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June J. 19011. 

The Review of Reviews. 

MitwcapoUs Jotttval'\ 

The rwo-H«aded Eag e OUided Agalubt Itfteif. 
RusBia'iCoat of Arms Revised to Meet Present Day Conditions. 

J^R. Chest 





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The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1906. 


Readers wall notice that on another page I announce that with the July issue we shall com- 
mence the publication of a serial ston,', '■ In the Days of the Comet," by the famous writer, H. G. 
Wells, of England. The name of this writer is a guarantee of the excellence of the story, and it is a 
foregone conclusion that every " Review of Reviews " reader will be delighted with it. Will you have 
the goodness, dear reader, to mention to your friends that "' The Review of Reviews" for next month 
will begin to publish H. G. Wells's " In the Days of the Comet," one of the most thrilling and in- 
teresting stories of the last few months, and get them to order the number from their news agent 
without delay. 

Next month also I shall publish a scheme of social reform, in which I want every " Review of 
Reviews " reader to join. It would be a magnificent thing for Australasia if every " Review of Re- 
views " reader were to become a helper towards a better state of society in the way that will be indi- 
cated next month. 

I thank those readers who send names of friends to whom can be sent sample copies of " The 
Review of Reviews," and shall be obliged to any others who will fulfil the same kindly office. 

W. H. JUDKINS, Editor. 



Esperanto Manual, Indispensable lo Sludents, 2S. 

Motteau's Esperanto- English Dictionary, 

2S. 8d. 

O'Connor's English- Esperanto Dictionary, 
2s. 8d. 

Dickens' Christmas Carol in Esperanto, 
IS. 6d. 

La Sercado por la Ora Saflano (The Golden 

Fleece), gd. 
Pocket Vocabulary (English Esperanto), 3d. 


Learn the coming Universal World Language, used at 
the recent Boulogne Congress by people of 22 nationalities. 

Send to 


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Esperanta Klubo, \1elbourne. 

Legiintoj de la artikoloj aperigitaj antau nelonge 
en la " Review of Reviews " estos interesataj 
sciigante ke Esperanta Klubo ekzislas en 
Melbourno, kaj oni petas ke interesatojn 
korespondu kun la Sekretario au Prezidanto, 
adrese 25 Rathdown Street, Carlton. 

Melbourne fsperanto Club. 

Readers of recent articles in " The Review of 
Reviews " will be interested to learn that an 
Esperanto Club exists in Melbourne, and those 
interested are requested to correspond with the 
Secretary or President, at 25 Rathdown Street, 

June 1, 1906. 

The Review of Reviews, 

To Obey Is Setter Than Sacrlflce ! 
UR8 DoBBS : Billy! D'y 'ear? Come off that roof!" 

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Agencies in all the Australian States and New Zealand. 

LONDON AGENT— W. F. Pasmore, Chemist, 3J0 Regent Street, W. 

A. The Larynx, oc ofcas « 


B. The Trachea, or windplpa. 
C The Bronchial Tabes al 1 

dissected luog. 
D. A lobe of ooe o< ths hue*- 

The Review of Reviews. 

juiM 1, uoe. 



Yon should shop with the following Firms. You can depend on getting the Best Goods at 
the Most Reasonable Prices. Make a note of the Firms in your Pocket-Book : — 


I Diamond Merchants. Goldsmiths, Silversmiths, 

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lunches. Afternoon Tea. 

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Tails, Fringes. Transformations. NATURAL HAIR PADS from One 
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Look at Pages viii., ix. 
and X. of Advertisements 
in this issue. 



A complete Food, made from pure 
rich milk, and whole wheat, both 
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during manufacture. !t forms an 
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The "Allenburys" DIET is a food 
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the "Allenbupys"' Foods for Infants. 



Jiin« I, 190C. 

The Review of Reviews, 


Winter i s Qomi n^ On, 

Lay in Your Stock of Reading. 

Nothing Better and Cheaper can be got than Our Novels and Poets. 


You Can't be Working Day and Night. 

You Need Some Relaxation. 

Nothing Gives Relaxation Like a Good Novel. 

1 CtlARLCS O'MALLEY; diaries I«ver'8 stirrinK romance, tell- 
ing of the adyentures of an Irish officer in the Napo- 
leonic Wari. 

1 CONINGSBY ; one of the most famoos works of the states- 
man novelist. Iiord Beaconsfield. 

3. BEN (ItR; perhaps the most realistic story of the time 

of Christ. A stirring tale of flghtine and loTe bj- 
General Lew Wallace. 

4. TME SCARLET LETTER; Nathaniel Hawthorne's master- 

piece. Tells of the stern, early Puritan doings in 

(. ALOERSYDE ; a charming story of the Scottish border. 

written most graphically by Annie S. Swan. 
«. NEOMI: THE BRIGAND'S DAUGHTER: the title explains it- 

••K. The novel is one of the most popular of that 

popular writer. 8. Baring-Gould 
1- UNCLE TOM'S CABIN. An epoch making book, by Mrs. H. 

Beeoher-Stowe. A tale of the slave days in America. 

I. THE FIFTH FORM OF ST. DOMINICS; one of the best stories 
of school days in England. Bright, having plenty of 
Incident. By T. Barnes Reed. 

«. THE SCHONBERG - COTTA FAMILY ; the best of the many 
oharminff works of Mrs. £. Bundle Charles. 

10. SHE. A thrilling romance of marvel and mystery, the 
plot of which is laid in South Africa. By H. Eider 

11. HANDY ANDY. A tale of Irish life. By Samuel Lover. 

12. JANE EYRE. The most widely-circulated and most power- 
ful of cf Charlotte Bronte's novels. 

I. THE EARTHLY PARADISE; by William Morris. Stories from 
this great masterpiece of one of the greatest of presentr 
day poels. told in prose with copious extracts in verse. 
by special permission of the author. 

2 THE INGOLOSBY LEGENDS, by Thomas Ingoldsby (Rev. E. H. 
Barham). who easily holds first place as master ol 
English humorous rhyme. 

3. CHILOE HAROLD'S PILGRIM >GE. The book contains the second 
portion of Lord Byron's greatest masterpiece. It U 
more popular than the first, as it deals with the poet s 
wandering in better known lands. 


"Vhittier. the Quaker poet of America. He has been 
called the Poet Laureate of the Suffrage 
6 WMIT lER'S POEMS, contains his autobiographical poems and 
■elections from the verses he wrote against slavery. 

6 COWPER'S POEMS, including a collection of .-ill his poems rtlatiof •• 


7 IcutfiUS AND BALLADS. A selection of the best known 

legends and ballads in the English tongue. 

^ ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON. That portion of Spencer'* 
Faerie Quecne which tells of the adventures of the Bed 
Cross Knieht. 

9 THE CANTERBURY TALES, in which Geoffrey Chaucer tells of 
a pilgrimage from London to Canterbury five cen- 
turies ago. I, mi. 
10. TNE PLEASURES OF HOPE, and other poems, by 'Thomas 
Campbell. The Scottish poet is chiefly known by his 
battle poems. The Battle of the Baltic. Hohenhnden. 

II. THE POEMS OF JOHN KEATS. This 'Poet of Beauty" lived 
but 25 years, and vet he was one of the greatest poeta 
of the 'l9t.h century. All his best masterpieces are In- 
cluded in the volume. . . . x , .. 

12 IRISH MELOJIES and other poems, by the greatest of IrUh 
poet*. Thomas Moore. 

TWELVE NOVELS for Is. 4d. ds. sd m stamps). 

TWELVE POETS for Is. 4d. as. sd. m stamps.) 


Send only Is. Id. (i». sd. if stamps , and the twelve novels or the twelve pocta will be sent you by return. 
F«r 2s. ()d. the whole library of twenty four volumes will be sent, post free. 

THE MANAGER, " The Review of Reviews," Equitable Building, Melbourne. 

The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1906. 



You should shop with the following Firms. You can depend on getting the Best Goods at 

the Most Reasonable Prices. Make a note of the Firms in your Focket-Book :— 


Melbourne's Popular CHEMISTS. 

Prescription Drug Stores. 
Best Stocked Emporium of Rare Medicines in 




Can have their Pictures Carefully Developed and Printed, 
and obtain all Photo. Supplies and .Accessories from 

BAKER & ROUSE Propty. Ltd.. 

Sole Australian Agents for KODAK Limited, 

"The Block," 284 Collins Street, Melbourne. 




(Opposite Cole's Book Arcade). 
O Phone 3361. Appointments Booked. Popular Prices. 


Dr. Lykuski's Celebrated 

Russian Skin Food. 

Eradjcai-; Freckles Wrinkles, Sallowncss Sunburn, Dlackheads, 
Vciie, Pimples. Roughness, and all Blemishes arid Eruptions of the 
'kin, rendeitag it Soft, White and Transparent. Price 3s. 6d. and 
6s,; posted. *^d extra. All Chemist? or 

HELENA RUBINSTEIN & CO.. 274 Collins Street, Melbourne. 
"GUIDE TO BEAUTY" FREE if y-u mention this paper. 

The Review of Reviews for Australasia 

iB far and a-wray the best Monthly Paper published in Australasia. It is 
not only the busy man's and ■w^oman's paper, but the best paper 
that the man or -woman of leisure can buy. As no other paper does, 
It gives, month by month, a resume ot the -world's doings, and the 
best thoughts of its best ■writers. 

^ •_ ■ ■«- 

\J» lit SKanager, 

Che Review of Sieuleiot for 3iu»lrala»ia, 

Squiiable Siuilding, 5flelbourn». 

S'leate tend me lite Sieview of Sleviewt for Jlutlrafaila for lioetve month*, 
iigtnning for which S enelote eight thilling* and sixpence. 

(SSr. ) 

3lame \ 5Kr,. \ . 

i SHU, ) 




For mutual advautaee, when you write to an advertiser, please mention the Review of Reviews, 

Jun« I, 1906. 

The Review of Reviews* 

Black and White.} 

"C.-B." and the Ladies' Grtlte. 

'lam not sure whether my honourable friend (Mr Henrv 
Nomian t pointed to the dantrer from the occupants of thel.adies' 
gallery or to the occupants of the tmllery." — Hou(>e of ConinionH. 

February '2*Jii'1. 




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is best for BABIEIS, 

INVALIDS and the 


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■^om., TRENCH'S REMEDY '^o'"-^ 


48 Hnups ■^ 6'"^' ^^^ *"'' '" ^"""^ rapid succession thai 
** she was unable to take food or drink, and 

to LiVO the doctor who was attending her said she 
could not live more than 48 hours. Trench's Remedy at 
once stopped the fits, and there has not been a further 
attack since — over 2 J years — and none of the Kemedy has 
been taken for over a year. 

nnr>l>a>.o>l ♦«» ^ B'"^' *'^° ^^^ been at various times 
ueciarea XO ^^j^, treatment l.y several of the lead- 
DC Incurobie ing doctors of Melbourne was declared 
to be incurable by them all, and the parents were advised 
to place hev in an asylum. She took from ten to twenty 
fits a day, yet upon using Trench's Kemedy the attacks 
ceased at once, and she has not had a fit since — nearly three 
years. She ceased taking the Remedy nearly two years ago. 
pinnn Cnont ^^^ ^°" °'^ ^ leading merchant of 

■tK ♦ '^ ,: Melbourne broke down just as he 
Without result ^^s commencing his University 
course. All the best physicians of Melbourne were con- 
sulted, but none of them could stop the fits. The father 
then took the young man to England and elsewhere to 
obtain the best advice in the world, but, -.'ter spending over 
;^iooo, he brought him back with the I Vs occurring more 
frequently than ever. Trench's Remedy It once stopped 
the attacks, and the young man is now perfectly cured. 

The above statements can be verified by personal refer- 
ence to the parents of the patients, who, from gratitude, 
have offered to reply to any enquirers we refer to them. 


The Union Manufacturing &. Agency Go.^ 

359 AND 361 Collins Street, Melbournb. 

The Review of Reviews, 

June 1, 190G. 


Twenty-Mne Magnific ent | 


g- o a 

For 2s. Post Tree. 

These Post-Cards have been specially produced 
for us by the New Colourttpe Process. 

They are reproductions of Original Oil and 

Water Colour Paintings in all their 

Natural Colours. 

