirely absent from the Western Hemi- 
sphere. The species of this Suborder are found in the Malagasy 
Subregion of the East and West African Subregions, and the Indian 
and Ceylonese Subregions of the Oriental Region. The Island of 
Madagascar contains nearly one half of the number of the species 
comprised in the following genera : Daubentonia, Cheirogale, Micro- 
cebus, Mixocebus, Altililemur, Lepidolemur, Myoxicebus, Lemur, 
Lichanotus, Propithecus, and Indris, embracing altogether forty- 
three species and subspecies out of the one hundred and six belonging 
to the Suborder. The East African Subregion has one species of 
Perodicticus, P. ibeanus in the Kakamega forest ; and eighteen 
species and subspecies of Galago and Hemigalago are found in the 
East African Subregion, ranging from the vicinity of the White Nile 
below Khartoum to Mashonaland on the south up to an elevation of 
5,000 feet. These are G. dunni ; G. sennaariensis ; G. gallarum ; 

G. HINDSI ; G. KIKUYUENSIS ; G. LASIOTIS J H. THOMASI J G. BRACCATUS J 

G. braccatus albipes; G. panganiensis ; G. badius ; G. zanzibaricus ; 

G. CRASSICAUDATUS ; G. KIRKi; G. MOSAMBICUS; G. NYASSiE; G. SENE- 

galensis; and G. montieri. In the West African Subregion are G. 
senegalensis ; G. pupulus; G. a. camerotiensis ; G. elegantulus ; 
G. a. batesi; G. anomurus; G. demidoffi; and G. demidoM poensis, 
and six others. In the South African Subregion are G. nyass^e and G. 
granti. The locality of G. e. apicalis is unknown. 

In the Indian Subregion of the Oriental Region one species of 
Loris, L. lydekkerianus ; and one of Nycticebus, N. coucang are 
found, while the Ceylonese subregion has Loris tardigradus. The 
Indo-Chinese Subregion has four species of Nycticebus : N. pyg- 
m.eus; N. tenasserimensis ; N. malaianus; and N. cinereus; and 
the Indo-Malay Subregion contains seven species of the same genus, 
viz.: the one last named together with N. hilleri ; N. bancanus; N. 
javanicus; N. borneanus; N. natun.e; and N. menagensis. 

The members of the Suborder ANTHROPOIDEA are widely 
distributed over the Old World and are found in all its Zoogeographical 
divisions excepting the Polynesian and New Zealand subregions. The 
Ethiopian region is the richest in its number of Primates of all the 



INTRODUCTION lxix 

divisions into which the Globe has been partitioned. It has already 
been shown that it contains most of the LEMUROIDEA, and now it 
will be seen that a large proportion of the ANTHROPOIDEA are also 
found within its limits, the great continent of Africa being responsible 
for most of the species. Papio is the first genus of the ANTHRO- 
POIDEA to be considered, and, in the East African Subregion of 
this Region, it contains twelve species distributed throughout its 
length from north to south, Nubia, to Lake Nyassa. They are P. 

CYNOCEPHALUS ; P. HEUGLINI ; P. DOGUERA ; P. NEUMANNI ; P. IBEA- 
NUS ; P. TESSELLATUM ; P. FURAX ; P. PRUINOSUS ; P. STREPITUS; P. 

hamadryas ; P. h. arabicus from Southern Arabia ; and P. brockmani. 
The West African Subregion has P. Nigeria ; P. papio ; P. sphinx ; P. 
leucophjEus; P. yokoensis; and P. planirostris ; while the South 
African Subregion has but one species P. porcarius. 

Theropithecus has but two species, T. gelada, and T. obscurus ; 
both natives of Abyssinia in the East African Subregion. Cyno- 
pithecus and Magus take us into the Austro-Malayan Subregion of 
the Australian Region, where, in Celebes, and the small islands of 
Menado-tue, Batchian, Muna and Butan, and doubtfully in the Aru 
Islands, the few species of these genera are found. The next genus in 
the order adopted is Simia, with its single species of S. sylvanus 
found in the southwestern part of the Mediterranean Subregion, in 
Morocco and Algiers, whence it was introduced on the Rock of 
Gibraltar. Pithecus, with its many species, is dispersed over all the 
recognized Zoogeographical Regions of the Old World except the 
Australian. Beginning with the Palaearctic Region in the Siberian 
Subregion, Thibet possesses three species, P. vestitus ; P. lasiotis ; 
and P. thibetanum ; and one from Cashmere, P. villosus ; and P. 
fuscatus from Japan. The next is the Oriental Region, and in the 
Indian and Ceylonese Subregions four species are found, P. rhesus ; 
P. sinicus ; P. albibarbatus ; and P. pileatus. In the Indo-Chinese 
Subregion fifteen species are met with, P. assamensis, and this 
Macaque goes as far to the west, in the Himalaya range of the Indian 
Subregion, as Masuri ; P. speciosus; (this species found also in 
Borneo), P. nemestrinus; P. irus; P. andamanensis ; P. rufescens; 

P. ADUSTUS J P. INSULANS ; P. VITUS ) P. HARMANDI ; P. BREVICAUDUS ; 
P. SANCTI-JOHANNIS ; P. CYCLOPSIS ; P. VALIDUS ; and P. LITTORALIS. 

The Indo-Malayan Subregion of this region contains twenty-six species 
dispersed through the lower Malayan Peninsula and the numerous 
islands of the various Archipelagoes. They are P. capitalis ; P. fas- 
cicularis; P. nemestrinus; P. umbrosus; P. fuscus; P. ph^urus; 



lxx INTRODUCTION 

P. AGNATUS ; P. LAPSUS ; P. ALACER J P. MORDAX ; P. RESIMUS ; P. BAWE- 

anus; P. cupidus; P. pagensis; P. ling^e; P. impudens; P. kari- 

MONI ; P. BINTANGENSIS J P. DOLLMANI ; P. PUMILLUS J P. MANDIBU- 
LARIS; P. LAUTENSIS; P. LINGUNGENSIS J P. SIRHASSENENSIS ; P. 

carimaTjE ; and P. l<etus, and those of the Philippine and Sulu islands. 

Cercocebus is an African genus exclusively confined to the 
Ethiopian Region. In East Africa from the Tana River to Uganda 
and the Upper Congo four species are found : C. galeritus ; C. a. john- 
stoni; C. chrysogaster ; and C. hagenbecki; and West Africa has 
the remaining species, six in all, ranging from Sierra Leone to the 
Lower Congo: C. .ethiops; C. lunulatus; C. torquatus; C. ater- 
rimus ; C. albigena ; C. a. zenkeri; and C. agilis. 

The genus Rhinostigma contains but one species, R. hamlyni, 
from the Ituri Forest, East Africa, apparently a link between the 
last genus and the one succeeding, and remarkable for the shape of 
its face, (which is similar to that of a Barn-Owl), and the mark over 
the nose from forehead to upper lip, and the small fifth cusp on the 
last lower molar. 

The great genus Lasiopyga, containing the largest number of 
species of all those included in the Order Primates, succeeds Rhino- 
stigma. It is entirely confined to the Ethiopian Region, its mem- 
bers dispersed over the African Continent save along the Mediter- 
ranean littoral. The East African Subregion of the Ethiopian Region 
contains forty species and subspecies, L. neglecta Schlegel, (nee 
Auct.) ; L. griseoviridis ; L. boutourlini ; L. matschie; L. djam- 

DJAMENSIS ; L. HILGERTI ; L. STUHLMANNI J L. AURORA J L. BUDGETTI J 
L. GRISEISTICTA J L. DOGGETTI ; L. CARRUTHERSI ; L. DENTI J L. 
SCHMIDTI J L. THOMASI \ L. KANDTI ; L. STAIRSI J L. NEUMANNI ; L. 

callida; L. centralis; L. c. whytei; L. c. johnstoni; L. c. lutea; L. 
kolbi ; L. k. hindei; L. k. nubilis; L. rufoviridis ; L. rubella ; L. 
pygerythra ; L. albigularis ; L. a. kinobotensis ; L. a. ruHlata; L. 

RUFITINCTA J L. OPISTHOSTICTA ; L. LEUCAMPYX | L. MOLONEYI J L. FRAN- 
CESCO ; L. silacea ; L. signata ; and L. princeps. In the West African 
Subregion beginning in Senegambia is L. callitrichus ; then follow 
going south, L. campbelli ; L. diana ; L. buttikoferi ; L. roloway ; 
L. fantiensis ; L. burnetti ; L. mona ; L. tantalus ; L. t. alexatidrt; 
L. insolita ; L. preussi ; L. brazzo ; L. nictitans ; L. sticticeps ; L. 
grayi ; L. g. pallida; L. signata; L. petronello; L. sclateri ; L. 
petaurista ; L. c. laglaizi; L. cephus ; L. cephodes ; L. martini ; L. 
erythrotis; L. pogonias; L. p. nigripes; L. insularis; L. ascanius; 
L. whitesidi; L. pluto ; L. cynosura; L. wolfi ; and L. insignis; 



INTRODUCTION Ixxi 

thirty-five in all. The South African Subregion has L. albigularis ; L. 
rufoviridis ; L. a. beirensis; L. s. mosambicus; L. pygerythra ; and L. 
labiata ; six species. Eight remain whose habitat is entirely unknown, 
L. i/hoesti ; L. nigriviridis ; L. inobservata ; L. werneri ; L. nigri- 
gensis ; L. erythrogaster ; L. temmincki and L. albitorquata. 

Miopithecus follows Lasiopyga ; indeed up to the present time 
its species were always included in the last genus. It has only two 
members, both natives of the East African Subregion of the Ethiopian 
Region, their range extending from Southern Cameroon to, and 
including, Angola. They are M. talapoin and M. ansorgei. 

Erythrocebus contains the long-legged reddish colored Guenons, 
heretofore included in Lasiopyga. They are inhabitants of the 
Ethiopian Region, six being dwellers of the East African Subregion, 

E. PYRRHONOTUS ; E. POLIOPH^EUS J E. ALBIGENIS ; E. FORMOSUS ; E. 

whytei; and E. baumstarki. Five are inhabitants of the West 
African Subregion, E. patas ; E. kerstingi ; E. zecki ; E. langeldi ; 
and E. sannio. The locality of one species, E. circumcinctus, is 
unknown. 

We now come to Pygathrix one of the largest genera of the 
ANTHROPOIDEA. Its members are natives of the Palsearctic and 
Oriental Regions. Two species only are found in the first of these, P. 
schistaceus and P. lania. In the Indian Subregion of the Oriental 
Region is found but one species, P. entellus. In the Ceylonese Sub- 
region seven species are met with: P. cephaloloptera ; P. c. monti- 
cola; P. senex ; P. johni ; P. ursina ; P. hypoleuca ; and P. priamus. 
In the Indo-Chinese Subregion of this Region are found eight species : 
P. pileata; P. franqoisi; P. crepuscula; P. c. wroughtoni; P. Mar- 
garita ; P. germaini ; P. nem^eus ; and P. nigripes. The Indo- 
Malayan Subregion contains the remaining species : P. melanolopha ; 

P. NOBILIS ; P. RUBICUNDA J P. CARIMATVE J P. FRONTATA J P. HOSEI ; P. 
THOMASi; P. POTENZIANi; P. AURATA J P. CRISTATA J P. C. pulldta; P. 

ultima; P. albipes; P. nudifrons; P. cruciger; P. chrysomelas; 

P. SUMATRANA ; P. BATUANA ; P. PERCURA ; P. FEMORALIS J P. MELA- 
MERA ; P. BARBEI ; P. PHAYREI ; P. FLAVICAUDA ; P. ROBINSONI J P. 
OBSCURA ; P. CARBO J P. SANCTORUM ; P. NUBIGENA J P. DILECTA J P. 

natun,e; P. rhionis; P. cana; P. siamensis; P. catemana; P. 
aygula; P. fusco-murina ; P. sabana; and P. everetti. P. holo- 
tophrea is the only one whose locality is unknown. 

Rhinopithecus is a small genus with four known species, belong- 
ing to the Siberian and Manchurian Subregions of the Palaearctic 



lxxii INTRODUCTION 

Region; and go as far as Tonkin and eastern Thibet. They are 

R. ROXELLAN^E J R. BIETI ; R. BERLICHI, and R. AVUNCULUS. SlMIAS 

and Nasalis each with a single species are natives of the islands 
of South Pagi and Borneo respectively of the Indo-Malayan 
Subregion of the Oriental Region. Colobus is a genus of the 
Ethiopian Region its members being entirely restricted to the 
Continent of Africa, the greatest number of species dwelling in 
the East African Subregion, and ranging from Abyssinia to Nyassa- 
land and from Gambia to Angola. In the East African Subregion 
fifteen species are found, which, beginning with the most northern 
are as follows : C. abyssinicus ; C. polyurus ; C. gallarum ; C. 

ELLIOTI ; C. TEPHROSCELES ; C. RUWENZORI ; C. CAUDATUS ; C. RUFOMI- 
TRATUS J C. PALLIATUS J C. KIRKI ; C. GRAUERI ; C. SHARPEI J C. 

godonorum ; and C. angolensis. In the West African Subregion are 

C. BOUVIERI ; C. FULIGINOSUS J C. VELLEROSUS ; C. SATANAS ; C. FERRU- 

gineus ; C. rufo-niger ; C. verus ; C. a. occidentalis ; C. preussi ; C. 
polycomus; and C. pennanti. Four species are found in Central 
Africa, and C. temmincki's habitat is unknown. 

Hylobates or Gibbons are natives of two of the recognized 
Zoogeographical Regions, the Indian and the Oriental. Of the first 
of these in the Indo-Chinese Subregion are H. hoolock; H. lar; H. 
leucogenys ; H. gabrielli ; H. henrici ; H. pileatus; and H. 
nasutus. In the Indo-Malayan Subregion are H. lar; H. agilis; 
H. leuciscus ; H. concolor ; H. funereus ; and H. fuscus ; the last 
two being of doubtful validity. The other genus of Gibbons Sympha- 
langy has S. syndactylis, with one rather doubtful subspecies, 5". 
.y. continentis ; and S. klossi ; all in the Indo-Malay Subregion of the 
Indian Region. We now reach the Pongiim: containing the great 
Apes, the remaining members of the Primates. Pongo the first genus 
has one species, P. pygm^eus, (a second being doubtfully possible P. 
abelii,) from the great islands of Borneo and Sumatra in the Indo- 
Malay Subregion of the Indian Region. The second genus Gorilla 
has all its members save one in the West African Subregion of the 
Ethiopian Region. These are G. gorilla ; G. g. castaneiceps; G. g. 
matschie; G. g. jacobi; and G. g. diehli. In the East African Sub- 
region G. beringeri is found in the German Protectorate, in all, two 
species and four subspecies. Of the majority of these it must be said 
that they are very doubtfully separable from G. gorilla, all the 
knowledge we have of them having been gathered from very insufficient 
material. 



INTRODUCTION lxxiii 

Pseudogorilla has one species P. mayema? from the Congo 
forest. 

The last genus of the Primates of the Old World is Pan em- 
bracing the Chimpanzees. Fifteen species are tentatively acknowledged 
in this work, but we are without sufficient information regarding them, 
and their validity is in almost as great uncertainty as is that of some 
of the species of the genus Gorilla. The ranges of these different 
species are either not known at all, or very imperfectly, and the greater 
number of forms are found in the West African Subregion from 
Sierra Leone to the Gaboon. In this comparatively restricted district 
of the African Continent all the species of Chimpanzees, save two, so 
far as is known, are to be met with. They are P. calvus ; P. fuligi- 

NOSUS ; P. SATYRUS ; P. KOOLOO-KAMBA ; P. LEUCOPRYMNUS J P. PYG- 

m.eus ; P. chimpanse ; P. aubryi ; P. vellerosus ; and P. FUSCUS. 
All these are found in Gaboon and Cameroon, save two, P. vellerosus 
absent from Gaboon, and P. satyrus not found in Cameroon. In the 
East African Subregion two species only are known to dwell, P. 
schweinfurthi in the Nyam-nyam country, and P. s. marungensis 
from the vicinity of the Albert Nyanza, and in the Congo forest. 

In Neogea, embracing the Western Hemisphere, we find the 
Primates are represented in the Neotropical region only, and Mexico 
contains the forms that reach the highest northern limit. Here is 
found a subspecies of Alouatta, A. p. mexicana in the State of Vera 
Cruz, and one species of Ateleus, A. pan. Two species are found in 
Guatemala, Alouatta villosa ; and Ateleus pan. Nicaragua has five 
species of Primates, one, Aotus rufipes, (but doubtfully a resident of 
that State) ; Alouatta palliata; Ateleus geoffroyi; A. ater: and 
Cebus capucinus. Costa Rica is represented by two species of 
different genera GEdipomidas geoffroyi ; and Saimiri cerstedi ; both 
also met with in Panama ; and on Coiba Island in the Bay of Panama 
Alouatta p. coibensis is found. On the Island of Trinidad Alouatta 
insulanus is met with. On the continent of South America beginning 
with the Guianas, Brazilian Subregion, five species are found in all : 
Saimiri sciurus; Aotus trivirgatus; Alouatta macconnelli; 
Ateleus paniscus ; and Cebus apella ; some of these having a wide 
distribution in South America. French Guiana possesses besides the 
species just named, Cercopithecus rufimanus and Pithecia capil- 
limentosa; and British Guiana has four additional, Cercopithecus 
midas ; Pithecia satanas; P. chiropotes; and Cebus castaneus. 
Dutch Guiana has also Cercopithecus midas. Venezuela has eight 
species of Primates : Cercopithecus ursulus ; Callicebus tor- 



lxxiv INTRODUCTION 

quatus; Saimiri sciureus; S. cassiquiarensis ; Alouatta ursina; 
Ateleus variegatus ; A. beelzebuth ; and Cebus apiculatus. Brazil 
with its immense extent of territory and vast forests contains the 
greatest proportion of the American Primates. It has two Seniocebus, 
S. bicolor and S. martinsi ; one Cercopithecus ursulus ; nine 
Leontocebus ; L. chrysomelas ; L. rosalia ; L. chrysopygus ; L. 
mystax; L. nigricoixis ; L. imperator; L. nigrifrons; L. labiatus; 
and L. thomasi. Of Callithrix, it has thirteen species : C. santarem- 

ENSIS; C. JACCHUS? C. ALBICOLLIS ; C. HUMERALIFERJ C. PENICILLATA J 

C. p. jordani; C. leucocephala ; C. argentata ; C. aurita ; C. flavi- 
ceps; C. chrysoleuca; C. pygm^ea; and C. leucopus. Callicebus 
is represented by three species: C. emili^e; C. torquatus; and C. 
amictus. Aotus has five species: A. trivirgatus; A. roberti ; A. 
infulatus; A. miriquouina; and A. vociferans. Alouatta gives 
three species : A. beelzebul ; A. caraya ; and A. juara ; while 
Pithecia has six: P. satanas; P. chiropotes; P. albicans; P. 
chrysocephala ; P. albinasa ; and P. monacha. Cacajao is entirely 
Brazilian and all its three species are found within that territory. 
Ateleus appears to be represented by only three species: A. mar- 
ginatus; A. variegatus; and A. paniscus. The single species of 
Brachyteleus is a native of Brazil ; and Lagothrix has four species : 
L. lagotricha ; L. cana ; L. ubericola ; and L. thomasi. Cebus has 
eight species inhabiting Brazil, C. variegatus ; C. unicolor ; C. macro- 
cephalus ; C. versuta ; C. libidinosus ; C. cirrifer ; C. caliginosus ; 
C. azasje ; and three doubtful, their exact localities being unknown, C. 

CRASSICEPS ; C. VELLEROSUS ; and C. FRONTATUS. 

On the western side of the Continent, Colombia contains sixteen of 
the species of Primates, one Seniocebus meticulosus ; one CEdipomidas 
salaquiensis ; one Saimiri sciureus ; three Aotus ; A. vociferans ; A. 
griseimembra ; and A. lanius ; one Alouatta ; A. seniculus ; four 
Ateleus ; A. geoffroyi ; A. ater ; A. rufiventer ; and A. hybridus. 
Lagothrix has but one species lagotricha. Cebus has four and one 
subspecies : C. flavus ; C. chrysopus ; C. malitiosus ; C. c. nigripectus ; 
and C. fatuellus. Ecuador, the next State, has twelve species: 
Saimiri madeira ; and S. macrodon ; Aotus gularis ; and A. micro- 
don ; Alouatta ^quatorialis ; Pithecia monacha ; Ateleus panis- 
cus; Lagothrix infumata; L. lugens; and Callicebus has C. 
cupreus ; C. p^enulatus ; and C. leucometopa. Peru has nineteen 
species: Callicebus torquatus; C. amictus; C personatus: C. 
cupreus ; and C. subrufus. Saimiri b. nigriceps ; and S. macrodon ; 
four Aotus: A. trivirgatus; A. nigriceps; A. senex; and A. oseryi. 



INTRODUCTION lxxv 

Alouatta has but one species ursina ; Pithecia two, P. satanas ; and 
P. monacha; Ateleus one, variegatus. Lagothrix also one, lago- 
tricha; and Cebus three, C. a. pallidus; C. u. cuscinus; and C. f. 
peruanus. In Bolivia, the last portion of South America in which Pri- 
mates occur, four species are found: Callicebus donacophilus ; 
Saimiri ustus ; Aotus boliviensis ; and Alouatta sara. From the 
above recapitulation it will be seen that the Brazilian Subregion is the 
home of the Primates in the New World. Every genus save one, 
CEdipomidas, is represented within its boundaries, and two, Cacajao 
and Brachyteleus are not found elsewhere. On the eastern border 
of the Neotropical region no Primate is found below the southern 
limit of the Brazilian Subregion, but on the western side the Order has 
its representatives in Peru and Bolivia of the Chilian Subregion. 

The geographical distribution of each species, so far as known, is 
shown in the following list. 

LEMUROIDEA. 

Daubentonihxe. 

Daubentonia. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

1. Daubentonia madagascariensis. Island of Madagascar on 

the east coast from the Bay of Antongil to Mehanoro. 

Tarsiid^e. 

Tarsius. 

Range of the Genus. 

Oriental and Australian Regions. 

Range of the Species. 

2. Tarsius philippinensis. Island of Samar, Philippine Archi- 

pelago. 

3. Tarsius fraterculus. Island of Bohol, Philippine Archi- 

pelago. 



lxxvi INTRODUCTION 

4. Tarsius sanghirensis. Island of Sanghir, Philippine Archi- 

pelago. 

5. Tarsius saltator. Billiton Island, Indo-Malayan Archipelago. 

6. Tarsius borneanus. Island of Borneo, Indo-Malayan Archi- 

pelago. 

7. Tarsius bancanus. Island of Java, Indo-Malayan Archipelago. 

8. Tarsius fuscus. Island of Celebes, Austro-Malayan Archi- 

pelago. 

Nycticibid^e. 

Loris. 

Range of the Genus. 

Oriental Region. 
Range of the Species. 

9. Loris tardigradus. Island of Ceylon. 

10. Loris lydekkerianus. Southern India, Madras and possibly 

on the west coast near Ratnageri. 

Nycticebus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Oriental Region. 

Range of the Species. 

11. Nycticebus borneanus. Sakaiam River, Sanggan district, 

West Borneo. 

12. Nycticebus bancanus. Klabat Bay, Island of Banka. 

13. Nycticebus tenasserimensis. Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula. 

14. Nycticebus coucang. Bengal, Upper Burma, possibly Annam. 

15. Nycticebus cinereus. Siam, Cochin China. 

16. Nycticebus javanicus. Island of Java. 

17. Nycticebus natun^e. Natuna Islands, Malayan Archipelago. 

18. Nycticebus malaianus. Arakan to Tringanu, Lower Siam ; 

coast region of Sumatra. 

19. Nycticebus hilleri. Island of Sumatra. 

20. Nycticebus menagensis. Philippine Archipelago. 

21. Nycticebus pygm^eus. Annam. 



INTRODUCTION lxxvii 

Arctocebus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

22. Arctocebus calabarensis. Old Calabar, West Africa. 

23. Arctocebus aureus. French Congo, West Africa. 

Perodicticus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

24. Perodicticus potto. Sierra Leone to the Gold Coast. 

25. Perodicticus ju-ju. Nigeria. 

26. Perodicticus ibeanus. Kakamega forest, near Mt. Elgon 

British East Africa. 

27. Perodicticus faustus. Central Congo, Africa. 

28. Perodicticus edwardsi. Cameroon to French Congo, West 

Africa. 

Galago. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

29. Galago crassicaudatus. East Africa and Island of Zanzibar. 

30. Galago zuluensis. Zululand, East Africa. 

31. Galago panganiensis. Pangani River, East Africa. 

32. Galago garnetti. Natal, East Africa. 

33. Galago badius. Ugalla River, German East Africa. 

34. Galago monteiri. Middle Coast, Cuio Bay to Angola, West 

Africa. 

35. Galago kirki. Nyassaland, Mozambique. 

36. Galago lasiotis. East Africa. 



lxxviii INTRODUCTION 

37. Galago hindsi. Katwi, Athi River, British East Africa. 

38. Galago kikuyuensis. Escarpment Station, British East Africa. 

39. Galago alleni. Cameroon, Gaboon, and Island of Fernando 

Po, West Africa. 

40. Galago alleni cameronensis. Cameroon, West Africa. 

41. Galago alleni gabonensis. Gaboon, West Africa. 

42. Galago alleni batesi. Gaboon, West Africa. 

43. Galago zanzibaricus. Island of Zanzibar. 

44. Galago talboti. Southern Nigeria. 

45. Galago gallarum. Boran-Galla country, East Africa. 

46. Galago braccatus. German East Africa. 

47. Galago braccatus albipes. British East Africa. 

48. Galago dunni. Somaliland, East Africa. 

49. Galago nyass^e. Portuguese East Africa. 

50. Galago granti. Portuguese East Africa. 

51. Galago senegalensis. Senegal, West Africa. 

52. Galago sennaariensis. Sennaar, Ankole, west of the Victoria 

Nyanza, Nyassaland, East Africa. 

53. Galago mosambicus. Tete, Mozambique, East Africa. 

54. Galago pupulus. Nigeria, West Africa. 

55. Galago elegantulus. Cameroon, West Africa. 

56. Galago e. tonsor. Spanish Guinea, West Africa. 

57. Galago e. pallidus. Southern Cameroon, Island of Fernando 

Po. 

58. Galago e. apicalis. Equatorial Africa. Locality unknown. 



Hemigalago. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

59. Hemigalago demidoffi. Gold Coast to Great Basin of the 

Congo, West and Central Africa, Mombuttu, Equatorial 
Africa. 

60. Hemigalago d. poensis. Island of Fernando Po. 

61. Hemigalago anomurus. French Congo, West Africa. 

62. Hemigalago thomasi. Semliki River, Central Africa 



INTRODUCTION lxxix 

Chirogale. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

63. Chirogale major. Eastern coast of Madagascar, Fort Dauphin 

to Tamatave, also in the lower wooded regions of Betsileo 
Province, and on the west coast from Tullare to Pasandava. 

64. Chirogale melanotis. North east coast of Madagascar. 

65. Chirogale sibreei. East of Antananarivo, Madagascar. 

66. Chirogale crossleyi. Forests east of Antsianak, Madagascar. 

67. Chirogale trichotis. Forests of Antsianak, Madagascar 

Microcebus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

68. Microcebus murinus. Betsileo Province to Fort Dauphin on 

the south east coast of Madagascar, and on the south west 
coast northerly from St. Augustine Bay. 

69. Microcebus myoxinus. West and south west coasts of Mada- 

gascar from Cape St. Vincent to Tullear on St. Augustine 
Bay. 

70. Microcebus coquereli. Island Af ricaina ; west coast of Mada- 

gascar from Cape St. Vincent to Helville. 

71. Microcebus furcifer. Eastern coast of Madagascar, from 

Fort Dauphin on the south to Mt. Ambre on the north ; and 
down west coast to Cape St. Vincent. 

Mixocebus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

72. Mixocebus caniceps. Island of Madagascar ; locality unknown. 



lxxx INTRODUCTION 

Altililemur. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

73. Altililemur medius. West coast of Madagascar. 

74. Altililemur thomasi. Fort Dauphin, south east coast of 

Madagascar. 

Lepidolemur. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

75. Lepidolemur globiceps. "South west Madagascar." 

76. Lepidolemur grandidieri. North west Madagascar. 

77. Lepidolemur leucopus. South eastern Madagascar. 

78. Lepidolemur mustelinus. East coast of Madagascar; Fort 

Dauphin to Mt. Ambre. 

79. Lepidolemur microdon. Eastern district of Betsileo Province, 

Madagascar. 

80. Lepidolemur ruficaudatus. South western Madagascar; 

Marinda to Masikora. 

81. Lepidolemur edwardsi. North western Madagascar. 

Myoxicebus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

82. Myoxicebus griseus. Eastern side of Betsileo Province; and 

northwest side to Ifasay, Madagascar. 

83. Myoxicebus olivaceus. Eastern coast of Madagascar from 

Betsileo Province ; and north west parts to Ifasay. 

84. Myoxicebus simus. North east coast of Madagascar. 



INTRODUCTION lxxxi 

Lemur. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

85. Lemur mongos. South and south western portions of Betsileo 

Province, Central Madagascar. Province Anossi. 

86. Lemur coronatus. North eastern Madagascar from Bay de 

Diego to Vohemar. 

87. LeMur nigrifrons. Islands of Madagascar and Mayotte. 

88. Lemur fulvus. Northern part of Island of Madagascar. 

89. Lemur rufifrons. West coast of Madagascar from Cape St. 

Vincent on the south to Baly on the north. 

90. Lemur rubriventer. Eastern coast of Madagascar from 

Teneriffe to Fort Dauphin; north east Betsileo Province, 
and southern Betsileo, confines of the Tonales of Ikongo. 

91. Lemur rufus. Southern Madagascar, River Tsidsibon to River 

Mangonka. 

92. Lemur albifrons. Eastern coast of Madagascar from Ma- 

sindrano to Bay of Antongil. 

93. Lemur cinereiceps. Island of Madagascar. Locality not given. 

94. Lemur macaco. North west Madagascar, Ifasay to Mana- 

harana. 

95. Lemur nigerrimus. North west Madagascar, Ifasay to Cape 

Ambre. 

96. Lemur catta. South and south western borders of Betsileo 

Province; Province Anossi. 

97. Lemur variegatus. North eastern Madagascar from Adan- 

frone to Cape Masoala at entrance of Antongil Bay; and 
interior to Bengoa. 

98. Lemur v. ruber. Eastern Madagascar ; from Bay of Antongil 

to Masindrano. 

Lichanotus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

99. Lichanotus laniger. Eastern coast of Madagascar; and the 

Bay of Pessandava on the west coast. St. Mary's Island. 



lxxxii INTRODUCTION 

Propithecus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

100. Propithecus diadema. Northeast Madagascar between the 

rivers Lokoy and Bemarivo. 

101. Propithecus d. edwardsi. South eastern coast of Madagascar 

from the Masora River to the Taraouny; and the forests 
of the interior near Fienerentova. 

102. Propithecus d. sericeus. Narrow belt of forest between the 

rivers Lokoy and Bemarivo, on eastern side of the moun- 
tains in north eastern Madagascar. 

103. Propithecus verreauxi. South west coast of Madagascar, 

between the southern base of the eastern range of moun- 
tains and the River Tsidsibon. 

104. Propithecus v. deckeni. Middle of the west coast of Mada- 

gascar on the great plains between the rivers Mananbolo 
and Manzarayo. 

105. Propithecus v. coquereli. North west coast of Madagascar 

between the south side of Marendry Bay and the north side 
of Bembatoko Bay ; the Betseboka River being the southern 
limit of its range, and the Loza the northern. 

106. Propithecus v. coronatus. North west coast of Madagascar 

between the Bay of Mozamba on the north, the River Betse- 
boka on the east, and the River Manzarayo on the west, in 
the country of Boeny ; extending its range for some distance 
into the interior. 

Indris. 
Range of the Genus. 
, Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

107. Indris indris. Eastern coast of Madagascar in forests on the 

eastern side of the high mountains between the Bay of 
Antongil on the north, and the River Masora on the south. 



INTRODUCTION lxxxiii 

ANTHROPOIDEA. 
Callitrichid^e. 
Seniocebus. 
Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region. 
Range of the Species. 

108. Seniocebus bicolor. Eastern bank of the Rio Negro, Brazil. 

Pebas, Peru ; Upper Amazon west of Barra. 

109. Seniocebus meticulosus. Forests of the River San Jorge, 

Colombia. 

1 10. Seniocebus martinsi. Faro, Lower Yamunda River, Amazon, 

Brazil. 

Cercopithecus. 
Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region 
Range of the Species. 

111. Cercopithecus midas. English and Dutch Guianas. 

112. Cercopithecus rufimanus. French Guiana, banks of the Rio 

Araguay. Province of Goyas, Brazil. 

113. Cercopithecus ursulus. Lower Amazon ; and near the mouth 

of the River Tocantins. 

Leontocebus. 
Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region. 
Range of the Species. 

114. Leontocebus labiatus. Forests on the north side of the Ama- 

zon, Rio Javari, Rio Solimoens, and in Peru. 

115. Leontocebus pileatus. Upper Amazon, range unknown. 

116. Leontocebus thomasi. Tonantins, Upper Amazon. 



Ixxxiv INTRODUCTION 

117. Leontocebus nigrifrons. River Javari on border of Brazil and 

Peru ; and on Cotopaza River, Ecuador. 

118. Leontocebus nigricollis. Upper Amazon; Pebas, Ecuador. 

119. Leontocebus chrysopygus. Vicinity of Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 

Brazil. 

120. Leontocebus mystax. Forests between the Solimoens and Iga 

Rivers, Brazil. 

121. Leontocebus wedelli. Apolamba Province, Bolivia. 

122. Leontocebus devillii. Eastern Peru. 

123. Leontocebus apiculatus. Banks of Cotopaza River, Ecuador. 

124. Leontocebus illigeri. Colombia, and banks of the Cotopaza 

River, Ecuador. 

125. Leontocebus tripartitus. Bank of the Rio Napo, Ecuador. 

126. Leontocebus lagonotus. Upper Amazon. 

127. Leontocebus fuscicollis. Between the Iga and Solimoens 

Rivers in Brazil, and the vicinity of Pebas, Peruvian Ama- 
zons ; and the banks of the Javari River, boundary between 
Brazil and Peru. 

128. Leontocebus graellsi. Banks of the Rio Napo, Ecuador. 

129. Leontocebus imperator. Banks of the Rio Purrus, tributary 

of the Amazon, western Brazil. 

130. Leontocebus rosalia. Forests of southern Brazil, Province of 

Rio de Janeiro. Upper Amazon. 

131. Leontocebus leoninus. Popayan, Brazil. 

132. Leontocebus chrysomelas. Forests of the Rio Ilheos, and 

Rio Pardo, Brazil. 



CEdipomidas. 

Range of the Genus. 

Neotropical Region. 

Range of the Species. 

133. CEdipomidas gedipus. Coast of Colombia. 

134. CEdipomidas geoffroyi. Costa Rica and Panama, Central 

America. 

135. CEdipomidas salaquiensis. Forest of the Salaqui River, 

Colombia. 



INTRODUCTION lxxxv 

Callithrix. 
Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region. 
Range of the Species. 

136. Callithrix argentata. Provinces of Para and Matto Grosso, 

Brazil ; Bolivia. 

137. Callithrix leucopus. Province of Antioquia, Colombia. 

138. Callithrix chrysoleuca. Borba, on the Lower Madeira 

River, Brazil. 

139. Callithrix goildi. Para, Brazil. 

140. Callithrix santaremensis. Mouth of River Tapajos, Amazon. 

141. Callithrix aurita. Province of Sao Paulo, and the banks of 

the Upper Parana, Brazil. 

142. Callithrix penicillata. Province of Goyas, Minas Geraes, 

and Espirito Santo, Brazil. 

143. Callithrix p. jordani. Banks of Rio Jordao, S. W. Minas 

Geraes, Brazil. 

144. Callithrix jacchus. Island of Marajo, Brazil. 

145. Callithrix flaviceps. Engenheiro Reeve, Espirito Santo, 

Brazil. 

146. Callithrix leucocephala. Provinces of Minas Geraes, and 

Espirito Santo, Brazil. 

147. Callithrix humeralifer. Vicinity of Bahia, to the Bay of 

Todos os Santos, Brazil. 

148. Callithrix albicollis. Vicinity of Bahia, Brazil. 

149. Callithrix pygm^ea. Forests along the Solimoens and Ucayali 

Rivers, Brazil, north into Mexico. 

Callicebus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Neotropical Region. 

Range of the Species. 

150. Callicebus torquatus. Upper reaches of the Rio Negro, the 

forests near the Rio Cassiquiare, and the Rio Guaviare 
near St. Fernando de Atabapo; mountains on the right 
bank of the Orinoco near Mission of Santa Barbara; and 
the forests of Olivenga on the right bank of the Rio 
Solimoens; and in Southern Peru. 



lxxxvi INTRODUCTION 

151. Callicebus amictus. Upper Amazon region, Brazil. 

152. Callicebus ustofuscus. Brazil, exact locality unknown. 

153. Callicebus cupreus. Regions of the Peruvian Amazon; Rio 

Solimoens, Rio Ucayali, and Rio Huallaga ; Cotopaza River, 
and Andoas, Ecuador. 

154. Callicebus caligatus. Banks of the Rio Madeira, near Borba, 

western Brazil. 

155. Callicebus melanochir. East coast of Brazil from the Rio 

St. Matheus to Sertan de Bahia. 

156. Callicebus p^enulatus. Banks of the Rio Pastas, Ecuador. 

157. Callicebus egeria. Teffe, Middle Amazon, Brazil. 

158. Callicebus leucometopa. Ecuador. 

159. Callicebus subrufus. Pachite, Ucayali River, Peru. 

160. Callicebus hoffmannsi. Urucurituba, Santarem, Lower Ama- 

zon, Brazil. 

161. Callicebus ornatus. Colombia and Peru. 

162. Callicebus remulus. Santarem, Lower Amazon, Brazil. 

163. Callicebus donacophilus. Province of Sara, Bolivia. 

164. Callicebus emille. Received from Para. Range unknown. 

165. Callicebus pallescens. Paraguay. 

166. Callicebus moloch. Banks of the Rio Para near the mouth 

of the Rio Tapajos, Lower Amazon, Brazil. 

167. Callicebus cinerascens. Forests of the Potomaio and Lja 

Rivers, on the border of Peru. 

168. Callicebus nigrifrons. Province of Minas Geraes to that of 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

169. Callicebus gigot. South of Bahia near Ilheos; New Frei- 

bourg, between the Rio Parahyba and the mountains north 
of the Bay of Rio de Janeiro. 

170. Callicebus personatus. Region of the Upper Amazon, south 

to Latitude 14°. 

171. Callicebus brunneus. Falls of the Bonaneira, Rio Marmore, 

Brazil. 

Cebid,e. 

Alouatta. 

Range of the Genus. 

Neotropical Region. 

Range of the Species. 

172. Alouatta caraya. Upper Amazon, Southern Brazil ; Argen- 

tine, and Bolivia. 



INTRODUCTION lxxxvii 

173. Alouatta ululata. Maranhao, Lower Amazon, Brazil. 

174. Alouatta villosus. Guatemala, and Honduras. 

175. Alouatta beelzebul. Para to Rio Madeira, Lower Amazon, 

Brazil. 

176. Alouatta palliata. Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Central 

America. 

177. Alouatta p. mexicana. State of Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

178. Alouatta p. coibensis. Coiba Island, west coast of Panama. 

179. Alouatta ^equatorialis. West coast of Ecuador. 

180. Alouatta ursina. Venezuela; Bahia to Province of Espirito 

Santo, Brazil ; Peru. 

181. Alouatta seniculus. Colombia; and forests between Rio 

Negro and Rio Solimoens ; Rio Madeira. 

182. Alouatta macconnelli. Coast of Demarara, English and 

French Guianas ; Cayenne to coast north of the Amazon. 

183. Alouatta insulanus. Island of Trinidad. 

184. Alouatta juara. Rio Juara, Upper Amazon. 

185. Alouatta sara. Province of Sara, Bolivia. 

Pithecia. 
Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region. 
Range of the Species. 

186. Pithecia monacha. North bank of the Upper Amazon from 

Tonantins extending into Peru, Ecuador. 

187. Pithecia capillimentosa. Cayenne. 

188. Pithecia albicans. Tonantins to Peru; on the Solimoens 

River, Brazil. 

189. Pithecia pithecia. English and French Guianas; and region 

of the Rio Negro and Rio Branco. 

190. Pithecia chrysocephala. Near Barra, Rio Negro, Brazil. 

Range unknown. 

191. Pithecia albinasa. Santarem, Lower Amazon, Brazil. 

192. Pithecia satanas. British Guiana ; forests near Para, Lower 

Amazon ; banks of the Rio Orinoco ; Rio Tocantins and 
Rio Negro, Brazil. 

193. Pithecia chiropotes. British Guiana; Upper Orinoco; Rio 

Negro and Rio Branco, Brazil ; banks of the Rio Japura, 
Peru. 



lxxxviii INTRODUCTION 

Cacajao. 

Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region. 
Range of the Species. 

194. Cacajao calvus. Angle formed by the union of the Rios Japuri 

and Amazon, Brazil. 

195. Cacajao rubicundus. Forests on the north of River Amazon 

from Iga, on the Rio I<ja, westward. 

196. Cacajo melanocephalus. Forests through which the Rio 

Cassiquiari, Rio Negro and Rio Branco flow. 

Saimiri. 
Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region. 
Range of the Species. 

197. Saimiri sciureus. French and Dutch Guianas, Venezuela ; and 

both banks of the Amazon and its tributaries, into Colombia. 

198. Saimiri cassiquiarensis. Banks of the Orinoco, south of the 

cataracts to the Rio Cassiquiari and Rio Guaviare ; and 
forests of Rio Caura, above the rapids of Mura, Venezuela. 

199. Saimiri macrodon. Upper waters of the Amazon in Ecuador 

and Peru. 

200. Saimiri madeira. Middle Rio Madeira, Ecuador. 

201. Saimiri ustus. Peruvian Amazons ; Bolivia. 

202 Saimiri boliviensis. Bolivia in the Sierras Guarayas. 

203. Saimiri b. nigriceps. Eastern Peru. Range unknown. 

204. Saimiri c«rstedi. Guatemala? to Panama, Central America. 

Aotus. 
Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region. 
Range of the Species. 

205. Aotus infulatus. Region of the Upper Amazon, Peru. 

206. Aotus nigriceps. Chanchamayo, Peru. 

207. Aotus senex. Porzuzo, Peru. 



INTRODUCTION lxxxix 

208. Aotus rufipes. Nicaragua? Central America. 

209. Aotus roberti. Matto Grosso, Brazil. 

210. Aotus miriquouina. Argentine Republic, South America. 

211. Aotus boliviensis. Province of Sara, Bolivia. 

212. Aotus lanius. Tolima Mountains, Colombia, South America. 

213. Aotus vociferans. Banks of the Rio Ucayali and Rio Hual- 

laga, and Upper Marafion, eastern border of Peru among 
the mountains of Tolima. 

214. Aotus griseimembra. Mountains of Santa Marta, Colombia. 

215. Aotus trivirgatus. Region of the Upper Amazon. 

216. Aotus oseryi. "Haute Amazone, Perou." 

217. Aotus gularis. Mouth of the Rio Chocho, on Upper Rio 

Napo, Ecuador. 

218. Aotus microdon. Ecuador. Range unknown. 

219. Aotus spixi. Range and type locality unknown. 

Ateleus. 
Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region. 
Range of the Species. 

220. Ateleus paniscus. The Guianas; lowlands of the Lower and 

Upper Amazon ; banks of the Rio Madeira, Rio Marmore, 
Rio Guapore, and Rio Carara, Brazil; and the Lower Rio 
Marafion, Peru. 

221. Ateleus marginatus. Para, banks of the Tocantins, and banks 

of the Rio Cupari, a branch of the Rio Tapajos, Brazil; 
Peru. 

222. Ateleus ater. Panama, Colombia and Eastern Peru. 

223. Ateleus variegatus. Upper Cauca River, Venezuela; Upper 

Rio Negro; Province of Jean de Bracamoros, Peru. 

224. Ateleus rufiventris. Panama into Colombia. 

225. Ateleus grisescens. Unknown. 

226. Ateleus cucullatus. Colombia? 

227. Ateleus belzebuth. Banks of the Orinoco above the rapids of 

Aturas and Maypures. 

228. Ateleus pan. Guatemala, into the State of Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

229. Ateleus fuscipes. Range and type locality unknown. 

230. Ateleus hybridus. Valley of the Magdalena, Colombia. 

231. Ateleus geoffroyi. Costa Rica, Central America, to Colombia. 

South America. 



xc INTRODUCTION 

Brachyteleus. 
Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region. 
Range of the Species. 

232. Brachyteleus arachnoides. Cape St. Roque to Rio de Janeiro, 

Brazil. 

Lagothrix. 
Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region. 
Range of the Species. 

233. Lagothrix lagotricha. District in Upper Magdalena Valley 

southwest of the Rio Negro, Colombia; also in Peru. 

234. Lagothrix lugens. Mountains north of Tolima, Colombia. 

235. Lagothrix thomasi. Peru. 

236. Lagothrix ubericola. Upper Amazon, Rio Jurua, and Rio 

Solimoens, Peru. 

237. Lagothrix infumata. Valley of the Rio Cotopaza, Ecuador. 

238. Lagothrix cana. Mouth of the Rio Tocantins, to the forests 

along the Rio Solimoens. 

Cebus. 
Range of the Genus. 
Neotropical Region. 
Range of the Species. 

239. Cebus apella. English, French, and Dutch Guianas. 

240. Cebus capucinus. Nicaragua, Central America, to Colombia, 

South America. 

241. Cebus c. nigripectus. Cauca Valley, Colombia. 

242. Cebus frontatus. Province of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

243. Cebus albifrons. Forests of the Orinoco and Amazon and its 

tributaries ; Province of Minas, Peru. 

244. Cebus unicolor. Forests of the Rio Teffe, Brazil. 



INTRODUCTION xci 

245. Cebus u. cuscinus. Near Callanga, Province of Cuzco, Peru. 

246. Cebus flavus. Bolivia. Range unknown. 

247. Cebus castaneus. Cayenne. 

248. Cebus variegatus. Bahia to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

249. Cebus malitiosus. Colombia, South America. 

250. Cebus chrysopus. Colombia, South America. 

251. Cebus apiculatus. Venezuela. 

252. Cebus libidinosus. Province of Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

253. Cebus fatuellus. Tolima, and Upper Magdalena Valley, Co- 

lombia. 

254. Cebus f. peruanus. Inamberi Valley, S. E. Peru. 

255. Cebus macrocephalus. Rio Negro, west of its mouth, Brazil. 

256. Cebus versuta. Province of Minas Geraes, Brazil. 

257. Cebus azar#:. Paraguay to Matto Grosso, Brazil; Santa Cruz 

de la Sierra, Bolivia ? 

258. Cebus a. pallidus. Bolivia. Range unknown. 

259. Cebus cirrifer. Southern Brazil. 

260. Cebus crassiceps. Rio Negro? Brazil. 

261. Cebus caliginosus. Province of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

262. Cebus vellerosus. Brazil. Range unknown. 

Lasiopygid^e. 

Papio. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

263. Papio Nigeria. North Nigeria, West Africa. 

264. Papio doguera. Abyssinia. 

265. Papio tessellatum. Uganda, East Africa. 

266. Papio furax. North west of Mt. Kenia, East Africa. 

267. Papio yokoensis. Middle Cameroon, West Africa. 

268. Papio heuglini. Soudan, Africa. 

269. Papio papio. Senegal to Angola, West Africa. 

270. Papio ibeanus. East Africa. 

271. Papio porcarius. South Africa, south of the River Limpopo. 

272. Papio cynocephalus. Eastern and Central Africa, limits un- 

known. 



xcii INTRODUCTION 

273. Papio neumanni. Masailand, Eastern Africa, range unknown. 

274. Papio strepitus. Nyassaland, East Africa. 

275. Papio pruinosus. Nyassaland, East Africa. 

276. Papio hamadryas. Abyssinia. 

277. Papio h. arabicus. Arabia, range unknown. 

278. Papio brockmani. Somaliland, and eastern Abyssinia. 

279. Papio sphinx. Senegambia to the Congo, West Africa. 

280. Papio planirostris. South eastern Cameroon, West Africa. 

281. Papio leucoph^us. North Cameroon, West Africa. 



Theropithecus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

282. Theropithecus gelada. Southern Abyssinia. 

283. Theropithecus obscurus. Southern Abyssinia. 

Cynopithecus. 
Range of the Genus. 
Australian Region. 
Range of the Species. 

284. Cynopithecus niger. Northern and western coasts of the 

Island of Celebes ; and Island of Batchian. 

Magus. 
Range of the Genus. 
Australian Region. 
Range of the Species. 

285. Magus maurus. Southwestern peninsula of the Island of 

Celebes ; Aru Islands. 

286. Magus ochreatus. Southwestern peninsula of Celebes ; Islands 

of Muna, and Buton. 

287. Magus tonkeanus. Middle eastern peninsula of Celebes. 



INTRODUCTION xciii 

SlMIA. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

288. Simia sylvanus. Morocco and Algeria, North Africa. Intro- 

duced on Rock of Gibraltar. 

Pithecus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Oriental and Pal^earctic Regions. 

Range of the Species. 

289. Pithecus speciosus. Upper Burma, Upper Assam, Kakhyen 

Hills, Cochin China, Borneo. 

290. Pithecus harmandi. Mountains between Siam and Cam- 

bogia. 

291. Pithecus rufescens. Tenasserim. Range unknown. 

292. Pithecus fuscatus. Islands of Yakushima and Nippon, to 

41° North Latitude, Japan. 

293. Pithecus thibetanum. Mountains of Moupin, Thibet. 

294. Pithecus vestitus. Mountains of Setchuen, China ; to Tengri- 

Nor in Batang, Thibet. 

295. Pithecus sancti-johannis. North Lena Island; Island of 

Hong Kong; China. 

296. Pithecus lasiotis. Provinces of Setchuen and Tche-li, China. 

297. Pithecus pagensis. South Pagi Island, west of Sumatra. 

298. Pithecus villosus. Cashmere. 

299. Pithecus littoralis. Province of Fukein, China. 

300. Pithecus cyclopsis. Island of Formosa. 

301. Pithecus nemestrinus. Southern Burma, Tenasserim, Malay 

Peninsula; and Islands of Banka, Sumatra, Java and 
Borneo. 

302. Pithecus adustus. Tenasserim. 

303. Pithecus insulanus. Mergui Archipelago. 

304. Pithecus andamanensis. Arakan ; Valley of the Irawady ; 

Upper Burma ; Siam. Introduced into Andaman Islands. 



xciv INTRODUCTION 

305. Pithecus assamensis. Himalaya Mountains from Masuri ; 

Assam ; Mishmi Hills ; and Upper Burma ; Irawady 25 
miles below Bhamo ; Bengal Sunderbunds east of Calcutta ; 
Sikhim; Bhutan. 

306. Pithecus rhesus. Himalayas to the Godaveri River, Northern 

India ; Cashmere ; Jako Hill, Simla ; Nepal ; Guzerat ; Cen- 
tral Provinces; in Bengal and Northern Circars; and near 
Bombay on the west coast. 

307. Pithecus brevicaudus. Island of Hainan. 

308. Pithecus albibarbatus. Southern India; the western Ghats 

below Goa, to Cape Comorin. 

309. Pithecus sinicus. Southern India; north to the Godaveri 

River, and west to Bombay. 

310. Pithecus pileatus. Island of Ceylon. 

311. Pithecus resimus. Island of Java. 

312. Pithecus validus. Cochin China. 

313. Pithecus alacer. Island of Koendoer. 

314. Pithecus karimoni. Karimon Island. 

315. Pithecus fuscus. Islands of Simalur and Lasia. 

316. Pithecus umbrosus. Little Nicobar Island. 

317. Pithecus irus. Burma, Arakan, Tenasserim. 

318. Pithecus mordax. Island of Java. 

319. Pithecus fascicularis. Islands of Sumatra, Terrutau, and 

Langkawi. 

320. Pithecus mandibulars. Sungei Sama near Pontianak, Borneo. 

321. Pithecus capitalis. Lower Siam; and Telibon Island. 

322. Pithecus l^tus. Island of Tringi, South China Sea. 

323. Pithecus lingungensis. Lingung Island, Natuna Group. 

324. Pithecus lautensis. Laut Island, Natuna Group. 

325. Pithecus sirhassenensis. Sirhassen Island, Natuna Group. 

326. Pithecus vitiis. Domel, St. Matthew, and Sullivan Islands, 

Mergui Archipelago. 

327. Pithecus carimat;e. Carimata Islands. 

328. Pithecus baweanus. Bawean Island, Javan Sea. 

329. Pithecus cupidus. Mata Siri Island, Javan Sea. 

330. Pithecus agnatus. Tuang Ku Island ; Banjak Island. 

331. Pithecus ph^eurus. Nias Island. 

332. Pithecus lapsus. Island of Banka. 

333. Pithecus lingae. Linga Island, Rhio Archipelago. 

334. Pithecus impudens. Sugi Island, Rhio Archipelago. 

335. Pithecus bintangensis. Islands of Bintang, and Batam. 



INTRODUCTION xcv 

336. Pithecus dollmani. Island of Singapore. 

337. Pithecus philippinensis. Islands of Luzon, and Mindanao, 

Philippine Archipelago. 

338. Pithecus p. apoensis. Island of Mindanao, Philippine Archi- 

pelago. 

339. Pithecus cagayanus. Island of Sulu. 

340. Pithecus pumilus. Bunoa Island, Tambelan Islands. 

341. Pithecus suluensis. Island of Sulu. 

Cercocebus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

342. Cercocebus torquatus. Nigeria; Cameroon; and French 

Congo, West Africa. 

343. Cercocebus ^ethiops. Sierra Leone ; and Liberia ; West Africa. 

344. Cercocebus lunulatus. Gold Coast, West Africa. 

345. Cercocebus chrysogaster. Upper Congo. 

346. Cercocebus hagenbecki. "Upper Congo." 

347. Cercocebus agilis. French Congo. 

348. Cercocebus galeritus. Tana River, East Africa. 

349. Cercocebus albigena. Congo Free State, West Africa ; to Vic- 

toria Nyanza. 

350. Cercocebus a. johnstoni. Central Africa; Uganda to West 

Africa, Uganda, and Lake Mweru to Upper Congo. 

351. Cercocebus a. zenkeri. Bifindi on Lukenye River, Cameroon, 

West Africa. 

352. Cercocebus aterrimus. Basin of Central Congo. 

Rhinostigma. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

353. Rhinostigma hamlyni. Ituri forest, Congo State. 



xcvi INTRODUCTION 

Lasiopyga. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

354. Lasiopyga i/hoesti. Locality unknown. 

355. Lasiopyga insolita. Northern Nigeria. 

356. Lasiopyga petaurista. Guinea, West Africa. 

357. Lasiopyga fantiensis. Gold Coast, West Africa. 

358. Lasiopyga erythrogaster. West Africa, locality unknown. 

359. Lasiopyga buttikoferi. Liberia, West Africa. 

360. Lasiopyga ascanius. Congo to Angola, West Africa. 

361. Lasiopyga a. whitesidei. Central Congo. 

362. Lasiopyga signata. Banana. West Africa. 

363. Lasiopyga schmidti. Uganda, and Upper Congo. 

364. Lasiopyga leucampyx. Angola, and the Congo, West Africa. 

365. Lasiopyga pluto. Angola, West Africa. 

366. Lasiopyga nigrigenis. West Africa. 

367. Lasiopyga boutourlini. Abyssinia, N. E. Africa. 

368. Lasiopyga opisthosticta. British Central Africa. 

369. Lasiopyga aurora. East Africa. 

370. Lasiopyga stuhlmanni. Lake Albert Edward, to the Mpanga 

forest. 

371. Lasiopyga neumanni. German East Africa. 

372. Lasiopyga doggetti. Uganda, East Africa. 

373. Lasiopyga princeps. Eastern Congo State, Central Africa. 

374. Lasiopyga carruthersi. Uganda, East Africa. 

375. Lasiopyga nictitans. Cameroon and French Congo, West 

Africa. 

376. Lasiopyga n. laglaizi. Gaboon, West Africa. 

377. Lasiopyga sticticeps. Central Africa. 

378. Lasiopyga martini. Guinea, to the French Congo, West 

Africa. 

379. Lasiopyga cephus. Gaboon, to the Congo, West Africa. 

380. Lasiopyga cephodes. Gaboon, West Africa. 

381. Lasiopyga inobservata. West Africa, locality unknown. 

382. Lasiopyga sclateri. Nigeria, West Africa. 

383. Lasiopyga erythrotis. Island of Fernando Po. 

384. Lasiopyga matschie. Abyssinia. 

385. Lasiopyga hilgerti. Galla country,. Abyssinia. 



INTRODUCTION xcvii 

386. Lasiopyga djamdjamensis. East of Lake Abaya, Abyssinia. 

387. Lasiopyga tantalus. Nigeria. 

388. Lasiopyga t. budgetti. Uganda, East Africa. 

389. Lasiopyga t. griseisticta. Lake Albert to the Welle River, 

East Africa. 

390. Lasiopyga t. alexandri. Lake Chad, Nigeria, West Africa. 

391. Lasiopyga callitrichus. Senegambia to the Niger, West Africa. 

392. Lasiopyga werneri. Locality unknown. 

393. Lasiopyga griseo-viridis. Soudan, Abyssinia. 

394. Lasiopyga cynosura. Congo State, West Africa. 

395. Lasiopyga pygerythra. Cape Colony to Mount Kilimanjaro, 

and Mombassa ; East Africa. 

396. Lasiopyga rufoviridis. Mozambique, East Africa. 

397. Lasiopyga rubella. British East Africa. 

398. Lasiopyga callida. Lake Naivasha, British East Africa. 

399. Lasiopyga centralis. Uganda, British East Africa, Abyssinia. 

400. Lasiopyga c. whytei. Nyassaland to Mozambique, East Africa. 

401. Lasiopyga c. johnstoni. Mt. Kilimanjaro, German East 

Africa. 

402. Lasiopyga c. lutea. S. W. of Mt. Kenia, British East Africa. 

403. Lasiopyga silacea. Angoniland, N. W. Rhodesia, East Africa. 

404. Lasiopyga nigroviridis. Upper Congo. 

405. Lasiopyga mona. Gold Coast to Cameroon, West Africa. 

406. Lasiopyga denti. Ituri forest, Congo State. 

407. Lasiopyga wolfi. French Congo, West Africa. 

408. Lasiopyga campbelli. Sierra Leone, West Africa. 

409. Lasiopyga burnetti. Gold Coast to Cameroon ; Island of Fer- 

nando Po ; West Africa. 

410. Lasiopyga pogonias. Island of Fernando Po; Gaboon to 

French Congo ; West Africa. 

411. Lasiopyga p. nigripes. Goboon, West Africa. 

412. Lasiopyga grayi. Southern Cameroon to River Congo; West 

Africa. 

413. Lasiopyga g. pallida. Gaboon, West Africa. 

414. Lasiopyga petronell^e. Upper Congo. 

415. Lasiopyga albitorquata. Unknown. 

416. Lasiopyga kolbi. Mt. Kenia, British East Africa. 

417. Lasiopyga k. nubila. Nairobi forest, British East Africa. 

418. Lasiopyga k. hindei. Kenia district, British East Africa. 

419. Lasiopyga albigularis. East Africa, Mombassa to Transvaal. 

420. Lasiopyga a. beirensis. Beira, Southeast Africa. 



xcviii INTRODUCTION 

421. Lasiopyga a. kinobotensis. Mt. Kilimanjaro, German East 

Africa. 

422. Lasiopyga a. rufilata. Rufigi River, German East Africa. 

423. Lasiopyga moloneyi. Masuku Plateau, Nyassaland ; Portu- 

guese East Africa. 

424. Lasiopyga Francesco. Nyassaland, East Africa. 

425. Lasiopyga preussi. Cameroon, West Africa. 

426. Lasiopyga p. insularis. Island of Fernando Po, West Africa. 

427. Lasiopyga thomasi. Lake Kivu, German East Africa. 

428. Lasiopyga kandti. Lake Kivu, German East Africa. 

429. Lasiopyga insignis. Congo forest, Central Africa. 

430. Lasiopyga stairsi. Zambesi Delta, Mozambique, East Africa. 

431. Lasiopyga s. mosambicus. Mozambique, East Africa. 

432. Lasiopyga rufitincta. Mombassa? British East Africa. 

433. Lasiopyga labiata. Mozambique, East Africa; and Natal to 

Angola, West Africa. 

434. Lasiopyga neglecta. White Nile, East Africa; locality un- 

known. 

435. Lasiopyga brazz.e. French Congo, West Africa. 

436. Lasiopyga diana. Liberia, West Africa. 

437. Lasiopyga roloway. Gold Coast, West Africa. 

438. Lasiopyga temmincki. Guinea ? West Africa. 

Miopithecus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

439. Miopithecus talapoin. Southern Cameroon to Gaboon, West 

Africa. 

440. Miopithecus ansorgei. Angola, West Africa. 

Erythrocebus. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

441. Erythrocebus patas. Senegal, West Africa. 

442. Erythrocebus pyrrhonotus. Kordofan, Dafur, and Sennaar, 

Northeast Africa. 



INTRODUCTION xcix 

443. Erythrocebus formosus. Uganda. 

444. Erythrocebus polioph^eus. Abyssinia; Bahr el Ghazal, 

Soudan. 

445. Erythrocebus whytei. Guas Ngishu Plateau, British East 

Africa. 

446. Erythrocebus kerstingi. Togoland, West Africa. 

447. Erythrocebus zechi. Togoland, West Africa. 

448. Erythrocebus langeldi. Cameroon, West Africa. 

449. Erythrocebus albigenis. Egyptian Soudan, East Africa. 

450. Erythrocebus sannio. Lake Chad, Nigeria. 

451. Erythrocebus baumstarki. Masailand, East Africa. 

452. Erythrocebus circumcinctus. Locality unknown. 

Pygathrix. 

Range of the Genus. 

Pal^arctic and Oriental Regions. 

Range of the Species. 

453. Pygathrix melanolopha. Island of Sumatra. 

454. Pygathrix nobilis. Island of Sumatra ; locality unknown. 

455. Pygathrix rubicunda. Northern to South eastern Borneo. 

456. Pygathrix carimat^e. Telok Edar, Karimata Islands. 

457. Pygathrix frontata. South eastern Borneo. 

458. Pygathrix nudifrons. North west Borneo. 

459. Pygathrix cruciger. Western Borneo. 

460. Pygathrix chrysomelas. Western Borneo. 

461. Pygathrix sumatrana. Ophir Mountain, Sumatra 

462. Pygathrix batuana. Batu Islands. 

463. Pygathrix percura. Eastern Sumatra. 

464. Pygathrix femoralis. Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula, and 

Sumatra. 

465. Pygathrix melamera. North Burma. 

466. Pygathrix barbel Province of Ye, Tenasserim, Malay Pen- 

insula. 

467. Pygathrix holotephrea. Locality unknown. 

468. Pygathrix phayrei. Arakan ; probably northern Tenasserim. 

469. Pygathrix flavicauda. Trong, Lower Siam. 

470. Pygathrix robinsoni. Trong, Northern Malay Peninsula. 

471. Pygathrix obscura. Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula. 



c INTRODUCTION 

472. Pygathrix carbo. Turutau, and Lankawi Islands, Straits of 

Malacca. 

473. Pygathrix sanctorum. St. Matthew Island, Mergui Archi- 

pelago. 

474. Pygathrix nubigena. Southern Malacca. 

475. Pygathrix dilecta. Selangore, Malacca. 

476. Pygathrix natun^e. Island of Natuna. 

477. Pygathrix rhionis. Bitang Island, Rhio Archipelago. 

478. Pygathrix cana. Kundur Island, Rhio Archipelago 

479. Pygathrix siamensis. Siam. 

480. Pygathrix catemana. Eastern Sumatra. 

481. Pygathrix aygula. Island of Java. 

482. Pygathrix fusco-murina. South Sumatra. 

483. Pygathrix sabana. North Borneo. 

484. Pygathrix everetti. Mt. Kina-Balu, Borneo. 

485. Pygathrix hosei. North west coast of Borneo. 

486. Pygathrix thomasi. Langkat district, north east Sumatra. 

487. Pygathrix potenziani. Mettawee Islands. 

488. Pygathrix franqoisi. Boundary between Tonkin and China. 

489. Pygathrix cephaloloptera. Island of Ceylon. 

490. Pygathrix c. monticola. Island of Ceylon. 

491. Pygathrix senex. Island of Ceylon. 

492. Pygathrix johni. Nilgiri Hills to Travancore ; Western Ghats 

to Cape Comorin, India. 

493. Pygathrix ursina. Southern Ceylon. 

494. Pygathrix aurata. Island of Java. 

495. Pygathrix . cristata. Island of Sumatra. 

496. Pygathrix c. pullata. Islands of the Rhio Archipelago ; and 

Island of Banka. 

497. Pygathrix ultima. Mt. Dulit, Borneo. 

498. Pygathrix Margarita. Annam. 

499. Pygathrix germaini. Cochin China. 

500. Pygathrix crepuscula. Mooleyit, British Burma. 

501. Pygathrix c. wroughtoni. Siam. 

502. Pygathrix entellus. Part of the Gangetic Provinces ; the 

Dukhun, and the Carnatic to the Malabar coast, south 
western Bengal ; Central Provinces ; Bombay, Guzerat ; 
Southern Rajputana, and part of the North west Provinces 
to Kattywar, and probably to Cutch, but not to Sind or the 
Punjaub. 

503. Pygathrix albipes. Island of Luzon ; Philippine Archipelago. 



INTRODUCTION ci 

504. Pygathrix schistaceus. Cashmere to Bhutan; Himalaya 

Mountains. 

505. Pygathrix lania. Chumbi, Thibet. 

506. Pygathrix pileata. Assam, Sylhet, Tipperah, Chittagong, 

northern Arakan, and part of Upper Burma. 

507. Pygathrix hypoleuca. Malabar coast to Cape Comorin, 

12,000 feet elevation. 

508. Pygathrix priamus. Nellore, to the Coromandel coast; the 

Carnatic, the Wynaad, and eastern slopes of the Nilgiri 
Hills up to 6,000 feet ; and northern Ceylon, to the Kandyan 
Hills in the south. 

509. Pygathrix nem^eus. Cochin China ; and the Island of Hainan. 

510. Pygathrix nigripes. Saigon, and mouth of the Mekong River, 

Cochin China. 

Rhinopithecus. 
Range of the Genus. 
Pal^earctic Region. 
Range of the Species. 

511. Rhinopithecus roxellan^e. Northwestern China to Koko- 

noor, and Konsu Kinsu, Northwestern Setchuen. 

512. Rhinopithecus bieti. Chinese Province of Yunnan. 

513. Rhinopithecus brelichi. Van Gin Shan range of mountains 

north of the Province of Kwsi-chow, Central China. 

514. Rhinopithecus avunculus. Yen-Bay, Tonkin. 

SlMIAS. 

Range of the Genus. 

Oriental Region. 

Range of the Species. 

515. Simias concolor. South Pagi Island ; west of Sumatra. 

Nasalis. 

Range of the Genus. 

Oriental Region. 

Range of the Species. 

516. Nasalis larvatus. Island of Borneo. 



cii INTRODUCTION 

CoLOBUS. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

517. Colobus verus. Liberia; forests of Fantee, and Ashantee, 

West Africa. 

518. Colobus rufomitratus. Forests of the Murium near Mom- 

bassa, East Africa. 

519. Colobus tephrosceles. Mt. Ruwenzori, Uganda, East Africa. 

520. Colobus nigrimanus. Liranga, banks of the Congo, Central 

Africa. [ 

521. Colobus ellioti. Lake Albert Edward, British East Africa. 

522. Colobus preussi. Cameroon, West Africa. 

523. Colobus kirki. Island of Zanzibar. 

524. Colobus bouvieri. Forests of Gambia ; Casamanca ; Gaboon ; 

and Congo, West Africa. 

525. Colobus tholloni. Congo State. Range unknown. 

526. Colobus temmincki. Locality unknown. 

527. Colobus ? West of Lake Albert, Congo State, Central 

Africa. 

528. Colobus foal South west of Lake Tanganyika, Congo State, 

Central Africa. 

529. Colobus gra.ueri. Congo State, Central Africa. 

530. Colobus oustaleti. Congo State, Central Africa. 

531. Colobus ferrugineus. Liberia, West Africa. 

532. Colobus fuliginosus. Gambia, West Africa. 

533. Colobus rufoniger. Sierra Leone, Liberia?, West Africa. 

534. Colobus pennanti. Gaboon; Island of Fernando Po; West 

Africa. 

535. Colobus godonorum. German East Africa. 

536. Colobus satanas. Senegambia, to French Congo; Island of 

Fernando Po ; West Africa. 

537. Colobus ruwenzori. Mt. Ruwenzori, Uganda, British East 

Africa. 

538. Colobus vellerosus. Senegambia, to the Gold Coast ; West 

Africa. 

539. Colobus polycomus. Sierra Leone, to Liberia, West Africa. 



INTRODUCTION ciii 

540. Colobus palliatus. North of Lake Nyassa, German East 

Africa. 

541. Colobus sharpei. Ituri forest in Congo State, to Nyassaland, 

East Africa. 

542. Colobus angolensis. Left bank of Congo to Angola, West 

Africa. 

543. Colobus abyssinicus. Abyssinia. 

544. Colobus occidentalis. Uganda to Victoria Nyanza; Upper 

and Lower Congo ; Lake Chad ; Nigeria, West Africa. 

545. Colobus poliurus. Omo River, Abyssinia. 

546. Colobus caudatus. Mt. Kenia, British East Africa; Uganda, 

Unyamwezi, south east of Victoria Nyanza, and Mount 
Kilimanjaro, German East Africa. 

547. Colobus gallarum. Galla country ; Abyssinia. 



Hylobatid^e. 

Hylobates. 

Range of the Genus. 

Oriental Region. 

Range of the Species. 

548. Hylobates nasutus. Cochin China ; Island of Hainan. 

549. Hylobates hoolock. Assam, Arakan, Upper Burma, and Kak- 

hyen Hills. 

550. Hylobates lar. Range between Pegu, and Arakan ; Tenas- 

serim. 

551. Hylobates henrici. Tonkin, near border of Yunnan. 

552. Hylobates leucogenys. Siam. 

553. Hylobates gabrielli. Annam. 

554. Hylobates leuciscus. Island of Java. 

555. Hylobates agilis. Island of Sumatra. 

556. Hylobates pileatus. Cambogia ; Siam ; Cochin China. 

557. Hylobates concolor. Borneo. 

558. Hylobates funereus. Islands of Sulu Archipelago? 

559. Hylobates fuscus. Locality unknown. 



civ INTRODUCTION 

Symphalangia. 

Range of the Genus. 

Oriental Region. 

Range of the Species. 

560. Symphalangia syndactylus. Sumatra. 

561. Symphalangia s. continentis. Selangore, Malay Peninsula. 

562. Symphalangia klossi. South Pagi Island, west of Sumatra. 

Pongiid^e. 

PONGO. 

Range of the Genus. 

Oriental Region. 

Range of the Species. 

563. Pongo pygm^eus. Borneo ; Sumatra ? 

564. Pongo abelii. (if distinct). Sumatra. 



Gorilla. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

565. Gorilla gorilla. Gaboon, West Africa. 

566. Gorilla g. matschie. Southern Cameroon, West Africa. 

567. Gorilla g. ? Mokbe. Southern Cameroon, West Africa. 

568. Gorilla g. diehli. Northern Cameroon, West Africa. 

569. Gorilla g. jacobi. Southern Cameroon, West Africa. 

570. Gorilla g. ? Upper Ogowe. Gaboon, West Africa. 

571. Gorilla g. castaneiceps. French Congo, West Africa. 

572. Gorilla g. ? Mbiawe. South Cameroon, West Africa. 

573. Gorilla beringeri. Kirunga, German East Africa. 



INTRODUCTION cv 

PSEUDOGORILLA. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

574. Pseudogorilla mayema ? Congo forest. 

Pan. 

Range of the Genus. 

Ethiopian Region. 

Range of the Species. 

575. Pan calvus. Southern Cameroon, and Gaboon, West Africa. 

576. Pan fuliginosus. French Congo, West Africa. 

577. Pan satyrus. Gaboon, West Africa. 

578. Pan kooloo-kamba. Cameroon, and Gaboon, West Africa. 

579. Pan leucoprymnus. "Coast of Guinea" ; West Africa. 

580. Pan chimpanse. Gambia, West Africa. 

581. Pan ? Basho. Northwestern Cameroon, West Africa. 

582. Pan schweinfurthi. Soudan; south to west shore of Lake 

Tanganyika ; Congo State ; Central Africa. 

583. Pan s. marungensis. Vicinity of the Albert Nyanza, and in 

the Congo forest. 

584. Pan ? Dunne. Southern Cameroon. 

585. Pan aubryi. Cameroon and Gaboon, West Africa. 

586. Pan ? Lomie. Interior of Cameroon, West Africa. 

587. Pan vellerosus. Cameroon, West Africa. 

588. Pan fuscus. Locality unknown. 

From the foregoing it will be observed that the Ethiopian Region 
contains the largest number of genera of the Primates, viz. : twenty- 
five, the Neotropical Region next with fourteen, then the Oriental 
Region with nine, the Palaearctic Region three, and the Australian 
Region with three. All the species of LEMUROIDEA excepting the 
species of Daubentonia, Tarsius, Loris and Nycticebus, are natives 
of the Ethiopian Region. Of the genera of the ANTHROPOIDEA 
two are common to two of the Zoogeographical Regions, viz. : Pithe- 
cus and Pygathrix which are represented by species in the eastern 
portion of the Palaearctic Region and generally, (more particularly as 
regards the first genus), in the Oriental Region, and one, Tarsius, has 
species in both the Oriental and Australian Regions. All other genera 
have their members confined to one Region only. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

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1842. Boitard (P). Le Jardin des Plantes; description et mceurs 
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1844. van der Hoeven (J). Bijdragen tot de kennis van de Le- 
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1851. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (I). Catalogue Methodique de la 
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1852- Kelaart (E. F). Prodromus Fauna Zeylanicce; being con- 
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1856. Dahlbom (A. G). Zoologiska Studier, afhandlande Djur- 
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1858. Ellis (W). Three Visits in Madagascar during the years 
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1862. Reichenbach (H. G. L). Die vollstandigste Naturgeschichte 
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1864. Mivart (St. G). Notes on the Crania and Dentition of the 
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1866. Schlegel (H). Contributions a la Faune de Madagascar et 
des iles avoisinantes d'apres les decouvertes et observations de 
M. M. Frangois Pollen et M. D.-C. Van Dam ; in Nederlandsch 
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1866. Haeckel (E). Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. 

1868. Schlegel (H), in Pollen (F. P. L). and Van Dam (M. D.-C). 
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1868- Milne-Edwards (H. et A). Recherches pour servir a I'His- 
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1869. Wallace (A. R). The Malay Archipelago: the Land of the 
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1870. Gray (J. E). Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
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Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften, Wien. 



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1874. Belt (T). The Naturalist in Nicaragua; a narrative of a resi- 
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1881. Anderson (J). Catalogue of Mammalia in the Indian Mu- 
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1883. Pelzeln (A. von). Brasilische Sdugethiere. Resultate von 
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1894. Forbes (H. O). A Hand-book of the Primates. 

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1896. Pousargues, (E. de). Sur quelques Singes Africains ap- 
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1904. Matschie (P). Einige Bemerkungen uber die S chimp onsen; 
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Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde, Berlin. 



CONTENTS. 



VOLUME I. 

ORDER PRIMATES. 

Suborder I. Lemuroidea. 

Page 

Family I. Daubentoniidae — Aye-Aye 1 

Family II. Tarsiidae — Tarsiers 7 

Family III. Nycticibidae 16 

Subfamily I. Lorisinae — Lori — Awantibo — Pottos 16 

Subfamily II. Galaginse — Bush-Babys 45 

Subfamily III. Lemurinae — Lemurs 87 

Subfamily IV. Indrisinae — Avahis — Safakas — Endrina 163 

Suborder II. Anthropoidea 179 

Family I. Callitrichidae — Tamarins — Marmosets — Titi Monkeys 179 

Family II. Cebidse 258 

Subfamily I. Alouattinac — Howlers 258 

Subfamily II. Pithecinae — Sakis — Uakari — Squirrel Monkeys 285 



LIST OF COLORED PLATES. 

VOLUME I. 

Opposite 
Page 
Frontispiece Seniocebus meticulosus Elliot. 

1. Galago monteiri 59 

2. Galago alleni 63 

3. Galago elegantulus pallidus 79 

4. Hemigalago demidoffi 82 

5. Chirogale major 92 

6. Lemur fulvus 147 

7. Lichanotus laniger 163 

8. Callithrix argentata .' . . 221 

9. Pithecia monachus 288 

10. Cacajao melanocephalus 305 

11. Cacajao rubicundus (head) 304 



cxv 



LIST OF PLATES OF CRANIA. 



VOLUME I. 



Opposite 
Page 

I. Daubentonia madagascariensis 1 

II. Tarsius fuscus 7 

III. Loris tardigradus 16 

IV. Loris lydekkerianus 19 

V. Nycticebus natunae 21 

VI. Arctocebus calabarensis 35 

VII. Perodicticus potto 38 

VIII. Galago crassicaudatus 45 

IX. Galago alleni 63 

X. Galago elegantulus 77 

XI. Hemigalago demidoffi 82 

XII. Chirogale sibreei 87 

XIII. Microcebus murinus 98 

XIV. Mixocebus caniceps 1 10 

XV. Altililemur thomasi Ill 

XVI. Lepidolemur mustelinus 115 

XVII. Myoxicebus simus 124 

XVIII. Lemur catta 130 

XIX. Lichanotus laniger 163 

XX. Propithecus diadema 166 

XXI. Indris indris 175 

XXII. Seniocebus meticulosus 179 

XXIII. Cercopithecus midas 190 

XXIV. Leontocebus mystax 194 

XXV. Leontocebus rosalia 209 

XXVI. CEdipomidas cedipus 213 

XXVII. Callithrix leucopus 216 

XXVIII. Callicebus personatus 234 

XXIX. Alouatta beelzebul 258 

XXX. Pithecia monacha 285 

XXXI. Cacajao calvus 299 

XXXII. Saimiri cerstedi 307 



LIST OF PLATES OF FIGURES FROM LIFE. 

VOLUME I. 

Page 
Opposite 

1. Daubentonia madagascariensis 2 

„ J Loris tardigradus | „ 

' I Nycticebus coucang j 

, f Galago garnetti | „ 

\ Galago senegalensis f 

Microcebus coquereli 1 

4. Lemur nigrifrons | 145 

Lemur rufus J 

5. Lemur catta I 158 

( Lemur vanegatus \ 

(Pithecia monachus 1 
Pithecia pithecia [ 288 
Cacajao rubicundus J 



cxix 



LIST OF GENERA AND SPECIES. 

VOLUME I. 

Page 

Daubentonia 1 

Daubentonia madagascariensis 1 

Tarsius 7 

Tarsius philippinensis 10 

Tarsius fraterculus 12 

Tarsius sanghirensis 12 

Tarsius saltator 13 

Tarsius borneanus 13 

Tarsius bancanus 14 

Tarsius fuscus 15 

Loris 16 

Loris tardigradus 18 

Loris lydekkerianus 19 

Nycticebus 21 

Nycticebus borneanus 24 

Nycticebus bancanus 24 

Nycticebus tenasserimensis 25 

Nycticebus coucang 26 

Nycticebus cinereus 27 

Nycticebus javanicus 28 

Nycticebus natunse 29 

Nycticebus malaianus 29 

Nycticebus hilleri 31 

Nycticebus menagensis 32 

Nycticebus pygmaeus 33 

Arctocebus 35 

Arctocebus calabarensis 35 

Arctocebus aureus 36 

Perodicticus 38 

Perodicticus potto 39 

Perodicticus ju-ju 41 

Perodicticus ibeanus 41 

Perodicticus faustus 42 

Perodicticus edwardsi 42 

Galago 45 

Galago crassicaudatus 54 

Galago zuluensis 56 

cxxi 



cxxii GENERA AND SPECIES 

Page 

Galago panganiensis 57 

Galago garnetti 57 

Galago badius 58 

Galago monteiri 59 

Galago kirki 60 

Galago lasiotis 61 

Galago hindsi 62 

Galago alleni 63 

Galago a. cameronensis 65 

Galago gabonensis 65 

Galago g. batesi 66 

Galago zanzibaricus • • 67 

Galago talboti 67 

Galago gallarum 68 

Galago braccatus 68 

Galago b. albipes 69 

Galago dunni 70 

Galago nyassse 70 

Galago granti 71 

Galago senegalensis 72 

Galago sennaariensis 74 

Galago mozambicus 76 

Galago pupulus 76 

Galago elegantulus 77 

Galago e. tonsor 78 

Galago e. pallidus 79 

Galago e. apicalis 80 

Hemigalago 82 

Hemigalago demidoffi 82 

Hemigalago d. poensis 84 

Hemigalago anomurus 84 

Hemigalago thomasi 85 

Chirogale 87 

Chirogale major 92 

Chirogale melanotis 95 

Chirogale sibreei 95 

Chirogale crossleyi 96 

Chirogale trichotis 96 

Microcebus 98 

Microcebus murinus 102 

Microcebus myoxinus 106 

Microcebus coquereli 107 

Microcebus furcifer 108 

Mixocebus 110 

Mixocebus caniceps 110 



GENERA AND SPECIES cxxiii 

Page 

Altililemur Ill 

Altililemur medius 112 

Altililemur thomasi 113 

Lepidolemur 115 

Lepidolemur globiceps 117 

Lepidolemur grandidieri 118 

Lepidolemur leucopus 118 

Lepidolemur mustelinus 1 19 

Lepidolemur microdon 121 

Lepidolemur ruficaudatus , 122 

Lepidolemur edwardsi 123 

Myoxicebus 124 

Myoxicebus griseus , 124 

Myoxicebus olivaceus 127 

Myoxicebus simus 128 

Lemur 130 

Lemur mongos 141 

Lemur coronatus 144 

Lemur nigrifrons 145 

Lemur fulvus 147 

Lemur rufifrons 150 

Lemur rubriventer 151 

Lemur rufus 153 

Lemur albifrons 154 

Lemur cinereiceps 156 

Lemur macaco 156 

Lemur nigerrimus 157 

Lemur catta 158 

Lemur variegatus 160 

Lemur v. ruber 162 

Lichanotus 163 

Lichanotus laniger 163 

Propithecus 166 

Propithecus diadema 168 

Propithecus d. edwardsi 170 

Propithecus d. sericeus 171 

Propithecus verreauxi 171 

Propithecus v. deckeni 172 

Propithecus v. coquereli 173 

Propithecus v. coronatus 174 

Indris 175 

Indris indris 175 



cxxiv GENERA AND SPECIES 

Page 

Seniocebus 179 

Seniocebus bicolor 186 

Seniocebus melitiosus 188 

Seniocebus martinsi 189 

Cercopithecus . 190 

Cercopithecus midas 190 

Cercopithecus rufimanus 191 

Cercopithecus ursulus 192 

Leontocebus 194 

Leontocebus labiatus 195 

Leontocebus pileatus 197 

Leontocebus thomasi 198 

Leontocebus nigrifrons 198 

Leontocebus nigricollis 199 

Leontocebus chrysopygus 200 

Leontocebus mystax 201 

Leontocebus weddeli 202 

Leontocebus devellii 203 

Leontocebus apicularis 204 

Leontocebus illigeri 205 

Leontocebus tripartitus 206 

Leontocebus lagonotus 206 

Leontocebus fuscicollis 207 

Leontocebus graellsi 208 

Leontocebus imperator 209 

Leontocebus rosalia 209 

Leontocebus leoninus 210 

Leontocebus chrysomelas 210 

GEdipomidas 213 

CEdipomidas cedipus 213 

CEdipomidas geoffroyi 214 

Callithrix 216 

Callithrix argentata 221 

Callithrix leucopus 222 

Callithrix chrysoleuca 223 

Callithrix gceldi 224 

Callithrix santaremensis 224 

Callithrix aurita 225 

Callithrix penicillata 226 

Callithrix p. jordani 227 

Callithrix jacchus 228 

Callithrix flaviceps 229 

Callithrix leucocephala 229 

Callithrix humeralifer 230 



GENERA AND SPECIES cxxv 

Page 

Callithrix albicollis 231 

Callithrix pygmaea 232 

Callicebus 234 

Callicebus torquatus 239 

Callicebus amictus 240 

Callicebus ustofuscus 241 

Callicebus cupreus 242 

Callicebus calligatus 243 

Callicebus melanochir 244 

Callicebus paenulatus 245 

Callicebus egeria 246 

Callicebus leucometopa 246 

Callicebus subrufus 247 

Callicebus hoffmannsi 248 

Callicebus ornatus 248 

Callicebus remulus 249 

Callicebus donacophilus 249 

Callicebus emilise 250 

Callicebus pallescens 251 

Callicebus moloch 251 

Callicebus cinerascens 252 

Callicebus nigrifrons 254 

Callicebus gigot , 254 

Callicebus personatus 255 

Callicebus brunneus 257 

Alouatta 258 

Alouatta caraya 265 

Alouatta ululata 267 

Alouatta villosus 268 

Alouatta beelzebul 270 

Alouatta palliata , . 271 

Alouatta p. mexicana 272 

Alouatta p. coibensis 273 

Alouatta p. aequatorialis 274 

Alouatta ursina 274 

Alouatta seniculus 277 

Alouatta macconnelli 281 

Alouatta insulanus , 282 

Alouatta juara . 283 

Alouatta sara 283 

Pithecia 285 

Pithecia monacha 288 

Pithecia capillimentosa 291 

Pithecia albicans 292 

Pithecia pithecia 293 



cxxvi GENERA AND SPECIES 

Page 

Pithecia chrysocephala 294 

Pithecia albinasa 295 

Pithecia satanas 296 

Pithecia chiropotes 297 

Cacajao 299 

Cacajao calvus 301 

Cacajao rubicundus 304 

Cacajao melanocephalus 305 

Saimiri 307 

Saimiri sciureus 310 

Saimiri cassiquiarensis 311 

Saimiri macrodon 312 

Saimiri madeirae 313 

Saimiri ustus 314 

Saimiri boliviensis 315 

Saimiri b. nigriceps 316 

Saimiri cerstedi 316 



ERRATA. 

The family name of the Anthropoid Apes has been consistently 
misspelled wherever it appears in this work, and the error was de- 
tected too late to correct it on the earlier pages. It was then decided, 
as it is found in comparatively few places, to continue it as a uniform 
error and call attention to it here. 

The premier genus of the Great Apes is Pongo, and the family 
name Pongidse, not Pongiidse. This is in accordance with the custom 
which has caused the acceptance of the subfamily name of the species 
of the genera Galago and Hemigalo — Galagin^. On the other hand, 
if it is deemed desirable to consider this barbarous name as a Latin 
word with a genitive case, then, of course, the family name would be 
Pongonidce. 

There is, however, no rule, known to the author, incorporated in 
any code, which regulates the formation of native or barbarous words 
that properly are not declinable, have really no genitive case, or in 
some cases are not even in Latin form, and have never been adopted 
in the Latin language. 



A REVIEW 
OF THE PRIMATES 



PLATE I. 




DAUBENTONIA MADAGASCARIENSIS. 

No. 302a Col. Physicians and Surgeons Coll., London. Twice Nat. Sizei 



CLASS MAMMALIA. 

ORDER PRIMATES. PRIMATES. 

SUBORDER 1. LEMUROIDEA. 

FAMILY 1. DAUBENTONIID/E. 

GENUS 1. DATJBENTONIA. THE AYE-AYE. 

t 1—1 r^ 0—0 r» 1—1 -\k 3—3 

1.1=1; C. 0=5; P. JZ3; M. 3=3 = 20. 

DAUBENTONIA E. Geoff., Decad. Philos. et Litt., 1795, p. 195. Type 

Sciurus madagascariensis Gmelin. 
Scolecophagus E. Geoff., Decad. Philos. et Litt., 1795, p. 196. 
Aye-Aye Lacepede, Tabl. Mamm., 1799, p. 6. 
Cheiromys G. Cuv., Legons Anat. Comp., I, 1800. 
Psilodactylus Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., 1816, 3ter, Theil, Zool., 2te 

Abth., pp. IX, 1164-5. 
Myspithecus Blainv., Osteog. Mamm., I, 1839, fasc. Ill, p. 33, 

(nee Cuvier). 
Myslemur Blainv., Diet. Univ. Hist. Nat., VIII, 1846, p. 559. 

Head round ; muzzle short ; eyes round, with bristly brows ; nictitat- 
ing membrane present ; ears large, rounded, inclined backwards, naked, 
with numerous protuberances ; tail long, bushy ; legs longer than arms ; 
fingers long, claws compressed, pointed ; third finger very slender, 
attenuate; thumb and great toe opposable, placed at an angle to the 
other digits ; teats two, abdominal. Skull : braincase arched ; muzzle 
short; halves of mandible independent, united at an acute angle by 
elastic tissue. Incisors large, curved, enamelled in front only ; canines 
wanting ; diastema present before first premolar which is much smaller 
than the molars ; molars with flat crowns, tubercles indistinct. 

Daubentonia madagascariensis (Gmelin). 

Aye-Aye Sonner., Voy. Ind., II, 1782, p. 138, t. 76 ; Ellis, Madag., 
1858, p. 153; Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1862, p. 222; Id. 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XII, 1863, Ser. 3, p. 72; XVI, 1865, 
Ser. 3, p. 142. 



2 DAUBENTONIA 

Sciurus madagascariensis Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 152, No. 29. 
Daubentonia madagascariensis E. Geoff., Decad. Philos. et Litt., 

IV, 1795, p. 195 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Natur. Anim., 

1856, p. 236, t. 12 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 151 ; 

Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 97; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 334; 

Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 522, 

fig. LXXX, Zool. Ser. 
Lemur psilodactylus Shaw, Gen. Zool., 1800, p. 109. 
Tarsius daubentoni Shaw, Gen. Zool., 1800, p. 114; Fisch., Anat. 

Maki, 1804, p. 37; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Meth. Naturg. Akad. 

Wissen. Wien, 1870, p. 1756. 
Cheiromys madagascariensis E. Geoff., Cat. Mamm., Mus. Hist. 

Nat. Paris, 1803, p. 181 ; Temm., Mon. Mamm., 1820, p. 106 ; 

I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 85 ; Ellis, Madag., 1858, p. 

144, fig.; Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., V, 1862, p. 133, 

pis. XIV-XXVI; Peters, Abhandl. k. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 

1865, p. 79 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 14. 
Lemur psilodactylus Blainv., Osteog., 1841, Atl., Lemur V. 
Otolicnus madagascariensis van d. Hoev., Tijdsch. Natuur. Gesch. 

Phys., 1814, p. 43. 
Chiromys madagascariensis Forsyth-Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1901, p. 131 ; Shaw, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 44. 

AYE-AYE. 

Type locality. Island of Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. Island of Madagascar on east coast from Bay of 
Antongil to Mahanoro. 

Color. General color black, the white basal half of the hairs show- 
ing; nose, spots over eyes, cheeks, chin, throat, neck in front and on 
sides yellowish white; tail very long, bushy, black; hands and feet, 
black. 

Measurements. Total length, about 875 ; tail, 475. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 83 ; Hensel, 65 ; zygomatic width, 61 ; intertemporal width, 
35 ; palatal length, 28 ; breadth of braincase, 45 ; median length of 
nasals, 15; length of upper molar series, 13; length of mandible, 38; 
length of lower molar series, 12. 

This extraordinary little animal, possessing characters both of the 
Rodentia and Quadrumana, and known popularly as the Aye-Aye,' 
was first discovered by Sonnerat during his visit to the Island of 
Madagascar. The name it bears was suggested to Sonnerat by the 
exclamation "Aye-Aye" of the natives who accompanied him, and 



VOLUME I. 




DAUBENTONIA MADAGASCARIENSIS. 



DAUBENTONIA 3 

who then saw the creature for the first time. Its discoverer had a 
male and female alive on his ship where they lived for two months, sub- 
sisting on cooked rice. A skin was brought to Paris and presented to 
Buffon and was deposited in the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes. 
Buffon considered it allied to the Squirrels, and also that it had some 
relation to the Tarsier (Tarsius — ?). Gmelin placed it in the genus 
Sciurus and was followed by Cuvier, who however recognized the fact 
that while the teeth were those of a rodent, the head was very similar 
to that of the Quadrumana. Illiger associated it with Tarsius and 
Galago ; and Owen in his masterly treatise on the 'Aye- Aye' (1. c.) 
sums up its position as "related by affinity to the Quadrumana, and by 
analogy to the Rodentia." It is now generally conceded to be the sole 
representative of a distinct family of the Lemuroidea. 

It is remarkable for various peculiarities such as the nictitating 
membrane of the eye, the naked ears studded with small protuberances, 
the attenuated and wirelike middle finger, and the opposable thumb and 
great toe. The fingers and toes are furnished with compressed pointed 
claws, excepting the great toe, which has a flat nail and is placed at a 
right angle to the other toes. The tail is long and bushy and is em- 
ployed as a covering when the animal is sleeping. Teats two, abdomi- 
nal. The os planum of the ethmoid not perceptible. 

Hon. H. Sandwith, when Colonial Secretary in the Mauritius, 
obtained an example of the 'Aye-Aye' from Madagascar and exhibited 
it in spirits to Prof. Owen, and this was the first specimen received in 
England. In a letter to Prof. Owen, Dr. Sandwith says of this animal, 
which he kept for some time in captivity, "I observe he is sensitive to 
cold, and likes to cover himself up in a piece of flannel, although the 
thermometer is now often 90° in the shade. On receiving him from 
Madagascar, I was told he ate bananas, so of course I fed him on them, 
but tried him on other fruit. I found he liked dates, which was a grand 
discovery, supposing he be sent alive to England. Still I thought that 
those strong rodent teeth, as large as those of a young beaver, must 
have been intended for some other purpose than that of trying to eat 
his way out of a cage, the only use he seemed to make of them, beside 
masticating soft fruits. Moreover he had other peculiarities, e. g., 
singularly large naked ears, directed forwards, as if for offensive rather 
than defensive purposes ; then again, the second finger of the hand is 
unlike anything but a monster supernumerary member, it being slender 
and long, half the thickness of the other fingers, and resembling a piece 
of bent wire. Excepting the head and this finger he closely resembled 
a lemur. Now, as he attacked every night the woodwork of his cage, 



4 DAUBENTONIA 

which I was gradually lining with tin I bethought myself of tying some 
sticks over the woodwork, so that he might gnaw these instead. I had 
previously put in some large branches for him to climb upon ; but the 
others were straight sticks to cover over the woodwork of his cage, 
which he alone attacked. It so happened that the thick sticks I now 
put into his cage were bored in all directions by a large and destructive 
grub, called here the Montouk. Just at sunset the Aye-Aye crept from 
under his blanket, yawned, stretched, and betook himself to his tree, 
where his movements are lively and graceful, though by no means so 
quick as those of a Squirrel. Presently he came to one of the worm- 
eaten branches, which he began to examine most attentively ; and bend- 
ing forward his ears, and applying his nose close to the bark, he 
rapidly tapped the surface with the curious second digit, as a Wood- 
pecker taps a tree, though with much less noise, from time to time 
inserting the end of the slender finger into the worm-holes as a sur- 
geon would a probe. At length he came to a part of the branch which 
evidently gave out an interesting sound, for he began to tear it with his 
strong teeth. He rapidly stripped off the bark, cut into the wood, and 
exposed the nest of a grub, which he daintily picked out of its bed with 
the slender tapping finger, and conveyed the luscious morsel to his 
mouth. I watched these proceedings with much interest, and was 
much struck with the marvellous adaptation of the creature to its habits, 
shown by his acute hearing, which enables him aptly to distinguish the 
different tones emitted from the wood by his gentle tapping; his 
evidently acute sense of smell, aiding him in his search; his secure 
footsteps on the slender branches, to which he firmly clung by his 
quadrumanous members ; his strong rodent teeth enabling him to tear 
through the wood ;. and lastly by the curious slender finger, unlike that 
of any other animal, and which he used alternately as a pleximeter, a 
probe, and a scoop. 

"But I was yet to learn another peculiarity. I gave him water to 
drink in a saucer, on which he stretched out a hand, dipped a finger into 
it, and drew it obliquely through his open mouth ; and this he repeated 
so rapidly, that the water seemed to flow into his mouth. After a while 
he lapped like a cat, but his first method of drinking appeared to me 
to be his way of reaching water in the deep clefts of trees. 

"I am told that the Aye-Aye is an object of veneration in Madagas- 
car, and that if any native touches one, he is sure to die within the 
year ; hence the difficulty of obtaining a specimen." 

The Aye-Aye lives in the trees and is strictly nocturnal, becoming 
active on the disappearance of the sun. One young is said to be pro- 



DAUBENTONIA 5 

duced at a birth, and the female builds a large nest, two feet in diame- 
ter, of rolled up leaves of the Traveller tree, lining it with twigs and 
dry leaves and with an entrance on one side. The natives are very 
superstitious in regard to this animal, and are very unwilling to attempt 
to capture it. 

A female Aye-Aye lived for several years in the Garden of the 
Zoological Society in Regent's Park, London, and Mr. Bartlett, the late 
Superintendent, has placed on record (1. c.) some interesting facts 
regarding its habits. On the voyage it gave birth to one young, which 
lived only ten days, and the mother was in very poor condition when 
she arrived, being thin and feeble. It slept during the day, lying on its 
side with the body curved and the tail spread out and flattened, and 
used as a covering, almost concealing the animal. At night it was 
active, moving about its cage in the dark and trying to gnaw its way 
out. It exhibited no uneasiness when a light was introduced, but tried 
to touch the lamp with its long fingers. It was in the habit of hang- 
ing by the hind legs, and when so suspended, employed the slender 
wire-like finger to clean and comb the tail. The same finger was 
utilized to clean the face, and pick at the corners of the eyes, the nose, 
mouth, ears, and various parts of the body. While so occupied the 
other fingers are kept partially closed. 

Only the left hand was used in feeding and was moved very 
rapidly. The manner of taking food was peculiar. The fourth finger 
was thrust into the food, the slender finger being at the same time 
raised above and behind the others, and the first finger and thumb were 
lowered. The hand is then drawn rapidly back and forth, the inner side 
of the fourth finger passing between the lips, the head all the time held 
sideways, and at each movement the food was deposited in the mouth. 
Sometimes the animal would lap up the food from the dish, but not 
often. It never watched for its food or guarded it, for on Mr. Bart- 
lett's removing the dish while the creature was feeding, it continued to 
thrust its hand forward, and only discontinued when no more food 
was procured, and then moved away to search elsewhere. After taking 
food in a fluid state, it frequently ate portions of wood and bark. It 
was fed upon a mixture of milk, honey, eggs and any thick, sweet, 
gelatinous food, but would not touch meal worms, grasshoppers, the 
larva? of wasps and similar objects. It never uttered any sound or 
exhibited any anger, neither was it shy. Mr. Bartlett obtained some 
fresh sugar cane and placed some sticks in the cage, and the Aye-Aye 



6 DAUBENTONIA 

exhibited much fondness for it, cutting deeply into the cane with its 
powerful incisor teeth, then the fibre 'was drawn out and the juice 
extracted by chewing. 

Mr. Shaw (1. c.) gives an interesting account of an Aye- Aye he 
had in captivity, relating its peculiar habits, most of which have already 
been given in the quoted statements of previous writers, but certain 
facts are worth recording. He says when his captive in its efforts 
to escape bit at the wire of its cage he noticed that the incisors of either 
jaw would separate and admit the wire between them even down to the 
gum, causing their tips to be a considerable distance apart. It was 
very savage and struck with its hands, but in the daytime its move- 
ments were slow and uncertain. 

Regarding the superstitions the natives entertain of the animal, he 
states that many years ago, the Betsimisaraka, in whose country the 
Aye-Aye is chiefly found, had occasion to open an old tomb in which an 
ancestor had been buried. No sooner was an entrance effected than 
an animal, which was a development of said ancestor, sprang out, and 
their exclamation of surprise, "Haye-haye," became the creature's 
name. Hence many of these people believe that the Aye-Aye is an 
embodiment of their forefathers and will not touch it, but when they 
happen to find a dead one in the forest, they make a tomb for it and 
bury it with all formality. They imagine that if they try to catch one 
they will surely die, and this belief extends even to the animal's nest. 
If one is given, or picks up accidentally a portion of these structures 
on which the head of an Aye-Aye has rested, it will bring good for- 
tune; while if it happens to be the part on which the feet had been 
placed, bad luck or death would surely follow. 



VOLUME I. 




Tarsius FUSCUS 
No. 07.1.2.2. Brit. Mus, Coll. Twice Nat. Size. 



TARSIUS 



FAMILY 2. TARSIID/E. 

The little animals which comprise this family are about as large as 
an ordinary rat, and possess several remarkable characteristics. In 
their habits they are nocturnal, concealing themselves among the 
branches of trees or bushes during the day, moving only when dis- 
turbed and becoming very active, and exhibiting often a surprising 
agility after the setting of the sun. They have small rounded heads 
with enormous eyes, the pupils of which during the day are contracted 
to a mere slit, but at night are enlarged to such a degree that they 
cover nearly the entire iris. The fur is soft and woolly. The legs, 
which exceed the arms in length, have long slender toes and, like the 
fingers, are provided with sucker-like discs, which enable them to cling 
firmly to the branches, or any object upon which the animal may alight 
during its swift progress, which is performed by powerful leaps that 
cover at times amazing distances for such small creatures. The tail is 
long and tufted, and when the animal is in flight, is carried above the 
line of the body, the end curving upward. The nails on the toes are 
flat, except those on the second and third digits which are compressed. 
The lower jaw has two small nearly erect incisors, but those in the 
upper jaw are four in number and unequal, the anterior ones being the 
largest, and there is no central gap present. 



GENTTS1. TARSIUS. THE TARSIER. 

12 — 2 s^n 1 — 1 n 3— -3 ■% jr 3-— 3 

• i=i; <~. i^i; Jr. 3=3; m. 3=^ — 34- 

TARSIUS Storr, Prodr. Meth. Mamm, 1780, p. 33, Tab. A. Type 
Lemur iwsier Erxleben. 
Macrotarsus Link, Beytr. Naturg., I, Pt. II, 1795, pp. 51, 65, 66. 
Rabienus Gray, Lond. Med. Repos., XV, No. 88, 1821, p. 299. 
Cephalopachus Swains., Nat. Hist. Class. Quad., 1835, p. 352. 
Hypsicebus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, pp. 207, 253-254. 

Head rounded ; muzzle sharp and pointed ; ears long and naked ; 
eyes large, protruding ; legs longer than arms ; toes slender, long, ter- 
minating in sucker-like discs ; tail long, tufted. Skull : orbits very large, 



8 TARSIUS 

and closed in by the malar and alisphenoid ; outer upper incisors larger 
than inner ; canines small ; premolars pointed, the first the smallest ; the 
last molar has two cusps, one external, one internal ; only two incisors 
on lower jaw; the first and second lower molars have four cusps, the 
last one five. 



LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1777. Erxleben, Systema Regni Animalis. 

In this work the name Lemur tarsier was given to 'Le Tarsier' 

of Buffbn, which is an undeterminable species. 
1780. Storr, Prodromus Methodi Mammalium. 

The genus Tarsius here first instituted for the Lemur tar- 
sier Erxleben, which is undeterminable. 
1804. Fischer, Anatomie der Maki und der ihnen verwandten Thiere. 

Tarsius fuscus first described. 
1824. HorsHeld, Zoological Researches in Java. 

Tarsius bancanus first described. 
1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 

manes. 

The Tarsiers are here included in two genera Tarsius with 

T. spectrum undeterminable, and T. spectrum Var., and T. 

fuscus; and Hypsicebus with one species (H.) bancanus. 
1846. Burmeister, Beitrdge zur n'dheren Kenntniss der Gattung Tar- 
sius. 

Tarsius fuscus redescribed as T. Hscheri. 
1896. Meyer, in Abhandlungen und Berichte des Konigl. Zoologischen 

und Anthropologisch-Ethnographischen Museum zu Dresden. 

T. philippinensis first described from Island of Samar. 
1899. Meyer, in Abhandlungen und Berichte des Konigl. Zoologischen 

und Anthropologisch-Ethnographischcn Museum zu Dresden. 

T. sanghirensis from Sanghir Island first named. Species 

not yet established. 
1910. Miller, in Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 

T. fraterculus from Island of Bohol first described. 
1910. D. G. Elliot, in Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural 

History, Nezv York. 

T. saltator from Billiton Island, and T. borneanus from 

Borneo first described ; and Le Tarsier Buffbn shown to be 

undeterminable. 






TARSIUS 9 

1910. Cabrera, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

In this paper reference is made to Lemur tarsier Erxl., which, 
it is stated, must be taken instead of Tarsius spectrum Pallas 
as the name of the species, the Author evidently not being 
aware of the fact that Erxleben's species, and also that of 
Pallas both founded on Buffon's animal, are quite undetermi- 
nable and therefore both names must be dropped. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

The members of this genus are found on the islands of the East 
Indian Archipelago. Seven species have been described, of which two 
are not yet satisfactorily established. In Borneo we have T. bornea- 
nus, its range unknown ; in Billiton Island T. saltator is found, and 
it may probably occur in Banka and Sumatra. In Java T. bancanus 
was met with; Celebes has T. fuscus, and in the Philippine Archi- 
pelago T. philippinensis occurs on Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao, and 
T. sanghirensis on Sanghir. It must be considered, however, that 
the dispersion of the Tarsier is as yet but very imperfectly known, and 
many other islands probably possess those above named, or contain 
species not yet discovered. There is no large series of these animals in 
any collection, and specimens are very much needed for study and a bet- 
ter understanding of the group. T. fraterculus was taken on Bohol. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Tarsi and tail very long ; eyes very large. 

a. Tarsi and tail mostly bare. 

a.' No white or whitish on face. 

a." Large T. philippinensis. 

b." Small T. fraterculus. 

b! Forehead, nose and cheeks whitish or 

creamy white T. sanghirensis. 

b. Tarsi haired to ankles, feet to toes. 

a.' Tail mostly bare. 

a." Under parts cream buff, molar 

teeth small T. saltator. 

b." Under parts slate gray, molar 

teeth large T. borneanus. 

c." Under parts gray, inclining to 

whitish T. bancanus. 

b! Tail two-thirds haired, tip tufted T. fuscus. 



10 TARSIUS 

Tarsius philippinensis Meyer. 

Tarsius philippinensis Meyer, Abhandl. Berich. Konigl. Zool. 
Anthrop.-Ethnogr. Mus. Dresd., 1894, No. 1, p. 1 ; 1896, No. 
1, p. 9 ; Thos., Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., XIV, 1896, p. 381 ; 
Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 138, fig. 35. 

PHILIPPINE TARSIER. 

Type locality. Island of Samar, Philippines. Type in Dresden 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Samar; Leyte, (Whitehead) ; Mindanao, (Steere) ; 
Philippine Archipelago. 

Genl. Char. Tarsi bare, tail bare except toward tip where it is 
sparsely haired. 

Color. Face and top of head reddish brown ; upper parts reddish 
brown, paler than face ; outer side of limbs reddish brown, lightest on 
legs; throat and chest reddish; under parts yellowish gray; tail dark 
brown. Ex type Dresden Museum. 

Measurements. Size about same as T. fuscus, type mounted. 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 32 ; Hensel, 14 ; zygomatic width, 28 ; inter- 
temporal width, 22 ; palatal length, 14 ; breadth of orbits, 18 ; width of 
braincase, 23 ; median length of nasals, 7 ; length of upper molar series, 
13 ; length of mandible, 26 ; length of lower molar series, 13. Ex type 
Dresden Museum. 

All specimens are not so red as the type, and some are dark grayish 
on the back of the head, with the shoulders and upper back washed 
with reddish ; hands dark brown ; feet pale rufous. An example from 
Mindanao before me is quite pale, a wood brown with a reddish tinge, 
the upper back only inclined to rusty. The Philippine Tarsier is more 
or less a reddish animal, and in the prevalence of this color it differs 
from the Tarsier of the other island groups in the eastern seas. 

The following account of the habits of this little animal by Mr. 
John Whitehead, who obtained specimens in Samar, was published by 
Mr. O. Thomas in his paper above referred to. 

Mr. Whitehead states : "This remarkable mammal is found in the 
islands of Samar and Leyte where it is called by the Biscayas 'Magou.' 
So far as I am aware it has not been obtained in Luzon or Mindoro to 
northwest of Samar. It probably occurs in the great Island of Min- 
danao, and perhaps in Bohol, to the south of Leyte. 

"In habits the 'Magou' is nocturnal, as the enormous owl-like eyes 
would lead one to suppose ; it frequents abandoned clearings where the 
new growth has sprung up to a height of some twenty feet, and in 
Samar where the ground is also thickly covered with ferns and other 



TARSIUS 11 

plants to a height of some three feet. In such places this little animal 
easily conceals itself during the day. I had the good fortune to see a 
'Magou' in such a locality one day in Samar. The Tarsius was clinging 
to the stem of a small tree just above the fern growth, with its 
peculiar hands around the tree; it was awake and intently watching 
my movements, and permitted me to approach as close as I wished ; 
when, doubtless at the least sudden movement of my hands it would 
have jumped to the ground, and made off in the thick woody growth. 
During the night the 'Magou' is very active, and may often be heard, 
in localities where they are numerous, uttering a peculiar squeak like a 
monkey. From its habits of feeding only on insects this animal has 
a strong Bat-like smell. 

