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Full text of "A review of the Primates"

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REVIEW 



OF 



THE PRIMATES 



BY 
DANIEL GIRAUD ELLIOT, D. SC, F. R. S. E., &c. 

Commander of the Royal Orders of the Crown of Italy, of Frederic of Wurtemburg, and of 
Charles the Third of Spain; Knight of the Imperial and Royal Orders of Francis Joseph 
of Austria, of the Dannebrog of Denmark, of the Albert Order of Saxony, of St. 
Maurice and St. Lazare of Italy, of Isabella the Catholic of Spain, of Christ of 
Portugal, of Philip the Magnanimous of Hesse, etc., etc.; Fellow of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, of the Zoological Society of London; A Founder and 
ex- Vice-President of the Zoological Society of France; A Founder and 
ex-President of the American Ornithologists' Union; Honorary Member 
of the Nuttall Ornithological Club; of the Linnaean Society of 
New York; of the New York Zoological Society; Member of 
the Imperial Leopoldino-Carolina Academy of Germany, of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, of the 
Academy of Sciences of New York, of the Societe 
D'Acclimatation of Paris, of the New York His- 
torical Society; Corresponding Member of the 
Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, of the 
Natural History Society of Boston, etc., etc. 



MONOGRAPH SERIES 
VOLUME II 



ANTHROPOIDEA 
Aotus to Lasiopyga 



FEB c 4 1993 

lIBRAB^*. 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

NEW YORK, U. S. A. 

MCMXII 



Vertebrate Paleontology 

U. S. National Museum 



CONTENTS. 

VOLUME II. 

Page 

Suborder II. Anthropoidea 1 

Subfamily III. Aotinae — Douroucouli 1 

Subfamily IV. Cebinae — Spider Monkeys — Woolly Monkeys — Capuchins.... 21 

Family III. Lasiopygidae 115 

Subfamily I. Lasiopyginae — Eaboons — Geladas — Black Apes — Celebes Ma- 
caques — Tailless Macaques — Mangabeys — Hamlyn's Monkey — Guenons.. 115 



iii 



LIST OF COLORED PLATES. 

VOLUME II. 

Opposite 
Page 

1. Lagothrix lagotricha 56 

2. Pithecus andamanensis 208 

3. Lasiopyga Thoesti 297 

4. Lasiopyga erythrogaster 301 

5. Lasiopyga schmidti 306 

6. Lasiopyga moloneyi 368 

7. Lasiopyga stairsi 372 

8. Lasiopyga brazzse 378 



LIST OF PLATES OF CRANIA. 

VOLUME II. 

Opposite 
Page 

I. Aotus miriquouina 1 

II. Ateleus belzebuth 21 

III. Brachyteleus arachnoides 49 

IV. Lagothrix lagotricha S3 

V. Cebus malitiosus 64 

VI- VII. Papio nigeriae 115 

VIII. Papio papio 130 

IX-X. Papio cynocephalus 137 

XI. Papio hamadryas '. . 143 

XII. Papio brockmani 147 

XIII-XIV. Papio sphinx 149 

XV-XVI. Papio planirostris 151 

XVII. Theropithecus obscurus 155 

XVIII. Cynopithecus niger 159 

XIX. Magus ochreatus 165 

XX. Simia sylvanus 172 

XXI. Pithecus thibetanum 196 

XXII. Pithecus nemestrinus 205 

XXIII. Pithecus brevicaudus 216 

XXIV. Pithecus albibarbatus 218 

XXV Pithecus sinicus 221 

XXVI. Pithecus fascicularis 233 

XXVII. Pithecus bintangensis 246 

XXVIII. Cercocebus torquatus 254 

XXIX. Cercocebus aterrimus 270 

XXX. Rhinostigma hamlyni 273 

XXXI. Lasiopyga fantiensis 300 

XXXII. Lasiopyga nictitans 316 

XXXIII. Lasiopyga cephus 319 

XXXIV. Lasiopyga callitrichus 333 

XXXV. Lasiopyga mona 350 

XXXVI. Lasiopyga denti 351 

XXXVII. Lasiopyga kolbi 361 

XXXVIII. Lasiopyga diana (immature) 380 

XXXIX. Lasiopyga roloway 381 



Vll 



LIST OF PLATES OF FIGURES FROM LIFE. 

VOLUME II. 

Opposite 
Page 

1. Ateleus ater 30 

( Lagothrix lagotricha j - , 

' | Cebus capucinus ) 

i Papio porcarius ) 

{ Papio hamadryas J 

4. Papio sphinx 149 

5. Theropithecus gelada 156 

J Cynopithecus niger J 

' | Simia sylvanus j 

j Pithecus fuscatus j 

' j Pithecus nemestrinus ) 

( Pithecus rhesus ) 

°* (Pithecus albibarbatus ) 

( Cercocebus torquatus j 

' ( Cercocebus albigena j 

10. Rhinostigma hamlyni 274 

j Lasiopyga pygerythrus j 

* j Lasiopyga roloway ) 



IX 



LIST OF HEADS. 

VOLUME II. 



Opposite 
Page 



4. 



Lasiopyga l'hoesti 
Lasiopyga erythrogaster 
Lasiopyga buttikoferi 

' Lasiopyga ascanius 
Lasiopyga signata 
Lasiopyga schmidti 
Lasiopyga nigrigenis 
Lasiopyga princeps 
Lasiopyga martini 
Lasiopyga cephus 
Lasiopyga erythrotis 
Lasiopyga callitrichus 
Lasiopyga griseoviridis 
Lasiopyga cynosura 
Lasiopyga pygerythra 
Lasiopyga nigroviridis 
Lasiopyga campbelli 
Lasiopyga burnetti 

r Lasiopyga albitorquata 
Lasiopyga k. hindei 
Lasiopyga diana 
Miopithecus talapoin 
Erythrocebus patas 



301 



310 



338 



360 



XI 



LIST OF GENERA AND SPECIES 

VOLUME II. 

Page 

Aotus 1 

Aotus infulatus 5 

Aotus nigriceps 8 

Aotus senex 8 

Aotus rufipes 9 

Aotus roberti 10 

Aotus miriquouina 10 

Aotus boliviensis 11 

Aotus lanius 12 

Aotus vociferans 13 

Aotus griseimembra 15 

Aotus trivirgatus 16 

Aotus oseryi 17 

Aotus gularis 18 

Aotus microdon 18 

Aotus spixi ^ 19 

Ateleus 21 

Ateleus paniscus 28 

Ateleus ater 30 

Ateleus variegatus 31 

Ateleus marginatus - . 34 

Ateleus rufiventris 36 

Ateleus grisescens 37 

Ateleus cucullatus 38 

Ateleus belzebuth 39 

Ateleus pan 41 

Ateleus fusciceps 43 

Ateleus geoffroyi : 44 

Ateleus hybridus 47 

Brachyteleus 49 

Brachyteleus arachnoides 50 

Lagothrix 53 

Lagothrix lagotricha 56 

Lagothrix lugens 58 

Lagothrix thomasi 59 

Lagothrix ubericola 60 

Lagothrix cana 60 

Lagothrix infumata ■> 62 

xiii 



xiv GENERA AND SPECIES 

Page 

Cebus 64 

Cebus apella 78 

Cebus capucinus 82 

Cebus c. nigripectus 86 

Cebus f rontatus 86 

Cebus albifrons 88 

Cebus unicolor 91 

Cebus u. cuscinus 92 

Cebus flavus 93 

Cebus castaneus ' 94 

Cebus variegatus 95 

Cebus malitiosus 98 

Cebus chrysopus 99 

Cebus apiculatus 100 

Cebus libidinosus 101 

Cebus fatuellus 102 

Cebus f. peruana 104 

Cebus macrocephalus 104 

Cebus versuta 105 

Cebus azarse 107 

Cebus a. pallidus 108 

Cebus cirrifer 109 

Cebus crassiceps Ill 

Cebus caliginosus 112 

Cebus vellerosus 113 

Papio 115 

Papio nigeriae 125 

Papio doguera 126 

Papio tessellatum 127 

Papio furax 128 

Papio yokoensis 128 

Papio heuglini 129 

Papio papio 130 

Papio ibeanus 133 

Papio porcarius 133 

Papio cynocephalus 137 

Papio neumanni 140 

Papio strepitus 141 

Papio pruinosus , 142 

Papio hamadryas 143 

Papio h. arabicus 147 

Papio brockmani 147 

Papio sphinx 149 

Papio planirostris 151 

Papio leucophseus 152 



GENERA AND SPECIES xv 

Page 

Theropithecus 155 

Theropithecus gelada 155 

Theropithecus obscurus 157 

Cynopithecus 159 

Cynopithecus niger 162 

Magus .... 165 

Magus ochreatus 167 

Magus maurus 169 

Magus tonkeanus 170 

Simia 172 

Simia sylvanus 173 

Pithecus 176 

Pithecus speciosus 190 

Pithecus harmondi , 193 

Pithecus ruf escens 193 

Pithecus fuscatus 195 

Pithecus thibetanum 196 

Pithecus vestitus 197 

Pithecus sancti-johannis 198 

Pithecus lasiotis 198 

Pithecus pagensis 200 

Pithecus villosus 200 

Pithecus littoralis 201 

Pithecus cyclopsis 202 

Pithecus nemestrinus 205 

Pithecus adustus 206 

Pithecus insulanus 207 

Pithecus andamanensis 208 

Pithecus assamensis .... 209 

Pithecus rhesus 213 

Pithecus brevicaudus 216 

Pithecus albibarbatus 218 

Pithecus sinicus 221 

Pithecus pileatus 223 

Pithecus resimus 224 

Pithecus validus 225 

Pithecus alacer 226 

Pithecus karimoni 227 

Pithecus fuscus 228 

Pithecus umbrosus 229 

Pithecus irus 229 

Pithecus mordax 232 

Pithecus fascicularis 233 

Pithecus mandibularis 234 

Pithecus capitalis 235 



xvi GENERA AND SPECIES 

Page 

Pithecus laetus 236 

Pithecus lingungensis 237 

Pithecus lautensis 238 

Pithecus sirhassenensis 239 

Pithecus vitiis 239 

Pithecus carimatse . 240 

Pithecus baweanus 241 

Pithecus cupidus 242 

Pithecus agnatus 243 

Pithecus phseurus 243 

Pithecus lapsus 244 

Pithecus lingae 245 

Pithecus impudens 246 

Pithecus bintangensis 246 

Pithecus dollmani 248 

Pithecus philippinensis 248 

Pithecus p. apoensis 250 

Pithecus cagayanus 251 

Pithecus pumillus 252 

Pithecus suluensis 252 

Cercocebus 254 

Cercocebus torquatus , 260 

Cercocebus cethiops 261 

Cercocebus lunulatus 263 

Cercocebus chrysogaster 264 

Cercocebus agilis 264 

Cercocebus hagenbecki 265 

Cercocebus galeritus 265 

Cercocebus albigena 266 

Cercocebus a. johnstoni 267 

Cercocebus a. zenkeri 269 

Cercocebus aterrimus 270 

Rhinostigma 273 

Rhinostigma hamlyni 273 

Lasiopyga 275 

Lasiopyga l'hoesti 297 

Lasiopyga insolita 298 

Lasiopyga petaurista 299 

Lasiopyga fantiensis 300 

Lasiopyga erythrogaster 301 

Lasiopyga buttikoferi 302 

Lasiopyga ascanius 303 

Lasiopyga a. whitesidei 305 

Lasiopyga signata 305 

Lasiopyga schmidti 306 

Lasiopyga leucampyx 308 



GENERA AND SPECIES xvii 

Page 

Lasiopyga pluto 308 

Lasiopyga nigrigenis 309 

Lasiopyga boutourlini 309 

Lasiopyga opisthosticta 311 

Lasiopyga aurora 312 

Lasiopyga stuhlmanni 312 

Lasiopyga neumanni 313 

Lasiopyga doggetti 314 

Lasiopyga princeps 315 

Lasiopyga carruthersi 315 

Lasiopyga nictitans 316 

Lasiopyga n. laglaizi 317 

Lasiopyga sticticeps 317 

Lasiopyga martini 318 

Lasiopyga cephus 319 

Lasiopyga cephodes 321 

Lasiopyga inobservata 322 

Lasiopyga sclateri 323 

Lasiopyga erythrotis 324 

Lasiopyga matschie 326 

Lasiopyga hilgerti 327 

Lasiopyga djamdjamensis 327 

Lasiopyga tantalus 328 

Lasiopyga t. budgetti 329 

Lasiopyga t. griseisticta 331 

Lasiopyga t. alexandri 332 

Lasiopyga callitrichus 333 

Lasiopyga werneri 334 

Lasiopyga griseoviridis 336 

Lasiopyga cynosura 337 

Lasiopyga pygerythra 338 

Lasiopyga rufoviridis 341 

Lasiopyga rubella 342 

Lasiopyga calida 343 

Lasiopyga centralis 344 

Lasiopyga c. whytei 345 

Lasiopyga c. johnstoni 346 

Lasiopyga c. lutea 346 

Lasiopyga silacea 347 

Lasiopyga nigroviridis 348 

Lasiopyga mona 350 

Lasiopyga denti 351 

Lasiopyga wolfi 351 

Lasiopyga campbelli 352 

Lasiopyga burnetti 353 

Lasiopyga pogonias 354 



xviii GENERA AND SPECIES 

Page 

Lasiopyga p. nigripes 354 

Lasiopyga grayi 355 

Lasiopyga g. pallida 356 

Lasiopyga petronellae 358 

Lasiopyga albitorquata , . 360 

Lasiopyga kolbi 361 

Lasiopyga k. nubila 362 

Lasiopyga k. hindei 362 

Lasiopyga albigularis 363 

Lasiopyga a. beirensis 366 

Lasiopyga a. kinobotensis 366 

Lasiopyga rufilata 368 

Lasiopyga moloneyi 368 

Lasiopyga f rancescae 369 

Lasiopyga preussi 370 

Lasiopyga p. insularis 370 

Lasiopyga thomasi 370 

Lasiopyga kandti 371 

Lasiopyga insignis 372 

Lasiopyga stairsi 372 

Lasiopyga s. mossambicus 373 

Lasiopyga rufitincta 374 

Lasiopyga labiata 375 

Lasiopyga neglecta 376 

Lasiopyga brazzae 378 

Lasiopyga diana 380 

Lasiopyga roloway 381 

Lasiopyga temminckii 382 



A REVIEW 
OF THE PRIMATES 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE I. 




AOTUS MIRIQUOUINA. 
No. 94.3.6.4. Brit. Mus. Coll. Nat. Size. 



CLASS MAMMALIA. 

ORDER ANTHROPOIDEA. 

FAMILY CEBID/E. 

Subfamily Aotinae. 

GENUS AOTTJS. THE DOUROUCOULIS. 

t M> C. jEi; P. g 5 M. S = 36. 

AOTES Humboldt, Rec. Obs. Zool. et Anat. Comp., 1811, (1815), 
pp. 306-311, 358, (for Aotus), pi. XXVIII. Type Simla 
trivirgata Humboldt. 

Nyctipithecus Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 25. 

Nocthora F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm, V, 1824, livr. XLIII, pi. 

Head round; body short, thick; face encircled by a ruff; ears 
short, mostly hidden in the fur ; nostrils separated by a broad septum ; 
eyes very large ; tail bushy, the length moderate. Skull : orbits large, 
approximate, supported by a bony wall ; upper incisors broad, subequal ; 
canines long; lower incisors projecting forward; first upper premolar 
very long; last upper molar tricuspidate ; hands and feet small; the 
semi-opposable thumb and great toe weak. Dorsal and lumbar verte- 
brae, twenty-two. 

The Douroucoulis, as the species of Aotus are generally called, 
are small animals with round heads and large eyes, and a short face 
surrounded by a ruff of lengthened hairs. The coat is rather soft and 
fluffy in texture, the tail of medium length, inclined to be bushy, and 
non-prehensile. These animals are nocturnal and arboreal ; seldom seen 
during the day, hiding themselves amid the thick foliage, or in holes 
of the trees, but at night are very active and noisy, uttering loud 
'caterwaulings,' and roaming about in search of food which consists 
of insects, fruit, and small birds when they are fortunate enough 
to seize one. The Indians call them 'Devil Monkeys,' and being natu- 
rally of a delicate constitution, they do not live long in captivity. 



2 AOTUS 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1812. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire 

Naturelle, Paris. 

Aotus miriquouina first described as Pithecia miriquouina. 
1811? Humboldt, Recueil d' Observations de Zoologie et d'Anatomie 
(1815). Comparee. 

Aotus miriquouina redescribed as Simia {Pithecia) azarce; 

and A. trivirgatus, first described as Simia trivirgata. 
1820. Kuhl, Beitrage zur Zoologie. 

A. trivirgatus is given in its proper genus ; A. miriquouina is 

given as Pithecia miriquouina; and A. infulatus is first 

described as Callithrix infulatus. 
1823. Spix, Simiarum Vespertilionum Brasiliensium, Species Nova. 

A. infulatus redescribed as Nyctipithecus felinus; and A. 

vociferans first described as N. vociferans. 
1829. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

Three species of Aotus are here given under the genus Cebus. 

A. trivirgatus; A. felinus = A. infulatus; and A. miri- 
quouina. 
1829. Vigors and HorsHeld, in Zoological Journal 

A species of Aotus is here described, but, except as to the 

genus, is undeterminable. 
1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 

manes. 

The genus Nyctipithecus is here employed for the species of 

Aotus, one species and two varieties being recognized. They 

are (N.) trivirgata; and var. (N.) vociferans; and var. 

Le miriquouina = A. miriquouina. 
1840. Wagner, Schreber, Die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 

Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 

One species is given in this work. A. trivirgatus in the genus 

Nyctipithecus; but A. felinus, = A. infulatus, and A. 

vociferans are considered synonymous. 
1843. /. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Comptes Rendus. 

A. vociferans redescribed as Nyctipithecus lemurinus. 
1848. /. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Comptes Rendus. 

A. oseryi first described as Nyctipithecus oseryi. 
1851. /. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

Three species are here given under Nyctipithecus: N. felinus = 

A. infulatus ; N. oseryi ; and N. lemurinus = A. vociferans. 



AOTUS 3 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen, Supplementband. 
Five species are included in Nyctipithecus: (N.) felinus = A. 

INFULATUS; (N.) INFULATUS; (iV.) TRIVIRGATUS J (N.) 

oseryi; and (N.) vociferans. 
1857. Pucheran, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 

Aotus spixi first described as Nyctipithecus spixi. 
1862. Reichenbach, Die V ollstdndigste Natur geschichte der A if en. 

The species of Aotus is, in this work, placed in Nyctipithecus 

as follows: (iV.) trivirgata; (N.) felinus = A. infulatus; 

(iV.) oseryi ; (N.) lemurinus = A. vociferans; (N.) spixi; 

(N.) VOCIFERANS. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 
Four species are included in the genus Nyctipithecus: (AT.) 
miriquouina; (N.) trivirgatus; (N.) commersoni = A. 
infulatus; and (iV.) lemurinus = A. vociferans. 

1872. Sclater, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Aotus rufipes first described as Nyctipithecus rufipes. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bas, Simice. 

Three species are given in this work under the genus Nycti- 
pithecus as distinct: (N.) azar^:; (N.) trivirgatus; and 
(N.) vociferans. A. rufipes (Sclat.), and A. oseryi 
(Geoff.), are considered synonyms of A. vociferans. 

1907. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Aotus boliviensis is first described. 

1909. G. Dollman, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

In this paper six species of Aotus are described for the first 
time, viz. : A. roberti ; A. nigriceps ; A. senex ; A. gularis ; A. 
lanius and A. microdon. 

1912. D. G. Elliot, in Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 
Aotus griseimembra first described. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 



NOME] 



With one exception, A. rufipes from Nicaragua, Central America, 
whose habitat is somewhat doubtful, the species of this genus are found 
only in South America, and are distributed across the continent from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Of the known species A. trivir- 
gatus seems to have the widest distribution, and is found from Guiana 



4 AOTUS 

in the East, to the Upper Amazon on the banks of the Cassiquiare River 
near the headwaters of the Rio Negro, Brazil, and westward to £ga, 
in Peru. A. roberti has only been obtained in the Sierra de Chapada, 
Matto Grosso, Brazil; and A. infulatus at Para. The only other 
locality in the eastern part of the continent inhabited by a member of 
this genus, is the right bank of the River Paraguay, northeastern part 
of Argentina, where A. miriquouina is found. A. vociferans has 
been procured on the Ucayali and Huallaga rivers, and at Tabatinga, 
Upper Marafion, on the eastern border of Peru, and also in the 
Tolima Mountains, south western Colombia. In the mountains just 
named A. lanius was obtained. A. griseimembra has been found in 
Santa Marta, and on the Rio Sinu Cerete, Bolivar, northern Colombia. 
Two species inhabit Ecuador, A. gularis at the mouth of the 
Rio Coca, Upper Rio Napo, and A. microdon at Micas. Peru, besides 
A. trivirgata, has two other representatives of the genus, A. nigri- 
cefs from Chanchamayo, and A. senex from Pozuzo, but the extent of 
their range is not yet known, and this may be also said of most of the 
other species. From the Province of Sara, Central Bolivia, A. bolivi- 
ensis comes. Three species remain whose habitats are doubtful or 
unknown. First of these is A. rufipes mentioned above, received in 
London alive from San Juan del Norta, Nicaragua. The type is 
unique and its habitat uncertain, as it may have been brought to San 
Juan from South America. The others are A. oseryi in the Paris 
Museum, whose only habitat is given as "Haute Amazone, Perou," (I. 
Geoff.) ; and A. spixi in the Collection of the same Institution, and 
said to have come from "Amerique Meridionale." 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Black lines on sides of head not going to the throat. 
a. Black lines on head not going to the occiput. 

a.' Black lines from eyes encircling the white and 
meeting on crown. 
a." Apical half of hairs on tail black to the 
roots. 
a!" Black lines on head broad. 

a. 4 Hairs on back red and black 

towards root A. infulatus. 

bA Hairs on back slaty black 

towards root A. nigriceps. 

b."' Black lines on head narrow A. senex. 



AOTUS 5 

b! Black lines from eyes not meeting on crown. 
a" Apical half of hairs on tail yellowish to 
roots. 
a!" Spot over eyes white. 

a. 4 Hands and feet red A. rufipes. 

bA Hands and feet reddish brown.. A. roberti. 
cA Hands and feet yellowish 

brown A. miriquouina. 

dA Hands and feet iron gray . .A. boliviensis. 

b!" Spot over eyes buff A. lanius. 

c!" Spot over and under eyes white.. A. vociferans. 
b. Black lines on head going to occiput. 

a! Black lines from eyes not meeting on crown. 
a" Spot under and above eyes, legs and 

arms gray A. griseimembra. 

b" No spot under eyes, only above. 

a!" Spot over eyes white A. trivirgatus. 

b"' Spot over eyes yellowish white A. oseryi. 

c!" Spot over eyes buffy white, grading 

to russet on crown A. gularis. 

d!" Spot over eyes reddish buff A. microdon. 

B. Lines on sides of head going to the throat A. spixi. 

AOTUS INFULATUS (Kuhl). 

Callithrix infulatus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 38; Reichenb., 
Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 23. 

Nyctipithecus felinus Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 24 
pi. XIV; Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, X, 1st Ser., 1842, p 
256; Id. List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, pi. XIV; I 
Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 39; Wallace, Proc. Zool. Soc 
Lond., 1852, p. 197 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855 
p. 106; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur. 
fasc. I, 1856, p. 149; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen 
1862, p. 17, figs. 47, 48, 51 ; Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz., II, 1863 
p. 317; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 710; 1865, p 
587, (note) ; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 1881, p 
98; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 170. 

Chirogaleus ( !) commersoni Vig. and Horsf., Zool. Journ., IV, 
1829, p. 112. 

Cebus felinus Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1830, p. 55 ; Bates, Nat. Riv. 
Amaz., II, 1863, p. 318. 



6 AOTUS 

Nyctipithecus commersoni Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 
Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 58. 

THE FELINE DOUROUCOULI. 

Type locality. Para, Brazil, South America. Type in Berlin 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Para to the region of the Upper Amazon ; Peru. 

Genl. Char. Three irregular facial streaks combining on the 
crown, the central one broad, fan-shaped. 

Color. A white spot over each eye, between which is a fan-shaped 
black spot. The white spots do not extend on to the sides or crown 
of the head ; a black line extends on each side of the head from just 
below the eyes to the crown, joining the central black spot; entire 
upper parts, and outer side of arms and legs gray with a yellowish tinge, 
darkest on dorsal region; cheek and throat whitish; under parts and 
inner side of limbs dark orange buff; tail for basal third ochraceous 
rufous, remainder black, base of hairs tawny ochraceous. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 57 ; Hensel, 40 ; zygo- 
matic width, 40; intertemporal width, 31; palatal length, 16; breadth 
of braincase, 34; median length of nasals, 12; length of upper molar 
series, 14 ; length of mandible, 38 ; length of lower molar series, 17. 

The type of Callithrix infulatus "Licht .," is in the Berlin 
Museum. Lichtenstein's name is only in manuscript and of course is 
not tenable. But Kuhl, when in Berlin, described in his Beitrage 
Zoologie, Lichtenstein's specimen under the name that was already 
given, and therefore it will stand as Aotus infulatus Kuhl, and 
Spix's name of felinus given three years after will become a synonym. 

Bates (1. c.) states he once saw an individual of this species 
which was surprisingly tame. It was as lively and nimble as the 
species of Cebus, less mischievous, but far more confiding in its 
disposition and delighted to be caressed by all who came into the 
house. Its cleanliness and pretty ways and appearance made it a great 
favorite. The gentle disposition of this particular animal, however, 
might be attributed to the treatment it received from its owner, who 
allowed it to sleep with him in his hammock and to nestle in his 
bosom as he lay reading. Bates further relates, under the name of 
N. felinus, that he kept one of this species for many months, a young 
one having been given him by an Indian. A colony, to which this one 
belonged, was discovered by the Indian; for these animals even when 
sleeping are aroused by the least noise, and if one passes by the tree in 
which they have their nest, a number of owl-like striped faces appear 
at the edge of the hollow in the trunk. He was obliged to keep it 



AOTUS 7 

chained and it never became familiar. It lived in a broad-mouthed 
glass jar placed in a box, and when any one entered the room it would 
dive head foremost into this, and turning around, thrust forth its face 
and stare at the intruder. At night it was very active, uttering at times 
a cry like a dog's suppressed bark, and scampered about to the length 
of its chain after cockroaches and spiders. When it tried to climb 
between the box and the wall, the space was straddled, bending the 
knuckles at an acute angle and resting upon the palms and tips of the 
outstretched fingers and toes and then mounted easily. The nails are 
flat on both fingers and toes, and their physiognomy is like that of an 
owl or tiger cat. By the Indians these monkeys are known as Ei-a. 
He found two species inhabiting the same forest of the higher and 
drier lands without intercrossing or even intermingling with each 
other. His captive ate all kinds of fruit, but preferred insects, and 
would not touch meat raw or cooked and was seldom thirsty. He was 
told by persons who had kept these monkeys about the house that they 
cleared the chambers of bats and insect vermin. When it was gently 
approached, his pet permitted one to caress it, but if roughly handled 
would bite severely, strike with its hands and make a hissing noise 
like that of a cat. It met an unfortunate fate, as it was killed by a 
Cairara monkey which was jealous. 

Wallace writing on this species states, (1. c.) "of the curious Noc- 
turnal Monkeys forming the genus Nyctipithecus there are two species 
in this district, (Valley of the Amazon), one which appears to be the 
N. trivirgatus of Humboldt, is found in the district of Ecuador, west 
of the Upper Rio Negro ; the other closely allied, probably the N. feli- 
nus (=A. infulatus), on the Upper Amazon. Their large eyes, 
cat-like faces, soft woolly hair and nocturnal habits render them a 
very interesting group. They are called 'devil monkeys' by the In- 
dians and are said to sleep during the day and to roam about only at 
night. I have specimens of them alive, but they are very delicate and 
soon die." 

Spix's type of A. felinus from which my description was taken is 
in the Munich Museum in very good condition, and the colors well 
preserved. The skull is not in the specimen and my measurements 
given were taken from a skull in the British Museum Collection. 

Chirogaleus ( !) commersoni was described after an individual 
without any locality or history. The type has disappeared, and the 
description given in the Zoological Journal, 1829, p. 112, will cover 
various examples of different species, as no especial character is given 
that may be considered peculiar to the type alone. 



8 AOTUS 

It is, therefore, undeterminable and the name should be dropped 
from the list. That the examples belonged to the present genus and 
not to Chirogale is quite evident, the head markings alone being quite 
sufficient to establish this fact. 

Aotus nigriceps Dollman. 

Aotus nigriceps Dollman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., LV, 8th Ser., 
1909, p. 200. 

Type locality. Chanchamayo, Peru. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Black stripes on head; broad lateral ones uniting 
with central stripe on occiput ; hands and feet dark ; tooth rows curved ; 
first and second molars nearly equal and largest ; orbits large. 

Color. A spot over each eye extending backward and curving 
inward in a narrow line and almost meeting at occiput, white; hairs 
on side of upper lip, white; line from cheeks extending over sides of 
head and broadening as it goes, joining a central line from forehead 
between eyes and passing over the crown, black ; the junction of these 
three lines causes the occiput also to be black; sides of head, entire 
upper parts of body and outer side of limbs grizzled iron gray, darkest 
on dorsal line from middle of back where the hairs are tipped with 
reddish brown; hands and feet blackish brown; chin blackish; throat 
and entire under parts of body, and inner side of limbs, ochraceous 
buff; tail above at base, hairs orange buff with black, grading into 
buff yellow with black tips, and then becoming all black on apical 
fourth ; beneath deep orange at base of hairs, grading into orange buff 
with black tips, and then all black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 740; tail, 400; foot, 90. Skull: 
total length, 63.4; occipito-nasal length, 58; intertemporal width, 31.5; 
width of braincase, 33.7; Hensel, 41.7; zygomatic width, 39; median 
length of nasals, 96; palatal length, 18; length of upper molar series, 
15 ; length of mandible, 37.5 ; length of lower molar series, 16. Ex 
type British Museum. 

This species differs from all others in its black head and white 
stripes, and dark hands and feet. A large series is in the British 
Museum from Chanchamayo. 

Aotus senex Dollman. 

Aotus senex Dollman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 1900, 

p. 200. 
Type locality. Pozuzo, Peru. Type in British Museum. 



AOTUS 9 

Genl. Char. General color of head brownish gray; lateral black 
lines encircling the white on crown, not going to occiput ; two thirds of 
tail black ; first upper molar largest of the series. 

Color. Forehead white divided in center by a fan shaped black 
line, and encircled by another black line commencing at corner of 
eyes ; space beneath eyes covered with white hairs ; head behind black 
line brownish gray ; back of neck, and upper parts of body and flanks 
brownish gray ; flanks grizzled gray ; dorsal line darkest and reddest : 
outer side of limbs grizzled gray ; under parts of body and inner side of 
limbs pale orange buff; hands and feet grizzled gray; tail above and 
beneath orange rufous at base, remainder black. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 750; tail, 430; foot, 90. Skull: 
total length, 65 ; occipito-nasal length, 60.3 ; intertemporal width, 33.5 ; 
width of braincase, 33.6 ; Hensel, 39.2 ; zygomatic width, 36.6 ; median 
length of nasals, 13.7 ; palatal length, 17 ; length of upper molar series, 
15; length of mandible, 37.6; length of lower molar series, 16.9. Ex 
type British Museum. 

In the head markings this species is similar to A. boliviensis from 
Sara Province, Central Bolivia, but is much darker and more gray, and 
has the tail black for the greater part of its length ; the cranial charac- 
ters are different, and the orbits much smaller, the nasals narrower; 
palate longer and narrower. 

Aotus rufipes (Sclater). 

Nyctipithecus ruiipes Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 3, 
pi. I; Alston, Biol. Amer. Central., I, Mamm., 1879, p. 15; 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 169, pi. XV. 

Aotus ruiipes Elliot, Mamm. Middle Amer. and W. Indies, 
F. C. M. Pub., VI, Pt. II, 1904, p. 726, (Aotus miriquo- 
uina), figs. 165, CXXXIX, Zool. Ser.; Id. Check-L. Mamm. 
N. Amer. Cont. and W. Indies, F. C. M. Pub., VII, 1905, p. 
533, Zool. Ser. 

RED-FOOTED DOUROUCOULI. 

Type locality. Nicaragua? Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Nicaragua? Central America. 

Genl. Char. Triangular white patch over each eye; ears large, 
prominent, nearly naked ; hands and feet rufous. 

Color. Triangular white patch over each eye; three indistinct 
black lines on head from forehead and corner of eyes to crown ; upper 
parts of body and outer side of limbs gray, tinged with reddish on 



10 AOTUS 

dorsal region; under parts yellowish gray; inner side of limbs gray; 
hands and feet reddish brown ; tail, basal half reddish brown, remain- 
der reddish black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 698; tail, 280. Skull: occipito- 
nasal length, 52; Hensel, 40; zygomatic width, 39; intertemporal 
width, 32; palatal length, 18; width of braincase, 32; median length 
of nasals, 10; length of upper molar series, 13. Ex type British 
Museum. 

This species differs from all the rest in its reddish brown hands 
and feet. The stripes on the head are indistinct when compared with 
other species, and are very narrow. Doubtfully from Nicaragua. 

Aotus roberti Dollman. 

Aotus roberti Dollman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 1909, 
p. 199. 

ROBERT'S DOUROUCOULL 

Type locality. Matto Grosso, Brazil. Type in British Museum. 

Color. Face black; whitish spot over eyes, between which is a 
fan-shaped black mark; brownish black line from corner of eye extends 
upwards on outer side of the white spot, and then outward and termi- 
nates on side of the crown; occiput, entire upper parts of body, 
grizzled buffy gray, the hairs being banded with buff and black and 
tipped with white; dorsal line from middle of back, and rump have a 
reddish tinge ; upper lip and chin covered with short white hairs ; entire 
under parts and inner side of limbs ochraceous buff; hands and feet 
reddish brown ; tail above at base orange red, remainder black, beneath 
red grading into golden on basal half, rest black. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 640; tail, 260; foot, 85. Skull: 
total length, 64; occipito-nasal length, 57.6; intertemporal width, 31.7; 
breadth of braincase, 33 ; Hensel, 39 ; zygomatic width, 40.5 ; median 
length of nasals, 12.8; palatal length, 17; length of upper molar series, 
15. Ex type British Museum. 

The type in the British Museum differs chiefly in its yellowish 
gray color, and in having the lateral stripes on the head not encircling 
the white spots above the eyes, but continuing backwards on side of 
crown and terminating above the ears. 

Aotus miriquouina (E. Geoff roy) . 

Pithecia miriquouina E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
XIX, 1812, p. 117; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1823, p. 43. 



AOTUS 11 

Simla (Pithecia) azarce Humb., Obs. Zool., 1811, (1815), p. 359. 
Nyctipithecus azarce Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 212, 

(nee Synon) ; von Pelz., Kaiserl. Konigl. Zool.-botanisch. 

Gesel. Wien, 1883, XXXIII, p. 18; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 

I, 1894, p. 170. 
Nyctipithecus trivirgatus Rengg., Naturg. Saugth. Paraguay, 

1830, p. 58, (nee Humb.). 
Aotus azarce Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1903, p. 234. 

AZARA'S DOUROUCOUL1. 

Type locality. Right bank of the River Paraguay, north-eastern 
part of the Argentine Republic. 

Geogr. Distr. Argentine Republic. 

Genl. Char. Large black patch between the superciliary spots. 

Color. A white spot over each eye, extending backward in a 
narrow line to crown, and separating the central black spot from the 
black lateral lines, which extend from the angles of the mouth to the 
crown on each side of the head; entire upper parts iron gray, outer 
side of limbs iron gray like upper parts; under parts and inner side 
of limbs ochraceous bufT; hands reddish brown, feet washed with 
gray; tail at base ochraceous rufous, hairs black tipped, remainder 
black. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 57 : zygomatic width, 
40.8; intertemporal width, 31.2; palatal length, 14.5; breadth of brain- 
case, 35; median length of nasals, 11.7; length of upper molar series, 
13.3 ; length of mandible, 40; length of lower molar series, 15.3. 

Aotus boliyiensis Elliot. 

Aotus boliviensis Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 1907, 7th Ser., 
p. 189. 

Type locality. Province of Sara, Central Bolivia. Type in British 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar in color to A. miriquouina, but black on 
occiput and the cranial characters different. Orbits wider and higher ; 
orbital portion of frontal bulging outward forming a decided curve 
from the frontal to the nasals; the nasals are longer and wider; 
braincase longer and narrower posteriorly; extreme width across 
orbits much greater ; interior outline of skull much less curved ; angle 
of occipital region much less ; teeth larger, particularly the last upper 
molar; space from posterior edge of foramen magnum to interparietal 
much greater ; basioccipital between bullae much wider. 

Color. Male similar to A. miriquouina but more tinged with red 



12 AOTUS 

on upper parts. A white spot over each eye extending back upon the 
head ; a broad black line on middle of forehead from nose to between 
ears, and a narrow black line from corner of eye on each side of the 
head bordering the white; upper parts mixed iron gray and russet 
becoming more brownish on lower back ; cheeks and chin white, sides 
yellowish brown ; outer side of limbs iron gray, sometimes tinged with 
yellowish brown; inner side of limbs and under parts pale orange 
ochraceous ; hands and feet dark grayish brown ; tail mixed ochraceous 
rufous and black on basal half, remainder black. The hairs of tail 
are all ochraceous rufous at base and this shows more or less through- 
out the entire length. 

Measurements. Total length, 720; tail, 400; foot, 100; ear, 35. 
Skull: total length, 64; occipito-nasal length, 61.5; Hensel, 44; zygo- 
matic width, 40.5; intertemporal width, 33; extreme width of orbits, 
45; height of orbits, 21 ; median length of nasals, 12; width of brain- 
case, 35 ; distance from foramen magnum to interparietal, 11 ; width of 
basioccipital between bullae anteriorly, 3.5; length of upper molar 
series, 14 ; length of mandible, 41 ; length of lower molar series, 16. 

While similar in color to A. miriquouina, the present species 
differs greatly in its cranial characters. The skull is much larger and 
the braincase considerably longer, while the orbits are enormous, very 
large even for these big eyed animals. 

Two specimens, a male and female were obtained by Mr. T. Stein- 
bach in Central Bolivia and are now in the collection of the British 
Museum. There was no difference in the colors of the sexes. 

Aotus lanius Dollman. 

Aotus lanius Dollman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 1909, 
p. 202 ; Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., XXXI, 1912, 
p. 95. 

WOOLLY DOUROUCOULI. 

Type locality. Tolima Mountains; Toche River, Central Andes, 
Colombia, South America. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Fur long, thick, soft, woolly ; tail bushy. 

Color. Spot over nose fan-shaped, black ; spot over each eye buff 
extending backward in a narrow circular line on fore part of head, 
becoming reddish on hind part, and a black line from corner of eyes 
encircling the buff on sides of head but not extending on to the crown ; 
crown, back of head, neck and dorsal region to rump red, hairs tipped 
with golden; flanks and outer side of limbs paler, grizzled brownish 
red; hairs on shoulders and limbs tipped with white; inner side of 



AOTUS 13 

limbs brownish gray ; chin and throat buffy gray ; under parts of body 
orange buff ; hands and feet black ; tail at base above and beneath red 
like dorsal region, at root beneath chestnut, the red gradually merges 
into black on apical third, though the hairs retain the red from the 
roots to the tip. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 710; tail, 370; foot, 80. Skull: 
intertemporal width, 30.5; width of braincase, 32; Hensel, 41.3; zygo- 
matic width, 38.8; median length of nasals, 14.1 ; palatal length, 17.5; 
length of upper molar series, 16 ; length of mandible, 37.8 ; length of 
lower molar series, 17; occipital region of skull gone. Ex type British 
Museum. 

This species is remarkable for its thick woolly fur, suitable for an 
animal dwelling upon high mountains. It is peculiar also in not having 
the lateral black lines on head meeting in the rear, but stopping outside 
of the crown. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman during his Expedition to Colombia in 
1911, obtained a flat skin of this species from a native on the Toche 
River, Central Andes, Province of Tolima, at an elevation of approx- 
imately 7,000 feet. 

AOTUS VOCIFERANS (Spix). 

Nyctipithecus vociferans Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 25, 
pi. XIX ; Less., Spec. Mamm, 1840, p. 171 ; Wagn., Abhandl. 
Bay. Akad., V, 1848, p. 445 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 
V, 1855, p. 108; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 
p. 20, fig. 53; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 214; 
Alston, Biol. Amer. Centr., I, Mamm., 1879, p. 14. 

Cebus vociferans Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 55. 

Nyctipithecus lemurinus I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XVI, 1843, p. 
1151 ; Id. Archiv. Mus. Paris, IV, 1844, p. 25, pi. XI ; Id. Voy. 
Venus, 1840-1855, Mamm., t. 3, fig. 2; I. Geoff., Cat. Pri- 
mates, 1851, p. 39; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Anim. Nat., 
fasc. I, 1856, pp. 148, 149; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 19, fig. 52 ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 
Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 58; Sclat., Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 3. 

Nyctipithecus trivirgatus Tschudi, Faun. Peruan., 1844, p. 49, (nee 
Humboldt). 

Aotus vociferans Elliot, Mamm. Middle Amer. and W. Indies, 
F. C. M. Pub., IV, Pt. II, 1904, p. 729, Zool. Ser. ; Id. Check- 



14 AOTUS 

L. Mamm. N. Amer. Cont. and W. Indies, F. C. M. Pub., VI, 
1905, p. 534, Zool. Ser. 
Nyctipithecus ruHpes Forbes, Handb. Mamm., I, 1894, p. 169, pi. 
XV, (Part.). 

NOISY DOUROUCOULI. 

Type locality. Tabatinga on the Upper Maranon, eastern border 
of Peru. Type in Munich Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Upper Amazon ; on banks of the Ucayali and Hual- 
laga rivers, and on the Upper Maranon on eastern border of Peru; 
the mountains of Tolima, Colombia. 

Genl. Char. Hair, long, loose, fluffy, thick; color uniform. 

Color. Spot over and beneath each eye white ; a fan-shaped black 
spot on center of head, and a lateral black line extending back on each 
side of the head towards occiput ; entire upper parts and limbs cinna- 
mon rufous, darkest on head and dorsal lines which are more reddish ; 
under parts ochraceous buff; inner side of limbs grayish buff; hands 
and feet blackish brown, reddish in type ; tail at base like dorsal line, a 
reddish cinnamon rufous, remainder black. The type of N. lemurinus 
I. Geoffroy, in the Paris Museum, has been examined, but it is so faded 
from exposure to light that it is impossible to recognize its original 
coloring, and one could only guess at it. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 58 ; zygomatic width, 
40; intertemporal width, 30; median length of nasals, 12; breadth of 
braincase, 32 ; palatal length, 19 ; length of upper molar series, 14.5 ; 
length of mandible, 36; length of lower molar series, 15. 

The type of this species is in the Munich Museum, but is now in 
a very poor condition. The hair has gone from the face and from a 
portion of the head over the right eye. There is no trace remaining 
of the black line on the side of the head, and the triangular black spot 
on top of the head has disappeared, while only a few hairs above and 
below the eyes indicate the white spots formerly existing. The fur is 
much faded, and discolored by time and exposure. There was no skull 
preserved. 

In the Proceedings of the London Zoological Society, 1872, p. 3, 
Mr. Sclater identified a specimen stated by Dr. von Patten to have 
been collected in the forest of Quindin, Costa Rica, as the same as 
this species under the name of N. lemurinus. The locality given is 
probably an error, as no species of Aotus is known to inhabit any part 
of Central America, and Alston (1. c.) says that Mr. Salvin thought a 



AOTUS 15 

mistake had been made in the locality assigned, for the origins given to 
examples "obtained by this collector in other branches of Zoology have 
not always been free from doubt." 

This species is most easily distinguished from A. infulatus by 
the three black stripes on the head, and the grayish white, or ochra- 
ceous buff on the forehead is carried back between the black stripes, 
not being restricted to the forehead alone as in the other species 
compared. The general color of the pelage is more reddish than in A. 
infulatus. Frequently in the make up of skins, especially in old 
material, the stripes on the head are confused with the white, and it is 
sometimes not easy to ascertain whether there are three stripes or not, 
the hairs having become twisted and set, and refuse to assume their 
proper position. Some individuals have the top of the head russet, 
and some are grayish. 

AOTUS GEISEIMEMBRA Elliot. 

Nyctipithecus felinus (nee Spix), Bangs, Proc. N. Eng. Zool. 
Club, I, 1900, p. 102, ex Santa Marta, Colombia. 

Aotus griseimembra Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 
1912, p. 33 ; Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., XXXI, 
1912, p. 95. 

Type locality. Hacienda Cincinnati, Santa Marta; and Rio Sinu 
Cerete, Bolivar; Colombia. Type in American Museum of Natural 
History, in New York. 

Color. Spot above and below each eye white; a black patch 
beginning at a point on forehead between each eye and extending 
backward on crown, fan-shaped; jet black line extending from each 
eye on side of head and going to occiput ; rest of head, neck and upper 
parts mixed cinnamon and black; arms and legs smoke gray, hairs 
tipped with buff ; no cinnamon nor black present ; hands mummy brown 
and black; feet black on sides, golden brown on center and on toes; 
sides of head and neck grayish; throat buff; rest of under parts and 
inner side of arms and thighs ochraceous buff; flanks grayish buff; 
tail at root above like upper parts, mixed black and cinnamon, beneath 
at root dark ochraceous rufous; sides on basal half buff, hairs black 
tipped ; rest of tail jet black. Ex type in American Museum of Natural 
History in New York. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,047; tail, 372; foot, 92.5, (Col- 
lector) . Skull : total length, 60 ; occipito-nasal length, 58.2 ; zygomatic 
width, 36.5; intertemporal width, 32; median length of nasals, 11; 
breadth of braincase, 32 ; palatal length, 16.4 ; length of upper molar 



16 AOTUS 

series, 13.5 ; mandible, 35 ; length of lower molar series, 15.3. Ex type 
in American Museum of Natural History in New York. 

This species, while resembling somewhat A. vociferans, differs 
in being darker on the upper parts and especially in the gray arms 
and legs, the hairs buff tipped ; and the black lines on sides of the head 
go to the occiput. Two examples were collected by Mr. Carriker in 
the mountains near the coast in Santa Marta; and two from the Rio 
Sinu Cerete, west of the mountains, Colombia, collected by Mrs. E. 
L. Kerr. 

AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Humboldt) . 

Simla {Aotus) trivirgata Humb., Rec Obser. Zool., I, 1811, p. 28. 

Aotus trivirgatus Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm, Av., 1811, p. 71 ; E. 
Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 115. 

Cebus trivirgatus Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 55; Blainv., 
Osteog., 1841, Atl., Cebus, pis. Ill, VI. 

Nyctipithecus trivirgatus E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 
1828, p. 19, lOme Legon ; F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 2me ed., 
1833, p. 166, pi. LXVIII ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 
1840, p. 226; V, 1855, p. 106; I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, IV, pp. 24, 28 ; Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., X, 
1st Ser., 1842, p. 256; Id. List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, 
p. 14; Wagn., Wiegm., Archiv., 2nd Part, 1843, p. 21 ; 1846, 
p. 136; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 17, figs. 
47, 48; Bates, Nat. River Amaz., 1862, p. 316; Gray, Cat. 
Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, 
p. 58; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 213; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 168; von Pelz, Kaiserl-Konigl. 
Zool.-botanische Gesellsch. Wien, XXXIII, 1883, p. 18. 

Nyctipithecus douroucouli Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 169. 

THREE-BANDED DOUROUCOULI. 

Type locality. Banks of the Cassiquiare near the headwaters of 
the Rio Negro. 

Geogr. Distr. Guiana, Upper Amazon region, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. Three separate distinct black streaks on head, going 
to occiput. Skull narrowing towards occiput, and the posterior outline 
of braincase rounded; palate wide, narrowing but slightly anteriorly 
between canines. 

Color. General hue dark gray with a silvery lustre caused by the 
white tips of the hairs ; three black stripes on head from forehead to 
occiput; spots over eyes whitish, sometimes ochraceous buff; dorsal 



AOTUS 17 

band reddish brown ; outer side of arms and legs dark brownish gray ; 
under parts ochraceous buff ; inner side of arms buffy gray ; legs gray- 
ish buff, more yellow than arms; hands dark grayish, feet yellowish 
brown; tail at base reddish brown, remainder black; sometimes the 
base of tail is tawny ochraceous. 

Measurements. Total length, 605; tail, 330; hind foot, 85; ear, 
25, (Collector). Skull: occipito-nasal length, 60; Hensel, 40; inter- 
temporal width, 32; zygomatic width, 40; palatal length, 17; breadth 
of braincase, 33 ; median length of nasals, 10 ; length of upper molar 
series, 13; length of mandible, 40; length of lower molar series, 15. 

Aotus oseryi (I. Geoff roy et Deville). 

Nyctipithecus oseryi I. Geoff, et Deville, Compt. Rend., XXVII, 
1848, p. 498; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 39; Casteln, 
Exped. Amer. Sud, Mamm., 1855, p. 15, pi. II; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. SuppL, 1855, p. 106; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 
Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp 148, 149; Reichenb., 
Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 18 ; Bartl. and Sclat., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 220. 
Type locality. "Haute Amazone, Perou." 

Genl. Char. Three stripes on head; no stripes on dorsal region; 
tail long. 

Color. Central stripe from forehead to occiput, and two lateral 
lines from occiput to eyes, and down side of face to angle of mouth, 
black; yellowish white spot over eyes; top of head between stripes 
brownish gray; sides of head yellowish brown; upper parts of body 
and outer side of limbs pale yellowish brown, dorsal region reddish; 
under parts and inner side of limbs yellowish white, probably much 
deeper yellow originally ; hands and feet very dark brown ; face bare ; 
tail with sides on basal half yellowish or pale ochraceous brown, top 
and remaining portion to tip, blackish brown. Ex type Paris Museum. 
Measurements. In size about equal to A. infulatus. 

Two specimens of this form are in the Paris Museum. It has 
usually been classed as a synonym of A. infulatus, or as the young 
of that species. The skull of A. oseryi is in the mounted type, showing 
the teeth, and judging from what can be seen of these, the specimen 
would seem to be adult. It is an entirely different color from A. 
infulatus, and the three black stripes on the head are clear and 
distinct, going to the occiput which is not the case in A. infulatus. 
The general hue is a yellowish brown mixed with gray. The animal is 



18 AOTUS 

full grown and shows no signs of immaturity, and with its decided head 
markings, an entirely different color, it seems hardly correct to unite 
it with A. infulatus. As is usual with the types of species of the 
earlier authors, no locality beyond "Haute Amazone, Perou," is given 
with the specimens. The type was obtained by Castelnau and Deville 
in their expedition to South America and was figured in the Atlas of 
their published work. 

Aotus gularis Dollman. 

Aotus gularis Dollman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 1909, 
p. 201. 

Type locality. Mouth of Rio Chocho on Upper Rio Napo, 
Ecuador. Type in British Museum. 

Color. Three heavy black lines, one from the corner of each eye 
and one from above the nose, all meeting on the occiput ; buffy white 
spot above each eye, grading into russet, extending backward to 
occiput; sides of head and neck, and flanks, brownish gray; dorsal 
line mars brown, hairs purplish on basal half, and banded with mars 
brown and black; outer side of arms dark brownish gray; outer side 
of legs like flanks ; chin, throat and chest gray ; under parts of body, 
and inner side of legs buff; hands and feet black; tail at base above 
and beneath orange, remainder to tip black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 690 ; tail, 350 ; foot, 20. Skull : total 
length, 63.4; occipito-nasal length, 59.3; intertemporal width, 34; 
breadth of braincase, 33; Hensel, 40; zygomatic width, 40; median 
length of nasals, 12; palatal length, 16; length of upper molar series, 
15; length of mandible, 37.6; length of lower molar series, 16.4. Ex 
type British Museum. 

This animal differs from A. microdon from Macas, in its gray 
body and the jet black stripes on the head, and from A. nigriceps in the 
russet portion of the crown stripe, and in the mars brown of the dorsal 
region, and brownish gray flanks. The molar series of teeth are 
smaller. 

Aotus microdon Dollman. 

Aotus microdon Dollman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 

1909, p. 203. 
Type locality. Macas, Ecuador. 



AOTUS 19 

Genl. Char. Fur woolly, long, soft; three lines on head, lateral 
one not meeting on occiput ; tail bushy. 

Color. Similar to A. lanius but paler; a buff line from above 
eyes extending back to occiput, and a brownish black line from corner 
of each eye to crown only ; occiput, and dorsal region to tail yellowish 
red, much paler than this portion in A. lanius; outer side of arms 
and flanks yellowish gray, the flanks paler than arms and more yellow ; 
outer side of legs similar to flanks; chin, throat, under part of body 
and inner side of limbs buff; hands and feet reddish brown; tail 
above and beneath on basal half orange, hairs black tipped, remaining 
portion to tip, black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 580; tail, 220; foot, 80, (skin). 
Skull : total length, 65.5 ; occipito-nasal length, 59.1 ; intertemporal 
width, 60.5 ; zygomatic width, 57.7; breadth of braincase, 31.6; median 
length of nasals, 13.3; palatal length, 15.4; length of upper molar 
series, 13.5; length of mandible, 35.4; length of lower molar series, 
16.1. Ex type British Museum. 

This species while having woolly, thick fur, and bushy tail like A. 
lanius is much lighter in color and quite differently marked upon the 
head. The tooth rows are much shorter. The unique type in the 
British Museum was obtained at Macas in Ecuador, and probably the 
species is found in high latitudes on the mountains. 

Aottjs spixi (Pucheran). 

Nyctipithecus spixi Pucher., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1857, pp. 335, 352 ; 
Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 20. 

Type locality. "Amerique Meridionale." Type Paris Museum. 

Genl. Char. Three brownish black lines on head, one central, and 
two lateral extending to occiput. Size moderate, tail long. 

Color. Top of head with the central and two lateral brownish 
black lines ; spots over eyes grayish white, extending back to occiput, 
and graduating into grayish brown; dorsal line golden, indistinct on 
middle of back, clearer on rump ; nape, sides of head, upper parts and 
outer side of limbs, brownish gray, hairs tipped with white ; sides paler ; 
the lateral brownish black lines extending down each side of the face 
and meeting on the throat below chin, which is whitish; under parts 
and inner side of limbs pale yellow; hands and feet reddish brown, 
mixed with white hairs on hands; tail, basal half grayish brown like 
flanks on under parts and side, above black, apical half black; face 
bare save a few white hairs on lips. Ex type Paris Museum. 



20 AOTUS 

Measurements. Total length, 412.8; tail, 298.33. 

The type of this form died in the Menagerie of the Jardin des 
Plantes, and was described by Pucheran (1. c). In having the three 
stripes on the head it is nearer trivirgatus and rufipes, than vocif- 
erans. It is a plain little animal, a dull grayish brown constituting 
the general color of its coat. The under parts were probably a deeper 
yellow, as the hair is faded, not only beneath but over the body 
generally, and originally it was probably considerably darker. The 
golden dorsal line, broadest on the lower part of the back, distinguishes 
this form from rufipes and trivirgatus, which have this part reddish 
and chestnut respectively. The continuation of the lateral stripes to 
the throat where they meet, also distinguishes this species from all 
others. The stripes from mouth across the throat, while of the same 
color as the lateral ones on the head, are fainter. 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE II. 




ATELEUS BELZEBUTH. 
No. 94.12.18.1. Brit. Mus. Coll. % Nat. Size. 



ATELEUS 21 

Subfamily 4. Cebinae. 
GENUS *ATELEUS. SPIDER MONKEYS. 

t 2—2 r 1—1 p 3— 3 , , 3 — 3_ , 

!• 2 — 2> ^' 1— 1> "• 3— 3> M - 3— 3 — 3°- 

ATELES ( !) E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, VII, 1806, p. 

262. Type Simia paniscus Linnaeus. 
Cercopithecus Blumenb., Handb. Naturg., I, 1779, p. 68. (nee 

Gronow, 1763, nee Brunnich, 1772, nee Erxleben, 1777). 
Sapajus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., Mamm., I, 1792, p. 74, (Part.). 
Sapajou Laceped., Tabl. Mamm., 1799, p. 4. 
Atelocheirus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, VII, 1806, p. 

272. 
Paniscus Rafin., Analyse de la Nature, 1815, p. 53, (nee Schrank. 

1802 Hymenopt.). 
Sapaju Ritgen, Naturl. Einth. Saugth. Giess., 1824, p. 33. 

Body light, slender; limbs long, slender; arms longer than legs; 
head rounded, muzzle projecting; thumb rudimentary, or absent; tail 
very long, naked beneath, tip prehensible; fur coarse, not woolly; 
canines large with a diastema between them and the incisors; middle 
upper incisors long, broad, larger than outer ; molars four cusped with 
transverse ridges between. 

The Spider Monkeys constitute one of the most remarkable groups 
of the Primates, and the tail as a prehensile organ has attained what 
may be considered the greatest degree of perfection of which it is 
capable. As an arboreal animal this Monkey represents the highest 
development of the Quadrumana of the New World as far as known, 
no other member of the Order in past or present time, in the Western 
Hemisphere, has approached nearer the higher forms of the Old 
World. 

The tail is unsurpassed, if not unequalled, in its flexibility, always 
in motion, the tip as sensitive as that of the elephant's trunk, grasping 



*Ar€\riff a priv. and Te\o<r,€o<r a neuter noun, which with the a priv. 
would be, when Latinized, Ateleus, which should be the generic name for the 
Spider Monkeys. 



22 ATELEUS 

with an unshakable firmness anything and everything it may touch, and 
fulfilling in the highest degree and with an admirable service, the 
purposes of a fifth hand. By it, fruits or other desirable objects other- 
wise unattainable are seized and brought within reach of the mouth 
or hands, and it also can hold its possessor suspended in the air, and 
allow the hands and feet to act with complete freedom. While mem- 
bers of other genera of the Order possess prehensile tails, in com- 
parison with that of Ateleus they perform but a restricted service. 
Another feature of this group is the absence of the thumb, existing in 
a rudimentary condition in one or two forms, and this probably is an 
advantage to the animal as it travels through the forest, permitting 
without hindrance the long hand to slide over and grasp the branches 
in its swift progress, which the opposing thumb, might at times prevent. 
Against this theory, however, is the fact that the members of Hylo- 
bates, of the Old World Apes, which are strictly arboreal animals, 
and whose flight through the forest can only be compared in ease and 
swiftness to the passage of a bird, possess very long thumbs. The 
limbs of Ateleus are long, the arms exceeding the legs in length ; the 
body is comparatively small, with the stomach protruding, and 
covered with rather coarse long hair, but without any woolly under 
fur. The lumbar region of the skeleton is short, but the dorsal segment 
attains a greater relative length than in any other Monkey. 

The tail has twenty-three vertebrae, flattened beneath, and with 
processes present for the attachment of muscles for increasing its 
efficiency as a prehensile organ. A median air sac is situated in the 
back of the larynx, but there is no such provision for increasing the 
power of the voice as witnessed in the vocal apparatus of the Howling 
Monkeys. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

1758. Linnceus, Sy sterna Natures. 

Ateleus paniscus described as Simla paniscus. 
1777. Erxleben, Sy sterna Regni Animalis. 

In the list here given one species, Ateleus paniscus, is included 

in the genus Cebus. 
1806. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire 

Naturelle, Paris. 

In this Memoir five species are included in the genus Ateleus, 

viz.: Le Chamek, A. pentadactylus = A. paniscus; La Coaita, 

A. paniscus ; L'arachnoide, A. arachnoides = Brachyteleus 



ATELEUS 23 

arachnoides; La belzebuth, A. belzebul; and La Camail, 

COLOBUS POLYCOM US. 

1809. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Annales du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 
Ateleus marginatus described. 

1811 Humboldt et Bonpland, Recueil d' Observations de Zoologie 

(1815) ? et d' Anatomie Comparee. 

Le Chuva de Bracamorros is a trivial name here given to a 
species of Ateleus, A. variegatus Wagner, but is afterward 
in the same volume called A. marginatus, an appellation 
bestowed on quite a different species of the same genus, by E. 
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire two years before. 

1812. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Annales du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 
A repetition of the list of the species of Ateleus given in 1806. 

1820. Kuhl, Beitrage zur Zoologie und V ergleischenden Anatomie. 

Seven species of Ateleus are given in this work, viz.: A. 
geoffroyi first described; A. pentadactylus = A. paniscus; 
A. marginatus; A. paniscus; A. belzebuth; A. arachnoides 
and A. hypoxanthus both belonging to the genus Brachy- 
teleus; and A. fuliginosus = A. belzebuth. 

1820. Desmarest, Mammalogie et Descriptions des Mammiferes. 

A list of species of Ateleus, seven in number similar to that 
of Kuhl, but A. geoffroyi is redescribed as A. melanochir; 
and A. sub pentadactylus = A. paniscus. 

1823. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 
Ateles ( !) ater first described. 

1829. /. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Annales du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 
Ateles ( !) hybridus first described. 

1829. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

Seven species and two varieties of Ateleus are here enumer- 
ated under the genus Cebus. (C.) arachnoides, and (C.) 
hypoxanthus, the latter a synonym of the former, and belonging 
to the genus Brachyteleus. (C.) pentadactylus = A. 
paniscus. A. paniscus with two varieties; (C.) surinamensis 
ex Surinam = A. paniscus; and b. (C.) cayennensis ex Cayenne 
= A. ater; (C.) ater; (C.) fuliginosus = A. belzebuth ; (C.) 
geoffroyi; (C.) brissoni — A. belzebuth; and (C.) mar- 
ginatus. 



24 ATELEUS 

1830. Fischer, Addenda, Emmendanda et Index ad Synopsis Mam- 
malium. 
A repetition of the list of Ateleus given in the Synopsis. 

1830. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire et F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des 
Mammiferes. 

A. marginatus figured as 'le Coaita a front blanc.' 

1831. Bennett, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Ateleus marginatus redescribed as Ateles ( !) frontatus. 

1840. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
Seven species are here given under Ateles ( !) only five of 
which belong to the genus, viz. : A. paniscus with var. B. 
pentadactylus an individual variation, the specimen having a 
rudimentary thumb ; A. marginatus ; A. belzebuth ; A. 
geoffroyi ; and A. hybridus. The other two A. arachnoides, 
and A. hypoxanthus, both representing the same species, belong 
to the genus Brachyteleus, but are here placed in a sub- 
section Eriodes. 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 

Ateleus has here seven species : A. paniscus ; A. marginatus ; 
A. ater; A. hybridus; A. belzebuth; A. melanochir = A. 
geoffroyi; and A. chamek = A. paniscus. 

1842. /. E. Gray, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Ateleus geoffroyi redescribed as Eriodes frontatus. 

1844. Schinz, Systematisches V erzeichniss aller bis jetzt bekannten 
Saugethiere, oder Synopsis Mammalium nach der Cuvier 'schen 
System. 
Ateleus marginatus redescribed as A. albifrons. 

1851. /. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Catalogue des Primates. 

The seven species usually enumerated by previous Authors are 
contained in this list. Those not valid are A. pentadactylus = 
A. paniscus (Linn.), and A. melanochir — A. geoffroyi. 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere Abbildungen nach der Natur 
mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 

Seven species of Ateleus are here given of which six are 
valid : A. paniscus ; A. ater ; A. marginatus ; A. belzebuth ; 
A. variegatus; (this not in previous list of 1840), and 
A. hybridus. A. melanochir = A. geoffroyi. In subgenus 
Eriodes the species of Brachyteleus is placed, B. arach- 
noides and its synonym B. hypoxanthus. 



ATELEUS 25 

1862. Reichenbach, Die V ollst'dndigste Naturgeschichte der A if en. 

In this work Ateleus contains the following species : A. ater ; 

A. PANISCUS ; A. BELZEBUTH J A. MARGINATUS J A. VARIEGATUS J 

A. melanochir = A. geoffroyi ; and A. hybridus, I. Geoffroy. 

1862. /. H. Slack, in Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. 

The seven species of Ateleus are here placed in the genus 
Sapajou, Lacepede. The only non valid form is A. pentadacty- 
lus — A. paniscus. The male of A. variegatus Wagner, is 
described for the male A. geoffroyi; the description of the 
female only being correct for that species. 

1865. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Ateleus grisescens; A. cucullatus; and A. fusciceps first 
described, and A. belzebuth Geoff., redescribed as A. vel- 
lerosus. 

1867. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Ateleus variegatus redescribed as A. bartletti. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 
In the Tribe Lagotrichina are placed the three genera, Ate- 
les ( !), Lagothrix and Brachyteles ( !). Twelve species are 
enumerated as belonging to the first of these, viz. : A. ater; A. 
paniscus; A. fusciceps; A. grisescens; A. cucullatus; A. 
marginatus; A. hybridus ; A. geoffroyi; A. melanochir = 
A. geoffroyi; A. ornatus — A. geoffroyi; A. albifrons (nee 
Schinz), = A. geoffroyi; A. belzebuth ; and A. vellerosus = 
A. belzebuth. 

1872. P. L. Sclater, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London. 
Ateles ( !) rufiventris first described. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bas, Simice. 

In this work the species included in Ateleus are divided into 
two groups, the true and the woolly, these last now placed in 
the genus Brachyteleus. The true are separated into two 
divisions, A. those with a crest and B. those without. The first 
of these is subdivided into five sections; a. with nearly the 
entire face naked and the pelage black and shining. Three 
species are apportioned to this section ; A. paniscus ; A. ater ; 
and A. pentadactylus — A. paniscus; b. cheeks and chin 
more or less hairy; pelage of various colors. Three species 
are included here ; A. fusciceps ; A. marginatus ; and A. chuva 



26 ATELEUS 

— A. variegatus; b. sides of face and beneath body, white, 
or reddish white, or yellowish white, more or less prom- 
inent. Three species are placed here; A. belzebuth; A. 
fuliginosus = A. belzebuth ; A. pan described for the 
first time; y. crest black but short, body beneath red or 
reddish, above brownish red, or grayish, more or less pro- 
nounced, sometimes uniform blacky a color which prevails on 
the extremities, and often on top of the head. Two species are 
found here; A. rufiventris and A. geoffroyi. The second 
division has but one species, A. hybridus characterized by a 
small head with a large clear spot, and no crest. The second 
group contains the woolly Spider Monkeys, A. arachnoides 
and A. hypoxanthus == A. arachnoides, one species, now in 
Brachyteleus. 
1879- Alston, Biologia Centrali Americana. Mammalia. 

1882. Four species of Ateleus are here recorded. A. ater ; A. rufi- 
ventris; A. geoffroyi; A. vellerosus — A. belzebuth; of 
which A. pan Schlegel, and A. fuliginosus Kuhl = A. belze- 
buth are considered synonymous; though the Author thinks 
that the original description of Kuhl's species applies better to 
the dull gray varieties of A. geoffroyi. The geographical dis- 
tribution of the species recognized is carefully given. 

1883. Von Pelzeln, Brasilische Saugethiere, Resultate von Johann 
N offerer's Reise in den Jahren 1817 bis 1835. 

Two species of Ateleus only are here recorded. A. paniscus, 
from Fazenda do Padre Battista, May, am Flusse Sararige- 
schossen; Montogrosso, November; Rio Guapore, volta del 
campo dos Veados, July ; Rio Marmore, August ; Rio Madeira, 
etwas oberhalb des Rio Abuna, September ; and A. variegatus. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

The Spider Monkeys have a wide distribution extending from the 
State of Vera Cruz in Mexico, through Central America into northern 
South America, where they are found in the forests through which the 
Orinoco and Amazon with their, tributaries flow, to the Pacific Coast 
States of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. In the State of Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, and southward into Guatemala, in which country it goes from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, A. pan is found and is the only representa- 
tive of the genus in Mexico. Two other species are known to inhabit 
Central America. A. geoffroyi from Nicaragua, and A. ater, both 



ATELEUS 27 

extending their range into Colombia, the latter going even to Peru. A. 
rufiventris is doubtfully from Panama, the type coming from the Rio 
Atrato in Colombia. In the Guianas, and on the banks of the Orinoco, 
and also on those of the Lower and Upper Amazon with such tribu- 
taries as the Rio Madeira, R. Marmore, R. Guapore and R. Carari, and 
ranging as far to the westward as the Rio Marafion, Peru, A. panis- 
cus occurs. On the Upper Rio Cauca, a tributary of the Orinoco, A. 
variegatus is met with, ranging westward into Peru in the Province 
of Jean de Bracamorros, and at Chayavetas, Nautuas and Elvira, 
Peruvian Amazons. A. marginatus is found in the vicinity of Para, 
Lower Amazon, and on the banks of the Rio Tocantins. Above the 
great rapids of the Orinoco, at Atures and Maypures, A. belzebuth 
occurs ; and in Colombia in the Valley of the Magdalena, A. hybridus 
is supposed to dwell. A. fusciceps has only been met with in the 
trans-Andean districts of Ecuador. There remain two rather doubtful 
species whose habitats are quite unknown, A. grisescens and A. 

CUCULLATUS. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Head and back black. 

a. Under parts black. 

a! Face flesh color. 

a." Forehead, crown and whiskers black. ..A. paniscus. 

b" Forehead, crown and whiskers white.A marginatus. 
b! Face black A. ater. 

b. Under parts, grayish yellow A. variegatus. 

c. Under parts bright rufous A. rufiventris. 

B. Head and back mixed black and silvery gray or golden, 
o. Hair on head not projecting over forehead; back 

more black than gray A. grisescens. 

b. Hair on head projecting over forehead; back more 

gray than black A. cucullatus. 

C. Head black, back blackish chestnut grading into golden. 

a. Under side of arms and legs grayish yellow A. belzebuth. 

b. Under side of arms and legs mostly black, yellow 

restricted to narrow line On forearm A. pan. 

D. Head yellowish wood brown, back black tinged with 

burnt umber brown A. fusciceps. 

E. Head buff, back grayish drab, (typical) .A. geoifroyi. 

F. Head blackish brown, triangular white mark on fore- 

head . d. hybridus. 



28 ATELEUS 

Ateleus paniscus (Linnseus). 

Simla paniscus Linn., Syst. Nat, I, 1758, p. 26; I, 1766, p. 137; 
Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 61. 

Cebus paniscus Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 46. 

Ateles ( !) paniscus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, VII, 
1806, p. 270; F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm, 1819, livr. V, 2me 
ed., 1833, p. 152, pi. LIV; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 24; 
Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 73 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 
I, 1840, p. 196, pis. XXVI, XXVII ; V, 1855, p. 75 ; Less., 
Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 128; Tschudi, Faun. Peruan., 1844, 
p. 31; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 48; Dahlb., Stud. 
Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 171 ; Huxley, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 247, (Brain) ; Reichenb., 
Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 59, figs. 148-149; Gray, 
Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 42; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 169; 
Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc., 1881, p. 83; von Pelz., 
Brasil. Saugeth., 1883, p. 9; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 237; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 127. 

Ateles ( !) pentadactylus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
VII, 1806, p. 269 ; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 30, 
9me Legon; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 23; Wagn., Schreb., 
Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 197, var. B; V, 1855, p. 74; 
Tschudi, Faun. Peruan., 1844, p. 28 ; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 
1851, p. 48; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 
1856, p. 171 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 172. 

Simia chamek Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), p. 355; 
Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 133. 

Ateles ( !) sub pentadactylus Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 73. 

Cebus chamek Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 38. 

Cebus paniscus Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 39. 

Cebus paniscus surinamensis a. Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 39. 

Cebus paniscus cayennensis b. Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 39. 

Sapajou paniscus Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1862, p. 509. 

Sapajou pentadactylus Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1862, 
p. 510. 

RED -FACED SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. America Meridionali. "Brasilia." 
Geogr. Distr. The Guianas; lowlands of the Lower and Upper 
Amazon ; banks of the Rio Madeira, Rio Marmore, Rio Guapore and 
Rio Carari (Natterer) ; Lower Rio Marafion, Peru, (Tschudi). 



ATELEUS 29 

Genl. Char. Face naked, flesh color ; fur coarse, hair long ; rudi- 
ment of thumb sometimes present. 

Color. Entirely black ; body, limbs, hands, feet and tail. 

Measurements. Skull : total length, 118 ; occipito-nasal length, 98 ; 
Hensel, 80; zygomatic width, 67; intertemporal width, 51; palatal 
length, 36; breadth of braincase, 62; median length of nasals, 14; 
length of upper molar series, 24 ; length of mandible, 71 ; length of 
lower molar series, 28. Vertebrae : Cervical, 7 ; Dorsal, 13 ; Lumbar, 
4; Sacral, 3 ; Caudal, 31. 

Bates speaking of the Monkeys in the forests in the neighborhood 
of Obydos, refers to one which in all probability was the present 
species, but called pentadactylus on account of the presence in the 
individual of a rudimentary thumb. He states that one species of 
Coaita has a rudiment of thumb without a nail. The flesh of this 
monkey is much esteemed by the natives in this part of the country, 
and the Military Commandant of Obydos, Major Gama, every week 
sent a negro hunter to shoot one for his table. Coaitas are more 
frequently kept in a tame state than any other kind of monkey. The 
Indians are very fond of them as pets, and the women often suckle 
them when young at their breasts. They become attached to their 
masters, and will sometimes follow them on the ground to considerable 
distances. I once saw a most ridiculously tame Coaita. It was an 
old female which accompanied its owner, a trader on the river, in all 
his voyages. By way of giving me a specimen of its intelligence and 
feeling, its master set to and rated it soundly, calling it scamp, heathen, 
thief, and so forth all through the copious Portuguese vocabulary of 
vituperation. The poor monkey, quietly seated on the ground, seemed 
to be in sore trouble at this display of anger. It began by looking 
earnestly at him, then it whined, and lastly rocked its body to and fro 
with emotion, crying piteously, and passing its long arms continually 
over its forehead, for this was its habit when excited, and the front 
of the head was worn quite bald in consequence. At length its master 
altered his tone. It is all a lie my old woman ; you're an angel, a flower, 
a good affectionate creature and so forth. Immediately the poor 
monkey ceased its wailing and soon after came over to where the 
man sat. The disposition of the Coaita is mild in the extreme; it 
has none of the restless vivacity of its kindred the Cebi, and no trace 
of the surly, untamable temper of its still nearer relatives the Mycetes 
or Howling Monkeys. It is, however, an arrant thief and shows con- 



30 ATELEUS 

siderable cunning in pilfering small articles of clothing which it conceals 
in its sleeping place. 

Ateletjs ater F. Cuvier. 

Ateles ( !) ater F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., I, 1823, Liv. XXXIV, 
2nd ed., 1833, p. 157, pi. LIII; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, 
p. 128; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 48; Wallace, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1852, p. 108; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. 
Suppl., V, 1855, p. 71, pi. XXXVI A; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 
Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 171, 172; 
Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 59, figs. 643, 
644; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 42; Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, 
p. 218 ; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 5 ; Schleg., Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 170; Alston, Biol. Centr. Amer., I, 
Mamm., 1879, p. 7; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 
1881, p. 83 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 241 ; Elliot, 
Mamm. Middle Amer. and West Ind., Pub. Field Columb. 
Mus., IV, Pt. II, 1904, p. 734, Zool. Ser. ; Id. Cat. Mamm. 
Field Columb. Mus., VI, 1905, Zool. Ser. ; Allen, Bull. Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., XXXI, 1912, p. 95. 

Cebus ater Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 40. 

Sapajou ater Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1862, p. 510. 

BLACK SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. Cayenne, French Guiana. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Panama ; French Guiana ; Rio Sinu Cerete, Bolivar ; 
Colombia, and Eastern Peru. Banks of Rio Ucayali, Rio Chamicurus 
and Rio Huallaga, (Bartlett). 

Genl. Char. Face black. Thumb absent. 

Color. Like A. paniscus, entirely black, face black. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 119; occipito-nasal length, 
102 ; Hensel, 80 ; zygomatic width, 73 ; intertemporal width, 48 ; palatal 
length, 35; breadth of braincase, 64; median length of nasals, 20; 
length of upper molar series, 25 ; length of mandible, 29.5 ; length of 
lower molar series, 29. 

The only difference in the outward appearance between A. ater 
and A. paniscus, is in the coloring of the face, that of the present 
species being all black while that of A. paniscus is flesh colored. 

Wallace states (1. c.) that, "these monkeys are slow in their 
motions, but make great use of their prehensile tails, by which they 
swing themselves from bough to bough ; and I have been informed that 



VOLUME II. 




ATELEUS ATER. 



ATELEUS 31 

two have been seen to join together by their hands and prehensile 
tails to form a bridge for their young ones to pass over. The Indians 
also say, that this animal generally moves suspended beneath the 
boughs, not walking on them." 

Bartlett, (1. c.) says "the Black-faced Spider Monkey inhabits 
the forests on the Ucayali, and the Huallaga rivers. It is found over 
the whole of the valley of the Amazons, generally keeping to the 
low districts. I shot an adult male at Chamicuros on the Huallaga 
River, which had the thighs and belly very gray or grizzled. This is the 
only species of Ateles ( !) obtained in large numbers by the Indians, 
who frequently keep them as pets. These Monkeys travel in bodies of 
perhaps thirty or forty together. This and the A. variegatus are, 
so far as I know, the only Spider Monkeys which are found in the 
district which I explored/' 

Ateleus vabiegatus Wagner. 

La Chuva de Bracamorros Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, 

(1815), p. 48. 
Ateles (!) marginatus (nee E. Geoff.), Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., 

I, 1811, (1815), pp. 340, 354. 
Ateles ( !) variegatus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 

313; V, 1855, p. 78; Id. Abhandl. Bayer. Akad. Munch., V, 

1847, p. 240; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 

62, pi. X, fig. 154; von Frantz., Archiv. Natur., 1869, Pt. I, p. 

257; Sclat., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, VI, 4th Ser., 1870, p. 472; 

Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 668; 1871, pp. 39, 217, 

225 ; Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., VI, 4th Ser., 1870, p. 472 ; 

Bartl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 217; 1884, p. 884; A. 

Milne-Edw., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, I, 1878, p. 162 ; 

von Pelz., Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1883, Beiheft, p..9; Forbes, 

Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 231, pi. XXI. 
Ateles ( !) geoifroyi Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1862, p. 

511, c?, (necKuhl). 
Ateles ( !) bartletti Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 992, pi. 

XL VII, <J; Id. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., VI, 4th Ser., 1870, p. 

428, juv. 
Ateles (!) chuva Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 175; 

Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 1883, p. 84. 

VARIEGATED SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. None given. 

Geogr. Distr. Chyavetos, Nauta and Elvira, Peruvian Amazons ; 



32 ATELEUS 

Province of Jean de Bracamorros, Peru, (Humboldt) ; Sierra de Cocoi, 
Upper Rio Negro, (Natterer) ; Upper Cauca River, a southern tribu- 
tary of the Orinoco, Venezuela, (Gordon) ; Oyapock, (Sclater). 

Genl. Char. Hair on head long, directed forward over the 
forehead; beneath and behind cheeks similar long hairs directed for- 
ward; face naked. 

Color. Male. Face black; top of head and neck, upper parts, 
hands, feet, and outer side of arms and legs black; band across fore- 
head rufous, bordered by a narrow black line ; whiskers from temples 
to angle of mouth, white ; inner side of arms and legs, and under parts, 
orange yellow ; tail above black, beneath, orange. 

Female. Like the male on upper parts, but the white stripe on 
face is very narrow; many black hairs on the outer side of thighs; 
inner side of arms, legs below the knees, and entire under parts 
grayish yellow ; under side of tail pale buff yellow. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 124; occipito-nasal length, 
108; Hensel, 89; intertemporal width, 52; zygomatic width, 76; 
palatal length, 32; breadth of braincase, 66; median length of nasals, 
17; length of upper molar series, 24; length of mandible, 78; length 
of lower molar series, 30. 

This species was first mentioned by Humboldt, (1. c.) as Le Chuva 
de Bracamorros, and was afterward called by him Ateles ( !) mar- 
ginatus, a name given by E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire to quite another 
species. Wagner, (1. c.) bestowed upon the species the name A. 
variegatus which it now bears, but Schlegel refused to accept this 
name and restored that of Humboldt's 'Le Chuva/ a merely local 
appellation, which Humboldt clearly showed he never intended should 
be considered a scientific name, by adopting for it afterward, as he 
supposed, Geoffroy's name as stated above. A. variegatus is readily 
recognized by the orange yellow of the under parts, and the rufous 
band on the forehead. The female has paler under parts than the 
male, grayish yellow. Slack (1. c.) describes the male of this species 
as A. geoffroyi, quite a different animal, but his female is A. 

GEOFFROYI. 

Mr. E. Bartlett, (1. c.) in his account of this species says, "on my 
arrival in Peru in 1865, Mr. Hauxwell told me of the existence of a 
large species of Ateles ( !) which he had killed but failed to preserve. 
He told me that he met with it on the Rio Tigri a small tributary that 
runs into the Amazon about four miles above the town of Nauta, on 
the northwestern shore of the Peruvian Amazon. He said that during 



ATELEUS 33 

the fourteen years he had traded he never found this species in any 
other locality. On my return from the Ucayali, in September 1865, 
I wished to ascend the Rio Tigri in pursuit of this Monkey, but was 
obliged to abandon the idea, on account of the prevalence of fever and 
ague at that season, and, moreover, the Indians were unwilling to 
join me in so dangerous a country. Having determined to spend a 
few months in the mountain country, I passed up the Maranon and 
Huallaga to Yurimaguas, and so on to Xiberos, whence I went to the 
town of *Chyavetos in the mountains. Having heard that this large 
Monkey was to be met with in this little known locality, I remained 
at Chyavetos about two months ; and during that time I became well 
acquainted with the Indians, who informed me that a long armed Ape 
(called in the Inca language Urcu Maci-suppah or Quillu Maci- 
suppah), was to be met with at a distance of three or four more days 
journey. I engaged three active Indians, and started by way of a 
forest foot road, that had been opened by a Catholic priest, to the town 
of Moyabamba, as part of his penitence. At the end of three days 
I reached the highest point of the mountains; here we came across a 
number of the Monkeys in question — about eight or nine. I shot the 
male that is now in the British Museum; my Indians brought down 
another with the poison dart. Having obtained two of them, I felt 
perfectly satisfied that I had discovered a new species. While, how- 
ever, I was busily engaged preparing the finest specimen, my Indians had 
quietly placed the other on the fire ; to my great horror and disgust they 
had singed the hair off, and thus spoiled my second specimen. Of 
course I was obliged to keep peace for we had not tasted meat for 
several days before starting from Chyavetos, and this Monkey proved 
a very dainty dish to us all. I was still in hopes of obtaining more 
specimens in the Munga-Urcu, or Saucepan Mountain (so called from 
its peculiar shape,) but in this, after much hard work, I failed. 

"These Monkeys appear to go in small parties, passing through 
the forest at a rapid pace, feeding on different kinds of berries. The 
berries I found in the mouth and stomach of the male were similar to 
the gooseberry in external appearance; they have, however, a large 
stone inside. These stones appear to pass through them, as I found 
several in the intestines. 

"On my return to town I found an Indian who had arrived from 
Cauhapanas, a small town lying at the foot of the mountains in the 
Maranon Valley, north west of the town of Chyavetos, who had in 
his possession a very fine young Spider Monkey, which proved to be 

♦Chayavitas. 



34 ATELEUS 

of this species. It was nearly black, but just showing the light golden 
hair coming on the under side of the body and tail, some few white 
hairs on the cheeks, and slight golden crest, sufficient to identify the 
species. I bought it of the Indian, and managed to bring it alive to 
Yurimaguas, where it died. 

"On my arrival I was informed by some of my old Indians, that 
they discovered this Monkey during my absence on the Upper Hual- 
laga, (on the south eastern shore). ' One of the Indians said that he 
brought three young ones alive, which died soon after his arrival in the 
town. I here give an idea of the great range this Monkey inhabits, 
owing to the ease with which a beast that can use his long arms and tail 
may travel a country of this description. It is found on both sides of 
the Peruvian Amazon (or Maranon), on both shores of the Huallaga, 
and in the interior forest near the town of Chamicuros. I was told 
by some of the oldest Indians that these animals are common in the 
dense forest on the hills near the latter town, their range running 
between the Huallaga River and Ucayali River to the head waters 
of the Huallaga, between the towns of Lamas and Sarayagu. Here 
they occupy the interior forest, and appear to be common, according to 
accounts given me by Indians of that country — as also on the lower 
spurs of the mountains between the towns of Moyabamba and the 
Huallaga River. 

"Then again on the Rio Tigri, north western shores of the Great 
Maranon, there is not the slightest doubt that this species is to be 
found ranging along the lower spurs of the Andes, across Ecuador and 
Colombia, over the head waters of the Rio Napo, Rio Japuri, and Rio 
Negro, where Natterer first discovered it." 

Ateleus marginatus E. Geoffroy. 

Ateles ( !) marginatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
XIII, 1809, p. 92, pi. X; XIX, 1812, p. 106; Id. Cours Hist. 
Nat. Mamm, 1828, p. 30, 9me Lecon; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 
1820, p. 24; F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1830, Liv. LXII, 
2nd ed.; 1833, p. 154, pi. LV; Less., Spec, Mamm., 1840, p. 
129; Wagn, Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 198; V, 1855, 
p. 77; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 49; Slack, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Scien. Phil., 1862, p. 512; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 62, fig. 153; Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz., II, 1863, 
p. 119; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 43 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, 
p. 174; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 239. 



ATELEUS 35 

Ateles ( !) frontalis Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1831, p. 38. 
Ateles ( !) albifrons Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 63. 

WHITE-WHISKERED SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. "Para, banks of the Orinoco," Brazil. Type in 
Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Para; vicinity of Cameta on the banks of the 
Tocantins, (Sieber) ; banks of the Cupari, a branch of the Tapajos, 
(Bates); Peru, (Tschudi). 

Color. Forehead, crown and whiskers, white, all the rest of the 
body, limbs, hands, feet and tail jet black; under parts black; face 
black except around the eyes which is flesh color. Ex type in Paris 
Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : total length, 1 12 ; occipito-nasal length, 
98; zygomatic width, 66; intertemporal width, 50; palatal length, 32; 
breadth of braincase, 61 ; median length of nasals, 14 ; length of upper 
molar series, 23 ; length of mandible, 70 ; length of lower molar 
series, 27. 

The type of this species was procured by the Paris Museum from 
the "Cabinet de Lisbonne" in 1808. It is not a fully grown animal, and 
the white on the forehead and whiskers is not very distinct as yet, for 
black hairs are mixed with it. 

Adult male in Leyden Museum has no white on the crown only 
on forehead. 

Bates while staying at the site of Joao Aracu on the Rio Tapajos, 
met with this Monkey. He says, (1. c.) "the most interesting acquisi- 
tion on the place was a large and handsome monkey. I had not before 
met with the white-whiskered Coaita, or Spider Monkey, Ateles 
marginatus. I saw a pair one day in the forest moving slowly along 
the branches of a lofty tree, and shot one of them ; the next day Jose 
Aracu, brought down another, possibly the companion. The species 
is of about the same size as the common black kind of which I have 
given an account in a former chapter. * * * It is never met with 
in the alluvial plains of the Amazons, nor I believe, on the northern 
side of the great river valley, except towards the head waters, near 
the Andes, where Humboldt discovered it on the banks of the 
Santiago. I thought the meat the best flavored I ever tasted. It 
resembled beef, but had a richer and sweeter taste. During our stay 
in this part of the Cupari, we could get scarcely anything but fish to 
eat, and as this diet ill agreed with me, three successive days reducing 
me to a state of great weakness, I was obliged to make the most of our 
Coaita meat. We smoke-dried the joints instead of salting them; 



36 ATELEUS 

placing them for several hours on a framework of sticks arranged over 
a fire, a plan adopted by the natives to preserve fish when they have 
no salt, and which they call 'Muquiar.' My monkeys lasted me about 
a fortnight, the last joint being an arm with the clenched fist, which 
I used with great economy, hanging it in the intervals between my 
frugal meals on a nail in the cabin." 

Ateleus rufiyenteis Sclater. 

Ateles ( !) vellerosus Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 478, 
(nee Gray). 

Ateles ( !) rufiventris Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 688, 
pi. LVII; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 182; 
Alston, Biol. Centr. Amer., I, Mamm., 1879, p. 8; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 236; Elliot, Mamm. Middle 
Amer. and W. Indies, F. C. M. Pub., IV, Pt. II, 1904, p. 734, 
Zool. Ser. ; Id. Check-L. Mamm. N. Amer. Cont. and W. 
Indies, F. C. M. Pub., VI, 1905, p. 535, Zool. Ser. 

FULVOUS-BELLIED SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. River Atrato, Colombia. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Panama? into Colombia, South America. 

Genl. Char. Fur coarse, hairs long, those on forehead and on top 
of head directed backward ; thumb absent. 

Color. Black line from inner corners of eyes and side of nose 
to cheeks, rest of face flesh color, under parts extending a short 
distance on inner side of arms and legs, bright rufous ; all the rest of 
head, body, limbs, hands, feet and tail black. The line between the 
color of the under parts and black of the body is sharply drawn, and 
does not grade over into the other at any place. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. The type is that of an immature animal hardly 
half grown, and no skull seems to have been preserved. 

The evidence of this animal occurring in Panama, rests solely 
on a specimen in the Leyden Museum, stated to have been "tue en 
Panama." This is hardly satisfactory, as there seems to be an 
authority wanting for this locality, and its appearance therefore in 
Central America can only be regarded as doubtful. 

The type was obtained on the Rio Atrato and was a young 
individual, which was captured alive, and sold to the Zoological Society 
of London. 



ATELEUS 27 

Ateleus grisescens Gray. 

Ateles ( !) grisescens Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 732; 
Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 42; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 223; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 173 ; Forbes, Handb. 
Primates, I, 1894, p. 242 ; Elliot, Mamm. Middle Amer. and 
W. Indies, F. C. M. Pub., IV, Pt. II, 1904, p. 734, Zool. Ser. ; 
Id. Check-L. Mamm. N. Amer. Cont. and W. Indies, F. C. 
M. Pub., VI, 1905, p. 535, Zool. Ser. 

GRIZZLED SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Central America ? 

Color. Entirely black except the under side of the tail which is 
tinted with yellowish brown, the basal portion of the hairs being of 
that color, as is also the basal part of the hairs on arms and legs. 
Intermixed with the black hairs are long gray, or silvery, or golden 
hairs, not sufficiently numerous to give a tint to the black color, this 
being produced only where the basal part of the hairs are yellow or 
golden, which is most apparent on the limbs, shoulders and lower part 
of the back. Head, black mixed with golden brown hairs, these 
directed forward, except those on forehead which stand upright ; hands, 
feet, and tail above black with golden brown hairs intermingled. No 
skull. Ex type British Museum. 

The type specimen has the appearance of a black monkey, with a 
moderate number of golden brown and silvery hairs intermingled. In 
some lights these are hardly perceptible, but in strong lights they are 
conspicuous. It is a rather small animal about the size of A. cucul- 
latus. It certainly is a peculiar looking example, but its real claim to 
specific distinctness can only be satisfactorily proved by the acquisition 
of more specimens. It is nearest in its state of coloration to A. 
cucullatus and it is possible they may eventually prove to be the 
same, but placed side by side this example is much blacker. Dr. 
Sclater, writing about this animal in 1871 (1. c.) says "Dr. Gray 
founded this species of Ateles ( !) upon a specimen that was living 
in our Gardens in 1864. It was brought home by Mr. E. Greey, F. Z. S. 
(who was at that time an officer in the West Indian Mail Company's 
Steamship Shannon-, on the 29th Oct., 1864). Referring to Mr. 
Greey's letters, I regret to find that he did not know the exact locality 
of it, but only states that it was obtained by him at St. Thomas's, and 
had already been three years in captivity, so that it was quite adult. 

"In 1889 (Oct. 12) we purchased of a London dealer a somewhat 



38 ATELEUS 

similar specimen, which died twenty-six days afterwards. It was a 
young half grown male. I have compared its skin with the typical 
specimen of A. griscescens, now in the British Museum, and believe 
them to be probably identical. The young animal is, as might be 
expected, rather lighter in color, particularly below, but above exhibits 
the same mixture of black and grayish hairs as in the original. The tail 
is nearly black above, with a light line of grayish hairs below. The 
length of the body is fourteen inches, of the tail sixteen inches. There 
is no rudiment of a thumb apparent. 

"It is possible this may be a good species, and still turn up in 
some part of the Central American or Colombian Coast, whence Mr. 
Greey's specimen probably came, but I do not yet consider it sufficiently 
well established." 

This specimen, described by Dr. Sclater, I found in the Collection 
of the Paris Museum. 

A skull in the Paris Museum stated to have been obtained from 
the Zoological Society of London bears upon it the name "Ateles ( !) 
cinerascens." This is evidently an error as there is no Spider 
Monkey with that appellation. It was most probable that grisescens 
was the word intended to have been written, and it doubtless belonged 
to Sclater's example. The dimensions of this skull are as follows: 
total length, 119; occipito-nasal length, 99; Hensel, 69; zygomatic 
width, 62 ; intertemporal width, 47.5 ; breadth of braincase, 59 ; median 
length of nasals, 17; length of upper molar series, 25; length of 
mandible, 62 ; length of lower molar series, 29. 

As the type of A. cucullatus was without a skull, no comparison 
between it and the one from which the measurements given above 
were taken, could be made. 

Ateleus cucullatus Gray. 

Ateles ( !) cucullatus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 733 ; 
Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 43; Murie, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 739; 
Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 223, pi. XIV; Schleg., 
Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 169; Forbes, Handb. 
Primates, I, 1894, p. 243. 

HOODED SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in British Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Colombia? 

Color. Face bare; around eyes and about nose flesh color, with 
darker freckles intermixed ; cheeks and lower jaw black. Ex living 



ATELEUS 39 

animal. Head and neck black, the hairs very long and projecting over 
the forehead; rest of body above and beneath, limbs and tail black 
mixed with yellowish gray or golden hairs, so numerous on the back 
as to give the prevailing color to that part— a pale yellowish brown; 
the limbs have the base of the hairs a similar yellowish brown or 
golden hue, (not far removed from the color on the base of the hairs 
in similar parts of A. grisescens), and this gives a strong yellowish 
tint to these members; hands and feet black, base of hairs on hands 
golden, but not on those of the feet which are black to the roots. Ex 
type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, about 1,021 ; tail, 698.5. No skull. 
The following measurements were taken from the body of this type 
specimen immediately after its death, by Dr. Murie. 

Body. Length from vertex of cranium to root of 

tail 14y 2 inches. 

Length of tail 27y 2 inches. 

Girth at chest, widest part 11 inches. 

Girth at abdomen 9 inches. 

Girth of tail at root 4 inches. 

Girth of tail a few inches from point 2 inches. 

Head. Depth from vertex to base of lower jaw 

(barely) 3 inches. 

Antero-posterior diameter 4y> inches. 

Breadth of vault at opening of ears 6 inches. 

Breadth from one to the other external 

edges of orbits 2%. inches. 

Fore limb. Length of shoulder to elbow-joint 6y 2 inches. 

Cubital region, elbow- joint to wrist 7 inches. 

Length, palm of hand to tips of fingers. . . . 4j4 inches. 

Greatest breadth, palm of hand \% inches. 

Hind limb. Length from hip to knee-joint 6% inches. 

Length, knee to sole of foot 6y 2 inches. 

Length, sole of foot, heel to tip of middle 
toe 6% inches. 

Sole of foot, average breadth 1% inches. 

Sole, greatest breadth at ball of great toe. . . 2 inches. 

Ateleus belzebuth E. Geoff roy. 

Ateles (!) belzebuth E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, VII, 
1806, p. 272, pis. XVI, XIX; 1812, p. 106; Id. Cours Hist. 
Nat. Mamm, 1828, p. 30, 9me Legon; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 



40 ATELEUS 

1820, p. 24; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 74; F. Guv., Hist. Nat. 

Mamm, 2me ed., 1833, p. 158, pi. LVII; Blainv., Osteog., 

1841, AtL, Cebus, pi. I; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 132; 

Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 199; V, 1855, p. 

78, pi. XXVI; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 49; Dahlb., 

Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 171, 

172; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 62, figs. 

149, 152; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 44; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 

p. 176. 
La Marimonda Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), p. 325. 
Simia belzebuth Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), p. 353. 
Ateles (!) fuliginosus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 26; Schleg., 

Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 179, (Part.). 
Cebus fuliginosus Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 40. 
Cebus brissonii Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 40. 
Ateles (!) vellerosus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 733; 

Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 44. 

MEXICAN SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. Banks of the Orinoco. Neither Geoffroy's type 
nor Kuhl's type is in the Paris Museum. Gray's type of vellerosus is 
in the British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. South America on the banks of the Orinoco, above 
the great rapids of Atures and Maypures, (Humboldt). 

Genl. Char. Hair long, soft, falling over sides like a mantle. 

Color. Head, outer side of arms, legs from above knees to 
ankles, hands, feet, and upper side of tail black; upper part of back 
and rump, blackish chestnut ; lower back golden ; sides deep orange or 
tawny ; whiskers, throat, inner side of limbs, grayish yellow ; under side 
of tail yellowish brown. Sometimes the lower back and sides are pale 
brownish yellow ; under parts cream color. Ex type of A. vellerosus 
in British Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : total length, 111 ; occipito-nasal length, 95 ; 
Hensel, 74 ; intertemporal width, 49 ; palatal length, 33 ; zygomatic 
width, 72 ; breadth of braincase, 57 ; median length of nasals, 16 ; length 
of upper molar series, 24 ; length of mandible, 71 ; length of lower 
molar series, 29. 

Neither the type of A. belzebuth, nor that of A. fuliginosus is 
now in the Paris Museum. The earliest specimen of A. belzebuth is 
dated 1836, and the animal died in the Menagerie; the next is 1840, 



ATELEUS 41 

from "Amerique Meridionale" and was given by M. Bernard, Departe- 
ment de la Marine. Both these examples have a general dark brown 
pelage, with more of the golden hue on the lower back on the earlier 
example, although the one given in 1840, has the tips of the hairs 
golden as if a change to that color had commenced. 

They are in the pelage which might well be designated as fulig- 
inosus, but which Geoffroy called belzebuth, and both are so 
labelled ; while one obtained in 1894, from Acapulco, Mexico, which is 
doubtless an immature A. pan Schlegel, is called A. fuliginosus Kuhl, 
as stated on the label. A. vellerosus Gray, the fuliginosus style, would 
seem to be the earlier pelage before the brighter coloring of the mature 
animal had appeared. As Geoffroy's name of belzebuth was given 
to the species fourteen years before Kuhl named it, fuliginosus must 
become a synonym. 

Judging from the descriptions, both Geoffroy's and Kuril's speci- 
mens were immature, and had little of the golden color on the back 
so characteristic of the adult. Considerable confusion has arisen by 
writers attempting to connect this South American species with the 
Spider Monkey from Mexico. Gray's type was said to have come 
from Brazil, but there were no proofs to confirm this. The type of 
belzebuth, as stated by Geoffroy, came from the banks of the Orinoco 
above the great rapids of that river. At Atures and Maypures 
Humboldt saw it, (1. c). The Mexican species of Ateleus is distinct, 
and Schlegel has given to it the name, A. pan. 

Ateleus pan Schlegel. 

Ateles ( !) pan Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 180; Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1904, p. 40. 

Ateles ( !) vellerosus (nee Gray), Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1872, pp. 5, 798; Reinh., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 797; 
Alston, Biol. Centr. Amer., I, Mamm., 1879, p. 10; Thos., 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1890, p. 72 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 
I, 1894, p. 244; Elliot, Mamm. Middle Amer. and West 
Indies, Field Columb. Mus. Pub., IV, Pt. II, 1904, p. 733, fig. 
CXLI, pi. LXVIII, Zool. Ser. ; Id. Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. 
Mus., VI, 1905, p. 559, Zool. Ser. 

SCHLEGEL' S SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. Coban, Vera Paz, Guatemala. Type in Leyden 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Volcano of Orizaba, State of Vera Cruz, into 
Guatemala. 



42 ATELEUS 

Genl. Char. Similar to A. belzebuth, but the yellowish white on 
inner side of arms and legs very restricted ; no white on the cheeks. 

Color. Face black; head, shoulders, arms, hands, legs and feet, 
black or blackish brown; rump brown, hairs tipped with shining 
golden ; under parts yellow ; reddish line on border of flanks ; inner side 
of arms to elbows, and legs to ankles yellowish white; tail brownish 
black. Ex type Leyden Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,120; tail, 700; foot, 150. Skull: 
total length, 1,022; interorbital width, 57.1 ; occipito-nasal length, 99.3; 
Hensel, 66; zygomatic width, 63.5; median length of nasals, 15.4; 
palatal length, 27.6; length of upper molar series, 24.3; length of 
mandible, 60; length of lower molar series, 27.1. Ex type Leyden 
Museum. 

The type specimen has the hair on the head radiating from point 
on occiput and projecting in front over the face. There is a strong 
reddish brown tint over all the back in certain lights, and also on the 
tail, but less strong. The light stripe on inner side of arms goes to 
elbows. 

This species is found in Mexico and Guatemala, and in the latter 
country quite across from sea to sea. Mr. Salvin met with it in 
Guatemala during his visits there. Once he came near a troop of these 
monkeys on the summit of a ridge of mountains which connects the 
Volcan de Fuego with the main cordillera, at an elevation of about 
8,300 feet above the sea. 

"Indians always spoke of Monkeys (doubtless of this species) 
being found in these upland forests." Alston (1. c.) states that 
"during Mr. Salvin's last visit to Guatemala (in 1873-74) he met 
with A. vellerosus, (A. pan), in numbers in the forests of the Volcano 
of Atitlan. On the 22nd of January, 1874, he made an expedition from 
the village of San Augustin with the object of ascertaining the most 
practicable part to attempt the ascent of the mountain. On this 
occasion he ascended to a height of 6,000 feet, and during the last 
1,000 feet or so, saw several troops of Ateles in the tops of the 
higher trees in the forest. One of these, the specimen in the British 
Museum, he shot. These parties of Monkeys were usually about 
twenty in number and of all ages. On approaching them they did not 
evince any alarm, but kept uttering a constant querulous sort of bark, 
and moved from time to time so as to get a better view of the intruder. 
A few days afterwards, during an excursion to the same volcano, when 
the summit, 11,800 feet above the sea was reached, numerous troops 



ATELEUS 43 

of Ateles were seen in the forest from an elevation of 7,000 feet to 
as low as 2,500 feet, on the outskirts of the coffee plantations of San 
Augustin. So far as Mr. Salvin could see with his glass, these 
Monkeys showed no variation in color, being dark above and light 
beneath; but the trees in which they were found were very lofty, 
and the foliage so dense as to make it difficult to observe them 
accurately." 

At Mirador, near Mount Orizaba, State of Vera Cruz, Professor 
Liebmann found this species common, going in small troops in the deep 
ravines up to an elevation of 2,000 feet. In eastern Oaxaca he also 
found it at a height of 4,000 feet. He believed it does not go on the 
Pacific slope of the mountains nor farther north than Tehuantepec. 

Ateleus fusciceps Gray. 

Ateles ( !) fusciceps Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 733 ; 
Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 42; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, 1872, p. 663, pi. 
LV; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 173; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 242. 

BROWN-HEADED SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Trans-Andean Ecuador. Range unknown. 

Genl. Char. Thumb absent. 

Color. Top of head yellowish wood brown darkening to a line of 
mummy brown above the forehead ; upper parts and limbs black tinged 
with burnt umber brown, the tips of the hairs being of that color; 
hands, feet and tail, black; under parts blackish brown. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 114; occipito-nasal length, 
102; zygomatic width, 71; intertemporal width, 52; palatal length, 33: 
breadth of braincase, 62 ; median length of nasals, 21 ; length of upper 
molar series, 24 ; length of mandible, 72 ; length of lower molar series, 
29. Ex type British Museum. 

The type of this species, a skin in the Collection of the British 
Museum, was obtained from the Zoological Society, the animal having 
been received alive, patria unknown, and died in the gardens. Subse- 
quently other specimens were procured by Mr. Buckley in Ecuador, 
locality not given. It is apparently quite a distinct form, the peculiar 
coloring of the top of the head making it easily recognizable. 



44 ATELEUS 

Ateleus geoffroyi Kuhl. 

Ateles (!) geoffroyi Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 26; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 40; V, 1855, p. 200, pi. 
XXVI E; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 181; 
Alston, Biol. Centr. Amer., I, Mamm., 1879, p. 8; Anders., 
Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 1881, p. 83; Forbes, Handb. 
Primates, I, 1894, p. 233 ; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
1904, p. 5 ; Elliot, Mamm. Middle Amer. and W. Indies, Field 
Columb. Mus. Pub., IV, Pt. II, 1904, p. 733, Zool. Ser. ; Id. 
Check-L. Mamm., N. Amer. Cont. and W. Ind., Field 
Columb. Mus. Pub., VI, 1905, p. 535, Zool. Ser. 

Ateles (!) melanochir Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 76; Less., Spec. 
Mamm., 1840, p. 133; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 
1840, p. 200; V, 1855, p. 78; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 
49; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Reg. Fam. Anim, Natur., fasc. I, 
1856, pp. 171, 172 ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 
p. 62, fig. 155; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 797; 
1871, p. 226, pi. XV; 1875, p. 419, pis. XLVIII, XLIX; Gray, 
Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 43. 

Eriodes frontatus Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1842, p. 256 ; Id. 
Voy. Sulphur, Zool., p. 9, pi. I ; Frantz., Wiegm., Archiv., 
XXXV, 1869, p. 257; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 
186; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 57, figs. 
138, 139. 

Sapajou geoffroyi Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phila., 1862, p. 
511, ?. (nee <?). 

Ateles ( !) melanochir var. frontatus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 
and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 44. 

Ateles ( !) albifrons Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 44. 

Ateles ( !) ornatus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 44. 

Large Yellowish Brown Spider Monkey Belt, Nat. Nicarag., 1874, 
p. 117. 

GEOFFROY'S SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in Paris Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Nicaragua, Central America to Colombia, South 
America. Pozo Azul, Central Costa Rica, (Allen). 
Genl. Char. Thumb absent. 
Color. This species varies greatly and has been described under 



ATELEUS 45 

various names. Top of head and upper part of tail buff ; a patch of 
erect hairs on forehead black; ring around eyes and lips flesh color, 
rest of face black; upper and lower parts of body light grayish drab; 
hands, elbows, feet, knees, and apical portion of tail above black. Ex 
type in Paris Museum. 

This is also the A. melanochir style described by Desmarest from 
the same specimen that served Kuhl for his type of A. geoffroyi. A. 
ornatus Gray, has the face black, the base of hairs on head yellowish, 
on forehead and nape all black or brownish black ; whiskers pale red- 
dish yellow, upper part of back and shoulders Vandyke brown, hairs 
tipped with golden; rest of back, flanks, inner side of arms above 
elbows, and inner side of thighs and base of tail beneath, brownish 
red ; under parts reddish, rest of arms, outer side of legs, hands, feet 
and upper parts of thighs, and tail above black. This description is 
from Gray's type in the British Museum. 

Between this style and the typical one all kinds of gradations are 
found, some of the most extreme character, such as grayish drab upper 
parts, or a cream color on the under parts. Specimens of A. ornatus in 
the British Museum vary considerably from the type, being much 
lighter above the shoulders where they are yellowish brown, and in no 
place does the red color attain the depth exhibited in the type. Other 
specimens have the upper part of back dark brown, grading into a 
yellowish brown on lowest back and sides, and under parts yellowish 
gray. The type of A. albifrons Gray has a yellowish white line on the 
forehead continued by a few straggling hairs on sides of face to mouth ; 
upper parts dark brown grading into drab and whitish brown on rump, 
yellowish gray beneath; tail dark brown like upper part of back; a 
variation of the A. melanochir or typical A. geoffroyi style. The 
type of A. albifrons is stated on the ticket as from Medillen, and a 
specimen from Bogota is almost exactly like it but has no white on 
the forehead. The extreme of the different coloring among individual 
specimens if considered by themselves might be readily regarded as 
indicating distinct forms, but a series of examples soon disposes of 
any such view, and they can only be considered as representing the 
changeable styles of coloration exhibited by a species subject to 
extreme variations. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 117; occipito-nasal length. 
103; Hensel, 79; zygomatic width, 76; intertemporal width, 51 ; palatal 
length, 33; breadth of braincase, 64; median length of nasals, 21; 



46 ATELEUS 

length of upper molar series, 25 ; length of mandible, 77 ; length of 
lower molar series, 29. Vertebrae: Cervical, 7; Dorsal, 14; Lumbar, 
4; Sacral, 3; Caudal, 31. 

Mr. Salvin during a short stop at San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua, 
met with several Monkeys, probably of this species, as related by 
Alston (1. c.) when strolling in the neighborhood of the town. He 
was walking up the course of a half dry stream, when a troop of 
Monkeys came to a pool to drink, and were climbing about the low 
trees on the bank of the water course. Most of the troop consisted 
of Cebus hypoleucus (C. capucinus Linn.), but with them were 
several Ateles (!) of one of which Mr, Salvin wrote this description : 
"The whole body has a light grayish drab all over, except the hands, 
elbows, knees and feet which were black ; the face was black, with the 
exception of the flesh colored mouth; the upper part of the tail was 
slightly tinged with buff, as was also the top of the head. On the 
middle of the forehead was a small triangular patch of erect black 
hairs." There were several others just like the specimen described. 
These animals were evidently of the form described as A. melanochir. 
It was not unusual Mr. Salvin states, to see occasionally this Monkey 
kept in confinement in Guatemala, but, on inquiry, he always found 
they had been brought from Nicaragua or Costa Rica. 

Belt, in his "Naturalist in Nicarauga" speaks of meeting a "large 
yellowish brown Spider Monkey which roams over the tops of the 
trees in bands of from ten to twenty. Sometimes they lay quiet until 
I was passing underneath, when, shaking a branch of the Nispera tree, 
they would send down a shower of the hard round fruit, but never 
throwing anything, simply letting it fall. Often, when on lower trees, 
they would hang from the branches two or three together, holding on 
to each other and to the branch with their fore feet and long tail, whilst 
their hind feet hung down, all the time making threatening gestures 
and cries. 

"Sometimes a female would be seen carrying a young one on its 
back to which it clung with legs and tail, the mother making its way 
among the branches and leaping from tree to tree, apparently but little 
encumbered with its baby. A large black and white eagle is said to 
prey upon them, but I never saw one, although I was constantly falling 
in with troops of monkeys. Don Francisco Velasquez, one of our 
officers, told me that one day he heard a monkey crying out in the 
forest for more than two hours, and at last going to see what was the 
matter he saw a monkey on a branch, and an eagle beside it trying to 



ATELEUS 47 

frighten it to turn its back, when it would have seized it. The monkey, 
however, kept its face to the foe, and the eagle did not care to engage 
with it in this position, but probably would have tired it out. Velasquez 
fired at the eagle, and frightened it away. I think it likely, from what 
I have seen of the habits of this monkey, that they defend themselves 
from its attack by keeping two or three together, thus assisting each 
other, and it is only when the eagle finds one separated from its com- 
panions that it dares to attack it." 

Ateleus hybridus I. Geoffroy. 

Ateles ( !) hybridus I. Geoff., Mem. Mus. Hist Nat., Paris, XVII, 
1829, p. 168 ; Id. fitudes Zool., 1832, p. 1, pi. I ; Id. Mag. Zool., 
1832, p. 1, pi. I; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 49; Less., Spec. 
Mamm., 1840, p. 129; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. SuppL I, 
1840, p. 201 ; V, 1855, p. 79 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. 
Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 171, 172: Schleg., Mus. Pays- 
Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 183. 

Sapajou marginatus Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1862, 
p. 512. 

Eriodes hybridus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. r7 . 
figs. 136, 137. 

HYBRID SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality. Valley of the Magdalena, Colombia. Type in 
Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Valley of the Magdalena, Colombia. 

Genl. Char. Triangular white mark on forehead. 

Color. Face black, white triangular spot on the forehead, the 
lower point reaching each eye ; top and sides of head and nape blackish 
brown ; shoulders, arms, legs, hands and feet also blackish brown, but 
not quite so dark as the head ; upper parts of body pale or ashy brown ; 
under parts of body and inner side of limbs grayish white; tail 
blackish brown same color as outer side of limbs. 

Measurements. Skull : total length, 109 ; occipito-nasal length, 92 ; 
Hensel, 75 ; zygomatic width, 65 ; palatal length, 51 ; breadth of brain- 
case, 59; median length of nasals, 15 ; length of upper molar series, 23 : 
length of mandible, 70; length of lower molar series, 29. Paris 
Museum, possibly the type, as it bears the date, 1820, procured by M. 
Plee. 

The above description was taken from an example presented to 
the Paris Museum by M. Baron and stated to have come from 
Colombia. Several specimens are in the collection, and it does not stem 



48 ATELEUS 

that they can be referred to any known species, and must be recognized 
as distinct. It is a plain light brown animal, with dark head, limbs, 
and tail, and whitish under parts. 

The specimen marked on ticket, 'type' was presented by M. Plee 
and said to have come from Colombia. It is much faded, mummy 
brown on head, arms, and shoulders, with a white spot in the center 
of the forehead; forearms, upper parts of body, flanks, legs and tail 
yellowish brown ; hands and feet blackish brown. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,346.40; tail, 163.85; foot, 177.80. 

Another specimen, better in color, has the head, shoulders, arms, 
hands, feet and tail blackish brown, darker than seal brown; white 
triangular spot on forehead; upper part of body and flanks Prout's 
brown ; legs Prout's brown nearly on front edge over knee ; inner side 
of limbs and under parts of body, grayish white; tail above, blackish 
brown like arms, beneath, yellowish. 

Exposure to light has changed this specimen somewhat, as one of 
the legs is paler than the other, and possibly the back and sides may 
have changed also, but the head, arms, hands, feet and tail doubtless 
still retain the original color. As the description shows, it is a very 
much darker animal than the one marked as the 'type,' and it does not 
seem likely that the latter ever was as dark, which gives rise to the 
suspicion that there may be a considerable variation in color among 
members of this form. All the specimens have a triangular white spot 
on the forehead, the lower points reaching, as stated by Geoffroy, to the 
corners of the eyes. If this is a hybrid, as its name would seem to 
imply, it is extremely difficult to determine what species have pro- 
duced it. 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE III. 




BRACHYTELEUS ARACHNOIDES. 
No. 3.9.4.4. Brit. Mus. Coll. % Nat. Size. 



BRACHYTELEUS 49 



GENUS *BRACHYTELEUS. WOOLLY SPIDER 
MONKEYS. 

T 2—2 plzi p?Z^ w W_ , 

a- 2—2J ^- i_i ; "• 3_3 ; M. 3_3 — 3°- 

BRACHYTELES (!) Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 36, pi. 
XXVII. Type Brachy teles ( !) macrotarsus Spix, = Ateles 
( !) arachnoides E. Geoffroy. 
£rwd« I. Geoff., Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, XVII, 1829, p. 160. 

Head round; body heavy; limbs long, slender; fur woolly; face 
flat; septum of nose narrow; nostrils circular, approximate, directed 
downwards ; thumb rudimentary or wanting ; nails sharp, compressed ; 
tail longer than body, naked beneath, prehensile. Skull has a rounded 
braincase; incisors of equal size; canines small, of same length as the 
incisors, while the molars, which are square shaped and heavy, are 
higher than the canines. 

The fur of this species is woolly in texture and not brightly 
colored, while the face is naked and often a brilliant red, the color 
being intensified when the animal is excited. The arms are long and 
slender, and the hand is without a thumb or with merely a rudiment 
of one. The tail is long, naked on the under side at the tip, and 
prehensile. The nails of the hands and feet are compressed and acute. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1806. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

In a paper upon the species of Ateles ( !) Brachyteleus 
arachnoides is first described as Ateles ( !) arachnoides. 

1820. Kuhl, Beitrdge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie. 

Among the species of Ateleus here given, two of the genus 
Brachyteleus are included as Ateles ( !) arachnoides, speci- 
men without a thumb, and A. hypoxanthus, example with a 
thumb == Brachyteleus arachnoides. 

1823. Spix, Simiarum et Vespertilionum Brasiliensium, Species Novcc. 



♦Bpaxfo short, and TcXos,eas end = Brachyteleus nee Drachyteles. See 
I. Geoffroy, Cat. Primates, p. 51. 



50 BRACHYTELEUS 

The genus Brachyteleus was here first established, and B. 
arachnoides was redescribed as Brachyteles ( !) macrotarsus. 

1829. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Memoires du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

Under his genus Eriodes = Brachyteleus three species are 
named. (£.) arachnoides; (E.) tuberijer, and (£.) hemi- 
dactylus, the last two = B. arachnoides. E. hemidactylus 
was simply another name proposed for hypoxanthus because as 
the Author supposed, it had been given to two species, he 
believing that the presence or absence of the thumb constituted 
a specific character. 

1870. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
in the Collection of the British Museum. 

In this List the individual here called a variety without a thumb, 
is named Brachyteles ( !) arachnoides, and the variety with 
a rudimentary thumb B. hypoxanthus. Only one species, how- 
ever is recognized, B. arachnoides. 

1876. S Me gel, Museum d'Histoire des Pays-Bas, Simice. 

The single species of Brachyteleus is here placed under 
Ateles ( !) and is divided into two according to the presence or 
absence of the thumb, as (A.) arachnoides, and (A.) 
hypoxanthus = B. arachnoides. 