Now that the p<>stal restriction, which prohibited 
Aritini; on the address side has been removed, Picture 
t'ost-Cards will be much more used, especially as the 
Post Office omci.als take great pains not >o damage the 

O Q Q 





(15 Cards.' 


The Harboar at Venice 



The Shepherd's Star 


The Wedding Parly 

A Neighbourly Chat 


Land of the IVIIdnlght Sun 


Sunset on Long Island 

Berkshire Brook in Autumn 


A Passing Storm 


Landscape (.Corat) 


In a Bad Fix 

Judgment of Paris 




Three Boatmen «f Barce- 




The Fishermen's Return 

SERIES No. 2. 

(14 Cards ) 

The Chess Players 

A Summer Day In llolland 
;, JWaters 

The Fortune Teller (D«"ii 
Venice (Canal) 
The Evening Meal 
Itlghiand Sheep 
Th^ Old Homestead 
The Puritan Girl 
Preparing the Fete 
Sunset on Mount Hood 
The Young Mother 
Street Scene In Venice 
An Old Salt 


■0/ o w 

C O '5 

Picture Post-Cards are becoming 
more and more popular, but the best should be 
used ; that is why you should write fur our 
series at once. 

It will be Been from the particulars given that the two 
series embraces a variety of land and seascapes, heads, 
domestic subjects, animal life, etc. They exceed in 
beauty and finish, richness and variety of design, any- 
thing on the market. 

It is of these pictures, which are now for the first time 
reproduced as Post-Cards, that Sm PHILIP BURNE 
JONES writes : — " I have the greatest pleasure in ex- 
pressing my admiration for the high standard of excel- 
lence obtained in the coloured reproductions of paint- 
ings, which I had the opportunity of seeing the other 
day, and 1 wish them all the success they so undoubtedly 

The Tyvo Series (29 Cards). 2s. post free. 

1 Serie.s No. 1 (15 Cards). Is. Id, post free. 
I Series No. 2 (14 Cards), Is. post free. 


^ Equitable Building, Melbourne. 



}\int 1, 1900. 

the Review of Reviews. 



c /r^ ^ 

u 21/- IliTl))))) 2V- t 




Gunnietal Kcvless Lever Watch lewcl't-d witli it: twclv, ..iily 2ls. 
Caant's "Standard" Silver English loer. £6 lOs., £7 IDs. 

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Grey Hair, falling Hair, 
and Baldness. 

I am enabled to treat anyone com- 
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the condition of their Hair. When 
writing, kindly enclose stamped envelope 
with address. 


274 Collins Street, 



Ke*der, why not be able to nw th» 
I moat niyiterious and powcrdiJ force of 
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I to HypDOtlze In a^w boura lime, with- 
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[iiioBtnted LESSON or Key to 
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|the tDviteriea and aecrete 
I of the Art- nt contains 
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»rtiatic eosraviDg*, ami Is the moat elaborate 

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• ver »iibn«hed. For a thort 

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89 Pitt Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 


.\re Successtully Protecied Iroin Uiseasc* l)\" 
our popular Invisible Device, which metho- 
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Posted on Receipt of 13 Penny Stamps. 




The Spectator'' 

is the Organ of the Methodist Church In 
Victoria and Tasmania. 

It is a Live, Cright, Lp-to-Date Journal. 

Sold at Ss. Sd. per annum UOs. lOd. posted). 

The late Rev. E. S. Bickford wrote concerning it as 
follows : — " The Sfcctator has become one of the verj- best 
religious papers published in .\ustralasia. It is now possible 
to recommend it with confidence, not only to the Methodists 
but to Christians of all denominations. Kor whilst its chief 
aim is to serve the Methodist Church in Victoria and Tas- 
mania, it is free from everything parochial and sectarian, 
and gives a generous recognition to our sister churches. 
Every person in the colonies who aspires to be an intel- 
ligent Methodist, must read its columns." 


Of all Descriptions is undertaken 
and executed with Jtccuracy and 

270 Post Ofifice Place, 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 190e. 


TBI FAMOUS REMEDY FOR Has the Lar;e«t Sale ol any Che«t Medicine In Australia. 


Those who have Uken this medicine are amazed at it» wonderful influence. Sufiferers from any form of Bronchitis^ Cough. Difficulty ol 
Breathing. Hoarseness, Pain -r Sorene*« in the Chest experience delightful and Immediate relief ; and to those who ar« subject to Coidt ontM 
Chest it is invaluable, as it effects a Complete Cure. It is most comforting in allaying irritation In the throat and glrlng itr«ngth to the '««*. 
and it neither allows a Cough or Asthma to become Chronic, nor ConsumptiOD to deTclop. Conaomption hat never been known to eadit wh«« 
" Coughs " have been properly treated with this medicine. No house tbould be without It, u, taken at tk« beginnint a dote !• generally 
•ufficient. and a Complete Cure is certain. _^^^^_^.^^^___— ^_^^^^____^^_ 

Remember tliat CTcry disease ha* Its commencement, aad Ooaiuaiptl«a 
U DO exception to this nils. 






Mr. Hearne. Dear Sir,— For five or six years I was 
troubled with asthma, at times very bad indeed. I was 
very ill jost after Christmas, so sent to the local 
cbemiat for a bottle of yoar Bronchitis and Asthma 
Oure. I took the first dose on eroing to bed. and was not 
troubled that ni^ht. I finished the medicine, and have 
not had a touch of the asthma since. I tell everyone 
about it. M. MUEEAY, 

Postmistress. Pampoolah. Manning River, N.S.W 






Mr. W. G. Hearne. 

Dear Friend.— Chronic Bronchitis I had from birth, 
and I am now 66 years old. Some time back I con- 
tracted Asthma, and for months I was so bad that any 
remedy that had previously relieved smothering wag of 
no use to me. I was so bad that I dared not stir, and 
spent the worst nieht I ever had. When in a conver- 
sation, Mr. March, J. P.. of Balmain, Sydney, kindly told 
me that a friend of big was usine your Bronchitis Core, 
and that it was eood. So my sister bousrht rae a bottle 
of it, and in a few minutes after taking the first doge 
I could breathe a little. The next day I was better, and 
kept eettine better every day. To-day T am hette- 
than I have been for the last seven rears. I took the 
medicine ,is directed, six bottles, and it cost rae less 
than £1 I would eive £50 for the same benefit anther 
than snffer as T did. Please make what use of thi« 
letter you think fit. If by so doin? it would only 
cause one to set rid of this fearful complaint. — Yours 


108 Curtis Road. Balmain. Sydney. 

Mr. Hearne. Chemist. 

Sir. — T am thankful to say that the medicine .von sent 
for Asthma has bad a wonderful effect. I have not 
taken all the Bronchitis Cure, as I did not need it: 
therefore I send yon my hearty ffood wishes for your 
future success. I myself will, for the benefit of others. 
make it known to all I know. I am 73 years of age. — 
Yours truly. JOHN BEAY. 

Alliance-street, Olnnes. Victoria. 



Mr. W. G. Hearne. Dear Sir. — About three weeks ago, 
while in the vicinity of musty chaff. I gradually felt a 
difficulty to breathe. My nose bejan to run, and to all 
appearances I was developing a severe attack of Bron- 
chitis or Asthma. At last I could stand it no longer. 
I then tried your Bronchitis Cure, and its effect waf 
wonderful. In less than ten minutes I was all right 
again. Such a result, and so quick, astounded me. Thif 
is no exaggeration, I am pleased to sav.— Yours truly, 

S. H. MAYO. 
Meredith, Victoria. 

I was a bronchial subject for nearly 40 years, bnl 
have found Hearnes Bronchitis Cure a perfect remedy." 

St.awell Brewery. 
Stawell. Victoria. 

" Your Bronchitis Cure is a splendid medicine. It 
ia the best medicine I have ever used for Coughs, Coldi 
on the Chest, and Sore Throat. 


Werona. Victoria. 

•■ I suffere-i very much from Asthma for four years 
and tried lots of so-called cures without deriving any 
benefit. I ?ot a bottle of your Bronchitis Cure. No. la, 
last Friday, and a bottle of your No. Is Medicine, for 
obstinate Asthma, on S.iturday. Since the first dose of 
your No. 2 Medicine. I have not had the wheezing at 

" Leongatha." Eiversdale Road, 
Hawthorn, Melbourne. 

" Your Bronchitis Cure really acts like magic." 
IMrg.) E. L. 8YMES. 
Narracoorte Hotel. Narracoorte, 
South Australia. 

" As my pirrchasea show, .your remedies are increasing 
in sale. From time to time I hear people speaking 
about the good results obtained from them. Wishing 
you a very much enlarged sale and great prosperity," 

Cliemist. Ballarat. 

" I have purchased a small bottle of your Bronchitii 
Cure, and have only taken four doses, and am glad to 

tell you that I am cured." 


c o Mr. D. McLean, 
Oamperdown. Victoria. 

"I was laid up for twelve months with Bronchitis, 
during which I tried many remedies, without enccee*. 
I used two bottles of your Bronchitis Cure, and am now 
completely cured." 

Hnntly Street, Elstemwick, Uelbonme. 


Sold by Chemists and Medicine Vendors, and by the Proprietor, 


Forwarded hv Post to any Address when not obtainable locally. 

•""" '• "* The Review of Reviews. 

TRIED ^ ^ 


If you have not, study our advertisements, and w^rite to our adver- 
tisers, and see whether they will not serve you as satisfactorily as if 
you shopped in person. 

Whether it be Machinery or Tea, Buggies or Hair Restorer, Gates or 
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tisers and test their goods. 

It is our wish that the advertisements in this magazine be read by 
its readers " The Review of Reviews " is a high-class production, the best 
magazine of its class in Australasia, and we refuse to take advertisements 
from all and sundry. We discriminate between firms to whom we apply 
for advertisements. The appearance of an advertisement in "The Review 
of Reviews" is a proof that the firm advertising is a reputable one, and 
that its representations are genuine. We want readers of "The Review 
of Reviews" to have confidence in its advertisers. 

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In recent years methods of shopping and purchasing have changed. 
Purchasers do not buy goods on chance, but they rely on the reputation 
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tomers And security, for the merit of an article is soon found out, and 
the thing not up to description goes down Constant advertising of an 
article is therefore an excellent guarantee of that article's worth. 

Misrepresent a line of goods in advertising and it is as good as dead 
The public will not be imposed upon. 

In a good-class magazine like "The Review of Reviews," advertisements 
can be relied on. The management exercises great care that none but 
reliable advertisements are accepted. 

Don't take chances in buying Buy well-known goods advertised in 
our columns by our clients. 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1006. 























All Functional Derangements of the Liver, Temporary Con- 
gestion arising from Alcoholic Beverages, Errors in Diet, 
Biliousness, Sick Headacl>e, Giddiness, Vomiting, Heartburn, 

Sourness of the Stomach, Constipation, Thirst, 

Skin Eruptions, Boils, Feverish Cold with High Temperature 

and Quick Pulse, Influenza, Throat Affections and 

Fevers of all kinds. 

INDIGESTION, BILIOUSNESS. SICKNESS. Sic— "I have often thought of writing to tell you 
what 'FRUIT SALT' has done for me. I used to be a perfect martyr to Indigestion and Biliousness. About sis or eeveD 
years back my husband suggested I should try 'FRUIT SALT.' I did so, and the result been marvellous. I never 
have the terrible pains and sickness I used to have ; I can eat almost anything now. I alwaxs keep it in the bouse and 
recommend it to my friends, as it is such an invaluable pick-me-up if you have a headache, or don't feel just right. 

Yours truly -(August 8, 1900)-" 

Tha effect of END'S ' FRUIT SALT' on a Disordered Sleepless and Feverish Condition is simply marvelloua. 
It Is. In fact, Nature's Own Remedy, and an Unsurpassed One. 

CAUTION-— See Capsule marked Eno's 'Fruit Salt.' Without it you have a Wortiilrss iMiTATloa. 
Prepared only by J. C. END, Ltd.. at the ' FRUIT SALT' WORKS, LONDON, by J. C. END'S Patent. 















































JAMES STEDMAN Ltd., Sydney. 

Confectioners and Country Storekeepers, write us for our NEW t Wholesale) C ATALOGL'E. We can fill 
all your requirements Fresh Stocks of CONTINENTAL and AMERICAN NOVELTIES by every mail. 