"In Samar where at different times I kept several 'Magous' alive, I 
found them very docile and easily managed during the day. They fed 
off grasshoppers sitting on their haunches on my hand. When offered 
an insect, the 'Magou' would stare for a short time with its most won- 
derful eyes, then slowly bend forward, and with a sudden dash would 
seize the insect with both hands and instantly carry it to its mouth, 
shutting its eyes and screwing up its tiny face in a most whimsical 
fashion. The grasshopper was then quietly passed through the sharp 
little teeth, the kicking legs being held by both hands. When the 
insect was beyond farther mischief, the large eyes of the 'Magou' would 
open, and the legs and wings were then bitten off, while the rest of the 
body was thoroughly masticated. My captives would also drink fresh 
milk from a spoon. After the sun had set this little animal became 
most difficult to manage, escaping when possible, and making tremen- 
dous jumps from chair to chair. When on the floor it bounded about 
like a miniature Kangaroo, travelling about the room on its hind legs 
with the tail stretched out and curved upward, uttering peculiar shrill 
monkey-like squeaks, and biting quite viciously when the opportunity 
offered. During the day the pupil of the eye becomes so contracted 
that it appears only as a fine line, but after dark it is so expanded as to 
fill up most of the iris. 

"The popular native idea is that the 'Magou' feeds on charcoal, the 
reason for this being that the animal is generally found after the old 
plantations have been cut down and burnt, this 'Magou' doubtless 
having returned to its old haunts from which it had been driven by the 
wood cutters. This delusion is fatal to all captured 'Magous,' as they 
are immediately put on a diet of charcoal, and, therefore, soon starve to 
death." 



12 TARS1US 

Tarsius fraterculus Miller. 

Tarsius fraterculus Miller, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 
1910, p. 404. 

Type locality. Sevilla, Bohol, Philippine Islands. 

Genl. Char. Similar to T. philippinensis but smaller. 

Color. Upper parts, sides of body and outer side of limbs ochra- 
ceous buff ; chest and abdomen buff, base of hairs slate gray showing 
through; inner side of limbs buff; forehead and face reddish; tail 
mostly naked reddish, hands reddish. Ex type, Bur. Philipp. Govt. 

Measurements. Total length, 330 ; tail, 210 ; foot, 60. Skull : total 
length, 37.9; occipito-nasal length, 35.9; Hensel, 13.8; intertemporal 
width, 20; zygomatic width, 26.4; palatal length, 12.9; median length 
of nasals, .71 ; length of upper molar series, 12.3 ; length of mandible, 
24.1 ; length of lower molar series, 12.5. Ex type, Bur. Laboratories, 
Manilla, Philipp. Govern. 

This is a small representative of the Philippine Tarsier. 

Tarsius sanghirensis Meyer. 

Tarsius sanghirensis Meyer, Abhand. Berich. Konigl. Zool. u. An- 
throp.-Ethnog. Mus. Dresd., 1897, No. 1, p. 9 ; Thos., Trans. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., XIV, 1896, p. 381. 

SANGHIR TARSIER. 

Type locality. Island of Sanghir, Philippine Archipelago. 

Genl. Char. Very near T. philippinensis, but apparently differs 
in having the forehead, nose and cheeks buffy white. 

Color. Like T. philippinensis, but forehead, nose and cheeks 
buffy white. 

Dr. Meyer does not describe this species, but has contented himself 
with comparing it with T. fuscus and showing where it differs from 
that species. This was easy for it has nothing to do with T. fuscus, 
but is very doubtfully separable from T. philippinensis. Dr. 
Meyer does not show where his animal differs from that species, though 
he says it is allied to it ; in fact, if the figure in the plate is colored cor- 
rectly, it does differ from all known Tarsiers, in its buffy white fore- 
head, nose and cheeks. 

This, however, is an unsatisfactory conclusion to reach, because it 
would seem incredible, if the Sanghir examples possessed this remark- 
able peculiarity, that Dr. Meyer did not mention it. 

I could not find the type of T. sanghirensis in the Dresden 
Museum and doubt if it is there, and so could not compare it with T. 



TARSIUS 13 

philippinensis ; but knowing how rarely a small colored figure 
gives a correct representation of the original, I should expect to find 
the present form inseparable from T. philippinensis. Being at 
present unable to prove it to be the same, I leave T. sanghirensis to 
occupy a specific rank. 

Tarsius saltator Elliot. 

Tarsius saltator Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1910, 
p. 152. 

BILLITON ISLAND TARSIER. 

Type locality. Billiton Island, East Indian Archipelago. Type in 
United States National Museum, Washington. 

Genl. Char. Tail sparsely haired on apical third ; tarsi hairy to the 
ankles, and on feet to toes ; ascending ramus of mandible short, and 
comparatively narrow, molar teeth smaller than Bornean or Philippine 
examples. 

Color. Forehead, sides of face, neck and upper lip, and narrow 
collar from beneath ears, passing above shoulders and across back 
between shoulders, rusty ; top of head and back of neck to upper back 
wood brown, hairs tipped with black, and this gives a darker hue to the 
wood brown when seen from above ; middle of back buff ; rump ochra- 
ceous; thighs tawny ochraceous; outer side of arms and outer side of 
legs below knees ochraceous buff; inner side of arms whitish buff; 
under parts of body and inner side of legs cream buff, base of fur slate 
color, and this shows through, becoming the almost dominant color on 
under parts of body ; throat and upper part of breast rust color ; hands 
and feet buff, fingers and toes reddish brown ; tail at root covered with 
cream buff fur ; hairs on apical third dark brown ; naked portion Prout's 
brown grading into black in skin, "dull reddish brown in life" (Col- 
lector) ; ears furred at base, rest bare, dark burnt umber. Ex type 
United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 361 ; tail, 228; foot, 68, (Collector). 
Skull: total length, 37; occipito-nasal length, 35; Hensel, 23.3; inter- 
temporal width, 23 ; zygomatic width, 26.5 ; palatal length, 13.9 ; width 
of palate between last molars, .90; medium length of nasals, .48; 
length of upper molar series, 15.1 ; length of mandible, 24.1 ; length of 
lower molar series, 12.5. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Tarsius borneanus Elliot. 

Tarsius borneanus Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1910, 
p. 151 ; Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XL, 1911, p. 136. 



14 TARSI US 

Type locality. Sandak River, Borneo. Type in United States Na- 
tional Museum. 

Genl. Char. Tarsi haired to ankles, feet to toes ; apical third of tail 
sparsely haired, rest bare, except at root; molar series larger than 
T. saltator and palate longer. 

Color. Forehead, top of head and sides of face rusty; middle of 
back and outer sides of arms and lower back grayish brown; rump 
smoke gray, outer side of legs slaty gray, with a rusty patch below knee ; 
inner side of arms whitish gray ; of legs mouse gray ; face ochraceous 
buff, throat and chest brownish, the slate gray of base of fur dominat- 
ing the brown ; rest of under parts slate gray, hairs tipped with whitish ; 
tail whitish gray at root; bare portion reddish brown; paler beneath; 
haired portion grayish brown, darker at tip ; feet reddish brown, hands, 
fingers and toes darker brown ; ears blackish brown, naked. Immature. 
Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 310; tail, 190; foot, 69, (Collector). 
Skull: total length, 36.1; occipito-nasal length, 33.6; Hensel, 22.1; 
intertemporal width, 23.1; zygomatic width, 23.8; palatal length, 14.6; 
width of palate between last molars, .84 ; median length of nasals, 64 ; 
length of upper molar series, 12.3 ; length of mandible, 23.4 ; length of 
lower molar series, 12.5. Ex type United States National Museum. 
Skull of adult : total length, 39.3 ; occipito-nasal length, 36.4 ; Hensel, 
26.1; intertemporal width, 28; zygomatic width, 28.4; palatal length, 
14.3 ; width of palate between last molars, .93 ; median length of nasals, 
.58 ; length of upper molar series, 12.9 ; length of mandible, 27.5 ; length 
of lower molar series, 13.9. Skull only, no skin. 

Tarsius bancanus Horsfield. 

Tarsius bancanus Horsf., Zool. Research., 1821, No. 2, pi. ; Fitzing., 
Sitzungsb. Mitth. Naturw. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 758. 
Hypsicebus bancanus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 253. 

JAVAN TARSIER. 

Type locality. Banca, near Jeboos, Java. 

Genl. Char. Tail nearly naked; tarsi haired to ankle; only two 
upper incisors, and five teeth in molar series on each side both jaws. 

Color. "General color brown inclining to gray ; on the breast, ab- 
domen and interior of extremities it is gray, inclining to whitish ; a 
rufous tint is sparingly dispersed over the upper parts which shows 
itself most on the head and extremities ; the naked parts of the tail near 
the root are considerably darker than the extremity." Horsfield. 



TARSIUS 15 

This is evidently a young animal with the teeth not yet fully de- 
veloped. From Horsfield's description given above it is impossible to 
say to which species it is nearest, and, therefore, for the present it 
is left as a separate form. The only specimen from Java I know is in 
the Leyden Museum in alcohol, and of course cannot be trusted for 
color. It has, however, four upper incisors. 

Tarsius fuscus Fischer. 

Tarsius fuscus Fischer, Anat. Maki, 1804, p. 3 ; Meyer, Abhandl. 

Mus. Dresd., 1896, No. 1, p. 8; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 

1894, p. 21. 
Tarsius fuscomanus Fisch., Anat. Maki, 1804, p. 37, t. IV- VI; 

Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 168, No. 2 ; 

Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 131; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Mitth. 

Naturw. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, 1870, p. 754. 
Tarsius Hscheri Burm., Beitr. z. nah. Kennt. Gatt. Tarsius, 1846, 

pp. 29, 129 ; Fisch., Anat. Maki, 1804, p. 37. 
Tarsius spectrum var. A. Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 252. 

FISCHER'S TARSIER. 

Type locality. Celebes. 

Geogr. Distr. Celebes. Saloyer. ? 

Genl. Char. Tarsi haired to the feet, which are also haired to the 
toes; tail haired throughout more than half its length; white spot 
behind ear. 

Color. Head dark broccoli brown ; upper back reddish brown ; rest 
of back and rump wood brown ; behind ears a whitish patch ; outer side 
of arms rusty ; outer side of legs wood brown ; inner side of limbs 
and under parts buff, slate color of base of hairs showing ; hands and 
feet wood brown ; fingers and toes reddish brown ; tail wood brown at 
root, then bare, Prout's brown, haired portion and tuft at tip purplish 
black ; ears dark brown. 

Measurements. Total length to end of hairs of tuft, 415 ; tail, 250 ; 
foot, 57, (skin). 

This species is easily recognized from all others by its more hairy 
tail, and the white spot behind ears. 



16 LORIS 



FAMILY 3. NYCTICIBID^E. 

Subfamily 1. Lorisinae. 
GENUS 1. LORIS. THE SLENDER LORIS. 

LORIS E. Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., 2me Annee, I, 1796, p. 48. Type 
Loris gracilis E. Geoffroy, = Lemur tardigradus Linn. 
Tardigradus Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 67, (nee Brisson, 1762, 

Bradipodidae) . 
Lori Laceped., Tabl. Mamm., 1799, p. 5. 
Stenops Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Avium, 1811, p. 73. 
Loridium Rafin., Analyse de la Nature, 1840, p. 207. 

Fur soft, thick, woolly ; muzzle narrow, pointed ; eyes very large ; 
ears small, tip naked; limbs long, slender; tail absent. Skull: orbits 
approximate; braincase broadest anteriorly; palate extending beyond 
last molar ; incisors small ; last lower molar with five cusps. 

The earliest genus proposed for this animal was Tardigradus 
Boddaert, (1. c.) as shown by Messrs. Stone and Rehn, (1. c.) in their 
review of the Genus. Unfortunately, however, the name had been 
previously employed by Brisson in the BRADIPODIDAE, and therefore 
was not available, and Loris proposed by Geoffroy, (1. c.) the next 
in succession, became the term to be selected. 

The members of the family NYCTICIBID^E are small animals, 
nocturnal in habits, slow in movement and covered with a soft, thick, 
woolly fur. They are contained in four genera: Loris with two 
species; Nycticebus with eleven species and subspecies; Arcto- 
cebus with two and Perodicticus with four species. The eyes are 
large and the ears erect; the limbs subequal; the tarsi short, and 
the tail is either short, rudimentary or wanting altogether. The 
third upper premolar is smaller than the first and possesses one large 
external cusp, and the last upper molar varies in the number of its 
cusps in the different genera, being quadricusped in Loris, tricusped 
in Nycticebus and Arctocebus, and bicusped in Perodicticus. 



VOLUME I. 




LORIS TARDIGRADUS. 
No. 48.10.31.3. Brit. Mus. Coll. y 2 larger than Nat. Size. 



LORIS 17 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1758. Linnceus Sy sterna Nature?. 

The slender Loris from Ceylon was here first described as 
Lemur tardigradus; and this nomenclature was followed by 
Erxleben, Gmelin, and Schreber. 

1784. Boddcert, Elenchus Animalium. 

The genus Tardigradus was here instituted for the Lemur 
tardigradus Linn., but being preoccupied by Brisson in 
Bradipodidce could not be again employed. 

1796. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Magasin Encyclopedique. 

The Linnaean species Lemur tardigradus was here renamed 
Lemur gracilis, and Loris established as the generic name. 

1804. Fischer-de-Waldheim (G). Anatomie der Maki und der ihnen 
verwandten Thiere. 

Lemur tardigradus Linn., was here redescribed as Lemur 
ceylonicus. 

1904. Lydekker, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
In this paper the author separates the Slender Loris from Cey- 
lon as a species distinct from the Indian and names it Lemur 
gracilis ceylonicus, unmindful of the fact that Linnaeus' species 
came from Ceylon, and that the name ceylonicus had been 
already bestowed on the animal. 

1908. Cabrera, in Boletin Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural, 
Madrid. 

Dr. Cabrera here points out the error committed by Mr. Lydek- 
ker and renames the Indian Loris lydekkerianus. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

The two species which represent the genus at the present time 
have a rather restricted dispersion in the localities they frequent. 
L. tardigradus is apparently confined to the Island of Ceylon, where 
it is called according to Tennent, the Ceylon Sloth. The other species 
L. lydekkerianus is found in the southern part of the Indian Penin- 
sula at a low elevation on the Malabar coast, and in the forests of the 
eastern Ghats, where according to Jerdon it is common. It is very 
difficult, however, to determine accurately the dispersion of small 
mammals such as these, whose habits are strictly nocturnal, for it is 



18 LORIS 

not impossible for them to reside in a locality covered by dense forests 
and be quite unknown to the people inhabiting the district. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. White streaks between eyes. 

a Upper parts plain brown L. tardigradus. 

b Upper parts brownish gray L. lydekkerianus 

Lobis taedigeadus (Linnaeus). 

Lemur tardigradus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 29 ; I, 1766, p. 44. 

Lemur gracilis E. Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., 1796, p. 48; Id. Ann. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 163, (Ceylon) ; Gray, 
List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 16 ; I. Geoff., Cat. Pri- 
mates, 1851, p. 79, (Ceylon) ; Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl., 
1852, p. 9; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt. 1881, 
p. 97; Blanf., Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., 1888, p. 47, (Part.) ; 
Beddard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1895, p. 145, fig. 3, (Brain) ; 
Forsyth-Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 140, figs. 
40,42. 

Lemur ceylonicus Fisch., Anat. Maki, 1804, p. 28, t. XII. 

Stenops gracilis Kuhl, Beitr., 1820, pp. 37, 47, t. VI, fig. 2 ; Van der 
Hoeven, Tijdsch. Natur. Ges., XI, 1844, p. 39, pi. I, No. 4; 
Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 109; Kelaart, Faun. Zelan., 
1852, p. 9; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.. 1863, p. 159. 

Nycticebus lori Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 70. 

Nycticebus gracilis (Ceylon), Blainv., Osteog, 1841, Atl., Lemur, 
pi. H; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 284, (Ceylon). 

Arachnocebus lori Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 243. 

Stenops tardigradus Schinz, Syn. Mamm., 1844, p. 168; Fitzing., 
Sitzungsb. Metth. Naturw. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 698 ; 
Lydekk., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, 1904, II, p. 346, pi. XXIII, 
fig. 4. 

Loris gracilis Dahlb, Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat, fasc. I, 
1856, p. 211, t. IX. figs. 33, 34. 

CEYLON SLENDER LORIS. 

Type locality. Ceylon. 
Geogr. Distr. Island of Ceylon. 

Color. Above wood brown tinged with tawny and slightly 
clouded with blackish, with much silvery gloss in certain lights ; throat, 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE 2. 




LORIS TARDIGRADUS. 




NYCTICEBUS COUCANG. 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE IV. 




LORIS LYDEKKERIANUS. 
No. 04.7.1.1. Brit Mus. Coll. y 2 larger than Nat. Size. 






LORIS 19 

cheeks, chin, and median face stripe whitish ; dark face markings like 
back; crown tawny; under parts cream buff, outer side of limbs like 
back ; inner side like belly ; base of fur gray. Ex Lydekker's type of 
Loris gracilis zeylonicus in British Museum. 

Measurements. About the same as the Indian species. 

Lemur tardigradus Linnaeus was described from a Ceylon speci- 
men as was clearly proved by Stone and Rehn, (Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Scien. Phila., 1902, p. 137), in their revision of the genus Nyctice- 
bus. Mr. Lydekker, in the Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. 346, 
decided that the animals from India and Ceylon were separable, one 
being a race of the other, but unfortunately he selected the one from 
Ceylon as new, and conferred upon it the name of Loris gracilis zey- 
lonicus which was preoccupied by L. ceylonicus given by Fischer, 
(Anat. Maki, p. 28, t. 7, 8, 9, and 18), also to the Ceylon form. In the 
next species the tangle caused by Mr. Lydekker conferring a name upon 
the wrong animal was unravelled by Dr. Cabrera. 

Loeis lydekkerianus Cabrera. 

Loris lydekkerianus Cabr., Bol. Soc. Espafi. Hist. Nat., 1908, p. 

135 ; Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 8, 1908, p. 469. 
Loris gracilis typicus Lydekk., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. 346, 

pi. XXIII, fig. 8. 
Loris tardigradus Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 129. 

LYDEKKER'S SLENDER LORIS. 

Type locality. Madras, India. 

Geogr. Distr. Southern India, near states east of British Burma 
in forests of the lowlands, (Jerdon) ; Madras and possibly on the west 
coast near Ratnageri, (Blanford). 

Genl. Char. Size small, colors pale, no red on head. 

Color. White stripe from forehead down nose between eyes; 
orbital ring sooty with a brown tinge, this extending upward on fore- 
head on each side of the white stripe ; whiskers here quite broad ; top 
of head, neck and upper parts of body brownish gray with white 
hairs intermingled; flanks paler, yellowish; sides of head grayish 
white; lips, chin, throat, under side of body and inner side of limbs 
white ; outer side of arms to elbow yellowish gray ; forearms and legs 
below knees sooty gray; outer side of thighs yellowish with a sooty 
stripe over upper side from hips to knees ; hands and feet white. 



20 LORIS 

Measurements. Head and body, 180 ; foot, 40. Skull : total length, 
48.9; occipito-nasal length, 38; intertemporal width, 17.7; Hensel, 34.7; 
zygomatic width, 29 ; width of braincase, 24.7 ; length of nasals, 13.3 ; 
palatal length, 15.8; length of upper molar series, 13.1; length of 
mandible, 26.5 ; length of lower molar series, 14. 

This is the southern Indian species of Loris, which has always 
been called L. tardigradus, authors ignoring the fact, as has already 
been shown, that Linnaeus gave that name to the Loris of Ceylon. Dr. 
Cabrera corrected the error (1. c.) into which Mr. Lydekker fell, and 
gave to the Indian animal the name lydekkerianus. 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE V. 




NYCTICEBUS NATUN/E. 
No. 104599 V. S. Nat. Mus. Coll. Type. ,' .• larger than Nat. Size. 



NYCTICEBUS 21 

GENUS 2. NYCTICEBUS. SLOW LORIS. 

t 2—2 ~ 1—1 „ 3—3 ., 3—3 r 

I- 2=5; C. ^ ; P. i=i ; M. 3=3 = 36. 

NYCTICEBUS E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 

162. Type Nycticebus bengalensis Geoffroy, = Tardigradus 

coucang Boddaert. 
*Bradycebus Gerv., Diet. Pitt. Hist. Nat., VI, pt. II, 1836, p. 617, 

(desc. nulla). 
Stenops Van der Hoeven, Tijdsch. Nat. Ges., XI, 1844, p. 39, 

(nee Illiger). 
Bradylemur Blainv., Osteog., Mamm., I, Lemur, 1839, p. 12. 

Body heavy; fur thick, woolly; head round; muzzle short; eyes 
large, approximate; neck short; tail lacking; limbs short. Skull with 
prominent crests ; orbits large ; premaxillae not produced far anteriorly ; 
palate not extending behind second molar ; inner upper incisors larger 
than outer; canines very long, diastema present; first premolar elon- 
gate ; the last molar with a short cusp posteriorly, and three cusps on 
crown. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1784. Boddaert, Elenchus Animalium. 

The Indian form was here described as Tardigradus coucang. 
1812. E. Geoffroy, Annates du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

Nycticebus javanicus from Java first described. 
1867. A. Milne-Edwards, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire Naturetle, 

Paris. 

The Siamese form of N. coucang is here named Nycticebus 

coucang cinereus. 
1870. Gray, (J. E.) Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 

Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 

Nycticebus coucang is called by the Author tardigradus and 

Linnaeus erroneously cited among the authorities given. The 

other species recognized is N. javanicus Geoff., and attention 



This name is not in the paper of Cuv. and Geoff., in the Magazine Encyclo- 
pedique, the genus No. VI being Papio. Gervais gives Brady cebus (1. a), but he 
cites the name only without description. 



22 NYCTICEBUS 

is called to N. ceylonicus Geoff., as a possible variety of N. 

JAVANICUS. 

1881. Anderson, Catalogue of Mammalia in the Indian Museum, Cal- 
cutta. 

The form from the Malayan Peninsula described as Nycticebus 
tardigradus malaianus. 

1888- Blanford, The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and 
91. Burma. 

The form from Tenasserim is figured and described on the 
authority of Tickell Nycticebus tardigradus, Tenasserim variety. 

1902. Stone and Rehn, in Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Nycticebus (coucang) hilleri from Sumatra, and Nycticebus 
(coucang) natunce from Bungaran, Natuna Islands, first de- 
scribed and a revision of the genus Nycticebus given. 

1906. M. W. Lyon, in Proceedings of the National Museum, Wash- 
ington. 

Nycticebus borneanus from Western Borneo, and Nyctice- 
bus bancanus from the Island of Banka, first described. 

1907. Bonhote, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 

Nycticebus pygm^eus first described. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

This small group of night-loving animals is essentially one of the 
Oriental Region, ranging in India, Arakan, Assam, Siam, Annam, 
Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Banka, Java and Borneo, the 
Natuna Group and the Philippines. The N. coucang ranges to the 
east of the Bay of Bengal, Burma and possibly Assam, but it is 
practically impossible to define its boundaries as it has been so con- 
fused with N. c. cinereus, and it may eventually be ascertained, that, 
these species now considered distinct, are not so in reality. The 
dispersal of N. c. cinereus, which is smaller than N. coucang, 
is supposed to be in Siam and Cochin China, but it cannot 
be said that these boundaries are accurately defined, nor can 
they be, until, through the acquisition of ample material, the exact 
status of the two forms is determined. In Annam, N. pygm^eus was 
discovered and in Tenasserim N. tenasserimensis occurs, its range 
unknown, while N. malaianus is found in the Malay Peninsula and on 
the west coast of Sumatra. In this Island also N. hilleri has been 



NYCTICEBUS 23 

procured, but its range is unknown ; while in the Island of Banka, to 
the east of Sumatra, N. bancanus was procured. In Java N. javani- 
cus is a resident, while N. borneanus represents the genus in Borneo. 
On Bungaron Island of the Natuna Group, N. natun^e was discovered, 
and from somewhere in the Philippine Archipelago, locality unknown, 
N. menagensis was brought. In coloration these animals differ con- 
siderably even among members of the same species, and the hue of the 
dorsal stripe, usually a very conspicuous marking, varies greatly both 
in color and extent. Some animals have a conspicuous spot on the 
crown of the head, others are without this, and the presence or absence 
of this coloration has been utilized for arranging the different forms 
into two groups. The manner in which the temporal ridges approxi- 
mate and form a sagittal crest has served also for the arrangements 
into groups of the known forms, and each method has answered fairly 
well, although in a non adult animal the skulls fail to indicate whether 
the temporal ridges will, in the fully mature individual, produce by 
joining together, a sagittal crest or not. The number of upper incisors 
varies between two and four, and it is difficult to determine from lack 
of material, the exact reason for this, whether it is an individual 
peculiarity, or a character of scientific importance. At the present 
time this question cannot be satisfactorily answered, but it would seem 
that, from such evidence as we have, the major portion would indicate 
individual variation, caused however neither by age nor sex. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Skulls with sagittal crest ; incisors two. 

a. Lower orbital ring broad; under parts whitish. .N. borneanus. 

b. Lower orbital ring narrow ; under parts buffy. . . .N. bancanus. 

B. Skulls without sagittal crests ; incisors four. 

a. Stripe on forehead bifurcating and encircling 

the eyes N. tenasserimensis. 

b. Stripe on forehead not bifurcating nor en- 

circling the eyes. 

a.' Lines on head indistinct N. coucang. 

b.' Lines on head absent iV. c. cinereus. 

c.' Lines on head conspicuous. 

a." Dorsal stripe in a reddish white or 
silvery white area. 

a."' Hands and feet reddish N. javanicus. 

b."' Hands and feet dusky N. natuna. 



24 NYCTICEBUS 

c!" Hands and feet yellowish N. malaianus. 

a 1 ."' Hands dark gray, feet red- 
dish cinnamon N. hilleri. 

b." Dorsal stripe in rufous area N. menagensis. 

c." Dorsal stripe in russet area N. pygmceus. 

Nycticebus borneanus Lyon. 

Nycticebus borneanus Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1906, p. 535 ; 
1911, p. 136. 

BORNEAN SLOW LORIS. 

Type locality. Sakaiam River, Sanggan district, West Borneo. 
Type in United States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Temporal ridges forming parallel lines on top of 
skull ; no sagittal crest. 

Color. Band between eyes white; orbital rings brownish black; 
top of head and line down neck to middle of back, narrowing as it goes 
until it becomes a mere point, chestnut and burnt umber, lightest on 
head and neck; upper parts ochraceous buff, becoming tawny ochra- 
ceous on rump, hairs tipped with silvery white, giving a frosted appear- 
ance especially on sides of head and neck; flanks and limbs on both 
sides, and hands and feet pinkish buff ; under parts gray with a pink 
tinge ; tail like rump. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 305 ; tail, 12 ; foot, 67. Skull : total 
length, 55.9; occipito-nasal length, 55.5; Hensel, 44.1; intertemporal 
width, 18.3; zygomatic width, 37.2; median length of nasals, 13.4; 
palatal length, 17.5 ; length of upper tooth row, 15 ; length of mandible, 
33.8; length of lower tooth row, 13.3. Ex type United States National 
Museum. 

Nycticebus bancanus Lyon. 

Nycticebus bancanus Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1906, p. 536. 

ISLAND OF BANK A SLOW LORIS. 

Type locality. Klabat Bay, Island of Banka. Type in United 
States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to N. borneanus, but paler above, and darker 
beneath ; outer and lower wall of orbit narrow, 3-4 mm. wide ; tem- 
poral ridges parallel on top of skull ; no sagittal crest. 

Color. White stripe between eyes ; orbital rings black ; top of 
head and dorsal stripe to lumbar region tawny ; upper parts and limbs 
ochraceous buff ; hands and feet paler ; under parts gray and ocbraceous 



NYCTICEBUS 25 

buff intermingled, hardly any frosting. Ex type United States Na- 
tional Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 935 ; tail, 8. Skull : total length, 
54.5; occipito-nasal length, 54; Hensel, 45; zygomatic width, 42.1; 
intertemporal width, 19.3 ; palatal length, 19.5 ; median length of 
nasals, 16.3 ; length of upper tooth row, 12 ; length of mandible, 15.9 ; 
length of lower tooth row, 12.7. Ex type United States National 
Museum. 

Nycticebtjs tenasserimensis. 

Nycticebus tardigradus Tenasserim variety. Blanf., Faun. Brit. 
Ind., 1888-91, pp. 45, 46, fig. 12. 

TENASSERIM SLOW LORIS. 

Type locality. Tenasserim. 

Genl. Char. Dorsal stripe bifurcating on the forehead and encir- 
cling the eyes. 

Color. "Pale rufescent." 

Major Tickell appears to be the only one who has seen this animal, 
and Blanford reproduces Tickell's drawing in his work on the Fauna of 
British India. The manner in which the dorsal stripe bifurcates on the 
forehead, each stripe passing forward and encircling the eyes, is cer- 
tainly peculiar and unlike that of any other member of the genus. 
Before its distinctness can be established satisfactorily, Tenasserim 
specimens must be procured and properly compared with examples from 
other parts of India. Blanford quoting from Tickell's notes states, that 
this animal is purely nocturnal and arboreal, and feeds on leaves and 
shoots of trees, fruits, bird's eggs, and young birds. It has been 
observed to raise itself on its hind legs and throw itself upon an insect. 
As a rule it is silent or only utters a feeble, croaking sound, but when 
angry and about to bite it emits a tolerably loud grunt or growl. When 
captured it is at first apt to be savage and prone to bite, but soon 
becomes very gentle and docile. This animal is tolerably common in 
the Tenasserim provinces and Arakan, but being strictly nocturnal in 
its habits, is seldom seen. It inhabits the densest forests and never by 
choice leaves the trees. Its movements are slow, but it climbs readily, 
and grasps with great tenacity. When placed on the ground it can pro- 
ceed if frightened, in a wavering kind of trot, the limbs placed at right 
angles. It sleeps rolled up in a ball, its head and hands buried between 
its thighs, and wakes up at the dusk of evening to commence its noc- 
turnal rambles. The female bears but one young at a time. 



26 NYCTICEBUS 

Nycticebus coucang Boddsert. 

Tardigradus coucang Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 67. 
Nycticebus bengalensis Fisch., Anat. Maki, 1804, p. 30 ; E. Geoff., 

Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 164. 
Nycticebus tardigradus (nee Linn.), Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, 

p. 71 ; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 78 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 

Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., 1856, fasc. I, p. 210; Blyth, Cat. 

Mamm. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1863, p. 18 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1863, p. 149; Jerd., Mamm. Ind., 1874, p. 44; Schleg., 

Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 285 ; Anders., Cat. Mamm. 

Ind. Mus., 1881, p. 94, Pt. I ; Blanf ., Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., 

1888, p. 44 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 33 ; Beddard, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1895, p. 144, fig. I; Id. 1904, p. 159, 

Fig. II, (Brain) ; Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 140, 

fig. 41. 
Bradylemur tardigradus Blainv., Osteog., 1839, p. 12 ; Less., Spec. 

Mamm., 1840, p. 240. 
Stenops tardigradus Van der Hoev., Tijdsch. Nat. Ges., XI, 1844, 

p. 39; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 151. 
Nycticebus coucang Stone and Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 

1902, p. 141 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., F. C. 

M. Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 550, fig. LXXVIII, Zool. Ser. ; Lyon, 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1906, p. 532. 

SLOW LORIS. 

Type locality. Bengal. 

Geogr. Distr. Bengal, Upper Burma, possibly Annam. 

Genl. Char. Head with lines indistinct ; dorsal line disappearing 
towards crown of head. 

Color. Rufescent gray above, paler beneath ; dorsal stripe broad, 
deep brown, expanding on the crown where it is rufous including the 
ears; orbital ring brown. ( Blanf ord). 

This is the larger and possibly more common form of Nyctice- 
bus found east of the Bay of Bengal. Its distinctness as a separate 
species, from N. c. cinereus cannot yet be established with certainty, as 
the material available is not sufficient for definite decisions to be 
reached. Blanford (1. c.) says that this species is purely nocturnal and 
arboreal. It feeds on leaves, shoots of trees, insects, bird's eggs and 
young birds. It is generally silent or utters a feeble crackling sound. 
If angry, however, and ready to bite it makes a low growl or grunt. 
In captivity it soon becomes docile and very gentle, but when first 
captured is apt to be savage. 



NYCTICEBUS 27 

Nycticebus coucang cinereus (A. Milne-Edwards). 

Nycticebus cinereus A. Milne-Edw., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris. 

VII, 1867, p. 161 ; Id. Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 

III, 1867, p. 9, pi. Ill ; Anders., Res. Zool. Yunnan, 1878, p. 

103 ; Id. Cat. Mamm. Mus. E. Ind. Co., Pt. I, 1888, p. 95 ; 

Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 286; Lyon, Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 1906, p. 532. 
Nycticebus tardigradus (nee Linn.), Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1900, p. 321, (ex Siam) ; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1900, p. 873. 
Nycticebus tardigradus var. cinerea Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. 

Mus. Calc, Pt. I, 1881, p. 96. 

GRAY SLOW LORIS. 

Type locality. Siam. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Siam, Cochin China. 

Color. General color clear gray with a reddish tinge on side of 
body, shoulders, and outer side of limbs; orbital rings black; dorsal 
line from center of head to tail dark reddish chestnut, sometimes grow- 
ing paler on lower parts ; no face markings ; ears rufous ; under parts 
grayish white. Ex type in Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length of skin, about 370. Skull: occipito- 
nasal length, 61 ; Hensel, 53 ; zygomatic width, 43 ; intertemporal 
width, 18; palatal length, 21 ; width of braincase, 30; median length of 
nasals, 17; length of upper molar series, 18; length of mandible, 39; 
length of lower molar series, 15. Specimen British Museum. 

The type in the Paris Museum is greatly faded from exposure to 
the light, and there is not much more than a trace of the original 
coloring left on the sides of body and shoulders, but more is to be 
seen on the dorsal line and rump, although these parts are much paler 
evidently than during the life of the animal. There are no markings on 
the face, and only a pale narrow reddish yellow line on center of head 
from between the ears. The hands and feet were probably silvery gray, 
but now are a dirty or sooty gray, as the accumulated dust of many 
years has obscured in a great degree the original coloring. The side 
of the body turned away from the light in the case is darker than 
the other, and shows more of the reddish or orange tint, but it 
is impossible to say what was the original color. The head is paler 
than the body and is a grayish white, same color as the arms and 
legs. 



28 NYCTICEBUS 

This is the smaller style of Nycticebus, allied to N. coucang, 
and whether or not they represent two distinct species cannot at the 
present time be decided. The material available for these, as well as 
some others of the members of this genus is not yet sufficiently ample, 
and many additional authenticated specimens are required before the 
status of these animals can be established. For the present therefore 
they are permitted to remain as distinct species, although it is most 
probable, that, in the event of their remaining apart, the N. c. cinereus 
will only hold a subspecific rank, as a race of N. coucang, as is given 
to it here. 

Nycticebus javanicus E. Geoff roy. 

Nycticebus javanicus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 164 ; Gray, List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 16 ; 
I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 78; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 
Reg. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 209; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 92 ; Stone 
and Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phila., 1902, p. 140 ; Lyon, 
Proc. Smith. Inst., 1907, p. 535. 

Stenops javanicus Van der Hoev., Tijdsch. Natur. Gesch., XI, 
1844, p. 40; Flow., Trans. Zool. Soc, V, 1866, p. 103, pi. 
XXVII. 

JAVAN LORIS. 

Type locality. Java. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Island of Java. 

Genl. Char. About equal in size to N. malaianus but paler brown ; 
bands on head well-defined and united to the rich brown dorsal band. 

Color. Type greatly faded, but from the remains of color it 
exhibits and with the help of another specimen from Java, better pre- 
served, a pretty fair idea of its original appearance can be obtained. 
White line from forehead between eyes to nose ; sides of nose and head 
gray slightly tinged with rufous ; line from forehead along back to 
rump chocolate ; top of head rufous, (but now only patches of that color 
remaining) ; sides of head behind ears and sides of neck grayish white ; 
body and limbs white tinged with reddish ; the original color has faded 
nearly quite away, the other Javan specimen having the body and limbs 
of a general reddish hue. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 16 in. ; foot 2^ in. Ex type Paris 
Museum. 



NYCTICEBUS 29 

Nycticebus NATUN.2E. Stone and Rehn. 

Nycticebus coucang natuna Stone and Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Scien. Phila., 1902, p. 140. 
Nycticebus tardigradus Thos. and Hart., Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 

655 ; Miller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Scien., Ill, 1901, p. 138. 
Nycticebus natunce Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1906, p. 534. 

NATUNA ISLANDS SLOW LORIS. 

Type locality. Bungaran, Natuna Islands. Type in United States 
National Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Natuna Islands. 

Genl. Char. Distinct in coloration from all known forms. No 
sagittal crest, incisors four. 

Color. Upper parts rich russet brown, deepest on the shoulders ; 
limbs paler. Dorsal line rich Vandyke brown becoming black on back 
and decreasing in width posteriorly, becoming almost obsolete on the 
rump; tips of hairs on each side of dorsal line silver white; crown 
patch broad extending to ears, burnt umber, with a broad bar of same 
color to orbital rings which are black; cheeks suffused with dusky 
brown. Lower portion of arms lighter than the other parts. Throat 
silvery white, rest of under parts pale cinnamon; hands and feet 
dusky. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 318; tail, 13. Skull: total length, 
58.5 ; occipito-nasal length, 56.9 ; Hensel, 47.5 ; zygomatic width, 39.8 ; 
intertemporal width, 17.9; palatal length, 18.4; median length of nasals, 
13.9; length of upper molar series, 16; length of mandible, 14.9; length 
of lower molar series, 14.4. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Nycticebus maeaianus (Anderson) . 

Nycticebus tardigradus malaianus Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. 

Calc, I, 1881, p. 95. 
Nycticebus coucang malaianus Stone and Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Scien. Phila, 1892, p. 141; Miller, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

1903, p. 475 ; Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1906, p. 533. 
Nycticebus sondaicus Fitzing, Sitzungsb. Meth.-Natur. Akad. 

Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 705. 
Nycticebus tardigradus (nee Linn.), Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond, 1900, p. 321 ; Bonhote, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1900, 

p. 873, (ex Malay Pen.). 

MALAYAN SLOW LORIS. 

Type locality. None given. 



30 NYCTICEBUS 

Geogr. Distr. Chittagong through Arakan as far south as Trin- 
ganu, Lower Siam ; coast region of Sumatra ?. 

Genl. Char. Darker than N. c. cinereus and smaller, upper in- 
cisors, 2-4. 

Color. General hue brownish with a rusty tinge ; head markings 
tawny ; dorsal line seal brown to tawny ; under parts cream buff ; hands 
and feet yellowish. 

Measurements. Total length, 328; tail, 16; foot, 61. Skull: total 
length, 68.8 ; occipito-nasal length, 67.5 ; Hensel, 49.6 ; zygomatic 
width, 43 ; intertemporal width, 19.2 ; palatal length, 19.2 ; median 
length of nasals, 16.4 ; length of upper tooth row, 37.2. 

Capt. Flower, writing of the Siamese form under the name of 
tardigradus, states that in captivity this species will eat bananas, 
mangoes, and bread and milk. It is also very expert at catching small 
birds; and climbs about at night with considerable speed. "At one 
time," he writes, "I used to sleep in a hammock swung in a veranda 
close to a cage of 'Kongkangs', and when lying awake on moonlight 
nights had good opportunities of observing their habits. They could 
squeeze through the bars of their cage (though I never could make 
out how they got their bodies through such narrow openings as there 
were) and roam about ; usually they were back in the cage by daylight ; 
sometimes they remained absent a day or two, and on one occasion two 
individuals never returned to me. One kept by itself, made a nice 
interesting pet, but when there were more than one, I found they would 
resent being handled and bite ; their bite may be very severe as I know 
from painful experience, but the stories of its being dangerously 
poisonous to human beings, are hard to believe. The young are carried 
under the mother's belly, holding on tight by all four hands, until they 
almost equal her in size. Many strange powers are attributed to this 
animal by the natives of the countries it inhabits ; there is hardly an 
event in life to man, woman or child, or even domestic animals, that 
may not be influenced for better or worse by the Slow Loris, alive or 
dead, or by any separate part of it, and apparently one cannot usually 
tell at the time, that one is under its supernatural power. Thus a 
Malay may commit a crime he did not premeditate, and then find that 
an enemy had buried a particular part of a Loris under his threshold, 
which had, unknown to him, compelled him to act to his own dis- 
advantage. Its fur is used to cure wounds, and a sailing ship with a 



NYCTICEBUS 31 

live Loris on board is said never to be becalmed. But its life is not 
a happy one, for it is continually seeing ghosts ; that is why it hides its 
face in its hands." 

This is a well-defined race of N. coucang, characterized by absence 
of face markings, and the general gray color distributed generally, but 
with a slight reddish tinge on the flanks and outer edge of limbs. 



Nycticebus hilleri Stone and Rehn. 

Nycticebus coucang hilleri Stone and Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Scien. Phil., 1902, p. 139. 
Lemur tardigradus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., XIII, 1822, 

p. 247, (nee Linnaeus). 
Nycticebus hilleri Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1906, p. 534. 

HILLBR'S SLOW LORIS. 

Type locality. Batu, Sangar, Tanah Datar, Padangsche Boven- 
land, Sumatra. Type in Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Geogr. Distr. Sumatra. 

Genl. Char. Differs from N. malaianus in the more strongly 
marked dorsal line, and the predominance of chestnut brown in the 
general coloration. From N. javanicus it is distinguished by the less 
defined head bars, and the brown crown patch which grades away into 
the surrounding tint. 

Color. Upper parts reddish cinnamon washed with ecru, to a 
pale gray tinged with red in other specimens ; dorsal line distinct seal 
brown ; crown patch mars brown ; head bars not distinct and merging 
into the hoary tint of the head ; orbital ring black ; stripe on nose and 
forehead between eyes pure white ; cheeks whitish with paler red tinge ; 
throat silvery gray ; under parts pale wood brown with a slight reddish 
tinge ; limbs and arms isabella color with a reddish tinge ; legs like 
back; hands dark gray; feet reddish cinnamon. Ex type Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 62; Hensel, 49; zygomatic 
width, 46; palatal length, 15; median length of nasals, 15; length of 
upper molar series, 18 ; length of mandible, 41 ; length of lower molar 
tooth row, 16. Ex type Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Specimens vary greatly and some are yellowish gray, with dorsal 
line black, base of hairs russet, and the line practically disappearing 
on the center of back ; under parts pale yellowish gray. 



32 NYCTICEBUS 

Nycticebus menagensis Lydekker. 

Nycticebus menagensis Lydekker, Zool. Record, XXIX, 1893, 
p. 25, Mamm. 

? menagensis Nachtrieb, Zool. Anzeig., 

XV, 1892, p. 147; Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., I, 1908, 8th 
Ser., p. 469 ; Lyon, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXII, 1909, p. 89. 

PHILIPPINE SLOW LORIS. 

Type locality. ?. Native name Cocane. 

Geogr. Distr. Philippine Islands. 

Genl. Char. Head round ; snout short and flat ; eyes brown, large 
and round, and slightly prominent; ears about 9/16 in. and hardly 
projecting beyond hair of head. Neck so short as to give head appear- 
ance of being set squarely on shoulders. Nails of hands flat. Hind 
legs very crooked, (bowed) with feet turned sharply inwards. General 
color light rufous, hairs being dark at base, then gray changing to 
light rufous, with very short gray tips. 

"White line between eyes extending backward 1 in. from base of 
nose. Face around eyes dark rufous, the markings extending upwards 
on forehead. The effect produced is a heart-shaped mark of dark 
rufous on face, the point of heart being on forehead, the eyes occupying 
two lobes and separated by the white mark which does not run to tip 
of heart. Sides of head at back, and of neck, have hairs broadly 
tipped with gray. Broad stripe of dark brown extends backward for 
Sy 2 in. along spine tapering to a point. Hairs of arms lighter rufous 
than that of back. Back of head gray, nearly white. Back of feet 
grayish. Hair on back of body, arms and legs thick and soft, making 
a fine fur like that of Galeopithecus. On under surface of body 
hair is thinner and somewhat lighter in color than on back. About the 
genitals is buffy white. 

Measurements. "Total length, 11J4 in. Tail, y$ in." 

"This curious little animal is known to the natives of the region 
it inhabits as cocane. An adult specimen from which the description 
was taken, was kept alive by us for seven days. Its movements were 
sluggish except in biting when its sudden and unexpected activity 
proved a painful surprise. It moved with equal ease along the upper 
and lower sides of a small branch or rope, and progressed quite as 
rapidly backward as forward. On the floor it was not at home and 
presented a most ludicrous appearance, tumbling along on all fours 
with feet nearly as far apart as those of a turtle, and its body barely 



NYCT1CEBUS 33 

raised from the boards. It spent most of the day asleep, rolled up into 
a furry ball with its head buried between its thighs. If disturbed when 
actively climbing about, it had a curious way of folding its hands over 
its eyes and from hence earned the name of 'shame face' which it 
shares with the Tarsius spectrum, (T. philippinensis). It had two 
notes, a low complaining grunt, and a sharp squeal. During its con- 
finement it took little food, turning up its nose at lemons, but occasion- 
ally eating a little banana or egg. We had no insects or small mammals 
to offer it. In drinking, it lapped up the water like a dog. After five 
days of semi-starvation its strength seemed almost unimpaired, and 
it showed remarkable tenacity of life." 

The above was taken from the Zoologischer Anzeiger, ostensibly by 
Dr. Nachtrieb, but he in a letter to Dr. Lyon disclaimed the authorship 
and stated that the article was probably by Mr. Dean Worcester. 
Having no genus the name could not stand, but the specific name, 
menagensis, was afterwards coupled with Nycticebus by *Troues- 
sart, fStone and Rehn, and JLydekker (1. c.) and so it came properly 
into the species of that genus. 

Nycticebus pygm^tjs Bonhote. 

Nycticebus pygmaus Bonhote, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 4, 
pi. II, figs. 1, 2. 

PIGMY SLOW LORIS. 

Type locality. Nha Trang, Annam. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size small ; tail a mere knob ; hair silky ; second upper 
molar largest; lower third molar largest. 

Color. Orbital rings dark brown ; stripe from forehead between 
eyes to nose, yellowish white; top of head, back of neck and dorsal 
region cinnamon ; rest of upper parts, flanks and outer side of limbs, 
pale cinnamon; under parts gray washed with cinnamon. Ex type 
British Museum, Juv. 

Measurements. Length of head and body, (skin), about 185; 
foot, 40. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 46; Hensel, 34; zygomatic 
width, 25; intertemporal width, 18; palatal length, 15; breadth of 
braincase, 25; median length of nasals, 11; length of upper molar 



♦Cat. Mamm. I, p. 63, 1898. 

tL. C. p. 138. 

fL. C. p. 345, Zool. Rec. 1893, p. 25. 















34 NYCTICEBUS 

series, 14 ; length of mandible, 25 ; length of lower molar series, 14. 
Ex type British Museum, Juv. 

Adult. Orbital rings seal brown ; stripe on nose to forehead, and 
sides of head and upper lip silvery gray, rest of face and top of head 
rufous ; dorsal stripe from nape to middle of lower back rufous grading 
into brownish black upon the back; upper parts russet or brownish, 
variable in individuals, with quantities of silvery white hairs in some 
specimens, intermingled on shoulder and upper back; flanks buffy, 
paler than back; upper side of arms ochraceous, with silvery white 
hairs mingled with the darker ones ; legs buff, hairs tipped with silvery 
white ; under parts, plumbeous at base, apical portion ochraceous ; hands 
and feet silvery white. 

Measurements. Total length head and body, 205 ; foot, 50. Skull : 
total length, 52.2; occipito-nasal length, 52.1; intertemporal width, 
18.9; Hensel, 40.8; zygomatic width, 38.4; median length of nasals, 
16.4 ; palatal length, 16.4 ; length of upper molar series, 16.4 ; length of 
mandible, 36.1 ; length of lower molar series, 14. 

Several adults in British Museum received after publication of the 
species from the same locality as type. This type is a young animal 
probably half grown. The hair or down is very silky, and of a uniform 
pale cinnamon color, clear cinnamon on the head and dorsal region. 
The ears are small, black, naked at the tips which are visible, the basal 
portion being hidden in the fur; hands and feet are small, the latter 
well covered with hair and the nails of a yellowish white color. 




Arctocebus calabarensis. 
No. 0.11.30.1. Brit Mus. Coll. ]/t larger than Nat. Size. 



ARCTOCEBUS 35 



GENUS 3. ARCTOCEBUS. THE ANGWANTIBO. 

12 — 2 n i — 1 j-j 3 — 3 ■ ■■ 3 — 3 i /r 

ARCTOCEBUS Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 150. Type 
Perodicticus calabarensis Smith. 

Body rather slender ; head oval ; muzzle blunt, dog like ; eyes 
large; lower phalanges of hands and feet, except of thumb, united in 
the skin; two upper joints free; index finger reduced to a tubercle, 
without a nail. Limbs subequal, the hind ones being slightly longer 
than the fore limbs. The feet are larger than the hands ; the great toe 
has a rather large fleshy tubercle at its base on the inner side, and is 
opposable to the other toes ; the nails are thin and fiat except that of 
the second toe which is like a claw, being thin, convex and acute. 
Ears erect; two transverse ridges lie above the auditory meatus, with 
fine hairs on the inner margins standing upright. Unlike the species 
of the genus Perodicticus, the processes of the cervical vertebrae 
do not project through the skin. Tail rudimentary. Anterior upper 
molars with four cusps, and oblique ridges ; last upper molar with 
three cusps ; last lower molar has five cusps. The species of this genus 
are nocturnal in their habits and move about but seldom during the 
day, and it is on this account, probably, that hardly anything has been 
recorded of their mode of life. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Great toe opposable and with a tubercle at base. 

a. General color dark brown A. calabarensis. 

b. General color bright golden red A. aureus. 

ARCTOCEBUS CALABAE.ENSIS (Smith). 

Perodicticus calabarensis Smith, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinb., 
1860, p. 172, figs. 1, 2; Matschie, Mitth. Geog. Ges. Natur. 
Mus. Liibeck, 1894, p. 132, fig. ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 27; Forsyth Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 
136. 



36 ARCTOCEBUS 

Arctocebus calabarensis Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, 
p. 150; Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 314, pi. 
XXVIII; F. Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 136, 
fig. 32. 
Nycticebus calabarensis Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 
p. 287. 
calabar potto. Native name Angwantibo. 
Type locality. Old Calabar, West Africa. 
Geogr. Distr. Old Calabar, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Mammae three pair, postaxial, pectoral and abdom- 
inal. 

Color. General color of body above, and top of head dark brown, 
lighter on the sides of the head, face darker; stripe from forehead 
down the nose, white; under parts of body and inner side of limbs, 
grayish white. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 55 ; Hensel, 44 ; zygo- 
matic width, 33 ; intertemporal breadth, 18 ; palatal length, 19 ; width of 
braincase, 25 ; median length of nasals, 16 ; length of upper molar 
series, 17; length of mandible, 34; length of lower molar series, 16. 

Arctocebus aureus de Winton. 

Arctocebus aureus de Winton, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IX, 7th Ser., 
1902, p. 47 ; Bates, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1905, p. 72. 

GOLDEN POTTO. 

Type locality. Benito River, 50 miles from mouth; 500 to 1,000 
feet elevation ; French Congo, West Africa. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. French Congo, West Africa; range unknown. 

Genl. Char. Smaller than A. calabarensis; tail very short, ter- 
minal hairs stiff, compressed; fifth finger reaches only just beyond the 
first joint of fourth finger. Skull: premaxillae project in front of 
incisors ; incisive foramina very small. 

Color. » Upper parts bright golden red, beneath paler reddish 
yellow suffused with ashy gray. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 270 ; tail, 18 ; hind foot, 38 ; ear, 30, 
(Collector). Ex type British Museum. De Winton states the skull 
was much damaged. 

This species described by de Winton from an unique example 
collected by Mr. Bates, is quite unlike in general appearance the only 



ARCTOCEBUS 



37 



other known form of the genus. Unfortunately the skull could not be 
found in the British Museum Collection. Mr. Bates says (1. c.) "The 
single specimen I sent to the Museum is the only one of this animal I 
have ever seen. I found it in a village on the Benito River where it 
had just been killed by a native, who did not know what to call it. 
However I have sometimes heard from natives of a rare beast like the 
Potto, which must be the same." 



38 PERODICTICUS 



GENUS 4. PERODICTICUS. POTTOS. 

!• 3H35 t" iHi> "• 2^2' "^- 3^3 3°- 

PERODICTICUS Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1831, p. 109. Type 
Perodicticus geoffroyi Bennett = Nycticebus potto Geoffroy. 
Potto Less., Spec. Mamm, 1840, pp. 207, 237. 

Tail very short, distinct ; hands and feet large ; fingers and toes 
free at ends ; index finger rudimentary without a nail, apices of verte- 
brae, except of neck, projecting beyond skin. Only one ridge on 
plane of ear ; anterior upper molar with oblique ridges and four cusps ; 
the posterior molar with two cusps ; last lower molar with four cusps ; 
lower incisors prominent, projecting. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1812. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire 

Naturelle, Paris. 

The "Potto" of Bosman is here named Nycticebus potto. 
1831. Bennett, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

The genus Perodicticus is here instituted, and Nycticebus 

potto Geoffroy renamed P. geoffroyi. 
1840. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadrumanes. 

Perodicticus potto is here renamed Potto bosmani. 
1879. Bouvier, Guide du Naturaliste. 

Perodicticus edwardsi first described. 
1902. De Winton, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Perodicticus edwardsi is renamed P. batesi. 
1910. O. Thomas, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 

London. 

Perodicticus ie-eanus, and P. ju-ju first described. 
1910. O. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Perodicticus faustus first described. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

The range of the members of this genus is not yet definitely 
known, as but one species has been familiar to Mammalogists for any 



VOLUME I. 




PERODICTICUS POTTO. 
No. 12434 Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. Coll. Nat. Size. 



PERODICTICUS 39 

length of time. Of the four forms recognized, three are found on the 
western part of the African Continent, one on the eastern. P. potto, 
the most northerly of the known species, is found on the Gold coast 
to Sierra Leone, but its dispersion is not accurately known. P. ju-ju 
is a native of Southern Nigeria, and P. edwardsi goes from Cameroon 
into French Congo; and at Irneti, Central Congo, P. faustus was 
found. On the east side of Africa in the Kakamega forest within 
British Territory P. ibeanus was procured. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Tail very short, length about one inch ; muzzle short, blunt. 

a. Teeth small. 

a.' Head and neck grayish brown P. potto. 

b! Head and neck drab gray, no black on back. . .P. ju-ju. 
c! Head and neck grizzled hoary gray, shoulders 

and forehead blackish P. ibeanus. 

d! Head and neck drab, hairs tipped with 

hoary P. faustus. 

b. Teeth large P. edwardsi. 

Perodicticus potto (E. Geoffroy). 

Potto Bosman, Beschrijv. Guin. Gondk., II, 1704, p. 32, fig. 4. 
Nycticebus potto E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 165 ; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Meth. Naturw. Akad. Wiss. 

Wien, 1870, p. 719 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 

287. 
Perodicticus geoffroyi Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1831, p. 

109; Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 130; Bedd., 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. 160, fig. II, (Brain). 
Potto bosmani Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 238. 
Perodicticus potto Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 110; Wagn., 

Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 15; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 

Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 208, tab. VIII; 

Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 150; Huxley, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 335 ; Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat. 

Paris, III, 7me Ser., 1891, p. 245; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 

I, 1894, p. 28; Bedd., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1895, p. 145, 

fig. 2; 1904, p. 160, (Brain) ; Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1901, p. 136, fig. 33. 
Stenops potto Pel, Bijdr. Dierk., 1852, p. 41. 



40 PERODICT ICU S 

BOSMAN'S POTTO. 

Type locality. Guinea? West Africa. 

Geogr. Distr. Gold Coast to Sierra Leone, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Head short, rounded; hands long; last upper molar 
short, wide, crown elliptical, two cusps, hind cusps wanting; last 
lower molar with four cusps. 

Color. Head grayish brown, becoming grayer on back of head 
and neck ; upper part reddish brown, darkest on middle of back, hairs 
with black tips, sides and rump pale brown; outer side of limbs like 
back ; under parts gray sometimes reddish ; hands and feet dark brown ; 
ears black. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 65 ; Hensel, 55 ; 
zygomatic width, 48 ; intertemporal width, 23 ; palatal length, 23 ; 
breadth of braincase, 32 ; median length of nasals, 18 ; length of upper 
molar series, 18 ; length of mandible, 45 ; length of lower molar series, 
15. 

Bosman, who first made known the existence of this animal, gives 
a quaint description of it and its habits, with a rude drawing. He 
states, "Draught of a creature, by the Negroes called Potto, but known 
to us by the name of Sluggard, doubtless from its lazy, sluggish nature, 
a whole day being enough for it to advance ten steps forward. 

"Some writers affirm, that when this creature has climbed upon a 
Tree, he doth not leave it until he hath eaten up not only the Fruit, 
but the leaves entirely ; and then descends fat and in very good case in 
order to get up into another Tree ; but before his slow pace can com- 
pass this he becomes as poor and lean as 'tis possible to imagine ; and 
if the tree be high, or the way anything distant, and he meets nothing 
on his journey, he invariably dies of Hunger betwixt one tree and the 
other. Thus 'tis represented by others, but I will not undertake for the 
truth of it, though the Negroes are apt to believe something like it. 

"This is such a horrible ugly Creature that I don't believe any- 
thing besides so very disagreeable is to be found on the whole Earth ; 
the Print is a very lively description of it. Its fore feet are very like 
Hands, the Head, strangely disproportionately large ; that from which 
this Print was taken was of a pale Mouse color, but it was then very 
young, and his skin yet smooth, but when old, as I saw one at Elmina 
in the year 1699, 'tis red and covered with a sort of Hair as thick set 
as Flocks of Wool. I know nothing more of this animal than that 'tis 
impossible to look on him without Horrour, and that he hath nothing 
very particular but his odious Ugliness." 



PERODICTICUS 41 

Poor Potto ! not a very flattering portrait indeed, but the earliest 
authors not infrequently indulged in similar descriptions of strange 
and little known animals. The Potto is strictly nocturnal in its habits 
and would not be likely to go "anything distant" during the daytime, 
and although its movements are slow and performed with deliberation, 
it would survive a sufficient length of time to reach a new food supply, 
and as it is a dweller of trees it is not likely to attempt any considerable 
journey on terra firma. 

Pebodictictjs ju-ju Thomas. 

Perodicticus ju-ju Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., V, 1910, 8th 
Ser., p. 351. 

NIGERIAN POTTO. 

Type locality. Southern Nigeria, Africa. Type in British Mu- 
seum. 

Geogr. Distr. Known only from Nigeria. 

Genl. Char. Size about that of P. edwardsi ; fur close, woolly ; 
bristle hairs practically absent. 

Color. Upper part of body drab-gray, under fur gray at base, 
then dull buffy whitish, the end dark brown; few long hairs with 
white tips, under parts grayish white, hairs gray at base ; outer side of 
arms and legs drab gray like back ; inner side whitish, becoming drab at 
wrists and ankles ; hands and feet drab gray. 

Measurements. Total length, 430 ; tail, 75 ; foot, 77 ; ear, 25. 
Skull: upper length, 66; basal length, 58; greatest breadth, 47; nasals, 
17; upper cheek-tooth series, 17.8; molars only, 9; breadth of m 2 , 4.1. 

The above is taken from Mr. Thomas' description. I have not 
seen the specimen. 

Perodicticus ibeanus Thomas. 

Perodicticus ibeanus Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1910, p. 536. 

Type locality. Kakamega forest, near Mt. Elgon, British East 
Africa. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. "Fur soft and thick, the wool hair on the back nearly 
20 mm. in length, and the straight hairs 25-26 mm. Nasals very short ; 
canines rather slender, anterior premolar long, pointed, two-thirds the 
height of the canine. Other cheek teeth all very small ; second molar 
smaller than the first. Anterior lower premolar longer than posterior." 

Color. "General color grizzled ashy, but the shoulders and fore- 
back blackish ; these dark tips broadening posteriorly so as to make the 
nape and fore-quarters almost black with a hidden suffusion of dark 



42 PERODICTICUS 

clay-color. The long bristle hairs of the crown and nape black. Rest 
of the body, behind the withers, grizzled ashy, the longer hairs dark 
with grayish white tips, the woolly under fur dark slaty basally, then 
broadly clay-colored, with dark tips. Under surface grayish, not 
sharply defined, the hairs slaty basally, dull grayish white terminally 
(gray No. 8). Arms and legs grizzled ashy like the body; hands and 
feet brownish. Tail comparatively long, cylindrical, ashy gray." 

Measurements. "Total length, 407; tail, 68; foot, 76; ear, 25. 
Skull : upper length, 64 ; basal length, 55 ; greatest breadth, 46 ; nasals, 
14.2x5.3 ; interorbital space, 9.3 ; length of cheek tooth series, 16.5 ; of 
molars only, 8.5 ; breadth of m 1 3.8 ; of m 2 3.2." 

I have not seen this species. 

Perodicticus faustus Thomas. 

Perodicticus faustus Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., VI, 1910, 8th 
Ser., p. 426. 

Type locality. Irneti, Bompona, R. Maringa, Central Congo, 
Africa. Type young female in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. "Intermediate between the gray P. ibeanus and the 
brown species of the West Coast." 

Color. Hairs of upper parts slaty at base then drab and tips black ; 
a number of hoary tipped hairs behind shoulders ; head, arms, legs and 
under parts dull drab ; hoary tipped hairs on outer side of forearms 
and thighs ; hands and feet gray ; tail drab ticked with hoary. 

Measurements. "Total length, 318; tail, 38; foot, 51 ; ear, 23, (Col- 
lector). Skull: upper length, 61; basal length, 53; greatest breadth, 
41; nasals, 12.5x4; palatal length, 23; upper cheek tooth series, 18.7; 
molars only, 10.2 ; m 3 3.4x4.7." 

I have not seen this example. 

Perodicticus edwardsi Bouvier. 

Perodicticus potto edwardsi Bouv., Guide du Natural., 1879, p. 1. 
Perodicticus batesi De Winton, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.. II, Ser. X, 
1902, p. 48. 

MILNE-EDWARDS POTTO. 

Type locality. French Congo, West Africa. Type not in Paris 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Cameroon to the French Congo, West Africa. 



PERODICTICUS 43 

Genl. Char. Variable in color, long hairs on occiput and neck. 

Color. Head, hind part and sides of neck ; upper back and shoul- 
ders yellowish brown ; rest of upper parts, flanks, and limbs black, 
tinged on limbs with brownish black ; forehead and nose yellowish 
brown ; inner side of arms and under parts of body yellowish white ; 
inner side of legs blackish brown ; hands and feet brownish black ; tail 
rudimentary, black. Ex specimen in Paris Museum. 

Type of P. batesi in British Museum. Entire upper parts, limbs, 
hands, feet and tail rich chestnut red; hairs tipped with black on the 
shoulders and upper back ; numerous long hairs both black and white, 
on occiput; nose brownish black; throat and inner side of arms pale 
rufous ; chest and abdomen reddish gray ; lower portion of abdomen 
and inner side of legs reddish. 

Measurements. Total length, 380 ; tail, 40 ; hind foot, 75 ; ear, 23. 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 63 ; Hensel, 54 ; zygomatic breadth, 21 ; 
palatal length, 20 ; breadth of braincase, 30 ; median length of nasals, 
15; length of upper molar series, 18; length of mandible, 29; length of 
lower molar series, 16. Ex type P. batesi in British Museum. 

In color this is a very variable species, examples from the same 
locality differing in this respect from each other. There are six speci- 
mens of this Potto in the British Museum from the Benito and Ja 
rivers in the French Congo, West Africa, differing very considerably 
from each other in the hue and marking of their coats. The prevailing 
color above is black and chestnut red, but the underparts vary from 
dark gray mixed with red to ashy gray, and one mounted example from 
the Benito River, which however may have faded somewhat, has no 
black at all on the upper parts which are yellowish gray about the 
shoulders, becoming red on lower back and thighs. The ends 'of the 
tails in some specimens are black as described by Bouvier. It would 
seem to be quite evident from an examination of the examples in the 
Paris and British Museums that P. edwardsi and P. batesi represent 
the same species of which Bouvier's animal is one of the dark style, 
and the type of P. batesi one of the pale hue. 

Mr. Bates, who learned about this animal in Southern Cameroon, 
although on account of the density of the forests, he was unable to meet 
with one himself, states that "the two or three species of Perodic- 
ticus of which the names have been sent to me I have not learned to 
distinguish with certainty; in the little I have to say I must mention 



44 PERODICTICUS 

them together. They are found in the daytime curled up asleep in the 
trees, tightly clinging to a branch. So tight is their grip of the branch 
that specimens have sometimes come to me mutilated in the hands, the 
natives who captured them declaring that it was only by cutting the 
fingers that they could loosen the animal's hold. 

"Pottos are sometimes caught in traps placed on a horizontal pole 
or bridge crossing on an open place between two pieces of forest, such 
as a narrow place in a garden clearing or a stream. The animal crosses 
on a pole in preference to descending to the ground. One specimen 
was killed at night on the roof of a house to which it seemed to have 
wandered from the overhanging plantain tops." 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE VIII 




GALAGO CRASSICAUDATUS. 
No. 8.1.1.25. Brit. Mus. toll. Nat. Si 



GALAGO 45 

Subfamily 2. Galaginae. 
GENUS 1. GALAGO. THE GALAGOS. BTJSH BABYS. 

12- — 2 *-^ 1 — 1 n 3 — 3 ■» * 3 — 3 s 

GALAGO E. Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., 2me Annee, I, 1796, p. 49, pi. I. 

Type Galago senegalensis E. Geoffroy. 
Chirosciurus Cuv. and Geoff., Mag. Encycloped., No. VI, 1795. 

(nomen nudum). 
Macropus Fisch., Mem. Soc. Imp. Moscou, I, 1811, V, 1817, p. 

402, (nee Shaw, Marsupials). 
Otolicnus IlHg., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Avium, 1811, p. 74. 
Galagoides A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ., 2nd Ser., II, 1833, 

No. 1, p. 32. 
Hemigalago Dahlb., Zool. Stud., I, Tredje Haftet, 1857, pp. 224, 

225, 230, Tab. X. 
Otolemur Coquerel, Rev. Mag. Zool., 2nd Ser., XI, 1859, pp. 458, 

460, pis. XVII, XVIII. 
Callotus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 145. 
Otogale Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 139, figs, in text. 
Euoticus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, pp. 140, 141, I, fig. in 

text, pi. XIX. 
Sciurocheirus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 857, fig. 5. 

Fur thick, woolly; eyes large, approximate; ears large, hinder 
edge contractile at will of the animal ; fingers and toes long and slender, 
with terminal discs ; tail long, thick, bushy. Skull : braincase round, 
high, broad; muzzle short; squamosal region inflated; upper incisors 
small subequal, with posterior cusp on cingulum; diastema posterior 
to canine; first upper premolar with one main cusp and two supple- 
mentary ones on each side ; middle premolar with three cusps ; last 
molar, in some forms, is tricuspidate, in others quadricuspidate ; the 
last internal cusp wanting. Tarsus long, calcaneum over one third the 
length of tibia ; tail longer than the body. 

The species of this genus are all African, and are remarkable for 
their large ears, and elongated tarsi, the latter much exceeding in 
length the arms. They have four incisors in both the upper and lower 



46 GAL AGO 

jaws, and in size are about equal to a small rat. Various genera have 
been proposed for these animals, some of which may be advantageously 
used as subgenera to include certain species with special affinities for 
one another, but the groups can only be properly separated into two, 
Galago and Hemigalago, distinguished by the presence or absence of 
a cusp on the heel of the second upper premolar. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

1796. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Magasin Encyclopedique. 

In this publication Galago senegalensis is first described from 

Senegal, West Africa. 
1806. Fischer, in Memoires de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes 

de Moscou. 

Hemigalago demidoffi first described from Senegal, West 

Africa, and G. senegalensis redescribed as G. geoffroyi. 
1812. E. Geoffroy, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

In a paper entitled "Suite au Tableau des Ouadrumanes," this 

author mentions four species under the genus Galago, viz., G. 

madagascariensis which is a Microcebus, probably M. 

murinus ; G senegalensis ; G. crassicaudatus described for 

the first time, and H. demidoffi, which belongs to a different 

genus Hemigalago. 
1820. Desmarest, Mammalogie. 

In this work under the genus Galago, five species are recorded, 

only three of which can be retained, viz., G crassicaudatus ; G. 

senegalensis; and H. demidoffi. The other two are G. 

potto = Perodicticus potto E. Geoff., and G. madagascariensis 

= Microcebus murinus (Miller). 
1837. Waterhouse, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 

London. 

Galago alleni first described from Fernando Po. 
1839. Ogilby, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

Galago garnetti described as Otolicnus garnetti from Port 

Natal, East Africa. 

1839. A. Smith, Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa. 
Galago senegalensis E. Geoff., renamed Galago moholi. 

1840. Wagner, Schreber, Saugthiere, Supplement. 

In this volume under the term Otolicnus Wagner gives 0. 
galago Schreb., citing only Plate XXXVIII B, but no page. 
This plate is lettered G. senegalensis, and he makes Geoffroy's 



j 



GALAGO 47 

G. senegalensis a synonym. The fact is Schreber never de- 
scribed a species by the name galago, and therefore the position 
is exactly reversed, galago Schreber being non-existent, senegal- 
ensis Wagner becomes a synonym of Geoffroy's species. Two 
other species are given for the genus, O. crassicaudatus and 

O. ALLENI. 

1840. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadrumanes. 

Two species and three varieties are given in this List. G. cras- 
sicaudatus E. Geoff., G. acaciarum = G. senegalensis 
Fischer; G. acaciarum var. A. alleni = G. alleni Waterh. ; G. 
acaciarum var. B. senegalensis = G. senegalensis Fischer ; G. 
acaciarum var. C. sennaariensis = G. senaariensis Lesson. 

1842. Sundevall, in Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademie. 

Galago sennaariensis Less., is here renamed G. (Otolicnus) 
teng. 

1844. Van der Hoeven, in Tijdschrift voor N atuurlijke Geschiedenis 
en Physiologie. 

Under Otolicnus, here employed as a genus, five species are 
given : O. galago = G. senegalensis ; 0. alleni = G. alleni ; 0. 
crassicaudatus = G. crassicaudatus ; O. garnetti — G. gar- 
netti ; and O. madagascariensis = Daubentonia madagas- 

CARIENSIS. 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Sdugthiere, Supplement. 

Under Otolicnus six species are here given, viz. : 0. crassicau- 
datus (Geoffroy) ; 0. garnetti (Ogilby) ; O. galago Schreber, 
non-existent; O. alleni (Waterhouse) ; O. minor Gray, (a 
Microcebus) ; and O. demidoffi (Fischer). 
O. galago Schreb., non-existent, is divided into three sections, 
but the sections are treated as synonyms. These are 0. teng 
(Sundevall), with sennaariensis as its synonym; O. sene- 
galensis (Geoffroy); and 0. moholi (Smith), with a new 
name australis, as its synonym, which is synonymous with G. 
senegalensis Geoffroy; 0. minor (Gray), is a Microcebus 
and synonymous with M. murinus (Miller). 

1856. R. G. Dahlbom, Zoologiska Studier afhandlande Djurrikets 
Naturliga Familijer. 

Four species are here recognized in the genus Galago: G. 
crassicaudatus ; G. alleni ; G. senegalensis ; and G. con- 
spicillatus = G. senegalensis. 



48 GALAGO 

1857. Le Conte, in Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 

of Philadelphia. 

Galago elegantulus first described from Cameroon, West 

Africa. 
1859. Coquerel, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 

Galago crassicaudatus redescribed as Otolemur agisymbanus 

from Agisymbana Island, East Africa. 
1861. Du Chaillu, in Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History. 

Galago elegantulus apicalis described as Otolicnus apicalis. 

1863. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Four forms were here first described ; Galago monteiri as 
Callotus monteiri from Cuio Bay, West Africa ; Galago alleni 
gabonensis as Galago alleni var. gabonensis from the Gaboon. 
Galago elegantulus pallidus as Galago pallidus from Fernando 
Po, and Galago sennaariensis from Sennaar, Eastern Africa. 

1864. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Galago monteiri kirki first described as Otogale crassicaudata 
var. kirki, from Quillimane, East Africa. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the British Museum. 

In his tribe Galagonina the Author arranges the species of 
Galago in two genera, Otogale, and Galago. In the first are 
placed garnetti ; crassicaudata ; monteiri and pallida ; and 
in the second are included alleni; moholi — senegalensis ; 
senegalensis ; sennaariensis and demidoffi. The four 
species of the Otogale group are recognized as valid at the 
present time, but of those given under Galago, moholi is 
a synonym of senegalensis Geoff., the name sennaariensis is 
antedated by Lesson in 1840. Three species are mentioned as 
not seen by the Author, G. conspicUlatus = senegalensis Geoff., 
O. peli Temm., = Hemigalago demidoffi Fischer, juv. and 
0. senegalensis Peters, = G. s. mossambicus Peters. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bos, Simue. 

Five species are included in the genus Galago, viz. : G. cras- 
sicaudatus; G. garnetti; G. alleni; G. senegalensis; and 
H. demidoffi. G. monteiri is considered to be merely a pale 
variety of G. crassicaudatus; the range of G. senegalensis is 
given from Senegambia and Sennaar to Cafraria, the form 
from Sennaar not being recognized as distinct. 



GAL AGO 49 

1876. Peters, in Monatsberichte Konigliche Preussen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften, Berlin. 

Three forms described for the first time Galago lasiotis from 
Mombassa, East Africa. Galago alleni cameronsis, as Galago 
alleni var. earner onensis; and Galago mosambicus from Mo- 
zambique. 

1876. Matschie, in Sitzungsberichte Naturforschender Freunde zu 
Berlin. 

Galago zanzibaricus first described from Zanzibar. 
Peters, in Monatsberichte Konigliche Preussen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften, zu Berlin. 
H. demidoffi young, redescribed as Otolicnus pusillus. 

1894. M. E. de Pousargues, in Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'His- 
toire Naturelle de Paris. 

A review of the genus Galago is here given, with a full 
description of H. anomurus for the first time. The Author 
accepts three sub-genera, Otolemur, Otolicnus and Hemigalago, 
and reviews the different forms belonging to each and dis- 
cusses their various claims for distinct rank. He recognizes the 
following as species. Under Otolemur he accepts G. crassi- 
caudatus ; G. monteiri ; G. garnetti ; and G. agisymbanus = 
G. crassicaudatus. In Otolicnus he gives G. elegantulus ; G. 
senegalensis and G. alleni ; and in Hemigalago he places G. 
anomurus and G. demidoffi. 

The Author labored under the disadvantage of not having a 
personal knowledge of many of the forms he rejected, which, if 
he had had the opportunity of examining might have caused him 
to reach different conclusions in some cases. 

1901. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Galago gallarum first described from the Webi Dau, Galla 
country, East Africa. 

1904. Thomas, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Hemigalago demidoffi poensis first made known from Banter- 
beri, Fernando Po. 

1906. Matschie, in Sitzungsberichte Naturforschender Freunde zu 
Berlin. 

Galago panganiensis described as Otolemur panganiensis 
from Pangani River, East Africa; and Galago badius first 
characterized from Ugalla River, East Africa. 



50 GALAGO 

1907. Thomas and Wroughton, in Proceedings of the Zoological So- 
ciety of London. 

Galago granti described from Cogune, near Delagoa Bay, East 

Africa. 
1907. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Six species of Galago are characterized in this paper, viz. : G. 

zuluensis from Zululand ; G. hindsi from Athi River, British 

East Africa ; G. alleni batesi from Como River, Gaboon ; G. 

braccatus from Mount Kilimanjaro ; G nyass^e from Lake 

Nyassa; and G. thomasi of the sub-genus Hemigalago, from 

Fort Benin, Semliki River, East Africa. 
1909. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Galago pupulus first described from Yola, Nigeria. 

G. Dollman, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

G. talboti ; G. elegantulus tonsor; and G. braccatus albipes are 

here first described. 
1912. Lonnberg, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

G. kikuyuensis first described as Galago (Otolemur) kiku- 

yuensis. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

The Bush Babys, by which name the members of the genera Gala- 
go and Hemigalago are known, are found upon the African Con- 
tinent, between Sennaar and Natal on the east, and Senegal and Por- 
tuguese West Africa on the west. They are also natives of the islands 
of Zanzibar on the east coast, and Fernando Po in the Gulf of Guinea 
on the west. As is the case with most of the groups among the Pri- 
mates, it cannot be said that the distribution of the members of these 
genera are satisfactorily known, and some may have a much greater 
dispersion than is here recorded. It is quite evident that distinct 
forms are fairly numerous, but the material at present available is not 
sufficient, (a number of species or races being represented by only a 
few examples, and from either a single, or a very limited number of 
localities), for a definite geographical distribution to be given. There- 
fore the following ranges assigned to the various members of the genus 
can only be regarded as approximate, based upon our present rather 
imperfect knowledge of their habitats, and subject to future rearrange- 
ment as the acquisition of more material shall serve to increase our 
knowledge. 






GALAGO 51 

A majority of the various species and races is found on the eastern 
portion of the Continent, extending from Somaliland, Sennaar and the 
vicinity of the White Nile below Khartoum on the north, to Mashona- 
land on the south, including the Island of Zanzibar. In the most 
northerly part of this eastern section at Faffan, near Harrar in Somali- 
land G. dunni was discovered; G. sennaariensis is found ranging 
southward to Ankole west of Victoria Nyanza, and Nyassaland, and 
then as far as Mashonaland up to an elevation of 5,000 feet. Next, 
in the Boran Galla country northeast of Lake Rudolph in Abyssinia, 
G. gallarum has been obtained, its range however not having been yet 
ascertained. At Katwi on the Athi River in British East Africa, G. 
hindsi, and at Escarpment Station, G. kikuyuensis have been 
obtained. From Mombassa on the coast comes G. lasiotis, recogniz- 
able by the white tip to the tail, but how far it may extend into the 
interior, or whether it is confined to the forest along the coast has 
not been determined. In Uganda to the north and west of Victoria 
Nyanza, H. thomasi belonging to the genus Hemigalago is found, 
the species having been taken at Dumo and Fort Beni on the Semliki 
River. Whether it is confined to Uganda, or extends its range beyond 
the river into the forests of the Congo Free State is not known. At 
Kirui, Elgon, 6,000 feet altitude, G. braccatus albipes was discovered. 
German East Africa contains several species of Galago, and in the 
northern part on the heights of Mt. Kilimanjaro, G. braccatus is 
found. On the banks of the Pangani River not far from the coast G. 
panganiensis has been procured, while in the interior on the Ugalla 
River east of Lake Tanganyika, the rather remarkable species G. 
badius was discovered. The island of Zanzibar has apparently two 
species, G. zanzibaricus, and G. crassicaudatus, the latter under the 
name of G. agisymbanus, but there seem to be no adequate reasons for 
separating the island form specifically from the animal dwelling on the 
coast opposite and ranging through the forests as far south as Quili- 
mane, Mozambique, where also G. kirki is found. Coming from 
Nyassaland and extending its range into the interior to Tete on the 
Zambesi in British Central Africa, G. mossambicus occurs. In this 
district in Nyassaland south of the Lake in the mountains, and also 
from Zomba to the southeast of Lake Nyassa we have G. nyass^e, 
which ranges southward in Portuguese Southeast Africa to Inhambane. 
South of this, in the vicinity of Delagoa Bay, G granti is met with. 
From Zululand comes G. zuluensis, and finally completing the list 



52 GAL AGO 

of eastern and central African species, in Natal we have G. garnetti, 
the most southern member of the genus. 

On the western side of the continent, the most northern species 
is G. senegalensis from Senegal south to Angola; at Yola, Nigeria, 
G. pupulus has been obtained, and from Cameroon, we have G. 

CAMERONENSIS, G. ELEGANTULUS, G. C pallidus, and G. ALLEN I ; G. 

elegantulus tonsor was procured on the Benito River, Guinea. In 
Equatorial Africa from the mountains, near the Equator, exact lo- 
cality unknown, G. e. apicalis was procured by Du Chaillu ; and at 
Mombuttu, H. demidoffi was obtained by Emin Pasha. On the Gold 
Coast H. demidoffi is found ranging south to Gaboon in French 
Congo, where also G. alleni and G. a. gabonensis are met with, and 
on the banks of the Kemo River in the same Province, G. a. batesi and 
H. anomurus were procured. From Cuio Bay south of Loando, 
Angola, Portuguese West Africa, G. monteiri, one of the larger mem- 
bers of the genus, was obtained. On Fernando Po, an island in the 
Bight of Biaffra, Gulf of Guinea, three species dwell, G. alleni, G. 
elegantulus pallidus, and H. demidoffi poensis. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. Second upper premolar, without cusp on heel. 

a. Size large ; occipito-nasal length of skull above 50 mm. 
a.' Ears large. 

a." End of tail not white. 

a.'" Above and on flanks russet, occipito- 
nasal length of skull 75 

mm G. crassicaudatus. 

b.'" Above mixed broccoli brown and 
gray, occipito-nasal length of 

skull 70 mm G. zuluensis. 

c."' Above light yellowish brown, occip- 
ito-nasal length of skull 64 

mm G. panganiensis. 

d."' Above russet ; flanks grayish brown : 
occipito-nasal length of skull 

59 mm G. garnetti. 

e"' Above bright chestnut 6". badius. 

/."' Above gray. 

a."" No brown on upper parts. . . .G. monteiri. 



GAL AGO 53 

d."" Brown on upper parts with 

the gray G. kirki. 

b." End of tail white G. lasiotis. 

b! Ears small. 

a." Under parts white ; tail above pale brown, 

beneath whitish G. hindsi. 

b." Under parts dirty white ; tail above dark 
brown, gradually darkening to black- 
ish towards distal third; paler 

below G. kikuyuensis. 

Size small, occipito-nasal length of skull under 50 mm. 
a.' Legs without buff or yellowish. 
a." Upper parts russet. 

a.'" Tail with basal half mixed seal 
brown and gray, apical half 

chocolate G. alleni. 

b."' Tail ashy brown, hairs tipped with 

silvery gray G. a. earner onensis. 

c!" Tail basal half iron gray, remainder 

drab gray G. a. gabonensis. 

d.'" Tail basal half mixed gray and 

black, apical half black G. a. batesi. 

b." Upper parts dark cinnamon G. zanzibaricus. 

c." Upper parts pale brownish red G. talboti. 

b.' Legs buff or yellowish. 

a." Upper parts ecru drab G. gallarum. 

b." Upper parts iron gray G. braccatus. 

c." Upper parts ashy gray G. b. albipes. 

d." Upper parts pale grayish brown G. dunni. 

e." Upper parts broccoli brown G. nyassa. 

c! Upper edge only of legs, yellow. 

a." Upper parts wood brown G. granti. 

b." Upper parts dark gray G. sennaariensis. 

c." Upper parts cream buff G. senegalensis. 

d." Upper parts sooty or brownish gray. 

a."' Rostrum short G. mossambicus. 

b!" Rostrum long G. pupulus. 

e." Upper parts pale cinnamon rufous . . G. elegantulus. 

f." Upper parts pale orange G. e. tonsor. 

g." Upper parts dark hair brown G. e. pallidus. 

h." Upper parts bright russet G. e. apicalis. 



54 GALAGO 

Subgenus 1. Otolemur. 

Size large ; first upper premolar not canine-shaped ; last upper 
molar tricuspidate, sometimes quadricuspidate ; last lower molar quadri- 
or quinquicuspidate ; angle of mandible produced downwards and back- 
wards ; tail longer than head and body. 

Galago crassicaudatus E. Geoff roy. 

Galago crassicaudatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 166 ; Desmarest, Mamm., 1820, p. 103 ; E. Geoff., Cours 

Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 34, lime Legon ; Fisch., Syn. 

Mamm., 1829, p. 67; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 245; I. 

Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 81 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 

Reg. Anim. Nat., 1856, fasc. I, pp. 227, 229, pi. VIII, fig. 3 ; 

Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 645 ; 1873, p. 501 ; 

Kirk, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 650; 1873, p. 493; 

Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 544 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 860; Murie and Mivart, Trans. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., VII, 1872, pp. 1-11, fig. 2, (text), pis. I-VI, 

(Anatomy) ; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 502, fig. 

18; Bedd., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, p. 456; 1895, p. 146, 

fig. 4, (Brain) ; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gess. Natur. Freund., 

1892, p. 224; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 47; F. 

Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 138, fig. 3, (text) ; 

Thos. and Schwann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1905, p. 256; 

Thos. and Wroughton, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 287; 

1908, p. 166. 
Lemur crassicaudatus Blainv., Osteog., 1841, Atl., Lemur, pi. VII. 
Galago (Otolicnus) crassicaudatus Schinz., Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, 

p. 111. 
Otolicnus crassicaudatus Wagner, Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, 

p. 292; 1855, p. 156; Van der Hoeven, Tijdsch. Nat. Gess., 

1844, p. 42; Peters, Reise nach Mossamb., 1852-82, p. 5, t. 

II, IV, figs. 1-5, (Skull) ; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Matth.— 

Naturw. Akad. Wissench, Wien, 1878, p. 730. 
Otolemur agisymbanus Coquerel, Rev. Mag. Zool., 1859, p. 459; 

Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, British 

Museum, 1870, p. 88. 
Otogalago crassicaudatus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 

140; Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 324. 



GAL AGO 55 

Galago (Otolemur) agisymbanus Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1864, pp. 627-645 ; Pousarg., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 

VI, 1904, p. 139. 
Galago (Otolemur) crassicaudatus Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1864, p. 645. 
Galago agisymbanus Kirk, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1897, p. 952, 

(Island of Zanzibar). 
Galago garnetti Forbes, Handb. of Primates, I, 1894, p. 40. 

(Part.). 

GREAT GALAGO. 

Rat of the Cocoanut Palm, (Portuguese) ; Gwea, Native name, 
Suikive, (Zulu) ; Garila, (Inhambane). 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. East Africa; Ugogo and south to the Zambesi, 
Portuguese S. E. Africa, (Thos. and Wroughton) ; Zululand, (Thos. 
and Schwann) ; Mozambique, Quilimane, Luabo, (Kirk) ; Island of 
Zanzibar. \ 

Genl. Char. Size large ; muzzle long, more so comparatively than 
in the other species of the genus ; nose pad with a deep furrow ; no 
membranes between fingers and toes, but all digits have terminal flat 
discs; ears large, naked; tail long, bushy; neural spines bifurcate 
laterally. 

Color. Nose, forehead, and band around eyes cream buff ; cheeks, 
and beneath ears rusty brown; top of head and back russet, the 
dorsal line darker ; outer side of arms and legs cinnamon ; under parts 
and inner side of legs yellowish white or pale buff ; hands and feet dark 
reddish brown ; tail russet, tip sometimes seal brown. 

Measurements. Total length, 700; tail, 375. Skull: occipito-nasal 
length, 75; Hensel, 62; intertemporal width, 117; palatal length, 30; 
breadth of braincase, 32 ; length of nasals, 23 ; length of upper molar 
series, 22 ; length of mandible, 51.5 ; length of lower molar series, 19. 

G. agisymbanus appears to be the same as the present species, for 
I can find no characters upon which they can be separated. Coquerel's 
type, which is in the Paris Museum, is a young animal. The following 
is a description taken from it. Head and entire upper parts, and outer 
side of limbs dull russet, inclining to rusty on top of head and fore- 
arms ; under parts pale greenish yellow ; hands and feet blackish brown ; 
tail reddish, inclining to blackish brown on apical portion. The adult 
is dull brown on the upper parts. 



56 GAL AGO 

Geoffrey's type is in the Paris Museum, but is so faded that but 
little of the original color remains. The tail has lost most of the hair 
on the apical half, and the example is in such a condition that a descrip- 
tion of it would only serve to mislead. Kirk states (1. c.) that at 
Luabo and Quilimane, this species frequents the Mangrove forests and 
wooded country outside. In captivity it eats flesh, vegetables, fruits 
and insects; in its native state it is fond of palm wine, robbing the 
pots used by the natives to collect it. This often leads to its capture 
when it drinks to excess. During the day it remains quiet in some 
shaded tree top. At night it is very active, leaping from frond to 
frond, or crossing from one cocoanut palm to another. Coquerel 
(1. c.) says that this species, (under the name of Otolemur agisym- 
banus), was brought to him from the interior of the island, while he 
was staying in Zanzibar, and is common in the forests which cover the 
northern part. He kept one alive for fifteen days, and it was very 
gentle. It slept during the day covered by its long tail, but at night it 
was active and exhibited an extreme petulence. It was fed on fruit 
but would eat anything, and devoured eagerly meat both raw and 
cooked. 

Galago zuluensis Elliot. 

Galago zuluensis Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, Ser. 7, 1907, 
p. 186. 

ZULU GALAGO. 

Type locality. Zululand. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to G. hindsi, but browner, and with much 
larger ears ; tail, darker and shorter. Skull : one-third larger ; teeth 
larger. The first and second upper molars have four cusps, two outer 
and two inner ; the last molar only three, two outer and one inner ; the 
lower molars have four cusps, two outer and two inner. 

Color. Head and upper parts broccoli brown and gray mixed, 
darkest on the head ; outer side of limbs wood brown ; dorsal line 
washed with mars brown ; under parts and inner side of limbs yellowish 
white ; hands and feet grayish brown ; tail above pale mars brown, 
beneath paler. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, about 570 ; tail, 320. Skull : occip- 
ito-nasal length, 70 ; Hensel, 57 ; zygomatic width, 46 ; intertemporal 
width, 19 ; palatal length, 28 ; breadth of braincase, 33 ; median length 
of nasals, 19; length of upper molar series, 22; length of mandible. 
40 ; length of lower molar series, 23. Ex type in British Museum. 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE 3. 




GALAGO 6ARNETTI. 




GALAGO SENEGALENSIS. 



GAL AGO 57 

This species is about the same size in body as G. hindsi, but has 
a considerably shorter and much darker tail ; it is much darker brown 
color throughout. When lying side by side, G. hindsi appears like a 
gray animal in comparison. The ears of the present species are about 
a third larger than those of G. hindsi both in length and width. In 
their dried and shrunken state they measure 31 mm. in length and 27 
mm. in width, while those of G. hindsi are 24 mm. long by 22 mm. 
wide, and as the collector's measurement of the ears of the latter 
species was 39 mm. in length, allowing for the same shrinkage those 
of G. zuluensis would be 8 or 10 mm. longer. There is such a vast 
difference in the size of the skull and teeth that they admit of no 
comparison. In color G. zuluensis is like G. grassicaudatus, but has 
a much smaller skull it being midway between G. crassicaudatus and 
G. hindsi with all the differences such a disparity of size would create. 
G. garnetti is of an entirely different color, but about the same size. 

Galago panganiensis (Matschie). 

Otolemur panganiensis Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. 
Freunde, 1906, p. 278. 

Type locality. Pangani River, East Africa. Type in Berlin 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar in color to G. lasiotis, but paler, and the 
ears are naked, and there is no white on the apical portion of the tail. 

Color. General color of upper parts rather light yellowish brown, 
with a reddish tinge on dorsal region and outer side of limbs ; hind 
part of thighs ochraceous buff; sides of head, and neck below ears, 
ochraceous buff ; under parts yellowish white ; hands and feet reddish 
brown; tail sooty brown, blackish brown at tip. Ex type Berlin 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 707 ; tail, 360. Skull : occipito-nasal 
length, 64; Hensel, 56; zygomatic width, 44.5; intertemporal width, 
20; median length of nasals, 20; length of upper molar series, 18; 
length of mandible, 43 ; length of lower molar series, 18. Ex type 
Berlin Museum. 

Galago garnetti (Ogilby). 

Otolicnus garnetti Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1838, p. 6; van 
der Hoev., Tijdsch. Nat. Geschied., 1844, p. 44; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. SuppL, V, 1855, p. 157; Huxley, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 324; Fitzin., Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 744. 



58 GAL AGO 

Otogale garnetti Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 140, fig. 
(skull) ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 79 ; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 
p. 626. 

Galago garnetti Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 711, pi. 
XL ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 860 ; Anders., 
Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt. I, p. 26 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays- 
Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 329; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, 
p. 40, (Part.). 

Galago (Otolemur) garnetti Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 112; 
Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 646 ; Pousarg., Nouv. 
Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, VI, 1894, p. 138. 

GARNETT'S GALAGO. 

Type locality. Port Natal, South East Africa. Type not in 
British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Natal, South East Africa. 

Genl. Char. Muzzle protruding beyond jaws; ears very long and 
wide; posterior upper molar having fourth cusp only slightly de- 
veloped; posterior lower molar with four prominent cusps; pelage 
uniform above and also beneath. 

Color. Entire upper parts of body, outer side of limbs, and inner 
side from wrist and knee, and tail russet, hairs tipped with golden 
yellow ; hairs on head short, woolly, darker than the back, and with the 
neck is dark russet, hairs tipped with golden ; entire under side of 
body with chin, throat and inner side of limbs to wrist and knee cream 
buff ; no stripe between eyes ; ears flesh color. 

Measurements. Total length, 650; tail, 325. Skull: occipito- 
nasal length, 59 ; Hensel, 53 ; zygomatic width, 41 ; intertemporal width, 
19 ; palatal length, 25 ; breadth of braincase, 29 ; median length of 
nasals, 14 ; length of upper molar series, 20 ; length of mandible, 42 ; 
length of lower molar series, 29. 

This species is similar to G. crassicaudatus, but the head and 
neck are darker. The skull is much smaller with a narrower rostral 
region, intertemporal region wider, and the upper tooth rows more 
curving outwardly. Ears smaller. 

The type is not in the Collection of the British Museum, and it is 
not known if it is still existing. 

Galago badius (Matschie). 

Otolemur badius Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. Freun., 
1905, p. 277. 



Volume I 



Plate 1 







Galago monteiri 



GAL AGO 59 

Type locality. Ugalla River, German East Africa. Type in Ber- 
lin Museum. 

Color. Entire body, limbs, hands and feet, bright chestnut, the 
fur being dark gray at base and tipped with bright chestnut. The tail 
is wanting in the type. 

This very distinct species is about the size of G. lasiotis but in its 
coloring is totally unlike any other known form. The tail is absent, 
no part having been preserved to give an indication of its coloring. 
Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Galago monteiri (Gray). 

Callotus monteiri Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 145. 
Galago monteiri Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 231, pi. 

XXVIII ; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 711, pi. XL; 

1871, p. 544; 1876, p. 413; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1864, p. 346; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 860; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 139. 
Galago (Otolemur) monteiri Pousarg., Nouv. Archiv Mus. Hist. 

Nat. Paris, VI, 1894, p. 139. 

MONTEIRI'S GALAGO. 

Type locality. Cuio Bay, south of Loando, Angola, West Africa. 
Type not in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Middle coast, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Size large; ears very large, naked on outer apical 
edges ; hairs on face short ; feet and toes broad, discs rounded ; tail 
very long. 

Color. General hue uniform pale gray over upper part of body, 
outer side of limbs, and entire tail ; orbital ring black ; hands and feet 
dark brownish gray ; ears black ; middle of breast and abdomen white ; 
flanks grayish white. Some specimens are mouse gray on body and 
tail. 

Measurements. Total length, 1118 ; tail, 408. Skull : occipito-nasal 
length, 70; Hensel, 57; zygomatic width, about 40, (broken) ; inter- 
temporal width, 19; palatal length, 28; breadth of braincase, 31; 
median length of nasals, 20; length of upper molar series, 23 ; length of 
mandible, 47; length of lower molar series, 20. 

This is one of the largest species of the genus, with a very long 
bushy tail. While the color among individuals varies somewhat, the 
dominant hue is always gray, ranging from a whitish to a mouse gray, 
with occasionally reddish tints appearing on head and back. The type 



60 GALAGO 

could not be found in the British Museum. It probably never was 
in the collection. The identification of this animal as a new species 
should undoubtedly be placed to the credit of the late Mr. A. D. Bart- 
lett, Superintendent of the London Zoological Society's Gardens, but 
his MS. having been shown to Dr. Gray, it was included by him in his 
paper on the species of Lemuroids under Mr. Bartlett's MS. name in 
an earlier part of the Society's proceedings, and thus became G. mon- 
teiri Gray, manuscript names having no standing. Mr. Bartlett had 
the type alive, and states it was "very gentle and slept much during 
the day, and fed on fruit, bread, milk and other sweet things, par- 
ticularly bananas. It had the power of turning its ears back and 
folding them up when at rest. When moving about or in search of 
food they, (the ears) spread out and stand upward and forward, 
reminding one of the Aye- Aye; but when folded back and down, the 
animal's face bears a strong resemblance to the Douroucouli. The 
pupils of the eyes are oval and vertical." 

Galago kirki (Gray). 

Otogale crassicaudata var. kirki Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1864, p. 456. 
Galago crassicaudatus Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 711 ; 

Pousarg., Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, VI, 1894, 

p. 138. 
Otogale kirki Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1894, p. 137 ; 1896, 

p. 790. 

KIRK'S GALAGO. 

Type locality. Quilimane, Mozambique, East Africa. Type in 
British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Blantyre, Shiri Highlands, Nyassaland ; and 
Mozambique to Tete on the Zambesi, East Africa. 

Genl. Char. Size large, tail bushy, color pale. 

Color. General hue pale ashy gray and russet, base of hairs 
black; cheeks, inner side of limbs and under part of body grayish 
white ; face, crown, nape, middle of back, shoulders, and outer side of 
arms russet ; outer side of legs yellowish gray ; hands, feet, and tail, 
dark broccoli brown. Ex type in British Museum. 

Measurements. Skull much broken ; occipito-nasal length, 68 ; 
zygomatic width, 47 ; intertemporal width, 18 ; width of orbits, 19 ; 
median length of nasals, 20; length of upper molar series, 21 ; length 
of mandible, 45 ; length of lower molar series, 23. Ex type British 
Museum. 



GALAGO 61 

This animal has the same gray color as G. monteiri and would 
seem to be more a representative of that species on the eastern coast 
of Africa, than a near relative of G. crassicaudatus, which is quite 
differently colored. It is easily recognized from G. monteiri by the 
russet coloring on the head and middle of back, and the darker tail. It 
would seem advisable to recognize it as a distinct species, and not as 
a race of G. crassicaudatus as Gray made it. This is one of the 
largest species of Galago, and has a very long and bushy tail. Like 
other species of the genus it is arboreal and nocturnal in its habits, and 
is rarely seen during the day, "sleeping in some hollow tree, waking up 
at sundown, at which time and throughout the whole night its peculiar 
cry can be heard. At Eshowe it frequents the trees close to the houses, 
and is said to be extremely fond of fowl's eggs. The specimens 
secured were shot at night with the aid of a dark lantern, flashing it 
suddenly into a tree where one was heard calling. This is a favorite 
method with the natives for obtaining them, by whom the skin is 
highly valued. Specimens from Natal seem much browner than those 
from Zululand." (Grant's notes on Zululand Mammals; Thos. and 
Schwann, 1. c). 

In another paper on Mammals from Portuguese South Africa, 
Thos. and Wrought. (1. c.) quote from Mr. Grant's notes as follows on 
this species. 

"Very common in the forests, where they appear to consort 
together in small parties. The species has a variety of calls, none of 
which however are similar to that of Galago garnetti. Apparently 
principally vegetarian, and feeding largely on the exudation from the 
bark of certain trees. Strictly nocturnal, passing the day in hollow 
trees." 

Galago lasiotis Peters. 

Galago lasiotis Peters, Monatsb. K. Preuss, Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 
1876, p. 912; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. Natur. Freund., 
1892, p. 224. 

WOOLLY-EARED GALAGO. 

Type locality. Mombassa, East Africa. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size large ; tail, long and bushy, tip white ; ears 
broad, hairy at tip, showing chiefly in the young; fur thick woolly. 

Color. Top of head and upper parts of body grayish brown with 
yellowish tinge ; dorsal region darker being a reddish brown, with 
black hair intermingled ; flanks paler yellowish brown ; outer and inner 
sides of limbs russet; sides of head wood brown; throat, chest and 



62 GAL AGO 

under parts white ; hands and feet blackish brown ; tail Prout's brown 
with apical portion white ; ears hairy to tip, outer edge flesh color, inner 
yellowish. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 685 ; tail, 370. Skull : total length, 
66 ; occipito-nasal length, 64 ; zygomatic width, 43 ; intertemporal 
width, 19 ; median length of nasals, 20.5 ; length of upper molar series, 
21 ; length of mandible, 43 ; length of lower molar series, 18. Ex type 
Berlin Museum. 

The present species is darker than G. crassicaudatus and the 
limbs slightly redder, but it can at all times be easily distinguished from 
that species by having the end of the tail white. 



Galago hindsi Elliot. 

Galago hindsi Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 7th Ser., 1907, p. 
186. 

Type locality. Katwi, Athi River, British East Africa. Altitude 
3,500 feet. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size large, but smaller than G. crassicaudatus or G. 
garnetti. Color pale ; ear small ; tail, very long. 

Color. Head and upper parts pale wood brown, washed on head 
and dorsal region with darker brown ; arms and hands like head ; outer 
side of legs isabella color ; feet dark brown ; chin vinaceous cinnamon ; 
rest of under parts white ; tail above pale wood brown, beneath whitish. 
Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, about 575 ; tail, 370 ; foot, 80 ; ear, 
39. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 63 ; Hensel, 49 ; zygomatic width, 42 ; 
intertemporal width, 20; palatal length, 23; breadth of braincase, 29; 
median length of nasals, 19 ; length of upper molar series, 19 ; length of 
mandible, 41 ; length of lower molar series, 20. Ex type British 
Museum. 

This animal is somewhat smaller than its relatives, G. crassi- 
caudatus and G. garnetti, the skull being very considerably smaller. 
It also differs in its pale color, and the very long pale almost white tail. 
It belongs to the group of which G. crassicaudatus is the represen- 
tative member. Two specimens are in the British Museum Collection 
slightly varying in color, the paratype having a darker tail which 
unfortunately has lost half of its length. 






Plate 2 



Volume 




Galago alleni 




Galago alleni. 
No. 98.5.4.2, Brit. Mus. Coll, 'A larger than Nat, Size. 



GAL AGO 63 

Galago kikuyuensis Lonnberg. 

Galago (Otolemur) kikyuensis Lonnb., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IX, 
8th Sen, 1912, p. 64. 

Type locality. Escarpment Station, British East Africa. 

Color. "General colour pale greyish brown, somewhat darker on 
head and upper neck, outside of limbs more chamois ; throat and lower 
side of neck with an ochre-yellow tinge ; under side of body dirty white ; 
hands and feet dark brown, inclining to blackish; tail dark brown, 
gradually darkening to blackish towards the distal third, paler below. 
Ears naked." 

Measurements. "Total length about 62 cm.; tail about equal to 
head and body. Skull : greatest length, 61 ; basicranial length, 49 ; 
zygomatic breadth, 41 ; palatal length, 23 ; length of upper molar series, 
19.5." 

I have not seen a specimen of this animal, and as Herr Lonnberg 
makes no reference to any species with which it may be compared, it 
is difficult to assign it to its proper place in the genus. In size it seems 
to be nearest to G. hindsi Elliot, from Katwi, Athi River, British East 
Africa, and in color appears to differ mainly in the underparts being 
"dirty white" instead of white, "tail dark brown, gradually darkening 
to blackish towards the distal third, paler below," instead of tail above 
pale wood brown, beneath whitish. It may be remarked that the type 
localities of these two Bush-Babys are not far apart. 

Without a careful comparison, it is impossible to state what claims 
this animal has to a distinct specific rank. As it is impossible to de- 
termine this at present, it is here given the benefit of any doubt that 
may arise. 

Subgenus 2. Otolicnus. 

Size small ; muzzle short ; last upper molar may be tricuspidate or 
quadricuspidate, but the last lower molar is always quinquicuspidate. 
Angle of mandible produced backwards and slightly downward. 

Galago alleni Waterhouse. 

Galago alleni Waterh., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1837, p. 87 ; Gray, 
List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 16; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 
Fam. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 329 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 140 ; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, 
p. 375, pi. XXXII ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit - 



64 GALAGO 

eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 82, fig. 8 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays- 
Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 329; Bedd., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, 
pp. 453, 461 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 43, (Part.) ; 
Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. 185 ; Bates, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1905, p. 71. 
Galago acaciarum var. alleni, Less., Spec. Mamra., 1840, p. 247. 
Galago {Otolicnus) alleni Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. Ill; 
Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 647; Pousarg., Nouv. 
Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, VI, 1894, p. 150; Id. Ann. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, III, 7me Ser., 1896, p. 242; F. Major, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 138, fig. 
Otolicnus alleni van der Hoev., Tijdsch. Natur. Gesch. Phys., 
1844, p. 42; Temm., Esquis. Zool., 1853, p. 40; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 36; V, 1855, p. 159; Fitz- 
ing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Naturw. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 
742. 
Sciurocheirus alleni Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 857. 
allen'S galago. £mam, native name in Cameroon. 

Type locality. Fernando Po. Type in British Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Cameroon, (Sclater) ; Gaboon and Fernando Po. 
Genl. Char. Ears very large ; second upper molar nearly equal 
in size to third premolar, talon greatly developed; last molar quadi- 
cuspidate ; incisors placed in front of line between canines. 

Color. Head, face, back, arms and legs mummy brown ; the lower 
back has the hair much worn and the blackish brown under fur shows, 
making this part darker than the rest ; under parts whitish but most 
of the hair gone ; tail bistre. Ex type British Museum in poor con- 
dition. 

Another specimen in perfect state has head blackish brown and 
gray ; gray stripe between eyes and on nose ; upper parts dark mummy 
brown ; outer side of arms dark cinnamon rufous ; patch of cinnamon 
rufous at thigh joint, rest of leg russet ; hands and feet dark grayish 
brown ; under parts grayish white ; tail, basal half black, brown and 
gray, apical half dark chestnut. 

Measurements. Total length, 445 ; tail, 235. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 50; intertemporal width, 19; palatal length, 18; median 
length of nasals, 13; width of braincase, 24; length of upper molar 
series, 17; length of mandible, 30; length of lower molar series, 17. 

Bates states that the cmam is "found in the daylight in hollow 
trees, three or four huddled together asleep. An cmam that was 



GAL AGO 65 

brought to me alive showed great powers of jumping. A monkey can 
jump outwards and downwards and catch a branch, but this Galago 
could jump out and up and catch hold of a branch. It died in the 
hot sunshine when I was away from camp ; it had probably never felt 
sunshine before." 

Galago alleni cameronensis (Peters). 

Otolicnus alleni var. cameronensis Peters, Monatsb. K. Preuss. 

Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1876, p. 472. 
Galago alleni var. cameronensis Matschie, Mitt. Geog. Ges. Natur. 

Mus. Lubeck, 1894, p. 131. 
Galago {Otolicnus) alleni var. cameronensis Pousarg., Nouv. 

Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, VI, 1894, p. 154. 

CAMEROON GALAGO. 

Type locality. Aqua Town, Cameroon, West Africa. Type in 
Berlin Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Cameroon, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Tail shorter than typical form, less tufted ; posterior 
upper molar tricuspidate. 

Color. Top of head and upper part of body russet brown, hairs 
white tipped; the fur slate color at base, then russet and tips white; 
flanks more reddish; indistinct whitish hue between eyes; shoulders, 
arms above elbows, and outer side of thighs cinnamon, with a reddish 
tint on shoulders ; forearms cinnamon with only a slight red tint ; legs 
below knees, and hinder part of thighs mouse gray, tinged with yellow- 
ish on legs ; chin, throat, and entire under parts grayish white ; hands 
and feet grayish brown; tail ashy brown the hairs tipped with 
silvery white; ears brown. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 610; tail, 400. Skull: occipito- 
nasal length, 51; zygomatic width, 32; intertemporal width, 17.5; 
median length of nasals, 15.5; length of upper molar series, 17; length 
of mandible, 31 ; length of lower molar series, 15. Ex type Berlin 
Museum. 

This is a rather smaller animal than G. alleni and of a lighter 
color on body ; the tail also is quite different, and much shorter. 

Galago alleni gabonensis Gray. 

Galago alleni var. gabonensis Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, 
p. 146; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 82. 



66 GALAGO 

Galago (Otolicnus) gabonensis Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1864, pp. 339, 647. 
Galago (Otolicnus) alleni var. gabonensis Pousarg., Nouv. Archiv. 

Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, VI, 1894, p. 152. 
Otolicnus gabonensis Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 860. 

GABOON GALAGO. 

Type locality. Gaboon, West Africa. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Gaboon, West Africa. Limits of range unknown. 

Genl. Char. Ears smaller than those of G. alleni ; last upper 
molar tricuspidate ; incisors not in front of canines. Palate narrower, 
and bullae larger than in G. alleni. 

Color. Stripe from forehead on to nose, base of ears, cheeks, and 
sides of neck light gray ; hind neck, and upper parts russet ; arms, and 
upper parts of thighs cinnamon, in some examples these parts are 
cinnamon rufous ; legs from knees to ankles, gray ; hands and feet dark 
grayish brown ; under parts, and inner sides of limbs yellowish white ; 
base of tail iron gray, remainder drab gray. Ex type British Museum. 

Some specimens have all the upper parts cinnamon rufous, and 
the tail drab gray; ears brownish black. 