Brachyteleus arachnoides (E. Geoffroy). 

Ateles ( !) arachnoides E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
VII, 1806, p. 271 ; XIII, 1809, p. 90, pi. IX ; XIX, p. 106 ; Id. 
Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 30, 9me Legon; Kuhl, 
Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 25; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 72; Rei- 
chenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 57, fig. 140; Schleg., 
Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 184. 

Ateles ( !) hypoxanthus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 25 ; Desm., 
Mamm., 1820, p. 72; E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mus., 1828, 
p. 30, 9me Legon; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, 
p. 202; V, 1865, p. 79; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, 
p. 184. 

Brachyteles ( !) macrotarsus Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, 
p. 36, pi. XXVII. 

Eriodes hemidactylus E. Geoff., Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
XVII, 1829, p. 163 ; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 135 ; Dahlb., 
Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 135 ; 
Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 58, fig. 145. 



BRACHYTELEUS 51 

Eriodes tuberifer E. Geoff., Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, XVII, 
1829, p. 163; Less., Spec. Mamm, 1840, p. 135; Dahlb., 
Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 135; 
Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 57, figs. 41, 42. 

Eriodes arachnoides E. Geoff., Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, XVII, 
1828, p. 160; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 204^ 
pi. XXVI D ; V, 1855, p. 80 ; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 136 ; 
Blainv., Osteog., 1840, Atl., Cebus, pi. V; I. Geoff., Cat. 
Primates, 1851, p. 51; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 57, fig. 140; von Pelz., Bras. Saugeth., 1883, p. 8. 

Cebus hypoxanthus Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 38. 

Cebus arachnoides Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 38. 

Brachy teles ( !) arachnoides Gray, List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 
1843, p. 10 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 45 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 
226. 

BROWN WOOLLY SPIDER MONKEY. 

Type locality, "le Bresil." Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. South eastern Brazil. Cape St. Roque to Rio de 
Janeiro. 

Genl. Char. Size large; face naked; thumb rudimentary or 
absent ; hairs of head short, directed backward. 

Color. Varying somewhat among individuals. Head blackish 
brown washed with yellow, or dark gray washed with brown, or with 
the forehead and nape orange rufous, and top of head chestnut ; upper 
parts dark gray ; limbs gray of varying intensity, some specimens when 
the head is reddish have the limbs and tail rufous, in others the tail is 
a yellowish gray; under parts pale or yellowish gray or washed with 
rufous; base of tail beneath varying from pale gray to black; hands 
and feet yellowish gray with the fingers and toes chestnut, or yellowish 
brown; an all reddish color does not seem to indicate sex, for some 
females are more richly colored than the males, that is, exhibit more 
rufous shades and deeper tints generally. The prevailing color of the 
major portion of examples is a yellowish gray or ashy brown. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,280; tail, 670; foot, 150. Skull: 
total length, 115; occipito-nasal length, 94; Hensel, 87; intertemporal 
width, 47; palatal length, 38; breadth of braincase, 61 ; median length 
of nasals, 19 ; zygomatic width, 77 ; length of upper molar series, 33 ; 
length of mandible, 85 ; length of lower molar series, 37. 

The type of the species is in the Paris Museum and was presented 
to the Institution in 1806, over one hundred years ago by its describer 



52 BRACHYTELEUS 

M. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire. From unwise exposure to light for over a 
century it is now nearly white having lost practically all its coloring, 
a little on sides of head and neck, and on hands and feet, being all that 
remains of the hues formerly existing. Of course it no longer serves 
for a description of the species, and I have availed myself for that pur- 
pose of the numerous specimens in the British Museum. It is much 
to be regretted that all the Mammalian types of the Primates in the 
Paris Museum are deteriorating from the same cause, and in a 
comparatively brief time will probably be useless for comparison or 
description. Examples of this species have been described at various 
times under different names as distinct from each other on account 
of the presence of an undeveloped thumb, or sometimes merely a 
tubercle, or its absence altogether. These, however, have no specific 
value, and individuals have been found with the nailed thumb on one 
hand and the tubercle on the other, or the tubercle has been present and 
the thumb absent from the other hand. There seems to be no regu- 
larity for the presence or absence of these members, but they merely 
exhibit individual peculiarities. 

The type of Brachyteleus macrotarsus Spix is in the Munich 
Museum. It is very much discolored with dust and greatly faded, but 
there is no doubt that it is the same as Geoffroy's species, and 
Spix's name must become a synonym. 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE IV. 




LAGOTHRIX LAGOTRICHA. 
No. 0.11.5.9. Brit. Mus. Coll. % Nat. Size. 



LAG0THR1X 53 



GENUS LAGOTHRIX. WOOLLY MONKEYS. 

T ?t? O M p *Z? TV/T ft? — A 

i. 2—2 > *"• 1— 1> "• 3— 3J -M-. 3 _ 3 — 3°- 

LAGOTHRIX E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 
106. Type Lagothrix cana E. Geoffroy. 
Gastrimargus Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 39, pis. 
XXVIII, XXIX. 

Head round ; body heavy ; tail long, prehensile ; limbs of moderate 
length, with thumb and great toe well developed, having the nails of 
fingers and toes flat and pointed; fur woolly. Skull: an articulation 
exists between the premaxillaries and nasals at a right angle to their 
suture. Incisors small, upper incisors the largest ; canines large with 
a frontal groove. 

The species of this genus have a round head covered with thick, 
short hairs, and with the black face are not unlike the negro in 
appearance. The under fur is very woolly in texture, and this 
character helped in the definition of the name bestowed by Humboldt 
upon the first specimen he procured, lagotricha. The genus has but 
few species, characterized by a thickly built heavy body, with limbs 
moderately lengthened, a well developed thumb and great toe, with 
compressed and pointed nails. The animals are gregarious, slow in 
movement, arboreal, and of a mild and tractable disposition. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1811. Humboldt and Bonpland, Recueil d' Observations de Zoologie 
(1815) et d'Anatomie Comparee. 

Lagothrix lagotricha first described as Simla lagotricha. 

1812. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Annales du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

Lagothrix cana, young male, first described; and L. lago- 
tricha redescribed as *L. humboldti. 



*E. Geoffroy in this instance gives as the sole synonym of his Lagothrix 
humfioldti the "Caparro Humb. Rec. d'Obser. p. 321," showing evidently that 
he had seen either the MS. or the published work, probably the first, as Humboldt 
in his article had given a Latin name to the species, and which in this case I 
prefer to retain. 



54 LAGOTHRIX 

1823. Spix, Simiarum et Vespertilionum Brasiliensium. 

Lagothrix infumata first described as Gastrimargus infu- 
matus; and L. cana redescribed as Gastrimargus olivaceus. 

1829. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

Lagothrix lagotricha and L. cana are here placed in the 
genus Cebus ! 

1840. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
Two species are recognized in this work, L. cana, of which 
G. olivaceus Spix is made a synonym; and L. infumata. 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 

The genus Lagothrix in this work contains but one species L. 
caparro = L. lagotricha Humb., and the G. infumatus Spix, 
is described as the female. L. cana is considered the same as 
L. caparro = L. lagotricha and Gastrimargus olivaceus Spix, 
= L. cana Geoff., is considered a variety. 

1848. /. Geo ft "roy St. Hilaire et Deville, in Comptes Rendus. 
Lagothrix cana redescribed as L. castelnaui. 

1851. /. Geoff roy St. Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

Three species are here recognized: L. cana; L. humboldti = 
L. lagotricha; and L. castelnaui = L. cana. 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
L. olivacea (Spix), and L. infumata (Spix), are the two 
species recognized in this work, with L. humboldti ex Tschudi 
= L. lagotricha as a synonym of the first, and L. castelnaui 
synonym of the second. 

1857. Pucheran, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 

The paper here published is a review of the species of Lago- 
thrix based upon the examples in the Collection of the Paris 
Museum. There were ten in all, exclusive of those brought by 
MM. Castelnau and Deville, and which were described as dis- 
tinct as L. castelnaui. The ten specimens come from Brazil, 
Colombia and Peru. Descriptions of these are given and the one 
from Peru is named L. tschudi, and the specimen from Cayenne 
is separated as L. geoffroyi. These however are only L. lago- 
tricha and L. cana at different ages. L. castelnaui = L. cana, 
is considered a good species. The ten examples are separated 
according to locality and four species are recognized : L. cana, 
Brazil; L. humboldti = L. lagotricha, New Grenada, (the 



LAGOTHRIX 55 

banks of the Rio Guaviare and Rio Negro) ; L. tschudi = L. 
lagotricha, Peru, and L. geoffroyi — L. cana, Cayenne. A 
willingness to accept slight shades of coloration, (easily the 
result of the age of the individual), as having specific value, 
is discernible throughout the article. 

1862. Reichenbach, Die V ollst'dndigste Naturgeschichte der Aifen. 

Lagothrix in this work contains, L. humboldti — L. lago- 
tricha ; L. cana ; L. infumata ; and L. castelnaui = L. cana. 

1862. Slack, in Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. 

In this review of Lagothrix but one species is recognized : L. 
humboldti Geoff., = L. lagotricha Humb. The latter name 
is among the synonyms but the law of priority is disregarded. 
L. cana, in fact all described forms, are considered as merely 
representing a variety of coloring of the one species resulting 
from age and sex. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bas, Simice. 
Three species are recognized: L. cana; L. humboldti = L. 
lagotricha, which name is rejected as insufficiently described, 
and L. infumata Spix made a synonym; and L. poppigii 
Schinz, = L. lagotricha; with L. castelnaui, L. humboldti 
Tschudi, and L. tschudi juv. Pucheran, as synonyms. 

1883. A. von Pelzeln, Brasilische Sdugethiere. 

Two species are apparently recognized in this List, L. cana 
and L. infumata; but under the last as its first synonym is 
Simia cana Geoff. (!) Of course a form cannot be both a 
species and a synonym, and the method adopted by the Author 
is puzzling to say the least. If cana and infumata are the same, 
then cana, having been published eleven years before infumata, 
becomes the name of the species, and infumata the synonym, 
but never otherwise as von Pelzeln has given it. L. hum- 
boldti Geoff., = L. lagotricha Humb. ; L. geoffroyi Pucher. ; L. 
poppigii Schinz ; L. tschudi Pucher. ; L. castelnaui Geoff. ; are 
all considered synonyms of L. infumata, but which is itself a 
synonym of L. cana Geoff., this last being considered the adult. 

1907. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Lagothrix lugens ex Colombia first described. 

1909. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Lagothrix thomasi, and L. ubericola first described. 



56 LAGOTHRIX 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

The majority of the species of Lagothrix are found in the 
western portion of Brazil, in the forests cf the Upper Amazon and its 
tributaries. L. lagotricha ranges from the banks of the Rio Gua- 
viare, a branch of the Orinoco, to the district southwest of the Rio 
Negro, and on the Upper Rio Magdalena, Colombia, to Chanchamayo 
in Peru, from which place specimens now in the British Museum were 
brought by Kalinowski. Near the mouth of the Rio Tocantins, Brazil, 
L. cana occurs, and goes westward to the forests watered by the Rio 
Solimoens and Rio Iga. In the mountains, north of Tolima, Ecuador, 
at an elevation of 5,000 to 7,000 feet L. lugens was procured ; and on 
the banks of the Rio Copataza, and near Macas in Ecuador, and also in 
the valley of the Peruvian Amazons, L. infumata is found. In the 
forests through which the Rio Juara flows near Barrigudo, L. uberi- 
cola was obtained, extending its range into Peru, and also along the 
Rio Solimoens; and at Callanga, Department of Cuzco, Peru, L. 
thomasi is found. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Body thick, heavy ; fur woolly ; tail long. 

a. General color blackish hoary gray, or bluish 

gray L. lagotricha. 

b. General color dark purplish brown L. lugens. 

c. General color grizzled gray and ochraceous ....L. thomasi. 

d. General color grizzled wood brown .... L. ubericola. 

e. General color dark reddish brown ; under 

parts black L. infumata. 

f. General color buffy gray ; under parts ochraceous L. cana. 

Lagothrix lagotricha (Humboldt). 

Simia lagotricha Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), pp. 
322, 354. 

Lagothrix humboldti E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 107; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm, 1828, p. 35, 9me 
Lecon; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 50; Pucher., Rev. 
Mag. Zool., 1857, p. 292 ; Slack, Proc. Acad Nat. Scien. Phil., 
1862, p. 514; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 
78, figs. 173, 175 ; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 374, 
pi. XXXI; Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz., II, 1863, p. 320; von 









Volume II 



Plate 1 




Lagothrix lagotricha 



'i 



VOLUME II. 




LAGOTHRIX LAGOTRICHA. 




Cebus capucinus. 



LAGOTHRIX 57 

Pelz., Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1883, Beiheft, p. 7; Schleg., Mus. 

Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 162, (Part.). 
Cebus lagothrix Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 41. 
Lagothrix caparro Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840. p. 125. 
Lagothrix tschudi Pucher., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1857, p. 296. 
Lagothrix olivacea Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz., II, 1863, p. 320, (nee 

Spix). 
Lagothrix lagothrix Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 222, pi. 

XX. 

HUMBOLDT'S WOOLLY MONKEY. 

Type locality. Banks of the Guaviare, a branch of the Upper 
Orinoco River, Brazil. 

Geogr. Distr. River Guaviare and the Upper Amazonian region 
in the district lying south-west of the Rio Negro, and in the Upper 
Magdalena Valley, Colombia. Chanchamayo, Peru (Kalinowski). 
Specimen in British Museum Collection. 

Color. Head to nape black; hands and feet and under parts of 
body black; upper parts, limbs and tail blackish hoary gray; some- 
times bluish gray. 

Measurements. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 95 : total length, 110; 
Hensel, 77 ; zygomatic width, 73 ; intertemporal width, 53 ; breadth of 
braincase, 65 ; palatal length, 30 ; median length of nasals, 1 1 ; length 
of upper molar series, 25; length of mandible, 76; length of lower 
molar series, 29. 

The type of L. tschudi Pucheran, in the Paris Museum is prac- 
tically in all respects the same as the present species. It is lighter in 
color on back and tail but has undoubtedly faded, and also the animal 
was not entirely mature. 

Bates writing on the species of Lagothrix (1. c.) which he calls 
'Barrigudo Monkeys' says, "Of the remainder, the most remarkable 
is the Macaco barrigudo, or big-bellied monkey of the Portuguese 
Colonists, a species of Lagothrix. The genus is closely allied to the 
Coaitas, (Ateles), having, like them, exceedingly strong and flex- 
ible tails, which are furnished underneath with a naked palm like 
a hand for grasping. The Barrigudos, however, are very bulky ani- 
mals, whilst the Spider monkeys are remarkable for the slenderness 
of their bodies and limbs. I obtained specimens of what have been 
considered two species, one, (G. olivaceus of Spix?) having the head 
clothed with gray, the other, (L. Humboldtii) with black fur. They 
both live together in the same places and are probably only differently 
colored individuals of one and the same species. I sent home a very 



58 LAGOTHRIX 

large male of one of these kinds, which measured twenty-seven inches 
in length of trunk, the tail being twenty-six inches long; it was the 
largest monkey I saw in America with the exception of a black 
Howler whose body was twenty-eight inches in height! The skin of 
the face of the Barrigudo is black and wrinkled, the forehead is low, 
with the eyebrows projecting, and, in short, it altogether resembled in 
a striking manner those of an old negro. In the forests, the Barrigudo 
is not a very active animal ; it lives exclusively on fruits, and is much 
persecuted by the Indians, on account of the excellence of its flesh as 
food. From information given me by a collector of birds and mam- 
mals, whom I employed, and who resided a long time amongst the 
Tucuna Indians near Tabatinga, I calculated that one horde of this 
tribe, 200 in number, destroyed 1,200 of these monkeys annually for 
food. This species is very numerous in the forests of the higher lands, 
but owing to long persecution it is now seldom seen in the neighbor- 
hood of the larger villages. It is not found at all on the Lower 
Amazons. Its manners in captivity are grave, and its temper mild and 
confiding like that of the Coaitas. Owing to these traits, the Barrigudo 
is much sought after for pets ; but it is not hardy like the Coaitas, and 
seldom survives a passage down the river to Para." 

Lagothrix lugens Elliot. 

Lagothrix lugens Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 7th Ser., 
1907, p. 193. 

Type locality. Mountains 2° 20' north of Tolima, Colombia. 
Altitude 5,000 to 7,000 feet. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Body stout, heavy, like L. lagotricha, color very 
different ; fur thick, woolly ; limbs moderate in length ; tail very long, 
and very large and broad at base. Nasals very different in shape from 

those Of L. LAGOTRICHA. 

Color. Male. Head, arms and body dark purplish brown almost 
black ; legs and tail blackish brown washed with gray, the hairs being 
grayish brown at base, then black and tipped with gray or yellowish ; 
breast reddish chestnut, rest of under parts black. 

Measurements. Size same as L. lagotricha. Skull : total length, 
112, (occiput broken); occipito-nasal length, 105; zygomatic width, 
74; intertemporal width, 45; palatal length, 34; breadth of braincase, 
57; length of braincase from end of nasals, 79; median length of 
nasals, 13; width of nasals anteriorly, 13; length of upper molar 
series, 24 ; length of mandible, 74 ; length of lower molar series, 30.5. 



LAGOTHRIX 59 

Two specimens are in the British Museum Collection, which differ 
so markedly from all others, that it seems impossible to assign them to 
any known or described species. The fur is soft and very thick par- 
ticularly so at the base of the tail. One is dark purplish brown or 
black on the upper parts to rump, when it becomes blackish gray on 
legs and tail ; the other example is darker, being nearly black with but 
little of the purplish shade. The skulls resemble, as may be expected 
those of L. lagotricha and L. infumata, in general, but the nasals 
have a depression in the center, and the anterior half stands at right 
angles to the posterior, and they are very broad anteriorly ; the brain- 
case is not so long as those of the species compared, and the narial 
opening is of a different shape, like a heart but not so pointed, more 
rounded on the lower side. 

Lagothrix thomasi Elliot. 

Lagothrix thomasi Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 1909, 8th Ser., 
p. 245. 

Type locality. Callanga, Cuzco, Peru, 1,500 m. altitude. Type 
in British Museum. 

Color. Head in front of ears seal brown; upper parts and sides 
of body, and arms to elbows grizzled gray and ochraceous, the hairs 
being ochraceous at base, ringed with black and white and tipped with 
white ; dorsal line blackish ; hairs on back of neck ochraceous with a 
single broad subterminal black band and white tips, causing this part 
to be darker than the rest of the upper parts, except dorsal line ; fore- 
arms and legs, grizzled black and tawny, the hairs being tawny with 
subterminal black bar and white tips ; hands and feet black, the hairs 
with tawny tips; inner side of arms and legs, and central portion of 
chest and abdomen, black; tail above, and basal portion beneath 
grizzled gray and ochraceous like back ; remainder beneath black. Ex 
type British Museum. 

Measurements. Size equal to L. lagotricha. Skull: occipito- 
nasal length, 98; Hensel, 88.4; zygomatic width, 79.4; interorbital 
width, 59.4 ; palatal length, 39.6 ; median length of nasals, 107 ; length 
of upper molar series, 24; length of mandible, 78; length of lower 
molar series, 38.5. Ex type British Museum. 

This is a larger monkey than L. ubericola and fully equal in size 
to L. lagotricha. The type is an old individual, with teeth greatly 
worn and blackened. It is much darker than L. ubericola and the 
base of the hairs ochraceous instead of buff. There are none of the 



60 LAGOTHRIX 

blue or silver gray hues so characteristic of L. lagotricha, and the 
red of L. cana is absent altogether. The specimen is a female. 

Lagothrix ubericola Elliot. 

Lagothrix ubericola Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 
1909, p. 246. 

Type locality. Barrigudo, River Jurua, Upper Amazon. Type in 
British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Upper Amazon, Rio Solimoens and Rio Jurua, 
Peru. 

Genl. Char. Color pale ; hair soft, rather short, buff at base. 

Color. Top of head to nape, inner side of hands and feet black ; 
upper parts of body, and arms to elbows grizzled wood brown, with 
a reddish tinge on rump and thighs, the hairs being buff at base, with 
a subterminal black ring and whitish tips ; outer side of forearms iron 
gray; tops of legs to knees iron gray, when the color becomes blackish 
brown ; the hairs with yellow tips on the fingers and toes, which are 
black; flanks and sides of abdomen yellowish brown; chest and middle 
of abdomen black; hairs of tail above like upper side of legs, tawny 
ochraceous with black and white rings and white tips ; beneath rufous 
brown at base, rest black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. About the size of L. lagotricha but more 
slender in body. Skull: total length, 116.6; occipito-nasal length, 103; 
zygomatic width, 65.7; intertemporal width, 59.5; palatal length, 30; 
breadth of braincase, 61.5; median length of nasals, 10.6; length of 
upper molar series, 25.2 ; length of mandible, 69 ; length of lower molar 
series, 29. Ex type in British Museum. 

The type in the British Museum is from the Jurua River, Upper 
Amazon, Brazil. It is full grown but not an old adult. It differs 
markedly from L. lagotricha in color, and as the young of that 
species resemble the adults, these cannot be considered as possessing 
immature coats and therefore are not to be regarded as representing 
the same species. The locality of these specimens is south of the 
range of L. lagotricha. It is not so large as the last named species, 
is more slenderly built, and its very light color, a grizzled wood brown, 
makes it conspicuously different from all the other members of the 
genus. The type is unique. 

Lagothrix cana (Humboldt). 

Simia cana Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), p. 354. 
Lagothrix cana E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812. 



LAGOTHRIX 61 

p. 107; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm, 1828, p. 35, 9me Legon; 
Kuhl, Beitr. ZooL, 1820, p. 27; Desm., Mamm, 1820, p. 77; 
Schinz, Syn. Mamm, I, 1844, p. 71 ; I. Geoff, Cat. Primates, 
1851, p. 50; Pucher, Rev. Mag. ZooL, 1857, p. 39, pi. 
XXVIII; Reichenb, Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 72, 
figs. 176, 177. 
Gastrimargus olivaceus Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras, 1823, p. 

29, pi. XXVIII. 
Lagothrix cana Wagn, Schreb, Saugth. Suppl, I, 1840, p. 186, 

pi. XXVI E ; Schleg, Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 162. 
Lagothrix olivacea Wagn, Schreb, Saugth. Suppl, V, 1855, p. 

73. 
Lagothrix geoifroyi Pucher, Rev. Mag. Zool, 1857, p. 296, (nee 

Schinz). 
Type locality. "Probablement le Bresil." 

Geogr. Distr. Mouth of the Rio Tocantins, (Spix), to the forests 
along the Rio Solimoens. 

Genl. Char. Under parts ochraceous. 

Color. Narrow line on forehead and sides, buff ; top of head and 
nape dark brown with a reddish tinge; back, flanks and limbs, buffy 
gray ; forearms and legs below knees darker ; inner side of limbs black- 
ish; hands and feet blackish brown; throat reddish brown; under 
parts ochraceous ; tail above dark brown on basal half, remainder gray 
tinged with reddish, beneath dark brown. 

Measurements. Smaller than the other members of the genus. 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 83 ; Hensel, 68 ; zygomatic width, 60 ; inter- 
temporal width, 48 ; median length of nasals, 9 ; length of upper molar 
series, 19; length of mandible, 64; length of lower molar series, 30. 

The example in the Paris Museum marked as Geoffroy's type 
was obtained from the 'Cabinet de Lisbonne' in 1809. It is immature, 
in good condition though somewhat faded, and is yellowish gray with a 
reddish brown head, and tail and limbs like the body but darker. Much 
of the fur has fallen from the chest and abdomen, but what remains is 
a dark ochraceous rufous, and there is no evidence of any black color 
having been present. There are two specimens in the Museum, adult 
and young, the latter stated to have come from Brazil. 

The type of Gastrimargus olivaceus Spix, in the Munich Museum 
agrees in all respects with Geoffroy's type, and Spix's name must 
become a synonym of L. cana. It is quite different both in color and 
texture from G. infumatus Spix. A young individual of G. olivaceus 



62 LAGOTHRIX 

is also in the Museum. It resembles the type, but is slightly darker in 
the general color. 

Lagothrix infumata (Spix). 

Gastrimargus infumatus Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 
41, pi. XXIX ; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 126, juv. ; Wagn., 
Abhand. Bayer. Akad. Munch., V, 1848, p. 417; Id. Schreb., 
Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 73. 

Lagothrix infumata Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 71 ; Pucher., 
Rev. Mag. Zool., 1857, p. 298 ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 72, fig. 178 ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 
Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 46; Sclat, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 219; von Pelz., Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 
1883, Beiheft, p. 7; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 224. 

Lagothrix poppigii Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 72; Pucher., 
Rev. Mag. Zool., 1857, p. 298; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 
1876, p. 164. 

Lagothrix geoifroyi Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 71, (nee 
Pucheran). 

Lagothrix castelnaui I. Geoff, et Deville, Compt. Rend., XXVII, 
1848, p. 498; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 50; Casteln., 
Exped. Amer. Sud, 1855, p. 5, pi. I ; Pucher., Rev. Mag. Zool., 
1857, p. 289; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p: 72. 

BROWN WOOLLY MONKEY. 

Type locality. Forests near the Rio Iga, Upper Amazon. Type 
in Munich Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Valley of the Peruvian Amazon; Valley of the 
Rio Copataza, and near Macas, Ecuador. 

Genl. Char. Under parts jet black. 

Color. Top and sides of head, chin, neck, upper parts of body, 
arms to elbows and upper part of thighs to knees, dark reddish brown ; 
forearms, wrists, hands, back of thighs and legs, ankles and feet black ; 
tail blackish brown. Most of the under parts are bare, but the hair 
remaining from lower part of chest to groin is long and jet black. Ex 
'type' Munich Museum, nearest in color to Spix's figure. Another 
specimen also marked 'Type,' has the upper part of breast light reddish 
brown, lower breast and belly jet black. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,180 ; tail, 655 ; foot, 150. Mounted 
specimen, no skull. 

Spix's Gastrimargus infumatus is represented in the Munich 
Museum by four examples all marked 'Types/ They are not all alike 



LAGOTHRIX 63 

in color, but all are in bad condition, and one, the nearest in color to 
the figure in Spix's plate has lost most of the hair on the body. They 
are all reddish brown, of different shades however, caused somewhat, 
possibly, by fading or from the accumulation of dust. One has the 
body above of a buff color, another raw umber, while another is dark 
reddish brown. The tails vary also in color from a dark reddish brown 
to almost black. The fur is short, rather thick, soft and silky to the 
touch, very different from that of L. lagotricha and the group it 
represents. 



64 CEBUS 



GENUS CEBUS. CAPUCHIN MONKEYS. 

12 — 2 ^-^ 1 — 1 13 3 — 3 •« «• 3 — 3 /■ 

. 2^2 J *-" i^i> "• |$Z^> M. 3Z3 — 3°' 

CEBUS End., Syst. Regn. Anim., 1777, pp. 44-54. Type Simla 
capucina Linnaeus. 
Sapajus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 1792, Nos. 64-77 ? pp. 74-79. 
Calyptrocebus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 56, pis. 

VI, figs. 93-102; VII, figs. 103-117. 
Pseudocebus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 55, 

pis. VI, VII, figs. 83, 84, 89, 90, 108. 
Otocebus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen. 1862, p. 56, pis. 

VII, VIII, figs. 125-135. 
Eucebus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 56, pi. VI, 

fig. 92; pi. VIII, figs. 124-135. 

Head round ; body robust ; limbs moderate ; thumb well developed ; 
tail long, covered with hair, no distal naked portion, prehensile; hair 
on face short, whiskers present ; no crest but tufts on head sometimes 
present; canines large; molars with four cusps, connected by ridges; 
posterior molar in both jaws the smallest. 

The Sapajous or Capuchins, comprising the genus Cebus, are the 
most common monkeys seen in captivity, and most familiar to the 
dwellers of lands distant from their habitats. The head is round, the 
face flat, without a protruding muzzle. The skull has the cranial 
portion well developed, the facial region being very short in com- 
parison, and the brain is large with numerous convolutions of the outer 
surface of the cerebrum. The limbs are of moderate length, the arms 
and legs about equal, and rather slender, while the thumb is well 
developed, with the nails of the digits in some species compressed 
laterally. The tail is long, covered with hair to the tip, and although 
there is no clinging bare surface on the lower side, it is prehensile, and 
is of great assistance in various ways, though lacking the ability to 
assume the place of another hand, as is so eminently the case of this 
member among the species of the genus Ateleus. As a rule the Cebi 
are of small size, with a slender waist, and the fur is inclined to a 
woolly texture, and usually dense upon the crown of the head, and 
short on this part, though in some species there is an elongated tuft on 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE V. 




Cebus maliticsus. 
No. L4620 Amir. Mus. Nat Hist. Coll. ^ Nat. Size 



CEBUS 65 

each side. The orbits are large and close together, the nasals being 
quite narrow ; the f rontals contain air cavities, and there is no external 
meatus to the ear. The incisors incline slightly forward, and are 
shorter than the canines; the molars have four cusps, and on the 
crowns there are two transverse ridges and one oblique, the last going 
from the front inner cusp to the hind outer cusp. In the often great 
variation in the color of their fur, witnessed among the members of 
the various genera of the Primates, there is probably no genus whose 
species exhibit a more extreme diversity of hues than do those belong- 
ing to Cebus, and in some cases it would appear that each individual 
possessed the power of selecting the color of its own dress, and the 
taste for diversity of hues has been so wide, that it is not easy some- 
times to find members of the same species alike. This instability of 
color has been one of the greatest, if not indeed, the greatest obstacle 
to all investigators in the determination of the species, for with the 
majority of the earlier Authors, color was the chief character for a 
distinct specific rank, cranial differences having been little regarded, 
and consequently the number of species was largely increased. The 
fact that great variability in color among individuals of the same 
species, often from the same locality, was not known ; or perplexed at 
the great diversity of hues exhibited by his examples, and unable to 
explain the problem, an Author would, happily, sometimes, place all 
his specimens in one species, geographical distribution receiving little 
consideration. Unfortunately the latter method was not often adopted, 
and multiplication of species has been with many writers more the 
rule than the exception, and the synonymy consequently greatly 
increased thereby. Another difficulty with the Cebi has been, and is 
still to-day, that Mammalogists have been obliged to content them- 
selves with the descriptions given by Authors, ( few types being usually 
accessible), often inadequate, brief and insufficient, and many have 
been misled by these, and wrong conclusions reached. Then again 
types have disappeared, and the brief description originally given was 
totally insufficient for any one to decide what the species really was, 
or, (as the Author of this work has found to be the case in too many 
instances), neglect for their proper preservation, and the lapse of 
time, have left the types so dilapidated and faded, that they no longer 
agreed with the original description, nor gave even a tangible clue to 
their appearance in life. 

It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that so much diversity of 
opinion has existed and still does exist, among writers, as to the number 
of species there really is at the present day, or that the synonymy 



66 CEBUS 

should be so greatly confused. The writer has examined all the 
types of Cebus that are accessible at the present time, and his 
descriptions have been taken from them as they now appear, some 
much changed from their former state, with the delicate colors gone, 
and occasionally important portions of the fur having disappeared 
also ; but the manner in which the various colors are distributed could 
in some cases still be traced, and an idea of the animal's original 
appearance might thus be obtained. When types were altogether 
missing, and the description first given was insufficient for the recog- 
nition of the species, and there was no other example from the same 
locality to show what the type may have been, little could be accom- 
plished, and the species would have to be dropped altogether as unde- 
terminable, or allowed to stand with the original description as a 
guide, in hopes that some one more fortunate, might in the future be 
able to discover what it really might be. The species that follow are 
believed to be all of the genus Cebus existing to-day that are known, 
twenty-four in all, but the types of some, embraced in the various 
synonyms, no longer existing, the conclusions in such instances have 
been reached through the, often imperfect or too brief, descriptions 
originally published. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

1758. Linnaeus, Sy sterna Nature?. 

Two species of Cebus are given in the list of Simiae, 5. apella 
and S. capucinus. These were described by Linnaeus in a 
work entitled 'Museum Regis Adolphi Frederici,' published in 
1754. The original description, slightly transposed, is repeated, 
and the above work the only reference cited. 

1766. Linnaeus, Sy sterna Natures. 

The two species of Cebus described in the 10th edition appear 
again here, with the same descriptions, but in the case of C 
capucinus farther on, Linnaeus unfortunately, gives a more 
lengthy description and in certain parts a very erroneous one, 
i. e. "pectus f errugineus," which in no wise is ever the case in the 
color of the animal he originally described and figured as C. 
capucinus. This error has been the cause of the transference 
of the name C. capucinus to an entirely different animal, the 
one Linnaeus called C. apella, and these two species have had 
the wrong appellation applied to them since that time by all 
Mammalogists, even though some writers had discovered the 



CEBUS 67 

error that had been committed, but had not the courage to 
correct it. A third species C. fatuellus is also here first 
described. S. trepidus is undeterminable. All are placed in 
Simla. 

1777. Erxleben, Sy sterna Regni Animalis. 

The following species of Cebus are recorded: C. fatuellus, 
C. capucinus and C. apella, of which the Author remarks 
"Hie quibus diflerat a capucino, non satis intelligo." 
So early had the confusion between these totally distinct species 
commenced. C. trepidus is undeterminable as "manibus pedi- 
busque cseruleis" is found in no Cebus known. Other species 
are given under Cebus but do not belong to the genus. 

1788. Gmelin, Sy sterna Nature?. 

C. capucinus is given with Linnaeus' original description, and 
his, the only work cited ; the synonymy, however, is mixed. C. 
apella with the original description; and C. fatuellus. All 
these are placed in the genus Simla. 

1792. Kerr, Animal Kingdom, Mammalia. 

Cebus capucinus renamed Simla (Sapajus) capucinus albulus. 

1797. J. B. Audebert, Hlstolre Naturelle des Singes et des Makls. 

Three species and three varieties, with figures of all are given 
in this work under Simla: (S.) fatuellus; (S.) apella; var. 
A. a dark individual of the same species which died in the 
Menagerie of the Paris Zoological Garden. (S.) capucinus, 
var. A. represents the typical style; but (S.) capucinus, with 
red on forearms, and var. B. with a red breast, are unlike any 
example of C. capucinus I have ever seen, and it is impossible 
to determine what species they represent. 

1811. Humboldt et Bonpland, Recuell d' Observations de Zootogie 
(1815). *f d'Anatomle Comparee. 

In his subdivision Cebus six species are recognized. Cebus 
albifrons first described; and (Simla) capucinus Linn., 
redescribed as Simla hypoleucus; C. apella (Linn.), called 
(S.) capuclna (nee Linn.) ; (S.) cirrifer first described, and 
(S.) variegatus E. GeofTroy, but not described by that Author 
in 1811. 

1812. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, In Annates du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

In his Tableau des Quadrumanes, this Author gives the follow- 
ing species of Cebus: C. apella (nee Linn.), = C. fatuellus; 
C. cirrifer ; C. barbatus = C. flavus : C. trepidus undetermin- 



68 CEBUS 

able; C. albifrons; C. niger = C. cirrifer; C. variegatus 
first described; and C. albus, an albinistic individual of C. 

FLAVUS. 

1820. Kuhl, Beitrage zur Zoologie vergleichenden Anatomie. 

The following species are included in the genus Cebus: C. 
cirrifer; C. fatuellus; C. variegatus; C. flavus; C. bar- 
batus = C. flavus ; C. albus, (albino) ; C. frontatus first 
described ; C. niger = C. cirrifer ; C. albifrons ; C. robustus 
= C. variegatus; C. xanthosternos = C. variegatus; C. 
apella; C. capucina; C. lunatus = C. frontatus; C. hypo- 
leucus= C. capucinus (Linn.). 

1820. Desniarest, Mammalogie et Description des Especes de Mammi- 
feres. 

A List of the species of Cebus is here given as recognized by 
the Author, very similar to that of Kuhl. C. robustus = C. 
variegatus; C. apella; C. griseus = C. apella; C. barbatus 
= C. flavus ; C. frontatus ; C. niger = C. cirrifer ; C. varie- 
gatus ; C. fulvus = C. flavus ; C, albifrons ; C. lunatus Kuhl 
= C. frontatus Kuhl ; C. xanthosternos = C. variegatus ; C. 
fatuellus; C. capucinus = C. apella (Linn.) ; C. hypoleucus 
= C. capucinus (Linn.). 

1820. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 

C. variegatus Humb., redescribed as C. monachus. 

1823. Spix, Simiarum et Vespertilionum Brasiliensium. 

Six species are recorded by this Author as follows : C. macro- 
cephalus; C. unicolor; and C. libidinosus first described; 
C. xanthocephalus = C. variegatus; C. gracilis = C. albi- 
frons ; and C. cucullatus = C. variegatus. 

1825. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 
C. chrysopus first described. 

1826. Maximilian, Prinzen zu Wied, Beitrage zur Naturgeschicte von 
Brasilien. 

A list of the species of Cebus from Brazil as known to the 
Author is here given: C. fatuellus (nee Linn.), = C. cirrifer; 
C. robustus = C. variegatus; C. xanthosternos = C. varie- 
gatus ; C. cirrifer ; and C. flavus. 

The type of C. robustus seems to have disappeared from the 
New York American Museum of Natural History ; in fact no 
type of -Cebus from the Maximilian collection is now in the 
Museum. 



CEBUS 69 

1827. C. J. Temminck, Monographies de Mammalogie. 

The Author makes remarks upon species of Cebus, and con- 
siders C. variegatus Kuhl, to be the young of C. xanthosternos 
Wied, which is figured by Spix as C. xanthocephalus; and C. 
lunatus Kuhl, (nee F. Cuv.), is the young of C. cirrifer! 

1829. /. B. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

Among the many species of different genera included by this 
Author in the genus Cebus, the following are now considered 
as properly belonging to it: C. cirrifer; C. robustus = C. 
variegatus; C. fatuellus; C. xanthosternos = C. varie- 
gatus; C. apella; C. griseus Desm., = C. apella (Linn.) ; C. 
barbatus = C. flavus ; C. libidinosus ; C. unicolor ; C. niger 
= C. cirrifer; C. flavus; C. capucinus = C. apella (Linn.) ; 
C. trepidus undeterminable; C. hypoleucus — C. capucinus 
(Linn.) ; C. albifrons; C. chrysopus; and C. gracilis Spix = 
C. albifrons (Humb.). 

1830. /. B. Fischer, Addenda, Emendanda et Index ad Synopsis 
Mammalium. 

The above list is here repeated with the following additions 
and changes: C. xanthocephalus Spix = C. variegatus E. 
Geoff., is made var. B. of xanthosternos Kuhl, which = C. 
variegatus; C. apella Linn., is given two varieties, A. C. 
antiguensis Shaw, and B. C. paraguayensis Azara, both unde- 
terminable ; and C. niger = C. cirrifer. 

1830. /. R. Rengger, Naturgeschichte der Saugethiere von Paraguay. 
Cebus azar^e first described. 

1833. F. Cuuier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 

C. frontatus Kuhl, redescribed as C. lunatus; and C. cirrifer 
Humb., redescribed as C. cristatus. 

1840. Wagner, Schreber, Die S'dugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
In this work the Author commences with C. apella (Linn.), 
under which as var. a. he places C. azar^ Rengg. He then 
gives a list of the described species as follows, eighteen in 
number: C. gracilis Spix, = C. albifrons Humb.; C. flavus 
Kuhl; C. unicolor Spix; C. barbatus Geoff., = C flavus 
Kuhl; C. macrocephalus Spix, = C. apella (Linn.) ; C. capu- 
cinus (Linn.) ; C. griseus F. Cuv., = C. variegatus E. Geoff. : 
C. hypoleucus Humb., = C. capucinus (Linn.) ; C. capucinus 
(nee Linn.), = C. apella (Linn.) ; C. monachus F. Cuv.. = 
C. variegatus E. Geoff. ; C. xanthosternos Kuhl, = C. varie- 



70 CEBUS 

gatus E. Geoff.; C. cucullatus Spix, = C. variegatus E. 
Geoff.; C. chrysopus F. Cuv. ; C. fatuellus (Linn.); C. 
cirrifer, Humb. ; C. lunatus Kuhl, = C. frontatus Kuhl ; C. 
cristatus F. Cuv., = C. cirrifer Geoffroy. 
Then he states that the variation existing among the species of 
Cebus is so extreme that it is practically impossible to designate 
the species, then reviews those given in his list, compares some 
with others, and gives the coloring of the pelage. 
1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 

The species of Cebus in this work are arranged in groups 
according to the way the hair is disposed on the head whether 
in horns in front upright, or the hair lying flat, or lengthened. 
The recognized forms are C. cirrifer juv. ; C. fatuellus ; C. 
buffoni = C. fatuellus; C. robustus = C. variegatus; C. 
cucullatus Spix, = C. variegatus; C. frontatus; Sajou 
trembleur = S. trepida? Linn., undeterminable; C. apella; C. 
capucinus var. A. B. ; Le Cat = C. azar^e ; var. C. C. capu- 
cina; var. D. C. gracilis = C. albifrons; var. E. C. xantho- 
cephalus = C. variegatus; var. F. C. libidinosus; C. hypo- 
leucus = C. capucinus; C. monachus = C. variegatus; var. 
A. C. xanthosternos = C. variegatus ; C. chrysopus ; C. albi- 
frons; C. brissoni = C. flavus; var. A. C. unicolor Spix; 
var. B. C. fulvus D'Orb., = C. unicolor; var. albine C. albus, 
albino. 

1844. Tschudi, Fauna Peruana. 

Four species recorded: C. robustus (nee Kuhl), undeterminable, 
possibly = C. macrocephalus Spix ; C. capucinus undetermin- 
able; C. albifrons (Humb.) ; and C. chrysopus Cuv. 

1845. Pucheran, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 

C. albifrons Humb., redescribed as C. versicolor. 

1847. Wagner, Konigliche bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 
Abhandlungen der mathematisch-physikalischen Classe. 
Cebus apella (Linn.), redescribed as Cebus nigrivittatus. 

1848. Sir R. Schomburgk, Reisen in British Guiana in den Jahren 
1840-44 Sdugethiere. 

C. apella (Linn.), redescribed as C. olivaceus. 
1851. /. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

Fourteen species of Cebus are here recorded: C. apella 
(Linn.), (specimen ex Guiana), but with this another species 
is confounded and united, the C fatuellus (Linn.), and he 



CEBUS 71 

divides his examples into three varieties or groups: a. 
"Individus a pelage ordinaire, sans pinceau" and group b. 
comprising "Individus semblables au precedents, mais avec 
pinceau"; c. "Individus a couleurs semblablement disposees, 
mais plus pale." These last are those which died in the Men- 
agerie, and whose color has been affected by captivity. Of 
course group b. for which is cited C. fatuellus (Linn.), is 
quite distinct specifically from any form of C. apella (Linn.) ; 
C. robustus Kuhl, = C. variegatus (E. Geoff.) ; C. variegatus 
(E. Geoff.) ; C. cirrifer (Humb.) ; C. vellerosus first 
described; C. frontatus Kuhl; C. elegans I. Geoff.; C. 
azarje Rengg. ; C. barbatus E. Geoff., = C. flavus E. Geoff. ; 
C. flavus E. Geoff.; C. capucinus E. Geoff., = C. apella 
(Linn.); C. castaneus Geoff., first described; C. versicolor 
Pucher., = C. albifrons (Humb.) ; C. chrysopus F. Cuv. ; C. 
hypoleucus (Humb.), = C. capucinus (Linn.). 
1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
Ten species and numerous varieties of Cebus are here recorded, 
the Author evidently experiencing the same difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing the specific rank of his specimens as was exhibited 
in the volume published in 1840. He commences with C. 
azarje Rengg.; C. fatuellus (Linn.), of which as varieties 
he places /?. C. robustus Kuhl, = C. variegatus E. Geoff. ; y. 
Sajou cornu var. a moustaches F. Cuv., = C. frontatus Kuhl ; 
s. C. cristatus F. Cuv., = C. cirrifer (Humb.) ; «. C. apella 
(Linn, nee Auct.). He then cites C. elegans I. Geoff., = C. 
azarje Rengg.; C. libidinosus Spix, a species he does not 
know, and cites the descriptions ; C. capucinus Geoff., = C. 
apella (Linn.) ; C. olivaceus Schomb., = C. apella (Linn.) ; 
C. hypoleucus Geoff., = C. capucinus (Linn.) ; C. nigrivittatus 
Natter., *■ C. apella (Linn.) ; C. gracilis Spix, = C. albi- 
frons (Humb.) ; then follow three species unknown to him, 
C. albifrons (Humb.) ; C. flavus E. Geoff.; and C. chry- 
sopus F. Cuv.; C. versicolor Pucher., = C. albifrons 
(Humb.) ; C. xanthosternos Max., = C. variegatus (E. 
Geoff.) ; of which the three following C. xanthocephalus Spix, 
= C. variegatus Geoff. ; C. monachus F. Cuv., = C. varie- 
gatus E. Geoff. ; and C. cucullatus Spix, = C. variegatus E. 



72 CEBUS 

Geoff., are considered synonyms. C. macrocephalus Spix, is 
followed by two species unknown to him, C. unicolor Spix, 
and C. castaneus I. Geoff roy. 

1856. Pucheran, in Bulletin de la Societe Philomatique. 
Cebus albifrons Humb., redescribed as Cebus versicolor. 

1857. Pucheran, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie et d'Anatomie 
Comparee. 

A review of some of the specimens of Cebus in the Paris 
Museum with critical remarks. The species mentioned are 
C. apella (Linn.) ; C. variegatus E. Geoff.; C. niger = C. 
cirrifer (Humb.) ; C. front atus; C. castaneus I. Geoff.; C. 
hypoleucus = C. capucinus ; C. hypomelas and C. crassiceps 
both first described; but the first, an individual that died in 
the Jardin des Plantes Menagerie without any locality, is 
possibly the same as C. apella. 

1862. Reichenbach, Die Vollstandigste Naturgeschichte der Affen. 

The following are the species attributed to Cebus in this work : 
C. fulvus Desm. ; C. unicolor Spix ; C. gracilis Gray, = C. uni- 
color Spix ; C. Ustulator Reichenb., = C. fatuellus (Linn.) ; C. 
macrocephalus Spix ; C. robustus Kuhl, = C. variegatus E. 
Geoff. ; C. hypoleucus Humb., = C. capucinus (Linn.) ; C. capu- 
cinus Auct, = C. apella (Linn.) ; C. libidinosus Spix ; C. nigri- 
vittatus Wagn., = C. apella (Linn.) ; C. barbatus E. Geoff., 
= C. flavus E. Geoff. ; C. albus an albino ; C. apella (Linn.) ; 
C. chrysopus F. Cuv. ; C. versicolor Pucher., = C. albifrons 
Humb. ; C. monachus F. Cuv., = C. varieGxVTUS E. Geoff. ; C. 
cucullatus Spix, = C. variegatus E. Geoff.; C. capucinus 
Auct., = C. apella (Linn.) ; C. griseus Desm., = C. apella 
(Linn.) ; C. trepidus undeterminable ; C. Paraguay ensis Reich- 
enb., = C. apella (Linn.) ; C. albifrons Humb. ; C. olivaceus 
Schomb., = C. apella (Linn.) ; C. frontatus Kuhl ; C. vel- 
lerosus I. Geoff.; C. elegans I. Geoff., = C. azar^e Rengg. ; 
C. azarje Rengg.; C. cirrifer E. Geoff. ; C. cristatus G. Cuv., 
= C. cirrifer E. Geoff. ; C. niger E. Geoff., = C. cirrifer E. 
Geoff. ; C. lunatus Kuhl, = C. frontatus Kuhl ; C. fatuellus 
(Linn.) ; C. hypomelas undeterminable ; C. crassiceps Pucher., 
and C. lacepedii not a Cebus. As in his treatment of most of 
the genera of the Primates, the Author does not exhibit much 
discrimination in determining the species, but accepts about 
all the names given by Authors as belonging to valid species. 

1865. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 



CEBUS 73 

A list is here given of the species recognized by the Author in 
the British Museum. They are arranged in six groups accord- 
ing as the hair of the crown is directed, or forms a crest. I. 
"Hairs of the crown reflexed, bent back around the face, 
forming a short crest over each eyebrow." II. "Hairs of the 
crown bent back, those on the sides of the dark crown spot 
elongate in the perfect state forming two more or less erect 
crests or tufts." III. "Hairs of the crown short, reflexed, 
adpressed, not forming any crest." IV. "Hairs of the crown 
of the head elongate, erect, forming a single central more or 
less conical crest." V. "Hairs of the crown radiating from a 
center; directed forward in front, and forming, with the 
eyebrows, a transverse crest." VI. "Hairs of the crown 
elongate, erect, diverging in all directions, forming a kind of 
cup." Under No. I, one species only is placed, C. leucogenys 
Gray, = C. cirrifer (Humb.). With No. II, are arranged, 
C. apella I. Geoff., a composite of C. apella (Linn.), and C. 
fatuellus (Linn.) ; C. elegans E. Geoff., which he says = 
C. pallidus Gray, not then described, but Geoffroy's animal = 
C. azasje Rengg. ; C. cirrifer (Humb.); C. vellerosus I. 
Geoff. No. Ill, has C. capucinus I. Geoff., (nee Linn.), = C. 
apella (Linn.) ; C. xanthocephalus Spix, = C. variegatus; C. 
variegatus E. Geoff . ; C. albifrons (Humb.) ; C. hypoleucus 
= C. capucinus (Linn.) ; C. leucocephalus Gray = C. albi- 
frons (Humb.) ; C. Havescens Gray, = C. unicolor Spix. No. 
IV, includes C. robustus = C. variegatus Geoff.; C. 
annellatus Gray, = C. apella (Linn.). No. V, has C. chry- 
sopus F. Cuv. ; C. subcristatus Gray, = C. variegatus Geoff., 
juv. No. VI, contains only C. capillatus Gray, = C. variegatus 
I. Geoff., juv. If the manner in which the hair on the crown 
was directed had been considered from living animals, it 
might be deemed of more importance as a character, but in 
this instance many of Gray's specimens were badly prepared, 
and the hairs greatly disarranged, and in some cases at least, 
gave a very imperfect and doubtless erroneous idea of how it 
was worn during the life of the animal, and therefore was 
not to be relied upon. Gray's knowledge of the species of 
Cebus was derived chiefly from the examples in the British 
Museum, and he nowhere states that he had ever examined a 
single type of other Mammalogists, and in view of the many 
errors in his list, his remarks at the beginning of his article 



74 CEBUS 

have a pathetic force: "The distinction (sic) of the species of 
the American Monkeys is very difficult, and perhaps the genus 
Cebus the most difficult of all. Next to the difficulty of dis- 
tinguishing them is that of determining the names which have 
been applied to them by various Authors." 

1870. /. E. Gray, List of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
in the Collection of the British Museum. 

The species represented in the National Collection are placed 
in Section II, Trichiura, Tribe III, Cebina, and arranged into 
groups according to the color of the fur, or the manner in 
which the Author supposes the hair was directed upon the 
crown of the head during the life of the animals; but these 
methods do not agree in their arrangement for each one con- 
tains different species in its group. In his own arrangement he 
follows the one indicating the growth of hair on the head, as 
given in his paper in 1865 with its VI groups. No. I contains 
but a single species, C. leucogenys Gray, = C. cirrifer 
(Humb.). II has four species, C. apella (Linn.) ; C. palli- 
dus Gray, first described; C. cirrifer (Humb.); and C. 
vellerosus I. Geoff. Ill contains six species : C. capucinus = 
C. apella (Linn.); and var.? C. libidinosus Spix, as a 
synonym!; C. xanthocephalus Spix, = C. variegatus 
(Humb.) ; C. albifrons (Humb.) ; C. hypoleucus (Humb.), = 
C. capucinus (Linn.) ; C. leucocephalus Gray, = C. albifrons 
(Humb.) ; and C. Havescens Gray, == C. unicolor Spix. IV 
has two species : C. robustus Max., = C. variegatus E. Geoff. ; 
and C. annellatus Gray, = C. apella (Linn.). V has also two 
species: C. chrysopus F. Cuv. ; and C. subcristatus Gray, = 
C. variegatus E. Geoff. VI has the remaining species C. 
capillatus Gray, = C. variegatus E. Geoffroy. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bas. Simice. 
A careful review of the species of Cebus founded upon the 
examples in the collection of the Museum in Leyden. While 
recognizing the earlier descriptions of Linnaeus' Simia apella 
and Simia capucinus, he does not adopt the latter name for C. 
hypoleucus (Humboldt), because in the original description he 
finds "corpus atrum," while in the Systema Naturae the body 
is given as "corpus fuscum." Atrum, the Author considers, 
means sombre, obscure, dark, ("sombre, obscur, tenebreux,") 
which is contrary to "nigrum" or black, employed to describe 
the cap on the crown, and therefore does not accurately portray 



CEBUS 75 

C. capucinus (Linn.). The point here made is not tenable, 
for in the diagnosis of C. capucinus given in the Mus. Adolph. 
Fred., Linnaeus describes the species as "Simia imberbis nigra, 
cauda longa hirsuta, facie flavescente," and in the fuller descrip- 
tion given afterwards "corpus magnitudine cati, atrum pileo 
laxo longiusculo; at Facies et maxima pars capitis, excepto 
pileo nigro, pallide flava est una cum pectore ad flexuram usque 
cubitorum," which is perfectly applicable to S. hypoleucus 
Humboldt, but in no wise answers to the capucinus Auctores. 
The first definition the Dictionary gives of ater is "black," 
followed by "coal-black," which sufficiently shows that Linnaeus 
used the words as expressing the same meaning, and niger and 
ater in this case are synonymous. In copying the diagnosis of 
capucinus into the Systema Naturae of 1758 and also of 1766, 
by an oversight it is made to read "S. caudata imberbis/' the 
nigra having been omitted, but as the only work cited as a 
reference is Linnaeus' Mus. Ad. Fred., the omission is of little 
consequence. Schlegel's objection therefore becomes of small 
importance and capucinus Linn., must be accepted for the C. 
hypoleucus (Humb.), a name the species has borne erroneously 
for a century. The list of species commences with C. hypo- 
leucus (Humb.), (although E. Geoffroy is given as its author), 
= C. capucinus (Linn.) ; C. capucinus E. Geoffroy, = C. 
apella (Linn.) ; C. albifrons (Humboldt) ; C. barbatus = 
C. flavus E. Geoff.; C. apella (Linn.), ex Surinam is con- 
sidered distinct from the one he calls C capucinus from the 
Guianas = possibly C. castaneus I. Geoff. There seems to be 
no valid reason for separating examples of C. apella (Linn.), 
from different localities in its range. It is very variable in 
coloration and all the individuals can only be regarded as 
representing one species with a considerable dispersion. C. 
libidinosus Spix; C. niger E. Geoff., = C. cirrifer (Humb.), 
(synon. Part.) ; C. flavus E. Geoff. ; C. frontatus Kuhl ; C. 
fatuellus (Linn.) ; C. variegatus E. Geoff.; and C. fallax, 
founded on a skeletal defect, = C. apella (Linn.). 

1879. Alston, Biologia Centrali- Americana. Mammalia. 

One species only of Cebus is here given, C. hypoleucus 
(Humb.), = C. capucinus (Linn.), with an account of its 
habits. 

1901. O. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

C. fatuellus (Linn.), juv. probably, redescribed as C. fatuellus 



76 CEBUS 

peruanus; and C. unicolor Spix, probably, redescribed as C. 
Havescens cuscinus. 
1907. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Cebus apiculatus described. 

1909. D. G. Elliot, in Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, 
New York. 

Cebus capucinus nigripectus, and Cebus malitiosus first de- 
scribed; and the status of C. capucinus (Linn.), and C. 
apella (Linn.), explained and fixed. 

1910. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Cebus versuta and Cebus caliginosus described. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

It must be acknowledged that the geographical distribution of the 
species of the genus Cebus is imperfectly known. Much of the vast 
territory of South America which they inhabit is unexplored, and we 
are entirely ignorant of the animals to be found in it. A large number 
of the described species are known only from the type locality, and the 
range of others is indefinite and unsatisfactory. A serious difficulty 
also exists in the fact, that it is often uncertain what species a writer 
is referring to, for although he employs the name of a well known 
species, he frequently has in mind quite a different one. Hence the 
confusion and intricacy of the synonymy. Thus the C. capucinus of 
Authors is not the C. capucinus Linnaeus, and the C. apella Linnaeus, 
is seldom recognizable in the species given by writers under that name ; 
and the C. gracilis Gray is not C. gracilis Spix, nor is the C. robustus 
Tschudi, the same species that Kuhl and Wied call by that name. 
Many examples of this confused nomenclature could easily be given to 
prove how very difficult it is to accurately establish the species intended, 
and unless the specimen referred to is extant and accessible, too often a 
correct decision is impossible. Fully aware, therefore, of the great 
limitation to our knowledge, the writer can only attempt to give the 
restricted boundaries of the dispersion of the Cebi which have been 
ascertained at the present time. The most northern habitat of any 
species is Central America, and there, from and including Nicaragua 
to Panama, C. capucinus is found ranging, and also into northern 
South America to Colombia. To the north of Nicaragua no species of 
Cebus is found. In the three Guianas : English, Dutch and French, C. 
apella (Linn.), dwells, and from Cayenne in French Guiana C. 
castaneus was brought, its type locality and range however unknown. 



CEBUS 77 

From Bolivia C. flavus comes, but the extent of its range is unknown. 
On the eastern coast of Brazil, from Bahia to north of Rio de Janeiro, C. 
variegatus occurs ; and in the forests of the Orinoco, and also in those 
of the Amazon with its tributaries the Rio Negro, Rio TerTe, Rio 
Madeira and Rio Japura, and in the Peruvian Province of Mainas, C. 
albifrons is met with. In the forests of the Rio TefTe C. unicolor 
has been procured ; and west of the mouth of the Rio Negro, C. macro- 
cephalus is found. In the Brazilian Province of Minas Geraes in the 
western part of the Rio Jordao C. versuta dwells; and in the same 
Province in the forests watered by the Rio Carinainha, C. libidinosus 
occurs. In the Province of Sao Paulo, three species have been 
observed: C. cirrifer at Ypanema, south to New Fribourg between 
the Rio Parahyba and Rio de Janeiro ; C. caliginosus in the vicinity 
of St. Catarina, and C. vellerosus the precise locality of which is 
unknown. In the Province of Paraguay, the most southern district in 
which any species is found, C. azarje occurs, extending its range north 
westward into Matto Grosso west of the Rio Parana, and according to 
Burmeister, (1. c.) into Bolivia. On the Lower Orinoco near La Union, 
and at Marino on the Rio Caura, and also on the Rio Mocho, a tributary 
of the Upper Rio Caura in Venezuela, C. apiculatus has been 
obtained. On the Pacific coast in Colombia, locality unknown, C. 
chrysopus was procured ; and near Bonda, C. malitiosus was found ; 
while in the Cauca Valley C. c. nigripectus was taken ; and in the moun- 
tains and in the forests of the Upper Magdalena at an elevation of 
from 5,000 to 7,000 feet, C. fatuellus dwells. Peru has C. azarce 
pallidus taken near Santa Anna, and in the Province of Cuzco; and 
near Callanga, C. unicolor cuscinus was obtained. In southeastern 
Peru near Marcopata in the Inambari Valley C. fatuellus peruana 
is found. Two species remain whose habitat is as yet unknown: C. 
crassiceps, supposed to come from the Rio Negro forest, and C. 
frontatus which may possibly occur near Ypanema in the Province 
of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. Head without tufts on male, 
a. Arms without yellow. 

a.' Hairs on body without yellow. 

a." Crown and line on side of face black, 
sides of head beneath the ears 
yellowish white C. apella. 



78 CEBUS 

b!' Crown black, cheeks whitish. 
a!" Arms to elbows white. 

a. 4 Chest white C. capucinus. 

b. 4 Chest black C. c. nigripectus. 

c" Crown black, cheeks pale yellow C. frontatus. 

d." Crown white C. albifrons. 

e" Crown pale brownish yellow tinged 

with reddish C. unicolor. 

/." Crown dark chestnut C. u. cuscinus. 

g" Crown golden brown C. ftavus. 

b. Arms with yellow. 

a.' Arms to elbows, and shoulders golden 

yellow , C. castaneus. 

b! Arms to elbows yellowish white C. variegatus. 

c! Arms to wrist on outer side pale yellow. 

a." Upper parts mummy brown C. malitiosus. 

b." Upper parts cinnamon red . . , C. chrysopus. 

c." Upper parts blackish brown C. apiculatus. 

B. Heads with tufts or ridges on male. 

a. No white hairs on body. 
a.' Arms with yellow. 

a." Dorsal region dark yellowish brown. . C. libidinosus. 

b." Dorsal region reddish chestnut C. fatuellus. 

c." Dorsal region reddish golden 

brown C. macro cephalus. 

b! Arms without yellow. 

a" Arms to elbows cream buff C. versuta. 

b." Arms to elbows reddish chestnut.. C. /. peruanus. 
c" Arms to elbows dark Prout's brown. 

a!" Black cap on head C. azarce. 

b!" Black cap divided nearly into two . C. a. pallidus. 
d" Arms to elbows black. 

a!" Upper parts mummy brown C. cirrifer. 

b'" Upper parts chestnut red C. cmssiceps. 

e." Arms to elbows golden brown tinged 

with red C. caliginosus. 

b. White hairs on body C. vellerosus. 

Cebus apella (Linnaeus). 

Simla apella Linn., Mus. Reg. Ad. Fred., 1754, Quad., p. 3, pi. I; 
Id. Syst. Nat, I, 1758, p. 28; I, 1766, p. 42; Bodd., Elench. 



CEBUS 79 

Anim., 1784, p. 62; Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 37; Aude- 
bert, Hist. Singes et Makis, 1797, Fam. X, Sec. Ill, p. 3, pi. 
II ; and var. A. p. 4, pi. III. 

Cebus apella Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 50; Kuhl, Beitr. 
Zool., 1820, p. 36; Fisch., Syn. Mamm, 1829, p. 47; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1S40, p. 207; Blainv., Osteog, 
1841, Atl., Cebus, pi. II; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 41 ; 
Casteln., Exped. Amer. Sud, Zool., 1855, p. 9; Flow., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1862, p. 230; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1865, p. 826; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 19, 
(specimens ex Guianas) ; Elliot, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
N. Y., 1909, p. 227; Thos., Proc. Zool Soc. Lond, 1911, p. 
128. 

Cebus capucinus (nee Linn.), Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777. p. 
48; E. Geoff, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. Ill ; 
Kuhl, Beitr. Zool, 1820, p. 36 ; Desm, Mamm, 1820, p. 85 ; 
Fisch, Syn. Mamm, 1829, p. 49; Less, Spec. Mamm, 1840, 
p. 145 ; Wagn, Schreb, Saugth. Suppl, I, 1840, p. 208 ; V, 
1855, p. 87; I. Geoff, Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 46; Reichenb, 
Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 34, pi. VI, fig. 95 ; pi. VII, 
fig. 114; Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist,. N. Y, 1909, p. 228. 

Simia (Sapajus) trepidus fulvus Kerr, Anim Kingd, I, 1792, 
Mamm, No. 69. 

Simia (Cebus) apella Humb, Rec. Obs. Zool.. I, 1811, (1815), 
p. 355. 

Cebus griseus Desm, Mamm, 1820, p. 81. 

Cebus nigrivittatus Wagn, Konigl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Abhandl. 
Math. Phys. Classe, V, 1847, p. 430; Id Schreb, Saugth. 
Suppl, V, 1855, p. 88. 

Cebus olivaceus Schomb, Reis. Guian, II, 1848, p. 246; III, p. 
770 a.?; Wagn, Schreb, Saugth. Suppl, V, 1855, p. 87, pi. 
VIII.? 

Cebus fatuellus var. E. apella Wagn, Schreb, Saugth. Suppl, V, 
1855, p. 84. 

Cebus pucherani Dahlb, Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur, 
fasc. I, 1856, pp. 161, 165. 

Cebus hypomelas Pucher, Rev. Mag. Zool, 2me Ser, 1857, p. 341. 

Cebus (Eucebus) griseus Reichenb, Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 40, fig. 115. 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) paraguayanus Reichenb., Vollstand. 
Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 41, pi. VII. fig. 118. 



80 



CEBUS 



Cebus {Calyptro cebus) olivaceus Reichenb. Vollstand. Naturg. 

Affen, 1862, p. 42, pi. VII, figs. 106, 107; pi. VIII, fig. 122. 
Cebus (Calyptro cebus) apella Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 

Affen, 1862, p. 56, pi. VII, figs. 103-107. 
Cebus (Calyptrocebus) nigrivittatus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 

Affen, 1862, p. 56, pi. VI, fig. 99; pi. VIII, fig. 123. 
Cebus annellatus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 827; Id. 

Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 51; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 194; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 213. 
Cebus fallax Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 210. 

(Example of C. apella with skeletal defect). 

WEEPING CAPUCHIN. 

Type locality. Surinam, or Dutch Guiana. 

Geogr. Distr. English, Dutch and French Guianas. 

Genl. Char. Black cap on head, white spot on temple and white 
line on forehead. This may be considered the typical style. In other 
examples the white extends backward, often leaving only a narrow 
black line on the forehead. 

Color. Top of head, and line on sides of face meeting under 
chin, black ; whitish spot on temples ; upper parts and thighs Vandyke 
brown; dorsal region blackish; forearms, legs, feet and tail black; no 
tufts on ears; sides of head below ears, upper lip and under parts 
yellowish white, sometimes with a golden tinge ; inner side of arms and 
legs black. 

Measurements. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 79; Hensel, 64; 
zygomatic width, 61 ; intertemporal width, 40 ; median length of nasals, 
9 ; length of upper molar series, 20 ; length of mandible, 57 ; length of 
lower molar series, 24. Vertebrae : Cervical, 7 ; Dorsal, 14 ; Lumbar, 5 ; 
Sacral, 3 ; Caudal, 23-27. 

The Sim i a apella Linnaeus as described and figured in the 
Museum Regis Adolphi Frederici, p. 1, pi. I, 1754, is the animal known 
generally to Authors as Cebus capucinus. Under that species I have 
demonstrated (1. c.) that the capucinus Linn., was the animal after- 
ward named by Humboldt hypoleucus, and consequently the capucinus 
of Authors was a misnomer. 

Linnaeus* description and plate of this species in the work above 
cited, though not so clearly demonstrable perhaps as in the case of 
his capucinus, leave little room for doubt that apella was applied 
to the familiar monkey known to all as the typical Capuchin, the one 
with the "colore fuscum, sive griseo nigricans uti martes, at pedes et 



CEBUS 81 

cauda nigra" ; also, "sub mento vellus breve, densum, atrum, pingue," 
one of the characters of capucinus Auct. The general description 
given in the Mus. Reg. Ad. Fred., exactly covers capucinus Auct., and 
the plate gives most of the characteristic markings, such as the black 
cap on the head extending down the sides of the face and under the 
chin, and the black hands, feet and tail. In both editions of the 
Systema Naturae, 1758 and 1766, the Mus. Reg. Ad. Fred, is the only 
work cited, and the descriptions are too brief to determine the species, 
while that in the work, where the form was first named, is fairly 
comprehensive. 

Cebus annellatus Gray, the type of which is before me, appears 
to be nothing but what I call apella Linnaeus, capucinus of Authors, 
in one of its many varietal colorations. The yellowish white of the 
temple extends to the top of the head leaving but a narrow black line 
down the center. The body is pale reddish, the limbs and under parts, 
tail, hands and feet like ordinary apella. Mindful of the immense di- 
versity of color exhibited by this species, which is dependent neither 
upon locality, age nor sex, but is simply individual, I have no hesitation 
in referring Gray's type to the present species and include its name 
among the synonyms. 

Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk (1. c). The description given of this 
form, seems nearest to C. apella, but there are discrepancies such as 
"Ausnature der Schultern und Oberarme, die strogelb aussehn," which 
leans more towards C. fatuellus (Linn.), for I do not recall any 
specimen of C. apella at any age with the upper part of arms straw- 
yellow. This part is often very light colored and sometimes in immature 
animals approaches a yellowish tinge, but never so far as I have seen 
a straw-yellow. But as the greater part of Schomburgk's description is 
nearer C. apella (Linn.), than it is to any other species, and C. 
fatuellus (Linn.), is a native of the western part of the continent, 
I have placed it among the synonyms of the former species but with an 
interrogation mark, for I know no other species from the Guianas to 
which it can be referred. 

The type of Cebus hypomelas Pucheran, is in the Paris Museum, 
and while the upper parts are Prout's brown, the flanks are redder 
or more russet than is usually seen in typical C. apella, yet mindful of 
how the species varies in coloration, it seems best to refer Pucheran's 
type to the older known form. The type has no history beyond what 
is written on the bottom of the stand "Achete a M. Perdrinelli le 8 
fevrier 1854, mort a la Menagerie le 11 fevrier, 1854." It therefore 
lived only three days after its purchase. Its patrie is quite unknown. 



82 CEBUS 

It would seem to be a rather brightly colored C. apella, with under 
parts Prout's brown. 

Color. Forehead and sides of head in front of black stripe brown- 
ish black, the hairs being buffy at base, rest brownish black, the buff 
showing through slightly ; rest of head and nape black ; a black band in 
front of ears goes from top of head and meets under the chin ; dorsal 
region Prout's brown ; sides of body russet, this color also extending on 
to the arms above shoulders, and on thighs ; forearms, hands, front of 
thighs, legs below knees, feet and tail jet black; under parts Prout's 
brown with a reddish tinge. Ex Pucheran's type of C. hypomelas. 

C. fallax Schlegel is an immature individual, not fully grown, and 
with a skeletal defect, as there are but four lumbar vertebrae instead 
of five or six. The specimen was brought alive to Europe, its habitat 
unknown and died May 1, 1875. In color it is like C. apella and 
cannot be separated from that species. 

Cebus captjcinus (Linnaeus). 

Simia capucina Linn., Mus. Reg. Ad. Fred., 1754, p. 2, pi. II; Id. 
Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 29; I, 1766, p. 42; Schreb., Saugth., I, 
1775, p. 120, pi. XXIX; Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 37; Au- 
deb., Hist. Nat. Singes et Makis, 1794, p. 5, pi. IV, var. a, (not 
typical) ; p. 6, pi. V, var. a; Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
N. Y., 1909, p. 228. 

Simia (Sapajus) capucinus albulus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., I, 1792, 
Mamra., No. 73. 

Simia hypoleuca Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), p. 337. 

Cebus hypoleucus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. Ill; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 37; Desm., Mamm, 
1820, p. 85 ; Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 50 ; Wagn., Schreb., 
Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 208; V, 1855, p. 88; I. Geoff., Cat. 
Primates, 1851, p. 47; Pucher., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1857, p. 346; 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 826 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 190; 
Alston, Biol. Amer. Centr., I, Mamm., 1879, p. 13; Elliot, 
Mamm. Middle Amer. and W. Ind., Field Columb. Mus. Pub., 
IV, Pt. II, 1904, p. 736, figs. 167, CLXII, Zool. Ser. ; Id. Cat. 
Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., VIII, 1906, p. 262, fig. LXXXV, 
Zool. Ser. 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) hypoleucus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 33, pi. VI, figs. 93, 94. 

Cebus albifrons (nee Humb.), Belt, Nat. Nicar., 1874, p. 118. 



CEBUS 83 

Cebus imitator Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 7th Ser., XI, 1903, 
p. 396; Elliot, Mamm. Middle Amer. and W. Ind., Field 
Columb. Mus. Pub., VI, 1905, p. 596, Zool. Sen 

Cebus capucinus Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., XXVI, 
1909, p. 227; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, 1911, p. 128. 
white-throated capuchin. Mono Camblanca, native name. 

Type locality. None given. 

Geogr. Distr. Nicaragua to Colombia. 

Color. Face flesh color ; forehead, cheeks, sides of head to behind 
ears, chin, throat, sides of neck, chest and shoulders, sometimes on 
arms nearly to elbows, white or yellowish white ; rest of body, limbs, 
hands, feet and tail black. 

Measurements. Total length about 1,000; tail, 500; foot, 120. 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 86 ; Hensel, 61 ; zygomatic width, 60 ; 
median length of nasals, 16 ; palatal length, 30 ; length of upper molar 
series, 21 ; length of mandible, 51 ; length of lower molar series, 26. 

Simia capucina Linnaeus has been generally recognized by 
Authors as the monkey with the sides of face, throat, chest and front 
part of the shoulders grayish yellow, or grizzled, (gray and black). In 
the Museum Regis Adolphi Frederici, 1754, the work in which Linnaeus 
first employed the binominal system, two species of Cebus are figured 
and described as Simia apella and Simia capucina. The plates are 
recognizable, that on which the latter species is portrayed eminently 
so, and represent the forms recognized by Authors generally as Cebus 
capucinus and Cebus hypoleucus, and the descriptions given, 
fairly, if not completely, describe the figures, and the one known to 
Mammalogists at the present day as Cebus hypoleucus is called 5. 
capucina, and the other 6\ apella, and these names must take 
precedence for these forms. In the 10th edition of the Systema 
Naturae, 1758, p. 29, Linnaeus gives a brief description of S. capucina, 
not sufficient however to cause the form to be recognizable, but the 
only authority he gives is his own work the Mus Reg. Ad. Fred., 
which thus fixes the animal, (afterwards named by Humboldt hypo- 
leucus), as his 5. capucina. In the 12th edition of the Systema 
Naturae, 1766, p. 43, the one cited by many European Naturalists, 
under S. capucina, Linnaeus gives quite a different description of this 
monkey from that in the Mus. Reg. Ad. Fred., and instead of "pallida 
flava est una cum pectore ad flexuram usque cubitorum" as exhibited 
in the figure of his plate, he writes "pectus ferrugincum," which 
describes neither capucinus nor hypoleucus of Authors. It is on 



84 CEBUS 

account of having thus altered his original description, a custom not 
unusual with Linnaeus, and the fact that the 12th edition of the Sys- 
tema Naturae is the only one consulted and cited by many naturalists, 
that confusion has arisen with the name of this species and the wrong 
one attributed to it, a name Linnaeus only applied to the animal 
generally known to-day as Cebus hypoleucus, but which in the future 
must be called Cebus capucinus. The original description like all 
given by Linnaeus is brief, but emphasizes the characters of the Monkey 
afterwards called hypoleucus, and if this is not considered sufficient 
evidence, the plates exhibit unmistakably, that Humboldt's species 
was the one Linnaeus originally called capucinus. The subject is fully 
discussed in a paper by the writer published in the Bulletin of the 
American Museum of Natural History for 1909. 

Schlegel has added to the confusion connected with these animals 
by separating the species from the Guianas, C. apella into two, to 
one of which he gives the name, capucinus, although he was fully 
aware that it was a black and white monkey which was so designated 
by Linnaeus. 

C. capucinus Tschudi, Faun. Peruan., p. 42, is difficult to charac- 
terize from his short and unsatisfactory description. It is not C. 
capucinus (Linn.), for that species is never "dunkelbraun" or "rotlich 
braun" on any part of its body at any age, and "die Kehle, die Brust, 
der Bauch und die innere Seite der Extremitaten sind weisslich gelb" 
does not describe C. apella (Linn.), very well, nor will it answer for 
any stage of C. fatuellus (Linn.). Besides, the latter species is not 
actually known to be found in Peru, nor is the description suitable for 
C. flavus E. Geoff., from Bolivia. It would seem therefore that C. 
capucinus Tschudi (nee Linn.), must be relegated to the list of unde- 
terminable species of the genus Cebus. 

From an examination of the series of C. imitator Thos., from 
Boquete, in the British Museum, it would hardly seem that the speci- 
mens possessed sufficient characters to warrant their separation from 
the typical form. Four females, all there are of this sex, have the hair 
on the forepart of the head much longer than the rest forming a sort 
of bushy tuft, and this is not confined to any particular season of the 
year. The examples were procured at a rather high elevation, 4,000 
to 4,500 feet, and long hair and thick fur would naturally constitute 
the coats of animals living at that height ; but if a low temperature was 
the cause of the existence of these tufts the males should also possess 
them, but they do not and are quite indistinguishable from other mem- 
bers of C. capucinus throughout its range. 



CEBUS 85 

There are seven males all with the hair short and lying flat on the 
head like the typical form. In the absence of any other character to 
support a distinctive rank, the skulls also showing none, it would seem 
proper to consider imitator as a synonym of C. capucinus. That this 
peculiarity of bushy tufts on the heads of the females only is not 
restricted to this animal, the males not possessing them, is seen in the 
females of the species I have called C. apiculatus, which have tufted 
heads, the males not. This fact alone with no other characters, would 
hardly be deemed sufficient for the examples to be given a distinct 
specific rank. 

Belt, who met with this species in Nicaragua, says (1. c.) that 
sometimes a troop of the White-faced Cebus would be met rapidly 
running away, throwing themselves from tree to tree. It feeds on 
fruits, but is also constantly searching for insects in the crevices in 
trees and among withered leaves, and the largest beetles are seized and 
munched with avidity. It also is very fond of eggs and nestlings. It 
is an intelligent and mischievous animal, and he had one as a pet 
for a long time, whose antics were very amusing. At first it was kept 
chained but it would open the links and go directly to the nests of the 
fowls, and break every egg it could get ; after a day or two it would 
permit itself to be captured. 

When there were young ducks about, it would hold out a piece of 
bread in one hand and a duck being tempted to approach within its 
reach, it would seize it with the other and kill it by biting the breast. 

When any one fondled him, he would pick his pockets diligently, 
pulling out letters and taking them from the envelopes, and anything 
eatable at once disappeared in his mouth. Once he took a bottle of 
turpentine from the pocket of a medical officer, drew the cork, held it 
first to one nostril, then the other, made a wry face, recorked it and 
returned it to the doctor. When he was about to be punished for some 
of his misdeeds, he would try to intimidate by uttering a shrill threaten- 
ing note and showing his teeth. His notes varied from a gruff bark to 
a shrill whistle and by them his owner could tell whether he was 
hungry, or eating, frightened or menacing, even without seeing him. 
Once near Juigalpa, Belt saw a troop of this species on the ground 
among low scattered trees. Their attitudes were amusing as some 
stood upright trying to get a better view of the intruder, while others 
arched their backs like cats. They remained quite still, watching, but a 
few steps towards them sent them scampering away, barking. Belt 
misnames them C. albifrons, but that species is not found in Central 
America. 



86 CEBUS 

Cebus capucinus nigripectus Elliot. 

Cebus capucinus nigripectus Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
N. Y., 1909, p. 229; Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 
XXXI, 1912, p. 95. 

Type locality. Las Pubas, Cauca Valley, Colombia. Type in 
American Museum Natural History, New York. 

Genl. Char. Forehead bistre, chest black. Upper molar series 
small. 

Color. Sides of head and neck, chin, throat, shoulders and outer 
side of upper arms yellowish white ; forehead bistre ; top of head, back 
of neck, chest, body above and beneath, lower arms, legs, hands, feet 
and tail jet black. 

Measurements. Total length, 835; tail, 430; foot, 120; ear, 30, 
(Collector). Skull: occipito-nasal length, 89; zygomatic width, 538; 
width of braincase above root of zygoma, 52 ; length of braincase from 
margin between orbits, 75.1; Hensel, about 68.5; skull broken; length 
of upper molar series, 32.1; width of last molar, 35; length of man- 
dible on lower margin, 44.9; width at symphysis, 13.7; height of 
ascending ramus, 28.5 ; length of lower molar series, 25.9. 

While resembling the typical C. capucinus (Linn.), in general 
appearance this species differs in the color of the forehead which is 
bistre, and not white nor yellowish white, and also in the black chest, 
the white of the throat not extending downward. The skull also differs, 
in having a longer braincase, and is not wide over root of zygoma as 
is the skull of C. capucinus (Linn.). The orbits are smaller, the 
nasals narrower and the teeth of the upper molar series much shorter, 
the last molar being about half the size of m 1 and appearing minute 
when compared with the other molars. 

The Collector, the late J. H. Batty, stated that this monkey was 
not found in low lands, but is a mountain species, a sagacious and shy 
animal, and an expert jumper. 

Cebus frontatus Kuhl. 

Cebus frontatus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 34; Desm., Mamm., 
1820, p. 32; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851., p. 44; Dahlb., Stud. 
Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 161, 166; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 206, (Part.) ; von 
Pelz., Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1883, Beiheft, p. 13; Goldi, 
Mamm. Bras., 1893, p. 41, (note). 



CEBUS 87 

Cebus lunatus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 37, juv. ; Desm., Mamra, 
1820, p. 84; Temm., Mon. Mamm, 1827. p. XV; Wagn.,' 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 209. 

Cebus (Otocebus) lunatus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 45, pi. VIII, figs. 132, 133. 

Cebus (Otocebus) frontatus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 43, pi. VII, fig. 112 ; pi. VIII, fig. 125. 

Variete du Sajou Cornu F. Cuv., Hist. Mamm., IV, 1881, pi. 

Type locality. None given. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Patrie unknown. Ypanema,? Province of Sao 
Paulo, Brazil. 

Genl. Char. No tufts on head; hairs on forehead and sides of 
head standing upright. 

Color. Superciliary line, temples, cheeks to corners of mouth 
pale yellow ; chin whitish ; top of head to nape and a narrow line down 
sides of face, meeting under the chin, black ; upper parts of body, arms 
and hands glossy Prout's brown; legs and feet brownish black; tail 
black with reddish hairs intermingled at base; inner side of limbs 
blackish ; chest and throat grayish ; abdomen blackish brown. Ex prob- 
able type Paris Museum. 

The words "C. frontatus nobis" on the stand of the example in 
the Paris Museum is said to be in Kuhl's handwriting and designates 
the type; but nowhere is it said to be "type de respece," which is 
almost always written on the stands when any particular specimen 
is indicated as the type. The example bears no resemblance what- 
ever to C. crassiceps, and which Schlegel includes with this species 
as a synonym of C. variegatus, but is very like the type of C cirrifer 
E. Geoff., but has not the long head tufts of that species. The hair 
on the top of the head is long and stands upright, and is longest on the 
forehead. The tail is not so bushy as is that of C. cirrifer, and is 
black with reddish hairs mixed on the basal part. In size this species 
equals the ordinary Capuchin. 

The type of C. lunatus Kuhl, is now in the Leyden Museum 
having been obtained in exchange from the Heidelberg Museum. It 
is a young animal in the brown coat, has a black head, and is evidently 
in process of change to the adult dress, and cannot be separated specif- 
ically from the present species. It must however be confessed that 
the distinctness of C. frontatus is doubtful. Its resemblance to C. 
cirrifer, (differing chiefly in wanting the head tufts, which may be 
a mark of age or of season), and our total lack of knowledge of the 



88 CEBUS 

country from whence it came give it a very disadvantageous position 
among the species of Cebus. This is the more remarkable, for it is 
nearly a century since it was described, and yet we are still waiting for 
more material which will show what status this type specimen should 
have among the species. 

Cebus albifrons (Humboldt). 

Simia {Cebus) albifrons Humb., Rec. Obser. Zool., I, 1811, 
(1815), pp. 323, 356. 

Cebus albifrons E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 
p. Ill; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 9, lOme Legon; 
Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 34; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 83; 
Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 50; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, 
p. 154; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 208; V, 
1855, p. 93; Tschudi, Faun. Peruan., 1844, p. 42; Bates, Nat. 
Riv. Amaz., 1863, II, p. 101 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1865, p. 826; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 50; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 
1876, p. 195 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 213. 

Cebus gracilis Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 8, pi. V; 
Wagn., Abhandl. Bayer. Akad. Munch., V, 1848, p. 426; Id. 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 90. 

Cebus leucocephalus Blainv., Osteog., 1840, Atl., Cebus, pi. V; 
*Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 827; Id. Cat. Mon- 
keys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1876, p. 50; 
Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 4. 

Cebus versicolor Pucher., Bull. Soc. Philom., 1856, p. 34. 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) gracilis Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 30, pi. VI, fig. 85. 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) albifrons Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 42, not figured. 
white-fronted capuchin. Caiardra, native name. 

Type locality. Mission of Santa Barbara, Cataracts of the 
Orinoco. 

Geogr. Distr. Forests of the Orinoco, and of the Amazon and its 
tributaries, Rio Negro, (Bates) ; Rio Japura and Rio Teffe, (Spix) ; 
near Borba, Rio Madeira, (Natterer) ; Colombia, (Plee and Schlegel) ; 
Province of Minas, Peru, (Tschudi). 



*Gray states that this is not C. albifrons Geoff., but his description gives 
no difference. 



CEBUS 89 

Genl. Char. Size large, tail very long, bushy; head and body of 
strongly contrasting colors. 

Color. Forepart of head, throat, chest and back of head white; 
upper parts grayish red to reddish brown, dorsal line and rump darker 
red in some examples ; limbs brighter red than the body ; hands and feet 
dark reddish brown or blackish ; under parts dull reddish ; tail varying 
from fox red or grayish red at base, to yellowish red or sooty yellow 
at tip. In some specimens the red of the back of the head extends 
forward in a point on the white crown. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 80 ; Hensel, 57 ; zygo- 
matic width, 60; intertemporal width, 40; median length of nasals, 13; 
length of upper molar series, 21 ; length of lower molar series, 21 ; 
length of mandible, 55. 

Gray's type of C. leucocephalus is in the British Museum, 
mounted. It is a large monkey and answers in all respects to the 
description of Humboldt's species, save the breast, but as the hair 
has disappeared from this part it is not possible to say what the color- 
ing was originally, but as the rest of the animal accords with C. albi- 
frons it would doubtless be white like the greater part of the head. 

There are two specimens of C. gracilis Spix, in the Munich 
Museum both marked Types,' both young animals, but one consider- 
ably younger than the other. They have probably faded somewhat 
for they are paler than Spix's figure but that may have been over 
colored. In their markings and general distribution of hues these 
examples resemble C. albifrons (Humboldt), and cannot be sepa- 
rated from that species. 

The type of C. versicolor Pucheran, and another specimen are 
in the Paris Museum, the type much darker and richer in color of the 
two. It does not present any characters to cause its separation from 
C. albifrons, the fact that there is no specimen in the Museum bear- 
ing that name, probably was the main cause for Pucheran having been 
misled and made to suppose he had an unknown species before him. 
The type is somewhat darker, and the limbs a deeper red than is seen 
in the majority of specimens, but the other example is much paler and 
has, evidently, not yet suffered by exposure to light. The total length 
is 1,229.90; tail, 673.80; foot, 114.30. The skull, as is the case with 
so many of the types in the Paris Museum, is in the specimen, and no 
comparisons can be made or measurements taken ; and it would seem 
that the earlier writers did not look for cranial characters by which 
their species might be determined, but relied, apparently, almost 



90 CEBUS 

altogether upon the colors exhibited by their examples; too often a 
broken reed to lean upon, especially when endeavoring to establish 
a new species of the genus Cebus. That these monkeys varied among 
themselves in color to an incredible degree was not known nor under- 
stood, hence the long list of synonyms that now accompanies the 
names of many species. 

Bates found this monkey on the lower part of the Rio Tapajos, 
where it is pretty generally distributed through the forests of the level 
country. He saw it often also on the banks of the Upper Amazon, 
and used to watch it leaping among the trees, as it is a wonderful 
performer in this line of gymnastics. The troops travelled in a single 
file of thirty or more individuals, and when the leader reached the end 
of a branch of a lofty tree he at once sprang into the air, and alighted 
on the yielding foliage of another tree maybe fifty feet below ; all his 
companions following closely behind. As they alight they seize the 
branches with hands and tail, steady themselves an instant and are off 
again over the branches to the next tree. Bates kept one as a pet for 
about a year, which went with him on his journeys and became very 
familiar, sharing his blanket on wet nights. While restless, it was not 
playful, its inability to remain quiet arising from a nervous irritability 
and discontented disposition, and these were exhibited by the painful, 
changeable expression of its countenance, and general lack of purpose. 
Its actions were those of a wayward child, and it was not happy even 
with plenty of its favorite food, bananas, but would leave its own 
meal to snatch morsels from the hands of its companions. The 
Caiardra kept the house in a perpetual uproar, for it screamed when- 
ever alarmed or hungry or jealous; but no matter what the trouble 
might be it was always making some kind of a noise, screwing up its 
lips and uttering a succession of loud whistling notes. It would fol- 
low its master, when loose, supporting itself upright on its legs. One 
day in a fit of jealousy it quarrelled with an owl-faced monkey (Nyc- 
tipithecus trivirgatus) , over a fruit some one had given the latter. 
Nyctipithecus fought only with its paws and hissing like a cat, but the 
Caiardra obtaining the mastery cracked the other's skull with its teeth 
and killed it. Thereupon Bates got rid of it. It is difficult to suppose 
that this individual was a fair representative of its species, but rather 
had, unfortunately, a disagreeable, irritable disposition not often met 
with among its relatives. However it is well known that all monkeys 
are jealous, and when aroused by that regrettable passion are capable 
of going to any extreme of violence, and at such times are best left 
to themselves. 



CEBUS 91 

Cebus unicolor Spix. 

Cebus unicolor Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 7, pi. IV ; 

Fisch., Syn. Mamm, 1829, p. 48; Less., Spec. Mamm, 1840, 

p. 155; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 207; V, 

1855, p. 98. 
Cebus gracilis Gray, List Spec. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 12, (nee Spix, 

desc. nulla). 
Cebus (Pseudocebus) unicolor Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 

ArTen, 1862, p. 30, fig. 84. 
Cebus Havescens Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 827, juv. ; 

Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 51 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 217. 

PALE CAPUCHIN. 

Type locality. Ega on the River Tefre, Brazil. Type in Munich 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Forests of the Rio Tefre, Brazil. 

Color. Forehead and sides of head, flanks, limbs and under parts 
of body, pale yellow ; hinder parts of crown and nape, dorsal region, 
and rump, reddish brown ; hands and feet pale reddish brown ; tail and 
hinder part of thighs, rump and about tail, mars brown. Ex type in 
Munich Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 850; tail, 300; foot, 133. Ex type 
Munich Museum. Skull in specimen. 

Spix's type is, as the measurement shows, a rather large monkey for 
a member of the genus Cebus. In general appearance it is a pale yel- 
lowish animal tinged in places with reddish, or reddish brown, and 
with a reddish tail. It is in only a fair degree of preservation, and has 
lost considerable hair on various parts of the body. The open mouth 
of the specimen shows the teeth which are remarkable for the great 
length of the canines. Spix's figure is a fair representation of the 
species but is too red, at least as the specimen is to-day. It may pos- 
sibly have faded. According to Spix the specimen came from the 
forest bordering the River Tefre near the village of Ega. 

The type is, apparently, the only specimen he procured. It does 
not resemble very closely any of the species of Cebus, but perhaps is 
nearer to C. variegatus than any other though much lighter in color. 

Gray's type of C. Havescens is quite immature, probably not more 
than three fourths grown, and it would be a very unsatisfactory repre- 
sentative of a species if distinct from all others, which happily it is DOt 
It is doubtless a young individual of C. unicolor Spix, and therefore 
Gray's name must become a synonym. An example like this without 



92 CEBUS 

a history, its habitat unknown, and lacking even a single character to 
separate it from a species described twenty years before, is a source of 
confusion and perplexity to all investigators who are unable to have 
personal knowledge of it. The practice of giving names to such 
specimens, in which Gray was frequently an offender, is especially 
reprehensible when indulged in with such a genus as Cebus, whose 
members exhibit extreme variation in the colors of their coats, sur- 
passed possibly by no other group of mammals, save, perhaps, the 
squirrels of Mexico. 

The type of C. Havescens is in the British Museum, and may be 
described as follows: crown, nape and dorsal region, pale brownish 
yellow tinged with reddish on lower back ; sides of head, flanks, limbs, 
under parts and tail pale yellow, tinged with reddish on outer side of 
arms, thighs and upper side of tail ; hands and feet reddish brown. 

Cebus unicolor cuscinus Thomas. 

Cebus flavescens cuscinus Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., VII, 7th 
Ser., 1901, p. 179; Festa, Boll. Mus. Torino, 1903, p. 6. 

Type locality. Callanga, Cuzco, Peru. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Closely allied to C. unicolor Spix, but with a large 
brown coronal patch. 

Color. Forehead and cheeks yellowish brown; crown and nape 
dark chestnut ; base of hairs pale brown ; dorsal region mummy brown 
tinged with reddish, brightest and reddest on the rump; outer side of 
arms pale brown; legs reddish; inner side of arms and legs pale 
ochraceous rufous; flanks pale brown; throat and chest yellowish 
white ; rest of under parts pale ochraceous rufous ; tail reddish brown, 
base of hairs nearly white; hands and feet reddish, digits gray. Ex 
type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 730; tail, 390; foot, 250; ear, 35, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 92; occipito-nasal length, 82.4; inter- 
temporal width, 40.5; Hensel, 60.3; zygomatic width, 61.1; width of 
braincase, 50.7; median length of nasals, 15; palatal length, 29.2; 
length of upper molar series, 18.4 ; length of mandible, 57.5 ; length of 
lower molar series, 24.3. Ex type in British Museum. 

This is another species of Cebus described from a single immature 
example, a female, but without some of the objections attached to 
Gray's specimen, for this one has a history and we know the locality 
whence it came. Although it exhibits some difference in color from C. 
unicolor Spix, mindful of the variations existing in their hues among 
all the Capuchin Monkeys, the probability is that eventually it will 



CEBUS 93 

be found to be the same as Spix's species. At present, it can only be 
left under the name Mr. Thomas has given it, trusting that the 
acquisition of more material, and authentic information will enable it 
to take an indisputable place in the genus. 

Cebus flavtjs E. Geoffroy. 

Simla Havia Schreb., Saugth., 1775, pi. XXXI B. (desc. nulla). 

Cebus ftavus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 
p. 112; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 33; Wied, Beitr., 1826, p. 
10; Fisch., Syn. Mamra, 1829, p. 49; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. 
Suppl., I, 1840, p. 207; V, 1855, p. 94; D'Orbign., Voy. Amer. 
Merid., Mamm., IV, 1847, p. 1?; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 
1851, p. 45; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 
fasc. I, 1856, pp. 163, 167; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 
1876, p. 204 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 209. 

Cebus barbatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 
p. 110; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 33; Desm., Mamm., 1820, 
p. 82; Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 48; Less., Spec. Mamm., 
1840, p. 146; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 208; 
V, 1855, p. 87; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 45; Dahlb., 
Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 162, 
166; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 49 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 
p. 197. 

Cebus albus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 
112, (albino) ; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 34. 

Cebus fulvus Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 88; Reichenb., Vollstand. 
Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 30, fig. 83. 

Cebus brissoni Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 155. 

Cebus (Pseudocebus) flavus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 32, pis. VI, figs. 89, 90, VII, fig. 108. 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) barbatus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 35, pi. VI, fig. 101 ; pi. VII, fig. 116. 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) albus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 35, not figured. 

Caiardra branca Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz., II, 1863, p. 100. 

SLENDER CAPUCHIN. 

Type locality, "le Bresil." Geoffroy's type in Paris Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Bolivia, (D'Orbigny). Range unknown. 
Color. Forehead and top of head almost cream color; back of 
head and neck, pale golden brown; dorsal region paler brown, reddish 



94 CEBUS 

on rump, rest of body fulvous or yellowish fulvous, becoming grayish 
on shoulders, flanks, and hinder part of arms and thighs ; limbs yellow, 
the legs strongly tinged with golden ; hands and feet yellowish brown ; 
under parts yellowish gray, but most of the hair gone ; tail reddish burl 
above, at base like rump but paler; beneath sooty gray. Albinistic 
individual. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Skull: Not the type. Occipito-nasal length, 88; 
Hensel, 65 ; zygomatic width, 71 ; intertemporal width, 40 ; median 
length of nasals, 10; length of upper molar series, 21 ; length of 
mandible, 63 ; length of lower molar series, 25. 

The above describes Geoffroy's type as it is to-day, much faded 
in color and soiled with dust. Originally it was probably of a general 
golden yellow color, with a brown head, and tinged with red on rump 
and back. The present gray hues are probably derived from the dust 
that has settled upon the fur. 

The type of C. barbatus Geoff., is also in the Paris Museum and , 
is referable to C. flavus. It is not quite so greatly faded on one side 
of the body, and is of a general yellowish brown hue, the top of the 
head being almost a cream color, and a slight golden shade on occiput 
and neck; the hind limbs are somewhat darker than typical flavus, 
but the differences perceptible after all these years, it has been in the 
Museum since 1812, are only such as the variability of the species and 
the deterioration of the specimen could easily produce. One side of 
the type is paler than the other. The skulls unfortunately are in the 
examples and no opportunity is therefore afforded for ascertaining if 
any cranial differences exist. Mindful of the great variations existing 
among nearly all the species of Cebus, uniting these specimens in one 
species seems to be the proper course to pursue. 

Cebus castaneus I. Geoffroy. 

Cebus castaneus I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 46; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 97; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 
Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 164, 168. 
Cebus apella (nee Linn.), Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 

p. 199. 
Type locality. Cayenne. Type one of two in Paris Museum. 
Genl. Char. Size large, tail very long, black on crown a mere 
stripe, greater part of forehead yellowish white. 

Color. Head yellowish white, triangular small black patch on 
middle of crown, extending as a mere thread to the forehead; above 
ears and nape reddish chestnut; upper parts of body and hind limbs 



CEBUS 95 

reddish chestnut, tips of hairs pale rufous ; dorsal line darker ; shoulders 
and front part of arms above elbows pale yellow, rest of arms to 
middle forearm, outer side, golden yellow, grading into blackish brown 
on lower forearm and wrist, the hairs tipped with yellowish; hands 
blackish ; inner side of arms dark reddish chestnut ; under parts chest- 
nut becoming blackish towards groin ; tail blackish brown, hairs tipped 
with grayish. 

Measurements. Total length about 980 ; tail, 525. Skull in speci- 
men. 

There are two examples of this form in the Paris Museum and 
each one marked "un des types," but the real type, unless one of the 
specimens is it, does not seem to be in the collection. Both examples 
came from Cayenne, one brought by M. Martin in 1819, the other by M. 
Poiteau in 1882. I am not satisfied to consider these as C. apella, 
(capucinus Auct), for besides the peculiar chestnut color of the body, 
and the yellow on shoulders and upper arm, the head lacks entirely 
the black cap of apella and the black lines on side of face meeting 
under the chin. There are no tufts and the hair on head is short. 

Cebus variegatus E. Geoff roy. 

Cebus variegatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. Ill; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm, 1828, p. 9, lOme 
Lecon ; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 83 ; Temm., Mon. Mamm., 
1827, p. XIV; Less., Mamm., 1840, p. 153; I. Geoff., Cat. 
Primates, 1851, p. 48; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 
Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 163, 167; Pucher., Rev. Mag. Zool.. 
1857, p. 343 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 208 : 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 211. 

Simla {Cebus) variegatus Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., 1811, (1815), 
p. 356. 

Cebus xanthosternos Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 35 ; Desm.. 
Mamm., 1820, p. 84; Wied, Beitr., 1826, p. 90; Fisch.. Syn. 
Mamm., 1829, p. 46; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. SuppL, I, 1840. 
p. 209; V, 1855, p. 95. 

Cebus robustus Kuhl, Beitr., 1820, p. 35; Desm., Mamm., 1820, 
p. 80; Wied, Beitr., 1826, p. 90; Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1 
p. 45; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 40: I. Geoff., Cat. Pri- 
mates, 1851, p. 43; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 
Xatur., fasc. I. 1856, pp. 160, 165. 



96 CEBUS 

Cebus monachus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., livr. XIX, 1820, pi. ; 

Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 208 ; Less., Spec. 

Mamm., 1840, p. 151 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 1894, p. 209. 
Cebus xanthocephalus Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 6, 

pi. CXIV; Temm, Mon. Mamm., 1827, p. XIV; Less., Spec. 

Mamm., 1840, p. 149 ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 50. 
Cebus cucullatus Spix, Simiar. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 9, pi. VI ; 

Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 209; Less., Spec. 

Mamm., 1840, p. 142; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 

827; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 

Mus., 1870, p. 52, juv. 
Cebus (Eucebus) robustus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 32, pi. VII, figs. 88, 91. 
Cebus (Eucebus) cucullatus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 39, pi. VII, fig. 93. 
Cebus (Eucebus) variegatus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 56, pi. VI, fig. 92. 
Cebus (Eucebus) monachus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 56, pi. VII, figs. 90, 91. 
Cebus subcristatus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 827 ; Id. 

Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 

1870, p. 52, Juv. 

VARIEGATED CAPUCHIN. 

Type locality. Brazil. Type unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern Brazil from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro, Rio 
Mucuri, (Wied) ; Bahia, (I. Geoff roy) ; forests near Rio de Janeiro, 
(Spix). 

Genl. Char. Hair on top of head short, no tufts ; size moderate, 
face bare. 

Color. Top of head black, the hairs being yellowish with black 
tips ; a line from temples down each side of face meeting under the chin 
dark reddish brown ; patch in front of ears, and sides of head behind 
ears, yellowish white; back of neck and upper parts black; the hairs 
being slate at root, then golden yellow, and tips black. It is the tips 
that give the general color to the upper parts, but the golden yellow 
shows through in spots. Shoulders and arms to elbow yellowish white, 
(this color probably faded from a richer yellow), numerous hairs 
tipped with brownish black ; forearms, hands, hind limbs, feet and tail 
brownish black ; very little hairs remain on under parts, those on the 
chest yellowish white, and those on side of belly with a reddish tinge, 



CEBUS 97 

all that remains of Geoffroy's "ventre roussatre." Ex Geoffroy's speci- 
men in Paris Museum. 

Measurements. About the size of an ordinary Capuchin. Total 
length, 828.2; tail, 393.7; foot, 120.6. Skull, not the type: occipito- 
nasal length, 88; Hensel, 72 ; zygomatic width, 62; intertemporal 
width, 43 ; median length of nasals, 12 ; length of upper molar series, 
21 ; length of mandible, 62 ; length of lower molar series, 25. 

Undoubtedly the delicate yellows of the above described example 
have all faded from their original richer hues, even that on the hairs of 
the back, though protected in a great measure from the light by the 
black tips, having in many places lost the golden hue and become a pale 
yellow. The specimen is a young animal, in ragged pelage, and was 
given to the Museum in March 1810, evidently without any locality 
attached, for the only country associated with it, is the statement 
beneath the stand "II vient sans doute de Bresil." 

What has become of E. Geoffroy's type is not known. 

With specimens of C. variegatus, and type of C. crassiceps 
before me it is effectually demonstrated that Schlegel was wrong in 
making the latter a synonym of the former, (Simiae, p. 209), for they 
are totally dissimilar, having an entirely different style of coloring, and 
crassiceps has prominent tufts on the head. Making all allowance for 
possible variations, which are well known to occur in members of the 
different species of this genus, it is hardly to be conceived that these 
two examples represent the same species; for if they do, we might 
just as well place all these monkeys under one name and give up all 
further attempts to separate them into various distinct forms. 

This is an exceedingly variable species, the specimen described 
being as near the typical style is it seems possible to reach. The types of 
C. subcristatus Gray, and C. capillatus Gray, are in the British Museum 
Collection. They are immature animals without localities, the first 
having been obtained from Cross, a dealer in live animals, and the 
latter from the Zoological Society, both having died in captivity. The 
character given to separate these from other members of the genus 
was chiefly the manner of growth of the hairs on the crown. This at 
the best is but an unsatisfactory and unreliable character, if it may 
be called one in a skin, and hardly sufficient to establish a species. The 
hair on the crown of C. subcristatus is in position and probably exhibits 
it as when the animal was alive, but that of C. capillatus is much 
mussed and it cannot well be determined how it was during the life of 
the animal. The specimens closely resemble each other in color, have 



98 CEBUS 

pale colored arms, and I refer them both to the present species. The 
facts that they are not more than half grown, have died in captivity, 
have no history attached to them, nor any locality known from which 
they came, or whether they may have been born in captivity or not, 
render their value as types of species practically nil. But as far as 
it is possible to determine from the mere coloring of the specimens 
they are referable to C. variegatus. Spix's type of C. xanthocephalus 
in Munich Museum, agrees practically in all respects with C. varie- 
gatus. The type of C. cucullatus Spix, is also in the Munich Museum, 
and while it varies in some respects from typical C. variegatus such as 
the top of the head being brown and not black, and a few other minor 
differences, I do not hesitate to consider it as the same. 

Cebus malitiosus Elliot. 

Cebus malitiosus Elliot, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1909, 
p. 230. 

Cebus capucinus (nee Linn.), Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
N. Y., 1904, p. 467 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., 
Zool. Ser., 1907, p. 561, (Part.). 

Type locality. Vicinity of Bonda, Colombia. Type in American 
Museum of Natural History in New York. 

Genl. Char. Crown blackish brown ; shoulders yellow. 

Color. Male. Top of head, back of neck, entire upper parts, arms 
including elbows, and inner side of forearms and legs mummy brown ; 
tips of hairs paler, in some lights on the body, of a golden hue; the 
crown is somewhat darker than the back ; forehead wood brown ; space 
around eyes naked, flesh color ; end of nose and lips dark brown, the 
lips sparsely covered with short white hairs; face, sides of head, 
shoulders, and arms on outer side nearly to the elbow, straw yellow; 
body beneath, similar to upper parts but paler; basal half of tail above, 
mummy brown, apical half very dark wood brown; ears flesh color, 
covered with straw yellow hairs. 

Measurements. (Skin). Total length, 890; tail, 433; foot, 113. 
Skull : total length, 102.3 ; occipito-nasal length, 98.2 ; Hensel, 77.5 ; 
intertemporal width, 44 ; greatest width of braincase, 54.5 ; zygomatic 
width, 7 ; palatal length, 35 ; median length of nasals, 22.2 ; width of 
orbits, 47; length of molar series, 22.1 ; length of canines, 28.2; length 
of mandible, 6; height of ascending ramus, 34.6; width of alveolar 
border, 39.1 ; length of lower molar series, 37.7. 



CEBUS 99 

Cebus chrysopus F. Cuvier. 

Cebus chrysopus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1825, pi. ; Fisch., 
Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 51; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 
1840, p. 298 ; V, 1855, p. 94 ; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 153 ; 
I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 47; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 
Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 164, 168; Gray, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 827; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 
Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 51; Forbes, Handb. 
Primates, I, 1894, p. 218. 
Cebus (Calyptrocebus) chrysopus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 

Affen, 1862, p. 37, pi. VII, fig. CIX. 
Type locality. Unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. Colombia, (Plee). Type not in Paris Museum. 
Genl. Char. Similar to C. albifrons but smaller and paler. 
Color. Fore part and sides of head in front of ears white, back 
part of crown and occiput mummy brown; dorsal stripe very narrow 
at neck and widening as it goes until it covers all the rump, cinnamon 
red ; shoulders, arms to elbows, and flanks pale yellow, probably faded ; 
upper edge of thighs from hips to knees, legs and feet, forearms and 
hands rather pale ochraceous rufous, outer side of thighs paler ; inner 
side of limbs ochraceous rufous ; chin, throat, sides of neck and under 
parts of body pale yellow; tail above dark brown tinged with red, 
becoming golden towards tip. 

Measurements. Total length, 833.4; tail, 406.4; foot, 126.6. 

The types of F. Cuvier's species are not now in the Paris Museum, 
and it is very doubtful if any number of them ever were placed in 
the collection. They were menagerie specimens almost without excep- 
tion, and without any certain locality, for in those days the exact 
habitat of any animal was little considered; it was enough if the con- 
tinent from whence an example came was known. 

So the type of C. chrysopus is not extant to-day, but there are 
several specimens in the Museum and the above description was 
taken from one of the best preserved, although doubtless the more 
delicate colors of the pelage have faded and lost much of their depth 
of hue. 

It is a much smaller and paler colored animal than C. ALBIFRONS 
and belongs to the group of this genus of monkeys with the front half 
of the head white. Two of the Museum specimens came from Colom- 
bia, brought by M. Plee in 1826. 



100 CEBUS 

Cebus apiculatus Elliot. 

Cebus apiculatus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 1907, 6th 
Ser., p. 292; Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., XXX, 
1911, p. 273. 

Cebus ftavus (nee Geoff.), Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. 
Mus., F. C. M. Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 560, Zool. Ser. 

Cebus fatuellus Allen, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., XX, 1904, p. 
344, (nee Linn.). 

Type locality. La Union, Lower Orinoco. Type in British 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Guayapo, La Union, Lower Orinoco, El Laguall, 
La Bomba, El Hacha, Aroa, (Allen) ; Sciapure and Marino ; Rio 
Caura, and Rio Mocho, a tributary of Upper Rio Caura; Venezuela 

Color. Male. Face flesh color. Black spot on middle of crown 
extending in a narrow line on to the forehead; rest of head grayish 
brown, becoming white on forehead and sides in front of ears ; nape 
reddish brown ; upper parts of body and root of tail, blackish brown ; 
all the hairs of lower half of body tipped with russet, giving this part 
a reddish appearance; arms to wrist on outer and inner sides pale 
yellow, the hairs being blackish brown at base and tipped with pale 
yellow which becomes the dominant color; wrists and hands blackish 
brown ; hairs toward shoulders are pale yellow to the roots, the black- 
ish brown base beginning at the elbows ; legs on outer side pale yellow, 
becoming reddish below the knees, the hairs being blackish brown 
tipped with pale yellow to the knee, and then above tipped with golden ; 
throat yellowish white ; chest yellowish brown ; rest of under parts dark 
brown in the center of the body, the hairs pale yellow at base ; hands 
blackish brown, feet black ; tail above like thighs until near the tip, the 
hairs being black tipped with pale yellow, tip blackish brown, beneath 
blackish brown the entire length. 

Female. From Guayapo, Lower Orinoco. Hair on head much 
longer on top and on sides than on the male, standing out in the shape 
of a semi-crest ; the upper part of the arms is darker, being a yellowish 
brown ; the back is not so conspicuously tipped with yellow, and is more 
red on the rump, as are also the legs ; the black on the crown is broader 
and covers all the back of the head ; the tail is like that of the male ; all 
the under parts are blackish brown, only the roots of the hairs on the 
chest being yellowish white. 

Another female from the same locality is much redder above, the 
hairs tipped with yellow on the sides, and with ferruginous on dorsal 
region and on the thighs ; middle of head from a point on the forehead to 



CEBUS 101 

occiput blackish brown ; back of neck reddish brown like dorsal region ; 
long hairs on forehead and sides of head pale brown; arms reddish 
brown, only a little of the pale yellow so conspicuous on the male 
appearing near the shoulder; forearms, legs, hands and feet, under 
parts and tail, like the male. 

Measurements. Male. Total length, 918; tail, 459. Skull : occip- 
ito-nasal length, 91 ; temporal width, 42 ; palatal length, 32 ; breadth of 
braincase, 52; length of nasals, 19; length of upper molar series, 21; 
length of mandible, 55 ; length of lower molar series, 24. 

Mr. Carriker who obtained this species in Venezuela states: 
"this monkey I found to be by far the most abundant and least 
wary of the three species in all places visited on the Caura and in 
northeastern Venezuela. However they do not, as a rule, ascend to 
any great altitude, preferring the forest along the streams or anywhere 
in the comparatively low country. Almost invariably they will be seen 
in small troops of from a half dozen to twenty, very seldom a pair 
alone. While not as shy as the other species, they are nevertheless far 
from easy to shoot, and must be taken by surprise, or else they rapidly 
make their escape through the high tree-tops. They tame easily and 
make interesting and affectionate pets if not mistreated. 

"Rare in the region of El Hacha and Aroa. They live up on the 
slopes above the valley, descending occasionally to feed on the corn, 
etc., planted on the lower slopes." 

Cebus libidinosus Spix. 

Cebus libidinosus Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 5, pi. II ; 
Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 48; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, 
p. 152; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 86; Gray, 
Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 49, var.? of C. capucinus; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, 
Simise, 1876, p. 201. 
Cebus (Calyptro cebus) libidinosus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 

Affen, 1862, p. 34, pi. VI, figs. 46, 98, 102. 
Type locality. River Carinainha, tributary of the Rio San Fran- 
cisco, Province of Minas Geraes. Type, one of two examples in 
Munich Museum. 

Genl. Char. Hair on head long, upright, probably shows tufts in 
life. 

Color. Top of head and nape, black; a brown stripe on side of 
head in front of ears; temples and space between brown stripe and 
eye, white ; between stripe and ear yellow ; dorsal region dark yellowish 



102 CEBUS 

brown; sides of body and arms to elbows, and front of forearms and 
thighs orange yellow ; front of thighs and legs below knees, inner side 
of forearms, hands and feet black; throat and under parts orange 
yellow ; tail, basal fourth beneath orange yellow, rest above and beneath 
blackish brown. Skull in specimen. Ex type ? Spix, Munich Museum. 
Measurements. Skull, not of type : total length, 88 ; occipito-nasal 
length, 85 ; zygomatic width, 55 ; intertemporal width, 38 ; median 
length of nasals, 1 1 ; length of upper molar series, 18 ; length of 
mandible, 50; length of lower molar series, 23. juv. c f. Leyden Museum 
specimen. 

This is a pale yellow brown monkey with rather long hair on the 
top of the head, which probably could be erected at the will of the 
animal, but which would never exhibit tufts like C. cirrifer or others 
of the tufted group, but probably would exhibit these in a moderate 
degree. There are two specimens in the Munich Museum both marked 
'Type/ and which differ somewhat in color. One, the smaller is 
described above ; the other and larger animal, has the limbs, hands and 
feet brown, more as shown in Spix's figure, although in his description 
he states, speaking of "Les poils," "ceux des mains et des pattes sont 
entierement noirs et tres courts." Whether this difference in color 
is caused by age or sex it is difficult to say, but both examples seem to 
be adult. I have selected the one agreeing with Spix's description, 
though not with his figure, as probably the best representative of the 
species. 

Cebus fatuellus (Linnaeus). 

Simla fatuellus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 42; Bodd., Elench. 

Anim., 1784, p. 62; Schreb., Saugth., I, 1775, p. 118, pi. 

XXVIIB ; Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes et Makis, 1797, Fam. V, 

Sec. Ill, p. 1, pi. I. 
Cebus fatuellus Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 51 ; E. Geoff., 

Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 109; Id. Cours 

Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 8, lOme Lecon; Kuhl, Beitr. 

Zool., 1820, p. 32; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 84; Fisch., Syn. 

Mamm., 1829, p. 45; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 139; 

Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 209 ; V, 1855, p. 

84; Flow., Proc. Zool. Sbc. Lond., 1865, p. 333; Schleg., Mus. 

Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 207; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 

1894, p. 211, (Part). 
Cebus buffoni Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 140. 



CEBUS 103 

Cebus apella (nee Linn.), L Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 42, 
(examples "avec pinceau") ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 
and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 48. 

Cebus (Eucebus) Ustulator Reich enb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 56, pi. VI, fig. 86. 

Cebus {Otocebus) fatuellus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 46, pi. VIII, figs. 124, 128, 129, 135. 

Type locality. Unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. Tolima and Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia, 
at an elevation of from 5,000 to 7,000 feet. Peru? 

Genl. Char. Hair over temples elevated into short horn-like crests 
in adults. 

Color. Forehead, temples, sides of head, face and chin, grayish 
white ; face, flesh color ; top of head and hair tufts and back of neck, 
line inside of face in front of ears meeting beneath the chin, fore- 
arms, legs, hands, feet and tail, black ; arms from shoulders to elbows 
yellowish, near wood brown but paler; upper parts dark Vandyke 
brown, dorsal line reddish chestnut, blackish on rump; hairs on 
under parts yellowish white at base, then reddish, and the apical half 
black. 

Measurements. Skull : occipital part missing ; intertemporal width, 
33 ; palatal length, 30 ; breadth of braincase, 50 ; median length of 
nasals, 13; zygomatic width, 59; length of upper molar series, 21; 
length of mandible, 55 ; length of lower molar series, 26. Vertebrae : 
Cervical, 7 ; Dorsal, 14 ; Lumbar, 5 ; Sacral, 3 ; Caudal, 26. 

The general appearance of this monkey is that of a reddish brown 
animal with yellowish shoulders and upper arms, and a black head 
with two tufts or horns upstanding, one on each side. It is, however, 
subject to great variation, to such an extent at times, that it would 
seem most improbable that the various styles should represent the 
same species. It is practically impossible to work out the synonymy 
of this variable species with any degree of accuracy, since the name 
fatuellus has been given to various Capuchins from numerous locali- 
ties in which the true fatuellus has never been found. It has been 
attributed to the Guianas, but the writer has not seen an authentic 
specimen from that part of South America. Wied, (1. c.) calls the 
Capuchin from the Province of Rio de Janeiro this species, but his 
animal is the C. cirrifer Geoff. The descriptions of the earlier Authors 
are often so brief and unsatisfactory that it is frequently impossible to 
determine what species it is to which they refer, and there is so much 



104 CEBUS 

variation in the color of pelage among individuals of the three species, 
variegatus, fatuellus, and macrocephalus, and in some cases they 
resemble each other so closely, that unless a definite locality accom- 
panies the example, it is impossible to decide to which species it should 
be referred, and definite localities are rarely given by the Authors of 
the earlier part of the nineteenth century. 

Cebus fatuellus peruanus Thomas. 

Cebus fatuellus peruanus Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., VII, 7th 
Ser., 1901, p. 178. 

Type locality. Marcapata, Huoynapata, Inambari Valley, S. E. 
Peru. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Like C. fatuellus, but horns not quite so much 
developed, and the yellow in the arms absent. 