For mutual advantage, wben you write to an advertiser, please mention the Review of Reviews. 

June 1. VJih.. 

The Review of Reviews. 

Minneapolis Journal.^ 

Curo for a Bad Case of Lockjaw. 

Uncle Sam holds the key to the situat-on in a supreme court 
c'tcitiion whith govs the j^reot Americnn Trvpt Magnate niubi talk 












The Review of Reviews. 



Secretary for Mining Companies. 

Flotation of Approved Properties Undertaken. 

Tjhompson, 9/^oore dc Sons, 

. . . TP^en/n^ J'tyents, 




ILirrnsfti auiitor, 



For- Newest and Latest Designs in .. . 

Call and Inspect our Stock. We .ire always pleased 
to show our workmanship. 

ART FRAMING DEPOT, """'^eTb^u^ne. 

JOH.S L. AIKSHS Proprietor- 




The Most Valuable aid Effective Remedy for tiver Troubles. Giddiness. Wind 
in tlie Stomach, and all Disorders arising from non-assimilation of food. 

Being mild in their action, they may be taken .ic -^ny time witliout ji.: iiifortvand 

as they are prepared from well-knomi .^nd tned ingredients. nii> ! e taken 

With safety by both sexes. Price. l8- Bottle ; including' pi^s:.iL;e, Is. Id. 






Are Made by 
The . . 

Calvert Engraving Co., 


For 1/6 Posted . 

"The British Houses of Parliament." 

This is a collection of Nineteen Beautiful Permanent Photographs, some of the most exquisite we 
have seen, together with a Descriptive Sketch. 

A finer Descriptive Booklet of these Historic Houses in such small compass could not be imagined. 

Send IS. 6d. either in Stamps or Postal Note, and it will be sent you by return mail. It is just 
the thing to lie on a side table for visitors to look at. Send to 

"The Review of Reviews," Equitable Building, Melbourne. 

Granular Lids. 


T. R. PROCTER, opticiam, 

476 Albert Street, MELBOURNE. 



T. R. PROCTER would remind, his Patients 
throughout Australia that, having once measured 
their eyes, he can calculate with exactitude the 
alteration produced bv increasing age, and adjust 
spectacles required during life without further 

PROCTER'S UNIVERSAL EYE OINTM E NT •>« lamilT Silve ha« no eqnal: cares Blight, lore «nd inflamed Ey««. 

Granular Eyelids, Clceration of the Eyeball, end restores Eyelashes. 2 6, post free to any part of the Statea. No carefvl 

housewife should be without PROCTER'S EYE LOTION, more especially in the country places, at Infiammationis gen* 

rally the forerunner of all diseases of the Bye. An early application would cure and prevent any further trouble with Ibe Bye«- 

Botttes, 3- and 3 6, post free to any part of the colonies. Eye Baths, 6d. Stamps other than Victorian not a^^cepted. 

Junt I. 190e. 

The Review of Reviews. 

J fr it MT c^ A .i '^ . * "j*- 

HinntupolU Journal ] 

TEDDY—' That 8 ail right but this is a diffepent 
breed of Calf. 

By (y U^^^ISiff^iS^ Warrant 

H.M. King Edward VII. and 
H.R.H The Prince of Wales. 

All must eat salt 

Then why not choose 
the only one— 



which both seasons and 
strengthens the Food. 

Wholesale Agents :— Peterson & Co.. Melbourne. 


-M^^ ■" 









Sunshine Harvester I 

fills Hie Farmers Horn of Plenfj 
; " fullto overflowing 

nVM KAY 668B0URKE^5TMELB. "'''' 



The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1906. 



This Handsome Present 

[s one that will be acceptable to either very 

young or older children. 

The Books are cloth bound, pleasing in 

appearance, and put together strongly. 

They ape full of . . . 





Etc., Etc. 

Everyone who buys the Books is delighted 

with them. Numbers of people 

repeat orders for friends. 

You Could Not Buy a Better 


For Your Child. 


BAIRNS. 7/6 


rOL. I.— .f:sop's Fa Hies. 

VuL. n. — Nursery Rhymes and Nursery Tales. 

VOL. UI. — The Adventures ot Keyiiaru the Fox 

and The Adventures of Old Brer Rabbit. 
VOL. IV.— Cinderella and Other Fairy Tales, and 

Grimm's Fairy Tales. 
VOL. V. — Pilgrim's Progress. 

VOL. VI.— The Story of the Robins and the 

Story of a Donkey. 
VOL. VII.— The Ciiristmas Stocking and Ham 

Andersen's Fairy Stories. 
VOL. VIII. — Gulliver's Travels. 1. — Among the 

Little People of Lilipat. 2. — ^Among the 


Vol. IX. — Baron Munchausen and Sinbad the Sailor. 

Write, enclosing Ts. 6d., to 

The Manager, 


And It will be sent to you, post free. 

June 1, 190G. 

The Revieiv of Reviews. 



Tor the Treatment of Hay Fever, Catarrh, tieadache. Bronchitis, 

Asthma. Colds, Neuralgia, Catarrhal Deafness. La Grippe, ttc. 
Restores Lost Taste and Smell. Sweetens Offensive Breath. 

Mt-dicator tluri- is a sijpj>)\ of nitnlhol 
crystals and a t^iKtnire ; the liquid nic-di- 
cine 18 plac«d on the sponjre. bo that, 
whether inhalin^'^ or blowing, the air 
passes through the medicine. 


Complete outftt, including Medicator, 

Bottle of luhalent and Box of Ointment, 


A LTcat iir'.'ii..rtioii ot all \iisl lahaiit 
have C:itarih in either the tlr»l btage or 
C'.roiiic turiii I'rohably :i» per cent, of 
all the people wt- meet hdve hut one yood 
hc^tril— the other is clo-r-ji d with ca- 
tarrhal depo-iith or some weakness from 
a ne;;Iected coKi This forces them per- 
haps unconsciously, to breath through 
the m-^uth and uiilesa attended to will 
result in lifelong annoyance and serious 
trouble Home treatment with our Med- 
icator will restore the organ to natural 
conilition, and enable it to perform its 
functions properly and healthfully It 
relieves and cures Catarrh, Il:ty Kever, 
Cold in the fle-td and all Nasal Intliintma- 
tions It soothes, cleanses and healb : 
contains no injurious drugs. 

««n4( IS CATARRH? 

Catarrh is inllannnation of the lining 
membrane of the nose and adjoining 
pass-iges. If this inflaninntion is not 
arieste<l, it invades the }>nssf>geB which 
lead from the nose to the head, ears, 
throat, and lungs It injures the sight and 
hearing destroys the sense of taste ond 
smell renders' the breath offensive, 
breaks down the affected tissues, and 
consiumes the nasal cartilegcs. The die- 
charge causes dyspepsia, aho consump- 
tion l>o you want relief and cure? If 
80, try our great remedy. 

Some of the prominent symptoms of 
Catarrh : 

Nose stopped up, perhaps causing gores, 
also hawking and spitting .'\re you 
sleepless, resrless, and nervous? Is your 
hearing affected? Is your memory poor? 
l»o you get confused in your ideas? Is 
your breath offensive? I>o you have 
ringing in your ears or head ? Have you 

a""ii„'h? !>.» you take cold eusil}'; Is 
your sight poor? Is your tongue fre- 
i|uentl y co ited ': Is your throat sore ? 

(Jtir medicine is a disinfectant ai'd its 
oceaainnal use will tend to prevent the 
CLiiching of any contagious disease by 
<ii^stro\ ing germs. Many customers leli 
us that they are perfectly sure that our 
Medicator has prevented their catching 
contagious diseases when they have been 
around sick people. As a convenient 
pocket disinfectant, the Medicator is 
worth more than i s price 


Our Medicator is nickel-plated and 
will List a life-lime. 

To use unscrew the handle, and put 
three <^ ■ drops of inhalent on the sponge 
every third day. Insert the twin tubes in 
the nostrils, single tube in the mouth, 
blowing gently at first in the mouth rube, 
increasing the force as you are able to 
stand it, although it is not in the least un- 
pleasant to use. and immediately re- 
lieve-t. Thus you will send the Medicine 
to ail parts of the nostrils and head. To 
nietlic^te the throat, remote the twin 
tul>es from the nostrils and inhale, filling 
the lungs slowly with the medicated air 
to their fullest capacity remove the Med- 
icator, close the mouth, and force the 
medicated air out through the nostrils 
slowly. Thus the medicine passes slowly 
over the inflamed afTecied parts and 
the diseased membranes remain'in con- 
tact with the medicated air ^s long as 
possible. By following the above direc- 
tions, you make two complete circuits of 
the head, throat, and lungs with highly 
medicated air. In the enlarged part of the 

Extra Inhalent (if 
re^juired) per bot- 
tle .. .. 28. 6d. 
Extra Ointment (if 
re<|uired) per box 
t:^ for 28 ltd.) .. Is. 
I Sent post free to any 
part of Australia. 
Tasmania, or New 
Zealand on receipt 
of above prices. 

Enough Compound 
Inhalent goes with 
each Medicator to 
last four months 
making this the 




Thousands now in 
use. giving perfect 


Sole Agents. 


Mention this pajier wh^n writing. 


sKould get 



(i) A Fine Lot of Reading Matter for the Home ; 

(2) An attractive Department for the Children. It contains Wonderful Fairy Tales, 
gathered from almost every people in the world. The Children will go 
wild with delight over it. Only Id. 


Ask your News Agent to get it, or send is. (Postal Note) or is. id. (Stamps) 
(is. 6d. or IS. 7d. from New Zealand) to 


And Receive it for 12 Months. 

The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 190e. 


'^^'L'R beautiful Collotype Pictures, when framed and 
hung, add to the charm and attractiveness of any 
-^A home. Thev are supplied at the extremely low 
price of 2/6 each. Many experts have valued 
them at 10/6, so none can excuse themselves for having 
bare, unsightly walls on the ground of expense. 

We do not, however, want you to buy the pictures 
without knowing more about them, so we are offering to 
send Albert Moore's lovely picture " Blossoms," for the 
nominal price of 1/-, post free. Do not trouble to buy a 
postal note — enclose twelve penny stamps in your letter, 
containing order coupon, and mail to-day. 







2,6> each. 

BLOSSOMS. By .Albert Moore, R.A. (Size, 6i x 22 in.) Mailed 
to anyone sending Coupon for l/-. 

.■< i^i in. I 


R..A. (it>i X 12\ \a \ 

A SUMMER SHOWER. By C. E. Perugini. (12J x ig in.) 

THE MONARCH OF THE GLEN. By Sir Edwin Landseer. 
C14J X 145 in.i 

BEATA BE.ATRIX. By Dante Gabriel Rossetti. (14 x 18 in.) 

THE CORNFIELD. By Constable. (Mi x i6| in.) 

THE VALLEY FARM. By Constable. (14J x i6i in.) 

I CUPID'S SPELL. By J. A. Wood, R.A. (iiJxiSJin.) 

i PROSERPINE. By D. G. Rossetti. (9 x 19 in.) 

(The sizes given are of the actual Pict. res, and do not include 
the white mounts.) 

These famous pictures look best in a green or brown frame, with 
gold edging. The Collotype process excels all others. The Director 
of the National Gallery, Melbourne, says they surpass photographs or 

steel engmvings. 



Please send me " BLOSSOMS," for which 
I enclose I • 

Name _ 

To "The Review of Reviews," ' 

Equitable Building, Melbourne. 

June 1, I90e. 

The Review of Reviews. 

1/6 mswm^ ^SQ6 //, 


Parasles»> Prophet 










Send 1 s. 6d. to " The Review of Reviews" Office, 
Equitable Building, Melbourne, early, to 
secure copies. Splendid Value. The Pic- 
tures (perforated so as to be easily 
detached) are alone worth the money. 
They measure 9-. in. by 14 in., and are 
triumphs of art. 

The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1906. 








w r 







f~ijian "Village 


NEW Twin Screw Steamer " NAVUA " from Sydney, 26th June. 
NEW „ ,, „ "ATUA" „ „ ' 25th July. 

Full Particulars on application to UNION S.S. Co., Melbourne. 