Measurements. Total length, 510; tail, 275; foot, 70; ear, 31, 
(Collector). Skull: occipito-nasal length, 51; Hensel, 39; intertem- 
poral width, 17; palatal length, 18; median length of nasals, 20; 
breadth of braincase, 24; length of upper molar series, 16; length of 
mandible, 31 ; length of lower molar series, 15. 

Galago alleni batesi Elliot. 

Galago alleni batesi Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 7th Ser., 
1907, p. 187. 

BATE'S GALAGO. 

Type locality. Kemo River, Gaboon, West Africa. Type in Brit- 
ish museum. 

Gen. Char. Similar to G. a. gabonensis, but much darker above, 
and has a black tail, and light gray feet ; and from G. alleni it differs in 
black tail, and gray legs below knees, and feet. 

Color. Forehead, base of ears, cheek, stripe between eyes and 
nose light gray ; top of head and hind neck, and upper parts dark 
mummy brown ; outer side of arms dark tawny ; a patch of tawny on 
thigh, the upper portions darker than the lower, rest of legs brownish 
gray, becoming clear gray on feet ; throat, and front of neck yellowish ; 
rest of lower parts whitish ; hands grayish mummy brown ; tail black 



GAL AGO 67 

sprinkled with gray on basal half. Ears large, blackish. Ex type in 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Skin, total length, 470 ; tail, 250. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 48; Hensel, 38; zygomatic width, 32; intertemporal 
width, 18 ; palatal length, 19 ; breadth of braincase, 24 ; median length 
of nasals, 13 ; length of upper molar series, 16 ; length of mandible, 31 ; 
length of lower molar series, 14. Ex type British Museum. 

While this race has a general resemblance to both G. alleni and 
G. a. gabonensis, it can readily be distinguished from both ; by its gray 
legs and feet from G. alleni, and gray feet, darker upper parts and 
black tail from G. a. gabonensis. The last named and the present race 
come together on the Como River, but there are no intermediate 
specimens. 

Galago zanzibaricus Matschie. 

Galago zanzibaricus Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, 
Berlin, 1893, p. 111. 

ZANZIBAR GALAGO. 

Type locality. Island of Zanzibar. Type in Berlin Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size small ; tail about length of body and head ; hair 
short ; fur on body woolly ; ears large. Skull with a broad braincase, 
wide at occiput. 

Color. Top of head and upper parts cinnamon, darkest on head 
and neck and dorsal region ; outer side of limbs ochraceous buff ; 
under parts buff; hands and feet grayish white; tail, Prout's brown, 
hairs tipped with golden, becoming blackish brown at tip. Ex type 
Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 365 ; tail, 195. Skull : total length, 
42 ; occipito-nasal length, 42 ; zygomatic width, 27 ; intertemporal width, 
16 ; median length of nasals, 1 1 ; length of upper molar series, 12 ; 
length of mandible, 23.5; length of lower molar series, 11. Ex type 
Berlin Museum. 

The type is a flat skin in fair condition. It is a very small animal 
about the size of G. cameronensis, but with a shorter and less bushy 
tail. 

Galago talboti Dollman. 

Galago talboti Dollman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., V, 8th Sen, 1910, 
p. 93. 



68 GALAGO 

Type locality. Nkami, Southern Nigeria. Type in British 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to G. elegantulus, but under parts buffy 
white, instead of gray. 

Color. Upper parts pale brownish red; dorsal stripe brownish 
orange, hairs slaty gray on basal half, then yellowish and apical 
portion buffy brown. Face and sides of head reddish buff ; top of head 
grayish buff and red; sides of neck grayish white; under parts buffy 
white ; flanks reddish brown ; throat reddish, hairs gray at their bases ; 
outer side of arms grayish red, of legs like back but more yellow ; inner 
side of limbs buffy white ; hands and feet yellowish white ; tail above 
brownish buff washed with gray, tip grayish buff. 

Measurements. Total length, 440; tail, 274; foot, 64; ear, 31. 
Skull : total length, 49.4 ; zygomatic width, 35.7 ; basal length, 37.5 ; 
greatest length of nasals, 13.4 ; palatal length, 18.5 ; length of upper 
molar series, 14. 

This species is unknown to me. 

Galago gallaeum Thomas. 

Galago gallarum Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., VIII, 7th Ser., 

1901, p. 27. 
Galago galago Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1900, p. 802. 

BORAN GALAGO. 

Type locality. Webi Daue, Boran Galla country, East Africa. 
Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Boran Galla country, East Africa. 

Genl. Char. Drab coloration; yellow limbs; dorsal hairs with 
white subterminal bands. 

Color. General color above ecru drab ; the hairs being dark slaty 
gray on basal half, then fulvous followed by a white subterminal, and 
black terminal, rings. Centre of nose, white ; orbital ring, black ; outer 
side of legs pale ochre yellow ; arms ecru drab ; hands and feet yellow- 
ish white ; chin, inner side of arms, and inguinal region white to the 
base of hairs ; belly hairs white, their bases slaty ; tail pale smoky gray, 
tip black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 390 ; tail, 225 ; ear, 34. No skull. 

Galago braccatus Elliot. 

Galago braccatus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 7th Ser., 1907, 
p. 187. 



GALAGO 69 

MT. KILIMANJARO GALAGO. 

Type locality. Mount Kilimanjaro, German East Africa. Type 
in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to G. gallarum, but darker gray above, and 
the bright buff of the limbs ends abruptly on meeting the gray color, 
and does not grade into it, as in the allied species. 

Color. Head and neck buff, hairs tipped with black, giving these 
parts a grizzled appearance; rest of upper parts iron gray; orbital 
ring black ; stripe between eyes, nose, upper lip, cheek and chin, gray ; 
upper side of arms and legs, bright buff; hands and feet, yellowish 
gray; under parts, and inner side of thighs, yellowish white; tail, 
Prout's brown, hairs tipped with white; ear large, naked, black. Ex 
type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length about 480 ; tail, 300. Skull : occip- 
ito-nasal length, 45 ; Hensel, 32 ; zygomatic width, 29 ; intertemporal 
width, 19; palatal length, 15 ; width of braincase, 24; median length of 
nasals, 12 ; length of upper molar series, 13 ; length of mandible, 26 ; 
length of lower molar series, 13. Ex type British Museum. 

This rather handsome species was obtained by Mr. A. B. Percival 
on Mount Kilimanjaro, East Africa. While allied to G. gallarum 
Thomas, it is easily distinguished from the type of that species by its 
dark gray color, and the abruptness with which the buff and gray of 
the legs come together. As is to be expected of an animal living upon 
a high mountain the fur is thick and long. There are no appreciable 
differences in the skulls of the two species. 

Galago braccatus albipes Dollman. 

Galago braccatus albipes Dollman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 8th Ser., 
IV, 1909, p. 549. 

Type locality. Kirui, Elgon, British East Africa. Altitude 6,000 
feet. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to G. braccatus, but back darker, limbs 
lighter. 

Color. General hue dark ashy gray; outer side of arms similar 
to G. braccatus, but paler and more yellow toward extremities ; outer 
side of upper thighs dark gray, remainder, and legs pale yellowish buff ; 
fingers and toes white ; throat and chest buff colored ; inner side of 
limbs grayish buff. Tail not mentioned. 

Measurements. Total length, 445; tail, 270; foot, 65; ear, 41. 
Skull: total length, 46; Hensel, 32; zygomatic breadth, 33.5; palatal 
length, 14 ; length of upper molar series, 13. 



70 GAL AGO 

I have not seen this race as it was received at the British Museum 
and described after my departure from England. 

Galago dunni Dollman. 

Galago dunni Dollman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 8th Ser., V, 1910, 
p. 92. 

Type locality. Fafan, 35 miles east of Harrar, Somaliland, East 
Africa. 

Genl. Char. Similar to G. braccatus albipes, but larger and paler. 
Skull: nasals broad anteriorly, then narrowing and widening pos- 
teriorly. 

Color. Upper part of body pale grayish brown, darker on dorsal 
line, hairs being slaty gray with grayish white tips ; flanks paler ; outer 
side of arms buff ; outer side of legs like G. b. albipes, but more buffy 
and the gray parts paler; under parts and inner side of arms white 
washed with cream ; inner side of legs grayish white tinged with yellow ; 
hands and feet yellowish ; tail above basal half like back, apical half 
browner ; beneath paler, more gray. 

Measurements. Total length, 475 ; tail, 275 ; foot, 72 ; ear, 38. 
Skull : total length, 48 ; zygomatic width, 34.5 ; nasals greatest length, 
14 ; greatest width, 4.9 ; least width, 2.4 ; palatal length, 14.7 ; length of 
upper molar series, 13.3. 

This species I have not seen. 

Galago nyass^: Elliot. 

Galago nyassce Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 7th Ser., 1907, 
p. 188. 

Galago moholi Thos., (nee Smith), Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1894, 
p. 137. 

Type locality. Mountains south of Lake Nyassa, Portuguese East 
Africa. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Fur woolly; tail bushy; skull, much broken, exhibits 
great differences from that of the species I call G. sennaariensis 
from the White Nile southward to Ankole, west of the Victoria 
Nyanza. The rostrum is long and more slender, and the nasals are 
long and narrow ; the palate is long and narrow and does not widen 
out posteriorly to anything like the extent as seen in skulls of G. sen- 
naariensis ; the anterior line of the orbit is in front of the first molar, 
instead of in front of the third premolar as in the other species ; there 
is only a slight rise of the frontal above the rostrum, thus making 



GAL AGO 71 

the superior outline of the skull very much less rounded, indeed quite 
flat as compared with that of G. sennaariensis. Of the braincase 
only the frontals and parietals remain, the occipital region and bullae, 
and lower portion of skull on one side even to the palate, having disap- 
peared, so no comparison can be made beyond those already given. 

Color. General hue above broccoli brown; outer side of arms 
broccoli brown ; legs cream buff ; under parts and inner side of limbs 
yellowish white ; cream buff on chest. Ex type in British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length about 355 to end of hairs on tail ; tail, 
185. Skull: from frontal suture to end of nasals, 27; median length 
of nasals, 10; width of rostrum at canines, 7; length of palate, 
15; width between last molars, 7; length of lower molar series, 13. 
Ex type in British Museum. 

The type in the British Museum Collection of skins and an ex- 
ample in alcohol from Zomba, Nyassa, are all that are known of this 
species. While the skin resembles in color G. gallarum more perhaps 
than any other, the skull in its long and narrow rostral region, and 
low crown is very different. The type was procured by Dr. Kirk when 
he was accompanying Dr. Livingstone, the famous Explorer. 

Galago granti Thomas and Wroughton. 

Galago granti Thos. and Wrought., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, 
p. 286; 1908, p. 166. 

Type locality. Cogungo, Inhambane District, near Delagoa Bay, 
Portuguese East Africa. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Muzzle long ; tail long, bushy. 
grant's galago. Native name in Portuguese East Africa, Konsiti, 
Suwanjati, ( Inhambane ) . 

Color. Entire upper parts, wood brown, darkest on middle of 
back ; nose and stripe between eyes, broadening to a patch on forehead, 
whitish gray ; sides of nose and lips, and orbital ring, black ; top of head 
blackish, caused by the dark tips of hairs massed over the wood 
brown central portions; cheeks buffy; outer side of arms clay color; 
outer side of legs cream buff; throat and chest cream buff; rest of 
under parts whitish; hands grayish, feet cream buff; tail cinnamon, 
blackish at tip ; ears black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 395 ; tail, 237 ; foot, 63 ; ear, 43, 
(Collector). Skull: occipito-nasal length, 44; Hensel, 32; zygomatic 
width, 28; intertemporal width, 27; palatal length, 15; width of brain- 
case, 22 ; median length of nasals, 10 ; length of upper molar series, 



72 GAL AGO 

13 ; length of mandible, 26 ; length of lower molar series, 13. Ex type 
British Museum. 

This is a pale species with a long bushy tail, and belongs to the 
small forms of the Galago senegalensis group, and does not approach 
very nearly in color to any of the other species. Mr. Grant, as quoted 
by Messrs. Thomas and Wroughton, states that at Cogungo, Inham- 
bane, it was "common and inhabited the forests. It is strictly noc- 
turnal, sleeping during the day in hollow trees, where it may generally 
be taken in small family parties. This species like many others is 
eaten by the natives." 

Galago senegalensis E. Geoffroy. 

Galago senegalensis E. Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., 1796, p. 41, pi. I 
Fisch., Anat. Maki, 1804, p. 42 ; Id. Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 68 
E. Geoffroy, Ann. Mus. Hist. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 166; Id 
Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 33, lime Legon; Gray 
List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 17; I. Geoff., Cat 
Primates, 1851, p. 81; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim 
Nat., 1856, f asc. I, pp. 228-230 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1863, p. 147; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 147 
Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit 
Mus., 1870, p. 10; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p 
329, (Part.) ; Anders., Cat. Mamm., Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt 
I, 1881, p. 98; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1904, p. 41. 

Lemur galago Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, 1800, p. 108. 

Galago geoifroyi Fisch., Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 1, 1806, p. 25. 

Galagoides senegalensis. A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Jour., II, 1833, 
p. 32. 

Galago acaciarum Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 246. 

Galago moholi A. Smith, 111. Zool. S. Afr., 1839, pi. LXXXVIII 
bis; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 146; Huxley, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 324, fig. 5 ; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. 
Metth. Naturw. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, 1870, p. 739 : Gray, 
Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 83, fig. 9; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 859; 
Pousarg., Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, VI, 1894, p. 
146. 

Otolicnus galago Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 292 : 
V, 1855, p. 158; van der Hoev., Tijdsch. Natur. Geschied., 
1844, p. 40. 



GALAGO 73 

Galago acaciarum var. B. senegalensis Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, 

p. 248. 
Otolicnus senegalensis Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, 

p. 292, tab. XXXVIIIb ; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Naturw. 

Akad. Wissench. Wien, 1870, p. 731 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1872, p. 859 ; Pousarg., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 

1904, p. 144. 
Galago conspicillatus I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 81 ; Dahlb., 

Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., 1856, f asc. I, pp. 228-230 ; 

Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 148; Fitzing., Sit- 
zungsb. Metth. Naturw. Akad. Wissench. Wien, 1873, p. 741. 
Otolicnus galago B. senegalensis Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 

V, 1855, p. 158. 
Otolicnus galago var. australis Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 

V, 1855, p. 158. 
Galago murinus Murray, Edinb. Phil. Jour., X, 1859, p. 243, juv. 
Galago (Otolicnus) senegalensis Schinz, Syn. Mamm., 1844, p. Ill ; 

Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.. 1864, p. 647. 
Galago (Otolicnus) moholi Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. Ill; 

Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 647. 
Otolicnus cuvieri Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Naturw. Akad. 

Wissench. Wien, 1870, p. 745. 

SENEGAL GALAGO. 

Type locality. Senegal, West Africa. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Senegal, Angola, (Cameron). 

Genl. Char. Ears large, bare; legs longer than arms; posterior 
upper premolar smaller than the middle and posterior molars; pos- 
terior premolar and first and second molars have a small cusp between 
the two front cusps ; upper incisors four. 

Color. Head, Prout's brown, the hairs tipped with gray ; upper 
parts dark gray washed with russet ; outer side of legs cream buff ; 
under parts yellowish white ; hands brown, feet blackish ; tail, basal 
portion similar to back, remainder burnt umber; a white streak 
between eyes and nose ; ears pale brown. 

The type in the Paris Museum has top of head Prout's brown, 
shading into yellowish gray on the back of neck ; rest of upper parts 
pinkish buff, becoming more cream buff on outer side of limbs ; under 
parts, and inner side of limbs pale yellow; tail pale sooty brown; 
hands and feet brownish yellow ; ears yellow. The type has faded, 
and exhibits at present a cream buff animal with a pinkish tinge on the 



74 GAL AGO 

upper parts, and with a brown head and pale sooty brown tail. The 
ears are very large, and yellow in their dried state. The orbits are the 
same in color as the rest of the face, but other examples have black 
orbital rings. This style was named conspicillatus by Geoffroy. G. 
moholi Smith, is the same as the present species and the name must 
become a synonym. The type is in the British Museum Collection and 
is in a faded condition. My description taken from it reads as 
follows. Head and upper parts of body, ecru drab; outer side of 
limbs cream buff ; under parts yellowish white ; hands and feet yellow- 
ish gray; tail above fawn color on basal half, Prout's brown on the 
remaining portion, growing darker at tip. 

Measurements. Total length, 400 ; tail, 230. Skull, not the type : 
occipital region gone; intertemporal width, 18; palatal length, 12; 
width of braincase, 23; median length of nasals, 11; length of upper 
molar series, 12; length of mandible, 22; length of lower molar 
series, 12. 

The skull of the type is in the skin. 

Galago sennaariensis Lesson. 

Galago acaciarum var. G. sennaariensis Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, 

p. 248. 
Otolicnus teng Sundev., Konegl. Sven. Vatenk. Akad. Handl., 

1842, p. 201. 
Otolicnus galago a. sennaariensis Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 

1855, p. 158. 
Galago sennaariensis Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 147; 

Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, pp. 137-630; Huxley, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 324. 
Galago (Otolicnus) sennaariensis Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1864, p. 647. 
Otolicnus sennaariensis Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 859. 
Galago moholi (nee Smith), Kirk, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 

p. 650; Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1894, p. 137; 1896, 

p. 790. (Nyassaland). 
Type locality. Sennaar, Africa. 

Geogr. Distr. Sennaar along the White Nile south of Khartoum, 
to Mashonaland, and into Ankole west of the Victoria Nyanza, up to 
5,000 feet. Nyassaland at Kebrabassa, Batoka (Kirk), and the 
Chiradzula Mts. (Thomas). 

Genl. Char. General hue dark bluish gray ; tail very long, half as 



GAL AGO 75 

long again as the body; feet large; ears large. Posterior upper molar 
tricuspidate ; third upper premolar very large. 

Color. Head, neck, rest of upper parts and outer side of limbs 
dark bluish gray, washed sometimes on head and back with brown ; 
(one specimen from Goz Abu Guma on the White Nile, is pale gray 
washed with ecru drab on the back) ; orbital ring black ; stripe between 
eyes and on nose white ; inner edge of thighs cream buff ; entire under 
parts whitish ; hands gray ; feet whitish gray ; tail at base ecru drab, 
remainder blackish, hairs tipped with white ; ears black. 

Measurements. Total length, 483 ; tail, 303 ; foot, 75 ; ear, 43. 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 45 ; Hensel, 13 ; zygomatic width, 32 ; 
intertemporal width, 18 ; palatal length, 19 ; width of braincase, 25 ; 
median length of nasals, 13 ; length of upper molar series, 13 ; length 
of mandible, 28; length of lower molar series, 13. 

This appears to be a well marked, long tailed, blue gray species 
found in the valley of the White Nile, southward to the west of the 
Victoria Nyanza, and to Mashonaland up to an elevation of 5,000 feet. 
Eight specimens are in the British Museum Collection ; from Goz Abu 
Guma on the White Nile north of Khartoum, Mashonaland at Mazse 
5,000 feet elevation, and South Western Ankole, west of the Victoria 
Nyanza at an altitude of 5,000 feet. It seems impossible to discover 
any differences to separate these specimens. The skins with one excep- 
tion closely resemble each other; the exception being the one from 
Goz Abu Guma, which is an ecru drab above, but others from the same 
locality are the usual blue gray, and for lack of any evidence to the 
contrary, we must attribute this difference to an individual peculiarity, 
or to season, as it was taken in April, the blue ones in November. 
More material and more knowledge of the seasonal changes, are neces- 
sary before the value of many specific differences, so considered, can 
be fully ascertained. The skulls vary considerably in size, but this 
difference is probably caused by age or sex. In the Paris Museum is 
a specimen, No. 187, which is recorded in the old Catalogue as Galago 
sennaariensis Type. This is probably the specimen called by Lesson 
(1. c.) Galago acaciarum var. C. sennaariensis. It is the usual blue 
gray animal, the specimen faded somewhat in the lapse of years, the 
blue hue only remaining on top of head and upper back between the 
shoulders, rest of upper parts and limbs assuming a brownish tint. 
The tail is darker than the body and is now a reddish brown hue. The 
ears are large and blackish, the under parts and inner side of limbs 
whitish, and the skull is in the skin. 



76 GALAGO 

Measurements. Total length, 365 ; tail, 195 ; foot, 65. 

In the British Museum are two specimens of this species each 
marked co-type and which were the originals of Gray's description. 
He did not select any particular specimen as The type. 

Galago mossambicus Peters. 

Galago senegalensis Peters, Reis. Mossamb. Saugeth., 1852, p. 11. 

(nee Geoff.). 
Galago mossambicus Peters, Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, 

Berlin, 1876, p. 143 ; Thos. and Wrought., Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1908, p. 537. 

MOZAMBIQUE GALAGO. 

Type locality. North of Tete, Mozambique. Type in Berlin 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Type locality only. 

Genl. Char. Size small; tail very long; ears large; rostrum 'very 
short. 

Color. General color of head, upper parts of body and outer side 
of limbs sooty gray, tinged with buff on hinder part of thighs and legs 
below the knee ; under parts and inner side of limbs sooty buff ; hands 
and feet sooty; tail sooty brown tinged with reddish. Ex type Berlin 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 400 ; tail, 210. Skull, much broken : 
zygomatic width, 26; median length of nasals, 10; length of upper 
molar series, 9. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

This is a small animal distinguished by its sooty head. That is, 
as the type is today, as shown to me in the Berlin Museum ; but Peters 
in his Reise states, that the under parts are grayish white, (grau 
weiss), or yellowish white, (gelblich weiss). Four specimens in the 
British Museum from a few miles south of Tete have the under side 
so colored. It is probable therefore that the type has become discolored 
by dust, and does not correctly represent the species. 

GaLxVGO pupulus Elliot. 

Galago pupulus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser.. 1909, 

p. 77. 
Type locality. Yola, Nigeria. Type in British Museum. 
Genl. Char. Size small, color pale; ears very large; tail very long. 
Color. Top of head, neck, and back to root of tail brownish gray, 
the brown tinge less noticeable between the shoulders which part is a 



PLATE X. 




GALAGO ELEGANTULUS. 

No. 99.4.6.4. Brit. Mu-. Coll. ' ', larger than Nat. Size 



GALAGO 77 

more decided gray ; nose, and between eyes whitish ; sides of head, chin, 
throat, under side of body, and inner side of thighs grayish white; 
forearms and legs cream buff; inner side of arms buffy white; hands 
and feet cream buff; tail drab gray; ear reddish brown. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 360; tail, 220; foot, 37. Skull: 
total length, 40.2; intertemporal width, 28.6; breadth of braincase, 
22.4 ; Hensel, 26.2 ; zygomatic width, 25 ; median length of nasals, 
12.8; palatal length, 12.5; length of upper molar series, 13; length of 
mandible, 22; length of lower molar series, 11.5. Ex type British 
Museum. 

This species belongs to the group having the hind legs more or 
less cream buff in color. The ears are enormous occupying the entire 
sides of the head, and the pale yellowish hue of the outer side of the 
limbs is very conspicuous. In general appearance it is very like G. 
mossambicus, but the characters of the skull are very different. The 
species just named is remarkable for its very short rostrum while the 
present animal has a long rostrum, with slender nasals, of about equal 
width for their entire length, while those of its relative broaden con- 
siderably at the tip ; the bullae are much longer and narrower and 
the molar series much larger. 

Subgenus 3. Otogale. 

First upper premolar shaped like canine; muzzle short; angle of 
mandible produced downwards; tarsus shorter in proportion to tibia 
than in members of subgenus Otolicnus. 

Galago elegantulus Le Conte. 

Galago elegantulus Le Conte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1857, 
p. 10; Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1861, p. 153; Pou- 
sarg., Ann. Scien. Nat., Paris, III, 7me Ser., 1896, p. 241 ; 
Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 185. 

Galago (Otogale) elegantulus Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1864, p. 647. 

Galago alleni Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 43, (Part.). 

Galago (Otolicnus) elegantulus Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1901, p. 138; Pousarg., Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
VI, 1894, p. 141. 



78 GAL AGO 

Type locality. West Africa. Type in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Geogr. Distr. Cameroon, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Ears short ; tail very long with white spot at tip ; 
first upper premolar canine like ; no lachrymo-malar suture, the malar 
placed further backward than in other species. 

Color. Upper parts pale cinnamon rufous, paler on the rump ; 
dark cinnamon rufous dorsal band from head to lower back, indistinct 
upon the neck ; forehead gray washed with cinnamon ; orbital rings 
black ; line from forehead over nose gray ; outer side of arms dull 
russet; outer side of legs wood brown ; entire under parts of body, and 
inner side of limbs slate color washed with yellowish white, the hairs 
being tipped with that hue ; hands and feet broccoli brown ; ears dark 
mars brown; tail at base above like the back, remainder drab, some- 
times grayish with a white tip, beneath slate color washed with white. 
Ex type Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Measurements. Total length, about 580; tail, 260. Skull: (not 
the type), occipito-nasal length, 44; Hensel, 34; zygomatic width, 35; 
intertemporal width, 20; palatal length, 15; median length of nasals, 
11 ; length of upper molar series, 13 ; length of mandible, 30; length of 
lower molar series, 14. 

This form is distinguishable from others of the genus by the 
bright rufous upper parts, and by the yellowish brown tail, sometimes 
grayish and tipped with white. The color of the upper parts is quite 
different from that exhibited by the other members of the genus. The 
type is still of a very bright cinnamon rufous on back. No skull for 
the type specimen. 

Galago elegantulus tonsor Dollman. 

Galago elegantulus tonsor Dollman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., V, 8th 
Ser., 1910, p. 94. 

Type locality. 15 miles from mouth of Benito River, Spanish 
Guinea, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Similar to G. elegantulus but paler ; skull smaller. 

Geogr. Distr. Benito River, Spanish Guinea, and Efulan, Came- 
roon, West Africa. 

Color. General color pale orange, dorsal line brighter; face and 
sides of head gray; top of head gray washed with pale buff; under 
parts, and inner side of limbs grayish white; outer side of arms gray 
and buff ; of legs yellowish gray ; hands and feet gray ; tail on basal 



Volume 



Plate 3 




Galago elegantulus pallidus 



GAL AGO 79 

half above grayish buff, remainder gray with white tip, beneath gray 
washed with buff at base. 

Measurements. Total length, 495 ; tail, 280 ; foot, 61 ; ear, 30. 
Skull: total length, 45.4; zygomatic width, 36; basal length, 35; length 
of nasals, 11.6; palatal length, 17.3; length of molar series, 13. 

I have not seen this race. 

Galago elegantulus pallidus Gray. 

Otogale pallida Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 140, t. XIX ; 
Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 324; Mivart, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 646; Matschie, Saugeth., Deutsch. 
Ost Afr., 1895, p. 14. 

Otolicnus pallidus Pousarg., Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
VI, 1894, p. 141. 

Galago (Otogale) pallidus Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 
p. 646. 

Euoticus pallidus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 860. 

Galago pallida Bates, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1905, p. 71. 
pale galago. Nsce, native name in Southern Cameroon. 

Type locality. Fernando Po. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Southern Cameroon, (Bates), and Island of Fer- 
nando Po, (Capt. Burton), West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Head short, broad; face short, conical; eyes large; 
last upper molar quadricuspidate ; last lower molar quinquicuspidate. 

Color. Head, and between shoulders, and outer side of arms dark 
hair brown, rest of back broccoli brown ; gray spot between eyes ; nose 
blackish; white spots at axillae, and another on each side opposite the 
groin ; dorsal line from middle of back to tail, mummy brown ; outer 
side of legs like lower back; tail like back for basal third, remainder 
smoky gray. Ex type British Museum. 

Another specimen is paler, being dark hair brown washed with 
wood brown on head, upper part of back and arms ; remaining upper 
parts, and legs wood brown ; under parts yellowish ; basal part of tail 
wood brown, remainder hair brown washed with gray, British Mu- 
seum specimen. 

Measurements. Size similar to G elegantulus. Skull : zygo- 
matic width, 48; intertemporal width, 29; palatal length, 18; breadth 
of braincase, 25 ; median length of nasals, 13 ; length of upper molar 
series, 14; mandible missing, and occipital region of skull gone. 



80 



GALAGO 



This race is much darker than G. elegantulus and has none of 
the cinnamon color of that species; the mummy brown on the dorsal 
line, which is quite indistinct, being the only change from the general 
uniform hair brown color of the upper parts of the body. There are 
only two examples in the British Museum Collection, the second one 
being lighter on back and rump, this apparently on account of the old 
hair not having been yet shed, as the head and upper part of the back 
are dark like the type. 

Bates records (1. c.) that the Ns<z uses neither hollow trees nor 
old squirrel's nests for a hiding place in the daytime. They are found 
sleeping in bunches of as many as a half dozen, clinging with their 
arms around each other's bodies and around the branch of a tree. >A 
shrill squeaking or chirping often heard at night among the tree tops of 
the forest, is referred by the natives to the Nsce. They say that this 
noise is heard oftener near morning and that then the father is calling 
together the rest of the company, to gather them into a huddle for the 
daytime. 

Galago elegantulus apicalis (Du Chaillu). 

Otolicnus apicalis Du Chaillu, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1860, 
p. 361; Id. Equat. Africa, Append. 1861, p. 471; Matschie, 
Mitt. Geog. Ges. Nat. Mus. Liibeck, 1894, p. 131. 
du chaillu' s galago. Aboli, native name. 

Type locality. Equatorial Africa. "Mountains of the interior 
near the equator." No particular locality given. Type in British 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Skull of type has only the frontal bone, orbits and 
rostrum remaining; but these portions show considerable differences 
from the skull of G elegantulus with which species this one has 
been united by some writers. These differences may be expressed as 
follows. The width between the orbits is much greater ; the nasals are 
narrower, and the rostrum anteriorly much more slender and narrower : 
the frontal from the parietal suture to nasals is shorter ; the posterior 
end of nasals is rounded instead of pointed ; first upper molar is 
smaller and the third larger ; the bony palate from the center of the 
arch is longer, and the width throughout its length much less, causing 
the teeth to lie more on a straight line and not to flare outward, as is 
the case with the tooth rows of G. elegantulus ; the bony ring of the 
orbits is much wider. 

Color. Head, neck, and upper parts bright russet ; dorsal streak 
burnt umber ; outer side of arms mummy brown ; outer side of legs 



GALAGO 81 

Prout's brown ; under parts of body, and inner side of limbs yellow- 
ish white, the tips of the hairs being that color ; hands like arms ; feet 
like legs; tail at base mars brown, remainder bistre with whitish tips. 
Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. About the size of G. elegantulus. Skull : 
length of frontal, 19 ; width between orbits, 5 ; length of nasals, 12 ; 
width of rostrum above canines, 10 ; palatal length, 18 ; width of palate 
between last molars, 14; length of tooth row, 13. Ex type British 
Museum. 

The type, from which the above description and measurements 
were taken, is a very much darker and altogether a differently colored 
animal than G. elegantulus, and can be recognized at a glance. The 
differences in color and in the dimensions of the skull above given 
would seem to almost entitle this form to a separate specific rank. 

Du Chaillu states (1. c.) this species is called Aboli by the natives. 
It lives in the forest retiring by day to holes in the trees, coming out at 
night in search of food, which consists of fruit and insects. The male 
and female generally dwell together. "I kept one for some time and 
it throve well, being very fond of cockroaches, bananas and corn." It 
is found in the mountains of the interior near the equator. 



82 HEMIGALAGO 



GENUS 4. HEMIGALAGO. BUSH BABYS 

12 — 2 f-^ 1 — 1 |-» o — 3 m »■ 3 — 3 {■ 

• 2^' ^" I^I' "• iPS' M- 3—3 3°- 

First upper premolar unlike canine ; premaxillae extending in front 
of incisors ; muzzle short ; angle of mandible produced downwards and 
backwards; tarsi very long; species small in size. Second upper 
premolar with cusp on the heel. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. Second upper premolar with cusp on heel. 

a. Upper parts Prout's brown H. demidoffi. 

b. Upper parts mars brown H. d. poensis. 

c. Upper parts rufous washed with yellow H. anomurus. 

d. Upper parts drab washed with mars brown H. thomasi. 

*Hemigalago demidoffi (Fischer). 

Galago demidoffi Fisch., Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, I, 1806, 

p. 1, pi. XXIV, fig. 1, Juv.; Id. Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 68; I. 

Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 81 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1863, p. 148; Peters, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 

380, pi. XXV; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 248, 

fig.; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1888, p. 5, (Mombuttu) ; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 44; Pousarg., Ann. 

Scien. Nat., Paris, III, 7me Ser., 1896, p. 242. 
Mioxicebus rufus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 219. 
Microcebus rufus Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 107. 
Otolicnus peli Temm., Esquis. Zool., 1853, p. 42; Fitzing., Sit- 

zungsb. Metth. Naturw. Akad. Wissensth. Wien, 1870, p. 746. 
Otolicnus demidoffi Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 

292, (footnote) ; V, 1855, p. 165; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. 

Naturw. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, 1870, p. 748. 
Hemigalago demidoffi Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 



*For Geographical Distribution see Galago, p. 52. 



Volume I 



Plate 4 




• s», 



HEMIGALAGO DtMIDOFFI 



VOLUME I. 




HEMIGALAGO DEMIDOFFI. 
No. 08.5.4.3. Brit. Mus. Coll. Twice Nat. Size. 



HEMIGALAGO 83 

Natur., 1856, fasc. I, p. 230, tab. X, figs. 35, 35a; Gray, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 858; F. Major, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 139, figs. 38, 39. 

Galago (Hemigalago) demidoM Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1864, p. 648. 

Galago pusillus Peters, Monatsb., Konigl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 
Berlin, 1876, p. 473. 
demidoff's galago. Ojam, native name. 

Type locality. Senegal. 

Geogr. Distr. Gold Coast to Great Basin of the Congo, West and 
Central Africa ; Mombuttu, Equatorial Africa, (Thomas) ; Dongila, 
Gaboon, (Peters). 

Genl. Char. Second upper premolar with two small cusps on heel ; 
upper molars with small cusp on oblique ridge ; tail longer than head 
and body. 

Color. Head and upper parts Prout's brown, darkest on center of 
back and rump, but sometimes these parts are cinnamon rufous ; buff 
streak between eyes and nose ; upper lip black ; outer side of arms and 
legs like back with the outer edge of legs ochraceous buff ; entire under 
parts buff, darkest on the breast ; tail Prout's brown, hairs tipped with 
golden yellow. 

Measurements. Total length, 323; tail, 180; (skin). Skull: occi- 
pito-nasal length, 31; Hensel, 25; zygomatic width, 23; intertemporal 
width, 15; palatal length, 12; width of braincase, 19; length of upper 
molar series, 11; length of mandible, 20; length of lower molar 
series, 11. 

Peters gave a figure of the head, in his text, and a plate by Wolf 
of a Galago in his paper published in 1863 (1. c.) under the name of 
Galago demidoffi, but in 1876, (1. c.) decided his example was not 
that species, and named it Otolicnus pusillus. The plate exhibits an 
animal very like H. demidoffi, with some slight differences, but these 
may possibly arise from faulty coloring. The only differences stated 
by Peters in the later paper to separate his example from H. demi- 
doffi are its shorter ears and smaller size. No dimensions are in this 
paper, but they are given in the earlier one. Measurements in the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society, (1. c.) are as follows: "total 
length, 2" 2"', tail 3" 1"', head 1" 1'", arms 1" 5"', legs 2" 6"', thigh 8, 
tibia 10, foot and tarsus 1"." 



84 HEMIGALAGO 

There is an error here as the head and tail are made to measure 
separately, nearly twice the total length. 

I examined the type in the Berlin Museum. It is a baby and 
presents no characters to separate it from H. demidoffi. 

Bates (1. c.) states that the "little ojam is similarly found asleep, 
three or four huddled together in old nests of the squirrel osen. Some 
people have told me that the little Lemurs make their own nests, but 
it seems more likely that these are only old squirrel's nests. An ojam 
that I kept alive once for several days made a chirping noise at night, 
as shrill as that of a cricket. In grasping anything with its hind hand, 
the clawed finger was always folded in the palm, under and not over 
the thing it grasped." 



Hemigalago demidoffi poensis (Thomas). 

Galago demidoffi poensis Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. 
186. 

FERNANDO PO GALAGO. 

Type locality. Banterberi, Fernando Po, West Africa. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to H. demidoffi, but band on side of body 
paler ; tips of hairs black. 

Color. Upper parts and outer side of limbs mars brown darkest 
on dorsal region; yellowish white stripe between eyes and on nose; 
hands mars brown ; feet brownish gray ; under parts and inner side of 
limbs yellowish white; buff on abdomen; tail at base mars brown, 
remainder blackish brown, hairs tipped with golden. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 325 ; tail, 195 ; foot, 46 ; ear, 28, 
(Collector). Skull: occipito-nasal length, 38; Hensel, 22; zygomatic 
width, 24; intertemporal width, 15; palatal length, 12; breadth of 
braincase, 19; median length of nasals, 11; length of upper molar 
series, 10; length of mandible, 21; length of lower molar series, 11. 
Ex type British Museum. 



Hemigalago anomurus (Pousargues). 

Galago (Hemigalago) anomurus Pousarg., Nouv. Archiv. Mus. 
Hist. Nat., Paris, 1894, pp. 158, 164, pi. XI; Id. Ann. Scien. 
Nat. Paris, III, 7me Ser., 1896, p. 244. 



HEMIGALAGO 85 

Type locality. Upper part of the River Kemo, a tributary of the 
Oubongui, French Congo. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Kemo River, French Congo, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Muzzle equal in length to diameter of orbit; tail 
shorter than head and body. 

Color. Above yellowish rufous, darkest on nape, back and flanks ; 
all the rest of pelage beneath white, the hairs white at tips, blue at the 
roots ; inner side of legs buffy white ; a white stripe on nose ; orbital 
ring and sides of nose brownish black ; tail bushy, bright russet ; hands 
and feet pale brown. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 340; tail, 140; foot, 54; ear, 24. 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 36 ; Hensel, 25 ; zygomatic width, 22 ; inter- 
temporal width, 16 ; palatal length, 10 ; length of mandible, 20 ; length 
of upper molar series, 13 ; length of lower molar series, 10. Ex type 
Paris Museum. 

This is a very small species with a rather bushy tail of a general 
rufous color tinged with yellow; the tail however being darker than 
the body and without any yellow tinge. This type is in a good state 
of preservation, and as yet has probably only slightly faded. There is 
no real gray hue on the upper parts, the plumbeous of the base of the 
hairs, when showing through on throat and under parts, alone giving 
an indication of a gray hue. 



Hemigalago thomasi (Elliot) . 

Galago thomasi Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 7th Ser., 1907, 
p. 189. 

THOMAS'S GALAGO. 

Type locality. Fort Beni, Semliki River, Central Africa. Type in 
British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Uganda to boundary line of the Congo Free State. 

Genl. Char. Larger than H. demidoffi, color quite different. 
Skull much larger, differently shaped braincase, much broader in 
occipital region, and higher over roots of the zygomata; teeth much 
larger. 

Color. Head and upper parts drab, washed with mars brown on 
head and dorsal region ; stripe between eyes and nose yellowish white ; 
outer side of limbs drab; under parts and inner side of limbs buff; 
tail mars brown. Ex type British Museum. 



86 HEMIGALAGO 

Measurements. Total length, 349; tail, 200; foot, 58; ear, 28. 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 40 ; Hensel, 28 ; zygomatic width, 25 ; 
intertemporal width, 16; palatal length, 14; breadth of braincase, 21; 
median length of nasals, 12; length of upper molar series, 11; length 
of mandible, 22; length of lower molar series, 11. Ex type British 
Museum. 

This, the fourth member of the genus Hemigalago, differs from 
all in color and size, being the largest of all. The skull shows many 
and great differences from that of H. demidoffi or H. anomurus, and 
cannot well be confounded or mistaken for them. The type was taken 
on the boundary line of Uganda and the Congo Free State, and a 
second and somewhat darker specimen at Dumo, Uganda. Whether 
it goes farther into the Congo region or is confined to Uganda is 
unknown. 



VOLUME I. 




Chirogale sibreei. 
No. 97.9.1.160. Type Brit. Mus. Coll. ;< larger than Nat. Size. 



CHIROGALE 



87 



Subfamily 3. Lemurinae. 
GENUS CHIROGALE. MOUSE LEMURS. 



*• 8— 3> 



c — ■ 
y- o— o> 



P. Si M.S = 36- 



CHEIROGALEUS ( !) E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 172, pi. X. Type Cheirogaleus ( !) major E. Geof- 
froy. 

Myspithecus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., ed. 4°, 1833. 

Cebugale Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 207. 

Myscebus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 207. 

Myocebus Wagn., Wiegm., Archiv., 1841, II, p. 19. 

Myslemur Blainv., Diet. Univ. Hist. Nat. Paris, VIII, 1846, p. 559. 

Opolemur Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, pp. 853-855, fig. 1, 
pi. LXX. 

Chirogale F. Major, Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 1. 

Head round; face furred; eyes large; approximate; ears mem- 
branaceous, projecting beyond the fur; hind limbs longer than the 
fore limbs ; foot elongate ; nails flat, except that of second finger which 
is pointed ; tail longer than body. Skull : mastoid region not inflated ; 
inner upper incisor larger than outer ; last molar smaller than the first, 
with one internal and one external cusp; inner hind cusp of molars 
small, or absent ; palate extending beyond last molar. 

The Mouse Lemurs are small animals with tails as long or longer 
than the body. The head is round, with large eyes situated close to- 
gether, and the ears which are thin, stand out beyond the fur. 
The legs are longer than the arms, and the foot is very long, 
the astralagus, or heel bone, being remarkably elongate. The nails 
are flat except that of the second finger which is pointed. In their 
habits these animals are nocturnal, and during the dry season some 
species become torpid, sleeping all the time. They are only found on 
the island of Madagascar. During the summer a large amount of fat 
is deposited on portions of the body at the root of the tail, enlarging 
this part greatly, and the creature is sustained during the period of 
hibernation by absorbing this unique store of food ; resembling in this 
respect the Bears when they hibernate. 



88 CHIROGALE 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1812. E. Geoff roy Saint-Hilaire, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

In this paper the Author reproduces drawings of three Lemurs 
by Commercon, reduced two thirds, upon which he establishes 
the genus Cheirogaleus ( !) and gives to the three figures the 
names according to their respective size of C. major, C. medius, 
and C. minor. It is not known Avhat became of Commergon's 
types ; they probably were not preserved. They are not now in 
the Paris Museum, but there is a specimen there marked C. 
major Geoff., Type, so he must have selected it to represent the 
species he called by that name. C. medius is now in the genus 
Altililemur, and C. minor is a Microcebus, and is the same 
as M. murinus (Miller). 

1828. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Cours de I'Histoire Naturelle des 
Mammiferes. 

The Author here describes as Cheirogaleus ( !) milii, the ani- 
mal figured by Commercon to which he had previously given 
the name of C. major. 

1833. Sir A. Smith, in South African Quarterly Journal. 
C. major is here redescribed as C. typicus. 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 
Cheirogale major is here called Cebugale commersonii. 

1843. 7. E. Gray, in List of Specimens of Mammalia in the British 
Museum. 

Two species are here included in the genus Cheirogaleus ( !) 
C. smithii = Microcebus murinus, and C. typicus = C. major, 

1854. P. Gervais, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 

Three species are here given of Cheirogale, only one of which 
belongs to the genus, viz., C. milii = C. major, while C. furcifer 
and C. murinus both belong to the genus Microcebus. 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere in Abbildungen der Natur 
mit Beschreibungen. 

Various species are here included in Cheirogale, not all of 
which belong to the genus ; C. milii = C. major Geoff., C. 
typicus = C. major ; the others should be included in the genera 
Myoxicebus and Microcebus, viz., C. cinereus — Myoxicebus 
griseus ; C. olivaceus — Myoxicebus olivaceus ; C. furcifer = 
Microcebus furcifer ; and C. smithii — Microcebus murinus. 



CHIROGALE 89 

1856. Giebel, Die Sdugethiere. 

Like the Author just preceding, this Writer unites in this work 
with Chirogale, species of other genera: C. milii and C. 
typicus = C. major; C. furcifer is Microcebus furcifer; C. 
griseus is a Microcebus; C. smithii = Microcebus murinus; 
and C. olivaceus = Myoxicebus olivaceus. 

1863. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
In this review of the Lemurid^e the Author includes in the 
genus 'Cheirogaleus (!)' three species, C. milii, and C. 
typicus both of which = Chirogale major Geoffroy, and C. 
smithii = Microcebus murinus (Miller). 

1864. St. G. Mivart, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London. 

In this elaborate paper on the crania and dentition of the 
Lemurid^e only two species of the genus Cheirogale are 
given : C. milii = C. major, and C. typicus = C. major. In 
the arrangement of the species, however, C. typicus = C. 
major is erroneously placed in the genus Microcebus. 

1867. St. G. Mivart, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London. 

In this paper the Author endeavors to decide upon the character 
separating the genera Chirogale and Microcebus, and 
concludes that it will be possible (and perhaps even useful) 
still to retain, provisionally at least the distinction between 
them, though reposing mainly if not exclusively on a few 
cranial and dental characters. Yet in dividing the species he 
places furcifer and coquereli both of which belong to 
Microcebus, with C. milii = C. major, as two of the three 
species he allots to Chirogale. 

1868. Grandidier, in Comptes Rendus. 

C. major is redescribed as C. adipicaudatus. 
1870. Grandidier, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 
Chirogale crossleyi first described. 

/. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in British Museum. 

This is mainly a repetition of the review of the Lemuruxe 
given in the proceedings of the Zoological Society of London in 
1863. Three species are included in Cheirogaleus (!), C. 
milii = C. major; C. typicus = C. major; and C. smithii 



90 CHIROGALE 

= Microcebus murinus. In the appendix to the Catalogue a 
new genus Azema is created for the species last named, but 
which is quite uncalled for. 

1871. A. Milne-Edwards, in Revue ScientiAque. 

In his "L'Ordre des Lemuriens," this Author places the genera 
Chirogale, Microcebus, and Galago in the family Galagince, 
as a section of Microtarses, and decides that Microcebus and 
Chirogale, cannot be separated generically. 

1872. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
A new generic name, Opolemur is here proposed for Chirogale 
milii = C. major, which was already the type of Cheirogaleus 
( !) Geoff. 

1873. St. G. Mivart, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London. 

In this paper the zoological rank of Chirogale and its species 
is discussed. Following the opinion of Prof. A. Milne-Edwards 
which is apparently here adopted, he considers Chirogale and 
Microcebus the same generically, and that C. smithii, minor, 
myoxinus, gliroides, rufus, and pusillus are the same; that 
C. milii and typicus are synonymous, and adipicaudatus, and 
major Geoff., are the same as C. milii, and also L. samati 
Grandidier, is the same as C. (Altililemur) medius Geoff. 
Gray's genera of Murilemur, Phanar, Mirza, and Prolemur 
have no claim to distinctness. 

1875. Gunther, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Chirogale trichotis first described as 'Cheirogaleus (!)' 
trichotis. 

1876. Schlegel, in Museum des Pays-Bos, Simla. 

In the genus 'Cheirogaleus (!)' only one species is given, 
which, as now understood, should be included in it; viz., C. 
milii = C. major Geoff. The others are C. samati = Myoxice- 
bus medius (Geoff.) ; C. pusillus = Microcebus murinus; and 
C. myoxinus, also a Microcebus. C. trichotis is also 
mentioned but no specimen had been seen by the Author. 
1894. Forsyth-Major, in Novitates Zoologies. 

This paper is a review of the genera Chirogale and Microce- 
bus, with critical remarks on the species. Three are recognized 
as belonging to Chirogale, viz., C. milii = C. major, C. 
melanotis, and C. trichotis. Six are given to Microcebus, 



CHIROGALE 91 

and these will be considered under that genus, and one L. 

samati Grandidier, = Altililemur medius (E. Geoff.), is 

placed in Gray's genus Opolemur. 
1894. Forsyth-Major, in Novitates Zoologies. 

Chirogale melanotis first described. 
1896. Forsyth-Major, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Chirogale sibreei first described. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

Five species are here recognized as belonging to the genus Chiro- 
gale, all natives of the Island of Madagascar. It cannot be said that 
the limits of their dispersion are as yet definitely ascertained, especially 
of those comparatively lately described, as of these we know little 
beyond the locality in which they were discovered. The one most fa- 
miliar to Mammalogists, the C. major Geoffroy of this work, C. milii 
Auct, seems to have a rather extensive range on the Island, and is 
found from Pasandava on the north west coast to Tullare in the south, 
and on the east coast from Fort Dauphin in the south east, and in 
Betsileo Province in the lower wooded region, to Tamatave in the 
north east, and also according to Shaw in Central Madagascar. C. 
melanotis has been obtained at Vohemar on the north east coast, and 
C. sibreei was taken at Ankeramadinika one day's journey east of 
Antananarivo the capital, but the extent of the range of neither is 
known. C. crossleyi was procured by Grandidier in the forest of 
Antsianak, and C. trichotis was found by Mr. Crossley between 
Tamatave on the north east coast and Morondava on the west coast, 
but we have no knowledge of the limits within which the ranges of 
these two species are restricted. It is not improbable, however, that 
they may have a considerable dispersion in Central Madagascar. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Size moderately large ; ears without tufts. 
a. External tips of ears, naked, black. 

a.' Forehead and cheeks brown, hairs tipped 

with white C. major. 

b! Forehead and cheeks yellowish, hairs tipped 

with black C. sibreei. 



92 CHIROGALE 

b. External tips of ears hairy. 

a.' Larger ; head pale brownish red C. melanotis. 

b.' Smaller ; head rufous C. crossleyi. 

B. Size small ; ears tufted C. trichotis. 

Chirogale major E. Geoffroy. 

Cheirogaleus ( !) major E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
1812, XIX, p. 172, pi. X, fig. 1 ; Id. Cours Nat. Hist. Mamm, 
1828, p. 24, lime Legon; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Naturw. Akad. 
Wissensch. Wien, 1870, p. 656; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1873, p. 492. 

Cheirogaleus ( !) milii E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, 
p. 24, lime Legon; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 79; Gerv., 
Nat. Hist. Mamm., 1854, p. 171 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 
Reg. Anim. Natur., 1856, fasc. V, p. 223, pi. VIII, figs. 32 and 
32 a; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 142 ; Mivart, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 642; 1867, p. 971; Fitzing., 
Sitzungsb. Meth. Naturw. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, 1870, p. 
657; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 77 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 
p. 324, (Part.) ; Shaw, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 134; 
Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 768. 

Myspithecus typus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 2me ed., 1833, p. 
228, pi. LXXXIII. 

Cheirogaleus ( !) typicus A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ., II, No. 
1, Part II, 1833, p. 50; Gray, Cat. Spec. Mamm., Brit. Mus., 
1843, p. 17; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 142; 1872, p. 
855, fig. 3 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 78; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Meth. Natur. 
Akad. Wissensch. Wien, 1870, p. 664; Mivart, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 492. 

Cebugale commergoni Less., Illust. Zool., 1831-2, p. Ill ; Id. Spec. 
Mamm., 1840, p. 213. 

Lemur milii Blainv., Osteog., Mamm., Primates, 1841, p. 12, pi. 
VII. 

Lemur {Chirogaleus !) milii van d. Hoeven, Tijdsch. voor. 
Natuur. Geschied. Phys., 1844, p. 38. 

Chirogaleus ( !) commerqonii Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 
104. 

Microcebus milii Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 641. 

Microcebus typicus Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 641. 



Volume I 



Plate 5 




Chirogale major 



CHIROGALE 93 

Chirogaleus ( !) adipicaudatus Grandid., Compt. Rend., XIV, Dec. 

1868; Id. Ann. Scien. Nat., X, 1868, p. 378. 
Opolemur milii Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 853. 
Chirogale milii Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 492 ; F. 

Major, Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 21, pi. XI, figs. 1, 8, 9 ; Forbes, 

Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 50. 

MILIUS'S MOUSE LEMUR. 

Type locality. Madagascar. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern coast of Madagascar; Fort Dauphin to 
Tamatave ; also in the lower wooded regions of Betsileo Province ; and 
on the west coast from Tullare to Pasandava, Central Madagascar. 
(Shaw). 

Genl. Char. Nose rather broad ; ears moderate, sparsely haired ; 
braincase moderately arched ; orbits large ; palate extending beyond last 
molars with rather large posterior perforations ; bullae moderately large ; 
first premolar larger than second; upper inner incisors broad, flat 
at tips. 

The type of C. major Geoffroy is in the Paris Museum and is 
identical with his C. milii, and as the first name was published fourteen 
years before the latter, it will of course take precedence, and milii, by 
which appellation the species has been so long known, must become a 
synonym. The type is in very good condition and may be described 
as follows : orbital ring blackish brown ; whitish spot between eyes ; no 
facial streaks ; face, top and sides of head, and upper part of body to 
rump, and the tail pale reddish brown inclining to a buff; flanks and 
outer side of limbs, hands and feet, reddish brown or buff paler than 
the back; upper lip toward corner of mouth, chin, throat, inner side 
of limbs and under part of body white. 

Measurements. Total length, 609.6; tail, 278.5; foot, 51.4. 

The type of C. milii while faded somewhat, has undergone less 
change than most of the types of the earlier species in the Paris Mu- 
seum. It is a reddish brown animal with a yellowish white sheen, 
produced by the tips of the hairs, and with a long dull brownish tail 
darkest at the tip. The species varies so considerably in color among 
individuals that the type can only at best give an idea of but one phase 
of coloring, with which other examples would only agree in part. 

A general description of the species would be somewhat as follows. 

Color. Varying considerably among individuals ; head and neck 
brownish gray, sometimes grizzled with silver gray washed with rufous 
of varying intensity, this color sometimes extending over the entire 
upper parts ; in other examples the upper parts are ashy brown ; under 



94 CHIROGALE 

parts and inner side of limbs yellowish or whitish yellow ; orbital ring 
black; nose and face between eyes light gray; hands and feet dark 
brown ; tail pale rufous with white tip, or ashy brown for entire length. 
Measurements. Total length, about 580 ; tail, 275. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 56; Hensel, 47; intertemporal width, 16; palatal length, 
24 ; zygomatic width, 38 ; median length of nasals, 18 ; width of brain- 
case, 28; length of upper molar series, 19; length of mandible, 37; 
length of lower molar series, 20. 

Cheirogaleus ( !) typicus Smith, is undoubtedly the same as the 
present species. The type is in the British Museum and the following 
description is taken from it. 

Head and upper parts pale rufous, hairs tipped with gray more 
profusely on the rump and sides ; orbital ring black ; outer side of limbs 
and the tail like back ; space between eyes and top of nose without hairs, 
these having slipped off ; entire under parts yellowish. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 54 ; zygomatic width, 
34; intertemporal width, 16; median length of nasals, 19; width of 
braincase, 26 ; length of upper tooth row, 18 ; length of mandible, 34 ; 
length of lower tooth row, 16. 

Mr. Shaw, (1. c.) had one of this species in captivity and he relates 
that it lived in a small box, but was allowed to exercise in the room at 
night. It was nocturnal in its habits, and was brought from the forest 
on the lower part of the eastern side of Betsileo province. It ran about 
on all fours, but sat up to eat, holding its food in its hands. He 
imagined the animal hibernated, for in the winter, (June), after exer- 
cising for several nights, on opening the box one evening, it was found 
asleep and quite cold. He thought it was dead, but on holding it to 
the fire and rubbing it, it gradually awoke, and after having been 
thoroughly warmed it was none the worse in health. This happened 
several times, and from the fact that the tail became suddenly enlarged, 
it probably would, if in its native forest, have slept through the winter. 
It made a nest of leaves and dry grass, scooping a place in it just large 
enough to contain its body, and carefully covering itself with the loose 
material. Mr. Shaw considered it rare in Madagascar, for he was only 
able to obtain this individual, although he kept a man two months in the 
forest seeking it. Of course its nocturnal habits make its capture more 
difficult. His animal was easily tamed, and became very affectionate, 
coming when called by name, and enjoyed being handled. 



CHIROGALE 95 

Chirogale melanotis Major. 

Chirogale melanotis F. Major, Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 25, pi. II, 

fig. 10. 
Cheirogaleus ( !) melanotis Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 

52 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 

548, Zool. Ser. 

BLACK-EARED MOUSE LEMUR. 

Type locality. Vohemar, north east coast of Madagascar. Type 
in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to C. major, but ears black ; fur more silky. 
Skull smaller; face longer; nasals broader; last lower molar with a 
distinct heel. 

Color. Top of head, neck, upper parts and tail light brownish red ; 
outer side of limbs paler; ears and orbital ring black; pale grayish 
rufous stripe between eyes on to nose ; grayish stripe on side of neck 
extending from throat; entire under parts and inner side of limbs 
grayish white with a yellow tint. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 490; tail, 225. Skull: occipito- 
nasal length, 51; Hensel, 42; zygomatic width, 31.5; palatal length, 
20 ; width of braincase, 25 ; median length of nasals, 18 ; length of upper 
tooth row, 15; length of mandible, 32; length of lower tooth row, 16. 
Ex type British Museum. 

This form is very similar to C. major, but is slightly more red, 
and can always be distinguished by its black ears. The color of the 
tail of the two species is very much the same. 

Chirogale sibreei Major. 

Chirogale sibreei F. Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1896, p. 325. 

Type locality. Ankeramadinika, one day's journey east of Antana- 
narivo, Capital of Madagascar. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Teeth larger than in C. melanotis, canines much 
larger; upper tooth rows only slightly divergent posteriorly; molars 
nearly equal, the last slightly smaller ; first upper premolar longest, the 
third premolar shortest and broadest; palate extending beyond last 
molars; posterior openings small and narrow; inner upper incisors 
longer than outer; first lower premolar canine-like, much longer 
than the others, curved and pointed. 

Color. Forehead, around eyes, space between eyes and cheeks 
yellowish or buffy ; top of head, neck, and upper part of body grayish 
brown darkest on dorsal line ; outer side of limbs like back ; orbital 
ring black ; inside of ears naked, black ; entire under parts and inner 



96 CHIROGALE 

side of limbs gray, with a yellowish tinge ; hands and feet brown ; tail, 
basal half above like back, paler beneath, remainder pale reddish brown 
with white tipped hairs. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length about 500 ; tail, 250. Skull : occip- 
ito-nasal length, 47; Hensel, 44; zygomatic width, 31; intertemporal 
breadth, 20 ; palatal length, 19 ; width of braincase, 24 ; median length 
of nasals, 17; length of upper tooth row, 14; length of mandible, 20; 
length of lower tooth row, 15.5. Ex type in British Museum. 

This animal is about the same in size as C. melanotis, and might 
pass for a gray phase of that species were it not for the naked ears, 
those of C. melanotis being rather closely haired. The skulls show 
differences also, the rostral portion of C. sibreei being much narrower, 
and the nasals more slender. The tooth rows are straighter, not curv- 
ing outward as in C. melanotis. 



Chikogale crossleyi Grandidier. 

Chirogaleus crossleyi Grandidier, Rev. Mag. Zool., 1870, p. 49; 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 53. 

CROSSLEY'S MOUSE LEMUR. 

Type locality. Forests east of Antsianak, Madagascar. 

Color. "Parties superieures roussatres, surtout la tete, parties 
inferieures blanchatres. Tete enorme, arrondie. Cercle noir autour 
des yeux. L'interieur des oreilles est recouvert de poil brun fonce, et 
leur sommet est borde de noir. Queue courte et tres fournie. Oreilles 
petites. Longeur du corps, 20 cent., des membres posterieures, 10 cent., 
des oreilles, 1 cent." 

Neither the type nor any specimen of this species could be found 
in the Paris Museum during my visits there. 



Chirogale trichotis Gunther. 

Chirogaleus ( !) trichotis Gunth., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1875, 

p. 78. 
Chirogale trichotis F. Major, Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 26 ; Forbes, 

Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 52. 

TUFTED-EAR MOUSE LEMUR. 

Type locality. Between Tamatave and Morondava, Madagascar. 
Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Madagascar, Forests of Antsianak. 

Genl. Char. Size small ; ears tufted ; tail shorter than body. 



CHIROGALE 97 

Color. Brown gray on upper parts and head, with numerous 
rather long white hairs on the body ; forehead and beneath eyes buff ; 
orbital ring, black; light buff space between eyes, becoming gray on 
nose; ear tufts brown, tips of hairs white; outer side of limbs like* 
back; rufous dorsal line from middle of back to tail; under parts 
yellowish white, base of fur plumbeous ; hands and feet grayish white 
in some lights; tail reddish, darker than back, but lighter than dorsal 
line. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, about 300; tail, 154. Skull: occip- 
ito-nasal length, 37; Hensel, 26; zygomatic width, 22; intertemporal 
width, 18; palatal length, 15; width of braincase, 19; median length of 
nasals, 12; length of upper tooth row, 10; length of mandible, 21; 
length of lower tooth row, 10. Ex type British Museum. 

This species differs from all the members of this genus in the tufts 
of hair standing out from the ears and sides of head, above the ears. 
The fur is soft and woolly and it is one of the smaller forms of 
the group. 



98 MICROCEBUS 



GENUS MICROCEBUS. DWARF LEMURS. 

A- 2— 2» *-" 1— 1> "■ 3— 3> "*• 3—3 3°- 

MICROCEBUS E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamra, lime Legon, 
1828, p. 24. Type Lemur pusillus E. Geoffroy, = Lemur 
murinus Miller. 

Scartes Swains., Nat. Hist, and Class. Quad., 1835, p. 352. 

Gliscebus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 207. 

Mirza Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, British 
Museum, 1870, p. 131. 

Phaner Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit- 
ish Museum, 1870, p. 131. 

Azema Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, British 
Museum, 1870, p. 132. 

Murilemur Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
British Museum, 1870, p. 133. 

Size small; fore limbs shorter than hind limbs; nose short; eyes 
large, approximate; ears elongate; mammae four, pectoral two and 
ventral two. Skull: braincase high; facial region short; squamosal 
region less inflated than in Galago; inner upper incisor larger than 
outer; no diastema between upper canine and first premolar; molars 
with three sharp cusps, basal ring swollen and internally forming a 
hind cusp; last upper molar smaller than the first with rudimentary 
hind cusp ; palate extends behind last molar. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1777. /. F. Miller, Cimelia Physica. 

Microcebus murinus first described as Lemur murinus. 
1784. Boddcert, Elenchus Animalium. 

In this work Microcebus murinus is placed in the genus 

Prosimia as P. minima. 
1788. /. F. Gmelin, Sy sterna Nature? . 

Microcebus murinus is here recognized under Miller's name 

of Lemur murinus. 
1795. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Bulletin de la SociSte Philomatiquc 

de Paris. 



PLATE XIII. 




MlCROCEBUS MURINUS. 
No. 97.12.2.3. Brit. Mus. Coll. Twice Nat. Size. 



MICROCEBUS 99 

Microcebus murinus is here redescribed as Lemur pusillus. 
1812. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire 

Naturelle, Paris. 

Microcebus murinus renamed Cheirogaleus ( !) minor. 
1828. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Cours de I'Histoire Naturelle des 

Mammiferes. 

Microcebus murinus is redescribed as Galago madagascarien- 

sis. 

1839. de Blainville, Osteographie. 

Microcebus furcifer first described as Lemur furcifer. 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 

In this list, Microcebus murinus appears under various genera 
and specific appellations, giving rise to a certain amount of 
wonder, for it is called Myscebus pdlmarum, Gliscebus murinus, 
and Gliscebus rufus. 

1842. /. E. Gray, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Microcebus murinus is renamed Galago minor; and Cheiro- 
galeus ( !) smithi. 

1852. Peters, in Naturwissenssh'dftliche Reise nach Mossambique, 
Sdugethiere. 
Microcebus myoxinus first described. 

1863. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
In this communication intended for a review of the Lemurid^:, 
the genus Lepilemur (!) (Lepidolemur), was proposed, to 
contain Microcebus murinus; M. myoxinus; M. furcifer; 
and Lepidolemur mustelinus; only the last of the species 
being properly included. 

1864. St. George Mivart, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society 
of London. 

A critical review based on the crania and dentition of the 
Lemurhxe. While the results arrived at will be discussed 
under the various genera, as they are reached, it is only 
necessary here to consider the Author's conclusion regarding 
the species of Microcebus. Five are recognized: M. myoxi- 
nus; M. smithi; and M. pusillus; the last two = M. 
murinus (Miller) ; M. typicus == Chirogale major; and M. 
furcifer. The Author states, however, that owing to the 
scarcity of materials "I have not attempted to work out the 



100 MICROCEBUS 

species," and that he does not intend to imply that all those 
given are distinct, some only having been adopted provisionally 
on the authority of others. 

1867. Grandidier, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 
Microcebus coquereli first described as Cheirogaleus ( !) 
coquereli. 

1868. Grandidier, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de 
Paris. 

Microcebus murinus redescribed as Cheirogaleus ( !) gli- 
roides. 
1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 
In this list, Microcebus murinus is given as Cheirogaleus ( !) 
smithi Gray, and placed in the genus Lepilemur (!), and 
comments are made on Microcebus myoxinus Peters, the 
Author, however, never having seen a specimen. In the Appen- 
dix several genera are proposed for the species of Microce- 
bus as follows : Murilemur for Microcebus murinus ; Phaner 
for M. furcifer ; and Mirza for M. coquereli. All these are 
quite unnecessary. 

1872. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
This paper is practically a repetition of a review of the 
Lemurid^e given in the Catalogue above mentioned, except 
that whereas the species of Microcebus were in the pre- 
vious publication placed in various genera, here they are in- 
cluded in one Lepilemur ( !) with the addition of L. mus- 
telinus Geoff., (which is generically distinct from the species 
of Microcebus), and with the omission of M. myoxinus 
Peters. The genera Phaner and Mirza are suppressed. 

1873. Mivart, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
This is another of the Author's elaborate papers on the 
Lemurid^e, in which he raises the entire group to a suborder of 
the Primates, as Lemuroidea, and gives very cogent and per- 
tinent reasons why they should not be considered as an order. 
He also considers that Microcebus and Chirogale are gen- 
erically the same, to be known by the latter name, the one first 
designated. He cites A. Milne-Edwards' opinion regarding the 
species of the genus Chirogale with which he apparently con- 
curs; viz., that smithi, minor, myoxinus, gliroides, rufus, and 
pusillus are all one ; that milii, typicus, and adipicaudatus are 
the same as major Geoffroy; that samati is medius Geoff., and 



MICROCEBUS 101 

that coquereli is distinct. With this opinion the present writer 
agrees, with the exception of myoxinus of which form the 
material available is not sufficient to prove that it should not 
be separated from the rest as a distinct species or race. As 
regards uniting the species of the two genera; the opinion 
previously expressed by the Author (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1867, p. 965), "that it will be possible and perhaps even useful 
to retain, provisionally at least, the distinction between Cheiro- 
galeus ( !) and Microcebus, though reposing mainly if not 
exclusively on a few cranial and dental characters," may not be 
disregarded. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bas, Simla. 
In this work in the arrangement of the species of Primates, 
Microcebus furcifer is placed in the genus Phaner, and M. 
coquereli in Mirza, although Gray had abandoned both four 
years previously. M. major, called milii, and M. murinus 
called pusillus, with M. myoxinus (nee Peters), = M. 
murinus, are placed in the genus Cheirogaleus ( !). 
The genus Microcebus receives no recognition. 

1894. Forsyth-Major, in Novitates Zoologies. 

This paper is a critical review of the literature and species of 
Microcebus, Opolemur, and Chirogale. Of Microcebus, the 
first species is given as M. minor Gray, the murinus Miller 
being rejected, for the reason that Miller's plate of L. murinus 
= L. bicolor Gmel., which is not proven. The others are M. 
myoxinus, and M. smithi = M. murinus Miller. 

1910. Kollmann, M. in Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

A paper on the genera Chirogale and Microcebus. The 
material upon which the Author bases his conclusions is in the 
Paris Museum, important collections in other National Institu- 
tions having evidently not been examined. Cheirogale is 
accepted as a genus and a description of it given, but no species 
mentioned. Microcebus and Opolemur (Altililemur of this 
work) , are considered to be the same, and the following species 
named: Microcebus samati = Altililemur medius (E. 
Geoff.), M. minor = M. murinus (Miller). The following 
forms are regarded as subspecies all in Microcebus. M. minor 
minor = M. murinus (Miller) ; M. minor griseorufus nov. 
subsp. = M. murinus (Miller), red phase; M. pusillus myoxi- 
nus = M. myoxinus Peters; M. pusillus minor smithi = M. 



102 MICROCEBUS 

murinus (Miller) ; and M. minor rufus = M. murinus 
(Miller). Evidently Miller's description of murinus was 
unknown to the Author, as was also the Bibliography of the 
species of Microcebus, as some are reinstated, e. g. smithi, 
rufus, which have been long since relegated to the synoptical 
list. The paper is one apt to lead investigators astray, by the 
recognition of individual examples not entitled to any distinctive 
rank, while Microcebus coquereli (Grandidier), the type of 
which is in the Paris Museum, is not mentioned at all. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

The members of this genus are all found in the Island of Mada- 
gascar ; some with quite an extensive dispersion, but the range of others 
has not yet been entirely ascertained. On the west coast from 
Cape St. Vincent to Tullear on St. Augustine Bay, M. myoxinus is 
found, and from Cape St. Vincent to Helville on the same coast M. 
coquereli occurs. M. murinus ranges from Betsileo Province to 
Fort Dauphin on the south east coast, and northerly from St. Augustine 
Bay on the south west coast. Its complete range has not yet been de- 
termined. The species with the greatest known range is M. furcifer 
which goes from Fort Dauphin on the east coast to Mt. Ambre, and 
then on the west coast to Cape St. Vincent, thus being found through- 
out the northern section of Madagascar. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Size small. 

o. Sides of nose brown M. murinus. 

b. Sides of nose black M. myoxinus. 

B. Size large. 

a. No dorsal band M. coquereli. 

b. With dorsal band, bifurcating on forehead M. furcifer. 

Microcebus murinus (Miller). 

Lemur murinus Miller, Cim. Phys., 1777, p. 25, pi. XIII ; Gmel., 
Syst. Nat., 1788, p. 44, No. 7 ; Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, 1800, p. 
106, pi. XXXVII; Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1830, p. 77, (Ad- 
denda) ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 278. 

Prosimia minima Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 66. 

Lemur prehensilis Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 1792, p. 88. No. 104, 
gray phase ? 



MICROCEBUS 103 

Lemur pusillus E. Geoff., Bull. Soc. Philom., ler Part., 1795. p. 

89; Fisch., Anat. Maki, 1904, p. 24. 
Cheirogaleus ( !) minor E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 

XIX, 1812, p. 171, pi. X, fig. 3 ; Kollm., Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

Nat., No. 6, 1910, p. 303. 
Galago madagascariensis E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 

XIX, 1812, p. 166; Kuhl, Beitr., 1820, p. 47, pi. VI, fig. 1; 

Smith, S. Afr. Journ., II, 1835, p. 31; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1863, p. 149. 
Microcebus pusillus Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 25, 

lime Lecon; Waterh., Cat. Mamm. Zool. Soc. Lond., 2nd ed., 

1838, p. 12; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 641. 
Microcebus murinus Martin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1835 ; p. 125 ; 

Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 278; V, 1855, p. 

154; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Nat. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 

1870, p. 712. 
Myscebus palmarum Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 214. 
Gliscebus murinus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 216. 
Gliscebus rufus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 217. 
Galago minor Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., X, 1842, 1st Ser., p. 

255 ; Id. List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 17. 
Cheirogaleus ( !) smithi Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., X, 1842, 

1st Ser., p. 255 ; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 145 ; 1872, 

p. 856 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 

Mus., 1870, p. 78; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 

642 ; 1867, p. 492 ; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur. Akad. 

Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 607. 
Scartes murinus Schinz, Syn. Mamm., 1844, p. 106. 
Otolicnus madagascariensis van d. Hoev., Tijdsch. Natuur. 

Geschied., XI, 1844, p. 43. 
Otolicnus minor Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 159. 
Microcebus rufus Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., Fasc. 

I, 1856, p. 231. 
Lepilemur ( !) murinus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 143, 

Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 87. 
Microcebus minor Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 615; 

1867, p. 972; Major, Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 8; Forbes, 

Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 55. 
Cheirogaleus ( !) gliroides Grandid., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 

X, 1868, p. 378. 



104 MICROCEBUS 

Azema smithi Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 134, Appendix; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1872, p. 856, fig. 4, p. 857. 
Murilemur murinus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 857. 
Chirogaleus (!) pusillus Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 

492; Fowler and Lydekk., Anim. Living and Extinct, 1891, 

p. 690. 
Cheirogaleus ( !) myoxinus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 

p. 326, (nee Peters). 
Microcebus smithi Major, Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 12 ; Shaw, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 135. 
Microcebus minor griseorufus Kollm., Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., 

Paris, No. 6, 1910, p. 304. 
Microcebus minor minor Kollm., Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., Paris, 

No. 6, 1910, p. 304. 
Microcebus pusillus minor smithi Kollm., Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

Nat., Paris, No. 6, 1910, p. 304. 
Microcebus minor rufus Kollm., Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., Paris, 

No. 6, 1910, p. 304. 

MILLER'S DWARF LEMUR. 

Type locality. Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. Betsileo Province to Fort Dauphin on the south east 
coast of Madagascar, and on the south west coast northerly from St. 
Augustine Bay. The exact limits of the species' dispersion cannot be 
said to have yet been definitely ascertained. 

Color. Two phases, rufous brown or gray. The first has the head 
rusty brown ; orbital ring and upper lip black ; stripe between eyes and 
on nose, grayish white ; upper parts of body rufous brown ; dorsal line 
indistinct; sides of body and outer side of limbs mouse gray washed 
with rufous brown ; entire under parts and inner side of limbs white, 
base of hairs plumbeous, this hue often showing on the surface; tail 
rufous brown like the back, but sometimes much paler ; hands and feet 
gray. The other phase is mouse gray above, the back washed with 
rufous, a rufous spot over each eye ; outer side of limbs mouse gray ; 
entire under parts white ; tail pale rufous. 

Measurements. Total length about 300 ; tail, 150; foot, 26. Skull : 
occipito-nasal length, 33 ; Hensel, 20 ; zygomatic width, 21 ; inter- 
temporal width, 16; palatal length, 11; median length of nasals, 8; 
width of braincase, 17; length of upper molar series, 8; length of 
mandible, 19 ; length of lower molar series, 9. 



MICROCEBUS 105 

I have examined probably all the specimens of this species, under 
the various names given to it, and in its various styles of coloration, 
contained in all the great Museums of the world, save that in St. 
Petersburg, and I can find no character by which the examples called 
murinus, pusillus, smithi, minor, and others given in the above synop- 
tical list, can be separated or distinguished the one from the other. 
Specimens vary greatly in their coloration even among those belonging 
to the two phases gray or rufous brown, and there is also an individual 
variation to be seen among the skulls. Various types are extant, such as 
smithi Gray, and the specimen that probably served as the type of 
minor Gray, both in the British Museum ; and of gliroides Grandidier 
in the Paris Museum, and all belong to one or the other phase of the 
animal called by Miller murinus. It would seem that the confusion in 
synonomy, and the perplexity arising as to what name examples of this 
little creature should bear, has been caused by recognizing forms as 
distinct that really are not, and the difficulty of obtaining a uniformity 
of opinion among Mammalogists is emphasized by the fact that the 
specimens in different collections exactly similar, bear separate names. 

Mr. Shaw, (1. c.) says that this Lemur inhabits a belt of forestland 
extending from the eastern forest into the heart of Betsileo Province 
a few miles north of Fianarantsoa, where the species is fairly abundant. 
It lives in the tops of the highest trees, and makes a nest of dried leaves 
closely resembling that of a bird. The food consists of fruits and 
insects, and Mr. Shaw frequently saw those he had in captivity catch 
the flies that entered their cage for the honey which was placed there. 
They were fond of moths and butterflies and ate them greedily. They 
were very shy and wild, and he never succeeded in taming one. Even 
among themselves they were quarrelsome and fought fiercely, uttering 
at the same time a cry like a shrill whistle. The teeth though minute 
are sharp, and they grip so firmly with them it is difficult to make them 
loosen their hold. They can leap, but they usually go on all fours, and 
they are very nimble among the branches. They have much strength 
in the hands and legs, and they would often hang by the feet head 
downwards, grasp food in the hands and then draw themselves up- 
wards to their former position on their perch. During this movement 
the tail served as a balance, but was not used for holding on by, for it 
is in no sense prehensile. The eyes were large and brilliant, and the 
hands beautifully perfect, with ordinary sized finger nails ; the second 
toe nail, however, being long and claw-like. 



106 MICROCEBUS 

Microcebus myoxinus Peters. 

Microcebus myoxinus Peters, Naturw. Reis. Mossamb., Zool., 
Saugeth., I, 1852, pp. 14-20, Taf . Ill, Taf . IV, 6-9 ; Mivart, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 640; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 88; Fit- 
zing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Nat. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 927 ; 
Major, Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 11 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 
I, 1894, p. 56. 

Lepilemur ( !) myoxinus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, 
p. 144. 

Microcebus pusillus myoxinus Kollm., Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., 
Paris, 1910, No. 6, p. 304. 

PETERS' DWARP LEMUR. 

Type locality. Bay of Bombetok, Western Madagascar. Type in 
Berlin Museum. 

Geogr. Dist. West and southwest coast of Madagascar from Cape 
St. Vincent to Tullear on St. Augustine Bay. 

Genl. Char. Muzzle short ; ears large ; eyes large, round ; fourth 
digit longest ; second and fifth shortest ; tail longer than body. 

Color. Head and upper part reddish brown, many hairs tipped 
with golden yellow ; spot at lower corner of eyes, and side of nose 
black; stripe between eyes, white; cheeks rufous, throat buff; under 
parts of body and inner side of limbs, cream buff; tail dull brown, 
darker than the back; hands and feet gray. Ex specimen in British 
Museum. , 

Measurements. Total length, about 300; tail, 150. Skull: occip- 
ito-nasal length, 33; Hensel, 22; intertemporal width, 18; zygomatic 
width, 21; median length of nasals, 10; length of upper molar series, 
9 ; length of mandible, 20 ; length of lower molar series, 19. Ex type 
in Berlin Museum. 

The type of this species is in the Berlin Museum and has evidently 
faded considerably, for now the sides of the head, lips, entire under 
parts and inner side of arms are white; upper part of back is whitish 
brown, and only the dorsal stripe on lower back is reddish brown ; tail 
ochraceous buff above, yellowish white beneath. It has all the appear- 
ance of having been similar in color to the British Museum specimen 
above described, but faded by light. 

This species is about the size of Microcebus murinus and is 
not unlike that form in its general appearance. In fact so nearly do 
they resemble each other that I have found, when a Mammalogist had 
no personal knowledge of M. myoxinus and depended entirely upon 



MICROCEBUS 107 

descriptions, that the name of this species had been given to examples 
of M. murinus. Is is much more rare in collections than the species 
just named, which accounts in a measure for its relative being at times 
compelled to represent it, and they are really so much alike that I 
could only find one fairly conspicuous external character to separate 
them, viz., the color of the nose, that member having its side black in 
the present species, but brown in M. murinus. The type is now 
practically useless for determining the species, as it does not resemble 
at all Peters' published colored figure, nor agree with his description. 
As to the ultimate standing of M. myoxinus, whether it will be enabled 
to maintain a distinct specific rank, or will eventually be ascertained to 
be a race of the longer known form or possibly identical with it, can- 
not be satisfactorily decided at the present time. The acquisition of 
much additional material to that already existing in collections is 
imperatively needed before any definite conclusion is reached. Until 
such a time arrives, it will be necessary to leave them as representatives 
of distinct species. 

Miceocebus coqtjeeeli (Grandidier) . 

Cheirogaleus ( !) coquereli Grandid., Rev. Mag. Zool., XIX, 1867, 

pp. 85, 316. 
Microcebus coquereli Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 
966; 1873, p. 492; Schleg. and Poll., Rech. Faun. Madag., 
Mamm, 1868, p. 12, pis. VI, VII, fig. 2 A ; F. Major, Novit. 
Zool., I, 1894, p. 14. 
Mirza coquereli Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 135; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1872, p. 85; 1873, p. 492; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 
1876, p. 321. 
coquerevs dwarp lemur. Native name Sietui (Schleg. and Pollen). 
Type locality. Passandava Bay near Morondava, S. W. coast 
of Madagascar. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Island Africaine, (Schleg. and Pollen) ; west coast 
of Madagascar from Cape St. Vincent to Helville. 

Genl. Char. Similar to M. furcifer, but smaller; second and 
third upper molar with five cusps, two outer, two inner and one pos- 
terior ; last premolar with one long outer, and one small inner cusp ; 
last lower molar with five cusps. 

Color. Head and upper parts rufous, hairs tipped with yellowish 
gray ; under parts yellowish, plumbeous under fur showing through ; 
nose rufous ; orbital ring black ; arms and legs on outer side rufous, 






108 M1CROCEBUS 

duller than back, inner side pale yellow ; tail dark rufous, hairs black 
tipped, basal end paler; ears large, naked, flesh color. Ex type Paris 
Museum. 

Female. Like male, but under parts more yellowish or buff. 

Measurements. Total length, 548; tail, 331. Skull : occipito-nasal 
length, 50; Hensel, 39; intertemporal width, 18.5; zygomatic width, 30; 
palatal length, 21 ; width of braincase, 26 ; median length of nasals, 17 ; 
length of upper molar series, 14; length of mandible, 30; length of 
lower molar series, 15. Ex type Paris Museum. 

This is a moderate sized reddish colored Lemur, without any par- 
ticular markings. The skull is highly arched, and with large bullae. 
This species was obtained, (Schleg. and Pollen, 1. c.) in the north 
western part of the Island Africaine. It lives in the most impenetrable 
forests, and makes a nest a foot and a half in diameter, constructed of 
straw and dead leaves, in which it sleeps during the day, only leaving 
it towards night to seek its food. Only one specimen was procured, 
which would seem to show the species was not very abundant, at least 
in the locality where this example was discovered. 

Microcebus furcifer (Blainville) . 

Lemur furcifer Blainville, Osteog. Mamra., Primates, 1839, p. 35, 
pi. III. 

Cheirogaleus furcifer I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XXXI, 1850, p. 
876; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 77; Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 
1854, p. 171 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 149 ; 
Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 1856, fasc. I, 
p. 223 ; Grandid., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1867, p. 64 ; Fitzing., Sit- 
zungsb. Metth. Nat. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 660 ; Mivart, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, pp. 492, 502, fig. 16; Flow, and 
Lydekk., Anim. Living and Extinct, 1891, p. 690. 

Lepilemur ( !) furcifer Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 145 ; 
Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 621, fig. 1867, p. 960: 
Schleg. and Poll., Recher. Faun. Madagas., Mamm., 1868, p. 8, 
pi. V; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 88. 

Phaner furcifer Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, pp. 132, 135, Appendix; Id. Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 855 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 
1876, p. 319. 

Microcebus furcifer Major, Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 16; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 59. 



MICROCEBUS 109 

fork-marked dwarf lemur. Native name Walouvy. (Schleg. and 
Pollen). 

Type locality. Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern coast of Madagascar from Fort Dauphin 
on the south to Mt. Ambre on the north, and down west coast to Cape 
St. Vincent, inhabiting all the northern section across the island. 

Genl. Char. Black dorsal streak continues to forehead, and there 
divides into two branches terminating over each eye. Size large for 
this genus. Inner upper incisors larger than outer. Skull : facial 
region long; palate extending beyond last molar; inferior margin of 
mandible concave, the angle produced backward not downward ; upper 
incisors in advance of canines, posterior pair the larger ; first upper pre- 
molar canine-like; second and third upper premolar with one cusp; 
lower incisors long ; lower molars subequal. 

Color. Upper parts reddish gray, brighter and more reddish on 
head and neck ; outer side of limbs dark rufous, almost chestnut on the 
arms ; throat pale rufous ; chin and rest of under parts yellowish ; a 
black stripe from lower part of back to crown of head where it 
bifurcates, each branch leaning towards inner side of ear and ending 
over the eye; hands and feet dark brown; tail bushy, dark reddish 
brown with black tip. 

Measurements. Total length about 600; tail, 350. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 53 ; Hensel, 42 ; zygomatic width, 33 ; intertemporal width, 
20 ; median length of nasals, 1 1 ; length of upper molar series, 14 ; 
length of mandible, 31 ; length of lower molar series, 12. 

This pretty little species, according to Schlegel and Pollen, (1. c.) 
is found in numbers in the forests in the western part of Madagascar. 
It also dwells in the eastern part whence M. Goudot sent an example 
to the Paris Museum. Towards evening it leaves its lodging where it 
had slept during the entire day. In choosing this it prefers a hole in a 
tree which has two openings. Often such places are the dwellings of 
bees, and in that case, the Walouvy, the name the animal bears in the 
country, separates the hive of the insects from his own nest by a small 
bunch of straw or dried leaves. The natives pretend that it prefers the 
society of the bees to rob the honey of which it is very fond. It is 
much more nimble and agile than the ordinary Lemur, and its leaps are 
wonderful. Its cry, continually uttered during the night, is very 
piercing and resembles the syllables ka-ka-ka-ka, similar to the cry of 
the guinea fowl. 



110 MIXOCEBU S 



GENUS MIXOCEBUS. THE HATTOCK. 

t i=l r> 1—1 p — \a — =1/1 

1- 2— 2 » ^ 1— 1> "• 3— 3 > ^* 3—3 '4- 

MIXOCEBUS Peters, Monatsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1874, 
p. 690, Taf. I-II. Type Mixocebus caniceps Peters. 

Nose pointed; pad naked; eyes very large; ears small, rounded, 
mostly hidden in the fur, sparsely covered with hair; arms and legs 
long ; fingers and toes with flat nails ; tail as long as body. Skull : inter- 
parietal bone not lacking, but coalesced with parietal; incisors small, 
only one upper on either side ; line of tooth rows slightly convex. 

Mixocebus caniceps Peters. 

Mixocebus caniceps Peters, Monatsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 
1874, p. 690, Taf. I, II ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 1, 1894, p. 78. 

THE HATTOCK. 

Type locality. Madagascar. Type in Berlin Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Unknown. 

Genl. Char. Those of the genus. About the size of Galago 
crassicaudatus, tail slightly longer than body, thick. 

Color. Top of head dark gray, black spot in center ; upper parts of 
body, and outer side of limbs sooty brown ; under part of thighs ochra- 
ceous buff ; hands blackish brown, feet paler, the buff of base of fur 
showing; forehead whitish gray; sides of head above and below ears 
whitish; sides of nose, and bar under eye blackish brown; brownish 
band across chest ; patch on sides of lower neck ; under parts and inner 
sides of thighs buff ; inner side of arms and legs sooty brown ; tail sooty 
grayish brown on basal half, grading into blackish brown at tip ; ears 
flesh color. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 635 ; tail, 335. Skull : total length, 
60; occipito-nasal length, 58; zygomatic width, 34; intertemporal 
width, 25 ; length of nasals, 15 ; length of lower molar series, 19.5. Ex 
type Berlin Museum. 

A Lemur-like animal about the size of Myoxicebus griseus with 
a long thick tail. The skull has a broad and heavy rostral region, two 
very small upper incisors, the molars with three cusps, two outer and 
one inner; the second upper premolars with a small inner cusp. The 
exact locality where this animal was found is not given by Peters who 
only states it came from Madagascar. The type is unique. 



PLATE XIV. 




MlXOCEBUS CANICEPS. 
No. 4087 Berlin Mus. Coll. Type. H larger than Nat. Size. 



PLATE XV. 




ALTILILEMUR THOMASI. 
No. 91.11.30.3. Brit. Mus. Coll. ; .. larger ilinn Nat. Size. 



ALTILILEMUR 111 



GENUS * ALTILILEMUR. FAT-TAILED LEMURS. 

T — C — P — 1\/T 3 ~ 3 = ift 
I. 2_2» *-" 1—1 5 "• 3— 3 » "*• 3—3 3°- 

Tail conical, thickened at base ; rostrum exceedingly broad for its 
length, with long narrow nasals, rounded on tip ; braincase long, wide 
posteriorly, with considerable intertemporal constriction; zygomatic 
arches wide ; orbits large ; palate very broad posteriorly ; molars rather 
large with three cusps, two outer and one inner ; first and second pre- 
molar canine-like in both jaws; the first lower premolar much larger 
than the others ; the third shortest with one low interior cusp. 

The species included here in this genus have been usually placed in 
Opolemur Gray, which had for its type and only species Cheirogaleus 
( !) major E. Geoff roy. There was, indeed, at the time Gray instituted 
his genus another described species, C. crossleyi Grandidier, which 
should have been included, but it was evidently unknown to Gray, as 
he makes no mention of it, and for him Opolemur ( !) was a mono- 
typical genus. Unfortunately for the scientific standing of Gray's 
genus, E. Geoffroy had proposed in 1812 for his milii, previously 
named major, the genus Cheirogaleus ( !) and this fact was per- 
fectly well known to Gray, who gives Cheirogaleus ( !) milii Geoff., 
as one of the species in his Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs, etc., p. 77. 
In establishing the genus Opolemur ( !), Gray, as was frequently cus- 
tomary with him, ignored the writings of previous authors, and here 
adopted for his type a species already the type of another described 
genus. This procedure deprives Opolemur (!) of all scientific stand- 
ing, and reduces the term to a pure synonym of Cheirogaleus ( !) 
Geoff., and its farther employment as a generic name is prohibited. 
This leaves the two species C. samati = A. medius, and C. thomasi 
without a genus, and I propose therefore for them the generic term 
Altililemur, with A. medius (E. Geoff.), as its type. 

Only two species of Altililemur are known ; the type just named, 
and thomasi Major, both heretofore placed in Opolemur ( !), although 
that term was applied to species possessing different generic characters 
from those exhibited by the forms now placed under the newly created 
name. 



♦Altilis. Fatted or Fattening, alluding to the often enlarged base of tail. 



112 ALTILI LEMUR 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1812. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Annales du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

A drawing by Commergon was reproduced in this publication 
and given the name Cheirogaleus ( !) medius. A specimen 
in the Paris Museum was identified by Grandidier as Geoffroy's 
species, and its locality given as Bourbon, Madagascar. 

1868. Grandidier, in Revue et Magazin de Zoologie. 

Altililemur medius (Geoff.), redescribed as C. samati, and 
by this latter name the species is universally known. 

1894. Forsyth Major, in Novitates Zoologicce. 

Altililemur thomasi is described for the first time as Opole- 
mur ( !) thomasi. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

The two known species of Altililemur are both natives of Mada- 
gascar, They are fairly large animals with tails nearly as long as the 
head and body. The base of the tail becomes very large by laying on 
of fat before the creatures hibernate, and it is on this they subsist 
during the period they remain in a dormant condition. Their range on 
the Island of Madagascar, so far as known, is very restricted, A. 
medius having been found only at Bourbon on the west coast, and A. 
thomasi at Fort Dauphin on the south east coast. Both species are 
rare in collections. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Black ring around eyes separated by a white stripe. 

a. Tail above dark gray washed with ferruginous. . . .A. medius. 

b. Tail above pale rufous or rusty A. thomasi. 

Altililemur medius (E. Geoffroy). 

Cheirogaleus ( !) medius E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 

XIX, 1812, p. 172, pi. X, fig. 2; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1873, p. 492. 
Chirogaleus (!) samati Grand., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1868, p. 49; 

Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 492. 
Opolemur (!) samati F. Major, Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 18; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 62. 



ALTILILEMUR 113 

Microcebus santati Kollm., Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., Paris, 1910, 
No. 6, p. 302. 

SAMAT'S FAT-TAILED LEMUR. 

Type locality. Bourbon, west coast of Madagascar. Type in 
Paris Museum? 

Genl. Char. Size small, tail long, thick at base ; fur thick, woolly ; 
nose short, broad. 

Color. Above dark gray washed with ferruginous, hair tipped 
with silver gray ; a circle around the eyes, extending on to sides of nose 
blackish brown; between eyes white; cheeks, chin, throat and under 
surface of body, and inner side of limbs yellowish white, in some 
examples fulvous ; tail above like back, beneath yellowish white. Ex 
type ? C. samati in Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length about 352 ; tail, 161 ; foot, 36. Skull : 
occipito-nasal length, 42; Hensel, 34; zygomatic width, 27; inter- 
temporal width, 12; palatal length, 15; width of braincase, 21 ; nasals, 
13 ; length of upper tooth row with canines, 19 ; length of mandible, 
25 ; length of molar series, 12. Ex British Museum Specimen, Moron- 
dava, Madagascar. 

The cheeks and under parts of the type have faded almost to a 
white, but the upper parts retain most of their original color. The 
ticket on the specimen states that the species is the "Chirogaleus medius 
(Geoff.), C. samati (Grand.), Type," from which I infer it is Gran- 
didier's type and not Geoffroy's. The example was procured by Gran- 
didier at Bourbon, West coast of Madagascar. Mivart states, (1. c.) 
that Prof. A. Milne-Edwards informed him that C. samati Grandid., 
was the same as C. medius E. Geoffroy. 

E. Geoffroy's type of C. medius, if the one above mentioned is not 
it, is not in the collection of the Paris Museum. 

Ai/riLiLEMUR thomasi Major. 

Opolemur ( !) thomasi F. Major, Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 20, 
pi. I, fig. 1, pi. II, fig. 2; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, 
p. 63. 

THOMAS' FAT-TAILED LEMUR. 

Type locality. Fort Dauphin, south east coast of Madagascar. 
Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Known only from type locality. 

Genl. Char. Similar to A. medius; posterior upper premolar 
broader than the second and larger than in A. medius ; middle premolar 
without inner cusp ; nasals keeled on middle line. 



114 ALTILILEMUR 

Color. Head and upper parts of body brownish gray, hairs tipped 
with silver gray, top of head darkest ; semi-white ring around the neck ; 
white stripe between eyes reaching to nose pad; black ring around 
eyes; chin, throat and entire under parts, and inner side of limbs, 
yellowish white ; hands and feet grayish white ; tail above pale rufous, 
beneath gray washed with rusty. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 427 ; tail, 217 ; foot, 35. Skull : 
occipito-nasal length, 43 ; Hensel, 36 ; zygomatic width, 29 ; intertem- 
poral width, 12.5; palatal length, 17; breadth of braincase, 20; median 
length of nasals, 14 ; length of upper molar series, 12 ; length of man- 
dible, 28; length of lower molar series, 13. Ex type British Museum. 



^ 



PLATE XVI. 




LEPIDOLEMUR MUSTELINUS. 
No. 97.0.1.24. Brit. Mils. Coll. Vi larger than Nat. Size. 



LEPIDOLEMUR 115 



GENUS LEPIDOLEMUR. SPORTIVE LEMURS. 

1. 2— 2» ^" 1—1' "• 3— 3> "I. 3—3 — 3 2 - 

LEPILEMUR (sic), I. Geoff., Cat. Meth. Mamm. Mus. Hist. Nat. 

Paris, Ire Part., 1851, p. 75. Primates. Type Lepilemur ( !) 

mustelinus I. Geoffroy. 
Lepidolemur Peters, Monatsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 

1874, p. 690. 
Galeocebus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, pp. XII, 147. 

Smaller in size than the true Lemurs (genus Lemur) ; head 
conical; ears large, round, hairless; tail shorter than body; fourth 
finger and fourth toe longest ; nails keeled, that of the great toe large 
and flat. Skull : nose long ; no upper incisors as a rule ; canines large 
with a posterior heel, and internal groove ; no diastema between canine 
and first premolar; the latter tooth has one exterior cusp only; the 
next two molars have both an interior and exterior cusp ; the last molar 
has three cusps ; all the molars have a rudimentary hind cusp largest in 
last molar ; lower first premolar large, resembling canines, with a proc- 
ess on anterior margin ; last molar with one exterior cusp ; the median 
molar with one external and one internal cusp. Palate extending to 
middle of last molar. Mastoids much enlarged and swollen. Sagittal 
ridge present. Space between orbits, and in front of lacrymal foramen, 
depressed. Feet only slightly elongate. No os centrale in wrist. 

This genus was instituted by I. Geoffroy (1. c.) for the reception 
of his L. mustelinus, at that time the only species belonging to it that 
was known. Since then others have been discovered and seven are 
now recognized. Lepidolemur has been thoroughly investigated by 
St. George Mivart in his excellent paper on the Lemurid^e and its 
characters plainly given ; and he failed to find that its affinities had any 
marked relationship with any other genus, although it approximates to 
Hapalolemur = Myoxicebus, more nearly than to any other. The 
teeth are peculiar and recall those of Indris. They are arranged in 
nearly parallel lines, and there are no incisors in the upper jaw. The 
first lower premolars are large, similar to canines in shape with one 
external cusp, and the last lower molar has a large fifth cusp. The 



116 LEPIDOLEMUR 

angle of the mandible is produced downwards as well as backwards. 
The navicular bone is long and the foot thereby lengthened. 

The species, like all those of the Lemurid^e, are nocturnal and 
live in trees, and are agile in their movements. But little is known of 
their habits, and certain of the species are represented by the unique 
types in Museums only. The genus is divided into two groups arranged 
according to size e. g. large or small, the first containing three species, 
the latter four. When a number of examples have been assembled 
together, much variation in color is seen to exist among the older forms, 
but whether an equal diversity will be found on the species more 
recently described it is impossible to state at present. All the species 
thus far discovered are natives of Madagascar. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1851. /. Geoff roy Saint Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. Premiere 

Partie Mammiferes. 

Lepidolemur mustelinus, genus and species described. 
1867. Grandidier, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 

Lepidolemur ruficaudatus first described. 
1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 

Bats, in the British Museum. 

Lepidolemur mustelinus redescribed as L. dorsalis. 
1894. Forsyth-Major, in Forbes Handbook of Primates. 

Four species are here described for the first time, viz., L. micro- 

DON, L. EDWARDSI, L. GLOBICEPS and L. GRANDIDIERI. 

1894. Forsyth-Major, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Lepidolemur leucopus described. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

On the eastern coast of Madagascar L. mustelinus is found from 
Mt. Ambre in the north to Fort Dauphin in the south; and in the 
eastern districts of Betsileo Province, Central Madagascar, L. micro- 
don is met with. At Fort Dauphin in the southeastern part of the 
island, L. leucopus was obtained. Passing to the opposite side of 
Madagascar at Betseko on the northwestern part L. edwardsi was pro- 
cured ; and somewhere in this part, locality not given by its discoverer, 
L. grandidieri comes ; in the southwestern part from Marinda to Masi- 
kora, L. ruficaudata ranges, and in the same section at Ambulicata, 
L. globiceps is found. It will be seen that several of the species are 



LEPIDOLEMUR 117 

limited to one locality, and this is on account of the limited number of 
examples procured, as all the species obtained by Forsyth-Major save 
one, L. microdon, were represented by only one specimen. The dis- 
tribution of these, therefore, is still to be ascertained. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Size small. 

a. Feet not white. 

a.' "Tail drab color" L. globiceps. 

b.' "General color cinnamon" L. grandidieri. 

b. Feet white L. leucopus. 

B. Size large. 

a. Upper parts chestnut or grayish red. 

a.' Without stripe on side of neck L. mustelinus. 

b! With stripe on side of neck L. microdon. 

b. Upper parts reddish brown or reddish gray. 

a! No dorsal line L. ruficaudatus. 

b! Dorsal line conspicuous from forehead. L. edwardsi. 

Not having seen a specimen of either L. globiceps or L. gran- 
didieri, I am obliged to take such distinctive characters as I could find 
in the brief and unsatisfactory descriptions given of these species by 
Forbes, (1. c). 

Lepidolemue globiceps Major. 

Lepidolemur globiceps Forsyth-Major, in Forbes Handbook of 
Primates, I, 1894, p. 89. 

"Char. The smallest of the Sportive Lemurs. Similar to Lepi- 
dolemur ruficaudatus, but less ruf ous down the fore limbs ; the tail 
drab color." 

"Skull very characteristic ; the braincase broad, high, and globose, 
the facial region short ; the premaxillae more reduced than in any other 
species; the external auditory channel very large; the occipital region 
less vertical than in the species of Section A. Distribution, Ambulisatra, 
southwest Madagascar." 

I have not seen this species, as the type, the only known example, 
could not be found in the British Museum. The extract quoted above 
is all that is known of the animal. 



118 LEPIDOLEMUR 

Lepidolemur grandddieri Major. 

Lepidolemur grandidieri F. Major, in Forbes Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 89; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 259, fig. 67. 

Lepilemur ( !) mustelinus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 
144, (nee I. Geoff.). 

GRANDIDIER'S SPORTIVE LEMUR. 

Type locality. North west Madagascar, locality not given. 

Type not in British Museum. 

Geogr. Dist. North west Madagascar. 

Genl. Char. "Skull remarkable for the large size of its orbits, and 
for the anterior convergence of its upper dental cheek-series being 
greater than in the other members of the group." 

Color. "General color cinnamon ; head grayish ; an indistinct 
median dorsal streak from the forehead along the back ; inner side of 
the limbs and under side of the body yellowish gray." Ex Forbes 
(1. c). 

Measurements. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 49; Hensel, 42; zy- 
gomatic width, 32; intertemporal width, 19; palatal length, 19; breadth 
of braincase, 24; median length of nasals, 11 ; width of palate between 
last molar, 10 ; length of mandible, 35 ; length of lower tooth row, 20 ; 
length of upper tooth row, 19. Ex type British Museum. 

I have not seen this species as the unique type could not be found 
in the British Museum. The skull however was in the collection and 
the measurements were taken from it. 

Lepidolemub leucopus Major. 

Lepidolemur leucopus F. Major, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XIII, 1894, 
p. 211 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 89, pi. IX. 

WHITE-FOOTED SPORTIVE LEMUR. 

Type locality. Fort Dauphin, south east Madagascar. Type in 
British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Southeastern Madagascar. Type locality only. 

GenL Char. Ears large; tail shorter than the body. Skull long 
and broad; mastoid region greatly inflated; palate long; tooth row 
short ; molars small, slender. 

Color. Male. Nose pale gray ; head iron gray with a dark brown 
median stripe; neck, shoulders, and outer side of arms pale rufous; 
upper rump pale cream buff ; rest of upper parts and outer side of legs 
chinchilla gray ; a dark brown stripe from neck to rump ; spot under the 
ear rufous, cheeks gray tinged with rufous ; chin white ; rest of under 



LEPIDOLEMUR 119 

parts and inner side of limbs yellowish white ; hands rufous gray ; feet 
white ; tail rusty gray above and below. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, about 540; tail, 265; foot, 57. 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 50 ; Hensel, 40 ; zygomatic width, 35 ; 
intertemporal width, 19; palatal length, 18; width of braincase, 25.5; 
median length of nasals, 11; length of upper molar series, 12; length 
of mandible, 34 ; length of lower molar series, 18. 

A rather easily distinguished species and one of the prettiest of 
the group, its chinchilla coloring and white feet making it quite con- 
spicuous among its more somber-hued relatives. 

Lepidolemue mtjstelinus I. Geoffroy. 

Lepilemur (!) mustelinus I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 76; 
Gray, Pf oc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 244 ; Mivart, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1864, pp. 623-642; 1867, p. 971; 1873, pp. 489, 
490, figs. 7, 8; Schleg. and Pollen, Faun. Madag. Mamm., 
1868, p. 10, pis. IV, VI, fig. 3 ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 
and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, pp. 88, 135 ; Id. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 851 ; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1873, pp. 486-490, figs. 1-8; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simix, 
1876, p. 317; Barth., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 768; 
von Bardeleb., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1894, p. 86. 
Galeocebus mustelinus Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Naturw. Akad. 

Wissensch. Wien, 1870, p. 664. 
Lepilemur ( !) dorsalis Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 135. 
Hapalemur (Lepilemur I) dorsalis Trouess., Cat. Mamm., p. 136. 
Lepidolemur mustelinus Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 86 ; 
F. Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1901, pp. 257, 258, figs. 63, 
64, 65 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 1906, 
p. 347, Zool. Ser. 
weasel lemur. Native name "Fitiliki." 

Type locality. Madagascar. Type in Paris Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Entire length of east coast of Madagascar from 
Fort Dauphin to Mt. Ambre. 

Genl. Char. Fur woolly; ears rounded, haired only at base ex- 
ternally; hairs of tail short; dorsal stripe on type very indistinct. 
Skull large, heavy; braincase small, rounded; facial region long; 
orbits very large ; os planum distinct ; molars large ; anterior upper pre- 
molar not like a canine ; last lower molar with large fifth cusp ; anterior 
portion of each molar produced forwards, overlapping posterior portion 



120 LEPIDOLEMUR 

of teeth in front; posterior margin of palate level with anterior edge 
of last upper molar ; premolars with one external cusp ; fourth digit 
longest ; tail more than half the total length. 

Color. Top of head dark brown, hairs tipped with grayish white ; 
lower sides of neck above shoulders dark rufous; entire upper part 
reddish, becoming paler on rump, but brighter on flanks ; dorsal stripe 
from neck to middle of back very indistinct on lower back ; outer side 
of arms like back ; legs paler and duller ; chin and throat white ; under 
parts buffy; inner side of limbs mouse gray; tail at base like back, 
middle portion sooty, apical portion reddish brown. Ex type in Paris 
Museum. 

The L. dorsalis Gray, is the same as L. mustelinus. The type is 
in the collection of the British Museum, and may be described as 
follows. Top and back of head grizzled grayish brown with an indis- 
tinct dark brown stripe in the middle of the crown ; upper part of body 
reddish brown ; on the lower back the tips of the hairs have all been 
worn away leaving only the blue under fur visible ; shoulders and outer 
side of limbs like the back; under part of body and inner side of limbs 
grayish fulvous, the plumbeous under fur showing through in many 
places ; hands reddish brown, feet paler brown ; tail above bluish gray 
on basal half, (tips of hairs worn away), pale rufous on apical half, 
beneath pale rufous. This type specimen is slightly smaller than 
Geoffroy's type, and its tail a little longer, but the color of the 
upper parts and texture of the fur is very like L. mustelinus. The 
skull of the type of L. dorsalis had been mislaid and I did not see it. 

Another specimen in the British Museum attributed to L. dorsalis 
has lost nearly all the reddish tips of the hairs, and is nearly a plum- 
beous color, but gray on head and between the shoulders, while a brown 
stripe extends from the forehead to the middle of the back. Gray 
states there is no dorsal stripe, and his type has none, but in these ani- 
mals the absence or presence of a dorsal stripe may be regarded more 
as an individual than an important specific character, as its depth and 
distinctness varies greatly among examples. The tail is somewhat 
darker. I am unable to discover any character by which these speci- 
mens can be separated from L. mustelinus. The skull of this last 
individual measures as follows : occipito-nasal length, 49 ; Hensel, 40 ; 
zygomatic width, 35 ; intertemporal width, 18 ; palatal length, 17 ; width 
of braincase, 30; median length of nasals, (broken) ; length of upper 
molar series, 20 ; mandible wanting. A specimen in the Paris Museum 
is very red on back, and tail red on basal half, rest dark brown. 



LEPIDOLEMUR 121 

Another example is pale reddish brown on upper parts, the tail buff 
washed with reddish. There is great variation among individuals. 
Little is known of the habits of this species, but according to Schlegel 
and Pollen (1. c.) it resembles in these respects those of M. furcifer, 
and these two species are often seen together. It is very stupid and 
lazy, more so than M. griseus, and the natives say they often kill it in 
the day time with sticks. It will eat flesh. 

Lepidolemur microdon Major. 

Lepidolemur microdon F. Major, in Forbes Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 88 ; von Bardeleb., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1894, p. 
358; F. Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1899, p. 429, fig. 6; 
Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 547, 
Zool. Ser. 

SMALL-TOOTHED SPORTIVE LEMUR. 

Type locality. Eastern district of Betsileo Province, Central 
Madagascar. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern district of Betsileo Province, Central 
Madagascar. 

Genl. Char. Similar outwardly to L. mustelinus, but molars 
very small ; premolars of usual size ; palate longer than that of the 
species compared. 

Color. Male. Head, back, shoulders, outer side of arms, and front 
of thighs, chestnut ; lower part of back at rump paler ; blackish brown 
stripe from crown to middle of back; outer side of legs rufous; in 
one specimen this part is like the back; in most examples there is a 
narrow ochraceous stripe from the cheeks to back of neck, but this 
is only partly shown in the type ; throat and fore neck dark gray ; chest 
chestnut ; under parts of body and inner side of limbs yellowish gray. 
The type has lost the tip of the tail, the portion remaining is russet ; 
but the entire tail taken from other specimens has the basal half 
chestnut and the remaining portion blackish brown. The type is not in 
as richly colored pelage as are specimens procured by Dr. Forsyth- 
Major. It was obtained by W. D. Cowan in the Ankapana Forest, 
Eastern Betsileo, Madagascar. 

Measurements. Size about equal to L. mustelinus. Skull : occip- 
ito-nasal length, 58 ; Hensel, 49 ; zygomatic width, 38 ; intertemporal 
breadth, 21 ; palatal length, 22 ; median length of nasals, 19 ; width of 
braincase, 29 ; length of upper molar series, 21 ; length of mandible, 40 ; 
length of lower molar series, 22. Ex type British Museum. The teeth 
are remarkable for the small size of the molars, hence the name. 



122 LEPIDOLEMUR 

Lepidolemur ruficaudatus Grandidier. 

Lepilemur ( !) ruficaudatus Grandid., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1867, p. 

256; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 971 ; Gray, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, pp. 851, 855; Forbes, Primates, I, 

1894, p. 87. 
Lepilemur ( !) pallidicauda Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, 

p. 850. 

RED-TAILED SPORTIVE LEMUR. 

Type locality. Morondava, Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. South western Madagascar from Marinda to Masi- 
kora. Type in Paris Museum. 

Genl. Char. Smaller than L. mustelinus; nasal region short; 
ears ovate, haired; tail long; orbits small. Skull massive, broad for 
its length, muzzle short. 