Color. Precisely like C. fatuellus as described, but arms from 
shoulders to elbow same color as back. Black tufts on crown not so 
long. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 79 ; zygomatic width, 
64; intertemporal width, 39; palatal length, 29; breadth of braincase, 
51; median length of nasals, 15; length of upper molar series, 21; 
length of mandible, 53; length of lower molar series, 27. Ex type 
British Museum. 

There are two specimens of this form both immature, and indis- 
tinguishable in color from C. fatuellus, except that the upper part of 
the arms is like the back instead of being yellowish. I attribute this 
to age, or possibly season, and the shorter tufts on head to age or 
possibly sex, as both the specimens are females. The examples may 
probably prove to be the young of C. fatuellus. 

Cebus macrocephalus Spix. 

Cebus macrocephalus Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., 1823, p. 3, 
pi. I; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 208; V, 
1855, p. 96 ; von Pelz., Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1883, Beiheft, 
p. 12; Goldi, Os. Mamm, Bras., 1893, p. 43, (note). 

Cebus robustus Tschud., Faun. Peruan., 1840, pp. 41, 45, (nee 
Kuhl, nee Wied). 

Cebus (Eucebus) macrocephalus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 56, pi. VI, fig. 87. 

Cebus fatuellus Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 211, (Part.). 



CEBUS 105 

LARGE-HEADED CAPUCHIN. 

Type locality. Lake Cactua, near the Rio Solimoens. Type in 
Munich Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Rio Negro west of its mouth, (Brazil) ; Lake 
Cactua, (Spix) ; Rio Negro, (Natterer). 

Color. Top of head, nape and back of neck black ; hair on head 
very thick, with tufts higher on sides than in the middle, but no horns 
nor real crest present ; arms to elbows, entire upper parts of flanks and 
thighs reddish golden brown, darkest in dorsal regions ; forearms and 
legs below knees black, hairs tipped with rusty blackish ; brown band 
in front of ears extending down sides of face and meeting under the 
chin ; entire under parts, and inner side of arms above elbows ochra- 
ceous rufous; hands, feet, inner side of legs, and anal region black; 
tail above at base like back, remainder black, beneath black. 

Measurements. Total length, 860; tail, 420; foot, 120. Skull: 
total length, 99.6; occipito-nasal length, 85.6; intertemporal breadth, 
41.2; width of braincase, 53 ; Hensel, 71 ; zygomatic width, 75 ; median 
length of nasals, 28.8; palatal length, 33.1; length of upper molar 
series, 22.6; length of mandible, 61.5; length of lower molar series, 
26.8. 

This species varies greatly even among specimens from the same 
locality. The type represents the paler style, but the majority of 
examples, perhaps, are very much darker with many black hairs 
mingled with the reddish brown, especially on the dorsal region and 
rump. It is a paler species than C. fatuellus which has more of the 
chestnut color on the upper parts of the body ; and the present form 
has no black on the under parts which is characteristic of the adults of 
C. fatuellus. But there is a great deal of variation in both species 
and it is by no means easy occasionally to refer correctly certain 
specimens to their rightful species. Spix in his description speaks of 
a frontal crest, but his plate shows none, and there is none in the 
strict interpretation of the term, but there is a tuft on each side of the 
head from the forehead, and the center or dividing line of these tufts 
is higher than the hair on top of the head behind. 

Cebus veesuta Elliot. 

Cebus versuta Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., V, 8th Ser., 1910, 

p. 77. 
Type locality. Araguay, Rio Jordao, western part of Minas 
Geraes, Brazil. Type in British Museum. 



106 CEBUS 

Genl. Char. Hair on head very thick, long, depressed in the 
center, and rising on each side in broad ridges extending from forehead 
to occiput, unlike horns or tufts ; size large ; tail long, thick ; hairs of 
body long, loose ; arms above elbows pale ; fingers and toes gray. 

Color. Male. Top of head from forehead to nape extending to 
hind neck, black; temples and cheeks yellowish white; dark brown 
band in front of ear down face to lower jaw, not meeting beneath; 
dorsal region Prout's brown; rest of upper parts and flanks bistre; 
arms above elbows and sides of neck, cream buff; thighs ochraceous 
buff ; forearms and legs below knees black ticketed with reddish, most 
numerous on forearms; throat, chest, under parts to scrotum, inner 
side of arms above elbows, and innermost side of thighs golden yellow ; 
inner side of forearms, outer portion of thighs and legs below knees, 
scrotum and anal region black ; hands and feet black, fingers and toes 
covered with gray hairs ; tail above, three fourths black speckled with 
red, remainder black, beneath brownish black, hairs pale yellow at base 
then brownish black, or towards tip grayish white at base, then black. 

Measurements. Total length, 910; tail, 460: foot, 132; ear, 35, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 94.1; occipito-nasal length, 81.7; 
intertemporal width, 41.6; breadth of braincase, 52.5; Hensel, 63.8; 
zygomatic width, 70.3; palatal length, 32.1; median length of nasals, 
28.1 ; length of upper molar series, 23.5 ; length of mandible, 64.5 ; 
length of lower molar series, 28.3. 

This species belongs to the Azara group as indicated by the gray 
fingers and toes. It is, however, a much darker animal than either C. 
azaile or C. a. pallidus. The patch on the head is more extensive, 
heavier and blacker than that of C. azarje, and of course entirely 
different from that of C. a. pallidus with its two imperfect black 
patches. The black cap of C. azar^e is inclined to lie flat to the head, 
except just in front in most examples, where on each side two low 
ridges can be seen, but some specimens have small tufts over forehead ; 
both styles, however, are quite different from the conspicuous 
ridges of the present species which exhibit the hairs rising close 
together at the forehead, widening as they extend backward until they 
occupy, with the exception of a narrow division in the center, the 
entire occipital portion of the head. The coloring of the two forms, as 
the descriptions show, is quite different. Five specimens were 
procured by Mr. Robert at Araguay, Rio Jordao, western Minas 
Gerses, Brazil, all of which are in the British Museum. 



CEBUS 107 

Cebus azajblm Rengger. 

Cay Azara, Esai Nat. Hist. Parag., II, 1801, p. 182. 
Cebus azara Rengg., Nat. Saugeth. Parag., I, 1830, p. 26; Schleg., 
Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 189; Burm., Desc. Phys. 
Rep. Argent., Ill, 1877, p. 52; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. 
Naturf. Freunde, 1894, p. 57; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 219; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1903, p. 234. 
Cebus elegans I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XXXI, 1850, p. 875 ; Id. 
Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 45 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 
1855, p. 86; Casteln., Exped. Amer. Sud. Zool, I, 1855, p. 9; 
Dahlb, Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur, fasc. I, 1856, 
pp. 160, 161 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, 1855, p. 826 ; von 
Pelz, Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1883, Beiheft, p. 12; Goldi, 
Mamm. Bras, 1893, p. 48, (note). 
Cebus (Otocebus) elegans Reichenb, Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 44, not figured. 
Cebus (Otocebus) azarce Reichenb, Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 48, not figured. 
azara's capuchin. Native name Cay. 
Type locality. Paraguay, Brazil. 

Geogr. Distr. Paraguay northward, west of the Parana to Matto 
Grosso, Brazil; Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, (Burmeister) ? 
probably C. a. pallidus Gray. 

Color. Male. Top of head from forehead to nape and extending 
on to hind neck black, sometimes with a brownish shade ; sides of head 
from the black cap and covering the cheeks cream buff ; a rather indis- 
tinct brown band in front of ears passing under chin ; dorsal region 
pale brown, rest of upper parts cream buff with brown hairs inter- 
mingled; arms iron gray, the hairs being cream buff with a sub- 
terminal black or seal brown band, and this band gives the dark gray 
appearance; sides of neck and flanks cream buff; throat, under parts 
of body, inner side of arms to elbow and outer side of thighs beneath 
bright buff; inner side of forearms, anal region, and inner side of legs 
black; outer side of thighs, cream buff, the hairs with subterminal 
brown rings; outer side of legs below knees black, hairs tipped with 
cream buff; tail rather bushy, basal portion similar to dorsal region, 
remainder black, beneath buffy at base remainder brownish black ; 
hands and feet black, fingers and toes covered with grayish white hairs. 
Measurements. Total length, 865; tail, 430; foot, 120, (Col- 
lector). Skull: total length, 90.6; occipito-nasal length, 80.4; inter- 
temporal width, 40.4; breadth of braincase, 53.6; Hensel, 62.8; zygo- 



108 CEBUS 

matic width, 72.3 ; median length of nasals, 28.3 ; palatal length, 32.3 ; 
length of upper molar series, 23.9 ; length of mandible, 67 ; length of 
lower molar series, 27.5. 

The type of this species was described from Paraguay. Not 
having seen an example from that district of Brazil, the above descrip- 
tion was taken from an individual obtained at Serra da Chapada, 
Matto Grosso, to the north of Paraguay, and on the west of the River 
Parana, and which as far as Rengger's rather insufficient description 
enables us to ascertain, is the same as the Paraguay specimens. It is a 
very variable species and the individual described represents as 
nearly as possible its general appearance. But there are darker and 
paler styles, which, while having' a general resemblance, differ con- 
siderably in their depth of coloring. Thus, in the pale style the cream 
buff predominates over all the body and upper part of limbs, the 
blackish hues not extending above the elbows or knees, while the 
darker form has the entire upper parts sepia with the line in front of 
ears beneath chin darker and more conspicuous. Ten specimens in 
the British Museum from Chapada exhibit these different and striking 
variations, the examples grading from nearly white to sepia. Young 
animals are much paler than the adults. 

The type of C. elegans Geoff roy, in the Paris Museum, may also 
be assigned to this species. It is not so dark on the back, and the 
under parts are paler, but when we consider that the specimen has been 
in the Museum since 1812 exposed to the light for nearly a century, 
no surprise should be felt if it had in places become greatly faded. The 
tail is still brownish black and dark brown at tip and the digits are 
gray. 

Cebus azaile pallidus Gray. 

Cebus pallidus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 826 ; Id. Cat. 
Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, 
p. 49. 

Type locality. Bolivia. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Santa Anna, Peru, into Bolivia. Complete range 
unknown. 

Color. Forehead and temples yellowish white, extending in a 
narrow line on each side into the black cap, not meeting but nearly 
forming two black patches on the head ; top of head and nape black ; 
narrow brown line down sides of head in front of ears to chin ; dorsal 
region between shoulders dark bistre, grading into Prout's brown on 






CEBUS 109 

rump ; rest of upper parts and flanks yellowish brown ; arms to shoul- 
ders, thighs and sides of neck cream buff; throat, entire under parts 
of body, inner side of arms above elbows and thighs, buff, darkest in 
center of body ; forearms and legs below knees black ; hands and feet 
black; fingers and toes covered with grayish white hairs; tail above 
blackish brown to center, then pale brown to tip, sides and beneath 
pale wood brown. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,110; tail, 130; foot, 125. Skull: 
total length, 95.4; occipito-nasal length, 84.4; intertemporal width, 
41.4; breadth of braincase, 56; Hensel, 63.9; zygomatic width, 68.6; 
palatal length, 31 ; median length of nasals, 27.9; length of upper molar 
series, 23.1; length of mandible, 66.8; length of lower molar series, 
26.3. Ex type British Museum. 

Gray's name is misleading, for this race is darker than C. azarce 
generally, and no examples that I have seen are as pale as those to be 
found in Rengger's species. His description also gives no idea of the 
appearance of examples from Peru and Bolivia. The race in color is 
intermediate between C. azaile, and C. versutus from the River Jordao 
in western Minas Geraes. The great peculiarity possessed by this form 
and which distinguishes it at once from the other two, is the extension 
of the white on each side of the head into the black cap, and almost 
forming two black patches, the front one much smaller than the one 
behind. The fingers in most of the specimens are paler than those of 
the two other species, being almost white. The exact range of C. a. 
pallidas is not known, but it was obtained by Kalinowski at Santa Anna 
in Peru and by Bridges in Bolivia. How near it may approach C. 
azartE at Chapada is not known, but it is not improbable that their 
boundaries may overlap at some point between Peru and Matto Grosso. 

Cebus cirrifer E. Geoff roy. 

Cebus cirrifer E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 
p. 110; Id. Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm, 1828, p. 8, lOme Lecon ; 
Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 31 ; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 84; 
Wied, Beitr., 1826, p. 97; Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 45; 
Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 137; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. 
Suppl., I, 1840, p. 209; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 44; 
Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 162, 
166; Flow., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1862, p. 333; Gray, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 826; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 
Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 49. 



110 CEBUS 

Cebus niger E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 
Ill; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 34; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 
84; Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 48; Less., Spec. Mamm., 
1840, p. 145; Pucher., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1857, p. 344; Schleg., 
Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 202; Forbes, Handb. Pri- 
mates, I, 1894, p. 212. 

Simia cirrifera Humb., Rec. Obs. Zool., I, 1811, (1815), p. 256. 

Cebus fatuellus (nee Linn.), Wied, Beitr., 1826, p. 76. 

Cebus cristatus G. Cuv., Reg. Anim., I, 1829, p. 102, note 2. 

Cebus (Otocebus) cristatus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 44, pi. VIII, figs. 126, 127, 130. 

Cebus (Otocebus) cirrifer Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 44, not figured. 

Cebus (Otocebus) niger Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 45, pi. VIII, figs. 131, 133. 

Macaco prego Bates, Nat. Riv. Amaz., I, 1863, p. 323 ; II, p. 101. 

Cebus leucogenys Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 824, pi. 
XLV ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 
Mus., 1870, p. 48. 

Cebus fatuellus (nee Linn.), Hensel, Zool. Gart., I, 1867, p. 372; 
Id. Saugth. Sud Bras., 1872, p. 18. 

TUFTED CAPUCHIN. 

Type locality, "le Bresil." Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Southern Brazil; Sao Paulo (Spix) ; near Ypa- 
nema, (Natterer) ; New Fribourg, between the Rio de Janeiro, and Rio 
Parahyba, (Schlegel) ; north of the Rio de Janeiro, (Wied). 

Genl. Char. Hair on forehead elongated in two tufts; general 
color sombre. 

Color. Face, sides of forehead, cheek and chin yellowish white; 
upper parts black, brownish black or dark mummy brown ; top of head 
to nape, jet black; limbs, hands, feet and tail black or brownish black; 
under parts from yellowish white washed with reddish, to ochraceous 
tipped with brownish black. 

Measurements. Skull : total length, 93 ; occipito-nasal length, 82 ; 
Hensel, 59 ; zygomatic width, 62 ; intertemporal width, 39 ; palatal 
length, 30; breadth of braincase, 52; median length of nasals, 15; 
length of upper molar series, 21; length of mandible, 60; length of 
lower molar series, 25. Vertebrae: Cervical, 7; Dorsal, 14; Lumbar, 
5 ; Sacral, 3. 

The type of this species is in the Paris Museum and has the 
temples, sides of face, and chin yellowish white ; top of head to nape 



CEBUS 111 

brownish black; limbs, hands and feet, very dark mummy brown; 
entire upper parts mummy brown; side of limbs black; chest yellow- 
ish; under parts ochraceous tipped with brownish black; tail black. 
Tufts on head thick, but are flat on the head. 

This is a dark species varying from almost black to a dark mummy 
brown. One of its prominent characters is the long hair on the front 
and sides of the head which stand up more like ridges than tufts, the 
hairs on the center of the head being much shorter thus creating a 
valley between the high sides. The under parts vary also, some being 
quite pale beneath, others a rich ochraceous, and this coloring is appar- 
ently independent of age or sex. 

E. Geoffroy first called this species Simla cirrifer and afterward 
renamed it, supposing his specimen was distinct, Cebus niger, and 
Schlegel and others have adopted the latter name. According, how- 
ever, to the rule that priority is given to the name first cited in a volume 
cirrifer takes precedence by one page, and niger becomes a synonym. 
The type of C. niger unfortunately is not in the Paris Museum, and 
nothing is known about it. 

The type of C. cirrifer is in good condition and less faded than 
many of the other examples. It has also a more reddish tinge, but the 
species is quite variable in its coloring and ranges from mummy brown 
to nearly black on the upper parts. The type was obtained from the 
"Cabinet de Lisbonne" in 1808, and considering its great age is well 
preserved. It bears the statement beneath the stand, "type de l'espece," 
and I have no doubt that it is the specimen originally described. 
The skull is in the specimen. 

Bates says of this species (1. c.) which he calls macaco prego, that 
it is a "most impudent thief ; it destroys more than it eats by its ran- 
dom, hasty way of plucking and breaking the fruits, and when about 
to return to the forest, carries away all it can in its hands or under its 
arms." He also says it is much quieter and better tempered than the 
Caiarara, C. albifrons, and is full of tricks, but these are generally of 
a playful character. 

Cebus crassiceps Pucheran. 

Cebus crassiceps Puch., Rev. Zool., 1857, p. 343. 

Cebus (Eucebus) crassipes ! Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. AfTen. 

1862, p. 47, unfigured. 
■Type locality. Unknown. 
Geogr. Distr. Rio Negro, (Natterer).? Type in Paris Museum. 



112 CEBUS 

Genl. Char. Hair on forehead long, upright in tufts. 

Color. Middle of forehead between eyes, top and back of head 
black, the hairs reddish brown at 'base; sides of forehead over eyes 
and continuing in a narrow line on sides of head to angle of mouth, 
including lower part of cheeks, pale yellow; behind this a blackish 
brown band extends from the top of head passing in front of ears and 
covering whiskers and meeting under the chin ; sides of neck grayish 
brown; a narrow line on back of neck, entire upper parts of 
body, flanks and arms to elbow bright golden brown tinged with red; 
forearms black, hairs tipped with grayish brown; hands brownish 
black; legs dark chestnut red; feet, blackish brown; the ochraceous 
rufous on base of hairs showing on forearms and legs giving them a 
mottled appearance; under parts of body pale yellow, as is also the 
inner side of arms above elbow ; inner side of forearms and legs, black ; 
tail black with a purple gloss, reddish hairs mixed with the black at 
base. Ex type in Paris Museum. 

Measurements. In size equal to C. apella (Linn.). Skull in 
type specimen. 

The unique type of this specimen is unlike any example of Cebus 
I have ever seen. The entire upper part of the body and arms above 
elbows are chestnut red, a distribution of this color no other species 
possesses. It is most closely allied to C. apella, but the hair on the 
head is longer and the specimen is strikingly different in the color of 
the body. I have no other alternative than to consider this example as 
representing a distinct species, for though mindful of the great varia- 
tion existing in the colors of various species of Cebus, there is none 
known to me to which this specimen can be assigned. A specimen 
procured by Natterer on the Rio Negro, in the Vienna Museum, resem- 
bles somewhat the type of C. crassiceps, differing in not having the 
sides of neck grayish brown, this part being reddish, and the base of 
hairs on forearms and legs are black like the rest and not ochraceous 
rufous, and under parts of body are pale yellowish red, not pale 
yellow. Nevertheless it has a general resemblance to C. crassiceps, but 
is not so red. 

Cebus caliginosus Elliot. 

Cebus caliginosus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., V, 1910, 5th Ser., 

p. 78. 
Type locality. St. Catarina, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Type in British 
Museum. 



CEBUS 113 

Genl. Char. Size large; head tufted, tooth rows straight, teeth 
large. 

Color. Face flesh color about eyes and forehead, lips apparently 
brownish; superciliary band extending backwards to temples, yellow- 
ish white ; hairs on upper lip at corner of mouth and on chin, head with 
its tufts, band in front of ears, and body above and below, whitish; 
limbs and tail jet black; hands and feet brownish black; hairs on 
fingers and toes brownish gray. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,095; tail, 560; foot, 135. Skull: 
total length, 99.3 ; occipito-nasal length, 89.2 ; intertemporal width, 40 ; 
width of braincase, 53.5; Hensel, 70.4; zygomatic width, 73.2; median 
length of nasals, 18.2 ; palatal length, 33.5 ; length of upper molar 
series, 24.8; length of mandible, 70; length of lower molar series, 28.5. 

This is a very large monkey received from the Museum at Sao 
Paulo and named robustus. The skull is large, the molar series straight 
and the teeth large, molar series larger than those of C. fatuellus. 
It is of course needless to say it bears no resemblance whatever to C. 
robustus = C. variegatus E. Geoff. 

Cebus vellerosus I. Geoffroy. 

Cebus vellerosus I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 44; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 86; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 
Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 162, 166; Gray, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 826; Id. Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 49; 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 217. 

Cebus (Otocebus) vellerosus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 43, not figured. 

THICK-FURRED CAPUCHIN. 

Type locality. Province of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Type specimen in 
Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Brazil. Range unknown. 

Genl. Char. Tufts on head very large ; hair of body long, loose, 
hanging from side below belly; long white hairs on body; tail long, 
thickly furred. 

Color. Face bare, flesh color?; temples, sides of head, cheeks 
and chin, white or yellowish white, this sometimes extending along 
forehead over eyes ; whiskers black or brownish black, meeting under 
the chin; neck, upper parts and sides of body black with brownish 
tinge or dark reddish brown, interlined with long white hairs; limbfl 



114 



CEBUS 



and tail black; hands and feet black, fingers and toes brownish gray. 
Ex Paris Museum specimen. 

Measurements. Total length about 775 ; tail, 375. No skull. 

Three examples of this species are in the Paris Museum, each one 
marked "un des types," but the real type, or one marked "type de 
l'espece" could not be found. Two of the specimens have a white line 
on forehead, the other has the large heavy tufts springing directly 
above the eyes. It seems to be a distinct form of the tufted species 
characterized by the numerous long white hairs scattered about the fur. 
The specimens vary in color from a rather reddish brown to black 
glossed with brown. Two are marked from Brazil, Province of Sao 
Paulo, but of the third the locality is unknown. 

In the Vienna Museum are two specimens collected by Hofrat 
Wettstein in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which I am inclined to attribute to this 
species. The number of long white hairs varies among the examples, 
one of them having many scattered about the pelage throughout the 
body generally, while the other has not quite so many. 



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VOLUME II. 




PAPIO NIGERI/E. 
No. 7.7.8.12. Brit. Mus. Coll. % Nat. Size. 




Papio nigeri/e. 
No. 7.7.8.12. Brit Mus. Coll. % Nat. Size. 



PAP 10 115 



FAMILY 3. LASIOPYGID/E. 

Subfamily I. Lasiopyginae. 
GENUS 1. PAPIO. BABOONS. 

A* 2— 2» *-" 1—1 > "• 2— 2> "*■• 3—3 3 2 * 

PAPIO Erxl., Syst. Regn. Anim., 1777, p. 15. Type Papio sphynx 

Erxleben, (nee Linn.), = Papio papio Desmarest. 
Pavianus Frisch, Nat.-Syst. vierfuss. Thiere, in Tabellen, p. 19, 

1775, "Der Pavian." 
Cynocephalus Cuv. et Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., Ill, 1795, p. 462, 

(nee Boddaert, 1768, Insect.). 
Mandrillus Ritzen, Nat. Eintheil. Saugth., 1824, p. 33. (Tafel). 
Mandril Voigt, Cuvier's Thierreich, I, 1831, p. 88. 
Mormon Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1839, p. 164. 
Hamadryas Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 107, (nee Hubner, 1806 

Lepidopt.). 
Sphinx Gray, List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 6. 
Choir opithecus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862 ; p. 151. 
Drill Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 160. 
Cheer opithecus Blainv., Legons Orales, 1839, les Cynocephales. 

Size large, face dog-like ; muzzle elongate, end truncate, in which 
the nostrils are placed ; body massive ; tail of varied lengths ; arms and 
legs nearly equal, and the species walk on their hands and feet ; eyes 
directed downward ; neck elongate ; thumb prominent, reaching to the 
middle of the first joint of forefinger; cheek pouches present; ischiatic 
bones with large callosities, and in the mating season, in some species, 
these last are enormously enlarged and extend to the tail. Skin of face 
sometimes exhibiting brilliant colors. Skull : braincase flattened ; on 
the rostrum of adult males, in some species, are developed longitudinal 
osseous ridges. 

The members of the genus Papio, on account of the lengthened 
facial region of their skulls are called Dog-faced Baboons. Usually 
their bodies are massive, and the adult animal is possessed of great 
strength. The mode of progression is by walking or running on their 



116 



PAPIO 



hands and feet, and as their eyes are directed downward they are 
obliged to lift the overhanging eyebrows when they wish to look 
upward. The feet are long, and the palms of the hands and soles of 
the feet are laid flat upon the ground. They are considered the lowest 
of the Catarrhine, (with nostrils pointed downward), or Old World 
Monkeys, and as they are generally of large size they are dangerous 
animals when adult, possessing savage and ugly dispositions. They are 
gregarious and frequently go in large herds, in some instances of a 
hundred individuals, and their combined numbers render them for- 
midable antagonists when disturbed. The canines are very long and 
pointed, and with them they are capable of inflicting very severe 
wounds. They utter various sounds, which may be termed barks, 
grunts, or screams, sometimes subdued low murmurs, and these in their 
various inflections are instantly comprehended by the other members 
of the herd, and acted upon at once, whether it may be for flight, 
pillage or combat. When engaged in any operation considered danger- 
ous, a sentinel is always posted in some favorable place to give warning 
of a foe's approach, and enable the depredators to escape. There is 
much difference in size among the species, and the tails vary con- 
siderably in length, and are never prehensile. They are carried with a 
curve at the basal end and away from the body, the remaining portion 
hanging straight down. All the species possess callosities, or fleshy 
pads on the buttocks, and sometimes these are of large size and 
brilliantly colored, the hues usually intensified, especially those of the 
females, at particular periods. At such times the callosities of a female 
may increase to such a size as to cover nearly all the hinder parts, and 
when in this turgid condition, the colors are usually exceedingly vivid. 
In some species, on the rostrum, are developed several bony ridges 
which rise nearly to the level of the eyes, most conspicuous in the 
males, and the skin on these is brightly colored, thus adding consider- 
ably to the ugliness of the unattractive countenance. Usually the 
habitats of these animals are rocky places, such as ravines or hills 
where grass and trees are scarce. Rocky promontories, or hills where 
a wide sweep of surrounding plains is afforded, are favorite places, for 
these baboons are always on the watch, either for an opportunity to 
commit some depredation on a native's garden or field, or to escape 
from an approaching danger. Some species, however, live in dense 
forests, and climb even lofty trees readily. But as a rule they are 
dwellers in the open country where their view over the land is 
extensive. The baboon is almost omnivorous, but the principal food 
consists of fruits, bulbous roots, reptiles and insects, and to procure 



* * 



PAP 10 117 

these last they are continually searching, and turning over stones 
beneath which the desired object may lie concealed. 

The Baboons may be divided into four groups, the dark and light 
colored ; the former containing P. porcarius, P. doguera, P. sphinx, 
and their allies, and for the light hued group, P. cynocephalus, P. 
strepitus, etc. Besides the brownish black and yellow species above 
mentioned, there is the gray style represented by P. pruinosus, and 
the maned baboons such as P. hamadryas ; for while other species 
in all the different groups have long hairs on the back, yet in com- 
parison with the hamadryas group this can hardly be correctly styled a 
mane. In general the recognized species have an ascertained and 
authentic locality accompanying the original descriptions, but some 
have been menagerie specimens, or dwellers in Zoological Gardens, and 
their original habitat is unknown. In some cases these examples have 
given rise to much confusion and doubt among Mammalogists, as it is 
not easy to determine them from descriptions, the coloring being so 
confused and difficult to indicate clearly ; and without any geographical 
distribution of the species, or the type locality being known to guide 
one correctly, many mistakes have been made. In this genus a 
prominent instance of this is found in P. anubis F. Cuvier. This 
Author states he saw two specimens, but he does not say where, nor if 
they were living or dead. His description is only partial, the chief 
important statement being that the general pelage is "verdatre fonce," 
and he gives an excellent plate of a green baboon, the like of which is 
not found in any collection to-day. On my visit to the Paris Museum, 
diligent search was made for this type specimen, but it could not be 
found, and there is no proof that it was ever in the National Collection. 

Here then we have a description and figure of a baboon unlike any 
known to exist, without locality, and the type lost. There is no possible 
way conceivable by which this species can be identified, and to prevent 
further confusion and useless discussion it seems best to drop the name 
anubis from the genus Papio, and ignore it in the future. As a general 
thing, those examples which are received without authentic habitats, 
being chiefly individuals from Zoological Gardens, constitute the most 
unsatisfactory types for new species, and such a type in some cases is 
worse than none at all. Anubis is a case in point, and it would have been 
much better if Cuvier had never described nor figured it. Anderson in 
his Zoology of Egypt describes a baboon from the Nile valley which he 
calls P. anubis, but it answers neither to the description nor plate of 
Cuvier. Anderson's P. anubis is probably P. cynocephalus, but as he 



118 PAPIO 

does not state where his specimen came from except in a general way, 
it is impossible to identify it with certainty, but since he unites several 
species under P. anubis he may have given a general description with- 
out limiting himself to any one individual, and this seems to have been 
the fact and that P. cynocephalus and P. doguera were mixed 
together. The figure of P. anubis on his plate apparently represents 

P. DOGUERA. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

1758. Linnaeus, Sy sterna Nature?. 

Simia sphynx, the Mandrill, and S. hamadryas, described. 

1766. Linnceus, Sy sterna Naturce. 

Among the species of Simia here given, the following belong 
to Papio: (S.) sphinx; (S.) maimon — (S.) sphinx; (S.) 
hamadryas; and (S.) cynocephalus first described. 
The descriptions of all these species are brief and unsatis- 
factory, and in some instances really give no idea of the animal. 

1777. Erxleben, Sy sterna Regni Animalis. 

In the genus Papio, this Author places the following species: 
P. sphinx (nee Linn.), = P. papio (Desm.) ; and P. maimon 
= P. sphinx (Linn.) ; P. nemestrina; and P. apeda does not 
belong to the genus. In the genus Cercopithecus, (Lasiopyga), 
however, two species of Papio are found, P. hamadryas and 

P. CYNOCEPHALUS. 

1782. Brunnich, in Dyrenes Histoire udi Universitetes Natur-Theatre. 

Papio porcarius first described as Simia porcarius. 
1788. Gmelin, Sy sterna Naturce. 

The species of Papio given by Erxleben are here repeated and 

placed in Simia. No new ones added. 
1792. Kerr, Animal Kingdom. 

Papio sphinx (Linn.), renamed Simia suilla, and Papio 

hamadryas, Cercopithecus hamadryas ursinus. 
1797. Audebert, Histoire Naturelle des Singes et des Makis. 

Under Simia three forms are given : Papio sphinx, and var. A. 

and B. These all = P. papio (Desm.). 
1804. Hermann, Observationes Zoologies. 

Papio porcarius redescribed as Simia sphingiola. 
1812. E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire 

Naturelle, Paris. 

Seven species of Papio are given, divided into two groups A. 



rmmi m ■^mm^m^ ^ r ^^f x M 



PAPIO 119 

and B. The first is characterized as follows : A. Os maxillaires 
a contours arrondis; le museau triangulaire ; A. F. 35°: queue 
plus longue que le corps, and contains P. cynocephalus. B. 
Os maxillaires au dessus et formes de deux plans verticaux; 
museau carre, long; A. F. 30° : queue moins longue que le corps 
ou plus petite, with these species: P. porcarius; P. sphinx 
(nee Linn.), = P. papio (Desm.) ; P. hamadryas; P. comatus 
= P. porcarius; and P. maimon = P. sphinx (Linn.). 

1818. F. Cuvier, in Memoires du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 
P. cynocephalus redescribed as Cynocephalus babuin. 

1820. Kuhl, Beitrage zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomic 

Under Papio are given the following species : P. silenus = P. 
albibarbatus Kerr, which is a Pithecus; P. cynocephalus; 
P. sphinx (nee Linn.), = P. papio (Desm.) ; P. comatus = P. 
porcarius; P. porcarius; P. hamadryas; and P. mormon 
Geoff., = P. sphinx (Linn.). Under Inuus is placed P. leu- 
coph^eus (F. Cuv.). 

1820. Desmarest, Mammalogie ou Descriptions des Especes de 
Mammiferes. 

The species of Papio are placed by this Author in the genus 
Cynocephalus, divided into two sections. Ier. Sous-genre 
Babouins. Une queue plus longue ou a peu pres aussi longue 
que le corps. (C.) cynocephalus; (C.) papio (sphinx Auct. 
nee Linn.); (C.) porcarius; (C.) hamadryas. lime. Sous- 
genre. Mandrill. Une queue tres courte et grele, perpen- 
diculaire a Vepine dorsale. (C.) mormon (Linn.), = S. 
sphinx Linn.; and C. leucoph^eus (F. Cuv.). 

1825. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 

Papio anubis described as Cynocephalus anubis, without 
locality. Species undeterminable. Type lost, locality unknown. 

1828. L. Agassiz, in I sis. 

Papio hamadryas redescribed as Cynocephalus wagleri. 

1829. /. B. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

Among the species included in Simia are the following belong- 
ing to Papio: (S.) cynocephalus; (S.) anubis, undetermin- 
able; (S.) sphinx = P. papio (Desm.) ; (S.) porcarius; (S.) 
sphingiola Herm., = P. porcarius Brunn. ; (S.) hamadryas; 
(S.) maimon = P. sphinx (Linn.) ; (S.) leucofh^a. 

1830. /. B. Fischer, Addenda, Emendanda et Index ad Synopsis 
Mammalium. 

The list given in 1829, is here repeated without additions. 



120 



PAPIO 



1840. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
Under the genus Cynocephalus seven species are placed, six of 
which belong to Papio: (C) hamadryas; (C.) babuin = P. 
cynocephalus; (C.) sphinx = P. papio (Desm.) ; (C) 
ursinus = P. porcarius; (C.) mormon — P. sphinx (Linn.) ; 
and (C.) leucoph^eus. (C.) gelada belongs to the genus 
Theropithecus. 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 

The genus Cynocephalus in this work has two subgenera: the 
1st. Cynopithecus with two species C. niger, and C. speciosus 
= Pithecus fuscatus. The 2nd subgenus is Papio divided 
into three Tribes : Les Gelades, with one species Papio gelada 
= Theropithecus gelada. 2nd. Les vrais Papions ou sphynx, 
with two species; Papio babuin = P. cynocephalus, and P. 
sphinx (nee Linn.), = P. papio (Desm.). 3rd. Tartarins, 
Hamadryas. Singes a criniere, with two genera and one sub- 
genus. The first is Hamadryas cheer o pithecus = Papio hama- 
dryas ; and second, the subgenus Mormon, Mandrill, with two 
species Mormon maimon — Papio sphinx (Linn.) ; and 
Mormon drill = Papio leucophjeus (F. Cuv.). Altogether 
it is about as confusing and inaccurate an arrangement as could 
be devised. 

1843. Ogilby, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

Papio cynocephalus redescribed as Cynocephalus thoth, and 
Papio sphynx == P. papio (Desm.), redescribed as Cynocephalus 
choras. 

1843. /. E. Gray, List of Specimens of Mammalia in the Collection of 
the British Museum. 

In this list six species of Papio are recorded under Cyno- 
cephalus, viz.: {Cynocephalus) hamadryas = P. hamadryas; 
{Cynocephalus) porcarius; {Cynocephalus) babuin = P. 
cynocephalus; {Cynocephalus) sphinx = P. papio (Desm.) ; 
Papio maimon = P. sphinx (Linn.) ; and Papio leucoph^ea. 

1844. H. R. Schinz, Systematisches Verzeichniss alter bis jetzt 
bekannten Sdugethiere oder Synopsis Mammalium nach dem 
Cuvier 'schen System. 

Papio porcarius renamed Cynocephalus ursinus. 



r^ftk. 



_ 



PAPIO 121 

1848. /. Geoifroy St. Hilaire, in Annales du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 
Papio papio redescribed as Cynocephalus olivaceus. 

1851. /. Geoifroy Saint-Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

In his Catalogue of the specimens of Primates in the Paris 
Museum under the genus Cynocephalus, the following species 
of Papio are recorded: (C) hamadryas; (C.) sphinx = P. 
papio (Desm.) ; (C.) olivaceus = P. papio; (C.) babuin = P. 
cynocephalus; (C.) porcarius; (C.) leucoph^eus; and (C.) 
mormon = P. sphinx (Linn.). 

1852. W. H. C. Peters, Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossam- 
bique. 

A young baboon, probably P. cynocephalus described as 
Cercopithecus ochraceus. 

1853. C. J. Temminck, Esquisses Zoologiques sur la Cote de Guinee. 
P. sphinx (Auct. nee Linn.), = P. papio (Desm.), redescribed 
as Papio rubescens. 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
In the genus Cynocephalus the following species of Papio are 
included: (C.) hamadryas; (C.) babuin = P. cynocephalus; 
(C.) anubis undeterminable, but is made var. B. of (C.) babuin 
= P. cynocephalus; (C) sphinx = P. papio (Desm.) ; (C.) 
ursinus = P. porcarius; (C.) mormon = P. sphinx (Linn.) ; 
(C.) leucoph^us; and (C) thoth Ogilby, is considered the 
same as anubis, which is an error as this animal is a yellowish 
baboon, not grown, and equals P. cynocephalus; while P. 
anubis is described as a dark green baboon, 'verdatre fonce,' 
quite unlike P. thoth, or any other known species. 

1862. Reichenbach, Die Vollstdndigste Naturgeschichte der Aifen. 

The genus Papio in this work contains the following: P. sphinx 
(nee Linn.), = P. papio (Desm.) ; P. babuin = P. cynoceph- 
alus; P. anubis undeterminable; P. doguera; P. olivaceus 
= P. papio; and subgenera A. Cheiropithecus, with P. por- 
carius; and B. Cynocephalus, with P. hamadryas; and P. 
moco, undeterminable; and C. Theropithecus, recognized in 
this Review as an independent genus with P. gelada and P. 
senex — T. gelada; and P. obscurus. Mormon, with M. 
maimon = P. sphinx (Linn.); and P. LEUCOPHiEUS ; and 
Cynopithecus, a distinct genus of the Black Apes of Celebes. 



122 PAPIO 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 
In this publication the Author places the members of Papio in 
Tribe Cynocephalina, and divides the species into four genera : 
Hamadryas with H. agyptiaca = Papio hamadryas as its sole 
species; Cynocephalus with five species: C. porcarius; C. 
anubis undeterminable; C. thoth = P. cynocephalus; and C. 
babuin = P. cynocephalus. Cheer opithecus, with C. leuco- 
ph^us; and Mormon, with M. maimon — P. sphinx (Linn.), 
and P. doguera Pucheran. P. cynocephalus (Linn, et 
Auct.), did not seem to have been known to Dr. Gray. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bas, Simice. 

In this work are recorded the examples of Papio contained in 
the Museum of Natural History at Ley den, Holland, under 
the species recognized by the Author, nine in number. They 
are P. porcarius; P. anubis undeterminable; P. doguera; P. 
sphinx = P. papio (Desm.) ; P. cynocephalus; P. rub esc ens 
= P. papio (Desm.) ; P. hamadryas; P. maimon = P. sphinx 
(Linn.), and P. leucophjeus. In his text p. 129, the Author 
suggests that C. thoth Ogilby, may be the same as P. hama- 
dryas, as he considers that the one figured by Fraser, Zool. 
Typica, under that name undoubtedly is that species. But C. 
thoth Ogilby, is the same as S. cynocephalus Linn., and in no 
way resembles P. hamadryas. 

1892. Matschie, in Sit zungsb eric hte der Gesellschaft Naturfor- 
schender Freunde zu Berlin. 

Papio cynocephalus redescribed as Cynocephalus langeldi. 

1893. O. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Papio ibeanus described as Papio thoth ibeanus. 

1896. O. Thomas, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 
Papio pruinosus first described. 

1898. Matschie, in Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturfor- 
schender Freunde zu Berlin. 

Papio anubis? neumanni, Papio heuglini and Papio yoko- 
ensis first described. 

1899. O. Thomas, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 

Papio hamadryas arabicus first described. 
1902. Hon. W. Rothschild, in Novitate Zoologies. 

A female example of Papio, is named P. lydekkeri, but beyond 



PAP 10 123 

"hairs unicolor" no description is given, and the name is a 
nomen nudum. 

1902. /. Anderson, Zoology of Egyptian Mammalia. 

In this work Papio has P. hamadryas ; P. anubis (desc. no 
plate), undeterminable, and P. pruinosus. By recognizing only 
these species of baboons the following arrangement is effected : 
P. a. neumanni Matschie, and P. heuglini Matschie, and 
Cynocephala doguera Pucheran, are made synonyms of P. 
anubis ! P. babuin Cuv., and P. thoth Ogilby, and P. t. ibeanus 
Thos., become synonyms of P. cynocephalus ! As P. anubis 
Cuv., is quite undeterminable, no example of a baboon like his 
description and plate being known, it is probable that Anderson 
mistook a specimen of P. cynocephalus for anubis, therefore 
all his Papio would belong to that species, according to his 
views as above given. 

1907. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Papio strepitus, and Papio furax first described. 

1909. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Papio tessellatum, P. nigerle, and P. brockmani first 
described. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

The middle portion of the African Continent between the great 
lakes and the Atlantic Ocean, is not yet sufficiently well known for us 
to indicate what species of Papio may be found in it, or to specify 
what may be the ranges within its boundaries of the described species 
which may penetrate within its limits. East Africa contains the 
greatest number of the known species of Papio, and beginning in the 
northern part we find that P. cynocephalus ranges from Nubia, 
through the Soudan, its exact southern limit not yet ascertained. In 
the country between the Atbara River and the Bahr el Abiad, an 
allied form P. heuglini is found. In Abyssinia P. doguera and P. 
hamadryas occur, and at Derra Dowa near the boundary of Somali- 
land, P. brockmani has been obtained. At Lamu, at the mouth of 
the Tana River, P. ibeanus was procured. At Donga Ngai, Masai- 
land, P. neumanni was taken, and west of the Victoria Nyanza at 
Mulema, Ankole, P. tessellatum was found. North west of Mt. 
Kenia at Baringo, P. furax occurs ; and in Nyassaland at Lesumbwe, 
on Livingstone's Peninsula, Lake Nyassa, P. pruinosus was procured ; 
and at Fort Johnston on the north of the same lake, P. strepitus was 



124 



PAPIO 



met with. In West Africa, in Northern Nigeria towards Lake Chad, 
P. Nigeria is found, and on the coast from Senegal to. Guinea, P. 
papio ranges. From Senegambia to the Congo P. sphinx occurs. 
Three species inhabit Cameroon : P. leucoph^us in the northern por- 
tion, P. yokoensis in the central part, and P. planirostris in the 
southwestern portion. In South Africa from the River Limpopo to 
the Cape, P. porcarius occurs. The last form, a race of P. hama- 
dryas, P. h. arabicus is found in Arabia northwest of Aden. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. General color dark. 

a. Nose not extending beyond lips. 

a.' Hands and feet black. 

a." Hairs purplish black with two bands 

of cream buff P. nigerice. 

b" Hairs black banded with raw sienna P. doguera. 

b! Hands black and tawny; feet black P. tessellation. 

c! Hands black, feet black and buff. 

a" Hairs seal brown, subterminal band 

buff P. furax. 

b." Hairs purplish brown banded with 

buff and black P. yokoensis. 

c." Hairs black, subterminal band tawny 

ochraceous or cream buff P. heuglini. 

d! Hands and feet ochraceous buff and black. 

a" General color red P. papio. 

b" General color dull greenish white P. ibeanus. 

b. Nose extending beyond lips P. porcarius. 

B. General color yellowish. 

a.' Hands and feet ochraceous P. cynocephalus. 

b! Hands and feet blackish brown P. neumanni. 

c! Hands ochraceous buff and black, feet 

ochraceous P. strepitus. 

d! Hands blackish, feet seal brown and 

grayish white P. pruinosus. 

C. General color grayish brown or reddish brown. 

a. Mantle covering shoulders and fore part of 
body. 
a! Size large. 



ri»i ■ 



"U_ 



^1M 



PAP 10 125 

a" Mantle grayish brown; tooth rows 

curved P. hamadryas. 

b" Mantle pale reddish brown, tips of 
hairs silvery white; tooth rows 

straight P. brockmani. 

b! Size small P. h. arabicus. 

b. Without mantle. 

a.' Rostrum longer than braincase P. planirostris. 

b! Rostrum equal to, or shorter than brain- 
case. 

a." Face brightly colored P. sphinx. 

b." Face black P. leucophceus. 

Subgenus Chaeropithecus. 

Size generally large; colors dark; mane absent; tail not tufted. 

PAPIO NIGERIA Elliot. 

Papio nigerice Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Scr., 1909, 
p. 247. 

NIGERIA BABOON. 

Type locality. Ibi, North Nigeria, Western Africa. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. General color mottled black and cream color; size 
large ; skull, compared with that of P. heuglini from the Soudan, has 
the ridges on sides of rostrum less elevated; rostrum much narrower, 
being 39.2 to 46.2; septum between orbits much narrower, 13 to 15.3; 
lateral pits not as deep ; palate narrower ; teeth much smaller, and the 
length of molar series shorter by nearly half the length of the posterior 
molar of P. heuglini. 

Color. General color of top of head, and upper parts and sides 
to rump, mixed black and cream color, the latter most prominent, the 
hairs being purplish brown, with two bands of cream color and black 
tip. The purple under color shows through the cream and black 
producing a gray shade; hairs of rump and lower back have bands 
of ochraceous giving this part a reddish hue ; face and chin naked, 
black ; throat grayish, chest similar to back ; abdomen like rump, bands 
ochraceous : arms similar to back to below elbows, when the black 
predominates to the wrists and hands, which are almost entirely black; 
legs redder, being tawny on thighs growing lighter to the ankles which 
are buff yellow; feet black; tail cream color and olive mixed, the 



126 



PAPIO 



former color predominating. Callosities large, color lost in skin. Ex 
type British Museum. 

Measurements. Size equal to P. porcarius or P. doguera. Skull : 
occipito-nasal length, 181; Hensel, 153; zygomatic width, 133; inter- 
temporal width, 60.9; palatal length, 97.5; width of braincase, 86.4; 
median length of nasals, 81.1 ; length of upper molar series, 53.9 ; length 
of mandible, 168; length of lower molar series, 71.1. Ex type British 
Museum. 

This is a very large, dark baboon, the pelage exhibiting a mixture 
of cream color and black with purple under color showing, and grading 
into the tawny hue of lower back and legs. The skull shows the most 
trenchant characters and is markedly different from its probably 
nearest ally, in its smaller teeth and shorter tooth row. Two speci- 
mens are in the British Museum Collection. 

Papio doguera (Pucheran et Schimpfer). 

Cynocephalus doguera Puch. et Schimp., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1856, 
p. 96; 1857, p. 250; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 
p. 262; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt. I, 1881, p. 
81; Id. Zool. Egypt., Mamm., 1902, p. 41, pi. VII, (skull). 

Cynocephalus babouin Rupp., Neue Wirbelth. Saugth., I, 1835, 
p. 7, (Part.). 

Papio doguera Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 150; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 126; Forbes, Handb. 
Primates, I, 1894, p. 262 ; Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat., II, 7me 
Ser., 1896, p. 236; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., 
F. C. M. Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 566, Zool. Ser. 

Cynocephalus porcarius Fitz. und Heugl., Syst. Uebers., 1866, p. 6 ; 
Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 
Mus., 1870, p. 64, (nee Bodd.). 

DOGUERA BABOON. 

Type locality. Abyssinia. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Interior of Abyssinia, Kavirondo, Lakes Natron 
and Mangara, (Neumann) ; Takale and Schillouek, (Heuglin). 

Color. Face black; hairs of upper parts and limbs black banded 
with ochraceous buff, the general appearance however is ochraceous 
buff with broad bands of black, just the opposite to the real coloring 
of the hairs, but they overlap each other in such a manner as to pro- 
duce the effect described; wrists and hands black; feet mixed black 
and tawny ochraceous ; under parts black, hairs ringed with buff on the 
chest, and inner side of limbs and arms above elbows; ochraceous on 



: «■ 



a ?^ai 



PAPIO 127 

the abdomen and inner side of legs ; tail at base black like back, hairs 
ringed with buff, remainder ochraceous and black. Ex type Paris 
Museum. 

Measurements. Type. Total length, 1,678.40; tail, 609.60; foot, 
215.20. Skull in specimen. 

Papio tessellatum Elliot. 

Papio tessellatum Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 
1909, p. 247. 

Type locality. Mulema, Ankole, Uganda, Africa. Type in British 
Museum. 

Color. Hairs throughout on head, neck and body seal brown, 
with a broad subterminal band of a darkish cream color, and tips black. 
This gives a checkered appearance to the animal, as on the surface 
the cream color and black only appear. Arms mostly dark cream 
color, the black tips of the hairs forming distinct lines on the upper 
and lower side; wrists black, as are the hands, with a small patch 
of tawny on the backs; legs dark cream color mixed with black, the 
latter seen mostly on the lower inner side; feet black; tail cream 
color, the hairs being seal brown on basal half, remainder cream 
color to tip ; upper part of throat, and sides of the head grayish white ; 
face black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,400; tail to end of hair, 500; foot, 
210. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 170 ; Hensel, 158.1 ; zygomatic width, 
131.1; intertemporal width, 60.9; palatal length, 94; median length of 
nasals, 80; width of braincase, 85.6; length of upper molar series, 58.3 ; 
length of upper canines, 43.1 ; length of mandible, 150; length of lower 
molar series, 66. Ex type British Museum. 

Two specimens of what I consider the same species, the type 
and a young animal from Rogoro, are in the British Museum Collec- 
tion. The type is a very large animal, and the rather unusual distribu- 
tion of colors serves to make it very conspicuous when placed with 
other species of the genus. The type was procured by Col. G. Delme- 
Radcliffe, and the Rogoro example by C. S. Belton, Esq. The facial 
region equals in length that of the braincase, the rostrum is broad, and 
the nasals are rounded and raised above the plane of the rostrum; 
lateral pits large and deep posteriorly ; a small process on the frontal 
ridge over each orbit near end of nasals, curving downward and 
inward, and pointed ; teeth large ; upper canines very long and sharply 
pointed. 



128 



PAPIO 



Papio furax Elliot. 

Papio furax Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 7th Ser., 1907, 
p. 499. 

Type locality. Baringo, north west of Mt. Kenia, East Africa. 
Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to P. doguera from Abyssinia, but darker, 
and cranial characters different. The rostrum is shorter, broader and 
flatter, and the nasals do not rise above the plane of the rostrum, and 
are flat, not rounded; palate flatter; the distance from last molar to 
palatal arch is much greater; width of braincase and intertemporal 
width are much less; zygomatic width less, and the pit on side of jaw, 
broader, shorter, and not so deep. 

Color. General hue seal brown, the hairs banded with buff, 
becoming ochraceous buff on the rump; the black tips of the hairs 
forming bands of black over the ochraceous buff; limbs black and 
cream color, the hairs being banded with those hues, and having black 
tips; chest black and cream color, abdomen black, hairs banded with 
ochraceous buff; hands mixed black and ochraceous buff; feet black, 
with base of hairs buff ; tail mixed black and whitish yellow. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Size about the same as P. doguera. Skull : total 
length, 196 ; occipito-nasal length, 166 ; Hensel, 141 ; intertemporal 
width, 56 ; zygomatic width, 122 ; palatal length, 93 ; breadth of brain- 
case, 82; median length of nasals, 77) length of upper molar series, 
48 ; length of mandible, 145 ; length of lower molar series, 65. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Compared with Abyssinian specimens of P. doguera this is a much 
darker animal, the bands are paler and more yellow; doguera being 
more ochraceous, and showing less of the black. The general tone of 
the Baringo specimen inclines to a grayish brown, and the Abyssinian 
to ochraceous buff. 

Papio yokoensis Matschie. 

Papio yokoensis Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freund., Ber- 
lin, 1900, p. 89. 

Type locality. Yoko, Middle Cameroon, West Africa. Type in 
Berlin Museum. 

Color. Top of head, shoulders, arms to elbows, and upper part 
of back, the base of hairs purplish brown, then banded with black and 
buff; middle of back, rump and flanks, the hairs brownish black at 
base banded with ochraceous to tips ; forearms and hands banded with 



#• 



PAPIO 129 

black and buff; sides of head purplish gray, tips buff; chest hairs 
purplish gray at base banded with buff and black; hairs on abdomen 
banded with black and ochraceous; thighs, legs and feet with hairs 
banded with black and ochraceous buff ; hairs of tail buff banded with 
black. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Length of head and body, 990 ; tail, 700. Skull : 
total length, 215; occipito-nasal length, 152; intertemporal width, 60; 
nasals lacking; length of upper canines, 46.5; length of upper molar 
series, 57 ; length of mandible, 165 ; length of lower molar series, 77. 
Ex type Berlin Museum. 

This form in general appearance is yellowish brown with a red 
tinge on rump, flanks, and hinder part of legs. 

Papio heuglini Matschie. 

Papio heuglini Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. Nat. Freund., Berlin, 
1898, pp. 77, 81 ; Anders., Zool. Egypt., Mamm, 1902, pp. 
38-42, pi. V, (skull of type). 

HEU GUN'S BABOON. 

Type locality. Bahr el Azrek, Soudan, Africa. Type in Hamburg 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Country bounded by the Bahr el Abied, Bahr el 
Azrek, and Atbara, Soudan. 

Genl. Char. Paler than P. doguera ; the sides of the body very 
like the P. cynocephalus style. 

Color. Upper parts tawny ochraceous, darkest on dorsal line 
grading to the sides into a cream color. The hairs are black with a 
subterminal broad bar of tawny ochraceous or cream buff, with inter- 
vening shades. Not much black is shown on the upper parts, the 
general color being as stated above. Arms above elbows ochraceous 
buff ; forearms and hands black ; outer side of legs similar to arms but 
with a brownish tinge ; feet mixed black and buff ; tail pale yellowish 
brown ; under parts blackish brown and ochraceous. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 214; occipito-nasal length, 
178; Hensel, 153; zygomatic width, 127.6; intertemporal width, 60.8; 
palatal length, 100; breadth of braincase, 86.3 ; median length of nasals, 
82 ; length of upper molar series, 57.8 ; length of mandible, 164 ; length 
of lower molar series, 73 ; length of upper canines, 42.2. 

The type of this species is in the Hamburg Museum, and a para- 
type, an immature animal, is in the Berlin Museum. The above 
description was from a specimen in the British Museum, taken on the 
Raw Sur River in the Bahr el Ghazal, by Captain H. E. Haynes. 



130 



PAPIO 



The skull resembles those from Ankole, Uganda, but has very 
much larger molars, the upper series measuring in total length, 57 mm. 
to 48 mm. in the other ; and the lower 73 mm. to 65 mm. The palate 
is longer and broader, the lateral pits are longer and narrower, and 
the mandible is longer. The nasals are also wider anteriorly. A 
remarkable peculiarity of the upper molars consists in the presence of 
small supplementary interior cusps at the base of the division between 
the interior cusps. These are irregular in number, from one to 
three, the last being on the right posterior molar, while the left posterior 
molar has only one, but with a posterior split, as if another cusp might 
be there developed. These supplementary cusps are visible, although 
not very clearly in the plate, made from a photograph of the type skull 
in Anderson's work. (1. a). This is a large rather reddish baboon, and 
the skull is easily recognizable by the large teeth which exceed in size 
those of all other species of the dark colored baboons. 

Papio papio (Desmarest) . 

Simla sphinx (nee Linn.), Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 15, 
(Part.); Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 56; Audeb., Hist. 
Nat. Singes et Makis, 1797, 3me Fam., p. 5, pis. I, II, III; 
Fisch., Syn. Mamm, 1829, p. 34, (Part.). 

Papio sphinx E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 
103; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 19; Reichenb., Vollstand. 
Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 147, figs. 345, 346, 373-379; Schleg., 
Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 127; Forbes, Handb. Pri- 
mates, I, 1894, p. 269; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 
1906, p. 568, (et Auct). 

Le Papion F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1819, Livr. VI, pis. VI, ^, 
VII, ?. 

Cynocephalus papio Desm., Mamm., p. 69. 

Cynocephalus sphinx Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 
160; V, 1855, p. 64; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 34; 
Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, 
pp. 131, 136; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 582; 
Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 
Mus., 1870, p. 35. 

Cynocephalus choras Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1843, p. 12. 

Cynocephalus olivaceus I. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
1848, p. 543; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 34; Schleg., Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 125. 



^-2 



X A 



' 1- 



J^ 



PAP 10 131 

Papio rubescens Temm., Esquis. ZooL, 1853, p. 39 ; Schleg., Mus. 

Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 128. 
Papio olivaceus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 150. 

GUINEA BABOON. 

Type locality. 'TAfrique." 

Geogr. Distr. Senegal to Angola, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Size small ; face, ears, palms and soles of feet naked ; 
tail shorter than body ; ears quadrangular. 

Color. Face, ears, palms of hands, and soles of feet black ; upper 
eyelids white ; head and upper parts, limbs and f eet ; tawny ochraceous, 
giving a general reddish appearance to the entire animal ; under parts 
and inner side of limbs brownish yellow; hands blackish, hairs black 
with yellow tips ; tail at base like back, remainder paler. Callosities 
red. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 178; occipito-nasal length, 
146; Hensel, 129; zygomatic width, 110; intertemporal width, 59; 
palatal length, 74; breadth of braincase, 79; median length of nasals, 
37 ; length of upper molar series, 49 ; length of mandible, 123 ; length 
of lower molar series, 56. Adult, but not old skull. 

The type of C. choras Ogilby, is in the Collection of the British 
Museum and has been examined. It is somewhat lighter than typical 
P. papio but not so red, but it is probable that the specimen may have 
faded somewhat in the sixty years it has been in the Museum. There 
is nothing in its coloration to warrant its separation from typical P. 

PAPIO. 

The type of P. rubescens Temm., is in the Leyden Museum. It is 
an immature animal of a paler or more rusty red than P. papio 
(Desm.), the hairs on the shoulders and back are very long and barred 
with black, while the cheeks are covered with white hairs. Another 
specimen, also young, from the Gold Coast, and labelled P. rubescens, 
is much darker, more the color of P. papio. In view of their 
immaturity, the dissimilarity in color between the specimens, and their 
locality being the same as P. papio, I should refer these examples to 
that species, as they present no characters that would separate them 
from it. 

The type of C. olivaceus I. Geoffroy, is in the Paris Museum and 
the following is a description of it. 

Color. Entire body and hind limbs mixed blackish brown and 
tawny ochraceous; the hairs with a strong reddish tinge, being dark 
brown at base, and ringed with black and tawny ochraceous ; top of 
head yellowish brown ; nape and hind neck like body ; whiskers silvery 



132 



PAPIO 



gray at base, pale yellow at tips; shoulders and arms, mixed yellow, 
brown, and black, similar in color, but paler than body ; hands and feet 
blackish brown speckled with pale yellow; under parts grayish white 
with a reddish tinge ; tail blackish brown, hairs ochraceous at base near 
root of tail. 

Measurements. Total length, 863.60; tail, 323.85; foot, 139.70. 
Ex Desmarest's type, Paris Museum. 

This animal is a female and not full grown. It has the reddish 
coloring so characteristic of P. papio, and nothing of an olivaceous hue 
to warrant the name given by Geoffroy. 

In a letter to Dr. Gray, J. J. Monteiro, gives the following account 
of what is probably this species, under the name of anubis, as observed 
by him in Angola, of which a $, and J, were presented to the British 
Museum. The country is hilly and cut by deep, dry and solitary gullies, 
and grand rocky ravines. The vegetation is restricted to dry, prickly 
shrubs, a few roots of grass, and certain species of thick club-stemmed 
dwarf shrubs, bearing a few leaves only during the few months of the 
year in which rain falls; the rest of the year nothing is seen but dry 
rock and leafless firewood, scorched and burnt month after month by 
the constant tropical sun. At distances far apart, brackish water is 
sparingly obtained by Zebras, these Monkeys, and other tropical 
animals, by excavating holes in the sand at the bottom of the gullies. 

The principal food of these Apes is the root and stem of the thick, 
tuber rooted shrubs (Webwitschia?) above mentioned. Part of the 
root of these plants grows above the surface of the ground, and these 
Monkeys gnaw it off as a sheep does a turnip or mangel-wurzel, their 
dog-like elongated jaws, and perhaps dentition, appearing to him 
specially adapted to this manner of feeding. 

They are gregarious ; he once counted fifteen together, and a few 
days previous to his writing, not less than thirty to forty came down 
to drink at a well he had opened at the copper mines. He was then 
engaged in exploring at about four miles inland from Cuio Bay. Two 
were captured alive at Equimena, a place twelve miles south. 

They run very fast, on all-fours, in a kind of sideway gallop, the 
young ones holding on to the back of the dams. It seems that he has 
not been able to ascertain exactly their geographical distribution either 
in longitude or latitude from the bay, though he believes it does not 
reach northward of the River Quanza. "It perhaps deserves to be 
mentioned that in the vicinity of the rivers in that part of the coast, 
the vegetation assumes a more luxuriant character; but these rivers 



VOLUME II 



PLATE 




PAPIO PORCARIUS. 




PAPIO HAMADRYAS. 



\L3L 



— 



PAPIO 133 

being few and far apart, this does not alter the dry, bare character of 
the country where these Monkeys abound. 

"The natives, and the Portuguese about these parts, affirm that a 
troop of these Monkeys is always preceded by several scouts, which 
communicate by signals either danger or safety to the rest, and that 
these scouts are set upon and punished if any mistake is committed 
by them. The two sent by my son were hunted down by the blacks 
with dogs, and killed with sticks." 

Papio ibeanus Thomas. 

Papio thoth ibeanus Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XI, 6th Ser., 
1893, p. 46. 

Papio ibeanus Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 269. 

Type locality. Lamu, East Africa. Type in British Museum. 

Color. Fur shaggy, blackish and dull greenish white, without any 
bright yellow; hairs on crown broadly ringed with black; chin and 
throat whitish, hairs of chest with black and white rings; belly black 
and dull fawn ; inner side of arms like the chest, and of the legs clearer, 
and the rings less fawn color; hairs on outer side of limbs slaty gray 
at base, then ringed with black and whitish fawn; hands and feet 
ochraceous buff and black ; tail, mixed black and ochraceous. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,460 ; tail, 610. Skull : total length, 
200; occipito-nasal length, 157; intertemporal width, 56; Hensel, 148; 
zygomatic width, 112; palatal length, 95; breadth of braincase, 79; 
median length of nasals, 58 ; length of upper molar series, 50 ; length of 
mandible, 151; length of lower molar series, 66; length of upper 
canines, 38. Ex type British Museum. 

This is a grayish brown baboon without any of the bright yellow 
hues seen on its allies. It is an animal with a substratum of a brownish 
color mixed with black, the latter more prominent on head and neck, 
overlaid with grayish white, the general effect being a dark brownish 
gray ; all the upper parts and limbs are similar in coloration ; the throat 
and chest being whitish gray and the abdomen a dark reddish brown, 
similar to the tail. 

Papio porcarius (Brunnich). 

Simla porcaria Brunn., Dyr. Hist. Univ. Nat. Theat., 1782, p. 13; 
Bodd., Naturf., XXII, 1787, p. 17, figs. 1, 2; Gmel., Syst. Nat., 
I, 1788, p. 30. 



134 



PAPIO 



Simla sphingiola Herrm., Obs. Zool., I, 1804, p. 2, t. 1 ; Fisch., 
Syn. Maram., 1829, p. 35. 

Papio porcarius E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 
p. 102; Kuhl, Beitr., 1820, p. 19; Blainv., Osteog., 1841, Atl., 
pi. IV ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 124 ; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 263; W. L. Sclater, Faun. S. 
Af r., Mamm., I, 1900, p. 13 ; Anders., Zool. Egypt. v Mamm., 
1902, p. 79; Thos. and Schwann, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., I, 
1905, p. 255 ; I, 1906, p. 160; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
II, pp. 558, 560; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., F. 
C. M. Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 566, Zool. Ser. 

Papio comatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 
p. 102; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 19; Mivart, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 561. 

Cynocephalus porcarius F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Livr. VIII, 

1819, pi. ; 2nd ed., 1833, p. 132, pi. XLVII ; Desm., Mamm., 

1820, p. 69; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 35 ; Dahlb., Stud. 
Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 130, 133; 
Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 582; Gray, Cat. 
Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, 
p. 34. 

Cynocephalus comatus E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, 

p. 28, 8me Legon. 
Hamadryas porcaria Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 108. 
Cynocephalus ursinus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 

162, tab. VIII B ; V, 1855, p. 65 ; Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 

1844, p. 64. 
Choir opithecus porcarius Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 151, figs. 384-386. 



the chacma. Tchal'ikamma, Hottentots; Imfena, Swarzi, Zulu; 
Tshweni, Basuto. 

Type locality. Africa. 

Geogr. Distr. South Africa, south of the Limpopo River. 

Genl. Char. Face and ears naked; nose extending beyond upper 
lip ; hair long especially on shoulders, but not forming a mane ; 
whiskers directed backward ; tail black about half the length of body ; 
callosities small. Skull with large orbital ridges ; nasals long, rounded 
on upper sides ; braincase, rounded, shorter than facial region ; canines 
enormous ; white rings encircling the eyes, and upper eyelids white. 

Color. Male. General hue brownish black; hairs of crown and 



PAP 10 135 

nape long, black with a broad band of yellowish ; dorsal region black, 
hairs ringed with yellowish, but less distinctly so than on crown; 
flanks, arms above elbows and legs paler, nearly hair brown, hairs 
ringed with yellow ; forepart of arms, hands, feet and tail black ; under 
parts hair brown; white ring around eye, upper eyelids white; 
whiskers gray. Ex specimen in British Museum, S. Africa Zool. Soc. 
No. 5. 3. 11. 1. 

Female. Upper parts mixed black and broccoli brown, hairs 
ringed with yellowish, dorsal region darker, blackish on central line, 
and then reddish brown to flanks, hairs always ringed with yellowish ; 
upper parts of arms and legs grayish brown; hands, feet and tail 
black. The general color of the body is difficult to describe, as it is 
a general mixture of black, reddish brown, broccoli brown and grayish 
brown, with yellowish distributed throughout, and all the browns 
grading into each other, forming the dark head and dorsal region to 
the flanks, giving a general appearance of a grayish brown animal with 
a yellowish tinge, interspersed with black. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 213; occipito-nasal length, 
173; Hensel, 157; zygomatic width, 130; intertemporal width, 59; 
palatal length, 190 ; breadth of braincase, 83 ; median length of nasals, 
78; length of upper canines, 45; length of upper molar series, 57; 
length of mandible, 158; length of lower molar series, 76. 

The skull of Brunnich's specimen is in the Berlin Museum, the 
type itself having been destroyed long since. In its measurements there 
is no important difference from those given above, except the zygomatic 
width which is considerably less. Mr. Grant, as quoted by Thomas and 
Schwann, (1. c.) says in Zululand this baboon is difficult to secure, and 
more often heard than seen, as they live in large troops in the thick 
forest. "They feed principally on fruit, and where wild fruit abounds 
they can sometimes be obtained by waiting under the trees, but they are 
at all times wonderfully wary." At Knyswa in Cape Colony, Mr. Grant 
found this species "in large troops both in the forest and on the 
Krantzes along the coast. It is exceedingly wary and can seldom be 
obtained; at times, however, they are very bold, and do considerable 
damage amongst mealies and fruits." 

Mr. W. L. Sclater, (1. c.) gives the following account of this 
baboon furnished him by Mr. W. Cloete of Waterfall near Grahams- 
town, South Africa: "The Chacma is an inhabitant of the steep and 
rocky Krantzes which abound in all parts of Africa, and although 
most frequently found in treeless country, is a very good tree climber 



136 PAPIO 

when opportunity offers ; in some parts of its range where Krantzes are 
few it even sleeps in trees. It associates in troops of varying numbers, 
up to about one hundred individuals ; when moving from place to place 
the old males are usually seen on the outskirts, and always form a rear 
guard; also when resting a sentinel or two is always placed on top of a 
rock in order to warn the troop of approaching danger. 

"They rest at night in crevices of the Krantzes, coming out in the 
day only. They are frequently captured by surrounding their lairs 
before daylight, when all are asleep. The chief enemy of the baboon 
apart from man is the leopard, which, however, seems to confine his 
attention to females and young ones, as an adult old male would 
probably be a good match even for a leopard. 

"The pace of a baboon is not very rapid ; on level ground they can 
easily be overhauled by ordinary dogs, but in rough country and on 
hillsides they can hold their own with great ease. They move with the 
first part of the tail somewhat up-curved, and the last two-thirds hang- 
ing straight down. 

" The cry of this animal is a deep hoarse bark, and is compared by 
Prof. Moseley, who observed their habits in the neighborhood of 
Simons Town, to a German 'hoch' much prolonged. 

"The baboon may be described as omnivorous ; the fruit and leaves 
of the prickly pear, the more thorny ones being preferred, wild fruits, 
berries, and bulbs, and the white sweetish pith at the lower ends of the 
aloes form a great part of its diet. Insects, scorpions, centipedes and even 
lizards are eagerly sought after by turning over loose stones, and Mr. 
Distant relates how when first searching for insects in the Transvaal, 
he was intensely surprised to find stones turned over before his arrival, 
as if some other 'geodephagous coleopterist had anticipated him' ; 
this he afterwards found was due to the insect-searching attributes 
of the baboons. 

"Mr. Cloete informs me," says Mr. Sclater, "that wild honey is 
also a favorite article of diet, he has himself observed a male Chacma 
robbing a bee's nest in a hole in the ground ; the method pursued by the 
animal was to rush at the nest, seize a comb, and after dropping it a 
few times and rolling it about to get the bees off, to carry it away a 
short distance so as to be able to devour it out of the way of the 
infuriated bees. 

"The baboons cause great annoyance to the farmers; they fre- 
quently devastate orchards and fruit gardens, they suck and devour 



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VOLUME II. 




PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS. 
No. 8.7.1!).l. Brit. Mus. Coll. % Nat. Size. 



mmmM 




Papio cynocephalus. 
No 8.7.19.1. Brit. Mus. Coll. % Nat. Size. 



^. 



PAPIO 137 

ostrich eggs, and of late years they have taken to killing and disem- 
bowelling lambs and kids for the sake of the curdled milk in their 
stomachs. 

"The Chacma," contines Mr. Sclater, "is frequently seen in cap- 
tivity, and examples of it are nearly always to be found in the 
Zoological Gardens of London. When young it is a delightful pet, full 
of intelligence and affection, especially towards its master, though 
sometimes averse to strangers ; with increasing age it becomes morose 
and dangerous. Baboons are frequently hunted by farmers with dogs 
and guns, the most ordinary procedure being to surround the 'kopje,' 
where they are known to be sleeping before daylight; they defend 
themselves from the attacks of dogs with considerable vigor, often 
inflicting very severe wounds with their long eye teeth, which, some- 
times in the case of old males, reach a length of two inches." 

Subgenus Papio. 

Size large, colors pale, mane absent, tail not tufted. 

Papio cynocephalus (Linnaeus). 

Simla cynocephalus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 38; Gmel., Syst. 

Nat., I, 1788, p. 31. 
Cercopithecus cynocephalus Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 30. 
Papio cynocephalus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, IX, 

1812, p. 102 ; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 18 ; Schleg., Mus. 

Hist. Nat. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 127 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., II, 1906, p. 560. 
Cynocephalus babuin F. Cuv., Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, IV, 

1818, p. 419, pi. XIX; Id. Hist. Nat. Mamm, Livr. IV, 1819; 

2nd ed., 1833, p. 122, pi. XIX; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 68; 

Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 156; V, 1855, p. 

63; I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, II, 1843, p. 

579, pi. XXXIV; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 34; Peters, Reis. 

Mossamb., 1852, p. 4; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 

Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 144, 149; Kirk, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1864, p. 649; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 558; 

Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 

Mus., 1870, p. 35. 
Simia cynocephala Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 33. 
Cynocephalus thoth Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1843, p. 11; 

Fras., Zool. Typica, 1848, pi. V ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 



138 



PAPIO 



and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 35 ; Schleg., Mus. 

Hist. Nat. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 129, (in text). 
Cercopithecus ochraceus Peters, Reis. Mossamb., Saugth., 1852, p. 

2, pi. I, juv. ; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 257, juv. 
Cynomolgos cynocephalus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 133, figs. 332-339. 
Cynocephalus langheldi Matschie, Sitzungsber. Gesch. Nat. 

Freund., Berlin, 1892, p. 233; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 

1894, p. 275. 
Papio babuin Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 147, 

figs. 380, 381 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 265. 
Papio lydekkeri Rothsch., Novitat. Zool., IX, 1902, p. 140. (desc. 

nulla). Blue Nile. 

YELLOW BABOON. 

Type locality. "L'Afrique Mediterraneene." 

Geogr. Distr. Nubia, Central and East Africa in Sennaar, its 
southern limit not yet known. 

Color. General hue varying from cream buff to buff yellow mixed 
with black, the latter in some specimens including more than half the 
apical portion of the hairs, and lying in streaks along the head and 
back ; outer side of arms and legs cream buff grading to a darker hue ; 
hands and feet ochraceous; inner side of limbs and under parts 
whitish or yellowish white ; tail very long, mixed ochraceous and black. 
Callosities large, red, or purple red. Face flesh color. Hairs on nape 
and over shoulders very long. 

Measurements. Size varying, some individuals as large as the 
great brown baboons; tail, 730. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 173; 
Hensel, 145.7 ; zygomatic width, 109.3 ; intertemporal width, 62 ; width 
of braincase, 87.3; palatal length, 91.5; median length of nasals, 84.7; 
length of upper molar series, 53; length of mandible, 115.5; length of 
lower molar series, 69. 

This baboon varies greatly in size among individuals and some 
old males are as large as any belonging to the dark colored group, such 
as P. porcarius, P. doguera, etc. The individual from which the 
above description was taken, No. 8. 1. 1. 1. in the Collection of the 
British Museum from Tambararo, in Portuguese Southeast Africa, 
is a very large male, about the largest I have ever seen. The skin is 
folded over on itself so as to make it impossible to give proper measure- 
ments of the body, which indeed are never accurate when taken from 
a dried skin, but the great length of the tail, 730 mm. which is in 



x 



PAPIO 139 

accord with the size of the body, gives an idea of the animal's 
dimensions. 

For a considerable period there has been much uncertainty regard- 
ing the animal Linnaeus called Simla cynocephalus. Like many of 
this Author's descriptions, the one given for this baboon is short and 
unsatisfactory, and the works which he cites in the brief synonymy 
give little or no assistance towards the recognition of the animal. 
Linnaeus' description reads as follows : "S. caudata, imberbis flavescens, 
ore producto, cauda recta, natibus calvis." The only word in this 
brief diagnosis that gives any clue to the species is the word "flaves- 
cens," and by it we know it was a 'yellow or yellowish' baboon. The 
early authors render no help towards an elucidation of the problem, 
and E. Geoffroy gives but a few words to define his P. cynocephalus, 
and the specimen he is supposed to have had is not now in the Paris 
Museum. It was not until F. Cuvier published his plate of C. babuin 
that Mammalogists generally were able to distinguish the 'yellow 
baboon' from its relatives in the genus. Some authors confounded it 
with P. sphinx (nee Linn.), = P. papio (Desm.), a reddish colored 
and somewhat smaller animal. 

There is but one species of baboon known which can be termed 
yellow, and as Linnaeus described his cynocephalus as flavescens, it 
must have been the same as the one afterwards described as 'babuin,' 
'thoth/ etc. The other species of Linnaeus' time, afterwards placed in 
the genus Papio, viz. : sphinx, maitnon — S. sphinx Linn., and 
hamadryas, could never be termed flavescens, and therefore it seems 
perfectly safe to assume that the Simla cynocephalus Linn., is the 
same as the yellow baboon which has been renamed by F. Cuvier, and 
other writers since Cuvier's time. 

The type of P. langheldl is in the Berlin Museum and the following 
is a description taken from it. 

Color. Hair of back long and coarse. General hue dull olive gray, 
hairs brown at base, then yellowish gray, then ringed with black and 
yellow, and tipped with black ; the long coarse hair lighter ; chin grayish 
white ; legs externally brownish yellow ; hands and feet olive yellow ; 
under side of body and inner side of limbs silvery gray; tail reddish 
brown mixed with black. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,470; tail, 570. Skull: total length, 
192; occipito-nasal length, 190; zygomatic width, 110; interorbital 
width, 56; median length of nasals, 64; length of upper canines, 40; 
length of upper tooth row, 51; length of mandible, 149; length of 
lower tooth row, 66. Ex type Berlin Museum. 



140 



PAPIO 



This is a yellowish baboon, the hairs with a somewhat greenish 
tinge on upper parts. It has long legs and a slender body, and I am 
inclined to consider it the same as P. cynocephalus. As the type of 
this species has no locality, there is nothing to guide us as regards its 
patria, and the type of langheldi resembles closely the specimen of P. 
thoth in the British Museum. The skull has a very long facial region, 
being 111 mm. from the posterior end of nasals to the incisors, with a 
low braincase barely raised above the orbital ridges, and is 105 mm. in 
length, 76 mm. greatest breadth. There are slightly elevated ridges on 
sides of rostrum above narial aperture. 

The type of P. thoth Ogilby, is in the British Museum, numbered 
55. 12. 24. 8. Skull No. 1,100 a. The example is mounted and is of an 
olive brownish yellow, and may be described as follows : 

Top of head, hind neck, upper parts and sides of body to thighs 
olive brownish yellow, the hairs having several cream colored rings 
and black tips; rump and legs a clearer yellow than the body; sides 
of head, throat and front of shoulders yellowish white or yellowish 
gray; outer side of arms, chest and under parts like the back; inner 
side of limbs yellowish, the hairs without annulations ; hands and feet 
mixed yellow and black, the latter being mainly on the tips of the hairs. 
Hairs on upper back are very long, some reaching 300 mm., but they 
do not form a mane. The tail is yellow at base, remainder blackish 
brown, but it is difficult to determine whether this last is the natural 
color, or if it arises from the paucity of fur on the dark skin, or from 
the accumulation of dust deposited during the many years the specimen 
has been exhibited. Total length, 1,444; tail, 620; foot, 210. The 
animal when living must have been a long time in captivity, the skull 
showing this in its abnormal shape and its deteriorated condition. 

The type of C. babuin F. Cuvier, is in the Paris Museum and 
resembles closely P. thoth, much more so indeed than it does any other 
specimen of the cynocephalus type. Unfortunately neither example 
has any locality given for it, and whence these types originally came is 
quite unknown. 

Papio neumanni Matschie. 

Papio neumanni Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freund., Ber- 
lin, 1897, p. 161 ; Lydekk., Novit. Zool., 1902, p. 140; Anders., 
Zool. Egypt., Mamm., 1902, p. 46, pi. VIII, (type skull). 

NEUMANN'S BABOON. 

Type locality. Dongo Ngai, Masailand. Type in Berlin Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Masailand, range unknown. 



VfcT 



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PAPIO 141 

Genl. Char. Size small ; pits on sides of upper jaw very long; tail 
unicolor. 

Color. General color of top of head and body ochraceous buff, 
the hairs being purplish gray with a subterminal ochraceous band and 
black tip. The purplish gray of the hairs gives a darkish hue to the 
pelage, but it is overlaid by the ochraceous bands, which makes it 
difficult to say which is the dominant color; sides of head and neck 
yellowish gray grading into whitish on the throat; arms ochraceous 
buff lighter than upper parts; legs like upper parts but hair without 
black tips ; hands and feet blackish brown ; under parts grayish brown 
on chest, abdomen like back; tail like back at base, remainder wood 
brown unicolor. Ex type, an immature specimen, Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,030; tail, 460. Skull of adult: 
total length, 179; Hensel, 125; intertemporal width, 55; zygomatic 
width, 111; length of nasals, 70; length of upper canines, 36; length 
of upper tooth row, 49; length of mandible, 134; length of lower tooth 
row, 63. 

This is quite a small baboon, characterized by its unicolor tail. 

Papio strepitus Elliot. 

Papio strepitus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 7th Ser., II, 1907, 
p. 499. 

Type locality. Fort Johnston, Nyassaland, S. E. Africa. Type 
in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size large, exceeding the dimensions of P. pruinosus ; 
hair very long, loose; face partly naked; braincase about two thirds 
the length of facial region; nasals only slightly raised above rostrum, 
wide anteriorly ; pit on side of upper jaw, long and deep ; palate narrow, 
of nearly equal width for its entire length ; tooth rows straight. 

Color. Forehead mixed pale yellow and black; crown and nape 
dull tawny ochraceous, center of crown darker, the hairs ringed with 
dull tawny ochraceous and black, those on sides Prout's brown at base, 
remainder tawny ochraceous ; the appearance of the crown and nape is 
more reddish than yellow, with a darker central portion ; sides of head 
below ears buff; lower part of neck to middle of back purplish drab 
and ochraceous buff, the base of hairs purplish drab, the rest ringed 
with black and ochraceous buff, some of them tawny ochraceous, and 
tipped with black. The purplish drab of the base of hairs dominates 
the other colors and gives a kind of dark patch to this part of the back ; 
on the shoulders is a patch of hairs buff at their roots, graduating to 
cream buff at the tips, not ringed ; lower part of back paler than the 



142 



PAPIO 



upper, more yellow showing, and over all the upper parts are 
numerous long hairs with whitish tips ; flanks, ochraceous buff ; upper 
part of arms, thighs, legs and feet ochraceous buff; forearms and 
hands ochraceous buff and black, the latter having the base of hairs 
showing ; under parts yellowish gray, tail at base like back mixed black 
and ochraceous, tip ochraceous buff ; cheeks and sides of nose and lips 
covered with yellowish hairs ; upper eyelids flesh color ; space beneath 
eyes and nose black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Head and body, 915; tail, 609. Skull: total 
length, 195; occipito-nasal length, 160; Hensel, 139; intertemporal 
width, 58; zygomatic width, 115; palatal length, 86; breadth of brain- 
case, 79 ; median length of nasals, 72 ; anterior width of nasals, 14 ; 
length of upper molar series, 45; length of mandible, 115; length of 
lower molar series, 60. Ex type British Museum. 

The general appearance of this species is that of a yellowish 
animal with a brownish back and a reddish head and limbs, and under 
parts whitish gray. This is the effect the various colors of the hairs 
produce when glanced at. In coloration it belongs to the light yellow- 
hued baboons. Looked at in some lights the hairs have a greenish 
yellow tint, but when carefully examined the colors are as in the 
description and unlike any of the other species. Two specimens were 
obtained by Sir Harry Johnston in Nyassaland, the type at Fort 
Johnston, and the other at Zomba, on Lake Nyassa. The species bears 
no resemblance whatever to P. pruinosus procured at Lesumbwe, 
Nyassaland, either in color or in characters of the skull. The two 
examples are in the Collection of the British Museum. 

Sir Harry Johnston, referring probably to this species, states that 
it is very common everywhere in Nyassaland, and very bold and 
cunning. It is constantly robbing the plantations of the natives, and 
the women profess to go in terror of the large males, as they say the 
latter would attempt to outrage them if they see no man accompanying 
the party. When the baboons descend to raid the plantations, one or 
more of their number invariably stand sentry to warn the rest of the 
troop of approaching danger. 

Papio pruinosus Thomas. 

Papio pruinosus Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 789, pi. 
XXXVIII; 1897, p. 927; Anders., Zool. Egypt., Mamm., 
1902, p. 79, pi. XIV. 
Type locality. Lesumbwe, Monkey Bay, Livingstone Peninsula, 
Lake Nyassa. Type in British Museum. 



*#i 




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— 



PAPIO 143 

Geogr. Distr. Nyassaland. 

Genl. Char. Color hoary ; belly white ; fur not annulated. Skull 
resembling that of P. thoth (type), but with a shorter muzzle and more 
tapering. Tooth rows bowed, pterygoid fossa broader. Hair long, 
loose and rather coarse. 

Color. Hoary gray and black, the hairs having black or brownish 
black bases, remainder white. The coat consists of long and short hairs, 
the former being all white to the roots, the shorter having black bases. 
Hairs on crown long, almost forming a crest, basal part white, apical 
half black nearly producing the effect of a black crown ; outer side of 
arms black or brownish black, base of hairs white ; inner side of arms, 
entire under parts, and legs, grayish white; hairs on hands and feet 
very long, almost covering the fingers and toes to the nails; hands 
blackish ; feet seal brown on center, rest grayish white ; tail, black for 
two thirds the length, grading gradually into the grayish white of the 
tip. Ears apparently flesh color; face grayish white; around eyes 
and mouth flesh color. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Skin. Total length, 1,300; tail, 550; hind foot, 
190. Skull: total length, 183; occipito-nasal length, 150; Hensel, 128; 
zygomatic width, 103; intertemporal width, 56; palatal length, 80; 
breadth of braincase, 80 ; median length of nasals, 61 ; length of upper 
molar series, 49; length of mandible, 132; length of lower molar 
series, 60 ; length of upper canines, 34. Ex type British Museum. 

This Baboon, only represented by the unique type, is different in 
its coloration from all the other members of the genus, and resembles 
in that respect the American Opossum, having the same long and short 
hairs similarly colored. 

Subgenus Hamadryas. 

Shoulders and back covered by a long, loose, heavy mane; tail 
tufted, ears naked. 

Papio hamadryas (Linnaeus). 

Simla hamadryas Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 27; I, 1766, p. 36; 

Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 57; Gmel., Syst. Nat, I, 1788, 

p. 30. 
Simia cynomolgos Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 28. 
Cercopithecus hamadryas Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 22; 

Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 1792, p. 63. 
Cercopithecus hamadryas ursinus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 1792, p. 63. 



144 



PAPIO 



Papio hamadryas E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 103; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 20; Schleg., Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 129; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 272; Anders., Zool. Egypt., Mamm., 1902, p. 28, pis. 
I-III; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus. Pub., VIII, 
1906, p. 565, Zool. Ser. ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 
1906, p. 558. 

Cynocephalus hamadryas F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Livr. V, 1819, 
pi. ; 2me ed., 1833, p. 129, pi. XLVI, $ ; Desm., Mamm., 1820, 
p. 69; E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, 8me Legon; 
Riipp., Neu Wirbelt, Faun. Abyss., 1835-40, p. 7; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 153; V, 1855, p. 82; I. 
Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 33; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 
Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 131, 135 ; Reichenb., 
Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 152, figs. 387-395; Blanf., 
Geol. and Zool. Abyss., 1876, p. 222; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1887, p. 622; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 
127. 

Cynocephalus wagleri Agass., Isis, 1828, p. 86. 

Hamadryas chceropithecus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 107. 

Hamadryas cegyptiaca Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eat- 
ing Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 34. 

Papio cynomolgos Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 128. 

HAMADRYAS BABOON. 

Type locality. Africa. 

Geogr. Distr. Abyssinia. 

Genl. Char. Size large; muzzle long, nostrils terminal; face 
naked ; eyes set in beneath overhanging brows ; ears naked ; shoulders 
and back to the middle covered by a mane; whiskers long, growing 
backward partly covering the ears; buttocks nude, callosities large; 
tail tufted, carried arch like for basal third or more, remainder hang- 
ing perpendicularly ; under parts and inner side of limbs sparsely haired. 

Color. Face flesh color ; rostral region, ears and surface of hands 
and feet brownish; mane, and upper parts generally dark reddish 
brown, hairs ringed with yellowish white; rump pale brown; space 
surrounding callosities and thighs cream color; lower parts of legs 
mixed brown and buff, the hairs ringed alternately with those colors ; 
fore arms and hands grayish black, hairs ringed with gray and black ; 
feet reddish brown; inner sides of arms above elbows, and inner side 
of legs buff ; chest brownish gray ; abdomen burnt umber ; tail Prout's 
brown and gray, tuft Prout's brown; whiskers grayish white at base 



PAPIO 145 

grading into brown. Ex specimen in British Museum, procured by 
Riippell in Abyssinia in 1836. 

The usual coloring of this baboon is much lighter than the example 
described above, and is an ashy gray on mane, and upper parts washed 
with greenish, the hairs ringed with black and greenish gray ; fore arms 
and legs grayish black ; under side of body grayish white. 

Riippell's specimen is an adult male, and darker in color than is 
generally seen among individuals of this species. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 192; occipito-nasal length, 
156; Hensel, 133; zygomatic width, 113; intertemporal width, 52; 
palatal length, 84; breadth of braincase, 82; median length of nasals, 
68 ; length of upper molar series, 50 ; length of upper canines, 32 ; length 
of mandible, 139 ; length of lower molar series, 65. 

Both sexes of this species have large air sacs or pouches in the 
neck, which reach down nearly to the arm pits. An opening above the 
larynx connects these with the windpipe. 

Blanford in his Observations on the Geology and Zoology of 
Abyssinia (1. c.) gives the following account of this baboon: 'The 
great Dog-faced Baboon, the Sacred Ape (Thoth) of the ancient 
Egyptians, is by far the commonest Monkey throughout the portion of 
Abyssinia traversed by me. It was met with everywhere from the 
plains around Annesley Bay to the top of the Delanta plateau, although 
most abundant, perhaps, in the tropical and subtropical portions of the 
country. I saw a small herd close to Theodore's old camp at Baba, on 
the Delanta plateau at above 9,000 feet of elevation. In the passes 
leading to the tableland from the coast immense numbers were con- 
stantly seen, and the animals evidently keep to the sides of rocky 
ravines. 

"The herds vary in number ; some cannot include much less than 
250 to 300 monkeys of all ages. The old males are always most con- 
spicuous animals, all the forepart of the body being covered with long 
hair. They usually take the lead when the troop is moving; some of 
them also bringing up the rear; others placing themselves on high 
rocks or bushes, and keeping a sharp look-out after enemies. A troop 
collected on a rocky crag presents a most singular appearance. I 
several times saw large numbers assembled around springs in the 
evening in the thirsty Shoho country between Komayli and Sanafe. 
On such occasions every jutting rock, every little stone more prominent 
than the rest, was occupied by a patriarch of the herd who sat, with 
the gravity and watchfulness befitting his grizzled hair, waiting 



146 PAPIO 

patiently until the last of his human rivals had slaked his thirst and 
that of his cattle. Around, the females were mainly occupied in taking 
care of the young, the smaller monkeys amusing themselves by gam- 
bolling about; occasionally, if a young monkey became too noisy or 
interfered with the repose of one of his seniors, he 'caught it/ in the 
most unmistakable style and was dismissed with many cuffs, a wiser if 
not a better Monkey. 

"Cynocephalus hamadryas feeds on small fruits, berries, and seeds, 
and often on buds of trees, and on young shoots. On the highlands 
I frequently saw troops of them in the fields, engaged in searching for 
the 'quentee' the small tubers of Cyperus esculentus, which appeared 
also to be a great resource of the half starved people in Tigre. 

"This species is rarely ever seen on trees. It appears to avoid 
woods, and to keep mainly in the open country, preferring, as already 
mentioned, rocky precipices. Hence its habits differ entirely from 
those of all the Indian Monkeys which are tree loving animals, and 
indeed from Monkeys in general. It climbs heavily and clumsily for a 
Monkey, and when moving quickly on the ground had a steady regular 
gallop instead of the bounding movements of a Presbytes (Pyga- 
thrix). 

"Doubtless the association in such very large herds is in a great 
measure adopted as a means of defence against its enemies. From 
their size and great power of jaw the old males are most formidable 
antagonists, and their boldness in resenting injury is said to be in 
proportion to their power. Brehm ('Reise nach Habesch,' p. 88) 
relates an instance of their attacking a Leopard which had carried off 
one of the herd, and many stories are current in Abyssinia of their 
attacking men. Mr. Munzinger told me that once he, with one or two 
companions, were surrounded by a large herd, which barred their 
path, and were so threatening that he was obliged to shoot one in self- 
defence. Even then, although they fell back a little, the Monkeys did 
not run away. 

"I cannot help thinking, however, that these Monkeys rarely attack 
men, as otherwise some instances would have happened in the expedi- 
tionary force and I never heard of any. Near the passes the flocks of 
Cynocephalus soon became wary, as they were frequently fired at. 
Young animals when captured, quickly became tame and docile, but 
not so much so as Cercopithecus." 

The Simla cynomolgos Linn., founded upon Hasselquist's Simia 
czgyptiaca is doubtless this species, and the name therefore becomes a 
synonym. 



^1 i ■ ■■1^ ■ i ii 




< 

2 ~ 



PAP 10 147 

Papio hamadryas arabicus Thomas. 

Papio arabicus Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1899, p. 929 : 1900, 
p. 96. 

ARABIAN HAMADRYAS BABOON. 

Type locality. Sixty miles north west of Aden, Arabia. Type in 
British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Arabia. Range unknown. 

Genl. Char. Similar to P. hamadryas but smaller in size. Type 
in British Museum. 

Color. The type is a young female, without any mane and gives 
very little idea of the adult animal. The following description is there- 
fore taken from an adult male captured at Lakej, near Aden, and now 
in the British Museum Collection : Face bare. Top of head, starting 
in a narrow line from the forehead and spreading out towards the 
back of the head, blackish brown, hairs tipped with yellowish white, 
rest of head and mane, which covers practically the whole of the upper 
parts light grayish brown, the hairs being light brown ringed with gray- 
ish white; arms above elbows, legs and back, pale brownish gray, the 
hairs ringed similarly to those of the mane; forearms and hands iron 
gray, nearly black ; feet pale brown and gray ; rump darker brown than 
the mane; under parts pale gray, becoming pale brown at the loins. 
Another specimen has the mane and upper parts a uniform reddish 
brown, generally darker throughout than the one described. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 153; occipito-nasal length, 
131; Hensel, 140; zygomatic width, 98; intertemporal width, 48; 
palatal length, 66; breadth of braincase, 72; median length of nasals, 
50 ; length of upper molar series, 46 ; length of mandible, 112 ; length of 
lower molar series, 56. Ex type in British Museum. 

In general appearance this baboon resembles the P. hamadryas 
of the African continent, but is considerably smaller. 

Papio brockmani Elliot. 

Papio brockmani Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 1909, 8th Ser., 
p. 248. 

Type locality. Derra Dawa, Somaliland. Altitude 3,500 feet. 
Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Color very different from P. hamadryas inclined to 
reddish, no gray on mane. Skull compared with one of P. hamadryas 
obtained by Riippell, has a shorter facial region ; rounded zygomatic 
arches, not squared as in the other; straight tooth rows, not curved, 
and smaller teeth. Outer edge of lachrymal, from orbital ridge to root 



148 PAPIO 

of zygoma, straight, not flaring outward at bottom as in the skull of 
allied species; rostrum broader posteriorly; palate of equal width 
throughout its length; orbital ridge straight, not depressed in center; 
septum narrower, orbits more round. 

Color. Adult Male. Face flesh color; callosities red; forehead 
covered with black hairs banded with white, this color rising to the 
crown in the shape of a pyramid coming to a point on crown of the 
head; hairs on cheeks and sides of head long, stiff, very dense, rising 
upwards in enormous tufts above head, yellowish white at base 
grading into buffy at tips ; hind neck and mantle pale reddish brown, 
hairs with a band of white succeeded by a subterminal one of black 
and tip silvery white ; towards the lower back the color darkens into a 
cinnamon banded with lighter cinnamon, and tipped with the same- 
upper part of rump ochraceous buff paler than the mantle ; lower rump 
and base of tail silvery white; sides of jaw with hairs long and dense, 
yellowish white ; throat more sparsely covered with hairs of the same 
color; chest dark gray, hairs banded with black, and white tips; 
abdomen ochraceous, arms and hands like forehead, grizzled, hairs 
banded with black and white; tail grizzled russet and white, tuft 
russet. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,322; tail, 572; foot, 188; ear, 59, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 180.4; occipito-nasal length, 147.9; 
Hensel, 125.7; intertemporal width, 56.6; width of braincase, 80; 
length of rostrum, 91.2; width of rostrum posteriorly, 46.6; zygomatic 
width, 119.7; palatal length, 76.8; median length of nasals, 52.1 ; length 
of upper molar series, 44.6 ; size of last upper molar crown, 10 x 8.5 ; 
length of mandible, 136.1 ; length of lower molar series, 57; size of last 
lower molar crown, 13.5 x 8.5. Ex type British Museum. 

The type is a very fine specimen of an adult male. As shown by 
the description it differs in every way from the Abyssinian Hamadryas 
and also from the Arabian, as the affinities of the latter seem to be 
altogether with the Abyssinian animal and not with the present species. 
The light reddish mantle, and parti-colored rump of ochraceous buff 
and silvery white, cause it to be very conspicuous when placed among 
examples of the Hamadryas baboon. The type was procured by Mr. D. 
Drake-Brockman after whom I had much pleasure in naming it. I 
saw this apparently same species frequently in Durban, Somaliland, 
and it was the only species of baboon inhabiting the country until the 
valley of the Shebeyleh is reached. It lives among the rocks, and it is 
seldom that an individual is found far from some rocky ledge to 




g S 

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a. 5 



VOLUME II. 




PAPIO SPHINX. 
No. 5.5.23.10. Brit. Mus. Coll. ' % Nat. Size. 



PLATE XIV. 



PAPIO SPHINX. 

No. 5.5.23.10. Brit. Mus. Coll. % Nat. S12 



VOLUME II. 




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Papio sphinx. 



PAPIO 149 

which they quickly flee on the slightest appearance of danger. They 
run on all-fours with considerable speed and get over the roughest 
places and overcome intervening obstacles with wonderful dexterity. 

When a troop is discovered the members salute the intruder with 
loud, hoarse barks, and the entire party are apparently thrown into a 
state of great excitement. Some old male will seat himself upon a high 
vantage point so as to overlook all below him, while expressing his 
disapproval of the presence in his dominions of the foreigner, not of his 
class, by angry barks and grunts. At the same time he keeps a sharp 
eye upon the intruder's movements and issues his orders to the rest 
of the band, as to the imminence of danger, and the proper methods for 
them to adopt in order to escape it. When it is evident that it is the 
stranger's intention to cultivate a close acquaintance with the rock- 
dwellers, the order for flight is given, and the band cease their 
offensive remarks and scamper away over the rocky heights, those of 
them too young to keep up with the rest, clinging to the mother's body 
with arms and legs. The sentinel delays a moment after the rest have 
started, and then, ejaculating one more swear- word, takes up the line 
of flight making the best time he can, but stopping occasionally to 
anathematize his pursuers. When one has made a slight mistake in his 
calculations as to the distance a rifle bullet might be disagreeable and 
gets hit, although his interest in all subsequent proceedings may have 
vanished, the excitement of the rest is greatly increased, and, with 
much threatening by voice and action, they advance towards the body 
of their fallen companion, as if to dispute possession with the 
slayer. No doubt these powerful animals with their great teeth and 
body strength would be very formidable antagonists even to an armed 
man if they attacked him in any numbers, but generally I believe their 
actions do not pass beyond the threatening stage, their natural solicitude 
for their own safety and that of their families, inducing them to think 
better of aggressive warfare, and to attend strictly to the preservation 
of their own skins. It is a fine large species, and the long manes that 
cover their shoulders and backs, especially of the old males which are 
very thick and heavy, give them rather a majestic appearance. 

Subgenus Mormon. 

Bony ridges on rostrum ; face highly colored. 

Papio sphinx (Linnaeus). 

Simla sphinx Linn., Syst. Nat, I, 1758, p. 25; I, 1766, p. 35, (nee 
Auct.) ; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 126. 



150 PAP 10 

Simia maimon Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 35, juv. ; Bodd., Elench. 
Anim., 1784, p. 56; Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 29; Fisch., 
Syst. Mamm, 1829, p. 36. 

Simia mormon Alstr., Acta Naem., 1766, p. 144, pi. Ill; Gmel., 
Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 29. 

Papio maimon Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 17; Schleg., Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 130; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 
1894, p. 258 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., F. C. 
M. Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 563, fig. CXXXVI, Zool. Ser. 

Papio mormon Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 18; E. Geoff., 
Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 104; Kuhl, Beitr. 
Zool., 1820, p. 20 ; Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat. Paris, III, 7me 
Ser., 1896, p. 240. 

Simia suilla Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 1792, p. 59. 

Cynocephalus mormon F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Livr. IV, 1807, 
pi. ; 2nd ed., 1833, pp. 143, 146, pis. LII, LIII ; Desm., Mamm., 
1820, p. 70; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 164, 
tab. LII, LIII; V, 1855, p. 65; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, 
p. 35; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 
1856, pp. 131, 132, tab. VI, figs. 14, 16, 18, 20. 

Mormon maimon Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. Ill; Reichenb., 
Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 158, figs. 398-400; Gray, 
Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 36. 

Papio sphinx Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 1909, p. 
417. 

MANDRILL. 

Type locality. "Ceylon." 

Geogr. Distr. Senegambia to the Congo, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Head very large, out of proportion to the body; 
rostrum long, with longitudinal swellings on each side of nasals ; under 
jaw heavy; eyes deep set, brows overhanging; ears pointed; tail very 
short ; limbs short, powerful. Skull massive, braincase small, f rontals 
flat ; mandible deep and powerful ; teeth large, canines enormous. 

Color. Top of nose red, tip scarlet, ridges blue ; spot on forehead 
black; patch above ear and extending around neck, yellowish white; 
the hairs on upper part of body, legs and feet, ringed with ochraceous 
and black, the black predominating on shoulders, arms, and back of 
neck where it forms a band below the yellowish white on neck ; dorsal 
line black; forehead, and at side of black patch, buff and black, buff 
predominating; hands black; under parts yellowish white; flanks and 



PAPIO 151 

abdomen black ; tail gray, tip black ; legs banded with black and buff, 
giving them a dark chestnut hue ; callosities violet ; genital and anal 
regions scarlet, beard yellow. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 233; occipito-nasal length, 
183; Hensel, 175; zygomatic width, 137.4; intertemporal width, 
69.3; palatal length, 113.9; breadth of braincase, 80.5; median 
length of nasals, 79.6; length of upper molar series, 51.5; length of 
mandible, 157; length of lower molar series, 72.6; length of upper 
canines, 44.2. 

For nearly a hundred and fifty years this animal has been given 
the wrong name by all writers. Linnaeus first called it Simla sphinx, 
and then afterwards renamed a young Mandrill Simla malmon. In 
my paper in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (1. c.) the 
error into which all writers have fallen is corrected, and an explanation 
given, which is not necessary to repeat here. 

The Mandrill is a thick-set powerful creature, whose face and 
buttocks are colored to an extravagant degree in blue and red, and 
when the animal is excited these hues are intensified. The head is very 
large in proportion to the body, and with the face painted, like that of 
a circus clown, and the small eyes deep set beneath the overhanging 
brows, it presents a bizarre and forbidding aspect. It is said to go in 
companies and the adults are very savage, their great strength and for- 
midable canines, over an inch and a half long, making them dangerous 
antagonists, before whom an unarmed person would have a small 
chance of escaping with his life. They eat almost everything in the 
shape of food that can be masticated, but insects and fruits are the 
chief articles of their diet. 

The females and young have the rostral ridges less prominent and 
differ in hue, and the end of the nose which is scarlet and so con- 
spicuous in the males, is black. 

Papio planieostris Elliot. 

Papio planirostris Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 1909, 
p. 305. 

Type locality. Fan, south eastern Cameroon, West Africa. Type 
in Berlin Museum. 

Genl. Char. Skull only received, no skin. Size large, facial region 
much longer than braincase ; rostrum very broad ; ridges curved and 
not widely separated at center, not rising above level of nasals; very 
broad posteriorly ; lateral pits long, moderately deep ; entire width of 



152 PAPIO 

orbits only slightly broader than widest part of rostrum; occipital 
region beneath, pyramidal, not rounded posteriorly; no sagittal crest, 
but ridges are continued from outer side of orbits, and meet on the 
interparietal ; zygomatic arches not widely spread ; pterygoid fossa long 
and narrow; palatal arch rounded; palate widest anteriorly; tooth 
rows straight; canines heavy, broad and rather short; molar teeth 
larger than in P. sphinx. 

This skull differs from that of the Mandrill in many particulars, 
the rostral region is much longer and wider ; the central ridge is flatter, 
being below the top of the lateral ones for their entire length ; narial 
opening broader and shorter; nasals broader anteriorly; central part 
of orbital ridges not depressed, making the orbits rounder; braincase 
broader and more rounded posteriorly and on a level with the orbital 
ridge, and rising gradually to occiput which is considerably higher than 
orbital ridge, while the braincase of P. sphinx curves downward to 
the occiput which lies lower than the orbital ridge, and in the superior 
outline of the braincase these skulls are totally unlike; bony palate 
not so contracted posteriorly; basioccipital more abruptly descending 
to pterygoid fossa; tooth rows much longer; occipital region much 
more slanting than that of P. sphinx which is nearly perpendicular. 
The second upper molar is much larger, and the second lower molar 
smaller, than the corresponding teeth of the species compared. It will 
be seen from the above that the skulls of the two species are quite 
different in nearly all respects. 

Measurements. Skull : total length, 228 ; occipito-nasal length, 
185 ; Hensel, 169 ; zygomatic width, 124.9 ; intertemporal width, 61 ; 
length of rostrum, 122; breadth of rostrum, 71.17; length of rostral 
ridges, 83 ; greatest width of orbits, 72 ; greatest width of braincase, 
79 ; median length of nasals, 89 ; palatal length, 107.3 ; length of upper 
canines, 32.5 ; length of upper molar series, 55.9 ; length of mandible, 
167 ; length of lower molar series, 78. 

Papio LEucoPELaEus (F. Cuvier). 

? Simla {Papio) cinereus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 1792, p. 62; Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., VII, 1895, p. 185. 

Simia leucophcea F. Cuv., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, IX, 1807, 
p. 477 ; Fisch., Syn. Mamm, 1829, p. 37. 

Cynocephalus leucophceus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Livr. IV, 
1807, p. 637 ; 2nd ed., 1833, pp. 135, 142, pis. XLVIII, XLIX, 
L and LI ; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 71 ; E. Geoff., Cours Hist. 



PAP 10 153 

Nat. Mamm, 1828, p. 31, 8me Lecon ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. 

SuppL, I, 1840, p. 166; V, 1855, p. 65 ; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 

1851, p. 35; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 

fasc. I, 1856, pp. 131, 133. 
Mormon drill Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 114. 
Hamadryas charopithecus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 108. 
Papio leucophcea Gray, List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 10. 
Mormon {Drill) leucophceus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 162, pi. XXVII, figs. 401-403. 
Choeropithecus leucophceus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 

Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 35. 
Papio leucophceus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 131 ; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 260 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. 

Field Columb. Mus., F. C. M. Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 564, fig. 

LXXXVII, Zool. Ser. 
Papio mundamensis Hilzheimer, Zool. Anz., April, 1906, Band 

XXX, p. 109. 

DRILL. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. North Cameroon, Konje Farm near Mundame 
(Hilzheimer) ; Victoria, (Strunck, Boscho, Adamelz), Berlin Museum. 

Color. Face black, lower lip red ; middle of head blackish brown ; 
sides of crown greenish brown, the hairs being gray at base and ringed 
with brown and yellowish ; hairs on sides of head and chin pale yellow 
tipped with brown, forming a sort of band from ear to throat ; shoul- 
ders, and upper back, dorsal line, rump at root of tail, brownish black, 
the hairs being gray at base then ringed with black and yellow, and tips 
black; limbs, outer and inner sides mixed black and buff, with the 
hairs black ringed with buff and tipped with black, the arms showing 
more buff than the legs ; middle of back and flanks pale brown ; hands 
and feet mixed black and buff; under parts and inner side of limbs 
grayish white ; tail brown at root, rest grayish white. Callosities red. 
Skull in specimen. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Size almost equal to the Mandrill. Skull : total 
length, 216; occipito-nasal length, 166; Hensel, 155; zygomatic width. 
120; intertemporal width, 61; median length of nasals, 45; length of 
upper molar series, 54; length of mandible, 159; length of lower molar 
series, 73. Ex skull in British Museum. 

Herr Hilzheimer (1. c.) has described a specimen from near 
Mundame, North Cameroon, as distinct from P. leucoph/EUs, mainly 
on account of having no white beard. But P. LKUOOPHJBUS lias the 



154 PAPIO 

hairs on chin hardly of a length to be termed a beard, as my description 
from the type, and Cuvier's plate testify, and Cuvier in his description 
in Hist. Mamm., says of the chin hairs, "forment une sorte de barbe," 
which is more beard like than an actual beard. Specimens in the Berlin 
Museum from Victoria, near Mundame and also from Boscho, are not 
separable from the true leucoph^eus. Herr Hilzheimer's example 
may not have been fully adult, the chin hairs not appearing long 
enough to be even beard like, and as he had no skull of leucoph^eus 
to compare his specimen with, he could not show that it was different 
in any way from that of Cuvier's species, and the Berlin specimen 
exhibits no distinctive characters. The hair on the chin and throat of 
P. leucophjeus, while not particularly short, can hardly be considered 
as forming a beard. 

Dr. J. A. Allen, (1. c.) has determined that Kerr's Simia (Papio) 
cinerea is this species. Kerr gave the name to an animal described by 
Pennant in his History of Quadrupeds, vol. I, p. 176, as follows : 
"Cinereous B. with a dusky face; pale brown beard; body and limbs 
of a cinereous brown ; crown mottled with yellow." 

Parts of this brief and unsatisfactory description may be applicable 
to the Drill, and we cannot prove that Dr. Allen was in error in his 
conclusion, neither can it be proved that he was undoubtedly correct, 
and therefore in view of the fact that it must ever remain questionable 
as to what species Kerr's description, (which is mainly a repetition of 
Pennant's), refers, it seems unwise to displace Cuvier's name, which 
has been universally employed for over a century, and was bestowed 
upon a species known and accepted by all Mammalogists, in favor of 
one whose type is exceedingly doubtful, and which can never be proved 
to be entitled to a specific recognition. The name leucoph^eus F. 
Cuv., has therefore been retained for the present species. 



THEROPITHECUS 155 



GENUS THEROPITHECUS. THE GELADAS. 

1. 2— 2> ^" 1— 1> *■ 2— 2> M- 3— 3 — 3 2 ' 

THEROPITHECUS I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, II, 
1843, p. 576. Type Macacus gelada Riippell. 

Gelada Gray, List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, pp. XVII, 9. 

Chceropithecus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, pp. 5, 35. 

Nostrils on side of nose, not terminal. Canine teeth very long; 
lower molars quinquecuspidate. Body massive, size large; head 
crested ; mane on shoulders present ; tail long, tufted ; whiskers long. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

Two species only are known belonging to this genus, both inhabit- 
ing Abyssinia, one, T. gelada, from the southern portion, the other, T. 
obscurus from the north eastern section, near the source of the 
Takazza River. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Mane large covering shoulders ; tail tufted. 

o. Legs iron gray T. gelada. 

b. Legs from knees to ankles pale yellowish brown. .T. obscurus. 

THEROPITHECUS GELADA (Riippell). 

Macacus gelada Riipp., Neue Wirbelth. Saugth., 1835, p. 5, pi. II ; 

Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 107. 
Papio gelada Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 103. 
Theropithecus gelada I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, II, 

1843, p. 576; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 32; Dahlb., Stud. 

Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, p. 128, tab. VII, 

figs. 13, 15, 17, 19; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 

p. 163, figs. 396, 397; Forbes, Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 

276. 
Theropithecus niger I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, II, 

1843, p. 576. 
Theropithecus senex Schimp. et Pucher., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1857, 

p. 243; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 150. 



156 THEROPITHECUS 

Gelada riippelli Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 33; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 
451 ; Forbes, Handb*. Primates, I, 1894, p. 276. 

GELADA BABOON. 

Type locality. Mountains of Heremat, Simen and Axum, at an 
elevation of 7,000 to 8,000 feet, Abyssinia. 

Geogr. Distr. Southern Abyssinia. 

Genl. Char. Body powerful, sturdy; face nude; nose long, 
depressed in middle; head crested; back and shoulders and loins 
covered by a long mane; whiskers long, inclined backwards; chin, 
patch on throat, and one on breast, separated by a line of hair, nude ; 
tail long, end tufted. 

Color. Face black ; nude places on chest red ; mantle, back, flanks, 
whiskers and arms sooty chocolate brown ; breast, shoulders, forearms, 
hands, feet and tail black; chest and upper arms and legs iron gray; 
callosities black. 

Measurements. Total length about 1,525 ; tail to end of tuft, 800. 
Skull: total length, 164; occipito-nasal length, 125; Hensel, 121 ; zygo- 
matic width, 110; interorbital width, 41; breadth of braincase, 72; 
median length of nasals, 32 ; length of upper molar series, 48 ; length of 
upper canines, 41; length of mandible, 118; length of lower molar 
series, 60. 

The type of T. senex Schimper and Pucheran, is in the Paris 
Museum. It resembles T. gelada in most particulars but is of a pale 
yellowish brown on sides of head, neck and hind limbs; tail entirely 
brownish gray with an immense tuft of the same color; middle of 
crown, chocolate brown; abdomen and belly ochraceous; forearms, 
hands and feet black; upper part of body and mantle blackish. chocolate 
brown grading into grayish white on borders of mantle; upper edge 
of thighs dark brown. The light colors exhibited may be partly due to 
fading, but the specimen is considerably lighter on head and neck and 
hind limbs than T. gelada, while the tail shows none of the black which 
is the prevailing color on the tail of Ruppell's species. But, however, 
as the locality of the specimen is the same as that in which T. gelada 
is found, and no second example agreeing with T. senex has been 
procured since it was described, now half a century ago, it may safely 
be considered that this type represents merely an individual variation 
and not a distinct species. The skull is in the specimen. 

The Gelada is a very handsome species, and the long heavy mane 
which covers the shoulders and upper part of the body, gives it a 
majestic appearance. The bare spot on the chest is very brightly 



VOLUME II. 




^;^;%;g^?- - . . 



Theropithecus gelada 



THEROPITHECUS 157 

colored and makes a conspicuous mark, as the movements of the 
animal bring it into view. 

Riippell, who first discovered this species in the mountains of 
Abyssinia gives the following short account of its habits as observed 
by him : 

'The Abyssinian name of this Ape is Gelada, and he lives in large 
families in regions covered with shrubs and rocks, keeping always on 
the ground. The food consists of seeds, roots and tubers, and rarely 
do they carry their depredations into cultivated fields. I observed 
the Gelada in the mountainous districts of Heremat, Simen and 
Axum, elevated regions 7,000 to 8,000 feet above the level of the sea. 
They retire to caves and fissures of the rocks, and when captured they 
make a loud noise resembling hoarse barks, but never defend them- 
selves against men as the Cynocephalus hamadryas are accustomed 
to do." 

Evidently the habits of this species are very similar to those of 
Papio hamadryas, and doubtless such a powerful animal, as the 
Gelada undoubtedly is, would prove to be an equally formidable 
antagonist, and Riippell's statement that they never defend themselves 
against men, must refer to the young, as one cannot but believe that 
the capture of an adult, especially of an old male, would be quite a 
serious undertaking. 

Theropithecus obscurus Heuglin. 

Theropithecus obscurus Heugl., Act. Acad. Leop., XXX, 1863, p. 
30; Id. Beitr. Zool. Afric, XXX, pp. 12, 13 ; Reichenb., Voll- 
stand. Naturg. AfTen, 1862, p. 200, not figured; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, I, 1894, p. 278; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field 
Columb. Mus., F. C. M. Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 566, Zool. Ser. 

Theropithecus nedjo Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 
204. 

Macacus obscurus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 107. 

DUSKY GELADA. 

Type locality. Sources of the Takazza River, confines of the Galla 
country, Abyssinia. 

Geogr. Distr. Southern Abyssinia. 

Genl. Char. Large mane covering forepart of body and sides ; tail 
tufted. 

Color. Male. A patch on each side of top of head and whiskers 
yellowish; forehead between eyes extending in narrow line across 
crown, back of head and neck, upper part of body, mane, arms, hands 



158 THEROPITHECUS 

and feet, black or brownish black; legs to ankles from knees, inner 
and outer sides pale yellowish brown ; front edge of thighs dark reddish 
brown grading into pale yellowish on hinder parts; tail pale brown; 
throat black ; chest and inner side of arms above elbows grayish white ; 
bare spot on lower part of throat, and on chest as in T. gelada ; rest of 
under parts reddish brown. 

Female. Generally reddish brown without any mane. 

Measurements. Total length, 825 ; tail, 325. Skull : total length, 
168; occipito-nasal length, 123; Hensel, 126; zygomatic width, 118; 
intertemporal width, 44 ; median length of nasals, 33 ; length of upper 
molar series, 49 ; length of mandible, 132 ; length of lower molar series, 
64. 

Von Heuglin was the discoverer of this fine species, and gives, 
(1. c.) the following account of it: 

"This magnificent Ape lives in large troops in southern Abyssinia 
in the Takessah-Suringland in the Provinces of Lasta, Wadla, Talanta, 
Daund, Seint-Amara and Woro-Heimann, in the land of Jedju and 
Wollo-Galla at an elevation of from 6,000 to 10,000 feet above the 
level of the sea, mostly in rocky ravines. They are seldom seen in trees, 
but usually on open places, or on steep inaccessible rocks, from which 
they try to throw stones at their pursuers. 

"They pass the night together in caves, and come forth at break of 
day, and sit for hours in the morning sun for warmth, and then seek in 
the low valleys, their food, which consists, apparently, almost 
exclusively of leaves, but perhaps they may visit fields where fruits 
grow. Their dispositions appear to be quite harmless. The herd con- 
sists of 20 to 30 families and young, and is led usually by four or six old 
males who march with solemn step while the young play about, or are 
carried by the mothers, and are kept in order by pinching or boxing the 
ear. If danger approaches, the discoverer utters a loud cry, and the 
troop unites, and if necessary returns to the rocks. The old males 
that go by themselves, are more afraid than the females, who standing 
erect often yell at the pursuer, and show their white teeth. When 
on a predatory excursion, or in flight, which is not usually very rapid, 
they go mostly in a line, with an old individual in the rear. Rarely 
do different herds unite, but at the approach of evening, each returns 
to its regular quarters. The voice is shrill, that of the old males hoarse. 
One of the chief enemies of the 'Tekur-Sindiere' is the Kaffir-eagle, also 
the Lamb Vulture (Golden Vulture) . In their viscera, especially in the 
caecum, is found a kind of Echinorrhynchus in great numbers." 