Those who have had the patience and interest to study the 
evidence taken before the Tariff Commission, will find no 
fact more strousl.v emphasised by witnesses in tlie iron trade 
than the capacity of Anstralian machinery manufacturers 
to turn out implements used in various industries, up to 
the standard of the l»st English and American goods. Some 
of the evidence in regard to the mining industry is most 
illuminating on this point. Absolutely first-class engines. 
equal to the finest imported ones, have not only been made 
here, but are in general use. and the most experienced wit- 
nesses have declared that there is no engine which cannot 
be imxde here equal to those constructed elsewhere, if the 
patented parts are isermitted to be embodied. The same 
tale is told iu regard to smidries. such as wheels, springs. 
axles, etc. In agricultural implements it has been explained 
that an immense industry ha:5 been developed in Australia 
during the last four or five years. Makers in this State have 
loue been celebrated for the splendid ploughs they have 
been able to produce. Melbourne and Ballarat mechanics 
and Government employes have demonstrated for a long 
period not onlv their capacity to build first-class locomotives 
in any stvles. but latterly they have produced them cheaper 
than "any imported ones. The crowning feat accomplished 
b.v Australians, however, is the invention of the model type 
of harvester for the world. In this achievement, which 
ought to Ije such an incentive to the progress of the trade, 
the jealous.v of vastly rich American machinery manufac- 
turers has been aroused, and they are now doing their best 
to capture the Commonwealth market, and drive Australian 
implement makers out of business. H. V. McKay's ' Sun- 
shine " Harvester AVorks, which is the strongest of our 
organisations iu this branch of industry, and produces the 
best machine, employs close on 700 workmen, and is able, 
providing the American Trust gives fair competition, to hold 
its own. Should the competition, however, be unfair, as it 
is at the present time, harvesters being sold by an Ameri- 
can Trust, according to their own statement, at a loss of 
£10 143. 3d. per machine, it will ultimately mean tliat these 
workmen, and perhaps hundreds of others, will be thrown 
out of employment, while the American money grabbers 
will shin good Australian money to America, thus im- 
pcverishing the country. The situation is in the hands of 
the Australian farmer, who can save his countr.v from de- 
predation, and Australian workmen from misery, by patron- 
ising the Australian-made article. 


Progress ana m 
Tiscal ProbUtn." 


Author of "A Histor>' of Socialism," "South Africa. Old 
and Xew." Etc. 

Being a Masterly Summary and Review of 
Fiscal and Industrial Matters in Great 

Britain, Germany, and America. 

Crown 8vo., 200 Pages. PRICE, 3s. 6d. 


'E Bistory of Socialism;' 

Second Edition. Revised and Enlarged. 


Athnmum.— -So Un. so learned, and so well written that 
we have nothing but praise for its author." 

British )I'«t().— " The book is well worthy to remain the 
Standard Text-Book on Socialism." 

Crown 8vo. 

PRICE, 7s. 66. 

& C. BLACK. 

•""" '■ i'^- The Review of Reviews. 

(ANNUAL Subscription, 8/6.) 


Australasian Editor : 


Sir John and Lady Forrest at the Sphinx— 1" rout ispieie 

Progress of the World 43J 

Distinguished Early Australians. 1> Kiv. K. I. 

W;iikin, D.I) 447 

The Tasmanian Elections ... • ■ ■■ •■■ 452 

The Melbourne Seismograph and'tbe San Franciico 

Earthquake ... 456 

A Fool's P.iradise ... 475 

Land Monopoly in Tasmania. I'.y l'i.-icy ML-t;gy ...459 
Interviews on Topics of the Month: 

The .\e\v Hebrides: IJr. Matdciiiuld 462 

The .Melbourne City Mission: liev. E. Steggall 463 

Why Should We B« Buried Alive? Miss Und-af- 

Uaiteby 464 

Australian Iinniigratioii : Sir Jolin Forrest 465 

The Armenians; Eev. Dr. Raynolda 467 

Character Sketch — 

The Xew French Ministry 


Leading Articles in the Reviews- 

What Ihink Ve of Christ? 

The (ireateat of tlie Holienzollerns 

Kr;im*e as Banker to Japan 

A Deniocratif Germany 

A Master of the l.yrie 

The (irowth of Plutooracy in America .. 

The De«tiny of the West Indies 
'I'tie Doom of tlie Burmese 
Iiulia a Nation 

'I'he Trumpeter of Sakkingen 

Tlie (ierman Boaey Man 

4 (irislv Ghost Story : 

Mr. Keir Hardies lalxuir Budget 

The '.atest Phase of .American Protection 
Christian .\chievement by Christian Endeavour 
The Deafli and Burial of Conservatism 

Beauty as a Factor in Production 

British Columbia 

Lord Milner in South Africa 

The Blood-relationship of Man and Apes 

The Chinese Question 

Blackwood in Hysteric* 

How to Keform Procedure 

Problems Before tlie New Government 

•■ A New House for the Commons " 



(ContinuKi on tirrl pni/r.) 




Direct Steamers u> ENGLAND and the 

CONTINENT, calling at Adclaidt, Fremantle, 
("(ilonil)ii. .\den, Suez Canal, Xaple.s, Genoa, 
Southampton (]>ondon), Antwer]) and Bremen*, 
will be despatched as under: — 

Sicanm. Tiin>. Commander. Melbourne. 

Oldenburg 5006 ... R.Troit/sch ... June 26 

Karlsruhe 5057 ... R. Hempel ... July 24 

Cera 5005 ... F. Prosch ...Aug. 21 

*Schariihorst...8i3i ...L. Mass Sept. tS 

'Twin Screw Steamer. 

Steamers leave ADEl.Aini-: following Saturday. 


Single. Return 

First Saloon ^^65 to ^75 ... £112 

Second Saloon ... ^"38 to /^42 ... ^^63 

Third Class /'i5to/'i7 ... £2^ 

Saloon Return Tickels available lor Two Ncar.s. 


Saloon, £-, to £() : Return, _£"ii to /,i3 los. 

Rountd the World, ^.'130, with /."20 Atlantic 


Regular Four-Weekly Service, calling at 
Brisbane, New Britain and New Guinea, 
for Hong Kong, Kobe and Yokohama, con- 
necting at Hong Kong with the Fortnightly 
Express Mail Service of the N.D.L. from 
Japan and China to Europe — 

Steamer. Tons. Melbourne. Sydncv . 

*Prinz Sigismund ... 3300... June- ...Juneii 

'Willehad 4761. ..June ...July 7 

"Prinz Waldemar .^.3300. ..July ...Aug. 4 

•Twin .Screw .Steamers. 

F\Ri— I ko.\i SvDXEV TO Hong Kong: — I., /r33 
II., £23; III, ^-15. * 

Linen Washed on board at Moderate Prices. 
English spoken on board. 

For further particulars, apply to 




The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1906. 

CONTENTS (conUnued from page xxi.). 

Leaiing Arlicles in the Reviews (Continued)- 


The Best Music for the Million 490 

As Others See Us 491 

The Anti-tierman Obsession 491 

Ihe Pan-American Railway 492 

The Destruction of Niagara 492 

The Re-creation of Chaldea 493 

Moral Progress and Moral Perturbation 494 

Women as Electors in New Zealand 494 

Life in a Labour College 494 

Child of Villa and Child of Tenement 494 

The Musical Genius 495 

Susau B. Anthony 495 

Thrift Among Working Classes 496 

The Bard of the Pianoforte 496 

Sir Francis Drake in Verse 496 

The New Japanese Premier 497 

A Pen Portrait of Count Witte 497 

"Pioneers! O Pioneers!" 497 

What Next? 497 


Current History in Caricature. 
The Reviews Reviewed — 

The American Review of Reviews 503 

The North American Review of Reviews 503 

Educational Art Pictures 503 

The Correapondant 504 

The Grand Magazine 504 

The Treasury 505 

Scribner's Magazine 505 

Tlie Fortnightly Review 505 

The Independent Review 506 

Some Illustrated Magazines . . . . 

Tlie Occult Magazines 

The World's Work and Play 
The English Illustrated Magazine 

Chambers's Journal 

The Young Man's Magazine .. .. 


The Reviews Reviewed — (Continued)— 

The Nineteenth Century 508 

Ihe Monthly Review 508 

The Contemporary Review 509 

United Service Magazine 509 

The Cornhill Magazine 510 

The Century Illustrated Magazine 510 

The Windsor Magazine 510 

The Strand Magazine 511 

The London Quarterly Review 511 

The Atlantic Monthly 511 

The Engineering Magazine 511 

McMillan's Magazine 511 

The Westminster Review 512 

The Pall Mall Magazine 512 

The Young Man 512 

The Arena =12 

The Indian World 513 

La Revue |1| 

T'he Reviews Des Deux Mondes 513 

The Italian Kevieya 514 

The Nouvelle Review 515 

The Dutch Reviews 513 

The Revue de Paris 516 

Scandinavian Magazines 516 

Publications Received 517 

Books of the Month— 

The Bold Buccaneers of the Western Strand 

Esperanto .-• ■•■ 

Go Ahead, Australasia ! 

Day by Day 

Leading Books of the Month 

Insurance Notes 


. •'< 1 







A Home Cure which never fails. 
It is safe, sure, absolute!; certain, and 
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Thousands of Curei ; here is one :— 

RareniChor-pe, W.A.. 23-9 04. 

Have finished the half course, tchich has 

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in fact, have a repugnance to the very idea 

0/ it. Yours /aith/iiily, 

Write for Treatise No. 5. Posted Free 

Tti6 Dr, Langston Institute, 


AV. Jn<>. B^KER, cutler, 


Awards Royal Aori ultural Society 7 Gold Medals. 4 Champ! )n. 109 lit Prizes. 


MATCH BOX KNIFE, with Shackle, containing 
Scijsors. Ticker. Biade. Cigar Cutter, MatcL- 
boxaiid Striker. 8s. fid. each : Peari Handle. 
10s. 6d. each. Size when closed. 2}^ inches 


Gilt, 2i. 6d. each. J.eiigthovenill. 3'; inclie 
(These make a pretty little present). 

Posted Free tiroiigliout Commonwealth and New Zealand, 


Th3 Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1906. 























Vol. XX\'III., Xo. ^ 

JUNE I, 1906. 

The Rev 


EQI.ITA ltL:il.l)iy(i. MHl.ttnl'Hyiti. 



Melbourne, Ma\ 10. 
The political atmosphere is becQiii- 
ing clearer. Mr. Deakiu's Camper- 
down speech has made luminous 
his two previous ones, which now 
apfjear as part of a concerted plan. On the plan 
of taking first things first, and then of coming down 
to- his projwsals for the approaching session, his 
evident intention was to once and for all reply to 
critics upon the old matters of dispute between Mr. 
Reid and himself, which were continually being 
brought up by his opponents. The new session of 
Parliament will open almost at the same time as 
this issue of " The Review of Reviews ' gets into 
our readers' hands, and then the battle royal will 
begin. Personally, one cannot help feeling that 
there is a very good prosp<>ct of carrying through 
social legislation. Indeed, that is likely to be the 
only kind of legislation that will be carried this 
session. It will be a mistake in tactics to put fiscal 
matters first and social reform afterwards. Matters 
of social reform are of infinitely more value than 
fiscal matters, and may be carried through without 
the former. Indeed, most people would gladly see 
the continuation of the fiscal peact.. making allow- 
ance, of course, for the remedying of one or two 
anomalies, so that social legislation may be pushed 

That Labour matters are ver\- safe 
Liberal Plus ;„ ^^^ hands of Mr. Watson be- 
for'"Reform. comes more evident every day, in 
spite of some ba.seless prophecies 
that he will soon lose his hold of the party. He is 
clear-headed and thoughtful, and has the mind of a 
general. It was a great disappointment to him that 
at the late Political Labour Conference member"^ 
generally were not willing to accept his suggestion 
as to the united support of Government and Labour 
parties to candidates of liberal views. This was 
the wisest policy to adopt without a doubt, and the 
Labour Partv in accepting it would have done a 
thing which would have brought them universal ap- 
probation. Not one tittle would they have lost in 
the w^av of subsequent legislation, and a party would 
have been formed as strong as the present Liberal 
Partv in tlie British Parliament. However, it is 

hoped that Mr. Watson's good counsels will take 
root, and ultimately bear fruit. In the present whirl 
of parties, it is perhaps too much to e.\pect that any 
one of them should surrender its own pet scheme, 
but the days of de\'elopment are sure to come, and 
every Liberal force will be concentrated to secure 
the return of men <if [irogressive views. 