Color. Head dark grayish brown ; upper parts of body pale red- 
dish gray ; shoulders and outer side of arms reddish brown ; outer 
side of hind limbs, pale gray washed with brown on outer edge of 
thigh above the knee ; chin and breast gray ; rest of under parts, and 
inner side of limbs whitish or yellowish white ; hands reddish brown, 
feet paler brown, toes whitish; tail reddish brown darker than the 
rump ; apical part of ears naked, black, remainder hairy like head ; dor- 
sal line indistinctly reddish. 

Measurements. Total length about 560 ; tail, 280. Skull : occip- 
ito-nasal length, 55 ; Hensel, 42 ; zygomatic width, 38 ; intertemporal 
width, 19; median length of nasals, 14; length of upper molar series, 
21 ; length of mandible, 41 ; length of lower molar series, 21. 

There are several mounted specimens of this form in the Paris 
Museum, all of which, according to the regrettable custom prevailing 
in that Institution are marked as "types." Some are greatly faded and 
show but little of the original coloring, and which one is the real type 
it is impossible to say. The one described was procured by Grandidier 
at Morondava, Madagascar, in 1869, and is of course not the true 
type, but a co-type. The probably real type taken at the same place in 
1867 is so faded that but a faint idea of its original coloring can be 
obtained. The chief difference between this form and L. mustelinus 
is in the shape and proportion of the skull. Three or four skins, how- 
ever, in the collection in the drawers, still retain the original coloring. 

Lepilemur ( !) pallidicauda Gray, is the same as L. ruficaudatus. 
Why Gray should have described it as distinct is difficult to imagine for 
he states, (1. c.) that, "this animal was sent to us by Mr. Frank of Am- 
sterdam as Lepilemur ( !) ruficaudatus Grandidier," and then he 



LEPIDOLEMUR 123 

gives Grandidier's short description. Surely there was no reason to 
confer upon the hapless animal a new name. Gray's description of 
the male is short and he gives none of the female, merely making a 
slight reference to the color of the tail. The following description is 
taken from this female. Head gray, hairs tipped with black; back 
grayish washed with brown ; a reddish brown (not very distinct) , stripe 
on middle of back ; rump buff or pale fawn ; shoulders and arms red- 
dish brown ; outer side of legs pale gray ; entire under parts and inner 
side of limbs yellowish white ; hands rufous, feet gray ; tail above dark 
brown, beneath basal half yellowish white, remainder pale cinnamon. 

Measurements of the male's skull are as follows. Occipito-nasal 
length, 56 ; Hensel, 45 ; zygomatic width, 37 ; intertemporal width, 17 ; 
palatal length, 21 ; width of braincase, 27 ; median length of nasals, 
14; length of upper molar series, 21 ; length of mandible, 41 ; length of 
lower molar series, 23. 

It will be seen that there is very little difference in the measure- 
ments between this skull and that of the male given above. 

Lepidolemub edwabdsi Major. 

Lepidolemur edwardsi F. Major, Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 87. 

MILNE-EDWARDS' SPORTIVE LEMUR. 

Type locality. Betseko, north west Madagascar. Type in British 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Northwestern Madagascar. 

Genl. Char. Skull long, narrow; orbits small; mastoid region 
inflated ; molars and premolars large. 

Color. Head above, and upper part of neck gray, hairs tipped with 
reddish ; nose reddish ; dark brown stripe behind ears ; back grayish 
brown, with a reddish brown patch in the center of the back; dark 
brown streak from center of forehead to middle of back; shoulders 
and outer side of arms reddish brown ; outer side of legs gray washed 
with brown ; lower sides of neck, chin, throat, under parts of body and 
inner side of limbs grayish white ; hands reddish, feet gray ; tail cinna- 
mon. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total, length about 660 ; tail, 300. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 55; Hensel, 49; zygomatic breadth, 37; intertemporal 
width, 19 ; palatal length, 23 ; width of braincase, 25 ; median length of 
nasals, 15; length of upper molar series, 22; length of mandible, 41; 
length of lower molar series, 20. Ex type British Museum. 






124 MYOXICEBUS 



GENUS MYOXICEBUS. GENTLE LEMURS. 

MIOXICEBUS ( !) Less., Spec. Mamm, 1840, p. 207. Type Lemur 
griseus Geoffroy. 

Hapalemur (!) I. Geoff., L'Instit., 19 Ann. No. 929, p. 341, foot- 
note, 1851 ; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 74. 

Prolemur. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 828, pi. LII, 
figs. 1-4. 

Head globose; muzzle short, tapering; ears short, hairy; hind 
limbs longer than fore limbs, feet short, broad; tail hairy, as long as 
body. Skull: facial portion short, narrow; nasal bones arched; pre- 
molar small ; paroccipital processes small, distinct, laterally compressed, 
pointed ; braincase rounded, without crests ; palate reaching to middle 
of last molar; mastoid region not inflated; mandible with large angle 
produced downward, inward and backward. Upper incisors very small, 
subequal ; canines small, with a narrow diastema between them and 
first premolar ; this last tooth has but one cusp ; the last premolar has 
one inner and two outer cusps united by a ridge ; cingulum prominent 
externally, internally rudimentary ; last upper molar tricuspidate. All 
these teeth are serrated. The molars have one inner and two outer 
cusps not connected by a ridge, with a cingulum having an external cusp. 
The first and second lower premolars are oblique, the second having 
one outer and one inner cusp ; posterior premolar has three outer and 
two inner cusps, with transverse ridges between the inner and outer 
cusps. All these teeth except the molars are serrated like those in the 
upper jaw. Wrist without os centrale. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1796. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Magasin Encyclopedique. 

Myoxicebus griseus first described as Lemur griseus; and the 

same species redescribed as Lemur cinereus. 
1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 

manes. 

The genus Myoxicebus was instituted here, and two species 

placed in it, which were, however, not co-generic. Lemur 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE XVII. 




MYOXICEBUS SIMUS. 
No. 84.10.24.4. Brit. Mus. Coll. Nat. Size. 



MYOXICEBUS 125 

griseus E. Geoff., which is the type, and Hemigalago demi- 

DOFFI. 

1851. /. Geoff roy St. Hilaire, Catalogue Methodique de la Collection 
des Mammiferes. 

In this publication a list is given of the species and examples 
contained in the Paris Natural History Museum. M. griseus 
is removed from the genus Lemur and placed in that of Hapale- 
mur ( !) here originally instituted, the writer either having been 
ignorant of Lesson's genus Myoxicebus or having disregarded 
it. A new species is first described M. olivaceus as Hapalemur 
( !) olivaceus. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 
Myoxicebus simus first described as Hapalemur ( !) simus. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

On the eastern coast of Madagascar from the Bay of Antongil to 
and including Betsileo Province, M. simus has its range ; while in the 
same Province is found M. griseus which also appears in the north 
west part of the island to Ifassy. The known locality for M. oliva- 
ceus, so far as I have been able to discover is Ampazenanbe, where an 
example was procured by M. Lentz, and which is now in the Paris 
Museum. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Rostrum long, slender. 

a. General color dark ochraceous M. griseus. 

b. General color olive brown tinged with reddish. .M. olivaceus. 

B. Rostrum broad, truncate M. simus. 

Myoxicebus griseus (E. Geoff roy St. Hilaire). 

Lemur griseus E. Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., 1796, p. 48; Audeb., 
Hist. Nat. Singes et Makis, 1797, p. 18, pi. VII ; Shaw, Genl. 
Zool., 1800, p. 113; Fisch., Anat. Maki, 1804, p. 24; Less., 
Man. Mamm., 1827, p. 68; Id. Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 218; 
van d. Hoev., Tijdsch., Natur. Geschied., 1844, p. 383. 

Lemur cinereus E. Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., 1796, p. 48. 

Mioxicebus ( !) griseus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 218. 

Hapalemur ( !) griseus I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 74; Gray, 



126 MYOXICEBUS 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 142; 1872, p. 851; Mivart, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 613; Schleg. and Pollen, 
Faun. Madag., 1868, p. 611, pis. Ill, VII, fig. 4a, *( Skull) ; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 361 ; Jent, Notes 
Leyd. Mus., VII, 1885, p. 33, pis. HI; Bedd., Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1884, pp. 391-394, 396, 399; 1887, p. 369, fig.; A. 
Milne-Edw. and Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., Atl., II, 1890, 
pi. XXIID, fig. 2; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 81. 
Microcebus griseus Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 107. 
Hapalolemur griseus Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 161 ; 
Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, 
p. 652 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 1906, 
p. 547, fig. LXXVII, Zool. Ser. 
gray gentle lemur. Native name Bokomboula. (Schleg. and Pollen). 
Type locality. Madagascar. No locality given. Type in Paris 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern side of Betsileo Province, and northwest 
side to Ifassy, Madagascar. 

Genl. Char. Teeth serrated ; broad pad beneath great toes ; spines 
on forearm above wrist. 

Color. Nose covered with white hairs ; spot over eyes grayish ; top 
of head, neck, upper part of body, and outer side of limbs dark 
ochraceous, the hairs black tipped ; sides of head wood brown or drab ; 
throat and chest grayish white with a reddish tinge; rest of under 
parts dark orange buff; hands and feet blackish brown; tail dark 
grayish brown, the hairs being yellowish at base, then black, the basal 
coloring showing through. 

Measurements. Total length, 730; tail, 365. Skull : occipito-nasal 
length, 58 ; Hensel, 47 ; intertemporal width, 19 ; zygomatic width, 34 ; 
median length of nasals, 110; palatal length, 21; width of braincase, 
27 ; length of upper molar series, 22 ; length of mandible, 39 ; length of 
lower molar series, 19. Ex specimen in Berlin Museum from Vohemar, 
Madagascar. 

The type in the Paris Museum is so faded from exposure to the 
light for more than a century that the original color has disappeared, 
and a description of the specimen would be useless. 

In their account of this species Schlegel and Pollen say, by the 
natives in the northwest part of Madagascar it is known by the name 



♦This figure is badly drawn, or does not represent the skull of M. griseus. 
It is altogether too broad, especially the muzzle. See Jentink, (1. c.)- 



MYOXICEBUS 127 

of Bokomboula, and it inhabits the forests of bamboo. They found it 
several journeys from the coast on the banks of the river Ambassuana. 
This animal remains during the day asleep among the shoots of the 
highest bamboos, the back curved, the head placed between the thighs, 
and the tail covering the back. It is strictly nocturnal in its habits, and 
does not perceive its enemies nor know of the hunter's approach. It 
feeds on the bamboo leaves, which were always found filling the 
stomach. It is very lazy during the day, but at night exhibits an 
activity and agility that is incredible. It utters a feeble grunt similar 
to that of a pig, but much less pronounced. The young are born in De- 
cember or January. A young one kept in captivity lived on bananas 
and cooked rice, but it only ate the latter when forced by hunger. It 
had the bad habit of gnawing its tail as monkeys often do in captivity. 
On pointing a finger at it, it flew into a rage, showed its teeth and 
uttered sharp grunts. 

Myoxicebus olivaceus (I. Geoffroy). 

Hapalemur (!) olivaceus I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 75; 
Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 
Mus., 1870, p. 133 ; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Naturw. Akad. 
Wissensch. Wien, 1870, p. 654 ; Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1879, p. 768. 
olivaceous lemur. Native name Coaline, (Bartlett). 

Type locality. Ampazenambe, Madagascar. Type in Paris Mu- 
seum. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern coast of Madagascar from Betsileo Prov- 
ince, and north western parts to If assy. 

Genl. Char. General color olive brown, under parts dark. 

Color. Top of head, upper parts of body and outer side of limbs 
of arms grayish brown ; rest of under parts pale fulvous ; inner side of 
head behind ears and cheeks grayish ; throat and chest, and inner side 
of arms grayish brown; rest of under parts pale fulvous; inner side of 
legs grayish tinged with fulvous ; tail gray and black mixed, darkest on 
median portion; hands and feet blackish brown; ears hidden in fur. 
Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length about 620 ; tail, 425. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 76.5 ; Hensel, 52 ; zygomatic width, 43.6 ; width of brain- 
case, 32.5; palatal length, 36.7; median length of nasals, 13.4; length 
of upper molar series, 22.8 ; length of mandible, 55.2 ; length of lower 
molar series, 21. Ex specimen British Museum. 



/ 



128 MYOXICEBUS 

This animal seems separable from H. griseus. It is much darker 
and of quite a different color on both the upper and under parts of the 
body. The type is in good preservation and has a young one by its side, 
showing the same coloration. It is not stated in what part of Mada- 
gascar it was procured, but a skin in the study collection obtained by 
M. Lentz is labelled as having been taken at Ampazenambe. 

Myoxicebus simus (Gray). 

Hapalemur ( !) simus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus. 1870, p. 828, pi. LII, figs. 1-4, (skull) ; 
Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 491, fig. 9 ; 501, fig. 14 ; 
Shaw, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 132 ; Bartl., Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 768 ; 1884, p. 391 ; Schlegel, Notes Leyd. 
Mus., II, 1880, p. 45 ; Jentink, Notes Leyd. Mus., VII, 1885, 
p. 33, pi. I, figs. 1, 2, pi. II, figs. 1, 2; Bedd., Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1884, p. 892; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 82. 

Prolemur simus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 851. 

BROAD-NOSED GENTLE LEMUR. 

Type locality. Madagascar. No locality given. Type in British 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. North east coast of Madagascar. Antongil, (Jen- 
tink) ; Nandisu, Betsileo, (T. Waters. Ex Brit. Mus. spec). 

Genl. Char. Size large ; nose broad, truncate ; ears short, covered 
with long hairs externally, and on the margin ; no spines above wrist. 

Color. Nose black; top of head, and back and sides of neck 
rufous ; cheeks, and beneath ears buff ; lower part of back, sides of 
body, and outer side of limbs mouse color; yellowish spot on rump; 
throat, breast, and inner side of limbs pale ochraceous ; under side of 
body yellowish white; hands, feet, and tail blackish gray. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 81 ; Hensel, 63.6 ; 
zygomatic width, 65.5 ; palatal length, 33.2 ; width of braincase, 48.8 ; 
median length of nasals, 29.2 ; length of upper molar series, 31.3 ; length 
of mandible, 60.7 ; length of lower molar series, 39. Ex type British 
Museum. 

This species has been confounded with M. griseus (E. Geoff.), by 
various writers, and Gray himself thought it might be M. olivaceus 
(I. Geoff.), though he maintained it was not the same as M. griseus. 

It is a much larger animal than that species, and the skulls if com- 



MYOXICEBUS 



\29 



pared would show at once by their great dissimilarity of size, and shape 
of the muzzle, (one broad and one truncate, the other narrow and 
pointed), that they represent very distinct species. 

There are two specimens in the Paris Museum, marked male and 
female and named M. simus, collected by M. Lentz in the valley of 
Ambookobe, Madagascar, but which in color, do not resemble Gray's 
type of the species. Both examples have the very broad nose and 
muzzle of M. simus. The following description was taken from the 
male specimen. Nose between eyes and on sides black; top of head, 
neck, and between shoulders, reddish chestnut, the hairs tipped with 
ochraceous ; rest of back, sides of body, outer side of limbs and under 
parts yellowish gray, tinged with reddish on arms; throat and under 
side of arms below elbows rusty ; hands reddish ; feet yellowish gray ; 
tail at base pale red, remainder brownish gray, blackish at tip ; muzzle 
white ; ears grayish on long hairs. 

It will be seen that this specimen differs greatly in color from the 
description of the type of M. griseus given above, and while both 
examples have characters that would seem to indicate they belonged to 
Gray's species, the various differences they exhibit in coloration would 
show that the form was subject to great diversity in its hues. 

Mr. Shaw gives an account of one of these broad nosed Lemurs 
which he had in captivity (1. c). It was caught in the higher level 
forest among the bamboos on the eastern side of Betsileo Province. 
The outwardly inclined teeth in the lower jaw were used as scrapers 
and not for biting. Besides these nearly all the teeth were serrated 
and arranged in opposition so as to intersect, and it could bite off easily 
the young shoots of the bamboo, and mince up a handful of grass 
blades and stalks, each bite cutting like a pair of scissors. It feeds 
nearly throughout the entire day, like most grass-eating animals, and 
for several months this Lemur was kept chained on the lawn, and it 
rarely ceased from eating the grass from morning until evening. It 
disliked fruit and could not be induced to touch it although tempted 
with various kinds growing in the forest, but was very fond of cooked 
meat and sugar cane ; and through its desire for sugar it was induced to 
eat cooked rice, which eventually became its chief food. The broad pad 
on the great toes enabled it to grasp even the smoothest surface firmly. 
The male's head was round in shape, the female had a more pointed 
nose. The cry it uttered was at times like that of a duck, but on other 
occasions was loud and piercing. 



130 LEMUR 



GENUS LEMTJB. TRUE LEMURS. 

T ?=? o — P — \/f — ?' — fi 
A. 3_3; U. o^; r. 3 _35 M. 3_ 3 3°- 

LEMUR Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 59; I, 1766, p. 44. Type Lemur 
catta Linnaeus. 
Prosimia Briss., Regn. Anim., 2nd ed., 1762, p. 156. 
Procebus Storr, Prodr. Meth. Mamm, 1780, p. 32, tab. A. 
Maki Muirhead, Brewst., Edinb. Encyclop., XIII, 1819, p. 405, 

(Part.). 
Varecia Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 135. 

Head fox-like ; nose elongate ; eyes large ; superciliary ridges rising 
above forehead; ears large, tufted; chin and cheeks surrounded with 
long hair ; arms shorter than legs ; tail half as long as the body except 
L. catta ; wrists and ankles hairy ; outside of the palm of hand, and at 
base of fingers are fleshy pads ; mammae two, pectoral. Skull : facial 
portion elongate ; mastoid region not inflated ; incisors small, subequal, 
placed in front of canines, which are large and set in a notch on the 
jaw; all upper molars with an internal cingulum; upper premolars 
have one exterior cusp, with a supplementary one on the first, and the 
second premolar has a large interior cusp ; the molars except the pos- 
terior, have seven cusps, two interior, two exterior, a small supple- 
mentary one in front, and two on the ridge between the exterior and 
anterior cusps ; the posterior molar has only a front interior cusp. In 
the lower tooth row there is a diastema between the canines and the 
first premolars; these last are higher than the others and have a 
cutting edge; the lower molars except the last, have five cusps, two 
outer, two inner and an intermediate one, which is wanting on the last 
molar, leaving that tooth with but four. Angle of mandible not pro- 
duced downward. 

This genus contains the typical Lemurs, with an elongate face and 
a somewhat fox-shaped head ; the cheeks are usually surrounded by a 
ruff of lengthened hairs, often passing beneath the chin. The ears are 
large with tufts on upper parts. Eyes large and round ; the arms are 
not quite so long as the legs ; and the tail is usually long, and some- 
times inclined to be bushy. Fleshy pads are placed on palms of hands 
and muscles of the feet, as well as on under side of fingers, which 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE XVIII. 




Lemur catta. 
No. 75.7.20.10. Brit. Mus. Coll. Nat. Size. 



LEMUR 131 

enable the animals to grasp the branch of a tree with great tenacity. In 
size they are about equal to the house cat, and their fur is thick, some- 
times woolly in texture. Not very much is known of their habits in 
the wild state, but they are not so strictly nocturnal as the species of the 
other genera of the family, and are seen during the day as well as at 
night seeking food. They are only found in the Island of Madagascar 
and the adjacent Comorin Islands. They go in troupes, sometimes of 
many individuals, are very noisy and live in the forest, one species only, 
L. catta, frequenting rocky places destitute of trees. They are very 
agile and their movements are made with great rapidity. Their usual 
note is a kind of low grunt, but they often utter loud cries. Fruits of 
various kinds, and insects, bird's eggs and birds themselves, when they 
can catch them, furnish their principal means of subsistence. During 
the heat of the day they sleep, the head placed beneath the arms and the 
tail coiled about the neck. They walk on the hands and feet, both when 
on the ground or amid the trees, the tail usually carried high up. Great 
confusion has existed in the many published articles on the species, 
mainly from a lack of sufficient material by which a correct judgment 
could be obtained. Much variability occurs in the coloration, individuals 
of the same species differing greatly in this respect, and in not a few 
instances the female has been described as a species distinct from the 
male. In some cases there is wonderful difference in color between the 
sexes, and in such cases it is not to be wondered at that the female 
should have been considered as representing a species, the male of 
which had not at that time been obtained. To rectify the synonymy 
given by different writers is no easy task, as they have not always been 
in accord as to the name of different species, and much confusion has 
been created by bestowing various names upon the same species. De j 
scriptions of these animals by the earlier writers were often so meagre 
and insufficient that it was difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain what 
one was intended, and the task was made no easier by the disappear- 
ance of the type from the collection of the Institution in which it was 
originally deposited. But after an examination of all the types now 
existing, and a careful study of the collections of these animals in the 
Museums of the World, the conclusions given in the articles on the 
various species, deemed worthy of recognition, have been reached. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1758. Linnceus, Sy sterna Naturce. 

Three species are included in Lemur, only one of which belongs 



132 LEMUR 

to the genus, viz., L. catta. The others are tardigradus, of the 
genus Loris, and volans included in Galeopithecus. 

1762. Brisson, Regnum Animale. 

Four species of Lemur are here given, under the genus Pro- 
simia: viz., P. fusca, P. pedibus albus, P. pedibus fulvis, and P. 
cauda annulis cincta. The first three cannot be determined 
with any degree of certainty, the fourth, however, is without 
doubt Lemur catta Linnaeus and must be regarded as the type 
of Brisson's genus. 

1766. Linnceus, Systema Natures. 

Beside the species in the former edition of this work, given 
above, two more are added, L. mongos, and L. macaco. 

1774. Schreber, die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit 
Beschreibungen. 

Various species are given in this work under Lemur, not all of 
which belong to that genus. L. tardigradus — Loris tardi- 
gradus; L. mongos (nee Linn.), = L. fulvus E. Geoff., 
and is mixed in synonymy and plates. L. fulvus and L. rufi- 
frons are confused together and the synonymy given belongs 
partly to each, while plate XXXB represents L. fulvus, and 
XXXIXA has a figure of L. rufifrons. L. macaco Linn., is 
also confused with L. variegatus (Kerr), and plate XLA 
represents the former, and XLB the latter, while the synonymy 
belongs partly to each. L. catta is correctly given. The "Yellow 
Maucauco" of Pennant is included without any Latin designa- 
tion in the text ; but is called on plate XLII, Lemur simia- 
sciurus. Lemur volans = Galeopithecus volans. 
A plate of L. albifrons, No. XXXIXD is given. 

1777. Erxleben, Systema Regni Animalis. 

Species of various genera are here included in the genus Lemur, 
but the following valid forms are properly placed. L. mongos ; 
(nasus albus, Africa orign.) ; L. macaco, (nee synonymy) ; L. 
catta. The others are L. tardigradus = Loris tardigradus ; 
L. Havus = Perodicticus potto ; L. tarsus undeterminable. 
L. volans = Galeopithecus volans. 

1788. Gmelin, Systema Natures. 

A number of species representing various genera as now 
accepted are here included in the genus Lemur. L. tardigradus 
= Loris tardigradus; L. indri = Indris indris; L. potto 
= Perodicticus potto ; L. mongoz ; L. macaco ; L. catta ; L. 
murinus = Microcebus murinus; L. bicolor Miller, unde- 



LEMUR 133 

terminable; L. laniger = Lichanotus laniger; L. volans — 
Galeopithecus volans. No new species described. 

1792. Kerr, Animal Kingdom. 

Lemur variegatus first described as Lemur macacus varie- 
gatus. 

1796. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Encyclopedic Methodique. 
Lemur albifrons described. 

1812. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

A list of the species as then known is here given. L. macaco 
(nee Linn.), = L. variegatus Kerr; L. niger — L. macaco 
Linn. ; L. ruber = L. variegatus ruber, which with L. nigri- 
frons, and L. rufus are first described; L. albifrons; L. 
albimanus = L. mongoz Linn.; L. fulvus first described; L. 
anjuanensis = L. mongoz Linn. ; L. collaris = L. fulvus ; L. 

CATTA. 

1820. Desmarest, Mammalogie ou description des especes de Mammi- 
feres. 

A list of Lemurs containing most of the errors of previous 
authors. L. macaco = L. variegatus ; L. ruber — L. v. ruber; 
L. catta ; L. niger = L. macaco Linn.; L. fulvus; L. albi- 
manus = L. mongos Linn. ; L. rufus ; L. collaris = L. fulvus ; 
L. albifrons; L. nigrifrons; L. cinereus = Myoxicebus 
griseus E. Geoff. 

1827. R. P. Lesson, Manuel de Mammalogie ou Histoire Naturelle 
des Mammiferes. 

A list of the species of the genus Lemur is given in this work 
as then understood. The valid species are, L. catta ; L. ful- 
vus ; L. rufus ; L. albifrons ; L. nigrifrons. The remainder 
are L. macaco = L. variegatus (Kerr) ; L. ruber = L. v. 
ruber; L. niger = L. macaco Linn. ; L. mongoz (nee Linn.), = 
L. fulvus E. Geoff. ; L. albimanus = L. mongoz Linn. ; L. 
collaris = L. fulvus; L. cinereus = Myoxicebus griseus (E. 
Geoff.). 

1829. 7. B. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

In this work a list of species of the genus Lemur is given as 
they were understood at that time. The valid species are L. 
catta; L. rufus; L. fulvus; L. albifrons; L. nigrifrons. 
The remainder are, L. ruber = L. v. ruber; L. niger = L. 
macaco Linn. ; L. mongos (nee Linn.), = L. fulvus Geoff. ; L. 
albimanus = L. mongos Linn. ; L. cinereus = Myoxicebus 



134 LEMUR 

griseus; L. murinus = Microcebus murinus; and L. bicolor 
undeterminable. 

1833. Bennett, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Lemur rufifrons first described. 

1834. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 
Lemur mongos Linn., redescribed as L. dubius. 

1840. Wagner, Schreber die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
Eight species of the genus Lemur are included in this work, 
four of which are correctly named, viz., L. catta; L. rufi- 
frons ; L. albifrons ; L. ruber = L. v. ruber. The others are 
L. macaco = L. variegatus Kerr ; L. niger = L. mongos Linn. ; 
L. mongos (nee Linn.), = L. v. ruber; L. fulvus; and L. 
collaris = L. fulvus. 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 

The species of Lemur are here placed in the genus Prosimia 
with four divisions, Les Macacos, Les Mongous, Les Maques, 
and Les Varis. The first contains (P.) catta; Les Mongous has 
(P.) mongoz; with (P.) macromongoz = L. mongoz; (P.) 
bugi = L. mongoz ; the third Les Maques, has (P.) rufa = L. 
rufus; (P.) albimana = L. mongos; (P.) brissonii = 
L. mongos; (P.) albifrons; (P.) rufifrons; (P.) ocularis — 
L. nigrifrons; (P.) frederici = L. albifrons; fourth race 
Les Varis contains (P.) macaco; with several varieties; the 
red variety — L.v. ruber. 

1842. /. E. Gray, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Lemur corqnatus first described. 

1842. R. P. Lesson, Nouveau Tableau du Regne Animal. 

Lemur variegatus Kerr, renamed Prosimia erythromela. 

1848. Schuermans, Academie Royale des Sciences et Belle-Lettres de 
Belgique, in Memoires Couronnes et Memoires des Savants 
Strangers. 
L. coronatus redescribed as L. chrysampyx. 

1850. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Comptes Rendus de V Academie 
des Sciences. 

Lemur rubriventer tf, first described, and the 2, described as 
Lemur flaviventer. 

1851. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

In this list of Lemurs is given all the species designated by 
previous authors, and himself, but no new ones described. The 



LEMUR 135 

valid species are, L. catta ; L. variegatus ; L. ruber = L. v. 
ruber; L. rubriventer ; L. albifrons ; L. nigrifrons ; L. albi- 
manus = L. mongos Linn. ; L. collaris = L. fulvus ; L. anjuan- 
ensis f= L. mongos Linn.; L. mongos; L. fulvus; and L. 
chrysampyx = L. coronatus. 
1855. Wagner, Schreber die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
The list of Lemurs in the previous volume of this work is here 
considerably enlarged and fourteen species are enumerated, only 
six of which are valid, viz., L. catta ; L. ruber = L. v. ruber; 
L. rubriventer ; L. rufus ; L. albifrons ; L. rufifrons : and 
L. coronatus. The others are, L. macaco, (nee Linn.), = L. 
variegatus; L. Haviventer = L. rubriventer; L. collaris = 
L. fulvus; L. brunneus = L. fulvus; L. mongos (nee Linn.), 
= L. fulvus; L. anjuanensis = L. mongos Linn. ; and L. chry- 
sampyx = L. CORONATUS. 

1862. Bartlett, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Lemur macaco, $, redescribed as L. leucomystax. 

1863. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
In an elaborate paper on the "Lemuroid Animals" Lemur is 
divided into a number of genera which cannot be considered as 
having any claim to a distinct rank. Under Varecia are placed 
L. variegatus as V. varia; L. niger = L. macaco ; L. ruber = 
L. v. ruber; and L. leucomystax = L. macaco. In Lemur is 
L. catta. Prosimia has L. albifrons; L. nigrifrons; L. 
melanocephalus = L. fulvus; L. mongos (nee Linn.), = L. 
fulvus; L. rufifrons; L. xanthomystax = L. fulvus; L. 
coronata; L. albimana = L. mongos; L. anjuanensis (nee 
Geoff.), == L. nigrifrons; and L. collaris = L. fulvus. 

1864. St. George Mivart, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London. 

An important paper on the crania and dentition of the Le- 
murim: embracing all the genera, with the species of some as 
then understood, and with definitions of genera and subgenera. 
Of the genus Lemur a careful specialized description is given of 
the skull and teeth, and comparisons made with other genera of 
the Family. The synonymy and description of the genus are given, 
but a list of the species is omitted. Lemur is placed in the sub- 
family Lemurin^e, followed by Myoxicebus (Hapalolemur) , 
Microcebus, Cheirogaleus (!), and Lepilemur (!). The 
conclusion of his investigation may be summed up in his own 



136 LEMUR 

words : "I have been quite unable to detect any cranial or dental 
characters which would justify a subdivision of the genus 
Lemur." He divides the Lemurhxe into four subfamilies with 
fifteen genera, an arrangement that has not been adopted, 
as the species of several of the genera, such as Daubentonia, 
Tarsius, and Nycticebus etc., are considered as possessing 
characters sufficiently distinctive to make their species repre- 
sentative of independent Families. 

1867. St. George Mivart, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London. 

This is a supplementary paper to the one mentioned above, in 
which the genera Cheirogale and Microcebus are compared 
and the differences found to be few, but "it will be possible 
(and perhaps even useful) still to retain, provisionally at least, 
the distinction between Cheirogaleus (!) and Microcebus, 
though reposing mainly, if not exclusively on a few cranial and 
dental characters." Lepidolemur is also discussed and is con- 
sidered not to have any marked relationship to any other genus. 
The tarsal structure of these three genera and that of Galago is 
compared. 

1868. Schlegel and Pollen, Recherches sur la Faune de Madagascar. 
Lemur nigrifrons from the Island of Mayotte redescribed as 
L. mayottensis. 

1870. Fitzinger, in Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften zu Wien. 

In a revision of what he calls the order of Half apes 'Halbaffen,' 
under the genus Lemur, this Author gives a list of the known 
forms with their synonymy considerably mixed, continuing the 
errors of previous writers, and adding some of his own. The 
following valid species are given : L. catta ; L. macaco ; L. 
mongoz ; L. albifrons ; L. rufifrons ; L. coronatus ; L. ruber 
= L. v. ruber; L. rubriventer ; and L. nigrifrons. The other 
forms recognized are, L. collaris — L. fulvus ; L. macaco- 
griseo-maculatus = L. variegatus Kerr ; Lemur macaco albus 
possibly an albino of L. variegatus Kerr; Lemur niger = L. 
macaco Linn. ; L. anjuanensis = L. mongos ; L. chrysampyx = 
L. coronatus ; L. Haviventer = L. rubriventer ; L. albimanus = 
L. mongos ; L. cuvieri = L. mongos ; and L. brunneus = L. 
fulvus. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 



LEMUR 137 

This is mainly the paper published in the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London in 1863. Varecia now contains 
L. variegatus as V. varia; L. ruber = L. v. ruber; and L. 
leucomystax = L. macaco ; L. niger being made a synonym of 
L. variegatus ! and Prosimia contains the same names as in the 
previous review. 

1871. 7. E. Gray, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Lemur rubriventer redescribed as Prosimia rufipes. 

1876. H. Schlegel, in Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bas, Les 
Singes, Simice. 

This volume is a most valuable and authoritative review of 
the Primates, the Author's conclusions being founded upon the 
great collection of these animals in the Leyden Museum, which 
was doubtfully equalled by that of any other Institution at 
that time. The opinions expressed therefore are entitled to the 
greatest respect, and when it may be necessary to disagree with 
the Author, it will be found generally that new material, 
obtained since his work was published, has shed a clearer light 
upon doubtful points, that could not be decided satisfactorily 
when he was writing his review. 

Of the genus Lemur he recognizes comparatively few species, 
and divides them into two Sections with subdivisions added. 
These Sections are I, with the tail having more or less a uniform 
coloration such as grayish, brownish or rufous, the apical half 
being often brown or blackish, and II, with the tail ringed with 
black and white. The first is again divided into A, with those 
species having the nose black, and B, with those having the 
nose covered with white hairs. A has four subdivisions, a 
containing animals of large size with tails nearly as long as the 
body, chin and upper part of throat naked, fur thick and woolly, 
varied chiefly with black and white and reddish brown, and ears 
hidden by the long hairs on each of their sides, color very 
variable but not dependent on age of animal. This division has 
L. variegatus Kerr. /?. Pelage of male black, that of female, 
more or less bright red. In this is included L. macaco Linn. t. 
Front and crown more or less black with a large whitish spot on 
each side of the brow ; ears naked at edge, remainder covered 
with short hairs. Color gray tinged sometimes with brown, or 
fawn or red ; the four hands of the same hue as the dominant 
color, or verging to red. Above reddish or grayish white. Tail 
at base above, and hind part of thighs of a bright red, more 



^ 



138 LEMUR 

or less deep in hue. Apical half of tail ordinarily black. 
Individual modifications of these hues often occur, and local 
differences in the style of coloration are more or less apparent 
as if indicating subspecies. Two species are placed in this 
division L. collaris E. Geoff., = L. fulvus E. Geoff., and L. c. 
rufus = L. rufus E. Geoff. 8 Head white to the vertex ; with 
L. albifrons. e. Ears rather small, thickly covered with, and 
hidden in the fur. Color of pelage brownish red ticketed with 
black, the tail more or less black. Under parts either red, or 
yellowish or whitish. One species represents this division L. 
rubriventer E. Geoff. B. Nose covered with white hairs; 
ears covered. Two species are placed here L. mongoz Linn., 
and L. coronatus Gray. No new species are described, but 
while L. mayottensis = L. nigrifrons examples are placed 
among those of L. collaris and L. fulvus, in a foot note atten- 
tion is called to its distinctness from those species. 

1880. Sclater, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Lemur nigerrimus described. 

1890. A. Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, in Histoire Physique, 
Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar. 
Lemur cinereiceps is figured but not described. 

1894. F. E. Beddart, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London. 

A paper in which the brain of the various species of the Lemu- 
roidea are described and compared. The decision as regards 
the species of the genus Lemur, is, that the range of variation 
is not large, but the bigger brains are more complex than the 
smaller. In a subsequent paper in the second volume of the 
same publication, the brains of Lemur macaco and Lemur 
coronatus are described and a comparison made with the brain 
of Perodicticus potto. 

1901. C. I. Forsyth-Major, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society 
of London. 

An important contribution dealing with the os planum and 
lachrymal in Lemurs and Monkeys. The conclusion is, that 
in those Lemurid^e which have a large lachrymal the os 
planum is reduced and vice versa. The following points in 
existing species are insisted upon when there is a "great 
facial expansion of the lachrymal and particularly its exten- 
sion beyond the fossa lachrymalis." 
1. "It is scarcely more frequent in Lemurs than in the 



LEMUR 139 

higher groups; the greatest reduction of the lachrymal occurs 
precisely within the Prosimiae. 

2. It is at its minimum in young individuals. 

3. The genera of each group in which this character is 
presented have certainly no closer relationship with those of 
another group. 

4. It can always be traced back to an elongation of the 
facial cranium, necessitated by a more powerful dentition. 
This extension of the lachrymal, is, in the Lemurs as well as 
in the Monkeys, not a primitive condition, but an extreme 
specialization. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

The species of the genus Lemur are found on the Island of 
Madagascar and some of the small neighboring islands; Madagas- 
car, as would naturally be inferred on account of its large size, 
containing most all of the species, if not indeed all of them, and 
this island may be regarded as the original home of the genus. On 
the northern portion of Madagascar from the east to the west coast, 
from the mouth of the river Antamba and the environs of the Bay of 
Mazamba to Bombetok (Schlegel), and also on the north eastern coast, 
(Schlegel, limits not defined), L. fulvus is found. On the same coast 
from Vohemar to the Bay de Diego is the range of L. coronatus, and 
from Adampone to Cape Masoala L. variegatus is met with. Still on 
the north east coast from the Bay of Antongil to Masindrano we have 
L. albifrons and L. v. ruber; and from Teneriff e to Fort Dauphin in 
the south L. rubriventer is found. In the rocky lands of the south and 
south west portion of Betsileo Province, and also in the Province of 
Anossi, is the home of L. catta ; and in southern Madagascar from the 
River Tsidsibon to the River Mangonka, L. rufus has its range. On 
the north west coast from Baly to Marinda, and also on the neighboring 
islands of Anjuan (Johanna), Comoro, Nossi-be, and Mohilla, L. 
mongos is found; and from Cape Ambre to Ifassy L. nigerrimus 
ranges; while from Ifassy to Manaharana are the limits of L. 
macaco. From Baly to Cape St. Vincent L. rufifrons occurs; and 
from some portion of Madagascar as given by E. Geoffrey, locality 
not stated, and also from the Island of Mayotte, L. nigrifrons is 
found. For L. cinereicefs Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, no lo- 
cality has been given, those authors having simply published a figure 
of the species without any description. 



140 LEMUR 

The ranges of the recognized forms of Lemur here given may 
probably be more extensive than is known at present, at least for some 
of them, but further exploration of Madagascar, especially in the 
interior will be necessary to decide positively any doubts now held upon 
this point. The limits given have been ascertained from specimens in 
different Museums having particular localities attached to them, and 
also from various maps placed in the collection of Lemurs in the Paris 
Museum, prepared, presumably, under the direction and supervision of 
Grandidier and A. Milne-Edwards. It is greatly to be regretted that 
the text for the Lemurs in the Histoire Naturelle de Madagascar of the 
authors above named, was never published, for it would have undoubt- 
edly have thrown much light upon the variation, distribution and habits 
of these singular animals. The plates do indeed give in a restricted 
manner, some idea of how Lemurs vary, but it would require more than 
one volume of illustrations to exhibit the often extraordinary differ- 
ences shown by these animals in the hues of their coats, both between 
individuals, and also at times between the sexes of the same species. 
This could only be properly demonstrated in the text of a volume de- 
voted solely to this group. In a work like the present, lack of space 
only permits that the attention be called to this fact and the inclusion, 
in the articles on the species, of the descriptions of a few striking 
instances, which of necessity only give an inadequate idea of the condi- 
tions existing. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Males. 

A. Nose white. 

o. Back of head grayish fulvous L. mongoz. 

b. Back of head black bordered with rufous L. coronatus. 

B. Nose black. 

o. Without ruff on sides of neck. 
a.' Tail without annulations. 

a." Greater portion of head not white. 

a.'" With spot at root of tail L. nigrifrons. 

b!" Without spot at root of tail. 

a. 4 Forehead and top of head black ; 

gray spot over eye L. fulvus. 

fe. 4 Forehead and top of head 

rufous L. ruiifrons. 

c. 4 Forehead and top of head rufous 

brown or chestnut L. rubriventer. 



LEMUR 141 

d. 4 Forehead and whiskers yellowish » 

white L. rufus. 

b." Greater portion of head white. 

a."' Body dark brown speckled L. albifrons. 

b!" Body orange red L. cinereiceps. 

c." Head and body all black. 

a."' No upstanding crest on forehead. . .L. macaco, 
b.'" With upstanding crest on fore- 
head L. nigerrimus. 

b! Tail with annulations L. catta. 

b. With ruff on sides of neck, color exceedingly variable. 

a.' Colors mostly black and white L. variegatus. 

b! Colors mostly red '. L. v. ruber. 

Lemur mongoz Linnseus. 

The Mongooz Edw., Glean. Nat. Hist., 1785, p. 12, pi. CXXVI. 

Lemur mongoz Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 44 ; Erxl., Reg. Anim., 
1777, p. 66; Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 42; Shaw, Genl. 
Zool., I, 1800, pp. 96, 112, pi. XXXIII; Fisch., Anat. Maki, 
1804, p. 19 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 267 ; 
V, 1855, p. 44, excl. syn. ; van d. Hoev., Tijdsch. Natur. 
Geschied., XI, 1844, p. 34; Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm, I, 1854, 
p. 168, fig. ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 
fasc. I, 1856, pp. 216, 219; Schleg., Naderl. Tijdsch. Dierk., 
Ill, 1866, p. 75 ; Schleg. and Pollen, Faun. Madag., II, 1868, 
p. 4; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 231, excl. syn.; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 312; Anders., Cat. 
Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 1861, p. 93; Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1901, p. 249; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., 
VIII, 1906, p. 544, Zool. Ser. 

Prosimia mongos Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 65 ; Less., Man. 
Mamm., 1827, p. 62. 

Lemur albimanus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 161; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 72; Gerv., 
Hist. Nat. Mamm., I, 1854, p. 167'; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 
Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 215, 219; A. Milne- 
Edw. et Oust., Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., X, 1888, p. 
282; A. Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., 1890, 
Atl., II, pis. CLVII, CLXII, CLXIV, CLXV, figs. 1, 2; 
Lorenz, Abhand. Senckenb. Natur. Geschied., XXI, 1898, p. 
450, pi. XXXIII, fig. 2. 



142 LEMUR 

Lemur anjuanensis E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 161 ; Gray, Hist. Nat. Maram, I, 1854, p. 168, fig. 
Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 145 ; Dahlb., Stud 
Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., 1856, fasc. I, pp. 216, 219 
Peters, Reis. Nach. Mossamb., Zool., I, 1858, p. 21 ; Fitzing. 
Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 627 
Gunth., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., II, 5th Ser., 1879, p. 215. 

Mongous d'Anjouan F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1819, p. 2, pi. 
LXXXVII. 

Lemur dubius F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1834, pi. XCIII, $. 

Prosimia bugi Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 227. 

Prosimia albimanus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 239 ; Gray, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 139 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 
Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 75; Forbes, Handb. 
Primates, I, 1894, p. 74. 

Prosimia brissonii Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 230. 

Prosimia collaris (nee E. Geoff.), Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1863, p. 139. 

Lemur cuvieri Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
LXII, 1, 1870, p. 58. 

MONGOOSE LEMUR. 

Type locality. Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. North west coast of Madagascar from north of 
Baly to Marinda, and the Islands of Anjuan, (Johanna), Comoro, 
Mohilla, and Nossi-be. 

Genl. Char. Nose white never black ; rufous patch on throat ; 
hands sometimes white. 

Color. Male. Face from between eyes to nostrils, and side of nose 
and upper lip white or grayish white ; space around eyes black ; fore- 
head grizzled black and gray of varying intensity ; cheeks, and beneath 
ears rufous in some specimens, continuing beneath and almost meeting 
on the throat ; top of head and neck, and in some specimens the upper 
part of back, dark gray, hairs tipped with fulvous ; rest of upper parts, 
and outer side of limbs brownish gray; hands and feet pale gray, some- 
times white; a gray band across chest; rest of under parts fulvous. 
Basal portion of tail like back, remainder iron gray grading into black 
at tip. 

Female. Similar to male except that the cheeks, and patches 
beneath ears, throat, inner side of arms, and upper part of chest are 
white ; a black band across the forehead. 



LEMUR 143 

Measurements. Total length, 876 ; tail, 420 ; foot, 79. Skull : 
occipito-nasal length, 76-82; Hensel, 67; intertemporal width, 27-31; 
median length of nasals, 20; width of braincase, 35; palatal length, 
32-39; length of upper molar series, 25-28; length of mandible, 59; 
length of lower molar series, 32. 

The type of L. flavifrons is in the British Museum, and the follow- 
ing is a description of it. Pale yellowish band across forehead ; nose 
bright rufous ; top of head, body above, and beneath ears rufous, dorsal 
line darkest ; rump paler, more reddish ; shoulders yellowish ; outer 
side of limbs rufous like head ; hands and feet dark rufous ; chin and 
throat whitish; inner side of limbs, neck and body beneath yellowish, 
tail rufous. 

A second specimen also a female, is very much darker in color, 
being bright chestnut on head and body, dorsal region and hands 
blackish chestnut, feet and tail rufous. While having a general 
resemblance to each other, these two examples differ greatly in depth 
and shade of color. 

Schlegel in his monograph of the Lemurs was the first to call atten- 
tion to the fact that it was not the animal that was most common in 
collections, and of a rather large size which should bear the name of 
mongoz given by Linnaeus, but a smaller form distinguished in the 
male by rufous patches beneath the ears, extending sometimes on to the 
throat, and with a whitish face and nose. Later Forsyth-Major in the 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 249, published a paper in which he 
showed very conclusively that the wrong animal had been accorded the 
Linnaean name of mongoz, and agreed with Schlegel that the smaller 
rufous-cheeked animal should rightfully bear the appellation. The 
female is very similar to the male in general appearance, but lacks the 
rufous coloring ; and the patches on the side of head and throat, called 
whiskers by Schlegel, are white, and she is rather lighter on the under 
side of the body. Besides Madagascar, this species is a native of the 
islands of Anjuan, (Johanna), Mohilla, and Nossi-be. 

According to Schlegel and Pollen, (1. c.) "this species inhabits the 
forests which extend from the bay of Diego- Juarez to the bay of Bam- 
betoc, also the forest of Loncoube in the island of Nossi-be." The 
animals go in troupes and keep to the highest trees. Ordinarily they can 
be seen towards evening, and then their voices are head in loud cries, 
for at that time they are exceedingly noisy. Sometimes when danger 
approaches these cries are changed to growling. Their agility in leap- 



144 LEMUR 

ing from tree to tree is wonderful and can hardly be followed with the 
eyes, and it is easier to kill a bird on the wing than one of these animals 
when leaping. They have the habit when pursued of dropping suddenly 
from a lofty tree into the bushes, and the hunter thinking the indi- 
vidual to be dead, is soon undeceived by seeing it quickly seeking 
another tree a considerable distance away, and this makes following 
them difficult. When raised in captivity from a very youthful age, 
it is gentle and friendly. It will eat all kinds of fruits, and is especially 
fond of bananas, upon which it chiefly subsists in the wild state. It is 
also fond of bird's brains, which, after breaking the skull with its teeth, 
are sucked into the mouth, but it does not eat the bird. The inhabit- 
ants of Nossi-falie will not permit this animal to be introduced there, 
as they contend that its presence would be a profanation of their so- 
called sacred island. 

Lemur coronatus Gray. 

Lemur coronatus Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. X, 1842, p. 
257; Id. Voy. Sulphur, 1844, p. 15, pi. IV; van d. Hoev., 
Tijdsch. Natur. Geschied., 1844, p. 36; I. Geoff.. Cat. Pri- 
mates, 1851, p. 74; Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm, I, 1854, p. 168, 
fig.; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 144; Dahlb., 
Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., 1856, fasc. I, pp. 213, 217; 
Fisch., Metth. Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 634 ; Schleg.. 
Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 313; A. Milne-Edw. et 
Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., 1890, Atlas, pis. CLVIII-CLXI, 
CLXV, CLXVI ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 75. 

Lemur chrysampyx Scheurm., Mem. Couron. Acad. Brux., XXII, 
1848, p. 6, (Part.); I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 74; 
Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 146 ; Dahlb., Stud. 
Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., 1856, fasc. I, pp. 215, 218; 
Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Naturw. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1879, 
p. 634. 

Prosimia coronata Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 138; Id. 
Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 75. 

CROWNED LEMUR. 

Type locality. Madagascar. No particular locality given. Type 
in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. North eastern Madagascar from Bay de Diego to 
Vohemar. 

Genl. Char. Tips of ears naked, tail longer than body. 



VOLUME I. 









PLATE 4. 




1ICROCEBUS COQUERELI. 




Lemur nigrifrons. 



Lemur rufus. 



LEMUR 145 

Color. Male. A black or blackish brown spot on center of head, 
sometimes only a stripe, in some specimens occupying nearly all the 
space between the ears; orbital rings black; face and nose grayish 
white; ears white; cheeks and forehead rufous; upper part of body 
dark sienna gray; outer side of limbs, and under side of body pale 
rufous; tail rufous on basal half, remainder blackish to tip, beneath 
much paler, but becoming blackish at tip ; hands and feet pale rufous 
like outside of limbs. Ex type British Museum. 

Female. Resembles the male but washed with rufous on the back ; 
forehead and face gray ; between eyes and side of nose, ears and stripe 
in front of ears, white; under parts yellowish white; tail dark gray 
for entire length, as are also the limbs ; the rufous band on top of the 
head extends downwards on sides of head in front of ears ; hands and 
feet grayish white ; tail iron gray. 

Measurements. Skull : total length, 81 ; occipito-nasal length, 76 ; 
Hensel, 62; intertemporal width, 27; zygomatic width, 49; median 
length of nasals, 21 ; length of upper molar series, 26; length of man- 
dible, 54 ; length of lower molar series, 24. 

Lemur nigrifrons E. Geoffroy. 

Lemur nigrifrons (nee Linn.), E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 

Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 260 ; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm, 1828, 

p. 19, lime Legon; F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., II, 1824, 

Livr. XXX, pi. XVIII ; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 73 ; 

Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., I, 1854, p. 168, figs. ; Dahlb., Stud. 

Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 215, 219; 

Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, 

p. 73 ; A. Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., Atlas, 

II, 1890, pis. CXXXVII, CXLIII. 
Prosimia ocularis Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 231. 
Prosimia anjuanensis (nee Geoff.), Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1863, p. 139; 1872, p. 862; Gunth., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ill, 

1879, 5th Ser., p. 216. 
Prosimia nigrifrons Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 

Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 73 ; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, 

p. 850; Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 768. 
Lemur mayottensis Schleg., Ned. Tijdsch. Dierk., 1866, p. 76; 

Schleg. et Pollen, Faun. Madag., 1868, p. 3, pi. II ; Schleg., 

Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 308. 

BLACK-FRONTED LEMUR. 

Type locality. Island of Madagascar. 



146 LEMUR 

Geogr. Distr. Islands of Madagascar and Mayotte. 

Color. Face black; top of head, forehead and patch at top of 
nose black ; grayish buff spot over each eye ; entire upper parts sooty 
brown washed with yellowish ; outer side of limbs paler ; cheeks yellow- 
ish or buffy; entire under parts buff; hands and feet reddish; tail' 
reddish with black spot at base above. Ex specimen in Paris Museum 
probably a type. 

Ex specimen from the Island of Mayotte. Face, nose and lips 
black; black band across forehead projecting to a point in front at 
center ; cheeks and back of head and line in front of black on forehead, 
rufous ; body above, and outer side of limbs fulvous, darkest and more 
reddish on dorsal line; under parts of body, and inner side of limbs 
yellowish brown ; rufous spot at vent ; hands dark brown ; feet rufous : 
black spot at base of tail above ; basal part of tail rufous grading into 
black for three fourths the length, the hairs tipped with rufous. 

Measurements. Total length, 906; tail, 500; foot, 97; ear, 36. 
(Collector's measurements). Skull: occipito-nasal length, 82; Hensel, 
76 ; zygomatic width, 54 ; intertemporal width, 28 ; palatal length, 39 ; 
width of bra-incase, 38; length of upper molar series, 30; length of 
mandible, 60 ; length of lower molar series, 35. 

The supposed type of L. nigrifrons in the Paris Museum, has the 
black spot at the root of the tail above, characteristic of the island form 
named by Schlegel mayottensis. This spot is generally very conspic- 
uous and causes the specimens from Mayotte to be readily recognized. 
Another peculiarity is the absence of spots over the eyes, which is 
observable in another "type" in the Paris Museum, although the one 
described has these marks ; the muzzle is also broad and inflated, quite 
different in shape from the rather pointed muzzle of L. fulvus ; and 
the third upper premolar and the first and second upper molars are 
larger. There is much individual variation in color, as in the other 
species, and some are all yellowish gray with all the top of the head 
black, and no rufous showing. It would seem that the characters men- 
tioned are sufficient to give this form a distinct rank, and that it was 
an error to regard it as a synonym of L. fulvus. Between the Paris 
Museum examples and those from Mayotte Island there are no grounds 
for separation, and it may be, Geoffroy's specimens came originally 
from Mayotte Island, as it is not likely, at the time he wrote, that 
a discrimination of the islands would be made, but all material from 
that quarter would be labelled Madagascar. 

Messrs. Schlegel and Pollen state that they discovered this species 






.* 



Volume I 



Plate 6 




Lemur fulvus 



LEMUR 147 

during their visit to the island of Mayotte, situated in the western part 
of the bay of Gongonie. It goes in bands of from six to twenty 
individuals in the primeval forests of the island. They are seen both 
by day as well as at night, keeping mostly to the trees, but descending 
occasionally to the ground to look for fallen fruit. At the setting of 
the sun they utter their plaintive cries in unison. When pursued by 
dogs they seek the highest trees, intently watching their enemy and 
growling. It is only when they see the hunter that the entire band 
takes flight, seeking the depth of the forest where it is exceedingly 
difficult to follow and shoot them. When wounded it defends itself 
against the dogs with great fury, and it has been seen to leap upon the 
back of one and bite its ears and neck. At Mayotte in hunting this 
Lemur, a cur dog is used, which on perceiving one of the animals keeps 
up a continual barking, jumping at the same time against the tree on 
which the Lemur is. The latter pays more attention to the dog than 
to the hunter, and is easily approached and shot. This species is fond 
of wild dates, and makes long journeys in search of them. The flesh of 
this Lemur is excellent, and tastes like that of the Hare. 

Lemur fulvus E. Geoffroy. 

Lemur fulvus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 

p. 161, No. 9; Smith, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, p. 61. 
Lemur collaris E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 

p. 161, No. 11; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 

270; V, 1855, p. 143; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 72; 

Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm, I, 1854, p. 167 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 

Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 216, 228 ; Fitzing., 

Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 52. 
Lemur mongos (nee Linn.), Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 

1840, p. 270; V, 1855, p. 144; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. 

Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 622; Forbes, Handb. 

Primates, I, 1894, p. 71. 
Lemur brunneus van d. Hoev., Tijdsch. Natur. Geschied., V, 1844, 

p. 35 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 143 ; 

Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, 

p. 622. 
Prosimia melanocephala Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 137, 

pi. XVIII ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 74. 
Prosimia xanthomystax Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 

138, pi. XVII ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 



148 LEMUR 

Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 73 ; Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1879, p. 68. 
Prosimia mongos (nee Linn.), Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, 

p. 137; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 

Mus., 1870, p. 74. 
Prosimia Havifrons Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 596, pi. 

XXXI; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., 1870, Append, p. 132, $. 
Lemur Havifrons Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 232, §. 

FULVOUS LEMUR. 

Type locality. Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. Northern part of the Island of Madagascar. 

Genl. Char. Distinguished from L. mongos Linn., by its black 
nose. 

Color. Male. Top of head, middle of forehead, face and nose 
black ; ears scantily haired, black fringed with white ; spot on each side 
of forehead iron gray ; cheeks iron gray varying to whitish in different 
individuals, this hue extending beneath the ears; upper part of body 
rufous or reddish gray, becoming in some specimens darker and more 
reddish on the rump ; outer side of limbs reddish gray like back ; hands 
and feet reddish brown ; under parts of body, and inner side of limbs 
pale yellow ; tail yellowish brown, beneath at base pale orange yellow. 

Lemur mongos collaris 67. 10. 5. 20. There is a specimen in the 
British Museum purchased from the Zoological Society of London and 
named Lemur mongos collaris which is peculiar and should be noticed. 

Type locality. Madagascar. 

Color. Nose gray in the middle, black at top and at tip ; a partial 
orbital ring and forehead black, a rather indistinct line across top of 
head, space beneath ears on neck, cheeks and sides of throat rufous ; a 
yellowish band from back of shoulders across back at base of neck : 
shoulders, arms, grizzled gray and black; upper parts of body and 
thighs speckled grayish brown with a yellow tinge; legs below knees 
sooty ; hands and feet blackish ; chin and middle of throat white ; a 
blackish band across upper part of breast; line down center of inner 
side of arms gray ; under parts of body and inner side of legs sooty ; tail 
sooty speckled with whitish, becoming black towards tip. 

Measurements. Total length, 780; tail, 440; foot, 80. Skull in 
the specimen. 

This example obtained from the Zoological Society is apparently 
without any history beyond the fact of its purchase. It does not agree 
exactly with any known species. Its nose is neither black nor white. 



LEMUR 



149 



and in the rufous coloring of the cheeks, sides of the neck and throat 
it resembles L. mongos Linn., but its black hands and feet separate it 
from that species, as do also its dusky under parts. This is not 
Gray's Prosimia collaris which = L. mongos Linn., nor does it seem to 
agree with any described species; and the thought arises, can it be a 
hybrid born in the Zoological Gardens, as it seems to have resemblance 
to more than one species, its nose neither black nor white keeping it 
out of both groups as arranged in the key of the species. 

There are great variations in color and in head markings among 
individuals of this species, and this fact has been the cause of the 
multiplication of names, and confusion in the synonymy. It is 
the common Lemur called L. mongos generally by authors and 
attributed to Linnaeus. It is however a larger animal than the 
true L. mongos Linn., and has a black face and nose which the 
other species never has. Attention has been called to the error, so 
universally committed by authors, by both Schlegel and Major as 
mentioned in the article on L. mongos Linn. The names fulvus and 
collaris were bestowed upon this species by E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire 
(1. c.) and both published on the same page, but as fulvus comes first, 
it must replace the somewhat better known collaris. The types of both 
L. fulvus and L. collaris have disappeared from the collection in the 
Paris Museum, but there is an example marked L. collaris E. Geoff., 
and which was figured in the Histoire Naturelle de Madagascar by 
Milne-Edwards and Grandidier. This animal died in the menagerie 
of M. Polito, and was given by him to the Museum in 1828. While 
therefore, it cannot be any specimen examined by Geoffroy when he 
named the species, it is probable that it represents fairly enough 
Geoffroy's form so far as can be determined by his meagre description. 
This Paris Museum specimen may be described as follows : top of head 
and back of neck blackish maroon ; entire upper parts and outer side of 
limbs reddish brown ; dorsal line from neck broadening on rump, dark 
reddish brown ; a reddish brown spot over each eye ; cheeks and large 
patch between ears extending to throat bright rufous; throat, under 
part of body and inner side of limbs pale yellow, (probably faded) ; 
hands and feet rufous ; wrists and ankles bright rufous ; tail chestnut. 

When considering examples of a species so varying in color as the 
present, it is not to be wondered that writers with insufficient material 
at their command should have been induced to describe some of their 
specimens as distinct species, but it is not always easy, when such 
examples are no longer accessible for examination, to accurately define 
what species they really belong to. And this has been one of the diffi- 



150 LEMUR 

culties in the synonymy of the present species. The descriptions are 
often meagre and insufficient, and the types no longer existing there was 
little left to assist a correct decision to be reached. Some types remain 
such as L. xanthomystax Gray, and L. melanocephalus Gray, both of 
which are undoubtedly the same as L. fulvus. These are both in the 
British Museum and may be described as follows : 

L. xanthomystax Gray, (1. c). Head and back of neck black; 
black line between eyes ; nose black ; dark buff spot tinged with rufous 
over each eye ; large bright rufous spot on each side of throat ; fur of 
body and limbs rufous gray, hairs black tipped ; dorsal line dark reddish 
brown ; under part of body pale rufous ; hands and feet rufous ; basal 
portion of tail dark brown, remainder blackish. Ex type in British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 90 ; Hensel, 77 ; inter- 
temporal width, 31 ; zygomatic width, 54; median length of nasals, 22; 
length of upper molar series, 30; length of mandible, 62; length of 
lower molar series, 27. 

L. melanocephalus Gray, (1. c). Top of head with a narrow line 
extending over the ears to the occiput ; forehead, face and nose black ; 
upper part of body grizzled chestnut and black ; outside of arms iron 
gray ; outer side of legs brownish gray, chin and throat pale yellowish ; 
outer side of limbs, and body beneath buffy ; hands dark brown ; feet 
bright rufous; tail chestnut with black tips to the hairs on basal half, 
but nearly all black on apical half. Ex type British Museum. 

It will thus be seen from the above descriptions that while the 
general resemblance is the same, yet there are various differences in 
coloration sufficient to mislead unless the species' tendency to exhibit 
individual variations was not known nor understood. The black nose 
will, however, always distinguish L. fulvus from L. mongos, as well as 
its larger size, but neither of these characters are sufficient to separate 
it from the next species with which it is more closely allied, at least 
so far as coloration is concerned. 

Lemur rufifrons (Bennett). 

Lemur mongos Schreb., Saugth., I, 1775, p. 138, Taf. XXXIX A, 

(nee Linn.). 
Lemur rufifrons Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1833, p. 106 ; 

Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 269; V, 1855, p. 

145 ; van d. Hoev., Tijdsch. Naturw. Geschied., XI, 1844. p. 

38 ; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Naturw. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 

1870, p. 63 ; Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 768. 



LEMUR 151 

Prosimia rufifrons Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 230; Gray, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 138 ; 1872, p. 852 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, 

Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 74; Id. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., VII, 4th Ser., 1871, p. 339. 
Lemur mongos var. ruiifrons A. Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. 

Nat. Madag., Mamm., Atl., II, 1890, pis. CXXXVIII, 

CXXXIX, CXLIV. 
Lemur mongos ruiifrons Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., 

VIII, 1906, p. 544, Zool. Ser. 

RED-FRONTED LEMUR. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type specimen then living in the 
garden of the Zoological Society. 

Geogr. Distr. West coast of Madagascar from Cape St. Vincent 
on the south to Baly on the north. 

Genl. Char. Male with top of head between ears rufous ; that of 
female grizzly black. 

Color. Male. Top of head between ears and patch beneath ears 
deep rufous; center of forehead and nose black; spots above and in 
front of eyes, and cheeks, whitish ; outer side of limbs, hands and feet, 
and under part of body pale rufous ; upper part of body grizzled gray 
washed with rufous ; hands light brown ; feet dark brown ; tail blackish 
on apical half, then rufous, brightest and deepest towards root, and 
blackish at root. Ex type in British Museum. 

Female. Top of head grizzled ; patch around eyes grayish white ; 
upper part of body and outer side of limbs grizzly brown ; under side 
of limbs, and body beneath pale rufous ; deeper along sides of abdomen 
and at vent. 

Measurements. Skull : total length, 87.3 ; occipito-nasal length, 85 ; 
intertemporal width, 31.6; zygomatic width, 47.7; median length of 
nasals, 25.9; length of upper molar series, 28.6; length of mandible, 
60 ; length of lower molar series, 32.3. 

Lemur rtjbriventer I. Geoffroy. 

Lemur rubriventer I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XXXI, 1850, p. 876 ; 
Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 71 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. 
Suppl., V, 1855, p. 142; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 
Natur., Fasc. I, 1856, pp. 214, 218 ; Schleg., Neder. Tijdsch. 
Dierk., Ill, 1866, p. 75 ; Id. Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 
311; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
1870, p. 638; Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., 
1890, Atl., II, pis. CLXVIII, CLXX ; Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. 



152 LEMUR 

Lond., 1899, p. 554; 1901, p. 263; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field 
Columb. Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 544, Zool. Ser. 

Lemur flaviventer I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XXI, 1850, p. 876 ; Id. 
Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 72; Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., I, 1854, 
p. 167, fig. ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 1856, 
fasc. I, pp. 214, 218, 220; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 629 ; A. Milne-Edw. et Grandid., 
Hist. Nat. Madag., 1890, Atl., II, pi. CXCI. 

Prosimia ruiipes Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., VII, 4th Ser., 1871, 
p. 339 ; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, pi. 69. 

Lemur ruiipes Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 72. 

RED-BELLIED LEMUR. 

Type locality. Madagascar. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern coast of Madagascar from Tenerifa to 
Fort Dauphin. Ampitambe, N. E. Betsileo, Ambohimitombo, and Ivo- 
himanitra, Tanala country, and Vinanitelo, Southern Betsileo confines 
of the Tonalas of Ikongo. (Forsyth-Major). 

Genl. Char. Outside of ears, and inner side of margins haired, 
rest naked. Iris dark yellow. (Forsyth-Major). 

Color. Male. Line from forehead, top of nose and lips maroon ; 
head above mixed dark brown and buff; sides of head coppery red; 
body above chocolate brown, palest on rump ; arms, under parts from 
chin, and inner side of limbs coppery red ; outer side of hind limbs to 
ankles reddish buff ; hands and feet coppery red ; tail maroon at base ; 
blackish maroon for remainder of length. Ex type Paris Museum. 

The colors, especially on lower back and legs have probably faded. 
An example in the British Museum differs somewhat as will be noticed 
in the following description. 

Line from forehead, top of nose and muzzle black, or blackish 
maroon ; head and cheeks reddish brown ; upper part of body speckled 
black and reddish, becoming in some individuals, almost black on dor- 
sal line ; limbs, hands and feet, and under side of body reddish brown ; 
tail black. 

Female. The sexes differ in coloration only in that the throat and 
upper part of breast of the female is white, and the under parts of the 
body are pinkish buff. 

Measurements. Total length, 711.2; tail, 407.6; foot, 102.8. 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 83 ; Hensel, 35 ; zygomatic width, 34 ; inter- 
temporal width, 29; median length of nasals, 21; palatal length, 35; 
length of upper molar series, 30 ; width of braincase, 39 ; length of 
mandible, 60 ; length of lower molar series, 33. 



LEMUR 153 

Lemur rufus E. Geoff roy. 

Lemur rufus E. Geoff., Cat. Mamm., 1803, p. 34; Id. Ann. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 160; Less., Man. Mamm., 
1827, p. 67; van d. Hoev., Tijdsch. Natur. Geschied., 1844, p. 
36; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 72; Wagn., Schreb., 
Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 144; Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., I, 
1854, p. 167; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., 1856, 
fasc. I, pp. 216, 219, pi. VIII, figs. 31, 31a, 31b; Fitzing., 
Sitzungsb. Metth. Naturw. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 647; 
Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 
Mus., 1870, p. 76. 

Prosimia ruffo Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 223. 

Lemur collaris rufus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 309, 
(Part.). 

Lemur mongos var. rufus A. Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. Nat. 
Madag., Mamm., Atl., II, 1890, pi. CXLVI. 

RED LEMUR. 

Type locality. Madagascar. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Southern Madagascar from the River Tsidsibon to 
the River Mangonka, 21° 30'. (Schlegel). 

Genl. Char. Frontal band and whiskers whitish or yellowish 
white. 

Color. Spot between eyes on forehead, and sides of nose dark 
reddish brown ; top, and sides of head yellowish white ; sides of head 
beneath ears, back of neck, entire upper parts of body, and outer side 
of arms bright rufous ; flanks, and outer side of hind limbs golden ; 
under side of body and inner side of limbs pale golden yellow ; hands 
and feet golden yellow; tail dark rufous with blackish hairs towards 
tip. Ex co-type in Leyden Museum. Skull in the specimen. 

This example is stated to be "un des types du Lemur rufus E. 
Geoff." It is, as the description shows, of a bright rufous color, quite 
different in appearance from all the other Lemurs. It came from the 
Paris Museum in 1815. 

The type of Lemur rufus Geoffroy, is in the Paris Museum but in 
a very dilapidated condition. In fact, excepting the hind neck and 
dorsal region, there is very little color remaining, and the specimen 
or co-type in the Leyden Museum is in a much better state. 

As near as it can be given, the following is a description of this 
type. 

Color. Nose on top and on sides black ; a narrow line from occiput 
over center of head broadening out on forehead and between eyes black, 



154 LEMUR 

tinged with brown ; on each side of this on top of head, and on sides 
in front of ears white or yellowish white ; beneath ears, hind neck, and 
upper parts of body, and shoulders, deep ochraceous buff with a red- 
dish tinge ; arms much discolored, but seem to be paler than back until 
halfway on forearms where they are like the upper parts to wrists and 
hands ; outer side of legs and flanks pale golden yellow ; feet so dis- 
colored with the dust of years, nearly a century, that it is impossible 
to tell with certainty what was the original color, but from one or two 
places that show a little color, it would seem to have been like that on 
the back; under parts and inner side of limbs pale golden yellow, 
possibly, originally a rich golden yellow ; tail mostly denuded of fur, 
and what remains is black with dust, but probably in the life of the 
animal it was like the back, reddish and ochraceous buff. 

Measurements. Total length, 915.67; tail, 458.37; foot. 101.60. 
Ex type Paris Museum. Skull in specimen. 

Lemur albifrons E. Geoff roy. 

Lemur albifrons E. Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., 1796, I, p. 20; Audeb., 
Hist. Nat. Singes et Makis, 1797, p. 13, pi. Ill ; Shaw, Genl. 
Zool., I, 1800, p. 113; E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
XIX, 1812, p. 160; F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1819, Livr. 
Ill, p. 1, pi. I; Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, p. 67; E. Geoff., 
Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 19, lime Legon ; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 271; V, 1855, p. 144; 
Blainv., Osteog., 1841, Atl., Lemur, pi. VI ; van d. Hoev., 
Tijdsch. Natur. Geschied., XI, 1844, p. 36, pi. I, fig. 3; I. 
Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 72; Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 
I, 1854, p. 167, fig.; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 
Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 214, 218; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. 
Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 628 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays- 
Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 310; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. 
Calc, 1881, Pt. I, p. 92; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 
73 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 
544, Zool. Ser. 

Prosimia albifrons Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 230 ; Gray, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 137 ; 1872, p. 852 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 73. 

Prosimia frederici Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 232. 

Lemur mongos var. albifrons A. Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. 
Nat. Madag., 1890, Atl., II, pis. CXXXVI, CXLIV. 



LEMUR 155 

WHITE-FACED LEMUR. 

Type locality. Madagascar. Type not in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern coast of Madagascar from Masindrano on 
the south to Bay of Antongil on the north. 

Genl. Char. Greater part of head white. 

Color. Male. Forehead, cheeks, temples, back of head and ears 
white ; face from above eyes, and nose black ; upper part of body, and 
outer side of limbs dark brown, each hair tipped with bright pale 
rufous, giving the fur a speckled appearance; entire under parts, and 
inner side of limbs whitish gray; hands and feet like outer side of 
limbs ; basal half of tail like the back, apical half black. 

Female. Paler than the male, and the white seen on the head of 
the male, is dark gray on the female. 

Measurements. Similar in size to L. fulvus. Skull: occipito- 
nasal length, 84 ; Hensel, 75 ; zygomatic width, 49 ; intertemporal width, 
27; median length of nasals, 31; palatal length, 37; length of upper 
molar series, 28 ; width of braincase, 38 ; length of mandible, 57 ; length 
of lower molar series, 31. 

This is a large Lemur, easily distinguished from all others by hav- 
ing the head from the eyes to behind the ears, and the cheeks white. 
The type, if it ever was in the Paris Museum, has disappeared. On 
plate XIII of the Cimelia Physica J. F. Miller has figured an animal 
with a heart shaped white spot on the forehead, and described by Shaw 
as having the "upper part of the neck and back, hind part of the 
thighs and tail black; the under part of the neck and body and the 
limbs white. On the forehead is a large heart-shaped spot pointing 
downward." To this figure Gmelin, (1. c.) gave the name of bicolor. 
It has been suggested by Shaw and others that perhaps this creature 
is the same as Lemur albifrons Geoffroy, but excepting the white 
on the forehead it bears no resemblance whatever to Geoff roy's species, 
and the restricted area of white on the head is very unlike the almost 
entirely white head of L. albifrons. Miller's animal is apparently 
adult, and does not seem to be in a state where the color of the pelage 
is changing to something else, and this condition, moreover, is not 
habitual with the Lemurs, as the young usually closely resemble the 
adults. L. albifrons is not common in collections, and it cannot be 
said that it is at all well known in so far as its appearance at all 
ages is concerned, but with the knowledge that we have at present, it 
would be very unwise to reduce Geoffroy's name to a synonym in favor 
of that bestowed by Gmelin to an animal he probably had never seen, 
and which has no representative in any collection. Miller's example 



156 LEMUR 

should more properly be assigned a place among those quasi species 
deemed indeterminable. 

Lemur cinereiceps Milne-Edwards and Grandidier. 

Lemur mongos var. cinereiceps Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. 

Nat. Madag., Mamm, Atl., II, 1890, pis. CXL, CXLVII, 

(desc. nulla). 
Lemur cinereiceps Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 72. 

GRAY -HEADED LEMUR. 

Type locality. Unknown. 
Geogr. Distr. Madagascar. 

Genl. Char. Hands and feet bright rufous red ; head gray. 
Color. Top of head, face and ears gray; rest of pelage, body, 
limbs, hands, feet, and tail bright rufous red. 

The type of this form was not in the Paris Museum although a 
diligent search was made for it, and I could not therefore give a 
description from the example, nor take any measurements. 

No description was ever published so far as I have been able to 
learn, except the short one in Forbes, (1. c.) and all we know of the 
form, is the figure in the work above cited. Whether or not a figure 
alone is sufficient (no matter how well colored it may be) to establish 
a species, naturalists are not yet in accord, and as the above brief 
description was taken from the plate, it may not be sufficient to make 
amends for former lapses. The plate exhibits a figure of an apparently 
distinct animal. 

Lemur macaco Linnseus. 

Lemur macaco Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 44 ; Erxl., Syst. Reg. 
Anim., 1777, p. 67 ; Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 43 ; Shaw, 
Genl. Zool., I, 1800, p. 98; Fisch., Anat. Maki, 1804, p. 11; 
Less., Man. Mamm., I, 1827, p. 66 ; E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. 
Mamm., 1828, p. 18, lime Lecon; Blainv., Osteog., 1841, Atl., 
Lemur, III; van d. Hoev., Tijdsch. Nat. Geschied., XI, 1844, 
p. 55 ; Schleg, Nederl. Tijdsch. Dierk., Ill, 1866, p. 77; Schleg. 
et Pollen, Faun. Madag., I, 1868, p. 1, pi. I, $, et juv. ; Sclat., 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, pp. 229, 230; 1872, p. 853; 1885, 
p. 672, fig. ; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt. I, 1881, 
p. 91 ; Bedd., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1904, pp. 161, 162, fig. 
14, (Brain). 

Lemur macaco niger Schreb., Saugth., I, 1775, p. 142, pi. XL A. 



LEMUR 157 

Lemur niger Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, 1800, p. 112; E. Geoff., Ann. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 259; Id. Cours Hist. 
Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 19, lime Legon; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. 
Metth., Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 629 ; Gray, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 853 ; A. Milne-Edw. et Grandid., 
Hist. Nat. Madag., Atl., II, 1890, pi. CXXX. 
Prosimia macaco Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 165 ; Less., Spec. 

Mamm., 1840, p. 252. 
Lemur leucomystax Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1862, p. 347, 
pi. XLI ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 136 ; 1872, p. 
853, $. 
Varecia nigra Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 136. 
Varecia varia var. 6, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 70. 
black lemur. Native name Acoumba, (Schlegel and Pollen). 
Type locality. Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. North west Madagascar from Ifassy to Mana- 
harana. 

Genl. Char. Tufts of ears continuing downward to angle of mouth. 
Color. Male. Usually entirely black, but there is considerable 
variation among individuals. Iris yellow or brownish orange; pupil 
small, black. 

Female. Face, nose and back of head black ; forehead grizzled 
gray ; whiskers long ; ear tufts white ; upper parts rich ferruginous 
brown, darkest on middle of back; arms, legs, and neck yellow tinged 
with red ; under parts, and inner side of limbs cream yellow ; hands and 
feet reddish yellow ; tail white or yellowish white. Considerable varia- 
tion exists among individuals and some have the top and back of head 
gray or whitish, and the tail rich ferruginous like the middle of back. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 101 ; Hensel, 86 ; 
zygomatic width, 59 ; palatal length, 47 ; intertemporal width, 31 ; 
median length of nasals, 37 ; length of upper molar series, 36 ; length of 
mandible, 71 ; length of lower molar series, 41. 

Lemur nigerrimus Sclater. 

Lemur nigerrimus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 451, 
fig. 2; Milne-Edw. et Grandid.. Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm., 
Atl., II, 1890, pis. CLIV, CLV ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 73. 

Lemur macaco Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 1016, (nee 
Linn.). 



158 LEMUR 

BLACK LEMUR. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. North western Madagascar, Cape Ambre to Ifassy. 

Genl. Char. Face hairy, except nose pad and lips, which are 
naked ; ears naked. Iris "greenish blue." (A. Milne-Edwards in Litt.) . 

Color. Male. Face black; head, neck, fore part of body from 
middle of back, and arms black glossed with maroon; rest of body 
above, hind limbs, and feet, maroon ; hands black ; under parts of body 
reddish brown; inner side of limbs maroon; tail black tinged with 
reddish beneath ; iris green. Ex type in Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 85 ; Hensel, 77 ; zygo- 
matic width, 53 ; intertemporal width, 32 ; width of braincase, 37 ; 
palatal length, 39.5 ; median length of nasals, about 24 ; length of upper 
molar series, 26 ; length of mandible, 64 ; length of lower molar series, 34. 

The type of this form was purchased by the Paris Museum from 
the Zoological Society of London, the skull, however, is in the British 
Museum. It is a large animal, and may possibly be a melanism of L. 
rufus or L. fulvus, or a male of some species of the L. macaco style. 
The fact that nothing is known of its habitat, or whence the specimen 
came, makes it difficult to form an opinion upon its specific value, and 
we are therefore compelled, for the present, to keep it separate from 
the other species of the genus. 

Lemur catta Linnseus. 

Lemur catta Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 30; I, 1766, p. 45; 
Schreb., Saugth., I, 1775, p. 143, tab. XXI ; Erxl., Syst. Reg. 
Anim., 1777, p. 68 ; Gmel., Syst. Nat., 1788, p. 43, No. 4 ; Shaw, 
Genl. Zool., 1800, p. 103, pi. XXXV; Fisch., Anat. Maki. 1804, 
p. 17 ; Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, p. 66 ; E. Geoff., Cours Hist. 
Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 18, lime Leqon; Wagn., Schreb., 
Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 266; V, 1855, p. 142; van der 
Hoeven, Tijdsch. Natur. Geschied., XI, 1844, p. 32 ; I. Geoff., 
Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 70; Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., I, 1854, 
p. 165 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 
1856, pp. 214, 215; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 72 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, 
Simiae, 1876, p. 314; G. A. Shaw, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 
p. 132; Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 768; Anders., 
Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 1881, Pt. I, p. 90; Bedd., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 371, fig. 3; 1900, pp. 135, 160; A. 
Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag. Mamm., Atlas, 




Lemur catta. 




Lemur variegatus. 



A 



LEMUR 159 

II, 1890, pis. CLXVII, CLXXII ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 

I, 1894, p. 77; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 

1806, p. 545, fig. LXXVI; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1906, p. 124, fig. 48. 
Prosimia catta Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 65 ; Less., Spec. 

Mamm., 1840, p. 223; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, 

p. 129. 
Le mococo F. Cuv., Hist. Mamm., 1824, Vme Livr. pi. 2me ed., 

1833, pi. XVII. 

RING-TAILED LEMUR. 

Type locality. Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. South, and southwestern borders of Betsileo Prov- 
ince, Central Madagascar. Province Anossi, (Schlegel and Pollen). 

Genl. Char. Prominent spur in old males on forearm above wrist ; 
comb-like growth, in females and young, continuous with palm of hand 
by a hairless skin ; near this is a gland surrounded by stiff hairs ; tail 
long, conspicuously banded. 

Color. Top of head grizzled white and black ; neck, shoulders and 
back to rump and sides of body fawn, hairs tipped with white ; a black 
band from cheeks to shoulders; outer side of limbs and rump pearl 
gray; inner side of limbs, and under part of body white; hands gray 
like arms ; feet white ; ears white ; tail banded with numerous rings 
alternately black and white, tip black. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 75 ; Hensel, 70 ; zygo- 
matic width, 45.5; intertemporal width, 15; width of braincase, 39; 
palatal length, 35 ; median length of nasals, 21 ; length of upper molar, 
series, 27 ; length of mandible, 53 ; length of lower molar series, 30. 

This is the most beautiful of all the Lemurs, the soft, delicate color- 
ing of the body, with the strongly contrasted rings on the long tail, 
easily enabling the species to exceed all others in the attractiveness of 
its appearance. Of course it would be a conspicuous object anywhere, 
and when met with in the localities it frequents, the traveller's attention 
would be at once arrested, and the following statement of its habits was 
given by one of its fortunate observers, Mr. George A. Shaw in the 
Proceedings of the London Zoological Society (1. c). He says that 
in his seven years' experience of the species the animals were found only 
in the south and south western part of Betsileo Province. This province 
is on the center table land from 100 to 250 miles south of Antananarivo, 
the capital, and extends for 150 miles with a width of 50 to 60 miles. 
The eastern side is covered with forest, fringing the table land, and 
covering the slopes into the lowland bordering the sea. The Lemurs 



160 LEMUR 

dwell among the rocks in the south and southwest portion, and are not 
arboreal. Their hands (hands and feet?) have long, smooth, level and 
leather like palms which give them a firm footing on the wet, slippery 
rocks, over which they easily travel, as a fly does on a pane of glass, and 
people, although barefooted, are unable to follow them. The thumbs 
are smaller in proportion to those of the forest Lemurs, whose fingers 
are suitable for grasping as they spring from tree to tree, rarely 
descending to the ground except for water. There are very few trees 
where the Ring-tailed Lemurs live, and these are stunted and bushy. 
These Lemurs have two long upper fangs, longest in the males, and 
with these they take away the outer coating of the prickly pear which 
is full of fine spines, and which forms their principal food, as it grows 
abundantly in the crevices and around the foot of the rocks. In sum- 
mer they feed on various kinds of wild figs and bananas. The fangs, 
(canines), are doubtless used for self defence, although when fighting 
they depend chiefly on their hands, with which they scratch and 
strike, and a male has been seen to whip a dog larger than itself by 
these means. They are very easily tamed, and will eat almost any kind 
of fruit, but no cooked meat ; cooked rice however, they can be induced 
to eat. They do not drink in the wild state, as is proved by native state- 
ments, and from the fact of their abstaining for a month or more when 
in captivity, and living on bananas during that period. The Lemurs 
living on the west, including two species of white Lemurs, (Propithe- 
cus), subsist without water, but those on the east invariably drink 
when feeding. 

There is no difference in appearance between the sexes. 

Lemur vareegatus Kerr. 

Lemur macaco variegatus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 1792, p. 86, No. 98. 

Lemur macaco (nee Linn.), Schreb., Saugth., 1775, pi. XLB 
Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes et des Makis, 1797, p. 16, pis. V 
VI; Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, 1800, p. 112; E. Geoff., Ann. Mus 
Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 159; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p 
87; Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 75 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth 
Suppl., I, 1840, p. 266; V, 1855, p. 142; Gerv., Hist. Nat 
Mamm., I, 1854, p. 166. 

Lemur varius I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 7; Dahlb., Stud. 
Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I. 1856, pp. 213, 217; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 301 ; Anders., Cat. 
Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 1881, p. 91, Pt. I; A. Milne-Edw. 
et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag.. 1890. Atl., II, pis. CXXIII, 



LEMUR 161 

CXXIX; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 68; Elliot, Cat. 

Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 543, Zool. Ser. 
Maki-vari Coquer., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1859, p. 462. 
Varecia varia Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 136 ; 1872, p. 

853 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 

Mus., 1870, p. 70, fig. 
Lemur macaco griseo-maculatis Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Nat. 

Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 619. 

RUFFED LEMUR. 

Type locality. Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. North eastern Madagascar from Adenpone to Cape 
Masoala at the entrance of Antongil Bay, and into the interior to 
Bengoa. 

Genl. Char. Color black and white, and variable in the extreme in 
the arrangement; apparently purely individual. Tail thick, long; ears 
hidden in fur ; chin naked ; coat thick and woolly. 

Color. Excessively variable. Possibly the most usual style has the 
nose black on top, the sides covered with short yellowish white hairs ; 
cheeks, forehead, top of head, neck, upper back, arms to elbows, wrists, 
outer edge of thighs, ankles, inner side of limbs, under parts, hands, 
feet and tail black ; rump, flanks, outer side of thighs, and legs to ankles 
white. In some examples there is a white collar around the neck 
beneath the head, and the hind neck is white down to the lower back, 
and this is often tinged with orange or deep buff ; but the extent and 
distribution of these two colors varies so greatly that it is practically 
impossible to find two individuals alike. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 99 ; Hensel, 89 ; 
zygomatic width, 59; intertemporal width, 40; palatal length, 44; 
medium length of nasals, 31 ; length of upper molar series, 30; length 
of mandible, 39 ; length of lower molar series, 35. 

Coquerel states, (1. c.) that this animal is considered sacred by the 
natives of Tamatave, and they say it worships the sun, and prays to it 
every morning. This idea doubtless comes from a habit this Lemur 
has in common with the Mococo. An individual of this species which 
he had in captivity, at the first rays of the sun appearing sat up on its 
hind legs and remaining erect, would open and extend the arms holding 
them in this position while looking at the sun, as if its vivifying in- 
fluence would by this action be received within itself. One, seeing 
Lemurs in European menageries, would obtain no idea of the activity 
they display in their native wilds, or of the grace of their movements 
and their incredible agility in the Madagascar forests, as they launch 



162 LEMUR 

themselves from branch to branch with astonishing precision, and pass 
from tree to tree in prodigious leaps. 

Lemur variegatus ruber E. Geoff roy. 

Lemur ruber E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 
159; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 19, lime Lecon; 
Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, p. 66 ; F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 
1833, p. 219, pi. LXXX ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I. 
1840, p. 272; V, 1855, p. 142; van d. Hoev., Tijdsch. Natur. 
Geschied., XI, 1844, p. 34; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 
71 ; Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., I, 1854, p. 166, pi. X ; Dahlb., 
Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 213, 
219; Fitzing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
1870, p. 636; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 853; 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 69, pi. VII. 
Prosimia erythromela Less., Tabl. Reg. Anim., 1842, p. 10. 
Varecia ruber Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 71. 
red-ruffed lemur. Native name Varikossi. 

Type locality. Madagascar. Type not found in Paris Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Eastern Madagascar, from Bay of Antongil in the 
north to Masindrano in the south. 

Color. Back of neck and circle around ankles white; ruff, rusty 
or orange red ; upper part and sides of body, and outer side of limbs 
rusty red ; under parts, and inner side of limbs and tail, black. Varia- 
tions from this style are frequently seen, but the predominant color is 
usually some shade of red. 

Measurements. Size same as L. variegatus. Skull: occipito- 
nasal length, 99 ; Hensel, 85 ; zygomatic width, 59 ; intertemporal width, 
34 ; median length of nasals, 33 ; length of upper molar series, 36 : 
length of mandible, 70 ; length of lower molar series, 32. 

This handsome variety of Lemur variegatus apparently ranges 
to the south of that species on the eastern coast of Madagascar, the two 
forms meeting at the Bay of Antongil. While exhibiting sundry styles 
of different colorations, it is not subject to such extreme variations as 
those shown by its relatives. Its bright color gives it a very gay and 
attractive appearance, even more striking than that of the strongly 
contrasted hues of L. variegatus. No especial records have been 
given of the habits of this form, but it is not supposed that they differ 
in any degree from those of its relative. 



PLATE XIX. 




LlCHANOTUS LANIGER. 

No. L512d Brit. Mus. Coll. X larger than Nat S12 



Volume I 



Plate 7 




LlCHANOTUS LANIGER 



LICHANOTUS 163 



Subfamily 4. Indrisinae. 
GENUS LICHANOTUS. THE AVAHI. 

t 2—2 -, 1—1 „ 2—2 ., 3-3 

I. i=i; C. izs; P. 2=2; M. 3^ = 3°- 

LICHANOTUS Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Avium, 1811, p. 72. Type 

Lemur laniger Gmelin. 
Avahi Jourd., LTnstit., II, 1834, p. 231. 
Microrhynchus Jourd., These inaug. Faculte Scien. Grenoble, 1834, 

(nee Megerle, 1823, Coleopt.). 
Habrocebus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, pp. IX, 257, 

(Part.). 
Semnocebus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 207. 
Iropocus Glog., Hand. u. Hilfsb. Naturg., I, 1841, pp. XXVIII, 

43,44. 

Fur woolly; head almost round; nose not elongate, hairy; face 
naked ; nostrils opening into a cavity below the skin ; ears small, hidden 
in fur ; tail longer than body ; third, fourth and fifth fingers flattened ; 
third and fourth toes united by a membrane up to the first joint. Skull : 
braincase rounded, rather high ; orbits very large ; upper incisors small, 
outer ones the larger; canines short; premolars with an outer 
cingulum, and no interior cusp; molars four cusped. Inner lower 
incisors more slender than the outer; anterior and posterior molars 
with five cusps ; palate reaching to middle of last molar ; os centrale of 
wrist wanting ; fourth finger and toe longest. 

Lichanotus laniger (Gmelin). 

Lemur laniger Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 44; Cuv., Tabl. 
Element. Mamm., 1798, p. 101 ; Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, 1800, 
p. 99, pi. XXXIV; Fisch., Anat. Maki, 1804, p. 16; Griff., 
Anim. Kingd., V, 1827, p. 125 ; van d. Hoev., Tijdsch. Natur. 
Geschied., 1844, p. 27. 

Lemur brunneus Link, Beytr. Natur., 2nd Pt, 1795, p. 165. 

Indris longicaudatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Natur. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 158; Desm., Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., XVI, 1817, p. 



164 LICHANOTUS 

171; Id. Mamm., 1820, p. 97; Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, p. 
65; Lenz, Nat. Saugeth., 1831, p. 35. 
Microrhynchus laniger Jourd., These inaug. Facul. Scien. Gren- 
oble, 1834, II, p. 231 ; Coquerel, Rev. Mag. Zool., 1859, p. 461 ; 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 141 ; Mivart, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 151, pi. XV; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, pp. 90, 136; 
Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 769. 
Indris laniger A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ., II, 1835, p. 27; 
Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867.. p. 256; 1873, pp. 484, 
494-497. 
Avahis laniger Less., Compl. Buff., I, 1838, p. 294 ; I. Geoff., Cat. 
Primates, 1851, p. 69; Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., I, 1854, p. 
164, pi. VII ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., f asc. 
I, 1856, p. 202 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 290. 
Lichanotus laniger Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. Av., 1811, p. 72; 
Blainv., Osteog. Mamm., Primates, 1841, p. Atl., pi. VIII, 
Lemur. 
Semnocebus avahi Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 210; Id. Suppl. 

Buff., 1847, p. 103. 
Lichanotus avahi van d. Hoev., Tijdsch. Natur. Geschied., 1844, p. 

44, pi. I, fig. 6, pi. Ill ; Id. Die Saugeth., 1855, p. 1024. 
Habrocebus lanatus Schinz, Syn. Mamm., 1844, p. 115; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 258, tab. XLII A; Fit- 
zing., Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 
603. 
Lemur lanatus Schleg., Handb. tot der Dierk., I, 1857, p. 19. 
woolly avahi. Native name Ovandros, Ampongui. 
Type locality. Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern coast of Madagascar, and the Bay of 
Passandava on the west coast. St. Mary's Island, (Coquerel). 

Color. Face covered with russet hairs, nose pad naked ; a buff 
band across forehead, anterior to which is a blackish band ; top of head 
and neck blackish brown, hairs white tipped ; ears and patch beneath 
tawny black ; shoulders, and upper parts of back tawny, tips of hairs 
paler, their bases slate ; tips of hairs on lower back, and outer side of 
legs buff ; patch on rump buff ; upper parts washed with ochraceous ; 
under parts, and inner side of limbs dark gray ; hands dark reddish ; 
feet reddish ; tail bright dark cinnamon rufous. 

Measurements. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 49; Hensel, 38; 
zygomatic width, 37; intertemporal width, 21 ; median length of nasals, 



LICHANOTUS 165 

9; breadth of braincase, 26 ; length of upper molar series, 17 ; length of 
mandible, 32 ; length of lower molar series, 18. 

This curious little animal, with a coat much resembling wool, is 
strictly nocturnal in its habits, sleeping during the day. It is arboreal, 
and inhabits the forests on the eastern coast of Madagascar, and 
along the Bay of Passandava on the west coast. Examples from the 
north western part are smaller and of a lighter color. Coquerel (1. c.) 
states that this animal is found in the great forest of Tsasifout on the 
Island of St. Mary and is known to the natives by the name Ampongui. 
It is more decidedly nocturnal than the true Lemurs and a more stupid 
animal. 




166 PROPITHECUS 



GENUS PROPITHECUS. SIFAKAS. 

t 2—2 ~, 1—1 „ 2—2 , , 3—3 

I. i=i; G. jzs; P. 2=2; M. 3=3 = 3°. 

PROPITHECUS Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1832, p. 20. Type 

Propithecus diadema Bennett. 
Macromerus A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ., 2nd Ser., 1833, p. 

49, (nee Schonherr, 1826, Coleopt.). 
Habrocebus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, pp. IX, 257. 

Head longer than broad; muzzle black, naked; ears partly con- 
cealed in the fur, hairy ; tail long ; index finger not united to the others. 
Between the arms and the body is a fold of skin. Skull: upper in- 
cisors protruding, the inner pair approximating and longer than outer ; 
braincase high ; diastema between upper canines and premolars ; lower 
molars quadricuspidate. 

The Sifakas, as these rather handsome animals are called, are 
remarkable for their wonderful diversity of coloration. 

As now restricted only two species are recognized, each having 
several subspecies, which are only met with in certain localities apart 
from their species. The color is usually white varied with yellowish, 
red, or black markings. Sometimes black phases occur when the entire 
pelage is of that hue. The animals are only found in Madagascar, and 
very little has been recorded of their habits. They are dwellers of many 
parts of the Island, and are not confined to the forests, but are met with 
in the arid tracts, and on the plains where trees are infrequent. Albino 
individuals are found, mostly belonging to the P. v. deckeni variety, a 
form that exhibits very great diversity of color and pattern among 
individuals. In fact examples of most of the forms vary so much in 
this respect that many descriptions would be necessary to make them 
recognizable, and enable one, not familiar with the group, to attribute 
the examples to their proper place among the different accepted forms. 
The Sifakas are venerated and never killed by the natives of Mada- 
gascar. They are inoffensive animals, going about in troops of half 
a dozen individuals, and live upon various leaves, fruits and flowers, 
quite a different diet from that of other species of Lemurs. During 
the heat of the day they sleep in some secluded place among the foliage 
and are active in the early mornings and evenings. 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE XX. 




PROPITHECUS DIADEMA. 
No. 31253 Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Coll. Nat. Size. 



PROPITHECUS 167 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1832. Bennett, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

Propithecus diadema described. 
1840. Wagner, Schreber die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur 

mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 

Propithecus diadema is here placed in the genus Habrocebus. 
1867. Grandidier, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 

Propithecus verreauxi described. , 
1867. A. Milne-Edwards, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 

Propithecus verreauxi coquereli described as Propithecus co- 

quereli. 
1870. 7. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 

Bats, British Museum. Appendix. 

Propithecus verreauxi coquereli redescribed as Propithecus 

damonis. 

1870. Peters, in Monatsberichte Konigliche Preussen Akademia der 
Wissenschaften. 

Propithecus verreauxi deckeni described as Propithecus deckeni. 

1871. Grandidier, in Comptes Rendus. 

Propithecus diadema edwardsi described as Propithecus dia- 
dema var. edwardsi. 

1871. A. Milne-Edwards, in Revue des Traveaux Scientifiques. 
Propithecus verreauxi coronatus described as Propithecus ver- 
reauxi var. coronatus. 

1872. Grandidier, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 

Propithecus diadema sericeus described as Propithecus diadema 
var. sericeus. 

1875. Gunther, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Propithecus diadema black phase; described as Propithecus 
holomelas. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Natur elle des Pays-Bas, Simiae. 
In this work the various forms described are all given full 
specific rank. The species are P. coquereli = P. v. coquereli; P. 
damanus = P. v. coquereli; P. deckeni = P. v. deckeni; P. 
verreauxi; P. diadema; P. edwardsi — P. d. edwardsi; and 
P. holomelas = P. diadema. 

1894. Rothschild, in Novitates Zoologicce. 

Propithecus verreauxi redescribed as Propithecus majori. 



168 PROPITHECUS 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

On the eastern coast of Madagascar, P. diadema ranges from the 
Bay of Antongil on the north to the Masora River in the south; and 
P. d. edwardsi from the Faraouny to the Masora; and north of An- 
tongil Bay P. v. sericeus is found. On the west coast, in the northern 
part P. v. coronatus is met with from the Bay of Mozamba to the 
Manjaray River, and also for some distance into the interior. Between 
the southern base of the eastern range of mountains and the River 
Tsidsibon P. verreauxi is found; while P. v. coquereli is met with 
from the north side of Bombetok Bay to the south side of Marendry 
Bay, the Betsiboka River being its southern limit. In the center of the 
west coast on the great plains between the Rivers Mananbolo and Man- 
zarayo, P. v. deckeni has its range. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. Face and nose black. 

a. Body not mostly white. 

a.' Forehead white, back dark gray P. diadema. 

b! Forehead black glossed with purple, back 

chestnut P. d. edwardsi. 

B. Face black spotted with yellow P. d. sericeus. 

C. Face and ears black. 

a. Body mostly white. 

a.' Outer side of limbs ashy gray. 

a." Under parts white P. verreauxi. 

b." Under parts bright rufous P. v. deckeni. 

D. Face black, nose white. 

a. Outer side of limbs dark maroon P. v. coquereli. 

b. Outer side of limbs rusty red P. v. coronatus. 

With species, such as these of this genus, which vary from each 
other in an almost unlimited degree, no key can be constructed to give 
all the phases of coloration. What may therefore be considered as 
representing the typical styles has been selected in the descriptions of 
the different forms embraced in the above key. 

Propithecus diadema Bennett. 

Propithecus diadema Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1832, p. 20; 
Ogilby, The Naturalist, II, 1837, p. 9; Less., Spec. Mamm., 
1840. p. 220; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 16; van 



PROPITHECUS 



169 



d. Hoev., Tijdsch., Nat. Geschied., 1844, pp. 9, 45 ; I. Geoff 
Cat. Mamm, 1851, p. 68; Gerv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., I, 1854 
p. 162, pi. VIII ; van d. Hoev., Handb. Dierkunde, II, 1855, p 
1042; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I 
1856, p. 204; Pollen, Nederl. Tijdsch. Dierk., I, 1863, p. 286 
Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 338; Grandid., Rev 
Mag. Zool., 1867, p. 313; Fitzing, Sitzungsb. Metth. Natur 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, 1870, p. 608 ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 
and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 90; 1872, p. 847 
Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1875, p. 62 ; A. Milne-Edwards 
et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madagas., I, 1875, p. 296, pis. I-III 
Schleg, Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 296; Anders., Cat 
Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt. I, 1881, p. 93; Forbes, Handb 
Primates, I, 1894, p. 98; Elliot, Cat. Mamm Field Columb 
Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 541. 

Macromerus typicus A. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. Journ., 1833, p. 20. 

Habrocebus diadema Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 
260; V, 1855, p. 141 ; Schinz, Syn. Mamm., 1844, p. 115. 

Lichanotus diadema Blainv., Osteog. Mamm., Primates, 1841, 
Atl., pi. VIII, (Lemur). 

Indrus albus Vinson, Compt. Rend., LV, 1862, p. 829 ; Id. Rev. 
Mag. Zool., 1862, p. 494. 

Indrus diadema Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 247, pi. 
XVII, (skull), text figs. 1-3, (skull and teeth). 

DIADEMED SIFAKA. 

Type locality. Sambava, Northeastern Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. North east Madagascar between the rivers Lokoy 
and Bemarivo, (Grandidier). 

Genl. Char. Head round, muzzle naked; thumb slender, widely 
placed from fingers; great toe large, powerful; depression in skull 
behind orbits. 

Color. Forehead white or yellowish white ; back of head, neck and 
narrow dorsal line to middle of back, black; shoulders and back dark 
gray; rump buff yellow; outer side of arms buff yellow; outer side 
of legs cream color ; sides of body brownish gray ; brownish bar across 
lower part of throat ; upper part of throat, chest and abdomen yellowish 
white; hands black; feet ochraceous buff, the central portion brown- 
ish, toes black; tail buff yellow at base, paler in the center and then 
grayish white to tip. Ex type in British Museum. No skull. In 
fresh specimens, the arms, legs, and rump at base of tail are orange 
color. 



170 PROPITHECUS 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 92 ; Hensel, 81 ; zygo- 
matic width, 64 ; intertemporal width, 37 ; palatal length, 36 ; width of 
braincase, 49 ; median length of nasals, 19 ; length of upper molar series, 
31 ; length of mandible, 72 ; length of lower molar series, 33. Ex skull 
of skeleton No. 1533 in British Museum. 

Propithecus diadema edwardsi Grandidier. 

Indris diadema (nee Bennett), Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1867, p. 255. 
Propithecus diadema var. edwardsi Grandid., Compt. Rend., 1871, 

p. 231 ; A. Milne-Edwards et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., 

Mamra, I, 1875, p. 4, pi. III. 
Propithecus edwardsi Sclat., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVI, 10th 

Ser., 1872, p. 847 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 847 ; 

Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1875, p. 63; 1879, p. 769; 

Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 297 ; Forbes, Handb. 

Primates, I, 1894, p. 99. 
Propithecus bicolor Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 10th Ser., 1872, 

p. 206. 
Propithecus holomelas Gunth., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th Ser., 

XVI, 1875, p. 125 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 

297; Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 769. (Melanistic 

style) . 
Propithecus diadema var. holomelas A. Milne-Edw. et Grandid., 

Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm, I, 1875, p. 4. (Note). 
Propithecus diadema holomelas Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. 

Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 542, Zool. Ser. 

MILNE-EDWARDS SIFAKA. 

Type locality. Forests in the west of Mananzary. Island of 
Madagascar, in the interior for the melanistic style holomelas. Type 
of species in Paris Museum ; type of P. holomelas in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Forests of east coast of Madagascar and southern 
coast from the Masora River to the Faraouny, and the forests of the 
interior near Fienerentova. 

Genl. Char. Face slightly haired. Color various, sometimes 
melanistic. 

Color. Head and neck black glossed with purple; back chestnut, 
growing paler towards middle of back ; lower back white divided by a 
median brown line ; flanks white ; arms and hands, and upper surface of 
thighs black; legs and feet purplish chestnut, rump at root of tail, and 



PROPITHECUS 171 

inner part of thighs chestnut; inner side of arms, legs, and abdomen 
burnt umber ; chest black ; tail black. Ex type in Paris Museum. 

The melanistic style has the face, head, neck, back, sides, limbs, 
hands, feet and tail black; at root of tail a cinnamon rufous spot; 
entire under parts and inner side of limbs drab washed with mars 
brown. Ex type P. holomelas British Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 84 ; Hensel, 69 ; zygo- 
matic width, 59; intertemporal width, 39; palatal length, 31; median 
length of nasals, 19; width of braincase, 49; length of upper molar 
series, 28; length of mandible, 60; length of lower molar series, 31. 

Propithecus diadema sericeus Grandidier. 

Propithecus diadema var. sericeus Grandid., Rev. Zool., 1872, p. 
274; Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm., I, 
1875, p. 4, pi. II ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 99. 

Propithecus sericeus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 292. 
(Note). 

SILKY SIFAKA. 

Type locality. Sambava, northwest coast of Madagascar. Type 
in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Narrow belt of forest between the rivers Lokoi and 
Bemarivo, on eastern side of the mountains in north western Mada- 
gascar. 

Gen. Char. Body white or washed with yellow; face black, 
spotted. 

Color. Face and forehead black, spotted with yellow ; top and back 
of head dark brownish gray; back, shoulders and arms pale fawn; 
hands black ; rest of body, legs and tail white. 

The type in the Paris Museum is entirely white, the other colors 
having disappeared from exposure to light. 

Measurements. Size equal to P. v. coronatus. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 77 ; Hensel, 68 ; zygomatic width, 57 ; intertemporal width, 
31; median length of nasals, 14; length of upper molar series, 28; 
length of mandible, 56; length of lower molar series, 31. 

Propithecus verreatjxi Grandidier. 

Propithecus verreauxi Grandid., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1867, pp. 84, 
313 ; Id. Album Reunion, IV, 1867, p. 162, pis. I-II ; Gray, 
Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 1870, p. 136 ; Id. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 847 ; Milne-Edw. et Grandid., 
Hist. Nat. Mad., Mamm., I, 1875, p. 305, pis. IV, VIII; 



172 PROPITHECUS 

Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 293; Bartl., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 769; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 100; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 
1906, p. 542, Zool. Ser. 
Propithecus majori Rothsch., Novit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 666, pi. 
XIV. 

VERREAUX'S SIFAKA. 

Type locality. Mananzari, Madagascar. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. South west coast of Madagascar, between the 
southern base of the eastern range of mountains and the River Tsidsi- 
bon. 

Genl. Char. Face naked; skull swollen between orbits; incisors 
sub-equal. 

Color. Top of head dark reddish brown, this color not reaching the 
face ; gray patch on middle of back ; outer side of forearms, and legs 
ashy gray; rest of head, body and limbs white; tail yellowish white. 
Face and interior of ears black. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,000 ; tail, 550. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 77 ; Hensel, 64 ; zygomatic width, 55 ; intertemporal width, 
27; median length of nasals, 8; length of upper molar series, 27; length 
of mandible, 56 ; length of lower molar series, 28. 

The type of this species in the Paris Museum with the exception 
of the spot on the head has faded completely, the entire body and limbs 
being white, the gray hue having disappeared. P. majori is undoubt- 
edly a melanistic form of P. verreauxi which is found in the same 
locality, the Collector obtaining both the typical and melanistic styles. 
I have examined the type of majori in Tring Museum. 

Propithecus verreauxi deckeni (Peters). 

Propithecus deckeni Peters, Monatsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 

Berlin, 1870, p. 421 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 

847; Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1875, p. 63; Schleg., Mus. 

Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 294; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 

1894, p. 101. 
Propithecus candidus Grandid., Compt. Rend., 1871, p. 231. 
Propithecus verreauxi var. deckeni Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. 

Nat. Madag., Mamm., I, 1875, p. 312, pi. V 
Propithecus verreauxi deckeni Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. 

Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 542, Zool. Ser. 



PROPITHECUS 173 

VAN DER DECKEN'S S1FAKA. 

Type locality. West coast of Madagascar. Type in Berlin 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Middle of the west coast of Madagascar on the great 
plains between the rivers Mananbolo and Manzarayo. 

Genl. Char. Face and ears black, colors pale, various. 

Color. General color entirely white washed with yellow, or ashy 
gray on neck and outer side of limbs; chest, and inner side of limbs 
rusty white; under parts rufous; fulvous patch at base of tail; tail 
white. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Some specimens have a gray collar, others only a gray spot on the 
neck. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 78 ; Hensel, 66 ; zygo- 
matic width, 56 ; intertemporal width, 32 ; median length of nasals, 13 ; 
length of upper molar series, 28; length of mandible, 60; length of 
lower molar series, 30. 

Propithecus verreauxi coquereli (A. Milne-Edwards). 

Cheirogaleus ( !) coquereli A. Milne-Edw., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1867, 

p. 85. 
Propithecus damonis Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 112; 

Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 

Mus., Append., p. 137; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 

847; Pollen in Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 293. 
Propithecus verreauxi var. coquereli Milne-Edw. et Grandid., 

Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm., I, 1875, p. 314, pi. VI. 
Propithecus verreauxi coquereli Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Co- 

lumb. Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 542, Zool. Ser. 
Propithecus coquereli Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 102, 

pi. XI ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 292. 

COQUEREL'S SIFAKA. 

Type locality. Morondova, Madagascar. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. North west coast of Madagascar between the south 
side of Marendry Bay and the north side of Bombetok Bay, the Betsi- 
boka River being the southern limit of its range and the Loza the 
northern. 

Genl. Char. Face naked, and except a white center on the nose, 
is black ; ears black, nearly hidden in fur ; colors white and maroon. 

Color. Outer side of arms from shoulder to wrist, chest, and 
upper part of thighs dark maroon ; head, neck, body above and beneath, 
inner side of limbs, and long hair from lower side of arms and legs 



174 PROPITHECUS 

yellowish white; loins, hands and feet white; tail rusty gray; ears 
black. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 82 ; Hensel, 70 ; zygo- 
matic width, 60 ; intertemporal width, 33 ; median length of nasals, 10 ; 
length of upper molar series, 28; length of mandible, 60; length of 
lower molar series, 26. 

Propithecus verreauxi coronatus A. Milne-Edwards. 

Propithecus verreauxi var. coronatus A. Milne-Edw., Rev. Scient., 

1871, p. 224; Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., 

Mamm, I, 1875, p. 316, pi. VII. 
Propithecus coronatus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 847 ; 

1875, p. 63 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894. p. 102. 
Propithecus verreauxi coronatus Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. 

Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 542, Zool. Ser. 

CROWNED S1FAKA. 

Type locality. Province of Boeny on the Bay of Bombetok, Mada- 
gascar. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. North west coast of Madagascar between the Bay 
of Mozamba on the north, the River Betseboka on the east, and the 
River Manzaray on the west, in the country of Boeny, extending its 
range for some distance into the interior. 