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CYNOPITHECUS 159 



GENUS CYNOPITHECUS. BLACK APE. 

i. 2—2' *■" 1 — 1 5 *• 2— 2> ^. 3— 3~ '3 2 ' 

CYNOPITHECUS I. Geoff., Resum. Leg. Mamm, 1835, p. 16. Type 
Cynocephalus niger Desmarest. 

Fur long, woolly ; head with hairy crest. Face, neck, hands and 
feet, naked ; nose triangular, flattened behind nearly to the eyes ; upper 
lip broad; broad partition between nostrils directed downward and 
outward; cheek swellings distinct; supra-orbital ridges conspicuous; 
cheek pouches large; tail rudimentary. Braincase considerably 
elevated above orbital ridge ; zygomatic arch straight ; orbital ridge with 
but slight overhang; nasals tapering rapidly to a point posteriorly; 
facial angle with outward curve ; molar series small. 

But little is known of the Black Ape of Celebes, and the material 
contained in all the Museums, the specimens for the most part being 
young animals, is not sufficient to permit a satisfactory decision as to 
the number of species and their dispersion, to be reached. Herr 
Matschie has recognized all the described forms and added to them five 
more. His material, however, is totally inadequate for any satis- 
factory opinion to be arrived at, consisting as it does, mainly of the 
young animals from Zoological Gardens, in some cases, without 
localities or data of any kind whatever. It is impossible, therefore, at 
present to recognize these ; and the writer is not at all confident that in 
accepting four of the species described by various authors, he has 
not exceeded the limit of the distinct forms, and that some may be 
found merely exhibiting a phase of pelage arising from age or sex, 
of longer known species. Two genera of Monkeys exist in Celebes, 
and their young are strikingly alike, and from them it is quite 
impossible to tell what species each one may eventually represent. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1820. Desmarest, Mammalogie on Description des Esphcs de Mam- 
miferes. 
Cynopithecus niger first described as Cynocephalus niger. 



160 CYNOPITHECUS 

1829. Fischer, Synopsis Mamtnalium. 

C. niger described as Simia niger. 
1847. C. J. Temminck, Coup-d'wil general sur les Possessions Neer- 

landaises dans I'Inde Archipelagique. 

Cynopithecus niger redescribed as Papio nigrescens. 
1851. /. Geoff roy St. Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

Two species are here given : C. niger, and C. nigrescens = C. 

NIGER. 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Sdugthiere, in AbbUdungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
Two species only are here recorded, C. niger, and C. nigrescens 
= C. niger, in Cynocephalus, under Cynopithecus as a sub- 
genus, and a figure of the latter species given on plate VI. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 
One species is given in this list, Cynopithecus niger ; and C. 
nigrescens Temm., is considered as a "browner or grayer" 
variety. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Natur elle des Pays-Bas. Simice. 
In this work but one species of Cynopithecus is recognized, 
C. niger Desmarest. The Author remarks upon the variation 
in color of examples dwelling at different places in northern 
Celebes, and in the Island of Batchian, also on the different 
shape of the callosities. He, however, regards these as merely 
individual variations, and decides that the two forms, niger 
and nigrescens, the only ones known to him, represent but 
one and the same species; and in the more than thirty years 
that have elapsed since his work appeared, sufficient additional 
knowledge of these Apes has not been acquired to enable us to 
prove that Schlegel was not quite correct in the decision he 
gave. 

1901. P. Matschie, in Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesell- 
schaft. 

In his paper on the mammals of Halmahera, Batchian and 
North Celebes, the Author reviews the species of the genus 
Cynopithecus, but placed in Papio, and criticizes to some 
extent, the papers of A. B. Meyer previously published on the 
same animals. He first discusses the relationship of Cyno- 
pithecus and Macacus, and allied genera, and the species 
properly belonging to each, and their geographical distribution. 
As our present investigation is mainly with the species of 



CYNOPITHECUS 161 

Cynopithecus, to follow him in this part of his paper would 
take us too far afield, and we will consider his review only as it 
relates to the black monkeys of Celebes. He recognizes the 
following species : C. Niger Desm., C. nigrescens Temm. = C. 
Niger, with a comparison of their skulls ; C. tonkeanus Meyer ; 
P. inornatus Gray, = C. maurus (F. Cuv.), juv. ; C. ochreatus 
Ogilby, and C. maurus (F. Cuv.). He describes as distinct 
from these P. hecki, probably from Buol, in the northwestern 
peninsula, the locality from which P. nigrescens Temm., was 
described, and hecki is the same as that form ; P. tonsus from 
an immature animal and no locality, which = C. tonkeanus 
from the eastern or middle peninsula; P. hypomelas no locality 
given, but which he says is not quite adult and stands between 
his tonsus and inornatus, and its skull is similar to that of the 
last named, inornatus, and with that form also, both = C. 
maurus (F. Cuv.) ; and lastly, P. brunescens from the south 
easterly peninsula, and Island of Buton. The type of this 
last named is a very young animal, too young to exhibit any 
distinctive characters, and probably is the same as C. 
ochreatus which inhabits the same peninsula. In order to 
localize the species described, the various peninsulas have been 
divided into northern, southern, eastern and western portions, 
without any definite information that the forms indicated are 
thus restricted. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

It must be confessed that with only our present inadequate 
knowledge of the species of the genera Cynopithecus and Magus, 
their distribution in the Island of Celebes is mostly guesswork. 
Matschie's dispersal of the species he recognizes is, at least in part, 
purely imaginary, and he has no positive information that any of the 
species were restricted within the boundaries he gave them. We think 
we know that certain species come from certain parts of the island, but 
what may be their boundaries, or whether they have any at all, we have 
no certain knowledge. The following is supposed to be the dispersion 
of the species recognized in this work : In the northern peninsula from 
Minahassa on the east to Tomini on the west, and down the west coast 
to Balanipa, and also on the small mountainous Island of Menado-toua 
off the northeastern extremity of Celebes, and the Island of Batchian. 
C. niger is found. 



162 CYNOPITHECUS 

Cynopithecus niger (Desmarest) . 

Cynopithecus niger Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 534 ; Quoy et Gaim., 

Voy. Astrolabe, I, 1830-33, p. 44, pi.; Wagn., Schreb., 

Saugth. Suppl., I, 1855, p. 61 ; Dahlb., Stud. ZooL Fam. Reg. 

Anim. Natur., fasc. 1, 1856, p. 122. 
Inuus niger Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 147. 
Cynopithecus niger I. Geoff., Belang., Voy., 1834, p. 66; Id. 

Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, II, 1843, p. 574; Less., Spec. 

Mamm., 1840, p. 101 ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 

Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 33; Forbes, Handb. 

Primates, I, 1894, p. 281 ; Bedd., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1903, 

p. 19, figs. 7, 8, (Brain). 
Papio niger Temm., Possess. Neederl. Ind., Ill, 1847, p. 111. 
Papio nigrescens Temm., Possess. Neederl. Ind., Ill, 1847, p. Ill, 

juv.; Matschie, Abhandl. Senck. Nat. Ges., 1901, p. 256, pi. 

II ; Meyer, Abhandl. Mus. Dresd., 1896, No. 6, p. 5 ; 1899, 

No. 7, p. 4. 
Cynopithecus nigrescens I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 32; 

Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 164 ; Gray, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 4. 
Papio {Inuus) niger Matschie, Abhand. Senck. Nat. Gesc, 1901, 

pp. 247, 248, fig. 
Papio {Inuus) hecki Matschie, Abhand. Senck. Nat. Gesc, 1901, 

pp. 248, 257, fig. juv. 
Papio {Inuus) hypomelas Matschie, Abhand. Senck. Nat. Gesc, 

1901, pp. 261, 262, juv. 

BLACK APE 

Type locality. "One of the islands in the Indian Archipelago." 

Geogr. Distr. Northern peninsula of Island of Celebes, and down 
western coast to Balanipa; Island of Batchian (Wallace) ; Island of 
Menado-toua ( Schlegel ) . 

Genl. Char. Head tufted ; adult black ; young with more or less 
of a uniform brown according to age ; tail rudimentary, maxillary pit 
deep. 

Color. Entire pelage jet black; face, hands and feet black. 

Young. More or less of a uniform brown according to age, with 
the limbs, hands, feet and top of head, black. The callosities seem to 
change according to age, being small and divided when young, but 
becoming large and almost united, especially in old males, with the bare 
space greatly extended. The division of the callosities varies with 
individuals, as Schlegel also testifies (1. c p. 119), and cannot be 



_^. 



PLATE 6. 





CYNOPITHECUS 163 

regarded in any way as a specific character. A series of this species 
in the Leyden Museum from Lembeh and Minahassa, show that the 
young are brown on the back and shoulders varying in depth among 
individuals ; belly, usually black. 

There are four examples in the Leyden Museum which, according 
to Schlegel, served as types for Temminck's species. P. nigrescens, 
three, Nos. 6, 8, and 9 from Gorontalo, and No. 7, from Toulabello. 
Of these only No. 6 can be a type, as the others were only collected in 
1864 by Rosenberg ; and lastly No. 10, not mentioned by Schlegel as a 
type. They are all immature, No. 9 being quite a baby, the other 
three about three quarters grown. As is to be expected none of them 
are black as the adult would be, but exhibit the brown coloring char- 
acteristic of young animals of C. niger, with the limbs, hands, feet 
and top of head black. I can perceive no characters to distinguish 
these examples from those of C. niger of a similar age, and agree with 
Schlegel, that they cannot be separated from that species. 

Description of C. hecki: 

Color. Head, neck and upper part of back, black, with a strong 
reddish brown tinge, it might almost be called blackish brown ; upper 
parts and sides black; arms blackish mars brown; legs dark wood 
brown; under parts and under side of limbs, reddish brown, (dark 
mars brown), callosities very large, lying across the buttocks, in shape 
of a parallelogram. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 666. Skull: total length, 137; 
occipito-nasal length, 118; Hensel, 95; zygomatic width, 91; inter- 
temporal width, 46 ; median length of nasals, 41 ; length of upper molar 
series, 31; length of mandible, 94; length of lower molar series, 42. 
Ex type in Berlin Museum of C. hecki. The skull is a true Cynopithe- 
cus but not so broad on the rostrum comparatively as that of C. niger, 
but it is more typical than many of the others. 

The type is a young animal and there are indications on both arms 
and legs of a change from brown to the black of the adult ; thus, the 
black on the thighs has extended from the hips nearly half way to the 
knees ; and on the feet, and especially on the inner side of the leg, the 
black is beginning to appear. 

The description of C. hypomelas is as follows : 

Color. Head crested, with upper part of back reddish brown 
almost black ; back and outer side of limbs, black tinged with brown ; 
side of head Prout's brown ; under parts blackish brown ; inner side of 
limbs reddish brown. 



164 CYNOPITHECUS 

Measurements. Total length, 680. Skull: total length, 132; 
occipito-nasal length, 109 ; Hensel, 91 ; intertemporal width, 48 ; zygo- 
matic width, 84; median length of nasals, 20; length of upper molar 
series, 32; length of mandible, 92; length of lower molar series, 42. 
Ex type Berlin Museum. 

This is an animal more brownish than black, and with long narrow 
callosities, and the hair on rump restricted to the center above the 
button of a tail. 

The skull of this form has a short face and the rostrum narrows 
rapidly anteriorly not retaining the broad shape of typical Cynopithe- 
cus, and is more like Pithecus. 

The type was obtained from the Zoological Gardens, and was with- 
out locality, and giving the range as in the middle western portion of 
Celebes is, as indicated by Herr Matschie, merely a supposition. The type 
not being adult and without locality, should for the present be placed 
with C. Niger as having more affinity with that species than any other. 

All the material in the Berlin Museum has been examined. 

Of C. hecki all the specimens, seven in number, were obtained 
from the Zoological Gardens as stated by Herr Matschie in his paper. 
Unfortunately they are without any authenticated locality, and most of 
them are young, so, for scientific identification, they are practically 
without value, as it is not known if the specimens all came from one 
locality or from several, and it may be possible that some may have 
been born in captivity. Herr Matschie places its habitat at the north 
western part of Celebes, because a specimen which is considered to be 
the same, was received by the Dresden Museum from this part of 
Celebes. As nigrescens Temminck, now deemed inseparable from C. 
niger, is found from Gorontalo to Tomini, and probably also on the 
northern part of this section of Celebes as well as on the west coast 
(C. hypomelas) , and there not being sufficient evidence in the available 
material of so-called C. hecki, (the majority of specimens including the 
type being very young), to separate it from C. niger, it would seem 
best to consider it the same as that species, leaving the question to be 
definitely decided at some future period when ample materials with 
authenticated localities may have been gathered. Of C. hypomelas 
practically nothing is known as already stated. The shape of the 
callosities either in one mass or divided in the center, varies with 
individuals, and I am inclined to regard the different shapes as 
dependent upon the age of the animal, or^a variation of a particular 
example. At present too little is known about it, for it to be accepted 
as indicating a specific character. 



MAGUS 165 



GENUS MAGUS. CELEBES MACAQUES. 

T — P — - P — l\/f — — 

1. 2— 2> *-'■ 1—1' "• 2— 2> M- 3—3 3 2 ' 

MAGUS Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, pp. 43, 44. Type Macacus maurus 
F. Cuvier. 
Gymnopyga Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 518. 

Head without crest ; face black ; tail rudimentary ; callosities pres- 
ent. Rostrum lengthened, narrower than Cynopithecus. Skull more 
like that of Pithecus. Braincase broad, rounded, slightly elevated 
above orbital ridges, zygomatic arch much curved; orbital ridge over- 
hanging orbits ; nasals tapering very gradually to posterior end ; angle 
of face not curving outward ; molar series large. 

The Monkeys of Celebes without hairy crest resemble the 
Macaques much more than they do the crested or black Ape of that 
island, and some neighboring ones. They have short thick-set bodies, 
with rudimentary tails, and judging from a living adult in the Zoologi- 
cal Gardens at Kyoto, Japan, they would appear to reach a large size. 
Not much is known about them, and adult examples are very rare in 
the Museums of the world. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES. 

1823. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 

Magus maurus first described. 
1827. Lesson, Manuel de Mammalogie. 

The genus Magus first instituted for Macacus maurus F. Cuv. 
1829. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

Magus maurus redescribed as Simla cuvieri. 
1840. Ogilby, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

Magus ochreatus first described as Macacus ochreatus. 
1844. Schinz, Systematisches Verzekhniss alter bis jetzt bckannten 

S'dugethiere oder Synopsis Mammalium nach dem Curicr'schcn 

System. 

Magus ochreatus redescribed as Macacus fusco-atcr. 



166 MAGUS 

1866. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Magus maurus redescribed from an. immature individual, as 
Macacus inornatus. 

1897. A. B. Meyer, in Abhandlungen und Berichte Konigl. Zoolog- 
ischen Anthropologisch-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dres- 
den. 

In a paper on the "Saugethiere von Celebes und Philippinen 
Archipel" three species are recorded, and placed in Cynopithe- 
cus. C. maurus, C. niger and C. nigrescens, with remarks on 
their distribution. Three plates are given with figures of ani- 
mals of different ages all as (C) maurus, (here called Maca- 
cus maurus), and two of skulls of Macacus maurus (nee 
Cuvier), and Cynopithecus niger. The figures on the plates 
represent different species, although not so recognized by the 
Author. No. 1 from Bantimurung, southwest Celebes, is 
an immature animal in the brown peiage, such as was described 
V by Gray as Macacus inornatus, and Macacus maurus F. Cuvier, 

(nee Meyer), also an immature animal; Nos. 2 from Buton 
Island, and 3 from Wandari, southeastern Celebes, also imma- 
ture individuals = M. ochreatus; and Nos. 4 and 5, from 
Tonkean, eastern Celebes, are Macacus maurus Meyer, (nee 
Cuvier). 

1899. A. B. Meyer, in Abhandlungen und Berichte Konigl. Zoolog- 
ischen Anthropologisch-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dres- 
den. 

In this paper the Author reviews the specimens in the Dresden 
Museum, and comparing his Tonkean examples, called by him 
in the previous paper, Macacus maurus, with an old male of 
the true maurus from Pik von Bonthain in the extreme south 
of the south western peninsula of Celebes, separates them as 
Macacus tonkeanus = Magus tonkeanus. On plate I a figure 
is given of Magus maurus, an old male from Pik von Bon- 
thain, and on plate II figures of its skull. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

In the middle eastern peninsula of the Island of Celebes, M. ton- 
keanus occurs, and in the southeastern peninsula M. ochreatus is 
met with, and also in the islands of Muna and Buton ; and in the south- 
western peninsula, and doubtfully in the Aru Islands, M. maurus 
ranges. 



MAGUS 167 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Head not crested. 

a. Arms and legs white, streaked with black; 

hands and feet black M. ochreatus. 

b. Forearms and inner side of thighs to knees 

gray ; hands and feet gray M . maurus. 

c. Arms, inner side of thighs to below knees, 

hands and feet black M. tonkeanus. 

Magus ochreatus (Ogilby). 

Macacus ochreatus Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1840, p. 56; 
Sclat., Wolf's Sketches, II, 1865, pi. I ; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1860, p. 420, pi. LXXXII ; 1871, p. 223; Anders., 
Zool. Res. Exped. Yunnan, 1878, p. 81, (Part.) ; Murie, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 723. 
Macacus fusco-ater Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 58. 
Macacus maurus ochreatus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. AfTen, 

1862, p. 142, fig. 408. 
Macacus maurus (nee F. Cuvier), Meyer, Abhand. Mus. Dresd., 
1897, p. 1, pi. I, fig. 2, juv. $> Bouton, fig. 3, ex Kandari, 
Celebes. 
Papio (Inuus) brunescens Matschie, Abhand. Senck. Nat. Gesc, 

1901, p. 257. 
Type locality. Unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. Southeastern peninsula of Celebes, and Islands of 
Muna and Buton. 

Genl. Char. Callosities round, bare spaces on scrotum large ; hairs 
reaching the tail in a point. 

Color. Top of head and upper parts, thighs and arms to elbows 
black ; outer side of forearms and legs light gray ; under parts blackish 
brown ; hands and feet black ; inner side of limbs yellowish gray. 

Measurements. Total length, 337; tail, 27. Skull: total length, 
125; occipito-nasal length, 104; Hensel, 80; intertemporal width, 42; 
zygomatic width, 70; median length of nasals, 26; length of upper 
molar series, 30; length of mandible, 13; length of lower molar series, 
33. Ex specimen Berlin Museum. 

A black animal with light gray legs. 

A fine living individual of this species was in the Zoological Gar- 
dens at Kyoto, Japan, and may be described as follows : Face black ; 



168 MAGUS 

top of head gray, streaked with black; upper parts, shoulders, sides 
of body and outer side of thighs black ; whiskers white ; arms and legs 
white streaked with black ; hands and feet black ; under parts blackish ; 
chest grayish white*; ears black ; buttocks hairy ; callosities small, red. 

This was a large animal for the species of this genus, powerfully 
and compactly built, and in appearance was a grayish white monkey 
with a black back. The head was round in shape, the muzzle rather 
short, and the hair on the crown was thick, and short without any indi- 
cation of the crest. It was said to have come from Celebes, but no 
particular locality on the island was given. It was evidently one of 
the finest species of Magus. 

One of the characters that seems to separate maurus F. Cuv., 
from ochreatus Ogilby, is the color of the hands and feet, these 
being grayish in maurus and black in ochreatus, the young of both 
being more or less brown according to age. The material for the 
study of the development of these animals is insufficient in all Mu- 
seums, and if all that are contained in collections were brought together, 
it would not be enough to determine how many species there really are. 
The specimens that have been named and described have, in the great 
majority of cases, been young animals, some even without localities, 
and in such cases it is impossible to say, with any degree of certainty, 
to what species they belong. 'Dr. Meyer did not appear to know M. 
ochreatus, and the determination of his specimens seemed to depend 
on whether or not they were M. maurus. Cuvier's type is not a 
fully adult animal, but the color of its hands and feet would seem to 
prove it was not M. maurus, but more probably the animal was in a 
state of pelage characteristic of M. ochreatus. 

Meyer, (1. c.) in his plate of M. maurus F. Cuv., figures two indi- 
viduals which I consider are (C.) ochreatus Ogilby, and numbered 

2 and 3. No. 2 is a young male from the island called Buton at 
the extremity of the southeastern peninsula of Celebes, the locality 
which Matschie (1. c.) apportions to his C. brunescens. This No. 2 
is brown with forearms and thighs gray, but no jet black yet appear- 
ing on the pelage anywhere, saving outside of the rostrum. No. 

3 is a young female from Kandari, on the eastern part of the south- 
eastern peninsula of Celebes in the range Matschie gives to M. ochrea- 
tus. This individual has the three molars still undeveloped, as in 
No. 2, but it is nearly all black with the gray arms, legs and throat 
of the adult M. ochreatus. Matschie's brunescens, the type, is a 
very young animal, too young to have any reliable specific characters 
established by it, but as we know that the young of M. ochreatus are 



MAGUS 169 

brown it is most probable that this individual belongs to that species, 
which thus ranges over the southeastern peninsula of Celebes and its 
outlying islands. My description taken from the type of brunescens 
is as follows: "Head and upper parts, arms to elbows and thighs 
dark brown tinged with umber; under parts and inner side of limbs 
yellowish white; forearms, legs, hands and feet wood brown." Total 
length, 544; tail, 44, (skin). 

In the Collection of the New York Museum, are five specimens of 
this species : one adult male, three adult females, and one young female, 
all obtained by Mr. Roy C. Andrews on Buton Island, off the south- 
eastern coast of Celebes. 

Magus maukus (F. Cuvier). 

Macacus maurus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1823, pi. XLV ; 2nd 
ed., 1833, p. 109, pi. XXXIX; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. 
Suppl., I, 1840, p. 146, (footnote) ; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 
1851, p. 31, (footnote) ; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, 
p. 420; 1871, p. 222; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 142, figs. 368-370; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 
Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 32, (note) ; Murie, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 722; Anders., Zool. Res. 
Exped. Yunnan, Mamm., 1878, p. 80; Meyer, Abhand. Mus. 
Dresd., 1898, No. 7, p. 2, pis. I, II. 
Magus maurus Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, p. 44, juv. 
Simla cuvieri Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 30. 
Macacus inornatus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866. p. 202, 
pi. XIX, juv.; Matschie, Abhand. Senck. Nat. Gesc, No. 7, 
1901, p. 262, pi. II. 
Type locality. Celebes. 

Geogr. Distr. Southwestern peninsula of the Island of Celebes ; 
Aru Islands. 

Genl. Char. Head without crest: inner side of thighs grayish 
white. 

Color. Top of head, upper parts, shoulders and outer side of arms 
to near wrists, legs to ankles, outer sides of thighs, and under parts of 
body brownish black, with many white hairs intermingled: sides of 
head yellowish brown ; throat, chest, inner side of arms, buttocks and 
inner side of thighs, hands and feet grayish white ; tail brownish black- 
above, black beneath. 

Measurements. "Lip to anus, (all curves measured), 720; foot, 
165. Skull: total length, 143; breadth of forehead, 71.5: breadth be- 



170 MAGUS 

tween canines, alveolar border, 35.6; least breadth of Pterion, 44.4; 
greatest breadth of Pterion, 55." (Meyer). 

The type of M. inornatus Gray, is an immature animal with a 
uniform brown color on upper parts and flanks. As it has no par- 
ticular locality it may possibly be the young of either of the three 
species of Magus, as these resemble each other so closely when im- 
mature as to present no indication as to which species they belong. 
Dr. Sclater once purchased two young, supposedly of M. maurus. 
One developed into that species, the other into M. ochreatus. 

The Macacus maurus F. Cuvier, (1. c.) with its entire dark brown 
pelage and black face would seem to be an individual in immature 
pelage, for the young of the species of either Magus or Cynopithecus 
do not resemble the adults, but are generally of a brown color and take 
on the other hues such as black, gray, etc., as they progress towards 
maturity. Thus Meyer (1. c.) figures a young female from Bantimu- 
rung, in south western Celebes, No. 1, an individual, as he states, with 
"three molars still undeveloped," as altogether in the brown pelage. 
This example is like the M. inornatus Gray, (1. c.) and both would be 
the same as M. maurus, which is supposed to come from that part of 
Celebes, if M. inornatus really comes from the same part of the island. 

Magus tonkeantjs (Meyer) . 

Macacus maurus (nee F. Cuv.), Meyer, Abhand. Berich. Mus. 

Dresd., 1897, p. 1, pi. I, figs. 4, juv. $ 5, ? ad. 
Macacus tonkeanus Meyer, Abhand. Berich. Mus. Dresd., 1899, 

No. 7, p. 3 ; Matschie, Abhand. Senck. Nat. Ges., 1901, p, 258. 
Papio (Inuus) tonkeanus Matschie, Abhand. Senck. Nat. Ges., 

1901, p. 259. 
Papio (Inuus) tonsus Matschie, Abhand. Senck. Nat. Ges., 1901, 

p. 261. 

TONKEAN BLACK BABOON. 

Type locality. Tonkean, Island of Celebes. Type in Dresden 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Middle eastern peninsula of Celebes. 

Color. Adult Male. Crown, body, outer side of legs, hands, feet 
to above ankles, black; hind parts, and inner side of thighs to knees 
brownish white, (bright brown Meyer) ; sides of head and throat, 
bistre ; inner sides of legs to ankles brownish black ; tail above, black ; 
callosities pinkish. Ex type Dresden Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : total length, 142.3 ; occipito-nasal length, 
123.1; zygomatic width, 100; intertemporal width, 50.2; Hensel, 90; 



MAGUS 171 

width of canines, alveolar border, 37.9; length of upper molar series, 
36.3 ; length of mandible, 97 ; length of lower molar series, 47.3 ; length 
of upper canines, 29.8. Ex type Dresden Museum. 

The type of this species is the one also figured by Meyer as Maca- 
cus maurus in the Abhandl. Berich. Konigl. Zool. Anthol.-Ethnol. Mus. 
Dresden, 1897, p. 1, pi. I, adult. It is a full grown animal but whether 
it has assumed the pelage of the adult cannot be determined. Meyer 
decided afterwards it was not maurus, but a new species and renamed 
it tonkeanus. It is without doubt the same as Papio (Inuns) tonsus 
Matschie, which is a much younger animal, and has not yet begun to 
show any white on the hinder parts. 

The skull is that of a fully adult, but not an old animal, rather 
of one in its prime. It is the only adult specimen from this part of 
Celebes I have seen. Until we know more about the changes in color 
the pelage iindergoes from youth to maturity, there is no alternative 
but to leave it under the name given by Dr. Meyer. It may only be 
a phase of pelage of M. ochreatus, and eventually these two may 
prove to be the same species. 



172 SIMIA 



GENUS SIMIA. THE BARBARY APE. 

T t±. C — P — • M ^=<2 
A. 2— 2 J *•" 1— 1> r ' 2— 2> IV1 ' 3—3 <* 

SIMIA Linn., Syst. Nat., 1, 1758, p. 25. Type Swma sylvanus Linnaeus. 
Inuus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 100. 
Sylvanus Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., 3ter Theil, Zool., 2te Abth., 1816, 

p. 1223, (nee Latreille, 1807, Coleopt). 
Sylvanus Virey, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 2nd ed., XXXI, 1819, 

p. 275. 
Pithes (?) Burnett, Quart. Journ. Scien. Lit. and Art, XXVI, 

1828, p. 307. 

Head oblong ; face elongate, hairy ; hair on head short ; tail absent 
externally. 

The genus Simia until a few years ago, has, since the time of 
Linnaeus its proposer, been associated with the Ourang, and this too, in 
spite of the fact that Linnaeus' Simia satyrus of the 10th edition of his 
Systema Naturae, was a Chimpanzee, and not an Ourang. This was at 
length discovered by the Hon. Walter Rothschild, and published in a 
paper on the great Apes in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society 
of London in 1904. 

But the Author of this paper in his selection of the type of Simia 
committed the error of choosing the S. satyrus Linn., instead of the 
next species, 6*. sylvanus the Barbary Ape, and this fact has been 
pointed out by Mr. Thomas in his paper on Linnaean types published in 
the same Journal for 1911. 

The case is as follows : In many instances Linnaeus when choos- 
ing a generic name selected for his term a specific name employed by 
some earlier writer, and this species, if determinable, would, in the 
majority of cases, become the type of the genus. Regarding this fact 
there would seem to be little or no divergence of opinion among 
Zoologists. Linnaeus in the present instance selected Simia, (which 
he made to include all Primates), from the "de Simia" of Gesner, 
(Med. Tigur. Hist. Animal, 1551-58), which is the Barbary Ape, and 
this is the proper type for Simia, thus transferring the term from the 
great Apes to one similar to the Macaques. This procedure may be 
regretted by Mammalogists generally, for Simia has always been con- 




5 _ 



SIMIA 173 

nected with some group of the great Apes, but the reasons advanced 
for doing this were faulty, and an error was committed, and no matter 
how familiar this act may have become to Authors and others generally, 
yet it was still an error, and therefore something necessary to change 
and correct. No error can ever become the truth simply by toleration, 
and should never be continued when discovered for any reason, and 
particularly not for the totally insufficient one that a change would 
inconvenience the memories of some writers. It is to be hoped that 
Simia has at length found its true resting place for all time. Mr. 
Thomas in the same communication, p. 125, advocates that the 
Macaques should be included in Simia but in this view I cannot agree 
with him. If the Barbary Ape belongs to a distinct genus, it would 
naturally be on account of certain attributes possessed by it. Some of 
these are, the absence of a tail, the peculiar shape of the head, the 
oblong face, etc., none of which is to be found in any Macaque. The 
Barbary Ape alone represents the genus Simia, and the Macaques are 
only properly placed in the genus Pithecus which antedates Macaca 
(sic), and all other genera proposed for them, and leaves no reason 
whatever for the employment of any other term. 

Simia sylvanus Linnagus. 

Simia sylvanus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 25 ; Schreb., Saugth., 
I, 1755, p. 68, tab. IV; Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 27; Shaw, 
Genl. Zool., I, Pt. I, 1800, p. 14, pi. VIII; Cuv., Reg. Anim., 
1829, p. 96; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, pp. 121-125. 

Simia inuus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 35; Erxl., Syst. Reg. 
Anim., 1777, p. 13 ; Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 55 ; Gmel., 
Syst. Natur., I, 1788, p. 28; Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, 1800, p. 13, 
pi. VII; Fisch., Syn. Mamm, 1829, p. 31. 

Cynocephalus inuus Latr., Hist. Nat. Buffon, (Sonnini ed.\ 
XXXVI, 1809, p. 293. 

Inuus ecaudatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 100; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 15; Wagn., Schreb., 
Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 59; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 
and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 32. 

Le Magot F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Livr. lime, 1819, p. 114, 
pi. XLI. 

Macacus inuus Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 67; E. Geoff., Cours Hist. 
Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 23, 8me Legon; E. Geoff., Belang., 
Voy., 1834, p. 62; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 4. 



174 SIMIA 

Inuus pithecus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 99; I. Geoff., Cat. 

Primates, 1851, p. 31. 
Macacus sylvanus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 115. 
Pithecus inuus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, pi. 

XXVIII, p. 143, fig. 409. 

BARBARY APE. 

Type locality. Africa. 

Geogr. Distr. Morocco and Algeria, North Africa. Introduced 
on the Rock of Gibraltar in Europe. 

Color. Top of head ochraceous, grading on back of neck between 
shoulders into buff yellow, the hairs tipped with black which in some 
places forms streaks ; rest of upper parts streaked black and straw yel- 
low ; sides of head grayish white, with an irregular black line from eye 
to ear, caused by the tips of the hairs being massed together ; shoulders 
like upper back, black and yellow ; sides of body and limbs gray, some 
yellow mixed with the gray on the upper arms ; hands blackish brown ; 
feet grayish brown ; tail rudimentary, ears and face flesh color. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 142.9; occipito-nasal length, 
114.1; Hensel, 101.3; intertemporal width, 48.6; width of braincase, 
69.3 ; median length of nasals, 18.9 ; palatal length, 58.7 ; length of upper 
molar series, 37.7; length of mandible, 103.1; length of lower molar 
series, 49.1. Ex specimen British Museum. 

Linnaeus in the Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758, p. 25, named 
a monkey, which he stated came from Africa and Ceylon, Simla, syl- 
vanus, giving as the diagnosis of the species the following characters : 
"S. ecaudata, clunibus tuberoso-callosis," and for his first reference, 
Gesn. quad. 847. There is only one Macaque that can properly be said 
to be tailless, the Magot of the French writers from Morocco and 
Algeria in North Africa, and introduced on the Rock of Gibraltar. 
There are several species that have very short tails, but none of them 
could properly be described as "ecaudata." In Gesner's work, His- 
toria Animalium, on the page cited by Linnaeus, is a figure of a Ma- 
caque without a tail, and as far as an uncolored drawing could, it 
answers sufficiently well for the Barbary Ape. Of course it is not found 
in Ceylon, but lapses in geography were not uncommon in the eighteenth 
century, as indeed they have not been in much later times, and the old 
Authors may not be held strictly accountable for the places and coun- 
tries they give as the habitats of their species. Linnaeus had no per- 
sonal knowledge of this Macaque, and so we find that he describes it 
anew in his twelfth edition as Simia inuus, by which later name it has 
generally been called, retaining at the same time his previous one of 



SIMIA 175 

sylvanus, he doubtless supposing there were two tailless monkeys in 
Africa, as he does not cite 'Ceylon' for his S. inuus. In fact he dis- 
tinguishes them from each other by giving sylvanus a "capite sub- 
rotundo," and inuus "capite oblongo," altogether too fine a distinction 
to apply to so closely allied tailless monkeys. As there seems to be 
no reason for doubting that Simia sylvanus was the North African 
Macaque, the long accepted name for the species, inuus, will have to 
give place to the prior claim of sylvanus and become its synonym. 



176 PITH ECUS 



GENUS PITHECUS. MACAQUES. 

L 2— 2J *-" 1— 1> "• 2— 2> ^- 3— 3"~3 2 ' 

PITHECUS E. Geoff., Mag. Encyclop., Ill, 1795, p. 462. Type 

* Simla sink a Linnaeus. 
Macaca (sic), Laceped., Tabl. Mamm., 1799, p. 4. 
Silenus Goldf., Handb. Zool., II, 1820, p. 479. 
Maimon Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, pp. 141, 148. 
Rhesus Less., Rev. Zool., 1840, pp. 49, 95. 
Pithex Hodg., Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., IX, 1840, pi. II, p. 1212. 
Salamacis Glog., Handb. u. Hilfsb. Naturg., 1841, pp. XXVII, 35. 
Lyssodes Gistel, Naturg. Theirreichs f . hohere Schulen, 1848, p. IX. 
Cynamolgos Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 130, pi. 

XXIII, figs. 237, 344. 
Vetulus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, pp. 125-130, pi. 

XXII, figs. 321, 326 d, (nee Rafin., Pisces, 1815). 

Zati Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, pp. 130, 133, pi. 

XXIII, figs. 327, 331. 

Body, heavy, compact; limbs short, stout; thumb pointing back- 
ward; nose long not extending beyond upper lip; nostrils opening 
downwards, and not placed at extreme end of nose ; eyes approximate, 
surmounted by heavy bony ridges, ears naked, pointed ; callosities large, 
buttocks nude; tail of various lengths, and tufted. Hair of head 
sometimes long or mane-like about face and extending downward on 
neck to shoulders; cheek pouches present. Skull has a small brain- 
case, and prominent orbital ridges ; canines long and formidable ; first 
and second lower molars with four cusps ; the last molar which is the 
largest, with five cusps and posterior talon. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

1758. Linnceus, Sy sterna Nature?. 

Under the genus Simla the following species of Pithecus are 
given: (S.) sinica first described; (S.) sylvanus first 



*The first four species given are 5". veter, S. silenus, S. faunus and S. 
cynomolgos, all Linnaean and undeterminable except the last which is a 
Papio and = Simla hamadryas Linn., leaving S. sinica Linn., the fifth and 
last species, as the type of Pithecus. 



PITHECUS \77 

described; and (S.) cynomolgos = Papio hamadryas (Linn.) ; 
(S.) apedia, (S.) f annus, (S.) silenus and (S.) syrichta are 
undeterminable. 

1766. Linnceus, Sy sterna Naturce. 

Under Simla are the following species of Pithecus: (S.) 
nemestrinus first described ; (S.) sylvanus; (S.) inuus = 
(S.) sylvanus; and (S.) cynomolgos = Papio hamadryas. 
(S.) veter, (S.) silenus, (S.) apedia, (S.) syrichta and (S.) 
faunus, all undeterminable. 

1775. Schreber, Die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit 
Beschreibungen. 

In this work, also under Simia, the Author repeats the species 
given mostly by Linnaeus, belonging to Pithecus: (S.) inuus — 
(S.) sylvanus; (S.) nemestrinus; (S.) silenus (nee Linn.), 
= P. albibarbatus (Kerr); (S.) sylvanus; (S.) sinicus 
(nee Linn.), = P. pileatus; (S.) cynomolgos Linn., = Papio 
hamadryas; (S.) veter and (S.) faunus undeterminable. 

1777. Erxleben, Sy sterna Regni Animalis. 

The Macaques are placed by this Author in genera distinct from 
Pithecus. Papio containing (P.) nemestrinus; and P. 
apedia undeterminable. Cerco pithecus, (Lasiopyga), has (C.) 
sinicus, being a mixture of sinicus Linn., and (C.) cyno- 
molgos (Linn.), = Papio hamadryas (Linn.) ; and P. 
pileatus (Shaw). The undeterminable species are (C.) veter, 
(C.) vetulus, (C.) silenus and (C) faunus. 

1788. Gmelin, Sy sterna Naturce. 

The list given by this Author is a mere repetition of that of 
Linnaeus, 1766 edition. 

1792. Kerr, Animal Kingdom. 

The Simia silenus Auct., nee Linnaeus, was named Simia (Cer- 
copithecus) veter albibarbatus, and Simia {Cerco pithecus) 
silenus albibarbatus ; and Pithecus pileatus, named Simia 
{Cerco pithecus) sinicus pileatus for the first time. 

1793. Shaw, Museum Leverianum. 

Pithecus albibarbatus (Kerr), described as Simia ferox, 

the Ouanderou of Buffon. 
1800. Shaw, General Zoology or Systematic Natural History. 

Pithecus albibarbatus (Kerr), described as Simia leonina. 
1809. Latreille, in Sonnini's edition of Buffon s Histoire Naturelle. 

Singes. 

Pithecus sinicus renamed Cynocephalus sinensis ( !) The 



178 PITHECUS 

other species given under Cynocephalus are: (C.) nemes- 
trinus; (C.) rhesus; (C.) tnui&f = S. sylvanus; and P. 
cynomolgos (nee Linn.), = P. irus. 
1812. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Annates du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

Ten species are here recorded in the genera Cercopithecus, 
(Lasiopyga), Cercocebus, Inuus and Papio, six of which are 
valid. In Cercopithecus, (Lasiopyga), is (C.) pileatus; and 
in Cercocebus, are: (C.) sinicus (nee Linn.), == P. pileatus 
(Kerr) ; (C.) radiatus = P. sinicus (Linn.) ; C. cynomolgos 
= Papio hamadryas (Linn.) ; C. atys is undeterminable. 
Inuus has (/.) ecaudatus == S. sylvanus (Linn.) ; (/.) 
rhesus; and (/.) nemestrinus. Papio has P. silenus (Linn.), 
undeterminable. 

1818. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 
Pithecus cynomolgos Auct., renamed Macacus irus. 

1819. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 
Pithecus rhesus called Macacus erythrceus. 

1820. Kuhl, Beitrage zur Zoologie. 

The following species of Pithecus are recorded in this work 
in the genus Cercopithecus, (Lasiopyga) : (C) pileatus; (C.) 
sinicus; (C.) radiatus = P. sinicus; (C.) cynomolgos (nee 
Linn.), = P. irus. Inuus contains (/.) inuus = S. sylvanus 
Linn.; P. rhesus; and P. nemestrinus. Papio has P. 
silenus (nee Linn.), = P. albibarbatus (Kerr). 

1820. Desmarest, Mammalogie ou Description des Especes de Mam- 
miferes. 

The list of Macaques in this work does not vary from those 
previously given. The valid species of Pithecus, included in 
the genus Macacus are: (M.) silenus (nee Linn.), = P. albi- 
barbatus (Kerr) ; (M.) sinicus (nee Linn.), = P. pileatus 
(Kerr); (M.) rhesus; (M.) nemestrinus; (M.) inuus = 
S. sylvanus Linn.; Macacus radiatus — P. sinicus; and M. 
cynomolgos (nee Linn.), = P. irus. In Cercopithecus, 
(Lasiopyga), is (C.) pileatus (Kerr). 

1822. Sir S. RaMes, in Transactions of the Linncean Society of 
London. 

Pithecus fascicularis first described as Simia fascicularis ; 
and Pithecus nemestrinus renamed Simia carpolegus. 



L 



PITHECUS 179 

1825. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 

Pithecus irus is renamed Macacus carbonarius; and a 
Macaque named from Duvaucel's drawing Macacus speciosus. 

1829. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

The following species of Macaques are given in this work under 
the genus Simia: (S.) pileata; (S.) sinica; (S.) silenus = 
P. albibarbatus (Kerr); (S.) rhesus; (S.) nemestrinus; 
(S.) inuus = (S.) sylvanus; (S.) cynomolgos (nee Linn.), 
= P. irus F. Cuv. ; (S.) atys Linn., (S.) veter Linn., and (5\) 
silenus Linn., are undeterminable. (S.) carbonaria F. Cuv., = 
P. irus; (S.) radiata Geoff., = S. sinicus Linn.; and (S.) 
sfeciosa Cuv. 

1829. G. Cuvier, Regne Animal. 

Under Simia the following Macaques are recorded: (S.) 
sinicus; (S.) radiata = P. sinicus; (S.) cynomolgos (nee 
Linn.), = P. irus (F. Cuv.). 

1833. /. Geoff roy Saint-Hilaire, in Magasin de Zoologie. 
Pithecus speciosus (F. Cuv.), redescribed as Macacus 
arctoides. 

1834. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Belanger, Voyage aux Indes- 
Orientales. 

The following Macaques are in this work placed in the genus 
Macacus: Les Cerocebes ou Macaques a queue longue. (M.) 
radiatus = Pithecus sinicus; (M.) sinicus; (M.) cyno- 
molgos (nee Linn.), = P. irus (Cuv.) ; (M.) aureus = P. 
irus; (M.) silenus (nee Linn.), = P. albibarbatus (Kerr) ; 
(M.) erythrceus = P. rhesus; (Af.) nemestrinus; (M.) 
arctoides = P. speciosus (Cuv.) ; (Af.) inuus = (S.) syl- 
vanus Linn.; (M.) carbonarius = P. irus; (M.) speciosus F. 
Cuv.; and M. libidinosus I. Geoff., = P. speciosus (F. Cuv.). 
1839. McClelland, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 
Pithecus assamensis first described as Macacus assamensis. 

1839. Ogilby, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Pithecus speciosus redescribed as Macacus (Pit hex) oinops. 

1840. Wagner, Schreber, Die Sdugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 

The species of Pithecus are, in this work, placed in the genus 
Inuus as follows: (/.) cynomolgos (nee Linn.), = P. irus; 
(/.) aureus I. Geoff., = P. irus; (/.) sinicus (nee Linn.), = 
P. pileatus; (/.) radiatus = P. sinicus; (/.) silenus (nee 



180 PITHECUS 

Linn.), = P. albibarbatus ; (/.) erythrceus = P. rhesus; (/.) 
nemestrinus; (/.) arctoides — P. speciosus (F. Cuv.) ; and 
(/.) speciosus. The last species /. niger is a Cynopithecus. 
1840. R. P. Lesson, Species des Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadru- 
manes. 

The members of the genus Pithecus are here included in 
Macacus with four subgenera, 1. Cercocebus with (M.) radi- 
atus = P. irus; (M.) carbonarius = P. irus; 2. Ouanderou 
has (M.) silenus (nee Linn.), = P. albibarbatus; 3. Maimon 
contains (M.) rhesus; (M.) nemestrinus; (M.) libidinosus 
= P. speciosus (Cuv.) ; and (M.) maurus, probably belonging 
to the genus Magus ; 4. Inuus with /. pithecus = Simia syl- 
vanus Linn. 

1840. Hodgson, in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
Pithecus assamensis redescribed as Macacus (Pithex) pelops. 

1841. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, in Archives du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

P. philippinensis from the Island of Luzon first described 
from an albino individual. 

1847. Temminck, in Fauna Japonic a, Mammalia. 

Pithecus speciosus (nee F. Cuv.), from Japan, described as 
Inuus speciosus; and the name being preoccupied by Macacus 
speciosus F. Cuvier, Blyth afterwards proposed the name 
fuscatus for the Japanese species. 

1851. /. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

In this Catalogue the Macaques are placed in the genera 
Macacus and Inuus, and ten species are recorded in the first, and 
one in the latter. Those under Macacus are: (M.) sinicus; 
(M.) pileatus; (M.) aureus = P. irus; (M.) cynomolgos 
(nee Linn.), = P. irus; (M.) philippinensis described from 
an albino individual; (M.) silenus (nee Linn.), = P. albi- 
barbatus (Kerr); (M.) erythrceus = P. rhesus; (M.) 
nemestrinus; (M.) speciosus F. Cuv.; and M. arctoides — 
P. speciosus F. Cuv. The single species of Inuus is (/.) 
pithecus — Simia sylvanus Linn. Among the 'Additions,' 
Pithecus philippinensis is redescribed as Macacus palpe- 
brosus, ex Manila, from a fully colored individual. 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere Abbildungen nach der Natur 
mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 

As in the volume of 1840, the Macaques are here placed in the 
genera Inuus and Cynocephalus. The species are (/.) 



_ 



PITHECUS 181 

cynomolgos (nee Linn.), = Pithecus irus (F. Cuv.) ; and 
with B. Macacus carbonarius F. Cuv., var. ; and M. aureus I. 
Geoff., both equal P. irus (F. Cuv.) ; (/.) palpebrosus — P. 
philippinensis; and var. B. Macacus philippinensis ; (7.) 
pileatus; (/.) sinicus; (I.) erythrceus = P. rhesus; (/.) 
pelops = P. assamensis; (I.) nemestrinus; (7.) arctoides = 
P. speciosus (Cuv.,) ; (J.) speciosus (F. Cuv.) ; (I.) ecaudatus 
— S. sylvanus; (I.) fusco-ater = Magus ochreatus; and 
Cynocephalus silenus (nee Linn.), = Pithecus albibarbatus 
(Kerr). 
1862. Reichenbach, Die V ollstdndigste Naturgeschichte der Affen. 

The Macaques are divided into various genera and subgenera, 
and considerable confusion is created by the introduction of 
species of totally different genera. Thus Pithecus has a sub- 
genus A. Vetulus with the following species, P. silenus (nee 
Linn.), = P. albibarbatus (Kerr) ; and the four following all 
of which belong to Pygathrix : nest or = P. cephaloloptera ; 
ursinus = P. johni; P. priam ; and thersites = P. priam. 
B. Cynamolgos, with subgenus Zati, having (C.) sinicus; (C.) 
pileatus; (C) audebertii = P. sinicus; and C. aygula which 
is a Pygathrix; (C) cynocephalus is a Papio; (C) philip- 
pinensis; albinus is an albino Pygathrix from Ceylon; (C.) 
carbonarius = P. irus; (C.) mulatta undeterminable; (C.) 
palpebrosus = P. philippinensis. C. Macacus has (M.) 
erythrceus = P. rhesus; (M.) geron = P. rhesus?; (M.) 
rhesus; M. brachyurus an albino, species undeterminable; 
(M.) speciosus = P. fuscatus; (M.) oinops — P. rhesus; 
(M.) pelops = P. assamensis; (M.) maurus belongs to the 
genus Magus; (M.) arctoides = P. speciosus (F. Cuv.) ; 
(M.) libidinosus = P. speciosus (F. Cuv.) ; (M.) ochreatus 
is a Magus ; and Pithecus inuus — S. sylvanus Linn. ; D. 
Nemestrinus, has (M.) nemestrinus. 

1862. Swinhoe, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Pithecus cyclopsis first described as Macacus cyclopsis. 

1863. Blyth, Catalogue of Mammals in the Museum of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal. 

Pithecus leoninus first described, name preoccupied by Simia 
leonina Shaw, a Pithecus. 
1866. Swinhoe, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
P. sancti-johannis first described. 



182 PITHECUS 

1867. Slack, in Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. 

Pithecus irus redescribed as Macacus fur. 

1868. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Pithecus lasiotis first described as Macacus lasiotis. 

1869. Bartlett, in Land and Water. 

' Pithecus leoninus Blyth, redescribed as Macacus andamanen- 
sis, but the name stands, as leoninus Blyth was preoccupied. 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 

In this list the Macaques are placed in three genera : Macacus, 
Silenus, and Inuus; the first with eleven species, two varieties ; 
and five species referred to, but not known to the Author. The 
other genera have one species each. The species and varieties 
of Macacus are : (M.) sinicus; (M.) pileatus; (M.) nemes- 
trinus; (M.) melanotus ( !) = Pithecus speciosus (Cuv.) ; 
(M.) pelops — P. assamensis; (M.) cristatus = P. philip- 
pinensis; (M.) cynomolgos (nee Linn.), = P. irus; (Af.) 
cynomolgos var. cummingii = P. philippinensis ; (M.) 
assamensis; (M.) aureus — P. irus; (M.) palpebrosus = P. 
philippinensis; (M.) rhesus; (M.) * cyclopsis; (M.) 
speciosus (nee F. Cuv.), = P. fuscatus Blyth; (M.) maurus, 
and (M.) ochreatus both of the genus Magus, from Celebes. 
Silenus has (S.) veter, (thus taking for his genus and species 
two names of Linnaeus belonging to undeterminable animals), 
but Gray's veter is not that of Linnaeus, and = P. albibarbatus 
(Kerr), and Inuus has /. ecaudatus = Simia sylvanus Linn. 

1870. A. Milne-Edwards, in Comptes Rendus. 

P. thibetanus first described as Macacus thibetanus. 

1872. Anderson, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
P. rufescens first described as Macacus rufescens. 

1872. H. et A. Milne-Edwards, Recherches pour servir a VHistoire 
Naturelle des Mammiferes, comprenant des considerations sur 
la classification de ces animaux. 
Pithecus lasiotis redescribed as Macacus tcheliensis. 

1872. P. L. Sclater, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London. 
Pithecus assamensis redescribed as Macacus rheso-similis. 

1875. Blyth, in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Pithecus speciosus Temm., (nee F. Cuv.), renamed Macacus 
fuscatus. 



PITHECUS 183 

1875. P. L. Sclater, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London. 

P. fuscatus Blyth, figured as Macacus speciosus (nee F. 
Cuvier) . 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bas, Simice. 
In this work the species of Pithecus are placed in two genera, 
Cercocebus and Macacus. In the first are: (C.) cynomolgos 
(nee Linn.), = P. irus F. Cuvier; (C.) pileatus and (C.) 
sinicus. In the last are (Af.) silenus (nee Linn.), = P. 
albibarbatus (Kerr) ; (Af.) nemestrinus; (Af.) erythceus = 
P. rhesus; (Af.) speciosus F. Cuv. ; and (Af.) arctoides = P. 
speciosus F. Cuv. In the text is mentioned as distinct, (M.) 
thibetanum Milne-Ed., and as varieties, in the text of (Af.) 
erythrceus = P. rhesus are given: (Af.) assamensis; (M.) 
rheso-similis which he considers apud Blyth = (Af.) assa- 
mensis; (M.) sancti-johannis ; (Af.) lasiotis ; (M.) tcheli- 
ensis = (M.) lasiotis; and (Af.) cyclopsis. (No specimens 
of these last six forms are in the Leyden Museum and the 
Author's opinion is based upon the published descriptions, and 
their describers' statements) ; (Af.) speciosus F. Cuv.; and S. 
sylvanus Linn. (Af.) niger belongs to Cynopithecus, and 

(Af.) OCHREATUS to MAGUS. 

1878. Anderson, Anatomical and Zoological Researches, comprising 
an account of the Zoological Results of the two Expeditions to 
Western Yunnan. 

Seventeen species of Pithecus are here recorded, two of which 
have of late been placed in the genus Magus. The species 
given, all under the genus Macacus, are: (Af.) arctoides = P. 
speciosus (Cuv.) ; (Af.) leoninus Blyth (nee Shaw), = P. 
andamanensis Bartl. ; (Af.) rhesus; (Af.) assamensis; (Af.) 
cynomolgos (nee Linn.), = P. irus (F. Cuv.) ; (Af.) nemes- 
trinus; (Af.) fuscatus; (Af.) thibetanum; (Af.) rufes- 
cens; (Af.) lasiotis; (Af.) sancti-johannis; (Af.) cyclop- 
sis; (Af.) sinicus; (Af.) pileatus; (Af.) silenus (nee Linn.), 
= P. albibarbatus (Kerr). (M.) maurus and (M.) 
ochreatus have been placed in the genus Magus. The Author 
fully discusses their values and the relationship of the species 
reviewed, and of the examples that have served as types both 
for the recognized species and for those that are included in the 
synonymy, and his views are given at considerable length. The 
synonymy is copious and on the whole very correct, and the 



184 PITHECUS 

general conclusions reached by the Author are but little at 
variance with the opinions held by Mammalogists, regarding 
these Monkeys, at the present time. In a footnote to the article 
on Macacus ochreatus he gives the synonymy and description 
of the two forms of Cynopithecus then known as C. niger 
and C. nigrescens = C. niger. 

1887. W. T. Blanford, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London. 

In some critical notes on the nomenclature of Indian Mammals 
the writer discusses the names that should properly belong to 
Simia silenus Linn., and Simia cynomolgos Linn., and endeavors 
to prove, first, that the animals to which these names were 
applied are undeterminable, and that Linnaeus' names must be 
dropped from our list. The Macaque which is called silenus 
Auct., was first designated Simia albibarbatus by Kerr, and 
by that name it must be known in the future ; but Simia cyno- 
molgos Linn., = Simia hamadryas Linn., and becomes its 
synonym. 

1888-91. Blanford, The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and 
Burma. Mammalia. 

The Macaques, inhabiting the regions of whose fauna this work 
treats, are included in the genus Macacus. Nine species are 
recognized as follows: (M.) rhesus; (M.) assamensis; (M.) 
silenus (nee Linn.), == P. albibarbatus (Kerr); (M.) arc- 
toides = P. speciosus (Cuv.) ; (M.) leoninus = P. andaman- 
ensis Bartl. ; (M.) nemestrinus; (M.) cynomolgos (nee 
Linn.), = P. irus (F. Cuv.); (M.) sinicus; and (M.) 
pileatus; all valid. The geographical distribution and 
description of the habits of these Monkeys are given. 

1892. A. Milne-Edwards f in Revue Generate des Sciences, (note). 
Pithecus vestitus first described as Macacus vestitus. 

1894. True, in Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 
Pithecus villosus first described as Macacus rhesus villosus. 

1897. Trouessart, in Le Naturaliste. 

Pithecus harmandi, a MS. name of A. Milne-Edwards in 
Paris Museum, described by Trouessart as Macacus harmandi. 

1903. G. S. Miller Jr., in Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 

Pithecus ph^eurus, and P. pagensis first described in the 
genus Macacus. 

1905. E. A. Mearns, in Proceedings of the United States National 
Museum. 



PITHECUS 185 

Pithecus mindanensis = P. philippinensis ; P. p. apoensis; 

P. sulensis; and P. cagayanus first described and placed in 

the genus Cynamolgos Reichenbach. 
1906. G. S. Miller Jr., in Proceedings of the United States National 

Museum. 

P. adustus ; P. brocus = P. nemestrinus ; and P. insulanus 

all first described under the genus Macaca\ 
1909. Thomas and Wroughton, in Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History. 

P. mordax and P. resimus from Java described as Macacal 

mordax and Macacal resimus. 

1909. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

P. LITTORALIS; P. BRACHYURUS (BREVICAUDUS) ; P. VALIDUS ; 

P. alacer; P. karimoni; P. l^tus; P. dollmani; and P. 
bintangensis first described. 

1910. D. G. Elliot, in Proceedings of the United States National 
Museum. 

In this paper the following species are described for the first 
time, from localities in Lower Siam, and islands in the Eastern 
Archipelago: P. lapsus; P. agnatus; P. lingungensis ; P. 

LAUTENSIS; P. SIRHASSENENSIS ; P. VITUS; P. CARIMAT^ J P. 
MANDIBULARS J P. BAWEANUS ; P. CUPIDUS ; P. LING.E ; P. 

impudens ; and P. capitalis. 
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES. 

The Macaques are distributed throughout India, and as far north 
as Cashmere and Thibet, and south to the Island of Ceylon ; also on the 
east of the Bay of Bengal, in Upper and Lower Burma, Siam, Cochin 
China, and Malay Peninsula; the Mergui Archipelago, (introduced 
into the Andaman Islands), Island of Singapore, Rhio Archipelago, 
Sumatra and the islands on its east and west coast, Java, Flores, and 
Lombock, and islands of the Javan Sea; Borneo, and islands off its 
west and south coast ; islands in South China Sea ; in the Anamba and 
Natuna groups, Philippine Archipelago; Hainan, China, Formosa, the 
Sulu Archipelago, and Japan. This genus is not represented in Africa, 
the species indigenous to Morocco and Algeria once considered to 
belong to it, S. sylvestris, is now the sole member of the genus SlMIA. 

It will thus be seen that the members of Pithecus are dispersed 
over a very wide area, and, as is to be expected, the island forms differ 
very considerably from each other. If they were dwellers on the 



186 PITHECUS 

mainland they would be regarded in many instances as geographical 
races, but now, on account of their insulated habitats may be con- 
sidered as specifically distinct, subjected as they are to a different envi- 
ronment, and deprived of all opportunities for contact with near allies. 
India proper, the nearest abode of the Macaques, considering its size, 
has comparatively few species. The most common is P. rhesus dis- 
persed over the northern portion from the Godaveri River to the 
Himalayas, having been introduced on Jako Hill, Simla. It is found in 
Nepaul, on the west coast near Bombay, in Guzerat, the Central Prov- 
inces, Bengal and Northern Circars. In the southern portion from the 
west coast near Bombay, and on the east, not north of the Godaveri 
River, thence to Cape Comorin, P. sinicus is found ; and in the south- 
ern part from the Western Ghats at about 14° N. Lat. to Cape 
Comorin, P. albibarbatus ranges. In Ceylon, only one species of 
Pithecus is met with, P. pileatus, distributed throughout the island. 
In the Himalaya range as far west as Masuri, from the base of the 
hills to a considerable elevation, in the Sundabuns, east of Calcutta, 
also in Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Mishmi Hills, and Upper Burma as 
far as Bhamo on the Irawady, P. rhesus is replaced by P. assamen- 
sis, and this species may also penetrate the Laos country, Upper Siam. 
P. speciosus has a wide range, and occurs in Upper Assam, Upper 
Burma, (Cachar), Kakhyen Hills on frontier of Yunnan, (not found 
in the Irawady Valley), Cochin China, and Borneo. The Pig-tailed 
Macaque, P. nemestrinus is found in Southern Burma, (Malewun 
and Bankasun, Davison), Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Banka, Java, and Borneo. P. irus ranges from Burma, Arakan, and 
Tenasserim, possibly into the Malay Peninsula. Upper Burma in the 
Valley of the Irawady, and Arakan contain one more species, P. 
andamanensis, which has also been introduced into the Andaman 
Islands. It may possibly go into Siam. Tenasserim also has two more 
species P. rufescens obtained at Victoria Point, and P. adustus at 
Champang. In Lower Siam P. capitalis has been procured, and P. 
fascicularis is found on the Islands Terutau and Lankawi in the 
Straits of Malacca, and in Sumatra. In the Mergui Archipelago, west 
of Tenasserim, P. insulanus has been procured on Chance Island, 
and P. vitiis on Domel, St. Matthew and Sullivan Islands ; and in the 
Nicobar group, on the Great and Little Nicobar, and Katchal Islands 
P. umbrosus is found. In the islands off the west coast of Sumatra, 
on Simalur and Lasia Islands P. fuscus was obtained. On Nias Island 
at Siaba Bay, P. ph^eurus occurs; and on Tuang Ku of the Banyak 
Islands P. agnatus was taken. Off the east coast of Sumatra on 



PITHECUS 187 

Banka and Billiton Islands P. lapsus is found, and in the great Island 
of Java, at Tjilaljap P. mordax, and at Tasikmalaja P. resimus were 
met with, but their ranges are unknown. In the Javan Sea on the 
Island of Bawean P. baweanus was discovered, and on Mata Siri 
about forty miles from Pulo Laut off the south east coast of Borneo, 
P. cupidus was procured ; and off east coast of Sumatra on South Pagi 
Island, P. pagensis was obtained. In the Rhio Archipelago on Linga 
Island, P. ling^e was found. P. impudens is a resident of the small 
island of Sugi, and P. alacer came from Bliah, on the northern point 
of Koendoer Island. At Monos, on the eastern coast of Karimon Island, 
P. karimoni was taken, and on the islands of Bintang and Batam P. 
bintangensis occurs. On Singapore Island P. dollmani was met 
with; and on the islands of Siantan and Jimaja of the Anamba Group, 
and also on Bunoa, Big Tamberlan, and Wai, of the Tamberlan Islands, 
P. pumilus was taken. In Borneo, one more species P. mandibulars 
is found near Pontianak, its range unknown ; and in the Natuna Group 
north of Borneo, on Laut Island, P. lautensis was discovered ; and 
from Lingung Island P. lingungensis came; and in the south on 
Sirhassen Island P. sirhassenensis occurs. In the Carimata Group 
on Carimata Island, P. carimata was procured. In the South China 
Sea, south east coast of Malay Peninsula, on Tingi and Tunan Islands, 
P. l^tus occurs. Passing now for a moment to the mainland between 
Cambogia and Siam, we meet with P. harmandi in the mountains, 
its range however quite unknown. On the Island of Hainan P. brevi- 
caudus was obtained. On North Lena Island near Hong Kong P. 
sancti-johannis was found, and on Formosa P. cyclopsis occurs. 
The Philippine Archipelago has two species, P. philippinensis ranging 
over the larger islands from Luzon to Mindanao, and on the latter 
is a somewhat doubtful form P. p. apoensis from Mt. Apo. In the 
Sulu Sea from Cagayan Island P. cagayanus was procured and a 
form P. suluensis, (skull only described), from the Island of Sulu, not 
yet definitely established. China contains several large species of 
Pithecus, and from Kuatun, in the province of Fu Kien on the coast 
opposite the Island of Formosa, P. littoralis came, its range how- 
ever unknown. In the Province of Setchuen two species are found, 
P. vestitus, a dweller of the mountains, and which extends its range 
to Tengri-Nor in Batang, Thibet, and P. lasiotis, this last species 
going to the Dupleix Mountains up to an elevation of 13,000 feet, in 
the Province of Tche-li. Thibet has one other species, P. tiiibeta- 
num from the mountains of Moupin, its range however not yet known. 
At Lolab, Cashmere, is P. villosus, its range unknown. One species 



188 PITHECUS 

only remains to be mentioned, P. fuscatus from Japan, which is found 
in the Islands of Yakushima and Nippon to 14° North Latitude, and 
common on the hills about Kyoto. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Tail nearly rudimentary 1^-3^ inches in length. 

a. Color dark brown or blackish above P. speciosus. 

b. Color dark reddish chocolate P. harmandi. 

c. Color red or golden red P. rufescens. 

d. Color dark brown, hairs banded with yellow 

and black P. fuscatus. 

B. Tail over Z T / 2 and under 8 inches in length. 

a. Color blackish brown tinged with chestnut P. thibetanum. 

b. Color dark gray, hairs tipped with yellowish 

brown P. vestitus. 

c. Color buff grading to brick dust red on 

rump P. sancti-johannis. 

d. Color dark orange P. lasiotis. 

e. Color bistre P. pagensis. 

C. Tail 8 inches in length but not over 12 inches. 

a. Color tawny ochraceous and black P. villosus. 

b. Color tawny olive and black grading into russet ... P. littoralis. 

c. Color olive tinged with brown P. cyclopsis. 

d. Color uniform black above to rump P. nemestrinus. 

e. Color, upper back bright russet, lower back 

light ochraceous buff. 

a.' Large, tail 230 mm P. adustus. 

b! Small, tail 183 mm P. insulanus. 

f. Color reddish brown, crown mummy brown . P. andamanensis. 

g. Color brown washed with yellowish P. assamensis. 

h. Color bistre with grayish tinge, and buff 

speckled, grading to orange on lower back P. rhesus. 

i. Color speckled black and russet, rump dark 

orange rufous P. brevicaudus. 

D. Tail over 12 inches but not as long as head and 

body. 

a. With beard and ruff around the face P. albibarbatus. 

b. Without beard or ruff. 

a.' Hairs on head radiating from a central 
point. 



PITHECUS 189 

a." Color dark brown and buff in 

bands, giving a reddish brown hue P. sinicus. 

b" Color dark reddish brown P. pileatus. 

b! Hairs on head not radiating from a 
central point. 

a." Color isabella speckled with buff P. resimus. 

b" Color Prout's brown washed with 

olive and speckled with buff P. validus. 

c." Color hazel with black and tawny 

annulations P. alacer. 

d." Color tawny ochraceous, hairs 
purplish gray and banded with 

tawny ochraceous and black P. karimoni. 

e." Color blackish brown, hairs 

banded with wood brown P. fuscus. 

E. Tail as long as, or exceeding the head and body, 
o. Hands black and buff, color blackish, hairs 

with subterminal cream buff ring P. umbrosus. 

b. Hands brownish black; color grayish olive 

banded with cream buff P. irus. 

c. Hands gray ; color reddish brown, 

speckled with golden buff and blackish 

brown P. mordax. 

d. Hands olive gray, color tawny umber; 

ascending ramus of mandible broad and 

low P. fascicularis. 

e. Hands gray, yellow speckled; color ochra- 

ceous buff; ascending ramus of man- 
dible narrow and high P. tnandibularis. 

f. Hands and feet gray, color yellowish 

brown ; skull and teeth large P. capitalis. 

g. Hands grayish cream; color wood brown 

tinged with red P. latus. 

h. Hands gray and cream buff; color tawny 

and black P. lingungcnsis. 

i. Hands bluish gray and cream buff ; color 

tawny ochraceous and brownish black P. lautcnsis. 

j. Hands pale gray and cream buff; color 

blackish brown and ochraceous P. sirhasscncnsis. 

k. Hands yellowish gray; color wood brown 

banded with black and yellow P. ritiis. 



190 PITHECUS 

I. Hands dark gray and whitish ; color mottled 

blackish brown and buff washed with 

gray P. carimatce. 

m. Hands bluish gray annulated with cream 

buff and black; color dark buff yellow 

and black P. baweanus. 

n. Hands yellowish ; color ochraceous buff and 

black P. cupidus. 

o. Hands and feet smoke gray P. agnatus. 

p. Hands dark brown ; color tawny ochraceous 

and black. 

a! Feet dark brown P. phceura. 

b! Feet yellowish gray P. lapsus. 

q. Hands dark brown washed with buff ; color 

rusty P. lingce. 

r. Hands dark brownish gray and buff; color 

ochraceous and black P. impudens. 

s. Hands iron gray speckled with buff, color 

burnt umber and black. 
a.' Width of rostrum equal to the length ; 

tooth rows straight P. bintangensis. 

b! Width of rostrum greater than length ; 

tooth rows curved, longer P. dollmani. 

t. Hands tawny olive; color raw umber and 

black P. philippinensis. 

u. Hands olive gray ; color yellowish olive and 

black P. p. apoensis. 

v. Hands drab gray, color olive brown? (alco- 
holic specimen) P. cagayanus. 

w. Hands ochraceous buff and black; color 

ochraceous rufous and black P. pumillus. 

x. Hands and color? Skull alone known P. suluensis. 

Subgenus Inuus. 

Tail short, thick, hair rather long. 

Pithecus speciosus (F. Cuvier) . 

Macacus speciosus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1825, pi. XLVII ; 
Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 30; I. Geoff., Belang., Voy., 
1834, p. 6. 



PITHECUS 191 

Macacus arctoides I. Geoff ., Mag. Zool., 1833, p. 6, pi. II ; Id. 

Voy. Belang., Zool., 1834, p. 61 ; Id. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., 

Paris, II, 1843, p. 575, (Part.) ; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 

31; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 142, pi. 

XXIV, fig. 371 ; Anders., Exped. Yunnan, Zool., 1878, p. 45, 

pis. I, II; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 116; 

Blanf., Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm, 1891, p. 17; Forbes, Handb. 

Primates, II, 1894, p. 8, (Part.) ; Flow., Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1900, p. 315. 
Papio melanotus ( !) Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1839, p. 31. 
Pithecus arctoides Blainv., Osteogr., Mamm., I, 1839, p. 64, Atl., 

pi. VII. 
Inuus arctoides Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 146; 

V, 1855, p. 57. 
Pithecus (Macacus) arctoides Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. 

Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 116, 118. 
Macacus melanotus ( !) Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 29. 
Macacus brunneus Anders., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 628; 

1872, p. 203, pi. XII, juv.; 1874, p. 652; Sclat., Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1875, p. 332. 
Inuus speciosus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., XLIV, 1875, ext. 

no. p. 6. 

BROWN MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Unknown. Species established on a drawing by 
Duvaucel. 

Geogr. Distr. Upper Burma, (Cachar) ; Upper Assam; Kakhyen 
Hills on frontier of Yunnan; not found in Irawady Valley, (Ander- 
son) ; Cochin China; Borneo. 

Genl. Char. Tail nearly obsolete. No black cap on head; face 
red. 

Color. General color of head, body and limbs dark reddish brown, 
the hairs ringed with black and pale yellow; under parts yellowish 
white; hands and feet dark reddish brown. Face red. Ex type of 
M. arctoides I. Geoff., in Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 149; occipito-nasal length, 
126 ; Hensel, 101 ; intertemporal width, 46 ; palatal length, 60 ; width of 
braincase, 70; median length of nasals, 26; length of upper molar 
series, 39 ; length of mandible, 99 ; length of lower molar series, 49. 

F. Cuvier (1. c.) described and figured a Macaque with a very 
short tail, founded upon a drawing of Duvaucel and called it speci- 



192 PITHECUS 

osus, and this name has since been applied to both the Macaque of 
Japan and the Indian Macaque afterwards named arctoides by I. 
Geoffroy. There are but three very short tailed Macaques to which 
Cuvier's name could, probably, have been applied: the Japanese 
species ; the arctoides Geoff. ; and the nemestrinus Linn. The latter 
with its black cap can be at once removed as answering neither 
Cuvier's figure nor description ; and it would not be at all likely, though 
possible, that, at the time Cuvier published his description, a speci- 
men of a Macaque from Japan would come into his possession, as 
Japan was closed to the world at that date, and the exportation of 
specimens of Natural History would be most improbable. Cuvier does 
not state where Duvaucel saw the animal he drew, and we have no 
information on that point. However, both description and figure 
fairly represent the animal from Burma and Cochin China, etc. and 
the latter does not exhibit the long loose fur of the Japanese Macaque, 
but shows the short more compact fur of the better known species. 
The evidence, therefore, would seem to show that Cuvier's species is 
the Macaque afterwards described by I. Geoffroy, and not the one from 
Japan. 

Anderson in Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, p. 652, states that he 
compared a specimen of his M. brunneus with Geoffroy's type of M. 
arctoides in the Paris Museum, and that these are not the same, but 
does not indicate in what the difference exists. He farther remarks 
that M. brunneus is more closely allied to M. speciosus of Japan than 
it is to M. arctoides. In the volume for the year 1876, p. 332, however, 
according to Sclater, he retracts his previous opinion and now^onsiders 
M. brunneus and M. arctoides the same. A specimen in the British 
Museum from the Zoological Society has no tail, and small callosities, 
and resembles very much Gray's melanotus ( !) . It is a young individual 
with the last molar in both jaws not having yet appeared, the upper 
canines still represented by the milk teeth, and only the points of the 
lower canines visible in the mandible. In color it is dark brown or chest- 
nut with the dorsal region quite black. The hairs on head, flanks and 
arms are but faintly annulated. There is no tail at all, and there is a 
crest of hair on back of head, and the callosities are small and shaped 
something like a parallelogram ; so that the skin resembles very much 
a young Cynopithecus, but the skull has not the broad rostrum of the 
members of that genus, and is that of a young macaque, so if there has 
been no mistake, and the skull really belongs to the specimen, the 
example must be referred to Pithecus, otherwise I should consider it 
a Cynopithecus niger juv. The specimen was presented by the 



PITHECUS 193 

Zoological Society, and is stated to have come from Madras, from 
which port the animal was probably shipped to London, but the 
locality in which it was procured is not known. 

Pithecus haemandi (Trouessart) . 

Macacus harmandi A. Milne-Ed., MS. Paris Museum; Trouess., 
Le Natural., 1897, p. 10, desc. ; Id. Cat. Mamm. Vivant quam 
Fossil., 1898-99, p. 29, (desc. footnote). 

Type locality. Mountains between Cambogia and Siam. Type 
in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Known from type locality only. 

Genl. Char. Size moderate, body thick-set, limbs rather long, tail 
a button. Hairs radiating from middle of forehead. 

Color. Male. Head, rump, limbs, hands and feet, hairs uni- 
formly colored not annulated, glossy reddish chocolate brown; back, 
shoulders, arms to elbows and sides black ; under parts reddish brown. 
Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : total length, 145 ; occipito-nasal length, 
121; intertemporal width, 47; Hensel, 98; breadth of braincase, 70; 
zygomatic width, 96 ; palatal length, 62 ; median length of nasals, 25 ; 
length of upper molar series, 40; length of mandible, 94; length of 
lower molar series, 50. Ex type Paris Museum. 

This is another small thick-set baboon of a general dark reddish 
chocolate color, black on forepart of back and on shoulders. The 
middle of the forehead is nearly bare and forms a kind of raised lump, 
not seen on skull, from the sides of which the hairs radiate to the sides 
and back of head, but not to the front. There is a sparse chocolate 
colored beard on the chin. Possibly a melanistic individual of P. 
speciosus. The type is a young animal, though probably fully grown. 

Pithecus rufescens Anderson. 

Macacus rufescens Anders., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 204, 
Juv.; Id. Zool. Exped. Yunnan, 1878, p. 79; Sclat., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 495, pi. XXIV; 1873, p. 83 ; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 11; Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1900, p. 315; Bonhote, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1900, 
p. 871, desc. 

Macacus arctoidcs Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simia?, 1876, p. 116, 
(Part.). 

RUFOUS SHORT-TAILED MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in British Museum. 



194 PITHECUS 

Geogr. Distr. Tenasserim; range unknown. 

Genl. Char. Hairs on top of head radiating from a central point, 
tail rudimentary, merely a stump, molar teeth very large. 

Color. Head and upper parts banded with golden red and tipped 
with black, giving this part a reddish hazel appearance ; sides of body 
and outer sides of limbs bright red, which may be described as a bright 
cinnamon, the legs being reddest; hands brownish, darker than fore- 
arms, hairs banded with ochraceous and black; feet reddish brown 
darker than legs ; under parts and inner side of limbs paler. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Anderson describes this specimen in Zool. Exped. Yunnan, as 
brick red, but it is much too dark for that color, and is more near a 
rather bright golden cinnamon, darkest on upper parts where the black 
tips of the hairs are in evidence. The hairs on sides of body and limbs 
are unicolor without black tips, which produces the brighter hue 
presented by them. The animal is very small, about two thirds the 
size of P. speciosus F. Cuv., probably only half grown as the skull 
shows it to be quite young. The molar teeth are very large, unusually 
so considering the age of the individual, the second molar exceeding 
in size any in the adult skulls of other species. 

Measurements. Total length, 490; tail, 30; hind foot, 38, (skin). 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 90.7 ; Hensel, 73.9 ; zygomatic width, 74.2 ; 
intertemporal width, 44.4 ; palatal length, 68.8 ; median length of nasals, 
13.7; length of mandible, 74.5. 

The last molars in both jaws not having yet appeared, a measure- 
ment of the tooth rows cannot be given. Size of second upper molar, 
.95 x .96. Ex type British Museum. 

An adult female, which I consider to be of this species from 
Victoria Point, Tenasserim, is in the United States National Museum 
collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott. Top of head where the hair radiates 
is golden and yellow and black, the hairs annulated with these colors 
and tipped with black; upper parts burnt umber and mummy brown 
the latter most abundant between shoulders and on rump ; outer side 
of limbs red, with an orange tinge; under parts, hairs very scanty, 
reddish. 

Measurements. Total length, 540; tail, 40. Weight, 18^4 lb. 
Skull: total length, 123.9; occipito-nasal length, 103.9; intertemporal 
width, 46.3; zygomatic width, 82.9; palatal length, 45.5; length of 
upper molar series, 35.7 ; length of mandible, 89.5 ; length of lower 
molar series, 42 ; second upper molar, .91 x .87. 



VOLUME II. 





PlTHECUS NEMESTRINUS. 



PITHECUS 195 

Pithecus fuscatus (Blyth). 

Inuus fuscatus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., XLIV, 1875, extra 
no. p. 6. 

Cynopithecus speciosus (nee Cuv.), Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, 
p. 102. 

Inuus speciosus (nee Cuv.), Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 
1840, p. 146; V, 1855, p. 58; Gray, Handb. Mamm. Brit. 
Mus., 1843, p. 8; Schinz, Syn. Mamm., I, 1844, p. 59; Temm., 
Faun. Japon., Mamm., 1847, p. 9, pi. I, figs. 1-8, pi. II, figs. 
1-6. 

Macacus speciosus (nee Cuv.), I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 
31; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 141, pi. 
XXIV, figs. 365, 366; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 
p. 710; 1875, p. 418; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, 
p. 563, (footnote) ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 32; Murie, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1872, p. 780; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 
p. 114. 

Pithecus (Macacus) speciosus Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. 
Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 116, 119. 

Macacus fuscatus Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1905, p. 336; 
Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1906, p. 558. 

JAPANESE MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Japan, locality unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. Islands of Yakushima and Nippon to 41° North 
Latitude ; common in the hills about Kyoto. 

Genl. Char. Fur thick, soft, long; whiskers and beard present; 
face naked ; tail short ; callosities large. 

There are a number of specimens of this species in the British 
Museum, from various parts of Japan, of both sexes, and from one 
of each of these I have taken the following descriptions : 

Color. Male. Yakushima Island. No. 5. 11. 3. 1. The general 
appearance is that of a blackish brown animal speckled with yellow, 
the hairs on upper parts of the body being grayish, uniform on basal 
half, and then banded with black and buff for the rest of the length, 
and tipped with buff. This is also the general coloring of the head and 
limbs. A black streak on the forehead just above the eyes extending 
backwards over the ears to nape; face partly naked, cheeks covered 
with short buffy hairs ; hands and feet black ; chin, throat, entire under 
parts and inner side of limbs gray ; tail very short, hairs gray at base, 



196 PITHECUS 

then banded with ochraceous and black, giving it a reddish hue below 
the black. 

Female. No. 5. 11. 3. 5. resembles the male in markings, but is 
generally paler, especially on the head, legs, hands and feet. The top 
of the head is broccoli brown, the legs and feet wood brown, and 
hands mixed black and buff. The hair of both examples, like the 
species generally, is very long and fluffy, and hangs down covering the 
sides of the body and concealing the ears. The whiskers are long and 
bushy. Tail very short, covered thickly with rather long hair. 

Measurements. Male. Total length, 720 ; tail, to end of hairs, 80 ; 
foot, 140, (skin). Skull: total length, 127.7; occipito-nasal length, 
111.3; zygomatic width, 85.8; intertemporal width, 42.9; breadth of 
braincase, 63.7; palatal length, 49.1; median length of nasals, 33.5; 
length of upper molar series, 33.4 ; length of mandible, 92.5 ; length of 
lower molar series, 38.4. 

A female from Tuino, Tokushima Keu, Shikokio, Japan, in the 
British Museum differs considerably in color from those described 
above, as there are no black bands on the hairs and very few black 
tips, so that the general color is a reddish brown. The hair on the 
legs and feet is unicolor, a grayish brown without bars or colored tips, 
as is also that on cheeks and about ears, although in these places the 
tips of the hairs are ochraceous buff as on the body hairs. The arms 
and hands are brown approaching a hair brown but darker, and the 
apical half is banded with brownish black and cream buff, and tipped 
with brownish black. Under parts and inner side of limbs whitish. 
Tail pale yellowish brown, brownish red near tip, above, reddish at 
root ; beneath yellowish brown. 

Measurements. Total length, 681 ; tail, 80 ; foot, 149 ; ear, 47, 
(Collector). 

Pithecus thibetanum A. Milne-Edwards. 

Macacus thibetanum A. Milne-Edw., Compt. Rend., LXX, 1870, 
p. 341 ; Id. Recherch. Mamm, 1868-74, p. 244, pis. XXXIV, 
XXXV; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., XLIV, 1875, extr. 
no. p. 7; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 112; 
Anders., Res. Zool. Exped. Yunnan, 1878, p. 79. 

SHORT-TAILED THIBET MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Mountains of Moupin, Thibet. Type in Paris 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size large; limbs long; body apparently less thick- 
set than P. vestitus or other large Macaques ; tail very short. 




5 

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CL .• 



. 



PITHECUS 197 

Color. Top of head and nape pale brown; face, whiskers, inner 
sides of limbs and under parts whitish gray ; upper parts and sides of 
body, arms, hands, thighs and feet, blackish brown tinged with chest- 
nut; legs from knees to ankles whitish gray, tinged with brown. Ex 
type in Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length about 925 ; tail, 99.06. Skull : total 
length, 161; occipito-nasal length, 133; Hensel, 114; intertemporal 
width, 44 ; palatal length, 62 ; breadth of braincase, 69 ; median length 
of nasals, 35; length of upper molar series, 39; length of mandible, 
120 ; length of lower molar series, 50. Ex type Paris Museum. 

A fine, large, quite distinct species. 

Pithecus vestitus (A. Milne-Edwards). 

Macacus vestitus A. Milne-Edw., Rev. gen. Scien., 1892, p. 671, 
(note). 

Type locality. Kian Tatie, Thibet. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Mountains of Setchuen, China, to Tengri-Nor in 
Batang, Thibet. 

Genl. Char. Size large, body compact, heavy; limbs rather 
short, hands and feet small ; hair long, thick, loose ; tail short, bushy ; 
hairs on forehead erect, directed forward. 

Color. Hairs on top of head, nape, and shoulders, dark gray, 
tipped with yellowish brown ; arms dark gray, tips of hairs whitish ; 
middle of back reddish brown; lower part of back paler yellowish 
brown, grading into deep buff tinged with orange on sides of rump and 
thighs ; lower part of hind limbs yellowish gray ; under parts and inner 
side of limbs grayish white ; hands and feet brownish gray ; tail above 
like sides of rump, beneath yellowish gray. Face covered with short 
white hair; whiskers grayish white; hairs on ears yellowish brown. 
Ex type in Paris Museum. 

Measurements. About equal in size to P. thibetanum. Skull : 
total length, 141; occipito-nasal length, 117; Hensel, 93; zygomatic 
width, 100; intertemporal width, 49; palatal length, 57; breadth of 
braincase, 69; median length of nasals, 26; length of upper molar 
series, 40; length of mandible, 100; length of lower molar series, 47. 
Ex type, male, in Paris Museum. 

This is a pale colored Macaque, gray or grayish white on fore 
part of body, speckled with yellowish brown grading into a yellowish 
white, speckled with yellowish brown on back and washed with huff. 
and tinged with orange on the rump and thighs. The color of the 



198 PITHECUS 

callosities cannot be ascertained. The animal is very thickly covered 
with long loose hairs, to enable it to resist the high altitude it inhabits. 

PlTHECUS SANCTI-JOHANNIS Swinhoe. 

Inuus sancti-johannis Swinh., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, p. 
555; 1870, p. 615; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 
222 ; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., XLIV, 1875, extra no. 
p. 5. 

Macacus sancti-johannis Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 129 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, 
Simise, 1876, p. 115, (text) ; Anders., Zool. Exped. Yunnan, 
1878, p. 86; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 29. 

Macacus rhesus Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 222, (nee 
Audebert). 

SAINT-JOHN MACAQUE. 

Type locality. North Lena Island, Hong Kong, China. Type in 
British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Known only from the type locality. 

Color. Type specimen, quite a young animal, too young to desig- 
nate a species upon, is in alcohol in the British Museum, and mindful 
of the changes spirits not infrequently create, it seems best to give 
Swinhoe's own description as it appeared when he procured it. The 
specimen is a female. "Eyes bright hazel ; face and ears flesh-colored ; 
a black tuft on either cheek like whiskers; skin of nude parts tinted 
with blue and sparsely grayish brown, covered with hairs of a light 
gray ; the hairs on the belly buff ; fur of upper parts washed with buff, 
which is lighter on the head, and brick-dust red around and about the 
rump. Tail Ay 2 inches, blackish, callosities flesh colored. Face narrow 
somewhat projecting." 

Measurements. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 78.6; Hensel, 51.3; 
zygomatic width, 57.8; intertemporal breadth, 41.2; palatal length, 
25.2; median length of nasals, 12.9; length of mandible, 58.8. 

The animal was only about four months old and had not its com- 
plement of teeth, and it is impossible to decide whether it represents a 
new species or one already known. Adults from the same locality 
must be first procured before an accurate decision can be arrived at. 

Pithecus lasiotis (Gray). 

Macacus lasiotis Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 61, pi. VI ; 
Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 129; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 222; A. 



PITHECUS 199 

Milne-Edw., Recher. Mamm., 1868-74, p. 229 ; Schleg., Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 113; Anders., Exped. Yunnan, 
Zool., 1878, p. 83 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 25 ; 
Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., F. C. M. Pub., VIII, 
1906, p. 557, Zool. Ser. 
Macacus tcheliensis A. Milne-Edw., Recher. Mamm., 1868-74, p. 
227, pis. XXXII, XXXIII, ? ; David, Journ. N. China Branch 
Asiat. Soc, 1873, p. 220; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simian, 
1876, p. 113; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, p. 537; 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 22. 

HAIRY-EARED MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Province of Setchuen, China. Type in British 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Provinces of Setchuen and Tche-li, western and 
north-eastern China. Dupleix Mountains, 13,000 feet elevation, (Bon- 
valot). 

Genl. Char. Size large ; ears hairy ; hairs of back and flanks with 
rufous termination ; tail of type amputated. 

Color. Top of head, neck and back nearly to rump, the hairs are 
slaty olive for basal two thirds their length, then banded with black 
and tawny, giving the appearance when the fur is smoothed down of 
a dark orange hue, the tawny bars overpowering the other hues ; this 
color grades on the rump into uniform bright orange ; arms slaty olive, 
hairs tipped with tawny ; upper part of legs dark cinnamon, a very diffi- 
cult hue to designate as it grades off from the orange of the rump, 
and becomes neither red nor brown; sides of head, throat and chest 
olive gray ; abdomen olive gray, hairs tipped with ochraceous ; hands 
blackish; feet mixed black and dark cinnamon. The tail has disap- 
peared altogether. Face flesh color. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 610; foot, 163, (skin). Skull: 
total length, 133.5; occipito-nasal length, 112.3; zygomatic width, 99; 
intertemporal width, 49.4; breadth of braincase, 70.2; median length 
of nasals, 22.5 ; palatal length, 53.5 ; facial length, 65.8 ; length of upper 
molar series, 34.2; length of mandible, 97.1; length of lower molar 
series, 41.1. Ex type British Museum. 

This is a large monkey, with long fluffy loose hairs of a rich 
coloring, the back especially appearing a rich orange, growing paler 
on the legs, while the arms retain the olive gray and tawny hue of the 
head and upper back. The type was alive in the Zoological Gardens of 
London and was always ranged with the short-tailed Macaques, but 
after its death it was discovered that the tail had been cut below the 



200 PITHECUS 

third vertebra, so it probably originally had a caudal appendage as long 
as tcheliensis at least. The tufts of hairs on the ears, from which 
this species obtained its name, have now disappeared from the type, 
and the ears are nearly bare. 

Macacus tcheliensis of Milne-Edwards, from the Province of 
Tche-li, North-eastern China, was described from a female which is 
in the Paris Museum. It is undoubtedly the same as the present 
species and consequently extends the range of M. lasiotis farther to 
the west, even to the borders of Thibet. 

Pithectjs pagensis (Miller). 

Macacas pagensis Miller, Smith. Misc. Coll., XLV, 1903, p. 61, pis. 
XI, XII, XIII. 

Type locality. South Pagi Island, west of Sumatra. Type in 
United States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to P. nemestrinus but much smaller ; color 
darker ; teeth as in P. nemestrinus but smaller. 

Color. Top of head and upper parts bistre ; flanks Isabella ; outer 
surface of arms light russet; of legs dark isabella; of thighs bistre; 
inner surface of limbs, and the belly isabella ; throat and chest fawn ; 
sides of neck grayish cream buff ; cheeks dark brown ; hands and feet 
dusky brownish; tail with light isabella hairs throughout; "Callosities 
fleshy brown ; palms and soles fleshy brown." Ex type United States 
National Museum. 

Measurements. Female. Total length, 580 ; tail, 145 ; foot, 125. 
Skull: total length, 109; occipito-nasal length, 92.4; Hensel, 74.6; 
zygomatic breadth, 70.8 ; width of braincase above roots of zygomata, 
60.6 ; palatal length, 43.3 ; median length of nasals, 23.9 ; length of 
upper molar series, 31.5 ; crown of last upper molar, 7.8 x 7; length of 
mandible, 78.5 ; length of lower molar series, 34.2. Ex type United 
States National Museum. 

This is a very small Macaque, with the upper parts black or nearly 
so, this color going over to the sides, forming a very conspicuous 
contrast to the russet limbs. The type is unique. 

Subgenus Nemestrinus. 

Tail not under 8 nor over 12 inches in length. 

Pithectjs villosus (True) . 

Macacus rhesus villosus True, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVII, 
1894, p. 2. 



PITHECUS 201 

Type locality. Lolob, Cashmere. Type in United States National 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Fur long, loose, woolly; tail very short, bushy. 

Color. Top and sides of head and upper parts tawny ochraceous 
and black, in some examples rich orange red on lower back and rump, 
the hairs being gray at base and banded with the two other colors; 
outer side of arms grayish brown, hairs barred with cream buff ; outer 
side of legs buff, hairs annulated with ochraceous buff; inner side of 
arms dark gray ; throat and under parts and inner side of legs yellow- 
ish white ; hands like arms, ringers covered with long gray hairs ; feet 
pale gray drab, toes hidden by long hairs ; tail above like back at base, 
becoming more yellowish towards tip; face flesh color, nearly nude. 
Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 886; tail, 287; foot, dry skin, 166. 
Skull: total length, 131.5; occipito-nasal length, 107.4; Hensel, 94 
zygomatic width, 94; intertemporal width, 43.7; palatal length, 53.4 
median length of nasals, 22.7; length of upper molar series, 35.8 
length of mandible, 95 ; length of lower molar series, 40.9. Ex type 
United States National Museum. 

This fine species is quite different from all the very short tailed 
Macaques, and some examples are much redder on lower back and 
rump than P. rhesus. The type is among the least red of the speci- 
mens procured. 

PlTHECUS LITTORALIS Elliot. 

Pithecus littoralis Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 1909, 
p. 250. 

Type locality. Kuatun, Province of Fukein, China. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. General hue tawny olive and black; tail short, bushy ; 
fur loose, long, soft. 

Color. Female. Top of head and hind neck mummy brown 
speckled with ochraceous buff; upper parts tawny olive and black 
grading into uniform russet on the rump ; arms to elbows tawny olive, 
paler than the back; lower arms and hands olive brown speckled with 
yellow; outer surface of thighs russet; legs and feet buff with an olive 
tinge; sides of head tawny olive; long, brown and black, stiff hairs 
over eyes on brow, inclining upward and to either side; entire under 
parts and inner side of limbs yellowish gray ; tail above at base dark- 
russet, darker than rump, remainder brownish black: beneath buff 



202 PITHECUS 

yellow; face flesh color covered sparsely with blackish brown hairs. 
Ex type British Museum No. O. 5. 8. 1. 

Measurements. Total length, 810; tail, imperfect, 200; from 
another specimen with complete tail, No. 71. 3. 3. 5 ; to end of hairs 
280. Skull: total length, 118.6; occipito-nasal length, 102.7; Hensel, 
79.3 ; zygomatic width, 83.7 ; intertemporal width, 46 ; width of brain- 
case, 64.2 ; median length of nasals, 19.8 ; palatal length, 45.5 ; length 
of upper molar series, 33.2 ; length of mandible, 85.4 ; length of lower 
molar series, 37. Ex type British Museum. 

There are three specimens in the British Museum all females, 
but agreeing in texture and color of fur, two from Kuatun, and the 
third from the Zoological Society Gardens, evidently erroneously 
attributed to Cashmere. Both the Kuatun examples have lost a por- 
tion of their tails, but the third specimen has a tail of normal length. 
In general coloring this animal resembles P. tcheliensis Milne-Edwards 
= P. lasiotis Gray, but the great distance intervening between the 
habitats, nearly the entire width of China, does not permit the supposi- 
tion that they are of the same species. It is a much paler animal than 
P. lasiotis. It can only be regarded as the south coast representative 
of the Setchuen species P. lasiotis of which P. tcheliensis is the 
female, with the loose, soft, fluffy fur. The male probably when pro- 
cured will be darker in color. 

Pithecus cyclopsis (Swinhoe). 

Macacus cyclopsis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1862, p. 350, 
pi. XLII; 1864, p. 380; 1870, p. 615; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1864, pp. 710, 711, fig.; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 
and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 12 ; Murie, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 772; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, 
Simiae, 1876, p. Ill; Anders., Zool. Exped. Yunnan, 1878, 
p. 86; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 28. 

Macacus (radiatus) affinis Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Asiat. Soc. Mus., 
1863, p. 8, (Formosa). 

Macacus (sinicus) affinis Anders., Exped. Yunnan, Zool., 1878, 
p. 91, (footnote). 

FORMOSA MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Island of Formosa. Type in British Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Known only as from the Island of Formosa. 
Genl. Char. Fur thick, woolly; whiskers and beard present, the 
latter short ; ears small, hairy ; tail stout, tufted. 

Color. Hairs of head and upper parts of body purplish gray, 



mo» 



PITHECUS 203 

banded on apical half with buff, giving a dark olive brown hue to 
the pelage; hairs on arms and hands darker purplish; back sparsely 
speckled with yellow; legs olive speckled with yellow; feet grayish 
brown; under parts and inner side of limbs whitish gray; tail black 
above, olive gray beneath, tip purplish black. Ex type British Museum. 

Top of head and upper parts olive gray with a brownish tinge, 
the hairs ringed or speckled with yellow; arms darker gray; legs 
more yellowish ; chin and line on sides of face, and inner side of limbs 
white; tail same color above as back with a bla^c line down the 
center, beneath paler; hands and feet yellowish brown, fingers and 
toes gray ; under parts whitish ; face pale flesh color, eyes hazel. No 
callosities, or else hidden in fur. Ex living individual in Zoological 
Gardens, Kyoto, Japan. 

Measurements. Total length, 750; tail, 305; foot, 120. Skull: 
total length, 117.9; occipito-nasal length, 101.9; Hensel, 82.1; zygo- 
matic width, 83.4; intertemporal width, 47.5; breadth of braincase, 
60.7; median length of nasals, 17.9; palatal length, 14.2; length of 
upper molar series, 35.3 ; length of mandible, 85.3 ; length of lower 
molar series, 41.6. Ex type British Museum, juv. J\ 

The type is a young male, and is very much darker than the fine 
living animal in the Zoological Garden at Kyoto, which came from 
Formosa. It is probable that when the type should have reached the 
adult state, the arms would have become lighter from an increase of 
the yellow bands on the hairs, which are not so numerous as on the 
upper parts. There is no indication on the type, nor was there in the 
living animal in Kyoto, of any orange red hue on the hinder parts or 
thighs so characteristic of P. rhesus. The Kyoto animal was much 
the older, and looked fully adult. 

Mr. Swinhoe (1. c.) gives the following account of this monkey 
as learned by him in Formosa : "This, as far as I could learn, was the 
only species of Monkey in the Island of Formosa. It affects rocks 
and declivities that overhang the sea, and in the solitary caverns makes 
its abode. On the treeless mountain in the S. W. called Ape's Hill, 
it was at one time especially abundant, but has since almost entirely 
disappeared. About the mountains of the north and east it is still 
numerous, being frequently seen playing and chattering among the 
steep rocks, miles from any tree or wood. It seems to be quite a rock- 
loving animal, seeking the shelter of caves during the greater part of 
the day, and assembling in parties in the twilight, and feeding on 
berries, the tender shoots of plants, grasshoppers, Crustacea and 



204 PITHECUS 

mollusca. In summer it comes in numbers during the night, and 
commits depredations among the fields of sugar cane, as well as among 
fruit-trees, showing partiality for the small, round, clustering berries 
of the Longan, Nephelium longanum. In the caverns among these 
hills they herd; and in June the females may be frequently seen in 
retired parts of the hills, with their solitary young ones at their breasts. 

"These animals betray much uneasiness at human approach, 
disappearing in no time, and skulking in their holes until the intruder 
has passed. They seem, too, to possess abundance of self complacence 
and resource; for I have frequently seen a Monkey seated on a rock 
by himself, chattering and crying merely for his own amusement and 
gratification. Whatever Mr. Waterton may say of the tree-loving 
propensities of Monkeys in general, it is very certain that this species 
shows a marked preference for bare rocks, covered only with grass 
and bush; for if he preferred the forest he might very easily satisfy 
his desire by retiring a few miles further inland, where he could find 
it in abundance. But, on the contrary, in the forest, he is only 
occasionally an intruder, resorting thither when foods fail him on the 
grassy hills by the sea, where he loves to make his home. 

"Rock-Monkeys are also found, I am told, in the Island of Lintin, 
near Hong Kong, as well as on a few other islands on the Chinese 
coast; but, as I have never seen any of them, I am unable to say 
whether they are of the same species as the Formosan. The Chinese 
have a fanciful idea that the tail of a Monkey is a caricature of the 
Tartar pendant into which they twist their long black hair, and they 
invariably chop it off any Monkey that comes into their possession. 
Hence the difficulty of procuring Monkeys in China with perfect 
tails." 

The female of this monkey on arriving at maturity exhibits the 
most extraordinary development of the region at the root of the tail, 
and not only are the callosities and external genital organs swollen 
but the tail itself at the proximal end is greatly increased. The skins 
and subcutaneous tissues are enormously extended, and colored purple, 
deep red, and roseate, and hang in deep folds as if overcharged with 
blood, the whole affair assuming a hideous aspect. This immense 
dilatation of the buttocks is provided for by an aberrant adaptation of 
the ischial bones, and Dr. Murie (1. c.) in his examination of the 
skeleton found that the "pelvic bones have a most unusual curvature 
in their long axis, certainly very different from the Rhesus and other 
Macaques. The ilium anteriorly overrides the sacrum far more than 
is ordinarily the case. Its upper surface is markedly concave trans- 



PITHECUS 205 

versely, but longitudinally is strongly convex. * * * A special 
feature is the thrusting forward of the pubes, and partly the ischia, 
leaving a wide interval, therefore, between the buttocks and tail." 

Pithecus nemestrinus (Linnaeus). 

Simla nemestrina Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 35 ; Schreb., 

Saugth., 1775, p. 79, pi. IX; Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 

57; Gmel., Syst. Nat, I, 1788, p. 28; Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, Pt. 

I, 1800, p. 25, pi. XIV; Fisch., Syn. Mamm, 1829, p. 29. 
Papio nemestrinus Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 20. 
Cynocephalus nemestrinus Latr., Nat. Hist. Buffon, (Sonnini 

ed.), 1809, p. 291. 
Inuus nemestrinus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 

1812, p. 101 ; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 17; Wagn., Schreb., 

Saugth. Suppl., I, 1840, p. 143 ; V, 1855, p. 57. 
Macacus nemestrinus Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 66; F. Cuv., Hist. 

Nat. Mamm., Livr. XLII, 1822; 2me ed., 1833, p. 95, pis. 

XXXIII, XXXIV; Less., Man. Mamm., 1827, p. 143; E. 

Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 23, 8me Legon ; 

Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 95; Gray, Handb. Mamm. 

Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 7; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 30; 

Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 139, pi. XXIV, 

figs. 349-353 ; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 562 ; 

Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 

Mus., 1870, p. 29; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 

110; Anders., Exped. Yunnan, Zool., 1878, p. 77; Blanf., 

Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., 1888, p. 20; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1893, p. 325, (Borneo) ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 

1894, p. 16; Flow., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1900, p. 315; 

Bedd., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. 161, (Brain) ; Pocock, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1906, p. 558; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. 

Field Columb. Mus., F. C. M. Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 567, Zool. 

Ser. 
Le singe a queue de cochon F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1822, 

Livr. XXXVI, pi. c?- 
Simla car pole gus Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 1822, p. 243. 
Macacus (malmon) brachyurus H. Smith, Intr. Mamm., in Xat. 

Libr., I, 1842, p. 103, pi. I, Albino. 
Pithecus (Macacus) nemestrinus Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fnm. Reg. 

Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 115, 118. 
Macaca broca Miller, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXIX, 1906, p. 55a 



206 PITHECUS 

Macaca nemestrina Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXIII, 1907, 
p. 565. 

Pithecus nemestrinus Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XL, 1911, 
p. 136. 
pig-tailed macaque. Native name Br oh, or Cocoanut Monkey of the 
English in Straits Settlements; Berok, (pronounced Broh), 
of the Malays, and Myouk-padi of the Burmese. 

Type locality. Sumatra. 

Geogr. Distr. Southern Burma, Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula, 
and islands of Banka, Sumatra, Java and Borneo. 

Color. Top of head black; sides of head ochraceous buff; back 
of head and neck mixed black and red, the black hairs being banded 
and tipped with that color ; hair on shoulders very long and reddish, the 
hairs banded with black; back behind shoulders to rump, uniform 
black; arms and hands, legs and feet reddish yellow, paler on inner 
sides ; under parts yellowish ; callosities red ; tail above black like back, 
beneath reddish yellow. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 142; Hensel, 110; zygomatic 
width, 96 ; intertemporal width, 48 ; orbital width, 62 ; palatal, length, 
64; length of upper molar series, 37; length of mandible, 112; length 
of lower molar series, 50. Ex specimen in Calcutta Museum. 

This Macaque appears to persist truer to type, no matter where 
it comes from, than any other species of the genus. There may be 
a slight variation in size, and in the width of the black dorsal area, 
perhaps a slight difference in the depth of hue of the limbs, and there 
may be individual differences in skulls, but these never are sufficient 
to cause their possessors to take a separate rank, nor are they confined 
to examples of a restricted locality. Therefore it has been found pos- 
sible to recognize only this and the two following species, irrespective 
of the locality whence the individual may have come. The type of 
P. brocus in the United States National Museum, has been examined 
with Mr. Miller's assistance, and compared with a far greater amount 
of material than was available when he described the form, and we 
have decided that it cannot be separated from P. nemestrinus and will 
have to become a synonym. 

Pithecus adustus (Miller). 

Macaca adusta Miller, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXIX, 1906, p. 559. 

SUN -BURNED MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Champang, Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula. Type 
in United States National Museum. 



PITHECUS 207 

Geogr. Distr. Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula. 

Genl. Char. Similar to P. nemestrinus, but hairs annulated. 

Color. Male. Crown blackish, neck, shoulders and upper parts 
of back bright russet annulated with black ; lower back, and upper parts 
of thighs light ochraceous buff, unspeckled near callosities ; faint dorsal 
line, blackish; arms and legs grizzled blackish and drab gray; under 
parts drab gray, darkest across belly ; hands and feet darker than limbs ; 
buttocks yellowish white ; tail above black, beneath pale brownish yel- 
low. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Female. The female is much paler in color, and is generally with- 
out the conspicuous annulations on the upper parts, which are buff 
and brownish black on lower back, and a buff brown on upper back, 
shoulders, and top of head; limbs, hands and feet yellowish brown, 
quite pale; radiating hairs from ears cream buff. No dorsal line. 
Altogether she presents a striking contrast to the male. 

Measurements. Total length, 785 ; tail, 230 ; foot, 163. Skull : 
greatest length, 136; occipito-nasal length, 111.5; breadth of braincase 
above zygomata, 64.4; Hensel, 98.1; zygomatic breadth, 94; palatal 
length, 54 ; median length of nasals, 30.7 ; length of upper molar series, 
38 ; length of mandible, 99.5 ; length of lower molar series, 46. Ex 
type United States National Museum. 

A rather remarkable species, with its long annulated hair falling 
over the shoulders and sides like a mane. It represents the Sumatran 
animal in Tenasserim. 

Pithecus insulanus (Miller). 

Macaca insulana Miller, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXIX, 1906, 
p. 560. 

CHANCE ISLAND MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Chance Island, Mergui Archipelago. 

Genl. Char. Similar to P. adustus but smaller, hair on shoulders 
longer. 

Color. A perfect replica of P. adustus but smaller in size. 

Measurements. Total length, 717; tail, 183. Skull: total length, 
130.8; occipito-nasal length, 109.3; intertemporal width, 44.2; zygo- 
matic width, 93 ; palatal length, 55 ; median length of nasals, 28.2 ; 
length of upper molar series, 32.3 ; length of mandible, 95.3 ; length of 
lower molar series, 41.8. Ex type United States National Museum. 

This is a small island representative of the Tenasserim species, 
with the hair over shoulders somewhat longer. In color there is prac- 



208 PITH EC US 

tically no difference between the forms. In the skulls there are differ- 
ences perceptible, but mainly such as the disparity in size of the two 
animals would cause. Thus, the rostrum of the present species while 
shorter is slightly broader; the braincase is also broader, but not so 
high ; orbital ridges lighter. 

PlTHECUS ANDAMANENSIS (Bartlett). 

Macacus leoninus (nee Shaw), Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. 
Soc. Beng., 1863, p. 7; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 
p. 663, pi. XXXV ; Anders., Zool. Res. Exped. Yunnan, 1878, 
p. 52; Id. Cat. Mamm., Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt. I, 1881, p. 71; 
Blanf., Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., 1891, p. 18, fig. 6; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 14; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1898, p. 280; Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1900, 
p. 316. 

Macacus andamanensis Bartl., Land and Water, VIII, 1869, p. 57 ; 
Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, p. 467, fig. 

Inuus leoninus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., XLIV, 1875, p. 2. 

BURMESE PIG-TAILED MONKEY. 

Type locality. Arakan. Type in Calcutta Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Arakan, and Valley of the Irawady, Upper Burma. 
Siam? Andaman Islands, (introduced). 

Color. Top of head mummy brown with a reddish tinge ; sides of 
head and face yellowish, this color extending down sides of neck 
behind ears; back of head and neck, back, and sides reddish brown, 
hairs banded with yellowish ; shoulders and upper part of arms more 
reddish than back and sides, the hairs banded with ochraceous ; anal 
region and hind part of thighs yellow ; arms and hands like the back ; 
legs yellowish brown much lighter than the back; feet dark brown; 
under part of body yellowish white ; tail short, slender, brownish black 
above, yellowish beneath, tip red. Ex Blyth's type Calcutta Museum. 

The skull of the type is not in the Calcutta Museum, but the fol- 
lowing measurements are taken from a skull of the species in the 
collection : 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 154.5; Hensel, 110; zygo- 
matic width, 104 ; palatal length, 75 ; width of braincase, 68 ; length 
of upper molar series and canines, 48; length of mandible, 117; length 
of lower molar series and canines, 58. 

The above description of this species was taken from the type 
in the Calcutta Museum. The specimen has faded greatly, and would 
hardly now be considered as fairly representing the species as com- 



Volume II 



Plate 2 




PlTHECUS ANDAMANENSIS 



PITHECUS 209 

pared with a freshly killed specimen, or a living individual. The 
description shows the type as it is to-day, but allowances will have to 
be made for lapse of time, and possibly some lack of careful attention. 
A large black patch on top of the head coming to a point in front ; 
a conspicuous line on forehead, and space around the eyes white ; space 
around ears gray; hair on cheeks long, grayish brown; shoulders 
reddish brown ; back very dark brown, dorsal line almost black ; arms, 
legs and hands grayish brown ; feet darker brown ; under parts grayish 
brown ; anal region white with a narrow red line down the center ; tail 
short,' carried over the back, darker brown above, white beneath ; face 
livid flesh color; eyes hazel. Description from living individual in the 
Zoological Gardens, Calcutta. 

The name leoninus having been employed by Shaw previously 
(1. c.) for P. albibarbatus (Kerr), cannot be again used, and Bart- 
lett's name axdamanensis, the only one besides Blyth's bestowed on 
the species, will have to be the one by which this monkey must be 
hereafter known. This is unfortunate as this animal is not indigenous 
to the Andaman Islands having been transported there, and the name 
is a misleading one, but its adoption appears to be imperative. 

Pithectjs assamensis (McClelland). 

Macacus assamensis McClell., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1839, p. 
148; Schinz, Syn. Mamm, 1844, p. 37; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. 
Soc. Beng., XIII, 1844, p. 776; Id. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, 
IX, 1851, p. 313; Id. Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 
1863, p. 8; Horsf., Cat. Mus. E. Ind. Co., 1851, p. 21 ; Sclat., 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 566; 1871, p. 222; Blyth. 
Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., XLIV, 1875, extra no. p. S : 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 113; Anders., Expcd. 
Yunnan, Zool., 1878, p. 64. 

Macacus (Pithex) pelops Hodg., Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., IX. 
1840, p. 1213; X, p. 908; Id. Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist, II. 
1842, p. 212; IV, 1844, p. 285; Id. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, 
VIII, 1842, p. 315. 

Papio (Rhesus) assamensis Ogilby, Royle, 111. Ilimal. Bot., 
Mamm., 1840, p. 16; Id. Madras Journ. Litr. Sciec, U 
p. 144. 

Macacus pelops Schinz, Syn. Mamm., 1844. p. 69; Hodg., 

Mamm. Nepaul, 1846, p. 2; Blyth. Ann. Mig. Xat. Hist, XX, 
1851, p. 313; Reichenb., Yollstand. Naturg. Afu-n. 1862, p. 



210 PITHECUS 

141, not figured; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eat- 
ing Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 30. 
Inuus (Rhesus) pelops Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, 

p. 56. 
Inuus assamensis Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 57; 

Hutton, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., XXXIII, 1864, Append., 

p. XIII. 
Inuus pelops Hutton, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., XXXIII, 1864, 

p. XIII; Jerd., Mamm. Ind., 1867, p. 11 ; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. 

Soc. Beng., XLIV, 1875, extra no. p. 6. 
Macacus rheso-similis Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 495, 

pi. XXV, juv. ; 1875, p. 418. 
A supposed new monkey from the Sunderbunds Anders., Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, p. 529, (figs, skull). 
Macacus rhesus villosus Blanf., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1898, p. 

361. 

HIMALAYAN MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Assam. 

Geogr. Distr. India, in the Himalaya Mountains from Masuri; 
Bengal Sunderbunds east of Calcutta, ( Blanf ord) ; Irawady 25 miles 
below Bhamo, (Anderson) ; Sikhim, Bhutan, Assam. 

Genl. Char. Face dusky, hair wavy or woolly; buttocks hairy 
around callosities. 

Measurements. Skull of a female from Irawady, specimen taken 
between twenty and twenty-five miles below Bhamo, by Anderson. 
"Greatest length from occiput to tip of premaxillaries 4.57 in. ; anterior 
border of occipital foramen to tip of premaxillaries, 3.24; occipital 
ridge to nasal process of frontal, 3.26; anterior margin of auditory 
openings to tip of premaxillaries, 3.40; breadth between auditory 
openings, 2.08 ; greatest breadth behind root of zygoma, 2.40 ; greatest 
facial breadth across fronto-malar suture, .48; anterior margin of 
occipital foramen to posterior border of mesial line of palate, 1.41 ; end 
of premaxilla to nasal process of frontal, 2 ; breadth of temporal fossa 
behind tempero-malar suture, 1.75; breadth across zygomatic arch, 
2.91 ; breadth of muzzle at base of last tooth, 1.40; breadth of muzzle 
at first bicuspid, 1.30; height of orbit, .85; diameter of orbit, .93; 
length of lower jaw in a line of alveolar margin, 2.91 in." 

McClelland's description (1. c). is brief and as follows: "bluish- 
gray, with dark brownish on the shoulders; beneath light gray; face 
flesh coloured, but interspersed with a few black hairs ; length 2 l / 2 feet ; 



PITHECUS 211 

proportions strong ; canine teeth long and deeply grooved in front ; the 
last of the cheek-teeth in the upper jaw blunt." 

The type of "Inuus" pelops Hodgson is in the British Museum. 
It was mounted but has been made into a skin and is in very fair con- 
dition. It is of a dull brown with a slight yellowish tinge on the head 
and upper parts, the hairs not annulated, and paler on the rump ; outer 
surface of arms smoke gray, hands blackish ; legs like rump, a darkish 
clay color becoming grayish brown at ankles ; feet covered with clay 
colored hairs ; tail purplish brown ; under parts and inner side of 
limbs gray. Hairs on head radiate from a center as described by 
Anderson of the type. There can be no doubt that this is an immature 
animal of P. assamensis. There are two specimens in the British 
Museum one considerably darker than the other, but of general uni- 
form coloring above, the hairs without annulations. 

There is a Macaque in the Calcutta Museum, labelled M. assam- 
ensis, and stated to have come from Assam. It has the top of head, 
upper parts of body and sides fox red; long black hairs on face; 
sides of head yellow ; arms, hands and sides paler red than body ; legs 
below knees reddish yellow; lower parts of body and inner side of 
limbs yellowish white; tail pale red above, golden beneath; callosities 
not large, red. This is a handsome monkey; the colors fox red and 
golden yellow ; the face apparently pale red. It would seem to be too 
red for P. assamensis and nearer the color of P. rufescens, which, 
however, appears to be a resident of Tenasserim, and not known as 
from Assam. 

The types of Mammals in the Collection of the East Indian 
Museum were supposed to have been deposited in the British Museum, 
but after diligent search the type of this species could not be found, 
and there are no records extant to show it ever was in the latter 
Institution. Anderson saw it in the Indian Museum when he was in 
London and gives (1. c.) the following description of it: "The type of 
M. assamensis in the Indian Museum, London, is an adult male. It is 
a stuffed specimen, but the skull has been removed from the skin and is 
not in the Museum. This monkey differs from all adult animals of 
the common monkey of the plains of India, which have come under my 
observation, in the anterior half wanting the ashy tint which is so 
characteristic of the adults, and in the hinder portion of the body being 
in no way rufous. The fur too is almost completely devoid of annula- 
tions, and the hair around the face and on the chin is longer than in 
animals from the plains. The general color of this old specimen may be 



212 PITHECUS 

described as brown, washed over the outer side of the fore-limbs, and 
more especially between the shoulders and back of the neck with 
yellowish, which appears in certain lights as pale golden, passing on the 
upper surface of the head into a pale yellowish brown. The general 
brownish tint is darkest on the flanks, where it has a fuliginous tinge, 
and down the front margin of the fore-limbs, over the outer surface 
of the thighs, the dorsi of the feet and on the tail. The inside of 
the limbs and the under surface generally are much paler than the 
upper parts, and have a yellowish tint, inclining to gray. Behind the 
angle of the mouth, and below and behind the ears and on the chin, 
the hair is rather long and nearly of the same colour as the under sur- 
face, but slightly tipped with blackish. There is a moderately dense 
line of rather long super-orbital hairs with a pencil of similar hairs 
extending backwards from the external orbital angle of the frontals. 
The hair generally is wavy, and on the shoulders and between them 
above and on the sides of the chest it is much longer than on the hind 
part of the body, with the exception of the dark hairs on the lower part 
of the flanks, which are also rather long. The hair on the vertex 
radiates from a point of about one inch above the level of the super- 
orbital ridge, and a few of the front hairs are directed forwards, but 
the mass outwards and slightly backwards, which is also the direction 
of the hairs to the radiating point. There are a few long, black super- 
ciliary hairs, also others on the upper lip and skin. The callosities are 
closely surrounded by the fur. The length of the animal along the 
curve of the head and back is 26.75 inches, the tail measuring 9^4 
inches." 

The type of Macacus problematicus Gray, in the British Museum 
is a moderately sized brown monkey without any special character- 
istics to distinguish it from many others. It is of one uniform tint 
over the whole exterior portion of the body and limbs, hands and feet, 
a sepia color becoming yellowish gray on the under parts and inner 
side of limbs, tail brown, paler than body, some stiff black hairs on 
the forehead over the eyes. The type was purchased from the 
Zoological Society, was an immature individual and had lived most 
of its life in captivity. It is practically impossible to refer this type 
with certainty to any recognized species, and there is little to be said in 
defense of a habit of describing individuals from Zoological Gardens, 
that are immature, have passed most of their lives in captivity, and 
in the majority of cases with no ascertained locality. The best thing 
to do with all such specimens is to declare them undeterminable, and 
strike them out of our list. Such specimens as this type of M. 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE 8. 