The bonds that bind nations to- 
•■ The Bonds gether are being increased in a hun- 
that Bind." dred and one ways daily, as State in- 
terests are becoming more and more 
involved, and nations find that they cannot do with- 
out one another. In the midst of all the fraternis- 
ing of to-day, it is interesting to note that the 
Universal Scientific Alliance, a Society formed in 
Paris, recognised by the French Government, and 
having on its roll many illustrious names, is entering 
on a new stage of its history. The veteran leader, 
M. Leon de Rosnv, founded the Society in 1876. 
Up to the present, the Alliance has been under one 
President, but there are now to be five General 
Presidents, one for each of the five parts of the , 
world— P^urope, Asia, Africa, America and Oceania.. 
Ihe General Presidency for Oceania is now being 
established in Melbourne, and the first General Pre- 
sident is Dr. Macdonald, the veteran missionarv- of 
the New Hebrides. The appointment is a singularly 
fitting one. No one is better entitled to it than 
the worthy doctor. The avowed objects of the So- 
ciety are:' — "'(i) Tii facilitate the relations of men 
of science scattered over all the countries of the 
globe; (2) to assure to them, in their travels, aid 
and protection in the pursuit of their researches and 
of their studies; (3) to furnish to them the medium, 
a« soon as they arrive in a city, of entering into 
immediate relations with the savants, the men of 
letters, or the artists who are resident there, and of 
procuring the directions which may be useful to 
them for access to libraries and .museums, public 1 r 
private. To this effect, there is given to the mem- 
bers of the Alliance, at the moment of their setting 
out on their travels and on their request to the 
president of the committee of their city, a kind of 
scientific passport, called Circular-Diploma, w-hich 
serves as introduction and confraternal recommenda- 
tion to the committees established in the countries 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1S06. 

I, retire 

A Com^eliijte 

Oive ir uk lio^ Icfus sti^nd 
in your Wj^7 liKe /(^is ^V« A 
«lrajg on J6U ' 

"Alf. Vincent' in 'The Bulletin" 

which they propose to visit; (4) to instigate or to 
encourage the formation of societies destined to 
undertake new investigations ; (5) to instigate or to 
facilitate the creation of libraries or of special 
museums, principally in the localities far removed 
from the great scientific centres; (6) to instigate or 
to organise lectures and conferences for the teaching 
of branches of special studies not yet represented 
in the public teaching; (7) to facilitate the inter- 
national exchanges of books and of objects of study, 
to make gratuitous distribution of these objects ; 
(8) to aid savants by means of its publicity. 
Finally, to render possible, in certain exceptional 
cases, the co-operation of men of thought living in 
all climates and in all latitudes for the triumph 
of certain /(/(ra^ necessary to progress and to inter- 
national civilisation." In the hands of Dr. Macdonald 
it is likely to fulfil the international character of its 
promoters. If any of our readers desire information 
about it, or can render any assistance, they may 
communicate with Dr. Macdonald, 23 Airlie-street, 
South Yarra, Melbourne. 

, It is a pitv that the pleasantness 

Degradation of '^^'^ich otherwise characterised a ban- 
National Ideals, quet in Melbourne, in celebration 
of St. George's Day, was marred by 
the sarcastic reference of one speaker to those 
who favour the cause of peace and humanity. To 
say that those who desire peace are the friends of 
every country but their own, or words to that effect, 
has become so common and ordinan- a jibe that 
one would have expected the speaker to invent a 

fresh term or break new ground, but possibly the 
argumentative field of those who prefer a Jingoistic 
sanguinary thieving of other people's property is so 
restricted that the war lovers are unwillingly re- 
stricted to the use of one or two meaningless terms. 
Out here in the colonies, the bulk of the people 
exult with those who in the older countries see more 
signs of peace. The kind of language indulged in 
by this particular speaker at this meeting is cal- 
culated to inflame warlike passions, and the aim of 
every public man ought fc 'oe to promote peace and 
good-will among all peoples. There is no reason 
why our Federal Parliament should not devote some- 
thing every year to the cultivation of friendly re- 
lations with other peoples, although we live in an 
isolated spot of the globe. Indeed, the suggestion 
of Mr. W. T. Stead, which has, I understand, been 
accepted by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, that 
the British Parliament should devote decimal-point 
one of the Army and Xavy vote for such purposes 
in England might be urged with equal force here. 
It is a consideration that the Federal Government 
might well take up, and it would go a long way to- 
wards promoting and perpetuating amity between 
neighbouring nations and ourselves. 

The Melbourne 



One of the most notable events of 
the month has been the celebration 
of the jubilee of the Melbourne 
University. Delegates assembled 
from all parts of Australasia, and representatives 
were present from the Old World. Among the most 
prominent of the delegates from far-away parts 
was Professor Vasilyev, of the Dorpat University, 
Russia ; and Professor Ishikawa, of the Tokio Im- 
perial University, Japan. A touching incident cal- 
culated to stir the deepest depths of patriotism, and 
to give one a momentary searching glance into the 
truth that men are brothers all, happened when 
at a certain point in the function, as though moved 
by a common impulse, these two prominent, edu- 
cated gentlemen moved towards one another to 
shake hands. It was not that they were not friendly 
before, but it was a public demonstration of the 
tie which binds the understanding and enlightened 
to one another. The function in connection with 
which they were present was one that knows no race 
nor creed. It admits men and women for one com- 
mon purpose of good, and the fraternal creed of 
these two men, representing nations lately at war 
with one another, is an illustration of what can be 
accomplished if the best characters in peoples are 
brought near to one another, and put in a position 
to appreciate the inner life of each other. Truly we 
are growing better. Thousands of voices which a 
few years ago were lifted up in favour of war and 
rapine and bloodshed, although they hid it under 
the name of patriotism, now humbly confess them- 
selves as wrong, and in favour of those things which 
make for common good. 

Revie ir of lievie ics, 1/6J0G, 

History of the Month. 


A regrettable feature of the Uni- 

A Strange versity Jubilee celebrations was the 

Anachronism, senseless interruptions indulged in 

by the students when representative 
meii were addressing them. Why men like Sir 
Robert Stout and others should be greeted by such 
a stoma of interruption and rowdyism as would en- 
sure the participators being turned out of an or- 
dinary meeting, is hard to conceive. It is only a 
relic of former days, and the good sense of Univer- 
sity students to-3ay ought to discard it as being 
unworthy of education and refinement. The visitors 
bore the insults with good grace, but that does not 
detract from the rudeness and boorishness of the 
treatment accorded them. It seemed something 
akin to the suggestion of the folly of casting pearls 
before an unappreciative audience, too brainless 
and gross to appreciate their value, for Sir Robert 
Stout to urge the example of refined and notable 
men upon an audience that make his words almost 
indistinguishable. Surely the ordinary good sense 
of decency in society will soon make these exhibi- 
tions, too gross for even a common music-hall, a 
thing of the past. 

It very often happens that very 
Australasian strange things said of Australia and 
Traducers. Australians by British newspapers 

create a feeling of merriment, but 
the articles which lately appeared in the Western 
Morning A'ews and the Dat/v Mail have been of 
such a venomous character that they have created a 
considerable amount of indignation, and the colonies 
are asking why some British newspapers should 
seem so anxious to decry anything that pertains to 
them. It is somewhat on the same lines as some 
parents who persistently and without reason decr\' 
their own children's qualities. The attack was all 
the more lesented because it was clearly used simpiv 
to assist one section in connection with the Educa- 
tion Bill in the British House of Commons, and 
was published for party purposes. Everybody was 
aghast when thev read in their morning newspapers 
that: — 

All the talk .ibout plain Bible teacliing and about teach- 
ing morals without dogma is the veriest nonsense. The ex- 
periment has been tried in Australia, with the result that 
the State schools are not merely unchristian, but anti- 
Christian. Another result is tlie empty cradle. People 
here have no conception of the condition prevailing among 
the AustraliLin young people. Modesty and refinement 
have vanished, and the Australian girls and young ladies 
are very different from those in the mother country. The 
streets are filled with larrikins with no morals, who are a 
danger to thet community. A might.v revolution is setting 
in in the colonies, parents demanding a referendum in 
favour of definite religious instruction in the schools. 
Wherever this has been granted a threefold majority has 
been obtained. 

From beginning to end this statement is contrary 
to fact. It is, however, a great pity that some 
British newspapers do persist in publishing 
calumnies about the colonies. It is an extremely 
dangerous proceeding. If British newspapers under- 
stood their duty to the Empire they would cultivate 

the colonies instead of insulting them. Indeed, 
cultivation of the colonies will have to become a 
national watchword in the future. It is not that the 
colonies want nursing, or are averse to candid 
criticism. They simply want to be spoken of with 
truth, and the fact recognised that they are working 
in the best way they know how for national great- 
ness. The worst feature of it is that indications 
point to the lie having been written by an Austra- 
lian, whose sarcasms upon his own country have 
more than once been condemned by truth lovers; 
but it says very little for the literary discernment of 
the editors of some of the British newspapers when 
they are prepared to accept copy from a person 
whose statements have in the past proved to be so 
unreliable, and who is never taken seriously by any 
who are capable of exercising a sound judgment. 

H-rf ■^ ^'^^' serious mistake which some 
Needed.^Candid, British newspapers seem to make is 
Fair friends, '^at everything in the colonies must 
be regarded as final. They forget 
that everything is in a process of development, that 
their legislation, necessarily so in a young progres- 
sive countr)', is largely experimental, the useless 
being cast aside when proved useless, and the new 
and better being taken continually. No one re- 
cognises our own limitations better than some of us 
do ourselves, but we are working hard to build up 
a nation in the Southern Seas which will extend 
equal rights to every resident of it, and become a 
second Britain in nationality, a strong arm of the 
Empire, with as few of the disabilities of the older 
nations as possible. We may make mistakes ; we 
do make mistakes, but they are mistakes which are 
made in the evolving of a national ideal, and are 
the result of the limitation of human insight into 
the future, and not of a brutal and callous selfish- 
ness and an utter irreligiousness. 


The Premier's Conference in Syd- 

Murray "waters "^^ '« '"^f?"^''^]^ 1°' ^ S^^^' ^^^^ 
Settlement, more ot kindly feeling between the 
States than was manifested before, 
and there could be afforded no better illustration 
of the wisdom of inter-State or international visits, 
as the case may be, for the sake of promoting 
friendly relationships. The question which was 
most in need of discussion was the settlement of 
the Murray waters agreement ; State debts and 
Braddon clauses questions did not advance 
greatlv beyond the Hobart Conference stage. 
The Murray waters agreement in brief is to the 
effect that the three Parliaments will be asked 
to ratifv the agreement made by the Premiers, to 
the effect that South Australia is entitled to the 
water she requires for navigation, and that the cost 
of locks necessary to accomplish this, and erected 
in either of the States shall be borne by the States 
in proportion to the quantity of water used by them. 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1. 1906. 

A Humane Provision — Old Age Pension Pay-Day in New Zealand. 

In New Zealand in Victoria, and in New South Wales the Governments grant Old Ajre Pensions and it is .[Uitea revelation to strangers 
comin- te the count'rv to see the old men and women attendin- for their monthly allowance. This picture shows the monthly pay-day in one 
of the New Zealand offices In New Zealand last year the pensioners included four centenarians two of whom were 1(13 years old. It 18 to be 
hoped that very soon the Federal Parliament will'talie charge of Old Age Pensions in Australia, and extend them over the whole area. 

Federal Powers. 

That is ven,- fair. Eacli State is entitled to erect 
conservation works, and to retain as much water 
as it can conserve in times of flood, there being no 
limit to what may be done in this direction. It 
is a common-sense arrangement to have come to, 
and one that gives no State anj' real advantage over 
the other. 

One very notable feature in connec- 
tion with the Premier's Conference 
was the acceptance of the principle 
of Federal Old Age Pensions. 
There are some things which must become Federal, 
and that soon, notably the Railways and Old Age 
Pensions' administration. The States are anxious 
that ordinar\' revenue should not be interfered with, 
but if this be done, the only other way that is sug- 
gested for the money to be raised is by a Land 
Tax. This, it is hoped bv some and feared by 
others, will eventuate, if the scheme becomes a 

Mr. Bent, the 'Victorian Premier, 
has been making up his mind about 
the emplo\Tnent of prison labour on 
public works. He says he feels that 
it might be utilised with pecuniary profit to the 
Stare and personal profit to the prisoners, if they 
■were employed in works such as land reclamation. 