Genl. Char. Muzzle broad, naked ; braincase large ; nasals extend- 
ing beyond incisors ; nose flat. Colors various. 

Color. Face naked, black; top of nose covered with short white 
hairs ; top and sides of head in front of ears descending to, and cover- 
ing the throat, chocolate brown ; ears black fringed with white ; upper 
surface of arms and thighs rusty red ; under part orange red ; rest of 
body, limbs, hands, feet and tail pure white. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Size about equal to P. verreauxi. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 81 ; Hensel, 67 ; intertemporal width, 34 ; zygomatic width, 
55; median length of nasals, 11; length of upper molar series, 28; 
length of lower molar series, 30. Ex type Paris Museum. 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE XXI. 




INDRIS INDRIS. 

No. 48.10.28.1. Brit. Mus. Coll. Nat. Hist. 



INDRIS 175 



GENUS INDRIS. BLACK INDRIS. 

I.JS; Cgi P. 3; M. S = 3°. 

INDRI (sic) E. Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., I, 1796, p. 46. Type 

Lemur indri Gmelin. 
Indrium Rafin., Analys. Nat., 1815, p. 54. 
Pithelemwr Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, pp. 207-209. 
Sylvanus Oken, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 1816, 3ter Theil, Zool. 2te 

Abeth., 1223-1225, (nee Latreille 1870, Coleopt). 

Head longer than broad; nose moderately lengthened covered 
with short hairs ; fingers and toes hairy to the tips ; ears rounded with 
a hairy fringe ; arms about one quarter as long as legs ; hands long, the 
four outer fingers united by a membrane up to the first joint; toes 
united half way. Ears rather large, tufted; tail rudimentary. Skull: 
long, laterally compressed; nasals not reaching end of premaxillae; 
two upper premolars are unicuspidate ; the molars quadricuspidate, 
each pair united by a transverse ridge ; canines higher than premolars, 
no diastema ; incisor subequal ; first and second lower premolars semi- 
cuspidate; first molar quadricuspidate, each pair connected by an 
oblique ridge; anterior external cusp continued by a curved ridge to 
anterior basal process, and posterior internal cusp is joined to the 
anterior internal cusp by a curved oblique ridge ; second molar quadri- 
cuspidate, no oblique ridge, the pairs of cusps connected by transverse 
ridges; posterior molar quinquicuspidate, oblique ridges connecting 
the pairs of cusps ; incisors varying with individuals and in proportions, 
and with longitudinal external ridges. Laryngeal pouch present. 

Indris indbis (Gmelin). 

Lemur indri Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 42; Link, Beytr. 

Naturg., 2nd Pt. 1795, p. 65; Cuv., Regn. Anim., 1817, I, 

p. 118; 1829, p. 108; 1836, p. 130. 
Indri brevicaudata E. Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., 1796, p. 46; Shaw, 

Genl. Zool., I, 1800, p. 94, pi. XXXII; Fisch., Anat. Maki, 

1804, p. 15, pi. II; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 

p. 290. 
Lichanotus indri Ulig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Avium, 1811, p. 



176 INDRIS 

72; Oken, Lehrb. Zool., 1816, p. 1178; Blainv., Osteog., Atl., 

Lemur, pis. IV, VIII. 
Indris brevicaudatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 157; Desm., Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., XVI, 1817, p. 

170; Id. Mamm, 1820, p. 96; Id. Diet. Scien. Nat., 1823, p. 

129 ; Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, p. 65 ; Ogilby, The Naturalist, 

II, 1837, p. 8; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 68; Dahlb., 

Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 20; 

Coquerel, Rev. Mag. Zool., 1859, p. 461 ; Pollen, Tijdsch. 

Dierk., I, 1863, p. 285 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, 

p. 133 ; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 255 ; Grandid., 

Rev. Mag. Zool., 1867, p. 314; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 

and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 91; Id. Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 848; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1873, pp. 444-498; A. Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. 

Nat. Madag., Mamm., 1875, p. 336, pis. XI, XII; Anders., 

Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 1881, p. 94. 
Indris indri E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 20, 

lime Lecon. 
Lichanotus indri Voigt, Das Thierr., I, 1831, p. 102; van d. Hoev., 

Tijdsch. Natur. Geschied., 1844, p. 44, pi. I, fig. 5 ; Schinz, 

Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 114; Schleg., Handb. Dierk., I, 

1857, p. 19, pi. I, fig. 2 ; Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1864, p. 326, fig. 
Lichanotus niger Smith, S. Afr. Quartl. Journ., II, 1833, p. 27. 
Pithelemur indris Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 208; Id. Nouv. 

Tabl. Regn. Anim., 1842, p. 9. 
Lichanotus brevicaudatus Giebel, Die Saugeth., 1855, p. 1025 ; 

van d. Hoev., Handb. Dierk., II, 1855, p. 1041; Wagn., 

Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 140. 
black indris. Endrina or Babakotou, and Amboanala in Madagascar. 
Type locality. Madagascar. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern coast of Madagascar, in forests on the 
eastern side of the high mountains between the Bay of Antongil on 
the north and the River Masara on the south. 
Genl. Char. Those of the genus. 

Color. The single species of this genus is so extremely variable 
that any description given can only be regarded as pertaining to the 
specimen then under consideration. No two individuals are exactly 
alike and the varieties of the color patterns are only limited by the 
number of examples in a collection. Face black or dark gray; head, 



INDRIS 177 

neck, back, shoulders and arms black ; in some the crown is white ; sides 
of neck and forearms are grayish white; a band starting from point 
in middle of back and widening as it goes down and embracing the 
entire rump and root of tail, white ; sides dark gray tinged with brown ; 
upper surface of thighs from body to middle of leg below knee inside, 
black ; rest of thighs and legs dark gray ; under parts of body and tail 
gray; hands and feet black. In some specimens the lower back is 
ashy gray ; flanks bright rufous ; tufts over ears large, upright, black. 
Although exhibiting such a great variety of color patterns as well as 
diversity of hues, the species can never be confounded with any 
other, its large size and stumpy tail making it at all times easily 
recognizable. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 91 ; Hensel, 82 ; 
zygomatic breadth, 58; intertemporal width, 36; length of nasals, 20; 
width of braincase, 43 ; length of upper molar series, 31 ; palatal length, 
35 ; length of mandible, 66 ; length of lower molar series, 34. 

Coquerel (I.e.) has given an interesting account of the habits of 
this species as observed by him in Madagascar. He says it is well 
known to the inhabitants who call it Babakotou, but never Indri which 
means in their language "Behold," "look," "see there!" It is probable 
when Europeans first hunted this animal, the natives drew their atten- 
tion to it by calling out Indri, and in this way the idea was formed 
that that was the native name for it. It is very common in the forests 
of Tamatava where it is considered sacred. The natives never kill 
it, and they say that the trees on which the Babakotou live supply a 
sure remedy for many forms of illness ; and they gather carefully the 
leaves of the trees in which they have seen the animals, for their 
benefit. The natives state it is very dangerous to attack a Babakotou 
even with a spear. If this weapon is thrown at one, you may be sure 
it will be seized in its flight before reaching its mark and will be 
immediately hurled back at the thrower, and the Babakotou never 
misses its aim. The tales of which the Indri is the hero are endless. 
Its ways are full of mystery, and it is subject at birth to a severe 
trial. When the young one is born, the female takes it in her 
arms and throws it to the male, who is stationed at a considerable 
distance away, and he throws it back to its mother, and this is repeated 
a dozen times or more. If the baby falls to the ground, it is left there, 
the parents making no effort to recover it, but if it passes the trial 
without falling, it is tenderly cared for. The Indri is not found on any 



178 INDRIS 

of the outlying islands near Madagascar. This animal is gregarious 
and goes in troops of considerable numbers, is the largest of the Lemu- 
roides, and is not nocturnal. One of its names is Amboanala or 'Dog 
of the Forest,' so called on account of the howls it utters, and which 
resemble those of a dog. Its voice is very powerful, the laryngeal 
sac contributing to this, and enabling the creature to utter loud cries. 
It lives in the trees and subsists mainly on fruits of various kinds, 
but will eat the brains of any bird it can catch. Its melancholy cry is 
frequently heard in the forest resembling that uttered by a person in 
distress. According to Dr. Vinson the natives free these animals if 
they find one in captivity and bury them when dead. The Betanemena 
tribe relate a legend of a certain tribe which was at war with neighbors 
and fled for refuge into the forest. Its enemy pursuing and guided 
as supposed by human voices, saw before them a troup of Indri, and 
believing those they were following had been changed into beasts, 
they fled terror stricken, while the fugitives vowed eternal gratitude 
to their deliverers, and have never since harmed them. 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE XXII. 




Seniocebus meticulosus Elliot. 
No. :il'70."> Amor. Mus. Nat. Hist. Coll. Type. 1% Nat. Size. 



SENIOCEBUS 179 

SUBORDER 2. ANTHROPOIDEA. 

FAMILY 1. CALLITRICHID/E. 

GENUS SENIOCEBUS. BALD-HEADED TAMARINS. 

T ?=?. p — • P — • M — = X2 

A- 2— 2 J *•" 1— 1> r - 3—3' IV1 - 2—2 ■* 

SENIOCEBUS Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 68. Type Midas bicolor Spix. 
Tamarin Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 68. 

Face naked, hairy in young ; no mane ; head in front of ears bald ; 
ears naked, exposed; tail not ringed. 

With this genus we enter the Suborder Anthropoidea. The 
Tamarins all belong to the Platyrrhine or New World Monkeys, and 
in many respects occupy the lowest rank. They possess but thirty- 
two teeth, instead of thirty-six as in the Cebid^e and higher Apes, as 
well as in man, the discrepancy being caused by the absence of two 
molars in each jaw, only eight in all remaining. 

The Tamarins placed in this work in the four genera Seniocebus, 
*Cercopithecus, Leontocebus with a subgenus Marikina, and 
QEdipomidas, are small delicate creatures with silky fur, and long, 
thick, almost bushy tails. By the earlier writers they were contained 
either in Callithrix or Hapale with the Marmosets, but are now not 
considered cogeneric with the species contained in the first of those 
genera, and the second Hapale, being antedated, becomes a synonym. 
The chief difference between the members of Callithrix and the 
species now under consideration is found in the teeth, the canines of 
the lower jaw being longer than the incisors, a distinction deemed by 
some Authors as perhaps hardly sufficient to cause the Tamarins to be 
separated generically from their relatives. Tamarins and Marmosets 
resemble each other, and the skulls with the large braincase are much 
alike. Both groups possess but little intelligence, as the cerebrum, in 
its smooth surface almost lacking in convolutions, would seem clearly 



*See Elliot, in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1911, p. 341. 



180 SENIOCEBUS 

to indicate. These animals possess somewhat rounded heads, and 
large eyes and mouths ; the ears are conspicuous, standing out from the 
hair, and the face is small and short. Rather long whiskers and manes 
are often present. In captivity, even in their own land, they rarely 
live long, and usually succumb in a brief period when carried to 
northern climes, cold temperatures being fatal to them. They are 
pretty creatures, and a number of the species bear a certain resemblance 
to each other, and so it is possible to arrange them in groups, dis- 
tinguished by the hair on head and neck, being respectively long or 
short. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES OF THE FOUR GENERA OF 
TAMARINS AND MARMOSETS. 

1758. Linnceus, Sy sterna Natures. 

Two species are described as Simla cedipus = CEdipomidas 
ozdipus ; and Simia midas = Cercopithecus midas. 

1766. Linnceus, Sy sterna Naturae. 

The two species of the earlier edition of this work are also 
given in this one, and another added, Simia rosalia = Leonto- 

CEBUS ROSALIA. 

1777. Erxleben, Systema Regni Animalis. 

Under the genus Callithrix, in which the earlier writers were 
accustomed to place the Tamarins, three species only are given : 
(C.) cedipus; (C) rosalia; and (C.) midas. 

1788. Gmelin, Systema Natures. 

The three Linnaean species already mentioned are here recorded, 
and no new ones added. 

1806. Fischer, in Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale de Moscou. 
Cercopithecus midas redescribed as Simia lacepedii. 

1811, Humboldt et Bonpland, Recueil d' Observations de Zoologie 
(1815).^ d'Anatomie Comparee. 

Leontocebus leonina described as Simia leonina. 

1812. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

Six species are enumerated under the genus Midas, the valid 
ones being, (M.) ursulus = Cercopithecus ursulus; (M.) 
labiatus — Leontocebus labiatus; (M.) rosalia = Leontoce- 
bus rosalia; (M.) cedipus = CEdipomidas cedipus; and (M.) 
ruHmanus — Cercopithecus rufimanus. The remaining (M.) 
leoninus is a most doubtful species, no examples ever having 



SENIOCEBUS 181 

been secured. The first two of the valid species are described 
for the first time. 

1820. Kuhl, Beitr'dge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomic 

Seven species are here given, one of which is described for the 
first time as (Midas) chrysomelas. The other valid species 
are (M.) ursulus = Cercopithecus ursulus ; (M.) labiatus ; 
(M.) rosalia; both now included in the genus Leontocebus ; 
and (M.) cedipus, now placed in the genus CEdipomidas. The 
last valid species (M.) rufimanus = Cercopithecus rufi- 
manus; and (M.) leoninus a doubtful species, no example 
extant. 

1820. Desmarest, Mammalogie ou Description des Especes de Mam- 
miferes. 

The list given by Kuhl is repeated in this work, all the species 
placed in the genus Jacchus. 

1823. Spix, Simiarum et Vespertilionum Brasiliensium. 

Five species are enumerated in this work, four of which are 
described for the first time under the genus Midas. They are 
(M.) fuscicollis; (M.) nigricollis; (M.) mystax; and 
(M.) bicolor. These are now all placed in the genus Leon- 
tocebus, except bicolor, which is a species of Seniocebus. 
The fifth species is (M.) cedipus = CEdipomidas cedipus. 

1826. Maximilian, Prinz von Wied-Neuwied, Beitr'dge zur Natur- 
geschichte von Brasilien. 

Under the genus Hapale five species are enumerated only two of 
which belong to Leontocebus; viz.: L. rosalia and L. chry- 
somelas; the latter more fully described than in the previous 
work above cited. The other species are (H.) jacchus; (H.) 
leucocephalus ; and (H.) penicillatus ; all belonging to the 
genus Callithrix. 

1829. Fischer, (7. B.) Synopsis Mammalium. 

In the second section of the genus Jacchus ten species are 
enumerated of which seven are valid, viz.: (/.) midas; (/.) 
ursulus; (/.) labiatus; (/.) chrysomelas; (7.) rosalia; 
(7.) chrysopygus; and (7.) argentatus. The first two are 
now included in the genus Cercopithecus, the rest in Leon- 
tocebus; and (7.) cedipus = CEdipomidas cedipus. The 
other is (7.) leoninus doubtful. No new species described. 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 
The genus Cercopithecus is here represented by Midas, with 



182 SEN IOCEBU S 

one species (M.) tamarin = Cercopithecus midas; the C. 
ursulus being regarded as the male of middle age, and Leon- 
tocebus fuscicollis being the young. The Genus CEdipus has 
CEdipus titi = (Edipomidas cedipus ; Cercopithecus bicolor 
(Spix), being the immature animal. Under the genus Leon- 
topithecus = Leontocebus, of the subgenus Marikina, the 
following species and varieties are given: L. aurora = L. 
rosalia ; L. fuscus = L. leonina ; L. ater = L. chrysopygus ; 
var. A. and var. B. L. chrysomelas. The method of arrange- 
ment adopted by this Author is unsatisfactory and somewhat 
confusing. 

1840. Wagner, Schreber, die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
A similar arrangement with that of previous Authors is here 
given, and species belonging to different genera are brought 
together in the genus Hapale. (H.) jacchus ; (H.) leuco- 
cephala; (H.) aurita; (H.) melanura = (H.) argentata; 
the last belonging to the genus Callithrix. The other 
species are Cercopithecus midas; Cercopithecus ursulus; 
Seniocebus bicolor ; Leontocebus labiata ; L. chrysomelas ; 
L. chrysopygus ; L. leonina, L. rosalia, and (Edipomidas 
cedipus. 

1843. /. E. Gray, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Leontocebus labiatus redescribed as Midas ruHventer. 

1845. Pucheran, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 

Leontocebus illigeri first described as Midas illigeri; and 
(Edipomidas geoffroyi first described as Hapale geoffroyi. 

1848. I. Geoff roy et Deville, in Comptes Rendus. 

Leontocebus pileatus first described as Midas pileatus; and 
Leontocebus fuscicollis redescribed as Midas flavifrons ; and 
L. nigricollis redescribed as Midas rufoniger. 

1849. Deville, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 
Leontocebus weddelii described as Midas weddelii. 

1850. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Comptes Rendus. 
Leontocebus devillii first described as Hapale devillii. 

1851. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

A review of the Tamarins is here given and two described as 
new, only one of which is valid. All are included in the genus 
Midas. The species are (M.) rosalia; (M.) chrysomelas; 
(Af.) labiatus; (M.) pileatus; (M.) mystax; (M.) devillii; 
(M.) rufoniger = L. nigricollis (Spix) ; (M.) nigrifrons; 



SENIOCEBUS 183 

M. Havifrons = L. fuscicollis (Spix) ; (M.) illigeri; and 
(M.) weddeli. All these are now included in the genus 
Leontocebus. (M.) cedipus, and (M.) geoffroyi, are now 
placed in the genus CEdipomidas; while (M.) ursulus and 
(M.) rufimanus are arranged in the genus Cercopithecus ; 
and (M.) bicolor in the genus Seniocebus. 

1852. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Archives du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

In this paper five Tamarins are given, being those described in 
the Comptes Rendus in 1848 and 1850. They are (Midas) 
pileatus; (Hapale) devillii; (Hapale) nigrifrons; 
(Midas) Havifrons = Leontocebus fuscicollis; and 
(Midas) rufoniger = L. nigricollis. Midas and Hapale were 
used at different times for the generic name, but in this paper 
Midas is selected as the name of the genus. 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
A list similar to that given by this Author in 1840, but enlarged. 
The additional species are Leontocebus ruiiventer = L. labi- 
atus ; L. fuscicollis ; L. nigricollis ; L. weddeli ; L. illigeri ; 
and CEdipomidas geoffroyi. All are placed in the genus 
Hapale with three subgenera, Jacchus, Liocephalus, and Leon- 
tocebus. The species now arranged in the genus Callithrix 
are also included in Hapale, and in the first two subgenera, but 
Leontocebus has merely the species of Marmosets belonging 
to it, and to CEdipomidas. No new species described. 

1862. Reichenbach, der Vollstandigste Naturgeschichte der Affen. 

The species of Leontocebus are placed in this work in the 
genera Leontopithecus, Marikina, Midas, and Seniocebus as 
follows: (L.) leoninus; (M.) rosalia; (M.) chrysomelas; 

(M.) ALBIFRONS; (M .) RUFIMANUS J (M '.) URSULUS J (M.) 

rufiventer = L. labiatus; (M.) fuscicollis; (M.) bicolor; 
(S.) chrysopygus; (S.) mystax; (S.) nigricollis; (S.) 
pileatus; (S.) rufoniger = L. nigricollis; (S.) devillii; 
(S.) nigrifrons; (S.) Havifrons = L. fuscicollis; (S.) illi- 
geri; (S.) weddeli; (S.) erythrogaster = L. labiatus. 

1864. J. H. Slack, in Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Leontocebus labiatus redescribed as Midas elegantulus. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in Collection of the British Museum. 



184 SENIOCEBUS 

In his tribe Hapalina the species of Marmosets are in this List 
arranged under four genera: Leontopithecus, CEdipus, Midas 
and Seniocebus. In Leontopithecus are placed rosalia, and 
chrysomelas; GEdipus has titi = O. cedipus; and geoffroyi 
both in (Edipomidas ; Midas contains mystax ; labiatus ; ruR- 
venter — Leontocebus labiatus ; leucogenys = Leontocebus 
devillii ; Havifrons = Leontocebus fuscicollis ; ursulus ; 
and ursulus var. 2 = Cercopithecus midas (Linn.). Senioce- 
bus contains but one species bicolor Spix. 
Descriptions are given of the following species which, evidently, 
the writer had never seen: (Midas) rufoniger = Leontocebus 
nigricollis; (M.) devillii; (M.) nigrifrons; (M.) illigeri; 
(M.) fuscicollis ; and (M.) weddeli ; the last two supposed to 
be the same 

1870. Espada, (J. L. de la) , in Boletin Revista Universitado de Madrid. 
Leontocebus lagonotus described as Midas lagonotus; and 
L. graellsi described as Midas graellsi. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bos, Simia. 

The Tamarins in this work are included with the Marmosets in 
the genus Hapale. The Author places them in one division with 
various sections, some of them having subdivisions. A. has 
(H.) rosalia; (H.) chrysomelas; and (H.) chrysopyga; all 
Leontocebus; B. has (H.) leonina; a. subdivision, has (H.) 
bicolor, a Seniocebus; in b. are (H.) cedipus; and (H.) 
geoffroyi; both in (Edipomidas. D. subdivision a. includes 
(H.) labiata; (H.) pileata; and (H.) mystax; b. has (H.) 
devillii; (H.) weddeli; (H.) illigeri; (H.) nigrifrons; 
(H.) fuscicollis; and (H.) nigricollis; all belonging to 
Leontocebus; c. (H.) Ursula; and (H.) midas; both in Cer- 
copithecus. Much attention is given to the geographical dis- 
tribution of the various species, and descriptions added. 

1878. A. Milne-Edwards, in Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'His- 
toire Naturelle, Paris. 
Leontocebus tripartitus described as Midas tripartitus. 

1904. O. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Leontocebus apiculatus described as Midas apiculatus. 

1907. Goeldi, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

Leontocebus thomasi described as Midas thomasi; and Leon- 
tocebus imperator described as Midas imperator. 

1912. O. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Seniocebus martinsi described as Leontocebus martinsi. 



SENIOCEBUS 185 

1912. D. G. Elliot, in Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 
Seniocebus meticulosus first described. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

The most northern country inhabited by the Tamarin Monkeys is 
Central America where in the southern portion, in Costa Rica and 
extending its range through Panama to* the Isthmus, (Edipomidas 
geoffroyi is found. In the Guianas, northern South America, Cer- 
cofithecus midas is a dweller of the English and Dutch Guianas, and 
Cercopithecus rufimanus is met with in French Guiana, and on the 
banks of the Rio Araguay, Province of Goyas, Brazil, and as stated 
by Tschudi, also in Peru. The great territory of Brazil contains, as 
would be supposed, the greatest number of species, twenty-four in all 
including C. rufimanus just mentioned. In the vicinity of Para on 
the lower Amazon, near the mouth of the Rio Tocantins, C. ursulus is 
met with, and in the forests through which the Ilheos and Pardo flow 
in eastern Brazil, Leontocebus chrysomelas occurs; and strangely 
enough, though it is not known from Western Brazil, yet, according 
to Tschudi, it is a native of Peru; and on the Rio Negro and on the 
Upper Amazon west of Barra, Seniocebus bicolor is found; and on 
the north shore of the Amazon at Faro, near the mouth of the River 
Yamunda Seniocebus martinsi was taken. In south eastern Brazil 
in the Province of Rio Janeiro, L. rosalia is found, and if the animal 
mentioned by Bates (1. c.) under the name of Midas leoninus is the 
same, then it extends its range to the Upper Amazon, although there 
are no records of its appearance in the intervening districts. In the 
Province of Sao Paulo near Ipanema, L. chrysopygus is met with, and 
on the banks of the Rio Solimoens, and as stated by Castelnau and 
Deville, also at Pebas, Peru, L. nigricollis occurs. In the forests 
between the rivers Solimoens and Iga, L. mystax and L. fuscicollis 
dwell ; and on the banks of the Rio Purus, Upper Amazon, L. im- 
perator has been procured. Near the Rio Javari on the borders of 
Brazil and Peru, L. nigrifrons occurs, and its range extends to the 
Rio Copataza in Ecuador. Between the Rio Solimoens and Rio Javari, 
L. labiatus has been obtained, and Tschudi states it is also a native 
of Peru. At Tunambins on the Upper Amazon L. thomasi was 
obtained, its range unknown, and still more indefinite, somewhere on 
the Upper Amazon, no locality given, L. lagonotus was taken. At 
Popayan, Colombia, the monkey seen by Humboldt and called by him 



186 SENIOCEBUS 

Simia leonina, but not procured, occurs. In Colombia, at Cartagena 
and Turbaco OEdipomidas gedipus is found, and on the River San 
Jorge Seniocebus meticulosus was taken, and in Ecuador on the Rio 
Napo L. tripartitus and L. graellsi have been obtained ; and in the 
same State on the banks of the Rio Copataza, L. apiculatus and L. 
illigeri are met with, the latter species possibly extending its range 
into Colombia, (see I. Geoff., Cat Primates, p. 65). In Peru near 
Pebas, L. pileatus was procured; and on the banks of the rivers 
Ucayali and Huallaga, L. devillii dwells. Finally, in the Province of 
Apolobamba, Bolivia, L. weddeli is found. In the above recapitulation 
of the general distribution of these small monkeys, the ranges are 
given according to the records obtained from specimens collected. 
While some species may have a restricted habitat, others probably have 
much more extensive ranges than those known at present. The interior 
of Brazil, removed from the banks of its great rivers, is as yet im- 
perfectly known, and it will not be until its vast forests and inland 
savannas have been thoroughly penetrated and explored, that the 
Geographical distribution of its Faunae, and the ranges of its individual 
species can be definitely ascertained. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Head bald. 

a. Hairs on nape white. 

a.' Abdomen and inner side of legs orange 

rufous J>\ bicolor. 

b! Entire under parts and inner side of legs 

silvery white 5". meticulosus. 

b. Hairs on nape black 5\ martinsi. 

Seniocebus bicolor (Spix). 

Midas bicolor Spix. Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 30, pi. XXIV, 
fig. 1 ; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 63 ; Slack, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Scien. Phila., 1861, p. 464; Bates, Natural. Riv. Amaz., 
I, 1863, p. 344 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 147. 

Hapale bicolor Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 251; 
V, 1855, p. 135 ; I. Geoff., in Casteln., Exped. Amer. Sud, 
1855, p. 21 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 
fasc. I, 1856, pp. 188, 193 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 
1876, p. 257. 



SENIOCEBUS 187 

Marikina bicolor Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

11, fig. 33. 
Seniocebus bicolor Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 

Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 68. 

PIED TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Rio Negro, Brazil. Type in Munich Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern bank of the Rio Negro, Brazil. Pebas, 
Upper Amazon west of Barra, (Castelnau and Dev.). 

Genl. Char. Head in front of ears naked; hairs on back of head 
long, white ; face in young, hairy ; tail very long. 

Color. Head in front of ears, naked, black; back of head, neck, 
back between shoulders, arms, chest to middle of belly ending in a 
point, white; back and legs yellowish brown, darkest on dorsal line; 
hands white ; feet golden yellow ; sides of lower chest, abdomen and 
inner side of legs, deep orange rufous ; tail, black above, orange rufous 
beneath. 

Measurements. Skin, total length, about 650; tail, 380. Skull: 
occipito-nasal length, 49; zygomatic width, 34; intertemporal width, 
24; palatal length, 14; width of braincase, 27; length of nasals, 7; 
length of upper molar series, 9; length of mandible, 32; length of 
lower molar series, 31. 

This monkey has a peculiar appearance with its bare head and 
white coloring, which makes it rather exceptional among the Tamarins. 
There is also a total absence of brilliant colors possessed by many of 
its relatives, save on the under parts, inner side of legs and tail 
beneath. The immature individuals have the head covered with short 
white hairs. 

The type in the Munich Museum is not adult, the head being 
covered with short white hairs. It is in good condition and is well 
represented in Spix's plate, though the coloring in the specimen is not 
so bright. Another specimen, not obtained by Spix, is older with the 
head entirely bare. 

Bates, (1. c.) states that this monkey was rather common in the 
forests at Barra on the lower Amazon, and is restricted so far as he 
knew, to the eastern bank of the Rio Negro. 

A specimen in the Paris Museum, was obtained by Castelnau and 
Deville at Pebas on the Upper Amazon west of Barras, where Bates 
and Natterer also found this species. Like its relatives it goes in 
small troops, running along the main boughs of the loftier trees, and 
climbing perpendicular trunks, but never taking flying leaps. 



188 SENIOCEBUS 

Seniocebus meticulosus Elliot. 

Seniocebus meticulosus Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 
1912, p. 31. 

Type locality. River San Jorge, Northern Colombia. Type in 
American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

Genl. Char. Head and ears naked ; no orange rufous on under 
parts; rump, root of tail and thighs bright bay. 

Color. Male. Face and forehead covered with short white hairs; 
top of head and nape covered with very long white hairs, forming a high 
crest on the head and flowing over the back between the shoulders; 
rest of head, ears and throat naked, black; upper parts to rump dark 
drab ; flanks paler, the hairs on the latter as well as those between the 
shoulders tipped with white ; hairs on upper arms and shoulders from 
roots bright bay, with terminal third drab and tips white ; thighs, rump 
at root of tail, and hind side of legs bright bay; rest of legs, arms, 
inner side of limbs, entire under parts silvery white; hands and feet 
grayish white; tail above bright bay on basal third, the same color 
extending for half the length on under side, remainder jet black. Ex 
type American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

Measurements. Total length, 660.5 mm ; tail, 400 ; foot, 80. Skull : 
total length, 49 ; occipito-nasal length, 46.2 ; Hensel, 30.3 ; zygomatic 
width, 32; palatal length, 14.4; intertemporal width, 23.1; median 
length of nasals, 60.7 ; length of upper molar series, 90.5 ; length of 
mandible, 30; length of lower molar series, 12. Ex type American 
Museum of Natural History, New York. 

Female. Resembles the male, except there is very little of the 
bright bay color on the shoulders and rump, while the thighs are 
colored like the upper parts, dark drab, the hairs tipped with bay. Tail 
like that of the male. 

Two examples of this handsome little monkey, the third species 
known of the genus, were received at the American Museum of Natural 
History in New York from Mrs. E. L. Kerr, Cartagena, collected in 
the forest on the River San Jorge, Colombia. While bearing in some 
of its coloration a resemblance to the species known for so long a time 
from Brazil, S. bicolor, its bright bay rump and thighs, pure silvery 
white under parts and inner side of limbs, and grayish white hands 
and feet cause it to differ in a conspicuous manner from its relative. 
The lately described S. martinsi (Thomas), is the third known species 
of the genus. 



SENIOCEBUS 189 

Seniocebus maetinsi (Thomas). 

Leontocebus martinsi Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1812, 8th Ser., 
XI, p. 84. 

Type locality. Faro, Lower Yamunda River, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. "Precisely like L. bicolor, except that the head and 
fore limbs are of normal coloration, corresponding to the rest of the 
animal, not sharply contrasted white. 

Color. "Head (in adult) naked from crown to chin, the skin black. 
Scanty hairs of back of crown and the nape black or brownish black. 
General color of back and sides isabella, darkened along the dorsal 
area, the middle posterior back almost blackish. Under surface tawny 
ochraceous, duller anteriorly, richer posteriorly. Ears quite naked, black. 
Arms proximally isabella. buffy yellowish on forearms, hands cream- 
buff or rather more yellowish; whole inner side of arms ochraceous. 
Hind limbs externally isabella, becoming suffused with tawny towards 
ankles; inner aspect rich ochraceous, tending towards ochraceous 
rufous. Feet yellowish buffy. Tail black above nearly to the tip; 
under-side and end sharply defined ochraceous. 

"Young specimens with the crown well-haired, blackish mixed with 
grayish ; face and chin thinly haired, grayish ; ears with black hairs 
about half an inch in length. 

Measurements. "Head and body, 208 mm. ; tail, 366 ; hind foot, 
61; ear, 31. Skull and teeth essentially as in L. bicolor; occiput to 
gnathion 51; basion to gnathion 36; zygomatic breadth 35.5; breadth 
across orbits 28.8 ; breadth of braincase, 27.5 ; length of upper cheek- 
tooth-series 10." 



190 CERCOPITHECUS 



GENUS CERCOPITHECUS. BLACK TAMAMNS. 

!■ 3_2> *■" 1 — 1 j "• 3— 3» •'■"■• 2—2 3 2 - 

*0ERCOPITHECUS Gronov., Zoophyl. Gronov., 1763, p. 5. Type 
Simia midas Linnaeus. 
Cercopithecus Gronov., (nee Erxleb.), Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist, N. Y., XXX, 1911, p. 341. 

Head not bald ; hair of mantle long ; face in adult hairy. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Hair on back of head long. 

a. Head not bald. 

b. Head, forepart of body and arms black. 

a.' Back rayed black and white. 

a." Hands and feet ochraceous buff; face 

of skull short C. midas. 

b." Hands and feet tawny ochraceous; 

face of skull long C. ruiimanus. 

b! Back rayed black and ochraceous C. ursulus. 

t Cercopithecus midas (Linnaeus). 

Simia midas Linn., Syst. Nat. I, 1758, p. 28 ; I, 1766, p. 42 ; 
Schreb., Saugth., I, 1774-78, p. 132, pi. XXXVII; Bodd., 
Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 63; Humb., Obs. Zool., I, 1811, 
(1815), p. 362. 
Little black Monkey of Edwards (Cercopithecus), Gronov., 
Zoophyl. Gronov., 1763, I, p. 5. 



*Some Naturalists maintain that Gronow was not a binominalist, and that, 
therefore, his genera must not be recognized. Against this view stands the 
almost unanimous opinion of the Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 
appointed by the International Zoological Congress held at Leyden in 1810. 
The report which was adopted by a vote of eleven in favor to one against is 
as follows: "It is clear that Gronow's nomenclature is binary, that is, he names 
two units or things, genera and species. His generic names, therefore, cor- 
respond to the provisions of the Code, and are to be accepted as available under 
the Code." 

It is not to be doubted, therefore, that an Opinion passed with so much 
unanimity will become a Law at the next meeting of the Congress, and 
Gronow's name will be accepted by all Naturalists. 

fFor Geographical Distribution, see Seniocebus, p. 185. 



PLATE XXIII. 




CERCOPITHECUS MIDAS. 
No. 6.1.1.2. Brit. Mus. Coll. y 2 larger than Nat. Size. 



CERCOPITHECUS 191 

Callithrix midas Erxl., Syn. Mamm., 1777, p. 62. 

Simia lacepedii Fisch., Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc, 1806, p. 23. 

Midas tamarin Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 194. 

Hapale midas Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 245 ; V, 
1855, p. 135; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 587, 
(note) ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 266. 

Midas ursulus var. 2, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 68. 

Midas midas Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 148. 

Leontopithecus midas Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 128. 

Cercopithecus midas Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 
XXX, 1911, p. 341. 

MIDAS TAMARIN. 

Type locality. "In America." 

Geogr. Distr. English and Dutch Guianas. 

Genl. Char. Face hairy; tail very long; hair between shoulders 
long ; hands and feet golden yellow. 

Color. Head, neck, back between shoulders, arms to wrists, entire 
under parts and tail black; back from shoulders, and upper parts of 
legs rayed black and white, caused by the white tips of the hairs on the 
black ground color ; wrists and ankles orange rufous ; hands and feet 
ochraceous ; ears black. 

Measurements. Similar in size to S. bicolor ; tail, 480. Skull : 
occipito-nasal length, 50 ; Hensel, 33 ; zygomatic width, 34 ; intertem- 
poral width, 26; palatal length, 16; width of braincase, 28; median 
length of nasals, 7 ; length of upper molar series, 9 ; length of mandible, 
32; length of lower molar series, 11. Height of face of skull, 9; from 
base of middle incisors to top of frontal between orbits, 16. 

Cercopithecus rufimanus (E. Geoff roy St. Hilaire). 

Midas ruiimanus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 121 ; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 31, Ire 
Lecon ; Tschud., Faun. Peruan., 1844, p. 53 ; Dahlb., Stud. 
Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 190, 194; 
Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 10, figs. 34, 36 ; 
Bedd., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, p. 121. 

RUFOUS-HANDED TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Ipoussin, French Guiana. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. French Guiana, Banks of the Rio Araguay, Prov- 
ince of Goyas, Brazil. (I. Geoff roy). 

Genl. Char. Similar to C. midas, but the hands, feet and mottling 
on back tawny ochraceous. Nasals longer ; distance from base of 



UN 



192 CERCOPITHECUS 

middle incisors to upper outline of orbits much greater; forehead 
higher; superior outline of skull more curved. 

Color. Like C. midas, but hands, feet, and tips of hairs on back, 
tawny ochraceous instead of white. Ex type in Paris Museum. Skull 
in specimen. 

Measurements. Size equal to C. midas. Skull : occipito-nasal 
length, 50 ; Hensel, 33 ; zygomatic width, 35 ; intertemporal width, 25 ; 
palatal length, 25.5 ; breadth of braincase, 30 ; median length of nasals, 
10; length of upper molar series, 10; height of face, from base of 
middle incisor to top of frontal between orbits, 20 ; length of mandible, 
34 ; length of lower molar series, 12. Ex specimen British Museum. 

A single specimen is in the British Museum Collection procured 
by G. K. Cherrie at Ipoussin on Approuague River, Cayenne. This 
resembles C. midas with the exceptions given above, but the coloring 
of the specimens from the different localities is striking and arrests 
the attention at once. The nasals are much longer, and the difference 
in the height of the face of the skull is remarkable. 

Geoffroy's type in the Paris Museum is in an excellent state of 
preservation, but the hands and feet are not so deep in color as those 
of the British Museum specimen, having faded considerably. Other- 
wise the examples are alike. 

Cercopithecus ursulus (Humboldt). 

Simia (Midas) Ursula Humb., Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), p. 361. 

Midas ursulus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 
p. 121; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 63; Dahlb., Stud. 
Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. 1, 1856, p. 194 ; Reichenb., 
Vollstand. • Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 10, figs. 37, 38; Bates, 
Natur. Riv. Amaz., II, 1863, p. 321 ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 89 ; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 148. 

Hapale Ursula Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 246 ; 
V. 1855, p. 135 ; Schleg, Mus. Pays-Bas, Simije, 1876, p. 265 ; 
Anders., Cat. Mamm, Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt. I, 1881, p. 89. 

Midas tamarin Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phila., 1861, p. 464. 

Cercopithecus ursulus Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 
XXVIII, 1911, p. 342. 

NI'GRO TAMARJN. 

Type locality. Para, Lower Amazon. 

Geogr. Distr. Lower Amazon, Para, and near the mouth of the 
River Tocantins. (Hoffmannsegg). 



CERCOPITHECU S 193 

Genl. Char, Face covered with hair ; hands and feet black ; ears 
naked, large. 

Color. Head, neck all around, chin, arms, entire under parts, 
inner side of legs, hands, feet and tail black; back below shoulders 
and outer side of legs, rayed black and ochraceous, the tips of the 
hairs being of the latter color. 

Measurements. Size of C. midas, tail shorter, 407. Skull : occip- 
ito-nasal length, 47 ; Hensel, 33 ; zygomatic width, 32 ; intertemporal 
width, 23 ; palatal length, 16 ; width of braincase, 28 ; median length 
of nasals, 7 ; length of upper molar series, 9 ; length of mandible, 31 ; 
length of lower molar series, 10. 

"In the vicinity of Para," says Mr. Bates, (1. c.) "the only monkey 
I saw frequently was the little Midas ursulus." It is never seen in 
large flocks, three or four being the greatest number he had found 
together. It was less afraid of the neighborhood of man than any 
other of its Tribe. He at times saw it in the woods bordering the 
suburban streets, and once saw two in a thicket behind the house of the 
English Consul at Nazareth. Its mode of travelling along the boughs 
of the lofty trees resembled a Squirrel, and it does not go on the 
slender branches, nor make flying leaps, but confines itself to the larger 
boughs and to the trunks of the trees, its long nails enabling it to cling 
securely to the bark, and it often rapidly encircles the trunks of the 
perpendicular trees. It is quick, restless and timid, and has much 
curiosity, for should a person pass under the trees on which a flock 
of these little creatures is running, they always stop to stare at the 
intruder. In Para, it is often seen tamed in the houses, but when first 
captured, or tied up, it is very timid and irritable, not allowing itself 
to be approached, but retreating when any one draws near. 

When treated kindly, however, as it generally is in the houses of 
the natives, it becomes very tame and familiar. He once saw one as 
playful as a kitten running after the negro children and fondled by 
them. It did not like strangers to sit in the hammock which was hung 
in the room, and tried to bite them. It fed on bananas and insects, 
especially spiders and grasshoppers. This little monkey has a very 
intelligent and pleasant face, and when its curiosity is excited, it in- 
clines its head to one side and has a very knowing expression. Although 
the absence of convolutions in the brain would seem to indicate a low 
type, Bates considered this a very unsafe guide, for in mobility of 
expression and general ways, he considered these small monkeys resem- 
bled the higher Apes, more than any other Rodent animal with which 
he was acquainted. 



194 LEONTOCEBUS 



GENUS LEONTOCEBUS. TAMARINS. 

T ?r? c — P — ^/T 2 ~ 2 — 

LEONTOCEBUS Wagn. Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1839, pp. 12, V 

bis. (248). Type Hapale chrysomelas Wied. 
Midas Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 120, (nee 

Latreille, Dipt., 1796). 
Leontopithecus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 268. 
Marikina Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 57, pi. II, 

figs. 25-31. 
Tamarin Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 68. 
Tamarinus Trouess., Cat. Mamm. t. Viv. z. Foss., Quinz. Suppl., 

p. 29. 

"Cauda hand annulata, auriculis non penicillatus, facie juba longa 
erectili circumcincta" (Wagner). 

Hair on head and neck long, forming a ruff; tail as long as the 
body, tip bushy ; lower canine teeth longer than the incisors ; patch of 
white hairs around the mouth, except in species of subgenus Marikina. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Tail black or mostly black, lips white. 
a. Head black. 

a.' Head with median stripe. 

a." Stripe narrow, brown, greenish at 

occiput L. labiatus. 

' b." Stripe broad, red L. pileatus. 

b! Head without median stripe. 

a." Back dark grayish brown, legs black- 
ish brown washed with gray L. thomasi. 

b." Back blackish chestnut speckled with 

red L. nigrifrons. 

c." Back black. 

a."' Legs bright reddish chestnut. . . .L. nigricollis. 
b!" Legs rusty red L. chrysopygus. 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE XXIV. 




LEONTOCEBUS MYSTAX. 
No. 3.9.1.11. Brit. Mus. Coll. Yz larger than Nat. Size. 



m 



LEONTOCEBUS 195 

d." Back black and tawny L. mystax. 

e." Back black and reddish brown . . . L. weddeli. 

f." Back black and buff. 

a.'" Mantle black L. devillii. 

b."' Mantle chestnut L. apiculatus. 

c!" Mantle dark liver brown L. illigeri. 

g." Back dark gray. 

a."' Mantle golden yellow L. tripartitus. 

b.'" Mantle dark ferruginous L. lagonotus. 

c! Head buffy yellow L. fuscicollis. 

d! Head black and gray speckled L. graellsi. 

e! Head on top black and hazel, sides black. .L. imperator. 
B. Tail golden yellow, lips not white. 

a.' Head and arms golden yellow. 

a." Body golden yellow L. rosalia. 

b." Body ochre yellow annulated with black L. leoninus. 
c." Body black L. chrysomelas. 

Subgenus Tamarinus. 

Mane moderate ; lips white. 

Leontocebus labiatus *(E. Geoff roy). 

Midas labiatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 

p. 121 ; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 36, lOme Le?on ; 

Tschud., Faun. Peruan., 1844, p. 53 ; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 

1851, p. 63; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 

fasc. I, 1856, pp. 189, 194; Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. 

Phil., 1861, p. 464; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 141. 
Simia {Midas) labiatus Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), 

p. 361. 
Marikina labiatus Reichenb., Vollstand. Nat. Affen, 1862, p. 11, 

fig. 39. 
Jacchus labiatus Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 95. 
Midas rufiventer Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XII, 1st Ser., 1843, 

p. 398; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 735; Id. Voy. 

Erebus and Terror, Zool., 1844, pi. XVIII ; Id. Voy. Sulphur, 

1844, pi. ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 



*Geoffroy in his paper calls this an "Espece inedite," and does not quote 
Humboldt's work, which he always does if Humboldt had previously provided 
a name. 



196 LEONTOCEBUS 

Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 66; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 

1855, p. 129; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

11, fig. 40. 
Midas elegantulus Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1861, p. 

463. " 
Midas erythrogaster Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 

p. 14. 
Hapale labiata Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 246; 

V, 1855, p. 130; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 260. 
Midas griseoventris Goeldi, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 90, 

fig. 22? 

WHITE-LIPPED TAMARIN. 

Type locality, "le Bresil ?" Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Forests on north side of the Amazon ; Rio Javari, 
(Schlegel) ; Rio Solimoens, (Natterer) ; Peru, (Tschudi). 

Genl. Char. General color dark reddish brown ; lips white ; mane 
absent. 

Color. Head black, with a median brown stripe on the crown, 
becoming broader and greenish in color on occiput ; lips white ; arms to 
elbows, legs to ankles, and upper parts of body dark reddish brown, 
almost blackish on dorsal region ; forearms, hands and feet, black ; 
under parts and inner side of limbs, rich orange red; tail, tawny at 
base beneath, remainder black with a purplish tinge ; ears black. Ex 
type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, about 415; tail, 205. Skull in the 
type. 

The above description gives the present appearance of the type of 
this species. While it has undoubtedly faded somewhat in the more 
brilliant and delicate colors, its general aspect cannot have changed 
much, and what is now dark brown was never black as given by most 
authors as the color of the body ; for the head, hands, feet and tail are 
as black as they probably ever were; the tail alone showing a purplish 
tint which no doubt always existed. The brilliant orange red of the 
under parts still remains where the hairs have not disappeared. 

Measurements. Total length, 520; tail, 390, (skin). Skull : occip- 
ito-nasal length, 46; Hensel, 31; palatal length, 15; intertemporal 
width, 23 ; median length of nasals, 8 ; length of upper molar series, 9 ; 
length of mandible, 28; length of lower molar series, 11. 

The type of Midas rufiventer Gray, is like L. labiatus but has a 
small gray spot on the crown between the ears and the nape. This is 
probably an individual peculiarity, and is the only difference in color 



LEONTOCEBUS 197 

between the example and specimens of L. labiatus, and is hardly 
sufficient to be regarded as a distinctive character. Gray in his descrip- 
tion (1. c.) states that this head spot was the same color as the under 
parts, "chestnut brown." At present it is gray, as above stated, and 
must have faded considerably. The under parts are now ochraceous 
rufous, and this part, in the intervening sixty or more years, has un- 
doubtedly faded from the more brilliant color of the living animal. It 
would seem most probable that this example is not distinct from L. 
labiatus. Slack's type of (M.) elegantulus is in the National Mu- 
seum, Washington, in excellent preservation. The arms to elbows, 
and legs to ankles, and upper parts of body are mottled black and buff, 
not dark reddish brown or blackish as in the type of L. labiatus, but 
this difference may be caused by age. The rest of the pelage is like 
that of the type of L. labiatus. 

Midas griseoventris Goeldi, I have not seen, as there was no 
example in any European Museum. Its chief character for separating 
it from the present species appears to be the color of the patch or stripe 
on the crown which is stated to be white. This certainly is not the 
color of the patch or stripe on the crown of L. labiatus type. Gray's 
ruAventer has now a gray patch on the crown although, as stated above, 
it was described as chestnut brown. It may be there is a race of L. 
labiatus with a gray or white crown patch, but in such a case it would 
have to be determined whether Goeldi and Gray's examples represent 
the same species, and if they do, Gray's name ruiiventer though a poor 
one, would take precedence, and comparisons of specimens would be 
necessary to decide this. For the present, therefore, I place Goeldi's 
name among the synonyms of L. labiatus with a question mark. 

Leontocebus pileatus (I. Geoffroy). 

Midas pileatus I. Geoff, et Deville, Compt. Rend., XXVII, 1848, 
p. 497; Id. Cat Primates, 1851, p. 62; Id. Archiv. Mus. Paris, 
V, 1852, p. 569, pi. XXXI; Casteln., Exped. Amer. Sud, 
Mamm., 1855, p. 21 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 
Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 189, 194; Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Scien, Phil., 1861, p. 464. 

Hapale pileata Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 130. 

BONNETED TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Near Pebas, Upper Amazon, Brazil. Type in 
Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Upper Amazon, range unknown. 



198 LEONTOCEBUS 

Genl. Char. Similar to L. mystax ; hairs of back and limbs with 
chestnut buff tips. 

Color. Line on forehead, sides of the head, hands, feet and tail 
jet black; edges of lips covered with long white hairs; forehead, top 
of head, and nape extending to ears, dark ferruginous; between 
shoulders and flanks, brownish black, hairs tipped with chestnut buff, 
(white in type) ; arms above and beneath brownish black, uniform ; 
back black, hairs broadly tipped with ochraceous buff, (white in type) ; 
thighs and legs Vandyke brown, darkest on outer edge ; under parts of 
body blackish brown ; ears black ; tail black. Ex type Paris Museum. 
The type is possibly a little darker than specimens of this species 
generally are, but the pale color, such as chestnut buff seen in fresh 
specimens, has faded to white on the back, between the shoulders and 
on flanks. Otherwise it still represents the species. 

Leontocebus thomasi (Goeldi). 

Midas thomasi Goeldi, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, I, p. 89. 

Type locality. Tunantins, Upper Amazon. Type in British 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Colors somber, belly orange. 

Color. Head, outer side of arms, chin, throat, and upper part of 
breast, hands, feet, ears and tail, black ; neck and upper part of back, 
burnt umber, rest of upper parts and legs blackish brown marked with 
gray ; inner side of arms and lower part of breast, buff yellow ; rest of 
under parts dark orange. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Similar in size to L. labiatus. 

Leontocebus nigrifbons (I. Geoffroy). 

Midas nigrifrons I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XXXI, 1850, p. 875; 

Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 64; Id. Archiv. Mus. Paris, p. 

572 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., f asc. I, 1856, 

pp. 192, 196; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 

Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 67, var. e ; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1880, p. 395. 
Hapale nigrifrons Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 

135 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 263. 
Midas nigrifrons Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

13, no fig. ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 143. 

BLACK-FRONTED TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Not given. Type in Paris Museum. 



LEONTOCEBUS 199 

Geogr. Distr. River Javari, border of Brazil and Peru, 
(Schlegel) ; Copataza River, Ecuador. 

Genl. Char. Fur ringed, and washed with rufous. Tail very long. 

Color. A narrow line on forehead above eyes black ; top and sides 
of head, nape and mantle, blackish chestnut speckled with reddish 
brown ; lips and face beneath eyes, white ; shoulders, arms, throat and 
chest, reddish brown speckled with black; back, rump and sides, 
mottled black and buff ; hind limbs reddish brown, base of hairs black ; 
under parts reddish chestnut ; hands and feet black ; tail at base reddish 
brown, remainder black, with reddish brown hairs mingled with the 
black. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 620 ; tail, 330. 

This species in certain ways resembles L. nigricollis Spix, but 
does not have the head entirely black like that species, the black being 
confined to the forehead. There are other differences in the coloration 
of portions of the body, which influence me to keep the two forms 
apart, although it is not impossible that eventually they may be proved 
to be the same species. The type has no locality, but Schlegel states 
that the specimen in the Leyden Museum was obtained on the Rio 
Javari, and Thomas received six examples from the Rio Copataza in 
Ecuador. 

Leontocebus nigricollis (Spix). 

Midas nigricollis Spix, Simiae et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 28, pi. 

XXI; Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1861, p. 464; 

Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 12, fig. 42; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 145. 
Leontocebus ater Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 205. 
Midas rufoniger I. Geoff, et Dev., Compt. Rend., XXVII, 1848, 

p. 499; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 64; Casteln., Exped. 

Amer. Sud, Mamm., 1855, pi. V, fig. 3 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 

Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 195 ; Reichenb., 

Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 12, no fig.; Bates, Nat. 

Amaz., II, 1863, p. 323 ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 

Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 67, var. a. 
Hapale nigricollis Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 132 ; 

Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 264. 

BLACK AND RED TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Banks of the River Solimoens. Type in Munich 
Museum. 



200 LEONTOCEBUS 

Geogr. Distr. Region of the Upper Amazon. Pebas, Ecuador, 
(Castelnau and Deville). 

Genl. Char. Similar to L. devillii, back uniform black. 

Color. Head, neck, ears, throat, chest, arms, hands and feet 
black; legs bright reddish chestnut, hairs on rump and flanks tipped 
with same ; abdomen and base of tail, reddish chestnut, rest of tail 
black ; white hairs around mouth and beneath eyes. Ex type Munich 
Museum. Skull in specimen. 

Measurements. Similar in size to L. fuscicollis ; tail, 315. Skull : 
occipito-nasal length, 44; zygomatic width, 26; intertemporal width, 
23 ; palatal length, 13 ; width of braincase, 27 ; median length of nasals, 
6; length of upper molar series, 11 ; length of mandible, 26; length of 
lower molar series, 12. Ex specimen in British Museum. 

The type of Midas rufoniger I. Geoffroy, in the Paris Museum, 
agrees perfectly with the above description, except the upper part of 
the throat is a yellowish brown. This appears to be caused by the 
paucity of hair on that part, there not being enough black tips, which 
produce the color for this part, to be spread all over. Wherever the 
hairs are sufficiently numerous the color is black. Geoffroy's species 
is without doubt the same as L. nigricollis (Spix). 

There are two examples of this species in the Munich Museum both 
marked 'types.' These are in good condition, only slightly discolored 
by dust, but the dark colors of the pelage have not faded. The skulls 
of each are in the specimens. 

Bates (1. c.) has given a very interesting account of this monkey 
under the name of Midas rufoniger I. Geoff. Its habits are the same 
as those of C. ursulus and he imagined it was a form or race of the 
same stock, modified to suit the altered local conditions under which 
it lived. One day, he says, while walking along a forest pathway, he 
saw one of these small creatures which was passing with a number of 
his fellows, miss his hold and fall head first about fifty feet to the 
ground. He managed to alight on his hands and feet, however, in 
the path, and turning quickly around he stared at the intruder on his 
domain for a few moments, and then bounded away to climb another 
tree. 

Leontocebus cheysopygus (Wagner). 

Hapale chrysopyga Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 
249; V, 1855, p. 138; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simue. 1876, 
p. 254. 
Jacchus chrysopygus Mikan, Delect., fasc. Ill, fig. 



LEONTOCEBUS 201 

Midas chrysopygus Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 144. 
Marikina chrysopygus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 
p. 9, fig. 31. ' 

YELLOW-TAILED TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Ypanema, Province of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

Geogr. Distr. Known only from the vicinity of Ypanema, Sao 
Paulo, Brazil. 

Color. Head, neck, entire body above and beneath to rump and 
vent, arms, edge of thighs, hands and feet jet black, with a few white 
hairs above eyes ; rump and thighs golden, grading into rusty red near 
ankles; base of tail like rump, remainder black. Ex specimen in 
Leyden Museum. 

Measurements. In size about equal to L. nigricollis ; skull in the 
example. 

This is a black Tamarin, and differs from L. nigricollis in hav- 
ing the body all black, and in the different coloring at base of tail. It 
is rare in collections, and so far as I could learn, has only been procured 
from the vicinity of Ypanema, Sao Paulo Province, where Natterer 
obtained it. 

Leontocebus mystax (Spix). 

Midas mystax Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 29, pi. 
XXII; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 64; Casteln., Exped. 
Amer. Sud, Mamm., 1855, p. 21 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 
Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 191, 195; Slack, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1861, p. 104; Reichenb., Vollstand. 
Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 12, fig. 4; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 66. 
Hapale mystax Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 129; 

Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 261. 
Type locality. Banks of the Solimoens River, Brazil. Type in 
Munich Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Forest between the Solimoens and Iga rivers, 
Brazil. 

Color. Head, arms above and beneath, chin, throat, inner side 
of legs, hands and feet, black ; lips white ; back of head, and upper part of 
body and flanks black, the hairs dirty white at base and tipped with 
tawny, this color hardly perceptible on nape and between the shoulders, 
but increasing on upper back and flanks, and giving the prevailing tint 
to these parts ; lower back, base of tail, rump, and outer side of legs, 



202 LEONTOCEBUS 

reddish chestnut; under parts blackish brown. Ex type Munich Mu- 
seum. Skull in specimen. 

Measurements. Tail, about 390. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 50; 
Hensel, 36 ; zygomatic width, 35 ; intertemporal width, 25 ; median 
length of nasals, 7; breadth of braincase, 29; length of upper molar 
series, 10; length of mandible, 33; length of lower molar series, 11. 
Ex specimen British Museum. 

The type of this handsome species is in the Munich Museum, in 
fair condition. As is usual with the types of the Authors of the 
beginning of the last century, the skulls have been left in the skins, and 
I was obliged to take my measurements from another example. 

Leontocebus weddeli (Deville). 

Midas weddeli Deville, Rev. Mag. Zool., 1849, p. 55; I. Geoff., 

Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 64; Casteln., Exped. Amer. Sud, 1855, 

p. 23, pi. VI, fig. 2; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 

Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 190, 195; Reichenb., Vollstand. 

Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 13, no fig. ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 

I, 1894, p. 143. (Part.). 
Midas leucogenys Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 735 ; Id. 

Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 67. 
Hapale weddeli Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 134; 

Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 262. 

WEDDEL'S TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Province of Apolobamba, Bolivia. Type in Paris 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Apolobamba Province, Bolivia. Extent of range 
unknown. 

Genl. Char. Fur of back gray ringed. 

Color. Forehead, and sides of face to below angle of mouth, and 
lips, white ; face around eyes and nose bare ; hairs on cheeks long, 
forming whiskers ; top of head to nape blackish brown forming a cap ; 
upper back and shoulders reddish brown, center of back black ; lower 
back, rump and hind limbs, golden red ; arms blackish brown ; under 
parts yellowish with a red tinge; hands and feet reddish brown; tail 
jet black. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Size equal to L. devillii. Skull in type specimen. 

This species has been united to L. devillii by some Authors, but 
it presents too many differences from that form to justify us, with only 



LEONTOCEBUS 203 

our present knowledge of the changes that may occur towards the 
adult state, in uniting them. 

The examples are both quite small, and judging from the teeth 
that show in the open mouth, the type is the younger animal, but the 
white face, only displayed in the front part of the whiskers of L. 
devillii, and the general reddish brown color of the pelage, with the 
absence of mottling on the lower back, cause the two types to appear 
so different that it would seem best to permit them to remain under 
different names until we have more knowledge as to the respective 
changes, if any, which may occur in the coloration of the pelage of L. 
devillii from the youthful to the adult state. 

Measurements. Size equal to L. devillii. Skull in the specimen. 

Leontocebtjs devillii (I. Geoff roy). 

Hapale devilli I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XXXI, p. 875. 

Midas devilli I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 64; Id. Archiv. Mus. 
Hist. Nat., Paris, V, 1852, p. 570 ; Casteln., Exped. Amer. Sud, 
Mamm., 1855, p. 22, pi. VI, fig. 13 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 
Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 191, 195; Reichenb., 
Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 13, no fig.; Gray, Cat. 
Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, 
p. 67, var. b; Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 220, 
pi. XIII. 

Hapale devillei Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 262. 

Midas leucogenys Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 67. 

Midas weddeli Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 143. (Part.). 

DEVILLE'S TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Banks of the rivers Ucayali and Huallaga near 
Sarayagu, eastern Peru. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern Peru. 

Color. Head, chin, throat, hands, feet and tail except at base, 
black; back between shoulders, outer side of arms, black, hairs tipped 
with cinnamon rufous ; back black, hairs tipped with buff, giving to this 
part a mottled appearance ; rump, base of tail, and legs inner and outer 
sides, dark burnt sienna; edge of thighs at and below knee, blackish, 
hairs tipped with burnt sienna ; under parts, from lower part of throat 
to groin, reddish chestnut. Ex type in Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 530; tail, 340. Skull: occipito-nasal 
length, 43 ; Hensel, 31 ; zygomatic width, 31 ; intertemporal width, 22 ; 



204 LEONTOCEBUS 

median length of nasals, 5 ; breadth of braincas'e, 26 ; length of upper 
molar series, 8 ; length of mandible, 28 ; length of lower molar series, 10. 

The type of Midas leucogenys Gray, is in the British Museum 
Collection. It is a young animal about half grown, and in all its mark- 
ings exactly corresponds with the adult (M.) devillii Geoff roy. There 
seems to be no reason whatever to separate it from the present species. 
The type of L. devillii in the Paris Museum, presents the coloration 
described, but it has lost much fur from the under parts of the body, 
and the reddish chestnut of that part is not so pronounced as is shown 
in recent specimens. 

Bartlett, who met with this species in eastern Peru, says (1. c.) it 
was plentiful on the Peruvian Amazons, and he obtained examples on 
both the Huallaga and Ucayali rivers. There is but little difference 
between the sexes, the male being rather larger and darker in color, 
especially the long hair on nape and neck. It is an extremely delicate 
animal and will not bear the least cold, and he could only keep them 
alive for two or three weeks, as they seemed to suffer from cold, and 
died. The Indian women make pets of them, and allow them to stay 
amid the long hair on their heads, and thus protected they will live 
for a long time. Becoming tame they come out and feed, and having 
captured a spider or two, they scamper back to their refuge amid the 
luxuriant hair of their owners, who are usually unwilling to part with 
them. 

Leontocebus apiculatus (Thomas). 

Midas apiculatus Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 7th Ser., 1904, p. 
189. 

Type locality. Banks of the Copataza River, Ecuador. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Differs from L. devillii in having the mantle chest- 
nut, not black. 

Color. Head, throat, hands and feet black ; lips white ; long hairs 
on neck and between shoulders forming a mantle, chestnut ; back 
black mottled with gray, tips of hairs having that color ; arms and legs, 
and under parts reddish brown ; blackish brown on chest ; tail reddish 
brown at base, rest black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Size similar to L. illigeri. Skull : occipito-nasal 
length, 43 ; intertemporal width, 22 ; zygomatic width, 29 ; palatal 
length, 13 ; breadth of braincase, 25 ; median length of nasals, 5 ; length 



LEONTOCEBUS 205 

of upper molar series, 8 ; length of mandible, 26 ; length of lower molar 
series, 10. Ex type British Museum. 

Leontocebus illigeri (Pucheran). 

Hapale illigeri Pucher., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1845, p. 336; Wagn., 

Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 134. 
Midas devillii Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 20, pi. VIII, 

(nee I. Geoffroy). 
Hapale illigeri Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 263. 
Midas illigeri I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 65; Dahlb., Stud. 

Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 192, 196; 

Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1861, p. 464; Reichenb., 

Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 13, no fig. ; Gray, Cat. 

Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, 

p. 67, var. d; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 395. 
CEdipomidas illigeri Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 

1906, p. 554, Zool. Ser. 

ILLIGER'S TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Colombia. 

Geogr. Distr. Colombia ; banks of the Copataza River, Ecuador, 
(Thomas). Type in Paris Museum. 

Genl. Char. Hairs on upper back very long, forming a mantle. 

Color. Male. Forehead between eyes, face beneath eyes and 
upper and lower lips, white ; head, hands, feet, inner side of arms and 
tail except at base, black; upper part of back and shoulders, liver 
brown speckled with black ; outer side of arms, and under part of body 
dark liver brown slightly speckled with black; lower back black, hairs 
broadly tipped with ochraceous ; sides of rump and legs, and base 
of tail, dark reddish, but lighter than upper back. Ex type Paris 
Museum. > 

Female. Resembles the male, but the hair on upper back is shorter, 
and the arms, legs, and under parts are a lighter and brighter red. 

Measurements. In size about equal to L. labiatus; tail, 380. 
Skull: occipito-nasal length, 46; zygomatic width, 31; intertemporal 
width, 24; palatal length, 15 ; breadth of braincase, 26; median length 
of nasals, 6; length of upper molar series, 8; length of mandible, 31; 
length of lower molar series, 10. 

The type of this species is believed, according to Pucheran 
(1. c.) to have come from Colombia, and Thomas has received speci- 
mens from the banks of the Copataza River, Ecuador. It has gener- 
ally been given as from eastern Peru, but it is probable that the 



206 LEONTOCEBUS 

examples from that portion of South America were not this species, 
but L. WEDDELI. 

Leontocebus tbipartitus (A. Milne-Edwards). 

Midas tripartitus A. Milne-Edw., Archiv. Mus. Paris, 2me Ser., I, 
1878, p. 161, pi. VIII. 

Type locality. Banks of the Rio Napo, Ecuador. Type in Paris 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Remarkable for the black head, golden shoulders and 
upper back. 

Color. Head to nape all around, and throat to chest, black ; back 
of neck, and shoulders to middle of flanks, golden yellow ; rest of upper 
parts and thighs to knees, iron gray; arms, outer and inner sides, 
under parts and inner side of legs, and outer side below knees, orange 
red; hands and feet dark reddish brown mixed with gray; face bare, 
lips covered with long white hairs; tail reddish chestnut for basal 
fourth, remainder black. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, about 460 ; tail, 200. Skull : occip- 
ito-nasal length, 45; palatal length, 15; zygomatic width, 31; inter- 
temporal width, 22 ; median length of nasals, 7 ; length of upper molar 
series, 9 ; length of mandible, 29 ; length of lower molar series, 10. Ex 
type Paris Museum. 

This strikingly colored species, so unlike any of the genus, is 
recognizable at once. The jet black head and throat, contrasted with 
the bright colors of the body make it most conspicuous. The type 
in the Paris Museum has retained its color so far remarkably well, and 
it is to be regretted that it should be permitted to remain exposed to the 
sunlight which will eventually destroy most of the coloring, which now 
eminently distinguishes it from the other species of the genus. 

Leontocebus lagonotus (Espada). 

Midas lagonotus J. de la Espada, Bol. Revista Univ. Madrid, 1870, 
p. 57 ; A. Milne-Edw., Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Paris, Hist. Nat., 
I, 1878, p. 161, (note) ; Cabrera, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 
XXIX, 1900, p. 31. 
Type locality. Upper Amazon. Type in Madrid Museum. 
Genl. Char. Differing especially from L. tripartitus in having 
the mantle dark ferruginous, not golden. 

Color. Head black; mantle, arms and legs dark ferruginous; 
back dark gray and black ; under parts, hands, feet and tail black ; base 



LEONTOCEBUS 207 

of tail dark hazel. From a drawing in color of type in Madrid Mu- 
seum. Face bare, purplish ?, or black ; edges of lips apparently white. 

"M. Capite, gula, podiis, brachiis, intus, caudaque, basi excepta, 
aterrimis nitidis ; pectore, abdomonique ex rufo nigroquemixtis ; dorso, 
lumbis, coxibrunneo intenso fere nigro et albo, coxim versus et scapulas 
flavescente variegatis, ceteris, castaneo rutilanti ornatis; piliis vultum 
circumdantibus longis auriculas obtegentibus maxtace atque myxtace 
albis aut palidilis." Espada desc. Ex Milne-Edw. 

Color, "del dorso y los costados variedo da amarillento y ne- 
gruzco, como el de las liebres. Los pelos de la cabeza muy largos y de un 
negro brillante, lo mismo que la garganta, la parte interna de los brazos, 
los manos y los pies. Las espaldillas, los brazos par fuera y los miem- 
bros posteriores de collor rojo encendido tirando a lemado en medio 
de los hombros ; en el pecho y el vientre este color rojo esta mezclado 
con negro ; la cola es en su reiz mismo color que el dorso, roya despues en 
un corto espacio y negra en el resto sobre la cara, que es de color 
cardeno y esta a medias cubierta de pelillos negros y blanquecinos, se 
destaca el pelo bianco que rodea la boca y les aberturas nasales. 

"Longitud deade et hocico a la raiz de la cola. O, 235 mm. der la 
cola, 32." Cabrera (1. c). 

Leontocebus fuscicollis (Spix). 

Midas fuscicollis Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 27, pi. XX. 
Midas tiavifrons I. Geoff, et Deville, Compt. Rend., XXVII, 1848, 

p. 499; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 64; Casteln., Exped. Amer. 

Sud, Mamm., 1855, tab. VI, fig. 1 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 

Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 188, 193; Slack, Proc. 

Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1861, p. 464; Reichenb., Vollstand. 

Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 13, no fig.; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 

Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 67. 
Midas devillei Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1861, p. 464, 

(nee I. Geoff roy). 
Hapale fuscicollis Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 

131 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 264. 
Hapale chrysomelas Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 

254, (nee Kuhl). 

BROWN-HEADED TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Between the lea and Solimoens rivers, Brazil. Type 
in Munich Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Between the Iga and Solimoens rivers in Brazil; 



208 LEONTOCEBUS 

and vicinity of Pebas, Peruvian Amazons ; and the banks of the Javari 
River, boundary between Brazil and Peru. 

Genl. Char. Pelage mostly brown and black ; head and face buff 
yellow. 

Color. Forehead, and top of head buff yellow, some hairs ochra- 
ceous, graduating into burnt umber on sides of head and back between 
shoulders, outer side of arms, and throat ; lips white ; back black, the 
hairs broadly tipped with buff; rump, legs, and under parts reddish 
chestnut ; hands and feet black ; tail at base like rump, remainder black. 

Measurements. Similar in size to L. labiatus; tail, 265. Skull : 
occipito-nasal length, 43, (broken) ; intertemporal width, 22 ; breadth 
of braincase, 26 ; palatal length, 14 ; median length of nasals, 7 ; length 
of upper molar series, 8 ; length of mandible, 30 ; length of lower molar 
series, 10. Ex specimen British Museum. 

The type in the Munich Museum has lost most of the hair on the 
top and sides of the head, and on arms to elbow; the left arm is 
practically bare for entire length, as is also the hand. The hair is 
mostly gone from the under side of the body. It therefore would not 
serve to describe the species, and one was selected for this purpose 
from the British Museum Collection. The skull is in the type specimen. 

Leontocebus graellsi (Espada). 

Midas graellsi J. de la Espada, Bol. Revista Univ. Mad., 1870, 8. 
57; Milne-Edw., Archiv. Mus. Paris, I, 1878, p. 162, (note). 

RIO NAPO MARMOSET. 

Type locality. Banks of the Rio Napo, Ecuador. Type in Madrid 
Museum. 

Color. Nose, forehead and center of head black ; from eyes to 
ears and on cheeks, light chestnut ; back of head, nape, back between 
shoulders, outer and inner sides of arms, and throat to breast black, 
hairs tipped with gray and darkest on dorsal region, giving this part 
a speckled brown appearance ; back and flanks mummy brown, hairs 
tipped with gray, giving a grayish brown tint to these parts ; rump 
tawny brown, the hairs being black at base, then tawny and tips grayish 
brown ; thighs, and legs to ankles speckled brown and ochraceous buff, 
the latter color being the tips of the hairs ; tail at base fuscous, more 
clear brown than the rest of the pelage, and this color extends along 
the tail beneath for one third its length, remainder of tail, hands and 
feet black ; breast and abdomen blackish chestnut brown, hairs tipped 
with yellowish ; inner sides of legs russet, the hairs being blackish at 
base tipped with russet. 



im 



PLATE XXV. 




LEONTOCEBUS ROSALIA. 
No. L000.B, Brit. Mus. Coll. ]A larger than Nat. Size. 



LEONTOCEBUS 209 

A co-type of this species is in the British Museum Collection. It 
is peculiarly colored and very difficult to describe. The general appear- 
ance is that of a grayish brown creature with a black head and neck, 
and speckled with lighter brown on the body and hind legs. The base 
of the tail is lighter than the body, and the fur generally is so shiny that 
the color is very difficult to see, and varies constantly according as the 
light shines upon it. Unfortunately no skull accompanied the skin. 

Leontocebus imperatob (Goeldi). 

Midas imperator Goeldi, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., I, 1907, p. 93, fig. 
23. 

Type locality. Rio Purus, tributary of the Amazon, western 
Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Moustache of long white hairs extending beyond 
the face to the ears ; tail longer than body. 

Color. Sides of head, face, hands, and tufts on ears black ; middle 
and back of head black and hazel mixed; lips white, from upper lip 
extends a long white moustache ; throat black and gray ; upper part of 
body, arms and outer side of legs buffy gray, the hair being black with 
buff tips ; breast, lower part of belly, and inner side of legs, pale burnt 
sienna; middle of belly pale vinaceous cinnamon; tail above black, 
beneath burnt sienna at base, graduating into pale reddish brown, and 
then into black for apical half. Ex specimen British Museum. 

Subgenus Marikina. 

Mane large ; lips not white. 

Leontocebus eosalia (Linnaeus). 

Simia rosalia Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 41 ; Schreb., Saugth., 

I, 1775, p. 130, pi. XXXV; Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, 1800, p. 64, 

pi. XXV, fig. 
Callithrix rosalia E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 121 ; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm, 1828, p. 36, lOme 

Legon; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 62; Dahlb., Stud. 

Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 188, 192; 

Gulliv., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1875, p. 493. 
Jacchus albifrons Desm., Mamm., Suppl., 1820, p. 534. 
Leontocebus pithecus marikina Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 200. 
Marikina albifrons Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

9, pi. II, figs. 29, 30. 



210 LEONTOCEBUS 

Marikina rosalia Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 7, 
figs. 25, 27. 

Midas leoninus Bates, Nat. Amaz., I, 1863, p. 98, (nee Wagner). 

Leontopithecus rosalia Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 65. 

Hapale rosalia Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 250. 

Type locality. "In Brasilia." 

Geogr. Distr. Forest of southeastern Brazil, Province of Rio 
de Janeiro ; Upper Amazon. 

Genl. Char. Conspicuous ruff around face and neck ; tail bushy at 
tip, as long as body. Sometimes the pelage varied with black, this 
color appearing on the head, hands, feet and tail. 

Color. General color of head, body and limbs golden yellow, 
darkest on head and limbs, and palest on tail ; face, hands and feet 
purple ; long tufts of hair from inside of ears brownish black. 

Measurements. Tail to end of hairs, 345. Skull: occipito-nasal 
length, 53 ; Hensel, 39 ; zygomatic width, 35 ; intertemporal width,. 23 ; 
median length of nasals, 11 ; breadth of braincase, 28; length of palate, 
17 ; length of upper molar series, 12 ; length of mandible, 38 ; length of 
lower molar series, 13. 

Bates, (1. c.) says he once saw a tame individual of M. leoninus = 
L. rosalia?, which was even more playful and intelligent than (M.) 
Ursula. In length of body it measured only seven inches, and was 
friendly with every one in the house where it lived, and its greatest 
pleasure was to climb about the persons of those who entered. When 
he first visited the house, it ran to the chair on which he was sitting 
and climbed on to his shoulder, and looking into his face showed its 
teeth and chattered as though it would say, "Well, and how do you do ?" 
It was very affectionate with its master and would climb upon his head a 
dozen times in an hour, and make a great show of searching for certain 
animalculae. Of this species Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire knew of 
one individual that distinguished between different objects in an 
engraving. When shown figures of a cat and wasp, it was very much 
frightened, but when it saw a grasshopper or beetle, it precipitated 
itself on the picture and tried to seize them. 

Leontocebus leoninus (Humboldt) . 

Simia leonina Humb., Obs. Zool.. I, 1811, (1815), pp. 16, 361, 
pi. V. 



LEONTOCEBUS 211 

Hapale leonina Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 249 ; V, 
1855, p. 138 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 255. 

Leontopithecus leoninus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 6, fig. 24. 

LION TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Seen at Popayan, Brazil. No specimen preserved. 

Color. General hue ochre yellow shading into olive brown, annu- 
lated with black ; back varied with yellow ; hands and feet black, face 
black ; around the nose and mouth bluish white. 

Measurements. Total length 7 to 8 inches. 

No specimens of this monkey have been procured. Humboldt saw 
two living individuals at Popayan and from these he made his descrip- 
tion and gave the name of leonina (1. c). It inhabits the plains of 
Mocoa, and the fertile banks of the lea and Japura rivers, never goes 
into temperate regions, and is rare even in the country it inhabits. 

Whether these specimens represent a distinct species, or some 
state of pelage of L. rosalia, or a dark form of that species it is 
impossible to state, and any decision regarding it will have to be 
deferred until examples are procured. 

Leontocebtjs chrysomelas (Kuhl). 

Midas chrysomelas Kuhl, Beitr., 1820, p. 51 ; Tschudi, Faun. 

Peruan., 1844, p. 53; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 62; 

Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 1856, pp. 188, 

192; Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1861, p. 464. 
Jacchus chrysomelas Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 95. 
Leontocebus ater var. B. Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 205. 
Marikina chrysomelas Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 

p. 8, fig. 28. 
Leontopithecus chrysomelas Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 

Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 65. 

WIED'S TAMARIN. 

Type locality. Forests through which the Rio Ilheos flows, Brazil. 
Type in American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

Geogr. Distr. Forests of the Rio Ilheos, and Rio Pardo, Brazil ; 
Peru, (Tschudi). 

Color. Forehead, sides of head and chin, throat, and arms from 
elbows to hands, golden yellow, darkest on throat and towards sides of 
neck, where the long hairs fall over; the hairs on the forehead have 
faded to a pale yellow ; occiput, back and sides of neck, shoulders, arms 
to elbows, mantle, under parts of body, inner side of hind limbs, and 



212 LEONTOCEBUS 

ankles, black ; lower back, rump, outer side of hind limbs to ankles, 
reddish chestnut ; feet above mixed tawny and black ; edges reddish 
chestnut; tail above on basal half pale yellow, faded from golden 
yellow ; sides black. Ex type American Museum of Natural History, 
New York. 

Measurements. Total length to end of hairs on tail, 670 ; tail, 300 ; 
foot, 75. Skull in specimen. 

Kuhl describes this species from specimens brought by Prince 
Max. of Wied from Brazil. Some of these were distributed to the 
Berlin Museum, and to M. Temminck. The above description is taken 
from the male example in Prince Max.'s Collection purchased by the 
New York Museum and presumably the type, as it is not supposed that 
the type of Kuhl's description would be permitted to leave the collec- 
tion. It is in good preservation but the delicate yellow has faded con- 
siderably. 



PLATE XXVI. 




CEDIPOMIDAS CEDIPUS. 
No. 3.5.1.1. Brit. Mus. Coll. J/j larger than Nat. Size. 



(EDIPOMIDAS 213 



GENUS (EDIPOMIDAS. MARMOSETS. 

t t±. r H P »=?. M ?=?=, 2 

1. 2— 2 J *" 1— 1» r * 3—3' m# 2—2 ■> 

(EDIPOMIDAS Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 5, pi. 
II, figs. 18-20. Type Simia cedipus Linnaeus. 
OEdipus Less., Spec. Mamm, 1840, pp. 184, 197-200, (nee Tschudi, 

1838, Amphib.). 
Head sometimes crested; sides of head naked or covered with 
short hairs, hairs on nape elongate. Size small. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Hair on nape elongate ; arms and outer side of legs, white. 

a. Head crested, top of head and nape white O. cedipus. 

b. Head not crested, center of head white, nape 

burnt umber 0. geoffroyi. 

CEdipomidas cedipus (Linnaeus) . 

Simia cedipus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 28 ; I, 1766, p. 41 ; 

Schreb., Saugth., I, 1775, p. 128, pi. XXXIV; Bodd., Elench. 

Anim., 1784, p. 63; Audeb., Singes et Makis, Fam. VIme 

Sec, II, 1797, pi. III. 
Callithrix cedipus Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 55. 
Simia (Midas) cedipus Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), 

p. 361. 
Midas cedipus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 

p. 122 ; F. Cuv., Hist. Nat Mamm., 1833, p. 200, pi. LXXII ; I. 

Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 62; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 

Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 193 ; Slack, Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Scien. Phil., 1861, p. 464; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 

1894, p. 140. 
Jacchus cedipus E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 36, 

lOme Lecon. 
CEdipus titi Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 197; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 

Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870. p. 65. 
Hapale cedipus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 251 ; 

V, 1855, p. 138; Blainv., Osteog, 1841, Atl., Cebus IV; 



214 CEDIPOMIDAS 

Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 587, (footnote) ; 

Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 258. 
CEdipomidas cedipus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

5, figs. 18-20. 
Leontopithecus cedipus Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 127. 

PINCHi MARMOSET. 

Type locality. "In America." 

Geogr. Distr. Cartagena and Turbaco, coast of Colombia. 

Genl. Char. Sides of head naked ; top of head crested. 

Color. Face covered with short white hairs, sides of head naked ; 
top of head, nape and neck, arms to shoulders, outer side of legs, hands 
and feet white; upper parts grayish brown; thighs bright hazel, the 
hairs tipped with gray, giving this part a tint or wash of that color ; 
entire under parts and inner side of limbs white ; tail, basal half bright 
hazel, remainder blackish seal brown. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 45 ; Hensel, 32 ; 
zygomatic width, 32; intertemporal width, 23.5; palatal length, 14; 
breadth of braincase, 27 ; median length of nasals, 6 ; length of upper 
molar series, 9; length of mandible, 31 ; length of lower molar series, 
11. 

CEdipomidas geoffroyi (Pucheran) . 

Hapale geoffroyi Pucher., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1845, p. 336 ; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 251 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays- 
Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 258. 

Midas cedipus var. Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 30, 
pi. XXIII. 

Midas geoffroyi. I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 63; Dahlb., Stud. 
Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 89, 193 ; 
Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1861, p. 464; Sclat., 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 478, pi. XXXVIII; 1872, p. 
8; Alston, Biol. Centr. Amer., I, Mamra., 1879, p. 17; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 139, pi. XIII. 

Midas spixi Reichenb., Vollstand. Natur. Affen, 1862, fig. 2. 

GEdipus geoffroyi Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 65. 

CEdipomidas geoffroyi Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 
p. 5, no fig. ; Elliot, Mamm. Middle Amer. and West Indies, 
Field Columb. Mus. Pub., IV, Pt. II, 1904, p. 724, figs. 164, 
CXXXVII, Zool. Ser.; Id. Check List Mamm. N. Amer. 



(EDIPOMIDAS 215 

Cont. and West Indies, Field Columb. Mus. Pub., p. 532, Zool. 
Ser. 

GEOFFROY'S MARMOSET. 

Type locality. Panama. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Costa Rica and Panama, Central America. 

Genl. Char. Head not crested ; face hairy. 

Color. Face and head covered with short white hairs; center of 
head from forehead white ; back of head and neck burnt umber ; fore- 
arms, and arms inside to shoulders white; upper parts, extending to 
elbows on outer half of arms, shoulders and flanks, black mottled with 
yellowish white; this mottling is caused by the yellowish white band 
on the black hairs showing ; under parts and inner side of limbs white ; 
hands and feet gray ; tail reddish or bright burnt umber on basal third, 
remainder black. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 44 ; Hensel, 29 ; inter- 
temporal width, 22 ; zygomatic width, 28 ; palatal length, 13 ; breadth of 
braincase, 22 ; median length of nasals, 5 ; length of upper molar series, 
10; length of mandible, 26; length of lower molar series, 11. 

The type of Midas spixi Reichenbach, is in the Munich Museum 
and is, as was supposed, a specimen of (Edipomidas geoffroyi 
(Pucheran). 

(Note) For description of CE. salaquiensis, see Appendix Vol. Ill, p. 255. 



216 CALLITHRIX 



GENUS CALLITHRIX. TRUE MARMOSETS. 

■!•• 2— 2» ^" 1— 1 » "" 3—3) *™. 2— 2~ 3 2- 

CALLITHRIX End., Syst. Regn. Anim., 1777, p. 55. Type Swta 

jacchus Linnaeus. 
Sagoinus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., Mamm., I, 1792, p. 80. 
Sagouin Laceped., Tabl. Mamm., 1799, p. 4. 
Hapale Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Avium, 1811, p. 71. 
Jacchus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 118. 
Sylvanus Rafin., Analys. Natur., 1815, p. 53, (nee Latreille 1807, 

Coleopt.). 
Arctopithecus Virey, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., ed. nouv., XXXI, 

1819, p. 279. 
Ouistitis Burnett, Quart. Journ. Scien. Litt. and Arts, 1828, 

XXVI, p. 307. 
Liocephalus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, pp. IX, V bis, 

(244-248). 
Mico Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, pp. 184, 192-194. 
Cebuella Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 734. 
Micoella Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 

Mus., 1870, p. 130. 

Head round ; eyes large ; face naked ; ears large, sometimes fringed 
with hair. Large whiskers are seen on several species, and the neck is 
sometimes encircled with a ruff. Skull : braincase large ; facial region 
short ; orbits large ; upper incisors longer than the canines, and all 
project outward. 

The Marmosets are small delicate creatures, possessing a soft, 
thick, silky fur, and a long rather bushy tail. In color there is much 
variety among them, and some have ringed tails. In disposition they 
are very timid, and while attached to, and familiar with those they are 
accustomed to meet daily, are shy with strangers, and apt to meet 
advances with sharp bites. The smooth skull, although the braincase 
is large, indicates a low order of intelligence. The female produces 
two or three young at a birth contrary to the general rule, as the 
females of these Anthropoids have usually but one. 



PLATE XXVII. 




CALLITHRIX LEUCOPUS. 
No. 08.10.3.1. Brit. Mus. Coll. l / 2 larger than Nat. Size. 



CALLITHRIX 
LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 



217 



1758. Linnceus, Systema Natures. 

Callithrix jacchus described as Simla jacchus. 

1771. Linnaeus, Mantissa Plantarum. 

Callithrix argentata first described as Simla argentata. 

1777. Erxleben, Systema Regni Anlmalls. 

In the genus Callithrix, established by this Author, among 
other species now placed in different genera, C. jacchus is 
included. 

1792. Kerr, Animal Kingdom. 

Callithrix jacchus renamed Simla (Sagoinus) jacchus mos- 
chatus. 

1812. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hllalre, in Annates du Museum d'Hlstolre 
Naturelle, Paris. 

Comprising his genus Jacchus seven species of Callithrix are 
given, only five of which are valid, as follows: (7.) vulgaris = 
C. jacchus; (7.) penicillatus; (7.) leucocephalus ; (7.) 
auritis; (7.) humeralifer first described; (7.) melanurus 
= C. argentata; and (J.) argent atus. 

(1811), Humboldt et Bonpland, Recuell d' Observations de Zoologle 

1815. et d'Anatomle Comparee. 

In the subdivision Jacchus of the "Famllle des Hapales," under 
Simla the following species of Callithrix are given: (S.) 
penicillata; (S.) aurita; (S.) humeralifer; (S.) mela- 
nurus = C. argentata; and (S.) geoffroyl = C. aurita 
(E. Geoffroy). Humboldt cites Geoffroy as the Author of the 
new species notwithstanding the fact Geoffroy's paper was 
apparently published a year later; but I. Geoffroy gives 1815 
as the date of Humboldt's article. 

1820. Desmarest, Mammalogle ou Description des Especes de Mamml- 
feres. 

The genus Jacchus is divided into two subgenera Oulstltl and 
Tamarln. In the first of these is placed the species given by 
Erxleben enumerated above, without any additions ; while 
Tamarln includes such species as were known to the Author, 
and which are in this work contained in the genera Seniocebus, 
Leontocebus and CEdipomidas. 

1820. Kuhl, Beltrdge zur Zoologle. 

The list of species enumerated by Geoffroy and Desmarest in 



HI 



218 CALLITHRIX 

the genus Jacchus is repeated here without additions, but all are 
included in the genus Hapale. 
1823. Spix, Simiarum et Vespertilionum Brasiliensium. 

Three species of Callithrix are given in this work under the 
genus Jacchus, viz. : pygm^eus ; albicollis ; and penicillatus ; 
the first two described for the first time. 

1829. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

Under the genus Jacchus all the species given by previous 
authors are included with copious synonymy, as well as the 
various Tamarins, now considered to belong to other genera. 

1830. Fischer, Addenda, Emendanda et Index ad Synopsis Mam- 
malium. 

The list in the previous work is here given without additions. 

1840. Wagner, Schreber, Die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen notch der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
Following the arrangement adopted by Desmarest, all the 
species enumerated by him belonging to different genera, are in 
this list included in the genus Hapale. 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 

The genus Hapale in this work contains the species then known, 
but which are now placed in the genus Callithrix. It is 
divided into several subgenera, and the few species recognized 
have many varieties. 1st subgenus is Hapale with two species 
(H.) leucotis = C. jacchus; and (H.) melanotis = C. peni- 
cillata Humboldt. The first has four varieties, all valid 
species, viz., A. C. aurita; B. (/.) vulgaris = C. jacchus; C. 
C. albicollis ; C. humeralifer ; the second has one "viellesse," 
C. leucocephala. 2nd subgenus Mico has but one species, 
C. argentata. 3rd subgenus Midas contains species of 
Seniocebus, and 4th of GEdipus, and 5th of Leontocebus. 

1842. Wagner, in Wiegmann's Archiv fur Naturgeschichte. 

A list of species belonging to the genera Callithrix and Cal- 
licebus, in which a description is given for the first time of 
Callithrix chrysoleuca. Callithrix is the name the Author 
adopts for all the species enumerated, four in all. 

1851. /. Geo ft "roy Saint-Hilaire. Catalogue des Primates. 

The various species of Callithrix described to date are here 
given under Hapale. 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 



CALLITHRIX 219 

In the genus Hapale the various species of Callithrix and the 
Tamarins are here given. Jacchus has var. B. albicollis; 
penicillata has var. B. leucocephala ; argentata Linn., is 
retained as a valid species. 
1862. Reichenbach, Die Vollst'dndigste Naturgeschichte der Affen. 

In this work the following species of Callithrix are given 
under the genera Jacchus and Mico: (7.) pygm^us; (7.) spixi 
= OEdipomidas geoffroyi; (/.) vulgaris = C. jacchus; (7.) 
humeralifer; (7.) albicollis; (7.) trigonifer = C. penicil- 
lata; (7.) penicillatus; (7.) leucocephalus ; (7.) maxi- 
miliani = C. leucocephala; (Mico) argentata; and (M.) 

CHRYSOLEUCA. 

1870. 7. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in British Museum. 

The species of Callithrix are divided by this Author into 
several different genera. C. aurita is placed in Hapale; C. 
jacchus as vulgaris, in Jacchus var. 1, 2; with albicollis; 
penicillata; leucocephala; and leucogenys = Leontocebus 
devillii as varieties 3, 4, and 5, of vulgaris. C. pygm^a is 
placed in Cebuella; and melanura = argentata, in Mico. All 
of which genera are unnecessary. In the Appendix to the 
Catalogue, C. sericea, (= Callithrix chrysoleuca) ; and C. 
chrysoleuca are placed in the genus Micoella. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bas, Simice. 

The species of Callithrix are here placed in the genus Hapale, 
as was customary with many of the earlier Authors. Simia 
argentata Linn., is kept distinct, because its habitat was 
different from that of C. melanura = C. argentata, and it 
could not be an albino because its eyes were black and not red ! 

1876. Gunther, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Callithrix leucopus first described as Hapale leucopus. 

1893. Matschie, in Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschen- 
der Freunde zu Berlin. 

Callithrix santaremensis is described as Hapale santarem- 
ensis. 

1903. O. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Callithrix flaviceps first described as Hapale Haviceps. 

1904. O. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Callithrix goeldi and Callithrix penicillata jordani described. 



220 C ALLITHRIX 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

The majority of the species of this genus are natives of Brazil, one 
only extending its range into Bolivia, and one inhabiting Colombia. C. 
goeldi has no ascertained locality, as the unique type was brought alive 
to the City of Para, and it was not known whether it was captured in 
the vicinity or taken farther to the westward on the Amazon, or on 
one of its tributaries. At Santarem, at the mouth of the Rio Tapajos 
C. santaremensis was procured, but its range is quite unknown. C. 
jacchus is stated to have been obtained on the Island of Marajo, lying 
between the mouths of the Amazon and the Rio Para. In the vicinity 
of Bahia C. albicollis has been obtained, and south of the Bay Todos 
os Santos, C. humeralifer occurs. C. penicillata ranges from, and 
including the Province of Goyas, through that of Minas Gerses, and in 
Espirito Santo on the east coast, between 14 and 17 degrees South 
Latitude; and C. p. jordani is found in the south west portion of 
Minas Geraes. 

In the last named Province C. leucocephala occurs, ranging into 
the Province of Espirito Santo ; and in Matto Grosso C. argentata is 
found. This species is also met with in Bolivia, and a specimen ac- 
cording to I. Geoffroy is in the Paris Museum brought from Para by 
Castelnau and Deville. On the banks of the Upper Parana to the 
Province of Sao Paulo, C. aurita occurs, while in the last named 
Province at Engenhiero Reeve C. flaviceps was procured. At Booba 
on the Lower Rio Madeira C. chrysoleuca was obtained; and in the 
forests along the Rio Solimoens and Rio Ucayali, C. pygm^ea dwells, 
and lastly at Medellin in the Province of Antigua, C. leucopus was 
found. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. Tail without rings. 

a. Tail black, feet blackish brown C. argentata. 

b. Tail seal brown, tip white, feet white C. leucopus. 

c. Tail and feet golden yellow C. chrysoleuca. 

d. Tail and feet black C. goeldi. 

B. Tail with rings. 

a. Head and neck white C. santaremensis. 

b. Center of head tawny ochraceous, rest black C. aurita. 

c. Middle of head dark brown. 

a.' Above light gray C. penicillata. 






in 



Volume 



Plate 8 




Callithrix argfntata 



CALLITHRIX 22\ 

b! Above brownish gray C. p. jordani. 

d. Middle and top of head buff. 

a.' Ear tufts black C. leucocephala. 

b! Ear tufts white C. fiaviceps. 

e. Head above to nape brownish black C. jacchus. 

f. Head and upper parts of body white C. humeralifer. 

g. Forehead blackish brown ; back of head and nape 

yellowish white C. albicollis. 

c! No ear tufts C. pygmcea. 

Callithrix argentata (Linnaeus). 

Simia argentata Linn., Mant, 1771, p. 521, pi. II; Gmel., Syst. 

Nat., 1788, p. 41 ; Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes et Makis, 1797, 

Fam. VI, Sec. 2, Fig. 2 ; Shaw, Genl. Zool., 1800, p. 66, pi. 

XXVI, lower fig. 
Callithrix argentata Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 61. 
Jacchus melanurus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 120. 
Jacchus argentatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 120 ; Desm., Mamm, 1820, p. 94. 
Hapale melanura Kuhl, Beitr., 1820, p. 49; Wagn., Schreb., 

Saugth. Suppl., 1840, p. 244 ; V, 1855, p. 137 ; Casteln., Exped. 

Amer. Sud, Mamm., 1855, p. 20; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 

Reg. Anim. Natur., 1856, pp. 186, 187; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1875, p. 419, pi. I; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 

1876, p. 268; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 136. 
Midas melanurus E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 36, 

lOme Lecon. 
Hapale argentatus Kuhl, Beitr., 1820, p. 49; Wagn., Schreb., 

Saugth. Suppl., 1840, p. 245; V, 1855, p. 128; Schleg., 

Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 268. 
Jacchus leucomerus Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVIII, 1846, p. 

212. 
Midas argentatus E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 36, 

lOme Lecon; Bates, Nat. Amaz., 1863, p. 128. 
Mico argentatus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 192; Reichenb., 

Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 6, figs. 21, 22. 
Mico melanurus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 

Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 64. 

BLACK-TAILED MARMOSET. 

Type locality, "le Bresil." Geoffroy's type in Paris Museum. 



222 CALLITHRIX 

Geogr. Distr. Provinces of Matto Grosso, Para, (I. Geoff.). 
Brazil; Bolivia, (I. Geoffroy). 

Genl. Char. Face naked ; ears exposed, naked ; tail uniform, black. 

Color. Forehead blackish brown ; top of head, neck, shoulders and 
outer side of arms dark wood brown ; back mummy brown ; legs darker 
brown ; hands grayish brown ; feet blackish brown ; under parts and 
inner side of arms yellowish white ; inner side of legs orange buff above 
ankles grading into buff on upper part; broad stripe on outer edge of 
thighs, extending nearly to center of back white ; tail black. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 43 ; Hensel, 32 ; zy- 
gomatic width, 30; intertemporal width, 22.5 ; palatal length, 15 ; width 
of braincase, 25 ; median length of nasals, 6 ; length of upper molar 
series, 9 ; length of mandible, 30 ; length of lower molar series, 10. 

The presumable type of C. melanura in the Paris Museum is so 
faded that it would be useless to attempt a description from it, the 
various shades of brown having practically become one, the legs alone 
being somewhat darker than the back, grading into the blackish brown 
of the feet. 

Caixithrix leucopus (Gunther). 

Hapale leucopus Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, p. 743 ; 
Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt. I, 1881, p. 89; 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 134 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. 
Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 553, Zool. Ser. 

WHITE-FOOTED MARMOSET. 

Type locality. Medellin, Province of Antioquia, Colombia. 

Geogr. Distr. Province of Antioquia, Colombia. Range unde- 
termined. 

Genl. Char. Hair on back and sides long, silky ; ears large, naked, 
not tufted ; hands and feet white. 

Color. Top and sides of head and face covered with short grayish 
white hairs ; nape and upper parts brownish gray, some examples being 
a yellowish gray ; arms from above elbows to wrists white ; legs below 
knees grayish brown ; hands and feet whitish ; throat dark brown ; 
under parts and inner side of limbs bright cinnamon rufous ; tail seal 
brown, tip whitish. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 47 ; Hensel, 32 ; zygo- 
matic width, 33 ; intertemporal width, 24 ; median length of nasals, 7 ; 
width of braincase, 29; length of upper molar series, 9; length of 
mandible, 33 ; length of lower molar series, 7. 



CALLITHRIX 223 

There are several specimens of this species in the British Museum, 
but none of them was selected by its describer as the type, a most 
unfortunate omission. It was from one of these, No. 75. 6.3.1. that the 
above description was taken, and this might serve hereafter as The 
type. 

Callithbix chrysoleuca (Wagner). 

Hapale chrysoleuca Wagn., Wiegm., Archiv., I, 1842, p. 357; Id. 

Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 125 ; Sclat, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 594; 1871, p. 229; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 

Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 63, var. b ; 

Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 277 ; Forbes, Handb. 

Primates, I, 1894, p. 125. 
Mico sericeus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 256. 
Mico chrysoleucus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

6, fig. 23. 
Hapale argentata Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 262. 
Micoella sericeus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 

Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 131. (Append.). 

GOLDEN MARMOSET. 

Type locality. Borba, on the Lower Madeira River, Brazil. Type 
in Vienna Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Known only from the type locality. 

Genl. Char. Ears large, naked, margined with long hairs; color 
pale. 

Color. Head and upper part of body, throat, chest and shoulders 
ivory white; long hairs of ears buffy; arms, back of thighs, legs, tail 
and lower part of abdomen golden yellow; under parts buffy; ear 
tufts white. Ex type Vienna Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 42 ; Hensel, 33 ; inter- 
temporal width, 23; breadth of braincase, 26; length of upper molar 
series, 10; palatal length, 10; length of mandible, 31; length of lower 
molar series, 12. 

The type of M. sericeus Gray, in the British Museum cannot be 
separated from C. chrysoleuca. There was no skull of the species in 
the Vienna Museum of the four examples in the collection, and the 
measurements given above were taken from the type of M. sericeus 
Gray. 

This is a peculiar little animal, giving, at first, the impression that 
it must be a partial albino, but all the specimens agree in their coloring, 
and it is a very pretty species. 



224 CALLITHRIX 

Callithrix goeldi Thomas. 

Callithrix goeldi Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XIV, 1904, 7th Ser., 
p. 100. 

COELDI'S MARMOSET. 

Type locality. Para, Brazil. Brought alive to the city. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Hair on back and shoulders long, silky, projecting 
beyond ears. 

Color. Head, limbs and upper parts blackish brown, the hairs 
at base are broccoli brown graduating into black, and tipped with pale 
brown ; white tufts exist on head in front of ears, and on either side 
of the back at the loins, and there are white hairs scattered about the 
forehead ; feet, hands, under parts and tail black, with light tips show- 
ing on some of the hairs in the tail. Ex type British Museum. 

No skull to the specimen. 

The specimen is in poor condition and misshapen, so that it would 
be impossible to give correct measurements. The skin of the hands and 
feet has been filled with some material and is stretched, making these 
members appear unusually broad, and the skin of the body has been 
shortened in making up. There is no species of the genus known to me 
to which this specimen can be assigned, but as the animal had been in 
captivity, and possibly, as suggested by Mr. Thomas, had been injured, 
this accounts for the white hairs on different parts of the head and 
body. We must wait for additional examples to enable us to decide 
what shall be its proper place in the genus. 

Callithrix santaremensis (Matschie). 

Hapale santaremensis Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freund. 
Berlin, 1893, p. 227. 

SANTAREM MARMOSET. 

Type locality. Santarem, at mouth of River Tapajos, Amazon. 
Type in Berlin Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. South bank of Amazon. 

Genl. Char. Similar to C. chrysoleuca. 

Color. White spot over each eye ; side of head from corner of 
mouth to beneath ears, and middle of forehead black ; tufts over ears, 
top of head, neck, shoulders, under side of arms, and back between 
shoulders white ; brownish black streak down back of neck ; entire back 
below shoulders and flanks black, hairs dark gray at base, then pure 
white, with apical portion black; outer side of leg mixed black and 
white, with a white stripe across upper thigh ; inner side of arms and 



CALLITHRIX 225 

legs, and under parts of body golden yellow ; hands and feet dark 
brown; tail black, indistinctly barred with buff, becoming more buff 
than black towards tip. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 570; tail, 380; flat skin. Skull 
total length, 45.8 ; occipito-nasal length, 43 ; intertemporal width, 22.7 
Hensel, 32.1; zygomatic width, 38.9; median length of nasal, 65 
palatal length, 13.5 ; length of upper molar series, 9.7 ; length of man- 
dible, 28.7 ; length of lower molar series, 11. 

This species resembles somewhat C. chrysoleuca, and one might 
almost think, as Herr Matschie says, that that species was an albino of 
the present one. 

Callithrix atjrita *(E. Geoffroy). 

Jacchus auritis E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat., XIX, 1812, p. 
1 19 ; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 36, lOme Legon ; 
Humb., Rec. Observ. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), p. 360; Desm., 
Mamm., 1820, p. 3; Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 61; Ad- 
dend., 1830, p. 61. 

Hapale aurita Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 48; Wagn., Schreb., 
Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 243 ; V, 1855, p. 125 ; I. Geoff., Cat. 
Primates, 1851, p. 60; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 
Natur., Fasc. I, 1856, pp. 185, 187; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 63; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 276 ; Pelz., Zool.-Bot. 
Ges. Wien, XXXIII, 1883, Beiheft, p. 21; Forbes, Handb. 
Primates, I, 1894, p. 134. 

Hapale auritus var. A. Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 188. 

WHITE-EARED MARMOSET. 

Type locality. "Brazil." Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Province of Sao Paulo, and on the banks of the 
Upper Parana, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Larger than C. jacchus; face whitish; no cross- 
bands on back, ears tufted with long white hairs. 

Color. Face and forehead yellowish white ; center of head and 



*E. Geoffroy described this and other species of Callithrix in 1812. 
Humboldt's volume which contains his "Tableau Synoptique des Singes de 
l'Amerique" bears date of 1811, a year before Geoffroy's paper appeared. As 
Humboldt cites Geoffroy as the Author of the Species, the date must be an 
error, which is corrected by I. Geoffroy in his "Catalogue des Primates," 1851, 
p. vii, in the "Liste des Ouvrages, &c," where he gives it as 1815, four years 
after the publication of E. Geoffroy's contribution. 



226 CALLITHRIX 

nape tawny ochraceous ; rest of head, neck, back between shoulders, 
across loins outer side, and on lower parts, and under parts black ; back, 
flanks, outer side of arms, legs at and below knees tawny and black 
mixed ; hands and feet deep chrome ; tail, ringed with alternated black 
and gray bands, the latter washed with ochraceous towards tip ; ear 
tufts white. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 46 ; Hensel, 33 ; 
zygomatic width, 30 ; intertemporal width, 33 ; palatal length, 14 ; width 
of braincase, 21 ; length of upper molar series, 9 ; length of mandible, 
30 ; length of lower molar series, 10. 

Cat.tjthrix penicillata * (E. Geoff roy) . 

Jacchus penicillatus E. Geoff roy, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 119; Humboldt, Obser. Zool., 1815, p. 360; Spix, 
Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 36, pi. XXIV; Desm., 
Mamm., 1820, p. 92 ; Fisch., Syn. Reg. Mamm., 1829, p. 61 ; 
Addend., 1830, p. 61 ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 4; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 63, var. 4. 
Hapale penicillatus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 47. 
Hapale penicillata Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 242 ; 
V, 1855, p. 124; E. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 60; Dahlb., 
Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 1856, pp. 185, 187; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 273; Anders., Cat. 
Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 1881, p. 88. 
Jacchus trigonifer Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 4, 

fig. 10. 
Type locality. Brazil. Type not in Paris Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Provinces of Goyas, Minas Geraes, and Espirito 
Santo, between 14 and 17 degrees S. Latitude; Rio Parana, (Natterer). 
Color. Face very scantily covered with white hairs, spot on fore- 
head white ; head dark Prout's brown, back of head and mantle brown- 
ish black; upper parts, and outer side of limbs gray, banded across 
lower back and rump with black; under parts black on throat and 
chest, gray on abdomen ; black on inner side of thighs, and yellowish on 
legs below the knee ; tail ringed black and white ; hands and feet dark 
brown and gray mixed. 

Measurements. Total length, 495 ; tail, 285 ; hind foot, 57 ; ear, 
21. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 41 ; Hensel, 30; zygomatic width, 29; 
intertemporal width, 21 ; palatal length, 13 ; breadth of braincase, 25 ; 



♦Humboldt cites Geoffroy as the Author of this species. 



CALLITHRIX 227 

median length of nasals, 7; length of mandible, 28; length of lower 
molar series, 9. 

The type of this form is no longer in the Paris Museum. There 
are several specimens, however, in the collection, the earliest of which 
bears date 1822, ten years after Geoffroy described the species. In all 
the examples, the name penicillatus is attributed to Kuhl, who gave 
the species in his Beitrage Zoologie eight years after Geoffroy had 
described it. 

Callithrix penicillata jordani Thomas. 

Callithrix penicillata jordani Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XIV, 
7th Ser., 1904, p. 188. 

Type locality. Rio Jordao, S. W. Minas Geraes, Brazil. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Like C. penicillata, but width of the middle upper 
incisor about one half the length, instead of two thirds as in the other 
species, and it is also longer and narrower. 

Color. Face mars brown; spot on forehead and short hairs on 
lips white ; top of head brownish black ; nape, neck, and ear tufts black ; 
the hair on back of head very long ; general color of upper parts gray, 
banded with black, this being caused by the subterminal black band on 
the hairs showing alternately with the gray tips; none of the ochra- 
ceous color of the hairs showing, as it so conspicuously does in the 
other species ; arms and legs ochraceous buff washed with gray ; throat 
pale brown; upper part of chest, and a line in center of abdomen 
ochraceous washed with gray ; inner side of arms, elbow to wrist black ; 
above elbow ochraceous buff and gray ; inner side of legs pale clay color, 
with a black spot near the body; hands and feet mixed black and 
orange ; tail ringed with black and white. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 533; tail, 298; foot, 58; ear, 20. 
Skull: occipito-nasal length, 42; Hensel, 30; intertemporal width, 21; 
palatal length, 13 ; zygomatic width, 28 ; breadth of braincase, 25 ; 
median length of nasals, 8 ; length of upper molar series, 9 ; length of 
mandible, 27.5; length of lower molar series, 9. Ex type in British 
Museum. 

This subspecies is not so gray as C. penicillata, but darker and 
browner; the band above the slate colored base of the hairs is tawny 
and not ochraceous, and this causes the general darker hue of the 
animal; the under parts are much lighter, and more yellowish brown 
on sides of abdomen and inner side of thighs. 



228 CALLITHRIX 

Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus). 

Simia jacchus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 27 ; I, 1766, p. 40 ; Erxl., 

Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 56 ; Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 

68 ; Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 39. 
Callithrix jacchus Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 56; Fisch., 

Syn. Mamra, 1829, p. 60 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. 

Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 553, Zool. Ser. ; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1911, p. 127. 
Simia (Sagoinus) jacchus moschatus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 1792, 

p. 80, No. 80. 
Simia (Jacchus) jacchus Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, (1811), 1815, 

p. 360. 
Jacchus vulgaris E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 

p. 119 ; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 35, lOme Legon ; 

Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 2; Gray, Cat. 

Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 

63, var. 12. 
Hapale jacchus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 46; Wagn., Schreb., 

Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 241; V, 1855, p. 124; Blainv., 

Osteog., 1841, Atl., Cebus, pi. VI; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 

1851, p. 39; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 

fasc. I, 1856, pp. 185, 187; Bates, Nat. Amaz., 1863, I, p. 98; 

Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 271 ; Forbes, Handb. 

Primates, I, 1894, p. 132. 

COMMON MARMOSET. 

Type locality, "in America." 

Geogr. Distr. Island of Marajo, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Face black with white spot ; ears naked with a tuft of 
long hairs ; hairs outside of head long ; cross bands on back ; tail banded. 

Color. Head, nape, neck, and throat brownish black; ear tufts 
and long hairs from behind ears white ; back yellowish gray ; lower 
back barred with ochraceous, black and grayish white, caused by the 
ochraceous hairs, the subterminal black bars and grayish white tips 
alternating; hind limbs, hands and feet, black washed with yellowish 
white ; under parts and inner side of limbs, black washed with gray ; 
tail banded black and white. 

Measurements. Total length, 510; tail, 295; foot, 61; ear, 21. 
(Collector). Skull: occipito-nasal length, 42; Hensel, 32; zygomatic 
width, 30 ; intertemporal width, 22.5 ; palatal length, 14 ; breadth of 
braincase, 25 ; median length of nasals, 8 ; length of upper molar series, 
9 ; length of mandible, 29 ; length of lower molar series, 10. 