PlTHECUS RHESUS. 




PlTHECUS ALBIBARBATUS. 



PITHECUS 213 

problematicus can never be of use to any one, but can easily become 
a stumbling block to many. It is placed here as a synonym, as it 
seems nearest in color to P. assamensis among the species of Ma- 
caques. 

Pithecus rhesus ( Audebert) . 

Simia rhesus Audeb., Hist. Xat. Singes et Makis, Fam. II, Sec. 

I, 1797, p. 5, pi. I ; Cuv., Reg. Anim., I, 1817, p. 109 ; Fisch., 

Syn. Mamm, 1829, p. 29. 
Simia erythrcea, Wrinkled baboon, Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, Pt. I, 

1800, p. 33. 
Inmis rhesus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, 

p. 101; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 17; Jerd., Mamm. Ind., 

1867, p. 11. 
Macacus erythrceus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1819, pi. 

XXXVIII, juv.; 1821, pi. XXXIX; 1825, pi. XL, <?; Gerv., 

Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1834, p. 91, pis. XXXI-XXXVII ; I. 

Geoff., Diet. Class., 1826, p. 538; Id. Belang., Voy., Zool., 

1834, p. 59; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 30; Reichenb., Voll- 

stand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, pi. XXIV, figs. 345-348, 354-356 ; 

Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 562; Schleg., Mus. 

Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 112. 
Macacus rhesus Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 66; Less., Man. Mamm., 

1827, p. 42; Id. Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 95; Gray, Handb. 

Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 8; Hodg., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1856, p. 394; Anders., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, p. 512; 

Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 100, fig. 358; 

Hutton, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 951 ; Gray, Cat. 

Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, 

p. 31; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 222; Sutton, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, p. 581; Blanf., Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 625; Id. Fauna Brit. Ind., Mamm., 1891, 

p. 13; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 22; Thos., Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1898, p. 770, (Kuatun, China) ; Elliot. Cat. 

Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., F. C. M. Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 

567, Zool. Ser.; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1906. p. 55S. 
Le rhesus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1821, Livr. XXVI, pis. 

Inuus erythrceus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth Suppl., I. 1840. p. 142; 

V, 1855, p. 56, pi. VIIIc. 
Papio rhesus Ogilby, Madr. Journ. Litr. Scien.. XII. 1840. p. 144. 



214 PITHECUS 

Macacus (Pithex) oinops Hodg., Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., IX, 

1840, p. 1212, fig. p. 1213; X, 1841, p. 908; Id. Calc. Journ. 

Nat. Hist., II, 1842, p. 212; IV, 1844, p. 285; Id. Ann. Mag. 

Nat. Hist., VIII, 1st Ser., 1842, p. 315, fig. 
Macacus oinops Gray, Handb. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 8; 

Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 141, pi. XXIV, 

fig. 367. 
Pithecus (Macacus) erythrceus Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. 

Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 116-120. 
Macacus (Pithecus) erythrceus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 

Affen, 1862, p. 137, figs. 345-348, 354-356. 
Macacus (Pithecus) geron Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 139, pi. XXIV, fig. 351 ? 

BENGAL MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. Himalayas to the Godaveri River, Northern India ; 
Cashmere at 5,000 feet elevation ; Jako Hill, Simla, 8,500 feet, (intro- 
duced) ; Nepal, (Hodgson); Guzerat, Central Provinces; in Bengal 
and Northern Circars, and on the west coast near Bombay. Replaced in 
Assam and Burma by M. assamensis, although Anderson states, 
(Zool. Yunnan, pp. 56 and 57), that he obtained at Momien and the 
Hotha valley specimens of Macaques closely resembling P. rhesus, 
and another was given to him by Dr. Marfels from Burma, but with- 
out locality. It is probable, however, that these were really P. assam- 
ensis. 

Color. Head, and upper parts of body to middle of back bistre 
with a grayish tinge speckled with buff, the hairs being purplish brown 
banded with buff on apical half; this color grades into orange red 
on lower back, rump and thighs ; arms gray speckled with buff ; under 
parts and inner side of limbs grayish white ; tail short, Prout's brown 
above, yellowish beneath ; face and ears flesh color ; callosities red. 

Measurements. Total length, 930; tail, 330; foot, 145. Skull: 
total length, 145.4; occipito-nasal length, 115.5; Hensel, 108.3; zygo- 
matic breadth, 96.3 ; intertemporal width, 50 ; width of braincase, 67.6 ; 
median length of nasals, 34.2 ; palatal length, 60 ; length of upper molar 
series, 37; length of mandible, 118; length of lower molar series, 49.2. 

The type of Hodgson's M. oinops is in the British Museum, a skin 
in fair condition ; the skull showing it to be a young adult male. It is 
now a dark brown, some hairs on head and shoulders slightly speckled 
with buff, and the thighs beginning to show the orange red hue of P. 
rhesus; outer side of arms and legs blackish brown; under parts 



PITHECUS 215 

whitish gray. The skin was originally mounted and has been exposed 
in the case for over half a century, and it is probable that the accumu- 
lated dust during that length of time has darkened the colors con- 
siderably. Another of Hodgson's specimens also marked M. oinops 
is blackish brown throughout without any orange coloring. It is 
very evident that these examples have not assumed the adult pelage, 
only one exhibiting a change to the coloring of P. rhesus, and the 
probability is they are of that species. Anderson figures a skull of 
Hodgson's oinops as the type, and states there was no skin, but the 
two skulls recorded as types now in the Museum have the skins also, 
and are examples, as I have shown, not in mature dress. 

The name erythrcea has been applied to this species as 'Schreber 
pi. VIII.' As shown by Blanford, (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 
625), no plate with that number or any other with the name Simia 
erythrcea was ever published by Schreber. If it had been it would have 
antedated rhesus Audebert, published in 1797. There is no such 
plate in vol. I, 1775, nor in the additional plates belonging to that 
volume, in vol. Ill, p. 590, 1778, nor in vol. IV, p. 636, 1792. The first 
appearance of such a plate is in Wagner's Supplement I, 1840, pi. 
VIIIc. Schreber's original plate VIII, was the Mandrill, Papio 
Sphinx (Linn.). The earliest use of the name Simia erythrcea was 
by Shaw, Gen. Zool., I, 1800, p. 33, and the reference given is "Schreb. 
Suppl." without number of plate or page. Dr. Blanford's theory is 
that a plate "was probably distributed to a few naturalists, but not 
issued in such a way as to give validity to the title." ( !) 

This is the common Macaque of Northern India, and although 
Blanford (1. c.) says it is not held sacred by the Hindus, it certainly 
is venerated by them, and in the temple of Hounuman, the Monkey 
God at Benares, large numbers of this species are kept and given the 
freedom of the building and become very bold and impudent. Their 
numbers increased so greatly at one time in this temple that the 
government was obliged to interfere, and as their destruction would 
have been resented by the natives, a compromise was effected, and all 
but about two hundred were carried into the jungle and set free. 
Doubtless many found their way back to the more comfortable quarters 
in the city. When young it is readily tamed and learns easily various 
tricks. Full of mischief and curiosity it often becomes a nuisance 
about the towns, and when adult is frequently ill-tempered, even 
savage. It seeks cultivated tracts and the borders of tanks and 
streams, and Blanford states that the wild monkeys go in herds often 
of considerable size, and have but little fear of man, (probably because 



216 PITHECUS 

they are so rarely molested), and feed on spiders and many kinds 
of insects especially Orthoptera and Lepidoptera, besides fruit and 
seeds. Among themselves they are very quarrelsome, constantly 
fighting and screaming or teasing each other. They have no fear of 
water and swim well. 

There are remarkably few examples of this species in the 
Museums of the world; the animals being considered sacred in India, 
makes their capture a difficult matter; for the natives would cer- 
tainly resent the killing of one of these monkeys, and so comparatively 
few are taken by Collectors. 

PiTHECUS BREVICATJDTJS Elliot. 

Pithecus brachyurus (nee H. Smith), Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

IV, 1909, 8th Ser., p. 251. 
Macacus erythrceus (nee Cuv.), Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1870, p. 226. 

ISLAND OF HAINAN MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Island of Hainan. Type in American Museum of 
Natural History, New York. 

Color. Top of head, nape, hind neck, upper parts of body to 
rump speckled black and russet ; rump dark orange rufous ; arms and 
hands speckled blackish and buff, hairs gray on basal half and this 
color gives a dominant tone to the rest; flanks and legs ochraceous, 
unspeckled; long, stiff, black hairs on superciliary line; sides of head 
yellowish gray; some black hairs on cheeks forming a short line 
beneath eyes; face flesh color, becoming blackish on lips which are 
sparsely covered with short white hairs; chin, throat and under parts 
of body to anal region yellowish white ; hairs about scrotum and anal 
region orange and rufous like rump ; inner side of legs yellowish, feet 
brownish gray; tail above speckled blackish brown and ochraceous, 
beneath paler. Ex type American Museum Natural History, New 
York. 

Measurements. Total length, 730; tail, 220; foot, 135. Skull: 
total length, 116.1; occipito-nasal length, 100; intertemporal length, 
46.3; breadth of braincase, 60.6; Hensel, 78.3; zygomatic width, 81.8; 
median length of nasals, 25; palatal length, 42.3; length of upper 
canines, 21; length of upper molar series, 29.8; length of mandible, 
82.2 ; length of lower molar series, 36.6. Ex type American Museum 
Natural History, New York. 

This Macaque, while having a general resemblance to P. rhesus 
of India, differs in various ways from that species. The tail is much 



VOLUME 



PLATE XXI 




PlTHECUS BREVICAUDUS. 

SIDE VIEW REVERSED. 

No, 27577 Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist Coll. f£ Nat Siae. 



_ 



PITHECUS 217 

shorter, and the coloring, especially on the rump and about scrotum, 
much brighter. The skull, however, differs greatly from that of P. 
rhesus. The orbital ridge is rounded, (not depressed), and flattened, 
and consequently there should be an absence of the scowling look so 
often seen in adults of the Indian species; another character that 
instantly attracts the eye is the greater width and lateral swellings 
of the rostrum of P. rhesus, the Hainan species having a rather long 
rostrum for its width, and the sides descending rather abruptly from 
the nasals. The orbits of P. brevicaudus are circular, those of the 
other species oblong; the braincase of the Hainan Macaque is some- 
what shorter and more bulging posteriorly, and the palate is deeper 
and narrower, and the bullae shorter and wider; tooth rows of upper 
jaw nearly straight and the teeth much smaller ; mastoid width much 
less, and the mandible has a proportionately greater depth and less 
expansion at coronoid process. This comparison is made between two 
skulls of males of about equal age. 

Several specimens of this Macaque were received by the American 
Museum of Natural History in New York, in a collection from the 
Island of Hainan. On examining the examples in the Museum I was 
satisfied of their distinctness from P. rhesus but not having any skulls 
of that species for comparison I decided not to describe the form at 
that time, but to wait until a comparison could be made. Dr. Allen 
selected three, and the Museum forwarded them to me in London, and 
after comparing these with skins and skulls of P. rhesus in the British 
Museum, the distinctness of the Hainan Macaque was demonstrated. 

The term brachyurus, having been previously employed for an 
albino Macaque, possibly for P. nemestrinus, by Hamilton Smith in 
Jardine Nat. Libr., I, p. 103, pi. I, cannot be retained for the present 
species and in place of it I propose brevicaudus. 

Mr. Swinhoe states (1. c.) : "About the jungles of Nychow, (S. 
Hainan), Monkeys were very common. On our landing, abreast of 
the ship we saw a large party of them on the beach, which at once 
retired into a grove above high water mark. We watched them 
running along the boughs of the trees and jumping from branch 
to branch. The discharge of a fowling piece soon made them 
scurry away into the thicket; but every now and again their 
heads would appear from the higher bushes watching the move- 
ments of the enemy. At last when they observed that our pres- 
ence implied actual danger to themselves, they climbed the hills and 
posted themselves about conspicuous rocks, where they chattered 
and grunted, out of danger. Their cries were very like those of M. 



218 PITHECUS 

cyclopsis Mihi, of Formosa. In the neighborhood of Nychow city we 
found a large number of them in a thick wood that surrounded the 
hovel of a Le native, and one of our party succeeded in knocking over 
a fine female with a cartridge. Its irides were yellowish brown tinged 
with green. Eyes somewhat oval. Face long, narrow, with a some- 
what projecting mouth; the skin tinged with reddish yellow, and 
sprinkled with short, silky, buff-colored hair, longer and coarser on the 
lips, chin and cheeks. A few long black hairs were scattered on the 
center of the forehead and on the space beneath the eyes. The ear 
was well developed and thinly clothed with hair." 

Subgenus Vetulus. 

Tail over 12 inches, but not as long as head and body. 

PlTHECUS ALBIBARBATUS (Kerr). 

Ouanderou Buff., Hist. Nat, XIV, 1766, pp. 169, 174, pi. XVIII. 
Simla silenus (nee Linn.), Schreb., Saugth., 1775, p. 87, pi. XI; 

Blanf., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 620. 
Simla (Cercoplthecus) veter alblbarbatus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 

1792, p. 64, No. 27. 
Simla (Cercoplthecus) silenus alblbarbatus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 

1792, p. 64, No. 28. 
Simla ferox Shaw, Mus. Leverian., II, 1793, p. 69 ; Id. Genl. Zool., 

I, Pt. I, 1800, p. 30, pi. XVI ; Blanf., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1887, p. 623. 
Simla leonlna Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, Pt. I, 1800, p. 34, pi. XVII. 
Paplo silenus (nee Linn.), E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 

XIX, 1812, p. 102 ; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 18. 
Macacus silenus (nee Linn.), Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 63 ; F. Cuv., 

Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1822, pi. XLIV; E. Geoff., Cours Hist. 

Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 33, 8me Lecon; Less., Man. Mamm., 

1827, p. 95; I. Geoff., Belang., Voy., 1834, p. 51 ; Less., Spec. 

Mamm., 1840, p. 93 ; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., XIII, 

1844, p. 476; XVI, 1847, p. 1272; XXVIII, 1859, p. 280; 

I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 30; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, 

Simise, 1876, p. 109; Anders., Exped. Yunnan, Zool., 1878, 

p. 93; Blanf., Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., 1888-91, p. 16; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 18. 
Inuus (Maimon) silenus (nee Linn.), Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. 

Suppl., I, 1840, p. 141, pi. XI B. 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE XXIV. 




PlTHECUS ALBIBARBATUS. 

No. 88.2.5.17. Brit. Mub. Coll. L-. Nat. Sin 



PITHECUS 219 

Cynocephalus silenus (nee Linn.), Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 

V, 1855, p. 62. 
Pithecus (Macacus) silenus (nee Linn.), Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 

Reg. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 106, 119. 
Vetulus silenus (nee Linn.), Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 125, pi. XXII, figs. 321-323. 
Silenus veter Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 32. 
Inuus silenus Jerd., Mamm. Ind., 1874, p. 10. 

LION-TAILED MACAQUE. 

Type locality. "Egypt." 

Geogr. Distr. Southern India; the western Ghats below Goa to 
Cape Comorin. Not found in Ceylon. 

Genl. Char. Face surrounded by very long hairs, meeting under 
the chin forming a kind of ruff ; tail slender, tufted. 

Color. Long hairs about face and on throat between a wood 
brown and drab gray, entire rest of pelage and tail black. 

Measurements. Total length, 910; tail, 380; foot, 170, (skin). 
Skull : occipito-nasal length, 96.6 ; Hensel, 84.5 ; zygomatic width, 89.9 ; 
intertemporal width, 40.8 ; palatal length, 45.2 ; median length of 
nasals, 29.4; length of upper molar series, 30.7; length of mandible, 
83.1 ; length of lower molar series, 38.9. 

Considerable confusion has existed regarding the proper name to 
be given to this species, and Dr. Blanford (1. c.) has shown that the 
one given by Linnaeus (1. c.) cannot be applied to it. The 12th edition 
of the Systema Naturae, 1766, has generally been, until comparatively 
lately, the starting point for nomenclature by Naturalists, and in this 
work, the Malabar Macaque is certainly not described, for there 
Linnaeus states his 5. silenus has, "caudata barbata nigra, barba nigra 
prolixa," which does not answer for this species which has not a black 
beard. In the 10th edition 1758, another description is given for the 
same animal, "caudata barbata, copore nigro, barba nivea prolixa." 
which is much nearer the appearance of the monkey called silenus by 
nearly all the writers. In both editions the first citation is Alp. /Egypt, 
242? Linnaeus, as is most probable, never saw a specimen of this 
monkey, and his description was taken from that of Alpinus which 
was founded upon a drawing. But Alpinus says his monkey had a 
black beard, and Linnaeus noticing the discrepancy between his diag- 
nosis and that of Alpinus cites his work with a query. 

Alpinus gives three figures as described by Blanford, two on plate 
XX and one on plate XXI. Figure one on the first plate "represents 



220 PITHECUS 

an animal with a thin beard, below the chin alone, and with a rather 
long tail ; figure two shows a monkey drawn so as to resemble a lion 
as much as possible." The figure on the next plate "represents an 
animal with a short tail, hairy body and long hair all around the head." 
Whatever species these figures and description were intended to 
represent, it is certain they will not answer for the Malabar Monkey, 
and Linnaeus himself was so little satisfied with his description in the 
10th edition that he changes it to the 12th so as to make it read "barba 
nigra prolixa" and thus make it accord with that of Alpinus. Linnaeus 
characterizes his S. silenus in this manner: Size equal to the largest 
Baboon ; beard white in one edition, black in the other, and the animal 
came from Egypt in the 12th edition, but from Asia, Ceylon and Java 
in the 10th edition. Here then we have two writers, neither of whom 
ever probably saw the monkey they described, one of whom, Alpinus, 
states that his species has a black beard, and the other, Linnaeus, trying 
to diagnose the same animal, says in the first place the beard is white 
and in the second place it is black. It is not at all likely that it was- 
the Malabar Monkey to which either Author referred, as neither the 
size nor the habitats given answer for the species, and Linnaeus at all 
events, had a very foggy idea of its appearance. Considering, there- 
fore, the absolute uncertainty as to what the 5. silenus Linn., really 
was, it seems best to regard it as undeterminable and select the name 
that was, without question, bestowed upon the species, and this appears 
to be Simia albibarbatus Kerr, (1. a). It is also the Ouanderou, or 
Lowando of BufTon, (1. c.) and his figure fairly represents it, except 
the tail appears to have been reduced more than half, the specimen 
probably having lost the greater portion of its length. The name has 
been misapplied, as Wanderou, or Ouanderou properly belongs to 
Presbytis cephaloloptera of Ceylon, in which island the P. albi- 
barbatus is not found, for there is no species of monkey there with a 
white beard. 

Jerdon, (1. c.) says of this species that "it is a native of the more 
elevated forests of the Western Ghats of India from N. L. 14° to the 
extreme south, but most abundant in Cochin and Travancore. It is 
said to occur still farther north up to Goa, N. L. 15^, but I have no 
authentic information of its occurrence so high. It frequents the most 
dense and unfrequented parts of the forest, always, as far as I have 
observed it, at a considerable elevation, and I had often traversed the 
Malabar forests before I first fell in with it. This was at the top of 
the Cotiady pass, leading from Malabar into the Wynaad. I have since 
met with it in several other localities, but always near the crest of the 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE XXV. 




PlTHECUS SINICUS. 
No. 22131 U. S. Nat. Mus. Coll. % Nat. Size. 



PITHECU S 221 

Ghats. It occurs in troops of from twelve to twenty or more, and 
those I observed were exceedingly shy and wary. It is not to my 
knowledge often caught in the Wynaad, and most of the individuals 
seen in captivity appear to be taken in Travancore. In its Nature it 
is more sulky and savage than the next species, (P. rhesus), and is 
with difficulty taught to perform any feats of agility or mimicry." 

Subgenus Zati. 

Hairs on crown radiating from a point in the center. 

Pithecus sinicus (Linnseus). 

Simia sinica Linn., Mant. Plant., 1771, p. 52; Bodd., Elench. 
Anim., 1784, p. 60; Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 30; Audeb., 
Hist. Nat. Singes et Makis, 1797, Fam. IV, Sec. Ill, p. 17, 
pi. II; Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, Pt. I, 1800, p. 50; Fisch., Syn. 
Mamm, 1829, p. 27; Cuv., Reg. Anim., 1829, p. 95. 

Cer co pithecus sinicus Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 41, 
(Part.) ; Zimm., Geog. Gesch., II, 1780, p. 193; Kuhl, Beitr. 
Zool., 1820, p. 13. 

Cercocebus radiatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 
1812, p. 98. 

Pithecus radiatus Desm., Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., Mamm., XVIII, 
1817, p. 325. 

Le Toque F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Livr. XVIII, 1820, pi. ; 2me 
ed., 1833, p. 89, pi. XXX. 

Cercopithecus radiatus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 13. 

Macacus radiatus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Livr. XVIII, 1820, 
pi. XXXIII; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 64, (Part.); Sykes, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1831, p. 99; I. Geoff., Belang., Voy., 
Zool., 1834, p. 54; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 89; Gray, 
Handb. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 7; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. 
Soc. Beng., XIII, 1844, p. 476; Horsf., Cat. Mamm., E. Ind. 
Co. Mus., 1851, p. 18; Jerd., Mamm. Ind., 1867, p. 12. 

Inuus (Cercocebus) sinicus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 
1840, p. 139, pi. XXIII. 

Macacus sinicus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., XVI, 1847, p. 
1272; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 26; Gray, Cat. Mon- 
keys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 28 ; 
Anders., Exped. Yunnan, Zool, 1878. p. 28; Illanf.. Faun. 



222 PITHECUS 

Brit. Ind., Mamm, 1891, p. 23; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 

II, 1894, p. 35 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1906, p. 558. 
Inuus (Macacus) sinicus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, 

p. 56. 
Cynamolgos (Zati) sinicus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 130, pi. XXIII, figs. 327-329. 
Cynamolgos (Zati) audeberti Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 132, pi. XXIII, fig. 331. 
Cercocebus sinicus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 99. 

BONNET MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Bengal. 

Geogr. Distr. Southern India; north, possibly, to the Godaveri 
River, and on the west to Bombay. 

Genl. Char. Face naked ; forehead sparsely haired, the hair parted 
in the center ; hair on crown radiating from a central point in all direc- 
tions but not falling over forehead; hairs on upper parts moderately 
long ; ears naked, prominent ; tail nearly as long as the body. 

Color. Male. Hairs on head and upper parts brownish olive on 
basal half, remainder banded with dark brown and buff, giving a red- 
dish brown hue to these parts; outer side of limbs olive gray; under 
parts and inner side of limbs yellowish white; hands and feet similar 
to the limbs but darker in hue ; tail above darker than the back, being 
blackish brown at base graduating into bistre towards the tip, beneath 
yellowish white like under parts. 

Female is somewhat lighter, one before me from Travancore, 
British Museum Collection No. 19. a. being an almost uniform olive 
brown above, with but slight evidence of bands on the hairs; limbs 
paler, uniform olive grayish brown; hands and feet blackish brown; 
under parts, body and limbs yellowish white; tail above like back, 
beneath yellowish white. Face and callosities flesh color. 

Measurements. Total length, 800; tail, 340; foot, 115, (skin). 
Skull : total length, 108 ; occipito-nasal length, 87.3 ; Hensel, 67 ; inter- 
temporal width, 43.2 ; zygomatic width, 81 ; breadth of braincase, 61.1 ; 
nasals broken ; palate broken ; length of upper molar series, 29 ; length 
of mandible, 77.6; length of lower molar series, 38. 

This species and its near relative P. pileatus are readily recog- 
nizable among the Macaques by the curious manner in which the hair 
on the crown of the head radiates from a common center. It is a 
native of southern India, its limits being Bombay on the west and the 
Godaveri River on the east. 



mmm 



PITHECUS 223 

Pithecus pileatus (Kerr). 

Simia (Cerco pithecus) sinicus pileatus Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 1792, 

No. 45. 
Simia sinica (nee Linn.), Schreb., Saugth., 1775, p. 108, pi. XXIII. 
Le Bonnet Chinois Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes et Makis, 1797, Fam. 

IV, Sec. II, pi. II. 
Simia pileata Shaw, Gen. Zool., I, Pt. I, 1800, p. 53 ; Fisch., Syst. 

Reg. Anim., 1829, p. 24. 
Cerco pithecus pileatus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 

XIX, 1812, p. 94; Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 11; Desm., 

Mamm., 1820, p. 57. 
Cercocebus sinicus (nee Linn.), E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 

Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 98. 
Macacus sinicus (nee Linn.), Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 64; F. Cuv., 

Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1825, pi. XXXIV; Less., Man. Mamm., 

1827, p. 42; Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 27; I. Geoff., 

Belang., Voy., Zool., 1834, p. 55 ; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, 

p. 89; Gray, Handb. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p. 7; Kelaart, 

Faun. Zeyl., 1852, p. 8. 
Macacus pileatus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., XVI, 1847, p. 

1272; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 27; Tenn., Hist. Ceyl., 

1861, p. 130; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 29 ; Anders., Exped. Yunnan, Zool., 
1878, p. 91; Blanf., Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., 1891, p. 24; 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 33. 

Inuus pileatus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 55. 
Pithecus {Macacus) pileatus Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 

Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 117, 119. 
Cynamolgos (Zati) pileatus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 131, fig. 330. 

Cercocebus pileatus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 98. 

THE TOQUE MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Ceylon. 

Genl. Char. Similar to P. sinicus (Linn.), but redder. 

Color. Black band over eyes and on temples, some hairs quite 
long; a bright reddish band encircles top of head at base of long hairs ; 
these last are orange on front portion, and project over the forehead ; 
dull brown on the remaining part on sides and rear; sides of neck 
behind ears yellowish white, as are also the throat and under parts of 
body ; back of neck, upper parts and sides of body dark reddish brown ; 
arms and hands ochraceous ; thighs reddish, paler on leg below knees ; 



224 PITHECUS 

feet yellowish; tail very long, dusky above, beneath pale yellowish 
inclining to ochraceous at base; face bare, red. Ex specimen from 
Ceylon in Calcutta Museum. 

Top of head and upper part of body, thighs and tail dark brown, 
blackish on base of tail ; sides of head, outer side of arms and legs 
below the knee brownish gray; under parts, inner side of limbs and 
under side of tail grayish white. Face, flesh color. Tail very long. 
Ex type M. sinicus Geoff., (nee Linn.), in Paris Museum = P. 
pileatus (Kerr). 

Measurements. Total length, 977.90; tail, 431.80; foot, 127. 

Two specimens in Paris Museum of this species are both young 
about half grown, and both marked "type." They are probably those 
described by E. Geoffroy. 

This species is found only in the Island of Ceylon. The name 
is usually attributed to Shaw (L c.) but Kerr had conferred the same 
name upon it (1. c.) eight years previously. 

Subgenus Neocebus. 
Hairs on head not radiating from a central point. 

Pithecus resimus (Thomas and Wroughton) . 

Macaca resima Thos. and Wrought., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ill, 
1908, 8th Ser., p. 381. 

Type locality. Tasikmalaja, West Java. Altitude 1,145 feet. 
Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size small, tail about as long as the body. Skull 
with rostrum twisted to one side, abnormal in shape. 

Color. Top of head and upper parts isabella color speckled with 
buff; the hairs being hair brown with apical half banded with buff; 
limbs, hands and feet gray, arms darker than legs and hairs white 
tipped; cheeks and sides of head below ears, inner side of limbs, 
and under parts grayish white ; black line across forehead and on sides 
of crown, formed by the black tips of the hairs ; tail above black for 
basal half grading into gray, beneath gray. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 880; tail, 360; foot, 135; ear, 42, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 121.1; occipito-nasal length, 95.3; 
Hensel, 89.1 ; zygomatic length, 75.8 ; intertemporal width, 40.1 ; breadth 
of braincase, 54.3 ; palatal length, 54.3 ; median length of nasals, 14.5 ; 
length of mandible, 91.8; length of lower molar series, 40.9. Ex type 
British Museum. 



PITHECUS 225 

This is a rather small Macaque with soft moderately long hair, 
and tail nearly the length of the body. It probably represents a dis- 
tinct species, certainly is not the same as P. mordax, for besides the 
general smaller size, the teeth are larger. But the rostral portion of 
the skull is not normally shaped, having a twist to the left, not from 
having been injured early in life, there is no evidence of that, so the 
animal was probably born with the rostrum out of plumb, so to speak. 
The type is unique, and it is very desirable that other specimens should 
be procured. 

PlTHECUS VALIDUS Elliot. 

Pithecus validus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 1909, 
p. 252. 

Type locality. Cochin China, exact locality unknown. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Body stout, heavy ; limbs short, tail not quite as long 
as the body. Skull with facial region almost as long as the braincase ; 
sagittal crest present ; rostrum longer than wide ; palate long, narrow ; 
tooth rows straight ; second upper molar largest ; last lower molar with 
prominent posterior cusp; mandible heavy, comparatively massive for 
its total length; canines stout. 

Color. Crown, middle of nape, line over eyes, and line on sides 
of head, black speckled with buff; rest of crown and entire upper 
parts, Prout's brown washed with olive and grading to raw umber on 
sides of arms, all speckled with buff; outer side of arms from elbows 
and hands blackish speckled with buff; outer side of thighs olive 
speckled with buff; legs, rump, and below knees, grayish olive, buff 
speckled; side of head and neck olive gray; under parts and inner 
side of limbs grayish white; feet olive brown speckled with buff; tail 
above black on basal half grading into blackish brown on remainder, 
beneath pale yellowish olive; face flesh color. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,030.3 ; tail, 365 ; foot, 125. Skull : 
total length, 125.3; occipito-nasal length, 103.6; Hensel, 84.9; zygo- 
matic width, 82.5 ; facial length, 78.9 ; width of braincase, 57 ; greatest 
width of rostrum, 38 ; median length of nasals, 35.5 ; palatal length, 
50.7; length of upper molar series, 30.2; length of mandible, 93.2; 
length of lower molar series, 36.9; depth of jaw beneath second molar, 
23.8. Ex type British Museum. 



226 PITHECUS 

The unique type of this very unusually colored Macaque is stated 
to have come from Cochin China, no particular locality in that country 
specified. In its peculiar brown and olive yellow speckled fur it 
resembles somewhat in color the long-tailed species P. irus Cuv., of 
the Malay Peninsula, Burma, etc., but is a much more powerful animal 
than that species, has no reddish brown on the head, and a much 
shorter tail. In fact it does not closely resemble any species of 
Macaque with which I am acquainted. 

PlTHECUS ALACER Elliot. 

Pithecus alacer Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 1909, 
p. 253. 

Type locality. Bliah, on the northern point of Koendoer Island. 
Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. General color much paler than the examples from 
Singapore and Bintang Islands, more approaching but still paler than 
those from Karimon Island. Skull and teeth more like that of the 
dark Macaque from Singapore Island. Fur long, soft; tail as long 
as body. Tooth rows straight. Flesh colored patch on eyelids and 
between eyes. 

Color. General color hazel on dorsal region grading to raw umber 
or tawny olive on sides, the hairs on back being gray at base, then 
blackish brown and then banded with black and tawny ochraceous, 
while the hairs on sides are gray banded with ochraceous buff; the 
hairs on head and nape are black at base, then orange ochraceous and 
tipped with black; narrow line above eyes grizzled gray; numerous 
stiff black hairs behind the gray line almost forming a black line, the 
longest hairs standing out from the head on each side; face and 
cheeks covered with very short gray hairs; sides of head yellowish 
white, hairs long and directed forward and upward; upper side of 
arms and hands cream buff, the hairs being purplish with cream buff 
tips; upper side of thighs like back, rest of legs yellowish gray; feet 
olive brown ; under parts and inner side of limbs yellowish white ; tail 
above black speckled with white for three fourths the length, and then 
grading into hair brown, tuft at tip bistre ; beneath pale reddish brown ; 
eyelids and patch over eyes flesh color. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 794 ; tail, 361 ; foot, 125 ; ear, 33, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 110.6; occipito-nasal length, 92.7; 
Hensel, 72.7; intertemporal width, 41.1 ; zygomatic width, 72.8; great- 
est width of braincase, 58 ; palatal length, 73.5 ; median length of 



PITHECUS 227 

nasals, 24.8; length of upper molar series, 36.1; length of mandible, 
79 ; length of lower molar series, 33. Ex type British Museum. 

This Macaque exhibits an entirely differently colored pelage from 
the Singapore species, and one much nearer to the Karimon and 
Sumatra forms, while the skull is nearer in its characters to the Singa- 
pore Macaque than to those species living on the neighboring islands. 
It is a reddish brown animal, duller in hue than either the Karimon 
or Sumatra Macaques. The affinities of the monkeys from these 
various islands is rather difficult to understand, and why their coloring 
should be similar in Koendoer and the islands to the south as far as 
Sumatra, and the cranial characters should be nearly alike with the 
Singapore species, separated as it is by intervening islands, inhabited 
by an allied but different form. It would be practically useless to 
theorize upon this condition of things ; but the animals are probably in 
a process of change influenced by their insular habitats, though as these 
islands are but short distances apart, it is difficult to appreciate how 
great such influences may be. At present we only know that differ- 
ences do exist of such importance as to compel us to regard the 
individuals from various islands as possessing characters so unrecon- 
cilable as to prevent us from considering them all as belonging to one 
species. 

PlTHECUS KAEIMONI Elliot. 

Pithecus karimoni Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 
1909, p. 254. 

Type locality. Monos, eastern coast of the Island of Karimon. 
Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar in color to P. fascicularis of Sumatra, and 
skull characters nearer to the skull of that species than to either of 
those of the species from Koendoer or Singapore, its nearer neighbors. 
Facial portion of skull shorter than braincase ; teeth large ; tooth rows 
very slightly curved; second and third molars much larger than first 
in both upper and lower rows ; orbital ridge broad and long ; rostrum 
short and broad; braincase broad and rounded. Pelage moderately 
long, smooth; tail about equal in length to body. Forehead above 
eyes to hair flesh color. 

Color. Male. General hue tawny ochraceous, reddest on head 
and neck, dorsal regions darkest and becoming more yellow on the 
sides ; the hairs on back being purplish gray at base, then banded with 
tawny ochraceous and black, and the hairs on sides yellowish gray 
banded with white ; outer side of arms grizzled gray, hairs being gray 



228 PITHECUS 

banded with black and cream buff; hands and fingers black covered 
with yellowish white hairs; outer side of thighs like back, legs bluish 
gray ; under parts and inner side of limbs grayish white ; tail grizzled 
black and white above, brownish gray beneath; feet brownish gray. 
Young females are lighter in color, some a pale reddish hue. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 906; tail, 432; foot, 152; ear, 35, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 111.6; occipito-nasal length, 92.5; 
Hensel, 75.2 ; zygomatic width, 76.9 ; intertemporal width, 38.7 ; width 
of braincase, 54.7 ; greatest width of rostrum, 38.4 ; length of rostrum, 
40; palatal length, 41.7; median length of nasals, 17.5 ; length of upper 
molar series, 27.7; length of mandible, 79.7; length of lower molar 
series, 35.6. Ex type British Museum. 

This Macaque while resembling in color of pelage its relative 
from Koendoer next to it on the south, agrees in its cranial characters 
with those of P. fascicularis from Sumatra; a rather inexplicable 
fact in both the cases of this species and the one from Koendoer, 
skipping the island nearest to them, and agreeing, in the cranial 
characters, more nearly with the species farthest from them on the 
south and north. 

Pithecus fuscus (Miller). 

Macacus fuscus Miller, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVI, 1903, p. 
476. 

SIMALVR ISLAND MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Simalur Island, off northwestern coast of Sumatra. 
Type in United States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Tail long, nearly as long as the head and body. 
Skull small. 

Geogr. Distr. Simalur and Lasia Islands. 

Color. Head, upper parts of body, and outer side of limbs black- 
ish brown annulated with wood brown, the head and limbs appearing 
lighter than body; base of hairs drab; under parts and inner side of 
limbs grayish white ; tail above like back, beneath grayish white ; hands 
and feet blackish brown annulated with wood brown. Ex type United 
States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 920; tail, 450; foot, 125. Skull: 
total length, 122 ; occipito-nasal length, 97.2 ; Hensel, 88.5 ; zygomatic 
width, 85.2; intertemporal width, 40.6; palatal length, 49.6; median 



PITHECUS 229 

length of nasals, 29.4; length of upper molar series, 30.1; length of 
mandible, 92.4; length of lower molar series, 40.6. Ex type United 
States National Museum. 

This is a very dark Macaque similar in coloration to P. umbrosus 
but with a shorter tail. The skull is much smaller although the type 
is a fully adult male. 

Subgenus Macacus. 
Tail equal to, or exceeding the head and body in length. 

Pithecus umbeosus (Miller). 

Macacus umbrosus Miller, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXIV, 1903, p. 
789. 

NICOBAR ISLAND MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Little Nicobar Island, Nicobars. Type in United 
States National Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Nicobar Group. Great and Little Nicobar ; Katchel. 

Genl. Char. Color dark, tail longer than head and body. 

Color. Very similar to P. fuscus; head and upper parts and 
outer side of limbs, blackish, hairs drab at base and with a subterminal 
cream buff ring ; under parts and inner side of limbs drab ; hands and 
feet like upper parts; tail above nearly black at base, dark drab on 
apical half, hairs indistinctly annulated with buff. Ex type United 
States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,040; tail, 530; foot, 135. Skull: 
total length, 135; Hensel, 94.7; zygomatic width, 88.8; intertemporal 
width, 38.5 ; palatal length, 54.3 ; median length of nasals, 25.6 ; length 
of upper molar series, 33.6 ; length of mandible, 98.3 ; length of lower 
molar series, 40.1. Ex type United States National Museum. 

This species and P. fuscus resemble each other closely in color 
but the skulls are quite different, that of the present species being 
much longer, as are also the molar series in both jaws. 

Pithecus irus (F. Cuvier). 

Le Macaque Buff., Hist. Nat., XIV, 1766, p. 190, pi. XX. 
Simla cynomolgos (nee Linn.), Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 

58, Buffon's fig. ; Fisch., Syn. Mamm, 1829, p. 25. 
Cercocebus cynomolgos (nee Linn.), E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. 

Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 90; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 

1876, p. 101, (Part.). 



230 PITHECUS 

Macacus irus F. Cuv., Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, IV, 1818, p. 

120; Cabr., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6, 1910, 8th Ser., p. 620. 
Le Macaque F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm, 1819, liv. XXX, XXXI. 
Macacus cynomolgos (nee Linn.), Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 65; 

Id. Nouv. Diet. Scien. Nat., XXVII, 1823, p. 467; Less., 

Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 90; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 

Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 30; Blanf., Faun. Brit. 

Ind., Mamm., 1891, p. 21 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, 

p. 31 ; Flow., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1900, p. 316. 
Cercopithecus cynomolgos (nee Linn.), Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, 

p. 16. 
Macacus carbonarius F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1825, pi. 

XXXII ; I. Geoff., Belang., Voy., 1834, p. 63 ; Less., Spec. 

Mamm., 1840, p. 92; Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat Soc, 

1863, p. 9. 
Simla carbonaria Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 26. 
Macacus aureus I. Geoff., Belang., Voy., Zool., 1834, pp. 58, 76. 
Macacus auratus Mull, und Schleg., Verhandl. Geschied., 1839-44, 

p. 49. 
Semnopithecus kra Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 65. 
Inuus cynomolgos (nee Linn.), Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., I, 

1840, p. 135, pis. XIII, XXII. (Part.). 
Inuus carbonarius Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 53. 
Inuus aureus var. y, Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 

53. 
Cynamolgos carbonarius Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 136, pi. XXIII, fig. 341. 
Macacus fur Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scien. Phil., 1867, p. 36, 

P i. i. 

crab-eating macaque. Native name Kra. 

Type locality. Unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. Burma, Arakan, Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula. 

Genl. Char. Color pale; body heavy; tail longer than head and 
body; whitish area around eyes; tuft of hair on top of head some- 
times elevated. 

Color. Top of head, back of neck and entire upper parts, pale 
greenish olive, the hairs being olive gray banded with cream buff; in 
some examples there is a brownish wash on the head and dorsal line; 
outer side of arms and legs olive gray ; hands and feet brownish black ; 
sides of head, flanks, inner side of limbs and under parts grayish white ; 
tail above at base like back, remainder smoke gray; beneath grayish 



PITHECUS 231 

white; white area around eyes; face brown or livid; eyelids bluish 
white ; callosities bright flesh color. 

Measurements, Total length, 1,080; tail, 650; foot, 130, (skin). 
Skull: total length, 112; occipito-nasal length, 93.3; Hensel, 80; 
intertemporal width, 38.3; length of rostrum from posterior end of 
nasals to base of incisors, 51.1 ; width of rostrum beneath orbits at 
alveolar border, 40.3; palatal length, 47.6; median length of nasals, 
28.9 ; width across orbits, inner rim, 48.8 ; length of upper molar series, 
33 ; length of mandible, 92 ; length of lower molar series, 42. Ex type 
of M. aureus E. Geoff., in Paris Museum, an immature individual. 

This is a gray long-tailed monkey of Burma, Arakan, and Malay 
Peninsula, always known as M. cynomolgos (nee Linn.), until 1825, 
when Frederic Cuvier (1. c.) described it and called it Macacus irus. 

The above description represents the typical style of this species, 
but there are considerable variations among individuals both in the 
color of the pelage and in that of the face. This black handed 
and black footed Macaque does not seem to go south or east of the 
Malay Peninsula, but is supplanted by allied forms with gray hands 
and feet in Java, Flores, Borneo, etc. 

Top of head and upper parts of body speckled brownish red 
and yellow, the hairs being gray at base and ringed with yellowish 
red ; shoulders and thighs gray tinged with yellow ; sides of head, 
whiskers, under parts, and inner side of limbs sooty gray; forearms 
gray tinged with brown ; tail very long, blackish brown at base, grading 
into grayish brown on apical portion. Face flesh color. Locality 
Bengal a mistake, as no monkey of this character is found there. 

It has been shown by Blanford (1. c.) that Linnaeus' cynomolgos 
was misapplied by Schreber to BufTon's "Macaque," which is the Crab- 
eating Monkey of Burma, and for which F. Cuvier (1. c.) instituted 
the name of irus which is the one it should bear. This species has 
naturally nothing to do with cynomolgos ( !) Linnaeus, which, as has 
been shown, was an African Monkey = Simla hamadryas Linn., and 
all the confusion existing in connection with this name has been 
caused mainly by Schreber. 

Two rather striking varieties of the Crab-eating Monkey have 
been accorded different names and separated as distinct. The first 
with a dark-colored pelage and dusky face was called carbonarius by 
F. Cuvier, (1. c.) and the second, a golden colored animal with a pale 
face was designated aureus by I. Geoffroy, (1. c). These two forms, 
as well as the typical style are found in Burma as stated by Blanford, 



232 PITHECUS 

(1. c.) and the color of the face has no significance as it varies greatly, 
and dark and light faces are by no means restricted to a certain color 
of pelage, and the dark face is seen in an animal with a light hued 
pelage, and a pale face with an individual having a dark colored coat. 
It is merely an example of individual variation without any specific 
value whatever. 

There are three specimens in the British Museum from the Baram 
River district of Borneo, a female and two young. The female closely 
resembles specimens of P. irus from the Malay Peninsula and for the 
present we can only consider that it represents the same species, but 
it is not unlikely that, with ample materials to enable a more correct 
opinion to be formed, it may be found advisable to separate the 
Bornean animal from the Malayan. 

F. Cuvier's type of M. carbonarius is not in the Paris Museum, 
and probably never was in the collection. 

Flower, (1. c.) states "when travelling on the Malay rivers one 
generally sees the Kras in small parties of from two to ten among the 
tree branches at high tides, but at low water they take to the mud and 
hunt about for food. They generally take little notice of passing boats, 
and so can be easily observed. In captivity they become intelligent pets, 
though the adult male Broh becomes fierce and dangerous. I have 
known a very large male Kra to be remarkably tame. They delight in 
water, and, (at any rate in their native climate), should be allowed a 
bath at least once a day. 

"Ridley says he has seen one leaping off the boughs of a tree into 
the water, climbing up and leaping off again and again, and I was told 
of one kept by some English soldiers at Singapore that would dive 
into a deep tub of water and fetch out bananas that were thrown in for 
it. The males of this species, (as well as some other Macaci), seem to 
vary very much in size." 

Pithecus mordax (Thomas and Wroughton). 

Macaca mordax Thos. and Wrought., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ill, 
1909, 8th Ser., p. 380. 
Type locality. Tjilatjap, West Java. Sea level. Type in British 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Java and Flores. 

Genl. Char. Larger than P. fascicularis from Sumatra, no red 
coloring, teeth larger. 

Color. On the forehead a few jet black hairs straggle above the 
eyes, but not enough of them to make a distinct line ; top of head and 



PLATE XXVI. 




PlTHECUS FASCICULARIS. 
No. 114506 U. S. Nat. Mus. Coll. % Nat. Si2 



PITHECUS 233 

upper parts of body reddish brown speckled with golden buff ; the hairs 
being wood brown at base, then banded with blackish brown and 
golden buff, or golden yellow, the tips of the latter color ; cheeks gray, 
hairs tipped with black forming an upright black line on sides of face, 
as the hairs radiate forward from the ears, fan-like ; face covered with 
short buffy hairs; chin, throat and under surface and inner side of 
limbs yellowish white; legs, feet and flanks wood brown; the hairs 
on upper side of arms and hands gray sparsely banded and tipped with 
golden yellow; tail, above blackish gray at base grading into a pale 
grayish brown, hairs banded with yellowish white. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,210; tail, 610; foot, 155; ear, 43, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 122.1; occipito-nasal length, 102.2; 
Hensel, 87.3 ; intertemporal width, 42.5 ; width of braincase, 58.2 ; 
palatal length, 53 ; median length of nasals, 18 ; length of upper molar 
series, 31.8; length of mandible, 91.7; length of lower molar series, 
33.2. Ex type British Museum. 

This is a brownish Macaque with gray hands and feet, one of the 
chief characters to separate the species from P. irus of the Malay 
Peninsula. A specimen in the British Museum from Flores cannot be 
separated from this species, and it probably is an inhabitant of the 
small islands stretching to the eastward from Java. 

Pithecus fascicularis (Raffles). 

Simia fascicularis Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., XIII, 1822, 

p. 246 ; Bonhote, Fasc. Malay, Zool., I, 1903, p. 3. 
Macacus cynomolgus (nee Linn.), Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 
XVI, 1847, p. 731 ; Flow., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1900, p. 
316; Meyer, Abh. Mus. Dresd., VI, 1896, p. 4. 
Macacus fascicularis Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., F. 
C. M. Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 567, Zool. Ser.; Pocock, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1906, p. 558; Cabr., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
VI, 1910, 8th Ser., p. 626. 
sumatran macaque. Native name Kra (Raffles). 
Type locality. Sumatra. 

Geogr. Distr. Island of Sumatra, and Islands of Terautau, and 
Langkawi, Straits of Malacca. 

Genl. Char. Feet and hands olive gray, very different from the 
black hands and feet of P. irus, (Cuv.). General hue of pelage in 
adults tawny ochraceous ; tail about as long as head and body ; eyelids 
yellow in skin, probably flesh color in life. Ascending ramus of 



234 PITHECUS 

mandible, broad and low, angle of anterior edge nearly upright, 
curving backward at top. 

Color. Narrow black line formed of long stiff hairs on forehead ; 
top of head, nape and hind neck tawny, slightly duller on upper parts 
of body, the hairs being purplish on basal half, then banded with tawny 
ochraceous, this giving the dominant color; eyelids flesh color; face 
covered with short white hairs ; sides of head covered with long olive 
gray hairs, projecting forward in form of a semicircle from the ear, 
and meeting the grayish white hairs from the temples and cheeks, 
which run backwards and form an upstanding ridge; outer surface 
of arms and thighs olive gray speckled with yellow; legs, hands, and 
feet olive gray ; inner side of limbs, and under parts silvery gray ; tail 
brownish black above, grayish brown beneath. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,300; tail, 600; foot, 125. Skull: 
occipital region gone; Hensel, 86; breadth of orbits, inner rim, 48.1; 
.length of rostrum, posterior end of nasal to base of incisors, 48.7; 
breadth of rostrum posteriorly at alveolar border, 36.2 ; median length 
of nasals, 20.3 ; palatal length, 44.4 ; length of upper molar series, 31.8 ; 
length of mandible, 85.2; length of lower molar series, 41.1. 

This species has for a long time been regarded by most writers 
as the same as P. irus (F. Cuv.), but that species has black hands and 
feet as was originally described by F. Cuvier, whereas the present 
species has gray hands and feet, and the general color of the pelage 
is tawny, quite a different hue from that of P. irus. The Macaques 
on the islands lying between Sumatra and Singapore have a pelage 
whose color is very similar to this one from Sumatra, but possess 
dental and cranial characters sufficiently different to prevent them 
from being considered the same species. Raffles in his description, 
(1. c.) made no mention of the color of the hands and feet, and this 
important character for differentiating this from the Malay Macaque 
seems to have been entirely overlooked by subsequent Authors. In 
size P. fascicularis and P. irus are about equal, but in general 
appearance they do not resemble each other very much. 

PlTHECUS MANDIBULARS Elliot. 

Pithecus mandibularis Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 
1910, p. 347; Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XL, 1911, p. 137. 
Type locality. Sungei Sama near Pontianak, Borneo. Type in 
United States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar in coloration to P. fascicularis but paler, 



PITHECUS 235 

less red, and the ascending ramus of mandible narrower, higher, and 
with a backward inclination. 

Color. Upper parts ochraceous buff, the hairs being gray at base 
and banded with black and ochraceous buff, the latter color dom- 
inating; top of head more tawny; whorl on cheeks and below ears 
gray; outer side of arms and hands gray speckled with yellow, outer 
side of thighs like back; legs below knees, and feet smoke gray, 
unspeckled; under parts and inner side of limbs whitish; tail above 
blackish paler towards tip, beneath buffy gray. Ex type United States 
National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,015; tail, 570; foot, 140. Skull: 
total length, 112; occipito-nasal length, 95.9; Hensel, skull broken; 
zygomatic width, 77) intertemporal width, 41.7; palatal length, 45.1; 
median length of nasals, 26.9 ; length of upper molar series, 28 ; length 
of mandible, 80.9 ; length of lower molar series, 34.8 ; width of ascend- 
ing ramus at middle, 22.3 ; at top, 23.3 ; extreme perpendicular height, 
38.1. Ex type United States National Museum. 

The great difference in the shape of the ascending ramus persists 
in all the skulls, and when compared with that of P. fascicularis its 
narrowness and height are conspicuous. The ascending ramus of the 
mandible of P. carimat^: is about half way between the Sumatran and 
Bornean Macaques and in the color of the pelage it is quite unlike both. 

PlTHECUS CAPITALIS Elliot. 

Pithecus capitalis Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 1910, 
p. 350. 

Type locality. Trong, Lower Siam. Type in United States 
National Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Lower Siam, and Telibon Island. 

Color. Nearest to P. fascicularis with gray hands and feet, but 
without the reddish hue on head and neck. Skull much larger and 
very different in character. 

Color. Top of head and entire upper parts yellowish brown, the 
hairs gray at base, then banded with dark brown and yellow ; limbs, 
hands and feet grayish brown on outer side yellowish on inner; tail 
above dark grayish brown, beneath yellowish white. Ex type United 
States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,143 ; tail, 635. Skull : total length, 
123 ; occipito-nasal length, 103.7 ; intertemporal width, 45 ; Hensel, 87.7 ; 
zygomatic width, 89.8; palatal length, 53.5; median length of nasals, 



236 PITHECUS 

31 ; length of upper molar series, 32; length of mandible, 97.1 ; length 
of lower molar series, 40.1. Ex type United States National Museum. 

The specimen has a very worn coat, and hairs thinly dispersed on 
limbs and under parts. While the coloring is dissimilar to that of P. 
fascicularis the great difference between it and the Trong Macaque 
is in the size and shape of the skull and teeth. The skull of the 
Sumatran animal, although of about the same age, is apparently one 
third smaller. The Trong skull has a low crest from the midfrontal 
to the occiput; the rostrum is longer and broader; zygomatic width 
greater; nasals wider; bony palate deeper and longer; teeth larger, 
incisors more than twice as large; mandible longer and heavier, the 
ascending ramus broader and longer, with a very slight inclination 
backward. 

A single specimen, a male, from Telibon Island has a smaller skull, 
and the color of the animal is somewhat different. This example may 
eventually prove distinct, but at present I leave it under the name of 
the Trong Macaque. 

PlTHECUS LJETUS Elliot. 

Pithecus Icetus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 1909, 
p. 255. 

Type locality. Island of Tingi, South China Sea off the south 
east coast of the Malay Peninsula. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Tingi and Tioman Islands, South China Sea. 

Genl. Char. Color similar to, but paler than that of P. karimoni 
and its allies ; tail longer than head and body ; skull with facial region 
nearly as long as braincase ; teeth moderately large ; canines very long ; 
bony crest for nearly the entire length of braincase ; tooth rows slightly 
curved; last lower molar nearly one third longer than second molar, 
and with well-developed six cusps. 

Color. Forehead flesh color; general hue wood brown with a 
reddish tinge, brightest on head where the hairs are purplish on basal 
half, then banded with ochraceous, the bands lighter on lower back and 
rump where they become cream buff; space above eyes flesh color, 
(yellowish in skin) ; stiff black hairs along edge of forehead; nose and 
lips covered with very short iron gray hairs ; sides of crown and head 
whitish gray, hairs turning upwards in front of ears; outer side of 
arms and hands grayish cream color; legs whitish gray, feet brown 
covered with whitish gray hairs; chin broccoli brown; rest of under 
parts and inner side of arms and legs yellowish white ; tail on basal half 



PITHECUS 237 

above black, remainder bluish gray, beneath pale drab gray. Ex 
unique type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 975; tail, 550; foot, 129, (Col- 
lector) . Skull : total length, 1 14.7 ; occipito-nasal length, 98.8 ; Hensel, 
76.3; zygomatic width, 80.3; intertemporal width, 41.4; width of 
braincase, 57.7; length of rostrum, 41.6; width of rostrum beneath 
orbits, 32.1 ; at jaw, 39.1 ; palatal length, 42.9; median length of nasals, 
18.1 ; length of upper molar series, 30; length of canines, 25.2; length 
of mandible, 87.4 ; length of lower molar series, 68.7. Ex type British 
Museum. 

This is a much paler Macaque than any of the island forms 
described, with pale yellowish gray arms, and whitish gray legs. The 
general color of the top of head and nape at a little distance is 
ochraceous, contrasting rather strongly with the reddish wood brown 
of the back. The skull is rather large and heavy, more like that of P. 
fascicularis of Sumatra, than any of those described from the various 
islands. Two specimens from Tioman Island, north of Tingi, are 
much darker in color, but as they present no cranial differences from 
Tingi Island examples, I have not separated them, though the coloring 
is quite different. 

PlTHECUS LINGUNGENSIS Elliot. 

Pithecus lingungensis Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 
1910, p. 344. 

LINGUNG ISLAND MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Pulo Lingung, Natuna Islands. Type in United 
States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Tooth row long ; general color of fur reddish. 

Color. Top of head, and upper parts rich tawny and black, base 
of hairs grayish; outer side of limbs, hands and feet, gray, hairs 
banded and tipped with cream buff; under parts, and inner side of 
limbs yellowish white ; tail above at root like back, remainder brownish 
black, hairs barred with cream buff; beneath smoky gray. Ex type 
United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 847 ; tail, 574. Skull : total length, 
108.8; occipito-nasal length, 91.8; Hensel, 75; intertemporal width, 
37.9; palatal length, 45.8; median length of nasals, 27 ; length of upper 
molar series, 30.4; length of mandible, 78.5; length of lower molar 
series, 37.7. Ex type United States National Museum. 



238 PITHECUS 

In general appearance this Macaque is totally unlike P. sirhas- 
senensis, and while the skulls of the two forms have a general resem- 
blance to each other, the present species has a narrower braincase, 
longer tooth rows, and smaller incisors, these being intermediate 
between the species just named and P. lautensis. One specimen only 
was obtained by Dr. Abbott. 

PlTHECUS LAUTENSIS Elliot. 

Pithecus lautensis Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 1910, 
p. 345. 

LAUT ISLAND MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Pulo Laut, Natuna Islands. Type in United 
States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Resembling P. lingungensis but not so red; skull 
entirely different. 

Color. Top of head and upper parts tawny ochraceous and brown- 
ish black ; arms and hands bluish gray ; hairs tipped with cream buff ; 
outer side of thighs unicolor to back, legs olive gray; feet darker, 
being brownish gray ; under parts and inner side of limbs, silvery gray ; 
tail above blackish brown becoming gradually paler towards tip, 
beneath whitish gray. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,018; tail, 548. Skull: total length, 
112.2; occipito-nasal length, 95.3; Hensel, 80.7; intertemporal width, 
39.8; zygomatic width, 82.7; palatal length, 45.7; breadth of brain- 
case, 54.5 ; median length of nasals, 27.1 ; length of upper molar series, 
27.1 ; length of mandible, 84.1 ; length of lower molar series, 36.1. Ex 
type United States National Museum. 

This Macaque is very similar in color on body and head to P. 
lingungensis, but is very different in the color of the limbs, arms 
particularly. The main differences are to be found in the skull. This 
has a very broad face, and space across orbits very wide ; orbital ridge 
much heavier ; the braincase is larger in every way, and the root of the 
zygomata broader and heavier ; palate is wider ; basioccipital and basi- 
sphenoid broader and longer, and the zygomatic arch more widely 
spread; the outer edge of the occipital region in P. lingungensis is 
rounded, but pyramidal without the cap in the present species ; incisors 
smaller: 

Altogether the two skulls are as different in all respects as two 
crania can well be of species belonging to the same genus. One 
example obtained by Dr. Abbott. 



PITHECUS 239 

PlTHECUS SIEHASSENENSIS Elliot. 

Pithecus sirhassenensis Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 
1910, p. 345. 

SIRHASSEN ISLAND MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Sirhassen Island, Natuna Islands. Type in 
United States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. General hue very dark ; limbs and feet paler. Skull 
in general character nearest to P. lingungensis, but tooth rows much 
shorter. 

Color. Top of head, upper parts and sides of body, and outer 
side of thighs blackish brown and ochraceous, the hairs gray at base 
then banded with ochraceous and black and tips black; limbs, hands 
and feet pale gray, hairs banded with cream buff; under parts and 
inner side of limbs grayish white; tail above at base blackish, hairs 
ringed with ochraceous, grading into smoke gray for remaining part, 
beneath smoke gray. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,110; tail, 600. Skull : total length, 
113.3; breadth of braincase, 54; intertemporal width, 40.5; palatal 
length, 47 ; median length of nasals, 27 ; length of upper molar series, 
27.6; length of mandible, 77.7 ; length of lower molar series, 35.5. Ex 
type United States National Museum. 

This species, from the island in the southern part of the Natuna 
Group, is very dark in color, differing greatly from the other Macaques 
from the rest of these islands. 

The skull resembles more nearly that of P. lingungensis from 
Lingung Island, near to Natuna, but the length of the tooth row is much 
less, the palate is wider, and the braincase broader. One example 
only was obtained. 

Pithecus vitiis Elliot. 

Pithecus vitiis Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 1910, p. 
346. 

MERGUl MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Domel Island, Mergui Archipelago. Type in 
United States National Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Domel, St. Matthew and Sullivan Islands, Mergui 
Archipelago. 

Genl. Char. Hair long, loose ; hands and feet yellowish gray. 

Color. General color of top of head and upper parts, wood brown, 
darkest on dorsal line, and lighter on sides, the hairs being gray at 
base, banded with black and yellow ; arms and hands similar to back ; 



240 PITHECUS 

thighs like back ; legs pale yellowish brown, feet slightly darker ; under 
parts and inner side of limbs, yellowish gray ; tail above blackish brown, 
at root like back, beneath yellowish brown. Ex type United States 
National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 935 ; tail, 495. Skull : total length, 
116.6; occipito-nasal length, 99.7; Hensel, 80.4; zygomatic width, 76.6; 
intertemporal width, 43.7 ; palatal length, 44.6 ; median length of nasals, 
28.4 ; length of upper molar series, 34 ; length of mandible, 86 ; length 
of lower molar series, 39.5. Ex type United States National Museum. 

This is a gray hand and foot Macaque, quite different from the 
Javan gray banded species P. mordax and P. resimus, as is to be 
expected. Specimens were obtained by Dr. Abbott besides the type 
locality, on St. Matthew and Sullivan Islands in the same Archipelago. 
One was a very old male in faded pelage, and another a female 
resembling closely the male described above. 

PlTHECUS CARIMAT^l Elliot. 

Pithecus carimatce Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 1910, 
p. 346; Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XL, 1911, p. 137. 

Type locality. Telok Pai, Carimata Islands. Type in United 
States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to P. mandibulars from Sungei Sama near 
Pontianak, Borneo, but grayer and without the tawny hues of that 
form. Skull with tooth rows straight, not curved, teeth larger, and 
tooth rows longer ; palate deeper, longer and wider ; incisors narrower 
in both jaws; orbits smaller; narial opening much larger; intertemporal 
breadth less; braincase shorter and narrower; mandible stouter, hori- 
zontal portion deeper. 

Color. Space around eyes bare, flesh color ; superciliary stripe gray, 
above which is a narrow black bar across forehead ; top of head, neck, 
upper parts, and outer side of thighs, mottled blackish brown and 
buff with a grayish wash, the hairs being gray at base, which shows 
through, then annulated with buff and black, and tipped with black; 
flanks gray ; arms on outer side, and hands, dark grayish, hairs ringed 
with whitish; legs uniform gray, feet gray with brownish tinge; tail 
above, black, smoke gray at tip, beneath dirty white. Ex type United 
States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,115; tail, 655; foot, 144. Skull: 
total length, 114; occipito-nasal length, 95.8; intertemporal width, 39.9; 
zygomatic width, 77.5 ; palatal length, 48.3 ; median length of nasals, 



PITHECUS 241 

28.1; length of upper molar series, 30.1; length of mandible, 85.6; 
length of lower molar series, 37.2. Ex type United States National 
Museum. 

This is a very large Macaque with a very long tail, and of a 
general grayish brown color. It does not closely resemble any known 
species. 

PlTHECUS BAWEANUS Elliot. 

Pithecus baweanus Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 1910, 
p. 347; Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XL, 1911, p. 137. 

B A WEAN ISLAND MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Bawean Island, Java Sea. Type in United States 
National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Larger than P. cupidus from Mata Siri, but tail dark 
hair brown with an olive tinge. General hue more yellowish. 

Color. Nude spot above eyes yellowish ; face covered with short 
gray hairs; short black bar above eyes; top of head and entire upper 
parts, dark buff yellow and black, hairs gray at base, and banded with 
buff yellow and black on apical portion, and tipped with black; outer 
side of arms and hands more grayish than upper parts, base of hairs 
being bluish gray and barred with cream buff and tipped with black ; 
outer side of thighs like back ; legs from knees to ankles, and feet gray, 
with cream buff annulations, less numerous and distinct than on arms ; 
hairs radiating forward and downward from ears, showing their under 
side to base, whitish gray with a cream buff edging ; throat, under parts 
of body, and inner side of limbs yellowish white; tail above, blackish 
brown at base speckled with buff, remainder dark hair brown, beneath 
olive gray. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,052; tail, 580; foot, 141. Skull: 
total length, 127; occipito-nasal length, 106.7; Hensel, 90; intertem- 
poral width, 41.3; zygomatic width, 88.9; palatal length, 51.9; median 
length of nasals, 22.3 ; length of upper molar series, 34.9 ; length of 
mandible, 89.1 ; length of lower molar series, 36.9. Ex type United 
States National Museum. 

This species differs from P. cupidus from Mata Siri Island in the 
bands on hairs being much paler, giving a yellow tone to the upper 
parts, and in the paler and more olive tail. It is also somewhat larger. 
The skull is entirely unlike that of its relative from Mata Siri. It is 
much larger in every way. The rostrum is broader and heavier ; nasals 
wider ; orbital ridges heavier and more elevated in center ; crest higher 



242 PITHECUS 

and shorter, the two lateral ridges not uniting until they reach the 
posterior portion of the frontal ; occipital region has a more acute 
angle, bullae more inflated, palate wider ; tooth row curved posteriorly, 
the last molar set inward on both sides; incisors projecting at a more 
acute angle ; zygomatic arch curved and with considerable spread. The 
skulls of the two Macaques possess unusually numerous points of 
difference, not often seen in allied species. 

PiTHECUS CUPIDUS Elliot. 

Pithecus cupidus Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 1910, 
pp. 34-38; Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XL, 1911, p. 137. 

Type locality. Pulo Mata Siri, Java Sea. Type in United States 
National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size moderate, hands and feet yellow; tail longer 
than head and body ; hair radiating fan like from ears. 

Color. Space above eyes nude, flesh color or yellowish; face 
covered with very short grayish white hairs ; cheeks and sides of head 
yellowish gray, hairs long and radiating forward from ears, fan shape ; 
top of head and entire upper parts, general tone ochraceous buff and 
black, the hairs gray at base, and banded with ochraceous buff and 
black, and tipped with black; flanks gray with a yellow tinge; arms 
and hands, legs and feet, cream buff and dusky, the hairs dusky at base, 
barred with cream buff and black, and tipped with the latter color; 
throat, chest, entire under parts of body, and inner side of limbs 
whitish; tail above brownish black for three fourths the length, 
grading into grayish brown at the tip, beneath brownish olive. Ex type 
United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 975; tail, 540; foot, 127. Skull: 
total length, 117.3; occipito-nasal length, 97; Hensel, 84.2; zygomatic 
width, 80.7; intertemporal width, 36.5; palatal length, 50.7; median 
length of nasals, 21.2; length of upper molar series, 30; length of 
mandible, 69.7; length of lower molar series, 37.5. Ex type United 
States National Museum. 

This species is quite unlike P. mordax from Java, but nearer the 
one from Bawean Island, from which, however, it is easily dis- 
tinguished by its blackish brown tail. All these Javanese Macaques 
appear to have the forward fan-shaped radiation of the hair from the 
ears, a peculiarity belonging however to others of the genus, but usually 
with a more circular radiation, not so much confined to a forward 
movement. 



PITHECUS 243 

The skull is very different from the Bawean Island Macaque, 
being much smaller, with a narrow rostrum, decreasing in width 
towards incisors; the zygomatic arch has very little expansion, and 
is parallel with the skull, being practically straight without curve; 
orbits much higher than wide ; a low ridge is present from frontal to 
occiput, formed of the inner ridge-like edge of orbits uniting on anterior 
part of the frontal, dividing again at the interparietal, and joining the 
occipital ridge on either side ; tooth rows straight, palate narrow ; upper 
incisors projecting. 

PlTHECUS AGNATUS Elliot. 

Pithecus agnatus Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 1910, 
p. 339. 

Type locality. Pulo Tuang Ku, Banjak Islands. Type in United 
States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Nearest to P. ph^urus but paler; hands, feet and 
tail lighter. 

Color. Black bar on forehead rather indistinct ; top of head, hind 
neck, and upper parts, with the hairs gray at base, then banded with 
ochraceous and black, and tipped with black, giving a general ochraceous 
hue with a sienna tinge, without any of the tawny shade seen in P. 
ph^urus ; arms and hands gray, hairs tipped with cream buff ; thighs 
on outer side like back; legs and feet smoke gray; under parts, and 
inner sides of limbs, yellowish white; tail above black at root, hairs 
tipped with ochraceous, grading into pale smoke gray on apical half ; 
beneath pale gray ; a band of russet crosses beneath the chin. Ex type 
United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 953 ; tail, 530. Skull : total length, 
107 ; occipito-nasal length, 88.4 ; Hensel, 75 ; intertemporal width, 39.3 ; 
zygomatic width, 74.1 ; palatal length, 45.6 median length of nasals, 
28.1; length of upper molar series, 28.5; length of mandible, 78.2; 
length of lower molar series, 35.3. Ex type United States National 
Museum. 

This Macaque is allied to P. PHiEURUS, but differs in its general 
paler coloration, lighter hands, feet, and tail. Four examples were 
procured at Tuang Ku Island, of the Banjak group. 

Pithecus ph^urus (Miller). 

Macaca phceura Miller, Miscell. Coll. Smith. Inst., Wash., XLV, 
1903, p. 63. 



244 PITHECUS 

DARK-TAILED MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Siaba Bay, Nias Island, N. W. of Sumatra. Type 
in United States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to P. irus but darker. 

Color. Crown, upper parts, and sides, tawny ochraceous and 
black; outer surface of limbs like body, but arms tinged with gray; 
forehead sprinkled with black ; cheeks buffy gray and black grizzled ; 
sides of neck and under parts pale ecru drab ; tail above, black, beneath 
ecru drab ; hands like outer side of arms, and feet like legs. Ex type 
United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 940; tail, 480; foot, 130. Skull: 
total length, 113.9; occipito-nasal length, 94.4; Hensel, 81.5; zygo- 
matic breadth, 76.7; width of braincase above zygomata, 56; palatal 
length, 48 ; median length of nasals, 27 ; length of upper molar series, 
27.9 ; length of mandible, 83.3 ; length of lower molar series, 34.8. Ex 
type United States National Museum. 

PlTHECUS lapsus Elliot. 

Pithecus lapsus Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 1910, p. 
343. 

Macaca phceura (nee Miller), Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
XXXI, 1906, p. 606. 

Type locality. Island of Banka, east of southern Sumatra. Type 
in United States National Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Islands of Banka and Billiton. 

Genl. Char. Similar to P. ph^urus but much darker in color; 
rostrum shorter, narrower ; premaxillae protruding, lengthened. 

Color. Frontal streak, black, conspicuous, broader than in P. 
fh^eurus; top of head, upper parts of body, and outer side of arms 
and thighs, with hairs pale drab at base, and annulated on apical 
half with black and tawny ochraceous ; legs below knees gray with buff 
tips to the hairs; cheeks, under parts and inner side of limbs, buffy 
smoke gray ; hands similar to outer side of arms ; feet yellowish gray ; 
tail blackish at base above, grading into gray at tip, beneath smoky 
gray. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 955; tail, 520; foot, 124, (Col- 
lector). Skull: total length, 110.8; occipito-nasal length, 94.7; Hensel, 
80.2 ; zygomatic width, 76.2 ; intertemporal width, 37.5 ; palatal length, 
43.7 ; median length of nasals, 27.7 ; length of upper molar series, 28 ; 
length of mandible, 83 ; length of lower molar series, 36.3. Ex type 
United States National Museum. 



PITHECUS 245 

Dr. Lyon (1. c.) has referred these specimens to (M.) ph^eura 
Miller, overlooking various differences both in skulls, and color of 
pelage. The latter is very different, much darker generally, and not 
so yellow in tone, while the feet are a yellowish gray quite different 
from the dark feet of P. ph^urus. The geographical distribution of 
the two forms would seem to negative the idea of their belonging to the 
same species. 

Pithecus ling^: Elliot. 

Pithecus lingce Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 1910, p. 
349. 

Type locality. Linga Island, Rhio Archipelago. Type in United 
States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size medium; hands brownish; feet whitish gray; 
hair long, loose. 

Color. Broad black band across forehead; top of head, neck, 
upper parts, and outer side of thighs, rusty in certain lights, less red 
in others, and paler on the thighs, the hairs being dark brown at base, 
then barred with dark ochraceous and black, and tipped with black; 
outer side of arms and hands dark brown washed with buff, the hairs 
being dark brown at base, then barred and tipped with buff ; legs smoky 
gray with a slight yellow tinge, feet whitish gray, hairs being brown 
with white tips, hair scanty; under parts, and inner side of limbs, 
whitish ; tail above like back at root, then black, changing to slate gray 
at tip, beneath smoke gray. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 782 ; tail, 560. Skull : total length, 
111.5; occipito-nasal length, 93.9; Hensel, 80; intertemporal width, 
40.4; zygomatic width, 76.5; palatal length, 45.7; median length of 
nasals, 29.3; length of upper molar series, 29.4; length of mandible, 
84.9; length of lower molar series, 37.7. Ex type in United States 
National Museum. 

This is a reddish hued Macaque, with a long, loose coat, and a long 
tail, not very much like any of the other species. It varies in 
coloration, for another male taken on the same day, July 23, has none 
of the reddish hue so strongly exhibited by the type, and is more of a 
dark brown hue with a yellowish tinge. The limbs and tail are also 
much lighter. The skull is short and broad for its length, palate broad, 
and the tooth rows slightly curved; teeth rather large, last premolar 
and molars, each with four cusps ; teeth of lower molar series smaller 
than those in the upper. 



246 PITHECUS 

PlTHECUS IMPUDENS Elliot. 

Pithecus impudens Elliot, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, 1910, 
p. 350. 

Type locality. Pulo Sugi, Rhio Archipelago. Type in United 
States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size medium, tail very long. Skull: with rostrum 
narrow anteriorly ; incisors very small ; posterior edge of last molar 
not reaching palatal arch; tooth rows curved; nasals comparatively 
long, broad anteriorly; tail longer than head and body. 

Color. Space above eyes bare, flesh color ; face covered with short 
white hairs; narrow black line on forehead; top of head and upper 
parts ochraceous and black, the hairs annulated with these colors, and 
gray at base; outer side of thighs similar but paler; flanks grayish; 
arms and hands dark brownish gray and buff; legs smoke gray, feet 
similar with a yellow tinge; under parts and inner side of limbs 
whitish; tail above blackish on basal half, smoke gray on remainder, 
beneath yellowish white. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 962 ; tail, 522. Skull : total length, 
109.3; occipito-nasal length, 92.6; Hensel, 73.4; intertemporal width, 
38; zygomatic width, 72.6; palatal length, 42.7; median nasal length, 
26.7; length of upper molar series, 27.1; length of mandible, 77.9; 
length of lower molar series, 34.1. Ex type United States National 
Museum. 

Pithecus bintangensis Elliot. 

Pithecus bintangensis Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 
1909, p. 257. 

Type locality. Sungei Boru, north east part of Island of Bintang. 
Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Islands of Bintang and Batam. 

Genl. Char. General hue dark, burnt umber. Skull : facial region 
about three fourths the length of braincase ; septum very narrow ; outer 
edge of zygomatic arch straight, sloping slightly inward posteriorly to 
root of zygoma; greatest width of rostrum equal to its length; tooth 
rows straight; teeth of moderate size; width of palate about equal 
throughout the length; braincase balloon shape, much constricted at 
intertemporal region, bulging posteriorly. 

Color. Male. Patch above eyes flesh color; general hue above, 
burnt umber on head and upper parts, the hairs being slate gray, and 
banded on apical half with tawny ochraceous and black; narrow line 
over eyes blackish gray; numerous long stiff black hairs standing 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE XXVII 




PlTHECUS BINTANGENSIS. 

No. 115676 r. S. Nat. Mus. Coll. '.-, Nat. Size. 



PITHECUS 247 

upright over forehead, producing indistinct black lines on each side; 
nose covered with short grizzled black and white hairs ; sides of face 
buffy; on sides of head from below ears, and on cheeks are long 
grayish hairs banded with white, projecting forward, forming bushy 
whiskers; outer side of arms and thighs iron gray, hairs banded with 
cream buff ; legs below knees iron gray ; under parts and inner side of 
limbs grayish white; hands and feet iron gray, speckled with cream 
buff like limbs ; tail above black, sparsely speckled with white, beneath 
silver gray. Ex type British Museum. 

Female. Upper parts russet, speckled with cream buff ; arms and 
hands blackish, speckled with cream buff; thighs like back; legs olive 
gray ; feet and toes black, covered with gray hairs ; tail like the male. 

Measurements. Total length, 964; tail, 508; foot, 117.5; ear, 29, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 105.5; occipito-nasal length, 85.5; 
Hensel, 73.5 ; zygomatic width, 72.5 ; intertemporal width, 37.1 ; width 
of braincase, 54.9; length of orbital ridge, 45.4; greatest width of 
rostrum, 38.5 ; length of rostrum, 38.5 ; median length of nasals, 24.4 ; 
palatal length, 44.6; length of upper tooth row, 26.7; length of man- 
dible 80.8 ; length of lower tooth row, 35 ; size of last lower molar, 
.89 x .68. Ex type British Museum. 

There is a great difference in the coloring of the sexes, the female 
being much lighter and redder, and this difference is exhibited in very 
young males which are as dark as the adult males ; a coloration quite 
dissimilar from that of the females. This species appears to be also an 
inhabitant of the neighboring island of Batam. There are only females 
unfortunately from that island in the collection, and they closely 
resemble in color examples of the same sex from Batam. Of course, 
when adult males are procured cranial characters and difference of 
coloring may be discovered, but with the present material only avail- 
able, the examples from the two islands must be regarded as belonging 
to the same species. This is a very dark and handsome Macaque, 
closely allied in general appearance to the species from Singapore 
Island, although there are some differences in color on the crown of the 
head and on the legs. But the skulls are not alike and the size of the 
teeth differs, especially the upper incisors which are much smaller in P. 
bintangensis, and in the straight tooth rows. The other cranial 
differences are mentioned above. Specimens were obtained on the 
northern coast of Bintang Island at Sanjang, Tanjang Sau, Tomback, 
Pasir Panjang, and Sungei Boru whence the type specimen came. 



248 PITHECUS 

PlTHECUS DOLLMANI Elliot. 

Pithecus dollmani Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 1909, 
p. 256. 

Type locality. Tjangi, Island of Singapore, south eastern part. 
Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Resembles in color P. bintangensis, but much 
larger, and different cranial characters. Skull longer and heavier; 
width across orbital ridge greater ; intertemporal width greater ; brain- 
case longer and broader; zygomatic arch less rounded anteriorly; 
rostrum wider than long; incisor teeth much longer; tooth rows 
curved, not straight; basioccipital much wider; lower molars smaller; 
ascending ramus of mandible wider ; upper and lower tooth rows much 
longer. 

Color. Patch above eyes, flesh color ; general hue burnt umber as 
in P. bintangensis, and hairs banded in the same way with black and 
tawny ochraceous; top of head redder than in the species compared; 
the arms more thickly speckled with yellow, and the legs much paler, 
a smoky gray instead of iron gray; tail black above, silvery gray 
beneath; rest of pelage like P. bintangensis. Ex type British Mu- 
seum. 

Measurements. Total length, 977; tail, 573; foot, 135; ear, 34, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 110.8; occipito-nasal length, 94.2; 
Hensel, 78.5 ; zygomatic width, 73.2; intertemporal width, 42.1 ; great- 
est width of braincase, 57.1; length of orbital ridge, 53.9; greatest 
width of rostrum, 35; length of rostrum, 35.9; median length of 
nasals, 24; palatal length, 39; length of upper tooth row, 29.1; length 
of mandible, 79.2 ; length of lower tooth row, 37.4 ; size of last molar, 
89.7 x 60. Ex type British Museum. 

With the exception of a redder head and hind neck, and paler 
legs, the present species resembles in the color of its pelage P. bin- 
tangensis from Bintang Island. But it is a larger animal and has 
very different cranial characters, as is shown above. 

Pithecus philippinensis I. Geoffroy. 

Macacus philippinensis I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
II, 1841, p. 568, pi. V, albino; Id. Cat. Primates, p. 29; 
Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVIII, 1905, p. 406. 

Inuus palpebrosus I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 93; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 54. 



PITHECUS 249 

Pithecus {Macacus) philippinensis Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. 

Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 118, 120. 
Cynamolgos philippinensis Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 134, pi. XXIII, fig. 340, albino. 
Cynamolgos palpebrosus Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 137, not figured. 
Macacus cristatus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 

Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 30. 
Cynomolgos ( !) mindanensis Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

XXVIII, 1905, p. 428; Thos., Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., XIV, 

1898, p. 381, (Part). 
Macaca (!) syrichta (nee Linn.), O. Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1911, p. 129. 

PHILIPPINE MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Manila, Island of Luzon, Philippines. Type an 
albino in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Islands of Luzon and Mindanao, and probably the 
intervening islands. 

Genl. Char. Color dark, burnt umber and black. 

Color. "Upper parts raw umber, the hairs everywhere annulated 
with blackish, top of head strongly washed with burnt umber, sides of 
head pale grayish olive; forehead with grizzled brown front, orna- 
mented with long stiff black hairs forming a bushy brow ; outer surface 
of limbs tawny olive, becoming dark gray on the fingers and toes ; tail 
slaty black at base above becoming paler towards the extremity, and 
olive drab below, with a few tawny annuli to the hairs of the upper 
side near the base." Mearns, desc. of C. mindanensis. 

Measurements. Male, total length, 1,665; tail, 550; foot, 120. 
Skull: total length, 125; occipito-nasal length, 104.4; Hensel, 83.5; 
intertemporal width, 41.9; zygomatic width, 77.5; breadth of brain- 
case, 60.4 ; length of nasals, 28.5 ; palatal length, 48 ; length of upper 
molar series, 29.8 ; length of mandible, 90.9 ; length of lower molar 
series, 38.3. Ex spec. British Museum, ex Lopez, S. Luzon. 

Specimens from north and south Luzon and from the Island of 
Mindanao in the British Museum are identical with the description of 
M. palpebrosus I. Geoff., and with Dr. Mearns' C. mindanensis. The 
M. philippinensis Geoff., in the Paris Museum, has been founded on 
an albino, and is stated to have come from Manila. It must be the 
same as the animal afterwards described as P. palpebrosus, and the 
latter name becomes a synonym. 



250 PITHECUS 

Specimens of a large, dark Macaque in the British Museum Col- 
lection from north and south Luzon, exact locality not stated, I refer to 
this species as they answer Dr. Mearns' description very well. It 
would therefore appear that the species is distributed throughout the 
length of the Archipelago. 

Mr. O. Thomas (1. c.) considers that the Simia syrichta Linn., 
Syst. Nat., 1758, p. 29, No. 21, must be the present species because 
of the locality given "Luzonum insulis." Neither Petiver's figure nor 
Linnaeus' description indicate in any degree whatever that P. philip- 
pinensis is the species had in mind when Linnaeus bestowed the name 
upon a Philippine monkey. If there was only one Macaque in those 
islands it might then be very properly decided that the name syrichta 
should be given to it, but as there are several Macaques in the Philip- 
pines, and neighboring islands, and our knowledge of their distribution 
in the Archipelago is extremely limited, it is quite impossible to 
determine which one it was that Linnaeus called syrichta. Much stress 
cannot be placed upon the locality "Luzon" for that island contained 
the port from which most of the commodities shipped to Europe came, 
and although the example figured by Petiver and which we may con- 
fidently believe Linnaeus never saw, has "Luzon" given as its habitat, 
it may only have been shipped from that island, and really been a native 
of another belonging to the Archipelago. However this may be, it is 
quite certain that there is nothing either in Petiver's figure, or in 
Linnaeus' description, that would enable any one in the remotest degree 
to recognize the Macacus philippinensis E. Geoff. Therefore as 
Linnaeus' description is utterly useless for the identification of any 
species of Macaque, and Petiver's figure is worse, it does not seem 
wise to endeavor to apply Linnaeus' proposed name and thus leave 
the question always in doubt, especially when the types of philip- 
pinensis and palpebrosus E. Geoff., are in the Paris Museum, and 
there is no question as to the species thus named. It would seem to be 
far better to embrace a certainty, than to adopt a doubt, which would 
leave the question always a subject for argument, with no possibility 
of ever arriving at a satisfactory decision. Linnaeus' syrichta is there- 
fore considered as undeterminable, and syrichta Thomas, (nee 
Linnaeus), is made a synonym of E. Geoff roy's species. 

Pithecus philippinensis apoensis (Mearns). 

Cynomolgos ( !) mindanensis apoensis Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., XXVIII, 1905, p. 429. 
Type locality. Mount Apo, Island of Mindanao, Philippine 



PITHECUS 251 

Islands. Altitude 6,000 feet. Type in United States National Mu- 
seum. 

Color. "Upper parts yellowish olive, the hairs everywhere annu- 
lated with blackish; top of head slightly washed with burnt umber; 
sides of head pale olivaceous gray, separated from the crown by a 
fringe of strong, stiff black hairs ; face gray ; under parts whitish smoke 
gray; genitals bistre; outer surface of limbs pale yellowish olive, 
changing to olive gray on lower portion, and on hands and feet ; upper 
side of tail slate black at base, fading to mouse gray on terminal half, 
and smoke gray on under side." 

Measurements. "Skull : greatest length, 107 ; greatest breadth, 
58; total length, 925; tail, 400; foot, 115." 

This is a female, and in color, with the exception of the hands and 
feet which are lighter, it is exactly like P. cagayanus, and at present 
it is impossible to give it any definite status, but it will probably prove 
to be the same as P. mindanensis = P. philippinensis I. Geoff. 

Pithecus cagayanus (Mearns). 

Cynomolgos ( !) cagayanus Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
XXVIII, 1905, p. 431. 

SULU ISLAND MACAQUE. 

Type locality. Cagayan, Island of Sulu, Sulu Sea (near Borneo). 
Type in United States National Museum. 

Color. From alcoholic specimen. "Upper parts olive brown, with 
hardly a trace of chestnut or burnt umber on the head ; sides of head 5 * 
brownish gray, face smoke gray; forehead grayish in front, behind 
which a crest of stiff black hair arises; under parts pale drab gray; 
outer surface of limbs like the back above, but fading at the knee and 
elbow joints to drab gray upon the forearms, hands, legs and feet; tail 
above slate black at base, fading to mouse gray toward the end, and 
drab gray on the under side." 

Measurements. Skull: greatest length, 110; greatest breadth, 55. 
Size, smallest of Philippine Macaques. 

The skull measures the same as the skulls of P. philippinensis. 
Total length, 110; Hensel, 81; zygomatic width, 77; palatal length, 
46; breadth of braincase above roots of zygomata, 55; median length 
of nasals, 26.1 ; length of upper molar series, 28.4; length of mandible, 
80.8; length of lower molar series, 37.5. Ex type United States 
National Museum. 



252 PITHECUS 

The above alcoholic specimen has been made up into a skin, and 
in color is precisely like the example called apoensis by Dr. Mearns, 
except that the feet and hands are darker. The distance separating the 
Sulu Island Cagayan, in the Sulu Sea near Borneo, from Luzon and 
Mindanao, favors the supposition that the Macaque is distinct from 
the Philippine, P. philippinensis. 

Pithecus pumllus (Miller). 

Macacus pumilus Miller, Proc. Wash. Acad. Scien., II, 1900, p. 
241. 

Type locality. Pulo Bunoa, Tambelan Islands. Type in United 
States National Museum. 

Genl. Char. Size small, tail longer than head and body. 

Geogr. Distr. Pulo Bunoa and Pulo Wai, Tambelan Islands ; and 
Pulo Siantan and Jimaja, Anambas Islands. 

Color. Superciliary stripe grayish white ; face covered with dark 
grayish brown hair; space between and above eyes flesh color; head 
above, hind neck, and upper parts of body, ochraceous rufous and 
black; outer side of thighs similar but paler; outer side of arms 
ochraceous buff and black ; sides of neck, throat, under parts and inner 
side of limbs yellowish white; tail at base above, like back, grading 
into olive gray, beneath yellowish white ; hands like outer side of arms ; 
feet like outer side of legs, a smoky buff. Ex type in United States 
National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 990; tail, 559; foot, 120. Skull 
total length, 110; occipito-nasal length, 90; intertemporal width, 38 
Hensel, 77.1 ; median length of nasals, 20.3 ; palatal length, 40.8 
length of upper molar series, 39.2 ; length of mandible, 79.5 ; length of 
lower molar series, 35.9. 

This is a small Macaque with the coloring on the upper parts 
similar to Erythrocebus, a rich dark tawny and black hues mingled. 

Pithecus suluensis (Mearns). 

Cynomolgos ( !) suluensis Mearns, Proc, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
XXVIII, 1905, p. 430. 

Type locality. Crater Lake Mountain, Island of Sulu, Philippine 
Islands. 

Color. None given. "Larger than P. mindanensis and differently 
colored ?" 



PITHECUS 253 

Measurements. Skull : "greatest length, 126 ; greatest breadth, 
58; unique cranium." Total length, 126; occipito-nasal length, 107.2; 
Hensel, 90.4 ; zygomatic width, 88.6 ; intertemporal width, 40.4 ; palatal 
length, 48.9 ; median length of nasals, 27.8 ; length of upper tooth row, 
28.7 ; length of mandible, 90.9 ; length of lower molar series, 36.2. Ex 
type in United States National Museum. (Skull, no skin). 

The skull is that of an adult male, but the material is altogether 
inadequate to determine satisfactorily the correct status of the example. 



254 



CERCOCEBUS 



GENUS IV. CERCOCEBUS. THE MANGABEYS. 



j 2-2^ c 1-1^ 
1- 2— 2» *-" 1— 1> 



P. 



2—2 
2^2> 



M. 



3—3 
3—3 



3 2 - 



CERCOCEBUS E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 
97. Type Cercocebus fuliginosus E. Geoffroy, = Simia 
cethiops Schreber. 

Semnocebus (nee Less.), Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 27. 

Lophocebus Palmer, Science, XVII, New Series, 1903, p. 873. 



Body slender ; head oval ; muzzle of moderate length ; limbs long ; 
callosities large; tail long; cheek pouches large; fingers webbed at 
bottom ; great toe united by a short web to the next one ; second and 
third toes united for nearly their entire length, and the fourth is united 
to the third and fifth on either side as far as the middle joints. Pos- 
terior lower molars have a fifth posterior cusp as in Pithecus. Facial 
line straight; premaxillaries not protuberant, on same line as face; 
zygomatic arch high above or below alveolar border of molars. 

The Mangabeys constitute a small group of Monkeys that range 
from the west to the east coast of Africa, from Guinea and the Congo 
basin to Uganda and the Tana River. These animals form a kind of 
connecting link between the Macaques of the genus Pithecus and the 
members of the genus Lasiopyga, through the genus Rhinostigma. 
They are lighter in body and more slender in form than the Macaques, 
and have shorter noses, brows less overhanging and larger callosities 
as a rule than the species of Pithecus, also have longer limbs, and like 
them have a fifth cusp to the last lower molars. The stomach is simple 
and the cheek pouches are large, but the laryngeal air sacs are wanting. 

A prominent peculiarity is the webbing of the digits, and each 
finger and toe is united to the one next to it, but in a different degree, 
for while the thumb and index finger, and the great toe and its neighbor 
are united by a very short web, the second and third toes are connected 
for nearly their entire length. The tail is very long; and the eyelids 
white ; and the species lack the brilliant colors that are not infrequently 
witnessed in species of Lasiopyga. They are arboreal in their habits, 
and dwell in the dense forests that cover the region in which they are 







o ss 



CERCOCEBUS 255 

found. One species, however, has been observed to descend to the 
ground to seek food. 

Some species have a very sombre coat, and their young are black, 
and the appearance of the animals in their progress from the youthful 
to the adult pelage has produced considerable confusion among writers 
when discussing these Monkeys, ending with the recognition of a 
number of invalid species, and resultant errors. The disposition of 
the Mangabeys appears to be gentle; their activity is never ceasing, 
and they are in the habit of "making faces," or grinning at the observer, 
exhibiting at the same time a liberal display of teeth. The species are 
easily arranged into two groups, characterized by the presence or 
absence of a crest on the head. The non-crested species are possessed 
of brighter colors, or the strong contrasts produced by a distribution 
of black and white ; while those with crests have a more subdued dress 
in which grays and browns are conspicuous, but the bright colors, 
although altogether wanting save in some instances, are more con- 
spicuous when existing, on the under parts of the body. 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

1775. Schreber, Die Sdugthiere. 

Cercocebus ^ethiops is here first described as Simla cethiops 

(nee Linn.). 
1792. Kerr, Animal Kingdom. Mammalia. 

Cercocebus torquatus first described as Simia cethiops tor- 

quatus. 
1799. Audebert, Histoire Naturelle des Singes et des Makis. 

Simia cethiops Schreb., and 5. cethiops (nee Linn.), var A. the 

latter afterwards called cethiopicus by F. Cuv., 1821 = C. 

cethiops (Schreb.), and C. atys, albino, undeterminable, are 

given in this book. 
1812. E. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Annales du Museum d'Histoire 
* Naturelle, Paris. 

Cercocebus cethiops Schreb., redescribed as C. fuliginosus ; 

the remaining species under Cercocebus given by this Author, 

belong to other genera. C. atys, albino, possibly C. ^thiops 

(Schreb.), but really undeterminable. 
1820. Kuhl, Beitrdge zur Zoologie und vergleischenden Anatomie. 

The species of Cercocebus recorded by this Author are placed 

in the genus Cercopithecus, (Lasiopyga), which includes species 



256 CERCOCEBUS 

now considered to belong to various genera, as well as to 
Lasiopyga. The species of Cercocebus are: 
(C.) atys undeterminable; C. ^ethiops (Schreber), and C. 
fuliginosus Geoff., also = C. ^ethiops (Schreber). 

1820. Desmarest, Mammalogie ou Description des Especes de Mam- 
miferes. 

Like the previous Author, the present one includes the species 
of Cercocebus in Cercopithecus = (Lasiopyga), as follows: 
(C.) fuliginosus = C. jethiops (Schreber); C. ^ethiops 
(Schreber) ; C. cethiopicus F. Cuv., = C. ^ethiops (Schreb.) ; 
and C. atys possibly an albinistic individual of C. jethiops, but 
undeterminable. 

1821. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 
Cercocebus torquatus (Kerr), redescribed as Cercopithecus 
cethiopicus, the name however attributed to M. Geoffroy St. 
Hilaire, but I have not found that either E. or I. Geoffroy 
employed this name for the species. 

1829. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

Two species of Cercocebus are here given as Simia ^ethiops 
Schreb.; 5. fuliginosus = C. cethiops (Schreb.). 
The synonymy is badly mixed and incorrectly given. 

1838. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Cercocebus albigena first described as Fresbytis albigena. 

1840. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
In the genus Cercopithecus (Lasiopyga), two species of Cer- 
cocebus are included; C. fuliginosus Geoff., = C. cethiops 
(Schreb.), nee Simia cethiops Linn., which is not a Cercocebus. 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadrumanes. 
The members of the genus Cercocebus are included in the 
genus Cercopithecus. They are (C) cethiops == C. torquatus 
(Kerr) ; and C. fuliginosus — C. ^ethiops (Schreber). 

1851. /. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

Three species are here given. C. collaris = C. torquatus 
(Kerr) ; C. cethiops (nee Schreber), = C. torquatus (Kerr) ; 
C. lunulatus Temm. ; and C. fuliginosus = C. .ethiops 
(Schreber). 

1853. Temminck, Esquisses Zoologiques sur la Cote de Guinee. 

Cercocebus lunulatus first described as Cercopithecus lunu- 
latus. 



CERCOCEBUS 257 

1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die S'dugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
In this work Cercocebus is made subgenus 3 of Cercopithecus 
and contains three species viz., C. fuliginosus = C. ^ethiops 
(Schreb.) ; C. collaris = C. torquatus (Kerr) ; and C. cethiops 
(nee Schreber), = C. torquatus (Kerr). 

1862. Reichenbach, Die V ollstdndigste Naturgeschichte der Aifen. 

In this work the genus Cercocebus is made a subgenus of 
Cercopithecus and has the following species: C. fuliginosus = 
C. cethiops (Schreber) ; C. cethiops Geoff., = C. torquatus 
(Kerr) ; and C. collaris Gray, = C. torquatus (Kerr). 

1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 
Four species of Cercocebus are here given: C. cethiops (nee 
Schreb.), = C. lunulatus Temm. ; C. fuliginosus = C. 
^ethiops (Schreber) ; C. collaris = C. torquatus (Kerr) ; and 

C. ALBIGENA. 

1876. Schlegel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bos, Simice. 

The genus Cercocebus is here made to contain the species then 
known that properly belong to it, as well as some species of 
Pithecus. The Cercocebi are C. fuliginosus = C. jEthiops 
(Schreb.) ; C. cethiops (nee Schreb.), = C. lunulatus Temm., 
(nee Synon.) ; C. collaris =. C. torquatus (Kerr) ; and C. 

ALBIGENA. 

1879. Peters, Monatsberichte Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaf- 
ten, Berlin. 
Cercocebus galeritus first described. 

1886. E. Riviere, in Revue Scientiiique. 
Cercocebus agilis first described. 

1890. Oudemans, in Zoologische Garten. 

Cercocebus aterrimus first described as Cercopithecus 
aterrimus. 

1896. E. de Pousargues, in Annates des Sciences Naturelles. 

A review of a few of the species of Cercocebus, and a dis- 
cussion of the relationships of C. agilis, and C. galeritus. The 
species included are C. collaris = C. torquatus; C. albigena 
of which C. aterrimus Oud., is made a synonym, and C. agilis, 
which is regarded as distinct from C. galeritus. 

1899. Sclater, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

Cercocebus aterrimus redescribed as Cercocebus congicus, an 
albino. 



258 CERCOCEBUS 

1900. Lydekker, in Novitates Zoologies. 

Cercocebus chrysogaster ; C. hagenbecki; C. albigena John- 
stoni, first described; and C. aterrimus redescribed as C. a. 
rothschildi. 

1906. Pocock, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Cercocebus aterrimus redescribed as C. hamlyni, and Cer- 
cocebus a. johnstoni redescribed as C. jamrachi; and in a sub- 
sequent paper he reviews the species of the genus, recognizing 
ten with three doubtful. They are: C. fuliginosus = C. 
^ethiops (Schreb.) ; C. lunulatus; C. cethiopicus (Cuv.), = 
C. torquatus (Kerr) ; C. chrysogaster; C. hagenbecki; C. 
agilis ; C. galeritus ; C. albigena, with aterrimus rothschildi, 
and a. johnstoni, somewhat doubtful. C. congicus and C. 
hamlyni both = C. aterrimus. 

1910. E. Schwarz, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

A paper on C. aterrimus and C. albigena and their synonyms. 
The Author discusses the specific values of C. congicus, C. 
hamlyni, and C. rothschildi, and decides that they are merely 
albinistic individuals of C. aterrimus Oudemans, as regards 
the first two, and the third is not to be distinguished from the 
same species. Also C. jamrachi is an albino of C. a. johnstoni. 
G. albigena and C. aterrimus are compared and their 
specific differences shown. 

1911. Schwarz, in Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender 
Freunde, Berlin. 

Cercocebus albigena zenkeri first described. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

The species of the genus Cercocebus are African and so far as 
is known are about equally divided between the eastern and western 
parts of the continent. In East Africa the most northerly species 
is C. galeritus, which is found in the vicinity of the Tana River, its 
range, like those of many of its relatives not yet determined. From 
Uganda and Lake Mweru to the Upper Congo C. a. johnstoni is met 
with. In various places along the Congo, the exact localities yet to 
be ascertained, the following species have been procured. C. chryso- 
gaster on the "Congo"; C. hagenbecki, locality given as "Upper 
Congo" ; C. albigena "Lower Congo" ; C. a. zenkeri, at Bifindi, 
Cameroon ; and C. aterrimus, "Central Congo Basin." In Nigeria C. 
torquatus is met with ranging south and east through Cameroon into 



CERCOCEBUS 259 

French Congo, and in the last named territory, at the junction of the 
Oubangui and Congo rivers, C. agilis is found. In Sierra Leone and 
Liberia, C. ^ethiops is met with; and lastly on the Gold Coast, range 
unknown, C. lunulatus was obtained. It will be seen from the above, 
that the habitats of some of the species are either guessed at or 
unknown, and much remains to be learned of the dispersion of the 
members of this genus. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. No crest on head. 

a. Color of hairs on body uniform. 

a.' Top of head reddish chestnut C. torquatus. 

b! Top of head speckled yellow and blackish 

brown C. cethiops. 

c! Top of head with a white patch C. lunulatus. 

b. Color on head, limbs and fore part of body 

speckled. 

a! No brow fringe C. chrysogaster. 

b! With brow fringe. 

a." Hairs on sides of head not falling over 
ears. 
a!" With yellow on flanks and under 

parts C. agilis. 

b!" No yellow on flanks and under 

parts C. hagenbecki. 

b." Hairs on sides of head falling over 

ears C. galeritus. 

B. Crest, or tuft on head. 
a. Face black. 

a.' Whiskers short, superciliary fringe present. 

a." Gray tinge on mantle C. albigena. 

b." No gray tinge on mantle C. a. johnstoni. 

c." Mantle light brownish gray C. a. zenkeri. 

b! Whiskers long ; no superciliary fringe C. aterrimus. 

Subgenus Cercocebus. 

No crest ; hairs short ; zygomatic arch high above alveolar border 
of molars. 



260 CERCOCEBUS 

Cercocebus torquatus (Kerr). 

Mangabey a collier blanc Buffon, Hist. Nat. XIV, p. 256, pi. III. 
Simla cethiops torquata Kerr, Anim. Kingd., 1792, No. 39. 
Cercocebus cethiops (nee Linn, nee Schreb.), E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. 

Hist. Nat. Paris, XIX, 1812, p. 97; Wagn, Schreb., Saugth. 

Suppl., V, 1855, p. 125. 
Cercopithecus cethiops (nee Linn, nee Schreb.), Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 

1820, p. 13; Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 62; E. Geoff., Cours 

Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 20, 8me Le^on; Wagn., Schreb., 

Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 126, tab. XXI ; Pocock, Ann. Mag. 

Nat. Hist., XVII, 7th Ser., 1906, p. 280. 
Cercopithecus cethiopicus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., II, Livr. 

XXXV, p. 182; 2nd ed., 1833, p. 71, pi. XXIV. 
Cercopithecus (Cercocebus) cethiops Martin, Proc. Zool. Soc 

Lond., 1838, p. 117; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen 

1862, p. 104. 
Cercocebus collaris Gray, List Spec. Mamm. Brit. Mus., 1843, p 

7; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit 

Mus., 1870, p. 27; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p 

96 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 38 ; Pousarg., Ann 

Scien. Nat., Ill, 1896, p. 228; Bedd., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 

1904, p. 161, (Brain). 
Pithecus (Cercocebus) cethiops Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg 

Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, p. 115. 
Pithecus (Cercocebus) collaris Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. 

Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, p. 115. 
Cercopithecus (Cercocebus) collaris Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 

Affen, 1856, p. 104, figs. 248-250. 

WHITE-COLLARED MANGABEY. 

Type locality. "l'Ethiopie." 

Geogr. Distr. West Africa, Nigeria, Cameroon, and French 
Congo. 

Genl. Char. Hair on crown thick, directed backward, short ; 
whiskers rather long, extending behind ears ; tail long ; eyelids white. 

Color. Top of head reddish chestnut, beneath which on sixjje of 
head is a band of pure white; upper part of whiskers soiled white, 
lower part gray; hind neck pure white; dorsal line jet black; rest of 
upper parts, shoulders and lower side of legs, purplish brown ; outer 
side of arms and hands jet black; feet brownish black; chin and throat 
white; rest of under parts buffy white; inner side of legs yellowish 
white ; tail black, apical portion white. 



VOLUME II 





CERCOCEBUS 261 

Measurements. Total length, 1,450; tail, 535; foot, 170. Skull: 
total length, 141.5; occipito-nasal length, 119; intertemporal width, 
47.4; width of braincase, 68.2; Hensel, 54.5; zygomatic width, 90.7; 
median length of nasals, 37.5 ; palatal length, 56.5 ; length of upper 
molar series, 36.4; length of upper canines, 23.1 ; length of mandible, 
96; length of lower molar series, 44.3. 

Great confusion has existed in the nomenclature of this and the 
next species arising from two causes, one, the vain efforts of Authors 
to employ the Linnaean name cethiops, which was given to an unde- 
terminable species of Lasiopyga, for this or the following species, and 
the other, the ignoring of Schreber's name cethiops, bestowed upon the 
Mangabey, called by E. Geoffroy some thirty-two years later, 
fuliginosus. As I show in the review of the Linnaean literature of 
Lasiopyga, Simia cethiops Linn., must be ruled out of court, as having 
no standing, for although it probably belongs to the Petaurista or 
^Lthiops groups in that genus, yet the species it represents is quite 
undeterminable. 

Bates, states (1. c.) that, in southern Cameroon, "Monkeys of this 
species are not rare, but are often killed. They differ from those of 
the common kind in that they often descend to the ground to feed. 
Their call is very different from that of the Cercopithecus, (Lasio- 
pyga), monkeys. It is rather shrill and ends in an after sound like 
that made while drawing in the breath or gasping." Kerr was the first 
to bestow a Latin name on this species, founding it on the "Mangabey 
a collier blanc" of Buffon and called it Simia cethiops torquata. 

Ceecocebus ^thiops (Schreber). 

Simia cethiops (nee Linn.), Schreb., Saugth., I, 1775, p. 105, pi. 
XX ; Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes et Makis, 1799, Fam. IV. Sec. 
II, pi. X. 
Cercocebus fuliginosus E. Geoff., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
XIX, 1812, p. 97 ; I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 25 ; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 125, tab. XX; Gray, 
Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 27; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 95; 
Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 791; Ottley, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 125; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. 
Mus. Calc, Pt. I, 1881, p. 59; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 
1894, p. 37; Bedd., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. 161; 
Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., F. C. M. Pub., VIII, 



262 CERCOCEBUS 

1906, p. 568, Zool. Ser. ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1906, p. 358. 
Le Mangabey F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Livr. VI, 1819, pi. 

XXXII. 
Cercopithecus fuliginosus Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 24; E. 

Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., p. 20, 8me Legon; Cuv., 

Hist. Nat. Mamm., 2nd ed., 1833, p. 75, pi. XXV; Less., Spec. 

Mamm., 1840, p. 87; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. SuppL, I, 1840, 

p. 125; V, 1855, p. 51. 
Simia fuliginosus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., XXXV, 1821, pi. 

CCV. 
Cercopithecus (Cercocebus) fuliginosus Martin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1838, p. 117; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 

1862, p. 104, figs. 244, 247. 
Pithecus (Cercocebus) fuliginosus Dahlb., Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 

Natur., fasc. I, 1856, p. 115. 

SOOTY MANGABEY. 

Type locality. None given. E. Geoffroy's type of C. fuliginosus 
not in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Sierra Leone, Liberia, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Hair on crown short, directed backward; face and 
ears naked; eyelids white. 

Color. Top of head speckled yellow and brownish black; sides 
of head blackish ; general color of body and limbs sooty or sooty black, 
nearly black on dorsal region ; lower part of forearms, hands and 
feet black; under parts ashy or yellowish gray; tail, upper parts 
blackish, rest sooty ; face of a brownish color ; eyelids white. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,016; tail, 546.10; foot, 215.60. 
Skull: total length, 119; occipito-nasal length, 96; Hensel, 81; zygo- 
matic width, 73 ; intertemporal width, 47 ; palatal length, 48 ; breadth 
of braincase, 63 ; median length of nasals, 19.5 ; length of upper molar 
series, 34; length of mandible, 74; length of lower molar series, 37. 

The type of E. Geoffroy's species is not to be found in the Paris 
Museum, the oldest there being one which died in the Menagerie in 
1821, nine years after the species was described, but no indication 
given as to whether it was the type or not. The type of C. atys Aude- 
bert is in the Paris Museum, a perfectly white animal, with no locality 
save 'Afrique occidentale/ and half the tail gone. It may be C. 
^thiops, albino, but no accurate determination is possible. Mr. 
Pocock contends (1. c.) that the name ^ethiops cannot be given to a 
Mangabey because Linnaeus had already employed the name in 1758. 



CERCOCEBUS 263 

But Linnaeus' Simla cethiops is a Lasiopyga, and has nothing to do with 
the members of the present genus, and there is no law known that 
forbids the same specific name to be given to two species of different 
genera. C. ^ethiops (Schreb.), is therefore perfectly applicable to a 
Cercocebus, and ^ethiops Linnaeus to a Lasiopyga, if the species 
can be determined, which in this case, unfortunately cannot be, and the 
confusion that has existed among Authors in regard to this name, has 
arisen from the supposition that Linnaeus and Schreber referred to 
animals in the same genus, which is not the fact. 

Cercocebus lunulatus Temminck. 

Cercocebus cethiops I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 25, (nee E. 

Geoff.) ; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 27. 
Cercopithecus lunulatus Temm., Esquis. Guin., 1853, p. 37. 
Cercocebus lunulatus De Winton, in Anders., Zool. Egypt., Mamm., 

1902, p. 15 ; Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVIII, 7th Ser., 

1906, p. 279 ; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1906, p. 358. 

WHITE-CR O WNED MANGABE Y. 

Type locality. "^Ethiopia." 

Geogr. Distr. Gold Coast, West Coast of Africa. 

Genl. Char. Similar to, but darker above than C. cethiops 
(Schreber), with a grayish white spot on occiput, and a narrow black 
line along the back of the same ; eyelids white. 

Color. Face flesh color; top of head blackish brown; a large 
yellowish white patch on back of head ; side of head yellowish white ; 
upper part of body and outer side of limbs brownish drab with a 
purplish tinge ; under parts and inner side of arms yellowish white ; tail 
above black, beneath like body ; hands and feet Vandyke brown. 

Measurements. Total length, 3 ft. 4 in. ; tail, 1 ft. 7 in. Skull : 
total length, 121; occipito-nasal length, 93; Hensel, 82; zygomatic 
width, 78 ; intertemporal width, 45 ; median length of nasals, 16 ; length 
of upper molar series, 35 ; length of mandible, 76 ; length of lower 
molar series, 41. 

Pocock, (1. c.) and all subsequent Authors make this species the 
same as C. cethiops GeofTroy, (E. Geoffroy I suppose is intended). This 
is not the fact, for the C. cethiops E. Geoffroy, is the Mangabey a 
collier blanc of Buffon, the C. torquatus of Kerr ; while the C. cethiops 
I. Geoffroy is the C. lunulatus of Temminck. The type of C. lunu- 
latus Temm., is not in the Leyden Museum, nor any specimen bearing 
that name. 



264 CERCOCEBUS 

Cercocebus chrysogaster Lydekker. 

Cercocebus chrysogaster Lydekk., Novit. Zool., VII, 1900, p. 279, 
pi. Ill ; Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, XVIII, 7th Sen, 1906, 
p. 280. 

Cercocebus fuliginosus Rothsch., Novit. Zool., VII, 1900, p. 279, 
(nee E. Geoff.). 

GOLDEN-BELLIED MANGABEY. 

Type locality. Upper Congo. Type in Tring Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Unknown. 

Genl. Char. Hairs on crown annulated ; under parts orange. 

Color. Crown light olive, speckled, caused by the dark and yellow 
rings on the hairs ; upper parts similar, but less speckled on hinder and 
lateral portions; flanks and outer sides of limbs and tail slate gray 
speckled like back; sides of head and under parts from chin to tail 
golden yellow; inner surface of limbs pale slate gray; tail above at 
base like back, rest gray, beneath grayish white at base, rest gray; 
hands grayish brown speckled with gray; feet slate gray speckled 
with yellow. Ex type Tring Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 790; tail, 430; foot, 130. 

Cercocebus agilis E. Riviere. 

Cercocebus agilis E. Riviere, Rev. Scient., XII, 1886, p. 15; 
Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat., Zool., Ill, 7me Ser., 1896, pp. 
229-235; Trouess., Le Natural., 1897, p. 9; Pocock, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., XVIII, 7th Ser., 1906, p. 282. 

AGILE MANGABEY. 

Type locality. Confluence of the Oubangui and Congo. "French 
Congo, Poste des Ouaddes." Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. French Congo. Range unknown. 

Genl. Char. Hair radiating from a point over eyebrows, some 
hairs directed forward. 

Color. Top of head, hairs blackish brown tipped with yellow, this 
being the general color; upper parts and sides of body, pale reddish 
brown, hairs tipped with yellow and gray at base ; limbs darker brown, 
hairs tipped with yellowish giving them a speckled appearance ; blackish 
at point of shoulder and on knees ; outer side of thigh and inner side 
of limbs pale yellow or yellowish white ; hands and feet black ; a white 
band along side of face formed by the color at base of hairs ; whiskers 
and side of head dark mummy brown, hairs tipped with yellow ; under 
parts yellowish white; tail blackish brown at base on top, remainder 
grayish brown tinged with red. Ex type Paris Museum. 



CERCOCEBUS 265 

Measurements. Total length, 660.40 ; tail, 628.65 ; foot, 127. 
Skull: total length, 117; occipito-nasal length, 104; Hensel, 78; zygo- 
matic width, 74 ; intertemporal width, 46 ; breadth of braincase, 63 ; 
palatal length, 47 ; median length of nasals, 21 ; length of upper molar 
series, 31 ; length of mandible, 80; length of lower molar series, 38. 

Cercocebus hagenbecki Lydekker. 

Cercocebus hagenbecki Lydekk., Novitat. Zool., VII, 1900, p. 594, 
desc. ; VIII, 1901, pi. I, fig. 1 ; Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
XVIII, 7th Ser., 1906, p. 281. 

HAGENBECK'S MANGABEY. 

Type locality. "Upper Congo," locality unknown. Type in Tring 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Upper eyelids dark in young; sometimes pale or 
flesh color ; thumb short ; face black ; callosities reddish ; hairs on head 
radiating from central point, those directed forward forming a post 
superciliary fringe. 

Color. Upper parts light slaty gray; on the head, back, outer 
side of limbs, and the upper surface of tail, some hairs are ringed 
black and tawny; inner side of limbs pale grayish white, some hairs 
tipped with bright yellow; tail at base black, rest of upper part slate 
gray, beneath paler ; hands black. Ex adult British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 737 ; tail, 407 ; foot, 123 ; ear, 32.5. 
Skull: total length, 135, (110.8); occipito-nasal length, 115, (97.6); 
Hensel, 94, (70) ; zygomatic width, 85, (67.7) ; palatal length, 58, 
(41.8) ; intertemporal width, 51, (49.9) ; median length of nasals, 30, 
(10) ; length of upper molar series, 35, (32.3) ; length of mandible, 88, 
(73) ; length of lower molar series, 42, (36). The figures in paren- 
theses are the measurements of the type. 

The type is a young animal, the molars not having assumed their 
positions in the jaws. The measurements of the skull as will be seen, 
are considerably exceeded in the adult, of which there are two speci- 
mens in the British Museum. They differ from the young in color, in 
having the head and back more tawny, the yellow markings of the 
young having changed to tawny. In other respects they are alike, with 
no yellow beneath. 

Cercocebus galeritus Peters. 

Cercocebus galeritus Peters, Monatsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., 
Berlin, 1879, p. 830, pis. IB, III ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 
II, 1895, p. 41 ; Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVIII, 7th 
Ser., 1906, p. 283. 



266 CERCOCEBUS 

CRESTED MANGABEY. 

Type locality. Miatola, mouth of the Osi and Tana rivers, East 
Africa. Type in Berlin Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. East Africa ; Tana and Osi rivers. 

Genl. Char. Hairs of head very long covering the ears, radiating 
from a point near frontal ridge; no F-shaped partition as shown in 
Peters' figure ; general color pale brown ; tail long ; hairs on forehead 
projecting forward. 

Color. Hairs on top of head long, falling over ears, blackish 
brown; upper parts and sides of body, arms to elbows and legs dark 
hair brown, the hairs light gray at base and banded with black and 
buff; sides of head brownish yellow, sides of neck, throat, under 
parts and inner side of limbs yellowish white tinged with brown ; fore- 
arms blackish brown speckled with buff; hands and feet blackish 
brown. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,350; tail, 730. Ex mounted 
specimen, type Berlin Museum. Skull: total length, 121.5; occipito- 
nasal length, 103; Hensel, 85; intertemporal width, 46; zygomatic 
width, 84; median length of nasals, 20; length of upper molar series, 
30.5; length of mandible, 90; length of lower molar series, 39. Ex 
type Berlin Museum. 

Subgenus Lophocebus. 

Head crested; hair long; zygomatic arch (jugal), below alveolar 
border of molars. 

Cercocebus aebigena (Gray). 

Presbytis albigena Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1850, p. 77, pi. 
XVI ; Murie, Prbc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 740. 

Cercocebus albigena Puch., Rev. Zool., 1857, p. 241 ; Sclat., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 183; 1896, p. 784; Schleg., Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Simian, 1876, p. 97; Jent., Cat. Syst. Mamm., 1892, 
p. 26; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1895, p. 338; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 40 ; Matschie, Saugth. Deutsch. 
Ost Afr., 1895, p. 6; Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat, III, 1896, 
p. 228; Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVIII, 7th Ser., 1906, 
p. 283. 

Cercocebus (Semnocebus) albigena Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 
and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 27. 

GRAY-CHEEKED MANGABEY. 

Type locality. Congo Free State, West Africa. "Stanley Falls ?" 



CERCOCEBUS 267 

Geogr. Distr. Basin of the Congo, Calinda, mouth of the Congo, 
(Monteiro) ; Caio, Luchenye River, north of the Congo, (Sclater) ; 
"Stanley Falls"; Victoria Nyanza, (Delme-Radcliffe). 

Genl. Char. Crest on head short, occipital ; superciliary fringe 
present; whiskers grayish; eyelids dark; tufts over eyes; hair very 
long on neck and shoulders forming a mane ; erect tuft on back of head. 

Color. Head, body above, limbs and tail black ; throat and cheeks 
pale gray ; sides of neck and chest sooty grayish ; hands and feet black. 
Ex type British Museum. 