Prison labour 

Public Work. 

clearing and road-making. A crv has been raised 
against it bv some sections of the community, who 
are afraid that it may close the door of work to 
others. Nevertheless, the fact remains that the State 
has to feed and clothe the unhappy mortals who 
are confined in our gaols, and it is only reasonable 
that the cost of their keep should be made as little 
as possible. Moreover, if they are compelled to 
work, they may just as well be employed in that 
which will bring profit and convenience to the State, 
seeing that it is against the State that they have 
offended. But there is another question involved. 
Work is a necessity to every man. The best \vill 
depreciate if idle, and of all the people in the world 
those who most need work are those who are shut 
up from contact with their fello^vTnen. The re- 
generation of the prisoner is one of the main reasons 
why this plan should be carried out. Of course, the 
only way in which the work can be made to fulfil 
the best end is to take the men into the country, 
where they can have proper supervision, and gain 
the best advantages that accrue from pure air and 
countrv life. More than that, the prisoners, who 
would be credited with some financial benefit for 
their work, would have something to start with when 
becoming free men again. This would go a long way 
towards giving them a start in an honourable career. 

Revitw of Recieiri, llSjOi. 

history of the Month. 


It is netdlfss to say that, in coni- 

San f^rancisco """"^ ^^'^ ^'' P^"* °' *^*^ civilised 
Earthquake. world, the deepest sympathy of 

Australians was expressed with the 
San Francisco sufferers. It is probable that some 
•issistance will be given to Australian sufferers in the 
'ity, of whom it is understood there are a great 
many. The shock was recorded upon the seismometer 
at the Melbourne Observatory, and a sketch of the 
record made upon the tape is shown elsewhere in 
this issue. 

A matter which the Federal Govern- 
free Trade With ment might very well take up is 
New Zealand, the question of reciprocal trade 

with New Zealand. There is not 
the slightest reason why there should not be free 
trade between the Commonwealth and that colony. 
Conditions of labour, and provisions against sweat- 
ing, are as severe there as in Australia. Indeed, 
conditions are stricter in some respects than they 
are in some parts of Australia. Trade relations be- 
tween the two places ought to be as free as is pos- 
sible, and neither country would lose anything, but 
would gain vastly if the products oi one were intro- 
duced in the other without the hamper of duty. We 
form one people in these southern seas, and it is 
just as ridiculous for trade restrictions to be im- 
posed between the two countries, where equal con- 
ditions exist, as it would be to trade restric- 
tions between the States of Australia. It would be 
a truly statesmanlike action, with far-reaching re- 
sults, for the Federal Govemment to take the mat- 
ter in hand, and open up negotiations with the New 
Zealand Government. The matter might be put 
through during the coming session of the respective 
Parliaments. It ought not to conflict with the views 
of protectionists, and would certainlv be most ac- 
ceptable to the upholders of free trade, and would 
help to make still tighter the bond which already 
'■xists between the two countries. 

West Australia has again just 
West Australia! passed through the throes of poli- 
Polltics. tical difficulties. The political as- 

pect there changes almost as fre- 
quently as that of our Southern skies on Spring days. 
Mr. Rason has resigned the Premiership, and will 
probably take up the Agent-Generalship. The new 
Ministry is composed as follows: — Premier and 
Minister for Lands, Mr. X. J. Moore j Trea.surer 
Mid Minister for Agriculture. Mr. Frank Wilson ; 
Attorney-General, Mr. X. Keenan ; Mini.ster for 
Mines and Railways, Mr. H. Greg<irv ; Minister for 
Works, Mr. J. Price; Colonial Secretary- and Leader 
of the Legislative Council, Mr. J. D. Connelly : Hon. 
Minister, Mr. C. A. Piesse, M.L.C. Prior to this, 
it seemed as though matters were likelv to jog on 
contentedly for some time. Otherwise the situation 
has not created a great deal of surprise. Lightning 
changes in legislative administration are almost un- 

avoidable in a country in its ear'.ier political stages. 
It is nut a characteristic of W« st .Australia. It is 
common to all peoples. 

The Age newspaper has raised a 
^ X ""' '"^ controversy concerning the owner- 
the Riverina. ^l^'P o^ ^^'^ Riverina, and has un- 
earthed documents which seem to 
prove beyond a question of doubt that it was origin- 
ally intended that the line of demarcation should be 
so drawn as to include that district in Victoria. 
It has been felt by residents of the Riverina for a 
long time that that part of the State was somewhat 
neglected on account of its nearness to Victoria, 
and they would probably not be averse to a change 
of owners. But it is hardly likely to eventuate. 
The rest of Xew South Wales would object to one of 
t.he richest parts of its territory being lost to it. Pos- 
session is nine points of the law, and it is rather 
late in the day to raise the question. The records 
of the history of nations which in the past have 
conquered others and appropriated land, show that 
the taking of territory- is one of the worst policies 
that can be adopted, and it is quite to be expected 
that X.S.W. would feel just as keenly parting with 
any part of her territory to her sister State, as she 
would to anybody else far removed from her by 
ties of relationship. At the same time, the areas 
of the States are so unequal that Victoria could 
verv easily do with a little more, and Xew South 
Wales has so much that she could easily do without 
a part of hers, with possibly a considerable advan- 
tage to the rest. However, beyond the raising of 
the very interesting question, it is hardly likely to 
be seriously considered. At any rate, so far, Mr. 
Carruthers regards it from a humorous point of 

Mr. Bent has made an announce- 
Motor Engines ment which will mean a great ad- 
for Victoria. vance with regard to transit on our 
railways. He is proposing to use 
on country lines motor railway cars, .separating the 
passenger traffic from freight, and running the pas- 
senger cars at a very much higher rate of speed than 
is done at the present time. Something ought cer- 
tainly to be done to improve travelling facilities. 
The saving in expenditure and in heavy rolling stock 
would be so tremendous, and the accommodation 
and transit would be so much improved, that the 
change should be brought about immediately. 

Mr. W. J. Connell, who is practl- 
"The callv the Australian Press-Cutting 

Gridir«n Map." Agency, 34 r Collii^s-street, has pub- 
lished an exceedingly interesting 
map. which he appropriately terms "' The Grid- 
iron Map," purporting to show the extent to 
which Socialism is represented in the Federal 
Parliament. A glance at the map seems at 
first sight to indicate that the maioritv of the mem- 


The Review of Reviews. 

June I, 1906. 

Total No. 







by Socialists. 

New South Wales 


Kil A 

. H Griffith, M L A., 
of N.S W , Socialist 
Candidate, though 
unsuccessful, polled 
1UT.0S3 voles. 









South Australia .. 



3 6ths 

West Australia .. 








The Gridiron Map — The Senate. 

Showing the strength of SociaI;sm in the Federal Parliament The Mack fars (red in the original; show the atja of land 

■ in the differenB States represented b> Socialists- 

^Sopyright by the Australian Fress-Cutting iaency.^ 

bers are i)ermeated with socialistic ideas. One very 
Striking feature about it is that Queensland, South 
Australia and Western Australia are so largely 
affected. The comparative blankness of Victoria 
and the freedom of New South Wales from what 
Mr. Reid would call a socialistic taint are ver\' mani- 
fest. Queensland and West Australia are very much 
on a level, and South Australia follows closely be- 
hind. Of course, the first question that everybody 
will a^k is, " What is the basis upon which Mr. 
Connell has made his calculations?" In reply to 
that question, I cannot do better than quote from 
a letter or two which he has placed in mv hands, 
with permission to reproduce. These letters are re- 
spectively from Mr. J. C. Watson, Senator McGregor, 
and the editor of the Queensland Worker, in reply 

to letters sent to them by Mr. Connell for definitions 

of Socialism: — 

Sydney, March 12th. 19C6. 
Dear Sir,— 

In reply to your letter, I may say that in my view those 
people are right who class as Socialism all schemes for the 
atlvancement of the commanity. While I tliink that to be 
so technically, the word has acquired a significance as par- 
ticularly applying to Collectivism as against Individualism, 
Accepting this view. I should define Socialism as aiming at 
the abolition of the present competitive and therefore 
chaotic, industrialism, with the object of substituting the 
collective ownership of land and capital and the scientific 
control of production and exchange, and distribution on 
behalf of the whole people. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) J. C. WATSOX. 

ilr. W. J. Connell, Melbonrne. 

Senator McGregor gives as his definition : — ■ 

Socialism: The carrying out or performance by the Go- 
vernment of the State or Municipalfty of all those services, 
undertakings, and possible monopoliei that in the interests 

Review of Revieirs, 1/6/06, 

History of the Month, 


Total No. 









New South Wales 







S 23rd s 





South Australia. 




West Australia . 







1 -5th 

The Gridiron Map — The House of Representatives. 

Showing the strength of Socialism in the Federal Parliament. The black bars 8how the area of land 
in the different States represented by Socialists. 

[CopyrigJit hy the Australian Press-Cvtting Agency.'} 

of the people can be better performed or carried out b.v 
the Government or Municipality than hv private firms 
companies or individual persons. 


Trades Hall, 
Brisbane, April IJth. 1906. 

Mr. W. J. Connel 
Dear Sir.— 
... Re the matter referred to, vou may use any de- 
finition of Socialism found in the columns of the W'nrker, 
hut for the purpose you name this paper is content with 
the offlcial definition of our State party, as contained in 
the objective adopted at the Brisbane Convention last May, 
as follows; — 

"To secure tlie full results of their industry to the wealth 
producers by the collective ownership of the means of pro- 
duction, dij^trihution, and exchange: to 1m attained tlirouirli 
the extension of the industrial and economic functions of 
the State and local governing bodies." 

Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) HENRY E. BOOTE, Editor. 

Upon this basis Mr. Connell has selected from 

the expressions of opinion made at various times by 
members of Parliament, those who axe considered 
to be favourable to it or not. Probably a great 
many of the members may not go as far as the defi- 
nitions given, but for all that, are in favour of 
substituting for the present social war something 
which is more human, and which savours less of 
the morals of the individualistic forest ranger. 
Others again may be dissatisfied with present social 
conditions, but may consider that the way to the 
attaining of a better state of affairs does not lie in 
the direction indicated by the three gentlemen whose 
letters are given. However, it may be taken broadly 
to indicate those whose sympathies are somewhat 
in favour of socisi reform of a very distinctive 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1906. 

In another part of this issue the 
Tasmanian Tasmanian political situation is 
Politics. dealt with by a non-partisan ob- 
server in Tasmania. It is rather a 
curious development that the Ministry, which has 
been reconstructed, makes Mr. Propsting, the former 
Premier, the lieutenant of his former political op- 
ponent. Captain Evans says that his intention in 
making the changes in the Cabinet is to secure 
the co-operation of members favcmrable to progres- 
sive legislation. The Cabinet ought to be stronger 
now than past ones have been for some years, and 
it is to be hoped that the result will be that Tas- 
mania gets what she has not had — some prospect 
of a speedy improvement in her legislation that 
will place more power in the hands of her people, 
and be more in the general interest. 

The Political Labour Council of 

pIi-tJiVi'Ih^lHr Victoria, which held its Annual 
Political Labour „ . ' ,,, ,, ^ t- * 

Council. Conference m Melbourne, at haster- 
time, was, from the Labour Party's 
point of view, a great success. One of the most 
important points decided upon, inasmuch as it re- 
lates to present-day affairs, was the decision of the 
council, in opposition to the advice of Mr. Watson, 
to oppose anybody who was not a Labour man, as 
defineil bv his acceptance of the Labour pledge. 
The Federal Labour platform of last year was en- 
dorsed. A verv striking feature of the Conference 
of this year was the verv distinct division made be- 
tween the extreme theoretical red-flag Socialists and 
those who have determined to settle themselves 
down to secure present-day reforms. This is a 
hopeful sign, and it should permit of a union being 
effected between the forces in the community which 
desire progressive legislation and the Labour Party 
upon those points which are generally held in com- 
mon, and which should be considered by all sec- 
tions on their merits with no reference to the party 
from which they may have sprung. 