CALLITHRIX 229 

Bates, (1. c.) states that while walking about the streets of Para 
he counted thirteen different species of monkeys, and, of these, two he 
never met again in any part of the country. One of these was Hapale 
jacchus. "It was seated on the shoulder of a young mulatto girl, as 
she was walking along the street, and I was told had been captured in 
the island of Marajo." This appears to be about the only identified 
locality in which this species is found, for previous authors, as a rule, 
in giving the range of C. jacchus have so confounded several species 
together, as to make it practically impossible to designate the geo- 
graphical limits of this long and well known species ; and of its 
range in Brazil but little is known even at this late day. 

Catjjthrix flaviceps (Thomas) . 

Hapale flaviceps Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XII, 7th Ser., 1903, 
p. 240. 

YELLOW-HEADED MARMOSET. 

Type locality. Engenheiro Reeve, Province of Espirito Santo, 
Brazil. Type in British Museum. 

Color. Face and forehead whitish; head, throat, neck, shoulders, 
upper part of chest and inner side of arms, buff or buff yellow, upper 
parts showing the tawny, black, and gray color which each hair exhibits, 
the tawny not visible on lower back and rump, where the other two 
colors are ranged in black and grayish white bands across the body; 
outer side of arms yellowish ; outer side of legs dark gray ; middle of 
chest and abdomen, and spot between legs black, rest of abdomen tawny ; 
hands and feet mixed dark brown and yellowish ; tail ringed with 
black and gray, and a black spot on each side of base. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 546 ; tail, 298 ; foot, 65 ; ear, 23. 
Skull: occipito-nasal length, 47; Hensel, 33; zygomatic width, 31; 
intertemporal width, 23 ; palatal length, 15.5 ; width of braincase, 28.5 ; 
median length of nasals, 8 ; length of upper molar series, 10 ; length of 
mandible, 31 ; length of lower molar series, 13. 

Callithrix leucocephala (E. Geoff roy) . 

Jacchus leucocephalus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 119; Desm., Mamm, 1820, p. 93; Fisch., Syn. 
Mamm, 1829, p. 61 ; Addend., 1830, p. 61 ; Reichenb., Voll- 
stand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 4, fig. 16; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 63, var. 5. 

Jacchus vulgaris Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 63, var. 4 and 5. 



230 CALLITHRIX 

Hapale leucocephalus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 47. 

Hapale leucocephala Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 
124, var. B; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 60; Dahlb., 
Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 185, 
187 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 274. 

Jacchus maximiliani Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 
5, fig. 17. 

WHITE-FRONTED MARMOSET. 

Type locality, "le Bresil." Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern coast of Brazil in the Provinces of Minas 
Geraes and Espirito Santo. 

Genl. Char. Face flesh color ; hands and feet brown ; tail ringed. 

Color. Head in front of ears white ; back of head and neck black ; 
ears black, with long black tufts; upper parts have the hairs ochra- 
ceous with a subterminal black bar and yellowish white tips, giving a 
mottled appearance of all three colors ; arms and legs grayish brown ; 
throat and chest white ; under parts, hands and feet, blackish brown ; 
tail ringed with gray and black bands. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length about 400; tail, 200. Skull in 
mounted type specimen. 

Caixithrix humeralifer *(E. Geoff roy). 

Jacchus humeralifer Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 120; Humb., Rec. Obser. Zool., 1811, (1815), p. 360; 

Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 93 ; Fisch., Syn. Maram, 1829, p. 62 ; 

Addend., 1830, p. 62; Reichenb., Vollstand. Affen, 1862, p. 

4; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 

Mus., 1870, p. 63. 
Hapale humeralifer Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 48 ; I. Geoff., Cat. 

Primates, 1851, p. 60; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 

Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 185, 187; Bates, Nat. Amaz., II, 

1863, p. 55 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 133. 
Hapale humeralifer var. D. Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 189. 

WHITE-SHOULDERED MARMOSET. 

Type locality, "le Bresil." Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Vicinity of Bahia, to the Bay of Todos os Santos, 
Brazil. (Wied). 

Genl. Char. Face partly naked ; ears fringed with long hairs. 

Color. Forehead, face, sides of head and throat bare ; center and 
side of head near ears, black ; rest of head, tufts on ears, neck, upper 



♦Humboldt cites Geoffroy as the Author of this species. 



CALLITHRIX 231 

part of back, shoulders, arms, hands and under parts, soiled white ; rest 
of upper parts blackish brown, the hairs being white with blackish 
brown tips, and the white shows in spots giving the back and rump a 
mottled appearance; hind limbs and feet blackish brown; tail, black 
and gray mixed, the hairs being gray ringed with black. Ex type 
Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Size about as C. jacchus. Skull in mounted type 
specimen. 

It is most likely the fact that the bare head and throat of the type 
is caused by the hairs having slipped, as scattered ones still are to be 
seen, rather than that these naked parts are natural. The scattered 
colored places on the head, and the whiteness of the hairs on the upper 
part of the body, and the white mottling of the back and rump would 
seem to be more a condition of partial albinism of C. jacchus than 
characters indicating a distinct species. However, it is impossible to 
establish this as a fact, and until more proofs are obtained in other 
specimens, duplicating the type, or examples of C. jacchus in various 
albinistic stages, the present specimen will have to remain under the 
name given to it by Geoffroy. 

Bates (1. c.) gives the following account of this species as observed 
by him at Santarem: "I saw in the woods on one occasion, a small 
flock of monkeys, and once had an opportunity of watching the move- 
ments of a sloth. The monkeys belonged to a very pretty and rare 
species, a kind of Marmoset, I think the Hapale humeralifer de- 
scribed by Geoffroy St. Hilaire. I did not succeed in obtaining a 
specimen, but saw a living example afterwards in the possession of a 
shop keeper at Santarem. It seems to occur nowhere else except in the 
dry woods bordering the campos in the interior parts of Brazil. 
Altogether I thought it the prettiest species of its family I had yet 
seen. One would mistake it at first sight for a kitten, from its small 
size, varied colors and the softness of its fur. It was a most timid 
creature, screaming and biting when any one attempted to handle it ; it 
became familiar, however, with the people of the house a few days after 
it came into their possession. When hungry or uneasy it uttered a 
weak querulous cry, a shrill note, which was sometimes prolonged so as 
to resemble the stridulation of a grasshopper." 

CALLITHEIX ALBICOLLIS (Spix). 

Jacchus albicollis Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 33, pi. 
XXV; Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 60; Addend., 1830, p. 60; 
Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 4. 



232 CALLITHRIX 

Hapale albicollis I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 59; Dahlb., Stud. 
Zool. Fam. Reg. Natur., fasc. I, 1859, pp. 185, 187 ; Gray, Cat. 
Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, 
p. 63, var. 3. 

Hapale albicollis var. C. Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 189. 

Type locality. Woods in vicinity of Bahia, Brazil. Type in 
Munich Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Vicinity of Bahia, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Ears tufted; hairs on neck long forming a mantle; 
size small. 

Color. Top of head reddish brown ; long ear tufts grayish white ; 
sides and back of head and neck yellowish white ; upper parts mottled 
with black and ochraceous, hairs tipped with white ; outer side of limbs 
brownish black, hairs gray tipped; throat and fore part of breast 
grayish white ; under parts, hands and feet blackish brown ; tail brown- 
ish black, indistinctly ringed with gray. Ex type Munich Museum. 
The throat and fore part of chest appear yellowish, but this is merely the 
reflection of the skin, the hairs being grayish white. The skull is in 
the specimen. 

Color. Ex specimen British Museum. Upper lip and spot on fore- 
head white ; head in front of ears, Prout's brown ; center of head, and 
nape yellowish white, sometimes grayish white ; ear tufts white ; back 
very similar to that of C. leucocephala, the hairs ochraceous with 
a subterminal black bar and white tips ; arms blackish brown, hairs 
tipped with yellowish ; legs yellowish brown ; under parts pale brown 
on throat and a band across chest and inner side of legs, rest blackish 
brown ; tail ringed black and gray, or black and yellowish ; hands and 
feet dark brown washed with gray. 

Measurements. Total length, 494 ; tail, 296 ; foot, 59 ; ear, 24, 
(Collector). Skull: occipito-nasal length, 41; Hensel, 30; intertem- 
poral width, 24; width of braincase, 24; zygomatic width, 30; palatal 
length, 13.5 ; median length of nasals, 6 ; length of upper molar series, 
8 ; length of mandible, 28 ; length of lower molar series, 10. 

The difference between this form and C. leucocephala is mainly 
in the coloring of the nape and ear tufts, which are yellowish white in 
C. albicollis and black in its relative ; the rest of the pelage is colored 
almost exactly the same. 

Caxlithrix pygm^sa (Spix). 

Jacchus pygmaus Spix, Simiae et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 32, pi. 
XXIV, fig. 2 ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 1. 



CALLITHRIX 233 

Hapale pygmcea I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 61 ; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 126; Casteln., Exped. 
Amer. Sud, Mamra, I, 1855, p. 20, pi. V, figs. 1, 2; Dahlb., 
Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 186, 
187; Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 220; Schleg., 
Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 277; Anders., Cat. Mamm. 
Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt. I, 1881, p. 88; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 
I, 1894, p. 135. 

Cebuella pygmcea Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 64. 

PIGMY MARMOSET. 

Type locality. Forest near Tabatinga on the Rio Solimoens, 
Brazil. Type in Munich Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Forest along the Solimoens and Ucayali rivers, 
Brazil, north into Mexico. (Bates). 

Genl. Char. Size diminutive; ears small. 

Color. Top of head dark brown, hairs pale yellow tipped with 
dark brown; hairs on back black at base, then yellowish white, then 
black, giving this part a mottled appearance ; limbs blackish brown and 
yellow ; under parts yellowish. Ex type Munich Museum. 

The type is in bad condition, and a correct description of its pelage 
as it was when the animal was living is impossible, as the fur is dis- 
colored and the hair is mostly gone from the tail. The skull is in the 
skin, and judging from the teeth, which are exposed, the animal is fully 
adult, although so small in size. 

Color. Adult. Head, neck and back between shoulders speckled 
dark brown and gray, or dark brown and clay color ; back black mottled 
with buff ; gray on rump ; outer side of arms like head ; outer side of 
legs like back; throat and upper part of breast yellowish brown; ab- 
domen gray, inner side of legs yellowish brown ; hands and feet yellow- 
ish ; tail above banded with black and tawny, beneath tawny for basal 
two thirds, banded with black and tawny for remainder. 

Measurements. Total length, (skin), 325 ; tail, 165 ; foot to end of 
nails, 46. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 34; intertemporal width, 19; 
palatal length, 12 ; zygomatic width, 23.5 ; breadth of braincase, 22 ; 
median length of nasals, 5 ; length of upper molar series, 6.5 ; length of 
mandible, 20; length of lower molar series, 7. 



234 CALLICEBUS 



GENUS CALLICEBUS. TITI MONKEYS. 

*r 2— 2> *■" 1— 1» r * 3—3' 1V1 - 2—2 <* 

CALLICEBUS Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 7th Ser., XII, 1903, pp. 
456, 457. Type Callithrix personatus E. Geoffroy. 
Saguinus Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, p. 56, (nee Sagouin Lacep., 

1799; nee Illig., 1811). 
Callithrix Auct., (nee Erxleben). 

Head small, depressed; eyes small; ears large; tail long, bushy. 
Skull lacks backward extension, such as exists among the species of 
Saimiri; canines small ; angle of mandible only moderately expanded. 

The Titi Monkeys, as the members of this genus are usually called, 
are active creatures, but less lively than the Sapajou or Capuchins, and 
Bates says that C. moloch is a dull, listless animal. But according to 
his own account, it is agile enough in the trees. Their food consists of 
fruits, insects, birds' eggs, and small birds whenever they succeed in 
capturing one. Their range is extensive, comprising the greater part of 
Brazil, and they are also natives of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and 
Bolivia. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1807. Hoffmannsegg, in Magasin fur die neuesten Entdeckungen in 
der gesammten Naturkunde. Berlin. 

Callicebus torquatus and C. moloch, are here first described 
as Cebus torquata and Cebus moloch. 

1811. Humboldt et Bonpland, Recueil d' Observations de Zoologie et 
(181 5). d'Anatomie Comparee. 

Callicebus amictus described as Simia amicta; (S.) tor- 
quatus; (5".) lugens = Callicebus torquatus. The other 
species are (S.) personatus ; and (S.) moloch. (S.) sciureus 
is a Saimiri. 

1812. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

Under the genus Callithrix six species are given as follows : 
(C.) sciureus = Saimiri sciureus; (C) personatus de- 



VOLUME I 



PLATE XXVIII. 




CALLICEBUS PERSONATUS. 
No. 3.0.4.22. Brit. Mus. Coll. Nat. Size. 



CALLICEBUS 235 

scribed for the first time; (C.) lugens = Callicebus tor- 
quatus; (C.) amictus; (C.) torquatus; and (C.) moloch. 

1820. Kuhl, Beitr'dge zur Zoologie. 

Eight species are here recorded under the genus Callithrix, 
varying but little from Geoff roy's list. (C.) sciureus = 
Saimiri sciureus; (C.) infulatus (Licht.), is an Aotus; 
(C.) torquatus; (C) amictus; (C.) lugens = Callicebus 
torquatus; (C.) moloch; (C.) person atus; and (C.) mela- 
nochir first described. 

1820. Desmarest, Mammalogie ou Description des especes de Mammi- 
ffoes. 

A repetition of Kuhl's list is here given with the same errors 
repeated. 

1823. Spix, Simiarum et Vespertilionum Brasiliensium. 

Like most of the previous authors, Callithrix, in place of 
Callicebus, is here used for the genus of these monkeys, and 
six species are recorded. (C.) personatus; (C) amictus; 
(C.) cinerascens; (C.) nigrifrons; (C.) gigot; and (C) 
cupreus all four described for the first time. 

1826. Maximilian, Prinzen zu Wied, Beitr'dge zur Naturgeschichte 
von Brasilien. 

Two species of Callicebus are given in this work as {Calli- 
thrix) personatus; and (C.) melanochir. 

1829. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

In this book the species of Callicebus are placed in the genus 
Cebus, and six species are given and two varieties. (C) per- 
sonatus, with (C.) nigrifrons as a synonym considered as 
the young apud Temminck. (C.) torquatus, with var. /?. 
(C.) amictus; and var. y. (C.) lugens = Callicebus tor- 
quatus; (C.) moloch; (C.) melanochir; (C.) infulatus = 
Aotus infulatus; and (C.) cupreus. 

1830. Fischer, Addenda, Emendanda et Index ad Synopsis Mam- 
malium. 

The list of species given in the preceding work under the genus 

Cebus is here repeated. 
1835- D'Orbigny et Gervais, in Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale. 
1 847. Mammiferes. 

Callicebus donacophilus first described as Callithrix dona- 

cophilus. 
1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 

manes. 



236 CALLICEBUS 

The species of Callicebus are here placed in his genus Sagui- 
nus, and, as in the other genera treated by the Author, are 
divided into many varieties. They are (S.) moloch ; (S.) 
cupreus; (S.) personatus; (S.) nigrifrons; var. A. (S.) 
infulatus is an Aotus; var. B. (S.) donacophilus ; and var. 
C. (S.) melanochir; with (S.) cinerascens Spix as juv. ; 
(S.) vidua — C. torquatus; (5\) amictus; and (S.) tor- 

QUATUS as (5".) AMICTUS JUV. 

1840. Wagner, Schreber, die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
Six species and two varieties of Callicebus are here given 
under Callithrix, viz., (C.) personatus; (C.) melanochir; 
(C.) donacophilus; (C.) moloch ; (C.) cupreus; and (C.) 
torquatus, with var. /?. (C) amictus; and 7. (C.) lugens = 
Callicebus torquatus. 

1842. Wagner, in Archiv fur Naturgeschichte. 

Two species of Callicebus are here first described in the 
genus Callithrix; (C.) caligatus; and (C.) brunneus. 

1848. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Comptes Rendus. 

Callicebus cupreus (Spix), is redescribed as Callithrix dis- 
color. 

1851. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

Seven species of Callicebus are here recorded under the genus 
Callithrix, viz., (C.) personatus; (C.) amictus; (C.) 
gigot; (C.) melanochir; (C.) donacophilus; (C.) discolor 
= Callicebus cupreus, and (C.) moloch. 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
The list given in the previous volume is here repeated with (C.) 
caligatus, and (C) brunneus added. 

1862. Reichenbach, Die Vollstdndigiste Naturgeschichte der Affen. 

The species of Callicebus are here included in Callithrix 
and are as follows: (C.) personatus; (C.) nigrifrons; (C.) 
melanochir; (C.) amictus; (C.) torquatus; (C.) lugens = 
Callicebus torquatus; (C.) infulata = Aotus infulatus; 
(C) cupreus; (C.) moloch; (C) donacophilus; (C) dis- 
color = Callicebus cupreus; (C.) cinerascens; (C.) gigot; 
(C.) caligatus; (C.) brunneus, and (C.) chlorocnemis Lund, 
a Pleistocene fossil. 

1865. St. George Mivart, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London. 



CALLICEBUS 237 

An elaborate paper on the axial skeleton of the Primates, with 
critical comparisons between the Families and Genera and their 
resemblance to Man. 

1866. /. E. Gray, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Callicebus ornatus first described as Callithrix ornatus; and 
C. caligatus redescribed as Callithrix castaneo-ventris. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in British Museum. 

Under the genus Callithrix, eleven species of Callicebuus 
are here given. (C.) cupreus; (C.) amictus; (C.) torquatus; 
(C.) donacophilus (nee D'Orb.), = Callicebus pallescens 
Thos. ; (C) moloch ; (C.) ornatus; (C.) personatus; (C.) 
nigrifrons; (C.) castaneo-ventris = Callicebus caligatus; 

(C) MELANOCHIR, and (C) GIGOT. 

1883. A. von Pelzeln, Brasilische Sdugethiere. 

Six species of Callicebus are here enumerated under Calli- 
thrix, viz., (C.) nigrifrons; (C.) moloch; (C.) caligata; 
(C.) brunnea; (C) gigot, and (C.) torquata. 

1900. Cabrera, in Anales Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural. 

Callicebus leucometopa first described as Callicebus cupreus 
leucometopa. 

1907. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Callicebus ustofuscus, and C. subrufus first described. 

1907. O. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Callicebus pallescens first described. 

1908. O. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Callicebus hoffmannsi first described. 

1911. O. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Callicebus emili,e first described. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

Brazil is evidently the home of the members of this genus and 
they have a wide distribution over its territory, with representatives on 
the west in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. In the north on 
the right bank of the Orinoco near the Mission of Santa Barbara, C. 
torquatus is found and its range is extended in the forests watered 
by the Rios Cassiquiare, Guaviare, Negro and Solimoens, going, accord- 
ing to Tschudi, (1. c.) in southeastern Peru as far as Latitude 12°. On 
the Upper Amazon in the forests of Olivenga near the Rio Solimoens 
and thence to Peru (Tschudi), its near relative C. amictus occurs. At 



238 C ALLICEBUS 

Urucurituba, Santarem, on the Lower Amazon, C. hoffmannsi was 
procured, and from near the last mentioned town, C. remulus was 
obtained, and from Para C. emili^e was received. On the east coast 
from the Rio St. Mattheus to Sertem de Bahia C. melanochir is met 
with; and on the banks of the Rio Para near the mouth of the Rio 
Tapajos, and also according to Schlegel (1. c.) at Aveyros on the Lower 
Amazon, C. moloch dwells. Near Ilheos south of Bahia C. gigot has 
been procured, and this species goes as far to the south as New Frei- 
bourg (Schlegel), between the Rio Parahyba and the mountains to the 
north of the Bay of Rio de Janeiro. Near the last named city extend- 
ing northward to the banks of the Rio St. Mattheus (Wied), and on 
the Rio Doce C. person atus ranges, and according to Tschudi, (1. c.) 
it is also found in Peru between 12° and 14° South Latitude. In the 
Provinces of Minas Geraes and Rio de Janeiro C. nigrifrons ranges. 
The most southern locality for any member of the genus is Chaco in 
Paraguay, where C. pallescens has been taken. On the middle 
Amazon near Teffe or Ega, C. egeria occurs ; while at the Falls of 
Bonaneira, Rio Marmore, C. brunneus was procured ; and near Borba 
on the Rio Madeira, C. caligatus was obtained. On the Rio Solimoens 
and thence into Peru in the forests of the Rio Ucayali and Rio Huallaga, 
also on the Rio Copataza, and at Andoas in Ecuador, C. cupreus 
occurs, and on the banks of the Rio Potomaico, on the borders of 
Peru, C. cinerascens was procured. From some unknown locality, 
supposedly in Brazil, C. ustofuscus came. In Colombia near Bogota 
C. ornatus was met with. At Andoas, on the Rio Pastasa in Ecuador, 
C. p^nulatus occurs, and also in the same State its locality unknown, 
C. leucometopa was obtained. Finally in Peru, at Pachite on the 
Rio Ucayali, C. subrufus occurs, and in the Province of Sara, Central 
Bolivia, C. donacophilus is found. As may be seen from the above 
recapitulation, the entire range of a number of species is not yet known, 
and doubtless, in numerous instances, they are considerably greater 
than those given. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Tail black. 

o. Under parts red C. torquatus. 

b. Under parts black C. amictus. 

B. Tail grayish and black. 

a. Hairs on ears dark claret brown C. ustofuscus. 

b. Hairs on ears reddish. 



CALLICEBUS 239 

a.' Forehead buffy yellow grading to ferru- 
ginous C. cupreus. 

b! Forehead blackish maroon C. caligatus. 

c! Forehead mixed black and gray C. melanochir. 

d! Forehead grizzled ochraceous C. ptznulatus. 

c. Hairs on ears white. 

a! Hands and feet burnt sienna, fingers 

grayish rufous C. egeria. 

b! Hands and feet chestnut C. leucometopa. 

c.' Hands and feet bright chestnut red, 

fingers and toes white C. subrufus. 

d! Hands and feet black, hairs tipped with 

white C. hoffmannsi. 

e! Hands and feet yellowish gray. 

a." Under parts coppery red C. ornatus. 

b." Under parts rufous C. remulus. 

c." Under parts dark cinnamon rufous.C. donacophilus. 

d. Hairs on ears ashy gray; under parts bright 

orange C. emilice. 

e. Hairs on ears yellowish gray. 

a! Cheeks yellow, chest and belly pale rufous . . C. pallescens. 

b! Cheeks, chest and belly reddish C. moloch. 

c! Cheeks, chest and belly grayish white... C. cinerascens. 
C. Tail tawny, or cinnamon rufous. 
a. Hairs on ears black. 

a.' Top of head grayish brown C. nigrifrons. 

b! Top of head pale gray C. gigot. 

c! Top of head black C. personatus. 

d! Top of head yellowish brown C. brunneus. 

Callicebtjs toequatus (Hoffmannsegg). 

Cebus torquatus Hoffm., Mag. Ges. Nat. Freund. Berlin, X, 1807, 

p. 86. 
Simia (Callithrix) lugens Humb., Rec. Zool. Observ., I, 1811, 

(1815), p. 357; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 39; Desm., 

Mamm., 1820, p. 87; E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 

1828, p. 18, lOme Legon. 
Simia {Callithrix) torquatus Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, 

(1815), p. 357. 
Callithrix torquatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 114; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 39; E. Geoff., Cours 



240 CALLICEBU S 

Hist. Nat. Mamm, 1828, p. 19; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. 
Suppl., I, 1840, p. 234; V, 1855, p. 119; Tschudi, Faun. 
Peruan., 1846, p. 47; Wallace, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1852, 
pp. 107-109; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 22, 
no fig. ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 55 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 
p. 235 ; von Pelz., Bras. Saugth., 1833, p. 20 ; Forbes, Handb. 
Primates, I, 1894, p. 159. 

Callithrix lugens E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 113; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 89; Desm., Mamm., 
1820, p. 87 ; E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 18, 
lOme Legon ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 862, p. 22, 
no fig. 

Sanguinus vidua Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 166 ; Id. Nouv. Tab. 
Reg. Anim., 1842, p. 8. 

WHITE-COLLARED TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality. Right bank of the River Tocantins near its mouth. 

Geogr. Distr. River Tocantins ; mountains on right bank of the 
Orinoco, near Mission of Santa Barbara; the forests near the Rio 
Cassiquiare and the Rio Guaviare near St. Fernando de Atabapo ; 
upper reaches of the Rio Negro ; forest of Olivenga on the right bank 
of the Rio Solimoens; Southern Peru, (Tschudi). 

Genl. Char. Fur long, soft, woolly; ears short, nearly naked. 

Color. Face naked, or with a few short white hairs on lips and 
cheeks; forehead, sides of head in front of ears, limbs, feet and tail 
black; upper parts dark maroon; under parts paler with the throat 
white, this hue extending as a kind of collar up to the ears ; hands 
yellowish white. 

Measurements. Total length, 800 ; tail, 475. Skull : intertemporal 
width, 35 ; breadth of braincase, 39 ; palatal length, 18 ; median length 
of nasals, 15 ; length of upper molar series, 16 ; length of mandible, 43 ; 
length of lower molar series, 18. 

Callicebus amictus *(E. Geoff roy). 

Callithrix amictus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 114; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 18, lOme 
Lecon; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 39; Desm., Mamm., 1820, 
p. 8; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 234; V, 



*"Espece inedite," E. Geoffroy. This Author and Humboldt must have 
seen each other's MSS. as each cites the other's article on the Monkeys, 
although these were published some years apart. 



CALLICEBUS 241 

1855, p. 119; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 40; Dahlb., 

Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 152- 

154; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 22, fig. 58; 

Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 

Mus., 1870, p. 54; Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 

634. 
Simla (Callithrix) amicta Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), 

p. 357. 
Callithrix amicta Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 13, pi. 

XIII; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 167; Forbes, Handb. 

Primates, I, 1894, p. 161. 
Callithrix torquatus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 235. 

(Part). 

WHITE-CRESTED TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality. Forest of Olivenga near Solimoens River, Brazil. 

Geogr. Distr. Upper Amazon region, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Similar to C. torquatus, but differs in having under 
parts black instead of red. 

Color. Face bare ; white hairs on cheeks and on under lip ; head, 
whiskers and throat, arms, legs, feet, tail and under parts of body 
black; upper part of chest extending upward to ears in a half collar, 
and hands white. 

Measurements. Total length, 863 ; tail, 482 ; foot, 76.2. Ex speci- 
men in Paris Museum procured from Frank of Amsterdam in 1849. 
It is marked "type" on the label, but of course it is not E. Geoffroy's 
type. No skull. 

This species has frequently been considered the same as C. 
torquatus, but the black under parts of the body will always cause 
it to be easily distinguished from its relative. It appears to be rare 
in collections. 

Cattjcebus ustofuscus Elliot. 

Callicebus ustofuscus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 1907, 7th 
Ser., p. 185. 

Type locality. Brazil. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Allied to C. cupreus, but color much darker. Skull 
has the teeth much larger; palate longer and narrower; braincase 
wider; space between pterygoid processes and bullae, and the width 
of basioccipital throughout its length, greater. Practically the skull 
is larger and more massive in every way. Mandible much larger and 
heavier, and the depth of the ramus very much greater. 



242 CALLICEBUS 

Color. The general appearance of this animal shows a burnt 
umber color, the hairs having a slaty base and then annulated with 
two slate and two clay color bands, and a dark tip. Face naked, 
black ; top of head mixed dark ochraceous rufous and black, the black 
predominating on the forehead; the rump is redder than the back 
being somewhat of a burnt sienna color; outer side of limbs, hands 
and feet, very dark claret brown ; sides of head, throat, inner side of 
limbs and under parts maroon; tail for one third the basal length 
black, the hairs being chestnut with broad black tips ; rest of tail mixed 
black and yellowish gray or very pale clay color, the under parts of the 
tail being almost altogether of this color ; ears black. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Size about the same as C. cupreus. Skull : occip- 
ital region has been cut off. Intertemporal width, 32 ; zygomatic width, 
41 ; palatal length, 21 ; width between last molars, 12 ; breadth of brain- 
case, 35 ; median length of nasals, 9 ; length of upper molar series, 14 ; 
length of first upper molar, 5 ; length of mandible, 42 ; extreme height 
of mandible, 35 ; length of lower molar series, 17.5. Ex type British 
Museum. 

This species is nearest to C. cupreus but is altogether different in 
color, being darker in all its hues. The skulls also are not at all in 
accord, the differences mentioned being very conspicuous when a com- 
parison is made. The unique example is in the British Museum 
Collection, and all that is recorded of its history is that it came from 
Brazil, collected by Castelnau. 

Callicebus cupreus (Spix). 

Callithrix cuprea Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 23, pi. 
XVII ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 233 ; V, 
1855, p. 114; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 
23, fig. 59; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 54; E. Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1871, p. 219; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 
p. 236 ; Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 394 ; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 160, pi. XIV. 
Callithrix discolor I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, V, 
1845, p. 551, pi. XXVIII; Id. Compt. Rend., XXVII, 1848, 
p. 498; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 41; Casteln., Exped. 
Amer. Sud, Mamm., I, 1855, p. 11 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. 
Suppl., V, 1855, p. 114; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 



C ALLICEBUS 243 

Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 151, 153; Reichenb., Vollstand. 
Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 23, fig. 62; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1871, p. 219. (footnote). 

RED TIT1 MONKEY. 

Type locality. Banks of the Solimoens River, Brazil. Type in 
Munich Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Regions of the Peruvian Amazons; Solimoens, 
Ucayali, Huallaga and Copataza rivers ; and Andoas, Ecuador. 

Color. Face black ; top of head gray, becoming orange rufous on 
occiput, or buff-yellow on forehead grading into ferruginous on occi- 
put, these colors due solely to the tips of the hairs which are black 
on the basal portion ; upper parts reddish brown and black, the former 
being the tips of the hairs, producing an annulated appearance; sides 
of head, limbs, hands, feet, and under parts coppery red; tail mixed 
grayish white and black, the basal portion like the back; hairs on 
ears coppery red. Ex type Munich Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 900; tail, 290; foot, 85; ex Spix's 
type. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 56; zygomatic width, 39; inter- 
temporal width, 36 ; palatal length, 18 ; width of braincase, 34 ; median 
length of nasals, 6; length of upper molar series, 14; length of man- 
dible, 38; length of lower molar series, 15. Ex specimen Brit. Mus. 

There is some variation among individuals of this species, and 
some have the upper parts a uniform Vandyke brown, palest on the 
center of the back, without the annulations so characteristic of the 
typical style; the tail also is mixed ochraceous buff and black with a 
buffy tip, the rest of the pelage however, being coppery red as in the 
others. 

Specimen in Paris Museum marked Callithrix discolor I. 
Geoff, et Deville, type, cannot be separated from the present species. 
It is somewhat faded in the lighter colors, but otherwise resembles 
C. cupreus. There are several examples in the Munich Museum 
obtained by Spix and all marked 'Type.' From one of these my 
description was taken. 

Mr. E. Bartlett, (1. c.) says that this Monkey is equally dis- 
tributed, but not so numerous as Saimiri ustus, in fact it may be 
regarded as rather rare, that is in eastern Peru. He procured it at 
Cashiboya on the Ucayali and at Santa Cruz on the Huallaga. 

Callicebus caligatus (Wagner) . 

Callithrix caligata Wagn., Wiegm., Archiv., I, 1842, p. 357; Id. 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 116; Reichenb., Voll- 



244 CALLICEBUS 

stand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 25, fig. 69 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays- 
Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 237. 
Callithrix castaneo-ventris Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVII, 
1866, p. 58 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 56; von Pelz., Brazil. Saugth., 1883, p. 
19 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 164. 

RED-BELLIED TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality. Banks of the River Madeira near Borba, Brazil. 

Geogr. Distr. Western Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Resembles C. cupreus, but the head is black on top, 
and hands and feet are black instead of coppery red. 

Color. Top of head from forehead to between ears blackish 
maroon ; face black ; the upper parts are reddish brown like C. cupreus 
annulated with black darkest on dorsal line; limbs and under parts 
coppery red ; hands and feet black with numerous yellow hairs mixed ; 
tail black at base, grayish white for the rest of its length; a second 
specimen has the tail black for basal third, then mixed gray and black, 
and tip grayish white. Hairs on ears black. 

Measurements. Size about equal to C. cupreus. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 67.3 ; Hensel, 44.2 ; zygomatic width, 48.9 ; palatal length, 
28.5 ; median length of nasals, 17 ; length of upper molar series, 14.3 ; 
length of mandible, 48.5 ; length of lower molar series, 26.6. Ex 
specimen 8.5.9.9. British Museum. 

Caulicebus melanochir (Kuhl). 

Callithrix melanochir Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 40; Desm.. 
Mamm, 1820, p. 88; Wied, Beitr., II, 1820, p. 114; Id. Ab- 
handl. Akad. Munch., IV, 1828, fig. 6; Wagn., Schreb.. 
Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 230; V, 1855, p. 113; I. Geoff., 
Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 40; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. 
Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 153-154; Reichenb., Vollstand. 
Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 22, fig. 57; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 57; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 233 ; Forbes, Handb. 
Primates, I, 1894, p. 165. 

BLACK-HANDED TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality. Bahia. 

Geogr. Distr. East coast of Brazil, from the Rio St. Mattheus to 
Sertem de Bahia. 

Color. Male. Entire back from between shoulders to tail, and 
flanks ferruginous ; head, neck, shoulders and outer side of limbs 



CALLICEBUS 245 

iron gray, lightest on top of head and nape; inner side of limbs and 
under parts, blackish gray ; tail brownish gray, more brown than gray 
at base ; hands reddish brown ; feet black. 

Female. Forehead reddish; top of head yellowish gray; upper 
parts sooty gray tinged with reddish; outer side of limbs and under 
parts yellowish brown; hands and feet blackish brown; tail reddish 
brown. These specimens are in the Paris Museum. The <$ was 
obtained from the Prince of Wied, and must be a co-type from Brazil, 
the 5 was purchased from Parzudaki, no locality. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 63 ; zygomatic width, 
40; intertemporal width, 32; palatal length, 20; breadth of braincase, 
35; median length of nasals, 11; length of upper molar series, 17; 
length of mandible, 43 ; length of lower molar series, 18.5. Ex British 
.Museum specimen. 

This species has been usually attributed to the Prince of Wied, 
and Kuhl himself attaches the Prince's name to the one he gives the 
species. But the 'Beitrage' in which the Prince's description is found, 
was published six years after Kuhl's work appeared, and even if he 
took a MS. name given by the Prince to the species, it would stand 
as Kuhl's who first described it in 1820. 

Callicebtjs p^nuxatus Elliot. 

Callicebus pcenulatws Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 8th Ser., 
1909, p. 244. 

Type locality. Andoas on the Pastas River, Ecuador. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Fur very long, thick and fluffy; mantle uniform 
color, distinct from back ; arms from elbows, and hands, feet and legs 
to above knees, uniform color. 

Color. Forehead grizzled ochraceous, the hairs black with ochra- 
ceous tips, this being the dominant color; crown and occiput rich 
cinnamon rufous, the color produced by tips of hairs ; mantle tawny 
ochraceous uniform, extending behind shoulders ; middle of back dark 
hair brown, grading into tawny ochraceous on the rump ; flanks dark 
grizzled brownish gray ; hair on ears, cheeks, arms from above elbows, 
hands, legs from above knees, feet, inner side of limbs, chin, throat 
and under parts, rich dark burnt sienna ; tail very long, grizzled white 
and black, the orange buff of the basal portion of the hairs showing 
through, darkest at base and the tip buff. The root of the tail is 
tawny ochraceous like the rump. Ex type British Museum. 



246 CALLICEBUS 

Measurements. Total length, 850; tail, 520, (skin). Skull : occip- 
ito-nasal length, 57.3; Hensel, (skull broken); zygomatic width, 
40.6; palatal length, 29.1 ; median length of nasals, 9.3 ; length of upper 
molar series, 14.2; length of mandible, 41.3; length of lower molar 
series, 15.8. 

This species differs in many ways from all others of the genus. 
It is the only one of the C. cupreus style with a uniformly colored 
mantle, and one so long and thick as to resemble a mane ; the red on 
arms and legs extends much higher than on any other species, and 
the fur everywhere is longer and thicker. A single specimen was 
procured by Mr. Buckley at Andoas. * 

Cat.tjcebus egeeia Thomas. 

Callicebus egeria Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., II, 1908, 8th Ser., 
p. 89. 

Type locality. Teffe, Middle Amazon, Brazil. Type in British 
Museum. 

Color. Top of head grizzled gray ; neck and upper parts grizzled 
grayish brown; arms from elbows, legs from below knees, and feet a 
rather dark burnt sienna hue; hands like feet but the fingers grayish 
with a rufous wash ; arms above elbows, and legs above knees, grizzled 
grayish brown like back ; cheeks, throat, and under parts with under side 
of limbs, dark burnt sienna ; tail grizzled gray and black, darkest on 
basal third. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 760 ; tail, 430 ; hind foot, 84. Skull : 
occipito-nasal length, 67.4 ; Hensel, 48.6 ; zygomatic width, 46.7 ; palatal 
length, 27.9; median length of nasals, 17.4; length of upper molar 
series, 14.8 ; length of mandible, 47.1 ; length of lower molar series, 
16. Ex type British. Museum. 

The type is a young adult male, paler in general coloration than 
C. cupreus to which it bears the closest resemblance, but differs 
in its gray crown. 

Caulicebus leucometopa (Latorre). 

Callithrix cuprea leucometopa Latorre, Ann. Soc. Espagn. Hist. 
Nat., No. 29, 1900, p. 83. 

Type locality. Ecuador. Type in Madrid Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Ecuador. 

Genl. Char. Similar to C. cupreus but forehead white or grayish 
white, top of head gray. 



CALLICEBUS 247 

Color. Face black ; forehead white or grayish white ; top of head 
iron gray ; sides of head, throat, and under parts, chestnut red ; lower 
part of outer and inner side of limbs, hands and feet, chestnut red; 
the upper part of limbs iron gray ; tail black with gray mixed, remain- 
der silvery gray ; hair on ears grayish white. 

Measurements. Size of C. cupreus. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 
56 ; zygomatic width, 37 ; intertemporal width, 29 ; palatal length, 28 ; 
width of braincase, 33; median length of nasals, 7; length of upper 
molar series, 14 ; length of mandible, 38 ; length of lower molar series, 
15. Example in British Museum. 

Callicebtjs stjbruttts Elliot. 

Callicebus subrufus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 1907, 7th 
Ser., p. 192. 

Type locality. Pachite, Ucayali River, Peru. Altitude between 
400 and 500 feet. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Allied to C. leucometopa, but color entirely different. 

Color. Face black; a narrow black bar on forehead above eyes, 
succeeded by a broader white one ; rest of head on top, neck and entire 
upper parts bright russet, becoming darker and more reddish on the 
rump, the hairs being slate at base, then alternately ringed with slate 
and bright russet, or on the rump with slate and dark russet or 
reddish ; arms to elbows, and thighs to knees, rest of outer side of limbs, 
hands and feet bright chestnut red; side of face, whiskers, inner side 
of limbs, throat, chest, and middle of abdomen bright chestnut red; 
fingers and toes yellowish gray; tail, basal third black, with chestnut 
hair mixed with black at the root, remainder light gray above, nearly 
whitish beneath ; hairs on ears white. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Size about equal to that of C. leucometopa. 
Skull: occipito-nasal length, 51; Hensel, 40; zygomatic width, 35; 
intertemporal width, 29 ; palatal length, 18 ; breadth of braincase, 33 ; 
median length of nasals, 6? (broken) ; length of upper molar series, 
15 ; length of mandible, 35 ; length of lower molar series, 16. Ex type 
British Museum. 

While allied to C. leucometopa the great difference the present 
animal exhibits in its coloration makes it easily recognizable. In its 
gray fingers and toes it shows a leaning towards C. ornatus, but in 
other respects it has no resemblance to that species. The unique 
example in the Collection of the British Museum is fully adult, but 
not old. 



248 CALLICEBUS 

Callicebus hoffmannsi Thomas. 

Callicebus hoffmannsi Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, II, 1908, 8th 
Ser., p. 89. 

Type locality. Urucurituba, Santarem, Lower Amazon, Brazil. 
Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Tail long, under parts very light color. 

Color. Top of head, hands and feet black, the hairs with white 
tips which give the dominant hue, making these parts appear as if 
frosted; upper parts of body dark rufous, the hairs being black and 
ringed and tipped with rufous ; upper side of arms with the hairs black, 
tipped with white; outer side of legs hoary, paler than arms; cheeks 
and under parts, and inner side of arms and legs, all but cheeks very 
sparsely haired, yellowish white ; tail black with a brownish gloss. Ex 
type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 815; tail, 440; foot, 91. Skull: 
occipito-nasal length, 68; Hensel, 42; zygomatic width, 43; palatal 
length, 27 ; median length of nasals, 17 ; length of upper molar series, 
16.3. Ex type British Museum. 

While resembling C. donacophilus from Bolivia somewhat on 
the upper parts of the body, this species is easily recognized by its black 
tail and hoary head, black hands and feet, and pale under parts. The 
specimen is old with teeth much worn. 

Callicebus ornatus Gray. 

Callithrix ornata Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVII, 4th Ser., 
1866, p. 57 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 238. 

Callithrix ornatus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 55. 

THE ORNATE TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality. Near Bogota, Colombia. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Colombia, Peru, South America. 

Genl. Char. Similar to C. cupreus and C. caligatus, but the top 
of head is mixed black and coppery red behind the white forehead, and 
hands and feet yellowish gray. 

Color. Face black, naked ; forehead white, top of head coppery 
red and black ; nape, neck and upper parts mixed gray, black and 
ochraceous, giving it a grizzled appearance with an ochraceous wash ; 
outer side of limbs gray; sides of head, (where the hairs take the 
shape of whiskers), inner side of limbs and entire under parts cop- 
pery red ; hands and feet yellowish gray ; tail mixed gray and black. 
Hairs on ears white. Ex type British Museum. 



CALLICEBUS 249 

Measurements. Skull : intertemporal width, 32 ; breadth of brain- 
case, 36; palatal length, 18; zygomatic width, 42; median length of 
nasals, 8.5; length of upper molar series, 15; length of mandible, 42; 
length of lower molar series, 17; occipital region gone. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Callicebus remulus Thomas. 

Callicebus remulus Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., II, 1908, 8th 
Ser., p. 88. 

Type locality. Santarem, Lower Amazon, Brazil. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to C. hoffmannsi but under parts rufous. 

Color. Forehead yellowish white; top of head gray; nape and 
dorsal region like C. hoffmannsi, being dark rufous, the black hairs 
being ringed and tipped with that color ; sides of body grizzled grayish 
brown; outer sides of limbs grayish brown grizzled, but paler than 
the flanks; under side of limbs and under parts rufous, this color 
showing on side of legs from above; hands and feet grayish white; 
whiskers pale rufous, base of hairs yellowish; tail black, the hairs 
yellowish at base ; root of tail rufous ; ears black sparsely covered with 
gray hairs. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 705 ; tail, 420 ; foot, 82. Skull : 
occipito-nasal length, 53.3 ; Hensel, 42.4 ; zygomatic width, 48 ; palatal 
length, 27.2; median length of nasals, 17.1; length of upper molar 
series, 14.3 ; length of mandible, 39 ; length of lower molar series, 25.5. 
Ex type British Museum. 

The type which represents the species in the British Museum Col- 
lection is a young adult with the teeth entirely unworn. In various 
respects it resembles C. hoffmannsi and it comes from the same place, 
Santarem, but the gray hands and feet, and rufous under parts easily 
distinguish it. It is desirable to have more specimens so as definitely 
to determine whether two species of this genus really are found in 
practically the same locality, or whether age and sex may not account 
for the different coloring in the types of C. remulus and C. hoff- 
mannsi. 

The type of the present species is much smaller than that of 
C. hoffmannsi as would be expected considering the difference of age. 

Callicebus donacophilus (D'Orbigny) . 

Callithrix donacophilus D'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Mamm., 
1847, p. 10, pi. V ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 



250 CALLICEBUS 

232; V, 1855, p. 116; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 40; 
Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 
152, 154; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 23, 
fig. 61 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 240. 

D'ORBIGNY'S TIT1 MONKEY. 

Type locality. Province of Sara, Bolivia. 

Geogr. Distr. Found in high forests, Province of Sara, Central 
Bolivia, alt. 2,100 feet. British Museum Collection. 

Color. Top and sides of head reaching to the throat, varying 
from orange rufous and black to cinnamon rufous and black; upper 
parts varying from dark grayish brown to a reddish brown washed 
with gray, grading into deep russet on the rump ; flanks, hairs broadly 
tipped with grayish white, forming a whitish fringe along the sides ; 
arms to elbows like back; forearms silvery gray and black, the hairs 
black at base with silvery gray tips ; outer side of legs gray and deep 
russet; inner side of limbs, and under parts dark cinnamon rufous, 
darkest on belly; hands and feet yellowish gray to iron gray; fingers 
and toes whitish; tail, grayish white at base, yellowish gray for the 
remainder ; hairs on ears white ; face covered with short white hairs. 

Measurements. Total length, 745; tail, 415; foot, 90; ears, 35. 
Skull: occipito-nasal length, 55.6; Hensel, 43.9; zygomatic width, 47.5 ; 
palatal length, 15.7; median length of nasals, 7.4; length of upper 
molar series, 14; length of mandible, 42.1; length of lower molar 
series, 16. Ex specimen 7.8.2.12. British Museum. 

The specimen from which D'Orbigny's figure was taken is in the 
Paris Museum, and marked "type de la figure." It is greatly faded, 
but still in the main corresponds to the description given above from 
fresh examples in the British Museum, obtained in practically the 
same locality from which D'Orbigny's type came. The real type of 
C. donacophilus cannot be identified, as all the examples are marked 
as 'types' and there is no way of ascertaining which was the one origi- 
nally described. 

Caixicebus Emilia Thomas. 

Callicebus emilice Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., VII, 8th Ser., 1911, 
p. 606. 

Type locality. Lower Amazon. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Back, bay or hazel. 

Color. Upper surface rich rufous bay or hazel ; hairs on nape 
grizzled brown and whitish, tips rufous ; crown grayish ; ears ashy 
gray, long hairs with black tips ; indistinct line on flanks, arms from 



CALLICEBUS 251 

wrists to shoulders, and legs from hips to ankles grizzled ashy gray ; 
under surface and inner side of limbs bright orange rufous. Tail at 
base chestnut brown, then black with a whitish tuft at end. 

Measurements. Total length, 720; tail, 400; foot, 81. I have not 
seen this specimen. 

Callicebus pallescens Thomas. 

Callicebus pallescens Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 7th Ser., 
1907, p. 161. 

Callithrix donacophilus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, 1870, p. 55, (nee D'Orb.). 

Type locality. Chaco in Paraguay, 30 miles north of Concepcion. 
Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size small; fur thick, soft. 

Color. Above pale grayish, generally suffused with pinkish buff, 
palest on rump ; basal half of fur dark brown, remainder pinkish buff ; 
long hairs ringed with black and white ; under parts and inner sides of 
limbs rufous ; hairs of head yellow and ringed with black ; muzzle and 
lips whitish ; hands blackish, white hairs on fingers ; feet grayish white ; 
outer side of arms with hairs buff at base, tips black ; legs dark ochra- 
ceous ; tail yellowish brown, hairs ringed with black, and white tipped. 
Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 755 ; tail, 390; hind foot, 84. Skull : 
total length, 58.5 ; Hensel, 43 ; zygomatic width, 38 ; intertemporal 
width, 36.7 ; median length of nasals, .90 ; length of upper molar series, 
14.2; length of mandible, 45.5; length of lower molar series, 15.9. 
Ex type British Museum. 

This is a pale yellowish brown species, with certain resemblances to 
C. donacophilus, but evidently quite distinct. The type is unique. 

Callicebus moloch (HofFmannsegg). 

Cebus moloch Hoffm., Mag. Ges. Nat. Freund. Berlin, X, 1807, 
p. 86. 

Simia (Callithrix) moloch Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, 
(1815), p. 358. 

Callithrix moloch E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 14; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 40; Desm., Mamm., 
1820, p. 87 ; E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 19, 
lOme Legon ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840. p. 238 ; 
V, 1855, p. 113; I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
IV, 1844, p. 38, pi. Ill ; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 41 ; Dahlb., 



252 CALLICEBUS 

Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 151, 
153; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 23. fig. 60; 
Bates, Nat. Amaz., II, 1863, p. 98; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 55 ; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 239 ; von Pelz., Bras. 
Saugeth., 1883, p. 10; Weldon, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, 
p. 89, fig. 3 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 162. 
Saguinus moloch Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 151 ; Id. Nouv. 
Tab!. Reg. Anim., 1842, p. 8. 

THE ARABASSU TITI. 

Type locality. Banks of the Rio Para. 

Geogr. Distr. Banks of the Rio Para near the mouth of the Rio 
Tapajos, Lower Amazon, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Cheeks, chest and belly reddish. 

Color. Top of head, nape, shoulders and outer sides of arms, 
brownish gray, the hairs with black tips; rest of upper parts reddish 
brown, hairs annulated with black; hind limbs similar to arms but 
paler; sides of head, under parts and inner side of limbs orange red; 
hands and feet gray ; tail reddish brown and black at base, black and 
gray washed with brown for remainder, the hairs being pale brownish 
gray with black tips. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Size of C. cupreus. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 
53; Hensel, 40; zygomatic width, 36; intertemporal width, 31 ; length 
of nasals, 10; length of upper molar series, 15 ; length of mandible, 36; 
length of lower molar series, 17. 

At Aveyros on the Amazon, Bates (1. c.) met with this species, 
the only monkey in that locality, and which was called by the Indians 
Thacapu-sai. Although allied to the Cebi he found that it possessed 
none of their restless activity, but was dull and listless. It goes in 
small flocks of five or six individuals, and runs along the main boughs 
of the trees. He obtained an individual one morning at sunrise on a 
low fruit tree behind his house, the only instance in his experience of 
one being captured in such a situation, for it must have descended to 
the ground and walked some distance to reach it. Though kept as a 
pet by the natives, it is not very amusing and does not live long in 
captivity. 

CALLICEBUS CINERASCENS (Spix). 

Callithrix cinerascens Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 20. pi. 
XIV, juv. ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 24, 
fig. 67; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 161. 



CALLICEBUS 253 

THE REED TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality. Forest of the Potomaio and Iga rivers, on the 
borders of Peru. Type in Munich Museum. 

Color. Hairs on forehead yellowish white at base, then black, 
and tips grayish white; back of neck yellowish; upper parts of body 
rufous, becoming blackish on rump; cheeks and chin white with a 
grayish subterminal black ring ; limbs brown, hairs tipped with grayish 
white, and with a subterminal black ring ; under parts of body grayish 
white; hands and feet similar to limbs, but darker almost black, the 
hairs tipped with gray; tail brownish black, tip reddish, the hairs, 
except those of the tip, being yellowish white at base, remainder black. 

Measurements. Total length, 865; tail, 465; foot, 90. Ex type 
Munich Museum. There was no skull. 

The above description was taken from the specimen labelled as 
Spix's type in the Munich Museum. As will be noticed it bears no 
resemblance whatever to the figure on plate XIV of Spix's work, and is 
generally quite different from his description, at the same time it is 
not like any of the described species of the genus. In general appear- 
ance it is a reddish brown animal with nearly all the hairs tipped with 
grayish white, and most of them with a subterminal black ring. 

The tail appears black with a red tip. I have never seen a gray or 
ashy Callicebus like Spix's figure, and doubt if one exists in any 
collection. If the present example in the Munich Museum is really the 
type of C. cinerascens the general idea of its appearance will have 
to be changed from Spix's figure of an ashy gray animal, to a reddish 
brown one speckled with grayish white. If Spix's draughtsman 
intended to represent the present type by the figure on plate XIV, he 
made a grievous failure. The type specimen is unique. Spix's descrip- 
tion is as follows : "Ce singe a presque le taille du Saimiri. Son occi- 
put et le dos sont d'un gris rougisseant, l'avant front, les quatres pieds et 
le dessous du corps d'un gris de souris, et la queue noiratre. La tete 
est tres allongee, la face aigue, brunatre, nue sur les sourcils et sur le 
nez, et du reste vetue de petits poils cendres, entremeles de quelques 
poils roides noirs ; des poils plus longs, cendres, rayonnent autour 
l'exterieur de la face presque jusqu'a la gorge ; les poils du corps ne 
sont pas si longs comme chez les autres especes de ce genre. Les 
oreilles sont un peu tronquees, nues en dedans, et tres pelues en dehors. 
Les mains et les pattes porte la meme couleur que la reste des pieds ; 
les dents et les ongles ont presque la meme forme que ceux de la prece- 
dente espece, (C. amictus). J'ai trouve ce singe dans les forets de la 
riviere Potomaio ou Iqa aux frontieres du Perou." 



254 C ALLICEBU S 

CAELICEBUS NIGRIERONS (Spix). 

Callithrix nigrifrons Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 15, pi. 
XV; Wagn., Abhand. Akad. Munch., V, 1848, p. 447; Id. 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 110; Reichenb., Voll- 
stand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 121, fig. 56; Schleg., Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 232 ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 
and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 56; von Pelz., 
Brasil. Saugeth., 1883, p. 19; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 164. 

BLACK-FRONTED TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality. Province of Minas Geraes, Brazil. Type in Munich 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. From Province of Minas Geraes to that of Rio 
de Janeiro, where the species meets with C. personatus. 

Genl. Char. Forehead and stripe to ears black, but in some 
examples the stripe is wanting; throat grayish, not black. 

Color. Face naked, black ; forehead with a black stripe to ears ; 
hands black; feet reddish brown, toes black; top of head and neck 
buff, hairs with a subterminal black ring ; hairs on upper parts of body 
pale orange ochraceous with a subterminal black ring ; forearms black, 
the pale orange rufous of base of hairs showing through ; arms from 
shoulders to elbows like back; hinder parts and inner side of limbs 
buff; tail tawny, hairs blackish towards tips. Ex type Munich 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 960 ; tail, 455 ; foot, 100. Ex type 
Munich Museum. 

The above description taken from Spix's type will hardly answer 
for the figure on Spix's plate, which does not represent the species, nor 
agree with his description. The various descriptions in Spix's volume, 
should have the chief attention, and species be determined by them, for 
not a few of his figures are quite unlike the types, (making all allow- 
ance for the lapse of time and possible discoloration of the specimens), 
and would certainly mislead an investigator trying to determine his 
material. There is a certain amount of variation in coloring existing 
among examples of this species, and some do not have the black stripe 
on forehead to reach the ears, and the apical half of the tail is much 
lighter, being at times cream buff. 

Callicebus gigot (Spix). 

Callithrix gigot Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 22, pi. 
XVI; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 40; Wagn.. Schreb.. 



CALLICEBUS 25S 

Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 112; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 
Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 152-154; Casteln., 
Exped. Amer. Sud, 1855, p. 10; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 24, fig. 68; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simia?, 
1876, p. 234; von Pelz., Bras. Saugeth., 1883, p. 19; Weldon, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 6, figs. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 165. 
Callithrix gigo Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1876, p. 57. 

GRAY 7777 MONKEY. 

Type locality. Near Ilheos, south of Bahia, Brazil. Type in 
Munich Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. South of Bahia near Ilheos, (Spix) ; New Frei- 
bourg, between the Rio Parahyba and the mountains north of Bay of 
Rio de Janeiro, (Schlegel). 

Color. Male. Face naked, black; narrow line on forehead and 
side of face; ears, hands and feet black; hairs on top of head short, 
black with grayish white tips ; hairs on upper parts long, woolly, black- 
ish brown at base, remainder reddish brown; limbs and flanks like 
back but darker, and blackish on outer side; under parts yellowish 
gray; tail cinnamon rufous, with many black hairs intermingled. Ex 
type Munich Museum. 

Female. Has the lower back decidedly reddish, otherwise like the 
male. 

Measurements. Total length, 975; tail, 520; foot, 105. Ex type 
Munich Museum. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 58; Hensel, 46; zygo- 
matic width, 38; intertemporal width, 31; palatal length, 20; breadth 
of braincase, 33 ; median length of nasals, 9 ; length of upper molar 
series, 15; length of mandible, 43; length of lower molar series, 18. 
Ex specimen in British Museum. 

Spix's figure of this species, like that of C. nigrifrons, in no way 
represents the type, which is a darker animal and of quite a different 
color. Spix's description however is fairly correct. 

Callicebus personatus (E. Geoff roy). 

Callithrix personatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 113, (Espece inedite) ; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 
40; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 86; Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. 
Bras., p. 18, pi. XII ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, 



256 CALLICEBUS 

p. 229; V, 1855, p. 110; Tschudi, Faun. Peruan., 1844, p. 46- 

I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 40; Wallace, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1852, pp. 107-109; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. 

Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 153-155 ; Reichenb., Vollstand. 

Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 21, figs. 54-55 ; Mivart, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1865, pp. 555-584; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 

and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 56 ; Schleg., Mus. 

Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 231. 
Simla (Callithrix) personatus Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, 

(1815), p. 357. 
Pithecia melanops Vig., Cat. Coll. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 6. 
Cebus personatus Blainv., Osteog., 1841, Atl., Cebus, pi. VI; Less., 

Nouv. Tabl. Reg. Anim., 1842, p. 87. 
Saguinus personatus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 162. 

MASKED TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality, "le Bresil." Type unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. Region of the Upper Amazon, south to latitude 
14°. 

Genl. Char. Head to behind ears, and throat black. 

Color. Male. Face naked, black; head to behind ears, throat, 
hands and feet black; nape yellowish white; back pale reddish brown 
becoming a bright hazel on the rump ; limbs cream buff tinged with 
gray ; chest orange rufous, passing into blackish brown on abdomen ; 
tail burnt sienna red. 

Female. Head and throat black like the male; nape, upper part 
of back and arms yellowish white ; middle of back russet grading into 
a reddish brown on rump ; flanks and legs grayish white ; center of 
abdomen pale ochraceous rufous, sides grayish white. 

The males vary greatly in coloring even in the same locality, and 
some have the upper part of back and arms whitish yellow like the 
nape, or a dark brownish gray, with lower back and rump dark grayish 
brown, or reddish brown with the under parts uniform dark grayish 
brown. 

The female is therefore much paler than the male, with a reddish 
brown back. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 70 ; Hensel, 55 ; 
zygomatic width, 49 ; intertemporal width, 35 ; palatal length, 23.5 ; 
breadth of braincase, 37; median length of nasals, 11; length of 
upper molar series, 18 ; length of mandible, 52 ; length of lower molar 
series, 20. 



CALLICEBUS 257 

Callicebus bkunneus (Wagner) . 

Callithrix brunnea Wagn., Wiegm., Archiv., 1842, 1, p. 357; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 118; Reichenb., Vollstand. 
Naturg. Aff en, 1862, p. 25, fig. 70 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, 
Simiae, 1876, p. 230; von Pelz., Brasil. Saugeth., 1883, p. 20. 

BROWN MASKED TITI. 

Type locality. Falls of the Bonaneira, Rio Mamore, Brazil. Type 
in Vienna Museum. 

Color. Face black; forehead black; hairs tipped with red; these 
red tips are absent on the center of the forehead in front, which is jet 
black, but behind this and on the sides the red tips dominate, and the color 
is dark red, the black not showing ; whiskers dark red, hairs tipped with 
black, just the opposite to the coloring of the forehead ; top and back 
of head, back and sides of neck, and entire upper parts pale yellowish 
brown, the hairs being rufous and tipped with yellowish brown, which 
becomes the dominant color of the upper parts ; throat, breast, under 
parts, flanks and limbs on inner and outer sides reddish chestnut, some 
hairs on inner side of arms tipped with black; hands and feet black; 
tail reddish chestnut, hairs with black tips, tip of tail yellowish brown ; 
tufts on ears black. Ex type Vienna Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 815; tail, 440; foot, 90. Ex type 
Vienna Museum. 

Three specimens are in the Vienna Museum, a male and two 
females obtained by Natterer. It is a strongly marked species not to 
be confounded with any other. Unfortunately there is no skull. The 
general appearance is that of a reddish animal with a yellowish brown 
back and black forehead. There is no difference in color between 
the sexes. 



258 ALOUATTA 

FAMILY 2. CEBID/E. 

Subfamily 1. Alouattinae. 

GENUS ALOUATTA. HOWLING MONKEYS. 

ALOUATTA Lacepede, Tabl. Div. Sous-div. Ordres et Genres, Marara., 
1799, p. 4. Type Simla beelzebul Linnaeus. 
Mycetes Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Avium, 1811, p. 70. 
Stentor E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 107. 

§ 

Head pyramidal; body thick, heavy; face naked; chin bearded; 
tail long, prehensile, naked at tip ; thumb opposable. Skull : braincase 
depressed; occipital region truncate; angle of mandible enormously 
developed ; lower incisors vertical ; canines rather strong ; claws convex, 
powerful ; hyoid greatly inflated. 

This subfamily has but one genus, embracing the largest species of 
monkeys found in the New World. Their body is thick-set and heavy, 
the mandible at the angle is very deep and massive, the throat is large 
and thick, and the larynx extraordinarily developed. The basihyal is 
greatly enlarged, and is expanded into a bony capsule which is lined 
by a continuation of the thyroid sac, and so the animal is able, by 
means of this peculiar formation, to produce the great volume of sound 
for which it is noted, and from which the trivial name of Howling 
Monkey is derived. The tone is deep and far reaching, resounding 
through the forest for an estimated distance of three miles. The tail 
is long and prehensile, but partially naked, and while of considerable 
advantage to the animal for grasping, does not attain the sensibility 
and extreme mobility of the same organs of the species of Ateleus, 
whose tails are equal in their service to a fifth hand. The thumb of 
the Howling Monkey is well developed and opposable. The face is 
naked, and a heavy beard hangs beneath the chin, especially thick in 
old males. Their movements are slow and their tempers sullen, and 
the animal is practically untamable and soon dies when held in cap- 
tivity. Their intelligence is of a very low order, and altogether the 
animals of this genus are among the least attractive of the Primates. 



PLATE XXIX. 




ALOUATTA BEELZEBUL. 
No. 4.7.4.3. Brit. Mus. Coll. H Nat. Size. 



ALOUATTA 259 

The majority of the species are black or partly so, although six are 
clothed in fur exhibiting shades varying from straw color to dark red. 
In some species the sexes are alike in color, in others quite different, 
and the young of some resemble their parents, while those of others 
are totally unlike the adults, and they can therefore be arranged in two 
groups. The fur is short on the bodies of some species, quite long on 
others, but is usually thickest on the head. 

Wallace (1. c.) writing of the Howling Monkeys, under the genus 
Mycetes, on the Lower Amazon, states that they are generally abun- 
dant; the different species, however, are found in separate localities, 
(M.) beelzebul being confined apparently to the Lower Amazon in 
the vicinity of Para; a black species, (M.) caraya to the Upper 
Amazon, and a red species, (M.) ursina to the Rio Negro and Upper 
Amazon. Much confusion seems to exist with regard to the species 
of Howlers, owing to the difference of color in the sexes of some 
species. The red and black species of the Amazon, however, are of the 
same color in both sexes. These animals are semi-nocturnal in their 
habits, uttering their cries late in the evening and before sunrise, and 
also on the approach of rain. Humboldt observes that the tremendous 
noise they make can only be accounted for by the great number of 
individuals that unite in its production. His own observations, and the 
unanimous testimony of the Indians, prove this not to be the case. One 
individual only makes the howling, which is certainly of a remarkable 
depth and volume and curiously modulated, but on closely remarking 
the suddenness with which it ceases and again commences, it is evi- 
dent that it is produced by one animal, which is generally a full grown 
male. On dissecting the throat, much of our wonder ceases, for 
besides the bony vessel formed by the expansion of the "Os hyoides," 
there is a strong muscular apparatus which seems to act as a bellows in 
forcing a body of air through the reverberating bony cavity. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1766. Linnceus, Sy sterna Natures. 

Alouatta beelzebul first described as Simla beelzebul; and A. 

sericulus first described as Simla serlculus from Cartagena, 

Colombia. 
1777. Erxleben, Systema Regnl Anlmalls. 

The two species described by Linnaeus are here placed in the 

genus Cebus. 



260 ALOUATTA 

1788. Gmelin, Systema Natures. 

This Author copying Linnaeus places the two species in Simla. 
1792. Kerr, Animal Kingdom. 

Alouatta beelzebul renamed Simia Sapajus beelzebul. 

1811, Humboldt et Bonpland, Recueil d' Observations de Zoologie 
(1815). *f d'Anatomie Comparee. 

In this work five species under the genus Stentor are described, 
two for the first time, the Black Howler from Southern Brazil, 
A. caraya as Simia caraya, and the Red Howler from the 
Upper Amazon A. ursina as Simia ursina; Simia guariba = 
A. ursina; Simia flavicaudata probably = A. ursina; and S. 
straminea = A. seniculus. 

1812. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Annales du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

Six species are designated in this contribution and placed in 
the genus Stentor, viz., (S.) seniculus; (S.) ursinus; (5".) 
stramineus = A. seniculus; (S.) fuscus = A. ursina juv. ; 
(S.) Havicaudatus = A. ursina; and (S.) niger = A. caraya. 

1820. Kuhl, Beitrdge zur Zoologie und V ergleischenden Anatomie. 

Geoffroy's list is here repeated with one additional name, 

Mycetes ruHmanus = A. beelzebul Linn. 
1820. Desmarest, Mammalogie et Description de Mammiferes. 

In the list of Howlers given in this work the species enumerated 

by Kuhl are recorded without additions, and the same errors 

repeated. 
1823. Spix, Simiarum et Vespertilionum Brasiliensium. 

Four species are here given under the genus Mycetes. (M.) 

fuscus = A. ursina juv. ; M. stramineus — A. seniculus ; M. 

barbatus = A. caraya ; and M. discolor = A. beelzebul juv. 

or A. caraya immature. 
1829. E. Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, in Memoir es du Museum d'Histoire 

Naturelle. 

Alouatta seniculus redescribed as Mycetes chrysurus. 

1829. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 
Six species of Howlers are in this work placed in the genus 
Cebus. (C.) seniculus; (C.) stramineus — A. seniculus; 
(C.) ursinus; (C.) beelzebul; (C.) caraya; and (C.) flavi- 
caudata = A. ursina. 

1830. Fischer, Addenda, Emendanda et Index ad Synopsis Mam- 
malium. 



ALOUATTA 261 

The list of the previous Author is here repeated without 
change. 

1840. Wagner, Schreber, Die S'dugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen, Supplementband. 
Two species with numerous varieties are here enumerated 
under the genus Mycetes. (M.) seniculus; var. (5 Stent or 
chrysurus Geoff., = A. seniculus; var. y (M.) ursinus valid 
species; (M.) fuscus = A. ursina juv. ; (M.) caraya; (Part.). 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 

In his arrangement of the Primates the Author places the 
Monkeys of the New World in his Tribu Deuxieme. The 
species of Alouatta, which he calls Mycetes, are but three 
in number; (M.) seniculus; (M.) beelzebul; Mycetes dis- 
color Spix, = A. caraya as var. A; and M. caraya with 
three varieties, var. A. (M.) barbatus Spix, = A. caraya ; var. 
B. Simia Havicaudata Humb., = A. ursina ; and var. C. Stentor 
stramineus E. Geoff., = A. seniculus. 

1845. /. E. Gray, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Nine species are here given under Mycetes. (M.) ursinus; 
(M.) laniger = A. seniculus; (M.) bicolor — A. ursina; 
(M.) auratus = A. seniculus; (M.) caraya; (M.) barbatus 
= A. caraya; (M.) beelzebul; and (M.) villosus, described 
for the first time. 

1848. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Alouatta palliata first described. 

1851. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

In the list of Howling Monkeys in this Catalogue five species 
are given only two of which are properly named, and all are 
placed in the genus Mycetes. (M.) seniculus; (M.) chrysu- 
rus = Alouatta seniculus; (M.) ursinus; (M.) rufimanus 
= A. beelzebul; (M.) niger = A. caraya. 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die S'dugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen, Supplementband. 
Seven species are here recorded with varieties, under the genus 
Mycetes: (M.) fuscus = A. ursina juv.; (M.) ursinus; with 
var. /3. (M.) seniculus valid species; var. 7. Stentor chrysurus 
Geoff., = A. seniculus; (M.) caraya; with var. /? (M.) 
villosus valid species; (M.) ruiimanus = A. beelzebul; (M.) 
Havicaudatus = A. ursina; (M.) palliatus; (M.) stramineus 
= A. seniculus. 






262 ALOUATTA 

1862. Slack, in Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. 

Five species with partial synonymy are here given. A. seni- 
culus; and A. ursina; A. nigra = A. caraya; A. beelzebul; 

A. PALLIATA. 

1862. Reichenbach, Die Vollst'dndigste Naturgeschichte der Affen. 

The species of Alouatta are here included in the genus 
Mycetes as follows: (M.) seniculus; (M.) chrysurus = A. 
seniculus; (M.) ursinus; (M.) barbatus = A. caraya; (M.) 
Havicaudatus = A. ursinus; (M.) beelzebul; (M.) stramin- 
eus = A. seniculus ; (M.) palliatus ; and (M.) villosus. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 
The following forms are here included in the genus Mycetes. 
(M.) ursinus ; (M.) seniculus ; (M.) bicolor = A. ursinus ; 
(M.) laniger = A. seniculus; (M.) palliatus; (M.) auratus 
= A. seniculus; (M.) caraya; (M.) barbatus = A. caraya; 
(M.) beelzebul; (M.) villosus. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bos. 

A list of the species of Alouatta, placed in the genus Mycetes 
with synonymy and geographical distribution as then under- 
stood, with a catalogue of specimens in the Leyden Museum is 
here given. (M.) Havicauda Humboldt, is considered a distinct 
species, simply on Humboldt's account of it, no examples ever 
having been procured. (M.) niger = A. caraya; (M.) beelze- 
bul; (M.) villosus; (M.) palliatus; (M.) fuscus = A. 
ursina juv. ; (M.) ursinus; and (M.) seniculus. No new 
species described. 

1902. Merriam, in Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington. 
Alouatta palliata mexicana first described. 

1902. Thomas, in Novitates Zoologies. 
Alouatta palliata coibensis first described. 

1903. Festa, in Bolletino du Museo Torino. 
Alouatta aquatorialis first described. 

1904. /. A. Allen, in Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural 
History. 

Alouatta seniculus redescribed as A. s. rubicunda, and A. 
s. caucensis. 



ALOUATTA 263 

1908. /. A. Allen, in Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural 
History. 
Alouatta palliata redescribed as A. p. metagalpa. 

1910. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

A. macconnelli ; A. insulanus ; A. juara ; and A. sara first 
described. 

1911. G. D oilman, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

A species of Alouatta from Miritibi, Maranhao, referred to 
M. discolor Spix. 

1912. D. G. Elliot, in Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

Alouatta ululata first described. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

The members of the genus Alouatta are found from the State 
of Vera Cruz, Mexico, on the north, through Central America and the 
Island of Coiba to the Province of Corrientes, Brazil, on the south, and 
westward to Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. 

Our knowledge of the ranges of the Brazilian species of this 
genus is only partial, as it is also of the other Primates inhabiting that 
Republic, for in the interior of that great country there are thousands 
of miles of mountains and forests where no white man has ever pene- 
trated, and whose faunae are quite unknown. Also, when Collectors 
have failed to bring specimens back with them, it is at times impossible 
to determine what are the species they refer to in their publications, 
and errors of distribution can therefore easily be made. In Brazil, in 
the interior, we have practically no knowledge of the animals which 
inhabit the dense forests at any considerable distance from the rivers, 
for explorers have penetrated, in most instances, but a few miles from 
their banks, and how far a known species may range is, in many cases, 
quite impossible to state. Therefore in giving the range of most of 
the South American species of Primates, we are restricted to the 
places where they have been obtained, or seen by reliable and com- 
petent observers. 

To begin at the most northern point where a species of Alouatta 
dwells, we find, in the eastern portion of the State of Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, A. palliata mexicana, the only species of the genus inhabiting 
that Republic. In Guatemala, Central America, A. villosus occurs, 
extending its range into Honduras; while in Nicaragua we have A. 
palliata, which is also an inhabitant of Costa Rica and Panama. On 



264 ALOUATTA 

Coiba Island, off the west coast of Panama, A. p. coibensis has been 
procured. On the Island of Trinidad one species dwells, A. insu- 
lanus; and in the British and French Guianas, and probably also in 
Dutch Guiana, (though no examples from there were obtainable), to 
the coast north of the Amazon, A. macconnelli has been obtained. 
In Venezuela in the forests of the Lower Orinoco, (Humboldt), and in 
the maritime Provinces of Brazil from Bahia to Espirito Santo, A. 
ursina occurs, and also according to Tschudi, under the name of 
Mycetes Havicaudatus it is found in Peru, in which case it must 
necessarily inhabit the intervening portions of Brazil. From the 
vicinity of Para, on the Rio Muria (Natterer), and between the Rio 
Xinges and Island of Marajo, (Spix), on the Rio Araguay, (I. Geoff.), 
and in the vicinity of Borba near the mouth of the Rio Madeira, 
(Natterer), A. beelzebul occurs. Bates states that the natives assert 
there is a "yellow handed" monkey on the Island of Marajo, which 
may be this species. On the Lower Amazon in Maranhao A. ululata 
appears to have its range. Proceeding on in eastern Brazil, A. caraya 
ranges from the Province of Bahia to that of Corrientes in Argentina ; 
having been observed in the low forests of Bahia and Minas Geraes 
(Spix), in the Province of Goyas, (Castelnau), and on the Upper Rio 
Paraguay, and near the town of Matto-Grosso (Natterer), and also at 
the junction of the Rio Parana and Rio Paraguay, Argentina, 
(Rengger). On the Rio Juara, a tributary of the Upper Amazon, A. 
juara has been obtained. In Colombia, A. seniculus is found, and 
according to Spix who obtained a specimen, it also occurs in the forest 
between the Rio Negro and Rio Solimoens, his example having been 
secured near the borders of Peru. In Ecuador at Vinces on the west 
coast A. ^quatorialis was procured; and finally, in Bolivia in the 
Province of Sara, A. sara occurs. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. General color in males black or partly black. 

a. Sexes different. 

a.' Male all black ; females and young straw 

color A. caraya. 

b! Male with back rich chestnut red ; female 

raw umber A. ululata. 

b. Sexes alike. 

a.' All black A. villosus. 



ALOUATTA 265 

b.' Black, base of hairs reddish brown, hands 

and feet pale reddish brown A. beelzebul. 

c! Black, back mixed black and golden, 
flanks yellowish brown. 

a." Size large A. palliate 

b." Size small A. p. mexicana. 

c." Size very small A. p. coibensis. 

B. General color chocolate brown A. (equator talis. 

C. Coloring mostly shades of red. 

o. Upper parts of body uniform golden red, limbs 

darkened, young black A. ursina. 

b. Middle of back straw color, lighter than the 

rest of the upper parts, young like adults A. seniculus. 

c. Upper parts uniform golden yellow A. macconnelli. 

d. Upper parts uniform red, limbs bright red.... A. insulanus. 

e. Upper parts golden red, limbs maroon A. juara. 

f. Upper parts uniform pale golden orange A. sara. 

Alotjatta caraya (Humboldt). 

Simia (Stentor) caraya Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811 (1815), 

p. 355. 
*Stentor niger E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 

p. 108. 
*Stentor stramineus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 108,?, (nee Spix). 
Mycetes niger Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 31 ; I. Geoff., Cat. 

Primates, 1851, p. 53 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 

Nat., fasc. I, 1856, p. 175; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 

1876, p. 149 ; von Iher., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1899, p. 517. 
Cebus caraya Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1820, p. 44. 
Mycetes barbatus Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 46, pi. 

XXXII <?, XXXIII $ ; Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1845, p. 

220 ; Casteln., Exped. Amer. Sud, 1855, p. 4 ; Reichenb., Voll- 

stand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 68, figs. 166-168; Gray, Cat. 

Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, 

p. 41. * 



♦These species are not marked "Espece inedite," which Geoffroy usually 
stated beneath his description when he believed the animal had not previously 
been described. 



266 ALOUATTA 

Mycetes caraya Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840. p. 180 ; 

V, 1855, p. 68 ; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 122 ; Id. Nouv. 

Tabl. Regn. Anim., 1842, p. 6 ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 

and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 41 ; Sclat., Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 6, fig. ; Kerr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1892, p. 174. 
Alouatta nigra Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1862, p. 518; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 195. 

BLACK HOWLER. 

Type locality. Paraguay. 

Geogr. Distr. Villa Nova, Upper Amazon, (Bates) ; southern 
Brazil, Argentina and Bolivia. Banks of the Pilcomayo, Argentina, 
(Kerr) ; Sao Paulo, (von Ihering) ; Province of Goyas, (Castelnau) ; 
Provinces of Bahia and of Minas Geraes, (Spix) ; Bolivia, (D'Or- 
bigny). 

Genl. Char. Feet naked ; size large ; beard large ; rami of mandible 
greatly developed ; sexes different in color. Hair at forehead directed 
backward, meeting that on back of head which is directed forward at 
this part, though radiating from a central spot. 

Color. Male adult. Hair deep black, the hands and feet and tail 
sometimes showing yellowish brown hairs, probably the remains of 
the immature pelage. 

Immature Male. Flanks, inner side of limbs, under side of tail, 
and under parts of body, buff yellow, rest of pelage black. 

Female. Straw color, darkest on the back which is tinged with 
olive ; tips of hair on frontal ridge, black. 

Young. Entirely straw color. 

Measurements. Male. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 101 ; zygo- 
matic width, 83 ; intertemporal width, 42 ; palatal length, 42 ; breadth of 
braincase, 53 ; median length of nasals, 20 ; length of upper molar series. 
33 ; length of mandible, 97 ; length of lower molar series, 40. 

The type of Stentor stramineus E. Geoff., (nee Spix), is in the 
Paris Museum. It was obtained from the Cabinet de Lisbonne in 
1808, and is a female of A. caraya. The upper parts are bistre, 
darkest on dorsal line and rump; brow, beard and limbs yellowish, 
hands yellowish, but the feet are blackish brown ; tail rather dark 
brown on basal half, paler on remainder. On a label beneath the stand 
is the following statement : "Stentor stramineus de quelques auteurs ; 
e'est la femelle de Stentor niger, type de l'espece du Cabinet de Lis- 
bonne, 1808." 



ALOUATTA 267 

Alouatta ululata EDiot. 

Alouatta ululata Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1912, p. 
32. 

Alouatta discolor Dollm., (nee Spix), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., VI, 
1910, 8th Ser., p. 422. 

Type locality. Miritibi, Maranhao. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Lower Amazon ; Maranhao, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Sexes unlike; male with chestnut red back, female 
raw umber. 

Color. Male. Forehead, and whiskers extending beneath chin, 
black ; top of head brownish black ; arms, hands, feet, rump, and outer 
side of legs black; indistinct blackish stripe on middle of back; rest 
of upper parts and flanks rich chestnut red, in certain lights suffused 
with a golden color; upper edge of thighs chestnut red; forearms 
beneath, black ; rest of under parts and limbs beneath nude ; fingers and 
toes covered with long yellowish red hairs ; tail black with numerous 
golden red hairs intermingled; tip chestnut red like flanks. Ex type 
in British Museum. 

Female. Tuft above middle of forehead, and whiskers black ; top 
and sides of head above ears, upper part of body and flanks raw umber, 
with a golden tinge on head, and an indistinct dark dorsal line ; arms 
black with a strong olive tinge ; legs similar but paler ; hands similar to 
arms, but hairs grading at knuckles, and extending over fingers, yellow- 
ish gray ; feet more golden red, and toes golden yellow ; tail like legs 
at base grading to a mixed golden red and black, with the tip golden 
red. Body and limbs beneath, naked. Ex type in British Museum. 

Measurements. Male. Total length, 1,145; tail, 585; foot, 140. 
(Skin) . Skull : total length, 120.5 ; occipito-nasal length, 101.4 ; Hensel, 
104.3 ; zygomatic width, 78.4 ; breadth of braincase, 52.4 ; palatal length, 
47.7 ; median length of nasals, 25.5 ; length of upper molar series, 33.5 ; 
length of mandible, 95.1 ; length of lower molar series, 40.5. Ex 
specimen in British Museum. The above descriptions were taken from 
specimens loaned to me by my friend Guy Dollman, Esq., of the British 
Museum, and received from Miritibi, Maranhao, Brazil. 

Examples of this monkey were received at the British Museum 
representing both sexes and were supposed by Mr. Dollman to be the 
long lost Mycetes discolor Spix, and were so described by him under 
that name (1. c). I have already remarked upon the dissimilarity 
frequently existing between Spix's descriptions and his types, and also 



268 ALOUATTA 

between the latter and the colored figures, and the present seems to 
be a striking case of this unfortunate state of affairs. 

Spix's description of discolor in several points leans more towards 
this species than it does towards his type, which is a rather small young 
adult black example with fingers, toes and tip of tail pale rusty red, 
and is most probably a young example of A. beelzebul while his 
description and figure do not agree in several particulars, viz., "Les 
quatre pieds sont presque entierement d'un noir luisant, excepte les 
doigts tres allonges, qui sont garnis de poils courts et roux," while his 
figure shows brown feet and blackish brown hands ; and of the body he 
says "le tronc rougeatre au milieu, et noir luisant aux cotes," which does 
not describe any species of Alouatta known, and his figure exhibits an 
animal with a blackish brown back and reddish flanks and shoulders; 
while the type is black with only a very faint brownish tint on the 
flanks. "La queue pas epaisse est noire * * * et rougisseante au 
bout" which is correct of the type itself, but the figure has a black tail 
for the entire length. 

Spix's figure more nearly represents a male A. beelzebul with an 
immature coat, retaining in some respects the colors more like the 
female upon the flanks and under parts, though somewhat too red on 
the flanks, but regarding it in all its coloring it is more nearly a figure 
of a young adult male A. beelzebul which the type specimen itself 
would seem to prove to be the fact, while Spix's description cannot be 
applied to any species of Howler known at the present time. I am 
greatly indebted to my friend Mr. Dollman for the opportunity of 
describing this distinct species. 

Alouatta villosus (Gray). 

Mycetes villosus Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVI, 1845, p. 220 ; 
Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 76, no fig. ; Id. 
Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 41 ; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 6, fig. in 
text; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 151; Alston, 
Biol. Centr. Amer., Mamm, I, 1879, p. 5, pi. I; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 199. 
Guatemalan howler. Mono, native name. 

Type locality. Guatemala. Type in British Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Eastern and north eastern Guatemala; Honduras. 
Color. Entire pelage, hands, feet and tail jet black, base of hairs 
Prout's brown. 



ALOUATTA 269 

Measurements. Total length, 650; tail, 630; foot, 128. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Mr. Salvin has given in Sclater's paper on this species, (1. c), the 
following account of it. "The Mycetes of Guatemalans commonly 
known as the 'Mono.' It is abundant throughout the virgin forests of 
the eastern portion of the Republic, but is unknown in the forest clad 
slopes which stretch towards the Pacific Ocean. In the former region 
it is found at various altitudes over a wide expanse of country. I have 
heard its cry on the shores of the Lake Yzabel, and all through the 
denser forests of the valley of the river Polochie. It is very common, 
from the steep mountain road which lies between the upland village 
of Peruba and S. Miguel-Tucuru, and especially in the wilderness of 
uninhabited forest which stretches from Teleman to the Lake Yzabel. 
In the unbroken forest country which occupies the whole of the 
northern portion of the Vera Paz, from Coban and Cahabon to the con- 
fines of Peten, it is also abundant; for seldom an hour passes but the 
discordant cry of the Mono strikes upon the ear of the traveller as he 
threads the lonely path to Peten. The elevation of this district varies 
from about 700 to 3,000 feet ; and the Mycetes is found at all heights. 
When travelling through this forest in 1862, I was dependent for the 
animal food to supply my party of Indians entirely upon my gun ; and 
Monos contributed not a little to the larder. The Indians eat monkey 
without demur ; but the meat looks dark and untempting. For my own 
part I far preferred the delicate Tinamou or Curassow, a sufficient 
supply of which never failed for my own consumption. Perhaps there 
is no district in Vera Paz where Monos are more abundant than the 
mountains of Chilasco, a cold and damp region, elevated at least 
6,000 feet above the sea but where the forest growth is of the densest 
description and trees of the largest size abound. It was here that 
the specimens were obtained that are now in the British Museum. The 
wonderful cry whence Mycetes gets its trivial name of Howling 
Monkey is certainly most striking, and I have sometimes endeavored to 
ascertain how far this cry may be heard. It has taken me an hour or 
more to thread the forest undergrowth from the time the cry first 
struck my ear, to, when, guided by the cry alone, I stood under the 
trees where the animals were. It would certainly not be overestimating 
the distance to say two miles. When the sound came over the lake of 
Yzabel unhindered by trees, a league would be more like the distance 
a Mono's cry could be heard. These animals are found in companies 



270 ALOUATTA 

of five or six. They are usually met with in the branches of the highest 
trees, and when disturbed, crawl sluggishly along the boughs. The 
young, as well as the females, are of the same dense black as the old 
males, but the hair is shorter and not so glossy." 

In the article from which the above extract has been taken, Dr. 
Sclater endeavors to prove that the black form of the northern and 
the one from the southern part of South America are distinct, on 
account of the different manner in which the hair on the forehead is 
inclined forward or reversed. It is quite true that the southern and 
northern Black Howlers are distinct, but the way in which the hair 
lies on the forehead is not a character to be relied upon, but merely an 
individual peculiarity exhibited by members of this genus. This is the 
more misleading in the Howlers, for in other groups, notably Ateleus, 
the direction of the hair on the head is a character that is of consider- 
able importance for the arrangement of the different species in their 
proper position in the genus. 

Alouatta beelzebul (Linnaeus). 

Simla beelzebul Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 37; Bodd., Elench. 

Anim., 1784, p. 61. 
Cebus beelzebul Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 44. 
Simla Sapajus beelzebul Kerr., Anim. Kingd., 1792, p. 75, No. 64. 
Mycetes rufimanus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 51 ; Desm. 5 Mamm., 

1820, p. 79 ; Tschudi, Faun. Peruan., 1844, p. 37 ; Geoff., Cat. 

Primates, 1851, p. 53; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 

1855, p. 69 ; Casteln., Exped. Amer. Sud, Mamm., I, 1855, p. 

4 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., f asc. I, 1856, 

p. 175, fig. 172. 
Mycetes discolor Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 48, pi. 

XXXIV. 
Mycetes beelzebul Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVI, 1845, p. 220 ; 

Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 41 ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 67, 

fig. 172 ; Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz., I, 1863, p. 295. 
Alouatta beelzebul Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 197. 

YELLOW-HANDED HOWLER. 

Type locality, "in Brasilia." 

Geogr. Dlstr. Lower Amazon, vicinity of Para to Rio Madeira, 
Brazil. Peru, (Tschudi). 

Genl. Char. Like A. carava but base of hairs reddish brown. 



ALOUATTA 271 

Color. Head and upper parts black tinged with brown, base of 
hairs reddish brown ; outer side of arms and legs black ; inner side of 
limbs and under parts yellowish brown; tail brownish black at base, 
reddish brown for remainder of length; hands and feet pale reddish 
brown. 

Measurements. Total length, 914; tail, 469. Skull: total length, 
111; occipito-nasal length, 92; Hensel, 93; intertemporal width, 39; 
palatal length, 40; breadth of braincase, 50; median length of nasals, 
15; zygomatic width, 75; length of upper molar series, 33; length of 
mandible, 90 ; length of lower molar series, 40. 

Bates states (1. c.) "in the neighborhood of Para a reddish colored 
species prevails, (M.) beelzebul; in the narrow channels near Breves 
I shot a large, entirely black kind; another yellow-handed species, 
according to the report of the natives, inhabits the Island of Marajo, 
which is probably the M. Havimanus of Kuhl" ; {ruHmanus is probably 
intended = A. beelzebul) ; "some distance up the Tapajos the only 
howler found is a brownish black species." The type of Mycetes dis- 
color Spix, is in the Munich Museum. It is a rather small black animal 
and may be an immature example of the present species or A. caraya, 
but more probably of A. beelzebul, as A. caraya has a more southern 
habitat. Spix procured his specimen at Fort Carupa on the Amazon. 

Alouatta palliata (Gray). 

Mycetes palliatus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1848, p. 138, pi. VI ; 
Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 71 ; Reichenb., 
Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 70, fig. 172; Frantz., 
Wiegm., Archiv., XXXV, 1869, p. 254; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 40 ; Sclat., 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 7; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, 
Simiae, 1876, p. 152; Alst., Biol. Centr. Amer., I, Mamm., 
1879, p. 4; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt. I, 1881, 
p. 83; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 202; Elliot, 
Mamm. Middle Amer. and West Indies, F. C. M. Pub., Pt. 
II, 1904, p. 726, fig. CXXXVIII, Zool. Ser. ; Id. Check-L. 
Mamm. N. Amer. Cont. and W. Indies, F. C. M. Pub., VI, 
1905, p. 533, Zool. Ser. ; Id. Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., 
VIII, 1906, p. 555, pi. LXXXI. 
Alouatta palliata Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1862, p. 519, 
(Salle). 



272 ALOUATTA 

Alouatta palliata metagalpa Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
1908, p. 670. 

MANTLED HOWLER. 

Type locality. Shores of Lake Nicaragua. 

Geogr. Distr. Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Central America. 
Type in Paris Museum. 

Genl. Char. Face naked ; hairs on forehead short, stiff, upright ; 
those on back of head longer ; beard moderate. 

Color. Head, throat, shoulders, arms, legs, hands, feet and tail 
black, with a tinge of maroon ; middle of back and upper part of sides 
black mixed with golden ; lower parts of flanks, hairs much lengthened, 
yellowish brown, base of hairs much paler ; under parts very sparsely 
covered with dark chestnut hairs. Ex type British Museum. Some 
specimens are entirely black. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,142; tail, 585; foot, 145. Skull: 
occipito-nasal length, 98; intertemporal width, 40; palatal length, 42; 
breadth of braincase, 51 ; median length of nasals, 20; length of upper 
molar series, 33 ; length of mandible, 90 ; length of lower molar series, 
40. Ex type British Museum. 

The type locality of this species is the shore of Lake Nicaragua, 
as stated by Salle to Sclater, (1. c.) and A. p. metagalpa Allen there- 
fore becomes a synonym. 

Alouatta palliata mexicana Merriam. 

Alouatta palliata mexicana Merr., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XV, 
1902, p. 67; Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1904, p. 
40 ; Elliot, Mamm. Middle Amer. and West Indies, F. C. M. 
Pub., IV, Pt. II, 1904, p. 727, Zool. Ser.; Id. Check-List 
Mamm. N. Amer. Cont. and W. Indies, F. C. M. Pub., VI, 
1905, p. 533, Zool. Ser. ; Id. Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., 
VIII, 1906, p. 555, Zool. Ser. 

MEXICAN MANTLED HOWLER. 

Type locality. Minatitlan, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico. Type in 
United States National Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern Mexico. 

Genl. Char. Similar to A. palliata, but smaller; rostrum 
narrower, teeth small ; coronoid process broadly rounded. 

Color. Similar to A. palliata. Forehead, limbs, upper part of 
throat, rump and tail black; occiput and entire upper parts to rump 



ALOUATTA 273 

mixed golden and brownish black, golden predominating, the hairs 
being golden banded with black and tipped with golden ; long hairs on 
flanks golden ; hairs on under parts scantily distributed, mummy brown. 
Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,190; tail, 651; foot, 148. Skull: 
occipito-nasal length, 91.9; Hensel, 88.4; zygomatic width, 80.5 ; palatal 
length, 48.9 ; intertemporal width, 40.2 ; median length of nasals, 19.8 ; 
length of upper molar series, 32 ; length of mandible, 86.4 ; length of 
lower molar series, 39. Ex type United States National Museum. 

The type is an extreme example, as there is an entire absence of 
the jet black hue on the upper parts to be seen to a more or less con- 
siderable extent in other specimens, some indeed having the upper parts 
nearly all black with very little golden to be seen, these being the other 
extreme. 

A series of specimens of this subspecies from southern Vera Cruz 
establishes the fact that it is a much duller colored animal than the one 
from Central America, the flanks having none of the golden rufous 
witnessed, for example, in specimens from Chiriqui 

Alouatta palliata coibensis Thomas. 

Alouatta palliata coibensis Thos., Novitat. Zool., IX, 1902, p. 
135 ; Elliot, Mamm. Middle Amer. and West Indies, F. C. M. 
Pub., IV, Pt. II, 1904, p. 727; Id. Check-L. Mamm. N. Amer. 
Cont. and W. Indies, F. C. M. Pub., VI, 1906, p. 533, Zool. 
Ser. ; Id. Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., 1906, p. 556, Zool. 
Ser. 

ISLAND OP COIBA HOWLER. 

Type locality. Coiba Island off west coast of Panama. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Like A. palliata, but smaller. An insular race. 

Color. Head, upper part of back, arms, legs, hands, feet, and tail 
black; middle of back Prout's brown, hairs tipped with golden; long 
hairs on flanks shining ochraceous buff ; abdomen dark brown. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,140; tail, 580; foot, 130. Skull: 
occipito-nasal length, 87; Hensel, 84; intertemporal width, 40; palatal 
length, 36; breadth of braincase, 50; zygomatic width, 79; median 
length of nasals, 15; length of upper molar series, 30; length of 
mandible, 83 ; length of lower molar series, 37. Ex type British 
Museum. 



274 ALOUATTA 

Alouatta .^quatorialis Festa. 

Alouatta cequatorialis Festa, Boll. Mus. Torino, XVIII, 1903, p 3. 
Mycetes niger Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 394, ex Intac, 
Ecuador, (nee Geoffroy). 

ECUADOR HOWLER MONKEY. 

Type locality. Vinces, west coast of Ecuador. Type in Zoological 
Museum, Turin. 

Genl. Char. Similar to A. palliata, but general color chocolate 
brown instead of black. 

Color. Male adult. General color chocolate brown, the hairs 
at base yellowish fulvous, with yellowish tips. Hair on flanks long, 
golden yellow. Hands, feet and tail chocolate brown. 

Female adult. The chocolate brown color of the male is less con- 
spicuous, the general dominating hue being yellowish fulvous. 

Young Male. General color dark gray, many hairs being of a 
golden hue particularly at the tips. 

M. Festa states (1. c.) that this species is nearly extinct in the 
Province of Vinces, and is only found in certain places on some planta- 
tions of cacao, where hunting is forbidden. 

It seems to have its nearest relationship with A. palliata. 

Alouatta tjrsina (Humboldt). 

Simla (Stentor) ursina Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), 

p. 355, pi. XXX. 
Simia (Stentor) Havicauda Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, 

(1815), p. 355? 
Simla (Stentor) quariba Humb., Rec. Obs., 1, 1811, (1815), p. 355. 
Stentor ursinus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 

p. 108. 
Stentor Havicaudatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 108. 
Stentor fuscus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 

p. 108; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm, 1828, p. 21, lOme Lecon. 
Mycetes ursinus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 29 ; Desm., Mamm., 

1820, p. 78; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 179: 

var. V, 1855, p. 67 ; Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVI, 1845, p. 

218; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 52; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 

Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 175 ; Reichenb., 

Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 65, figs. 159, 161 ; Gray. 

Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 39; Schleg, Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1870, p. 156. 



ALOUATTA 275 

Mycetes fuscus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 29; Desm., Mamm., 

1820, p. 78; Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 43, pi. 

XXX; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 180; V, 

1855, p. 67. 
Mycetes flavicaudatus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 30; Desm., 

Mamm., 1820, p. 79; Tschudi, Faun. Peruan., 1844, p. 38; 

Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 70. 
Cebus ursinus Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 43. 
Cebus flavicaudata Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 44. 
Mycetes bicolor Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVI, 1845, p. 219 ; 

Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 40. 
Mycetes flavicauda Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

66, no fig. ; Schleg., Mus. Fays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 147. 
Alouatta ursina Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1862, p. 517; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 193. 

BROWN HOWLER. 

Type locality. Venezuela, (Humboldt). 

Geogr. Distr. Venezuela, Nouvelle Andalousie et de la Nouvelle 
Barcelone, et les bords du Bas Orinique Maratime, (Humboldt) ; dis- 
tricts of Brazil from Espirito Santo to Bahia; Peru, (Tschudi). 

Genl. Char. Head and body uniform coloration. 

Color. Male. Face black; head and body shining yellowish or 
golden red, passing into a darker red upon the limbs, hands and tail ; 
whiskers bright umber red ; the beard black ; narrow line of hairs on 
center of chest, widening upon the abdomen, blackish red-brown akin 
to chestnut; basal half of tail above burnt umber, hairs tipped with 
golden, remainder shining golden red ; dorsal line slightly darker than 
flanks ; feet blackish brown. Young uniform black. 

Measurements. Male. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 103 ; total 
length, 121 ; Hensel, 106 ; intertemporal width, 42 ; palatal length, 43 ; 
zygomatic width, 78 ; breadth of braincase, 53 ; median length of nasals, 
19 ; length of upper molar series, 33 ; length of mandible, 97 ; length of 
lower molar series, 40. Vertebrae, Cerv. 7, Dor. 14, L. 5, S. 3. Espirito 
Santo specimen. 

There are only six adult males, one immature male, one adult 
female and two immature examples in the British Museum, that I can 
satisfactorily determine to be this species. They were all collected with 
two exceptions, by Robert, at Engenheiro Reeve, Espirito Santo, and 
Roca Nova, Parana, Brazil, and one from Barri, Rio Negro, Collector 
unknown. The adults from Espirito Santo resemble each other in 



276 ALOUATTA 

color, varying but slightly in the depth of the red ; one male not pro- 
cured by Robert was obtained at St. Catherines and agrees with the 
others in color, and a young $ from San Sebastian, Sao Paulo, was 
obtained from A. Hempel. The skulls, however, do vary very much, 
the differences when of the same sex, probably caused by age. Com- 
paring the skulls of two adult males the shape of the braincase at once 
attracts attention, where in one it is shorter and flatter above, with two 
ridges starting from the center of the upper edge of the orbit, curving 
towards the center of the skull, but keeping 20 mm. apart, and ter- 
minating on the edge of the occipital on either side of the interparietal. 
Another, with a longer braincase, has these ridges coalesce and form a 
ridge or low crest down the center of the skull, broadening out in the 
rear, and terminating at sides of interparietal. These two formations 
so totally different occur in adult males from the same locality. These 
skulls also exhibit differences which might possibly under other con- 
ditions be taken as sufficient to cause a specific separation. The 
premaxillaries in the longer skull extend forward beyond the canines, 
coming to almost a point in the center, causing the alveolar border of 
the outer pair of incisors to be lower than that of the middle pair, while 
in the other skull the alveolar border of the incisors is perfectly straight, 
causing the width between the canines to be much greater, nearly 4 
mm. Other differences are also observable, such as in the width of the 
pterygoid processes, the width of the basi-occipital, length of the ptery- 
goid fossa, width and shape of the palatal arch, width and shape of the 
occipital region, and the curve of the frontal and nasals, all these, with 
others not mentioned, serve to show the great individual variation that 
exists in the skulls of this species even among animals of the same sex, 
and practically the same age, dwelling in the one locality. A larger 
series would undoubtedly show greater diversities. The young of this 
species are jet black, the golden brown appearing on the tips of the 
hairs as they grow older, this gradually extending from the head to 
the body and limbs, and growing more and more red until in the fully 
adult the pelage assumes the appearance as described for the males 
given above. Mr. Robert's series from Roca Nova, Parana, exhibits 
this change finely. This is the style that has been described as distinct 
by Kuhl as Mycetes fuscus. 

Alouatta (Simla) Havicauda was described by Humboldt (1. c.) 
from the Province of Jaen. He did not see this Howler living, but 
describes it from some skins procured by natives, and no specimens 
answering to this description have ever been received by any Museum. 
Its peculiarities are the extremely long hair on the body, and the color 



ALOUATTA 277 

of the tail "d'un noir olivatre et ornee lateralement de deux stries 
jaunes." A tail colored like that has not been seen thus far with a 
species of Alouatta in any collection. Tschudi states (1. c.) that this 
monkey is found in Peru in 11° Latitude, but I am not aware that 
he sent any specimens to Europe. Kuhl states (1. c.) that a specimen 
was in the Paris Museum, but this must have been a mistake. Geoffroy 
does not mention it, and it is not there now. 

I have placed Humboldt's species among the synonyms of A. 
ursina with a ? ; and the doubt can only be settled satisfactorily by the 
acquisition of specimens. 

Alouatta seniculus (Linnaeus). 

Simia seniculus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 37; Bodd., Elench. 

Anim., 1784, p. 61. 
Cebus seniculus Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 46 ; Fisch., Syn. 

Mamm, 1829, p. 42. 
Alouatta seniculus Laceped., Mem. Tnstit., 1800, III, p. 89; Slack, 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1863, p. 516; Forbes, Handb. 

Primates, I, 1894, p. 192, pi. XVIII. 
Mycetes seniculus Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Av., 1811, p. 70; 

Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 77; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 

117; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 179; V, 1855, 

p. 68 ; Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVI, 1845, p. 219 ; Id. Cat. 

Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 

40; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 52; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 

Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 175 ; Reichenb., 

Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 163, figs. 156-157; Flow., 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1862, p. 335 ; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1863, p. 374; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 

156; Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 632, (footnote). 
Simia (Stentor) seniculus Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., 1, 1811, (1815), 

p. 354. 
Simia (Stentor) stramineus Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, 

(1815), p. 355. 
Stentor seniculus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 108; Id. Corns Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 21, 

9me Lecon. 
Stentor stramineus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 168. 
Mycetes stramineus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 29 ; Desm., Mamm., 

1820, p. 78; Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 35, pi. 



278 ALOUATTA 

XXXI ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 67, figs. 

170, 171 ; Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz., I, 1863, p. 294. 
Stentor chrysurus I. Geoff., Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XVII, 

1829, p. 166. 
Mycetes auratus Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVI, 1845. p. 220; 

Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 40. 
Mycetes laniger Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVI, 1845, p. 219 ; 

Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 40. 
Mycetes chrysurus I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 52; Casteln., 

Exped. Amer. Sud, Mamm., I, 1855, p. 4; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 

Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 175 ; Reichenb., 

Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 65, fig. 158. 
Alouatta seniculus rubicunda Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

N. Y., 1904, p. 458. 
Alouatta seniculus caucensis Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

N. Y., 1904, p. 462. 

RED HOWLER. 

Type locality. Cartagena, Colombia. 

Geogr. Distr. Colombia, and forest between the Rio Negro and 
Solimoens, (Spix) ; Rio Madeira, (Bates) ; Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Middle of back lighter than rest of back and limbs, 
and varying from straw color to golden ; mammae placed occasionally 
in the axillae. 

Color. Variations in color exist among individuals of this species 
apparently quite independent of age, sex, or locality, the head, limbs 
and tail varying from brownish and coppery red to a dark purplish 
red, sometimes almost a blackish purplish red, and the tail from fer- 
ruginous to dark purplish red ; the back is straw color, always lighter 
than the head ; limbs and upper part of the back chestnut brown ; hands 
and feet are always the same color as the limbs, and the under parts 
are but sparsely covered, chiefly on the abdomen, with purplish red 
hair. Young like the parents. 

The type of Mycetes chrysurus I. Geoffroy, in Paris Museum is 
undoubtedly this species. 

Measurements. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 98; Hensel, 100; 
zygomatic width, 79 ; intertemporal width, 46 ; median length of nasals, 
22 ; length of upper molar series, 34 ; length of mandible, 95 ; length of 
lower molar series, 41. Verteb., Cerv. 7, Dor. 14. L 5, S. 3, Caud. 27. 



ALOUATTA 279 

I have examined the series of specimens in the American Museum 
of Natural History in New York, from Colombia, including the types 
which Dr. Allen has separated from A. seniculus, as A. s. rubkunda 
and A. s. caucensis, and am unable to find characters in my opinion 
sufficient to cause them to be elevated to a distinct rank. In the table 
of measurements given at the end of his paper, sixteen specimens of 
A. s. rubicunda and eight, only half as many, of A. s. caucensis have 
been selected. This has been done by Dr. Allen, not from his own 
volition, but because he did not have sufficient material from the 
Cauca Valley to enable him to equalize the two series in the number 
of examples apportioned to each. These subspecies were established 
upon cranial characters chiefly, although the color of the specimens 
was not disregarded. As to the latter I find that Cauca Valley speci- 
mens have practically perfect representatives from Bonda, Santa 
Marta district, and Dr. Allen speaks of the "great local variation 
abundantly shown by a fine series of nine specimens from the Upper 
Cauca Valley collected at altitudes of from 3,000 to 6,000 feet" and 
of the A. s. rubicunda he states, this large series (examples), "shows 
a wide range of variations in color, which proves to be entirely inde- 
pendent of sex or age and largely independent of season." This agrees 
with my own experience of A. seniculus with the large series of these 
animals examined in the collections of the various European Museums. 
More or less slight variations in depths of shades, seen in specimens 
from the same or contiguous localities cannot therefore be relied upon 
as a character for establishing a race for this species, and I have shown 
in my remarks on the crania that the skulls, even of specimens from the 
same locality, vary in an almost incredible degree. Dr. Allen in his 
paper has given figures of the skulls of his two subspecies, which, if 
taken by themselves would seem to show that he had ample grounds 
for giving them distinctive rank, but on examining these crania, the 
differences exhibited, either disappear or are shown not to be confined 
exclusively to either form. At first sight of the figures exhibiting the 
under side of the skull, one is struck by the curvature of the tooth 
rows in the cranium of A. s. rubicunda, a feature not found in any 
individual of the A. seniculus type. On examining this skull it was 
seen that the last molar was abnormally placed, was out of its proper 
position, the one on the left side, (right side of the figure), was situ- 
ated farther inward than the corresponding tooth on the opposite side, 
which was only slightly out of position, and this accounted for the 
curvature seen in the figure. The other skulls from the same locality 
had the tooth row perfectly straight as exhibited by the figure of the 



280 ALOUATTA 

Cauca Valley skull. In selecting his type Dr. Allen had quite over- 
looked the abnormal position of these last molars. The other cranial 
characters mentioned by Dr. Allen are mainly individual variations 
which are readily perceived in any considerable series of skulls of this 
species, but which, as I have already said, if judged by themselves 
without ample material for comparison might be considered as having 
specific or racial value. Any form, however, established upon these 
variations would create confusion and prove a stumbling block to all 
investigators. 

In the table of measurements given by Dr. Allen in his paper, the 
average of the Cauca Valley specimens, shows their skulls to be slightly 
smaller, but if as many of them had been available as of the other series 
from Santa Marta, sixteen instead of eight, the probability would be, 
if the individuals were of a similar age, that the average would show 
little if any difference between the crania from the two localities. 

As Linnaeus' type came from Cartagena, these specimens from 
Colombia would undoubtedly represent the typical style of the species. 

The specimen named and figured by Spix as Mycetes stramineus 
is in the Munich Museum. It is in poor condition, so changed by the 
accumulation of nearly a century's dust that its original color is indis- 
tinguishable. It seems to have been of a general uniform color, now 
pale straw yellow where a few spots of that color can be detected in 
various parts. The limbs and tail would appear to have been about the 
same color as the body ; the beard and sides of face alone being a dark 
brownish. Spix gives the locality of this example as the forest 
between the Rio Negro and the Solimoens River near the boundaries 
of Peru. There is only one specimen in the Museum. This forest also 
extends on the eastern border of Colombia, and it is not improbable 
that A. seniculus is found there, ranging also to the borders of Peru. 

Bates, (1. c.) speaks of a Howler from the Madeira River, which 
he attributes to the Mycetes stramineus Geoff., but which is possibly 
the A. seniculus Humb., as follows: "The only interesting mam- 
malian animal which I saw at Villa Nova was a monkey of a species 
new to me; it was not however a native of the district, having been 
brought by a trader from the river Madeira, a few miles above Borda. 
It was a howler, probably the Mycetes stramineus Geoffroy St. Hilaire. 
The howlers are the only kinds of Monkey which the natives have not 
succeeded in taming. They are often caught but they do not survive 
captivity many weeks. The one of which I am speaking was not quite 
full grown. It measured sixteen inches in length, exclusive of the tail ; 
the whole body was covered with rather long and shining dingy 



ALOUATTA 281 

white ( ?) hair, the whiskers and beard only being of a tawny hue. It 
was kept in a house, together with a Coaita and a Cairara monkey 
(Cebus albifrons). Both these lively members of the monkey order 
seemed rather to court attention, but the Mycetes shrunk away when 
any one approached. When it first arrived, it occasionally made a gruff, 
subdued howling noise early in the morning. The deep volume of 
sound in the voice of the howling monkeys, as is well known, is pro- 
duced by a drum-shaped expansion in the larynx. It was curious to 
watch the animal while venting its hollow cavernous roar, and observe 
how small was the muscular exertion employed. When howlers are 
seen in the forest there are generally three or four of them mounted on 
the topmost branches of a tree. It does not appear that their harrow- 
ing roar is emitted from sudden alarm ; at least, it was not so in captive 
individuals. It is probable, however, that the noise seems to intimidate 
their enemies. I did not meet with the Mycetes stramineus in any 
other part of the Amazonian region. * * * On the Upper Amazons 
the sole species seen was the Mycetes ursinus whose fur is of a shining 
yellowish red color." This is doubtless M. seniculus. 

Alotjatta macconnelli Elliot. 

Alouatta macconnelli Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., V, 8th Ser., 

1910, p. 80; Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., XXX, 

1911, p. 271. 

MACCONNELL'S HOWLER. 

Type locality. Coast of Demerara. *Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. English and French Guiana, Cayenne to coast north 
of the Amazon. El Llagual, El Hacha, Paramo de Rosas, Venezuela, 
(Carriker). 

Genl. Char. Upper parts unicolor from head, in adults. Under 
parts and flanks orange red. 

Color. Head all around rich maroon red, entire upper parts golden 
yellow, tips of hairs in certain lights fiery golden, base of hairs black ; 
arms to elbows, under parts, and forearms deep orange red; hands, 
legs below knees, feet and tail maroon red growing paler to tip. Ex 
type British Museum. 