The type is a young animal ; it is difficult to say how youthful, as 
the skull, unfortunately, could not be found. The hair on forehead is 
erect on each side like horns, far above the rest on the head and is long 
oh the occiput. A similar arrangement of the hair is seen in a speci- 
men from Tanganyika labelled aterrimus, and which is probably the 
young of C. a. johnstoni, two adults of which are in the British 
Museum. In the Paris Museum are three examples of the present 
species, one of which is fully adult. It has the arms above elbows and 
outer side of thighs gray; the forearms and outer edge of thighs 
black. Another has the outer side of limbs, shoulders, sides and back 
of neck reddish. Length, 1,250; tail, 647.7; foot, 171.4. 

Cercocebus albigexa johnstoni Lydekker. 

Semnocebus albigena johnstoni Lydekk., Novit. Zool., 1900. p. 
596; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1894, p. 595; Pocock, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, XVIII, 7th Ser., 1906, p. 284; Schwarz, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1910, 8th Ser, p. 529. 
Cercocebus jamrachi Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, 1906, 7th 
Ser, p. 454. 

JOHNSTON'S MANGABEY. 

Type locality. Country of Barundi, north end of Lake Tangan- 
yika, German East Africa. Type in British Museum, juv. 

Geogr. Distr. Central Africa, Uganda to West Africa, (Du 
Chaillu) ; Uganda and Lake Mweru to Upper Congo, (Schwarz) ; 
Lake Tanganyika, German East Africa. 

Genl. Char. Head crested as in C. albigena; tuft of long erect 
hairs over each eye ; superciliary fringe shorter ; entire upper parts 
except neck and shoulders uniformly black. Eyelids dark. 

Color. Adult. Long hairs over shoulders and upper part of back 
forming a short mantle, Prout's brown with a purplish tinge; top 
of head, upper parts of body, limbs, hands, feet and tail black ; under 
parts dark purplish brown. 



268 CERCOCEBUS 

Young. All black ; shoulders and under parts with a reddish tinge. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 116; occipito-nasal length, 
99 ; Hensel, 81 ; intertemporal width, 45 ; zygomatic width, 73 ; palatal 
length, 49 ; median length of nasals, 23 ; length of upper molar series, 
27 ; length of mandible, 73 ; length of lower molar series, 33. 

The type of this species is a young animal and black all over, 
similar to C. aterrimus which was also young. The type of this 
form came from Stanley Falls, and the following description is taken 
from it. 

Color. All black on head, body, limbs, hands, feet and tail; 
shoulders and under parts tinged with red. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 108; occipito-nasal length, 
94 ; Hensel, 74 ; zygomatic width, 73 ; intertemporal width, 49.4 ; palatal 
length, 41 ; median length of nasals, 24 ; length of mandible, 64 ; length 
of upper molar series, 27. 

Hair on head long, covering middle portion of the crown ; super- 
ciliary fringe long; whiskers small, grayish, not concealing the ears; 
eyelids dark. 

Sir Harry Johnston writing to Dr. Sclater about the specimen of 
this Monkey from Lake Tanganyika (1. c.) states that, "this is the 
history of the Black Monkey. He was brought from the country of 
Barundi, at the north end of Tanganyika, by Rumaliza, the Arab who 
has been fighting recently with the Belgians. Rumaliza gave it at 
Ujiji to Mr. Swann, then in the service of the London Missionary 
Society. Mr. Swann brought him down to the south end of Tangan- 
yika and gave him to the Mission Station. The Missionary in charge 
of the station subsequently hearing that I was collecting all sorts of 
beasts sent him to me. I got him fetched down from Tanganyika to 
Zomba, and thence as you know to England. He is undoubtedly a 
native of the country at the north end of Lake Tanganyika; in other 
words, of the north eastern border of the great forest region of West 
Africa. Even there he would seem to have been rare, since he was 
given by the natives to Rumaliza as a curiosity." 

A whitish monkey from Molinga, Lake Mweru, in the London 
Zoological Gardens was named by Mr. Pocock (1. c.) jamrachi. This 
is undoubtedly an albino, and its locality indicates that it would belong 
to the eastern race of C. albigena, and the name therefore becomes 
a synonym of C. a. johnstoni. Specimens of C. albigena and the 
present race are rather scarce in collections, and it is unusual among 
the Primates to find any species so prone to albinism as this one 



CERCOCEBUS 269 

seems to be, therefore, it is not surprising that when individuals with 
more or less white in their pelage were received they were sup- 
posed to represent new forms, especially as the locality whence any 
one of them came was unknown or uncertain, but the blotched face and 
hands of C. congicus, and face and ears of C. hatnlyni might have 
aroused suspicions about their representing distinct species. 

Cercocebus albigena zenkeri Schwarz. 

Cercocebus albigena subsp., Schwarz, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 8th 

Ser., V, 1910, p. 530. 
Cercocebus albigena zenkeri Schwarz, Sitzungsb. Gesellsch. 

Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1910, p. 456. 

ZENKER'S MANGABEY. 

Type locality. Bifindi on Lokunye River, Cameroon, West 
Africa. Type in Berlin Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Cameroon, West Africa. 

Color. Mane long, light brownish gray, slightly darker between 
the shoulders; occipital crest brownish, the longest hairs brownish 
gray; thighs tinged with grayish brown; arms with numerous light 
hairs, some having light tips ; under side of body grayish. 

Measurements. Size about the same as C. albigena. Skull : 
"Gehirnkapsel von oben gesehen oval mit dem stump fen Ende hinten. 
Schlafenenge scharf markiert. Orbita verhaltnismassig klein mit 
alien vier Ecken ziemlich gleichmassig abgerundet und mit sehr starker 
Aussenwand. Rostrum mit ziemlich parallelen Randern. Infra- 
orbitalgrube sehr tief und weit, nach unten am breitesten, da dort das 
Zygomaticum stark nach aussen weicht. Der optische Querschnitt des 
Schadels ist von hinten gesehen etwa halbkreisformig und geht unten 
ganz allmahlich beiderseits in den Proc. mastoideus uber. Von oben 
gesehen liegt die vordere Begrenzungslinie der beiden Zygomatica in 
einer zur Sagittalebene senkrechten Geraden. Das Zygomaticum ist 
vorn abgerundet. Der untere Rand des Jochbogens erscheint in der 
Seitenansicht etwa in der Hohe der Zahnwurzel der Molaren, wahrend 
er bei C. a. johnstoni fast bis zum Niveau des Alveolarrandes hera- 
breicht. Der Gaumen hat parallele Rander; die Backzahne bis zum 
m 2 inkl. stehen in gerader Linie und nur der m 3 ist etwas eingeruckt. 
Das Gaumendach ist im Querschnitt gleichmassig gewolbt. 

"Der weibliche Schadel hat sehr kurzes Rostrum." 

This form was referred to by Herr Schwarz in the Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., (1. c.) in his paper on Cercocebus; but from lack of 
material to enable him to decide upon its proper relationship to C. 



270 CERCOCEBUS 

albigena he left it as probably a subspecies, but without a name. In 
the Berlin Museum he found additional skins and skulls, which proved 
that the form was entitled to a subspecific rank. While the skull, 
according to Herr Schwarz's description given above, does not present 
any very strongly marked distinctive characters, yet the differences 
mentioned, together with the paler coloration of the pelage would 
seem to be sufficient for its recognition as a subspecies. 

Cercocebus aterrimus (Oudemans). 

Cercopithecus aterrimus Oudem., Zool. Gart, XXI, 1890, p. 267. 
Cercocebus aterrimus Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 256, 

(note) ; 1903, p. 191 ; Jent, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1895, p. 

338; Delme-Rad., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1905, p. 187; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 40; Pocock, Ann. 

Mag. Nat. Hist., XVIII, 7th Ser., 1906, p. 283; Schwarz, 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1910, 8th Ser., p. 530. 
Cercocebus congicus Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1899, p. 827, 

fig. ; Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1906, 7th Ser., p. 285 ; 

Schwarz, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1910, 8th Ser., p. 527. 
Cercocebus albigena rothschildi Lydekk., Novit. Zool., VII, 1900, 

p. 596; VIII, 1901, pi. I, fig. 2; Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

1906, 7th Ser., p. 284; Schwarz, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1910, 

8th Ser., pp. 528, 530. 
Cercocebus hamlyni Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1906, 7th Ser., 

p. 208, pi. VII; Schwarz, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1910, 8th 

Ser., pp. 527, 530. 

BLACK MANGABEY. 

Type locality. Stanley Falls, River Congo. Type in Leyden Mu- 
seum. 

Geogr. Distr. Basin of Central Congo. 

Genl. Char. Crest, vertical and pointed, placed on center of 
crown ; no mantle ; whiskers long ; no brow fringe. 

Color. Whiskers, point of shoulders, chest, and inner side of 
arms above elbows brownish black; throat grayish; rest of pelage, 
head, body, limbs, hands, feet, and tail black. A young individual. Ex 
type Leyden Museum. 

The type of this species is only about half grown and died in the 
Zoological Gardens at The Hague in 1890, and was stated to have come 
from Stanley Falls, Congo. It has not attained altogether the full 
colored pelage of the adult, and the whiskers are brownish black 
instead of grayish brown, and those in the adult are long and hide the 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE XXIX. 




CERCOCEBUS ATERRIMUS. 
Tring Mus. Coll. Nat. Size. 



CERCOCEBUS 271 

ears. This species often presents, in various degrees, different stages 
of albinism, and certain individuals thus lacking in color have been 
described as distinct species, and have added considerably to the 
synonymy. I have seen all these so called forms, and some others differ- 
ing slightly which happily had escaped baptism. The first of these albinos 
was the C. congicus of Sclater (1. c). The type of this form was 
living in the Zoological Gardens of Antwerp, presented in 1899 by M. 
F. Fuchs, the then Governor of the Congo Free State. It was a female 
and was conspicuous for the prominent crest arising from the top of 
the head and the long hair on the cheeks. It resembles somewhat in 
the coloring of the head C. hamlyni, but the body is all black. This 
specimen died and is now in the Museum of the Royal Zoological 
Society in Antwerp. On a recent visit to the Antwerp Gardens I saw 
another example, the third, as I was informed by M. l'Hoest, the 
Director, that they had received. It was a male and about half grown, 
and differs somewhat from the type, in having the chest black, not 
white ; the flesh colored face and ears were much blotched with black- 
ish brown, and the flesh colored hands, and general appearance of the 
animal, strongly suggested albinistic coloration. It is more white than 
black, and may be described as follows: General color white; top of 
head and pointed crest, chest, and abdomen black ; inner side of fore- 
arm and back blackish; rest of body and tail white; face, ears, hands 
and feet flesh color, the first two blotched with brownish black. Crest 
standing upright; whiskers very large partly covering the ears, and 
standing outward from the head. 

The individual representing the type of C. hamlyni Pocock (1. c.) 
is living (1909) in the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London, 
and is a female only partially white. It is stated to have come from 
the "Upper Congo," very likely from Stanley Falls or its vicinity. 
The following description and measurements were taken from this 
individual. 

Color. Face pale flesh color spotted with brown; upper eyelids 
white and eyelashes white. Iris olive brown; brow ridge white with 
few spots; ears flesh color slightly spotted. Top of head black, the 
hairs long about the center forming a pointed crest; in front and on 
sides of the black crown is a narrow grayish white band ; cheeks and 
behind ears also grayish white; hair on cheeks long partly covering 
ears ; behind the ears a tuft of white hairs ; nape, and dorsal region to 
lower back, brown; rump and sides of body grayish white; patch on 
breast ashy gray ; throat and rest of under parts whitish ; tail grayish 
white ; outer side of arm to elbow grayish white tinged with brown ; 



272 CERCOCEBUS 

forearm iron gray; legs on outer and inner side, and feet grayish 
white ; hands yellowish gray ; palms and soles of feet flesh color. 
Measurements. Total length about 900 ; tail, 500. 

The third of these described forms, C. a. rothschildi (1. c.) is also 
an inmate of the London Zoological Gardens. The locality from which 
it came is not known, and, as is the case of all these described animals, 
it is young. This example is not an albino, as the general color of the 
body and limbs is a uniform black with a slaty tinge on the whiskers, 
and black eyelids. This appears to be only another phase of coloring 
differing slightly from the typical style which members of this species 
exhibit. So far as I am aware no two individuals, having a more or 
less strong tendency to albinism, have agreed in the distribution of 
their markings, or in the amount of white or black exhibited, and it is 
evident that the coloring of their pelage or the lack of it, is purely an 
individual trait. C. a. rothschildi however, is nearer in its coloring to 
typical C. aterrimus than any of the styles that have been given a 
separate name. 




Si <L> 






RH1N0STIGMA 273 



GENUS VII. *RHINOSTIGMA. OWL-FACED GUENON. 

A- 2— 2> *" 1—1' r * 2—2* iV1 * 3—3 & ' 

White line from forehead over nose and lip to mouth. Shape of 
face elongate ovate, similar to that of the Barn Owl. The last lower 
molar, with a posterior fifth cusp. Facial line of skull hollowed ; pre- 
maxillaries protuberant ; zygomatic arch slightly above alveolar border 
of molars. 

Rhinostigma hamlyni (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus hamlyni Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, 7th 
Ser., 1907, p. 521 ; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1908, p. 160, pi. 
X, fig. 3. 

HAMLYN'S OR OWL-FACED GUENON. 

Type locality. Ituri forests, Congo State, Africa. Type living 
in the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London, (1909). 

Color. A white stripe from forehead down nose and across upper 
lip to mouth; a pale yellowish superciliary stripe tinged with gray; 
whiskers long extending to ears bushy, and with top of head and 
entire upper parts black speckled with yellow ; thighs gray ; arms, legs 
and entire under parts black; tail very long, gray, hairs being black 
tipped with silvery white ; hands and feet black ; face lead color ; ears 
yellow. Ex type living in Gardens of the London Zoological Society. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, occiput to base of incisors, 
105; occipito-nasal length, 92; intertemporal width, 50; Hensel, 64; 
zygomatic width, 68; median length of nasals, 16; palatal length, 37; 
length of upper molar series, 28; length of mandible, 68; length of 
lower molar series, 31. Incisors very large in both jaws. Ex type 
Tring Museum. 

I am indebted to the Hon. Walter Rothschild, and Dr. Hartert 
who very kindly forwarded the type skull to me for examination from 
the former's Museum, at Tring, England. 

In size this monkey is about equal to C. albigularis. It is a 
remarkable species both for the long stripe down the nose and lip, as 
well as for the peculiar shape of the face, which is broad at the fore- 
head and narrowing down to the chin, like that of the barn owl, the 



*pivoa f nose, and tnyfia, a mark. 



274 RHINOSTIGMA 

heavy whiskers fringing it in on each side. The animal has changed in 
appearance since it was first received, and it cannot be said that it has 
yet fully acquired its permanent dress, and it seems, that at all events, 
there is one species of Guenon-like Monkey whose young does not 
altogether resemble the adult. It is a handsome species, and its 
peculiar face markings will always cause it to be conspicuous. I saw 
a second example in the Gardens of the Royal Zoological Society at 
Antwerp. It was smaller than the one in London, but resembled it 
closely in color and markings. The exact habitat of the species is not 
known. Since the above description was taken, the type has died 
in the Zoological Gardens, in Regent's Park, London. The skull shows 
it was a young animal, with the molar series not fully developed. The 
last lower molar on each side was not fully through the gum, but both 
have a posterior fifth cusp. This excludes the species from the genus 
Lasiopyga, while its coloring and peculiar face marking prohibit its 
reception in Cercocebus, but it seems to occupy an intermediate posi- 
tion as a link between the species of these genera. A new genus, 
Rhinostigma, has therefore been created for it. 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE 10. 




RHINOSTIGMA HAMLYNI. 



LASIOPYGA 27S 



GENUS Vin. LASIOPYGA. THE GUENONS. 

T ?=? n — p ?=? im 3 ~~ 3 — 

♦LASIOPYGA Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Avium, 1811, p. 68. 

Type Simla nictitans Linnaeus. 
Cebus Rafin., Analyse de la Nature, 1815, p. 53, (nee Erxl.). 
Monichus Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., 3te Theil, Zool., 2te Abeth., 1816, 

pp. XI, 1208-1211. 
2Ethlops Martin, Gen. Introd. Nat. Hist. Mammif. Anim., 1841, 

p. 506. 
Petaurista Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. AfTen, 1862, p. 105, pi. 

XVIII, figs. 251-261, (nee Link, 1795, Glires; nee Desmarest, 

1820,-Marsupialia). 
Diademia Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. AfTen, 1862, p. 109, pis. 

XVIII, XIX, figs. 262-270, (nee Schumacher, 1817, Crus- 
tacea). 

Mona Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 109, pis. 

XIX, XX, figs. 271-282. 

Chlorocebus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 24. 
Cynocebus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 27. 
Diana Trouess., Rev. Mag. Zool., VI, 3me Ser., 1878, p. 124, (nee 

Risso, Pisces, 1826). 
Rhinostictus Trouess., Cat. Mamm. Viv. et Foss., I, 1897, p. 17. 
Otopithecus Trouess., Cat. Mamm. Viv. et Foss., I, 1897, p. 20. 
Pogonocebus Trouess., Cat. Mamm. Viv. et Foss., Suppl., Pt. I, 

1904, p. 14. 

Body slender; legs and tail long; head round, face short; cheek 
pouches large; nose moderate, nostrils approximate; whiskers and 
beard usually present ; callosities moderate ; hands elongate, fingers 
webbed at base, thumb small. Skull flat, superciliary ridge much less 
prominent than in the species of Pithecus; orbits approximate; pos- 



♦Lasiopyga had two species of different genera Simia nem^us Linn., and 
Simla nictitans Linn. In 1812, a year after Illiger proposed it, E. Geoffroy 
took nem^eus as the type of his genus Pygathrix, thus antedating Prcsbytis 
Escholtz, by nine years, and leaving nictitans as the type of Lasiopyga. 



276 LASIOPYGA 

terior lower molars have only four cusps, a transverse ridge uniting 
the two anterior together, and another the two posterior. Facial line 
straight, about 58° ; premaxillaries on same line as rest of face ; zygo- 
matic arch high above alveolar border of molars. 

The Guenons, as the members of the genus Lasiopyga are called, 
from their habit of making grimaces and showing their teeth, are all 
dwellers on the African Continent. It is the largest genus of the 
Primates, and its members are remarkable for the beauty of their coats, 
some species exhibiting even a brilliant coloring, with at times gay 
hues brought together in striking contrast. The Guenons are arboreal, 
inhabiting the vast African forests, and are rarely seen upon the 
ground, and then only when they may have penetrated a district where 
trees are not over plentiful, but it is not often they go any distance 
from the forests. They have a slender, muscular body, and are very 
rapid in all their actions, incessantly in motion, and pass from tree to 
tree with wonderful rapidity. When feeding, as a rule, they utter few 
sounds, and when trying to conceal themselves among the foliage will 
remain quiescent for a considerable length of time. But like many 
of their race they are very inquisitive, and desire to examine any strange 
or unusual object they may meet with. They feed chiefly upon fruits, 
but various kinds of leaves are eaten by them, and doubtless, if they 
were fortunate enough to find a bird's nest with eggs they would 
not pass it by, nor would the hapless fledglings be permitted to go 
unscathed. Wild honey, which is often hidden in the hollow of some 
ancient monarch of the forest, would also be appreciated when found. 
They fill their cheek pouches, and in them carry away all food not 
eaten at the time, and visit the grain fields of the natives which may be 
in the vicinity of their forest home, and do much damage, for like all 
monkeys they destroy far more than they consume. When young they 
are amusing pets, but as they grow old they are not to be trusted, which 
is a trait of all the Primates, age usually bringing a sulky, fierce 
temper with a morose disposition, that causes their possessors to seek 
solitude rather than the companionship of their kind. About eighty 
species and races of Lasiopyga are at present recognized, but doubt- 
less many more unknown forms remain to be discovered in the vast 
hidden recesses of the great woods with which so large a part of 
Africa is covered. 

Bates referring to the Guenons (1. c.) observed by him in Southern 
Cameroon, states: "The genus Cercopithecus, (Lasiopyga), comprises 
all the common species of monkeys of this country. Shooting these 



LASIOPYGA 277 

monkeys affords much sport to white men who get into the forest, and 
is the principal occupation of native hunters. They are not easily 
approached, for they have keen sight and hearing and are shy. They 
go about in small companies of a dozen or less, with one old male for 
leader. Often an old male is found alone, probably a defeated candi- 
date for the place of leader, who has gone off by himself. The leader 
may often be heard calling in a loud, gruff, barking tone, to keep the 
company together. Except for the occasional call of the leader, the 
company feeds silently, and the only sound that betrays the presence 
of monkeys is the rustling of boughs as they pluck fruits, or jump from 
branch to branch. Only when they discover the hunter and become 
frightened, do they utter a little cackling sort of chatter, then they 
scurry away, and if they are in thick foliage, they hide and remain 
hidden securely as long as the hunter has patience to wait for them 
to come out. But if they are in an open tree they may be shot while 
running if a man is quick enough. If the leader has passed ahead, 
sometimes the others will venture out in plain sight in order to follow 
him. 

"These monkeys very rarely come to the ground ; I myself have 
never seen one on or even near the ground, except when wounded. 
They can pass from the branches of one tree to those of another, not 
touching it, by jumping; they jump upon and grasp the swaying out- 
most twigs, which bend far down with the weight and then spring up. 
The monkey merely holds on as the branch sways down, but with the 
rebound he scrambles along to the larger branches. Monkeys can cross 
any but the largest rivers in this way, on the nearly meeting tree tops. 

"These monkeys sleep in the trees, but do not make rude beds of 
the branches as does the Chimpanzee. I have asked many natives 
how monkeys manage to keep from falling while asleep, and the 
answers are various. But there seems a probability in the account, 
that they sleep sitting, and holding on to the branches, or to each other. 

"The habits of the three commonest kinds of Cercopithecus, 
(Lasiopyga), are very similar, and what is said above applies to all of 
them. The 'osok' (C. cephus) seems to be the most nimble; and the 
white nosed 'avemba' (C. nictitans) the least so; the latter kind is 
rather oftener killed than the others. Different kinds are often 
together in the same company. The calls of the three kinds, the two 
mentioned and the 'esuma' *(C. erxlebeni) are very much alike, 
but one can learn to distinguish them." 



*L. grayi Fraser. 



278 LASIOPYGA 

LITERATURE OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

1758. Linnceus, Sy sterna Natures. 

Two species are here recorded which have been referred to the 
genus Lasiopyga: Simla diana and 5. cethiops. The first is 
the well known Monkey, Lasiopyga diana from Liberia, the 
other, however, is not so easily determined. De Winton (1. c.) 
considers it to be the species afterwards called by Desmarest 
(1. c.) C. griseoviridis from the region of the Upper Nile, 
Abyssinia, Sennaar and Kordofan, but Linnaeus' description, 
which was evidently taken from Hasselquist's, for it is doubt- 
ful if he ever saw a specimen, presents certain difficulties that 
make it more than probable some other animal than the one 
from the White Nile was intended. The difficulty is met with 
in the sentence "Cauda tecta, subtus ferruginea." Now the 
tail of the White Nile species is speckled grayish above, and 
white beneath, and this fact would seem at once to compel us 
to believe that cethiops Linn., is not the same. The Linnaean 
species may possibly be L. ascanius which has a red tail above 
and below except at the base, or L. cephus of which in the 12th 
edition he makes a variety. That it belongs to one of the 
Petaurista, or so-called Mthiops groups is most likely, but its 
determination is not easy of accomplishment, and all that can 
be said with any degree of certainty is, that, while in some 
degree it resembles C. griseoviridis Desm., it is not that 
species, nor can it be referred to any known species, and must 
therefore take a place among the undeterminable forms. 

1766. Linnceus, Sy sterna Naturce. 

In this the 12th edition of Linnaeus' work under Simia, four 
species, now placed in Lasiopyga, are given, but among them, 
cethiops, of the 1758 edition, as a species is not found. They are 
S. diana; (S.) sabcea undeterminable; (S.) cephus; and (S\) 
nictitans first described. Under (S.) cephus var. B, is (S.) 
cethiops, but in the diagnosis no mention is made of the color of 
the tail, simply caudata imberbis, showing it was a long tailed 
monkey. Evidently Linnaeus was not certain of the distinctness 
of his S. cethiops, and so in his edition reduced it to a variety of 
a reddish tailed species. 

1775-92. Schreber, Die S'dugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit 
Beschreibungen. 
The following species of Lasiopyga are given in this work 



LASIOPYGA 279 

under the genus Simla: (S.) diana; (S.) mona; "Die mone" 
first described; (S.) sabcea Linn., undeterminable; (S.) 
cephus; (S.) nictitans; "Der Weismaulige Affe"; L. pe- 
taurista on plate XIX b first described; and (S.) ^thiops 
(nee Linn.), = Cercocebus ^thiops first described. Palatin- 
affe ou Roloway, L. roloway first described. 

1777. Erxleben, Systema Regni Animalis. 

The genus Cercopithecus, (Lasiopyga), is here employed, but 
includes species of different genera. The species of Lasiopyga 
as now recognized are: L. diana; L. mona; L. sabcea Linn., 
undeterminable; L. nictitans; L. petaurista; and L. rolo- 
way. C. talapoin is a Miopithecus and C. cethiops possibly 
= Cercocebus torquatus Kerr. 

1786. Scopoll, Delicice Flora et Fauna Insubricce. 

Lasiopyga cynosura first described as Simla cynosura. 

1788. Gmelin, Systema Naturce. 

The same species of Lasiopyga given by Linnaeus are repeated 
in this list. 

1797. Audebert, Histoire Naturelle des Singes et des Makls. 

The following species of Lasiopyga are here recorded and 
figured under the genus Simla: (S.) nictitans; (S.) sabcea 
Linn., undeterminable ; (S.) diana; (S.) mona; (S.) cephus; 

(S.) ASCANIUS; (S.) PETAURISTA. 

1800. Shaw, General Zoology. Mammalia. 

All the monkeys are placed in the genus Simla. Those that 
belong to the genus Lasiopyga are (S.) diana = L. roloway; 
(S.) sabcea Linn., undeterminable; (5.) cephus; (S.) nic- 
titans; (S.) petaurista (Schreb.) ; and (S.) mona. 

1812. E. Geoffroy, in Annates du Museum d'Hlstolre Naturelle, 
Paris. 

The genus Lasiopyga, in this list, contains species belonging to 
different genera, those, however, properly belonging to it are : 
L. cephus; L. mona; L. nictitans; L. petaurista (Schreb.) ; 
L. diana ; and L. cynosura. 

1820. Kuhl, Beltrage zur Zoologle. 

The following species of Lasiopyga, with also others belonging 
to different genera, are here recorded. The various forms are 
L. diana = L. roloway (Erxl.) ; L. nictitans; L. cephus; L. 
mona; L. petaurista (Schreb.) ; L. cynosura; and L. sabcea 
( Linn. ) , undeterminable. 



280 LASIOPYGA 

1820. Desmarest, Mammalogie ou Description des Especes de Mam- 
miferes. 

Like previous Authors, species of different genera are in this 
work included in the genus Cercopithecus, (Lasiopyga). Those 
properly belonging to it are: L. cephus; L. mona; L. nic- 
titans; L. petaurista (nee Schreb.), = L. fantiensis 
Matschie; L. diana = L. roloway (Erxl.) ; L. cynosura; L. 
sabcea (Linn.), undeterminable; L. griseoviridis first de- 
scribed. In the Supplement is L. pygerythra, F. Cuvier's 
figure cited. 

1820. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 

Lasiopyga petaurista Audeb., (nee Schreb.), called L'As- 
caigne, and on the plate figured as L'Ascaigne femelle = L. 
fantiensis (Matschie). 

1821. F. Cuvier, in Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles. 
Lasiopyga griseoviridis (Desm.), renamed Simia subviridis. 

1821. F. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. 
Lasiopyga pygerythra first described. 

1824. F. Cuvier, in Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes. Tableau 
General et Methodique. 

Lasiopyga griseoviridis (Desm.), renamed Cercopithecus 
griseus. 

1825. Desmoulins, in Dictionnaire Classique des Sciences Naturelles. 
Lasiopyga pygerythra (F. Cuv.), redescribed as Cerco- 
pithecus pusillus. 

1829. Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium. 

Under the genus Simia, together with many species of other 
genera, the following species of Lasiopyga are given in this 
work: (S.) mona; (S.) petaurista (nee Schreb.), = L. fan- 
tiensis Matsch. ; (S.) nictitans; (S.) diana; (S.) roloway; 
(S.) leucampyx first described; (S.) cephus; (S.) sabcea 
Linn., undeterminable; (S.) subviridis (F. Cuv.), = L. griseo- 
viridis Desm. ; and (S.) pygerythra. 

1829. G. Cuvier, Regne Animal. 

Among the species of Simia as employed in this work are the 
following of Lasiopyga: (S.) sabcea Linn., undeterminable; 
(S.) cynosura; (S.) erythropyga G. Cuv., = L. pygerythra 
F. Cuv.; (S.) mona; (S.) diana = L. roloway; (S.) cephus; 
(S.) petaurista (nee Schreb.), = L. fantiensis Matschie; and 
(S.) nictitans. 



LASIOPYGA 281 

1830. Fischer, Addenda, Emendanda et Index ad Synopsis Mam- 
maliutn. 

In the list given in the Addenda for the volume dated 1829, 
Simla erythropyga G. Cuv., = Lasiopyga pygerythra (F. 
Cuv.), is added. 

1831. Sykes, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Lasiopyga albigularis first described as Semnopithecus ( !) 
albogularis. 

1834. /. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Belong er' Voyage aux Indes-Orien- 
tales. 

Lasiopyga leucampyx Fisch., $, redescribed as Cercopithecus 
diadematus. 

1838. Bennett, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Lasiopyga cynosura Scopoli, redescribed as Cercopithecus 
tephrops; and L. pogonias described for the first time as 
Cercopithecus pogonias. 

1838. Waterhouse, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 
Lasiopyga erythrotis first described. 

1838. Waterhouse, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 

L. martini; L. campbelli described for the first time; and L. 
erythrotis, all under Cercopithecus. 

1840. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband^ 
In this work the species of Lasiopyga, (under Cercopithecus) , 
comprises fourteen species and one variety, or as would be 
called at the present time, one subspecies. They are L. sabcea 
(Linn.), undeterminable; L. griseoviridis (Desm.) ; L. 
pygerythra F. Cuv.; L. cynosura (Scop.); L. petaurista 
(Schreb.) ; with var. A. L. ascanius (Schreb.) ; L. nic- 
titans (Linn.) ; L. pogonias (Bennett) ; L. diana (Linn.) ; 
L. leucampyx (Fisch.) ; (C.) fuliginosus (Geoff.), not a 
Lasiopyga but a Cercocebus; L. ^thiops (Linn.), undeter- 
minable; L. cephus (Linn.) ; L. mona (Schreb.) ; (C.) rubra 
(Linn.), = E. patas? (Schreb.), not a Lasiopyga, and in this 
Review is placed in the genus Erythrocebus. Simia athiops 
Linn., undeterminable, is placed as a synonym of (C.) fulig- 
inosus E. Geoff., = Cercocebus ^thiops (Schreb.), and with 
Cercopithecus cethiopicus F. Cuv., and "Mangabey a collier" 
of Buffon, and other Authors, as synonyms. This animal, how- 



r 



282 LASIOPYGA 

ever, is a Cercocebus, and shows how early in the Literature 
this species of Linnaeus had been the cause of much diversity 
of opinion. 

1840. R. P. Lesson, Species Mammiferes Bimanes et Quadrumanes. 
Of the genus Lasiopyga the following species are recorded in 
this work, under Cercopithecus: (C.) mona; (C) diana = *L. 
roloway; (C.) diadematus = L. leucampyx; (C.) roloway; 
(C.) nictitans; (C.) petaurista = L. fantiensis (Matschie) ; 
(C.) cephus; (C.) sabcea undeterminable; (C) griseus = L. 
griseoviridis ; (C) cynosura ; (C) tephrops Bennett, = 
L. cynosura (Scopoli) ; and (C.) pygerythra. 

1841. Ogilby, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Lasiopyga tantalus first described as Cercopithecus tantalus. 

1841. /. Geoffroy, in Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 
Lasiopyga albigularis Sykes redescribed as Cercopithecus 
monoides; and L. rufoviridis, described for the first time as 
Cercopithecus rufoviridis. 

1842. J. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Lasiopyga burnetti first described as Cercopithecus burnetti. 

1842. /. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Comptes Rendus de VAcademie des 
Sciences. 

Lasiopyga labiata described for the first time as Cercopithecus 
labiatus. 

1843. /. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle. 
Lasiopyga pygerythra F. Cuv., renamed Cercopithecus 
lallandi. 

1844. Sundevall, Oversigt. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademie 
Forh. 

Lasiopyga labiata I. Geoff., redescribed as Cercopithecus 
samango. 

1844. Blyth, in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
Lasiopyga tantalus renamed Cercopithecus chrysurus. 

1845. /. E. Gray, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Lasiopyga ascanius Audeb., renamed Cercopithecus melano- 
genys. 

1845. /. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle. 

Lasiopyga martini redescribed as Cercopithecus temmincki. 
1848. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 

Lasiopyga pluto first described as Cercopithecus pluto. 



* "interne des cuisses jaune. 



LASIOPYGA 283 

1849. /. E. Gray, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Lasiopyga martini Waterh., renamed Cercopithecus ludio. 

1850. /. Geoff roy St. Hilaire, in Comptes Rendus de VAcademie des 
Sciences. 

Lasiopyga sabcea (Linn.), undeterminable; L. werneri first 
described as Cercopithecus werneri; and L. griseoviridis 
Desm., called Cercopithecus sabceus. 

1850. Fraser, Catalogue of the Knowsley Collection. 
Lasiopygus grayi first described as Cercopithecus grayi. 

1851. /. Geoff roy St. Hilaire, Catalogue des Primates. 

A list of the species of Lasiopyga (under Cercopithecus), con- 
tained in the Paris Museum, with a history of the specimens 
so far as known is here given. They are divided into two 
groups, ler, "Especes a museau un peu plus court, a formes 
plus sveltes," and, 2me, "Especes a museau un peu plus long, a 
formes moins sveltes." The first has three sections: A. "Es- 
peces a nez velu et blanc" with two species, L. nictitans, and 
(C.) petaurista (nee Schreb.), = L. fantiensis Matschie. B. 
"Especes n'ayant ni le nez blanc ni une bande sourciliere 
blanche" has four species: L. cephus; (C.) monoides = L. 
albigularis; L. lab i at a ; and L. mona. C. "Especes ayant 
une bande frontale blanche" contains two species: L. diana, 
and L. leucampyx. The second group has two sections: A. 
"Especes a pelage vert ou teinte de vert" has seven species: 
(C.) lallandi = L. pygerythra; L. pygerythra; L. cynosura; 
(C.) sabceus (nee Linn.), = L. griseoviridis (Desm.); L. 
rufoviridis; (C.) callitrichus = L. sabcea (Auct. nee 
Linn.) ; L. werneri. B. "Especes a pelage d'un roux vif" 
treats of the species that are retained in the genus Erythro- 
cebus in this work, and will be considered in the review of that 
group. 

1852. Peters, W. C. H. N aturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossam- 
bique. Saugethiere. 

Lasiopyga albigularis juv. Sykes, is here renamed Cercopithecus 
erythrarchus; and Lasiopyga rufoviridis I. Geoff., rede- 
scribed as Cercopithecus Havidus. Cercopithecus ochraceous 
is a young Papio, species not determinable. Skull in Berlin 
Museum. 
1855. Wagner, Schreber, Die Saugthiere in Abbildungen nach der 
Natur mit Beschreibungen. Supplementband. 
In the volume for this year, the Author includes thirty-two 



284 LAS10PYGA 

species of Lasiopyga in Cercopithecus, and divides the genus 
into three subgenera: Miopithecus, Cercopithecus and Cer- 
cocebus, all of which now, however, are given generic rank by 
most writers. Cercopithecus, (Lasiopyga), contains: (C.) 
cynosura; (C) pygerythra; (C.) lallandi I. Geoff., = L. 

PYGERYTHRA (F. Cuv.) ; (C.) GRISEOVIRIDUS ; (C) SabcBUS 

(Linn.), undeterminable; (C.) rufoviridis ; (C.) Havidus Pet, 
= L. rufoviridis (I. Geoff.) ; (C.) werneri Geoff., (C.) 
pogonias; (C.) burnetii; (C.) samango Sundev., = L. labi- 
ata (I. Geoff.); (C.) labiatus; (C.) albigularis; (C.) 
erythrarcha Pet., = L. albigularis (Sykes) ; (C.) mona; (C.) 
campbelli; (C.) palatinus Wagn., = L. roloway (Erxleb.) ; 
(C.) DIANA ; (C) leucampyx; (C) PLUTO ; (C.) erythrotis; 
(C.) cephus; (C) nictitans; (C.) melanogenys Gray, = L. 
ascanius Audebert ; (C.) /«w/io Gray, = L. martini (Waterh.) ; 
(C.) rwfor (Linn.), = Erythrocebus pat as? (Schreb.) ; (C) 
pyrrhonotus Erhenb., is also an Erythrocebus; (C) ochra- 
ceus Peters is a Papio; and (C.) fuliginosus — Cercocebus 
^ethiops (Schreb.) ; (C.) collaris = C. torquatus (Kerr), and 
both belong to Cercocebus. (C.) cethiops (Linn.), is unde- 
terminable. 

1856. Pucheran, in Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. 

Lasiopyga grayi Fraser, renamed Cercopithecus erxlebeni. 

1860. Du Chaillu, in Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. 
Lasiopyga nigripes first described as Cercopithecus nigripes. 

1862. Reichenbach, Die V ollst'dndigste Naturgeschichte der Affen. 

The species of the genus Lasiopyga is here divided into four 
subgenera. A. Miopithecus, and B. Cercocebus, both recog- 
nized in the present Review as independent genera. C. Cerco- 
pithecus with the following species. (C.) cephus; (C.) 
melanogenys Gray, === L. ascanius (Audeb.) ; (C.) ludio Gray, 
= L. martini (Waterh.) ; (C.) petaurista ex Guinee; (C.) 
histrio Reichenb., = L. ascanius (Audebert) ; (C.) ascanius; 
(C.) nictitans; (C.) roloway; (C) diana; (C.) leu- 
campyx; (C.) pluto ; (C.) mona; (C.) campbelli; (C.) 
pogonias; (C.) erxlebeni Pucher., = L. grayi (Fraser) ; (C.) 
nigripes; (C.) burnetti ; (C.) labiatus; (C) martini; (C.) 
erythrarchus Peters, = L. albigularis (Sykes) ; (C.) 
erythrotis; (C.) albigularis; (C) monoides I. Geoff., = 
L. albigularis (Sykes) ; (C.) werneri; (C) rufoviridis; 



LASIOPYGA 285 

(C.) lallandi E. Geoff., = L. pygerythra (F. Cuv.) ; (C.) 
sabceus (Linn.), undeterminable; (C.) callitrichus ; (C.) 

GRISEOVIRIDIS ; (C.) PYGERYTHRUS ; (C.) CYNOSURUS ; (C.) 

tephrops Bennett, = L. cynosura, (Scopoli) ; (C.) ochraceus 
is a Papio juv. ; (C.) Havidus Peters, = L. rufoviridis (I. 
Geoff.) ; and the following species which belong to Erythroce- 
bus: (C.) patas; (C.) ruber Schreb., = (C.) patas (Schreb.) ; 
(C.) polioph^us; (C.) circumcinctus ; and (C.) pyrrhono- 
tus. The fourth subgenus is D. Lasiopyga, with one species 
(C.) nem^eus which belongs to Pygathrix. 
Like the Author's treatment of all the genera of the Primates, 
probably from lack of material on which to form an inde- 
pendent opinion of their relative values, all described species of 
different Authors were accepted as valid. Figures of the 
various forms are given in a separate volume, but so badly 
colored that they are much more likely to mislead than to 
assist the investigator. The work is only a compilation from 
other publications, the Author apparently having but little 
personal knowledge of the majority of the species he includes 
in his book. 
1870. /. E. Gray, Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, in the Collection of the British Museum. 
In this Catalogue a list of the species in the British Museum of 
the genus Lasiopyga, (under Cercppithecus) , as recognized by 
the Author, is given as follows, divided into two subgenera 
Cercopithecus and Chlorocebus. The first has (C.) cephus; 
(C.) petaurista (nee Schreb.), = L. fantiensis (Matschie) ; 
(C.) melanogenys Gray, = L. ascanius (Audebert) ; (C.) 
martini; (C.) nictitans; (C.) ludio Gray, = L. mar- 
tini (Waterh.) ; (C) erythrotis; (C.) diana; (C.) 
diana ignita Gray, = L. diana (Linn.) ; (C.) leucampyx (nee 
Fisch.), = L. diana (Linn.); (C) mona ; (C.) pogonias; 
(C.) erxlebeni Dahlb. et Pucher., = L. grayi (Fraser) ; (C.) 
erxlebeni var. nigripes = L. nigripes (Du Chaillu) ; (C.) 
pluto ; (C.) campbelli; (C.) albigularis ; (C.) samango 
Sundev., = L. labiata (I. Geoff.). Chlorocebus contains 
(C.) pygerythrus; (C.) rufoviridis ; (C) sabceus (nee 
Linn.), = L. callitrichus; C. engythithea Gray, = L. griseo- 
viridis (Desm.) ; and C. cynosurus. The following species 
were apparently unknown to the Author: (C.) ochraceus 
Peters, a Papio; (C\) Havidus Peters, = L. rufoviridis 



286 LASIOPYGA 

(Geoff.); (C.) rufoniger Geoff., wrong citation ; (C.) werneri; 
(C.) chrysurus Blyth, == L. tantalus Ogilby; and (C.) tan- 
talus. 
1876. S Me gel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle des Pays-Bas, Simice. 

A list of the Simiae in the Leyden Museum, is given in this 
work with critical remarks on the species described. He groups 
those of Lasiopyga, under Cercopithecus, in ten various 
sections, and recognizes altogether twenty-four species. These 
are (C.) erythrogaster ; (C.) neglectus, described for the 
first time; (C) erythrotis; (C.) talapoin, is a Miopithecus; 
(C.) cynosurus; (C) callitrichus ; (C) sabceus undeter- 
minable; (C) pygerythrus; (C.) erythrarchus Peters, = L. 
albigularis (Sykes) ; (C) rufoviridis; (C.) albigularis; 
(C.) samango Sundev., = L. labiata (I. Geoff.) ; (C.) mona; 

(C.) CAMPBELLi; (C) POGONIAS; (C.) LEUCAMPYX J (CV) 

petaurista; (C) ascanius; (C.) nictitans; (C.) melano- 
genys Gray, = L. ascanius (Audeb.) ; (C) cephus; (C.) 
diana ; and two species belonging to the genus Erythro- 
cebus, (C.) patas; and (C.) pyrrhonotus. 
1886. Santos, in Jornal de Sciencias Mathematicas Physicce Naturce, 
Lisboa. 
Lasiopyga ascanius renamed Cercopithecus picturatus. 

1886. Jentink, in Notes from the Leyden Museum. 

Lasiopyga signata ; and L. buttikoferi first described under 
Cercopithecus. 

1887. Giglioli, in Zoologischer Anzeiger. 

Lasiopyga boutourlini first described as Cercopithecus bou~ 
tourlini. 

1888. Jentink, in Notes from the Leyden Museum. 

Lasiopyga martini redescribed as Cercopithecus stampHii juv. 
1890. Meyer, in Notes from the Leyden Museum. 

Lasiopyga wolfi first described as Cercopithecus wolii. 
1892. Matschie, in Zoologischer Anzeiger. 

Lasiopyga schmidti first described as Cercopithecus schmidti. 

1892. P. L. Sclater, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 

Lasiopyga stairsi first described as Cercopithecus stairsi. 

1893. Matschie, in Sitzungsberichte Gesellschaft Naturforschender 
Freunde. 

Lasiopyga petaurista (Auct. nee Schreber), named Cercopithe- 
cus fantiensis. 



LASIOPYGA 287 

1893. P. L. Sclater, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 

A List of the species of Lasiopyga, (placed in Cercopithecus) , 
known to the Author thirty-one in number, is here given. They 
are divided into six sections, A to F, according to color, the 
possession of a nose spot, ears tufted, or with long beards. The 
arrangement was a decided improvement on any attempted, and 
brought together more effectively nearly related forms. The 
various species accepted as entitled to a distinct rank are: L. 
petaurista; L. buttikoferi; L. martini; (C.) ludio Gray, = 
L. martini (Waterh.) ; (C.) melanogenys Gray, = L. as- 
canius ( Audeb.) ; L. schmidti ; L. nictitans ; L. erythrotis ; 
L. cephus ; these belong to Section A, Rhinosticti. Section B, 
Chloronati, contains L. cynosura ; L. griseoviridis ; L. calli- 
trichus Geoff.; L. pygerythra; (C) erythrarchus Peters, = 
L. albigularis (Sykes). Species of Section C, Erythronoti, 
are in the present Review included in a separate genus Ery- 
throcebus, but as Dr. Sclater gives them, consists of only two 
species, (C.) pat as; and (C.) pyrrhonotus. Section D, 
Melanochiri, includes L. mona; L. albigularis; L. camp- 
belli; (C) samango Sundev., = L. labiata (Geoff.); L. 
moloneyi first described; L. stairsi; L. erythrogaster ; L. 
neglecta; and (C) leucampyx nee Fisch., = L. pluto (Gray). 
Section E, Auriculati, possesses (C) erxlebeni Puch., = L. 
grayi Fraser ; L. pogonias ; and L. nigripes. Section F, Bar- 
bati, has L. diana; and L. brazz^e (A. Milne-Edw.). A list 
of the species known to the Author from the published descrip- 
tions only follows: L. boutourlini; (C.) Havidus Peters, 
= L. rufoviridis (Geoff.); L. labiata; (C.) monoides I. 
Geoff., = L. albigularis (Sykes) ; (C.) palatinus Wagn., = 
L. roloway (Schreb.) ; (C) picturatus Santos, = L. ascanius 
(Audeb.) ; L. signata; (C.) stampHii Jentink, = L. martini 
(Waterh.) ; L. werneri ; and L. wolfi. 

1893. Matschie, in Sitzungsberichte Gesellschaft Naturforschender 
Freunde, Berlin. 

Lasiopyga stuhlmanni first described as Cercopithecus stuhl- 
manni. 

1893. P. L. Sclater, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 

Lasiopyga opisthosticta first described as Cercopithecus 
opisthostictus. 



288 LASIOPYGA 

1893. Matschie, in Sitzungsberichte Gesellschaft Naturforschender 
Freunde, Berlin. 

A paper on Sclater's List of the species of Cercopithecus 
(Lasiopyga), with comment on certain described forms. (C.) 
Havidus Peters, is deemed the same as L. rufoviridis (I. 
Geoff.) ; L. labiatus (Geoff.) ; and L. samango (Sundev.), are 
the same; (C.) monoides Geoff., must be a synonym of L. albi- 
gularis (Sykes) ; (C.) palatinus Wagn., = L. roloway 
(Schreb.) ; (C.) picturatus Santos, = L. melanogenys (Gray), 
which is a synonym of L. ascanius ; L. signatus Jent., and L. 
martini are distinct ; C. ochraceus Peters, is a Papio ; L. tan- 
talus; and L. werneri are distinct; L. temmincki (Ogilby), 
and L. wolfi (Meyer), are unknown to the Author. 
In a previous part of the same volume Herr Matschie gives a 
few species of Lasiopyga and their synonymy. L. p. fan- 
tiensis (Matschie), is the L. petaurista (Auct. nee Schreber) ; 
L. buttikoferi and L. fantiensis compared; L. ascanius 
(Linn.), and L. melanogenys (Gray), which is the same as L. 
ascanius (Audeb.), are kept as a distinct species, and L. 
ascanius (Wagn.), Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 1840, p. 310, made 
the first synonym. L. schmidti; L. signatus (Jent.\; L. 
martini, with L. nictitans (Linn.), as its first synonym. L. 
nictitans (Linn.), with L. nictitans (Desm.), as the first 
synonym; L. ludio, ex Pessy country, Liberia, with white 
nose, ? (Pennant), and L. nictitans (Shaw), as the leading 
synonym. Brief descriptions of the forms mentioned are 
given. 

1896. E. de Pousargues, in Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle 
de Paris. 

Lasiopyga albitorquata described for the first time as Cer- 
copithecus albitorquatus. 

1896. E. de Pousargues, in Annates des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, 
&th Series. 

A critical paper on certain species of Lasiopyga, (under Cer- 
copithecus), and their relationship and dispersion. Those dis- 
cussed are L. petaurista, of which L. fantiensis is made a 
synonym, the great difference in depth of color not being 
deemed sufficient to render them distinct; L. erythrogaster 
which is also compared with L. petaurista, (from which it 
certainly is very different in coloring as its name indicates), and 
is reluctantly permitted to remain distinct; L. buttikoferi is 



LASIOPYGA 289 

considered as "une variete purement locale" of L. petaurista. 
L. signata is deemed distinct. L. ascanius with which he 
unites L. histrio (Reich.), L. melanogenys Gray, L. picturata 
(Santos), and L. schmidti (Matschie), with which view, with 
the exception of the last species, most Mammalogists will agree ; 
L. erythrotis is accepted as a species, as are also L. nic- 
titans, and L. martini, the latter with L. ludio (Gray), L. 
melanogenys (Schlegel, nee Gray), and L. stampHii (Jent.), 
as synonyms. L. cephus, and L. pogonias are considered dis- 
tinct; L. erxlebeni (Dahlb. et Pucher.), = L. grayi (Fraser) ; 
L. nigripes Du Chaillu; L. grayi Fraser; L. brazzjE, and L. 
cynosura are accepted, and L. griseoviridis (Desmarest), is 
called L. sabcea Linn., ( !) of which L. engythithea (Gray), is 
made a synonym. There are descriptions of the species, and 
the geographical distribution is discussed. Altogether it is a 
paper to which much thought has been given and betokens a 
considerable advance in the treatment of the subject. 

1898. Matschie, in Sitzungsberichte Gesellschaft Naturforschender 
Freunde. 
Lasiopyga preussi first described as Cercopithecus preussi. 

1898. P. L. Sclater, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 
Lasiopyga l'hoesti first described as Cercopithecus l'hoesti. 

1900. O. Thomas, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 

Lasiopyga boutourlini Giglioli, renamed Cercopithecus omen- 
sis. 

1900. Neumann, in Zoologischer Jahresbericht. 

Lasiopyga centralis first described as Cercopithecus cen- 
tralis. 

1902. P. L. Sclater, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 

Lasiopyga stuhlmanni redescribed as Cercopithecus otoleu- 
cus. 

1902. Neumann, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Lasiopyga kolbi, L. matschie, and L. djamdjamensis first 
described under Cercopithecus. 

1902. O. Thomas, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Lasiopyga francesce first described as Cercopithecus fran- 
cescce. 






290 LASIOPYGA 

1902. /. Anderson, Zoology of Egyptian Mammals. 

Two species are here given: C. cethiops (nee Linn.), = L. 

griseoviridis (Desm.) ; and C. pyrrhonotus which is an 

Erythrocebus. 
1902. Neumann, in Sitzungsberichte Gesellschaft Naturforschender 

Freunde. 

Lasiopyga hilgerti, and L. ellenbecki = L. hilgerti, first 

described under Cercopithecus. 

1904. Pocock, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Lasiopyga sclateri described for the first time as Cercopithe- 
cus sclateri. 

1905. Matschie, in Sitzungsberichte Gesellschaft Naturforschender 
Freunde. 

Lasiopyga kandti first described as Cercopithecus kandti. 

1905. Forbes, in Nature. 

Lasiopyga preussi (Matschie), redescribed as Cercopithecus 
crossi. 

1907. 0. Thomas, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 
Lasiopyga denti first described as Cercopithecus denti. 

1907. R. I. Pocock, in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. 

This somewhat elaborate paper on the species of Lasiopyga, 
is entitled "A Monographic Revision of the Genus Cercopithe- 
cus/' and contains descriptions of nearly all the species de- 
scribed up to the date of its publication. The Author's material 
for his undertaking was inadequate, consisting of the skins in 
the Collection of the British Museum, and the skins and living 
members of the genus in the Menagerie of the Zoological 
Society in Regent's Park, London. This material, though con- 
siderable in number of specimens, gave the Author no personal 
knowledge of many species in Continental Museums not repre- 
sented in the British Museum, and thus placed him at a dis- 
advantage. Cranial characters, which are of supreme im- 
portance in the discrimination of species were not considered 
at all, for the reason as he states, that "lack of proper material 
has prevented me from making use of skull characters/' and 
so at the outset he was deprived of one of the most important 
methods of determining species. 

The Author commences with a not entirely complete List 
of the genera proposed for the Guenons, and their types, 



LASIOPYGA 291 

arrived at either ab initio, by selection, elimination, tau- 
tonymy, or by substitution, and after a few general re- 
marks gives a key to the various groups in which he 
places the species. These are thirteen in number arranged in 
the following order : Diana group ; Neglectus group ; Leu- 
campyx group ; Nictitans group ; UHoesti group ; Mona group ; 
Albigularis group ; Erythrogaster group ; Petaurista group ; 
Cephus group ; 2Ethiops group ; Patas group ; and the Talapoin 
group. In discussing the species of these various assemblies, 
he does not follow the order given in the key, for the Patas 
group which is first, is treated last, probably for the excellent 
reason that his material for these monkeys was so scant, he 
could give descriptions of only two species, and a simple list 
of those described with references to the publications in which 
they were to be found. This was of less importance, however, 
for these red monkeys should not be placed in Cercopithecus, 
(Lasiopyga), as they properly represent a distinct genus, Ery- 
throcebus. The first group treated is the Diana under the 
subgenus Pogonocebus with two species diana and roloway, 
with a general description of the two forms and a Key ; also a 
short list of synonymy. Similar treatment is given to all the 
group except the Patas. The Neglectus group has but two 
species, C. brazzce-formes Pocock, == L. brazz^e (A. Milne- 
Edw.) ; and L. neglecta (Schlegel) ; L. brazz^e (Milne- 
Edw.), being considered a synonym of the last species, a 
conclusion not accepted by the present writer. The next is the 
Leucampyx group under the subgenus Diademia Reich., with 
three species and seven subspecies, the latter established in a 
great measure because the Author's material was insufficient 
to indicate the proper rank they should have. The species are 
L. kandti ; L. opiSTHOSTiCTA ; L. leucampyx, and L. nigri- 
genJs as a subspecies; L. doggetti first described; L. leu- 
campyx; (C.) stuhlmanni (nee Matschie), = L. princeps 
(Elliot); L. carruthersi first described; L. pluto; and L. 
boutourlini. A Key and descriptions are given. The Nic- 
titans group has but two species, and one subspecies : L. nic- 
titans; L. n. laglazei first described; and L. martini. The 
Albigularis group contains eight species: L. albigularis; L. 
kolbi ; L. moloneyi ; L. stairsi ; L. rufitincta first de- 
scribed ; L. Francesco ; L. preussi ; L. labiata, and five sub- 
species : L. beirensis : L. rufilatus ; L. albitorquata ; L. 



292 LASIOPYGA 

hindei and L. mossambicus. There is a Key, but it does not 
include the subspecies. All these subspecies, with the exception 
of L. albitorquata are described for the first time. The Mona 
group has seven species : L. mona ; L. campbelli ; L. burnetii ; 
L. denti; L. wolfi; L. grayi; L. pogonias; and one sub- 
species, L. p. nigripes. The L'Hoesti group has but one species, 
L. l'hoesti; and one subspecies L. /. thomasi described for 
the first time. Erythrogaster group has but one species, L. 
erythrogaster. The Petaurista group under subgenus Rhino- 
stictus Trouess., has three species: L. petaurista (nee Schreb.), 
— L. fantiensis (Matschie) ; L. ascanius; L. signata; and 
two subspecies, L. buttikoferi and L. schmidti. The Cephus 
group has three species: L. cephus; L. erythrotis; and L. 
sclateri ; and one subspecies L. cephodes first described. The 
Mthiops group has eight species: L. sabcea (Linn.), undeter- 
minable, but (C.) sab (bus Pocock, (nee Linn.), = L. calli- 
trichus (I. Geoffroy) ; L. cethiops (Linn.), undeterminable, 
but (C.) cethiops Pocock, (nee Linn.), = L. griseoviridis 
(Desm.) ; L. matschie; L. djamdjamensis ; L. tantalus; L. 
cynosura; L. pygerythra; and L. nigroviridis first de- 
scribed; and seven subspecies: (C) ellenbecki == L. hilgerti 
(Neum.) ; L. hilgerti; L. budgetti first described; L. rufo- 
viridis ; L. whytei and L. johnstoni both described for the 
first time, and L. centralis. The Talapoin group under 
subgenus Miopithecus, has one species, L. talapoin, and 
one subspecies L. ansorgei first described ; and finally the Patas 
group, which, as has already been stated, gives descriptions of 
but two species, L. patas, and L. pyrrhonotus, both marked 
as subspecies ( !), and apparently the only ones known to the 
Author, (although L. sannio (Thos.), was represented in the 
British Museum Collection by the type), and a list of the 
described species is given, or taken from Herr Matschie's paper 
on the genus. Mr. Pocock's method of employing subspecific 
names is somewhat perplexing, for it is generally understood 
by Naturalists that a subspecies can only be properly established 
when there are intergrades between it and a closely related 
species. Now nearly all the recognized subspecies in this 
paper, save perhaps L. nigripes (Du Chaillu), and which is 
intermediate between L. grayi and L. pogonias in only one 
particular, a little more black on the back, and L. ellenbecki 
which is the same as L. hilgerti, have no intermediates, and 



LASIOPYGA 293 

consequently should not be classed as subspecies. That 
eventually some may be discovered to have intermediate forms 
between them and the nearest allied species is possible, but until 
such forms are found, the animals in question should have 
specific rank. 

The Keys, to those who have but slight knowledge of the 
species of Lasiopyga are useful, but in all save the Mona and 
Petaurista groups, the subspecific forms are omitted, though it 
must be said that with a somewhat doubtful exception, L. 
nigripes, all the so-called subspecies in these two Keys, are 
undoubtedly entitled, so far as we have knowledge of them at 
present, to a full specific rank. The paper is illustrated by cuts 
of various species taken from life, and four uncolored plates of 
the heads of various allied species. The principal defect in a 
paper such as this, treating of the largest group of the Primates, 
is, that the Author was entirely unacquainted with any specimens 
of the genus, not accessible in London and its vicinity, and it is 
to be regretted, that when he undertook so important a task, 
and which he accomplished so far as his material permitted with 
conscientious fidelity, he had not been able to acquire a wider 
view and firmer grasp of his subject, which an investigation of 
the far greater material of this group in Continental Museums 
would have given him. 

1908. Lonnberg, Expedition to Kilimanjaro-Mweru. 

In this work a Lasiopygus from Mt. Kilimanjaro, is somewhat 
doubtfully separated from L. albigularis as (C) a. kino- 
botensis. 

1909. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Lasiopyga insignis ; L. insolita ; L. t. griseisticta; L. rubella; 
L. grayi pallida; L. sticticeps and L. silacea ; first described 
under Cercopithecus. 

1910. D. G. Elliot, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Lasiopyga inobservata first described as Cercopithecus in- 
observatus. 

1910. 0. Thomas, in Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Lasiopyga ascanius whitesidei first described as Cercopithecus 

a. whitesidei. 
1910. D. G. Elliot, in Proceedings of the United States National 

Museum. 

Lasiopyga lutea first described as Cercopithecus luteus. 



294 LASIOPYGA 

1911. /. Buttikofer, in Notes from the Leyden Museum. 
Lasiopyga petronelljE first described as Cercopithecus petro- 
nellce. 

1912. N. Hollister, in Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 
Lasiopyga callida described as Lasiopyga pygerythra callida. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

Lasiopyga is strictly an African genus and its members are dis- 
persed over the entire continent, save the extreme northern part lying 
along the Mediterranean Sea. They are also found on the large island 
of Fernando Po, but not on Madagascar. Of the known species about 
thirty-nine are East African, thirty-four West African, two South 
African, both ranging northward on the east and west coasts, and the 
dispersion of six remaining species is quite unknown. It will thus be 
perceived that there are something like eighty species and races at 
present recognized and doubtless many more are yet to be discovered, 
as the interior of Africa is better known. Beginning in the north- 
eastern portion of the continent, we have in the region of the White 
Nile, L. neglectus Schlegel, its range unknown, probably somewhat 
restricted as the type is still unique although the species was described 
over thirty years ago. On the Upper Nile in Sennaar, Kordofan and 
Abyssinia, L. griseoviridis ranges ; while from Southern Abyssinia to 
Lake Rudolph, L. boutourlini has its home. In the same kingdom 
in the dark forests through which the Omo and Sobat rivers flow, L. 
matschie was discovered, and in the forest of Djamdjam east of 
Lake Abaya, L. djamdjam ensis was procured. In the Galla country 
west of Somaliland at the head waters of the Webbi Schebeli, L. hil- 
gerti was met with. On the Juba River, along the boundary of British 
East Africa, and extending southward to the west shore of Victoria 
Nyanza, and thence into Ankole at 5,000 feet elevation, also on the 
islands of Dakota and Sesse, L. centralis is found ; and in the Great 
Rift Valley on the south side of Lake Naivasha, L. callida was taken. 
North and west of Lake Albert, and also southward to Lake Kivu, on 
Kividjvi Island in the lake, L. stuhlmanni is found, and at the 
south end, L. aurora was discovered; while west and south of Lake 
Albert L. princeps was procured; and between the lakes Albert 
Edward and Victoria Nyanza, L. budgetti was met with, and L. 
Doggetti in Southwest Ankole, and to the west of the same lake, 
at Bembara, L. griseisticta was taken. On Mt. Ruwenzori, at 
an elevation of 10,000 feet, on the eastern side, L. carruthersi was 



LASIOPYGA 295 

met with. In the Ituri forest near the Uganda line, Upper Congo, 
L. denti was obtained, and at Port Alice, also on the Upper Congo, 
L. schmidti was procured. Between Lake Kivu and Lake Tan- 
ganyika, L. thomasi and L. kandti were discovered. To the east 
of Victoria Nyanza in Kavirondo, L. neumanni was found. On Mt. 
Kenia L. kolbi dwells ; and in the Kenia district in the vicinity of the 
mountains, L. c. lutea, L. hindsi, and L. rubella are met with. In the 
Nairobi forest, L. k. nubila and L. albigularis have been taken, while 
farther eastward, possibly in the vicinity of Mombassa, L. albigularis 
and L. rufitincta were secured. In German East Africa, L. a. kobo- 
tensis was procured on Mt. Kilimanjaro, and on the south side of the 
same mountain at five thousand feet elevation, L. c. johnstoni was 
found. On the Rufigi River south of Zanzibar, L. a. ruiilata was 
obtained. Proceeding southward into Nyassaland, we find L. opis- 
thosticta at Lake Mweru, and L. leucampyx extends its range 
from Nyassaland to the French Congo and Angola. On Mt. 
Chiradgula, L. c. whitei has been taken, and at the north end of Lake 
Nyassa, L. moloneyi dwells. On Mt. Walla, west of the last named 
lake, L. francesc^e was obtained. In Angoniland on the east bank of 
the Loangwa River, L. silacea is found. In Portuguese East Africa, 
in Mozambique, L. s. mossambxcus is found, and L. albigularis is 
met with in Mashonaland, and ranges southward to the north east 
Transvaal, and in the Pungwe River district, L. rufoviridis and L. a. 
beirensis range; while from the Delta of the Zambesi, L. stairsi 
comes; in Cape Colony two species of this genus are found, L. py- 
gerythra ranging north as far as Mombassa and Mt. Kilimanjaro on 
the east coast, and L. labiata going to Mozambique on the east 
coast, and to Angola on the west. In Central Africa at N'dongo-leti, 
Upper Ubanqui River, L. sticticeps is found. In West Africa, 
beginning at the most western point we find in Senegambia L. cal- 
litrichus, which extends its range to the Niger River. In Sierra 
Leone, L. campbelli is found. Liberia has two species, L. diana 
which is very common, and L. buttikoferi. The Gold Coast has L. 
erythrogaster at Lagos; and L. roloway, L. fantiensis, L. bur- 
netti ranging east to Cameroon, and L. mona. In northeastern Ni- 
geria at Lake Chad, is L. t. alexandri, and in northern Nigeria, their 
dispersion unknown, are L. tantalus and L. insolita. In Cameroon 
are found L. preussi, L. brazz^e going to the French Congo, L. nic- 
titans ranging to Sette Cama, L. grayi going to the Congo River, and 
L. sclateri in Benin. In Guinea L. petaurista alone is found. In 
Gaboon several species are found, L. n. laglaizi, L. cephus ranging to 



296 LASIOPYGA 

the Congo River, L. cephodes, L. nigripes, and L. g. pallida. On the 
Island of Fernando Po the following species are found: L. martini 
supposedly, L. erythrotis, L. pogonias, and L. preusse insularis. In 
Congo State are L. ascanius ranging into Angola, L. a. whitesidei 
in Central Congo on the Upper Lulong River, L. cynosura (Mossa- 
medes to Cunene), and L. wolfi, (Brazzaville, Batumpas, Sunkurie), 
and in the Congo forest, locality unknown, L. insignis, and L. petro- 
nell^e are found. Angola contains, L. signata probably at Banana, 
and L. pluto. In Congoland L. l'hoesti was obtained, but its 
habitat is quite unknown, and the same may be said of the following : 

L. NIGRIVIRIDIS, L. INOBSERVATA, L. WERNERI, L. NIGRIGENIS, and L. 
ALBITORQUATA. 



KEY TO THE SUBGENERA. 

A. Body slender; limbs and tail long; cheek pouches 
present ; fingers webbed at base. 

a. General color various, size small *Allochrocebus, p. 297 

b. General color speckled black and yellow. 

a! Arms, hands and feet, and body beneath 

black or grayish Melanocebus, p. 306 

b! Tail red or mostly red \Neocebus, p. 319 

c! General color grayish, a mingling of gray, 
black, tawny or yellow in the colors of 
the hair Chlorocebus, p. 325 

d! Ears tufted; light colored brow band 
usually extending upward to the crown, 
or ears. Stripes on head in some species ; 
body speckled Mona, p. 349 

e! White collar present in some species with 
ear tufts present or absent ; aural region 
red or speckled \Insignkebus, p. 359 

/.' Light colored stripe across thigh. . .Pogonocebus, p. 376 



*aX\oxw<r ) strange appearance, and Kyfioff, a long-tailed monkey. 
•fpeoa, new, and K-qpoa, a long-tailed monkey. 

$Insignis, remarkable, and Cebus or ktj/3o<t, a long-tailed monkey. 
To the above key has been added the number of the page on which is each 
subgenus, so that the groups with their respective keys can be readily found. 



Volume II 



Plate 3 




Lasiopyga L' hoesti 



LASIOPYGA 297 

Subgenus 1. Allochrocebus. 

General color various, size small. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Head black speckled. 

a, Brow band indistinct, white; ruff on sides of 

throat white L. Vhoesti. 

b. Brow band ochraceous rufous ; no ruff on sides 

of throat L. insolita. 

Lasiopyga l'hoesti (Sclater). 

Cercopithecus Vhoesti Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1898, p. 586, 
pi. XLVIII ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 714, 
pi. XLI, fig. 2. 

L'HOESTS GUENON. 

Type locality. Congoland. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Unknown. 

Genl. Char. Remarkable for its black head and elongate white 
ruff on sides of throat. 

Color. Face black; scattered black hairs on nose and lips; sides 
of face covered with short white and black hairs, longest in a line below 
eyes, and running back to whiskers ; head, neck, space between shoul- 
ders, and sides of body jet black speckled with white; very narrow, 
rather indistinct white line on forehead; sides of head sparsely 
speckled with white, none at all about temples; dorsal region, from 
between shoulders to tail, speckled black and ochraceous rufous ; 
shoulders, arms, legs, hands, feet, under parts of body and inner side 
of limbs jet black; whiskers long, directed upwards and backwards 
concealing the ears, and together with the front, sides of neck and 
throat, continuing to a point on the chest, white with a slight tinge of 
gray ; nose black ; tail, speckled white and black all around, tip black. 
Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,080; tail, 600; foot, 110. Skull: 
total length, 98; intertemporal width, 44.7; occipito-nasal length, 81.6; 
Hensel, 65; zygomatic width, 64.4; median length of nasals, 15.7; 
palatal length, 36.5 ; length of upper molar series, 27.5 ; length of man- 
dible, 63 ; length of lower molar series, 32.2. Ex type Gardens of the 
Zoological Society of London. 



298 LASIOPYGA 

This is a peculiarly colored monkey, showing an affinity to mem- 
bers of various groups, and yet seems distinct from them all. Mr. 
Pocock in his paper, (1. c.) has made L. thomasi (Matschie), a sub- 
species of L. i/hoesti, but this does not seem to be the proper place 
for that species, as Matschie's type is very like L. preussi but paler on 
the back, and the tail is lighter; the limbs, however, and shoulders 
are black as in L. i/hoesti. 

Lasiopyga insolita (Elliot). 

Cercopithecus insolitus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 
1909, p. 258. 

Type locality. Northern Nigeria, (Bakie). Type in British Mu- 
seum. 

Genl. Char. Reddish brow band; upper parts black speckled. 

Color. Hairs on forehead ochraceous rufous and black over nose 
where it is deepest in color, paler toward sides; beneath this is a 
narrow black line, rather indistinct at sides; head black, speckled on 
crown with ochraceous, slightly paler than the hairs in front; hairs 
over temples black, rather long, directed backwards passing over the 
ears ; long hairs on cheeks directed backwards under and behind ears, 
black speckled with yellow; occipital region black with but very few 
yellow speckles; entire upper parts of body grayish black minutely 
spotted with cream buff; flanks grayish black faintly speckled with 
white; arms and hands black, unspeckled; legs black, speckled with 
cream buff on upper part of thighs, and with white lower down, and 
also on legs to ankles ; feet black ; chin, throat, chest, anal region, inner 
side of arms to elbows, and thighs to knees, whitish yellow ; abdomen 
gray with a yellow tinge ; tail above at base like back, grading into black 
speckled with white, and then into jet black on apical fourth, beneath 
yellow speckled at base, then profusely speckled with white, causing 
the midway section to appear quite gray, and jet black at tip. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,060; tail, 680; foot, 115. Skull: 
has entire braincase gone, only the rostrum, zygomatic arches and 
mandible remaining. Width of orbits, inner edge, 43.4; median length 
of nasals, 14.3 ; zygomatic width, 55.4 ; palatal length, 24.6 ; length of 
mandible, 24.3. Ex type British Museum. 

The type is a young animal, but it is quite different in appearance 
from any of the known species, so different in fact, I hardly know 
where to place it, for like L. i/hoesti it does not seem to have any 



LASIOPYGA 299 

near allies. The unique type was obtained in northern Nigeria by Dr. 
Bakie's expedition, and is in the Collection of the British Museum. 

Subgenus 2. Rhinos tictus. 
General color black and yellow speckled. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. Black brow band encircling the head. 

a. General color above very dark, black pre- 

dominating L. petaurista. 

b. General color above lighter, black not pre- 

dominating L. fantiensis. 

c. General color above ochraceous buff and 

black L. erythrog aster. 

B. Black brow band not encircling the head. 

o. Crown of head speckled black and yellow. 

a.' A patch of grayish yellow below eye L. buttikoferi. 

b! A black patch below eye L. ascanius. 

c! No patch below eye L. a. whitesidei. 

b. Crown of head speckled black and dark buff ...L. signata. 

c. Crown of head speckled black and tawny L. schtnidti. 

Lasiopyga petaurista ( Schreber) . 

Simia petaurista Schreb., Saugth., I, 1775, p. 103, (nee Auct.) ; 
I. Geoff., Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 19, No. 2; Wagn., Schreb., 
Saugth. Suppl., V, 1840, p. 119, tab. XIXB; V, 1855, p. 50; 
Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 165. 

LESSER WHITE-NOSED GUENON. 

Type locality. Guinea. 

Geogr. Distr. Guinea, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Color very dark, much darker than L. fantiensis 
Matschie, (petaurista Auct.) ; tail very long, slender. 

Color. End of nose white; rest of nose, cheeks, lips, line across 
forehead, and one from behind eye to below ear to hind neck, black ; 
top of head with hairs black ringed with yellow ; upper parts and 
sides of body, the hairs gray at base then ringed with ochraceous 
rufous and black; shoulders and arms to elbows, and hind legs to 
ankles gray at base of hairs then ringed with black and yellow ; fore- 
arms deep black, hairs tipped with yellow ; sides of neck, throat, entire 



300 LASIOPYGA 

under parts and inner side of limbs white ; chin sometimes black ; hands 
and feet black; tail above black, hairs with one ochraceous rufous 
band, beneath white. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,020; tail, 570. Ex spec. Guinea, 
Berlin Museum. Skull: total length, 154; occipito-nasal length, 76.2; 
Hensel, 54.1 ; zygomatic width, 52.7; intertemporal width, 38.4; median 
length of nasals, 12.9 ; length of upper molar series, 23.3 ; length of 
mandible, 53.5 ; length of lower molar series, 25.2. 

The Simia petaurista as figured and described by Schreber, (1. c.) 
is a very dark almost black monkey, speckled with yellowish, and 
came from Guinea. The characters here given have been overlooked 
by Authors, and quite another animal, the one from the Gold Coast, 
has always borne the name given by Schreber. Herr Matschie has 
clearly shown this fact in his paper, and named the petaurista Auct., a 
much lighter animal, L. fantiensis. Guinea specimens of this Guenon 
also in the Berlin Museum amply demonstrate the differences existing 
between the two forms, and the correctness of Schreber's plate. 

Lasiopyga fantiensis (Matschie). 

Cercocebus petaurista fantiensis Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. 
Naturf. Freund., Berlin, 1893, pp. 64, 98; Pousarg., Ann. 
Scien. Nat., 1896, p. 264. 

Cercopithecus petaurista (nee Schreb.), Erxl., Syst. Regn. Anim., 
1777, p. 35; Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 60; E. Geoff., 
Cours Hist. Nat. Maram., 1828, p. 19, 8me Legon; Martin, 
Nat. Hist. Mammif. Anim., 1841, p. 539; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 
Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 100, 101 ; Gray, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 182; Id. Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 20; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 86; Anders., Cat. 
Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, Pt. I, 1881, p. 58, (Part.) ; Matschie, 
Sitzungsb. Ges. Nat. Freund., Berlin, 1892, p. 226; Sclat, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 244; Forbes, Handb Pri- 
mates, II, 1894, p. 44, (Part.) ; Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat., 
1895, p. 271 ; 1896, 7me Ser., Ill, p. 176; 1896, I, 8me Ser., p. 
264; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1909, p. 718. 

L'Ascaigne (nee Audeb.), F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Livr. XIV, 
1820, pi. L'Ascaigne femelle. 

Type locality. Fantie, Gold Coast, West Africa. Type in Berlin 
Museum. Very young. 



PLATE XXXI. 




LASIOPYGA FANTIENSIS. 

No. 75.4.30.5. Brit Mus. Coll. ».-. Nat Size. 



VOLUME 



PLATE 1. 









1. LASIOPYGA L'HOESTI. 
3. LASIOPYGA BUTTIKOFERI 
5. LASIOPYGA SIGNATA. 



2. LASIOPYGA ERYTHROGASTER. 
4. LASIOPYGA ASCANIUS. 
6. LASIOPYGA SCHMIDTI. 



Volume II 



Plate 4 




Lasiopyga erythrogaster 



LASIOPYGA 301 

Genl. Char. Band on forehead extending around to back of head. 

Color. Face black, white patch on end of nose ; black brow band 
extending around side of head above ears and across occiput, a branch 
projecting forward at corner of eye over cheeks to upper lip ; near the 
corner of the eye, a white streak runs over temples and beneath ear to 
side of neck, beneath which is a corresponding black streak; top of 
head speckled yellow and black; entire rest of upper parts, shoulders, 
arms and legs on outer side, speckled tawny ochraceous and black, 
becoming paler on legs below the knees and less thickly speckled; 
wrists, hands and feet black sparsely speckled with yellow ; beneath the 
black on cheek the hairs are longer than the rest, and directed upwards 
and backwards, and with the chin, throat, lower side of neck, chest, 
entire under parts, and inner side of thighs are white; inner side of 
forearms and legs gray; tail at base like back, the yellow speckling 
becoming lighter as it goes towards the tip where it is almost lost in 
the dominant black color, beneath yellowish white for basal half, then 
speckled gray and black, and tip black. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,035; tail, 655; foot, 110. Skull: 
total length, 111.1 ; occipito-nasal length, 92; intertemporal width, 53.5 ; 
Hensel, 87; zygomatic width, 71.9; width of braincase, 55; median 
length of nasals, 19.4; palatal length, 42.6; length of upper molar 
series, 26.1; length of upper canines, 21.7; length of mandible, 77.4; 
length of lower molar series, 31.7. 

This is a much lighter colored species than L. petaurista, show- 
ing much less black on the upper parts. The type in Berlin Museum is 
a baby, not half grown. Herr Matschie has made this a subspecies of 
L. petaurista Schreb., but as I have never seen any intermediate 
between it and that species, it seems best, for the present at least, to 
accord it specific rank. 

Lasiopyga erythrogaster (Gray). 

Cercopithecus erythrogaster Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1866, 
p. 169, pi. XVI; 1868, p. 182; Murie, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1866, p. 380; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 128; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 
1876, p. 69; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 252; 1894, 
p. 1 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 46; Pousarg., Ann. 
Scien. Nat., Ill, 7me Ser., 1896, p. 178; Pocock, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 715, fig. 185. 

RED -BELLI ED GUENON. 

Type locality. Lagos? West Africa. Type in British Museum. 



302 LASIOPYGA 

Color. "Skin of face round eyes bluish gray, lips and chin pinkish 
gray." (Pocock). No signs of these colors on the type, the face being 
black where bare. Nose black, cheeks speckled black and yellow ; black 
band across forehead extending across sides of head over ears and 
meeting at back of crown ; crown speckled black and yellow ; back of 
head and hind neck, and space between shoulders speckled with black 
and yellowish white; dorsal region to tail, and flanks speckled black 
and ochraceous buff; long hairs of whiskers extending back of ears, 
sides of neck, and throat white ; shoulders and arms on outer side to 
elbows black speckled with white, forearms black ; outer side of thighs 
gray, speckled with black and ochraceous buff like back; legs below 
knees to ankles gray; entire under parts of body ochraceous rufous; 
inner side of arms above elbows, and legs to ankles gray; legs below 
knees with a yellow tinge ; tail, at root above like back, rest brownish 
black speckled with yellow, beneath greenish gray; hands black, feet 
black speckled with grayish white. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 725 ; tail, 345 ; foot, 100. No skull. 

The type is a young animal with a black nose, but some adults 
have a white nose patch. This species is not nearly allied to L. 
petaurista as some writers have believed, the only similarity in color- 
ing between them being the black frontal band going around the head. 
It is nearer in coloring, so far as the dorsal region is concerned, to L. 

FANTIENSIS. 

Lasiopyga buttikoferi (Jentink). 

Cercopithecus buttikoferi Jent., Notes Leyd. Mus., VIII, 1886, p. 

56; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 

1893, p. 99; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 244; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 47; Pousarg., Ann. 

Scien. Nat., Ill, 7me Ser., 1896, pp. 179, 203. 
Cercopithecus petaurista buttikoferi Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., II, 1907, p. 718, pi. XL, fig. 6. 

BUTTIKOFER'S GUENON. 

Type locality. Liberia, West Africa. Type in Leyden Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Only known from type locality. 

Color. Exactly like L. fantiensis except that the black band 
from forehead does not cross over top of head, and there is no white 
patch below eye. No skull. Ex type Leyden Museum. 

Measurements. Skull : occipito-nasal length, 86.3 ; Hensel, 68.5 ; 
zygomatic width, 60.7; intertemporal width, 37.2; median length of 
nasals, 17.7; length of upper molar series, 25.2; length of mandible, 



LASIOPYGA 303 

67.4 ; length of lower molar series, 30. Ex British Museum specimen 
91. 11. 3. 1. St. Paulo River, Liberia. 

Lasiopyga ascanius ( Audebert) . 

Simla ascanius Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes, 1799, Fam. 4me, Sec. 2, 

fig. 13. 
L'Ascaigne G. Cuv., Regn. Anim., 1829, p. 93. 
Cercopithecus melanogenys Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVI, 1st 
Ser., 1845, p. 212; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1849, p. 7, pi. 
IX, fig. 1 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 
Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 21; Monteiro, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1860, p. 112; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 
105, fig. 254; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 245; 
Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1893, 
pp. 99, 215; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 49. 
Cercopithecus ascanius Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 
p. 106, fig. 260 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 87 ; 
Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Paris, III, 7me Ser., 1896, pp. 183, 208 ; 
Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 719, fig. 186, pi. 
XL, fig. 5. 
Cercopithecus histrio Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1863, 

p. 106, figs. 256-259. 
Cercopithecus picturatus Santos, Journ. Scien. Lisb., XI, 1886, 
p. 98; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 
1893, pp. 99, 215. 
Type locality. Unknown. *Type in Paris Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Congo to Angola; Oubangui, Alima, (Pou- 
sargues) ; Encoge south of Bambe, (Monteiro) ; Quimpampala, 
(Santos). 

Color. Nose white; sides of head from nose to ears white, 
covered by a black bar from nose to side of neck ; band across forehead 
black ; top of head, upper parts and sides of body black, thinly speckled 
on head with yellow, and on body with ochraceous ; limbs black ; arms 
above elbows and hind limbs sparsely speckled with ochraceous ; under 
parts, inner side of arms above elbows, and of legs to ankles, grayish 
white; tail above, black on dorsal half speckled with ochraceous, 
maroon on apical half, beneath white on basal half, red on apical half. 
Ex type Paris Museum. Space around eyes and upper lip blue; end 
of nose white, ears and lower lip flesh color. (Audebert). 



♦This species is not mentioned by I. Geoffroy in his Catalogue, his "As- 
caigne" (p. 19), being (C.) petaurista Schreber, ex Guinea. 



304 LASIOPYGA 

Measurements. Total length, 1,068.4; tail, 606.2. Skull: presum- 
ably in the specimen. 

The example above described and marked as the Type does not 
altogether agree with Audebert's figure and description, especially as 
regards the tail which he says is "olivatre," and figures this member 
mainly as of a pale olive yellow without any red whatever. I saw no 
examples in the Paris Museum like Audebert's figure, nor in any other 
collection, and if he has made no error in his colors, the above example 
cannot be his type and we have yet to obtain the true ascanius. 

The following is Audebert's description of his "L'Ascaigne" : 
"L'Ascaigne a treize pouces depuis le museau jusqu'a l'origine de la 
queue; sa face est bleu; on remarque sur les paupieres une legere 
teinte de violet ; les yeux sont roux, et les sourcils, formes par de long 
poils, sont noirs; ainsi que la partie superieure du nez, qui, a son 
extremite est couvert de poils fins, tres-courts, et du blanc le plus 
eclatant; les levres sont un peu pileuses, la superieure est bleuatre, 
l'inf erieure est presque de couleur de chair ; le front, le tour de la face 
et les joues sont couvertes de poils noirs. Audessous de chaque oreille 
on remarque une grande touffe de poils blancs, qui divergent en partant 
d'un centre commun, et forment une espece de rosette. Les oreilles 
sont nues, de couleur de chair, et depassent a peine le poil, qui, en 
general, est tres long et tres touffu. Le sommet de la tete, le cou, le dos 
et la queue de cet animal, sont olivatres ; la barbe, la poitrine, le ventre, 
l'interieur des quatres membres sont d'un gris fonce, et la partie 
exterieur des bras est noire." 

This description was taken from the living individual, then in the 
menagerie in the Jardin des Plantes, Paris. I have never seen, as I 
have said, any specimen like it, and if we reject the example marked 
Type in the Paris Museum, "L'Ascaigne" of Audebert will have to take 
its place among the unknown species yet to be received. Schlegel 
(1. c.) in his description of L. ascanius states that in his example "Le 
blanc du dessous de la queue change, des la deuxieme tiers de la longeur 
de cette organe, au roux, rougedtre" which is in accord with the color 
of the tail in the type in the Paris Museum. It is possible that 
the light in the cage may have betrayed Audebert and caused 
him to mistake the color of the tail, as the animal would not re- 
main quiet to have its portrait painted. At all events the discrep- 
ancy exists, and the type and Audebert's figure and description do 
not agree. 



LASIOPYGA 305 

Lasiopyga ascanius whitesidei (Thomas). 

Cercopithecus ascanius whitesidei Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
8th Ser., IV, 1909, p. 542. 

Type locality. Upper Lulange River, Central Congo. Type 
in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Nose spot buff not white; cheek stripe less devel- 
oped; black cheek patch of L. ascanius wanting. 

Color. Above tawny olive, hairs ringed with black and ochra- 
ceous ; frontal line to base of ears, black ; temporal whorl creamy white ; 
cheek band darker ; under parts creamy white ; outer side of forearms 
blackish ; outer side of thighs like back, of legs slaty gray ; inner side 
of limbs whitish; hands blackish; feet black, buff speckled; tail like 
back at base grading into rufous, and then to black at tip, beneath 
white, then reddish, and black at tip. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,410; tail, 880; foot, 120. Skull: 
"breadth of braincase, 52 ; length of upper molar series, 22." 

Lasiopyga signata ( Jentink) . 

Cercopithecus signatus Jent., Notes Leyd. Mus., VIII, 1886, p. 
55; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 257; Matschie, 
Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1893, pp. 100, 
215 ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1895, p. 45 ; Pousarg., Ann. 
Scien. Nat., Ill, 7me Ser., 1896, p. 180; Pocock, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond, II, 1907, p. 721, pi. XL, fig. 3. 

Cercopithecus martini Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, 1884, p. 176, 
pi. XIV; 1893, p. 245, (nee Waterh.) ; Forbes, Handb. Pri- 
mates, II, 1894, p. 47, (nee Waterh.). 

Cercopithecus nictitans Schleg, Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 
89, (Part). 

JENTINK' S GUENON. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in Leyden Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. West Africa. Banana? border of French Congo 
and Angola. (Jentink). 

Genl. Char. No black band on back of head. 

Color. Band across forehead, and from eyes to ears black; top 
of head and outer side of arms above elbow, dark buff, the hairs being 
blackish and tips dark buff, giving the dominant color ; upper parts and 
sides of body reddish speckled, the hairs being slate color and tips red ; 
forearms, hands and feet black ; legs black speckled with reddish ; 
sides of face and cheeks yellowish ; nose black except a white spot 
on tip; chin, under sides of head, throat, under parts, inner side of 



306 LASIOPYGA 

arms above elbow, and inner side of legs white; tail above like back, 
beneath yellowish. No skull. Ex type Leyden Museum. 
Measurements. Size equal to L. fantiensis. 

This form is not unlike L. fantiensis but it differs from that 
species and L. petaurista by not having the black band passing from 
eye to eye around the back of the head. 

Lasiopyga schmidti (Matschie). 

Cercopithecus ascanius (nee Audeb.), Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1887, p. 502; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. 

Freunde, Berlin, 1893, p. 100; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 

1894, p. 49. 
Cercopithecus schmidti Matschie, Zool. Anz., 1892, p. 161 ; Sclat., 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 245. 
Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1907, p. 720, pi. XI, fig. 4. 

SCHMIDT'S GUENON. 

Type locality. Manyema. Type in Berlin Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Uganda, Port Alice, Manyema, Bumba, Upper 
Congo. 

Genl. Char. Tail very long ; ochraceous rufous, nose white. 

Color. End of nose white; face, legs, forehead and band from 
eye to ear, and one from corner of mouth to neck below and beyond 
ear black; sides of face and head white; top of head and neck, and 
entire upper parts, arms to elbows, and thighs tawny, the hairs being 
ringed with black and tawny, the latter color predominating; fore- 
arms black, legs reddish black, speckled with buff; hands and feet 
black; chin, throat, under parts and inner side of limbs, white; tail, 
basal sixth like back, remainder ochraceous rufous; tuft of hair on 
ears white. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,275 ; tail, 810. Skull : total length, 
82; occipito-nasal length, 79; intertemporal width, 40; zygomatic 
width, 48; median length of nasals, 13; length of upper molar series, 
20; length of mandible, 44; length of lower molar series, 17. Ex type 
Berlin Museum. 

Subgenus 3. Melanocebus. 

Arms, hands and feet black ; under parts of body wholly black or 
grayish. 



Volume II 



Plate 5 




■ ■ 










LASIOPYGA bCHMIDTI 



LASIOPYGA 307 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. Under parts of body entirely black. 

a. Top of head jet black. 

a.' Hairs of brow band speckled to base . . .L. leucampyx. 
b! Hairs of brow band white at base. 

a." Cheeks speckled L. pluto. 

b" Cheeks nearly uniform black L. nigrigenis. 

b. Top of head speckled. 

a' Black band on upper back. 

a." Black band on upper back un- 

speckled L. boutourlini. 

b." Black band on upper back speckled. . L. opisthosticta. 
b! No band on upper back L. aurora. 

B. Under parts of body sooty, or iron gray, or 

grayish white. 

a. No white spot on nose. 

a! Head above to nape jet black. 
a." No black band on chest. 

a!" Tail speckled with cream 

buff and black L. stuhlmanni. 

b!" Tail speckled with silvery 

white L. neumanni. 

b." Black band on chest. 

a!" Rump tinged with reddish 

brown L. doggetti. 

b!" Rump without reddish brown 
tinge. 
a!"' Area between shoulders 

jet black L. princeps. 

b."" Area between shoulders 

speckled with gray L. carruthersi. 

b. With white spot on nose. 

a.' Head above speckled. 

a." Under part of body all speckled L. nictitans. 

b." Color generally grayer L. n. laglaizi. 

C* Under parts speckled only on 

lower half L. sticticeps. 

d." Under parts grayish white L. martini. 



308 LASIOPYGA 

Lasiopyga leucampyx (Fischer) . 

La Diane femelle F. Cuv., Hist. Mamm., Livr. XLII, 1824, pi. 

XV a. 
Simia leucampyx Fisch., Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 20. 
Cercopithecus diana F. Cuv., Hist. Mamm., 2nd ed., 1833, p. 47, 

pi. XIV. 
Cercopithecus diadematus I. Geoff., Belang., Voy., Zool., 1834, p. 

51 ; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 73. 
Cercopithecus leucampyx Martin, Mammif. Anim., 1841, p. 529; 

I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, II, 1843, p. 557; Id. 
Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 20; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 
V, 1855, p. 48; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 
fasc. I, 1856, pp. 108, 185; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 108, fig. 268; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 
1876, p. 836; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc., 1881, p. 
57; Giglioli, Zool. Anz., X, 1887, p. 510; Sclat, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 253, (Part.) ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 

II, 1894, p. 75; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 789; 
Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 689. 

DIADEM GUENON. 

Type locality. Guinea. 

Geogr. Distr. Guinea, Angola and the Congo; West Africa to 
Nyassaland; British Central Africa. 

Color. A band across forehead and spot on side of head near 
eye white; top and back of head, neck, shoulders, limbs, hands and 
feet, and entire under parts from chin, black; hairs on forepart of 
head in center tipped with white ; top and side of body grizzled gray 
becoming blackish on rump; root of tail black, remainder grayish 
black, tip black. No skull. Ex specimen in Paris Museum, died in the 
Menagerie in 1899. 

Lasiopyga pluto (Gray). 

Cercopithecus pluto Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1848, p. 56 
(text fig. p. 57), pi. Ill; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V 
1855, p. 48; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p 
108, figs. 269, 270; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, p 
670; 1871, p. 36; 1872, p. 97; Scott Elliot, Proc. Zool. Soc 
Lond., 1895, p. 341 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907 
p. 692. 

Type locality. Angola. Type in British Museum. 



LASIOPYGA 309 

Genl. Char. Like L. leucampyx, but top of head, shoulders, and 
nape of neck speckled with gray. 

Color. Brownish white band on forehead speckled with black; 
top of head and temples black sparsely speckled with gray; sides of 
head black speckled with buff; upper part of back black minutely 
speckled with white; rest of upper parts and sides profusely speckled 
with cream buff; inner and outer sides of arms, and hands jet black; 
legs and feet black, but tinged with brown and slightly speckled on 
inner side of thighs near body; chest and under parts, and inner side 
of legs sooty gray ; hair of tail all gone except a little about midway 
the length, which is black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Skull of L. pluto in the British Museum No. 50. 
7. 7. 9. not the type; total length, 100.6; occipito-nasal length, 86.2; 
intertemporal width, 44.4; Hensel, 72.1 ; zygomatic width, 69.6; median 
length of nasals, 17.8; palatal length, 38.6; length of upper canines, 
16.1; length of upper molar series, 26.9; length of mandible, 74.7; 
length of lower molar series, 32.9. 

The type does not seem to be a fully adult individual, the coloring 
of the band on forehead, the under parts and legs are brownish black 
and sooty instead of jet black, appearing to indicate immaturity. The 
type came from Angola. Fortunately there is an adult Lasiopyga 
from Dando, North Angola, which is doubtless the same species as 
pluto, and which presents us with adult pelage. It may be described 
as follows : band on forehead, narrow at ends and broad in the center, 
white with a row of speckled black and white hairs at the base of the 
band in front ; sides of head and throat black speckled with white ; 
top of head and temples black; back of head and neck speckled black 
and white, overlaid by long jet black hairs, these last extending down 
to between the shoulders; upper part of body and flanks profusely 
speckled black and white, the latter here greatly predominating ; inner 
and outer side of arms and legs, hands, feet, and entire under parts 
below throat jet black ; chin and upper part of throat sooty gray ; tail, 
basal half black speckled with white, apical half black. 

Mr. Pocock in his review, (1. c.) gives the character to separate 
L. pluto from L. stuhlmanni as the "speckling of the summit of the 
head with the nape and shoulders," but the specimen from Angola, 
which I consider the adult pluto has the summit of the head jet black, 
so it would seem that the speckling on the head was due to immaturity. 
L. pluto's claims for being a distinct species must therefore rest on 
some other differences to separate it from L. stuhlmanni, and these 



310 LASIOPYGA 

appear to consist of a much whiter brow band, the hairs being white for 
at least half the basal length, and not speckled to the base as in L. 
stuhlmanni, and the under parts being uniformly black speckled with 
white, and not speckled with gray. 

LASIOPYGA NIGRIGENIS (PoCOck) . 

Cercopithecus leucampyx Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 
253 (nee Fischer). 

Cercopithecus stuhlmanni nigrigenis Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond, 1907, p. 692, pi. XXXIX, fig. 1. 

Type locality. West Africa, locality unknown. Type in British 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Sides of neck and cheeks, jet black. 

Color. Brow band white, broadest in the center; the front line 
mixed with long dark hairs; forepart of cheeks, and face beneath 
eyes covered with hairs speckled white and black ; rest of head, neck 
behind, and on sides, space between shoulders, shoulders, arms, hands, 
legs, feet and tail except at base, jet black ; body above and below shoul- 
ders, and flanks iron gray, the hairs being gray and banded on apical 
half with black and white ; chin and throat white ; rest of under parts 
jet black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,110; tail, 680; foot, 130, (skin). 

The unique type of this form in the British Museum is stated to 
have come from West Africa, but no particulars are given. It seems in 
its jet black legs and under parts to be more nearly allied to L. bou- 
tourlini than to L. stuhlmanni and differs from it in having the 
cheeks and sides of the neck jet black, and in the white brow band. 

LASIOPYGA BOUTOURLINI (Giglioli). 

Cercopithecus boutourlini Gigl., Zool. Anz., X, 1887, p. 510; Sclat., 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, pp. 256, 441 ; Forbes, Handb. 

Primates, II, 1894, p. 69 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 

1907, p. 693. 
Cercopithecus albigularis Gigl., Ann. Mus. Civ. Genov., 2nd Ser., 

VI, 1888, p. 8, (necSykes). 
Cercopithecus omensis Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1900, p. 801. 

BOUTOURLINI'S GUENON. 

Type locality. Kaffa, East Africa. Type in Florence Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Shoa, Abyssinia, North East Africa. Charada 
forest; Kaffa; Abugifas in Grimma; Province of Gojam (Sclater) ; 
Omo River, Lake Rudolf. 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE 2. 










1. LASIOPYGA NIGRIGENIS. 



2. LASIOPYGA PRINCEPS. 

4. LASIOPYGA CEPHUS. 

6. LASIOPYGA CALLITRICHUS. 



3. LASIOPYGA MARTINI. 

5. LASIOPYGA ERYTHROTIS. 

7. LASIOPYGA GRISEOVIRIDIS. 



LASIOPYGA 311 

Genl. Char. Similar to L. albigularis but nose and upper lips 
white; under surface and limbs black. 

Color. Fore part and sides of head from beneath eyes, and sides 
of neck thickly speckled with black and white; no defined band on 
forehead; top of head and nape black sparsely speckled with white; 
hind neck, band across back at base of neck, shoulders, outer and inner 
sides of arms and legs, hands and feet jet black; upper parts and 
sides of body speckled black and white, the blue gray basal portion of 
the hairs imparting a gray tinge over all ; upper lip covered with short 
white hairs; chin grayish white; throat yellowish white; entire under 
parts jet black; tail at base black speckled with white, remainder jet 
black. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,300; tail, 700; foot, 145; ear, 30. 
Skull: total length, 116.4; occipito-nasal length, 95.6; Hensel, 81.3; 
intertemporal length, 41.4; zygomatic width, 75.6; palatal length, 81.9; 
median length of nasals, 23.9 ; width of braincase, 58.3 ; length of upper 
molar series, 46.4; length of mandible, 78.2; length of lower molar 
series, 32.9; length of upper canines, 21.2. Ex specimen in British 
Museum from Kaffa, 6. 11. 1. 1. 

Unfortunately during my visit to the Florence Museum, the Di- 
rector, Signor Giglioli, was absent from the city and I was not able to 
find the type of this species, but the specimen above described, obtained 
at the same place as the type, is a co-type, and therefore is an accept- 
able representative of the species. 

Lasiopyga opisthosticta (Sclater). 

Cercopithecus opisthostictus Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, 
p. 725; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 72; Pocock, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 694. 

RUMP-SPOTTED GUENON. 

Type locality. Lake Mweru, British Central Africa. Type in 
British Museum. 

Color. Face dark brown; upper lip covered with short white 
hairs; forehead, and sides of face and neck thickly speckled with 
white and black; a bar across the forehead being nearly all white; 
top, and back of head, nape, and back of neck black speckled with 
white, but less profusely ; band across upper back at base of neck jet 
black, sparsely speckled with white on middle of back ; outer and inner 
sides of arms, and hands jet black ; upper part and sides of body gray 
speckled with black and buff; upper edge of thighs, legs and feet jet 
black ; rest of thighs and legs iron gray, grizzled, similar to the upper 



312 LASIOPYGA 

parts of body, but much darker; chin and throat grayish white; rest 
of under parts jet black; tail at base pale grizzled gray, remainder 
jet black. Ex Arnot's specimen in British Museum, from Kundilungo 
Mountains west of Lake Mweru, Nyassaland. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,420; tail, 820, (skin) ; no skull. 

The type was a flat skin, in the British Museum, but not so good a 
representation of the species as the one above described. The species 
is easily distinguished in the group to which it belongs, by the pale 
yellowish gray back ; and the greater amount of speckling on the head 
and hind neck. 

Lasiopyga aurora (Thomas and Wroughton). 

Cercopithecus leucampyx aurora Thos. and Wrought., Trans. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., XIX, 1910, p. 485. 

Type locality. South end of Lake Kivu, south of Lake Albert 
Edward, Africa. Type in British Museum. 

Color. Head missing. Upper parts of body and flanks speckled 
buff, yellow and black, hairs having three black rings ; hairs on upper 
part of back white at base then gray, the apical portion banded with black 
and yellow ; hairs on lower back yellowish white on basal half, then buff 
yellow banded with black; these combinations give a grayish tinge to 
the upper back, but a rich yellow to the sacral portion; inner and 
outer side of arms jet black; outer side of thighs speckled gray and 
black ; inner side jet black ; hands and feet wanting ; entire under parts 
jet black; tail at root mixed gray, yellow and black, remainder above 
and beneath mixed gray and black, the gray gradually disappearing 
until near the end which becomes jet black with here and there a white 
speck. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Tail, 700. No skull. Skin incomplete. 

Lasiopyga sttjhlmanni (Matschie). 

Cercopithecus stuhlmanni Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. 

Freunde, Berlin, 1893, p. 225. 
Cercopithecus otoleucus Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1902, p. 

237, pi. XXI. 

STUHLM ANN'S GUENON. 

Type locality. North of Kingawanga, north west of Lake Albert 
Edward, Africa, and Kividjvi Island in Lake Kivu. Type in Berlin 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Lake Albert Edward to the Mpanga forest, East 
Africa. 



LASIOPYGA 313 

Genl. Char. Size large, tail very long; ears tufted posteriorly. 

Color. Broad yellowish white band with numerous long black 
hairs in front, some of them banded with cream buff; top of head to 
nape black; upper part and sides of body speckled cream buff and 
black; between shoulders long black hairs overlie but do not obscure 
the speckling, which is visible as far as the head ; cheeks, and on sides 
of head extending to shoulders, speckled cream buff and black; face 
slaty black, lips covered with short white hairs ; shoulders, arms, hands 
and feet jet black ; legs from hips to ankles speckled cream buff and 
black, giving them a grayish tone ; chin and throat white ; under parts 
of body grayish, speckled with cream buff ; tail like back for two thirds 
the length, remainder black; ears fringed on posterior side with buff 
hairs. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,500; tail, 990; foot, 185. Skull: 
total length, 110.3; occipito-nasal length, 90.9; intertemporal width, 
45.1; Hensel, 82; zygomatic width, 70.5; breadth of braincase, 62.2; 
median length of nasals, 17.4; palatal length, 42.5; length of upper 
molar series, 25.1 ; mandible wanting. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Mr. Scott Elliot says of this Monkey (1. c.) : "I brought home 
a specimen of Cercopithecus pluto (a West African form), or of the 
allied C. stuhlmanni. The Wakondja in the Nyamwamba valley, East 
Ruwenzori, make a sort of pouch or pocket of the skin, which they 
carry over the shoulder, so that the animal must be common. This 
Monkey is extremely shy, and usually the only sign of its presence 
is the noise of a tremendous crash amongst the branches a long 
distance away. Once I saw very well a troop of another monkey, 
probably a Cercopithecus also, I was alone, of course, without a gun, 
and sitting down very quietly on a fallen tree. Four or five of the 
older males came quite close after some hesitation. They had white 
marks on the face, simulating eyebrows, moustache and imperial, and 
their expression was melancholy and unhappy." 

Lasiopyga neumanni (Matschie). 

Cercopithecus neumanni Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. 
Freunde, Berlin, 1905, p. 260. 

Type locality. Kwa Kitolo, North Kavirondo, German East 
Africa. Type in Berlin Museum. 

Genl. Char. Almost exactly like L. stuhlmanni but sides of 
head yellowish, and under parts slightly darker ; nose violet brown. 

Color. Long hairs on forehead, projecting upwards and outwards, 
sides of face, and head, neck, entire body and legs speckled black and 



314 LASIOPYGA 

buff, the hairs being gray at base then banded with black and buff ; top 
and back of head, arms, hands and feet uniform black ; tail black, hairs 
banded with silvery white. The buff is most conspicuous on the back, 
which may be said to be almost of that hue, the buff bands being so 
numerous and close together, but are less numerous on legs and under 
parts. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,190; tail to end of hairs, 700. 
Young. Skull: total length, 95; occipito-nasal length, 82; zygomatic 
width, 62 ; intertemporal width, 37 ; median length of nasals, 19 ; length 
of upper molar series, 24; length of mandible, 64; length of lower 
molar series, 28. Young animal. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Between the range of this species and L. stuhlmanni, L. prin- 
ceps is met with. 

Lasiopyga doggetti (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus stuhlmanni doggetti Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1907, p. 691. 

DOGGETT'S GUENON. 

Type locality. S. W. Ankole, between Lakes Victoria and Albert 
Edward. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Tail speckled with rufous ; back yellowish, sides and 
belly gray. 

Color. Broad band on forehead, sides of face, head, and neck, 
extending nearly to center of throat, gray speckled with black and 
buff ; rest of head above, and on sides covering the ears, nape and back 
of neck, jet black; jet black band slightly speckled across back at base 
of neck; shoulders, inner and outer side of arms and hands jet black; 
back and flanks gray thickly speckled with black and buff, tinged with 
greenish on middle back, and reddish brown on lower back and rump ; 
legs from hips blackish gray on outer side slightly ticketed with white, 
inner side ash gray; feet black; chin and center of throat grayish 
white ; dusky bar across breast at shoulders ; rest of under parts ash 
gray ; tail speckled brownish red at base, remainder, except tip which 
is black, thickly speckled with white. Female, juv. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,142; tail, 645. Skull : total length, 
95.6; occipito-nasal length, 70; Hensel, 29.2; zygomatic width, 65.2; 
palatal length, 29.5; median length of nasals, 15; length of mandible, 
62.3. Ex type British Museum. 

The unique type is quite a young female, and the measurements 
probably give a very imperfect idea of the dimensions of either body or 



LASIOPYGA 315 

skull. The last molar has not yet been produced in either jaw, so the 
length of the tooth rows could not be given. 

Lasiopyga pbjnceps (Elliot). 

Cercopithecus stuhlmanni (nee Matschie), Pocock, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 690, pi. XXXIX, fig. 2. 

Cercopithecus princeps Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 
1909, p. 304. 

Type locality. Mpanga forest, west and south of Lake Albert, 
East Africa. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Mpanga forest, and Mount Ruwenzori, 5,000 feet 
elevation, East Africa. 

Color. Forehead, sides of face and head, (extending on to sides 
of throat), speckled black and white; top of head, nape, hind neck, 
space between shoulders, arms, hands and feet, jet black; upper parts 
and sides of body speckled black and white ; legs black faintly speckled 
with white on thighs, and very slightly so on legs beneath knees ; chin 
and throat pure white; a conspicuous black band across breast below 
throat, rest of under parts iron gray, the hairs being much less 
speckled with white than on the upper parts, the general tone more 
grayish; tail speckled black and gray on basal half, darker than the 
back, remainder jet black to tip ; ears with a few white hairs on top ; 
face slate color; upper lip covered with short white hairs. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,530; tail, 915; foot, 165; ear, 50, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 113.5; occipito-nasal length, 88; 
Hensel, 78.7 ; zygomatic width, 76.2 ; intertemporal width, 42.6 ; width 
of braincase, 56.2; median length of nasals, 17.7; palatal length, 39.1; 
length of upper molar series, 25.1 ; length of mandible, 77.2; length of 
lower molar series, 31.1 ; length of upper canines, 25.9. Ex type 
British Museum. 

This species differs from L. stuhlmanni Matschie, in having a 
black band across the breast, in the uniform black on upper back and 
hind neck, and in the blacker legs ; and from L. carruthersi in having 
the space between shoulders jet black, this part being speckled with 
white in that species. 

Lasiopyga carruthersi (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus stuhlmanni carruthersi Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1907, p. 691. 



316 LASIOPYGA 

CARRUTHERS' GUENON. 

Type locality. East side of Mt. Ruwenzori, elevation 10,000 feet. 
Type in British Museum. 

Color. This species is similar to L. princeps, (not L. stuhl- 
manni, as compared by Mr. Pocock), which has no black bar across 
chest, but differs in the absence of white on the hairs of the brow band, 
and the area between shoulders is speckled with gray, this part in L. 
princeps being jet black like the top of the head. The abdomen is 
less speckled and darker. The species is represented in the British 
Museum Collection by the type. 

Measurements. Size about equal to L. princeps. No skull. 

Lasiopyga nictitans (Linnaeus). 

Simia nictitans Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1766, p. 40; Bodd., Elench. 

Anim., 1784, p. 50. 
Cercopithecus nictitans Erxl., Syst. Regn. Anim., 1777, p. 35 ; F. 
Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1833, 2me ed., p. 50, pi. XV; Less., 
Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 75 ; Martin, Mammif. Anim., 1841, p. 
536; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 50; Dahlb., 
Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 100, 105 ; 
Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 106, figs. 258- 
261 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 182 ; Id. Cat. 
Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 
21; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 89; Sclat., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 246; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. 
Naturf . Freunde, Berlin, 1893, p. 101 ; Forbes, Handb. Pri- 
mates, II, 1894, p. 51 ; Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat., II, 7me 
Ser., 1896, pp. 198, 207; Bates, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1905, 
p. 70; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., F. C. M. Pub., 
VIII, 1906, p. 569, Zool. Ser. ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
II, 1907, p. 696. 
Lasiopyga nictitans Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Avium, 1811, p. 
68. 
hochuer guenon. Native name Avem. (Bates). 
Type locality. Guinea? 

Geogr. Distr. West Africa, Cameroon to Sette Cama in French 
Congo; Eupudu, Bulu country, Cameroon, (Bates); at San Benito, 
Alima River, Magumba, Banqui and Sette Cama. (Pousargues). 

Color. Head above and at sides, entire upper parts, and legs 
black speckled with white, base of hairs gray ; over the nose and eyes on 
forehead a band of white hairs banded with black; arms from shoul- 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE XXXII. 




LASIOPYGA NICTITANS. 

SIDE VIEW REVERSED. 

No. 5.11.27.12. Brit Mus. Coll. !.-, Nat Size. 



LAS10PYGA 317 

ders, and hands black and unspeckled ; chin and throat brownish gray ; 
black band across upper part of chest ; entire under parts grayish black 
sparsely speckled with white; tail black sparsely speckled with white 
on basal third; feet black slightly speckled; eyelids flesh color; face 
black ; large white patch on end of nose. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,320; tail, 805; foot, 148; ear, 28, 
(Collector, Bates). Skull: total length, 102.4; occipito-nasal length, 
87.4; intertemporal width, 72.9; Hensel, 66.1; zygomatic width, 63.6; 
median length of nasals, 16.4; palatal length, 34.6; length of upper 
molar series, 25.4; length of mandible, 65.6; length of lower molar 
series, 31.5. Ex specimen from near Benito River, in British Museum. 

Lasiopyga nictitans laglaizi (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus nictitans laglaizi Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1907, p. 698. 

Type locality. Gaboon. 

Genl. Char. Similar to L. nictitans, but hair longer and grayer. 

Color. General hue slightly grayer than L. nictitans, otherwise 
no difference is perceptible. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Size about same as L. nictitans. The skull 
attributed to this type specimen is that of a very young female, and 
evidently never belonged to it. 

The type has been in the British Museum Collection since 1880, 
was mounted and has been made into a skin. It formerly belonged 
to the La Glaize Collection and bears on the ticket the locality 
"Gaboon." This is so close to the Benito River, for I suppose 
'Gaboon' River is intended, that it is not to be expected there could be 
in the territory two distinct forms. The L. n. laglaizi is most doubt- 
fully separable from L. nictitans. 

Lasiopyga sticticeps (Elliot). 

Cercopithecus sticticeps Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 
1909, p. 263. 

Type locality. N'dongo-leti, on the Upper Oubangui River, 
Central Africa. 

Genl. Char. Top of head and hind neck speckled, not uniform 
black. 

Color. Band of rather stiff hairs standing upright over the eyes, 
black banded with white ; top and sides of head, back and sides of neck, 
upper parts of body and flanks, speckled buff and black ; a greenish tinge 
on arms, hands and feet ; dorsal region jet black ; chin and throat grayish 



318 LASIOPYGA 

white; under parts smoke gray, apical half banded with black and 
white; tail at base speckled buff and black like back, then for rest of 
basal half above, speckled black and white, beneath at base black faintly- 
speckled with white, rest of basal half paler, more a brownish hue, 
apical half above and beneath jet black; large white spot on nose. Ex 
type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,345 ; tail, 830; foot, 125. No skull. 
Ex type British Museum. 

A single specimen obtained by the Alexander-Goslin Expedition, 
is in the British Museum, and differs markedly from L. nictitans in 
having no plain black hairs on the head or neck, and in being speckled 
with buff and black instead of white and black, and in certain lights a 
greenish tinge is perceptible on the dorsal region. The sex is not 
known, as the leaders of the expedition did not make any notes of 
the sex of their specimens. 

Lasiopyga martini (Waterhouse). 

Cercopithecus martini Waterh., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1838, p. 

58; 1841, p. 71; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 

p. 110; Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, 

Brit Mus., 1870, p. 21 ; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1884, 

p. 176, pi. XIV; 1893, p. 245; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. 

Naturf . Freunde, Berlin, 1893, pp. 100, 215 ; Forbes, Handb. 

Primates, II, 1895, p. 47, (Part.) ; Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat. 

Paris, III, 7me Ser., 1896, pp. 199, 207 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 698, pi. XXXIX, fig. 5. 
Cercopithecus ludio Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1844, p. 8, pi. 

IX, fig. 2; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 51; 

Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 105, fig. 255; 

Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 

Mus., 1870, p. 21 ; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 245; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 48. 
Cercopithecus temmincki I. Geoff., Diet. Hist. Nat, III, 1845, p. 

393. 
Cercopithecus nictitans Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 

89, (Part.). 
Cercopithecus ascanias Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 

87, (Part.). 
Cercopithecus melanogenys Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, 

p. 90, (nee Gray). 



VOLUME II 



PLATE XXXIII. 




LASIOPYGA CEPHUS. 
No. G351 Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. Coll. % Nat. Size. 



LASIOPYGA 319 

Cercopithecus stampHii Jent., Notes Leyden Mus., X, 1888, p. 10 ; 
Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 257; Matschie, 
Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1893, pp. 101, 
215; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 50. 

MARTIN'S GUENON. 

Type locality. "Fernando Po." 

Geogr. Distr. Guinea from the delta of the Niger, Asabe, River 
Niger, (Rudkin) ; Liberia to Cameroon and Sette Cama, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Distinguished from L. nictitans by a whitish breast 
and inner side of arms. 

Color. Hairs on forehead speckled black and yellow; crown of 
head speckled buff and black; nape and hind neck covered with jet 
black hairs, beneath which the hairs are speckled white and black, and 
this speckling continues to below shoulders; lower back and rump 
speckled buff and black ; flanks grayer, hairs speckled white and black 
on apical half; outer side of arms to elbows, and whole of forearms, 
hands and feet, jet black; outer side of legs black speckled with white, 
the speckling growing less below the knee ; chin, throat, upper part of 
chest and inner side of arms to elbows, and legs to knees white ; rest of 
under parts pale gray; tail black speckled with white for four fifths 
its length, remainder jet black; large white spot on nose. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,080; tail, 420; foot, 115. No 
skull. Ex type British Museum. 

Subgenus 4. Neocebus. 
Tail red or mostly red ; nose spot usually present. 

A. Pale blue transverse stripe on upper lip. 

a. Without rufous brow band. 

a.' Tail coppery red, hairs on ears white L. cephus. 

b! Tail above like back, not red, hairs on 

ears yellowish L. cephodes. 

b. With rufous brow band L. inobservata. 

B. No blue stripe on upper lip. 

a. Nose patch white L. sclateri. 

b. Nose patch red L. erythrotis. 

Lasiopyga cephus (Linnaeus). 

Simia cephus Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 27 ; I, 1766, p. 39 ; Bodd., 
Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 159. 



320 LASIOPYGA 

Moustache {Cercopithecus cephus) F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., I, 

1821, pi. XIX, 2me ed., 1833, p. 54, pi. XVII. 
Cercopithecus cephus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 77 \ Mart., 
Mammif. Anim., 1841, p. 532; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. 
Suppl., V, 1855, p. 49 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 
Nat., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 103, 107 ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 105, figs. 252, 253; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1868, p. 182; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 20 ; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, 
Simise, 1876, p. 91 ; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 
502; 1893, p. 246; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 53; 
Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat. Paris, III, 7 me Ser, 1896, p. 140 ; 
Bates, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1905, p. 70 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. 
Field Columb. Mus., F. C. M. Pub, VIII, 1906, p. 569, Zool. 
Ser.; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, 1907, pp. 722, 723, fig. 
187, pi. XLI, fig. 3 ; Thos, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, 1911, p. 127. 
uov st ached guenon. Native name Osok. 
Type locality. "Guinea." 

Geogr. Distr. Gaboon to the Congo, West Africa. 
Genl. Char. Tail coppery red above and below; hairs on ears 
white. 

Color. Face bluish slate gray; whitish blue stripe on upper lip 
extending outwards from beneath nostrils, beneath which is a line of 
black hairs forming a moustache, and merging with the black and 
yellow speckled hairs on lower part of cheek ; black brow band extend- 
ing on sides of head to ear, speckled in front with yellow hairs standing 
upright ; crown of head speckled black and yellow ; back of head, hind 
neck, entire upper parts of body, flanks and outer side of thighs 
speckled rich ochraceous rufous and black; outer side of arms black 
finely speckled with ochraceous rufous ; cheeks yellow, hairs near ears 
ringed with black; hairs on lower parts of cheeks, above the black 
moustache, annulated with black and yellow ; chin black ; sides of throat 
reddish; beneath chin, center of throat, chest, entire under parts of 
body, and inner side of arms to elbows, and legs to near ankles gray ; 
hands and feet black ; tail above like back at base grading into coppery 
red, beneath gray at base becoming coppery red like upper part. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,360; tail, 780; foot, 135; ear, 28, 
(Collector). Skull : total length, 113 ; occipito-nasal length, 93.5 ; inter- 
temporal width, 45.5 ; Hensel, 80.3 ; zygomatic width, 78 ; median length 



LASIOPYGA 321 

of nasals, 18.7; width of braincase, 58.2; palatal length, 37.8; length 
of upper molar series, 25.8; length of upper canines, 19.2; length of 
mandible, 82.3 ; length of lower molar series, 33.2. 