Mr. Seddon has been striking a true 

•'numanlsts." "'^'.f'^' ^^''^^" ]^^ says that he is 
neither Radical, Conservative, 
Socialist or Liberal, but that his 
position could best be described by the word 
" Humanist." That is precisely the note that I have 
struck in these columns for some time. The right 
and onlv feasible course for a politician to pursue 
is to consider each measure that comes up for public 
consideration upon its merits, irrespective of what 
party it comes from, to push it for all that it 
is worth, and bring it into active operation if it be 
really in the interests of the people. It is in that 
particular thing that I am inclined to think the 
strength of the present Federal Government lies. 
Progressive social legislation, having for its end 
the greatest good of the greatest number must win 
support from all sections of the House, and break 
down the miserable party baiTiers which now divide 

the members. A determined advance in the field 
of social reform, which is white unto harvest, must 
resuk in a majority of the members participating 
in the gathering, unless for the sake of their parties 
they prove false to all their personal convictions and 
election promises. Adherence to party cannot, or 
ought not, to permit a man to vote against his 
conscience. Principle should be the first considera- 
tion, and if a progressive policy be pursued then- 
is little fear but that it will be supported by men 
from all ranks. This is practicallv w'hat Mr. Watson 
means, and practically all that he can do, being 
unable to give the hard and fast pledge of support, 
as indeed no one should be expected to do. He is 
more than anxious to give his support to anything 
that tends to the betterment of the people. In that 
very fact lies the strength of Mr. Deakin's party to- 
day. It is strong, without the slightest doubt, if th<r 
cause of social reform be pushed to the fore. The 
record of tfie present Federal Government is a splen- 
did one with regard to social reform. The prohibi- 
tion of opium, the scotching of the wheel of the 
perncious influence of some medical concerns (caus- 
ing havoc to the health and morals of many), 
its determination to stand alongside the most ad- 
vanced nations in their fight against the white slave 
traffic, stamp it as one with the highest moral ideals. 

There are some folks who consider 

A that Mr, Bent is fast Incoming 

True Charity. Socialistic, but if his Socialism 

goes on the lines of true social 
reform, such as includes a matter which he 
referred to when speaking at the great Cen- 
tral Mission inauguration meeting in Mel- 
bourne the other dav, there are not many people 
who will care to be labelled by any other name. He 
announced that it was the intention of his Govern- 
ment to next year bring in a Bill to help the poor 
to get homes of their cnvn. That is a crying neces- 
sity. Rents are so high that wages of workers ar»- 
eaten into verv considerablv, and the poor are 
heavilv handicapped. Everybody will uphold Mr. . 
Bent in a notable work of that kind, and the men 
who are in Parliament and who are thus able to ac- 
tively support the scheme, are in a favoured posi- 
tion. He enlarged upon his idea bv saving that 
those who w^ere weak in body and not able to take 
their part in the battle of life would be helped to 
get together homes with small gardens and fowl runs, 
so that they might earn a living. That is philan- 
thropy in the very best sense of the word. 

Dr. Dansyz's The scheme to secure the services 

Rabbit of Dr. Dansyz, of the Pasteur Insti- 

Extermination tute (now on his wav to Australia) 

Scheme. fQj. j^yg years to experiment with 

virus with a view to the extermination of rabbits, is 

not being received with favour by a great many 

people. The experiments are to be carried out on 

Broughton Island, and various animals are to be 

E'- vie ID Or Hevieus, IjCjOG. 

History of the Month. 


plactd l:here for experimental purposes with a view 
to ascertaining whether the poison will take effect 
upon live stock. The main objection to the intro- 
duction of the scheme is made on account of the 
huge trade that is done in rabbits to foreign coun- 
tries, and the great extent to which rabbits are used 
as an article of food in Australia, Although thev 
are such a pest in certain places, thev nevertheless 
are a great boon to thousands of people; in the 
cities. Butcher's meat is dear, for the simple reason 
that such heavy shipments of it are made to the 
other side of the world (where, by the way, it is sold 
cheaper than it is here), thus leaving the local supply 
short, and the rabbit has so largely supplied the 
lack, that a very grave position would be produced 
for a great many poor people if the supplv was 
suddenly cut off. Even should the experiments be 
a success, it remains to be seen whether the respec- 
tive Governments will allow them to be carried out. 

London, May, 1906. Bv W. T. Stead. 

The new House of Commons last 
The first month experienced its first dis- 
Dissppointment. appointment. When the Liberals 
were last in office the Army and 
Navy vote amounted to _;^37,326,ooo. When the 
Jingoes left office they had raised the expenditure on 
war to ;^76,367,ooo. That is to say, the net result 
of Tory rule was to more than double the amount 
spent every year on powder and shot. Naturally the 
Liberals confidently expected that .when they re- 
turned to office the first thing they would do would 
be to effect enormous reductions in these overgrown 
estimates. Mr. Haldane, before the Election, had 
mentioned ;^5, 000,000 as the reduction demanded 
in the Army vote. Imagine, then, the dismay of 
the stalwarts when Mr. Haldane, now become Sec- 
retary of War, stood up in the House and announc- 
ed that he could not possibly show any greater re- 
duction than — ;£^i 7,000! His speech was ingenious, 
persuasive, and eloquent. But /^i 7.000 instead of 
_;^5, 000,000 — " It wadna doon.' 

Every allowance, it was admitted. 
The must be made for a Minister who 

first Split. inherited the Tory Estimates, and 
had only had a few' months in 
which to get a grip of his department. Major 
Seely, therefore, instead of demanding an immediate 
reduction, moved an amendment, the object of which 
was to induce Mr. Haldane to promise that in next 
year's Estim.ates he would reduce the Army bv 
10,000 men. To this Mr. Haldane might easily 
have consented, had it not been that the debate took 
place at one of the most critical moments in the 
Algeciras Conference, and it was held that if he had 
promised to strike off 10,000 men, the French would 
have considered we were weakening in our support 
of their claims against the demands of Germany. 
So in order to avert a semblance of weakeninc; 

New Zealand is in the happy posi- 

A Decreasing tion, like Britaii^ of having been 

Drink Bill. ^Y)\e to very considerably reduce 

her drink bill last year. The ex- 
penditure on alcohrlic liquors was jQ;^,i2o,-io:{. 
This is a reduction of ^r32,ooo on the previous 
year, and is of greater significance when it is re- 
memberetl that the official estimated increase in the 
population was 25,284. Considering New Zealand's 
great prosperity (and history shows that in prosper- 
ous times the drink bill invariably goes up), this re- 
sult is truly remarkable, and must be accorded to 
the wave of temperance sentim.ent which is sweeping 
over the colonx. 'V'ctoria is looking forward with 
great hope to an amending Licensing Bill promised 
by Mr. Bent, and, taken all round, matters in the 
States generally look promising for temperance re- 

Ministers stood firm in opposition to Major Seelv, 
and the House divided, fifty-six members going into 
the lobby as a protest against Tory war estimates 
being adopted by a Liberal Government. The 
division was interesting, not only because it was the 
first time in which Liberals voted against the Gov- 
ernment, but because, as the divisioJi list showed, 
several Independent Labour members refused to 
give what seemed a vote of no confidence in the 
Government. A minor Government official railed 
foolishly next day against Major Seely, but as a 
matter of fact the best way in which you can sup- 
port a reforming Prime Minister is to go into the 
lobby against him whenever he fails to keep his 
Cabinet up to his own high level. 

The Indian Estimates, which show 

How to an increa-:e of ;^8oo,ooo in mili- 

Restore Unity, tary expenditure, instead of the 

reduction of ^2,000.000 which hid 
bee:i hoped for, have not tended to reconcile the 
Liberals to the ruinous burden of armaments. It is 
therefore imperative, as soon as the Algeciras Con- 
ference is safely wound up, that the Prime Minister 
should take the earliest possible opportunity of pro- 
claiming the positive programme of his plan of 
campaign in favour of that League of Peace which 
must precede any great reduction of armaments. 
Ho said at Albert Hall: — 

As the principle of peaceful arbitration extends, it 
becomes one of tlie highest taslts of statesmen to adjust 
these armaments to the new and happier oouditions. No 
nobler role could this great country have than at the fitting 
moment to put itself at the head of a League of Peac-a 
throuerh whose instrunient ility this gieit work I'oulu be 
It is now full time that we should know what steps 
C.-B. proposes to take in order to achieve this 
highest task of statesmanship, by playing the noble 
role of leading the Peace League of the world. No 
one expects him to work miracles. But we do ex- 
pect him to be practical, to be persistent, anrl. 


The Review of Reviews. 

June I, 19>J0. 

above all, to be resolute and courageous. Cam- 
paigns of peace are no more to be won by funkers 
than campaigns of war. 

There are some who think that the 

,-*'''^" , whole question ought to be handed 
of Campaign for ^ ,, ."^ , < „ 

Peace. o^'*^'' 'o ^ s'"^^' ^^^ strong and re- 

presentative Royal Commission 
charged with the duty of inquiring into the question 
of what measures can be most profitably adopted 
for the purpose of promoting the increase of friendly 
intercourse among the peoples and a decrease of 
hostile friction between their Governments, which 
Cobden long ago saw was the secret of international 
peace. There are others who would prefer that 
C.-B. should constitute a body analogous to the 
Imperial Council of Defence, which would be 
charged with the duty of considering and concerting 
the necessary steps to be taken for the purpose of 
promoting the peace of the world based upon the 
cntciHe cordiale of all nations. But whether it be a 
Royal Commission or an Imperial Peace Council, 
something must be done to set half-a-dozen prac- 
tical, earnest men of experience and resolution seri- 
ously at work to consider what can be done to pro- 
mote better relations between us and our neighbours. 
There would be no lack of materials for their 
agenda paper. There are the series of pious aspira- 
tions which the Hague Conference put on record in 
1889, which have never from that day to this been 
taken into consideration. There is the approaching 
meeting of the International Parliamentary Union 
in 1907. There is the proposal that a sum not 
exceeding decimal-point one of the money spent on 
armaments should be allocated every yeai to pro- 
mote hospitable intercourse between nations, and 
to educate our own people in an abhorrence of war. 
There is the creation of an International Union 
under the wing of the Government, but with inde- 
pendent commission, to promote joint international 
action along the lines of the Hague Convention. 
And over and above all these towers the supreme 
question of our future relations to Russia and to 
Germany. Unless we are good friends with both, 
our army and navy expenditure will increase rather 
than diminish. And the consideration of the 
methods by which we can substitute an cnienie 
cordiale for the present attitude of estrangement 
suggestive of incipient hostility is the supreme pro- 
blem before the British Government. 

We are spending here and in India 
Why No Old Age about 100 millions sterling this 
Pensions, Etc. year in preparation against risks of 

war which are admittedly much less 
than they were when under the last Libera! Govern- 
ment we were insured against war risks for less than 
;£,ooo a year. This is one of those great 
outstanding facts which cannot fail to impress the 
imagination of a people which is denied old age 
pensions because there is no money in the locker. 

and which is refused payment of members for the 
same reason. Labour members are expected to 
make both ends meet in London on less than £2,°° 
a vear. When thev find themselves burdened, like 
Mr. W. Crooks, with eighty letters a day, the post- 
age stamps on which amount to 42s. a week, they 
naturallv ask for a revival of the old privilege of 
franking letters formerly enjoyed and abused by 
everv M.P. The abuse' could be easily prevented 
bv limiting the privilege to letters posted within the 
precincts of the House. If our relations were as 
cordial with Russia and Germany as they are with 
France and America, there would be no difficulty in 
making reductions which would enable us to meet all 
the demands of the Labour members, and still have 
monev to turn. It is the men who are continually 
stirring up strife and ill-feeling between us and these 
two nations who stand in the way of retrench rnent. 
International hatred is easily roused, but it is a 
devil which sends in a terribly long bill. 