Measurements. Size same as A. seniculus. Skull: occipital 
region wanting ; intertemporal width, 44.5 ; palatal length, 46.8 ; zygo- 
matic width, about 86.8 ; median length of nasals, 21.3 ; length of upper 



♦The type lacks hands and feet; the coloring of these was taken from 
another example. 



282 ALOUATTA 

molar series, 38.1; length of mandible, 107.7; length of lower molar 
series, 42.2 ; adult $. Ex type British Museum. 

This form differs from A. seniculus in not having the dark hue 
on the upper part of the back, limbs, hands, feet and tail. The upper 
parts and flanks in the adults are a rich golden hue from the nape to the 
tail, and the under parts and limbs a beautiful orange red, quite different 
from the typical style on the north western part of the continent. 
Allen (1. c.) gives the following account of this species from Carriker's 
notes : 

"The three specimens from northern Venezuela do not differ 
appreciably in color or otherwise from four others from El Llagual 
and Rio Mocho. There is a noteworthy sexual difference in color, the 
males being much more intensely colored throughout than the females. 

"Common on the Caura and on the Cuyuni, and in less numbers 
most everywhere from sea level up to 4,000 feet (La Cumbre de Valen- 
cia), where heavy forest is found. Its presence is always quickly 
revealed in a locality by its tremendous roaring, which is really quite 
awe-inspiring. They are sluggish, morose brutes, impossible to tame, 
and are more often found in pairs or families than in troops. They will 
sit curled up for hours in the top of some giant tree, and as long as 
they believe themselves unseen, will not move, but even when dis- 
turbed, never move with the speed or agility of Cebus or Ateles ( !) 

"I have found them to be much troubled with 'screw worms,' 
especially around the neck. Other species seem to be able to remove 
them, as a rule. They are very tenacious of life, clinging to a branch 
after being riddled with shot, and even after death, only dropping 
after rigor mortis has passed and released the contracted muscles. 
They invariably howl at the first break of day and usually before a 
rain-storm. They are invariably very lean of body, being in that 
respect different from the other species, which at times are found 
exceedingly fat." 

Alouatta insulanus Elliot. 

Alouatta insulanus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., V, 8th Ser., 
1910, p. 79. 

TRINIDAD HOWLER. 

Type locality. Island of Trinidad. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size small, color nearly uniform throughout, limbs 
only slightly darker than the body. 

Color. Head and whiskers maroon, darkest on chin and throat; 
upper part of body and flanks red, in certain lights with a golden 



ALOUATTA 283 

lustre ; limbs, hands and feet, bright red with a maroon tinge on fore- 
arms; tail at root bright maroon grading into golden and growing 
paler at the tip. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,120; tail, 600; foot, 105; no skull. 

This red Howler in general appearance resembles somewhat the 
form from the Juara River in the western portion of South America, 
but is considerably smaller in size, has not so much of the golden color 
of the body, and the limbs and tail are much paler, more the hue of the 
body. It is even more entitled to the name of Red Howler than is the 

A. JUARA. 

Alotjatta juara Elliot. 

Alouatta juara Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., V, 8th Ser., 1910, 
p. 80. 

GOLDEN HOWLER. 

Type locality. Rio Juara, Upper Amazon. Type in British 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. General color golden red ; arms and legs darker. 

Color. Head and whiskers bright maroon, darkest under chin; 
upper part of body and flanks golden red; arms and legs, hands and 
feet, maroon darker than body; under parts and inner side of limbs 
red ; tail maroon at base grading into golden red similar to body. Ex 
type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,145 ; tail, 625 ; foot, 130. Skull : 
total length, 126.3 ; occipito-nasal length, 104.9 ; intertemporal width, 
40.2; breadth of braincase, 54.5; Hensel, 106.2; zygomatic width, 81.4; 
median length of nasals, 25.9; palatal length, 44.3; length of upper 
molar series, 35.8; length of mandible, 94.8; length of lower molar 
series, 42.9. Ex type British Museum. 

The peculiarity of this species is its general red color, the bright 
maroon of the head grading into the golden red of the body without 
any marked line to separate the hues. Its general aspect is that of a 
red monkey with dark limbs. The basal half of the tail is maroon, 
darker than the head, more nearly the color of the thighs, the remainder 
much lighter. Two specimens are in the British Museum procured on 
the Rio Juara, Upper Amazon. 

Alouatta sara Elliot. 

Alouatta sara Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., V, 8th Ser., 1910, 
p. 81. 



284 ALOUATTA 

BOLIVIAN HOWLER. 

Type locality. Province of Sara, Bolivia. Type in British 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Color of body uniform, limbs only slightly darker; 
under parts yellowish not orange red as in the Guiana monkey. Black 
band around face to beneath chin. 

Color. Head very dark maroon, band across forehead down sides 
of head in front of ears, meeting beneath chin, black; upper parts of 
body and flanks and arms to elbows pale golden orange, darkest on 
dorsal line, base of hairs black; forearms and legs, hands, feet and 
tail above, orange red, paler than sides of head ; hairs on under parts 
nearly gone but apparently yellowish with a red tinge; the hairs of 
flanks along abdomen yellowish red not at all like the orange red of 
the Guiana example ; under side of thigh yellowish red, and tail beneath 
pale red. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,125; tail, 590; foot, 130; ear, 40, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 110.4; occipito-nasal length, 92; inter- 
temporal width, 43; Hensel, 89.6; zygomatic width, 68.2; length of 
nasals, 17.4 ; palatal length, 35.5 ; length of upper molar series, 32 ; 
length of mandible, 81.2; length of lower molar series, 38.2. Ex type 
British Museum. 

The above described example from Bolivia is a female, and there- 
fore there can be no comparison between it and that of the one from 
Guiana which is an old male. The coloring of the upper part of the 
body in the two animals is not unlike when they are brought under the 
same light, but beneath, along the flanks, the Bolivian animal has none 
of the rich orange red characteristic of the eastern species, but is 
yellowish red on this part. 

Two examples from the Province of Sara are in the British 
Museum, one of which is young. 



VOLUME I. 



PLATE XXX. 




PlTHECIA MONACHA. 
No. 8.5.9.1. Brit. Mus. Coll. Nat. Size. 



PITH EC I A 285 

Subfamily 3. Pithecinae. 
GENUS PITHECIA. SAKIS. 

!• 2 — 2> *-" 1— 1J "• 3— 3» "*■• 3—3 3°* 

PITHECIA Desm., Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., XXIV, 1804, p. 8. Type 
Simla pithecia Linnaeus. 
Yarkea Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 176. 
Chiropotes Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 178. 

Hair long, thick, divided by a central line on the head, and falling 
down partly covering the face ; thick beard on the chin ; ears large ; tail 
long, thick, bushy, non-prehensile. Incisors of both jaws project 
forwards, the inner pair larger than the outer which are very small; 
canines long, conical; first premolar the smallest and with only one 
cusp; molars with grooved crowns, and four cusps. 

The members of this genus are peculiar in having the body usually 
covered by long, coarse hairs. The tail, which is longer or as long 
as the body, is also covered with a similar coarse hair, being in certain 
species quite bushy. Another peculiarity is the thrust forward of the 
incisors both of the upper and lower jaws. In the brain the cerebellum 
and olfactory lobes are covered by the cerebrum, and the ribs are broad 
and consist of twelve pairs except P. pithecia which has thirteen. 

They are timid and very delicate creatures, usually surviving but 
a brief period in captivity, and become much attached to whoever cares 
for them. 

These monkeys are found in the Guianas, the forests of the 
Orinoco and its tributaries, and the valley of the Amazon, extending 
their range westward into Ecuador and Peru. Eight species are here 
recognized. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1766. Linnaeus, Sy sterna Natures. 

Pithecia pithecia first described as Simla pithecia. 
1777. Erxleben, Systema Regnl Anlmalls. 

In this work under the genus Callithrix various species are 



286 P1THECIA 

ranged, none of which are now included in it. Callithrix pithe- 
cia for Pithecia pithecia is the first one given. 

1807. Hoffmannsegg, in Magasin fur die neuesten Entdeckungen in 
der gesammten Naturkunde. 
Pithecia satanas as Cebus satanas first described. 

1811. Humboldt et Bonpland, Recueil d' Observations de Zoologie 
et d'Anatomie Comparee. 

In the subdivision Pithecia, all the species are retained in Simia. 
Pithecia chiropotes first described as Simia chiropotes. Other 
species given are (S.) satanas; (S.) rufiventer = P. pithecia; 
(S.) monachus first described; (S.) azaree = Aotus miri- 
quouinus ; (S.) leucocephalus var. C. P. monachus ; 2d sub- 
genus Yarkea, with (F.) leucocephala = P. pithecia middle 
age ! P. hirsuta Spix, young, and P. inusta = P. monachus ; 
3d subgenus Chiropotes, with (C.) cuxio = P. satanas; var. 
A. (C.) chiropotes; var. B. P. sagulato = P. chiropotes. 
The discrimination shown of the specific values is not great, ' 
and the arrangement confusing and unnecessarily complicated. 

1842. /. E. Gray, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Pithecia pithecia redescribed as P. pogonias. 

1844. /. E. Gray, in Zoology of the Voyage of the Sulphur. Mam- 
malia. 

Pithecia monacha redescribed as P. irrorata; P. pogonias, 
and P. leucocephala both = P. pithecia. 

1848. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Comptes Rendus de VAcadkmie 
des Sciences, Paris. 
Pithecia albinasa first described. 

1850. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Comptes Rendus de I'Academie 
des Sciences, Paris. 

Pithecia chrysocephala first described. 

1851. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

Six species of Pithecia are here given. They are P. leuco- 
cephala = P. pithecia; P. chrysocephala; P. rufiventer = 
P. pithecia; P. monachus; P. albinasa; and P. satanas. 
1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
Seven species are here recognized but only three belong to the 
genus Pithecia. P. leucocephala with B. P. rufiventer = P. 
pithecia; P. albinasa; P. satanas; P. chiropotes. The 
other species mentioned belong to the genus Cacajao. 



P1THECIA 287 

1860. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Four species are here given. P. chrysocephala ; P. monacha, 
with P. irrorata Gray, as a synonym ; P. rufiventer = P. pithe- 
cia, with P. pogonias Gray, as a synonym; and P. albicans 
described for the first time. Two others are mentioned as ap- 
parently distinct, P. leucocephala Geoff., = P. pithecia ; and P. 
albinasa. These had not been seen by this Author. 

1862. Reichenbach, Die Vollstdndigste Naturgeschichte der Affen. 
In this work the species of Pithecia are divided between that 
genus and Yarkea as follows: P. rufiventer = P. pithecia; 
P. capillimentosa ; P. chrysocephalus ; (F.) leucocephala 
= P. pithecia; (Y.) ochrocephala = P. chrysocephala; 
(Y.) inusta = P. pithecia; and (F.) irrorata = P. pithecia; 
B. israelita Gray = P. chiropotes as does also C. sagulata 
Gray. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in British Museum. 

The species of Pithecia are here divided into two Tribes, 
Pithecina and Brachyurina. The first contains the genus Pithe- 
cia with four species, viz.: P. albicans; P. rufiventer = P. 
pithecia; P. leucocephala = P. pithecia; and P. monacha. 
Brachyurina has two genera Chiropotes, with (C.) satanas; 
(C.) sagulata = P. chiropotes; (C.) ater = P. satanas; and 
(C) albinasa. The second genus Ouakaria has three species, 
all of which are now included in the genus Cacajao. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bos, Simla. 
In this work nine species are placed in the genus Pithecia, 
viz., P. nocturna = P. chrysocephala Geoff., which is con- 
sidered a variation from the typical style. Simla pithecia 
Linn., is given among the synonyms, but, although it has a 
prior claim, is not adopted as the name of the species. P. mona- 
cha; P. albinasa; P. chiropotes; P. satanas; P. melano- 
cephala, P. calva, P. rubicunda and P. alba, the last four not 
belonging to Pithecia, but now contained in the genus Caca- 
jao, but P. alba is a supposititious species no example having 
ever been procured. 

1883. A. von Pelzeln, Brasilische S'dugethiere, Resultate von Johann 
batterer's Reisen in der Jahren 1817 bis 1835. 
Five species of Pithecia are here recorded as follows : P. leu- 
cocephala Audeb., = P. pithecia Linn.; P. chrysocephala; 
P. hirsuta = P. monacha ; P. chiropotes ; and P. satanas. 



288 PITHECIA 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

On the northeastern corner of South America in French Guiana, 
two species of this genus are found, one P. capillimentosa not having 
been, as yet, procured elsewhere ; the other P. pithecia with a wider 
known range, being a resident of British Guiana for 300 miles into the 
interior, (Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 305) ; and Guiana 
possesses two additional species, P. satanas and P. chiropotes, rang- 
ing on the Upper Orinoco, Rio Tocantins and Rio Negro; the first 
named having been obtained at Para ; the latter also on the Rio Branco, 
Brazil, and, according to Bates, it goes to Peru. On the Upper 
Amazon near Ega on the Solimoens P. albicans was procured, its 
range unknown; and on the banks of the Rio Negro near Barra P. 
chrysocephala occurs. At or near Santarem on the Lower Amazon 
P. albinasa was found. The most extensive known range of any of 
the species is that of P. monacha, which occurs on both banks of the 
Upper Amazon, on the Rio Negro, Rio Madeira and Rio Marmore, in 
the vicinity of Tabatinga on the Rio Solimoens, and into Peru, where 
it has been procured on the Rio Javari and Rio Ucayali. The species 
has also been obtained on the Rio Marona in Western Ecuador. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Size large. 

a. Hair of head long, projecting forward on face. 
a.' Color black, hairs tipped with white, hands 

and feet grayish white P. monacha. 

b! Color clove brown, some hairs white tipped, 

hands and feet black P. capillimentosa. 

c' Back and tail only black, rest whitish P. albicans. 

b. Hair of head short, not projecting on face. 

a.' Head white P. pithecia. 

b! Head ochraceous buff P. chrysocephalus. 

c! Head black, nose scarlet, tip black P. albinasa. 

B. Size small. 

a. Back black, washed with brown P. satanas. 

b. Back golden brown P. chiropotes. 

Pithecia monacha E. Geoffroy. 

Pithecia monachus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 116; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm, 1828, p. 24, lOme 



VOLUME I. 






Volume i 



Plate 9 




PlTHECIA MONACHA 



PITHECIA 289 

Legem; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 55; Casteln., Exped. 

Amer. Sud, 1855, p. 17, pi. Ill ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. 

Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 178, 179; Gray, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 230; 1872, p. 664; Flow., Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1862, p. 326, pi. XXXVII; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 

Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 59; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 182. 
Simla (Pithecia) monacha Humb., Recueil Observ. Zool., 1811, 

(1815), p. 359. 
Pithecia hirsuta Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 14, pi. IX ; 

Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 178; Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz., 

1868, p. 314; von Pelz., Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1883, Beiheft. 
Pithecia inusta Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 15, pi. X; 

Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 179; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1860, p. 229. 
Pithecia irrorata Gray, Voy. Sulphur, Zool., 1844, p. 14, pi. Ill ; 

Wallace, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1852, p. 108. 
Yarkea hirsuta Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 27, 

figs. 78, 79. 
Yarkea inusta Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 27, 

fig. 72. 
Yarkea monacha Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 28, 

fig. 80. 
Yarkea irrorata Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 29, 

fig. 82. 
Pithecia monacha Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 220. 

HAIRY SAKl. 

Type locality. "Probablement le Bresil." 

Geogr. Distr. North bank of the Upper Amazon from Tonantins 
extending into Peru. South bank of the Upper Amazon, (Wallace) ; 
Macas, Ecuador, (Buckley) ; Cidade do Matto Grosso, Rio Marmore ; 
Destacommento do Ribeiro am Madeira ; Barra do Rio Negro, Brazil, 
( Natter er). 

Genl. Char. Hairs long, harsh, loosely set, directed forward about 
the head forming a hood ; face bare, or covered with short hairs ; nos- 
trils lateral, separated rather widely ; ears, large, round, naked. 

Color. Male. Face and ears purplish brown; face sometimes 
covered with short white hairs ; head covered with short hairs, white 
from above eyes to crown ; black and white on crown and sides, extend- 



290 PITHECIA 

ing on to the throat ; lips covered with short white hairs ; upper parts 
of body, limbs and tail black, the hairs tipped with yellowish white, 
becoming brownish on rump ; throat and breast ochraceous buff ; rest 
of under parts purplish prune or purplish black; hands and feet yel- 
lowish white; inner sides of arms and legs black. 

Female. Face bare, dark purplish brown, nose almost black, 
around eyes paler, and sparingly covered with short white hairs ; top 
and back of head, neck, shoulders, back, thighs and tail black washed 
with yellowish white; rump, pale yellowish brown, base of hairs 
brownish black; forearm black, hairs white tipped; hands and feet 
white ; tail black, hairs with pale brown tips ; throat, breast, belly and 
inside of thighs pale brown ; nails black. Flower's description of $. 

Measurements. Total length about 880 ; tail, 508. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 80 ; zygomatic width, 62 ; intertemporal width, 38 ; palatal 
length, 27; breadth of braincase, 47; median length of nasals, 17; 
length of upper molar series, 18; length of mandible, 59; length of 
lower molar series, 22. 

The type of Pithecia inusta Spix, is in the Munich Museum and 
can in no way be separated from P.' monacha. It is a full grown 
animal in good condition and came from the forests of the Tonantins, 
an affluent of the Solimoens River, near Tabatinga. 

Bates, writing about this monkey under the name of Paranagu 
(1. c.) states that it is a timid, inoffensive creature, and is found on 
the "terra firma" lands of the north shore of the Solimoens from 
Tonantins to Peru. It is a very delicate animal rarely living in cap- 
tivity for any length of time, but if one succeeds in keeping it alive for 
any considerable period, it makes a very affectionate pet. While the 
Cebi exceed all the American monkeys in intelligence, the Coaita, 
(Ateleus paniscus) has the most gentle and affectionate disposition, 
but the Paranagu although a dull, cheerless animal exceeds all in its 
capability of attachment to man. It is not lacking in intelligence, as 
the following incident shows. A neighbor had gone out in the morn- 
ing leaving his pet behind, and the monkey missing its friend decided 
it would come to Mr. Bates as was its habit, and so the Parana^u took 
a short cut over gardens, trees and thickets, as a neighbor saw it on its 
way, and came directly to Mr. Bates' dwelling. Not finding its master 
there, it climbed on to a table and sat down, and with an air of quiet 
resignation waited for him. Soon after its owner entered and his pet 
jumped at once to its usual perch on his shoulder. 






PITHECIA 291 

PlTHECIA CAPILLIMENTOSA Spix. 

Pithecia capillimentosa Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, XVI, 
pi. XI; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 229; Reichenb., 
Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 25, fig. 73. 

Pithecia ruiiventer (nee Geoff.), Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 
I, 1840, p. 222, (desc. nee Syn.). 

Type locality. Cayenne. Type in Munich Museum. 

Genl. Char. Hair very long and loose on hinder part of head, and 
inclined to stand erect. Face covered with short hairs. 

Color. Forepart of head and sides yellowish white, the hairs 
being black at base with yellowish white tips ; upper parts of body and 
flanks clove brown, the long hairs falling over the shoulders, and on 
arms above elbows tipped with yellowish white ; forearms, hands and 
feet jet black; throat, breast and abdomen buff, rest of under parts to 
vent clove brown ; tail very bushy, clove brown. 

Measurements. Total length, 475 ; tail, 220 ; foot, 90. Skull in 
specimen. Ex type Munich Museum. 

The type is a young animal, perhaps half grown, and has gener- 
ally been considered the same as Pithecia pithecia (Linn.). It is, 
however, much nearer P. monacha (Humboldt), but differs from that 
species in its jet black hands and feet, and in having the buff on the 
under parts extending to the lower part of the abdomen. Compared 
with a young P. monacha of about the same size and probably age, 
it differs in the much longer hairs on the head and neck rising, as Spix 
states, like a wig, (but not shown in his plate), in the much greater 
extent of the buff color on the under parts, and strikingly in the totally 
different color of the hands and feet, as there is no indication whatever 
of the grayish or yellowish white hue which makes the hands and feet 
of P. monacha so conspicuous a feature of that species. There seems 
to be no alternative but to consider Spix's type as representing a dis- 
tinct form. Like so many of Spix's figures, the one given of this type 
does not represent the animal either in color or in the length and 
peculiar disposition of the hairs. Spix did not collect this specimen, but 
found it in the collection of the Munich Museum, and it was in the 
register of 1816 as having come from Cayenne. This is on one of the 
tickets now attached to the type. Of course this was before Spix made 
his journey to Brazil. He does not say in his work what the locality 
of his type was, but merely gives a description of the animal and a 
figure. 



292 P1THECIA 

Pithecia albicans Gray. 

Pithecia albicans Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 231, pi. 
LXXXI ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Museum, 1870, p. 59; Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz., II, 1863, 
p. 314; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 216. 

Yarkea albicans Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 
27, no fig. 

WHITISH SAKI. 

Type locality. Lake Teffe, near £ga, on the Solimoens River, 
Brazil. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Tonantins to Peru, on the Solimoens River, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Size large. Hair long and loose hanging down the 
sides to knees and elbows; tail long, bushy; hair on back of head 
leaning forward, forming a hood as in P. monacha. 

Color. Face covered with short white hairs; head, shoulders, 
sides of body, limbs, hands and feet whitish ; back, upper part of sides 
and tail black, the hairs with whitish tips ; under parts russet ; hands 
and feet whitish or grayish. Ex type in British Museum. 

Measurements. About the size of P. monacha. 

The type and paratypes of this form described by Gray are in 
the British Museum Collection, and seem entitled to be regarded as 
distinct. They differ in color from all other Pitheciae. The adult 
does not agree with Gray's description for the shoulders and arms 
are not black, but whitish, the black of the back only covering the back 
between the shoulders, and there is no black whatever on the arms. 
The 'whitish' of Gray's description has now become a pale, dirty, 
yellowish brown, probably giving a very incorrect idea of the animal s 
appearance in life. The hairs on hands and feet are quite short, the long 
hairs not going beyond the wrists and ankles. The long hair of the 
head comes forward to the face as in P. monacha, but the texture is 
quite different from the hair of that species, being not harsh and 
straight but having an inclination to curl. 

Bates, to whose book I have so often referred, says, (1. c.) that 
this monkey is found on the banks of the Teffe south of the Solimoens. 
An individual, since placed in the British Museum, was a pet of a 
young Frenchman at £ga. It was so tame that it followed him like 
a dog about the streets. Its owner was a tailor, and the monkey passed 
most of the day on his shoulder while he was at work. It was not 
friendly, however, to any other person. 



PITHECIA 293 

PlTHECIA PITHECIA (LilUlSBUS). 

Simia pithecia Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 40; Bodd., Elench. 

Anim., 1784, p. 63 ; Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 39. 
Simia leucocephala Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes et Makis, Fam. VI, 

Sec. I, 1797, p. 9, fig. 2. 
Pithecia nocturna Illig., Abhandl. Konigl. Akad. Berlin, 1804-1811, 

p. 107; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 217, 

(Part.) ; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 1881, p. 86. 
Simia {Pithecia) leucocephala Humb., Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), 

p. 359. 
Simia {Pithecia) ruHventer Humb., Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), 

p. 358. 
Pithecia leucocephala E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 117; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 24, lOme 

Legon; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 45; Gray, List Spec. 

Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 3 ; Id. Voy. Sulphur, 1844, p. 12, 

pi. II ; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 54 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 

Reg. Fam. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 177, 178; Gray, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 231 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, 

Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 57 ; Sclat., 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 228. 
Pithecia rufiventer E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 116; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 18, lOme 

Legon ; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 175 ; Wagn., Abhandl. 

Akad. Munch., V, 1848, Pt. II, p. 436, £; I. Geoff., Cat. 

Primates, 1851, p. 55, §; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 

Natur., fasc. I, pp. 178, 179; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1860, p. 230 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 60. 
Yarkea leucocephala Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840 p. 177 ; Reichenb., 

Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 26, figs. 75, 76. 
Pithecia pogonias Gray, Voy. Sulphur, 1844, p. 13, pi. II, $. 
Yarkea rufiventer Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

26, figs. 71, 72. 
Yarkea pogonias Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

29, fig. 81. 
Pithecia pithecia Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 185 ; Elliot, 

Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, F. C. M. Pub., 1906, 

p. 556, fig. LXXXII, Zool. Ser. 

WHITE-HEADED SAKI. 

Type locality. Guiana. 



294 P1THECIA 

Geogr. Distr. Interior of Demerara, French Guiana; British 
Guiana ; and the region of the Rio Negro and Rio Branco, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Hair very long both on body and tail ; sexes differ- 
ently colored. 

Color. Male. Head grayish white, becoming yellowish on sides 
and tawny ochraceous about the lips and throat ; face naked, black, and 
a narrow black naked line on the center of the head dividing the white 
hairs ; entire rest of pelage, body, limbs, hands, feet and tail black. 

Female. Brownish black, hairs tipped with buff or buff yellow; 
belly red. 

Measurements. Total length about 750 ; tail, 400. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 69 ; zygomatic width, 49 ; intertemporal width, 35 ; palatal 
length, 33; breadth of braincase, 42; median length of nasals, 14; 
length of upper molar series, 16; length of mandible, 48; length of 
lower molar series, 19. 

Gray (1. c.) refers his P. leucocephala to P. chrysocephala 
Geoff., having never seen the type specimen and considers Geoffroy's 
P. leucocephala as distinct. In this he was mistaken, as both Gray's 
and Geoffroy's leucocephala are the same, and not separable from P. 
pithecia Linn. In the same paper, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, he 
refers his P. irrorata correctly to P. monacha. 

There are two specimens in the Paris Museum marked P. rufi- 
venter but neither are marked "Type," and the whereabouts of that 
important example is unknown. The type of Pithecia pogonias Gray, 
is in the British Museum. It is a female with the red belly, and in all 
respects resembles the females of P. pithecia. A specimen in the 
Paris Museum marked "Type" on the label, and on the bottom of the 
stand, "leucocephalus G. St. H." is probably Audebert's type which is 
exactly the same as S. pithecia Linn. It is a male. 

Pithecia chrysocephala I. Geoffroy. 

Pithecia chrysocephala I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., 1850, p. 875 ; Id. 
Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 55; Id. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
V, 1852, p. 557, pi. XXIX; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1860, p. 230; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond , 1871, p. 228; von 
Pelz., Bras. Saugth., 1880, p. 14. 

Pithecia rufibarbata Kuhl, Beitr. Zool. 1820, p. 44, $ ; Less., Spec. 
Mamm, 1840, p. 175. 

Pithecia ochrocephala Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 44, juv. ; Less., 
Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 175. 



PITHECIA 295 

Yarkea ochrocephala Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 

p. 26. 
Pithecia nocturna Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 217. 

(Part.). 

GOLDEN-HEADED SAKI. 

Type locality. "Banks of the Amazon." Type not in Paris 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Near Barra, Rio Negro, (Natterer). 

Genl. Char. Head ochraceous buff instead of white. Teeth large ; 
throat and chest bare, black. Lips covered with short white hairs. 

Color. Male. Head and sides of throat ochraceous buff, divided 
by a black naked line on top of head; rest of pelage of body, limbs, 
hands, feet and tail black. 

Female. General color of head, upper parts, flanks, limbs, hands, 
feet and tail brownish black, hairs tipped with buff. This color is very 
prominent on the forehead, about ears and beneath eyes ; under parts 
and inner side of limbs orange buff. Several specimens are in the Vienna 
Museum collected by Natterer at Paraguay, Barra do Rio Negro. 

Measurements. Total length about 670 ; tail, 340. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 65 ; zygomatic width, 46 ; intertemporal width, 33 ; palatal 
length, 23 ; breadth of braincase, 39 ; median length of nasals, 13 ; 
length of upper molar series, 17; length of mandible, 42; length of 
lower molar series, 20. Ex specimen from Rio Negro in British 
Museum called leucocephala. 

This species varies considerably both among adult individuals and 
also at different ages ; the young being more or less reddish brown and 
the females resembling young males, reddish brown hairs tipped with 
buff in the color of their pelage, with a white band bordering the front 
of the cheek. 

Kuhl's types of P. ochrocephalus and P. rufibarbata are both in 
the Leyden Museum and both are immature. P. ochrocephalus has 
begun to assume the black pelage on different parts of the body, 
especially on the limbs, the hairs of which are tipped with ochraceous ; 
and the hairs around face and on front of head are buff, probably 
faded, and much paler than the adult P. ochrocephalus. P. ruHbarbata 
is a very young animal about half grown and completely in the brown 
pelage. 

Pithecia albinasa I. Geoff roy et Deville. 

Pithecia albinasa I. Geoff, et Deville, Compt. Rend., XXVII, 
1848, p. 498; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 56; Id. Archiv. 



296 PITHECIA 

Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, V, 1852, p. 559; Casteln., Exped. 

Amer. Sud, 1855, p. 16, pi. II, fig. 12, juv. ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 

Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, pp. 177, 178; Gray, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 231 ; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1881, p. 258, pi. XXIV; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, 

p. 188, pi. XVII. 
Yarkea albinasa Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 127. 
Chiropotes albinasa Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 

Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 61. 

WHITE-NOSED SAKI. 

Type locality. Santarem, Lower Amazon. Type in Paris 
Museum. 

Color. Entire pelage, head, body, limbs, hands, feet and tail, 
jet black; face around eyes and upper part of nose, black; lower part 
of nose to tip, lips and chin covered with short white hairs. 

Measurements. Total length, 665; tail, 310; foot, 120. No skull. 

The type I should judge to be a half grown individual, for, as the 
measurements show, it is very small. The skull being unfortunately 
wanting, no estimate of its age can be given. The white of the nose, 
lips and chin is very conspicuous. 

The locality given above is written on the bottom of the stand. 

Pithecia satan as (Hoffmannsegg) . 

Simia satanas Hoffmanns., Mag. Ges. Nat. Freunde, Berlin, X, 

1807, p. 93. 
Simia {Pithecia) satanas Humb., Obs. Zool., 1811, (1815), p. 

314, pi. XXVII. 
Pithecia satanas E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 

p. 115; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 56; Wagn., Schreb., 

Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 102; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 

Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 177, 178; Sclat., Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 712, pi. XLI ; 1871, p. 228; Schleg., 

Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 224 ; Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1882, p. 442; von Pelz., Bras. Saugth., 1883, p. 16; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 186. 
Brachyurus satanas E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 

25, lOme Lecon. 
Saki noir F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., pi. LXXVIII, juv. 
Chiropotes cuxio Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 179. 
Pithecia satanas var. a. nigra, Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 

1855, V, p. 102. 



PITHECIA 297 

Chiropotes satanas Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 
73, figs. 179-182; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 61. 

Chiropotes ater Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 61, juv. 

BLACK SAK1. 

Type locality. Cameta, on the right bank of the Rio Tocantins 
near its mouth, Brazil. 

Geogr. Distr. British Guiana ; forests near Para, Lower Amazon ; 
banks of the Rio Orinoco, Rio Tocantins and Rio Negro, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Size moderate; fur soft; hair on crown in young 
radiating from center and falling evenly around the head; in adult 
divided by a central line ; tail long, bushy ; whiskers long, and moderate 
beard on chin. 

Color. General color of pelage black, with the back washed with 
brown ; more so in the female than in the male ; hands and feet black. 
Female does not differ in color from the male but has a shorter beard. 

Measurements. Total length, 863 ; tail, 406. Skull : occipito-nasal 
length, 72; zygomatic width, 48; intertemporal width, 39; palatal 
length, 26 ; breadth of braincase, 49 ; median length of nasals, 8 ; length 
of upper molar series, 17; length of mandible, 42; length of lower 
molar series, 20. 

I have examined the Chiropotes niger Gray, type in British 
Museum, and find it to be undoubtedly this species. It is not 'shining 
black,' but has quite a brown back, and is probably not a young 
individual, the hair on head radiating from the center. 

PlTHECIA *CHIROPOTES (Humboldt). 

Simia (Pithecia) chiropotes Humb., Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), 

p. 311. 
Pithecia chiropotes E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 116; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 43; I. Geoff., Cat. 

Primates, 1851, p. 56; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 



*Trouessart in his Catalogus Mammalium, p. 43, gives among the synonyms 
of this species, P. chiropotes satanas var. fulvo-fusca Hoffmann., 1807, but no 
page cited. After most diligent search I cannot find that Hoffmannsegg ever 
gave the name fulvo-fusca to any species of monkey. It certainly is not 
mentioned in the Mag. Ges. Nat. Freunde, Berl., X, 1807, where P. satanas is 
described, nor in any other volume of the Magazine, and Dr. Trouessart must 
have been misled in citing the name attributed to Hoffmannsegg. Had this 
Author really called the species known as chiropotes, fulvo-fusca, the latter 
appellation would have taken precedence. 



298 PITHECIA 

Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 177, 178; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1871, p. 228; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 224; 

von Pelz., Bras. Saugth., 1883, p. 116; Forbes, Handb. 

Primates, I, 1894, p. 187. 
Simla sagulata Traill, Mem. Wern. Soc, III, 1821, p. 167. 
Brachyurus israelita Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 11, 

pi. VII; Wagn., Abhandl. Bay. Akad. Munch., V, p. 433, 

(Part.). 
Pithecia sagulata Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, p. 59. 
Brachyurus chiropotes E. Geoff., Cours Hist Nat. Mamm., 1828, 

p. 26, lOme Lecon. 
Chiropotes israelita Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

73, fig. 183. 
Chiropotes sagulata Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

14, figs. 184-186; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 60. 

RED-BACKED SAKI. 

Type locality. Banks of the Orinoco, Brazil. 

Geogr. Distr. British Guiana; region of the upper Orinoco, and 
that of the Rio Negro and Rio Branco, Brazil. Peru, (Tschudi) ; 
banks of the River Japura, Peru, (Spix) ; Cararau^u, banks of the 
Rio Branco, (von Pelzeln) ; Andros, (von Pelzeln). 

Genl. Char. Larger than P. satanas, beard long; hair of head 
dividing in middle on adults, radiating from a point near the occiput in 
young. 

Color. Top and back of head, lips, chin and whiskers black; 
shoulders and upper parts of body golden brown, paler, more yellowish 
brown in immature individuals; arms to elbows chestnut; forearms, 
legs and tail black tinged with chestnut, the bases of the hairs being 
that color; hands and feet cinnamon rufous ; flanks like back ; middle of 
abdomen blackish brown. 

Measurements. Total length, 780; tail, 370; foot, 124; ear, 32, 
(Collector). Skull: occipito-nasal length, 76.1; Hensel, 59.1; zygo- 
matic width, 60.7 ; width of braincase, 50.6 ; palatal length, 27.4 ; median 
length of nasals, 14.1 ; length of upper molar series, 18.1 ; length of 
mandible, 54.5 ; length of lower molar series, 22.5. Ex specimen in 
British Museum. 

Spix's type of Brachyurus israelita is in the Munich Museum and 
is certainly the same as this species ; there is no difference observable 
whatever. 



PLATE XXXI. 




CACAJAO CALVUS. 

No. 60,4.16.6. Brit. Mus. Coll. Nat. Size. 



_ 



CACAJAO 299 



GENUS CACAJAO. TJAKARI MONKEYS. 

t — n — — A/f ?^ = ft 

A- 2—2' *■" 1—1- • 3— 3> ™L. 3 _3 3°- 

CACAJAO Less., Spec. Maram., 1840, p. 181. Type Simla melano- 
cephala Humboldt. 

Brachyurus Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 11, tab. VII, 
VIII, (nee Fischer Muridae, 1813). 

Cercoptochus Glog., Hand. u. Hilfsb. Naturg. I, 1841, pp. XXVII, 
41. 

Ouakaria Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1849, p. 9, fig. 

Uacaria Flow, and Lydekk., Mamm., Liv. and Extinct, 1870, p. 
712. 

Cothurus Palmer, Science, N. Ser., X, 1899, p. 493, (nee Cham- 
pion, Coleopt.). 

Neocothurus Palm., Scien., N. Ser., XVII, 1903, p. 873. 

Face short, sometimes highly colored; fur short, silky; tail very 
short. Skull : parietal and malar bones in contact ; mandible dilated 
posteriorly, similar to that of the members of the genus Alouatta; 
incisors oblique ; diastema present between canines and incisors of the 
upper jaw. 

The three species comprising this genus are the only short-tailed 
monkeys inhabiting the New World. The brevity of this organ is not 
occasioned by the fact that fewer vertebrae are present, but on account 
of their small size. Two of the species are remarkable for the 
brilliant coloring of their faces, which are scarlet or vermilion-red, and 
this hue becomes much deeper whenever an individual is excited. 
The brain is well developed and complicated, very different from that 
of the species of Saimiri. The lower jaw is peculiar in shape resem- 
bling somewhat that of the species of Alouatta, but there is no 
especial relationship between the genera. 

In their distribution each species of Uakari monkey is restricted to 
a certain district, and although the ranges of two of them, C. calvus 
and C. rubicundus, approach rather closely at one point, they are not 
known ever to mingle together. Bates, who had very good oppor- 
tunities for observing these animals in their native land, states, writing 
of them in a general way, that they live in forests which are inundated 






300 CACAJAO 

during a great part of the year, and they never descend to the ground ; 
the short tail being no evidence of terrestrial habits such as those of the 
short-tailed Baboons of various genera. 



LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1812. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Annales du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

Cacajao calvus described as Brachyurus calvus, and C. 
melanocephalus as Pithecia melanocephala. 

1823. Spix, Simiarum et Vespertilionum Brasiliensium. 

Under the genus Brachyurus two species are given : C. melano- 
cephalus redescribed as B. ouakary; and B. israelita = 
Pithecia chiropotes E. Geoffroy. 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 

Two forms recognized by the Author are placed in Cacajao, 
but this is made a subgenus of Pithecia. The species recog- 
nized is C. melanocephalus with "variete d'age"? B. ouakary 
Spix, = C. melanocephalus. 

1845. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Archives du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

Two species are here first described under the genus Brach- 
yurus: B. rubicundus, and B. calvus. 

1862. Reichenbach, Die V ollst'dndigste Naturgeschichte der Affen. 

Cacajao here contains C. ouakary = C. melanocephalus; 
and C. melanocephalus ; the remaining species being included 
in Brachyurus: (B.) rubicundus and (B.) calvus. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in Collection of the British Museum. 
In this List the three species above described are placed in a 
new genus 'Ouakaria! Individuals varying in white or red 
hues are considered as albinos of C. melanocephalus ! 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bas, Simice. 

Three species already described are here placed in the genus 
Pithecia, and a supposed white form from the banks of the 
river Japura, represented only by an uncolored drawing in 
Bates' book, "The Naturalist on the River Amazon," (no 
specimens from that locality having been seen), is described as 
Pithecia alba — Cacajao calvus. 



CACAJAO 301 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

The dispersion of the species of this genus is given in the articles 
as described by Bates in the passages quoted. Briefly it may be said 
that C. calvus is confined to the west side of the Japura River near 
its mouth ; to the banks of the Uatiparana near Tonantins ; C. rubi- 
cundus inhabits the eastern half of the western part of the Japura 
delta, an extent of country 150 miles long by 60 or 80 wide, and C. 
melanocephalus is found 180 miles from the mouth of the Japura 
according to Bates, but Humboldt says it is met with in the forests 
watered by the Cassiquiare, Negro and Branco rivers. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Face naked, tail short. 

a. General color whitish gray C. calvus. 

b. General color bright chestnut red C. rubicundus. 

c. General color black and chestnut red . . . . C. melanocephalus. 

Cacajao calvus (I. Geoff roy). 

Brachyurus calvus I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Pasis, 1845 
p. 560; Id. Compt. Rend., XXVII, 1848, p. 576; Id. Cat 
Primates, 1851, p. 57; Casteln., Exped. Amer. Sud, Mamm. 
1855, p. 17, pi. IV, fig. 1 ; Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz, 1863, p 
308; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 586, (note) 
Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p 
180 ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 70 ; W. A 
Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 646; 1887, p. 119, pi 
XII; Beddard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 119, pi. XII 
N. O. Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 177. 

Ouakaria calva Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1849, pp. 8, 10, fig. 
(skull) ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 62. 

Scarlet-faced Monkey Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz., II, 1863, p. 313, fig. 

Pithecia calva Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 228. 

BALD OR WHITE UAKARI. 

Type locality. Banks of the Japura River, opposite Fonteboa, 
Brazil. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Amazonian region, Brazil, in the angle formed by 
the union of the Japura River and the Amazon. 



302 CACAJAO 

Genl. Char. Face and fore part of head naked; color pale; tail 
short. 

Color. Face scarlet; fore part and sides of head cinnamon, the 
hairs becoming long below the chin, where they are reddish chestnut ; 
top of head, neck, upper parts and outer side of limbs whitish gray; 
under parts cinnamon rufous ; inner side of limbs whitish gray tinged 
with cinnamon rufous ; hands and feet yellowish brown. 

Young. Bates writes of the young (1. c.) p. 313, "I was surprised 
to find the hair of the young animal much paler in color than that of 
the adults, it being of a sandy and not brownish red hue, and con- 
sequently did not differ overmuch from that of the white species, the 
two forms therefore are less distinct from each other in their young 
than in their adult states." 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 85 ; zygomatic width, 
64; intertemporal width, 41.5; palatal length, 32; width of braincase, 
52; median length of nasals, 16; length of upper molar series, 20; 
length of mandible, 58; length of lower molar series, 23. Vertebrae: 
Cervical, 7; Dorsal, 13; Lumbar, 6; Sacral, 4; Caudal, 15 to 20. 

The type in the Paris Museum is so faded that it will no longer 
serve for comparison of colors. 

Bates says of this species, (1. c.) under the trivial name of 'white 
Uakari,' that it is only found on the banks of the Japura River near its 
principal mouth, and is confined, so far as he was able to ascertain, to 
its western side. It goes in small troupes, in the tops of the highest 
trees, and subsists on various kinds of fruits. The hunters say, while 
nimble in its movements, it does not often leap, but runs along the 
larger limbs when travelling from tree to tree. The young are carried 
on the back of the mother. The Indians shoot them with poisoned 
arrows, and they go a considerable distance after being wounded, and 
an experienced hunter is required to follow them. The most expert 
hunter is he who can keep up with a wounded Uakari, and catch it in 
his arms when it falls exhausted. If then he wishes to keep the animal 
alive, a pinch of salt, the antidote for the poison, is put into its mouth 
and it revives. These monkeys are in great demand for presents, and 
high prices are asked for them, often as much as the equivalent of 
nearly twenty dollars. 

Adult Uakaris taken in the above manner rarely become tame, 
remaining peevish and sulky and bite every one who comes near them, 
and are quite silent in captivity, and in the course of a few days refuse 
to eat and die. Many succumb to inflammation of the lungs. One he 






CACAJAO 303 

had as a pet died of this malady. Although kept in an airy veranda, 
it soon lost its appetite; its coat which was long, smooth and glossy, 
became dingy and ragged, like museum specimens, and its bright scarlet 
face became dull. When in health, this color extends to the hair on 
the forehead and temples, and over the cheeks and jaw to the neck. 
As their hue remained for several hours after the animal's death, he 
supposed it was due, at least partly, to a pigment beneath the skin, 
which would probably retain its color after the circulation ceased. 

After witnessing so many proofs of this monkey's morose disposi- 
tion, he was to meet a very lively individual at the house of a friend. 
It came from an adjoining room, ran to him and climbed into his lap 
and nestled there, looking up at him and grinning in the way monkeys 
have. It was young, and had been captured after its mother had been 
shot. Its teeth were still incomplete and its face was pale and mottled, 
the scarlet hue of the adult not having yet appeared. It had been reared 
with the children and allowed to run about the house. 

The Uakari is one of the many animals the Brazilians call "mortal" 
or with delicate constitutions in contradistinction to those which are 
"duro" or hardy. Most of those sent from £ga die before reaching 
Para, and the difficulty it experiences in accommodating itself to 
changed conditions probably influences its restricted range, for its limit 
is an area of swampy woods of about sixty miles in extent, without any 
barrier to prevent it from wandering farther, except towards the south. 
One, which he had on his boat on the Rio Negro, and which was quite 
tame, went on shore one morning at Barra and disappeared in the forest 
and was gone for twenty-four hours, when he reappeared and walked 
down the bowsprit, his mode of departure, to his usual place on deck. 
He had evidently found the forest, which was very different from his 
humid home on the Japura, uncongenial, and preferred the boat and 
captivity, to freedom in such a district. 

Schlegel (1. c.) has given the name of Pithecia alba to the monkey 
described by Bates, as he considered the uncolored drawing in the 
book represented a distinct species from the Uakari found on the 
banks of the Solimoens, from the fact that the artist has represented 
the hair of the animal much longer than it is on the other, and because 
Bates speaks of it as having a shining whitish hue. It may possibly be 
that two nearly allied forms of Uakari do exist on these rivers, but 
until specimens from the two localities are obtained and compared, it 
is hazardous to describe one as distinct upon an uncolored drawing, 
and not a very meritorious one at that. It is not easy at times to 
recognize different species of monkeys when examples are accessible, 



304 CACAJAO 

and it is hardly worth while to add to difficulties already existing, and 
which are quite sufficient to give the investigator trouble enough, 
without bestowing names on possible species that the describer has 
never seen ! I have included Schlegel's name among the synonyms of 
this species, on the strength of the Scotch verdict "not proven." The 
so called white Uakari is probably an immature individual of the 
present species. 

Cacajao rubicundus (I. Geoff roy). 

Brachyurus rubicundus I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XXVII, 1848, 
p. 498 ; Id. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1845, pi. XXX ; Id. 
Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 57; Wallace, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1852, pp. 107, 108; Casteln., Exped. Amer. Sud, Mamm., 
1855, p. 19, pi. IV, fig. 2; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 76, fig. 189; W. A. Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1880, p. 646, pis. LXI, LXII. figs. 1-6; H. O. Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, 1894, p. 176, pi. XVI. 

Ouakaria rubicunda Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 62. 

Pithecia rubicunda Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 228. 

RED UAKARI. 

Type locality. North bank of the Amazon opposite Olivenca, 
Brazil. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Forests of the Amazon, north side, from Iga River 
westward. Exact range not known. 

Genl. Char. Hair on arms and shoulders long, forming a cape. 
Color like that of the Ourang. 

Color. Entire face, forehead and sides of head naked, bright 
vermilion red ; middle of head on top gray ; rest of head, neck, limbs, 
body above and beneath, hands, feet and tail bright chestnut red. 
Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Skull of type in specimen. Another example 
has occipito-nasal length, 102 ; zygomatic width, 66 ; intertemporal 
width, 42; median length of nasals, 13; length of upper molar series, 
20 ; length of mandible, 64 ; length of lower molar series, 24. 

Bates in the work from which extracts have already been taken 
says : "A most curious fact connected with this monkey is the existence 
of an allied form, or brother species, in a tract of country lying to the 
west of its district. This differs in being clothed with red instead of 
white hair, and has been described by Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire 



Volume I 



Plate II 




CACAJAO RUBICUNDUS (Head) 



Volume 



Plate 10 




Cacajao melanocefhalus 



CACAJAO 305 

(from specimens brought to Paris in 1847 by the Compte de Castel- 
nau) as a distinct species, under the name of Brachyurus rubicundus. 
It wholly replaces the white form in the western parts of the Japura 
delta; that is to say, in a uniform district of country, 150 miles in 
length, and sixty to eighty in breadth, the eastern half is tenanted 
exclusively by white Uakaris, and the western half by red ones. The 
district, it may be mentioned, is crossed by several channels, which at 
the present time doubtless serve as barriers to the dispersal of 
monkeys, but cannot have done so for many centuries, as the position 
of low alluvial lands, and the direction of channels in the Amazon 
Valley, change considerably in the course of a few years. The red- 
haired Uakari appears to be most frequently found in the forests lying 
opposite to the mouth of the river which leads to Fonteboa, and ranges 
thence to the banks of the Uatiparana, the most westerly channel of 
the Japura, situated near Tunantins. Beyond that point to the west 
there is no trace of either the red or the white form, nor of any other 
allied species. Neither do they pass to the eastward of the main 
mouth of the Japura, nor to the south shore of the Solimoens. How far 
they range northwards along the banks of the Japura, I could not 
precisely ascertain ; Senhor Chrysostomo, however, assured me that 
at 180 miles from the mouth of this river, neither white nor red Uakari 
is found, but that a third, black-faced and gray-haired species takes 
their place. 

"I saw two adult individuals of Brachyurus rubicundus at Ega, 
and a young one at Fonteboa ; but was unable to obtain specimens 
myself, as the forests were inundated at the time I visited their 
locality. I was surprised to find the hair of this young animal much 
paler in colour than that of the adults, it being of a sandy and not of a 
brownish-red hue, and consequently did not differ very much from 
that of the white species; the two forms, therefore, are less distinct 
from each other in their young than in their adult states. The fact 
of the range of these singular monkeys being so curiously limited as 
here described, cannot be said to be established until the country lying 
between the northern shore of the Solimoens and New Granada be 
well explored, but there can be no doubt of the separation of the two 
forms in the Delta lands of the Japura, and this is a most instructive 
fact in the geographical distribution of animals." 

Cacajao melanocephalus (E. Geoffroy). 

Pithecia melanocephala Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 117; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simize, 1876. p. 229. 



306 CACAJAO 

Brachyurus ouakary Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 12, pi. 
VIII; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 183. 

Cacajao melanocephalus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 182. 

Ouakaria spixi Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1849, p. 10, fig. 1. 

Brachyurus melanocephalus W. A. Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1880, p. 645, pi. LXIII ; H. O. Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 175. 

Ouakaria melanocephala Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 62. 

BLACK-HEADED UAKARI. 

Type locality. Banks of the Cassiquiare River. 

Geogr. Distr. Forests through which the Rio Cassiquiare, Rio 
Negro, and Rio Branco flow ; Brazil. 

Color. Face naked, and with the head, shoulders, limbs, hands, 
feet and tail is black, except a portion of the upper side of tail which 
is chestnut; back and sides reddish and black; rump and middle of 
thighs reddish chestnut ; under parts blackish. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 82 ; Hensel, 65 ; 
zygomatic width, 61 ; intertemporal width, 40 ; median length of nasals, 
12; length of upper molar series, 19; length of mandible, 55; length 
of lower molar series, 21. 

I examined Spix's type of Brachyurus ouakary, Munich Museum, 
and found it agreed with Humboldt's species. 



PLATE XXXII. 




SAIMIRI CERSTEDI. 

SIDE VIEW REVERSED. 

No. 1711(1 Araer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Coll. Nat. Size 



SAIMIRI 307 



GENUS SAIMIRI. SQUIRREL MONKEYS. 

*■• 2— 2> *■'• 1^1 > "• 3^3 > "*■' 3—3 * 

SAIMIRI Voigt, Cuvier's Thierreich, I, 1831, p. 95. Type Simla 
sciurea Linnaeus. 
Chrysothrix Kaup, Das Thierr., I; 1835, p. 50, fig. 
Pithesciurus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, pp. 116, 157-160. 
Saimiris Geoff., Compt. Rend., Paris, XVI, 1843, p. 1151. 

Head rounded; eyes large, approximate; ears large; septum of 
nose broad ; tail long, tufted at tip, non-prehensile ; thumbs very short. 
Skull elongate, braincase large, arched, prolonged posteriorly; facial 
portion small; middle upper incisors larger than outer, canines long, 
pointed ; partitions between orbits and nostrils thin, membranaceous. 

The Squirrel Monkeys are small animals, ranging from Nicaragua 
through the valley of the Amazon into Bolivia and Peru, and with their 
brilliant coloring are perhaps the most beautiful of their tribe. They 
are strictly arboreal, and as Bates remarks, are the most common 
of the ordinary monkeys of the American forests. By some writers 
they have been considered as closely related to the nocturnal monkeys, 
but the relationship is one caused more by environment and conse- 
quently similar methods of life than through their organization, and it 
may therefore be regarded in the light of being artificial. They possess 
large eyes, small ears, and a small inquisitive face, but they would 
probably make very unsuccessful hunters by night, as their vision 
is only adapted for daylight. Six species and two subspecies are 
now recognized, with fairly distinctive characters. It has been found 
necessary to make certain changes in the nomenclature of some forms 
either on account of previous names having been overlooked by some 
of the earlier writers, or the law of priority disregarded. There is 
little or no change in the appearance of the sexes, or between old and 
young individuals, and these causes of frequent errors in other groups 
being non-existent, the synonymy of the various forms is happily brief. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

1758. Llnnceus, Systema Natures. 

Under Simla, in which genus Linnaeus placed all species of 



308 SAIMIRI 

Apes and Monkeys, Simla sciurus = Saimiri sciureus is 

described. 
1811? Humboldt, Recueil d' Observations de Zoologie et d' Anatomic 

Saimiri cassiquiarensis from the banks of the Cassiquiare 

River is described as Chrysothrix sciureus cassiquiarensis. 
1812. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Annales du Museum d'Histoire 

Naturelle de Paris. 

Callithrix sciureus var. B. afterwards named S. ustus by I. 

Geoffroy St. Hilaire. 
1834. D'Orbigny, Nouvelles Annales du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. 

Saimiri boliviensis described as Callithrix boliviensis. 
1836. D'Orbigny, Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale, Mammi- 

feres. 

Saimiri boliviensis redescribed as Callithrix entomophaga. 
1840. R. P. Lesson, Species Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadrumanes. 

The genus Pithesciureus is here employed instead of Saimiri, 

which antedates it. P. saimiri = S. sciureus; var. A. ex le 

Bresil, P. saimiri; var. B. P. entomaphagus ex le Bresil; var. 

C. P. cassiquiarensis, ex Spanish Guiana; and var. D. the 

Callithrix sciureus var. B. Geoffroy. Of these P. sciureus and 

P. cassiquiarensis are valid. P. entomophaga = S. boliviensis. 
1844. /. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, Archives du Museum d'Histoire 

Naturelle, Paris. 

Saimiri ustus first described. 
1844. I. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, Archives du Museum d'Histoire 

Naturelle, Paris. 

Saimiri cassiquiarensis redescribed as Saimiri lunatus. 
1844. Wagner, Koniglich-Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 

Munchen. 

Saimiri cassiquiarensis redescribed as Chrysothrix nigri- 

vittatus. 
1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die S'dugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 

Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 

Three species are given under the genus Chrysothrix: (C.) 

sciurea; (C) entomophaga = Saimiri boliviensis; and (C.) 

nigrivittata = Saimiri cassiquiarensis. 
1862. Reichenbach, Die Vollstdndigste Naturgeschichte der Affen. 

The genus "Saimiris," Saimiri, contains the following species 

in this work: S. sciureus; S. ustus; 5". entomophaga = S. 

boliviensis ; .S\ lunulatus = S. cassiquiarensis ; and S. ochro- 

leucus which is a Cebus. 



SAIMIRI 309 

1872. Reinhardt, Naturhistoriske Forening, Kjobenhaven. 

Saimiri cerstedi described as Chrysothrix oerstedi. 
1876. Schlegel, Museum des Pays-Bas, Simla. 

In this catalogue four species are recognized under the genus 

Saimiri : S. sciureus ; S. lunulatus = S. cassiquiarensis ; S. 

cerstedi ; and S. entomophaga = S. boliviensis. S. ustus 

Geoff., is considered the same as S. sciureus. 
1904. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Saimiri cerstedi redescribed as Saimiri cerstedi citrinellus. 
1907. Elliot, (D. G.) in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Saimiri macrodon described. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

The range of the various species is as yet but imperfectly known 
for several have been obtained only from a few localities, and some 
indeed from only one, and those given heretofore by previous writers 
are to some extent misleading as more than one species have been 
confused together and the separate ranges united. The most northern 
distribution of members of this genus is in Central America where S. 
cerstedi is found from south of the Herradura Mountains to Panama. 
In northern South America S. sciureus is met with in the three 
Guianas, Venezuela and Colombia, and to the south on both banks of 
the Amazon and some of its tributaries as the Rio Negro, Rio Uaupe, 
Rio Javari, (Schlegel), etc., and in the Province of Goyas, Brazil. S. 
cassiquiarensis ranges from the banks of the Orinoco south of the 
Cataracts to the Rio Cassiquiare, and in the forests through which the 
Rio Caura flows above the rapids of Mura, and thence westward to 
the Rio Copataza in Ecuador. From Humayta, middle Rio Madeira, 
also in Ecuador, S. madeira has been procured. On the banks of the 
Ucayali, Peruvian Amazons, 5". ustus is found and at Cosnipata in 
eastern Peru, 5". b. nigriceps is met with. S. macrodon has been 
obtained from the banks of the Rio Copataza in Ecuador; and from 
those of the Rio Juara, and from Marcopata in Peru. S. boliviensis 
occurs in the Sierras Guarayas, Bolivia. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. Head gray with a yellowish brown tinge. 

a. Forearms, hands and feet ochraceous, teeth small. 

a! Without black curved line in front of ears.. .5. sciureus. 



310 SA1MIRI 

b.' With black curved line in front of ears. 5". cassiquiarensis. 
b. Forearms, hands and feet tawny ; teeth large ... 5". macrodon. 

B. Head blue gray without yellow tinge .S\ madeira. 

C. Head golden yellow and black S. ustus. 

D. Head black or blackish. 

a. Upper parts grizzled yellow. 

a.' Forearms, hands and feet saffron yellow. S. boliviensis. 
b! Forearms, hands and feet deep golden 

yellow S. b. nigriceps. 

b. Upper parts ochraceous rufous 6". osrstedi. 

Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus). 

Simla sciurea Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 19; I, 1766, p. 43; 

Bodd., Elench. Animal, 1784, p. 62. 
Callithrix sciureus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 113; Casteln., Exped. Amer. Sud, Mamm., I, 1855, p. 

13. 
Saguinus sciureus Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, p. 56. 
Chrysothrix sciureus Kaup, Das Thierr., I, 1835, p. 55 ; Wagn., 

Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 120, pi. XIX; Huxley, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 250; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 

Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 156; Sclat., 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 395; von Pelz., Kaiserl. 

Konigl. Zool.-Botan. Gesell. Wien, XXXVIII, 1883, p. 21; 

von Bardel, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1894, p. 359; Forbes, 

Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 156. 
Pithesciurus saimiri Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840 : p. 157. 
Cebus sciureus Blainv., Osteog., 1841, Atl., Cebus, pi. VI. 
Saimiri sciureus I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 37; Dahlb., Stud. 

Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 157; Schleg., 

Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 242. 
Saimiris sciureus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 15, 

figs. 44, 45. 
Saimiri sciurea Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 

1906, p. 558, Zool. Ser.; Thos., Proc. Zool Soc. Lond., 1911, 

p. 129. 

COMMON TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality. "India." 

Geogr. Distr. Northern South America in Venezuela (Schlegel) ; 
Guianas, (English, Dutch and French), on the Amazon, and several 



SAIMIRI 311 

of its tributaries on both banks, into Colombia; Santa Fe de Bogota, 
(I. Geoffroy). 

Genl. Char. Posterior lobes of the brain overlap the cerebellum 
by one fifth their length. (Huxley). 

Color. Face flesh color, covered with small white hairs; lips 
bluish black; white superciliary streak extending over sides of head 
to ears; head, arms above elbows, shoulders and legs gray with a 
yellowish brown tinge ; back gray washed with golden yellow ; the dor- 
sal region chestnut in some specimens, but always darker than the 
rest of the back ; arms below elbows, hands and feet ochraceous ; under 
parts yellowish white; inner side of limbs ochraceous yellow; tail 
iron gray for three fourths its length, rest black ; ears white. 

Measurements. Total length, 694; tail, 384; foot, 78; ear, 28. 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 58 ; zygomatic width, 38 ; intertemporal 
width, 30; palatal length, 15; width of braincase, 31; height of brain- 
case over zygomata, 29; median length of nasals, 8; length of upper 
molar series, 12 ; length of mandible, 34 ; length of lower molar series, 
14 ; width of palate between canines, 10 ; between last molars, 12. 

Saimibi cassiquiarensis (Humboldt). 

Chrysothrix sciureus cassiquiarensis Humboldt, Rec. Obs. Zool., 

1,1811, (1815), p. 334. 
Simia sciureus cassiquiarensis var. D. Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, 

p. 160. 
Saimiris lunulatus I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, IV, 
1844, p. 18; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 16. 
Chrysothrix nigrivittatus Wagn., Abhand. Bayer. Akad. Munch., 

1844, p. 461. 
Saimiri lunulatus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simias, 1876, p. 245. 
Chrysothrix sciurea (nee Linn.), Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1880, p. 395. 
Type locality. Banks of the Rio Cassiquiare, Venezuela. 
Geogr. Distr. Banks of the Orinoco south of the Cataracts, to the 
Rio Cassiquiare, and Rio Guaviare, and in the forests through which 
the Rio Caura flows above the rapids of Mura, Venezuela, (Hum- 
boldt). 

Color. Top of head and nape speckled buff and black ; line from 
occiput passing above ears and curving downwards, black ; forehead, 
face, nose, chin, throat, ears and sides of neck white ; dorsal region 
red speckled with black ; arms to elbows, and legs to ankles dark gray ; 
forearms, hands and feet ochraceous ; under parts and inner side of 



312 SAIMIRI 

limbs yellowish white; tail like back at root, then iron gray for three 
fourths the length, apical portion black. 

Measurements. About the size of S. sciureus. Skull: occipito- 
nasal length, 60 ; zygomatic width, 37 ; intertemporal width, 32 ; median 
length of nasals, 10; length of upper molar series, 18; length of 
mandible, 15 ; length of lower molar series, 15. 

This species has been usually known as 5. lunulatus Geoff., but 
this name is antedated by Humboldt's cassiquiarensis bestowed on it 
thirty-three years previously. The whereabouts of the type does not 
appear to be known. 

Humboldt states that this Squirrel Monkey is common south of 
the cataracts of the Orinoco ; some are found there of a more slender 
form and are very difficult to tame, and also on the banks of the 
Guaviare River, and in the forests in which the Caura River flows 
above the rapids of Mura. The smallest and prettiest of the Titis are 
those of Cassiquiare. Schlegel says (1. c.) that an individual of this 
species was brought to his notice, which was procured by a French 
naturalist near the Oyapock, a river separating French from Portu- 
guese Guiana. Spix, according to Wagner, obtained three examples 
of this species, called by Wagner C. nigrivittatus ! at the junction of 
the Teffe and Solimoens rivers near liga, but Spix does not mention 
this monkey. 

Saimiei macrodon Elliot. 

Saimiri macrodon Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XIX, 1907, 7th 
Ser., p. 190. 

Type locality. Copataza River, Ecuador, Type in British 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Upper waters of the Amazon, Ecuador; and Rio 
Jurua; Marcopata, Peru. 

Genl. Char. Similar to S. sciureus, but hands and feet much 
darker. Skull has a much higher and narrower braincase ; much wider 
palate, and larger teeth with the external line of the upper tooth row 
much more curved ; zygomatic arch wider ; and intertemporal width, 
greater ; bullae narrower and longer. 

Color. General color like S. sciureus with the back darker, that 
of the type being tawny and black on the dorsal region, golden yellow 
and black on the flanks ; arms above elbow dark gray washed with 
yellow; legs paler; under parts yellowish white; arms from a short 



SAIMIRI 313 

distance below the elbow, hands and feet tawny; head and tail like S. 
sciureus. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Size similar to S. sciureus. Skull : occipito-nasal 
length, 64.5 ; zygomatic width, 43 ; intertemporal width, 32 ; median 
length of nasals, 1 1 ; width of braincase, 36 ; height of braincase above 
zygomata, 35 ; palatal length, 19 ; length of upper molar series, 13 ; 
length of mandible, 40; length of lower molar series, 16; width of 
palate between canines, 12; width of palate between last molars, 13. 
Ex type British Museum. 

While the general color of this animal resembles that of S. 
sciureus from the east coast of South America, it is at once noticeable 
by its much darker forearms, hands and feet. But the great differences 
between them are exhibited in the skull, and the large teeth of the 
present species. The braincase has quite a different shape, being large 
and narrow with an elevated forehead sloping rapidly downward to 
the occiput where it is narrow and rounded. The palate is wider 
throughout its length, while the teeth are much larger, the canines 
being also stouter and broader. Several specimens were brought by 
Mr. Buckley from the type locality and there are others in the British 
Museum Collection from the Jurua River, a tributary of the Upper 
Amazon, and from Marcopata, Peru. 

Saimiri madeira Thomas. 

Saimiri madeira Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., II, 1908, 8th Ser., 
p. 90. 

Type locality. Humayta, Middle Rio Madeira, Ecuador. Type 
in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. No yellow tinge on head, and no fulvous above hands 
and feet. 

Color. Top of head and nape, arms from wrists to shoulders, 
and legs above ankles, chin and lips blue gray ; face, sides of head and 
neck, entire under parts, inner side of legs and inner side of arms to 
elbows, white ; inner side of arms below elbows yellowish grading into 
golden brown at wrists ; hands and feet golden brown ; upper parts 
of body golden yellow and black ; sides chrome yellow ; tail black 
above, the yellow at base of hairs showing, beneath white, apical third 
jet black all around. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 391 ; tail, 41 ; hind foot, 83. Skull : 
occipito-nasal length, 69 ; Hensel, 47.3 ; zygomatic width, 40.8 ; palatal 
length, 27; median length of nasals, 17.6; length of upper molar series, 



314 SAIMIRI 

12.5 ; length of mandible, 45.6 ; length of lower molar series, 14.5. Ex 
type British Museum. 

This species resembles S. sciureus but the forearms are bluish 
gray instead of fulvous. Several specimens were obtained by W. 
Hoffmanns. The exact locality being about 63° West and 7° 30' South. 

Saimiri tjstus I. Geoffroy. 

Saimiri ustus I. Geoffroy, Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, IV, 1844, 
p. 15, pi. I ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 16, 
fig. 40; Bartlett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 219; Sclat, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 688, fig. (head). 

Saimiri ustus Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 
1856, pp. 157, 158. 

Chrysothrix ustus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 53. 

Saimiri sciureus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 242, 
(nee Linn.). 

Chrysothrix usta Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 154. 

GEOFFROY' S SQUIRREL OR TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Peruvian Amazons, Bolivia. 

Genl. Char. Ears naked save a fringe of hairs on the inside near 
the upper edge ; general color golden yellow and black. 

Color. Upper part of head, shoulders, upper arms to elbow, and 
hind limbs to ankles golden yellow speckled with black, the hairs being 
golden yellow with black tips ; back from neck to rump orange red 
and black, the latter being the tips to the orange red hairs ; face around 
eyes and upper part of nose flesh color, muzzle black; cheeks pale 
yellow ; sides of head and neck, throat, under parts of body and fore- 
arms golden yellow ; hands and feet reddish brown ; tail, hairs golden 
yellow with black tips, the tip of tail all black. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Size about equal to S. sciurea Linn. Skull : total 
length, 72. (Geoff. Arch. Mus.). 

The type of this form is in the Paris Museum and fairly well 
preserved, though probably the golden yellow of the greater part of the 
body has faded somewhat. The back, however, is conspicuous for 
the depth of its orange red color, and more resembles the hues of the 
Central American forms than any of the eastern South American 
examples. With our present knowledge of this group, in spite of 
Schlegel's unqualified statement, (1. c.) it seems best to consider 



^^™ 



SAIMIRI 315 

Geoffroy's species as distinct, until undoubted evidence is obtained to 
the contrary. 

Saimiei boliviensis (D'Orbigny) . 

Callithrix boliviensis D'Orbig., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
VIII, 1834, p. 89. 

Callithrix entomophaga D'Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Merid., Mamm., 
IV, 1836, p. 10, pi. IV. 

Callithrix sciwreus var. B. Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 160. 

Saimiris entomophaga D'Orbig., Voy. Amer. Merid., Mamm., IV, 
1847, p. 10; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 58; Casteln., 
Exped. Amer. Sud, 1855, p. 14; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 
Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 156, 157. 

Chrysothrix entomophaga Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 
1855, pi. X, p. 12; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 16, fig. 47; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 53 ; von Pelz., Kaiserl- 
Konigl. Zool.-Botanische Gesell. Wien, XXXIII, 1883, p. 21 ; 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 155. 

Chrysothrix sciurea Frantz., Wiegm., Archiv. Naturg., XXXIV, 
1869, p. 260, t. 35, (nee Linn.). 

Saimiri entomophagus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simias, 1876, 
p. 246. 

BLACK-HEADED TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality. Sierras Guarayas, Bolivia. Type not in Paris 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Bolivia, and according to Schlegel, Castelnau 
found it at Sarayagu on the banks of the Ucayali, Peru ; but this was 
probably S. madeira. 

Color. Top and sides of head and nape black; upper parts wax 
yellow lined with black; arms to elbows, and legs to ankles grayish 
yellow ; under parts and inner side of limbs straw yellow ; hands and 
feet, saffron yellow; tail, yellowish gray lined with black, apical por- 
tion black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Size about same as S. sciureus. Skull : occipito- 
nasal length, 59; zygomatic width, 37; intertemporal width, 29.5; 
palatal length, 16; breadth of braincase, 37; median length of nasals, 
9 ; length of upper molar series, 12 ; length of mandible, 32 ; length of 
lower molar series, 13.5. Ex type in British Museum. 



316 SAIMIRI 

Saimiri boliviensis nigriceps Thomas. 

Saimiri boliviensis nigriceps Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., X, 1902, 
p. 246. 

Chrysothrix entomophaga (nee D'Orb.), Wagn., Wiegm., Archiv., 
1842, p. 357 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 121, 
pi. X. 

Type locality. Cosnipata, eastern Peru. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Black cap on crown of head; hands and feet to tips 
of fingers and toes golden yellow ; tail grizzled yellow. 

Color. Top of head glossy black ; black line in front of ears ; white 
auricular patch ; upper parts of body grizzled yellowish ; under parts 
and inner side of limbs pale yellow ; tail above grizzled yellow, beneath 
a central line clear yellow, tip black; inside of ears yellow. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 730; tail, 400; foot, 76, (skin). 
Skull: total length, 66; zygomatic width, 41.5; breadth of braincase, 
35 ; basal length, 42 ; occipito-nasal length, 61 ; intertemporal width, 29 ; 
median length of nasals, 8.5 ; length of upper molar series, 14 ; length 
of mandible, 36; length of lower molar series, 16. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Saimiri cerstedi (Reinhardt). 

Chrysothrix cerstedi Reinh., Vidensk. Medd. Naturhistoriske 

Forensing Kjobenh., 1872, p. 157, pi. Ill ; Sclat., Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 434. 
Chrysothrix sciurea Sclat., Nat. Hist. Rev., 1861, p. 510, (nee. 

Linn.). 
Saimiris entomophaga Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 3, 

(nee D'Orbigny). 
Saimiri cerstedi Elliot, Mamm. Middle America and W. Indies, 

F. C. M. Pub., IV, Pt. II, 1904, p. 731, figs. 166, CXL, Zool. 

Ser. ; Id. Check-L. Mamm. N. Amer. Cont. and W. Indies, 

F. C. M. Pub., VI, 1905, p. 534, Zool. Ser. ; Id. Cat. Mamm. 

Field Columb. Mus., F. C. M. Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 559, fig. 

LXXXIII, Zool. Ser. 
Saimiri cerstedi citrinellus Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 7th Ser., 

XIII, 1904, p. 250. 

CERSTED'S TITI MONKEY. 

Type locality. Chiriqui, Panama. 

Geogr. Distr. Guatemala? to Panama, Central America. 

Color. Face and sides of head to ears white ; top of head and 



■^" 



SA1MIRI 317 

nape black ; shoulder and outer side of arms to below elbows, and legs 
to ankles gray washed with yellow ; upper parts dark ochraceous 
rufous, dorsal line dark orange rufous ; throat and between arms 
white, rest of under parts and inner side of limbs ochre yellow ; hands 
and feet ochraceous ; tail above for two thirds the length black and 
yellow, beneath yellow, apical portion black. 

Measurements. Total length, 633 ; tail, 363 ; foot, 78 ; ear, 24. 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 56 ; zygomatic width, 36 ; intertemporal 
width, 30; palatal length, 15; breadth of braincase, 35; median length 
of nasals, 8; length of upper molar series, 11 ; length of mandible, 31 ; 
length of lower molar series, 13. 

This species was originally described from an example obtained 
at Chiriqui, and Dr. Frantzius states it is confined to the hotter region, 
being very abundant in the valley of Terraba and on the plain of Piris, 
and he believed its northern limit to be the spurs of the Herradura 
Mountains going towards the sea. A living individual was presented 
to the London Zoological Society by Mr. W. F. Kelley, who said it 
was procured in the Department of Solala, Guatemala, but no other 
example seems to have come from there and it is surmised that possibly 
Mr. Kelley's animal may have been brought from some southern 
locality. 

Mr. Thomas has described the monkey from Pozo Azul, Costa 
Rica (1. c.) as a distinct race under the name of 5". oer. citrinellus , the 
chief character being the head "less blackened and the limbs less yel- 
low." A series of these monkeys from Panama collected by J. H. 
Batty and two specimens from Pozo Azul collected by M. A. Carriker, 
belonging to the New York Museum of Natural History are before 
me. In the Panama series every style of head coloring from jet black 
to gray is represented, some almost exactly like the examples from 
Pozo Azul, and the difference in coloration would seem to be due to 
age, the old adults having intensely black crowns, and this passing 
through all grades of coloring to the young animals with little or no 
black on the head. The type of S. cer. citrinellus in the British Museum 
has less black on the head than the old adults, and it does not go so 
far on the occiput, but other specimens from the same localities in the 
Museum collection have black crowns, and it does not seem that a dis- 
tinct race can be sustained, knowing, as we do, the great diversity of 
head coloring that exists at different periods of the animal's existence. 
I have therefore placed 5\ oer. citrinellus as a synonym of S. cerstedi. 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES. 

VOLUME I. 

Numbers in heavy type indicate the page on which is the description of the 
Species. 



Page 

abelii (Pongo p.) lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

abyssinicus (Colobus) . . . lxv, lxxii, ciii 

acaciarum (Galago) 47.72 

adipicaudatus (Cheirogaleus) ...89,92 
adipicaudatus (Chirogale) ..89,90,100 

adustus (Pithecus) lvii, lxix, xciii 

aequatorialis (Alouatta) 

lii, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 262, 264, 265, 274 

sethiops (Cercocebus) lviii, xcv 

aethiops (Simia) xxxv 

africanus (Pan) xxxiv 

agilis (Cercocebus) lix, xcv 

agilis (Hylobates) lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Agipan xxxiii 

agisymbanus (Galago) 55 

agisymbanus (Otolemur) ..xxx, 48, 54 

agnatus (Pithecus) lviii, lxx, xciv 

alacer (Pithecus) lvii, lxx, xciv 

alba (Chiropotes) 300 

alba (Pithecia) 1, 287, 300, 303 

albibarbatus (Pithecus) 

xiv, xxxiv, xxxvii, lvii, lxix, xciii 
albicans (Pithecus) 

lii, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 286, 287, 288, 292 

albicans (Yarkea) 292 

albicollis (Callithrix) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 218, 220, 221, 231, 232 

albicollis (Hapale) 232 

albicollis (Hapale var. C) 232 

albicollis (Jacchus) 218,231 

albifrons (Cebus) lv, xc, 281 

albifrons (Jacchus) 209 

albifrons (Lemur) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 132, 133, 134, 135 

136, 139. i4I» 154. 155 
albifrons (Lemur mongos var.)... 154 
albifrons (Marikina) 209 



Page 

albifrons (Midas) 183 

albifrons (Prosimia) 134,154 

albigena (Cercocebus) lix, xcv 

albigena (Pygathrix) xxxviii 

albigenis (Erythrocebus) 

lxii, lxxi, xcix 

albigularis (Cercopithecus) xl 

albigularis (Lasiopyga) . .lxi, lxx, xcvii 

albimana (Prosimia) 134,142 

albimanus (Lemur) ..133,135,136,141 

albinasa (Chiropotes) 287, 296 

albinasa (Pithecia) 

lii, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 286, 287, 288, 295 

albinasa (Yarkea) 295 

albipes (Galago b.) 

xlvi, Ixviii, lxxviii, 69, 70 

albipes (Pygathrix) lxiv, lxxi, c 

albitorquata (Lasiopyga) lxi, lxxi, xcvii 

albus (Indrus) 169 

albus (Lemur m.) 136 

albus pedibus (Prosimia) 132 

alexandri (Lasiopyga t.) lx, xcvii 

alleni (Galago) xxxi, xlvi, Ixviii, lxxviii 
46, 47, 48, 63, 67, 77 

alleni (Otogale) 48 

alleni (Otolicnus) 47 

Allochrocebus xlii, lix 

Alouatta 

xiv, xv, xvi, xvii, xviii, xxiii, xxiv 
xlii, lii, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxv, lxxxvi 
258, 261, 262, 263 
Alouatta aequatorialis 

lii, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 262, 264, 265, 274 

Alouatta barbatus 261 

Alouatta beelzebul 

lii, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 259, 260, 261 
262, 264. 265, 268, 270, 271, 299 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
Alouatta caraya 

Hi, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 260, 261 

262, 264, 265, 266, 271 

Alouatta discolor 267, 268 

Alouatta (Simia) flavicauda. . .274. 276 
Alouatta insulanus 

Hi, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 263. 264, 265, 282 
Alouatta juara 

Hi, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 263, 264, 265, 283 
Alouatta macconnelli 

Hi, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 263, 264, 265, 281 

Alouatta nigra 262, 266 

Alouatta palliata 

Hi, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 261, 262 

263, 265, 271, 272, 273 
Alouatta p. coibensis 

Hi, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 262, 264, 265, 273 
Alouatta p. mexicana 

Hi, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 262, 263, 265, 272 

Alouatta p. metagalpa 263, 272 

Alouatta sara 

Hi, lxxv, lxxxvii, 263, 264, 265, 283 
Alouatta seniculus 

Hi, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 260, 261, 262 
264, 265, 277, 279, 280, 281, 282 

Alouatta s. caucensis 262,278,279 

Alouatta s. rubicundus 262, 263, 278, 279 

Alouatta sericulus 259 

Alouatta ululata 

Hi, lxxxvii, 263, 264, 267 
Alouatta ursina 

Hi, lxxv, lxxxvii, 260, 261 
262, 264, 265, 274, 2 7S 
Alouatta villosus 

Hi, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 263, 265. 268 

Alouattina; xxiii, xlii, Hi 

Altililemur 

xxxi, xli, xlvii, Ixviii, lxxx, 88, IOI, 111 
Altililemur medius 

xlvii, lxxx, 91, IOI, in, 112, 113 
Altililemur thomasi 

xlvii, lxxx, in, 112, 113 

amicta (Simia) 234,241 

amictus (Callicebus) 

li. lxxiv, lxxxvi, 234, 238. 240 
amictus (Callithrix) . .235, 236, 237, 241 

amictus var. ft (Cebus) 235 

amictus (Saguinas) 236 



Page 
andamanensis (Pithecus) lvii, lxix, xciii 

Andropithecus xxxi 

angolensis (Colobus) . . . .lxv, lxxii, cii 
anjuanensis (Lemur) 133, 135, 136, 142 

anjuanensis (Prosimia) 145 

anomurus Galago (Hemigalago) ...84 
anomurus (Hemigalago) 

xlvi, Ixviii, lxxviii, 84, 86 
ansorgei (Miopithecus) lxii, lxxi, xcviii 

Anthropopithecus xv, xvi, xxxv 

Anthropoidea 

xiii, xiv, xvii, xviii, xx, xxii, xxxi 
xlii, xlix, Ixviii, lxix, cv, 79 

Aotinae xxvi, xlii, Hii 

Aotus xviii, xix, xxvi, xlii, Hii 

lxxiv, Ixxxviii, 236 

Aotus boliviensis Hii, lxxv, lxxxix 

Aotus griseimembra .Hii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Aotus gularis liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Aotus infulatus 

xxxii, Hii, lxxiv, Ixxxviii, 235 

Aotus lanius Hii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Aotus microdon liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Aotus miriquouina 

Hii, lxxiv, lxxxix, 286 

Aotus nigriceps Hii, lxxiv, Ixxxviii 

Aotus oseryi liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Aotus roberti Hii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Aotus rufipes Hii, lxxiii, lxxxix 

Aotus senex Hii, lxxiv, Ixxxviii 

Aotus spixi liv, lxxxix 

Aotus trivirgatus 

liv, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Aotus vociferans Hii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

apeda (Simia) 83 

apella (Cebus) lv, lxxiii, xc 

apella (Simia) xxxv, 83 

apicalis (Galago e.) 

xlvi, Ixviii, lxxviii, 48. 80 

apicalis (Otolicnus) 80 

apiculatus (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xci 

apiculatus (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxxiv, 184, 186, 195, 204 

apiculatus (Midas) 184,204 

apoensis (Pithecus p.) lviii, xcv 

arabicus (Papio h.) lvi. lxix, xcii 

Arachnocebus xxx 

Arachnocebus lori 18 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



in 



Page 

arachnoides (Ateles) xxxiv 

arachnoides (Brachyteles) liv 

arachnoides (Brachyteleus) liv, xc 

arachnoides (Eriodes) xxxv 

Arctocebus 

xii, xxii, xxxi, xli, xlv, lxxvii, 16, 35 
Arctocebus aureus ...xlv, lxxvii, 35, 36 
Arctocebus calabarensis 

xlv, lxxvii, 35, 36 

Arctopithecus xxxvi, 216 

argentata (Callithrix) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxv, 217, 218, 220, 221 

argentata (Hapale) 182,221,223 

argentata (Simia) xxxv, xxxvi, 221 

argentatus (Jacchus) xxxv, 181, 217, 221 

argentatus (Mico) 221 

argentatus (Midas) 221 

ascanius (Lasiopyga) lix, xcvi 

assamensis (Pithecus) . .lvii, lxix, xciv 

Ateles 

Ateles 

Ateles 

Ateles 

Ateles 

Ateles 

Ateles 

Ateles 

Ateles 

Ateles 

Ateleus 



xvi, xxxii, xxxiii, 282 

ater lxxiv 

arachnoides xxxiv 

cucullatus liv 

fusciceps Hv 

geoffroyi liv 

hybridus liv, lxxiv 

pan liv 

paniscus 290 

rufiventris lxxiv 

. . .xiii, xiv, xvi, xvii, xviii, xxiv 

xxxiii, xxxix, xlii, liv, lxxiii 

lxxiv, lxxv, lxxxix 

Ateleus ater . . .liv, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Ateleus belzebuth liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Ateleus cucullatus liv, lxxxix 

Ateleus fusciceps liv, lxxxix 

Ateleus geoffroyi 

liv, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Ateleus grisescens liv, lxxxix 

Ateleus hybridus . . . .liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 
Ateleus marginatus . .liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Ateleus pan liv, lxxiii, lxxxix 

Ateleus paniscus 

liv, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxix 
Ateleus rufiventris .. .liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 
Ateleus variegatus 

liv, lxxiv, lxxv, lxxxix 
Atelocheirus xxxii 



Page 

ater (Ateles !) lxxiv 

ater (Ateleus) . . liv, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

ater (Chiropotes) 287, 297 

ater (Leontocebus) 182, 199 

ater (Leontopithecus var. B.) ....211 

aterrimus (Cercocebus) lix, xcv 

aubryi (Pan) lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

aurata (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

auratus (Mycetes) 261,262,278 

aureus (Arctocebus) . .xlv, lxxvii, 35, 36 
aurita (Callithrix) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 217, 218, 220, 225 

aurita (Hapale) 182, 225 

aurita (Simia) 217 

auritus (Jacchus) 217 

aurora (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

aurora (Leontopithecus) 182 

australis (Otolicnus) 47 

australis (Otolicnus galago v.) 73 

Avahi xxix, 163 

avahi (Lichanotus) 164 

avahi (Semnocebus) 164 

Avahis laniger xxix, 164 

avunculus (Rhinopithecus) 

lxiv, lxxii, ci 

Aye-aye xxviii, 1, 2, 3 

aygula (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

aygula (Simia) xxxiv 

azarse (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xci 

azarse (Simia) 286 

Azema xxxi, 98, 104 

Azema smithi 104 

badius (Galago) . .xlvi, lxvii, lxxvii, 58 

bancanus (Hypsicebus) xxx, 8, 14 

bancanus (Nycticebus) 

xlv, lxviii, Ixxxvi, 22, 23, 24 
bancanus (Tarsius) 

xxix, xxx, xliv, Ixxxvi, 8. 9. 14 

barbatus (Alouatta) 261 

barbatus (Mycetes) ..260,261,262,265 

barbei (Pygathrix lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

batesi (Galago) ..xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 66 

batesi (Perodicticus) 38, 42, 43 

batuana (Pygathrix) .. .lxiii, lxxi. xcix 
baumstarki (Erythrocebus) 

lxii, lxxi, xcix 
baweanus (Pithecus) . . .Iviii, lxx. xciv 



IV 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
beelzebul (Alouatta) 

Hi, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 259, 260, 261 
262, 264, 265, 268, 270, 271, 299 

beelzebul (Cebus) 260, 270 

beelzebul (Mycetes) 

259, 261. 262, 270, 271 
beelzebul (Simia) 

xxxii, Hi, 259. 260, 270 

beelzebul Simia (Sapajus) 270 

beirensis (Lasiopyga a.) 

Ixi, lxxi, xcviii 
belzebuth ( Ateleus) . . liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 
bengalensis (Nycticebus) ..xxix, 21,26 
beringeri (Gorilla g.) .. lxvii, lxxii, ciii 

bicolor (Cercopithecus) 182, 184 

bicolor (Hapale) 184, 186 

bicolor (Lemur) 101,132,134,155 

bicolor (Leontocebus) 189 

bicolor (Marikina) 187 

bicolor (Midas) 

xxxviii, xlix, 179, 181, 183, 186 

bicolor (Mycetes) 261,262,275 

bicolor (Propithecus) 170 

bicolor (Seniocebus) 

xliv, lxxiv, lxxxiii, 181 

182, 185, 186, 187, 188 

bieti (Rhinopithecus) .... lxiv, lxxii, ci 

bintangensis (Pithecus) lviii, lxx, xciv 

boliviensis (Aotus) . . .liii, lxxv, lxxxix 

boliviensis (Callithrix) 308,315 

boliviensis (Saimiri) 

liii, lxxv, lxxxviii, 308, 309, 310, 315 
borneanus (Nycticebus) 

xlv, Ixviii, lxxxvi, 22, 23, 24 
borneanus (Tarsius) 

xliv, lxxxvi, 8, 9, 13, 14 

borneo (Pongo) lxvi 

bosmani (Perodicticus) 38,39 

bosmani (Potto) xxx, 38, 39 

boutourlini (Lasiopyga) lix, xcvi 

bouvieri (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, cii 

braccatus (Galago) 

xlvi, Ixviii, lxxviii, 68, 6q 

Brachiopithecus xxxvii 

Brachyteles! xxxvi 

Brachyteles! arachnoides liv 

Brachyteles! macrotarsus.. . .xxxiv, liv 
Brachyteleus xxiv, xxxiv, xli, liv, lxxiv 



Page 

Brachyteleus arachnoides liv, xc 

Brachyurus xxxiv, xxxix, 299, 300 

Brachyurus calvus xxxix, 300, 301 

Brachyurus chiropotes 298 

Brachyurus israelita xxxiv, 287, 298, 300 

Brachyurus melanocephalus 306 

Brachyurus ouakaria xxxvii, 306 

Brachyurus ouakary ... xxxix, 300, 306 
Brachyurus rubicundus ...300,304,305 

Brachyurus satanas 296 

Bradicebus xxviii, 21 

Bradipodidae 16, 17 

Bradylemur xxx, 21 

Bradylemur tardigradus 26 

brazzse (Lasiopyga) .... Ixi, lxx, xcviii 
brelichi (Rhinopithecus) . .lxiv, lxxii, ci 

brevicaudata (Indri) 175 

brevicaudatus (Indris) 176 

brevicaudatus (Lichanotus) 176 

brevicaudatus (Pithecus) lvii, lxix, xciv 

brissonii (Prosimia) 134,142 

brockmani (Papio) lvi, lxix, xcii 

brunnea (Callithrix) 236,237,257 

brunneus (Callicebus) 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 257 
brunneus (Lemur) . . .135, 136, 147, 163 

budgetti (Lasiopyga t.) lx, xcvii 

buffoni (Macrotarsus) xxix 

bugi (Prosimia) 134, 142 

burnetti (Lasiopyga) ... Ixi, lxx, xcviii 
buttikoferi (Lasiopyga) lix, xcvi 

Cacajao xvii, xxiii, xxxvi, xlii, liii, lxxiv 
lxxv, lxxxviii, 286, 287, 299, 300 

Cacajao calvus 

xxiii, liii, lxxxviii, 299, 300, 301 
Cacajao melanocephalus 

liii, lxxxviii, 300, 301, 305, 306 

Cacajao ouakary 300 

Cacajao rubicundus 

liii, lxxxviii, 301, 304 

cagayanus (Pithecus) lviii, xcv 

calabarensis (Arctocebus) 

xlv, lxxvii, 35, 36 

calabarensis (Nycticebus) 36 

calabarensis (Perodicticus) 

xxxi, xlv, 35, 36 
caligatus (Callicebus) 239, 243, 248 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
caligatus (Callithrix) 

li, lxxxvi, 236, 237, 238, 239, 243, 248 

caliginosus (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xci 

Callicebus 

xvi, xvii, xxiii, xxxix, xlii, li, lxxiv 
lxxxv, 218, 234, 235, 236, 237, 253 
Callicebus amictus 

li, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 234, 238, 240 
Callicebus brunneus 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 257 
Callicebus caligatus 

li, lxxxvi, 236, 237, 238, 239, 243, 248 
Callicebus cinerascens 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 252, 253 
Callicebus cupreus 

li, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 236, 237, 238, 239 
241, 242, 244, 245, 247, 248 
Callicebus donacophilus 

lxxiv, lxxxvi, 235, 238 
239, 248, 249, 250, 251 
Callicebus egeria li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 246 
Callicebus emiliae 

li, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 239, 250 
Callicebus gigot 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 254, 255 
Callicebus hoffmannsi 

li, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 239, 248, 249 
Callicebus leucometopa 

li, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 239, 246, 247 
Callicebus melanochir 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 244 
Callicebus moloch 

li, lxxxvi, 234, 238, 239, 250 
Callicebus nigrifrons 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 254, 255 
Callicebus ornatus 

li, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 239, 247, 248 
Callicebus pallescens 

li, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 239, 251 
Callicebus paenulatus 

li, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 245 
Callicebus personatus 

xxxix, li, lxxiv, lxxxvi 
238, 239, 254, 255 
Callicebus remulus 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 249 
Callicebus subrufus 

li, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 239, 247 



Page 
Callicebus torquatus 

li, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxv, 234 
235,236,238,239,241 
Callicebus usto-fuscus 

li, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 241 

callida (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvii 

calligata (Callithrix) 236,237,243 

Callithrix 

xv, xvi, xvii, xxii, xxxii, xxxiii, xlii, 1 
lxxiv, lxxxv, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 216 
217, 218, 225, 234, 235, 236, 237, 285 
Callithrix albicollis 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 218, 220, 221, 231, 232 

Callithrix amicta 241 

Callithrix amictus . . . .235, 236, 237, 241 
Callithrix argentata 

1, lxxiv, lxxxv, 217, 218, 220, 221 
Callithrix aurita 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 217, 218, 220, 225 

Callithrix boliviensis 308, 315 

Callithrix brunnea 236, 237, 257 

Callithrix calligata 236, 237, 243 

Callithrix castaneo-ventris ....237,244 

Callithrix chlorocnemis 236 

Callithrix chrysoleuca xxxviii, li, lxxiv 
lxxxv, 218, 220, 223, 224, 225 

Callithrix cinerascens 235,252 

Callithrix cupreus 235, 236, 237, 242 

Callithrix c. leucometopa 246 

Callithrix discolor 236, 242, 243 

Callithrix donacophilus 

235, 236, 237, 249 

Callithrix entomophaga 308, 315 

Callithrix flaviceps 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 220, 221, 229 
Callithrix gigot ..235,236,237,254,255 
Callithrix goeldi li, lxxxv, 220, 221, 224 
Callithrix humeralifer 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 218, 220, 221, 230 

Callithrix infulatus 235 

Callithrix jacchus 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 217, 218, 220 
221, 225, 228, 229, 231 
Callithrix leucocephala 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 218, 220, 221, 229, 232 

Callithrix leucogenys 220,221 

Callithrix leucopus 

1, lxxiv, lxxxv, 220, 222 



VI 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Callithrix lugens 235, 236. 240 

Callithrix melanochir 235, 236. 237 

Callithrix melanura 222 

Callithrix midas 180, 191 

Callithrix moloch . . . .235, 236, 237. 251 
Callithrix nigrif rons . . 235, 236, 237, 254 

Callithrix cedipus 180, 213 

Callithrix ornatus 236, 237, 248 

Callithrix penicillata 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 218, 220, 226, 227 
Callithrix penicillata jordani 

li. lxxiv, lxxxv, 220, 221, 227 
Callithrix personata 

xxxix, lxxiv, 234, 235, 236, 237, 254, 255 
Callithrix pygmaea 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 220, 221, 232 

Callithrix rosalia 180, 209 

Callithrix santaremensis 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 220. 224 
Callithrix sciureus 234, 235, 308, 310, 315 
Callithrix torquatus 

li, 235, 236, 237, 239, 241, 
Callitrichidae 
xii, xvii, xxi, xxii, xlii, xlix, lxxxiii, 179 

callitrichus (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvii 

Callotus xxxi, 45 

Callotus monteiri 48 

calva (Ouakaria) 301 

calva (Pithecia) 287,301 

calvus (Brachyurus) .. .xxxix, 300, 301 
calvus (Cacajao) 

xxiii, liii, lxxxviii, 209, 300, 301 

calvus (Pan) lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

Calyptrocebus xxxix 

cameronensis (Galago a.) 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 65 
cameronensis Galago a. (Otolicnus)65 
campbelli (Lasiopyga) . .lxi, lxx, xcvii 
cana (Lagothrix) ..xxxvi, liv, lxxiv, xc 

cana (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

candidus (Propithecus) 172 

caniceps (Mixocebus) 

xxxi, xlvii, lxxix, no 
capillimentosa (Pithecia) 

Hi. lxxiii, lxxxvii, 287, 288, 291 
capitalis (Pithecus) . . . lviii. liv, xciv 

capucina (Simia) xxxiv.lv 

capncinus (Cebus) lv, lxxiii, xc 



Page 
caraya (Alouatta) 

lii, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 260, 261 
262, 264, 265, 266, 271 

caraya (Cebus) 260,265 

caraya (Mycetes) 259, 261, 262, 266 

caraya (Simia) 260, 265 

carbo (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

carimatae (Pithecus) lviii, lxx, xciv 

carimatae (Pygathrix) . .lxii, lxxi, xcix 
carruthersi (Lasiopyga s.) . . . .lx, xcvi 
cassiquiarensis (Chrysothrix s.) 

308,311 
cassiquiarensis (Pithesciureus) ...308 
cassiquiarensis (Saimiri) 

liii, lxxiv, lxxxviii, 308 
309,310,311,312 

cassiquiarensis (Simia s.) 311 

castaneiceps (Gorilla g.) 

lxvii, lxxii, civ 
castaneo-ventris (Callithrix) ..237,244 

castaneus (Cebus) lv, lxxiii, xci 

catemana (Pygathrix) .. ..lxiii, lxxi, c 

Catta xxxii 

catta (Lemur) 

xxviii, xlviii, lxxxi, 131, 132, 133 

134, 135.. 136, 139. I4i ; 158 

Catta mococo xxxiii 

catta (Prosimia) 134,159 

caucensis (Alouatta s.). ..262, 278, 279 

caudatus (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, ciii 

Cebidae .. . .xiii, xv, xvi, xviii, xxii, xxiii 
lii, lxxxvi, 179, 258 

Cebinae xlii, liv 

Cebuella xl, 216 

Cebuella pygmaea 233 

Cebugale xxx, 87 

Cebugale commergonii 92 

Cebugale commersonii . . . . xxx, 88, 92 

Cebus xiv, xvi, xviii, xxiv, xxxii, xxxvi i 

xlii, lv, lxxiv, lxxv, xc, 78, 235, 282, 308 

Cebus albifrons lv, xc, 281 

Cebus amictus var. /3 235 

Cebus apella lv, lxxiii, xc 

Cebus api'culatus lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus azarae lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus a. pallidus lv, lxxv, xci 

Cebus beelzebul 260. 270 

Cebus capucinus lv. lxxiii. xc 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



VU 



Page 

Cebus c. nigripectus lv, lxxiv, xc 

Cebus caliginosus lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus caraya 260, 265 

Cebus castaneus lv, lxxiii, xci 

Cebus chrysopus lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus cirrif er lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus crassiceps lxxiv, xci 

Cebus cupreus 235 

Cebus f atuellus lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus flavicaudata 260, 275 

Cebus flavus . . .' lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus frontatus lv, lxxiv, xc 

Cebus infulatus 235 

Cebus libidinosus lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus lugens var. 7 235 

Cebus macrocephalus .... lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus malitiosus lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus melanochir 235 

Cebus moloch 234,235,251 

Cebus nigrifrons 235 

Cebus personatus 235, 256 

Cebus peruanus lv, lxxv, xci 

Cebus satanas 286 

Cebus sciureus 310 

Cebus seniculus 260, 277 

Cebus stramineus 260 

Cebus torquatus 234, 235, 239 

Cebus torquatus var. ft amictus.. .235 

Cebus unicolor lv, lxxiv, xc 

Cebus u. cuscinus liv, lxxv, xci 

Cebus ursinus 260, 275 

Cebus variegatus lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus vellerosus lv, lxxiv, xci 

Cebus versuta lv, lxxiv, xci 

cephaloloptera (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi. c 

Cephalopachus xxix, 7 

cephaloptera! (Simia) xli 

cephodes (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

cephus (Lasiopyga) lv, xcvi 

cephus (Simia) xlii 

centralis (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvii 

Cercocebus 

xvi, xix, xxv, xxxiii, xliii, lviii, xcv 

Cercocebus aethiops lviii, xcv 

Cercocebus agilis lix, xcv 

Cercocebus albigena lix, xcv 

Cercocebus a. johnstoni lix, xcv 

Cercocebus a. zenkeri lix. xcv 



Page 

Cercocebus aterrimus lix, xcv 

Cercocebus chrysogaster ... .lviii, xcv 
Cercocebus fuliginosus .... xxxiii, lviii 

Cercocebus galeritus lix, xcv 

Cercocebus hagenbecki lix, xcv 

Cercocebus lunulatus lviii, xcv 

Cercocebus torquatus lviii, xcv 

Cercopithecidae xix 

Cercopithecus 

xxiii, xxxi, xxxii, xlii, xlix 
lxxxiii, 179, 181, 183, 190 

Cercopithecus albigularis xl 

Cercopithecus bicolor 182, 184 

Cercopithecus cynosurus xxxviii, xcvii 

Cercopithecus grayi xxxix 

Cercopithecus hamlyni xl, lix 

Cercopithecus larvatus xxxiii, lxiv 

Cercopithecus l'hoesti xl 

Cercopithecus midas xlix, lxxiii, lxxxiii 
180, 182, 184, 185, 190, 191, 192, 193 
Cercopithecus midas egens 

xlix, Append, vol. Ill, p. 256 

Cercopithecus petaurista xxxix 

Cercopithecus rufimanus 

xlix, lxxiii, lxxxiii, 180 
181, 185, 190, 191 

Cercopithecus talapoin xxxvi 

Cercopithecus ursulus 

xlix, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxiii, 180 
181, 182, 185. 190, 192, 200 

Cercoptochus 299 

ceylonicus (Lemur) 17 

ceylonicus (Lemur g.) 17, 19 

ceylonicus (Nycticebus) 22 

Chaeropithecus xxxvii, xl 

Cheirogaleus 

xxix, 87, 88, 90, 100, 101. in, 135, 136 

Cheirogaleus adipicaudatus 89, 93 

Cheirogaleus commerconi 92 

Cheirogaleus cinereus 88 

Cheirogaleus coquereli . . . 100, 107, 173 

Cheirogaleus crossleyi 96. in 

Cheirogaleus furcifer 108 

Cheirogaleus gliroides 100, 103 

Cheirogaleus major 

xxviii. xxix, xxx, xxxi 

xlvii, 87, 89. 92, 93, in 

Cheirogaleus medius .xxxi, 88, 112, 113 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Cheirogaleus melanotus! 95 

Cheirogaleus milii 

xxxi, 88, 89, 90, 92, in 

Cheirogaleus minor 88, 89, 103 

Cheirogaleus murinus 88 

Cheirogaleus myoxinus 104 

Cheirogaleus olivaceus 89 

Cheirogaleus pusillus 90,104 

Cheirogaleus samati ...90,111,112,113 
Cheirogaleus smithi 

xxxi, 88, 89, 99, 100, 103 

Cheirogaleus thomasi in 

Cheirogaleus trichotis 00,96 

Cheirogaleus typicus 88,89,92,94 

Cheiromys xxx, 1 

Cheiromys madagascariensis 2 

Cheiron xxxvii 

chimpanse (Pan) lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

Chirogale . . xxiv, xli, xlvii, Ixviii, lxxix 

87, 89, 90. 91, 100, 101, 136 

Chirogale adipicaudatus . . . .89, 90, 100 

Chirogale coquereli 89, 101 

Chirogale crossleyi 

xlvii, lxxix, 89, 91, 92, 96, in 

Chirogale furcifer 88, 89 

Chirogale gliroides 90, 100 

Chirogale griseus 89 

Chirogale major 

xlvii, lxxix, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, III 
Chirogale (Altililemur) medius 00, 100 

Chirogale medius 00, 100 

Chirogale melanotis 

xlvii, lxxix, 90, 91, 92, 94, 96 

Chirogale milii 89, 90, 91, 93, 100 

Chirogale minor 90, 100 

Chirogale murinus 88 

Chirogale myoxinus 90, 100 

Chirogale pusillus 90, 100 

Chirogale rufus 90, 100 

Chirogale samati 00, 100 

Chirogale sibreei xlvii, lxxix, 91, 94, 96 

Chirogale smithji 88, 89, 90, 100 

Chirogale trichotis 

xlvii, lxxix, 90, 91, 92, 96 

Chirogale typicus 89, 90, 100 

Chiromys xxviii 

Chiromys madagascariensis 2 

Chiropotes xxxviii, 285, 286, 287 



Page 

Chiropotes alba 300 

Chiropotes aLbinasa 287, 296 

Chiropotes ater 287, 297 

Chiropotes brachyurus 298 

chiropotes (Chiropotes) 286 

Chiropotes cuxio xxxvi, 286. 296 

Chiropotes israelita 298 

Chiropotes niger 297 

chiropotes (Pithecia) 

xvi, lii, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxvii. 

286, 287, 288, 297, 300 

chiropotes Simia (Pithecia) 297 

Chiropotes sagulata 287,298 

Chiropotes satanus 287, 297 

chiropotes (Simia) 286 

Chirosciurus 45 

Chlorocebus xl, Ix 

chlorocnemis (Callithrix) 236 

chrysampyx (Lemur) 134, 135, 136, 144 
chrysocephala (Pithecia) 

lii, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 286, 287, 288, 294 
chrysogaster (Cercocebus) ..lviii.xcv 
chrysoleuca (Callithrix) 

xxxviii, li, lxxiv, lxxxv 

218, 220, 223, 224. 225 

chrysoleuca (Hapale) 223 

chrysoleuca (Mico) 219 

chrysoleucus (Mico) 223 

chrysomelas (Hapale) xxxv, 1, 184, 207 

chrysomelas (Jacchus) 181. 211 

chrysomelas (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, i8r, 182, 185, 195, an 
chrysomelas (Leontopithecus) 183,211 

chrysomelas (Marikina) 211 

chrysomelas (Midas) 181, 182, 183 

chrysomelas (Pygathrix) 

lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

chrysopus (Cebus) lv. lxxiv, xci 

chrysopyga (Hapale) 184, 200 

chrysopygus (Jacchus) 181,200 

chrysopygus (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 182, 185, 194, 200 

chrysopygus (Marikina) 201 

chrysopygus (Midas) 201 

chrysopygus (Seniocebus) 183 

Chrysothrix xv, xxxv, 307, 308 

Chrysothrix entomophaga 308.315.316 
Chrysothrix nigrivittata . .308. 3"-3 T 2 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Chrysothrix cerstedi 309, 316 

Chrysothrix sciurea 

308,310,311,315,316 
Chrysothrix s. cassiquiarensis 308,311 

Chrysothrix usta 314 

Chrysothrix ustus 314 

chrysurus (Mycetes) 260, 261, 262, 278 

chrysurus (Stentor) 261,278 

cincta cauda annulis (Prosimia).. .132 
cinerascens (Callicebus) 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 252, 253 

cinerascens (Callithrix) 235,252 

cinerascens (Saguinus) 236 

cinereiceps (Lemur) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 138, 139, 141, 156 

cinereiceps (Lemur m.) 156 

cinereus (Lemur) 124,125,133 

cinereus (Nycticebus) 

xiv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 21 
22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 30 
circumcinctus (Erythrocebus) 

lxii, lxxi, xcix 

cirrifer (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xci 

citrinellus (Saimiri o.) . . . .309, 316, 317 

Clastes xxxvii, 11 

coibensis (Alouatta p.) 

Hi, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 262, 264, 265, 273 
collaris (Lemur) 

133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 147 

collaris (Prosimia) 142, 147, 149 

Colobinae xxv, xliii, lxii 

Colobus . . .xvi, xxvi, xliii, lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus abyssinicus lxv, lxxii, ciii 

Colobus angolensis lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus bouvieri lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus caudatus lxv, lxxii. ciii 

Colobus ellioti lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus ferrugineus 

xxxix, lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus foai lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus fuliginosus lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus gallarum lxv, lxxii, ciii 

Colobus godonorum lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus graueri lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus guereza xxxviii 

Colobus kirki lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus nigrimanus lxv, lxxii, cii 



Page 

Colobus occidentalis lxv, lxxii, ciii 

Colobus oustaleti lxv, cii 

Colobus palliatus lxv, lxxii, ciii 

Colobus pennanti lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus poliurus lxv, lxxii, ciii 

Colobus polycomus lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus preussi lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus rufomitratus 

xxxix, lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus rufoniger lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus ruwenzori lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus satanas xli, lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus sharpei lxv, lxxii, ciii 

Colobus temmincki lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus tephrosceles . . . .lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus tholloni lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus vellerosus xxxix, lxv, lxxii, cii 

Colobus versus xli, lxv, lxxii, cii 

commerconi (Cebugale) 92 

commerqonii (Chirogaleus) 92 

commersoni (Cebugale) ...xxx, 88, 92 

commersoni (Lemur) xxx 

concolor (Hylobates) .. lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

concolor (Simias) xvi, xl, lxiv, ci 

conspicillatus (Galago) 47,48,73 

continentis (Symphalangus s.) 

xxvi, lxvi, lxxii, ciii 
coquereli (Cheirogaleus) .100,107,173 

coquereli (Chirogale) 89, 101 

coquereli (Microcebus) 

xxxi, xlvii, lxxix, 89, 100, 101, 102. 107 

coquereli (Mirza) 107 

coquereli (Propithecus) 

xlix, lxxxii, 107, 173 
coquereli (Propithecus v.) 

xlix, lxxxii, 167, 168, 173 
coronatus (Lemur) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 134, 135 
136, 138, 139, 140, 144 
coronatus (Propithecus v.) 

xlix, lxxxii, 167, 168, 171, 174 

coronatus (Prosimia) 144 

Corypithecus xxxix, lxii 

Cothurus xli, 299 

coucang (Nycticebus) 

xxx, xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 22, 23, 26, 28 
coucang (Tardigradus) ..xxviii. xlv. 21 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

crassicaudata (Otogale) 48 

crassicaudatus (Galago) 

xxx, xlv, lxvii, lxxvii, 46, 47, 48 

crassicaudatus (Otolicnus) 47 

crassiceps (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xci 

crepuscula (Pygathrix) . . . lxiv, lxxi, c 

cristata (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

crossleyi (Cheirogaleus) 96,111 

crossleyi (Chirogale) 

xlvii, lxxix, 89, 91, 92, 96, in 
cruciger (Pygathrix) .. .lxii, lxxi, xcix 

cucullatus (Ateles!) liv 

cucullatus (Ateleus) liv, lxxxix 

cupidus (Pithecus) lviii, lxx, xciv 

cupreus (Callicebus) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 236, 237, 238, 239 

241, 242, 244, 245, 247, 248 

cupreus (Callithrix) . . 235, 236, 237, 242 

cupreus (Cebus) 235 

cupreus (Saguinus) 236 

cuscinus (Cebus u.) lv, Ixxv, xci 

cuvieri (Lemur) 136, 142 

cuvieri (Otolicnus) 73 

cuxio (Chiropotes) . . . . xxxvi, 286, 296 
cyclopsis (Pithecus) . . .lvii, lxix, xciii 

Cynamolgos xxxix 

Cynocebus xl 

Cynocephalus xxxii, lvi 

Cynocephalus niger xxxv 

Cynocephalus olivaceus 121 

cynocephalus (Papio) xxxi, lvi, lxix, xci 

cynocephalus (Pithecus) xiii 

Cynocephalus porcarius xxxvi 

Cynocephalus silenus xxxvi 

cynocephalus (Simia) xxxiv 

Cynopithecus 

xviii, xxi, xxvi, xxvii, xxxvii 
xliii, lvi, lxix, xcii 

Cynopithecus niger lvi, xcii 

cynosura (Lasiopyga) .. .xxxviii, xcvii 
cynosurus (Cercopithecus) ...xxxviii 

damonis (Propithecus) 167,173 

Daubentonia ..xxi, xxvii, xli, xliv, lxviii 

lxxxv, cv, 1, 2. 136 
Daubentonia madagascariensis 

xliv. lxxxv. 1. 2, 47 
daubentoni (Tarsius) 2 



Page 
Daubentoniidae . .xii, xli, xliv, lxxxv, 1 

Daunus xxxvi 

dubius (Lemur) 134 

deckeni (Propithecus v.) 

xlix, lxxxii, 166, 167, 168, 172 
demidoffi (Galago) . . . xxix, xxx, 48, 83 
demidoffi Galago (Hemigalago) ...83 
demidoffi (Hemigalago) 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 46, 48 
82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 125 

demidoffi (Otolicnus) 47.82 

denti (Lasiopyga) Ixi, lxx, xcvii 

devellii (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxxiv, 182, 184, 186 
195, 200, 202, 203, 204 

devilli (Hapale) 182, 184, 203 

devilli (Midas) 

182, 183, 184. 203, 204, 205, 207 

devilli (Seniocebus) 183 

Diadema xxxvii 

diadema (Habrocebus) 169 

diadema (Indrus) 169 

diadema (Lichanotus) 169 

diadema (Propithecus) 

xxix, xlix, lxxxii, 167, 168 

Diana xxxix 

diana (Lasiopyga) Ixi, lxx, xcviii 

diana (Simia) xli 

diehli (Gorilla g.) lxvii, lxxii, civ 

dilecta (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

discolor (Alouatta) 267,268 

discolor (Callithrix) 236,242,243 

discolor (Mycetes) 

260, 261, 263, 267, 268, 270, 271 
djamdjamensis (Lasiopyga) ..lx, xcvii 

doggetti (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

doguera (Papio) lv, lxix, xci 

dollmani (Pithecus) lviii, lxx. xcv 

donacophilus (Callicebus) 

lxxv, lxxxvi, 235, 238, 239 
248,249,250,251 
donacophilus (Callithrix) 

235, 236, 237, 249 

donacophilus (Saguinus) 236 

dorsalis (Hapalemur! 1.) 119 

dorsalis (Lepidolemur) 120 

dorsalis (Lepilemur!) 119 

Douroucouli xlii 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Drill xl 

dubius (Lemur) 134, 142 

dunni (Galago) ..xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 70 

edwardsi (Lepidolemur) 

xlviii, lxxx, 116, 117, 123 
edwardsi (Perodicticus) 

xlv, Ixxvii, 38, 39. 42, 43, 167, 170 
edwardsi (Propithecus d.) 