Lasiopyga cephodes (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus cephodes Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 
724. 

Type locality. Gaboon. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Basal portion of tail above like body, beneath gray- 
ish ; hairs on ears yellowish. 

Color. Resembles L. cephus in general style of coloration, but 
differs in having the entire upper part of head black, speckled with 
yellow, and the ears covered heavily with yellowish white hairs; the 
hairs on upper part of cheeks paler, a uniform straw color; the 
speckling on upper parts paler and lighter, more of an orange shade ; 
forearms with but little speckling above, and tail entirely different, 
being like back above at base, and gradually merging into brownish 
black at tip speckled with golden red, beneath gray on basal portion 
merging into a darkish cinnamon ; nose white, the color extending up- 
ward to between the eyes; hands and feet black. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,110; tail, 640; foot, 120. Skull: 
total length, 90.5 ; occipito-nasal length, 77.5 ; intertemporal width, 
40.2; Hensel, 56.5; zygomatic width, 59.1; width of braincase, 52.2; 
median length of nasals, 16.1; palatal length, 31.6; length of upper 
molar series, 23.1; length of upper canines, 15.6; length of mandible, 
62.2 ; length of lower molar series, 29.2. Ex type British Museum. 

While resembling L. cephus in the general tone of the upper parts, 
this style can be readily distinguished by its black head and totally 
differently colored tail. The upper parts are brighter, more orange 
hued, and the yellowish white hair on the ears is very conspicuous, as 
is also the yellow hair on the cheeks. The status of this Monkey, 
however, as a form distinct from L. cephus cannot as yet be regarded 
as satisfactorily established. The majority of specimens with tails 
colored like the type are thus far females, and cephus may be as 
regards this member, dimorphic, at least in a restricted form, for 
while females mostly possess such tails, some adult males also have 
them. More specimens are required to show whether this peculiar 
coloration is restricted to a certain locality, or obtained generally 
wherever cephus is found, in which case it would simply be dimorphic. 



322 LASIOPYGA 

LASIOPYGA INOBSERVATA (Elliot). 

Cercopithecus inobservatus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., V, 8th 
Ser., 1910, p. 81. 

Type locality. West Africa, exact locality unknown. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Allied to L. cephus, but body very differently 
colored, and with a conspicuous rufous band on brow behind the 
yellow and black superciliary line. When the two species are placed 
side by side L. cephus appears a reddish monkey, and L. inobservata 
a yellowish animal. 

Color. A rufous colored brow band, having a superciliary line in 
front, and top of head behind yellowish, the hairs being banded with 
orange ochraceous and black, the tips being black, but the ochraceous 
bands give the dominant hue; remainder of head on top black, hairs 
tipped with yellow, entire rest of upper parts, shoulders and thighs 
ochraceous, much paler and less red than the same parts of L. cephus, 
the hairs being pale gray at base and then banded with black and 
ochraceous and tipped with black. Black band from eye to ear ; sides 
of face beneath, black and yellow ; cheeks, and a broad line down sides 
of face black, hairs banded with yellowish white; hairs on lips and 
chin black ; throat grayish white ; entire under parts, inner side of arms 
to elbows, and legs to ankles, dark smoke gray, much darker than L. 
cephus ; forearms, hands and feet blackish, sparsely speckled with pale 
yellow; tail above with basal portion like back, then blackish maroon 
grading into pale bright red, beneath gray at base grading into pale red. 
Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,330; tail, 750; foot, 145. Skull: 
total length, 119.6; occipito-nasal length, 90.7; intertemporal width, 
40.9; breadth of braincase, 56.8; Hensel, 79; zygomatic width, 73.2; 
palatal length, 41.5 ; length of upper canines, 20 ; length of upper molar 
series, 25.5 ; length of mandible, 78.3 ; length of lower molar series, 
32.2. Ex type British Museum. 

In the description of this species the following comments were 
made: 

"The skull when compared with the skull of a male L. cephus of 
a corresponding age, is seen to have a considerably greater total length, 
longer and more protruding rostrum, and longer and broader braincase 
posteriorly. The orbits are quite a different shape, more circular than 
oblong, and the extreme width greater. The teeth are much larger, 
and the upper molar series longer by nearly the width of the first pre- 



LASIOPYGA 323 

molar; the palate is longer and wider, and the basioccipital much 
shorter and narrower. The difference in the size of this bone in the 
two skulls compared is remarkable. 

"This is a rather extraordinary example. It has been in the 
British Museum for a long time, was obtained from Mr. Bartlett and 
is stated to have come from West Africa, no particular locality given. 
Besides the many differences in the coloring of the pelage between this 
specimen and examples of L. cephus, the rufous brow band at once 
removes it from that species, and, seems to point to an affinity to L. 
neglecta and L. brazz^e the only other species possessing this peculiar 
mark, excepting the curious animal I have named L. insolita. It is 
neither so broad as the brow bands of those species, and it is the only 
character these animals have in common, so far as their style of 
coloring is concerned. If there is any relationship between the present 
species and either of the two mentioned it would of course naturally 
be with L. brazz^e, from the Congo, as L. neglecta, the relative of 
L. brazz^e, comes from the White Nile region." 

LASIOPYGA SCLATERI (PoCOck). 

Cercopithecus sclateri Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. 
433, fig. 87; 1907, p. 725. 

SC LATER' S WHITE-NOSED GUENON. 

Type locality. Benin, Nigeria, West Africa. Type in British 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to L. erythrotis, but less red on the nose, 
ears and tail ; no black superciliary band ; occipital band present, hairs 
on nose and ears whitish ; and the forearm grizzled. 

Color. Space around eyes, end of nose and lips flesh color, rest 
of face black; white patch on nose tinged with red on upper part; 
whitish superciliary band tinged with red ; cheeks yellow, hairs extend- 
ing in a narrow line below and behind ears ; black band from upper lip 
composed of long hairs turned upward, and reaching to a line on upper 
edge of orbit; black band from above each eye extending backward 
over ears, and covering most of occiput ; top of head to superciliary 
line black, tips of hairs yellow ; hind neck, upper back and shoulders, 
and outer side of arms to elbows, with the hairs sooty gray tipped with 
yellow ; upper parts of body and flanks speckled red and black ; outer 
side of forearms blackish speckled with yellow ; outer side of legs from 
hips gray speckled with yellow; inner side of arms sooty gray; tail 
above on basal half, dark brown speckled with red, grading into paler 
brown to the black tips, beneath red on basal half, yellow for the 



324 LASIOPYGA 

remainder; hands black; feet brownish black, speckled with white. 
Ex type Collection Zoological Gardens, London. (Skin). 

Measurements. Total length, 1,200; tail, 800; foot, 90. Skull: 
total length, 90; occipito-nasal length, 77.8; intertemporal width, 43.1; 
Hensel, 58.5; zygomatic width, 58.6; median length of nasals, 11.8; 
palatal length, 30 ; length of upper molar series, incomplete ; length of 
mandible, 54.5 ; length of lower molar series, incomplete. An immature 
animal the last molar wanting. Ex type Zoological Gardens, London. 

Lasiopyga erythrotis (Waterhouse). 

Cercopithecus erythrotis Waterh., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1838, p 
59; Martin, Mammif. Anim., 1841, p. 535; Fraser, Zool 
Typica, 1848, pi. IV; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855 
p. 49; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. Ill, fig 
278 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 182 ; Id. Cat. Mon- 
keys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 21 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 70; Sclat., Proc. Zool 
Soc. Lond., 1884, p. 176; 1893, p. 246; Forbes, Handb. Pri- 
mates, II, 1894, p. 52; Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat., Ill, 7me 
Ser., 1896, p. 194; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. 186 
Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 725, pi. XLI, fig. 5 

RED-EARED GUENON. 

Type locality. Island of Fernando Po. Type in British Museum 

Geogr. Distr. The Island of Fernando Po, (Waterhouse) ; Cam- 
eroon, (Matschie). 

Color. Nose patch and ear fringe red ; black brow band extending 
backward on sides of head to ears ; cheeks yellowish white, overlaid by 
the straw tipped black hairs from the cheeks and side of nose ; top of 
head, neck, and upper part of back black, finely speckled with yellowish 
white; rest of upper parts to tail black speckled with buff, becoming 
ochraceous buff on rump ; flanks black speckled with white ; outer side 
of arms and legs slate black, ticketed with white above elbows and 
knees; sides of neck, chin, and throat grayish white; chest and inner 
side of limbs pale gray ; under parts of body dark gray ; hands and feet 
black ; tail above at base like back, merging into dark maroon speckled 
with coppery red, beneath coppery red. Ex type British Museum, the 
head missing. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,030; tail, 578; foot, 92; ear, 33, 
(Collector) . Skull : total length, 90.8 ; occipito-nasal length, 76.5 ; inter- 
temporal width, 38.2 ; zygomatic width, 58.2 ; width of braincase, 50.3 ; 
median length of nasals, 13 ; palatal length, 29.3 ; length of upper molar 



LASIOPYGA 325 

series, 22.7 ; length of upper canines, 15; length of mandible, 28.2; 
length of lower molar series, 31. 

The type is a flat skin without head or skull, so the measurements 
are taken from another example in the British Museum, as is also the 
description of the head. 

Subgenus 5. Chlorocebus. 

General color with a greenish tinge ; color of hairs being a mingling 
of gray, black and tawny, or yellow. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. No rufous patch at root of tail beneath ; end of tail 

not black. 

a. White band across forehead. 

a! General hue tawny, black speckled L. matschie. 

b! General hue paler, size smaller L. hilgerti. 

c! General hue tawny ochraceous, fur long, 

thick L. djamdjatnensis. 

d! Whiskers buffy white. 

a" General hue greenish yellow and black.. .L. tantalus, 
b." General hue buff yellow and black. 

a!" Hands and feet brownish black. .L. t. budgetti. 
b!" Hands and feet gray, black and 

white speckled L. t. griseisticta. 

e! Whiskers all white L. t. alexandri. 

b. No white brow band. 

a.' Whiskers radiating from ear in semicircle. 

a!' Hairs gray at base L. callitrichus. 

b." Hairs blackish brown at base L. werneri. 

b! Whiskers not radiating from ear in semi- 
circle. 
a." Whiskers not blending in color with 

top of head L. griseoviridis. 

b." Whiskers blending in color with top 

of head L. cynosura. 

B. Rufous patch at root of tail beneath ; end of tail 

black. 

a. Upper parts speckled gray and cream color. . .L. pygerythra. 

b. Upper parts reddish and ochraceous L. rufoviridis. 



326 LAS10PYGA 

c. Upper parts tawny and black L. rubella. 

d. Upper parts buff, yellow, or ochraceous and 

black. 
a! Chin black. 

a." Legs unspeckled. 

a."' Legs mixed gray and black L. callida. 

b"' Legs bluish gray, hairs tipped 

with white L. centralis. 

b." Legs speckled. 

a.'" Under parts grayish white L. c. whytei. 

b!" Under parts buff L. c. lutea. 

b! Chin white L. c. johnstoni. 

e. Upper parts speckled buff yellow and black. 

a.' Legs gray speckled with cream color L. silacea. 

b! Legs yellow, unspeckled L. nigriviridis. 

Lasiopyga matschie (Neumann). 

Cercopithecus matschie Neum., Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freund., 
Berlin, 1894, p. 15; 1902, p. 51; Id. Proc. Zool. Lond., II, 
1902, p. 143 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 730. 

MATSCHIE' S GUENON. 

Type locality. Malo, Omo River, north of Lake Rudolf. Type 
in Berlin Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Dark forests of the Omo and Sobat rivers. 

Genl. Char. Upper parts tawny instead of green. 

Color. Top of head, neck and entire upper parts of body tawny, 
the hairs grayish at base then ringed with black and tawny ; narrow line 
on forehead, sides of head, throat, entire under parts and inner side of 
limbs white; nose, lips and chin black; shoulders and upper part of 
thighs with the hairs ringed with black and ochraceous, paler than the 
back ; hairs on forearms gray at base, then black and tips white ; legs 
gray; hands and feet black; tail above black, hairs tipped with buff, 
beneath at base white. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,260; tail, 590. Skull: occipito- 
nasal length, 93 ; Hensel, 76 ; intertemporal width, 42 ; zygomatic width, 
70; median length of nasals, 22; length of upper molar series, 26; 
length of mandible, 75 ; length of lower molar series, 35. Ex type in 
Berlin Museum. 

This is the only reddish back species in the green group of this 
genus. It dwells in dark forests which accounts for the intensity 
of its coloring. 



LASIOPYGA 327 

Lasiopyga hilgerti (Neumann). 

Cercopithecus hilgerti Neum., Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freund., 
Berlin, 1902, p. 50; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1902, p. 
143. 

Cercopithecus ellenbecki Neum., Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freund., 
Berlin, 1902, p. 50. 

Cercopithecus ellenbecki hilgerti Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1907, p. 730. 

Type locality. Sources of the Schebeli River, Galla country, East 
Africa. Type in Berlin Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Galla country, East Africa. 

Genl. Char. Smaller than L. matschie, and paler on upper parts. 

Color. Nose and lips black ; narrow line on forehead white ; top of 
head, neck, and entire upper parts of body orange buff, the hairs being 
purplish gray at base then ringed with black and orange buff, the tips 
being the latter color and giving the dominant hue to the upper parts ; 
arms and legs iron gray ; chin brownish black ; sides of head with the 
long hairs covering ears ; sides of neck, throat, entire under parts, and 
inner side of limbs, white ; hands and feet black ; tail black, tips of hairs 
white. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,280 ; tail, 690. Skull : total length, 
96; occipito-nasal length, 82; Hensel, 65; intertemporal width, 40; 
zygomatic width, 66; median length of nasals, 14; length of upper 
molar series, 22 ; length of mandible, 68 ; length of lower molar series, 
27. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

While having much similarity in color and markings to L. 
matschie, the present species is paler. It varies also, and some 
examples exhibit a considerable shade of yellow on the upper parts, 
but it never becomes as dark as L. matschie. The type of L. ellen- 
becki which is a young animal, has been examined and compared with 
specimens of L. hilgerti in the Berlin Museum and found to agree 
with some of them in every particular. L. ellenbecki will therefore 
become a synonym of the present species. 

Mr. Pocock (1. c.) makes this a subspecies of ellenbecki, but 
unfortunately he had no personal knowledge of the animal described 
by Neumann under that name. 

Lasiopyga djamdjamensis (Neumann). 

Cercopithecus djamdjamensis Neum., Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. 
Freund., Berlin, 1902, p. 51 ; Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 
1902, p. 143 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 730. 



328 LASIOPYGA 

D J AMD J AM GUENON. 

Type locality. Forests of Djamdjam, east of Lake Abaya, Abys- 
sinia, East Africa. Altitude 10,000 to 12,000 feet. Type in Berlin 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Bamboo forests of Djamdjam, east of Lake Abaya, 
East Africa ; range unknown. 

Genl. Char. Fur very thick and long on neck almost forming a 
mane ; tail short. Similar to L. matschie in color, but not so red. 

Color. Top of head and entire upper parts of body, tawny ochra- 
ceous, the hairs being ringed with that color and black ; white line on 
forehead barely perceptible ; nose and face beneath eyes covered with 
short black hairs, with a narrow edging of white on lip ; sides of head, 
and throat to chest white; chin blackish; arms brownish, black hairs 
tipped with white ; thighs with dark brown hairs tipped with buff ; legs 
pale gray ; under parts and inner side of limbs white ; hands and feet 
brownish black ; tail blackish brown, hairs tipped with white. Ex type 
Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 900; tail, 490. No skull. Ex 
unique type in Berlin Museum. 

The species is nearest to L. matschie, but differs in several impor- 
tant particulars ; the back is more yellowish ; the tail much darker and 
the legs grayer ; but the hair is much longer and thicker on back than in 
any other species of the genus, especially about the shoulders, where it 
almost forms a mane. A single specimen was obtained by Herr Neu- 
mann at a high elevation. 

Lasiopyga tantalus (Ogilby). 

Cercopithecus tantalus Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1841, p. 33, 

pi. XVI; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 72, (syn. C. 

callitrichus) ; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 258; 

Matschie, Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1893, p. 216; 

Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 62 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 731, fig. 189. 
Chlorocebus tantalus var. F. Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 

Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 26. 

TANTALUS GUENON. 

Type locality. Unknown. No type. 

Geogr. Distr. Nigeria to Lake Chad; Lakoja, Dahomey, Upper 
Benne River, (Pocock). 

Color. Face and chin black ; hairs on cheeks and lips black, nose 
white; distinct white brow band, succeeded at bottom in front by a 



LASIOPYGA 329 

narrow black line, composed mainly of long stiff black hairs, projecting 
far outward and upward on the sides ; black band from eyes separating 
whiskers from hairs of head ; whiskers very long directed upward and 
backward hiding the ears, yellowish white, becoming more yellowish 
towards the end, the uppermost hairs speckled and tipped with black ; 
top of head speckled with ochraceous, the hairs being black from the 
root ; hind neck and upper parts, hairs gray banded on apical half with 
black and cream color, darkest on dorsal line and rump, where the 
color is cream buff ; outer side of arms and legs, hands and feet gray 
speckled with black and white ; entire under parts from chin to tail, and 
inner side of limbs grayish white; hairs around scrotum yellowish 
gray ; scrotum slate blue ; callosities pink ; tail above speckled yellowish 
gray and black, becoming yellowish and black mixed, towards the end 
it is tufted, the hairs yellow tipped with black, beneath gray grading 
into yellowish on basal half and deepest on tuft ; whiskers buff yellow. 
Measurements. Total length, 1,295; tail, 730; foot, 135. Skull: 
total length, 111.8; occipito-nasal length, 91.2; intertemporal width, 
42.3; Hensel, 76.2; zygomatic width, 73.1; breadth of braincase, 55.3; 
median length of nasals, 16.7 ; palatal length, 40 ; length of upper molar 
series, 24.7; length of mandible, 27.8; length of lower molar series, 
33.6. 

Ogilby's Cercopithecus, (Lasiopyga), tantalus was obtained at 
"Liverpool, but its previous origin was unknown." His description 
shows he had a specimen of the green group of the present genus, and 
answers fairly well for the present species, yet, at the same time, it 
cannot be stated with certainty that it was the animal that has been 
called L. tantalus by Authors. However, as his name has been applied 
to this animal from Nigeria and accepted by writers, it seems better to 
continue this practice than to give a new name to the species, as 
causing less confusion probably than if that course were adopted. 

Lasiopyga tantalus budgetti (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus tantalus budgetti Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1907, p. 733. 

Type locality. Bathyaba, east shore of Lake Albert, Uganda. 
Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Whiskers speckled and annulated ; black hairs on 
hands and feet, and below elbows and knees speckled. 

Color. White band on forehead divided in the middle by a bunch 
of black hairs, and with a narrow black line at bottom, the hairs of 



330 LASIOPYGA 

which at corners of eyes are long and turn upwards. Top of head 
covered with black hairs with ochraceous tips, these last giving 
the hue to this part; hind neck, upper back and shoulders, pale 
buff yellow and black; dorsal line from neck, expanding over 
upper parts from middle back to rump darker, speckled black 
and buff; flanks uniform pale buff yellow; upper side of arms and 
legs clear gray, speckled on upper arms and thighs with cream buff, 
and on forearms and legs below knees with white ; face brownish black, 
eyelids whitish ; lips, nose and chin covered with short jet black hairs ; 
whiskers long, directed backwards and upwards covering ears, buffy 
white unspeckled; sides of neck, throat, inner side of arms and legs, 
and under parts of body yellowish white; anal region ochraceous 
rufous ; hands brown and gray mixed ; fingers brownish black to middle 
joint, then grayish to nails ; feet speckled gray and brownish black ; tail 
above speckled cream color and black for basal half, then buff and 
black for apical half, the buff growing darker when approaching the 
tip which is ochraceous buff, beneath at base buffy gray grading into 
buff, and then to ochraceous buff at tip ; hairs on ears white. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,330; tail, 750; foot, 145. Skull: 
total length, 116.4; occipito-nasal length, 99.5; intertemporal width, 
43.5 ; breadth of braincase, 57.5 ; Hensel, 81 ; zygomatic width, 76.4 ; 
median length of nasals, 20.6; palatal length, 42.9; length of upper 
molar series, 26.2; length of upper canines, 21.7; length of mandible, 
82.7 ; length of lower molar series, 33.2. Ex type skull from skeleton, 
Museum Cambridge University, England. 

The "black streak behind the corner of the orbit" mentioned by 
Pocock (1. c.) is not in reality a 'streak* in the usual acceptance of that 
term, but the long black hairs of the narrow line beneath the white band 
on the forehead turn backwards and upwards at the corner of the eyes 
and produce a black line. If these hairs should be shorter in any speci- 
men, as they most likely would be in certain seasons or age, there would 
be no black mark at this point, as there are no black hairs growing 
upwards from the corner of the eyes to form a streak. I emphasize 
this point, because Mr. Pocock makes it one of his characters separat- 
ing this race from L. tantalus, and might possibly mislead an inves- 
tigator with a specimen having shorter brow hairs. 

I am not aware that any intermediates between the two following 
forms and L. tantalus have been obtained, and it might be criticized 
that they should have been reduced to races, but they are all so 



LASIOPYGA 331 

intimately connected, that the differences they exhibit would seem to 
indicate, that, in the unexplored stretches of country lying between 
their present known habitats, such intermediates would eventually be 
procured. 

Lasiopyga tantalus griseisticta (Elliot). 

Cercopithecus tantalus griseistictus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
IV, 8th Ser., 1909, p. 259. 

Type locality, Bambara, Welle River. 

Geogr. Distr. Mountains west of Lake Albert Edward to the 
Welle River. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Like L. t. budgetti on upper parts, but hands and feet 
grizzled gray, fingers and toes silvery gray. 

Color. Face and chin black, paler around eyes; nose, foreparts 
of cheeks, lips and chin covered with short black hairs; broad white 
brow band of stiff erect hairs, with a narrow line in front between eyes 
of black stiff hairs; some long stiff black hairs from corner of eye 
directed backward and lying between whiskers and hair of head ; top 
of head, hairs black from root and tipped with ochraceous this being 
the dominant color on head; back of neck and upper back the hairs 
gray speckled with yellow and black; dorsal line and lower back and 
rump darker, speckled with black and buff ; shoulders like upper back ; 
outer side of arms and hands, legs and feet, gray speckled with black 
and white; the arms near shoulders, and thighs near hips, speckled 
with yellow and black ; whiskers very long extending beyond and hiding 
the ears, yellowish white, some of the upper hairs banded with black 
on apical part; sides of neck, throat, entire under parts of body and 
inner side of limbs grayish white; rufous hair about scrotum; flanks 
paler than upper parts; hairs speckled with yellow and black; tail 
above, speckled yellow and black for half the length, rest broccoli 
brown, beneath with a tuft of white hairs on each side at root, gray 
for a third of the length, remainder broccoli brown. No tuft. Iris 
brown. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,200; tail, 720; foot, 135. Skull: 
total length, 113.2; occipito-nasal length, 95.5; intertemporal width, 
44.7 ; Hensel, 40.5 ; zygomatic width, 77.5 ; breadth of braincase, 56.4 ; 
median length of nasals, 21.2; palatal length, 40.3; length of upper 
molar series, 27.8; length of upper canines, 21.3; length of mandible, 
82.1 ; length of lower molar series, 34.6. Ex type British Museum. 

This race resembles L. t. budgetti in the coloring of the upper 
parts, but differs in having the gray hands and feet of L. tantalus, 



332 LASIOPYGA 

and the tail has no tuft like that of L. t. budgetti From L. tantalus 
it differs in cranial characters ; when two old male skulls are compared, 
that of the present race is seen to be much larger in every way ; wider 
orbits and braincase, but narrower rostrum; intertemporal width 
greater; nasals much longer; zygomatic width greater; palate longer; 
tooth rows of both jaws longer by the width of first premolar; and 
bullae very much longer and more elevated. In fact the cranial char- 
acters are so different it is hardly worth while to compare the skulls. 
The upper parts like those of L. t. budgetti are much darker than L. 

TANTALUS. 

The unique type in the British Museum, an old male, was procured 
by Mr. Boyd Alexander at Bambara on the Welle River, Central 
Africa. 

A specimen in the Berlin Museum from the mountains west of 
Lake Albert Edward agrees with the type above described. 

Lasiofyga tantalus alexandri (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus tantalus alexandri Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1909, p. 545. 

Type locality. Lake Chad, Central Africa. Type in British Mu- 
seum. 

Genl. Char. Whiskers very long, almost wholly white. 

Color. Face and chin covered with short black hairs ; superciliary 
stripe black with numerous long, stiff, erect hairs ; succeeded by a band 
of white across the width of forehead, turning upward at corners of 
eyes and passing on to sides of head, but not meeting on occiput ; rest 
of head, hind neck, shoulders and upper parts of body speckled black 
and yellow, giving a greenish tinge over the whole upper parts ; flanks 
gray, hairs barred with yellow and black ; arms and hands gray, hairs 
tipped with white; outer side of thighs gray, hairs buff barred with 
black and yellow, grading into pure gray on legs below knees, the hairs 
white tipped; whiskers very long, and with the sides of neck, throat 
and upper part of chest white ; rest of under parts of body and inner 
side of limbs grayish white ; tail above grizzled black and white, sides 
and beneath white. Ex type Zoological Gardens, London. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,130; tail, 590; foot, 90. Skull: 
total length, 102.5 ; occipito-nasal length, 88.5 ; intertemporal width, 
45.3 ; Hensel, 67.5 ; zygomatic width, 65.7 ; median length of nasals, 
16.7 ; palatal length, 35.9 ; length of mandible, 71 ; length of upper 
molar series, 25.5 ; length of lower molar series, 31.2.. Ex type Zoolog- 
ical Gardens, London. 



VOLUME 



PLATE XXXIV. 




LASIOPYGA CALLITRICHUS. 
No. 5590 Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. Coll. % Nat. Size. 



LASIOPYGA 333 

Lasiopyga calliteichus (I. Geoffroy). 

Simia sabceus (nee Linn., sed Auct.). 

Le Callitriche F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm, Livr. IV, 1819, pi. XX. 

Cercopithecus callitrichus I. Geoffroy, Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 23; 
Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 104- 
108, var. b; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 115, 
fig. 288; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 73; Sclat., 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 248; Forbes, Handb. Pri- 
mates, II, 1894, p. 58. 

Cercopithecus sabceus (nee Linn.), Pousarg., Ann. Scien., I, 1896, 
7me Ser., p. 224; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 
726, pi. XLII, fig. 1. 

GREEN GUENON. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in Paris Museum? 

Geogr. Distr. Senegambia to the Niger, Yabanda, Congo, (Dy- 
bowski) ; West Africa. Island of St. Kitts, West Indies. (Introduced). 
Specimen in Paris Museum. 

Genl. Char. No white brow band ; hairs on cheeks radiating from 
a point. 

Color. Face and ears black; top of head, upper parts of body, 
flanks, and limbs to elbows and knees yellowish green, the hairs gray at 
base and ringed with black and yellow; forearms and legs from 
knees gray, hairs ringed with white, or yellowish white and black; 
cheeks, sides of neck in front of ears, chin, throat, under parts and 
inner side of limbs white; hands and feet blackish gray; tail grayish 
green for two thirds the length, the hairs brownish black ringed with 
yellow and tipped with yellowish, remainder yellow. 

From Geoffroy's supposed type of L. callitrichus in Paris Mu- 
seum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,308.1; tail, 762; foot, 152.4. 
Skull: total length, 117; occipito-nasal length, 92; Hensel, 88; zygo- 
matic width, 79 ; intertemporal width, 42 ; palatal length, 52 ; breadth of 
braincase, 54 ; median length of nasals, 17 ; length of upper molar series, 
29 ; length of mandible, 80 ; length of lower molar series, 37. 

There is a specimen in the Paris Museum collected by Dybowski, 
at Yabanda, on the Congo, which differs from the typical L. calli- 
trichus by having the top of head, upper parts of body, flanks and 
limbs to elbows and knees greenish gray, with a yellow tinge instead of 
yellowish green, and the hands and feet are brownish gray instead of 
blackish gray. If this is a slightly varied example of L. callitrichus, 
its range to the southward must be considerably extended. 



334 LASIOPYGA 

Simla sabcea Linnaeus is a composite species, its Author, as was not 
infrequently the case in his diagnosis, confounding two species together. 
The cauda cinerea removes it at once from Le Callitriche F. Cuv., with 
its grayish green tail and yellow tip, and in the longer description, Le 
callitriche and Le Grivet (L. griseoviridis Desm.), seem to be mixed 
up together. Under these circumstances it does not appear to be 
judicious to employ Linnaeus' name, for it might not only continue but 
increase the confusion already created, and another name should be 
substituted for it, and the one available is callitrichus I. Geoffroy 
(La). 

This is one of the most common monkeys seen in captivity, and 
has been introduced into one or more of the West Indian Islands, and 
also, according to Schlegel, into St. Iago of the Cape Verde Islands. 

Lasiopyga werneri (I. Geoffroy). 

Cercopithecus werneri I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XXXI, 1850, p. 
874; Id. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, V, 1851, p. 539, pi. 
XXVII; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 1855, p. 42; 
Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 113, fig. 280; 
Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 258; Matschie, Sit- 
zungsb. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1893, p. 216; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 58. 

WERNER'S GUENON. 

Type locality. Unknown. "Un des types" in Paris Museum, 
purchased, when living, for the menagerie in the Jardin des Plantes. 

Geogr. Distr. Unknown. 

Genl. Char. Very like L. callitrichus in general, but the hairs on 
back are blackish brown at base instead of gray. 

Color. A narrow white line above eyes ; top of head, upper parts 
and sides of body, limbs to knees and elbows yellowish green inclined 
to blackish on lower back and rump, the hairs dark brown at base and 
ringed with black and yellow; forearms and legs from knees gray; 
hands and feet blackish gray; sides of face and whiskers, chin, and 
throat white ; under parts and inner side of limbs grayish white ; tail 
dark gray above, white beneath, apical portion yellow (tuft) . Ex speci- 
men marked "un des types" in Paris Museum, and which died in the 
Menagerie. The actual type cannot be found, or if it is in the collection 
it has no distinguishing mark. The skull is in the specimen. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,143; tail, 584.20; foot, 139.7. Ex 
Paris Museum specimen labelled L. zverneri, "un des types," but not 
the type of L. werneri I. Geoffroy. 



LASIOPYGA 335 

The above describes the species called werneri by I. Geoff roy as 
represented in the Paris Museum at the present time. Unfortunately 
it does not agree with the colored figure in the Archives which has the 
hands and feet of the same hue as the limbs, while the Museum example 
has these blackish gray, quite a different color. The top of the head is 
also quite different from that shown in the figure, but regarding this 
Geoff roy states, a second specimen of werneri (which may be the one 
in the Museum), was in this respect, not like the type, "ne l'a jamais 
presentee." The Museum specimen differs from L. callitrichus in 
having the hairs on the back brownish black at the base instead of gray, 
and in this respect is more like L. werneri. Geoff roy's description is 
as follows : "Les parties superieures de la tete et du corps sont, dans 
cette espece, couvertes de poils gris a leur racine, noiratres dans le reste 
de leur premiere moitie, noirs a leur extremite, et intermediarement 
d'un fauve-jaune assez vif tirant un peu sur l'olivatre; d'ou resulte 
une teinte generate d'un fauve-roux tantot tiquete de noir, tantot plutot 
varie de noir que tiquete, par ce que la zone foncee terminate est assez 
etendue pour donner par places une teinte noir tres marquee. La face 
superieure de la queue presente, a la base de cet appendice, la meme 
couleur que le dessus du corps, mais presque aussitot la zone jaune des 
poils diminuant, la zone noire augmentant proportionellement, la queue 
devient noiratre. Vers les deux cinquiemes de la queue la jaune 
redevient au contraire predominant, et l'extremite tout entiere de la 
queue, aussi bien qu'une grande partie de sa face inferieure, est d'un 
jaune ou d'un roux dore assez vif." 

"La face exterieure des membres, sauf les epaules et les cuisses, 
est d'un gris un peu olivatre et tres tiquete, de meme que les mains. 

"Les parties inferieures du corps, et internes des membres sont au 
contraire blanches, de meme que la gorge; les joues, garnies de longs 
poils diriges en haut, sont d'un jaunatre clair. Entre les organes 
genitaux et l'anus, il existe assez longs poils roux. II n'y a point, au 
contraire, de poils de cette couleur a la base de la queue, comme dans 
plusieurs autres Cercopitheques plus ou moins voisins de l'espece que 
je viens de decrire. 

"La face est noire ; entre elle et les poils roux de la tete existe une 
ligne de longs poils noirs, et au-dessus un petit bandeau blanc." 

It will be readily seen from the above description that Geoffroy's 
werneri does not agree with L. callitrichus (I. Geoff.), L. sabcea 
(Auct. nee Linn.), nor with the "type" specimen in the Museum, and 
unless his real type was an extreme example, or his description was 
taken from more than one specimen, of which there is no proof, it 



336 LASIOPYGA 

would seem best to permit the name werneri to stand, until, happily, 
the proper status of the supposed species can be established. Certainly 
I have not seen an example which would altogether answer to the 
description and figure of L. werneri Geoff. 

Lasiopyga griseoviridis (Desmarest). 

Le grivet F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm, Livr. VII, 1819, p. 38, 
pi. XXXIX. 

Cercopithecus griseoviridis Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 61 ; E. 
Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 19, 8me Legon; 
Rupp., Neue Wirbelth. Saugth., 1835, p. 8; Reichenb., Voll- 
stand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 115, figs. 191, 289; Blanf., 
Zool. Abyssin., 1870, p. 224; Heugl., Reise Nord. Afr., II, 
1877, p. 5; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 249; 
Anders., Zool. Egypt., Mamm., 1902, p. 19. 

Cercopithecus sabceus (nee Linn.), E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. 
Mamm., 1828, p. 18, 8me Lecon; I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., 
XXI, 1850, p. 874; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 22; Schleg., 
Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 74 ; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. 
Mus. Calc, 1881, p. 56. 

Cercopithecus griseus Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 81. 

Chlorocebus engythithea Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 26. 

Cercopithecus cethiops (nee Linn.), Anders., Zool. Egypt., 
Mamm., 1902, p. 13 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, 
p. 728, fig. 188, pi. XLII, fig. II. 

THE GRIVET. 

Type locality. "Egypt." 

Geogr. Distr. Sennaar and Mt. Renk, Soudan, (R. Hawkes) ; 
Gor Abu Guma, White Nile, Abyssinia ; Kordof an to an elevation of 
4,000 feet. 

Color. Narrow white line on forehead joining the long white 
hairs on sides of face; top of head pale buff yellow, the hairs being 
black ringed with buff ; rump dark gray, hairs ringed with white ; outer 
side of arms and legs dark gray, hairs annulated with whitish; sides 
of head, neck, chin, throat, entire under parts, and inner side of limbs 
yellowish white ; tail above grayish brown, hairs ringed white, beneath 
white, tip white ; hands and feet dark maroon. 

Measurements. Skin. Total length, 1,160; tail, 620. The above 
description was taken from a specimen in the Berlin Museum, obtained 
at Gor Abu Guma on the White Nile. 



LASIOPYGA 337 

The Simla cethiops Linn., has been a stumbling block, as it were, 
to Mammalogists always, and by most writers has been considered to 
belong to the genus Cercocebus, and has usually been bestowed upon 
the species named by Buffon, "Mangabey a collier blanc," Latinized by 
Gray as Cercocebus collaris. Mr. de Winton in Anderson's Zoology 
of Egypt, decided that all previous determinations were wrong, that 
Linnaeus' species was a Lasiopyga and gave the name of cethiops Linn., 
to the species afterwards named by Desmarest (L.) griseoviridis. 
In deciding that the Simla cethiops Linn., was a Lasiopyga and not a 
Cercocebus Mr. de Winton may possibly be right, but there is more 
than a considerable doubt that the species was the griseoviridis of 
Desmarest, for I am not prepared to follow Mr. de Winton when he 
says that, "every word" of Linnaeus' description "agrees perfectly with 
the Monkey under notice," L. griseoviridis (Desm.), for we find the 
unanswerable statement to the contrary, when in his diagnosis Lin- 
naeus gives " cauda tecta, subtus ferruglneus" which certainly does not 
agree with that member of L. griseoviridis (Desm.), which has 
no red anywhere on the tail above or beneath. It is most probable as in 
many other instances Linnaeus never saw the animal he named cethiops, 
and he merely copied Hasselquist's description in an abbreviated form, 
and knew nothing of the animal itself. Hasselquist says he saw the 
animal alive brought into Ethiopia, (Egypt), by the negroes, but what 
the species was it is impossible now to determine, for there is no 
species of Lasiopyga with any red on the under parts of its tail, to 
be found near enough to have probably been brought by natives to 
Cairo 150 years ago. The nearest known to-day are members of the 
pygerythra style in Uganda and farther south. The species found 
in the Soudan is L. griseoviridis and it would be natural to suppose 
that natives might carry individuals of that form down the Nile to 
Cairo, but unfortunately it does not agree with either Hasselquist's 
or Linnaeus' descriptions, and as there is no known species that does, 
the wisest course is to reject cethiops Linn., as undeterminable, and 
thus save all future Mammalogists, from the vain attempt to solve 
a problem that is now beyond human effort, and from the use of a 
name that can only produce confusion and futile argument. 

Lasiopyga cynosura (Scopoli). 

Simla cynosurus Scop., Delic. Faun. Flor. Insubr., I, 1786, p. 44, 

pi. XIX. 
Malbrouck F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., Livr. lime, 1819, pi. 
Cercopithecus cynosurus Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 60; Less., 



338 LASIOPYGA 

Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 81; Martin, Mammif. Anim., 1841, 
p. 515; I. Geoff., Diet. Hist. Nat., Ill, 1849, p. 306; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 38; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. 
Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., f asc. I, 1856, pp. 105-109 ; Reichenb., 
Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 119, figs. 295, 301 ; Schleg., 
Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 72; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1893, p. 247; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 
55; Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat., Ill, 1896, p. 223; Pocock, 
Proc. Zool Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 734, fig. 190, pi. XLII, fig. 3. 

Cercopithecus tephrops Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1833, p. 
109; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 120, figs. 
296-300. 

Chlorocebus cynosurus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 26. 

MALBROUCK GUENON. 

Type locality. Unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. Congo, Cahama, Mossamedes, on the Kakulovar, 
tributary of the Cunene; Brazzaville (Pousargues) ; West Africa. 

Color. Face pallid and blotched with black ; short white hairs on 
lips and chin ; whitish brow band and whiskers, the latter short not 
covering the ears; sides of throat and neck in front of ears white; 
superciliary line of stiff black, erect hairs; head above, back of neck, 
shoulders and upper part of body speckled yellow and black, the yel- 
low predominating; outer side of limbs, hands and feet gray, hairs 
white tipped ; chin, throat, chest, under side of body and inner side of 
limbs grayish white; tail above speckled black and gray, beneath 
grayish white; scrotum slate blue; no rufous hairs at root of tail 
beneath. 

Measurements. Total length, 915; tail, 435; foot, 130, (skin).. 
Skull: total length, 116.5; occipito-nasal length, 95.5; intertemporal 
width, 43.8; width of braincase, 58.4; Hensel, 83.9; zygomatic width, 
76.2; median length of nasals, 18.4; palatal length, 45.1; length of 
upper canines, 21.9 ; length of upper molar series, 28.7; length of man- 
dible, 81.5 ; length of lower molar series, 36. 

Lasiopyga pygerythra (F. Cuvier). 

Cercopithecus pygerythrus F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1821, 
pi. CXXXIX, Livr. XXIV, p. 2, "Le Vervet"; Desm., 
Mamm., Suppl., 1820, p. 524; E. Geoff., Cours Hist. Nat. 
Mamm., 1828, p. 19, 8me Lecon ; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, 
p. 83 ; Martin, Mammif. Anim., 1841, p. 52 ; I. Geoff., Archiv. 



PLATE 3. 








1. Lasiopyga cynosura. 



2. Lasiopyga pygerythra. 
4. Lasiopyga campbelli. 



3. Lasiopyga nigroviridis. 
5. Lasiopyga burnetti. 




Lasiopyga pygerythrus. 




Lasiopyga roloway. 



LASIOPYGA 339 

Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, II, 1843, p. 563 ; Id. Diet. Hist. Nat., 
Ill, 1849, p. 305; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 21; Peters, 
Reis. Mossamb., Saugth., 1852-82, p. 4; Wagn., Schreb., 
Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 39 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. 
Anim. Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 104, 108; Pucher., Rev. Zool., 
1857, p. 197; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 
118, figs. 292-294; Kirk, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 649; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 76; Anders., Cat. 
Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc., 1881, p. 55 ; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1885, p. 219; Johnst, Kilimanj. Exped., 1886, p. 352; 
Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 249; Forbes, Handb. 
Primates, II, 1894, p. 60; Thos. and Schwann., Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1905, p. 255; 1906, p. 160; Pocock, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., II, 1907, pp. 735, 736, fig. 191, pi. XLII, fig. 4; 
Cabrera, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., VI, 1910, 8th Ser., p. 619. 
Cercopithecus pusillus Desm., Diet. Class. Hist. Nat., VII, 1825, 
p. 568 ; Cabrera, Ann. Mag. Natur. Hist., VI, 1910, 8th Ser., 
p. 619. 
Cercopithecus erythropyga G. Cuv., Regn. Anim., 1829, p. 92. 
Cercopithecus lalandi I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XV, 1842, p. 1038 ; 
Id. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat, Paris, II, 1843, p. 561 ; Id. Diet. 
Hist. Nat., Ill, 1849, p. 305 ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., 
V, 1855, p. 39 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Natur., 
fasc. I, 1856, pp. 103, 108; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. 
Affen, 1862, p. 114, fig. 283; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1893, pp. 248, 615; Thos. and Schwann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1906, p. 778; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, 
p. 735 ; Thos. and Wrought., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, 
p. 776. 
Chlorocebus pygerythrus Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 25. 
vervet guenon. Native name Pusi, Nkau, Zulu. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in Paris Museum. 
Geogr. Distr. Southern and eastern Africa, from Cape Colony, 
through the coast of Natal and Zambesia to Mombassa and Mount Kili- 
manjaro. Legogot, eastern Transvaal, (Grant), Brit. Mus. spec; 
Knysna, Cape Colony, (Grant) ; Hluhluwe Stream, Zululand, (Grant) ; 
Umfalosi Station, Zululand (Grant) ; Cogumo, Inhambane District, 
Portuguese East Africa (Grant) ; Legago, Bubaton District, (Grant) ; 
Bena Port, E. Afr., (Grant). 

Color. A white line across forehead in front of which is a narrow 



340 LASIOPYGA 

black line with numerous long black hairs ; whiskers and sides of head 
white ; top of head, upper part of body to rump, shoulders and flanks, 
ochraceous on some examples, yellowish green in others, the hairs 
being dark brown at base and ringed with ochraceous and black, or 
yellow and black ; rump and limbs dark gray tipped with black ; entire 
under parts, and inner side of limbs white ; hands brownish black, feet 
reddish; tail iron gray, ochraceous rufous on sides at root, apical 
portion black. Skull in the specimen. Ex type Paris Museum. 

The specimen figured by F. Cuvier is now in the Paris Museum 
and has lost a portion of the blackish end of the tail. It is yellowish 
green in color on the upper parts of the body and in this respect differs 
from a more recent specimen in the Museum brought from the French 
Congo in 1902. The difference of tint shown by these examples is 
probably only an individual variation of hue, for Cuvier's specimen 
does not seem to be faded to any perceptible degree on the upper 
parts. The gray portions on the body of the Congo specimen as well 
as the tail are much darker than on the other. The form described 
under the name of L. lalandi Geoff., is all dark gray above with a 
slight wash of olive. The type is not in the Paris Museum, nor any 
specimen even marked "un des types/' and it cannot be determined 
whether the examples in the collection are those which Geoff roy had in 
his possession or not, but it is presumable that they are. Grant states 
that this species is "common in the Dukudukuthorn forest, eight miles 
south of the station, Hlatwa District, Zululand. 

"Generally seen in parties from six to twelve. In the early morn- 
ing they sit on the tops of the trees and ant-heaps enjoying the sun. 
The natives living in the bush eat the 'Nkau,' while those of the open 
country will not touch it." In Knysna, Cape Colony, the same collector 
says this monkey is "common, frequents the forest country, and visits 
the land and gardens near houses doing considerable damage. Gener- 
ally in parties of six or more, although occasionally I have observed a 
pair with their young only." 

There is considerable variation in the shades of color from light 
to dark among individuals, and this is well exemplified in the series in 
the British Museum procured by Mr. C. H. B. Grant, from various 
localities. As these differences in intensity of color occur among 
examples from the same place, it can only be regarded as individual 
variation, and one of no importance in a scientific sense, and it is 
observable in quite young specimens as well as in those fully adult. 
As will be noticed from the localities given above, the species has 



LASIOPYGA 341 

quite an extensive distribution in the southern part of the continent. 
Dr. Cabrera (1. c.) has endeavored to separate De Lalande's animal 
from Cuvier's species under the name of Cercopithecus pusillus Des- 
moulins, on the ground that L. pygerythra is a green animal and L. 
pusillus a gray one. It is quite evident that Dr. Cabrera is not aware 
of the great variability in shades of color that examples of L. 
pygerythra exhibit, even, as I have already stated, from the same 
locality. I have examined many specimens of this species from 
numerous localities in southern Africa, and have been quite unable to 
find any line of demarcation among them by which more than one 
form could be recognized. We know what the L. pygerythra Cuvier 
is, for the type is in the Paris Museum, but we only know Desmoulins' 
and E. Geoffroy's species by their descriptions, the types having disap- 
peared. The specimens named "lalandi" in the Paris Museum, and 
which we have every reason to suppose were those recognized by the 
earlier French writers as representing, at least, the animal described 
as L. pusillus and L. lalandi, cannot be separated from Cuvier 's 
species. It would seem then to be most unwise to attempt to recognize 
two species of this Guenon, for the evidence at present available is 
against it. If the Paris specimens marked lalandi are really that form 
then certainly they may not be separated from Cuvier's species. Un- 
fortunately we cannot be absolutely sure that this is so and never will 
be, for De Lalande's type has disappeared, but we are sure of L. 
pygerythra, and as examples of this species exhibit a varied coloring, 
and the different hues are not confined to examples from any especial 
locality or range, any attempt to separate them into two distinct forms 
would result only in increased confusion. My investigation of these 
specimens does not permit me to accept Dr. Cabrera's conclusions. 

Lasiopyga rufoviridis (I. Geoffroy) . 

Cercopithecus rufoviridis I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
II, 1841, p. 504, pi. XXXII; Id. Compt. Rend., XV, 1842, p. 
1038; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 23 ; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 
Reg. Anim. Natur., f asc. I, 1856, pp. 104, 108 ; Sclat., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 420; 1893, p. 258; Reichenb., Voll- 
stand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 113, fig. 281; Schleg., Mus. 
Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 78; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 
1894, p. 65 ; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf . Freunde, Ber- 
lin, 1895, p. 216; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 
737. 

Cercopithecus Havidus Peters, Reis. Mossamb., Saugth., 1852, p. 



342 LASIOPYGA 

3, pi. I b; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 121, 
fig. 303 ; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 256; Matschie, 
Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1893, p. 213, juv. 

Chlorocebus rufoviridis Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit- 
eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 25. 

Cercopithecus pygerythrus rufoviridis Thos. and Wrought., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1908, pp. 165, 537. 

REDDISH-GREEN GUENON. 

Type locality. Unknown. No type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Mozambique; Pungwe River District, (Grant); 
Tete, Zambesi, (Grant) ; East Africa. 

Color. Rather broad white band across forehead; top of head 
dark brown, speckled with ochraceous; upper part of body reddish 
speckled with ochraceous; flanks pale reddish unspeckled; limbs pale 
gray; hands blackish brown; feet yellowish gray and brown mixed; 
sides of head and throat, entire under parts and inner side of limbs 
yellowish white ; tail dark gray above, black at tip, beneath red at base, 
rest white. Type not found. Ex specimen in Paris Museum from 
Bagamogo. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,212.8 ; tail, 679.4 ; foot, 127. Skull : 
total length, 100; occipito-nasal length, 86; Hensel, 70; zygomatic 
width, 67; intertemporal width, 42; breadth of braincase, 56; palatal 
length, 41 ; median length of nasals, 18 ; length of upper molar series, 
25 ; length of mandible, 70 ; length of lower molar series, 31. 

Grant, who met with this species in the Pungwe River District, 
states while not so common as L. a. beirensis, it was "very plentiful and 
often observed in large troops. When the native crops are ripe, they 
visit the lands and do considerable damage." At Tete only two troops 
were seen and they were exceedingly wild. Generally frequenting the 
trees along the river banks, and observed drinking in the middle of the 
afternoon. 

LASIOPYGA RUBELLA (Elliot) . 

Cercopithecus rubellus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 
1909, p. 260. 

Type locality. Fort Hall, forest around Mt. Kenia, British East 
Africa, (Hinde). Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. General color reddish ; no white on under parts. 

Color. Brow buffy white, black on lower edge; face brownish 
black ; hairs on upper lip to below eyes and chin black ; top and back of 
head speckled black and ochraceous, latter color most prominent ; entire 



LAS10PYGA 343 

rest of upper parts of body tawny, with rather indistinct black speck- 
ling, tawny being the prevailing hue; flanks paler, a rather bright 
ochraceous of uniform hue, no annulations ; arms on outer side above 
elbow mixed gray and cream buff, forearms pale gray with black annu- 
lations ; outer side of legs gray, with tawny hairs mixed near hips and 
with black annulations; sides of head and whiskers, (which are 
directed backwards covering ears), throat, inner side of arms and legs 
pinkish buff; abdomen and anal region cream buff; tail above tawny 
and black like back, growing darker and merging into black on apical 
portion ; beneath, a rufous patch at root, then ochraceous grading into 
tawny at tip ; hands and feet black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Skull: total length, 92.2; occipito-nasal length, 
81.8; intertemporal width, 44.7; Hensel, 65; zygomatic width, 67.6; 
breadth of braincase, 53.8 ; median length of nasals, 16.4 ; palatal length, 
30.9 ; length of upper molar series, 22.6 ; length of upper canines, 16 ; 
length of mandible, 68.2; length of lower molar series, 30. Ex type 
British Museum. 

The general appearance of this species is that of a reddish monkey 
quite different in coloring from its paler relatives of the L. centralis 
style. It is nearer to the animal from Portuguese East Africa, which 
has been accepted as representing L. rufoviridis, but differs from that 
species in its pinkish buff whiskers, throat and general color of the 
under parts, and in its jet black hands and feet. A number of speci- 
mens from Fort Hall are in the British Museum. 

Unfortunately there are no skulls of the L. c. johnstoni specimens, 
so I can make no comparison with them and that of the present species. 

Lasiopyga callida (Hollister) . 

Lasiopyga pygerythra callida Hollister, Smiths. Misc. Coll., LIX, 
1812, p. 1. 

Type locality. South side of Lake Naivasha, British East Africa. 

Genl. Char. Chin black ; sides of body ochraceous buff, hairs with- 
out annulations ; allied to L. rubella, and L. centralis ; more ochra- 
ceous than L. pygerythra. 

Color. Face and chin jet black; narrow indistinct black line on 
forehead, broadest above nose, above which is a rather broad white 
line, extending to side of head, the hairs tipped with black ; hairs on 
top of head long, annulated with buff and black ; whiskers long extend- 
ing beyond ears white tipped with black ; nape and upper parts to rump, 
the hairs drab gray at base then annulated with buff and black on nape, 



344 LAS10PYGA 

gradually becoming darker on lower back as the buff is more ochra- 
ceous, and the black becomes more dominant ; flanks ochraceous buff 
without annulations ; outer side of arms from wrists dark gray grading 
into buff and black on the shoulders; legs gray paler than arms and 
grading into the darker hues of the back; throat, entire under parts 
and inner side of limbs white ; hands and feet jet black ; tail above dark 
gray with an interrupted central line of black terminating in the jet 
black apical portion ; beneath a dark bay spot at root, remainder gray- 
ish white grading into jet black at tip, this color being less extensive 
beneath than above. Ex type United States National Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,135; tail, 610; foot, 140; ear, 27. 
Skull: total length, 109.4; occipito-nasal length, 85.4; Hensel, 73; 
intertemporal width, 42.8 ; zygomatic width, 64.8 ; breadth of braincase, 
55.2 ; median length of nasals, 15.3 ; palatal length, 44.1 ; length of upper 
molar series, 25.4; length of mandible, 74.6; length of lower molar 
series, 31.4. 

Mr. Hollister made this animal a subspecies of L. pygerythra, but 
it would seem that its coloring and the black chin would give it more 
properly a place between L. rubella and L. centralis. The general 
hue of the pelage, especially on the dorsal region, is much too dark 
for L. pygerythra, in fact it is not of the same character, but is much 
nearer the more tawny hue of L. rubella ; and its black hands and feet 
are quite unlike those of L. pygerythra. Its distinctive characters 
prohibit it from being regarded as a subspecies of any described form. 

Lasiopyga centralis (Neumann). 

Cercopithecus centralis Neum., Zool. Jahrb., XIII, 1900, p. 533. 

Cercopithecus cethiops centralis Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1904, p. 459. 

Cercopithecus cynosurus centralis Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
II, 1907, p. 729. 

Type locality. Bukoba, west shore of Victoria Nyanza. Type in 
Berlin Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Uganda, Bukoba, Barumba, Ankole, (Thomas) ; 
Juba River, S. E. boundary of Abyssinia, (Donaldson Smith). 

Genl. Char. Similar to L. Rufoviridis, but paler, no reddish tints. 

Color. Top of head buff ; the hairs brown at base and ringed with 
black and buff ; neck and upper parts greenish yellow, somewhat paler 
than the top of head; flanks paler, unspeckled; arms and legs pale 
gray; line on forehead, sides of head, throat, inner side of limbs and 



LASIOPYGA 345 

under parts yellowish white ; chin black ; hands and feet black ; tail dark 
brown speckled with buff, apical portion black, beneath at root rufous ; 
iris russet. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,170; tail, 650. Skull: total length, 
100 ; occipito-nasal length, 83 ; Hensel, 70 ; intertemporal width, 40 ; 
zygomatic width, 70; median length of nasals, 15; length of upper 
molar series, 26.5 ; length of mandible, 75 ; length of lower molar 
series, 31. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

The present form is like L. rufoviridis, but is generally paler 
throughout without any red tints whatever. 

A specimen in the British Museum collected by Dr. Donaldson 
Smith on the Juba River cannot be separated from the Ankole 
examples, west of Victoria Nyanza. 

Lasiopyga centralis whytei (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus cynosurus whytei Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1907, p. 738. 

Type locality. Mt. Chiradgula, Nyassaland. Type in British 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Nyassaland to Mozambique. Tambarara, (Grant). 

Genl. Char. Similar to L. centralis, but under fur sooty; 
whiskers annulated toward tip. 

Color. Broad white brow band, joining the whiskers which are 
the same color, extends over and beyond the ears, and the hairs are 
annulated near tip with yellow and black, and tips black ; narrow black 
line at base of brow band ; top of head, dorsal line between shoulders, 
lower back and rump rather finely speckled black and yellow, with a 
slight greenish tinge; shoulders and flanks paler, speckled black and 
cream buff, with under fur grayish white; under fur on back sooty; 
outer side of arms and legs speckled gray and white; hands and feet 
brownish black ; chin, under side of jaw, upper lip and face black ; sides 
of neck and throat buffy white ; rest of under parts, inner side of arms 
to wrists, and of legs to ankles grayish white ; tail above speckled gray 
and buff for basal half, grading into jet black towards tip, beneath gray 
for basal half, then buff and black at tip. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,320; tail, 780; foot, 130. 

This race is very like L. c. johnstoni, but differs in the speckling on 
the upper parts, which is not so coarse, and the fur is softer and finer. 
When specimens are placed side by side the difference is quite percep- 
tible, but is difficult to express in a description. 



346 LASIOPYGA 

Lasiopyga centralis johnstoni (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus cynosurus johnstoni Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1907, p. 738. 

Type locality. Moshi, south side of Mt. Kilimanjaro; elevation 
5,000 feet. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Differs from L. centralis in having the legs and 
arms speckled. 

Color. Brow band yellowish white extending on to the long hairs 
of the whiskers, which are the same color, and are directed backward 
and upward, and banded near tip with black ; top of head speckled buff 
and black, with a reddish hue on forehead ; upper part of back, shoul- 
ders and flanks, with the hair quite long, pinkish gray at base, and 
speckled with cream buff and brownish black, the latter not showing 
prominently; lower back and rump darker, the brownish black bands 
becoming more prominent especially on lower rump near tail; chin 
white ; sides of neck and throat yellowish white ; under parts and inner 
side of limbs grayish white ; hands and feet black ; outer side of limbs 
speckled gray and white; tail, above speckled buff and black, tip 
black, beneath, deep red patch at base, remainder buff and gray to tip. 
Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,150; tail, 750. 

The lower back of this race is more coarsely speckled than is the 
same part in L. c. whytei, and the black is more conspicuous than any 
other color. 

Lasiopyga centralis lutea (Elliot). 

Cercopithecus centralis luteus Elliot. 

Type locality. Wanbugu, S. W. Mt. Kenia, British East Africa. 
Type in United States National Museum. 

Color. Black line formed of long hairs over eyes, succeeded by a 
cream buff broader band ; rest of upper parts ochraceous buff, the hairs 
being gray at base, then banded with black and ochraceous buff and 
tipped with black, but the light color predominates ; flanks paler ; outer 
side of arms and thighs dark gray, hairs with white tips ; outer side of 
legs to ankles smoke gray, hairs white tipped; chin black; cheeks, 
throat, and entire under parts, and inner side of limbs buff; hands 
black; feet iron gray; tail at root above like back, then gray with 
whitish tips to hairs, rusty brown on lateral third above and below, and 
tip black, rest of parts beneath whitish. Ex type United States Na- 
tional Museum. 



_ 



LASIOPYGA 347 

Measurements. Total length, 990; tail, 570; foot, 120; ear, 28. 
Skull: total length, 90.7; occipito-nasal length, 79.4; Hensel, 60.3; 
zygomatic width, 61.1; intertemporal width, 43.6; palatal length, 31; 
median length of nasals, .94 ; length of upper molar series, 23.8 ; length 
of mandible, 67; length of lower molar series, 29.9. Ex type United 
States National Museum. 

Similar to L. c. johnstoni, but under parts buff. Two specimens, 
both females, immature, in United States National Museum. The 
under parts, and inner side of limbs of these examples are conspicu- 
ously buff, strongly contrasted with the yellowish white of L. cen- 
tralis, or grayish white of L. c. johnstoni. 

Lasiopyga silacea (Elliot). 

Cercopithecus silaceus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 8th Ser., 
1909, p. 263. 

Type locality. East bank of the Loangwa River, Angoniland, 
Northwest Rhodesia. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Loangwa River to Angola, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. General hue yellowish green, speckled with yellow 
on the flanks and with no distinct black speckling. 

Color. Grayish white brow band over eyes, mixed with black on 
hairs over nose, and at each end of band ; hairs on head standing up- 
right on front, speckled with black and tawny, the latter being the 
prevailing color; dorsal region from nape to tail speckled black and 
buff yellow, the back being equally prominent with the lighter color, 
especially on dorsal line from between shoulders and on lower back 
and rump, making these parts darker ; back below shoulders on either 
side of the dorsal line, and flanks, buff yellow, annulated and tipped 
with brownish black, the lighter color, however, predominating to the 
extent of giving all these parts a yellowish appearance; shoulders 
darker than flanks, but not so dark as dorsal line, the hairs speckled 
ochraceous and black; outer side of arms and legs gray, speckled on 
arms above elbows, and on thighs with cream color and black, and on 
forearms and legs below knees, with black and white ; wrists and hands 
black speckled with white; feet gray and black speckled, toes brown- 
ish black, with some white hairs intermingled ; whiskers long, directed 
backwards hiding the ears, cream color annulated with black; face, 
lips and chin covered with short brownish black hairs; sides of neck, 
throat, inner side of limbs, and entire under parts white ; tail above 
for three fourths the length speckled cream color and black, rest jet 



348 LASIOPYGA 

black ; beneath with a rufous patch at root, rest whitish gray, becoming 
buff on apical part, the extreme tip only being black. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,190; tail, 730; foot, 125. Skull: 
total length, 103.2 ; occipito-nasal length, 87 ; intertemporal width, 42.9 ; 
Hensel, 72 ; zygomatic width, 72.9 ; width of braincase, 57.5 ; median 
length of nasals, 16.1; palatal length, 38.3; length of upper molar 
series, 25; length of upper canines, 15.5; length of mandible, 74.7; 
length of lower molar series, 30.8. Ex type British Museum. 

There are three specimens of this species in the British Museum 
from the east bank of the Loangwa River, collected by S. A. Neave at 
an altitude of 2,200 feet, one from Limondi on the boundary between 
the English and Portuguese territories, and one from North Basi- 
hindo, Chiyaka District, Angola, West Africa, collected by Dr. F. C. 
Wellman. They closely resemble each other, giving the impression 
of a yellow monkey speckled on head, middle of back and rump with 
black, but the rings rather indistinct on flanks. By having the red 
patch beneath the tail at the root, the species shows its relationship to 
L. pygerythra, but it bears no resemblance whatever to that animal 
in its general coloration, and in fact is far too much of a yellowish 
hue to be compared with any other species of the genus. It doubtless 
is a dweller of the forests on the watershed from the Loangwa River 
westward to Angola. It is a large thick-set animal with rather short 
limbs and long tail. 

Lasiopyga nigriyiridis (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus nigroviridis Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, 
p. 739, pi. XLII, fig. 5 ; 1908, p. 160, pi. X, fig. 1. 

Type locality. Upper Congo ? Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Type immature; upper parts dark, under parts pale, 
uniform. 

Color. Face brownish, eyelids flesh color; hairs on cheeks and 
upper lip black; superciliary line black, extending from corners of the 
eyes across temples to ears; black hairs of cheeks with subterminal 
yellow bands ; head, neck, shoulders and upper parts of body and flanks 
speckled with black and golden yellow, there being two bands of the 
latter on each hair, base of hairs gray; outer side of arms grayish 
speckled with yellow; hands black; legs to ankles mostly yellow on 
outer side; feet black, hairs with yellow tips; chin, throat, sides of 
neck, inner side of limbs and under parts of body yellowish white; 



LASIOPYGA 349 

tail above black speckled with yellow, beneath yellow. The hair is 
worn away on a great part of the tail. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 540; tail, 230; foot, 83. Ex type 
British Museum. 

The type has been in captivity, as Mr. Pocock states (I. c.) and 
lived in the gardens of the Zoological Society for about twenty months. 
It has no definite locality, but is supposed to be a native of the Upper 
Congo. More specimens are necessary before its definite specific status 
can be established. 

Subgenus 6. Mona, 

Ears tufted, white or cream color; brow band usually extending 
upwards on to the crown, or backwards to ears, sometimes both ; 
stripes or bars on head present in some species. Hairs of body 
speckled on various parts of body with different colors. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. No bars on head. 

a. Lower back speckled. 

a.' Upper parts speckled rusty red and black L. mona. 

b! Upper parts speckled burnt sienna and 

black L. denti. 

c! Upper parts speckled black and white, 

dorsal line chestnut and black speckled L. wolii. 

b. Lower back not speckled. 

a.' Lower back slate black L. campbelli. 

b! Lower back jet black L. burnetti. 

c! Dorsal area from below shoulder to tail 

jet black L. pogonias. 

B. Bars on head. 

a. Lower back not speckled. 

a.' Dorsal region from middle of back jet 

black L. nigripes. 

b! Rump only black L. grayi. 

b. Lower back speckled L. g. pallida. 

c. Entire back speckled L. petronellce. 



350 LASIOPYGA 

Lasiopyga mona (Schreber). 

Simla mona Schreb., Saugth., I, 1775, p. 97, pi. XV; Bodd., 

Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 59. 
Cercopithecus mona Erxl., Syst. Regn. Anim., 1777, p. 30 ; E. Geoff., 
Cours Hist. Nat. Mamm., 1828, p. 19, 8me Lecon; Less., 
Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 71; Martin, Mammif. Anim., 1841, 
p. 527; I. Geoff., Diet. Hist. Nat., 1849, p. 304; Id. Cat. Pri- 
mates, 1851, p. 20; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, 
p. 47; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc. I, 
1856, pp. 103, 107 ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 
p. 109, figs. 271-275 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 
182; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. 
Mus., 1870, p. 22; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 
80; Anders., Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 1881, p. 57; Sclat, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 250; Forbes, Handb. Pri- 
mates, II, 1894, p. 66; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 
1907, p. 709, fig. 184; N. Hollist., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
XXV, 1912, p. 93. 

MONA GUENON. 

Type locality. 'Barbary.' 

Geogr. Distr. Jebba, River Niger, (C. F. Abadie) ; Bankana, 
Southern Nigeria, (Ansorge) ; Gold Coast to Cameroon, West Africa; 
islands of St. Kitts, and Grenada, West Indies, (introduced). 

Color. Long, upright white hairs across forehead forming a band 
extending upward on head; at its base a narrow line of black; top 
of head speckled yellow and black, this coloring extending downward 
on to hind neck; entire upper part and sides of body speckled rusty 
red and black, darkest on lower back ; cheeks and sides of head, hairs 
long, gray, ringed on apical portion with yellow and black ; outer side 
of arms and hands black; outer side of legs black speckled with 
minute red spots; feet black; chin, throat, entire under parts, and 
inner side of limbs grayish white; conspicuous patch beneath tail to 
hip snow white; tail above, basal third speckled red and black, yel- 
lowish gray beneath, remainder black; ear tufts long, speckled with 
greenish yellow. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,295; tail, 785; foot, 145. Skull: 
total length, 93.7; occipito-nasal length, 77.9; intertemporal width, 
39.1 ; Hensel, 60.5; zygomatic width, 59.7; breadth of braincase, 52.7; 
median length of nasals, 13.6; palatal length, 32.2; length of upper 
molar series, 23.2 ; length of mandible, 59.2 ; length of lower molar 
series, 30. One of the commonest species of the genus. 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE XXXV. 




LASIOPYGA MONA. 

No. 21132 r S Nat, Mus. Coll. '., Nal 



_ 



VOLUME II 



PLATE XXXVI. 




LASIOPYGA DENTI. 
No. 7.1.2.1. Brit. Mus. Coll. % Nat. Size. 



LASIOPYGA 351 

Lasiopyga denti (Thomas). 

Cercopithecus denti Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 2, 
pi. I; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 711. 

Type locality. Ituri forest between Mawambi and Avakubi, Upper 
Congo, (R. E. Dent). Type in British Museum. 

Color. Similar to L. mona, but darker above ; brow band white 
annulated with black ; top and sides of head in front of ears, shoulders 
and hind neck speckled greenish yellow and black; cheeks pale buff 
yellow ; entire upper parts and flanks speckled burnt sienna and black ; 
outer side of legs similar but lighter; outer side of arms black, 
speckled with yellowish to elbows; hands and feet black; sides of 
neck grayish white speckled with yellow and black; tufts of black 
hairs at corner of eyes; entire under parts, and inner side of limbs 
yellowish white; no white patch on side of callosities; tail, at base 
black speckled with burnt sienna, then greenish gray grading into black 
on apical portion, beneath yellowish gray to apical portion which is 
black above and below; ears with white tufts. Ex type British 
Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,351; tail, 850; foot, 155; ear, 40, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 105.2; occipito-nasal length, 87.5; 
intertemporal width, 42.9 ; Hensel, 72.8 ; zygomatic width, 70.5 ; width 
of braincase, 55 ; median length of nasals, 16.9 ; palatal length, 34.4 ; 
length of upper molar series, 22.1; length of upper canines, 21.5; 
length of mandible, 68.5; length of lower molar series, 38.1. Ex type 
British Museum. 

While resembling L. mona in general pattern of coloring, the 
present species is much darker ; the space between shoulders is not like 
the back, but more like the head though much darker, and the tail 
between the base and tip is much lighter and grayer. 

Lasiopyga wolfi (Meyer). 

Cercopithecus wolfi Meyer, Notes Leyd. Mus., XIII, 1891, p. 63; 
Id. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1894, p. 83, pi. VII ; Sclat., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 258; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. 
Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1893, p. 216; Forbes, Handb. Pri- 
mates, II, 1894, p. 79; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 
1907, p. 711. 

WOLF'S GUENON. 

Type locality. Unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. French Congo, Brazzaville, (Hamlyn) ; Batempas, 
Sunkuru, Congo, West Africa. 



352 LASIOPYGA 

Color. Mixed white and black band on center of forehead over 
eyes, the white hairs very long and extending to ears ; sides of fore- 
head and band extending backwards to ear, jet black; top of head, 
hind neck, shoulders and upper parts except dorsal line, black, hairs 
tipped with white ; dorsal line from middle of back to rump speckled 
chestnut and black ; cheeks mixed buff yellow and black, the buff yel- 
low predominating; whiskers cream color grading into white of neck 
and throat ; outer side of arms black, the hairs to elbows tipped with 
white, the black on lower side edged with orange yellow ; stripe along 
flanks below back orange yellow; thighs tawny ochraceous on outer 
side uniform, but black speckled towards hinder edge; below knees 
tawny, becoming speckled like thighs towards hinder part; chin, 
throat, inner side of limbs white ; under parts of body yellowish white ; 
hands and feet black; tail, above black and gray speckled, gradually 
passing into black, which color embraces over half the length of the 
tail, beneath at base yellowish gray ; ear tufts orange. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,270; tail, 790, (skin). Ex speci- 
men from Batempas, Sunkuru, Congo. Skull : total length, 95 ; occip- 
ito-nasal length, 82.9; intertemporal width, 43.4; Hensel, 68.1; zygo- 
matic width, 62.2 ; median length of nasals, 13.5 ; palatal length, 34.4. 

A living example of this beautiful species was in the Menagerie 
of the Royal Zoological Society at Antwerp, Belgium, where I saw it 
in 1909. 

Lasiopyga campbelli (Waterhouse). 

Cercopithecus campbelli Waterh., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1838, 
p. 61; Martin, Mammif. Anim., 1841, p. 544; Fras., Zool. 
Typ., 1848, pi. Ill; Peters, Reis. Mossamb., Saugth., 1852, 
p. 4; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 44; 
Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 109, fig. 270; 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 182 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 24; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 79; Jent., Notes 
Leyd. Mus., X, 1888, p. 9; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1893, p. 251; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 70; 
Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat., I, 1896, p. 265; Pocock, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 710, pi. XL, fig. 1. 

CAMPBELL'S GUENON. 

Type locality. Sierra Leone. 

Geogr. Distr. Sierra Leone, West Africa. 

Color. A broad silver gray band separated in the middle, and 



LASIOPYGA 353 

extending towards ears; cheeks yellowish gray, black and speckled; 
top of head, hind neck speckled yellow and black; upper back and 
shoulders speckled russet and black, the speckling gradually disap- 
pearing on lower back which becomes a nearly uniform slate black; 
throat and chest grayish white; under parts slate gray; outer side 
of arms black ; outer side of legs and feet black speckled with grayish 
white; inner side of limbs white; hands black; tail above at base 
black speckled with reddish, then dark gray and yellow speckled, the 
remaining third of the length to the tip jet black, beneath gray and 
yellow, the latter the dominant color for nearly two thirds the length, 
rest black; hairs on ears speckled black and yellow. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,447.8; tail, 1,0187; foot, 114.3. 
No skull obtainable. 

Lasiopyga burnetti (Gray). 

Cercopithecus burnetii Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1st Sen, X, 
1842, p. 256; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 
110; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 710, pi. 
XL, fig. 2. 

Type locality. Fernando Po. Type in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Ashantee, Accra, Gold Coast, Cameroon, (Burton) ; 
Island of Fernando Po. 

Genl. Char. Forehead yellowish; cheeks and sides of neck olive 
gray ; ear fringe red. 

Color. Forehead with some yellowish gray hairs between eyes; 
black band from corners of eyes to head ; head above, hairs black from 
roots ringed with tawny ; those on upper parts of body gray, annulated 
with tawny and black, this forming a band on dorsal line nearly to 
tail ; flanks, sides of rump, outer side of limbs, hands and feet black ; 
whiskers radiating from corner of the eye olive gray speckled with 
tawny and yellow; chin, throat, under parts of body, inner side of 
arms to elbows, and thighs grayish white; arms from elbows, and 
legs from knees sooty gray ; tail above black speckled with tawny for 
over half the basal length, beneath paler, tip black ; ear fringe reddish. 
Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 750; tail, not perfect, 440; foot, 120. 

The type was presented to the British Museum in 1844, by Mr. 
Thomas Thompson, but no locality is given. It differs from L. camp- 
belli in the yellow patch on forehead, and in the olive gray cheeks, 
and darker lower back. No skull. The type is numbered 44. 11. 2. 3. 



354 ' LASIOPYGA 

Lasiopyga pogonias (Bennett). 

Cercopithecus pogonias Benn., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1833, p. 
67; Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 74; Martin, Mammif. 
Anim., 1841, p. 543; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 109; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 182; Id. 
Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 
1870, p. 23; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 82, 
(Part.) ; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 254; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, 1894, p. 78; Pousarg., Ann. Scien. Nat., 
Ill, 7me Ser., 1896, p. 212; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
II, 1907, p. 713. 

BEARDED GUENON. 

Type locality. Fernando Po, West Africa. 

Geogr. Distr. Fernando Po, Gaboon, Ogowe and Oubangui 
rivers; forests of Mayumbe, Sette Cama, French Congo; West 
Africa. 

Genl. Char. Forehead yellow, only a few black hairs on the 
middle ; black dorsal stripe present from center of back to tail. 

Color. Forehead between eyes, hairs buff, some tipped with 
black; black stripe from eyes over temples to ear; top and back of 
head, upper back, sides of body, outer side of arms speckled black 
and buff or gray; the hairs being gray and the grayish white speckle 
most apparent on shoulders, arms and flanks; from center of back 
to tail runs a broad jet black band; thighs yellowish brown tinged with 
red; sides of face and neck sooty gray, sparsely speckled with yel- 
lowish or grayish white; chin and throat sooty; under parts of body 
and inner side of limbs rusty red ; tail black at root above, then mixed 
black and ochraceous, rest jet black, beneath tawny ochraceous, apical 
half black ; hands and feet black. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,397; tail, 889; foot, 152.4. Skull: 
total length, 100 ; occipito-nasal length, 86 ; Hensel, 67 ; intertemporal 
width, 43 ; palatal length, 36 ; zygomatic width, 73 ; breadth of brain- 
case, 57; median length of nasals, 16; length of upper molar series, 
23 ; length of mandible, 62 ; length of lower molar series, 29. 

Lasiopyga pogonias nigripes (Du Chaillu). 

Cercopithecus nigripes Du Chaillu, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
VII, 1860, p. 360; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, p. 
274; 1868, p. 182; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, 
p. 110; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 254; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 78. 



LASIOPYGA 355 

Cercopithecus erxlebeni var. nigripes Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs 
and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 23. 

Cercopithecus pogonias Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 
82, (Part.). 

Cercopithecus grayi nigripes Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 
1907, p. 713. 

BLACK-FOOTED GUENON. 

Type locality. Gaboon, West Africa. 

Color. Yellowish white band on forehead between eyes extending 
backward on sides of crown nearly to occiput; sides of head between 
eyes and ears, and middle of crown jet black; a few yellow speckles on 
crown; occiput, hind neck, and between shoulders speckled black and 
yellow; middle of back tawny ochraceous and black speckled, rest of 
back to tail jet black; flanks gray, speckled on apical portion of hairs 
with black and white; outer side of arms and hands black speckled 
near shoulder with white ; legs gray annulated towards tip with black 
and white ; feet black ; cheeks and whiskers buff yellow ; entire under 
parts and inner side of limbs orange buff; tail above black, beneath 
ochraceous rufous for two thirds the length where it grades into black ; 
above black for the entire length ; ear tufts ochraceous buff. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,160; tail, 710; foot, 125. Skull: 
total length, 85; occipito-nasal length, 74; intertemporal width, 42.5; 
Hensel, 57.6; zygomatic width, 60; width of braincase, 53.6; median 
length of nasals, 16 ; palatal length, 30.3 ; length of upper molar series, 
23.5 ; length of mandible, 54.2 ; length of lower molar series, 27.6. 

Similar to L. pogonias, but dorsal stripe broader and not so dark. 

Lasiopyga grayi (Fraser). 

Cercopithecus grayi Fras., Cat. Knowsl. Coll., 1850, p. 8 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 182; Id. Cat 
Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p 
22, (Part.) ; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 256; 1896 
p. 484; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin 
1893, p. 214; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 77, pi 
XXIII ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 712. 

Cercopithecus erxlebeni Dahlb. et Pucher., Rev. Mag. Zool., 1856, 
p. 96; 1857, p. 196; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. 
Natur., fasc. I, 1856, pp. 102, 106; Reichenb., Vollstand. 
Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 110; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1868, p. 182; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 23 ; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 



356 LASIOPYGA 

1905, p. 70; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Columb. Mus., F. C. M. 
Pub., VIII, 1906, p. 569, Zool. Ser. 
Cercopithecus pogonias Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simise, 1876, p. 
82, (Part.). 

GRAY'S GUENON. 

Type locality. Unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. River Congo, Southern Cameroon, (Bates) ; West 
Africa. 

Genl. Char. Head yellow with three black stripes; no black on 
back. 

Color. Male. Brow band exceedingly broad extending to crown 
cream color, divided in the middle by a narrow black line ; black bands 
from eye across temples to ears ; top of head, occiput, hind neck, and 
space between shoulders black, hairs tipped with yellow ; dorsal region 
speckled rufous and black, becoming jet black at root of tail, the rump 
but sparsely speckled nearly black ; flanks towards arms speckled yellow 
and black, the posterior half towards thighs gray, speckled with black 
and white; sides of face and whiskers yellow, speckled with black; 
outer side of arms, hands and feet black, speckled with white above 
elbows ; legs on outer side like thighs grizzled iron gray ; entire under 
parts, and inner side of limbs orange buff, the hairs being yellowish 
white at base; tail above jet black, beneath buff yellow, apical portion 
orange buff ; ear tufts ochraceous buff. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,417; tail, 870; foot, 142; ear, 28, 
(Collector). Skull : total length, 100; occipito-nasal length, 86.3 ; inter- 
temporal width, 44.5 ; Hensel, 68.3 ; zygomatic width, 68.4 ; width of 
braincase, 55.4; median length of nasals, 14; palatal length, 31.3 ; length 
of upper molar series, 24.7; length of upper canines, 20.1; length of 
mandible, 69.7; length of lower molar series, 28.2. 

Lasiopyga grayi pallida (Elliot). 

Cercopithecus pogonias pallidus Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 
8th Ser., 1909, p. 261. 

Type locality. Gaboon. Type in British Museum, ex Laglaize 
Collection. 

Geogr. Distr. Gaboon. 

Genl. Char. Similar to L. grayi, but paler beneath, no uniform 
black on rump, hairs speckled like back to root of tail. 

Color. Female. Forehead like L. grayi ; upper part of head, hind 
neck and between shoulders redder, speckled with buff yellow and 
black, the buff yellow being the dominant color and giving the tone 



LASIOPYGA 357 

to all this part; upper parts of body to tail much redder, speckled 
ochraceous rufous and black, becoming darker towards root of tail 
where the speckling is less ; flanks gray, speckled on apical half of hairs 
with yellow and black; outer side of arms and hands black, speckled 
to elbows with cream color ; legs pale gray, speckled with white ; feet, 
posterior half speckled gray and white, anterior half and toes black; 
whiskers yellowish gray annulated at tip with black and yellow ; entire 
under parts and inner side of limbs whitish yellow; tail above black, 
beneath yellowish with black mixed, and grading into black towards 
the tip ; ear tufts buff". Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,295; tail, 705; foot, 115, (skin). 
Skull : total length, 90 ; occipito-nasal length, 78.3 ; intertemporal width, 
37.6; Hensel, 54.8; zygomatic width, 56.2; width of braincase, 51.1; 
median length of nasals, 16.5; palatal length, 31; length of upper 
molar series, 23 ; length of mandible, 56.3 ; length of lower molar 
series, 26.7. Ex type British Museum. 

The specimens from Gaboon are much paler than those from the 
Benito River even when examples of the same sex are compared. 
The head, upper part of back, legs and under parts of body are much 
paler in their different colors, and the dorsal region is paler and 
brighter, appearing more red, and there is an absence of clear black 
at root of tail, the speckling of the back continuing to the tail. There 
exist several points of difference in cranial characters, which, if 
sustained by a number of individuals, would be sufficient to give to this 
form specific rank. On comparing the skull of the type with that of 
a female from the Benito River, the great difference in the superior 
outline is seen. In the Gaboon skull there is an abrupt rise of the 
frontal from the posterior base of the orbital ridge, with a gradual 
curve to the fronto-parietal suture, which then drops more than a 45° 
angle to the occipital. The skull of this female from the Benito River 
has a flat frontal on a line with the orbital ridge, and descends much 
more rapidly from the fronto-parietal suture to the occipital; the 
anterior portion of the nasals in the type is nearly at a right angle to 
the posterior portion, the projecting forward occurring at about mid- 
way their length, causing the narial opening to be horizontal save for 
its anterior third; the rostrum of the Gaboon specimen is narrower; 
the palate is narrower and deeper, and the molar series are longer by 
the width of a molar tooth ; the zygomatic arches are different in shape, 
that of the type curving rapidly inward anteriorly, while those of the 
San Benito River examples are straight for nearly their whole length. 



358 LASIOPYGA 

Even comparing the skull of the male from the Benito River with the 
type of L. g. pallida, the much higher elevation of the frontal bone in 
the skull of the latter is clearly perceptible, and the more prominent 
anterior portion of the nasals is also easily noticed. These differences 
in colors and cranial characters seem to warrant the separation of the 
Gaboon Monkeys, as a race at least, from L. grayi. 

Lasiopyga petronell^: (Buttikof er) . 

Cercopithecus petronellce Buttikofer, Notes from Leyden Museum, 
XXXIV, 1911, p. 1. 

WHITE-CROWNED GUENON. 

Type locality. Upper Congo, exact locality unknown. Type in 
Leyden Museum. 

Color. "A narrow, but rather high median crest, beginning near 
the front and ending on the center of the crown, entire hinder crown, 
occiput and hind neck down to the shoulders olive-green, speckled with 
black, each hair being black with commonly two broad yellowish rings, 
of which the outer one is subterminal, leaving a long black tip to each 
hair. Whole back from the shoulders to the root of the tail, and even 
extending upon the latter, rich chestnut-brown, with black specklings, 
produced by the black tips to each hair. No black on the arms, their 
outer surface being olive-green like crown and hind neck ; outer surface 
of legs olive yellow, faintly speckled with black ; no white patches on 
crupper, hands and feet grayish, scarcely tinged with olive. Front 
and sides of anterior crown white, faintly speckled with black, the 
white crown patches separated by the narrow olive-green crest, and 
bordered on the outside by a broad, pure black band, running from the 
orbits to and even below the ears. Long, bushy whiskers below this 
black stripe, and a long tuft of hairs in the ears, proceeding far behind 
the top of the hinder edge of the ear, yellowish white. Chin, throat, 
breast and inner surface of arms white, with a yellowish tinge, belly 
and inner surface of legs uniform ochraceous yellow. Tail olive green 
on its basal half, passing into black on the terminal half and becoming 
pure black at the tip. Skin of face blue, upper and lower lip flesh- 
color, covered with very short white hairs, intermixed with sparsely- 
set long, bristly hairs which, like the long hairs of the eyebrows, are 
black. Skin of the whole body underneath the fur, light blue. Iris 
light chestnut-brown." 

Measurements. "Total length, 1,020; tail, 640; fore-arm from 
elbow to tip of fingers, 170; leg from knee to heel, 140; foot from heel 
to tip of toes, 120." 



LASIOPYGA 359 

This remarkable monkey has been lately described by Dr. But- 
tikofer (1. c.). It differs from all the Guenons in the peculiar colora- 
tion of the head and the narrow central hairy crest. The type, and 
two living individuals, one in the Royal Zoological Gardens at Antwerp, 
and one in the possession of Mr. L. Ruhe at Alfeld, are the only 
examples known. 

Subgenus 7. Insignicebus. 

A conspicuous white collar about neck, sometimes present. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

A. With white collar. 

a. Without ear tufts ; inner side of limbs white. . .L. albitorquata. 

b. With ear tufts. 

a! Lower back dark ochraceous rufous and 

black speckled L. kolbi. 

b! Lower back yellowish brown L. k. nubila. 

c.' Lower back burnt sienna and black speckled. L. k. hindei. 

B, No white collar. 

a. Aural region not red or reddish. 

a.' Tail not white on one third of length 
beneath. 

a." Lower back speckled with ochra- 
ceous and black, no red at root of 
tail L. albigularis. 

b" Lower back speckled cream buff and 

black L. a. beirensis. 

c." Lower back speckled with reddish 

yellow, red at root of tail *L. a. kinobotensis. 

d." Lower back speckled with reddish 

orange and black L. ruHlata. 

e." Lower back speckled with reddish 

chestnut and black L. moloneyi. 

f." Lower back speckled with ochra- 
ceous buff and black L. franccscce. 

g" Lower back speckled with reddish 

cinnamon and black L. prcussi. 

*I cannot be certain that this is the proper place for this form. 



360 LASIOPYGA 

h" Lower back speckled with black and 

buff L. p. insularis. 

L" Lower back speckled with tawny 

ochraceous, and black L. thomasi. 

/." Lower back speckled with black and 

buff yellow L. kandti. 

k." Lower back dark orange un- 

speckled L. insignis. 

A. Aural region red or reddish. 

a. Tail beneath silvery white. 

a! Legs not grizzled iron gray L. stair si. 

b! Legs grizzled iron gray 

a." Crown of head not reddish L. s. mossambicus. 

b" Crown of head reddish L. ruiitincta. 

b. Tail yellowish white beneath for one third 

its length from root L. labiata. 

Lasiopyga albitorquata (Pousargues). 

Cercopithecus albitorquatus Pousarg., Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
III, 7me Ser., 1896, p. 55 ; Neum., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 
1902, p. 144; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 702, 
pi. XXXIX, fig. 4. 

Type locality. Unknown. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Unknown. 

Color. Top of head and sides to bottom of ears ochraceous, the 
hairs black with ochraceous tips ; lower part of side of head and neck 
to near middle of hind neck, top of shoulders, chin, throat, under parts 
and inner side of limbs, white ; narrow line on center of hind neck, and 
back between shoulders ochraceous and black like top of head; arms 
black, speckled with white above elbows ; hind limbs iron gray, nearly 
black on front edge of thighs, and legs nearly to ankles, where it 
becomes yellowish white like a patch ; upper part of back ochraceous, 
becoming reddish on rump ; anal portion, and inner edge of thighs, the 
hairs forming a fringe, the long ones at this part having white bars 
and with apical half red, and standing out from the thighs to below 
knees ; hands, feet and ears black ; tail red at root, remainder has the 
hairs tipped with white, giving a grizzled appearance in places. Ex 
type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,447.8; tail, 939.8; foot, 139.7. 
Skull in type specimen. 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE 4. 








1. Lasiopyga albitorquata. 



4. MlOPITHECUS TALAPOIN. 



3. Lasiopyga kolbi hindei. 



2. Lasiopyga diana. 

5. Erythrocebus patas. 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE XXXVII. 




Lasiopyga kolbi. 

No. 27716 Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Coll. % Nat. Size. 



LASIOPYGA 361 

The white on side of head and neck of the type is very extensive 
and forms a broad collar nearly around the neck, only divided by the 
narrow line on hind neck. The specimen appears to have no history 
beyond the fact that it was given by M. Portier-Prohou, that it died 
in the Menagerie on May 5th, 1887, and that it may have come from 
West Africa. 

Lasiopyga kolbi (Neumann). 

Cercopithecus kolbi Neum., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1902, p. 
144 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 703. 

KOLB'S GUENON. 

Type locality. Kedong Escarpment, east side of Mt. Kenia, 
British East Africa. Type in Berlin Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Restricted apparently to Mount Kenia, British 
East Africa. 

Genl. Char. Similar to L. albitorquata, but white of throat 
extends as half collar around the neck. 

Color. Male. Forehead, top of head and nape ochraceous and 
black, darkest on crown ; side of head and cheeks speckled yellow and 
black; narrow line between shoulders widening out behind shoulders, 
speckled black and white, gradually changing on lower back and 
rump to dark ochraceous rufous and black; cheeks, and broad white 
collar on sides of neck reaching on to the back, but separated by the 
speckled black and white portion of the hind neck and upper back; 
chin and throat white ; outer side of arms black speckled with white, 
inner side black ; hands black ; under parts and legs dark gray banded 
with black; tail at root like back, mixed black and ochraceous rufous 
for about one third the total length, remainder jet black; feet black; 
ears with long white tufts; end of nose and lips covered with white 
hairs. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,370; tail, 790; foot, 110, (skin). 
Skull: total length, 115.2; occipito-nasal length, 96.5; intertemporal 
width, 42.1 ; Hensel, 42.6; zygomatic width, 76.2; width of braincase, 
55.3; median length of nasals, 23.5; palatal length, 43.1; length of 
upper canines, 24 ; length of upper molar series, 27.2 ; length of man- 
dible, 83.6; length of lower molar series, 33.3. Ex type British 
Museum. 

While having a general resemblance to L. albitorquata Pou- 
sargues, it will be seen, by comparing the above with the description of 
the type of the allied species, that there are several important differ- 
ences between them in coloration ; such as the color of the inner side 



362 LASIOPYGA 

of limbs, white in one, and black and gray speckled in the other : the 
long white and red hairs on inner side of thighs, absent in L. kolbi, 
and the long white tufts on ears of present species. The skull of 
L. albitorquata being in the specimen, no comparison could be made 
between it and that of the present species. 

Lasiopyga kolbi nubila (Dollman). 

Cercopithecus kolbi nubilus Dollman, x\nn. Mag. Nat. Hist., 8th 
Ser., V, 1910, p. 202. 

Type locality. Nairobi forest, British East Africa. Type in 
British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Like L. kolbi, but smaller and duller in color on 
upper parts, and under parts grayish white. 

Color. Between shoulders black speckled with greenish buff; 
lower back and rump yellowish brown; cheeks and sides of head 
grayish black with a buff tinge; ear tufts white; white collar about 
neck ; under parts gray speckled with silver gray ; indistinct white band 
across chest; outer surface of limbs brownish black, gray speckled; 
hands and feet brownish black. Tail like that of L. kolbi, but the 
buff color extends on basal portion a few inches only. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,270; tail, 650; foot, 121; ear, 27. 
Skull: greatest length, 70; Hensel, 63.4; zygomatic width, 64; width 
across orbits, (fronto-jugal suture), 53; width of orbit, 24; width of 
braincase, 54; median length of nasals, 12; palatal length, 30; length 
of upper molar series, 25. 

The type of this species is one of the few I have not seen, the 
animal having been described after I had left England. 

Lasiopyga kolbi hindei (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus kolbi hindei Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, 
p. 703, pi. XXXIX, fig. 3. 

Type locality. Tutla, Kenia district. Altitude 8,000 feet. Type 
in British Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Tutla, Kenia district, and Lake Naivasha, British 
East Africa. 

Genl. Char. Head and cheeks tinged with reddish yellow; ear 
tufts yellowish, annulated ; lumbar and sacral regions rusty red ; sides 
of body yellow speckled. 

Color. Fore part of head, hairs banded with black and ochra- 
ceous; long, stiff, black hairs standing upward and outward from 



LASIOPYGA 363 

edge of forehead ; back of head and hind neck blacker, the hairs banded 
with black and ochraceous, the black predominating, just as the ochra- 
ceous predominates on fore part of head; sides of head, hairs long, 
banded with black and buff, paler than head ; broad white collar on 
both sides of neck not meeting on back and gradually lost in white of 
chest; fur below collar on upper back, much worn in places, purplish 
black, hairs banded with black, white and ochraceous ; rest of upper 
parts speckled with burnt sienna and black, this color extending over 
the flanks ; arms and hands black, above elbows speckled with white ; 
legs blackish gray white speckled; chin, throat and upper part of the 
breast buffy white; chest to lower part of abdomen gray faintly 
speckled with white, as are also the hairs on the chest; hairs across 
pubic region buff; inner side of thighs, and upper parts buffy white; 
pubic spot ferruginous ; feet black ; tail at base burnt sienna and black 
like back, remaining part black ticketed with white, except on a few 
inches from tip; ear tufts on fore part of ear yellowish white, on 
hinder part buff not banded. Mr. Pocock states that the tufts are 
banded, but it did not appear to me that they were. The tufts exist 
only on one ear, and there is a break on the one remaining, the two 
parts being of different colors, and all the hairs composing them were 
unicolor. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,250; tail, 690; foot, 120, (skin). 
Skull: total length, 105.2; occipito-nasal length, 92.6; intertemporal 
width, 43.4; Hensel, 67.7; zygomatic width, 70.1; width of braincase, 
58.6; median length of nasals, 19.3; palatal length, 33.8; length of 
upper molar series, 28; length of upper canines, 20, not fully cut; 
length of mandible, 72; length of lower molar series, 33.6. Ex type 
British Museum. 

The specimen is a young adult, and the lower canines have a pro- 
nounced cusp posteriorly at their base. 

A specimen of this form of L. kolbi was procured by the Smith- 
sonian African Expedition from Lake Naivasha, British East Africa, 
elevation, 8,000 feet. 

Lasiopyga albigularis (Sykes). 

Semnopithecus albogularis Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1831, 
p. 106. 

Cercopithecus albigularis Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1832, p. 
18; Martin, Mammif. Anim., 1841, p. 512; Fras., Zool. Typ., 
1848, pi. II ; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 45 ; 



364 LASIOPYGA 

Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 112, fig. 279; 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 182 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 24; 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 79; Anders., Cat. 
Mamm. Ind. Mus. Calc, 1881, p. 57; True., Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., XV, 1893, p. 448; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, 
pp. 251, 506, 691; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Natur. Freunde, 
Berlin, 1893, p. 215; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1894, 
p. 137; 1896, p. 789; 1900, p. 179; Forbes, Handb. Primates, 
II, 1894, p. 67; W. L. Sclat., Mamm. S. Africa, 1900, I, p. 
12; Major, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1901, p. 149, pi. XI, 
fig. 5 ; Thos. and Schw., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1906, p. 586 ; 
Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 700. 

Semnopithecus albigularis Less., Spec. Mamm., 1840, p. 64. 

Cercopithecus monoides I. Geoff., Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
II, 1843, p. 558, pi. XXXI; Id. Diet. Hist. Nat., Ill, 1849, p. 
303; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 19; Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. 
Reg. Anim. Nat, fasc. I, 1856, pp. 103, 107; Reichenb., 
Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 112, fig. 282; Sclat., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 256; Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. 
Naturg. Freunde, Berlin, 1893, p. 214. 

Cercopithecus erythrarchus Peters, Reis. Mossamb., Saugth., 
1852, p. 1, pi. I, juv. ; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 
1862, p. 3, fig. 277; Kirk, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 
649; Reuvens, Zool. Gart, XXX, 1889, p. 207; Noack, Zool. 
Jahrb, II, 1889, p. 289; Oudem., Zool. Gart, XXXI, 1890, 
p. 267; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 249. 

WHITE-THROATED GUENON. 

Type locality. Madagascar? Specimen purchased alive in Bom- 
bay, India. 

Geogr. Distr. East and West Africa ; Quilimane, Luabo, Zambesi, 
(Kirk) ; Blantyre, Shire Highlands, (Johnston) ; Mombassa, (Rem- 
ington) ; Chiradzula Mts., Nairobi forest, (O. Thomas) ; Milanji 
Plateau, 3,500 feet, and Fort Lister, Milanji, 6,000 feet, (Pocock) ; 
Nyassaland, (O. Thomas) ; Mashonaland, (W. L. Sclater) ; northeast 
Transvaal, Woodbush, Drakenberg Range, 30 miles north-east of 
Pietersburg, (Thomas and Schwann) ; Umtalie, main east shore of 
Lake Shirwa, (A. Sharpe) ; east coast to the Gold Coast, (Pel). 

Color. Male. Top of head and back of neck speckled black and 
buff; back between shoulders speckled black and white; cheeks and 
sides of neck cream buff speckled with black, back of head darker than 



LASIOPYGA 365 

the other parts ; the white and black speckling of the upper back grades 
into ochraceous and black on middle of back, and continues to tail and 
flanks; arms and hands black; the inner side of arms from shoulders 
to elbow gray, speckled with black; on the arms near shoulders, and 
fore arms near elbow there is a little white speckling ; chin and throat 
buflfy white ; under parts of body gray, black speckled ; anal region and 
inner side of thighs, whitish ; rest of thighs and legs below knees very 
dark gray, speckled with white; feet jet black; tail iron gray at base, 
remainder jet black. Ex specimen from Fort Lister, Milan ji, 6,000 
feet, British Museum. 

Female. Resembles the male in most particulars, but has the root 
of the tail and sides of the callosities rusty red. The young also ex- 
hibit the rusty red at root of tail, and a tinge of the same color on 
thighs, and the under parts of body grayish white without speckling, 
thus differing considerably from the adults. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,500; tail, 830; foot, 150. Skull: 
total length, 126 ; occipito-nasal length, 98.6 ; intertemporal width, 44.7 ; 
Hensel, 88.8; zygomatic width, 80.8; width of braincase, 62; median 
length of nasals, 2 ; palatal length, 46.8 ; length of upper molar series, 
29.5 ; length of mandible, 87; length of lower molar series, 37.8; length 
of upper canines, 27.5. 

Specimens of the true L. albigularis from a number of places 
are in the Collection of the British Museum varying but little from the 
typical style. The type was purchased alive in Bombay, and was said 
to have come from Madagascar, and probably did come from some 
part of East Africa, and if this supposition is correct, the monkeys 
of this species from the East African coast would represent the typical 
style. The species is found across the continent from the east coast 
to the Gold Coast, on the west (Pel) and from Nyassaland to the 
Transvaal. 

The type of L. erythrarchus Peters, is in the Berlin Museum. It 
came from Inhambane, south of the Zambesi, and is a young animal 
not separable from L. albigularis. The type of L. monoides I. Geoff., 
is in the Paris Museum and exactly resembles L. albigularis, in fact 
there is no difference whatever in their appearance. Unfortunately 
the skull is in the specimen, so no comparison could be made. 

According to Grant, as quoted by Thomas and Schwann (1. c.) 
in the Drakenberg Range, north east Transvaal, this monkey is "com- 
mon, but difficult to obtain on account of its wariness. It inhabits the 
deep kloofs in the depths of the forest, seldom visiting the open parts." 



366 



LASIOPYGA 



Lasiopyga albigularis beirensis (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus albogularis beirensis Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1907, p. 701 ; Thos. and Wrought., Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1907, p. 776; 1908, p. 165. 
beira guenon. Native name Naimbo. 

Type locality. Beira, Southeast Africa. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Rump and root of tail reddish bronze; no red on 
head, under parts whitish. 

Color. Similar to L. albigularis, but top of head paler, speckled 
yellow and black; lower back also lighter, a speckled cream buff and 
black; a tinge of reddish orange on rump, the rest of the tail above 
and beneath, and the parts adjacent are reddish orange; under side 
of arms to elbows, and of thighs to ankles, and entire under parts 
whitish, unspeckled. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,162; tail, 601; foot, 172; ear, 40, 
(Collector). Skull: total length, 117.6; occipito-nasal length, 96.2; 
intertemporal width, 44; Hensel, 82.1; zygomatic width, 75.7; width 
of braincase, 56.5; median length of nasals, 18.6; palatal length, 40.2; 
length of upper molar series, 26.6 ; length of upper canines, 23.7 ; length 
of mandible, 79.8; length of lower molar series, 31.7. Ex type British 
Museum. 

This race, while closely resembling L. albigularis in its general 
style of coloration, is readily distinguished from that species by the 
reddish orange hairs on root of tail and adjacent parts, as well as by 
the unspeckled whitish under parts, and inner side of limbs. 

According to Grant as quoted by Thomas (1. c.) this species was 
"very common in the forest of the Pungwe River District, to which 
they are confined, and often observed in very large troops. At first 
they were tame, and specimens were easily obtainable, but they soon 
became wild, and after a few weeks were seldom seen. They live on 
wild fruits, young shoots of trees, etc., and seldom damage the native 
crops." 



Lasiopyga albigularis kibonotensis (Lonnberg). 

Cercopithecus albogularis kibonotensis Lonnb., Exped. Kiliman- 
jaro-Mweru, Mamm. 

Type locality. Kibonoto, Mt. Kilimanjaro. 

Color. "In all the specimens from Kilimandjaro the hairs of the 
head and nape are black and ringed with yellow. In some larger and 
stronger specimens this yellow might be termed reddish yellow, and in 



LASIOPYGA 367 

all it is decidedly yellow not 'gray.' On the hind neck the rings are 
paler (than albigularis, with which it is compared), more whitish. 
Shoulders and arms are wholly black in the Kilimandjaro monkeys, 
except that the inner side of the upper arm is more or less ashy gray, 
but the fore arm is intensely black, not specklel as in the typical 
albigularis according to Pocock. The legs are black, speckled with 
ash gray. Red hairs at the root of the tail, and in the ischiopubic 
region, are found in all ages and both sexes, but less in the adult male 
than in others. Chin and throat white, (in younger specimens with 
soft wavy hairs) ; on the sides of the neck this white area passes into 
a broad iron gray speckled collar, which, however, leaves a broad 
dark band on the hind neck free, and with its black hairs sparingly 
ringed with whitish or pale yellow, contrasting against the iron gray 
collar. The white of the throat does not extend to the inside of the 
upper arm as in the typical form, according to Pocock, and it is 
rather sharply denned from the gray ventral surface. On the back 
the reddish yellow is quite dominating on the lumbar and sacral 
regions, and from there extending more or less forward, and on the 
tail, flanks, etc." 

"The differences, although slight, appear to indicate a separate 
geographic race or subspecies, which I name after the type locality 
Kibonoto." 

The above is the description given by the Author. From his 
quoting Pocock's description of L. albigularis and comparing his 
specimen with that only, it is to be inferred that he has no personal 
knowledge of that species and therefore is not able to speak with any 
certainty as to whether his examples are really different or not. L. 
albigularis has a very wide range and although it may not have been 
stated before to be a resident of Kilimanjaro, it has been taken in 
rather close proximity, such as the Nairobi forest, etc. It is difficult 
to ascertain, from the rather unsatisfactory description, whether this 
Kilimanjaro monkey is even subspecifically distinct from L. albigu- 
laris, but, not having seen it, I leave it with the rank its describer 
gave it. Unfortunately no mention was made of the measurements, 
or characters of skull or teeth. Herr Lonnberg gives the following 
short account of the animal: "This monkey is, according to Sjostedt, 
very common even in the rain forest. It lived in greater or small 
bands in dense forests in groups of trees and in the farms, and similar 
localities. When caught they remain wild for a long time and are 
difficult to tame, as they keep their angry disposition and are unre- 



368 LASIOPYGA 

liable. They are caught by the Wadshaggas in a kind of basket 
densely made of twigs and put in traps by sticks. These were placed 
on the ground in the farms where the monkeys lived and made heavy 
by stones put on them." 

Lasiopyga albigularis rufilata (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus albigularis ruiilatus Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1907, p. 702. 

Type locality. Rufiji River, south of Zanzibar. Type in British 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Like L. albigularis, but back and behind shoulders 
reddish orange yellow; no distinct white collar. 

Color. Head and face to nose speckled cream buff and black; 
dorsal area between shoulders speckled black and white ; rest of upper 
parts reddish orange and black speckled; flanks slightly paler; outer 
side of arms black speckled with white above elbow; hands black; 
outer side of legs dark gray speckled with white ; chin and throat buffy 
white; under parts of body smoky gray speckled with white; inner 
side of thighs buffy, unspeckled; feet black; tail like back at root, 
remainder jet black. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,870; tail 770. Skull: total length, 
101.8; occipito-nasal length, 80.8; intertemporal width, 38; Hensel, 
70.3 ; zygomatic width, 67.5 ; width of braincase, 54 ; median length of 
nasals, 19.1; palatal length, 25.7; length of upper molar series, 24.2; 
length of upper canines, 16.5 ; length of mandible, 75.5 ; length of lower 
molar series, 30.7. Ex type British Museum. 

This race is very close to the Nyassaland example, the only differ- 
ence to be seen between them is that the Rufiji River specimens are 
a little darker on the back, more reddish. 

Lasiopyga moloneyi (Sclater). 

Cercopithecus moloneyi Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 
252, pi. XVII; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1895, p. 74; 
Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, p. 789; 1897, p. 927; 
Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 704. 

MOLONEY'S GUENON. 

Type locality. Karonga, north end of Lake Nyassa, Portuguese 
East Africa. 

Geogr. Distr. Masuku Plateau, (A. Whyte) ; Nyassa-Tanganyika 
Plateau, (J. B. Yule) ; Nyassaland, Portuguese East Africa. 

Color. White band on the forehead over eyes mixed with black 



Plate 6 



Volume II 




LASIOHYCiA MOLONtYl 



LASIOPYGA 369 

hairs; top of head black speckled with buff; cheeks and sides of head 
speckled with white and black; upper part of back grayish white 
speckled black and white, darker than cheeks ; rest of upper parts 
reddish chestnut, the edges towards thighs lighter, a pale ochraceous 
rufous; flanks paler than upper back speckled with gray and black; 
shoulders and outer side of arms above elbow, and entire forearms 
and hands, black; inner side of arms above elbows, gray; chin and 
throat soiled white; entire under parts and inner side of thighs gray, 
speckled with black ; legs gray, white speckled ; feet black ; tail iron 
gray at base, some reddish hairs at root, remainder jet black; ears 
with yellowish white tufts. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,520; tail, 770; foot, 160. Skull: 
total length, 120; occipito-nasal length, 98.6; intertemporal width, 
43.2 ; Hensel, 82.5 ; zygomatic width, 79.5 ; width of braincase, 58.9 ; 
median length of nasals, 19.6; palatal length, 43.5; length of upper 
molar series, 27.1; length of upper canines, 16.5; length of mandible, 
86.5; length of lower molar series, 31.6. 

Lasiopyga Francesco (Thomas). 

Cercopithecus francescce Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., X, 1902, 
7th Sen, p. 243; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, 
p. 706. 

Type locality. Near Mt. Waller, western side of Lake Nyassa, 
high plateau. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Similar to L. preussi ; color of body darker and 
grayer. 

Color. Head, nape, shoulders, flanks and hips, dark blackish gray 
finely grizzled with whitish ; hairs along back dark slaty gray at base, 
then narrowly ringed with yellow, and banded with black and white ; 
inner border of ears bright reddish ; neck patch white, illy defined ; 
elbows and knees black above ; under parts dark gray with a few white 
rings ; tail like back at base, remainder dull black, speckled a short 
distance from root with white. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Type. Total length, 1,070; tail, 620. Xo skull. 

The type is an imperfect skin without skull or limbs below elbows 
and knees. It resembles somewhat L. preussi, but is blacker on head, 
neck and shoulders, much paler on under parts, and lower back inclin- 
ing more to yellow than red, quite a different coloring from L. preussi. 
The habitats of the two species are widely separated by the extent of a 
continent. Lake Nyassa, and Cameroon. 



370 



LASIOPYGA 



Lasiopyga preussi (Matschie). 

Cercopithecus preussi Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. 
Freunde, 1898, p. 76; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1904, p. 
186; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 706. 

Cercopithecus crossi Forbes, Nature, LXXII, 1905, p. 630. 

Type locality. Buea, Cameroon, West Africa. Type in Berlin 
Museum. 

Genl. Char. Back very dark ; shoulders and thighs speckled ; nose 
black. 

Color. Top and sides of head, neck, shoulders and thighs black, 
hairs tipped with white; back and sides grizzled cinnamon and black 
speckled ; forearms, legs, hands and feet black ; chin and throat white ; 
under parts black, hairs tipped with white ; tail at root like back, rest of 
upper parts black, all but apical portion speckled with white, beneath 
for two thirds the length iron gray, remainder black; face below eyes 
whitish, nose black. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,040; tail, 535. Skull: total length, 
97; occipito-nasal length, 83; intertemporal width, 40; Hensel, 63; 
zygomatic width, 64; median length of nasals, 18; length of upper 
molar series, 23 ; length of mandible, 64 ; length of lower molar series, 
27. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

This is a dark handsome species of subdued coloring, the con- 
spicuous part being the grizzled cinnamon back. 

Lasiopyga preussi insularis (Thomas). 

Cercopithecus preussi insularis Thos., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 8th 
Ser., V, 1910, p. 191. 

Type locality. N. Bantabiri, Island of Fernando Po, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Like L. preussi but darker. 

Color. Hairs on upper parts blackish slate at their bases for over 
half their length, then ringed with dull bufTy and tipped broadly with 
black. Tail at root chestnut. Young female. No dimensions given. 

It can hardy be considered that the subspecific distinctness of a 
Fernando Po race, has as yet been well established, the material, one 
immature female, being hardly sufficient. An examination of additional 
adult examples is desirable. 



Lasiopyga thomasi (Matschie). 

Cercopithecus thomasi Matschie, Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, 
Berlin, 1905, p. 262. 



LASIOPYGA 371 

Cercopithecus Vhoesti thomasi Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 
1907, p. 715. 

Type locality. Lake Kivu, between Lakes Albert Edward, and 
Tanganyika. Type in Berlin Museum. 

Genl. Char. Root of tail gray ; no speckling on limbs, nose black. 

Color. Top of head, neck, shoulders and flanks black, hairs ringed 
with white ; dorsal region tawny ochraceous to burnt sienna, the hairs 
being purplish gray on basal half, then ringed with black and tawny 
ochraceous, or burnt sienna tipped with the latter hue; shoulders, 
limbs, hands, feet, and under parts jet black; chin black; sides of head, 
neck, and throat to upper part of chest, white ; face below eyes covered 
with whitish hairs ; nose black. Ex type in Berlin Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,000; tail, 480. Skull: total length, 
90; occipito-nasal length, 82; Hensel, 50; intertemporal width, 40; 
zygomatic width, 60 ; median length of nasals, 13 ; length of upper molar 
series, 16; length of mandible, 55; length of lower molar series, 25. 
Ex type Berlin Museum. 

The skull is that of quite a young animal, the adult's would of 
course be of larger dimensions. 

Very like L. preussi, but the back is lighter and the shoulders and 
limbs are uniformly black, and the tail a lighter gray. 

Lasiopyga kandti (Matschie). 

Cercopithecus kandti Matschie, Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. 
Freunde, 1905, p. 264; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 
1907, p. 695. 

Type locality. Lake Kivu, between Lakes Tanganyika and Albert 
Edward. Type in Berlin Museum. 

Color. Top of head, and back of neck to between shoulders black ; 
hairs between shoulders tipped with ochraceous buff; sides of head, 
neck and throat, with the hairs purplish gray at base then ringed with 
black and buff, giving a speckled appearance; band across shoulders, 
chest, and arms black; body from shoulders to hips speckled buff 
yellow, the hairs being buff at base, then ringed with black and buff 
yellow ; front edge of thighs reddish ; thighs black, hairs tipped with 
buff, a spot above knee only, clear black ; hinder edge of thighs ochra- 
ceous rufous, becoming purplish red beneath tail ; under parts darker 
than upper parts, with a reddish tinge ; tail at base like back, remainder 
black, hairs tipped with white, these becoming fewer towards tip which 
is nearly pure black. Ex type Berlin Museum. 



372 LASIOPYGA 

Measurements. Body and head about 680; tail to end of hairs, 
845. No skull. Ex type Berlin Museum. 

The type is a mutilated skin with the fore part of head and lower 
part of arms and legs absent. It is an exceedingly handsome animal ; 
distinct from all others of the genus. 

Lasiopyga insignis (Elliot) . 

Cercopithecus insignis Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 1909, 8th 
Ser., p. 274. 

ORANGE-COLORED GUENON. 

Type locality. Congo forest, Central Africa. Type in Garden 
Royal Zool. Society, Antwerp, Belgium. 

Genl. Char. Fur long, loose, rather fluffy ; tail long ; colors bright. 

Color. Broad brow band, cheeks and whiskers, the latter bushy 
and reaching behind ears, yellow ; face blackish ; nose bluish white ; lips 
covered with white hairs ; chin and upper part of throat white ; top of 
head to nape, band across back to base of neck, shoulders, arms, hands, 
front of thighs from hips over knees and feet black ; entire upper parts 
from black back band to tail, flanks and under parts from throat to 
vent, and inner side of thighs dark orange ; tail at base reddish brown 
grading into black on apical half. 

Unique type living in the Royal Zoological Gardens at Antwerp, 
Belgium, 1909. 

Lasiopyga stairsi (Sclater). 

Cercopithecus stairsi Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1892, p. 580, 
pi. XL; 1893, pp. 252, 443, 612; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 
1894, p. 73 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 706. 

STAIRS' GUENON. 

Type locality. Delta of the Zambesi. 

Geogr. Distr. Zambesi Delta, Mozambique, East Africa. 

Genl. Char. Auricular region chestnut. 

Color. Eyelids white, face black about eyes where it is bare, lips 
covered with short white hairs; cheeks and side of head, hairs long, 
inclined backwards, speckled yellowish green; top of head speckled 
buff yellow and black ; hairs on forehead long, upright, speckled Naples 
yellow and black, some stiff black hairs mixed with the rest and usually 
much the longest; sides of head in front of and over ears chestnut, 
unicolor ; occipital region, hairs chestnut banded with ochraceous buff ; 
lower hind neck, and upper back and shoulders speckled yellow and 
black, the entire surface with a greenish tinge ; dorsal line ochraceous 



Plate 7 



Volume II 




Lasiopyga stairsi 



LASIOPYGA 373 

fading into ochraceous buff on lower rump, where there is a strong 
orange buff tinge; all hairs below upper back without annulations; 
sides of body buff yellow ; outer side of arms and hands speckled black 
and white ; outer side of thighs ashy gray, with a faint reddish tinge ; 
feet silver gray ; chin, throat, inner side of limbs, and entire under parts 
yellowish white ; tail at base above, and beneath like rump ; remainder 
dark gray with a brownish tinge or silvery according to the light; 
beneath silvery white. Ear apparently flesh color in the center, black 
on outer edge. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Head and body, 440; tail, imperfect, 330; foot, 
100, (skin). Skull: total length, 114.5; occipito-nasal length, 75.9; 
Hensel, 87.3; intertemporal width, 43.2; zygomatic width, 77.8; width 
of braincase, 55 ; median length of nasals, 18.4 ; palatal length, 44.6 ; 
length of upper tooth row, 26 ; length of mandible, 85 ; length of lower 
molar series, 33.5. Skull of an apparently adult male. Ex type British 
Museum. 

The type specimen is a young female, with the last two molars 
in each jaw not having yet made their appearance. The coloring of the 
fur and its distribution is the same in both adult and young, as may be 
gathered from the few specimens of different ages obtained thus far, 
but I have not seen an old individual. It is a handsome monkey and 
a very distinct species. 

Lasiopyga stairsi mossambicus (Pocock). 

Cercopithecus stairsi Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 612 ; 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, (Part). 

Cercopithecus stairsi mossambicus Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1907, p. 705. 

Type locality. Mozambique. Type in British Museum. 

Genl. Char. Like L. stairsi, but red on head, a patch above and 
in front of ear only ; hairs on thighs and back speckled. 

Color. Very like L. stairsi, but the red on the head is confined to 
a patch above and in front of the ear; upper parts and flanks are 
speckled with black and yellow ; unicolor hairs only appearing with the 
red ones at the root of the tail, where this color extends quite across 
the rump, and on to the base of the tail ; the arms are black, speckled 
with white on outer side, inner side grayish white only on forearms 
to just below elbows; hands black; legs grizzled iron gray, thus 
differing from the unicolor thighs of L. stairsi. Under parts of body 
and thighs grayish white; tail, (only about nine inches remaining 



374 



LASIOPYGA 



beyond the red at base) , is speckled black and buff ; forehead covered 
with long hairs banded with black and white, or black and buff ; top of 
head speckled yellow and black, yellow predominating. Ex type 
British Museum. 

Measurements. Head and body, 610; tail imperfect; foot, 125, 
(skin). 

Compared with L. stairsi, the type of L. s. mossambicus is a very 
much older animal, and a male. It is an open question whether L. 
stairsi male, equally adult, would not change the coloring as regards 
the speckling on back, and color of the speckling of thighs, which 
comprise the principal differences. 

The type of L. stairsi is a baby, and some of its ha^r, like that on 
the tail, is little better than down. It will be necessary to have old 
adults of both forms to compare, before it can be definitely determined 
that they are distinct. 



Lasiopyga rufitincta (Pocock) . 

Cercopithecus rufotinctus Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 
706. 

Cercopithecus stairsi Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 706. 

Type locality. British East Africa. (Mombassa?). 

Genl. Char. Top of head reddish, and cheeks washed with same. 