Ixix, lxxxii, 42, 167, 168. 170 
egens (Cercopithecus m.) 

xlix, Appendix, vol. Ill, p. 256 
egeria (Callicebus) 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 246 
elegantulus (Galago) 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 48 
68, 77, 78, 79. 80, 81 

elegantulus Galago (Otogale) 77 

elegantulus Galago (Otolicnus) 77 

elegantulus (Midas) 183, 196, 197 

ellioti (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, cii 

emiliae (Callicebus) 

li, Ixxiv, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 239, 250 

Engeco xl 

Entellus xl 

entellus (Pygathrix) lxiv, lxxi, c 

entomophaga (Callithrix) ....308,315 
entomophaga (Chrysothrix) 

308, 315. 3i6 
entomophaga (Saimiri) . . .308, 309, 315 

entomophaga (Saimiris) 315, 316 

entomophagus (Pithesciureus) ....308 

Eriodes xxxvii 

Eriodes arachnoides xxxv 

Erythrocebus xvi, xix, xxv, xxxix, xliii 
lxi, lxxi, xcviii 
Erythrocebus albigenis .lxii, lxxi, xcix 
Erythrocebus baumstarki lxii, lxxi, xcix 
Erythrocebus circumcinctus 

lxii, lxxi, xcix 
Erythrocebus formosus lxii, lxxi, xcix 
Erythrocebus kerstingi .lxii, lxxi, xcix 
Erythrocebus langeldi ..lxii, lxxi, xcix 
Erythrocebus patas .. .lxii, lxxi, xcviii 
Erythrocebus poliophaeus 

lxii, lxxi, xcix 
Erythrocebus pyrrhonotus 

lxii, lxxi, xcviii 



Page 
Erythrocebus sannio .. .lxii, lxxi, xcix 
Erythrocebus whitei ... .lxii, lxxi, xcix 

Erythrocebus zechi lxii, lxxi, xcix 

erythrogaster (Midas) 196 

erythrogaster (Lasiopyga) ...lix, xcvi 

erythrogaster (Seniocebus) 183 

erythromela (Prosimia) 134, 162 

erythrotis (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

Eucebus xxxvii 

Euoticus xxxi, 45 

Euoticus pallidus 79 

everetti (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

fantiensis (Lasiopyga) lix, xcvi 

fantiensis (Lasiopyga p.) xcvi 

fascicularis (Pithecus) . lviii, lxix, xciv 

fatuellus (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xci 

Faunus xxxv 

Faunus indicus xxxiii 

faustus (Perodicticus) 

xlv, Ixxvii, 38, 39, 42 

felinus (Nyctipithecus) xxxiv 

femoralis (Pygathrix) ..lxiii, lxxi, xcix 
ferrugineus (Colobus) 

xxxix, lxv, lxxii, cii 

fischeri (Tarsius) 8,15 

flavicauda Alouatta (Simia). ..274, 276 

flavicauda (Mycetes) 262, 275 

flavicauda (Pygathrix) .lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

flavicauda (Simia) 274, 276 

flavicaudata (Simia) 260,261 

flavicaudatus (Cebus) 260,275 

flavicaudatus (Mycetes) 

261, 262, 264, 275 

flavicaudatus (Stentor) 260,274 

flaviceps (Callithrix) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 220, 221, 229 

flaviceps (Hapale) 229 

flavifrons (Lemur) 143,148 

flavifrons (Midas) . . . 182, 183, 184, 207 

flavifrons (Prosimia) 148 

flavifrons (Seniocebus) 183 

flavimanus (Mycetes) 271 

flaviventer (Lemur) ..134,135,136.152 

flavus (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xci 

flavus (Lemur) 132 

foai (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, cii 

formosus (Erythrocebus) lxii, lxxi, xcix 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
francescae (Lasiopyga) .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

francoisi (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

fraterculus (Tarsius) 

xliv, lxxxv, 8, 9, 12 

frederici (Prosimia) 134,154 

frontata (Pygathrix) . . .lxii, lxxi, xcix 

frontatus (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xc 

frontatus (Semnopithecus) xxxix 

fuliginosus (Cercocebus) . . .xxiii, lviii 

fuliginosus (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, cii 

fuliginosus (Pan) lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

fulvis pedibus (Prosimia) 132 

fulvus (Lemur) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 132.. 133, 134. 135, 136 

138. 139, 140, 146, 147, 149, 150, 158 

funereus (Hylobates) .. .lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

furax (Papio) lvi, lxix, xci 

furcifer (Cheirogaleus) 108 

furcif er (Chirogale) 88, 89 

furcifer (Lemur) xxxi, 108 

furcifer (Lepilemur!) 108 

furcifer (Microcebus) 

xlvii, lxxix, 89, 99, 100, 101 
102. 107, 108, 121 

furcifer (Phaner) 108 

fusca (Prosimia) 132 

fuscatus (Pithecus) lvii, lxix, xciii 

fusciceps (Ateles!) liv 

fusciceps (Ateleus) liv, lxxxix 

fuscicollis (Chirogale) 88 

fuscicollis (Hapale) 184. 207 

fuscicollis (Leontocebus) 

I, lxxxiv, 182, 183, 184, 185, 195, 200, 207 
fuscicollis (Midas) ...181,183,184,207 

fuscomanus (Tarsius) 15 

fuscomurina (Pygathrix) . .lxii, lxxi, c 

fuscus (Hylobates) lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

fuscus (Leontocebus) 182 

fuscus (Mycetes) 260,261,262,275 

fuscus (Pan) lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

fuscus (Pithecus) lviii, xciv 

fuscus (Stentor) 260,274 

fuscus (Tarsius) xliv, lxxxvi, 8, 9, 12, 15 

gabonensis (Galago a.) 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 48, 65. 66. 67 
gabonensis Galago a. (Otolicnus) . .66 
gabonensis (Otolicnus) 66 



Page 
gabrielli (Hylobates) . . .lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Galaginae xii, xxii, xli, xlv, 45, 90 

Galago xxii, xxviii, xli, xlv, lxviii 

45. 46, 47, 48, 00, 136 

Galago acaciarum 47, 72 

Galago acaciarum var. A alleni ....47 
Galago acaciarum var. B senega- 

lensis 47,73 

Galago acaciarum var. C sennaar- 

iensis 47, 74 

Galago agisymbanus 55 

Galago alleni .. xxxi, xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii 
46, 47, 48, 67, 77 
Galago a. batesi xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 66 
Galago a. cameronensis 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 65, 67 
Galago a. (Otolicnus) cameronensis 66 
Galago a. gabonensis 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 48, 65, 66, 67 
Galago (Hemigalago) anomurus.. . .84 

Galago badius xlvi, lxviii, lxxvii 

Galago batesi xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii 

Galago braccatus 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 68, 69 
Galago braccatus albipes 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 69, 70 

Galago conspicillatus 47,48,73 

Galago crassicaudatus 

xxx, xlv, lxvii, lxxvii, 46, 47, 48 
Galago demidoffi . . xxix, xxx, 46, 48, 83 

Galago (Hemigalago) demidoffi 83 

Galago demidoffi poensis 84 

Galago dunni .. . .xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 70 
Galago elegantulus 

xlvii, lxviii, lxxviii, 48 
68, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 

Galago (Otogale) elegantulus 77 

Galago (Otolicnus) elegantulus 77 

Galago elegantulus apicalis 

xlvi. lxviii, lxxviii. 48. 80 
Galago elegantulus pallidus 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 48, 79 
Galago elegantulus tonsor 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii. 78 

Galago (Otogale) pallidus 79 

Galago galago 47-68 

Galago galago var. australis 73 

Galago galago B. senegalen?is 73 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



xui 



Page 
Galago gallarum 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 68, 69, 71 
Galago garnetti 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 46, 57 

Galago geoffroyi 46, 72 

Galago granti . ..xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 71 
Galago hindsi . ..xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 62 
Galago kikuyuensis 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 63 

Galago kirki xlvi, lxviii, lxxvii, 60 

Galago lasiotis .. .xlvi, lxviii, lxxvii, 61 

galago (Lemur) xxviii, 72 

Galago madagascariensis ...46,99,103 

Galago moholi 46, 48, 70, 72, 74 

Galago (Otolicnus) moholi. . .46, 47, 72 

Galago minor 99, 103 

Galago monteiri 

xxxi, xlvi, lxvii, lxxviii, 48 

Galago monteiri kirki 48 

Galago mossambicus 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 76, 77 

Galago s. mossambicus 48 

Galago murinus 73 

Galago nyassae . .xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 70 

Galago pallida 79 

Galago pallidus 48, 79 

Galago panganiensis 

xlvi, lxvii, lxxvii, 57 

Galago potto 46 

Galago pupulus ..xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 76 

Galago pusillus lxviii, lxxviii, 83 

Galago senegalensis 

. xxviii, xlv, lxviii, lxxviii, 45 

46,47,48,70,72, 76 
Galago (Otolicnus) senegalensis. . ..73 
Galago sennaariensis xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii 
47, 48, 70, 7h 74, 75 
Galago (Otolicnus) sennaariensis ..74 
Galago talboti . ..xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 67 

Galago (Otolicnus) teng 47 

Galago thomasi 85 

Galago zanzibaricus 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 67 
Galago zuluensis ..xlv, lxviii, lxxvii, 56 

Galagoides xxix, 45 

Galagoides senegalensis 72 

Galagonina 48 

Galeocebus xxx, 115 



Page 

Galeocebus mustelinus 119 

Galeopithecus 32 

Galeopithecus volans 132, 133 

galeritus (Cercocebus) lix, xcv 

gallarum (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, ciii 

gallarum (Galago) 

xlvi, lxvii, lxxviii, 68, 69, 71 
garnetti (Galago) 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 46, 57 

garnetti (Otogale) 48 

garnetti (Otolicnus) xxxi, 46, 47 

Gastrimargus xxxvi 

Gastrimargus infumatus xxxiv 

Gelada xxxvi 

gelada (Macaca) xxxvi 

gelada (Macacus) xxxvi 

gelada (Theropithecus) . . lvi, lxix, xcii 

geoffroyi (Ateles !) liv 

geoffroyi (Ateleus) 

liv, lxxiii, lxxiv. lxxxix 

geoffroyi (Galago) 46, 72 

geoffroyi (Hapale) 

xxxviii, 182, 184. 214 

geoffroyi (Midas) 183, 214 

geoffroyi (CEdipomidas) 

1, lxxiii, lxxxiv, 182, 183 
184,185.214,215 

geoffroyi (CEdipus) 214 

geoffroyi (Perodicticus) ..xxix, 38, 39 

geoffroyi (Simia) 217 

Geopithecus xxxv 

germaini (Pygathrix) lxiv, lxxi. c 

gigot (Callicebus) 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 254, 255 
gigot (Callithrix) 235,236,237,254,255 

gliroides (Cheirogaleus) 100, 103 

gliroides (Chirogale) 90,100 

gliroides (Mkrocebus) 105 

Gliscebus xxx, 98 

Gliscebus murinus 99, 103 

Gliscebus rufus 99- 103 

globiceps (Lepidolemur) 

xlvii, lxxx, 116, 117 
godonorum (Colobus) .. .lxv, lxxii, cii 
goeldi (Callithrix) 

li, lxxxv, 220, 221, 224 

Gorilla . . . xiii, xv. xvi, xx, xxvii, xxxvii 

xliii, lxvi, lxxii, civ 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Gorilla beringeri lxvii, Ixxii. ciii 

Gorilla gorilla lxvi, lxxii, civ 

Gorilla g. castaneiceps .lxvii, lxxii, civ 

Gorilla g. diehli lxvii, lxxii, civ 

Gorilla g. jacobi lxvii, lxxii, civ 

Gorilla g. matschie lxvi, lxxii, civ 

Gorilla mayema xl, lxvii 

gorilla (Troglodytes) xxxvii, lxvi 

graellsi (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxxiv, 184, 186, 195, 208 

graellsi (Midas) 184, 208 

gracilis (Lemur) 17,18 

gracilis (Loris) xxviii, xliv, 18 

gracilis (Nycticebtis) 18 

gracilis (Stenops) 18 

grandidieri (Lepidolemur) 

xlvii, lxxx, 116, 117, 118 
granti (Galago) ..xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 71 

graueri (Colobus) lxv, lxxii. cii 

grayi (Cercopithecus) xxxix 

grayi (Lasiopyga) lxi, lxx, xcvii 

gricescens (Ateleus) liv, lxxxix 

griseimembra (Aotus) liii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

griseisticta (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvii 

griseo-maculatus (Lemur m.). . 136, 160 
griseorufus (Microcebus m.) . . 101,104 

griseoventris (Midas) 196, 197 

griseoviridis (Lasiopyga) ....lx, xcvii 

griseus (Chirogale) 89 

griseus (Hapalemur!) 124,125 

griseus (Hapalolemur) 126 

griseus (Lemur) . . .xxx, xlviii, 124, 125 

griseus (Microcebus) 126 

griseus (Mioxicebus) ..; xxx, 125 

griseus (Myoxicebus) 

xlviii, lxxx, 88, no, 121, 124, 125 
126, 127, 129. 133, 134, 135 

guereza (Colobus) xxxviii 

gularis (Aotus) liv, lxxiv. lxxxix 

Gymnopyga xxxviii 

Habrocebus xxix, 163, 166, 167 

Habrocebus diadema 169 

Habrocebus lanatus 164 

hagenbecki (Cercocebus) lix, xcv 

Hamadryas xxxvi. lvi 

hamadryas (Papio) xxiv, lvi. lxix, xcii 
hamadryas (Simia") xxxvi 



Page 

hamlyni (Cercocebus) lix, xcv 

hamlyni (Cercopithecus) xl. lix 

hamlyni (Rhinostigma) lix. xcv 

Hapale xv, xxxiv, 179, 181, 182 

183. 184,216,218 

Hapale albicollis 232 

Hapale albicollis var. C 232 

Hapale argentata 182, 221, 223 

Hapale aurita 182, 225 

Hapale bicolor 184. 186 

Hapale chrysoleuca 223 

Hapale chrysomelas . .xxxv, 1, 184, 207 

Hapale chrysopyga 184, 200 

Hapale devillii 182, 184, 203 

Hapale flaviceps 229 

Hapale fuscicollis 184, 207 

Hapale geoffroyi .xxxviii, 182, 184, 214 

Hapale humeralifer 230, 231 

Hapale humeralifer var. D 230 

Hapale illigeri 184. 205 

Hapale jacchus 181, 182, 228, 229 

Hapale labiata 184, 196 

Hapale leonina 184, 211 

Hapale leucocephala 230 

Hapale leucocephalus .... 181, 182, 230 

Hapale leucopus 222 

Hapale leucotis 218 

Hapale melanotis 218 

Hapale melanura 182, 221 

Hapale midas 184, 191 

Hapale mystax 

xxxviii, 181, 182, 184. 198, 201 
Hapale nigricollis .... 183, 184, 198. 199 

Hapale nigrifrons 183. 184, 198 

Hapale cedipus 184. 213 

Hapale penicillata 181, 226 

Hapale pileata 184, 197 

Hapale pygmaea xxxviii, 233 

Hapale rosalia 184. 210 

Hapale santaremensis 224 

Hapale ursula 184. 192 

Hapale weddeli 184. 202 

Hapalemur! xxx, 124, 125 

Hapalemur! (Lepilemur!) dorsalis 119 

Hapalemur! griseus 124,125 

Hapalemur! olivaceous 125.127 

Hapalemur! simus xxxi.125. 128 

Hapalidas xix 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Hapalolemur 115, 135 

Hapalolemur griseus 126 

Hapanella xxxviii 

harmandi (Pithecus) . . .lvii, lxix, xciii 
Hemigalago xxx, xli, xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii 

45, 46, 82, 86 
Hemigalago anomurus 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii,84, 86 
Hemigalago demidoffi 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 46, 48 
82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 125 
Hemigalago demidoffi poensis 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 84 
Hemigalago thomasi 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 85 

henrici (Hylobates) lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

heuglini (Papio) lvi, lxix, xci 

hilgerti (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

hilleri (Nycticebus) 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 22, 24, 31 
hindei (Lasiopyga k.) . .lxi, lxx, xcvii 
hindsi (Galago) .xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 62 

hirsuta (Pithecia) 286,287,289 

hirsuta (Yarkea) 289 

hoffmannsi (Callicebus) 

li, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 239, 248, 249 

holomelas (Propithecus 167,170 

holomelas (Propithecus d.).. . .167, 170 
holotophrea (Pygathrix) 

lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Homo xxxi 

Homo lar xxxiv, xxxv, lxvi 

Homonidse xvii 

hoolock (Hylobates) xiii, lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

hosei (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

humeralifer (Callithrix) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 218, 220, 221, 230 

humeralifer (Hapale) 230,231 

humeralifer var. D. (Hapale) ....230 

humeralifer (Jacchus) 217,230 

humeralifer (Simia) 217 

hybridus (Ateles!) liv, lxxiv 

hybridus (Ateleus) . .liv. lxxiv, lxxxix 

Hylanthropus xxxviii 

Hylobates . . . xiii. xiv, xv, xvi, xx, xxvi 
xliii, lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates agilis lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates concolor lxvi, lxxii, ciii 



Page 

Hylobates funereus lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates fuscus lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates gabrielli lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates henrici lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates hoolock ..xiii, lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates lar lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates leuciscus lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates leucogenys . .lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates nasutus lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates pileatus lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Hylobates syndactylus xv 

Hylobatidse 
xiii, xvii, xviii, xxii, xxvi, xliii, lxvi, ciii 

hypoleuca (Pygathrix lxiv, lxxi, c 

Hypsicebus xxx, 7, 8 

Hypsicebus bancanus xxx, 8, 14 

ibeanus (Papio) lvi, lxix, xci 

ibeanus (Perodicticus) 

xlv, lxviii, lxxvii, 38. 39, 41 

illigeri (Hapale) 184, 205 

illigeri (Leontocebus) 

I, lxxxiv, 182, 183, 186, 195. 204, 205 

illigeri (Midas) 182,183,184,205 

illigeri (CEdipomidas) 205 

illigeri (Seniocebus) 183 

imperator (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 184, 185, 195, 209 
impudens (Pithecus) . . .lviii, lxx, xciv 

indicus (Faunus) xxxiii 

indicus (Midas) 184,209 

Indri 175 

Indri brevicaudata 175 

indri (Indris) 176 

indri (Lemur) 

xxviii, xxix, xxx, xlix, 132, 175 

indri (Lichanotus) 175,176 

Indris .. .xxii, xli, lxviii, lxxxii, 115, 175 

Indris brevicaudatus 176 

Indris indri 176 

Indris indris xlix, lxxix, 175 

Indris laniger 164 

Indris longicaudatus 163 

indris (Pithelemur) 176 

Indrisinse xiv, xxii, xli, xlviii 

Indrium xxix, 175 

Indrus albus 169 

Indrus diadema 160 



XVI 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
infumata (Lagothrix) 

xxxiv, liv, lxxiv, xc 

infumatus (Gastrimargus) xxxiv 

infulatus (Aotus) 

xxxii, liii, lxxiv, lxxxviii, 235 

infulatus (Callithrix) 235 

infulatus (Cebus) 235 

infulatus (Saguinus) 236 

inobservata (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

inornatus (Macacus) xxxviii 

Insignicebus xlii 

insignis (Lasiopyga) ... lxi, lxxi, xcviii 

insolita (Lasiopyga) lix, xcvi 

insulanus (Alouatta) 

Hi, Ixxiii, lxxxvii, 263, 264, 265, 282 
insulanus (Pithecus) . . . lvii, lxix, xciii 
insularis (Lasiopyga p.). lxi, lxx, xcviii 

inusta (Pithecia) 286, 289, 290 

inusta (Yarkea) 287, 289 

Iropocus xxx, 163 

Iropocus laniger xxx 

irrorata (Pithecia) ...286,287.289,294 

irrorata (Yarkea) 287,289 

irus (Pithecus) lviii, lxix, xciv 

israelita (Brachyurus) 

xxxiv, 287, 298, 300 
israelita (Chiropotes) 298 

Jacchus 181, 183, 216, 217, 218 

Jacchus albicollis 218, 231 

Jacchus albifrons 209 

Jacchus argentatus .xxxv, 181, 217, 221 

Jacchus auritus 217 

jacchus (Callithrix) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 217, 218, 220 
221, 225, 228, 229, 231 

Jacchus chrysomelas 181, 21 1 

Jacchus chrysopygus 181, 200 

jacchus (Hapale) ....181,187,228,229 

Jacchus humeralifer 217, 230 

Jacchus labiatus 181, 195 

Jacchus leoninus 181 

Jacchus leucocephalus 217, 229 

Jacchus leucomerus 221 

Jacchus maximiliani 230 

Jacchus melanurus xxxv. 217, 221 

Jacchus midas 181 

Jacchus cedipus 181, 213 



Page 

Jacchus penicillatus 217,218,226 

Jacchus pygmaeus 218, 232 

Jacchus rosalia 181 

jacchus (Simia) 

xxxii, xxxiii, xxxv, 1, 216, 228 

Jacchus trigonifer 226 

Jacchus ursulus 181 

Jacchus vulgaris 217,218,228,229 

jacobi (Gorilla g.) lxvii, lxxii, civ 

javanicus (Nycticebus) 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 21, 22, 23, 28, 31 

javanicus (Stenops) 28 

johni (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

johni (Semnopithecus) xxxviii 

johnstoni (Cercocebus a.) lix, xcv 

johnstoni (Lasiopyga c.) lx, xcvii 

jordani (Callithrix p.) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 220, 221, 227 
juara (Alouatta) 

Hi, lxxiv, lxxvii, 263. 264, 265, 283 
ju-ju (Perodicticus) 

xlv, lxxvii, 38, 39, 41 

kandti (Lasiopyga) lxi, lxx, xcviii 

karimoni (Pithecus) . . . .lviii, lxx, xciv 

Kasi xxxix 

kerstingi (Erythrocebus) 

lxii, lxxi, xcix 
kibonotensis (Lasiopyga a.) 

lxi, lxx, xcviii 
kikuyuensis (Galago) 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii 

kirki (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, cii 

kirki (Galago) xlvi, lxvii, lxxvii 

kirki (Galago m.) 48 

klossi (Symphalangus) .lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

kolbi (Lasiopyga) lxi, lxx, xcvii 

kooloo-kamba (Pan) . .lxvii, Ixxiii, cv 

labiata (Hapale) 184,196 

Iabiata (Lasiopyga) ... .lxi, lxxi, xcviii 

labiatus (Jacchus) 181.195 

labiatus (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiii, 180, 182, 183, 184 
185, 194, 195, 196, 197. 205, 208 

labiatus (Marikina) 195 

labiatus (Midas) 

180. 181, 182, 183. 184, 195 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



XVU 



Page 

labiatus Simia (Midas) 195 

lacepedii (Simia) 180, 191 

laetus (Pithecus) lviii, lxx, xciv 

laglaizi (Lasiopyga n.) lx, xcvi 

lagonotus (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxxiv, 184, 185, 195, 206 

lagonotus (Midas) 184, 206 

Lagothrix xvi, xix, xxii, xxxiii, xli 

liv, lxxiv, lxxv, xc 
Lagothrix cana .. .xxxvii, liv, lxxiv, xc 
Lagothrix lagotricha liv, lxxiv, lxxv, xc 

Lagothrix lugens liv, lxxiv, xc 

Lagothrix infumata xxxiv, liv, lxxiv, xc 

Lagothrix thomasi liv, lxxiv, xc 

Lagothrix ubericola liv, lxxiv, xc 

lagotricha (Lagothrix) 

liv, lxxiv, lxxv, xc 
langeldi (Erythrocebus) lxii, lxxi, xcix 

lanatus (Habrocebus) 164 

lanatus (Lemur) xxix, 164 

lania (Pygathrix) lxiv, lxxi, ci 

laniger (Avahis) xxix, 164 

laniger (Indris) 164 

laniger (Iropocus) xxx 

laniger (Lemur) 

xxviii, xxix, xxx, xlviii, 133, 163 
laniger (Lichanotus) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 133, 163, 164 

laniger (Microrhynchus) 164 

laniger (Mycetes) 261,262,278 

lanius (Aotus) liii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

lapsus (Pithecus) lviii, lxx, xciv 

lar (Homo) xxxvi, xxxvii, lxvi 

lar (Hylobates) lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Laratus xxxiv 

larvatus (Cercopithecus) ..xxxiii, lxiv 
larvatus (Nasalis) xxxiv, xxxvi, lxiv, ci 
Lasiopyga xiii, xiv, xvi, xxv, xxvi, xxxii 
xxxviii, xl, xliii, lix, xcvi 
Lasiopyga albigularis . . .lxi, lxx, xcvii 
Lasiopyga a. beirensis. . .lxi, lxxi, xcvii 
Lasiopyga a. kinobotensis 

lxi, lxx, xcviii 
Lasiopyga albitorquata ..lxi, lxxi, xcvii 

Lasiopyga ascanius lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga a. whitesidei lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga aurora lx, xcvi 



Pace 

Lasiopyga boutourlini lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga burnetti lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga buttikoferi lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga brazzae lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga callida lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga callitrichus lix, xcvii 

Lasiopyga campbelli .... lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga carruthersi lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga centralis lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga c. johnstoni lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga c. lutea lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga c. whytei lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga cephodes lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga cephus lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga cynosura lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga denti lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga diana lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga djamdjamensis lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga doggetti lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga erythrogaster lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga erythrotis lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga fantiensis lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga francescae .. .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga grayi lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga g. pallida lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga griseisticta lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga griseoviridis lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga hilgerti lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga inobservata lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga insignis lxi, lxxi, xcviii 

Lasiopyga insolita lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga kandti lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga kolbi lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga k. hindei lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga k. nubila lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga labiata lxi, lxxi, xcviii 

Lasiopyga leucampyx liv, xcvi 

Lasiopyga l'hoesti lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga martini lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga matschie lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga moloneyi . . . .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga mona lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga mossambicus lxi, lxxi, xcviii 
Lasiopyga neglecta . . . .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga nemaeus lxii 

Lasiopyga neumanni lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga nictitans lx, xcvi 



XV111 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Lasiopyga n. laglaizi lx. xcvi 

Lasiopyga nigrigenis lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga nigroviridis lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga opisthosticta lix. xcvi 

Lasiopyga petaurista lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga p. fantiensis xcvi 

Lasiopyga petronellse . . .lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga pluto lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga pogonias . . . .lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga p. nigripes lxi, lxx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga preussi lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga p. insularis. . .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga princeps lx, xcvi, 

Lasiopyga pygerythra lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga roloway lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga rubella lixjxcvii 

Lasiopyga rufilata lxi, lxx/xcviii 

Lasiopyga rufitincta ... .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga rufoviridis lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga schmidti lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga sclateri lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga signata lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga silacea lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga stairsi lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga s. mossambicus 

lxi, Ixxi, xcviii 

Lasiopyga sticticeps lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga stuhlmanni lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga s. carruthersi lx, xcvi 

Lasiopyga s. nigrigenis lix, xcvi 

Lasiopyga tantalus lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga t. alexandri lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga t. budgetti lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga t. griseisticta lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga temmincki .. .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga thomasi lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Lasiopyga werneri lx, xcvii 

Lasiopyga wolfi lxi, lxxi, xcvii 

Lasiopygidae 

xiii, xv, xvii, xviii, xix, xliii, Iv 

Lasiopyginse xliii, lv 

lasiotis (Galago) . . . .xlvi, lxvi, lxxviii 

lasiotis (Pithecus) lvii, lxix, xciii 

lautensis (Pithecus) . . . .lviii, lxx, xciv 

Lemur xxii, xxviii, xxxi, xli, xlviii,lxviii 

lxxxi, 115, 125, 130, 131, 132, 133 

134, 135. 136, 137, 138. 140 



Page 
Lemur albifrons 

xlviii, lxxxi. 132. 133, 134, 135, 

136,138,139, I4i,i54.i55 

Lemur albimanus 133,135,136,141 

Lemur anjuanensis ...133, 135, 136, 142 

Lemur bicolor 101, 132, 134, 155 

Lemur brunneus 135, 136, 147, 163 

Lemur catta 

xxviii, xlviii, lxxxi, 131, 132, 133 

134, 135, 136, 139, 141. 158 

Lemur ceylonicus 17 

Lemur g. ceylonicus 17, 18 

Lemur chrysampyx . . 134, 135, 136, 144 
Lemur cinereiceps 

xlviii, lxxxi, 138, 139, 141, 156 

Lemur cinereus 124, 125, 133 

Lemur collaris 

133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 147 
Lemur collaris rufus 

lxviii, lxxxi, 133, 135, 138, 152 

Lemur commersoni xxx 

Lemur coronatus 

xlviii, lxxxi, 134, 135, 136 
138, 139, Mo, 144 

Lemur cuvieri 136, 142 

Lemur dubius 134, 142 

Lemur flavif rons 143, 148 

Lemur flaviventer 134, 135, 136, 152 

Lemur flavus 132 

Lemur fulvus 

xlviii, lxxxi, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136 
138, 139, 140, 146, 147, 149, 150, 158 

Lemur furcifer '. xxxi, 168 

Lemur galago xxviii, 72 

Lemur gracilis 17, 18 

Lemur gracilis ceylonicus 17, 19 

Lemur griseus ... .xxx. xlviii, 124, 125 
Lemur indri 

xxviii, xix, xxx, lix, 132, 175 

Lemur lanatus xxix, 164 

Lemur laniger 

xxviii, xxix, xxx. xlviii. 133, 163 

Lemur leucomystax 135, 137, 157 

Lemur macaco 
xxix, xlviii, lxxxi, 132. 133, 134, 135, 136 
137, 138, 139. 141, 156, 157, 158, 160 
Lemur m. albus 136 






INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
Lemur m. griseo-maculatus. . . .136, 160 

Lemur m. niger 156 

Lemur mayottensis . .136, 138, 145, 146 

Lemur melanocephalus 135, 150 

Lemur milii 92 

Lemur (Chirogaleus) milii 92 

Lemur mongos 

xlviii, lxxxi, 132. 133, 134. 135, 136.. 138 
139, 140, 141, 143. 147, 149, 150 

Lemur mongos var. albif rons 154 

Lemur mongos var. cinereiceps 156 

Lemur mongos rufifrons 151 

Lemur mongos var. rufus 153 

Lemur murinus 

xxix, xxx. xxxi, 98, 101, 102, 132, 134 
Lemur niger 133, 134, 135. 136, 137, *57 
Lemur nigerrimus 

xlviii, lxxxi, 138, 139, 141, 157 
Lemur nigrifrons 

xlviii, lxxxi, 133, 134, 135, 136 
138, 139, 140, 145, 146 

Lemur potto 132 

Lemur prehensilis 102 

Lemur psilodactylus 2 

Lemur pusillus xlvii, 98, 99, 103 

Lemur rubriventer 

xlviii, lxxxi, 134, 135, 136, 139, 140, 151 
Lemur rufifrons 

xlviii, lxxxi, 132, 134, 135 
136,139,141,150, 151 

Lemur rufipes 152 

Lemur rufus 

xlviii, lxxxi, 133, 134, 138, 139, 140, 153 

Lemur samati 90,91 

Lemur simia-sciurus 132 

Lemur spectrum xxix 

Lemur tardigradus 

xxviii, xxx, 17, 18, 19, 31, 132 

Lemur tarsier 7, 8 

Lemur tarsius xliv, 7, 8, 9 

Lemur variegatus 

xxx, xlviii, lxxxi, 132, 133, 134 
135, 136. 137. 139, 141- 160, 162 
Lemur v. ruber 

xlviii, lxxxi, 133, 134, 135 
136, 137. 139. 141- 162 

Lemur varius xxx, 160 

Lemur volans 132,133 



Page 

Lemur xanthomystax 135, 150 

Lemuridse 

89, 99, 100, 115, 116, 135, 136, 138 

Lemurinse . . .xiv, xxiv, xli, xlvii, 87, 135 

Lemuroidea . . . xi, xii, xxi, xxii, xli, xliv 

Ixix, lxxv, cv, 100, 138 

leonina (Hapale) 184, 211 

leonina (Simia) 186,210 

leoninus (Jacchus) 181 

leoninus (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxxiv, 180, 182, 183, 195, 210 
leoninus (Midas) ....180,181,185,210 
Leontocebus 

xiv, xxiii, xxxv, xlii, 1, lxxiv, lxxxiii 
179, 181, 182, 183, 184, 194, 217, 218 
Leontocebus apiculatus 

1, lxxxiv, 184, 186, 195, 204 

Leontocebus ater 182, 199 

Leontocebus ater var. B 211 

Leontocebus aurora 182 

Leontocebus bicolor 189 

Leontocebus chrysomelas 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 181, 182, 185, 195, 211 
Leontocebus chrysopygus 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 182, 185, 194, 200 
Leontocebus devillii 

1, lxxxiv, 182, 184, 186 
195, 200, 202. 203, 204 
Leontocebus fuscicollis 
1, lxxxiv. 182, 183, 184, 185, 195, 200, 207 

Leontocebus fuscus 182 

Leontocebus graellsi 

1, lxxxiv, 184, 186, 195, 208 
Leontocebus illigeri 

1, lxxxiv, 182, 183, 186, 195, 204, 205 
Leontocebus imperator 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 184. 185. 195, 209 
Leontocebus labiatus 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiii, 180, 182, 183, 184 
185, 194, 195, ] 96, 197, 205. 208 
Leontocebus lagonotus 

1, lxxxiv, 184, 185, 195. 206 
Leontocebus leoninus 

1, lxxxiv, 180. 182, 183, 195, 210, 211 
Leontocebus martinsi 

xlix, 184, 185, 186, 188. 189 
Leontocebus mystax 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv. 184, 195. 198. 201 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
Leontocebus nigricollis 

I, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 182, 183, 184 
185, 194, 199, 200, 201 
Leontocebus nigrifrons 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 185, 194, 198 
Leontocebus pileatus 

1, lxxxiii, 182, 186, 194, 197 
Leontocebus pithecus marikina ...209 
Leontocebus rosalia 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 180, 181, 182 
183,185,195.209,210,211 

Leontocebus rufiventer 183 

Leontocebus thomasi 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiii, 184, 185, 194, 198 
Leontocebus tripartitus 

1, lxxxiv, 184, 186, 195, 206 
Leontocebus weddeli 

1, lxxxiv, 182, 183, 186, 195, 202 

Leontopithecus 182, 183, 184, 194 

Leontopithecus chrysomelas ..183,211 

Leontopithecus leoninus 211 

Leontopithecus midas 191 

Leontopithecus cedipus 214 

Leontopithecus rosalia 210 

Lepidolemur 

xli, xlvii, lxviii, lxxx, 99, 115, 136 

Lepidolemur dorsalis 120 

Lepidolemur edwardsi 

xlviii, lxxx, 116, 117, 123 
Lepidolemur globiceps 

xlvii, lxxx, 166, 117 
Lepidolemur grandidieri 

xlvii, lxxx, 116, 117, 118 
Lepidolemur leucopus 

xlvii, lxxx, 116, 117, 118 
Lepidolemur microdon 

xlviii, lxxx, 116, 117, 121 
Lepidolemur mustelinus 

xlviii, lxxx, 99, 100, 115, 116 
117, 119, 120, 121, 122 
Lepidolemur ruficaudatus 

xlviii, lxxx, 116, 117, 122 
Lepilemur! ..xxx, xlvii, 99, 100, 115, 135 

Lepilemur ! dorsalis 119 

Lepilemur 1 furcifer 108 

Lepilemur! murinus 103 



Page 
Lepilemur! mustelinus 

xxx, xlvii, 115, 118, 119 

Lepilemur! pallicauda 122 

Lepilemur! ruficaudatus 122 

leucampyx (Lasiopyga) lix, xcvi 

leuciscus (Hylobates) . .lxvi, lxxii, ciii 
leucocephala (Callithrix) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 218, 220, 221, 229, 232 

leucocephala (Hapale) 230 

leucocephala (Pithecia) 

286, 287, 293, 294, 295 

leucocephala (Simia) xxxvi, 203 

leucocephala (Yarkea) ...286,287,293 
leucocephalus (Hapale) . . 181, 182, 230 
leucocephalus (Jacchus) ......217,229 

leucogenys (Callithrix) 220,221 

leucogenys (Hylobates) lxvi, lxxii, ciii 
leucogenys (Midas) . . 184, 202, 203, 204 
leucometopa (Callicebus) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 239, 246, 247 

leucometopa (Callicebus c.) 237 

leucometopa (Callithrix c.) 246 

leucomerus (Jacchus) 221 

leucomystax (Lemur) 135, 137, 157 

leucophaea (Simia) xxxviii 

leucophseus (Papio) lvi, lxix, xcii 

leucoprymnus (Pan) . . .lxvii, lxxiii, cv 
leucopus (Callithrix) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxv, 220, 222 

leucopus (Hapale) 222 

leucopus (Lepidolemur) 

xlvii, lxxx, 116, 117, 118 

leucotis (Hapale) 218 

l'hoesti (Cercopithecus) xl 

l'hoesti (Lasiopyga) lix, xcvi 

libidinosus (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xci 

Lichanotus 

xxii, xxviii, xli, xlviii, lxviii, lxxxi, 163 

Lichanotus avahi 164 

Lichanotis brevicaudatus 176 

Lichanotus diadema 169 

Lichanotus indri 175. l 7& 

Lichanotus laniger 

xlviii, lxxxi, 133, 163, 164 

Lichanotus niger 176 

lingae (Pithecus) lviii, lxx, xciv 

lingungensis (Pithecus) lviii. lxx, xciv 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Liocephalus xxxv, 183, 216 

littoralis (Pithecus) . . ..lvii, lxix, xciii 

longicaudatus (Indris) 163 

Lophocebus xl, lix 

Lophocolobus xxxix 

Lophopithecus xxxix, lxii 

Lophotus xxxv 

Lori 16 

Lori arachnocebus 18 

lori (Nycticebus) xxx, 18 

Loridium xxix, 16 

Loris .... xii, xxi, xxviii, xxix, xli, xliv 
lxviii, lxxxvi, cv, 16, 17, 20 

Loris gracilis .-.. ..xxviii, xliv, 18 

Loris gracilis ceylonicus 17, 19 

Loris gracilis typicus 19 

Loris gracilis zeylonicus 19 

Loris lydekkerianus 

xliv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 17, 18, 19, 20 
Loris tardigradus 

xliv, lxviii, lxxvi, 18, 19, 20, 132 

Lorisinae xiv, xxiii, xli, xliv 

lugens (Callithrix) 235,236,240 

lugens var. 7 (Cebus torquatus) . .235 

lugens (Lagothrix) liv, lxxiv, xc 

lugens Simia (Callithrix) 234,239 

lunulatus (Cercocebus) lviii, xcv 

lunulatus (Saimiri) ..308,309,311,312 

lunulatus (Saimiris) 311 

lutea (Lasiopyga c.) lx, xcvii 

lydekkerianus (Loris) 

xliv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 17, 18, 19, 20 
Lyssodes xxxvii 

Macaca xxvii, xxxvi 

Macaca gelada xxxvi 

macaco (Lemur) 

xxix, xlviii, lxxxi, 132, 133 

134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139 

141,156,157,158,160 

macaco (Prosimia) 134.157 

macaco (Lemur) niger 156 

Macacus gelada xxxvi 

Macacus inornatus xxxviii 

Macacus maurus xxxviii 

Macacus oinops xxxvi 

Macacus rhesus xxxvi 

Macacus speciosus xxxvii 



Page 
macconnelli (Alouatta) 

Hi, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 263, 264, 265. 281 

Macrobates xxxv 

macrocephalus (Cebus) .. Iv, lxxiv, xci 
macrodon (Saimiri) 

liii, lxxiv, lxxxviii, 309, 310, 312 

Macromerus 146 

Macromerus typicus 169 

macromongoz (Prosimia) 134 

Macropus xxviii, 45 

Macrotarsus xxix, 7 

macrotarsus (Brachyfceles!) ..xxxiv, liv 

Macrotarsus buffoni xxix 

madagascariensis (Cheiromys) 2 

madagascariensis (Daubentonia) 

xliv, lxxxv, 1, 2, 47 
madagascariensis (Galago) 46, 99, 103 
madagascariensis (Otolicnus) 2, 47, 103 
madagascariensis (Sciurus) 

xxviii, xxix, xliv, 1, 2 
madeirae (Saimiri) 

liii, lxxiv, lxxxviii, 309, 310, 313, 315 

Magotus xxxiv 

Magus xvi, xix, xxv, xxxiv 

xliii, lvi, lxix, xcii 

Magus maurus xxxiv, lvi, xcii 

Magus ochreatus lvi, xcii 

Magus tonkeanus lvi, xcii 

Maimon xxxvii 

major (Cheirogaleus) 

xxviii, xxix, xxx, xxxi 
xlvii, 88, 89, 92, in 
major (Chirogale) 

xlvii, lxxix, 90, 91. 9*t 93. 95. " 1 

major (Microcebus) 89,101 

majori (Propithecus) 172 

Maki xxix, 130 

malaianus (Nycticebus) 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 22, 24, 28, 29, 31 
malaianus (Nycticebus t.) — 22, 24, 29 

malitiosus (Cebus) Iv, lxxiv, xci 

Mamatelesus xxxix 

mandibularis (Pithecus) lviii, lxx, xciv 

Mandrill xxxv 

Mandrillus xxxvi 

margarita (Pygathrix) lxiv, lxxi, c 

marginatus (Ateleus) liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 
Marikina 1. 179. 182, 183. 194 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Marikina albifrons 209 

Marikina bicolor 187 

Marikina chrysomelas 211 

Marikina chrysopygus 201 

Marikina labiatus 195 

marikina (Leontocebus pithecus)..209 

Marikina rosalia 210 

martini (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

martinsi (Leontocebus) 

xlix, 184, 185, 186, 188, 189 
martinsi (Seniocebus) 

lxxiv, lxxxiii, 184, 185, 186, 189 
marungensis (Pan s.) . .lxvii, lxxiii, cv 
matschie (Gorilla g.) .. .lxvi, lxxii, civ 

matschie (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

maurus (Macacus) xxxviii 

maurus (Magus) xxxiv, Ivi, xcii 

maximiliana (Jacchus) 230 

mayema (Gorilla) xl, lxvii 

mayema (Pseudogorilla) lxvii, lxxiii, cv 
mayottensis (Lemur) 136, 138, 145, 146 
medius (Altililemur) 

xlvii, lxxx, 91, 101, in, 112, 113 
medius (Cheirogaleus) 

xxxi, 88, 112, 113 

medius (Chirogale) 90,100 

medius Chirogale (Altililemur) ....90 

medius (Myoxicebus) 90 

melalophus! (Simia) xxxiv 

melamera (Pygathrix) Ixiii, lxxi, xcix 

melanocephala (Ouakaria) 306 

melanocephala (Pithecia) 287, 300, 305 

melanocephala (Prosimia) 147 

melanocephala (Simia) xxxvi, 299 

melanocephalus (Brachyurus) ....306 
melanocephalus (Cacajao) 

liii, lxxxviii, 300, 301, 305, 306 

melanocephalus (Lemur) 135, 150 

melanochir (Callicebus) 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 244 
melanochir (Callithrix) ...235,236,237 

melanochir (Cebus) 235 

melanochir (Saguinus) 236 

melanolopha (Pygathrix) 

lxii, lxxi, xcix 

melanolopha (Simia) xxxix 

melanops (Pithecia) 256 

melanotis (Cheirogaleus) 95 



Page 
melanotis (Chirogale) 

xlvii, lxxix, 90, 91, 92, 94, 96 

melanotis (Hapale) 218 

melanura (Callithrix) 222 

melanura (Hapale) 182, 221 

melanurus (Jacchus) . . .xxxv, 217, 221 

melanurus (Mico) 221 

melanurus (Midas) 221 

melanurus (Simia) 217 

menagensis (Nycticebus) 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 23, 24, 32 

metagalpa (Alouatta p.) 263,272 

meticulosus (Seniocebus) 

lxxiv, lxxxiii, 184, 186. 188 
mexicana (Alouatta p.) 

lii, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 262, 263, 265, 272 

Mico xxxvi, 216, 218 

Mico argentatus 221 

Mico chrysoleucus 223 

Mico melanurus 221 

Mico sericeus xxxviii, 223 

Micoella xxxviii, 216 

Micoella sericeus 223 

Microcebus 
xxiv, xxix, xli, xlvii, lxviii, lxxix, 46, 47 
88, 89, 90, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 135, 136 
Microcebus coquereli 

xxxi, xlvii, lxxix, 89, 100, 101, 102, 107 
Microcebus furcifer 

xlvii, lxxix, 89, 99, 100 
101, 102, 107, 108, 121 

Microcebus gliroides 105 

Microcebus griseus 126 

Microcebus major 89, 101 

Microcebus milii 92 

Microcebus minor 101,103,105 

Microcebus minor griseorufus 101, 104 

Microcebus m. minor 101, 104 

Microcebus m. rufus 104 

Microcebus murinus 

xxix, xxxi, xlvii, lxxix, 46, 47 
88, 89, 90. 98. 99, 100. 101. 102 
103. 105. 106, 107, 132, 134 
Microcebus myoxinus 

xlvii, lxxix, 99, 100, 101, 102, 106, 107 
Microcebus pusillus ..99, 101, 103. 105 

Microcebus p. myoxinus 101. 106 

Microcebus p. m. smithi 101.104 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



xxin 



Page 

Microcebus rufus 82, 102, 103 

Microcebus samati 101, 113 

Microcebus smithi 

99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105 

Microcebus typicus 92, 99 

microdon (Aotus) . . .liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 
microdon (Lepidolemur) 

xlviii, lxxx, 116, 117, 121 

Microrhynchus xxix, 163 

Microrhynchus laniger 164 

Midas xxxiii, 183. 184, 218 

Midas albifrons 183 

Midas apiculatus 184, 204 

Midas argentatus 221 

Midas bicolor 

xxxviii, xlix, 179, 181, 183, 186 

midas (Callithrix) 180,191 

midas (Cercopithecus) 

xlix, lxxiii, lxxxiii, 180, 182 
184, 185, 190, 191, 192, 193 

Midas chrysomelas 181,182,183 

Midas chrysopygus 201 

Midas devillii 

182, 183, 184, 203, 204, 205, 207 

Midas elegantulus 183, 196, 197 

Midas erythrogaster 196 

Midas flavifrons 182, 183, 184, 207 

Midas fuscicollis 181,183,184,207 

Midas geoff royi 183, 214 

Midas graellsi 184, 208 

Midas griseoventris 196,197 

midas (Hapale) 184, 191 

Midas illigeri 182, 183, 184, 205 

Midas imperator 184, 209 

Midas jacchus 181 

Midas labiatus 

180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 195 

Midas lagonotus 184, 206 

Midas leoninus 180, 181, 185, 210 

midas (Leontopithecus) 191 

Midas leucogenys .... 184, 202, 203, 204 

Midas melanurus 221 

Midas midas 184, 191 

Midas mystax 

xxxviii, 181, 182, 184, 198, 201 

Midas nigricollis 181,199 

Midas nigrifrons 182, 184, 198 

Midas oedipus ...180,181,183.213,214 



Page 

Midas pileatus 182, 183, 197 

Midas rosalia 180, 181, 182, 183 

Midas rubriventer 184 

Midas rufimanus 180, 181, 183, 191 

Midas rufiventer 

182, 183, 184, 195*, 196, 197 
Midas rufoniger . 182, 183, 184, 199, 200 
midas (Simia)xxxi, xxxiii, xlix, 180, 190 

Midas spixi 214, 215 

.Midas tamarin 182, 191, 192 

Midas thomasi 184, 198 

Midas tripartitus 184, 206 

Midas ursulus xxxviii, 180, 181, 183, 184 
191, 192, 193, 210 
Midas weddeli . . . 182, 183, 186, 195, 202 
milii (Cheirogaleus) 

xxxi, 88, 89, 90, 92, 1 1 1 

milii (Chirogale) 89, 90, 91, 93, 100 

milii (Lemur) 92 

milii (Lemur c.) 92 

milii (Microcebus) 92, 101 

milii (Opolemur) 93 

minima (Prosimia) 98, 102 

minor (Cheirogaleus) 88,99,103 

minor (Chirogale) 90, 100 

minor (Galago) 99, 103 

minor (Microcebus) 101,103,105 

minor (Microcebus m.) 101,104 

minor (Otolicnus) 47, 103 

Miopithecus 

xix, xxv, xxxvi, xliii, lxii, lxxi, xcviii 
Miopithecus ansorgei ..lxii, lxxii, xcviii 
Miopithecus talapoin .. lxii, lxxi, xcviii 

Mioxicebus ! 124 

Mioxicebus! griseus xxx, 125 

Mioxicebus ! simus 12s 

miriquouina (Aotus) 

liii, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 286 

Mirza xxxi, 90, 98, 100, 101 

Mirza coquereli 107 

mitrata (Presbytis) xxxvi 

Mixocebus 

xxxi, xli, xlvii, lxviii, lxxix, no 
Mixocebus caniceps 

xxxi, xlvii, lxxix, no 

Mococo xxxi 

mococo (Carta) xxviii 

moholi (Galago) 46,48,70,72,74 



XXIV 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

moholi (Otolicnus) 47»73 

moloch (Callicebus) 

li, lxxxvi, 234, 238, 239, 251 
moloch (Callithrix) ..235,236,237,251 

moloch (Cebus) 234,235,251 

moloch (Saguinus) 236,252 

moloch (Simia) 234,251 

moloneyi (Lasiopyga) . .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Mona xxxix 

mona (Lasiopyga) lxi, lxx, xcvii 

mona (Simia) xxxiv 

monacha (Pithecia) 

lii, lxxiv, lxxv, lxxxvii, 286, 287 
288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 294 

monacha Simia (Pithecia) 289 

monacha (Yarkea) 289 

mongos (Lemur) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136 
138, 139. MO, 141. 143, 149. ISO 

mongoz (Prosimia) 134, 141, 148 

monteiri (Callotus) 48 

monteiri (Galago) 

xxxi, xlvi, lxvii, lxxviii, 48 

monteiri (Otogale) 48 

monticola (Pygathrix c.) . .lxiii, lxxi, c 

mordax (Pithecus) lviii, lxx, xciv 

Mormon xxxvii, lvi 

mormon (Simia) xxxv 

moschatus (Simia j.) 217,228 

mossambicus (Galago) 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 76, Tj 

mossambicus (Galago s.) 48 

mossambicus (Lasiopyga s.) 

lxi. lxxi, xcviii 

Murilemur xxxi, 90, 98, 100, 104 

Murilemur murinus 104 

murinus (Cheirogaleus) 88 

murinus (Chirogale) xlvii, 88 

murinus (Galago) 73 

murinus (Gliscebus) 09,103 

murinus (Lemur) 

xxix, xxx, xxxi, 98, 101, 102. 132, 134 

murinus (Lepilemur!) 103 

murinus (Microcebus) 

xxix, xxxi, xlvii, lxxix. 46, 47, 88 

89. 90, 08, 99, 100, 101, 102 

103, 105, 106, 107, 132, 134 

murinus (Murilemur) 104 



Page 

murinus (Scartes) 103 

mustelinus (Galeocebus) 119 

mustelinus (Lepidolemur) 

xlviii, lxxx, 99, 100, 115, 116 
117, 119, 120, 121, 122 
mustelinus (Lepilemur!) 

xxx, xlvii, 115, 118. 119 

Mycetes xv, 258, 259, 261, 262, 281 

Mycetes auratus 261, 262, 278 

Mycetes barbatus 260,261,262,265 

Mycetes beelzebul 259, 261, 262, 270, 271 

Mycetes bicolor 261, 262, 275 

Mycetes caraya 259, 261, 262, 266 

Mycetes chrysurus ...260,261,262,278 
Mycetes discolor 

260, 261, 263, 267, 268, 270, 271 

Mycetes flavicauda 262, 275 

Mycetes flavicaudatus 261, 262, 264, 275 

Mycetes flavimanus 271 

Mycetes fuscus 260,261,262,275 

Mycetes laniger 261, 262, 278 

Mycetes niger 261,262,265,274 

Mycetes palliatus 261, 262, 271 

Mycetes rufimanus 

191,260,261,270,271 

Mycetes seniculus 261,262,277,281 

Mycetes stramineus 

260, 261, 262, 277, 280, 281 
Mycetes ursinus .259,261,262,274,281 

Mycetes villosus 261, 262, 268 

Myoxicebus xxxi, xli, xlviii, lxviii 

lxxx, 115, 124, 125 
Myoxicebus griseus 

xlviii, lxxx, 88, no, 121, 124, 125 
126, 127, 129, 133, 134, 135 

Myoxicebus medius 00 

Myoxicebus olivaceus 

xlviii, lxxx, 88, 89, 125, 127 
Myoxicebus simus 

xlviii, lxxx, 125, 128, 129 

Myoxinus (Cheirogaleus) 104 

Myoxinus (Chirogale) 00,100 

myoxinus (Microcebus) 

xlvii, lxxix, 99, 100, 101, 102, 106, 107 
myoxinus (Microcebus p.) ...101,106 

Myscebus xxx, 87, 103 

Myscebus palmarum xxx, 99 

Myslemur xxx, 1. 87 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



XXV 



Page 

Myspithecus xxix, xxx, I, 87 

Myspithecus (typicus) 92 

Myspithecus typus xix, 92 

Mystax xxxviii 

mystax (Hapale) 

xxxviii. 181, 182, 184, 198.. 201 
mystax (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 185, 195, 198, 201 
mystax (Midas) 

xxxviii. 181, 182, 184, 198, 201 
mystax (Seniocebus) 183 

Nasalis xiii, xx. xxvi, xxxiii, xxxvii 

xliii, lxiv, lxxii, ci 
Nasalis larvatus . .xxxiv, xxxvi, lxiv, ci 

nasica (Simia) xxxiv 

nasutus (Hylobates) lxvi, lxxii. ciii 

natunae (Nycticebus) 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 23, 29 

natunae (Nycticebus c.) 

xlviii, lxxxvi, 22, 29 

natunae (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

neglecta (Lasiopyga) ...lxi, lxx, xcviii 

nemaeus (Lasiopyga) lxii 

nemaeus (Pygathrix) . .xl, lxiv, lxxi, ci 
nemaeus (Simia) ... .xxxiii, xxxiv, lxii 

Nemestrina xxxviii 

Nemestrinus lvii 

nemestrinus (Pithecus) 

xvi, lvii, lxix, xciii 

nemestrinus (Simia) xxxviii 

Neocebus xl 

Neocothurus xxxix, 299 

Neopithecus lx 

neumanni (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

neumanni (Papio) lvi, lxix, xcii 

nictitans (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

nictitans (Simia) xxxii, lix 

niger (Chiropotes) 297 

niger (Cynocephalus) xxxv 

niger (Cynopithecus) lvi, xcii 

niger (Lemur) 

133- 134. 135. 136, 137. 157 

niger (Lemur m.) 156 

niger (Lichanotus) 176 

niger (Mycetes) 261,262,265,274 

niger (Stentor) 260,265,266 

niger (Troglodytes) xxxv 



Page 

nigeriae (Papio) lv, lxix, xci 

nigerrimus (Lemur) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 138, 139, 141, 157 

nigra (Alouatta) 262,265 

nigra (Varecia) 157 

nigriceps (Aotus) .. liii, lxxiv, lxxxviii 
nigriceps (Saimiri b.) 

liii, lxxiv, lxxxviii, 309, 310, 316 
nigricollis (Hapale) ..183,184,198,199 
nigricollis (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 182, 183, 184 
185, 194, 199, 200, 201 

nigricollis (Midas) 181,189 

nigricollis (Seniocebus) 183 

nigrifrons (Callicebus) 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 254, 255 
nigrifrons (Callithrix) 235, 236, 237, 254 

nigrifrons (Cebus) 235 

nigrifrons (Hapale) 180, 184, 198 

nigrifrons (Lemur) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 133, 134, 135, 136 
138, 139, MO, 145. 146 
nigrifrons (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 194, 198 
nigrifrons (Leontopithecus) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 185, 194, 198 

nigrifrons (Midas) 182, 184, 198 

nigrifrons (Prosimia) 145 

nigrifrons (Saguinus) 236 

nigrifrons (Seniocebus) 183 

nigrigenis (Lasiopyga s.) lix, xcvi 

nigrimanus (Colobus) . . .lxv, lxxii, cii 

nigripectus (Cebus c.) lv, lxxiv, xc 

nigripes (Lasiopyga p.) . .lxi, lxx, xcvii 

nigripes (Pygathrix) lxiv, lxxi, ci 

nigrivittatus (Chrysothrix) 

308,311,312 

nigroviridis (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvii 

nobilis (Pygathrix) lxii, lxxi, xcix 

Nocthora xxxiv 

nocturna (Pithecia) 287,293,295 

nubigena (Pygathrix) ... .lxiii, lxxi, c 
nubila (Lasiopyga k.).. . .lxi, lxx, xcvii 
nudifrons (Pygathrix) . .lxii, lxxi, xcix 
nyassae (Galago) xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 70 
Nycticebus 
xiv, xviii, xix, xxiii, xxix. xli. xlv, lxviii 
lxxxv, cv. 16, 19. 21, 22, 26, 33, 136 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
Nycticebus bancanus 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvii, 22, 23, 24 

Nycticebus bengalensis xxix, 21, 26 

Nycticebus borneanus 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 22, 23, 24 

Nycticebus calabarensis 36 

Nycticebus ceylonicus 22 

Nycticebus coucang 

xxx, xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 22, 23, 26, 28 

Nycticebus c. cinereus xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi 

21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 30 

Nycticebus c. malaianus 29 

Nycticebus c. natunas 

lxviii, lxxxvi, 22, 29 

Nycticebus gracillis 18 

Nycticebus hilleri 

xlv, xlviii, lxxxvi, 22, 24, 31 
Nycticebus javanicus 

xlv, xlviii, lxxxvi, 21, 22, 23, 28, 30 

Nycticebus lori xxx, 18 

Nycticebus malaianus 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 22, 24, 28, 29, 31 
Nycticebus menagensis 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 23, 24, 32 
Nycticebus natunae 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 23, 29 

Nycticebus potto xxix, xlv, 38, 39 

Nycticebus pygmaeus 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 22, 24, 33 

Nycticebus sondaicus 29 

Nycticebus tardigradus 

22, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30 
Nycticebus tardigradus var. cinerea 27 

Nycticebus t. malaianus 22, 29 

Nycticebus tenasserimensis 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 22, 23, 25 
Nycticibidae xii, xxi, xli, xliv, lxxxvi, 16 

Nyctipithecus xxxiv 

Nyctipithecus felinus xxxiv 

obscura (Pygathrix) . . .lxiii, lxxi, xcix 
obscurus (Theropithecus) lvi, lxix, xcii 
occidentalis (Colobus) . .lxv, lxxii, ciii 

ochreatus (Magus) lvi, xcii 

ochrocephala (Pithecia) 294,295 

ochrocephala (Yarkea) 287,295 

ochroleucus (Saimiri) 308 

ocularis (Prosimia) 134.145 



CEdipomidas 



Page 



xxvi, xxxvii, xlii, 1, lxxiv, lxxv 
lxxxiv, 179. 181, 183, 184, 213, 217 
CEdipomidas geoffroyi 

1, lxxiii, lxxxiv, 182, 183 
184, 185, 214, 215 

CEdipomidas illigeri 205 

CEdipomidas cedipus 

1, lxxxiv, 180, 181, 182, 184, 186, 213, 214 
CEdipomidas salaquiensis 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv 

CEdipus xxxvi, 182. 184, 213, 218 

cedipus (Callithrix) 180, 213 

CEdipus geoffroyi 214 

cedipus (Hapale) 184, 213 

cedipus (Jacchus) 181,213 

cedipus (Leontopithecus) 214 

cedipus (Midas) ..180,181,183,213,214 
cedipus (CEdipomidas) 

1, lxxxiv, 180, 181, 182, 184, 186, 213, 214 
cedipus (Simia) xxxvi, xxxvii, 1, 180, 213 

cedipus Simia (Midas) 213 

CEdipus titi 182, 184, 213 

cerstedi (Chrysothrix) 309,316 

oerstedi (Saimiri) 

liii, lxxiii, lxxxviii. 309, 310, 316, 317 

oinops (Macacus) xxxvi 

olivaceus (Cheirogaleus) 89 

olivaceus (Cynocephalus) 121 

olivaceus (Hapalemur!) 125,127 

olivaceus (Myoxicebus) 

xlviii, Ixxx, 88, 89, 125, 127, 128 
opisthosticta (Lasiopyga) ....lix, xevi 

Opolemur xxxi, 87, 90. 91, 101, in 

Opolemur milii 93 

Opolemur samati 112 

Opolemur thomasi 112, 113 

ornatus (Callicebus) 

It, lxxxvi, 237. 238, 239, 247, 248 

ornatus (Callithrix) 236, 237, 248 

oseryi (Aotus) liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Otocebus xxxvii 

Otogale xxxi, xlvi. 45 

Otogale alleni 48 

Otogale crassicaudata 48 

Otogale garnetti 48 

Otogale monteiri 48 

Otogale pallida xxxi, 48 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



xxvn 



Page 

Otogale peli 48 

Otogale sennaariensis 48 

Otolemur xxx, 45 

Otolemur agisymbanus xxx, 48 

Otolicnus xxviii, xlvi, 45 

Otolicnus alleni 47 

Otolicnus apicalis 48, 80 

Otolicnus australis 47 

Otolicnus crassicaudatus 47 

Otolicnus cuvieri 93 

Otolicnus gabonensis 66 

Otolicnus galago 46, 47, 72 

Otolicnus garnetti xxxi, 46, 47 

Otolicnus galago a. sennaariensis .74 

Otolicnus galago v. australis 73 

Otolicnus madagascariensis ..2,47,103 

Otolicnus minor 47, 103 

Otolicnus moholi 47 

Otolicnus pallidus 79 

Otolicnus peli 82 

Otolicnus pusillus 83 

Otolicnus senegalensis 47. 73 

Otolicnus sennaariensis 47.74 

Otolicnus teng 47. 74 

Otopithecus xli 

Ouakaria xxxvii, 287, 299, 300 

ouakaria (Brachyurus) xxxiii, 306 

Ouakaria calva 301 

Ouakaria melanocephala 306 

Ouakaria rubicunda 304 

Ouakaria spixi 306 

ouakary (Brachyurus) . .xxxix, 300, 306 

ouakary (Cacajao) 300 

Ouistiti 217 

Ouistitis xxxv, 216 

oustaleti (Colobus) lxv, cii 

psenulatus (Callicebus) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 245 

pagensis (Pithecus) lvii, lxx, xciii 

pagonias (Pithecia) ..286,287,293,294 
pallescens (Callicebus) 

li, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 239, 251 

pallescens (Callithrix) 237 

pallida (Otogale) xxxiii, 48 

palliata (Alouatta) 

Hi, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 261. 262 
263, 265, 271, 272. 273 



Page 

palliatus (Colobus) lvi, lxxii, ciii 

palliatus (Mycetes) 261,262,271 

pallicauda (Lepilemur) 122 

pallida (Galago) 79 

pallida (Lasiopyga g.). . .lxi, lxx, xcvii 

pallidus (Cebus a.) lv, lxxv, xci 

pallidus (Eusticus) 79 

pallidus (Galago) 48, 79 

pallidus (Galago e.) 

xlvi, xlviii, lxxviii, 48, 79 

pallidus (Otolicnus) 79 

palmarum (Myscebus) xxx, 99 

Pan xiii, xvi, xx, xxvii, xxxiii, xliii 

Pan africanus xxxiv 

pan (Ateles !) try- 
pan (Ateleus) liv, lxxiii, lxxxix 

Pan aubryi lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

Pan calvus lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

Pan chimpanse lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

Pan fuliginosus lxvii, lxxiii. cv 

Pan fuscus lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

Pan kooloo-kamba lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

Pan leucoprymnus lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

Pan satyrus lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

Pan schweinfurthi lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

Pan s. marungensis ... .lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

Pan vellerosus lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

panganiensis (Galago) xlvi, lxvi, lxxvii 

Paniscus xxxv 

paniscus (Ateles !) 290 

paniscus (Ateleus) 

liv, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

paniscus (Simia) xxxii, xxxiii, liv 

Papio 

xvi, xix, xxiv, xxxii, xliii, lv, lxix, xci 

Papio brockmani lvi, lxix. xcii 

Papio cynocephalus xxxii, lvi, lxix, xci 

Papio doguera lv, lxix, xci 

Papio furax lvi, lxix, xci 

Papio hamadryas .. .xxiv, lvi, lxix, xcii 

Papio h. arabicus lvi, lxix, xcii 

Papio heuglini lvi, lxix, xci 

Papio ibeanus lvi, lxix, xci 

Papio leucophaeus lvi, lxix, xcii 

Papio neumanni lvi, lxix, xcii 

Papio nigeriae lv, lxix, xci 

Papio papio lv, lvi, lxix, xci 

Papio planirostris lvi, lxix, xcii 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Papio porcarius lvi, lxix, xci 

Papio pruinosus lvi, lxix, xcii 

Papio sphinx lv, lvi, lxix, xcii 

Papio strepitus lvi, lxix, xcii 

Papio tessellatum lv, lxix, xci 

Papio yokoensis lvi, lxix, xci 

patas (Erythrocebus) . lxii, lxxi, xcviii 

patas (Simia) xxxix, lxii 

Pavianus xxviii. xxxii 

peli (Otogale) 48 

peli (Otolicnus) 82 

penicillata (Callithrix) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 218, 226, 227 

penicillata (Hapale) 181,226 

penicillatus (Jacchus) . . . .217, 218, 226 

pennanti (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, cii 

percura (Pygathrix) . . .lxiii, lxxi, xcix 
Perodicticus 

xvi, xvii, xxii, xxix, xli, lxviii 
lxxvii, 16, 35, 38, 43 

Perodicticus batesi 38, 42, 43 

Perodicticus bosmani 38, 39 

Perodicticus calabarensis 

xxxi, xly. 35, 36 
Perodicticus edwardsi 

xlv, lxxvii, 38, 39, 42, 43, 167, 170 
Perodicticus faustus 

xlv, lxxvii, 38, 39, 42 

Perodicticus geoffroyi xxix, 38, 39 

Perodicticus ibeanus 

xlv, lxviii, lxxvii, 38, 39, 41 
Perodicticus ju-ju xlv, lxxvii, 38, 39, 41 
Perodicticus potto 

xlv, lxxvii, 38, 39, 46, 132, 138 

Perodicticus p. edwardsi 42 

personata (Callithrix) 

xxxix, lxxiv, 234, 235, 236, 237, 254, 255 
personatus (Callicebus) 

lxxiv, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 254, 255 

personatus (Cebus) 235,256 

personatus (Saguinus) 236,256 

personatus (Simia) 234,256 

peruanus (Cebus f.) lv, lxxv, xci 

Petaurista xl 

petaurista (Cercopithecus) xxxix 

petaurista (Lasiopyga) lix. xcvi 

petronellse (Lasiopyga) ..lxi, lxx, xcvii 
phseurus (Pithecus) . . . .lviii. lxx. xciv 



Page 

Phanar xxxi, 00, 98, 100, 101 

Phaner furcifer 108 

phayrei (Pygathrix) ... lxiii, lxxi, xcix 
philippinensis (Pithecus) lviii, lxx, xcv 
philippinensis (Tarsius) 

xliv, lxxxv, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 33 

pileata (Hapale) 184,197 

pileata (Pygathrix) lxiv, lxxi, ci 

pileatus (Hylobates) ... lxvi, lxxii, ciii 
pileatus (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxxiii, 182, 186, 194, 197 

pileatus (Midas) 182, 183, 197 

pileatus (Pithecus) lvii, lxix, xciv 

pileatus (Seniocebus) 183 

Piliocolobus xli, lxv 

Pithecia . . xvi, xviii, xxiii, xxxii, xlii, Hi 
lxxiv, lxxv, lxxxvii, 285, 287 

Pithecia alba 1, 287, 300, 303 

Pithecia albicans 

Hi, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 286, 287, 288, 292 
Pithecia albinasa 

Hi, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 286, 287, 288, 295 

Pithecia calva 287, 301 

Pitheoia capillimentosa 

Hi, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 287, 288, 291 
Pithecia chiropotes 

xvi, Hi, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxvii 
286, 287, 288, 297, 300 
Pithecia chrysocephala 

Hi, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 286, 287, 288, 294 

Pithecia hirsuta 286, 287, 289 

Pithecia inusta 286, 289, 290 

Pithecia irrorata 286, 287, 289, 294 

Pithecia leucocephala 

286, 287, 293, 294, 295 
Pithecia melanocephala ..287,300,305 

Pithecia melanops 256 

Pithecia monacha 

Hi, lxxiv, lxxv, lxxxvii, 286, 287 
288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 294 

Pithecia monachus 286 

Pithecia nocturna 287, 293, 295 

Pithecia ochrocephala 294,295 

Pithecia pithecia 

Hi, lxxxvii, 285. 286, 287 

288, 291, 293, 294 

Pithecia pogonias .... 286. 287, 293, 294 

Pithecia rubicnnda 287. 304 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Pithecia rufibarbata 294, 295 

Pithecia rufiventer 286, 287, 293 

Pithecia sagulata 286, 298 

Pithecia satanas 

lii, lxxiii. lxxiv, lxxv, lxxxviii 
286, 287, 288, 296, 298 

Pithecia satanas var. niger 200 

pithecia (Simia) 

xxvii, lii, 285, 287, 293, 294 

pithecia (Simia) chiropotes 297 

Pithecinae xxiii, xlii, lii, 285 

Pithecus xiii, xiv, xvi, xxv, xxxii 

xliii, lvii, lxix, xciii, cv 

Pithecus adustus lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus agnatus lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus alacer lvii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus albibarbatus 

xiv, xxxiv, xxxvii, lvii, lxix, xciv 
Pithecus andamanensis .lvii, lxix, xciii 
Pithecus assamensis .. ..lvii, lxix, xciv 

Pithecus baweanus lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus bintangensis ... lviii, lxx, xciv 
Pithecus brevicaudus ... lvii, lxix, xciv 

Pithecus cagayanus lviii, xcv 

Pithecus capitalis lviii, lxix, xciv 

Pithecus carimatse lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus cupidus lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus cyclopsis lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus cynocephalus xiii 

Pithecus dollmani lviii, lxx, xcv 

Pithecus fascicularis .. .lviii, lxix, xciv 

Pithecus fuscatus lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus fuscus lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus harmandi lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus hirsuta 286, 287, 289 

Pithecus impudens lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus insulanus lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus irus lviii, lxix, xciv 

Pithecus karimoni lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus laetus lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus lapsus lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus lasiotis lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus lautensis lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus lingse lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus lingungensis . . .lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus littoralis lvii, lxix. xciii 

Pithecus mandibularis . .lviii, lxx. xciv 
Pithecus mordax lviii, lxx, xciv 



Page 
Pithecus nemestrinus xvi, lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus pagensis lvii, lxx, xciii 

Pithecus phaeurus lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus philippinensis . .lviii, lxx, xcv 

Pithecus p. apoensis lviii, xcv 

Pithecus pileatus lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus pumillus lviii, xcv 

Pithecus resimus lvii, lxix, xciv 

Pithecus rhesus . . .xxxvi, lvii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus rufescens lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus sancti-johannis lvii, lxix, xciii 

pithecus (Simia) 293 

Pithecus sinicus lvii, lxix, xciv 

Pithecus sirhassenensis .lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus speciosus lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus sphinx xiii 

Pithecus suluensis xcv 

Pithecus syndactylus xxxvi, lxvi 

Pithecus thibetanum lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus umbrosus lviii, lxx, xciv 

Pithecus validus lvii, lxix, xciv 

Pithecus vestitus lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus villosus lvii, lxix, xciii 

Pithecus vitiis lviii, lxix, xciv 

Pithelemur xxx, 175 

Pithelemur indris 176 

Pithes xxxv 

Pithesciurus xxxvi, 307, 308 

Pithesciurus cassiquiarensis 308 

Pithesciurus entomophagus 308 

Pithesciurus saimiri . . . .xxxvi, 308, 310 

Pithesciurus sciureus 308 

Pithex xxxvi 

planirostris (Papio) lvi, lxix, xcii 

pluto (Lasiopyga) lix, xcvi 

poensis (Galago d.) 84 

poensis (Hemigalago) 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 84 
pogonias (Lasiopyga) . . .lxi, lxx, xcvii 
pogonias (Pithecia) ..286,287,293,294 

pogonias (Yarkea) 293 

poliophaeus (Erythrocebus) 

lxii, lxxi, xcix 

poliurus (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, cii 

polycomus (Colobus) ... .lxv, lxxii, cii 

polycomus (Simia) lxv 

Pongiidse . .xiii, xiv, xvii, xviii, xx, xxix 
xliii, lxvi, lxxii, civ 



XXX 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Pongo xiii, xiv, xv, xvi, xx, xxvii, xxxii 

xxxv, xliii, lxvi, lxxii, civ 

Pongo abelii lxvi, lxxii, civ 

Pongo borneo lxvi 

Pongo pygmaeus xxxvii, lxvi, lxxii, civ 

Pongo wurmbi xxxiii 

porcarius (Cynocephalus) xxxvi 

porcarius (Papio) lvi, lxix, xci 

potenziana (Pygathrix) . . .lxiii, lxxi, c 

Potto .xxx, 38 

Potto bosmani xxx, 38, 39 

potto (Galago) 46 

potto (Lemur) 132 

potto (Nycticebus) . . .xxix, xlv, 38, 39 
potto (Perodicticus) 

xlv, lxxvii, 38, 39, 46, I3 2 . J 38 

potto (Stenops) 39 

prehensilis (Lemur) 102 

Presbypithecus xxxix 

Presbytis xxxiv 

Presbytis mitrata xxxvi 

preussi (Lasiopyga) . . . .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

preussi (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, cii 

priamus (Pygathrix) lxiv, lxxi, ci 

princeps (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

Procebus xxviii, 130 

Procolobus xxxix, lxv 

Prolemur xxxi, 90, 128 

Prolemur simus 128 

Propithecus . .xxii, xxix, xli, xlix, lxviii 
lxxxii, 160. 166 

Propithecus bicolor 170 

Propithecus candidus 172 

Propithecus coquereli 

xlix. lxxxii, 167, 173 

Propithecus coronatus 174 

Propithecus damonis 167, 173 

Propithecus diadema 

xxix, xlix, lxxxii, 167, 168 
Propithecus d. edwardsi 

xlix, lxxxii, 48, 167, 168, 170 
Propithecus d. holomelas ....167.170 
Propithecus d. sericeus 

xlix, lxxxii, 167. 168, 171 

Propithecus holomelas 167.170 

Propithecus majori 167, 172 

Propithecus sericeus 171 



Page 
Propithecus verreauxi 

xlix, lxxxii, 167, 168, 171, 172, 174 
Propithecus v. coquereli 

xlix, lxxxii, 167. 168, 173 
Propithecus v. coronatus 

xlix, lxxxii, 167, 168, 171, 174 
Propithecus v. deckeni 

xlix, lxxxii, 166, 167, 168, 172 
Prosimia xxviii, 98, 130, 132, 134, 135, 137 

Prosimia albimana 134, 142 

Prosimia albifrons 134, 154 

Prosimia anjuanensis 145 

Prosimia brissonii 134, 142 

Prosimia bugi 134, 142 

Prosimia catta 134. 152 

Prosimia cauda annulis cincta 132 

Prosimia collaris 142, 147, 149 

Prosimia coronata 144 

Prosimia erythromela 134, 162 

Prosimia flavif rons 148 

Prosimia frederici 134, 154 

Prosimia fusca 132 

Prosimia macaco 134, 157 

Prosimia melanocephala 147 

Prosimia micromongoz 134 

Prosimia minima 98, 102 

Prosimia mongoz 134.141,148 

Prosimia nigrifrons 145 

Prosimia ocularis 134, 145 

Prosimia pedibus albus 132 

Prosimia pedibus fulvus 132 

Prosimia rufa 134 

Prosimia ruffo 153 

Prosimia rufipes 152 

Prosimia rufifrons 134, 151 

Prosimia xanthomystax 147 

pruinosus (Papio) lvi, lxix, xcii 

Pseudanthropus xxxvii 

Psuedocebus xxxvii 

Pseudogorilla 

xxvii, xl, xliii, lxviii, lxxii, cv 
Pseudogorilla mayema ..lxvi, lxxiii, cv 

Psilodactylus xxix, 1 

psilodactylus (Lemur) 2 

Pterycolobus xxxix 

pullata (Pygathrix c.) lxiv, lxxi, c 

pumilus (Pithecus) lviii, xcv 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
pupulus (Galago) xlvi, Ixviii, lxxviii, 76 

pusillus (Cheirogaleus) 90.104 

pusillus (Chirogale) 90,100 

pusillus (Galago) ... .Ixviii. lxxviii, 83 

pusillus (Lemur) xlvii, 98, 99, 103 

pusillus (Microcebus) .99, 101, 103, 105 

pusillus (Otolicnus) 83 

Pygathrix 

xiii, xvi, xix, xxv, xxxiii, xxxvii 

xxxviii, xl, xliii, lxii, lxiv 

Ixxi, xcix, cv 

Pygathrix albigena xxxviii 

Pygathrix albipes lxiv, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix aurata lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix aygula lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix barbei lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix batuana ... .lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix cana lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix carbo lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix carimatse ... .lxii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix catemana lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix cephaloloptera .lxiii, lxxi, c 
Pygathrix c. monticolor. . .lxiii, lxxi, c 
Pygathrix chrysomelas lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix crepuscula lxiv, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix c. wroughtoni ..lxiv, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix cristata lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix c. pullata lxiv, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix cruciger lxii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix dilecta lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix entellus lxiv, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix everetti lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix femoralis .. .lxiii, lxxi, xcix 
Pygathrix flavicauda .. .lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix frangoisi lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix frontata lxii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix fuscomurina . . . .lxii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix germaini lxiv, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix holotophrea .lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix hosei lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix hypoleuca lxiv, lxxi, ci 

Pygathrix johni lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix lania lxiv, lxxi, ci 

Pygathrix margarita lxiv, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix melamera . . .lxiii, lxxi, xcix 
Pygathrix melanolopha .lxii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix natunae lxiii. lxxi, c 

Pygathrix nemaeus ... .xl. lxiv. lxxi, ci 



Page 
Pygathrix nigrimanus . . .lxv, lxxii, xc 

Pygathrix nigripes lxiv, lxxi, ci 

Pygathrix nobilis lxii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix nubigena lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix nudifrons . . .lxii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix obscura lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix percura lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix phayrei lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix pileata lxiv, lxxi, ci 

Pygathrix potenziani lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix priamus lxiv, lxxi, ci 

Pygathrix rhionis lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix robinsoni .. .lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix rubicunda lxii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix sabana lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix sanctorem lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix schistaceus lxiv. lxxi, ci 

Pygathrix senex lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix siamensis lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix sumatrana . .lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Pygathrix thomasi lxiii, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix ultima lxiv, lxxi, c 

Pygathrix ursina lxiii, lxxi, c 

pygerythra (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvii 

pygerythra (Simia) xxxviii 

pygmaea (Callithrix) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 220, 221, 232 

pygmaea (Cebuella) 233 

pygmaea (Hapale) xxxviii, 233 

pygmaea (Simia) ... .xxxii, xxxiii, lxvii 

pygmaeus (Jacchus) 218,232 

pygmaeus (Nycticebus) 

xlv, Ixviii, lxxxvi, 22, 24, 33 
pygmaeus (Pongo) xxxiii, lxvi, lxxii, cii 
pyrrhonotus (Erythrocebus) 

lxii, lxxi, xcviii 

quariba Simia (Stentor) 274 

Rabienus xxix, 7 

remulus (Callicebus) 

li, lxxxvi, 238, 239, 249 

resimus (Pithecus) Ivii, xciv 

rhesus (Macacus) xxxvi 

rhesus (Pithecus) xxxvi, lvii. lxx. xciv 

Rhinalazon xxxvi 

Rhinopithecus xiii, xiv, xx, xxvi, xxxix 
xliii, lxiv. lxxi, ci 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
Rhinopithecus avunculus lxiv, lxxii, ci 

Rhinopithecus bieti lxiv, lxxii, ci 

Rhinopithecus brelichi .. .lxiv, lxxii, ci 
Rhinopithecus roxellanae 

xxvi, lxiv, lxxii, ci 

Rhinostictus xxxix, lix 

Rhinostigma . xix, xxv, xl, xliii, lix, xcv 

Rhinostigma hamlyni lix, xcv 

rhionis (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

Rhynchopithecus xxxvii 

roberti ( Aotus) liii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

robin soni (Pygathrix) ..lxiii, lxxi, xcix 
roloway (Lasiopyga) . . .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

rosalia (Callithrix) 180, 209 

rosalia (Hapale) 184,210 

rosalia (Jacchus) 181 

rosalia (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiv, 180, 181, 182 
183, 185, 195, 209, 210, 211 

rosalia (Leontopithecus) 184,210 

rosalia (Midas) 180, 181, 182, 183 

rosalia (Simia) xxxvii, 180, 209 

roxellanae (Rhinopithecus) 

xxvi, lxiv, lxxii, ci 
roxellanae (Semnopithecus) ....xxxix 

rubella (Lasiopyga c.) lx, xcvii 

ruber (Lemur v.) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 133, 134, 135 
136, 137, 139. 14^ 162 

ruber (Varecia) 162 

rubicunda (Alouatta s.) 

262, 264, 278, 279 

rubicunda (Ouakaria) 304 

rubicunda (Pithecia) ....287,304 

rubicunda (Pygathrix) .. lxii, lxxi, xcix 
rubicundus (Brachyurus) 300, 304, 305 
rubicundus (Cacajao) 

liii, lxxxviii, 301, 304 
rubriventer (Lemur) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 134, 135, 136, 139, 140, 151 

rubriventer (Midas) 184 

rufa (Prosimia) 134 

rufescens (Pithecus) . . .lvii, lxix, xciii 

ruffo (Prosimia) 153 

rufibarbata (Pithecia) 294,295 

ruficaudatus (Lepidolemur) 

xlviii, lxxx, 116, 117, laa 
ruficaudatus (Lepilemur!) 122 



Page 
rufifrons (Lemur) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 132, 134, 135 
136, 139. Hi, ISO, ISI 

rufifrons (Lemur m.) 151 

rufifrons (Prosimia) 134,151 

rufilata (Lasiopyga) .... lxi, lxx, xcviii 
rufimanus (Cercopithecus) 

xlix, lxxiii, lxxxiii, 180 

181, 185, 190, 191 

rufimanus (Midas) . . . 180, 181, 183, 191 

rufimanus (Mycetes) 260,261,270,271 

rufipes (Aotus) liii, lxxiii, lxxxix 

rufipes (Lemur) 152 

rufipes (Prosimia) 152 

rufitincta (Lasiopyga) . .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

rufiventer (Leontocebus) 183 

rufiventer (Midas) 

182, 183, 184, 195, 196, 197 

rufiventer (Pithecia) 286, 287, 293 

rufiventer (Simia) 286,293 

rufiventer (Yarkea) 293 

rufiventris (Ateles!) lxxix 

rufiventris (Ateleus) .liv, lxxiv, lxxxix 
rufomitratus (Colobus) 

xxxix, lxv, lxxii, cii 

rufoniger (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, cii 

rufoniger (Midas) 182, 183, 184, 199, 200 

rufoniger (Seniocebus) 183 

rufoviridis (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvii 

rufus (Chirogale) 90.100 

rufus (Gliscebus) 09,103 

rufus (Lemur) 

133, 134. 135. 138, 139. MO, 153 
rufus (Lemur c.) 

xlviii, lxxxi, 138, 139, 141 

rufus (Lemur m. var.) 153 

rufus (Microcebus) 82,102,103 

rufus (Microcebus m.) 104 

rufus (Mioxicebus) 82, 102, 103 

rufus (Satyrus) xxxiii 

ruwenzori (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, cii 

sabana (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

Sagoinus xxxii, 216 

Sagoinus infulatus 236 

Sagoinus melanochir 236 

Sagouin xxxii, 216 

Saguinus 234. 235 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Saguinus amictus 236 

Saguinus cinerascens 236 

Saguinus cupreus 236 

Saguinus donacophilus 236 

Saguinus inf ulatus 236 

Saguinus melanochir 236 

Saguinus moloch 236. 252 

Saguinus nigrifrons 236 

Saguinus personatus 236. 256 

Saguinus personatus var. A 236 

Saguinus sciureus 310 

Saguinus torquatus 236 

Saguinus vidua 236, 240 

sagulata (Chiropotes) 287,298 

sagulata (Pithecia) 286. 298 

sagulata (Simia) 298 

Saimiri xiii,xv,xvi, xvii, xxiv, xxxv, xlii 
liii, lxxxviii, 234, 300, 307, 308 
Saimiri boliviensis 

liii. lxxv, lxxxviii, 308, 309, 310, 315 
Saimiri b. nigriceps 

liii, lxxiv, lxxxviii, 309, 310, 316 
Saimiri cassiquiarensis 

liii, lxxiv, lxxxviii, 308 
309,310,311,312 

Saimiri entomophaga 308,309,315 

Saimiri lunulatus 308,309,311,312 

Saimiri macrodon 

liii, lxxiv, lxxxviii, 309, 310, 312 
Saimiri madeirae 

liii, lxxiv, lxxxviii, 309, 310, 313, 315 

Saimiri ochroleucus 308 

Saimiri oerstedi 

liii, lxxiii, lxxxviii, 309, 310, 316, 317 

Saimiri ce. citrinellus 309, 316, 317 

saimiri (Pithesciureus) xxxvi, 308, 310 

saimiri (Sciurea) 314 

Saimiri sciureus 

liii, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxviii, 234, 235 
308, 309, 310, 312, 313, 314, 315 
Saimiri ustus 
liii, lxxv, lxxxviii, 243, 308, 309, 310, 314 

Saimiris 307 

Saimiris entomophaga 315, 316 

Saimiris lunulatus 311 

Saimiris sciureus 310 

Sajus xxxv 

Sakinus xxxiii 



Page 
salaquiensis (CEdipomidas) 

1, lxxii, lxxxiv 
saltator (Tarsius) .xliv, lxxxvi, 8, 9, 13 
samati (Cheirogaleus) 90,111,112,113 

samati (Chirogale) 90, 100 

samati (Lemur) 90,91 

samati (Microcebus) 101,113 

samati (Opolemur) 112 

sancti-johannis (Pithecus) 

lvii, lxix, xciii 

sanctorem (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

sanghirensis (Tarsius) 

xliv, lxxxvi, 8, 9, 12, 13 
sannio (Erythrocebus) ..lxii, lxxi, xcix 
santaremensis (Callithrix) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxv, 220, 224 

santaremensis (Hapale) 224 

Sapajou xxxiv 

Sapajus xxxii 

sara (Alouatta) 

Hi, lxxv, lxxxvii, 263, 264, 265, 283 

satanas (Brachyurus) 296 

satanas (Cebus) 286 

satanas (Chiropotes) 287, 297 

satanas (Colobus) ... .xli, lxv, lxxii, cii 
satanas (Pithecia) 

Hi, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxv, lxxxvii 

286, 287, 288, 296, 298 

satanas (Pithecia) var. nigra 296 

satanas (Simia) xxxvi, 286, 296 

satanas Simia (Pithecia) 296 

Satyrus xxxv 

satyrus (Pan) Ixvii, lxxiii, cv 

Satyrus rufus xxxiii 

satyrus (Simia) 

xxxiv, xxxv, xxxvi, xxxviii, lxvii 

Scartes xxix, 98 

Scartes murinus 103 

schistaceus (Pygathrix) . .lxiv, lxxi, ci 

schmidti (Lasiopyga) lix, xcvi 

schweinfurthi (Pan) . . .lxvii, lxxiii, cv 
sciurea (Chrysothrix) 

308,310,311,315,316 

sciurea (Saimiri) 314 

sciurea (Simia) 

xxxv, xxxvi, liii, 234. 308. 310 
sciureus (Callithrix) 

234.235.308.310,315 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

sciureus (Cebus) 310 

sciureus (Pithesciureus) 308 

sciureus (Saguinus) 310 

sciureus (Saimiri) 

liii, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxviii, 234, 235 
308, 309, 310. 312, 313, 314, 315 

sciureus (Saimiris) 310 

Sciurocheirus xxxi, 45 

Sciurus madagascariensis 

xxviii, xxix, xliv, I, 2 

sclateri (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

Scolecophagus xxviii, 1 

Semnocebus xxx, xxxviii, xl, 163 

Semnocebus avahi 164 

Semnopithecinse xxv, xxxiv, lxiv 

Semnopithecus frontatus xxxix 

Semnopithecus johni xxxviii 

Semnopithecus roxellanse xxxix 

senegalensis (Galago) 

xxviii, xlv, lxviii, lxxviii 
45, 46, 47, 48, 70. 72, 76 

senegalensis (Galagoides) 72 

senegalensis (Otogale) 48 

senegalensis (Otolicnus) 47 

senegalensis (Otolicnus g.) B 73 

senex (Aotus) liii, lxxiv, lxxxviii 

senex (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

seniculus (Alouatta) 

Hi, lxxiv, lxxxvii, 260, 261, 262 
264, 265. 277, 279, 281, 282 

seniculus (Cebus) 260,277 

seniculus (Mycetes) ..261,262,277,281 

seniculus (Simia) xxxv, 277 

seniculus Simia (Stentor)' 277 

seniculus (Stentor) 260,277 

Seniocebus 

xxxiii, xxxviii, xlii, xlix, lxxiv 
lxxxiii, 179, 183, 184, 217, 218 
Seniocebus bicolor 

xlix, lxxiv, lxxxiii, 181 
182, 185, 186, 187. 188 

Seniocebus chrysopygus 183 

Seniocebus devillii 183 

Seniocebus erythrogaster 183 

Seniocebus flavifrons 183 

Seniocebus illigeri 183 

Seniocebus martinsi 

xliv. lxxiv, lxxxiii. 184, 185, 186, 189 



Page 
Seniocebus meticulosus 

xlix, lxxiv, lxxxiii, 184, 186. 188 

Seniocebus mystax 183 

Seniocebus nigricollis 183 

Seniocebus nigrifrons 183 

Seniocebus pileatus 183 

Seniocebus rufoniger 183 

Seniocebus weddelli 183 

sennaariensis (Galago) 

xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 47, 48, 70, 71, 74, 75 
sennaariensis (Galago acaciarum 

var. C) 75 

sennaariensis (Galago a. var. GO...74 

sennaariensis (Otogale) 48 

sennaariensis Otolicnus (galago a.). 74 

sennaariensis (Otolicnus) 47,74 

sericeus (Mico) xxxviii, 223 

sericeus (Micoella) 223 

sericeus (Propithecus) 171 

sericeus (Propithecus d.) 

xliv, lxxxiii, 167, 168, 171 

sericulus (Alouatta) 259 

sharpei (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, ciii 

Siamanga xxxviii 

siamensis (Pygathrix) ... .lxiii, lxxi, c 
sibreei (Chirogale) 

xlvii, lxxix, 91, 94, 96 

signata (Lasiopyga) lix, xcvi 

silacea (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvii 

Silenus xxxiv 

silenus (Cynocephalus) xxxvi 

silenus (Simia) xxxvii 



Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 
Sim 



a xxxi, xliii, lvii, Ixix, xciii, 286, 307 

a sethiops xxxv 

a amicta 234, 241 

a apeda 83 

a apella xxxv, 83 

a argentata xxxv, xxxvi, 221 

a aurita 217 

a aygula xxxiv 

a azarse 286 

a beelzebul . .xxxi. Hi, 259. 260, 270 

a (Sapajus) beelzebul 270 

a capucina xxxiv. Iv 

a caraya 260, 265 

a cephaloptera! xli 

a cephus xl 

a chiropotes 286 



^ 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Simia (Pithecia) chiropotes 297 

Simia cynocephalus xxxvi 

Simia diana xli 

Simia flavicauda 274, 276 

Simia flavicaudata 260, 261 

Simia geoffroyi 217 

Simia hamadryas xxxvi 

Simia humeralifer 217 

Simia jacchus 

xxxii, xxxiii, xxxvi. 216, 228 
Simia (Sagoinus) j. moschatus 217,228 

Simia lacepedii 180, 191 

Simia leonina 186, 210 

Simia leucocephala .... xxxvi, 286, 293 

Simia p. leucocephala 293 

Simia leucophaea xxxviii 

Simia (Callithrix) lugens 234,239 

Simia melalophus ! xxxix 

Simia melanocephala xxxvi, 299 

Simia melanolopha xli, liii 

Simia melanurus 217 

Simia midas xxxi, xxxiii, xlix, 180, 190 

Simia (Midas) labiatus 195 

Simia moloch 234, 25 1 

Simia mona xxxiv 

Simia (Pithecia) monacha 289 

Simia mormon xxxv 

Simia nasica xxxiv 

Simia nemaeus xxxiii, xxxiv, lxii 

Simia nemestrinus xxxviii 

Simia nictitans xxxii, lix 

Simia cedipus xxxvi, xxxviii, 1, 180, 213 

Simia (Midas) cedipus 213 

Simia paniscus xxxii, xxxiii, liv 

Simia patas xxxix, lxii 

Simia penicillata 217 

Simia personatus 234, 256 

Simia pithecia 

xxxii, Hi, 285, 287, 293, 294 

Simia polycomus lxv 

Simia pygery thra xxxviii 

Simia pygmaea xxxii, xxxiii, lxvi 

Simia quariba 260 

Simia (Stentor) quariba 274 

Simia rosalia xxxvii, 180, 209 

Simia rufiventer 286 

Simia (Pithecia) rufiventer 293 

Simia sagulata 298 



Page 

Simia satanus xxxvi, 286, 296 

Simia (Pithecia) satanus 296 

Simia satyrus 

xxxiv, xxxv, xxxvi, xxxviii, lxvii 
Simia sciurea 

xxxv, xxxvi, liii, 234, 308, 310 

Simia sciureus 234, 308 

Simia sciureus cassiquiarensis ....311 

simia-sciurus (Lemur) 132 

Simia seniculus xxxv, 277 

Simia silenus xxxvii 

Simia sinica xxxii, xxxviii, lvii 

Simia sphinx xxxv 

Simia (Stentor) flavicauda. . . .274, 276 

Simia (Stentor) seniculus 277 

Simia (Stentor) stramineus 277 

Simia straminea 260 

Simia sylvanus xxv, xxxi, xxxiii, xxxiv 
xxxv, lvii, lxix, xciii 

Simia talapoin lxxi 

Simia (Callithrix) torquatus. . .234, 239 

Simia trivirgata xxxiv, liii 

Simia troglodytes 

xxxii, xxxv, xxxvi, xxxviii 

Simia ursina 260, 274 

Simia (Midas) ursulus 192 

Simias . .xx, xxvi, xl, xliii, lxiv, lxxii, ci 
Simias concolor . .xiv, xl, lxiv, lxxii, ci 

Simiidae xvii 

simus (Hapalemur!) ... .xxxi, 125, 128 
simus (Myoxicebus) 

xlviii, lxxx, 125, 128, 129 

simus (Prolemur) 128 

sinica (Simia) xxxii, xxxviii, lvii 

sinicus (Pithecus) lvii, lxix, xciv 

sirhassenensis (Pithecus)lviii, lxx, xciv 

smithi (Azema) 104 

smithi (Cheirogaleus) 

xxxi, 89, 99, 100, 103 

smithii (Chirogale) 88,89,90,100 

smithi (Microcebus) 

99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105 
smithi (Microcebus p. m.) . . . .101, 104 

sondaicus (Nycticebus) 29 

speciosus (Macacus) xxxvii 

speciosus (Pithecus) ... .lvii, lxix, xciii 

spectrum (Lemur) xxix 

spectrum (Tarsius) 8,9,33 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Sphinx xxxvii 

sphinx (Papio) lv, lvi, lxix, xcii 

sphinx (Pithecus) xiii 

sphinx (Simia) xxxv 

spixi (Aotus) liv, lxxxix 

spixi (Midas) 214, 215 

spixi (Ouakaria) 306 

Stachycolobus xxxix, lxv 

stairsi (Lasiopyga) ... .lxi, lxx, xcviii 

Stenops xxviii, 16, 21 

Stenops gracilis 18 

Stenops javanicus 28 

Stenops potto 39 

Stenops tardigradus 18, 26 

Stentor xxxiii, 258 

Stentor chrysurus 261. 278 

Stentor fiavicaudatus 260, 274 

Stentor fuscus 260, 274 

Stentor niger 260, 265, 266 

Stentor seniculus 260, 277 

Stentor stramineus 

260, 261, 265, 266. 277 

Stentor ursinus 260, 274 

sticticeps (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

straminea (Simia) 260 

straminea Simia (Stentor) 277 

stramineus (Cebus) 260 

stramineus (Mycetes) 

260, 261. 262, 277, 280.. 281 
stramineus (Stentor) 

260, 261, 265, 266, 277 

stramineus Simia (Stentor) 277 

strepitus (Papio) ..lvi, lxix, xcii 

stuhlmanni (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvi 

subrufus (Callicebus) 

li, lxxiv, lxxxvi, 237, 238. 239, 247 

suluensis (Pithecus) lviii. xcv 

sumatrana (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, xcix 

Sylvanus .xxxiii, xxxiv, 175, 216 

sylvanus (Simia) 

xxv, xxxi, xxxiii, xxxiv 

xxxv, lvii, lxix, xciii 

Symphalangus ..xiii, xv, xx, xxvi, xxxvi 

xliii, lxvi, lxxii, civ 

Symphalangus klossi .. .lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Symphalangus syndactylies 

lxvi, lxxii, ciii 



Page 
Symphalangus s. continents 

xxvi, lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

Syndactylus xxxvi 

syndactylus (Hylobates) xv 

syndactylus (Pithecus) . . . .xxxvi, lxvi 
syndactylus (Symphalangus) 

lxvi, lxxii, ciii 

talapoin (Cercopithecus) xxxvi 

talapoin (Miopithecus) lxii, lxxi, xcviii 

talapoin (Simia) lxii 

talboti (Galago) xlvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 67 

Tamarin xxxix, 179, 181, 194, 217 

tamarin (Midas) 182,191,192 

Tamarinus 1, 194, 195 

tantalus (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvii 

Tardigradus xxviii, 16, 17 

tardigradus (Bradylemur) 26 

Tardigradus coucang xxi, xxviii, xlv, 21 
tardigradus (Lemur) 

xxviii, xxx, 17, 18, 19, 31, 132 
tardigradus (Loris) 

xliv, lxviii, lxxvi, 18, 19, 20, 132 
tardigradus (Nycticebus) 

22, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30 

tardigradus (Stenops) 18.26 

tarsier (Lemur) 7, 8 

Tarsiidze xxiii, xli, xliv, lxxxv, 7 

Tarsius 

xiii, xxviii, xli, lxiv, lxxxv, cv, 7, 8, 136 
Tarsius bancanus 

xxix, xxx, xliv, lxxxvi, 8, 9, 14 
Tarsius borneanus 

xliv, lxxxvi, 8, 9, 13, 14 

Tarsius daubentoni 2 

Tarsius fischeri 8, 15 

Tarsius fraterculus xliv, lxxxv, 8, 9, 12 

Tarsius fuscomanus 15 

Tarsius fuscus ..xliv, lxxxvi, 8, 9, 12, 15 

tarsius (Lemur) xliv, 7, 8, 9 

Tarsius philippinensis 

xliv, lxxxv, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 2,2 
Tarsius saltator .... xliv, lxxxvi, 8, 9, 13 
Tarsius sanghirensis 

xliv, lxxxvi, 8, 9, 12, 13 

Tarsius spectrum 8, 9, 33 

temmincki (Colobus) lxv, lxxii. cii 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



XXXVll 



Page 
temmincki (Lasiopyga) .lxi, lxx, xcviii 
tenasserimensis (Nycticebus) 

xlv, lxviii, lxxxvi, 22, 23, 25 

teng Galago (Otolicnus) 47 

teng (Otolicnus) 47, 74 

tephrosceles (Colobus) . .lxv, lxxii, cii 

tessellatum (Papio) lv, lxix, xci 

Theranthropus xxxv, lvi 

Theropithecus 

xxvi, xxxvi, xliii, lxix, xcii 
Theropithecus gelada .. .lvi, lxix, xcii 
Theropithecus obscurus .. lvi, lxix, xcii 
thibetanum (Pithecus) ..lvii, lxix, xciii 

tholloni (Colobus) lxv, lxxii, cii 

thomasi (Altililemur) 

xlvii, lxxx, III, 112, 113 

thomasi (Chirogaleus) 111 

thomasi (Hemigalago) 

lvi, lxviii, lxxviii, 85 
thomasi (Lagothrix) . . . .liv, lxxiv, xc 
thomasi (Lasiopyga) . . .lxi, lxx, xcviii 
thomasi (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxiv, lxxxiii, 184, 185, 194, 198 

thomasi (Midas) 184, 198 

thomasi (Opolemur) 112,113 

thomasi (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

titi (CEdipus) 182, 184, 213 

tonkeanus (Magus) lvi, xcii 

tonsor (Galago e.) 

xlvi. lxviii, lxxviii, 78 
torquatus (Callicebus) 

li, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxv, 234 
235, 236, 238, 239,241 
torquatus (Callithrix) 

li, 235, 236, 237, 239, 241 

torquatus (Cebus) 234,235,239 

torquatus (Cebus) var. /3 amictus ..235 

torquatus (Cercocebus) lviii, xcv 

torquatus (Saguinus) 236 

torquatus Simia (Callithrix) ..234,239 

Trachypithecus xl 

trichotis (Cheirogaleus) 90,96 

trichotis (Chirogale) 

xlvii, lxxix, 90, 91, 92, 93 

trigonif er (Jacchus) 226 

tripartitus (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxxiv, 184, 186, 195, 206 
tripartitus (Midas) 184,206 



Page 

trivirgata (Simia) xxxiv, liii 

trivirgatus (Aotus) 

liv, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxix 

Troglodytes xxxii, xxxvii 

Troglodytes gorilla xxxvii, lxvi 

Troglodytes niger xxxv 

troglodytes (Simia) 

xxxii, xxxv, xxxvi, xxxviii 

Tropicolobus xxxix, lxv 

typicus (Cheirogaleus) ... 88, 89, 92, 94 

typicus (Chirogale) 89,90,100 

typicus (Loris g.) 19 

typicus (Macromerus) 169 

typicus (Microcebus) 92,99 

typicus (Myspithecus) 92 

typus (Myspithecus) xxix, 92 

Uacaria xxxix, 299 

ubericola (Lagothrix) . . .liv, lxxiv, xc 

ultima (Pygathrix) Ixiv, lxxi, c 

ululata (Alouatta) 

lii, lxxvii, 263, 264, 267 
umbrosus (Pithecus) .. .lviii, lxx, xciv 

unicolor (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xc 

ursina (Alouatta) 

lii, lxxv, lxxxvii, 260, 261 
262, 264, 265, 274, 275 

ursina (Pygathrix) lxiii, lxxi, c 

ursina (Simia) 260, 274 

ursinus (Cebus) 260, 275 

ursinus (Mycetes) 259, 261, 262, 274. 281 

ursinus (Stentor) 260,274 

Ursula (Hapale) 184, 192 

Ursula (Simia midas) 192 

ursulus (Cercopithecus) 

xlix, lxxiii, lxxiv, lxxxiii, 180 
181, 182, 185, 190, 192, 200 

ursulus (Jacchus) 181 

ursulus (Midas) 

xxxviii, 180, 181, 183, 184 
191, 192, 193,210 

ursulus Simia (Midas) 192 

usta (Chrysothrix) 314 

usto-fuscus (Callicebus) 

li, lxxxvi, 237, 238, 241 

ustus (Chrysothrix) 314 

ustus (Saimiri) 
liii, lxxv. lxxxviii, 243, 308, 309, 310, 314 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

validus (Pithecus) lvii, lxix, xciv 

Varecia xxx, 130, 135, 137 

Varecia nigra 157 

Varecia ruber 162 

Varecia varia 135, 137, 161 

Varecia varia var. 6 157 

varia (Varecia) 135,137,161 

varia var. 6 (Varecia) 157 

variegatus (Ateleus) 

liv, lxxiv, lxxv, lxxxix 

variegatus (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xci 

variegatus (Lemur) 133, 160 

variegatus (Lemur m.) 

xxx, xlviii, lxxxi, 132, 133, 134, 135 
136, 137, 139, 141, 160, 162 

varius (Lemur) xxxii, 160 

vellerosus (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xci 

vellerosus (Colobus) 

xxxix, lxv, lxxii, cii 

vellerosus (Pan) lxvii, lxxiii, cv 

verrauxi (Propithecus) 

xlix, lxxxii, 167, 168, 171, 172, 174 

versuta (Cebus) lv, lxxiv, xci 

verus (Colobus) xli, lxv, lxxii, cii 

vestitus (Pithecus) lvii, lxix, xciii 

Vetulus xxxix, lvii 

vidua (Saguinus) 236, 240 

villosus (Alouatta) 

, Hi, lxxiii, lxxxvii, 263, 264, 268 

villosus (Mycetes) 261,262,268 

villosus (Pithecus) lvii, lxix, xciii 

vitiis (Pithecus) lviii, lxix, xciv 

vociferans (Aotus) ... liii, lxxiv, lxxxix 
volans (Galeopithecus) ...... .132, 133 

volans (Lemur) 132, 133 

vulgaris (Jacchus) ...217,218,228,229 



Page 

weddeli (Hapale) 184, 202 

weddeli (Leontocebus) 

1, lxxxiv, 182, 183, 186, 195, 202 
weddeli (Midas) 182, 183, 186, 195, 202 

weddeli (Seniocebus) 183 

werneri (Lasiopyga) lx, xcvii 

whitesidei (Lasiopyga a.) lix, xcvi 

whytei (Erythrocebus) . lxii, lxxi, xcix 

whytei (Lasiopyga c.) lx, xcvii 

wolfi (Lasiopyga) lxi, lxxi, xcvii 

wroughtoni c. (Pygathrix) .lxiv, lxxi, c 
wurmbi (Pongo) xxxiii 

xanthomystax (Lemur) 135, 150 

xanthomystax (Prosimia) 147 

Yarkea xxxviii, 285, 287, 289 

Yarkea albicans 292 

Yarkea albinasa 295 

Yarkea hirsuta 289 

Yarkea inusta 287, 289 

Yarkea irrorata 287, 289 

Yarkea leucocephala 286, 287, 293 

Yarkea monacha 289 

Yarkea ochrocephala 287, 295 

Yarkea pogonias 293 

Yarkea rufiventer 293 

yokoensis (Papio) lvi, lxix, xci 

Zati lvii 

zanzibaricus (Galago) 

xliv, lxviii, Ixxviii, 67 
zechi (Erythrocebus) .. .lxii, lxxi, xcix 

zenkeri (Cercocebus a.) lix, xcv 

zeylonicus (Loris g.) 19 

zuluensis (Galago) .. .xlv, lxvii, Ixxvii 



-