Color. Forehead, and top and sides of head before ears, speckled 
tawny ochraceous and black, giving to this part of the head a reddish 
appearance ; cheeks, and sides of head to beneath ears gray tinged with 
red; hind neck and upper part of back, speckled black and yellow, 
grading on to dorsal region into ochraceous rufous banded with black, 
the annulations disappearing at root of tail, where the color deepens 
to burnt sienna; shoulders black speckled with white, and extending 
on arms nearly to elbows ; forearms also black with a slight sprinkling 
of white along the inner edge; outer side of legs iron gray, grizzled; 
lips covered with short white hairs ; chin, throat, chest, under parts and 
inner side of limbs, grayish white; flanks speckled pale yellow and 
black; hands jet black; feet black, speckled with white; tail at base 
burnt sienna like lower rump, grading into grizzled buff and black, and 
then to black speckled with white. The tail is imperfect, 330 mm. long, 
probably half of the length gone. Ex type British Museum. 

Measurements. Head and body, 410; foot, 100, (skin). 

This monkey is next to L. s. mossambicus, but is redder on head 
and dorsal region. Its locality is farther from that form than is that 



LASIOPYGA 375 

of L. stairsi, indeed the habitats of that species, and of L. s. mos- 
sambicus are rather too near together to admit of two closely allied 
forms as distinct. L. ruHtincta is the handsomest of the three, and an 
adult male must be a fine animal. The type is about half grown. 



Lasiopyga labiata (I. Geoffroy) . 

Cercopithecus labiatus I. Geoff., Compt. Rend., XV, 1842, p. 1038 ; 
Id. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, II, 1843, p. 555 ; Id. Diet. 
Hist. Nat, III, 1849, p. 302; Id. Cat. Primates, 1851, p. 20; 
Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 256; Matschie, Sit- 
zungsb. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1893, p. 214; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 72; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1907, p. 707. 

Cercopithecus samango Sundev., Of v. K. Vet. Akad. Forh 
Stockh., I, 1844, p. 160; Peters, Reis. Mossamb., Saugth. 
1852, p. 4; Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 44 
Dahlb., Stud. Zool. Fam. Reg. Anim. Nat., fasc, I, 1856, pp 
103, 107; Reichenb., Vollstand. Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 110 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, p. 182 ; Id. Cat. Monkeys 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 24 
Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 79; Sclat., Proc. Zool 
Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 256; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894 
p. 71 ; W. L. Sclat, Mamm. S. Afr, I, 1900, pp. 7, 11. 

SAMANGO GUENON. 

Type locality. South Africa. Type in Paris Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. Eastern part of Cape Colony, King Williamstown 
District, ranging along east coast through Natal and Zululand to In- 
hambane; also Port St. John in Pongoland, (W. L. Sclater) ; Angola, 
(Peters). 

Color. Forehead and top of head black speckled with buff ; sides 
of face and neck dark gray speckled with yellowish white ; shoulders 
and upper back black and white speckled ; rest of upper parts and flanks 
pale gray, banded with cream color and black ; outer side of forearms, 
hands and feet, black ; outer side of legs grizzled gray and black ; chin, 
throat, under parts, and inner side of limbs grayish white ; tail above 
on basal third gray, a slight tinge of red on hairs at root above and 
below, beneath on basal third yellowish white, remainder jet black all 
around. Ex type Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,244.6; tail, 685.8; foot, 127. 



376 LASIOPYGA 

Subgenus 8. Pogonocebus. 

The members of this group are brightly colored, and noted for 
having a white and buff diagonal stripe across the thighs from the root 
of the tail. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

A. Stripe across thighs. 

a. Ochraceous rufous band across forehead. 

a! Upper parts speckled tawny ochraceou* and 

black L. neglecta. 

b! Upper parts speckled white and black, tail 

black L. brazzoe. 

b. Black band across forehead succeeded by a white 

one. 
a! Inner side of thighs and anal region bright 

bay L. diana. 

b! Inner side of thighs and anal region white 

or pale orange L. roloway. 

Lasiopyga neglecta (Schlegel). 

Cercopithecus leucampyx (nee Fischer), Gray, Cat. Monkeys, 
Lemurs and Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 22; ex 
White Nile. 
Cercopithecus neglectus Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simiae, 1876, p. 
70; Giglioli, Zool. Anz., X, 1887, p. 510; Sclat, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1893, pp. 253, 443, (in text of C. brazzoe) ; 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 75; Thos., Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1900, p. 801. 

SCHLEGEL' S GUENON. 

Type locality. White Nile. Locality unknown. Type in British 
Museum. 

Geogr. Distr. White Nile, Africa. 

Color. Head and feet lacking. A black front band at end of the 
flat skin, presumably hind portion of head; neck, shoulders and space 
between, tawny, ochraceous and black, basal portion of hairs ochra- 
ceous ; rest of upper parts, hairs brown and black, base of hairs gray ; 
skin of throat wanting ; under parts ochraceous buff and black, growing 
darker to middle of abdomen, which is brownish black ; arms apparently 
black, only a small portion remaining; thighs seal brown on outer 



LASIOPYGA 377 

edge, remaining portion speckled buff and tawny ochraceous, with a 
bright buff band crossing at base of tail ; inner side of thighs buff ; tail at 
root speckled, hair brown and black, remainder jet black. Ex specimen 
from the White Nile, (Petherick) ; Schlegel's type of L. neglecta, 
British Museum. 

In coloration this type is as different from what is ordinarily con- 
sidered to be L. neglecta as can be conceived. It has none of the 
gray color about it, and the general tint is more brown than any shade 
of gray. Dr. Gray described it as gray brown, but the gray on basal 
part of the hairs does not show through, and affects in no appreciable 
degree the general hue of the pelage. There are examples of so-called 
L. neglecta in the British Museum from the Omo River, the Charada 
forest and Kaffa, north of Lake Rudolf in the east, to the French 
Congo, and the Ja River in Cameroon, but none of them agree in 
color with the type, although they do with each other. Unless a gray 
Lasiopyga is obtained on the White Nile, to prove that the type of L. 
neglecta represents a stage of pelage unknown in so-called neglecta 
from other parts of Africa, it would seem that the only proper way 
will be, in the future, to restrict the name neglecta to this White Nile 
form, and the name for the gray animal would be L. brazz^e, conferred 
by A. Milne-Edwards upon the gray monkey from the Upper Congo, 
for it is impossible to recognize that form from a correct description of 
the type of L. neglecta. Mr. Pocock in his paper on Cercopithecus, 
(Lasiopyga), speaks of this type of Schlegel's among other examples 
from the Omo River and Kaffa, as the "typical form," but nowhere 
refers to it as The type of the species, and by uniting it to the examples 
from other localities, brings together individuals as different in coloring 
as can be imagined. 

I have not been able to find any skull belonging to the type. There 
is a young specimen of Lasiopyga in the British Museum, presumably 
from the Welle River, procured by the Alexander and Gosling Expedi- 
tion, which differs in color from all others and may be described as 
follows : 

Over each eye is a short black line composed of stiff hairs, and 
between these and over the nose is a cream buff line of short hairs; 
across the forehead is a band, broadest in the middle, ochraceous 
rufous ; rest of head above speckled black and cream buff, base of hairs 
purplish gray ; sides of head and face speckled gray and yellow, the 
latter predominating ; upper parts of body gray, speckled with brown 
and pale yellow ; rump purplish gray ; outer side of thighs purplish gray 



378 



LASIOPYGA 



like the rump, with a narrow cinnamon rufous, or hazel band covering 
the upper part to root of tail ; outer side of arms black to wrists ; hands 
sooty ; feet yellowish gray ; entire under parts, and inner side of limbs 
white ; upper edge of thigh from above knee, black speckled with buff ; 
tail at base cinnamon rufous like band on thighs, remainder brownish 
black. It will be readily seen that in many ways this example differs 
from both neglecta and brazz^e. There is no black line on head 
behind the ochraceous rufous one, there is no clear gray and black on 
the upper parts ; the band across thigh is cinnamon rufous, not white 
nor buff; and the back of the tail is like the thigh band, not like the 
upper parts, and the entire under parts are white. The animal has been 
kept in captivity, the hair about the loins being worn by the chain or 
rope which held it. 

It is desirable to obtain adults from this district when the proper 
specific standing of the animal could be accurately ascertained, but 
there have been already too many names given to half grown captive 
specimens, a practice more fruitful in creating confusion than pro- 
ducing valid species, therefore I merely desire to draw attention to this 
example. 



Lasiopyga erazzje (A. Milne-Edwards) . 

Cercopithecus brazzce A. Milne-Edwards, Rev. Scient, XII, 1886, 

p. 15 ; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, pp. 255, 443, pi. 

XXXII ; Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1895, p. 81 ; Pousarg., 

Ann. Scien. Nat. Paris, III, 1896, 7me Ser, p. 216. 
Cercopithecus neglectus (nee Schleg.), Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field 

Columb. Mus., F. C. M. Pub, VIII, 1906, p. 569, Zool. Ser. 
Cercopithecus neglectus brazziformis Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1907, p. 687. 
Cercopithecus neglectus (nee Schleg.), Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond, II, 1907, pp. 685, 686, figs. 180, 181. 
Cercopithecus ezree Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, 1908, p. 158, 

pi. X, fig. 2, juv. 

DE BRAZZA'S GUENON. 

Type locality. French Congo, West Africa. Type in Paris Mu- 
seum. 

Geogr. Distr. French Congo to Cameroon, West Africa. 

Color. Ochraceous rufous band across forehead broadest in 
the center, succeeded by a broad black band which extends to the 
ears on sides of head ; rest of head above and on sides, neck, shoulders, 
upper part and sides of body, and upper part of thighs, with the hairs 



Volume II 



Plate 8 




Lasiopvga brazz/e 



LASIOPYGA 379 

ringed with black and white, giving a gray appearance speckled with 
white ; a narrow white stripe across thigh from knee ; black patch over 
knee ; thigh below white line, and hind part of leg, blackish gray ; front 
part of leg grizzled gray ; a black line bordered outwardly by a yellow- 
ish white line from shoulders to below elbows; forearms from just 
above elbows, hands and feet above ankles, black; space around eyes, 
and upper part of nose black ; tip of nose, lips, sides of under jaw, chin, 
beard and throat, white; chest and abdomen black; tail like back at 
root, rest black. Ex type in Paris Museum. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,295 .4; tail, 685.8; foot, 171.4. 
Skull: total length, 116; occipito-nasal length, 97; Hensel, 80; zygo- 
matic width, 79 ; intertemporal width, 46 ; palatal length, 44 ; breadth of 
braincase, 61 ; median length of nasals, 23 ; length of upper molar 
series, 27; length of mandible, 81 ; length of lower molar series, 35. 

In his paper on Cercopithecus, (Lasiopyga), Mr. Pocock sep- 
arates a specimen from the French Congo, as L. n. brazziformis, on 
account of the legs to ankles being a pale grayish green instead of a 
blackish olive. In the series obtained by Mr. Bates on the River Ja, in 
Cameroon, and all of which Mr. Pocock states he could not dis- 
tinguish specifically from his L. neglecta, (L. brazz^e), is an example 
with legs colored precisely like the one from the French Congo. This 
last is not sexed, but the one from Cameroon is marked female. It 
may be possible that the color of the legs may be attributed to sex, but 
the fact that both styles of coloring were found in individuals taken in 
the same place in Cameroon, would indicate that the difference in hue 
in the legs was not a specific character, but must be attributed to some 
other cause, such as age or sex, or possibly to individual variation. I 
have therefore placed brazzceformis among the synonyms of L. brazz.e. 

Mr. Pocock described in the Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1908, p. 158, 
pi. X, fig. 2, a young animal without locality or history as C. ezrcc, and 
which differs from L. brazz^e in not having the black on the hinder 
part of the head, and the outer side of the limbs, hands, and feet not 
yet jet black. The specimen is so young, and its pelage so affected by 
captivity (the hair on the loins having all been worn away by the rope 
or chain that held it, and the tail having lost all its hair, except a little 
at the root), that it makes a most unsatisfactory type for a distinct 
form, and it is to be regretted that such specimens should ever be 
selected to be the unique representative of a new species. At present 
it can only be surmised what the full grown animal would look like, but 
probably it might be recognizable from L. brazzcc by having the head 



380 LASIOPYGA 

from the red frontal band colored like the back. This is, however, only 
a surmise, and it is more probable that it will prove to be the young of 
L. brazz^e, as I have supposed is really the fact. 

Measurements. Total length, 697; tail, 367; foot, 90, (skin). 
Ex type Garden Zool. Soc. Lond. 

Lasiopyga diana (Linnseus). 

Simla diana Linn., Syst. Nat., I, 1758, p. 26 ; I, 1766, p. 38; Schreb., 
Saugth., I, 1775, p. 94, pi. XIV; Gmel., Syst. Nat., I, 1788, 
p. 32. 
Cercopithecus diana Erxl., Syst. Reg. Anim., 1777, p. 30; Wagn., 
Schreb., Saugth. Suppl., V, 1855, p. 48 ; Reichenb., Vollstand. 
Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 107, figs. 263, 267 ; Forbes, Handb. 
Primates, II, 1894, p. 79; Jentink, Notes Leyd. Mus., 1898, 
p. 237; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, pp. 682, 683, pi. 
XLI, fig. 1 ; Thos., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1911, p. 127. 
Cercopithecus diana var. ignita Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and 

Fruit-eating Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 22. 
Cercopithecus diana ignitus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, 

p. 255 ; Johnst, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1905, p. 191. 
Type locality. Unknown. 

Geogr. Distr. Liberia, very common, (Johnstone) ; West Africa. 
Genl. Char. Beard short, front hairs black; ears tufted; inner 
side of thighs bright bay. 

Color. Top of head, nape, neck, upper part of back and sides 
of body iron gray ; a broad chestnut red band from middle of back to 
root of tail ; a white or whitish crescentic band on forehead above eyes, 
edged in front with a line of stiff black hairs ; face covered with black 
hairs; sides of head, reaching to angle of the mouth, and on sides of 
neck to shoulders, and extending to elbows on inner side of arms, 
beard, (except front hairs at base which are black), throat and upper 
part of chest, pure white ; outer sides of arms to elbow, black, with very 
few white specks, forearm black, thickly speckled on outer side with 
white; rather broad white, or yellowish white band from knee across 
thigh to base of tail ; outer side of legs black ; upper edge of thigh from 
knee black, minutely speckled with white ; inner side of thigh, and leg 
half way below knee, and anal region bright bay ; hands and feet black ; 
tail chestnut and black mixed at root, rest black to tip. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,275; tail, 820; foot, 130. Skull: 
total length, 97.6 ; occipito-nasal length, 83 ; intertemporal width, 42.8 ; 
Hensel, 67.6; zygomatic width, 62.4; median length of nasals, 13.6; 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE XXXVII 




L.ASIOPYGA ROLOWAY. 

SIDE VIEW HEVER8E0. 

\ . 75.4.30.1. Brit. Mus. ( oil. '.-. Nat. Size. 



VOLUME II. 



PLATE XXXIX. 




L.ASIOPYGA DIANA (IMMATURE! 

No. 122787 r. S Nat. Mua. Coll. ■»., Nat. Size. 



LASIOPYGA 381 

palatal length, 35.6 ; length of upper canines, 14.S ; length of mandible, 
68; length of lower molar series, 29.6. 

Since Linnaeus described the present species, the name which he 
gave to it, diana, has been conferred upon the wrong animal by nearly 
all writers. Dr. Jentink, (1. c.) however, in his paper corrected the 
error that existed for so long a time, and proved that true diana was 
the monkey with a short beard, black at the base and white at the ends, 
that it had tufted ears, and the inner side of the thighs, and anal region 
bright bay; the one named L. roloway, heretofore called diana by 
many mammalogists, is the monkey with a long pure white beard, and 
the inner side of thighs white or pale orange, and the ears without 
tufts. 

Lasiopyga roloway (Erxleben). 

Cercopithecus rolozvay Erxl., Syst. Regn. Anim., 1777, p. 42 ; 
Fisch., Syn. Mamm, 1829, p. 20; Reichenb., Vollstand. 
Naturg. Affen, 1862, p. 107; Jent., Notes Leyd. Mus., 1898, 
p. 237; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1907, p. 683 ; Id. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., II, 1907, p. 683, fig. 179. 

Simia roloway Bodd., Elench. Anim., 1784, p. 60. 

La Roloway, ou La Palatine Buff., Hist. Nat., Suppl., XV, 1789, 
p. 77. 

La Diane Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes et Makis, 1797, Fam. I\ , Sec. 
II, pi. VI, "cuisses, couleur orangee." 

Simia diana (nee Linn.), Shaw, Genl. Zool., I, 1820, p. 38, fig. 

Cercopithecus diana (nee Linn.), Desm., Mamm., 1820, p. 60; 
Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., 1820, p. 2; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1868, p. 182; Id. Cat. Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats, Brit. Mus., 1870, p. 22; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, Simia, 
1876, p. 92; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 254; 
Forbes, Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 79, (Part.) ; Pousarg., 
Ann. Scien. Nat., I, 8me Ser., 1896, p. 266. 

Cercopithecus palatinus Wagn., Schreb., Saugth. Suppl.. V. 1855, 
p. 47; Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 257; Matschie, 
Sitzungsb. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, 1893, p. 215; Forbes, 
Handb. Primates, II, 1894, p. 81. 

PALATINE GUENON. 

Type locality. Guinea. 
Geogr. Distr. Gold Coast, West Africa. 

Genl. Char. Similar to L. diana. but with a long white beard, and 
inner side of thighs white or pale orange instead of bright bay. 



382 LASIOPYGA 

Color. A narrow black line on forehead over eyes composed of 
long stiff hairs, succeeded by a narrow white line of stiff hairs, which 
like the black ones stand erect, and extend around the head to the 
temples. Sides of head, sides of nose, and top of head, jet black, 
speckled sparsely on crown with white ; a broad reddish chestnut band 
covers dorsal region from shoulders to base of tail; rest of upper 
parts black, thickly speckled with white; outer side of arms, hands, 
feet, tail, lower part of breast, and abdomen jet black; inner side of 
forearms speckled with white; hairs on sides of head long, turning 
upward towards top of head, those beneath and behind ears long, 
directed backward, and all these together with inner side of arms, 
throat, beard, upper part of chest, and narrow line across thighs, white ; 
lower parts of abdomen and inner side of thigh white, or pale orange ; 
chin black; some hairs reaching the base of the beard, forming a 
narrow line. 

Measurements. Total length, 1,267; tail, 755; foot, 135. Skull: 
total length, 112.8; occipito-nasal length, 92.5; Hensel, 77.9; zygomatic 
width, 73.1; intertemporal width, 46.2; width of braincase, 62.4; 
median length of nasals, 22.5 ; palatal length, 43.6 ; length of upper 
molar series, 26.7 ; length of mandible, 83.5 ; length of lower molar 
series, 34.1. 

The following species is unknown to me, and no specimen resem- 
bling it is in the Leyden Museum: 

Cercopithecus temmincki Ogilby, Libr. Entert. Knowl., Menag., 

1838, p. 346; Sclat, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 258. 
Type locality. Guinea? Type not in Leyden Museum. 

"Head, back and cheeks are ash colored, slightly mixed with brown 
on the hips and rump, the hairs being everywhere annulated with white, 
and thus partially speckled ; the arms, forearms, thighs, legs and paws 
are black ; the whole of the chin and throat, pure unmixed white ; the 
cheeks, whiskers, and head grizzled ash, like the back and sides; the 
face apparently grayish blue and the belly ash colored. The tail is 
about the length of the body, but has lost the greater part of the hair ; 
what remains, however, is of the same color as the body." 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES. 

VOLUME II. 



Numbers in heavy type indicate the page on which is the description of the 
Species. 



Page 

adusta (Macaca) 185, 206 

adustus (Pithecus) 

185, 186, 188.. 206, 207 
aegyptiaca (Hamadryas) . . . 122, 144.146 
sethiopicus (Cercopithecus) 

256, 258, 260, 281 

.Ethiops 275 

aethiops (Cercocebus) 

255.. 256, 257, 258, 259, 260 
261, 262, 263, 279, 281. 284 

aethiops (Cercocebus) Pithecus 260 

aethiops (Cercopithecus) 

257, 260. 279., 281 
284, 290, 292, 336 

aethiops Cercopithecus (Cercoce- 
bus) 260 

aethiops (Lasiopyga) 281 

aethiops (Simia) 

255, 256, 261, 263, 278, 279, 281, 337 

affinis (Macacus r.) 202 

affinis (Macacus s.) 202 

agilis (Cercocebus) ..257,258,259,264 
agnatus (Pithecus) ...185,186,190,243 

alacer (Pithecus) 185,187,189,226 

albibarbatus (Papio) 178 

albibarbatus (Pithecus) 

119, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182 
183, 184, 186, 188, 209, 218, 220 

albibarbatus (Simia) 184. 220 

albibarbatus Simia (Cercopithe- 
cus) 218 

albibarbatus Simia (Cercopithe- 
cus) silenus 177. 218 

albibarbatus Simia (Cercopithe- 
cus) veter 1 77, 218 

albifrons (Ateles) 24, 25, 35, 44 

albifrons (Ateleus) 24,25,45 



Page 
albifrons (Cebus) 

68,69.70,71,72,73,74.75 
77,78,82,85,88,89.98,111 

albifrons (Calyptrocebus) Cebus 88 

albifrons (Simia) 88 

albigena (Cercocebus) 
256, 257, 258, 259, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270 

albigena (Presbytis) 256.266 

albigena (Semnocebus) 266 

albigularis (Cercopithecus) 

273, 284, 285, 286, 310. 363, 365 
albigularis (Lasiopyga) 

281, 282, 283, 284, 286, 287, 288, 291 

293, 295, 3ii, 359, 363, 365, 367 
albigularis (Semnopithecus) 

281,363,364 
albitorquata (Lasiopyga) 

288, 291, 292, 296, 359, 360, 361, 362 
albitorquatus (Cercopithecus) .288. 360 
albitorquatus (Lasiopyga) ....362,366 

albulus Simia (Sapajus c.) 67, 82 

albus (Cebus) 68. 70, 72, 93 

albus (Calyptrocebus) Cebus 93 

alexandri (Cercopithecus t.) 332 

alexandri (Lasiopyga t.).. .295, 325. 332 

Allochrocebus 206. 297 

andamanensis (Macacus) 

182, 183, 186, 188,208 
andamanensis (Pithecus) 

183, 184, 186, 188,208,209 

annelatus (Cebus) 73. 7-1. Bo 

ansorgei (Lasiopyga) 292 

Anthropoidea 1 

antiguensi^ | ( lebtts) 69 

anubis (Cynocephalus) ...119,121,122 
anubis (Papio) 

117, 118, no. i2i, 122, 1 23. 132 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

anubis (Papio n.) 122, 123 

anubis (Simia) 119 

Aotes 1 

Aotinae 1 

Actus 1, 2, 3, 14 

Aotus azarse 11 

Aotus boliviensis 3, 4, 5, 9, 11 

Aotus felinus 2, 7 

Aotus griseimembra 3, 4, 5, 15 

Aotus gularis 3, 4. 5, 18 

Aotus infulatus. .2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 7, 15, 17, 18 

Aotus lanius 3. 4, 5, 12, 19 

Aotus microdon 3,4, 5, 18 

Aotus miriquouina 2, 3. 4. 5, 9, 10, 11, 12 

Aotus nigriceps 3, 4, 8, 18 

Aotus oseryi 2, 3, 4, 5, 17 

Aotus roberti 3, 4, 5, 10 

Aotus rufipes 3. 4.. 5, 9, 20 

Aotus senex 3, 4, 8 

Aotus spixi 3, 4, 5, 19 

Aotus trivirgatus 2, 4, 5, 7. 16, 20 

Aotus vociferans . . .2, 3, 4, 5. 13, 16. 20 

apedia (Papio) 118, 177 

apedia (Simia) 177 

apella (Cebus) 
66, 67, 68, 69.. 70.. 7i, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77 
78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 94, 95, 103, 112 

apella (Calyptrocebus) Cebus 80 

apella (Simia) 66,67.74,78,79,83 

apiculatus (Cebus) . ..76, 77, 78, 85, 100 
apoensis (Cynomolgos m.) . . . .250, 252 
apoensis (Pithecus p.). 185, 187, 190, 250 

arabicus (Papio) 147 

arabicus (Papio h.) 122,124.. 125, 147 

arachnoides (Ateles) . . .22.. 24, 26, 49, 50 

arachnoides (Ateleus) 22,24,26 

arachnoides (Brachyteles) ...22,50,51 

arachnoides (Brachyteleus) 49 

arachnoides (Cebus) 23.51 

arachnoides (Eriodes) 24,50.51 

arctoides (Macacus) 

179.. 180, 181, 183. 184, 191, 192, 193 

arctoides (Pithecus) 191 

arctoides (Pithecus) Macacus 191 

arctoideus (Inuus) 180,181,191 

ascanius (Cercopithecus) 

284,286,303,306,318 



Page 
ascanius (Lasiopyga) 

278, 281.. 282, 284, 285, 286, 287.. 288 

289, 292, 296, 298, 303, 304, 305 

ascanius (Simia) 279,303 

assamensis (Inuus) 210 

assamensis (Macacus) 

179, 182, 183, 184. 209, 211, 214 

assamensis (Papio r.) 209 

assamensis (Pithecus) 

180., 181, 182, 186, 188, 209, 211, 213 

Ateles 24, 25, 30, 32, 2,7, 4$, 49 

Ateles albif rons 25, 35, 44 

Ateles ater 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30 

Ateles arachnoides .... 22, 24. 26, 49, 50 

Ateles bartletti 25, 31 

Ateles belzebuth ...23,24,25,26,27,39 

Ateles chuva 25, 31, 38 

Ateles cinerascens 38 

Ateles cucullatus 25, 27, 38 

Ateles frontatis 35 

Ateles frontatus 24 

Ateles fuliginosus 23, 26, 40 

Ateles fusciceps 25, 27, 43 

Ateles geoffroyi 

23.24,25,26,27,31,32,44 

Ateles grisescens 25, 27, 37 

Ateles hybridus 23,24,25,26,27,47 

Ateles hypoxanthus . . .23, 24, 26, 49, 50 
Ateles marginatus 

23,24.25,27,31,32,34,35 

Ateles melanochir 23, 24, 25, 44, 46 

Ateles m. var. frontatus 44 

Ateles ornatus 25, 44 

Ateles pan 26, 27, 41, 42 

Ateles paniscus . .22, 23. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 
Ateles pentadactylus 

22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29 

Ateles rufiventris 25, 26, 27, 36 

Ateles subpentadactylus 23, 28 

Ateles variegatus 

23,24,25,26,27,31,32 
Ateles vellerosus ..25,26,36,40,41,42 
Ateleus . . .21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 41, 49, 64 

Ateleus albif rons 24, 25, 45 

Ateleus ater 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 30 

Ateleus arachnoides 22,24,26 

Ateleus bartletti 25 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
Ateleus belzebuth 

23, 24, 25, 26.. 27, 39, 41. 42 

Ateleus charnek 24 

Ateleus chuva 25 

Ateleus cucullatus 25, 27, 38 

Ateleus fuliginosus 23, 26, 41 

Ateleus fusciceps 25, 27, 43 

Ateleus geoffroyi 23. 24, 25, 26, 27, 44. 45 

Ateleus grisescens 25,27,37,38,39 

Ateleus hybridus ... 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 47 

Ateleus hypoxanthus 23,24,26 

Ateleus marginatus ....23,24.25,27.34 
Ateleus melanochir ...23,24,25,45,46 

Ateleus ornatus 25, 45 

Ateleus pan 26, 27, 41 

Ateleus paniscus 

22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30 
Ateleus pentadactylus 22, 23, 24, 25, 29 

Ateleus rufiventris 25,26,27,36 

Ateleus subpentadactylus 23 

Ateleus variegatus .23,24.25,26,27,31 

Ateleus vellerosus 25, 40, 41 

Atelocheirus 21 

ater ( Ateles) 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30 

ater (Ateleus 23, 24, 25, 26. 27, 30 

ater (Cebus) 23, 30 

ater (Sapajou) 30 

aterrimus (Cercocebus) 

257, 258, 259, 267, 268. 270, 272 
aterrimus (Cercopithecus) ....257,270 

atys (Cercocebus) 178, 255, 256, 262 

atys (Simia) 179 

audeberti (Cynomolgos) 181 

audeberti (Zati) Cynamolgos.. 181, 222 
audeberti (Cynamolgos) sinicus. . .222 

aureus (Inuus) 179, 230 

aureus (Macacus) 

179, 180, 181, 182,230,231 

aurora (Cercopithecus 1.) 3 12 

aurora (Lasiopyga) 294,307,312 

aygula (Cynamolgos) 181 

azarae (Aotus) n 

azarae (Cebus) 

69, 70, 7i, 72, 73, 77, 78, 106. 107, 109 

azarae (Otocebus) Cebus 107 

azarae (Nyctipithecus) 3,11 

azarae Simia (Pithecus) 2. 1 1 



Page 
babuin (Cynocephalus) 

119, 120, 121, 122, 126, 137, 139. 140 

babuin (Papio) 120, 121, 123, 138 

barbatus (Cebus) 

67,68,69.7i,72,75,93-94 
barbatus (Calyptrocebus) Cebus.... 93 

bartletti (Ateles) 25, 31 

bartletti (Ateleus) 25 

baweanus (Pithecus) . . 185, 187, 190. 241 

beirensis (Cercopithecus a.) 366 

beirensis (Lasiopyga) 291 

beirensis (Lasiopyga a.) . .295, 359. 366 
belzebuth (Ateles) . .23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 39 
belzebuth (Ateleus) 

23,24,25.26,27.39,41,42 

belzebuth (Simia) 40 

bintangensis (Pithecus) 

185, 187, 190,246,247,248 

boliviensis (Aotus) 3,4.5,9.11 

boutourlini (Cercopithecus") ...286,310 
boutourlini (Lasiopyga) 

286, 287, 289, 291, 294, 307, 310 

Brachyteles 24, 25, 49 

Brachyteles arachnoides 22, 50. 51 

Brachyteles hypoxanthus 50 

Brachyteles macrotarsus 49. 50, 52 

Brachyteleus 23, 24. 25, 26, 49, 50 

Brachyteleus arachnoides ....24.40.50 

Brachyteleus hypoxanthus 24 

brachyurus (Macacus) 181 

brachyurus (Maimon) Pithecus ...205 

brachyurus (Pithecus) 185,216,217 

brazzae (Cercopithecus) ,178 

brazzae (Lasiopyga) 

287, 289, 291, 295, 323 

3/6, 377, 378, 379, 380 

brazziformes (Cercopithecus) ..291, 378 

brazziformes (Lasiopyga n.) 379 

brevicaudus (Pithecus) 

185, 187, 188,216, 217 

brissoni (Cebus) 23. 40. 70. 03 

broca (Macaca) 185, 205 

brockmani (Papio) 123,125.147 

brocus (Pithecus) 185, 206 

brunescens (Cynopithecus) 168 

brunescens ( Inuus) Papio 107 

brunneus (Macacus) 191. 192 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

budgetti (Cercopithecus L.) . . .329 

budgetti (Lasiopyga) 292, 294 

budgetti (Lasiopyga t.) 

325,329,331,332 

buffoni (Cebus) 70, 102 

burnetti (Cercopithecus) . . 282, 284, 353 
burnetti (Lasiopyga) 

282, 292, 295, 349, 353 

buttikof eri (Cercopithecus) 286, 302 

buttikoferi (Cercopithecus p.) 302 

buttikoferi (Lasiopyga) 

286, 287. 288, 292, 295, 298, 302 

cagayanus (Cynomolgos) 250 

cagayanus (Pithecus) 185, 187, 190.. 251 

caliginosus (Cebus) 76.. 77, 78, 112 

callida (Lasiopyga) 294, 326, 343 

callida (Lasiopyga p.) 294. 343 

Callithrix infulatus 2, 5, 6 

callitrichus (Cercopithecus) 

283, 285, 286.. 333 
callitrichus (Lasiopyga) 

285, 287, 292, 295, 325, 333, 334,335 

Calyptrocebus 64 

campbelli (Cercopithecus) 

284, 285, 286, 287, 352 
campbelli (Lasiopyga) 

281, 287, 292, 295, 349, 352, 353, 
cana (Lagothrix) . .53, 54, 55, 56, 60, 61 

cana (Simia) 55, 60 

caparro (Lagothrix) • • 54, 57, 61 

capillatus (Cebus) 73, 74, 97 

capitalis (Pithecus) . . . 185, 186, 189, 235 

capucina (Simia) . . .64, 66, 67, 74, 82.. 83 

capucinus (Cebus) 

46, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 7& 

78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 95, 98 

carbonaria (Simia) 179 

carbonarius (Macacus) 

179, 180, 181, 182, 230, 231, 232 
carimatae (Pithecus) 

185, 187, 190, 235, 240 

carpolegus (Simia) 178, 205 

carruthersi (Lasiopyga) 

291,294,307,315 

carruthersi (Cercopithecus s.) 315 

castaneus (Cebus) . .71, 72, 75, 76, 78, 94 
castelnaui (Lagothrix) 54, 55, 62 



Page 

cayennensis (Cebus) 23 

cayennensis (Cebus p.) 28 

Cebidae 1 

Cebinae 21 

Cebus 23, 54, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72, 74 
83,84,90,91,92,112,274 
Cebus albifrons 

68, 69, 70, 71, 72 f 73, 74, 75, 77 

78,82,85,88,89,98,111 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) albifrons... .88 

Cebus albus 68, 70, 72, 93 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) albus 93 

Cebus annellatus 73, 74.80 

Cebus antiguensis 69 

Cebus apella 
66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77 
78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 94, 95, 103, 112 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) apella 80 

Cebus apiculatus 76, 77, 78, 85, 100 

Cebus arachnoides 23, 51 

Cebus ater 23, 30 

Cebus azarae 

69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 77, 78, 106, 107, 109 

Cebus (Otocebus) azarae 107 

Cebus azarae pallidus 

77, 78, 106, 107, 108, 109 
Cebus barbatus . .67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 93, 94 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) barbatus 93 

Cebus brissoni 23, 40, 93 

Cebus brissonii 70 

Cebus buffoni 69, 70, 102 

Cebus caliginosus 76, 77, 78, 112 

Cebus capillatus 73, 74, 97 

Cebus capucinus 
46, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 7$ 
78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 95, 98 
Cebus capucinus nigripectus 

76, 77, 78, 86 
Cebus castaneus ...71,72,75,76,78,94 

Cebus cayennensis .23 

Cebus chamek 28 

Cebus chrysopus 

68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77, 78, 99 
Cebus (Calyptrocebus) chrysopus... 98 
Cebus cirrifer 

67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75 

77, 78, 87, 102, 103, 109, in 

Cebus (Otocebus) cirrifer no 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
Cebus crassiceps 

72,77,78,86,97,111,112 

Cebus (Eucebus) crassipes in 

Cebus cristatus 69, 70, 72, 1 10 

Cebus (Otocebus) cristatus no 

Cebus cucullatus ...68,70,71,72,06,08 

Cebus (Eucebus) cucullatus 93 

Cebus elegans 71, 72, 73, 107, 108 

Cebus (Otocebus) elegans 107 

Cebus f allax 75, 80, 82 

Cebus fatuellus 
67, 68, 69.. 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 79, 81 

84,100,102,103,104,105,110,113 

Cebus (Otocebus) fatuellus 103 

Cebus f. peruanus 75, 77, 78. 104 

Cebus f elinus 5 

Cebus fistulator 72 

Cebus (Eucebus) fistulator 103 

Cebus flavescens 73, 74, 91, 92 

Cebus f . cuscinus 76, 92 

Cebus flavus 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 75, 77 
78, 84, 93, 94, 100 

Cebus (Pseudocebus) flavus 93 

Cebus frontatus 

68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 77, 78, 86, 87 

Cebus (Otocebus) frontatus 86,87 

Cebus fuliginosus 23. 40 

Cebus fulvus 68, 70, 72, 93 

Cebus geofTroyi 23 

Cebus gracilis 

68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 76, 88, 89, 91 
Cebus (Calyptrocebus) gracilis ....88 

Cebus griseus 68, ,69, 72, 79 

Cebus (Eucebus) griseus 79 

Cebus hypoleucus ..46,68,69,70,71,72 

73, 74, 75, 80. 82. 83, 84 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) hypoleucus.. 82 

Cebus hypomelas 72, 79, 81 , 82 

Cebus hypoxanthus 23, 51 

Cebus imitator 83. 84 

Cebus lacepedii 7- 

Cebus lagothrix 57 

Cebus leucocephalus 73,74,88.89 

Cebus leucogenys 73. 74, 1 10 

Cebus libidinosus 

68. 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75. 77, 78, 101 
Cebus (Calyptrocebus) libidinosus 101 
Cebus lunatus 68. 69. 70, 72, 87 



Page 

Cebus (Otocebus) lunatus 86 

Cebus macrocephalus 

68, 69, 70, 72, 77. 78, 104 
Cebus (Eucebus) macrocephalus.. . 104 

Cebus malitiosus 76. 77, 78, 98 

Cebus marginatus 23 

Cebus monachus ...68.69,70,71,72,06 

Cebus (Eucebus) monachus 96 

Cebus niger 68, 69, 72, 75, 1 10, 1 1 1 

Cebus (Otocebus) niger no 

Cebus nigrivittatus 70,71,72, 70 

Cebus olivaceus 70,71,72.79 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) olivaceus. . .80 

Cebus pallidus 73. 74. 108 

Cebus paniscus 28 

Cebus p. cayennensis 28 

Cebus p. surinamensis 28 

Cebus paraguayensis 69, 72 

Cebus (Calyptrocebus) paraguayen- 

sis 79 

Cebus pentadactylus 

Cebus pucherani 79 

Cebus robustus 

68, 69. 70. 71, 72, 73, 74, 95. 104. 113 

Cebus (Eucebus) robustus 06 

Cebus subcristatus 73, 74. 96, 97 

Cebus surinamensis 23 

Cebus trepidus 67, 69. 72 

Cebus trivirgatus 16 

Cebus unicolor 

68, 69, 70, 72. 73, 74- 75. 76, 77, 78, 91, 92 

Cebus (Pseudocebus) unicolor qi 

Cebus u. cuscinus 77, 78. 92 

Cebus variegatus 

68,69,70,71,72,73.74.75,77 
78.87,91.95,97,08. 104. 113 

Cebus (Eucebus) variegatus 93 

Cebus vellerosus 

71.72.73.74.77.78,113 

Cebus (Otocebus) vellerosus 113 

Cebus versicolor 70. 7 1 , 72. 88, 89 

Cebus versuta 76,77, 78. 105, 109 

Cebus vociferans 13 

Cebus xanthocephalus 

68,69,70,71.73.74,96,08 
Cebus xanthosternos ..68,69,70.71.05 
centralis (Cercopithecus) 289.344.346 
centralis (Cercopithecus a.) 344 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
centralis (Lasiopyga) 

289, 292, 294, 326, 343 
344, 345, 346, 347 

cephaloptera (Presbytis) 220 

cephaloptera (Pygathrix) 181 

cephodes (Cercopithecus) 321 

cephodes (Lasiopyga) 292, 296, 319.. 321 
cephus (Cercopithecus) 

277. 282, 284, 285. 286, 320 
cephus (Lasiopyga) 

278. 279, 280, 281, 283, 287, 289 
292, 295, 319, 321, 322, 323 

cephus (Simia) 278, 319 

Cercocebus 

178, 180, 183, 254, 255, 256.. 257 
259, 263, 269, 274, 284.. 337 

Cercocebus aethiopicus 258 

Cercocebus aethiops 

255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260 
261, 262, 263, 279, 281, 284 

Cercocebus agilis 257, 258, 259, 264 

Cercocebus albigena 

256, 257, 258, 259, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270 
Cercocebus (Semnocebus) albigena 266 
Cercocebus a. johnstoni 

258, 259, 267, 268, 272 

Cercocebus a. rothschildi 258, 270 

Cercocebus a. zenkeri 258, 259, 269 

Cercocebus aterrimus 

257, 258, 259, 267, 268, 270, 272 

Cercocebus atys 178, 255, 256, 262 

Cercocebus chrysogaster. .258, 259, 264 

Cercocebus collaris 256, 257, 260 

Cercocebus congicus. .257, 258, 270, 271 
Cercocebus cynomolgos ... 178, 183, 229 
Cercocebus fuliginosus 

254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 261, 264, 281 
Cercocebus galeritus. . 257, 258, 259, 265 
Cercocebus hagenbecki . . .258, 259, 265 
Cercocebus hamlyni . .258, 270, 271, 295 

Cercocebus jamrachi 258, 267, 268 

Cercocebus lunulatus 

256, 257, 258, 259, 263 

Cercocebus pileatus 183, 223 

Cercocebus radiatus 178, 221 

Cercocebus sinicus . . . 178, 183, 222, 223 
Cercocebus torquatus 

255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 263, 279 



Page 
Cercopithecus 

21, 118, 146, 177, 178, 255, 256, 257, 
261, 276, 277, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285 
286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 293, 313, 377 
Cercopithecus aethiopicus 

256, 258, 260, 281 
Cercopithecus aethiops 

257, 260, 279, 281, 284, 290, 292, 336 
Cercopithecus (Cercocebus) aethiops 

260 
Cercopithecus albigularis 

273, 284, 285, 286, 310, 363, 365, 367 

Cercopithecus a. beirensis 366 

Cercopthecus a. kinobotensis 366 

Cercopithecus a. rufilatus 368 

Cercopithecus ascanius 

284, 286, 303, 306, 318 

Cercopithecus a. schmidti 306 

Cercopithecus a. whitesidei 

293, 298, 305 
Cercopithecus albitorquatus . . .288, 360 

Cercopithecus aterrimus 257 

Cercopithecus boutourlini 286,310 

Cercopithecus brazzae 378 

Cercopithecus brazzae-formes 291,378 
Cercopithecus burnetti . . .282, 284, 353 

Cercopithecus buttikoferi 286, 302 

Cercopithecus callitrichus 

283, 285, 286, 333 
Cercopithecus campbelli 

284, 285, 286, 287, 352 
Cercopithecus centralis ...289,344,346 

Cercopithecus a. centralis 344 

Cercopithecus c. johnstoni 346 

Cercopithecus c. luteus 346 

Cercopithecus c. whytei 345 

Cercopithecus cephodes .321 

Cercopithecus cephus 

277, 282, 284, 285, 286, 320 

Cercopithecus circumcinctus 285 

Cercopithecus chrysurus 282, 286 

Cercopithecus collaris 256, 257, 260, 284 
Cercopithecus (Cercocebus) col- 
laris 260 

Cercopithecus crossi 290 

Cercopithecus cynocephalus 137 

cercopithecus (Cynomolgos) 

177,178,230 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



VU 



Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
282, 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 

nosus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 



Page 
cynosurus 

282, 284, 285, 286, 337 

c. centralis 344 

diadematus 

281, 282, 308, 381 

denti 290, 351 

diana 
284, 285, 286, 308, 380, 381 

d. var. ignita.. .285, 380 

d. ignitus 380 

djamdjamensis 327 

ellenbecki 292, 327 

ellenbecki hilgerti . . 327 

engythithea 285 

erxlebeni 

277, 284, 285, 287, 289.. 355 
erxlebeni var. nigripes 

285, 355 
erythrarchus 

283, 284, 286, 287, 364 
erythrogaster ..286,301 

erythropyga 339 

erythrotis 

284, 285.. 286, 324 

ezrae 378 

fantinensis 

280, 286, 300. 302 

faunus 177 

flavidus 
283, 284, 285, 287, 288, 341 

f rancescae 289, 369 

fuliginosus 

256, 257. 262, 281. 284 
(Cercocebus) fuligi- 

262 

grayi 283.284,355 

g. nigripes 355 

griseoviridis 

278, 284, 285, 336 

griseus 280, 282, 336 

hamadryas 143 

hamadryas ursinus 

118,143 

hamlyni 273 

hilgerti 3^7 

histrio 284,303 

inobservatus 3 22 



Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
284. 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
282, 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
282, 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
277, 282, 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopitheciu 



Page 

insignis 208,372 

insolitus 297, 372 

kandti 290,371 

kolbi 361 

k. hindei 362 

k. nubilus 362 

labiatus 282, 284, 375 

lallandi 

282. 283, 284. 285, 339 
leucampyx 
285, 286, 287, 308, 310, 376 

1. aurora 312 

l'hoesti 289, 297 

l'hoesti thomasi 371 

ludio 

283,284,285.287,318 
lunulatus ..256,263,293 

luteus 293 

martini 284, 285. 305, 318 

matschie 326 

melanogenys 
284,285,286.287,303.318 

moloneyi 368 

mona 

282. 284, 285, 286, 350 
monoides 

283, 284. 287, 288. 364. 365 
neglectus ..286,376.378 

n. brazziformis 378 

nemaeus 285 

neumanni 3 l 3 

nictitans 
284,285,286,305.316.318 

n. laglaizi 317 

nigripes 284. 354 

nigriviridis 348 

ochraceus 

121, 138,283,284,285.288 

omensis 289,310 

opisthostictus. . .287. 310 

otoleucus 289,312 

palatinus 

284.287,288.381 

patas 285.286,287 

petauri-ta 
282, 283. 284. 285, 286. 300 
p. i)uttikoferi JOfl 



Vlll 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
281, 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
282.. 283, 
Cercopithecus 
282, 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 

Cercopithecus 
Cercopithecus 



Page 

p. fantiensis 300 

petronellae 294, 358 

picturatus 

286, 287, 288.. 303 

pileatus 178, 223 

pluto 

282, 284, 285, 308, 313 
pogonias 
284, 285, 286, 354, 355.. 356 

p. pallidus 356 

poliophaeus 285 

preussi 289.. 370 

p. insularis 370 

princeps 315 

pusillus 280, 339, 341 

pygerythrus 

282, 284, 285, 286, 338 
pyrrhonotus 

284, 285, 286, 287. 290 

radiatus 178,221 

roloway . . . 282, 284, 381 

rubellus 342 

ruber 284.285 

rubra 281 

rufitinetus 374 

rufoniger 280 

rufoviridis 

282, 284, 286, 341 

p. rufoviridis 342 

sabseus 

284.. 285, 286.. 292, 333, 336 
samango 
284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 375 

schmidti 286, 306 

sclateri 289, 290, 323 

signatus 286, 305 

silaceus 347 

silenus 177 

sinicus .... 177. 178. 221 
stairsi 
286.. 287, 319, 372, 373, 374 

s. mossambicus 373 

stampflii 

286, 287, 319, 372, 373, 374 

sticticeps 317 

stuhlmanni 

287,291.312,313,315 



Page 

Cercopithecus s. carruthersi 315 

Cercopithecus s. doggetti 314,327 

Cercopithecus talapoin 279,286 

Cercopithecus (Lasiopyga) tantalus 

329 
Cercopithecus tantalus 

282, 286, 328, 329 

Cercopthecus t. alexandri 332 

Cercopithecus t. budgetti 329 

Cercopithecus t. griseistictus 330 

Cercopithecus temmincki . .282, 318, 382 
Cercopithecus tephrops 

281,282,285,338 

Cercopithecus thomasi 370 

Cercopithecus veter 177 

Cercopithecus vetulus 177 

Cercopithecus werneri 283, 284, 286, 334 

Cercopithecus wolfi 286, 351 

Chaeropithecus 115, 122, 125 

Chaeropithecus hamadryas 120, 144, 153 

Chaeropithecus leucocephalus 122 

Chamek (Ateles) 24 

Chamek (Cebus) 28 

Chamek (Simia) 28 

Cheiropithecus 121 

Cheiropithecus porcarius 134 

Chirogale 8 

Chirogaleus commerconii 5, 7 

Chlorocebus 275, 285, 296, 325 

Chlorocebus cynosurus 285, 338 

Chlorocebus engythithea 285, 336 

Chlorocebus pygerythrus 285, 339 

Chlorocebus rufoviridis 285, 342 

Chlorocebus sabaeus 285 

Chlorocebus tantalus 328 

Choiropithecus 115 

choras (Cynocephalus) . . .120, 130, 131 
chrysogaster (Cercocebus) 

258, 259, 264 
chrysopus (Cebus) 

68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77, 78, 99 
chrysopus (Calyptrocebus) Cebus... 99 
chrysurus (Cercopithecus) ....282,286 

chuva (Ateles) 25, 31, 38 

chuva (Ateleus) 25 

cinerea (Papio) Simia 152, 154 

circumcinctus (Cercopithecus) 285 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



IX 



Page 
cirrifer (Cebus) 

67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75 
77, 78. 87, 102, 103, 109, in 

cirrifer (Otocebus) Cebus no 

cirrifer (Simia) 67 

collaris (Cercocebus) 256, 257. 260 

collaris (Cercocebus) Cercopithecus 

260 
collaris (Cercopithecus) 

256, 257, 260.. 284 

collaris (Cercocebus) Pithecus 260 

Colobus polycomus 23 

comatus (Cynocephalus) 134 

comatus (Papio) 119, 134 

commerconii (Chirogaleus) 5,7 

commersoni (Nyctipithecus) 3, 6 

congicus (Cercocebus) 257, 258, 270, 271 
crassiceps (Cebus) 

72,77,78,87,97,m,ii2 

crassipes (Eucebus) Cebus ill 

cristatus (Cebus) 70,71.110 

cristatus (Otocebus) Cebus no 

cristatus (Macacus) 182, 249 

crossi (Cercopithecus) 290 

cucullatus (Ateles) 25, 27, 38 

cucullatus (Ateleus) 25, 27, 38 

cucullatus (Cebus) 68,70,71,72,96,98 

cucullatus (Eucebus) Cebus 96 

cupidus (Pithecus) 

185, 187, 190, 241, 242 

cuscinus (Cebus f.) 76, 92 

cuscinus (Cebus u.) 77,78,92 

cyclopsis (Macacus) 182, 183, 202 

cyclopsis (Pithecus) 187,188.202 

Cynamolgos 1 76 

Cynamolgos audeberti 222 

Cynamolgos pileatus 223 

Cynamolgos sinicus 222 

Cynocebus 275 

Cynocephala doguera 123, 126 

Cynocephala simia 118, 119, 122. 137, 139 

Cynocephalana 122, 160 

Cynocephalus 

115, 119, 120, 121, 122, 146, 178. 180 

Cynocephalus anubis 119.121,122 

Cynocephalus babtiin 

119. 120, 121, 122. 126, 137. 139, 140 
cynocephalus (Cercopithecus) ....137 



Page 

Cynocephalus choras 120,130,131 

Cynocephalus comatus 134 

Cynocephalus cynocephalus 119 

cynocephalus (Cynomolgos) ..138,181 

Cynocephalus gelada 120 

Cynocephalus hamadryas 

119, 120, 121, 144. 146, 157 

Cynocephalus inuus 173, 178 

Cynocephalus langeldi 122, 138 

Cynocephalus leucophaeus 

119, 120, 121, 122, 152 
Cynocephalus mormon 

119, 120, 121, 150 

Cynocephalus nemestrinus 178,205 

Cynocephalus niger 159 

Cynocephalus olivaceus ..121,130,131 
cynocephalus (Papio) 

117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123 
124. 129, 130, 137, 139, 140 

Cynocephalus papio 1 19, 130 

Cynocephalus porcarius 

119, 120, 121, 122. 126, 134 

Cynocephalus rhesus 178 

Cynocephalus silenus 181, 219 

Cynocephalus sinensis 177 

Cynocephalus sphinx 119,120,121,130 
Cynocephalus thoth ..120,121,122,137 
Cynocephalus ursinus ....120,121,134 

Cynocephalus wagleri 119, 144 

Cynomolgos 176, 181 

Cynomolgos albus 181 

Cynomolgos (Zati) audebertii 181,222 

Cynomolgos aygula 180 

Cynomolgos carbonarius 181 

cynomolgos (Cercocebus) 178, 183. 33Q 
Cynomolgos cercopithecus 177, 178. 230 
Cynomolgos cynocephalus ....138,181 

Cynomolgos inuus 179, 181, 230 

cynomolgos (Macacus) 

178, 179, 180, 182, 183, 184. 230, 231, 2+T, 
Cynomolgos (Macacus) var. cum- 

mingii [8a 

Cynomolgos (mindanensis) 249 

Cynomolgos mindanensis apoensis 

250. 952 

Cynomolgos mulatta [8l 

Cynomolgos palpebrosus 1S1 

cynomolgos (Papio) 1 u 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
Cynomolgos philippinensis . . . 181, 249 
Cynomolgos (Zati) pileatus 

181, 183, 223 

Cynomolgos pithecus 178 

cynomolgos (Simia) 

143.. 146, 176, 177, 179, 184, 229, 230 

Cynomolgos sinicus 181, 183, 222 

Cynomolgos (Zati) sinicus 222 

Cynomolgos suluensis 252 

Cynopithecus 120, 121. 159, 160, 161, 163 

164, 170, 180, 183, 184, 192 

Cynopithecus brunescens 168 

Cynopithecus hecki 163, 164 

Cynopithecus hypomelas . . 163, 164, 166 

Cynopithecus maurus 161, 166 

Cynopithecus niger 

120, 159. 160, 161, 162 
163, 164, 166, 184, 192. 
Cynopithecus nigrescens 

160, 161, 162, 164, 166, 184 
Cynopithecus ochreatus . . 161. 164, 168 

Cynopithecus speciosus 120. 195 

Cynopithecus tonkeanus 161 

cynosura (Lasiopyga) 

279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 285 

287.. 289, 292, 296, 325, 337 

cynosura (Simia) 279, 280, 337 

cynosurus (Cercopithecus) 

282, 284, 285, 286, 337 
cynosurus (Chlorocebus) 285, 338 

denti (Cercopithecus) 290, 351 

denti (Lasiopyga) 290, 292. 295, 349, 351 
diadematus (Cercopithecus) 

281, 282, 308, 381 

Diademia 275, 291 

Diana 275 

diana (Cercopithecus) 

282, 284, 285, 286, 308, 380, 381 
diana (Lasiopyga) 

278, 279, 280, 281, 283 
285, 287, 295, 376, 380 

diana (Simla) 278, 279. 280, 380. 381 

djamdjamensis (Lasiopyga) 

289, 292, 294, 325, 327 
doggetti (Cercopithecus s.) . . .314, 3 2 7 
doggetti (Lasiopyga) 291.294,307,314 
doguera (Cynocephala) 123, 126 



Page 
doguera (Papio) 

117. 118, 121, 122, 123, 124 

125. 126, 128, 129, 138 

dollmani (Pithecus). . . 185, 187, 190, 248 

douroucouli (Nyctipithecus) 16 

Drill us 

drill (Mormon) 120, 153 

ecaudatus (Inuus) . . . 173, 178, 181, 182 

elegans (Cebus) 71. 72, 73, 107, 108 

elegans (Otocebus) Cebus 107 

ellenbecki (Cercopithecus) ...292,327 
ellenbecki (Lasiopyga) . . . 290, 292, 327 

engythithia (Cercopithecus) 285 

engythithia (Chlorocebus) 285,336 

engythithia (Lasiopyga) 289 

Eriodes 24, 49, 50 

Eriodes arachnoides 24,50,51 

Eriodes f rontatis 24 

Eriodes frontatus 24, 44 

Eriodes hemidactylus 50 

Eriodes hybridus 47 

Eriodes hypoxanthus 24, 50 

Eriodes tuberifer 50, 51 

erxlebeni (Cercopithecus) 

277, 284, 285, 287, 289, 355 

erythraea (Simia) 213, 215 

erythraeus (Inuus) 180, 181, 213 

erythraeus (Macacus) 

178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 214, 216 

erythraeus (Macacus) Pithecus 214 

erythrarchus (Cercopithecus) 

283, 284, 286, 287, 364 

erythrarchus (Lasiopyga) 365 

Erythrocebus 

252, 281, 283, 284, 286, 287, 291 

Erythrocebus patas 281, 284, 287 

Erythrocebus pyrrhonotus 287 

erythrogaster (Cercopithecus) 286, 301 
erythrogaster (Lasiopyga) 

286, 287, 288, 292, 295, 298, 301 

erythropyga (Simia) . .- 281 

erythrotis (Cercopithecus) 

284, 285, 286, 324 
erythrotis (Lasiopyga) 

281, 287, 289, 292, 296. 319, 323, 324 

Eucebus 64 

ezrae (Cercopithecus) 378 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



XI 



Page 

fallax (Cebus) 75, 80, 82 

fantiensis (Cercopithecus) 

280, 286, 300, 302 
fantiensis (Lasiopyga) 

28a 282, 283, 285, 288, 292 

295. 298, 299, 300, 306 

fantiensis (Lasiopyga p.) . .288. 295, 300 

fascicularis (Macacus) 233 

fascicularis (Pithecus) 

178, 186, 189, 227, 228, 232 
233, 234, 235, 236, 237 

fascicularis (Simia) 178 

fatuellus (Cebus) 

67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 79 
81, 84, 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, no, 113 

fatuellus (Otocebus) Cebus 103 

fatuellus( Simia) 67,102,113,233 

faunus (Simia) 176, 177 

felinus (Aotus) 2, 7 

felinus (Cebus) 5 

felinus (Nyctipithecus) ...2,3,5,6,7,15 

ferox (Simia) 177, 218 

fistulator (Cebus) 72 

fistulator (Eucebus) Cebus 103 

flavescens (Cebus) 73,74,91,92 

flavescens (Simia) 139 

flavia (Simia) 93 

flavidus (Cercopithecus) 

283, 284, 285, 287, 288, 341 

flavus Cebus) ...67,68,69,70,71,72,75 

77,78,84,93»94,ioo 

flavus (Pseudocebus) Cebus 93 

franceseae (Cercopithecus) ...289,369 
francescae (Lasiopyga) 

289,291,295,359,369 

frontatis (Ateles) 35 

f rontatus (Ateles) 24 

frontatus (Ateles m.) 44 

f rontatus (Ateleus) 24 

frontatus (Cebus) 

68, 69, 70, 71, 72. 74, 75, 77, 78, 86, 87 

frontatus (Eriodes) 24,44 

frontatus (Otocebus) Cebus 86,87 

fuliginosus (Ateles) 23,26,40 

fuliginosus (Ateleus) 23,26,41 

fuliginosus (Cebus) 23,40 

fuliginosus (Cercocebus) 

254. 255, 256, 257, 258, 261, 264. 281 



Page 
fuliginosus (Cercopithecus) 

256,257, 262,281,284 
fuliginosus Cercopithecus (Cerco- 
cebus) 262 

fuliginosus Pithecus (Cercocebus)262. 

fuliginosus (Simia) 256,262 

fulvus (Cebus) 68, 70, 72, 93 

fur (Macacus) 182 

furax (Papio) 123. 124, 128 

fuscatus (Inuus) 195 

fuscatus (Macacus) 182,183,195 

fuscatus (Pithecus) 

120,181.182,188,195 

fusciceps (Ateles) 25, 27, 43 

fusciceps (Ateleus) 25,27,43 

fusco-ater (Inuus) 181 

fusco-ater (Macacus) ....165.167,181 

fuscus (Macacus) 228 

fuscus (Pithecus) 186,189,228,229 

galeritus (Cercocebus) 257, 258, 259, 265 

Gastrimargus 53 

Gastrimargus infumatus 54,61,62 

Gastrimargus olivaceus 54,57.61 

Gelada 155 

gelada (Cynocephalus) 120 

gelada (Macacus) 1 55 

gelada (Papio) 120, 121, 155 

Gelada ruppelli 156 

gelada (Theropithecus) 

120. 121, 155, 156 
geoffroyi (Ateles) 

23,24,25,26.27,31,32,44 
geoffroyi (Ateleus) 

23. 24, 25, 26, 27. 44, 45 

geoffroyi (Cebus) ~3> 

geoffroyi (Lagothrix) ....54.55,61,62 

geoffroyi (Sapajou) 44 

geron (Macacus) 181 

geron Macacus (Pithecus) 214 

gracilis (Cebus) 

68,69.70,71.72,76,88.80.01 

gracilis (Calyptrocebus) Cebus 88 

grayi (Cercopithecus) 283.284.355 

grayi (Lasiopyga) 

283. J84. 2SS. 287, 289 

05. MR 355. ss* 
griceseeni (Ateles) V9»*7»37 



Xll 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
gricescens (Ateleus) ...25,27,37,38,39 

griseimembra (Aotus) 3, 4, 5, 15 

griseisticta (Lasiopyga t.) 

293,294,325,331 

griseistictus (Cercopithecus t.) 331 

griseoviridis (Cercopithecus) 

278, 284, 285, 336 
griseoviridis (Lasiopyga) 

280, 281, 282, 283, 285, 287, 289 
290, 292, 294, 325, 334. 336, 337 

griseus (Cebus) 68, 69, 72, 79 

griscus Cebus (Eucebus) 79 

griseus (Cercopithecus) ..280.282,336 

gularis (Aotus) 3, 4. 5, 18 

Gymnopyga 165 

hagenbecki (Cercocebus) . . 258.. 259, 265 

Hamadryas 115, 122, 143 

Hamadryas segyptiaca 122, 144. 146 

hamadryas (Cercopithecus) 143 

hamadryas (Choeropithecus) 

120, 144, 153 
hamadryas (Cynocephalus) 

119, 120, 121, 144. 146, 157 
hamadryas (Papio) 
117, 1 18.. 119.. 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125 
129, 138, 139, 143, 144, 147, 157, 177, 178 

Hamadryas porcarius 134 

hamadryas (Simia) 

118,119,143,176,184,231 
hamlyni (Cercopithecus) 

258, 270, 271, 273 

harmandi (Macacus) 184. 193 

harmandi (Pith ecus).. 184, 187, 188, 193 

hecki (Cynopithecus) 163, 164 

hecki (Papio) 161 

hecki (Inuus) Papio 162 

hemidactylus (Eriodes) 50 

heuglini (Papio) . . 122, 123, 124, 125, 129 

hilgerti (Cercopithecus) 327 

hilgerti (Cercopithecus e.) 327 

hilgerti (Lasiopyga) 

290, 292, 294, 325, 327 

hindei (Cercopithecus k.) 362 

hindei (Lasiopyga k.) 292, 295, 359, 362 

histrio (Cercopithecus) 284, 303 

histrio (Lasiopyga) 289 

humboldti (Lagothrix) 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 



Page 
hybridus ( Ateles) ... 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 47 
hybridus (Ateleus) . 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 47 

hybridus (Eriodes) 47 

Hylobates 22 

hypoleucus (Cebus) 

46, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 

74, 75, 80, 82, 83, 84 

hypoleucus (Calyptrocebus) Cebus. 82 

hypoleucus (Simia) 67,75,82 

hypomelas (Cebus) 72, 79, 81, 82 

hypomelas (Cynopithecus) 

163, 164. 166 

hypomelas (Papio) 161 

hypomelas (Inuus) 162 

hypoxanthus (Ateles) . . 23, 24, 26, 49, 50 

hypoxanthus (Ateleus) 23, 24, 26 

hypoxanthus (Cebus) 23, 51 

hypoxanthus (Eriodes) 24, 50 

ibeanus (Papio) 122, 124, 133 

ibeanus (Papio t.) 122, 123, 133 

ignita (Cercopithecus d.) 285, 380 

ignitus (Cercopithecus) 380 

imitator (Cebus) 83, 84 

impudens (Pithecus). . 185, 187, 190. 246 
infulatus (Aotus) 

2,3..4,5,6,7,iS,i7,i8 

infulatus (Callithrix) 2, 5, 6 

infulatus (Nyctipithecus) 3 

infumata (Lagothrix) . . 54, 55, 56, 59, 62 

infumatus (Gastrimargus) 54, 61 , 62 

inobservata (Lasiopyga) 

293, 296, 319, 322 
inobservatus (Cercopithecus) . . 293, 322 

inornatus (Macacus) 166, 169, 170 

inornatus (Papio) 161 

Insignicebus 296, 359 

insignis (Cercopithecus) 298.. 372 

insignis (Lasiopyga) 

293, 296.. 298, 360, 372 
insolita (Lasiopyga) . .293, 295, 298, 323 

insolitus (Cercopithecus) 297, 372 

insulana (Macaca) 185, 207 

insulanus (Pithecus). . 185, 186, 188, 207 

insularis (Cercopithecus p.) 370 

insularis (Lasiopyga p.) . .296, 360, 370 

Inuus 1 19, 172, 178, 179, 180, 182 

Inuus arctoides 180.. 181, 191 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Inuus assamensis 210 

Intms aureus 179, 230 

Inuus carbonarius 230 

inuus (Cynocephalus) 173,178 

inuus (Cynomolgos) 179. 181, 230 

Inuus ecaudatus 173,178,181,182 

Inuus erythraeus 180, 181. 213 

Inuus fuscatus 195 

Inuus fusco-ater 181 

Inuus inuus 178 

Inuus leoninus 208 

inuus (Macacus) 173.178,179 

Inuus nemestrinus . . . 178, 180, 181, 205 

Inuus niger 162, 180 

Inuus palpebrosus 181, 248 

Inuus pelops 181, 210, 21 1 

Inuus (Rhesus) pelops 210 

Inuus pileatus 223 

Inuus pithecus 174, 180. 181 

Inuus radiatus 179 

Inuus rhesus 178. 180, 213 

Inuus silenus 179, 218, 219 

inuus (Simia) 173, 174, *75, 177> *79 

Inuus sinicus 179, 181, 222 

Inuus (Cercocebus) sinicus 221 

Inuus (Macacus) sinicus 222 

Inuus speciosus 180,181,191,195 

irus (Macacus) 178,230,231 

irus (Pithecus) 

178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184 
186, 189, 229, 232, 233, 234, 244 

jamrachi (Cercocebus) ...258,267,268 

johni (Pygathrix) 181 

johnstoni (Cercocebus a.) 

258, 259, 267, 268, 272 

johnstoni (Cercopithecus c.) 346 

johnstoni (Lasiopyga) 292,295 

johnstoni (Lasiopyga c.) 

295, 326, 343- 345. 346, 347 

kandti (Cercopithecus) 290,371 

kandti (Lasiopyga) 

200,291,295,360,371 
karimoni (Pithecus) 

185, 187, 189,227,236 
kibonotensis (Cercopithecus).. 293. 366 



Page 
kibonotensis (Lasiopyga a.) 

295, 359. 366 

kolbi (Cercopithecus) .361 

kolbi (Lasiopyga) 

289, 291, 295, 359, 361, 362 

labiata (Lasiopyga) 

282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287 

288,291,295,360,375 

labiatus (Cercopithecus) . .282, 284, 375 

lacepedii (Cebus) 72 

laetus (Pithecus). . 185, 187, 189, 235, 236 

laglaizi (Cercopithecus n.) 317 

laglaizi (Lasiopyga n.) 

291.295.307,317 
lagotricha (Lagothrix) 

53, 54, 55, 56, 58. 59, 60. 63 

lagotricha (Simia) 53-56 

Lagothrix 25, 53, 54, 55, 56. 57 

Lagothrix cana 53, 54, 55, 56, 6o, 61 

Lagothrix caparro 54, 57, 61 

Lagothrix castelnaui 54. 55. 62 

lagothrix (Cebus) 57 

Lagothrix geoffroyi 54, 55, 61, 62 

Lagothrix humboldti. . .53, 54, 55, 56, 57 
Lagothrix infumata ... 54, 55, 56, 59, 62 

Lagothrix lagothrix 57 

Lagothrix lagotricha 

53- 54- 55. 56, 58. 59, 60. 63 

Lagothrix lugens 55, 56, 58 

Lagothrix poppigii 55, 62 

Lagothrix olivacea 54, 57, 61 

Lagothrix thomasi 55, 56. 59 

Lagothrix tschudi 54*55*57 

Lagothrix ubericola 55.56,50.60 

lallandi (Cercopithecus) 

282. 283. 284. 385* 339 

lallandi (Lasiopyga) 340. 34] 

langeldi (Cynocephalus) 122,138 

langeldi (Papio) 139, 140 

lanius (Aotus) 3.4.5,12,10 

lapsus (Pithecus) 185,187,100,244 

Lasiopyga 
118, 178,254,255,261.263.274,275, 976 

278, 279, 280, 281. 282, 283, 284. a8s 

286, 287, 288, 20T. 203. j<;4- 177. 379 

Lasiopyga ethiopa 381,99a 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
Lasiopyga albigularis 

281, 282, 283, 284, 286, 287, 288.. 291 

293, 295, 31 1» 359, 363, 365, 367 
Lasiopyga a. beirensis . . .295, 359. 366 
Lasiopyga a. kibonotensis 295, 359.. 366 
Lasiopyga a. rufilata. .291, 295, 359, 368 
Lasiopyga albitorquata 

288. 291, 292, 296, 359, 360, 361, 362 

Lasiopyga albitorquatus 362, 366 

Lasiopyga ansorgei 292 

Lasiopyga ascanius 

278, 281, 282, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288 
289, 292, 296, 298, 303, 304, 305 
Lasiopyga a. whitesidei 

293, 296, 208, 305 

Lasiopyga aurora 294, 307, 312 

Lasiopyga beirensis 291, 295 

Lasiopyga boutourlini 

286, 287, 289, 291, 294, 307.. 310 

Lasiopyga brazzae 287, 289, 291, 295, 323 

376, 377, 378, 379, 380 

Lasiopyga budgetti 292, 294 

Lasiopyga burnetti 

282.. 292.. 295, 349, 353 
Lasiopyga buttikoferi 

286, 287, 288, 292, 295, 298. 302 

Lasiopyga callida 294, 326, 343 

Lasiopyga callitrichus 

285, 287, 292, 295, 325, 333, 334. 335 
Lasiopyga campbelli 

281, 287.. 292, 295, 349, 352, 353 
Lasiopyga carruthersi 291, 294. 307, 315 
Lasiopyga centralis 

289.. 292.. 294, 326, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347 
Lasiopyga c. johnstoni 

295, 326, 343, 345, 346, 347 

Lasiopyga c. lutea 295. 326, 346 

Lasiopyga c. whytei 

292, 295, 326, 345, 346.. 349 
Lasiopyga cephodes. . .292, 296, 319, 321 
Lasiopyga cephus 

278, 279, 280.. 281, 283, 287, 289 
292, 295. 319, 321, 322, 323 
Lasiopyga cynosura 

279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 285 

287, 289, 292, 296, 325, 337 

Lasiopyga denti. . .290, 292, 295, 349.. 351 



Page 
Lasiopyga diana. .278, 279, 280, 281, 283 
285, 287, 295, 376, 380 
Lasiopyga djamdjamensis 

289, 292, 294, 325, 327 
Lasiopyga doggetti ..291,294,307,314 

Lasiopyga ellenbecki 290, 292, 327 

Lasiopyga engythithea 289 

Lasiopyga erytharchus 365 

Lasiopyga erythrogaster 

286, 287, 288, 289, 292, 295, 298. 301 
Lasiopyga erythrotis 

281, 287, 289, 292, 296, 319, 323, 324 

Lasiopyga erxlebeni 289 

Lasiopyga fantiensis 

280. 282. 283, 285, 288, 292 
295, 298, 299, 300, 306 

Lasiopyga francescae 

289,291,295,359,369 
Lasiopyga grayi . .283, 284, 285, 287, 289 

292, 295, 349, 355, 356 
Lasiopyga g. pallida 

293, 296, 349, 356, 358 

Lasiopyga griseisticta 294 

Lasiopyga griseoviridis 

280, 281, 282, 283, 285, 287, 289 
290, 292, 294, 325, 334, 336, 337 

Lasiopyga hamlyni 295 

Lasiopyga hilgerti 290, 282, 294, 325, 327 

Lasiopyga histrio 289 

Lasiopyga inobservata 293, 296, 319, 322 
Lasiopyga insignis 

293, 296, 298, 360, 372 
Lasiopyga insolita . . .293, 295, 298, 323 

Lasiopyga johnstoni 292, 295 

Lasiopyga kandti 290,291,295,360,371 
Lasiopyga kolbi 

289, 291, 295, 359, 361, 362, 363 
Lasiopyga k. hindei ..292,295,359,362 

Lasiopyga k. nubila 295, 359, 362 

Lasiopyga labiata 

282. 283. 284, 285, 286, 287 
288,291,295,360,375 

Lasiopyga lallandi 340, 341 

Lasiopyga Thoesti 289, 292, 296, 297, 208 
Lasiopyga leucampyx 

281, 282, 283, 291, 295, 307, 308, 309 
Lasiopyga ludio 288, 289 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Lasiopyga lutea 293 

Lasiopyga martini 

281, 282, 283, 284 285, 286, 287 

288, 289, 291, 296, 307, 318, 328 
Lasiopyga matschie 

289, 292, 294, 325.. 326, 327, 328 

Lasiopyga melanogenys 288.289 

Lasiopyga moloneyi 

287, 291.. 295, 359, 368 
Lasiopyga mona. .279, 280, 281. 283, 287 

292,295,349,350,351 

Lasiopyga monoides 365 

Lasiopyga mossambicus 292,373 

Lasiopyga neglecta 

287, 291, 294, 323, 376, 377, 379 

Lasiopyga neumanni 295, 307, 313 

Lasiopyga nictitans 

279, 280, 281, 283, 287, 288, 289 

291,295,307,316,317,318 

Lasiopyga n. laglaizi 291,295,307,317 

Lasiopyga nigrigenis. . 291, 296, 307, 310 

Lasiopyga nigripes 

284, 285, 287, 289, 292, 293, 296, 349 
Lasiopyga nigriviridis 292, 296, 326, 348 
Lasiopyga opisthosticta 

287,291,295,307,3" 

Lasiopyga patas 292 

Lasiopyga petaurista 

279,280,281,286,287,288 
289, 292, 295, 299, 301, 306 

Lasiopyga p. fantiensis 288.300 

Lasiopyga petronellae 294, 296. 349, 358 

Lasiopyga picturata 289 

Lasiopyga pluto 

282, 287. 291, 296, 307, 308, 309 
Lasiopyga pogonias 

281, 287, 289, 292, 296, 349, 354, 355 

Lasiopyga p. nigripes 292,354 

Lasiopyga preussi 

289, 290, 291, 295, 298, 359, 369. 370, 371 
Lasiopyga preussi insularis 

296, 360, 370 
Lasiopyga princeps 

291,294,307,315,316 
Lasiopyga pygerythra 

280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 287, 292 

295, 325, 338, 34i, 343, 344, 348 

Lasiopyga p. callida 294. 343 



Page 

Lasiopyga pyrrhonatus 292 

Lasiopyga roloway 

279, 280, 282, 284, 287, 288, 295, 376,381 
Lasiopyga rubella 

293, 295, 326, 343, 343, 344 
Lasiopyga rufilata . . . 291, 295, 359, 368 
Lasiopyga rufitincta 

291,295,360,374,375 
Lasiopyga rufoviridis 

282, 283, 284, 285, 287, 288 
292, 295, 325. 341, 343, 344, 345 
Lasiopyga sabaea 

279, 280, 281, 283, 289, 292, 335 

Lasiopyga samango 2S4 

Lasiopyga sannio 292 

Lasiopyga schmidti 

286, 287, 288, 289, 292, 295. 298, 306 
Lasiopyga sclateri 290, 292, 295, 319, 323 
Lasiopyga signata 

286. 287, 288, 289. 292, 296, 298, 305 
Lasiopyga silacea ....293,295.326,347 
Lasiopyga stairsi 

286, 287, 291, 295, 360, 372, 373- 374. 375 
Lasiopyga s. mossambicus 

295, 360, 373, 374, 375 

Lasiopyga stampflii jSq 

Lasiopyga sticticeps. . . 293, 295, 307, 317 
Lasiopyga stuhlmanni 

287,289,294,307,309.310 
312,313.314,315,316 

Lasiopyga talapoin 

Lasiopyga tantalus 

282, 286, 288. 202. 395 

325,328,330,331,332 

Lasiopyga t. alexandri ...295.325,332 

Lasiopyga t. budgetti 325,329,330,332 

Lasiopyga t. griseisticta ..293.325.331 

Lasiopyga temmincki 968, 382 

Lasiopyga thomasi 

292, 295, 298. 360, 370 

Lasiopyga torquatus 284 

Lasiopyga werneri 

283, 287. 288, 296. 325. 334, 335- 396 

Lasiopyga whytei 292 

Lasiopyga wolfi 

2S7, 288, 292, 296, 340. 351 

Lasiopygidac 115 

Lasiopyginas 115 



XVI 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

lasiotis (Macacus) 183.. 198 

lasiotis (Pithecus) 182, 187, 188, 198, 202 
lautensis (Pithecus) ..185,187,189,237 
lemurinus (Nyctipithecus) ..2,3,13.14 

leonina (Simia) I77> 218 

leoninus (Macacus) 183, 184, 208 

leoninus (Pithecus) 181,182 

leucampyx (Cercopithecus) 

284, 285, 286, 287, 308, 310, 376 
leucampyx (Lasiopyga) 

281.. 282, 283, 291.. 295, 307, 308, 309 

leucampyx (Simia) 280. 308 

leucocephalus (Cebus) 73. 74, 88, 89 

leucogenys (Cebus) 73,74,110 

leucophaea (Papio) 153 

leucophaea (Simia) 152 

leucophaeus Choeropithecus) 153 

leucophaeus (Cynocephalus) 

119, 120, 121, 122, 152 

leucophaeus (Drill) Mormon 153 

leucophaeus (Papio) 
119.. 120, 121, 122, 124.. 125, 152, 153. 154 

Thoesti (Cercopithecus) 289, 297 

l'hoesti (Lasiopyga) 

289, 292, 296, 297, 298 
libidinosus (Cebus) 

68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 77, 78, 101, 297 
libidinosus (Calyptrocebus) Cebus 101 

libidinosus (Macacus) 179, 180, 181 

lingae (Pithecus) 185, 187, 190, 245 

lingungensis (Pithecus) 

185.. 187, 189, 237, 238, 239 
littoralis (Pithecus) . . 185, 187, 188, 201 

Lophocebus 254, 266 

ludio (Cercopithecus) 

283, 284, 285, 287, 318 

ludio (Lasiopyga) 288.289 

lugens (Lagothrix) 55, 56, 58 

lunatus (Cebus) 68,69,70,72,87 

lunatus (Otocebus) Cebus 87 

lunulatus (Cercocebus) 

256, 257, 258, 259, 263 
lunulatus (Cercopithecus) 256,263,293 

lutea (Lasiopyga) 293, 295 

lutea (Lasiopyga c.) 294, 326, 346 

luteus (Cercopithecus c.) .295,346 

lydekkeri (Papio) 122, 138 

Lyssodes 176 



Page 

Macaca 173, 176, 185 

Macaca adusta 185, 206 

Macaca broca 185, 205 

Macaca insulana 185, 207 

Macaca mordax 185, 232 

Macaca nemestrina 185, 206 

Macaca phaeura 243, 245 

Macaca resima 185, 224 

Macaca syrichta 249 

Macaco prego no 

Macacus 160, 178, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184 

Macacus affinis 202 

Macacus andamanensis 

182, 183, 186, 188, 208 
Macacus arctoides 

179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 191, 192, 193 
Macacus assamensis 

179, 182, 183, 184, 209, 211,214 

Macacus auratus 230 

Macacus aureus 

179, 180, 181, 182, 230, 231 

Macacus brachyurus 181 

Macacus (Maimon) brachyurus ...205 

Macacus brunneus 191, 192 

Macacus carbonarius 

179, 180, 181,230,231,232 

Macacus cristatus 182, 249 

Macacus cyclopsis 182, 183, 202 

Macacus cynomolgos 

178, 179, 180, 182, 183 
184, 230, 231, 233 
Macacus cynomolgos var. cum- 

mingii 182 

Macacus erythraeus 

178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 214, 216 
Macacus (Pithecus) erythraeus ...214 

Macacus fascicularis 233 

Macacus fur 182, 230 

Macacus fuscatus 182, 183, 195 

Macacus fusco-ater 165.. 167, 181 

Macacus fuscus 228 

Macacus gelada 155 

Macacus (Pithecus) geron 181,214 

Macacus harmandi 184, 193 

Macacus inornatus 166, 169, 170 

Macacus inuus 173, 178, 179 

Macacus irus 178, 230, 231 

Macacus lasiotis 183, 198 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Macacus leoninus 183, 184. 208 

Macacus libidinosus 179, 180, 181 

Macacus maunis 

165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170 
171, 180, 181, 182.. 183 

Macacus maurus ochreatus 167 

Macacus melanotus (!) ...182,191,192 
Macacus nemestrinus 

178, 179, 180, 181, 182.. 183, 184, 205 

Macacus niger 183 

Macacus ochreatus 

165, 167, 168, 183, 184 

Macacus oinops 179,181.214,215 

Macacus (Pithex) oinops 179. 181, 214 

Macacus pagensis 206 

Macacus palpebrosus 180, 182, 249, 250 

Macacus pelops 181. 182, 209 

Macacus (Pithex) pelops 180,209 

Macacus philippinensis 

180. 181, 182, 185, 187, 190, 248, 249, 250 
Macacus pileatus 180, 182, 183, 184, 223 

Macacus problematicus 212,213 

Macacus radiatus 178.. 179. 180, 202, 221 

Macacus rheso-similis 182, 183, 210 

Macacus rhesus 

178, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 198, 213 
Macacus rhesus-villosus ..184,210,213 

Macacus rufescens 182,183,193 

Macacus sancti-johannis 183,198 

Macacus silenus 

178, 179, 180, 183, 184, 218 
Macacus sinicus 

178, 179, 180. 182, 183, 184, 221, 223, 224 
Macacus speciosus 

179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 100, 192, 195 

Macacus sylvanus 174 

Macacus tcheliensis . . 182, 183, 199. 200 

Macacus thibetanum 183,196 

Macacus thibetanus 182, 183 

Macacus tonkeanus 166, 170 

Macacus umbrosus 229 

Macacus vestitus 184, 197 

Macacus villosus 200 

Macacus (Rhesus) yillosus 200 

macrocephalus (Cebus) 

68, 69. 70, 72, 77, 78, 104 
macrocephalus (Eucebus) Cebus... 104 



Page 
••49,50,52 

181, 182, 183 

169, 170, 171 

170, 171. 181 
167, 170, 171 
....176,180 
121, 122. 150 
120, 122, 150 
119. 150. 151 
76, 77, 78, 98 

189. 234, 240 

US 

ii5 



31.32,34,35 
24, 25, 27, 34 
47 



macrotarsus (Brachyteles) 
Magus 

161, 165, 168, 170, 180, 
Magus maurus 

165, 166, 167, 
Magus ochreatus 

165, 166, 167, 168, 

Magus tonkeanus 166, 

Maimon 

maimon (Mormon) ...120, 
maimon (Papio) . . 118, 119, 

maimon (Simia) 118, 

malitiosus (Cebus) 

mandibularis (Pithecus) 

185, 187, 

Mandril 

Mandrillus 

marginatus (Ateles) 

23, 24, 25, 27, 
marginatus (Ateleus) . .23, 

marginatus (Sapajou) 

martini (Cercopithecus) 

284. 
martini (Lasiopyga) 

281,282,283,284, 
288, 289, 291, 296, 
matschie (Cercopithecus) 
matschie (Lasiopyga) 

289. 292, 
maurus (Cynopithecus) .. 
maurus (Macacus) 

165, 166, 167, 169, 170 

171, 180, 181, 182. 183 
maurus (Magus) 

165. 166. 167, 169, 170, 171 

Melanocebus 206, 306 

melanochir (Ateles) ..23,24,25,44.46 
melanochir (Ateleus) . .23, 24, 25. 45, 46 
melanogenys (Cercopithecus) 

282, 284, 285, 286, 287. 303. 318 
melanogenys (Lasiopyga) ....288,289 
melanotus (!) (Macacus) 182,191,192 

melanotus (!) (Papio) 191 

microdon (Aotus) 3.4,5,18 

mindanensis (Cynomolgos) 240 

mindanensis (Pithecus) 185,252 

Miopithecus 284. 286. 292 



285,305.318 

285. 286, 287 
307, 318, 328 
326 

294. 325, 326 
161, 166 



XV111 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Miopithecus talapoin 279 

miriquouina (Aotus) 

2, 3.-4,5,9, 10, 1 1, 12 

miriquouina (Nyctipithecus) 3 

moco (Papio) 121 

moloneyi (Cercopithecus) 368 

moloneyi (Lasiopyga) 

287,291,295,359,368 

Mona 275, 296, 349 

mona (Cercopithecus) 

282, 284, 285, 286, 350 
mona (Lasiopyga) 

279, 280, 281, 283, 287 

292,295,349,350,351 

mona (Simia) 279, 280, 350 

monachus (Cebus)..68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 96 

monachus (Eucebus) Cebus 96 

Monichus 274 

monoides (Cercopithecus) 

282, 283, 284.. 287, 288, 364, 365 

mordax (Macaca) 185, 232 

mordax (Pithecus) 

185, 187, 189, 225, 232, 240, 242 

Mormon 115, 120, 121, 122 

Mormon (Cynocephalus) 

119, 120, 121, 150 

Mormon drill 120, 153 

Mormon (Drill) leucophseus 153 

Mormon maimon .... 120, 121, 122, 150 

mormon (Papio) 118, 119, 120, 150 

mormon (Simia) 150 

mossambicus (Cercopithecus s.) . . .373 
mossambicus (Lasiopyga) ....292,373 
mossambicus (Lasiopyga s.) 

295, 360, 373» 374, 375 

mulatta (Cynomolgos) 181 

mundamensis (Papio) 153 

nedjo (Theropithecus) 157 

neglecta (Lasiopyga) 

287, 291, 294, 323, 376, 377, 379 
neglectus (Cercopithecus) 286, 376, 378 

nemseus (Cercopithecus) 285 

nemaeus (Simia) 275 

nemestrina (Macaca) 185, 206 

nemestrina (Papio) 118,177,205 

Nemestrinus 181 

nemestrinus (Cercopithecus) 178 



Page 
nemestrinus (Cynocephalus) ..178,205 
nemestrinus (Inuus) . . 178, 180, 181, 205 
nemestrinus (Macacus) 

178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 205 
nemestrinus (Pithecus) 

178, 185, 186, 200, 205, 206, 207, 217 
nemestrinus (Macacus) Pithecus.. .205 

Neocebus 296, 319 

nestor (Pygathix) 181 

neumanni (Lasiopyga) ...295,307,313 

neumanni (Papio) 123, 124, 140 

neumanni (Papio a.) 122,123 

nictitans (Cercopithecus) 

277, 282, 284, 285, 286, 305, 313, 316, 318 
nictitans (Lasiopyga) 

279, 280, 281, 283, 287, 288, 289 

291,295,307,316,317,318 

nictitans (Simia).. 275, 278, 279, 280, 316 

niger (Cebus) ...68,69,72,75,110,111 

niger (Otocebus) Cebus no 

niger (Cynocephalus) 159 

niger (Cynopithecus) 

120, 159, 160, 161, 162 
163, 164, 166, 184, 192 

niger (Inuus) 162, 180 

niger (Macacus) 183 

niger (Papio) 162 

niger (Inuus) Papio 162 

niger (Theropithecus) 155 

nigeriae (Papio) 123,124,125 

nigrescens (Cynopithecus) 

160, 161, 162, 164, 166, 184 

nigrescens (Papio) 161,162,163 

nigriceps (Aotus) 3, 4, 8, 18 

nigrigenis (Cercopithecus) 310 

nigrigensis (Lasiopyga) 

291, 296, 307, 310 

nigripectus (Cebus c.) 76, 77, 78, 86 

nigripes (Cercopithecus) 284, 354 

nigripes (Cercopithecus e.) ...285,355 

nigripes (Cercopithecus g.) 355 

nigripes (Lasiopyga) 

284, 285, 287, 289, 292, 293, 296, 349 

nigripes (Lasiopyga p.) 354 

nigriviridis (Cercopithecus) 348 

nigriviridis (Lasiopyga) 

292, 296, 326, 348 
nigrivittatus (Cebus) 70, 71, 72, 79 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
nigrivittatus (Calyptrocebus) Cebus 80 

Noethora 1 

nubila (Lasiopyga k.) ....295,359,362 

nubilus (Cercopithecus k.) 362 

Nyctipithecus 2, 3, 7, 90 

Nyctipithecus azarae 3. 11 

Nyctipithecus commersoni 3, 5 

Nyctipithecus felinus ....2,3,5,6,7.15 
Nyctipithecus lemurinus ... .2, 3, 13, 14 

Nyctipithecus miriquouinus 3 

Nyctipithecus oseryi 2. 3, 17 

Nyctipithecus rufipes 3, 9, 14 

Nyctipithecus spixi 3, 19 

Nyctipithecus trivirgatus 

2,3,7,11,13.15,16,90 
Nyctipithecus vociferans 2, 3, 13 

obscurus (Macacus) 157 

obscurus (Papio) 121 

obscurus (Theropithecus) ....155,157 
ochraceus (Cercopithecus) 

121, I38, 283, 284, 285, 288 

ochreatus (Cynopithecus) 161, 167, 168 
ochreatus (Macacus) 

165, 167, 168.. 181, 182, 183, 184 

ochreatus (Macacus) maurus 167 

ochreatus (Magus) 

165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 181 
oinops (Macacus) ....179,181,214,215 

oinops (Pithex) Macacus 214 

olivacea (Lagothrix) 54. 57, 61 

olivaceus (Cebus) 70,71,72,79 

olivaceus (Eucebus) Cebus 80 

olivaceus (Cynocephalus) 121, 130, 131 
olivaceus (Gastrimargus) ....54,57,61 

olivaceus (Papio) 121 

omensis (Cercopithecus) 287.310 

opisthosticta (Lasiopyga) 

287.291,295.307,311 
opisthostictus (Cercopithecus) 287.311 

ornatus (Ateles) 25,44 

ornatus (Ateleus) 25, 45 

oseryi (Aotus) 2, 3, 4, 5, 17 

oseryi (Nyctipithecus) 2, 3 

Otocebus 64 

otoleucus (Cercopithecus) ....289,312 

Otopithecus 275 

Ouanderou 180. 218. 220 



Page 

pagensis (Macacus) 200 

pagensis (Pithecus) . . 184, 187, 188. 200 
palatinus Cercopithecus) 

284, 287, 288, 381 
pallida (Lasiopyga g.) 

293. 296, 349, 356, 358 

pallidus (Cebus) 73, 74, 108 

pallidus (Cebus a.) 

77, 78, 106, 107. 108, 109 

pallidus (Cercopithecus p.) 356 

palpebrosus (Cynomolgos) ...181,249 

palpebrosus (Inuus) 181.248 

palpebrosus (Macacus) 

180, 182, 249, 250 
palpebrosus (Pithecus) ...181,248.249 

pan (Ateles) 26,27,41.42 

pan (Ateleus) 26. 41 

paniscus (Ateles) 22, 23, 24, 25, 26. 27, 28 
paniscus (Ateleus) 

22, 23, 24, 25. 26, 27, 28, 30 

paniscus (Cebus) 28 

paniscus (Sapajou) 28 

paniscus (Simia) 21, 28 

Papio 115, 117, 118, 120. 121, 123, 137. i;o 
160, 176, 177, 178, 283, 284, 285, 288 

Papio albibarbatus 119 

Papio anubis 

117, 118, 119. 121, 122, 123, 132 

Papio a. neumanni 122,123 

Papio apeda 118. 177 

Papio arabicus 147 

Papio babuin 120. 123, 138 

Papio brockmani 123, 125, 147 

Papio brunescens 161, 167 

Papio comatus 119. 134 

papio (Cynocephalus) 119,130 

Papio cynocephalus 

117, 118, 119, 120. 121, 1 - 

124, 129, 130. 137, i.V). uo 

Papio c. cynomolgos 144 

Papio doguera 

117. 118, 121, 122. I2J, i-M 

125, 126, 1 jS, ij<). 138 

Papio furax 123,124,128 

Papio gelada 120,121,153 

Papio himadryaa 

117, 11H. in). 120, 121, 122, 123. 124. 125 
129. 138, 130. 143, 144, 147, 157, W7. 178 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
119, 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 

papio 

Papio 
Papio 
Papio 



Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 



Papio 
Papio 
Papio 
Papio 



Page 

h. arabicus 122, 124, 125, 147 

hecki 161 

(Inuus) hecki 162 

heuglini . . .122, 123, 124, 125, 129 

hypomelas 161 

(Inuus) hypomelas 162 

ibeanus 122, 124. 133 

t. ibeanus 122, 123. 133 

inornatus 161 

leucophsea 153 

leucophseus 
120. I2i, 122, 124, 125, 152, 153. 154 

langheldi 139, 140 

lydekkeri 122, 138 

maimon ... 118, 119, 120, 122, 150 

melanotus (!) 191 

moco 121 

mormon 118,119,120,150 

mundamensis 153 

nemestrinus 1 18, 177, 205 

neumanni 123, 124, 140 

niger 162 

(Inuus) niger 162 

nigeriae 123, 125 

nigrescens 161, 162, 163 

obscurus 121 

olivaceus 121 

papio 118,119,120,121,122 

124, 130, 131, 132, 139 

(Papio) 118.. 119, 120, I2i, 122 

124, 130, 131, 132, 139 

pileatus 177 

planirostris 124, 125, 151 

porcarius 

117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122 

124, 126, 133, 134, 138 

pruinosus ..117, 122, 123, 124, 142 

rhesus 213 

rubescens 121,122,131 

senex 121 

silenus 119.. 178, 218 

sphinx 

117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 124 
125, 130, 139, 149, 150, 152, 215 

strepitus 117, 123. 124, 141 

tessellatum 123. 124, 127 

thoth 121. 123. 140, 143 

(Inuus) tonkeanus 170 



Page 

Papio tonsus 161 

Papio (Inuus) tonsus 161.170,171 

Papio yokoensis 122, 124, 128 

paraguayensis (Cebus) 69,72 

paraguayensis Cebus (Calyptroce- 

bus) 79 

patas (Cercopithecus) 285,286,287 

patas (Lasiopyga) 292 

patas (Erythrocebus) ....281,284,287 

Pavianus 115 

pelops (Inuus) 181, 210, 21 1 

pelops (Inuus r.) 210 

pelops (Macacus) 181, 182, 209 

pelops (Macacus p.) 180, 209 

pentadactylus (Ateles) 

22.. 23, 24, 25, 28, 29 
pentadactylus (Ateleus) 

22, 23., 24, 25, 29 

pentadactylus (Cebus) 23 

pentadactylus (Sapajou) 28 

peruanus (Cebus f.) 76, 77, 78, 104 

petaurista (Cercopithecus) 

282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 300 
petaurista (Lasiopyga) 

279, 280, 281, 286, 287, 288 
289.. 292, 295, 298, 299, 301 

petaurista (Simia) 280,299,300 

petronellae (Cercopithecus) ...294,358 
petronellae (Lasiopyga) 

294, 296, 349, 358 

phaeura (Macaca) 243, 245 

phaeura (Pithecus) 184, 190, 243 

phaerus (Pithecus) . . . 184, 186, 243, 244 
philippinensis (Cynomolgos) . . 181, 249 
philippinensis (Macacus) 

180, 181, 182, 185, 187, 190, 248, 249. 250 
philippinensis (Pithecus) 

180, 181, 182, 185, 187 
190.. 248, 249, 250, 251 

picturata (Lasiopyga) 289 

picturatus (Cercopithecus) 

286, 287, 288, 303 

pileata (Simia) 179. 223 

pileatus (Cercocebus) 223 

pileatus (Cercopithecus) 178. 223 

pileatus (Cynamolgos) ...183.223 

pileatus (Cynomolgos) 181 

pileatus (Inuus) 181,223 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
pileatus (Macacus) 

180, 182, 183, 184, 223 
pileatus (Pithecus) 

177, 178, 179, 1 86.. 189. 222, 223, 224 

pileatus (Macacus) Pithecus 223 

pileatus Simia (Cercopithecus) sini- 

cus 177.223 

Pithecia miriquouina 2, 10 

Pithecus 119, 164, 173, 176, 177, 178 

180, 181, 183.. 185, 186, 187 
Pithecus adustus.. 185, 186, 188. 206, 207 
Pithecus agnatus ....185,186,190,243 

Pithecus alacer 185, 187, 189, 226 

Pithecus albibarbatus 

119, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182 
183, 184, 186, 188, 209, 218, 220 
Pithecus andamanensis 

183, 184, 186, 188, 208, 209 

Pithecus arctoides 191 

Pithecus (Macacus) arctoides 191 

Pithecus assamensis 

180, 181, 182, 186, 188, 209, 211, 213 
Pithecus baweanus ... 185, 187, 190, 241 
Pithecus bintangensis 

185,187,190,246,247,248 

Pithecus brachyurus 185, 216 

Pithecus brevicaudus 

185, 187, 188,216,217 

Pithecus brocus 185, 206 

Pithecus cagayanus . . 185. 187, 100, 251 
Pithecus capitalis .... 185, 186, 189, 235 
Pithecus carimatae 

185,187,100,235.240 

Pithecus cephalolopterus 181 

Pithecus cupidus.. 185, 187, 100, 241, 242 

Pithecus cyclopsis 188, 202, 218 

Pithecus cynomolgos 178 

Pithecus dollmani ....185,187,100.248 
Pithecus (Macacus) erythraeus ...214 
Pithecus (Macacus) nemestrinus. .205 
Pithecus fascicularis 

178. 186, 189,227,228,232 
233. 234. 235, 236. 237 
Pithecus fuscatus 

120. 181. 182. 183, 188, 195 

Pithecus fuscus 186,189,228,229 

Pithecus harmandi ...184,187.188.193 
Pithecus impudens ...185.187,100,246 



Page 
Pithecus insulanus ...185,186,188.207 

pithecus (Inuus) 174,180,181 

Pithecus irus 

178. 179. 180, 181, 182, 183. 184 
186, 189, 229, 232. 233. 234, 244 

Pithecus johni 181 

Pithecus karimoni 185, 187, 189, 227, 236 
Pithecus laetus ...185,187,189,235.236 

Pithecus lapsus 185,187.190,244 

Pithecus lasiotis . . 182, 187, 188, 198, 202 
Pithecus lautensis ....185,187,189,238 

Pithecus leoninus 181. 182 

Pithecus lingae 185. 187, 245 

Pithecus littoralis 185,187,188.201 

Pithecus lingungensis 

185, 187, 189, 237, 238, 239 
Pithecus mandibularis 

185, 187, 189, 234, 240 

Pithecus mindanensis 185, 252 

Pithecus mordax 

185. 187. 189, 225. 232, 240. 242 
Pithecus nemestrinus 

175, 185, 186, 188, 200, 205, 206. 207, 217 
Pithecus (Macacus) nemestrinus . .205 
Pithecus pagensis ....184.187,188.200 

Pithecus phaeura 190 

Pithecus phaeurus .... 184, 186, 243, 244 
Pithecus philippinensis 

180, 181. 182, 185,187 
100,248,249,250,251 
Pithecus p. apoensis. .185, 187, 100, 250 
Pithecus pileatus 

177, 178, 179. 186, 189. 222, 223, M| 

Pithecus priamus 181 

Pithecus pumillus 187,190,252 

Pithecus radiatus 221 

Pithecus resimus..i85, 187, 189. 224, 240 
Pithecus rhesus 

178, 179. 180, 181, 183, 186. 188 
201. 203. 213, 215, 216, 21 
Pithecus rufescens 

182, 186, 188. 193. 211 
Pithecu> >:mcti-j«»hannis 

181, 187, 188. 198 

Pithecus silenus 180 

Pithecus (Macacus) silenus 219 

Pithecus sinicus 

177. 178. 170. 181, 186. 189,221,223 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
Pithecus sirhassenensis 

185, 187.. 189, 238, 239 
Pithecus speciosus 

179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184 

186, 188, 190, 194. 195 

Pithecus (Macacus) speciosus .... 195 

Pithecus suluensis . . . 185.. 187, 190, 252 

Pithecus tcheliensis 201 

Pithecus thibetanum . . 187. 188, 196, 197 

Pithecus thibetanus 182 

Pithecus umbrosus 186, 189, 229 

Pithecus validus 185, 186, 189, 225 

Pithecus vestitus..i84, 187, 188, 196, 197 

Pithecus villosus 184, 187, 188, 200 

Pithecus vitiis 185, 189, 239 

Pithes 172 

Pithex 176 

planirostris (Papio) 124, 125, 151 

pluto (Cercopithecus) 

282,284,285,308,313 
pluto (Lasiopyga) 

282, 287, 291, 296, 307, 308, 309 
pogonias (Cercopithecus) 

281, 284, 285, 286, 354, 355. 356 
pogonias (Lasiopyga) 

281, 287, 289, 292, 296, 349, 354» 355 

Pogonocebus 275, 291, 296, 376 

poliophaeus (Cercopithecus) 285 

polycomus (Colobus) 23 

poppigii (Lagothrix) 55, 62 

porcaria (Cheiropithecus) 134 

porcaria (Hamadryas) 134 

porcarius (Cynocephalus) 

119, 120, 121, 122, 126, 134 
porcarius (Papio) 

117, 118, 119, 120.. 121, 122 
124, 126, 133, 134, 138 

porcarius (Simia) 118,119,133 

Presbytis albigena 256, 266 

Presbytis cephalolopterus 220 

preussi (Cercopithecus) 289, 370 

preussi (Lasiopyga) 
289, 290, 291, 295, 298, 359, 369, 370, 37i 

priamus (Pygathrix) 181 

princeps (Cercopithecus) 315 

princeps (Lasiopyga) 

291,294,307,315.316. 
problematicus (Macacus) 212,213 



Page 
pruinosus (Papio) 117, 122, 123, 124, 142 

Pseudocebus 64 

pucherani (Cebus) 79 

pumilus (Macacus) 252 

pumilus (Pithecus) 187, 190, 252 

pusillus (Cercopithecus) ..280,339,341 

pusillus (Lasiopyga) 341 

Pygathrix 181, 285 

Pygathrix cephaloloptera 181 

Pygathrix johni 181 

Pygathrix nestor 181 

Pygathrix priamus 181 

Pygathrix thersites 181 

Pygathrix ursinus 181 

pygerythra (Lasiopyga) 

280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 287, 292 
295, 325, 338, 341, 343, 344, 348 

pygerythra (Simia) 280 

pygerythrus (Cercopithecus) 

282, 284, 285, 286, 338 
pygerythrus (Chlorocebus) ...285,339 
pyrrhonotus (Cercopithecus) 

284, 285, 286, 287, 290 

pyrrhonotus (Erythrocebus) 287 

pyrrhonotus (Lasiopyga) 292 

radiata (Simia) 179 

radiatus (Cercocebus) 178,221 

radiatus (Cercopithecus) 178, 221 

radiatus (Macacus) 

178, 179, 180, 202, 221 

radiatus (Pithecus) 221 

resima (Macaca) 185, 224 

resimus (Pithecus) 

185, 187, 189, 224, 240 
rheso-similis (Macacus) ..182,183,210 

Rhesus 176 

rhesus (Cynocephalus) 178 

rhesus (Inuus) 178,180,213 

rhesus (Macacus) 

178, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 198, 213 

rhesus (Papio) 213 

rhesus (Pithecus) 

178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 186, 188 
201, 203, 213, 215, 216, 217, 221 

rhesus (Simia) ..179,213 

rhesus-villosus (Macacus) 184, 210, 213 
Rhinostictus 292, 295 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 

Rhinostigma 296 

roberti ( Aotus) 3, 4. 5. 10 

robustus (Cebus) 

68, 69, 70, 7h 72, 73, 74, 95, 104, «3 

robustus (Eucebus) Cebus 96 

rolaway (Cercopithecus) . .282, 284, 381 
roloway (Lasiopyga) 
279, 280, 282, 284, 287, 288, 295, 376, 381 

roloway (Simia) 280.. 381 

rothschildi (Cercocebus a.) ...258,270 
rubella (Lasiopyga) 

293, 295, 326, 342, 343, 344 

rubellus (Cercopithecus) 342 

ruber (Cercopithecus) 284, 285 

rubescens (Papio) 121, 122, 131 

rubra (Lasiopyga) 281 

rufescens (Macacus) 182. 183, 193 

rufescens (Pithecus) 

182.186,188,193,211 
rufilata (Lasiopyga) ..291,295,359,368 

rufilatus (Cercopithecus) 368 

rufipes (Aotus) 3, 4, 5, 9, 20 

rufipes (Nyctipithecus) 3, 9,14 

rufitincta (Lasiopyga) 

291,295,360,374,375 

rufitinctus (Cercopithecus) 374 

rufiventris (Ateles) 25,26,27,36 

rufiventris (Ateleus) 25,26,27,36 

rufoniger (Cercopithecus) 286 

rufoviridis (Cercopithecus) 

282, 284, 286, 341 

rufoviridis (Cercopithecus p.) 342 

rufoviridis (Chlorocebus) 285.342 

rufoviridis (Lasiopyga) 

282, 283, 284, 285, 287, 288, 292 

295, 325, 34i> 343, 344, 345 

riippelli (Gelada) 156 

sabaea (Cercopithecus) 

282, 283. 285, 333 
sabaea (Lasiopyga) 

279, 280, 281. 283, 289. 292, 335 

sabaea (Simia) 279, 280, 333 

sabaeus (Cercopithecus) 

282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 292, 333, 336 

Salamacis 176 

samango (Cercopithecus) 

282, 284. 285, 286, 287, 288. 375 



sancti-johannis (Macacus) 183,198 

sancti-johannis (Pithecus) 

181, 187, 188, 198 

sannio (Lasiopyga) 292 

Sapajou 21 

Sapajou ater 30 

Sapajou geoffroyi 44 

Sapajou marginatus 47 

Sapajou paniscus 28 

Sapajou pentadactylus 28 

Sapaju 21 

Sapajus 21,64 

satyrus (Simia) 172 

schmidti (Cercopithecus) 286,306 

schmidti (Cercopithecus a.) 306 

schmidti (Lasiopyga) 

286, 287, 288, 289, 292, 295, 298. 306 
sclateri (Cercopithecus) ..289,290,323 
sclateri (Lasiopyga) 

290,292,295,319.323 
Semnopithecus albogularis 281, 363, 364 

Semnopithecus kra 230 

senex (Aotus) 3, 4. 8 

senex (Papio) 121 

senex (Theropithecus) 155,156 

signatus (Cercopithecus) 286,305 

signata (Lasiopyga) 

286, 287, 288, 289, 292, 206, 208. 305 
silacea (Lasiopyga) ..293,295,326,347 

silaceus (Cercopithecus) 347 

Silenus 182 

silenus (Cercopithecus) 177 

silenus (Cynocephalus) 181,219 

silenus (Inuus) 179,218,219 

silenus (Maimon) Inuus.. . 179, 218, 219 
silenus (Macacus) 

178. 179, 180,183,184,218 

silenus (Papio) 119, 178, 218 

silenus (Pithecus) 181 

silenus (Macacus) Pithecus 218 

silenus (Simia) 

176, 177, 179. ^84. 218, 2K), 990 

Silenus veter 21S. 919 

silenus (Vetulus) 210 

Simia 67. 172. 173. 176, 177, 179.280 

Simia Bgyptiaca E46 

Simia ethiopa 

855, -'5'>. 261, g 

Simia albibtrbatui 184. 220 



XXIV 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
Simla (Cercopithecus) albibarbatus 218 
Simia (Cercopithecus) silenus albi- 
barbatus 177.. 218 

Simia (Cercopithecus) veter albi- 
barbatus 177.. 218 

Simia (Sapajus c.) albulus 67,82 

Simia anubis 119 

Simia apedia 177 

Simia apella 66, 67, 74, 78, 79, 83 

Simia ascanius 279, 303 

Simia atys 179 

Simia belzebuth 40 

Simia cana 55> 60 

Simia capucina 64.. 66, 67, 74, 82. 83 

Simia carbonaria . . .' 179, 230 

Simia carpolegus 178, 205 

Simia cephus 279, 280, 319 

Simia chamek 28 

Simia (Papio) cinerea 152, 154 

Simia cirrifer 67, no 

Simia cuvieri 169 

Simia cynocephala 

118, 119, 122, 137. 139 
Simia cynomolgos 

143, 146, 176, I77 ? 179, 184, 229, 230 

Simia cynosura 279, 280, 337 

Simia diana 278, 279, 280, 380, 381 

Simia erythraea 213, 215 

Simia erythropyga 280, 281 

Simia fascicularis 178 

Simia fatuellus 67,102,113,233 

Simia faunus 176, 177 

Simia ferox 177, 218 

Simia flavia 93 

Simia fuliginosus 256, 262 

Simia hamadryas 

118,119, 143, 176, 184,231 

Simia hypoleuca 67, 75 

Simia inuus 173, 174, *75, *77, 179 

Simia lagotricha 53, 56 

Simia leonina 177, 218 

Simia leucampyx 280, 308 

Simia leucophaea 1 19, 152 

Simia maimon 118, 119.. 150, 151 

Simia mona 279, 280, 350 

Simia mormon 150 

Simia nemestrinus 177, 179, 205 

Simia nictitans ...275,278,279,280.316 



Page 

Simia paniscus 21, 28 

Simia petaurista 279, 280, 299, 300 

Simia pileata 179. 223 

Simia (Cercopithecus) sinieus pile- 

atus 177, 223 

Simia (Cercopithecus) veter albi- 
barbatus 218 

Simla (Pithecia) azarae 3, 11 

Simia porcarius 118. 119. 133 

Simla pygerythra 280 

Simia radiata 179 

Simia rhesus 179, 213 

Simia roloway 280, 381 

Simia sabsea 279, 280, 333 

Simia (Sapajus) c. albulus 67 

Simia satyrus 172 

Simia silenus 

176, 177, 179, 184, 218, 219, 220 

Simia sinica 176, 177, 179. 221, 223 

Simia speciosa 179 

Simia sphinx 118, 119, 130, 139, 149, 151 

Simia sphingiola 118, 119, 134 

Simia subviridis 280 

Simia suilla 1 18, 150 

Simia sylvanus 

^72, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177 
178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183 

Simia syrichta 177, 250 

Simia trepidus 67, 70, 79 

Simia trivirgata 16 

Simia (Aotus) trivirgata 67 

Simia variegatus 95 

Simia veter 176, 177, 179 

sinensis (Cynocephalus) -.177 

sinica (Simia) . . . 176, 177, 179. 221, 223 
sinieus (Cercocebus) . . 178, 183. 222, 223 
sinieus (Cercopithecus) ..177,178,221 

sinieus (Cynocephalus) 177 

sinieus (Cynomolgos) .... 181, 183. 222 

sinieus (Inuus) ..179,181,222 

sinieus (Cercocebus) Inuus ...221,223 
sinieus (Macacus) 

178, 179, 180, 182. 183, 184, 221, 223, 224 
sinieus (Pithecus) 

177, 178, 179, 181, 186, 189, 221, 223 
sirhassenensis (Pithecus) 

185, 187, 189, 238, 239 
speciosus (Cynopithecus) .... 120, 195 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



XXV 



Page 

speciosus (Inuus) 180.181,191,195 

speciosus (Macacus) 

179, 180, 181, 182, 183 
184, 190, 192, 195 
speciosus (Pithecus) 

179, 180. 181, 182, 183, 184 
186, 188, 190, 194.. 195 

speciosus (Simia) 179 

sphingiola (Simia) 118,119,134 

Sphinx 115 

sphinx (Cynocephalus) 

119.120,121,130 
sphinx (Papio) 

117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 124 
125, 130, 139.. I49» 150, 152, 215 
sphinx (Simia) 

II8,II9,I30,I39 ? I49 ? ISI 

spixi (Aotus) 3,4,5,19 

spixi (Nyctipithecus) 3, 19 

stairsi (Cercopithecus) 286,373 

stairsi (Lasiopyga) 

286,287,291,295,360 

372, 373, 374, 375 
stampflii (Cercopithecus) 

286, 287, 319, 372, 373, 374 

stampflii (Lasiopyga) 289 

sticticeps (Cercopithecus) 317 

sticticeps (Lasiopyga) 293, 295, 307, 317 

strepitus (Papio) 117,123,124,141 

stuhlmanni (Cercopithecus) 

287,291,312,313,315 
stuhlmanni (Lasiopyga) 

287,289,294,307,309,310 
312,313,314,315.316 

subcristatus (Cebus) 73,74-96,97 

subpentadactylus (Ateles) 23,28 

subviridis (Simia) 280 

suilla (Simia) 118, 150 

suluensis (Cynomolgos) 252 

suluensis (Pithecus) . . 185, 187, 190, 252 

surinamensis (Cebus) 23 

surinamensis (Cebus p.) 28 

Sylvanus 172 

sylvanus (Simia) 

172,173,174.175.176,177 

178. 179, 180, 181, 182, 183 

syrichta (Simia) 177, 250 

talapoin (Cercopithecus) 279,286 



Page 

talapoin (Lasiopyga) 292 

talapoin (Miopithecus) 279 

tantalus (Cercopithecus) 

282, 286, 328, 329 
tantalus Cercopithecus (Lasiopyga) 

329 
tantalus (Lasiopyga) 

282. 286. 288, 292, 295 

325,338,330,331,332 

tantalus (Chlorocebus) 328 

tcheliensis (Macacus) 

182, 183, 109,200.202 

temmincki (Lasiopyga) 288 

temmincki (Cercopithecus) 

282.318,382 
tephrops (Cercopithecus) 

281,282,285,338 

tessellatum (Papio) 123,124,127 

Theropithecus 121, 155 

Theropithecus gelada 120, 121, 155, 156 

Theropithecus nedjo 157 

Theropithecus niger 155 

Theropithecus obscurus 155*157 

Theropithecus senex 155. 156 

thibetanum (Macacus) 183,106 

thibetanum (Pithecus) 187, 188, 196, 197 

thibetanus (Macacus) 182,183 

thibetanus (Pithecus) 182 

thomasi (Cercopithecus) 370 

thomasi (Cercopithecus) l'hoesti.. .371 

thomasi (Lagothrix) 55-56. 59 

thomasi (Lasiopyga) 

292, 295, 208, 360, 370 
thoth (Cynocephalus) 120, 121. 122. 137 

thoth (Papio) 121,123.140.143 

tonkeanus (Cynopithecus) 161 

tonkeanus (Macacus) 166,170 

tonkeanus (Magus) 170,171 

tonkeanus (Papio \.) 170 

tonsus (Papio) 161,170,171 

torquatus (Cercocebus) 

255. 25^ 
259. 260, 26.V 

torquatus (Lasiopyga") 

trcpida (Simia) 67. 70, 70 

trepidus (Cebus) fai 

trivirgata (Simla) 1.2 

trivirgata (Simia a.) 16 



INDEX OF LATIN NAMES 



Page 
trivirgatus (Aotus) ....2.4,5,7,16,20 

trivirgatus (Cebus) 16 

trivirgatus (Nyctipithecus) 

2,3,11,13.15,16,90 

tsehudi (Lagothrix) 54.. 55, 57 

tuberifer (Eriodes) 50,51 

ubericola (Lagothrix) 55.56,59,60 

umbrosus (Macacus) 229 

umbrosus (Pithecus) 186, 189. 229 

unicolor (Cebus) 
68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 7&, 77, 7% 9h 92 

unicolor (Pseudocebus) Cebus 91 

ursinus (Ceroopithecus h.) ...118,143 
ursinus (Cynocephalus) ..120,121,134 

validus (Pithecus) . . . 185, 186, 189, 225 
variegatus (Ateles) 

23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 32 
variegatus (Ateleus) 

23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31 
variegatus (Cebus) 

68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77 
78,87,91,95,97,98.. 104, 113 

variegatus (Eucebus) Cebus 96 

variegatus (Simia) 67 

variegatus (Simia) Cebus 95 

vellerosus (Ateles).. 25, 26, 36, 40, 41, 42 

vellerosus (Ateleus) 25,26,41 

vellerosus (Cebus) 

7i,72,73,74,77,78,ii3 

vellerosus (Otocebus) Cebus 113 

versicolor (Cebus) 70, 71, 72, 88, 89 

versuta (Cebus) 76, 77, 78, 105, 109 

vestitus (Macacus) 184. 197 

vestitus (Pithecus) 

184, 187, 188, 196, 197 



Page 

veter (Cercopithecus) 177 

veter (Silenus) 218, 219 

veter (Simia) 176, 177, 179 

Vetulus 176, 181 

Vetulus (Cercopithecus) 177 

Vetulus silenus 219 

villosus (Macacus r.) 184,210,213 

villosus (Pithecus) . . . 184, 187. 188, 200 

vitiis (Pithecus) 185, 186, 189, 239 

vociferans (Aotus) . .2, 3, 4, 5, 13, 16, 20 

vociferans (Cebus) 13 

vociferans (Nyctipithecus) 2, 3, 13 

wagleri (Cynocephalus) 119, 144 

Wanderou 220 

werneri (Cercopithecus) 

283, 284, 286, 334 
werneri (Lasiopyga) 

283, 287, 288, 296, 325, 334, 335, 336 
whitesidei (Cercopithecus a.) 

293, 298, 305 
whitesidei (Lasiopyga a.) 

293, 296.. 298, 305 

whytei (Cercopithecus c.) 345 , 

whytei (Lasiopyga c.) 

292, 295, 326, 345, 346, 349 

wolfi (Cercopithecus) 286,351 

wolfi (Lasiopyga) 

286, 287, 288, 292, 296, 349, 351 

xanthocephalus (Cebus) 

68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 96, 98 
xanthosternus (Cebus) 68, 69, 70, 71. 95 

yokoensis (Papio) 122, 124, 128 

Zati 176, 181.. 221 



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