For months past the most unin- 
The Algecjras ^gijigibie part of the newspaper to 

Conference and , ° ,. "^ , j Ju ^t 

;^ft,f. the ordmary reader, and the most 

interesting to the few behind the 
scenes, has been the telegraphic reports of the Con- 
ference at Algeciras, where the representatives of 
the Powers decided their rival pretensions to Mo- 
rocco. The controversy turned chiefly upon the 
respective share of France and Germany in the 
Bank, which, like a financial octopus, is to do for 
Morocco what the Russian-Chinese Bank did for 
Manchuria — absit omen — and the extent to which the 
policing of the ports and the sea coasts should be 
internationalised. Into the details of the negotia- 
tions from day to day there is no need to enter. 
Suffice it to say that, aJFter interminable negotiations, 
an agreement has now been finally arrived at, 
chieflv through the intervention of Mr. White, 
the American delegate. The details of the 
settlement are of no immediate interest. The 
vital fact is that in the discussion Germany 
found herself face to face with an almost 
unanmous opposition. France had the thick and 
thin support of England, Russia, and Spain. Aus- 
tria acted as a friendly broker on behalf of her 
partner at Berlin, while Italy and America acted as 

There seems to be little difference 

. f,i . c»«_ of opinion, even in Gemianv. that 

4 raise Step. , • •' ,• u u' u *u„ 

the precipitate action by which the 

Kaiser raised the Moroccan ques- 
tion has hardly been justified by the result. 
Rumours of Prince von Billow's approaching retire- 
ment are current, and it is hardly to be wondered at 
if the Germans generally feel a little sore. That 
being the case, the most mischievous thing in the 
world is to gloat over her isolation and her discom- 
fiture. There are few more dangerous fallacies than 
the notion current in Jingo quarters that it is ever 

of Hevievs, 1/6/0(1. 

History of the Month. 


to our interest to humiliate a neighbour. It may be 
necessary to oppose him, never to insult him. And 
if we oppose him in our own interests or in those of 
our ally, the easier we ought to make it for him to 
give way. The building of a golden bridge for the 
retreat of those whom we wish to evacuate their 
position is good strategy and sound common sense. 
Unfortunately with many of our newspapers it would 
seem as if the attainment of our ends was compara- 
tively of small importance to the barbaric yawp of 
insult and exultation with which they love to greet 
the discomfiture of the foreigner. Now that Ger- 
many has yielded in Morocco, we ought to leave no 
stone unturned to discover some way in which we 
can help her to the attainment of some legitimate 
ambition which does not conflict with our interest. 


The elections for the Dounia in 
Elections for the ^"^^^^ "*^ proceeding under cir- 
Douma. cumstances which reduce to the 

minimum the authority of the body 
in which, nevertheless, all the hopes of Russian 
freedom are centred. As I constantly put it last 
autumn, a representative Assembly without the four 
liberties — Liberty of Public Meeting, Liberty of 
Association, Liberty of Press, and a Habeas Corpus 
.A.ct — is like a horse without any legs, a mere trunk 
of a horse. Nevertheless, although the Douma will 
not be what it might have been if the Russian 
Liberals had rallied round M. Witte, instead of 
allowing the Revolutionists to precipitate an appeal 
to arms, notwithstanding all its defects it may be the 
salvation of Russia. A National Assembly, no mat- 
ter how it is composed, even if ever)- member in it 
were nominated by the Tsar, would still be a 
National Assembly, a visible and concrete represen- 
tation of the vast amorphous, inorganic millions of 
Greater Russia. It will have the right of free 
speech, its proceedings will be reported, its mem- 
bers will feel the national mandate, and it is pos- 
sible that out of the hundred odd deputies there 
may emerge some stout patriot who has not only an 
enthusiastic devotion to liberty, but also a shrewd 
practical eye to what is possible and what is not. 
The worst of the Russians, on both sides, is that they 
ail expect to work miracles Elijah's fashion, and 
pivpare for the descent of fire from heaven b\ 
drenching the altar and the sacrifice with water, 
l-'.ach side plavs the other side's game, and then 
tliev marvel that things won't go straight. Under conditions the chances even of an ideal 
Douma would he small. But it is the only hope. 

. Sir J. West Ridgway, who won 

South African golden opinions as a level-headed 

Committee. administrator at Dublin Castle, has 

been despatched to South Africa 

with Lord Sandhurst and Sir F. Hopwood, of the 

Board of Trade, to join Colonel Johnstone, of the 

Topographical Department, who is already in Cape 

Town, for the purpose of reporting upon the vexed 
question of the Constitutions which are to be estab>- 
lished in the Transvaal and the Free State. The 
terms of their reference are elastic, and the Com- 
mittee might with advantage look into some of the 
social and political questions which underlie the 
superstructure of the new Constitutions. Is it true, 
for instance, that the new citizens who are to govern 
these countries hold in their hands military notes 
acknowledging Imperial indebtedness to the tune of 
^"2,500,000, which, Mr. Chamberlain's promise not- 
withstanding, have not been paid ? Is it true that 
the new citizens have filed claims for compensation 
for the destruct-on of private property, under the 
Rules of War laid down at the Hague Conference, 
amounting to _;^62, 000,000, not one penny of which 
has been paid ? And if so, what prospect is there 
of any stable and loyal government being estab- 
lished in territories whose inhabitants are holders of 
such vast unpaid claims upon the Imperial Govern- 
ment? Must we pay these bills or part of them, 
or repudiate them, or what ? It is a question that 
goes to the root of the whole matter, and it is one, 
therefore, which in one fomi or another the Com- 
mittee will have to face. 


Another question which, in common 
Positio'n'of the decency, the Committee must look 
Indians. ^"'o is the position of our Indian 

fellow-subjects. The grievances of 
the Indians was one of the trump cards used by 
Lord Milner and his backers in pressing their case 
against Paul Kruger. Now that Kruger is dead 
and we have seized his country, we can hardly ignore 
the wrongs of our Indian fellow-subjects. By the 
terms of the Treaty of Vereeniging the question of 
the enfranchisement of the natives was held over till 
responsible government was established. But the 
Indian settlers are not " natives." They are civilised 
men, who ought not to be contounded with raw 
Kafiirs. Will the Committee be able to secure the 
acceptance as the corner-stone of the new Constitu- 
tion, ■' Equal rights for every civilised man in South 
Africa"? It was Mr. Rhodes's formula. If it were 
accepted, and the Cape franchise extended to the 
new Colonies, there are hardly a thousand natives 
who would be qualified for the franchise. The 
principle might be adopted of allowing them two or 
three representatives of their own, as was recom- 
mended by the recent Commission, in accordance 
with the Maori precedent. But it is monstrous to 
enfranchise evers Russian Jew who makes his way 
to Johannesburg, and to refuse to enfranchise highly 
civilised and educated Indians. The Jew is as 
Oriental as the Hindoo. Probably nothing would 
bring the matter to a head so .soon and so satisfac- 
torily as a decision that all regulations and restric- 
tions imposed upon Orientals should be applied im- 
partially to British Indians and foreign Jews. It is 
to be hoped the Committee will call Dr. Abdurrah- 


The Review of Reviews. 

June I, 1900. 

man, the President of the African Natives' Associa- 
tion, Mr. Jabavu, and one or two other competent 
natives and Indians. 

Ti.« <• 1 • , Behind the question of Chinese 
The Colonists > u i- ^u l 

j„j labour hes the much more serious 

the Nati>es. problem of the natives. Mr. 
Winston Churchill evidently con- 
templates setting up a kind of imperium in imperio 
in the shape of a Downing Street Protectorship over 
the natives. It sounds well. But those who are 
familiar with the attempts made by Sir Bartle Frere 
to play the part of earthly providence to the natives 
are dubious as to whether the results will be as 
beneficent as the intentions. Mr. Winston Churchill 
would do well to look up the address which Sir 
Bartle Frere delivered to the Colonial Institute in 
i88i. After deprecating the inherent delusion of 
the British mind that the South African Colonies 
cannot be trusted with the exclusive management of 
their native affairs unless the Home Government has 
more control than is afforded by the veto on their 
legislation. Sir Bartle Frere went on to repeat:- — 

My conviction is that our countrymen in South Africa 
are not only quite capable of dealing with all native ques- 
tions aa wisely and firmly as we ourselves are in Eng- 
land, but that the best interests of the natives are quite 
as safe in the hands of the Colonial Government consti- 
tuted as that of the Cape is, as thev would be i^ reserved 
for the exclusive management of the Home Government. 
. . . I will conclif'e by once more expressing my de- 
liberate conviction that tie best interests of the nalives 
of the C'ne Colony are Quite as safe in the keening of 
the Cape Parliament as thev could he in that of the Par- 
liament of the Unitel Kingdom. 

And what was true of the Cape Parliament, which 
was preponderantly Dutch, will be equally true of 
the Transvaal and Free State Parliaments. It is 
doubtful whether the Boers will consent to be re- 
sponsible for the government of their late Republics 
if the native question is reserv'ed. 

The Crisis 

The excessive touchiness of South 
-African colonists on all native 

Natal. questions received a ver\- striking 

illustration last month, when the 
Natal Ministry resigned because Lord Elgin asked 
for some information. A death sentence was passed 
by a Militia court-martial on twelve Kaffirs for 
being concerned in a murderous attack upoij a white 
police officer. The Colonial Office telegraphed 
asking that the execution should be postponed until 
it had some more infonnation on the subject. 
Where pon the Natal Ministry resigned, and all 
British Africa went into hysterics. Wh.nt was the 
ImjDerial Government thinking of to dare to ask for 
information as to the right of a responsible self- 
governing British Colony to shoot twelve Kaffirs to 
avenge the death of one white man ? Monstrous. 
And how unfair to the other Kaffirs who had already 
been shot for the same offence ! Is the Natal Gov- 
ernment not to be boss in its own house, etc., etc. ? 
All of which is very edifying reading to the British 
at home. If the Home Government cannot even ask 

civilly for information in a case where hasty action 
might precipitate a revolt, which the Home Govern- 
ment would have to quell, if will be very difficult to 
convince people at home that there is any really 
useful tie l)et\veen self-governing colonies and the 
Empire. The fact will have to be faced sooner or 
later, and it is well we should come to an under- 
standing betimes in this matter. 

It is one of life's little ironies that 

Hero '^" "''^" continually go unwhipped of 

and Martyr. justice for their great crimes and 

get smartly trounced for the veriest 
peccadilloes, which as often as not they have never 
committed. The fuss that has been made about 
Lord Milner last month is a case in point. Lord 
Milner as the author of an unjust and unnecessary- 
war deserved impeachment. There is no greater 
crime than that of a Pro-consul who takes advantage 
of his position to force the Government at home into 
even the justest of wars for which it is utterly un- 
prepared, so long as the door of arbitration remains 
open. How much more heinous the offence of Lord 
Milner. who made war unjustly, dragging after him 
the at first reluctant Mr. Chamberlain and the to the 
last reluctant Lord Salisbury : But although men have 
been sent to the block for far less flagrant political 
sins. Lord Milner has not even been subjected to 
the mildest parliamentary censure for his headstrong 
p'unge into war which he could so easily have 
averted that it took him no small trouble to force 
an appeal to arms. The nation has censured both 
h'm and his tools at Downing-street in unmistakable 
fashion by its verdict at the last General Election. 
But so far as the late High Commissioner was con- 
cerned, nothing has been said. It happened, how- 
ever, in the last days of his pro-consulship in con- 
versation with Mr. Evans, the official charged with 
the oversight of the Chinese thralls of the mining 
companies. Lord Milner said, or was believed by 
Mr. Evans to have said, that he saw no reason to 
object to the flogging of the Chinese if discipline 
required it. Lord Milner seems to have forgotten 
the conversation, otherwise he could not have allow- 
ed Mr. Lyttelton, after his return to this country, 
to rep diate indignantlv the accusation that there 
had been anv flogging in the mines. Months later, 
when the matter was brought to his attention, he 
franklv shouldered the responsibility, said that he 
had done wTong, and was very sorry. 

That Lord Milner had erred no one 
" '«'s Very Wrong, denies, least of all himself. For 

c^"Lt- ivh"J" error, due apparently to want of 

Say Who Did it." ,, , ' r -n u i..u 

thought, loss of memory, ill-health 

— a dozen excuses may be pleaded. As a result of 

his mistake some hundreds of coolies were flogged 

■ — in flat violation of our Imperial pledge to the 

Chinese Government. Mr. Lvttelton, who was thus 

bndlv befooled bv his subordinate, appears to have 

Hevific or Heti^ct, 1/6106. 

History of the Month. 


acquiesced meekly in Lord Milner's misconduct. 
When the matter was brought before Parliament by 
Lord Portsmouth, but not till then, Lord ^Lilner 
owned up. Thereupon the majority of the Minis- 
terialists and the Labour men in the House of Com- 
mons felt that justice demanded that a formal 
censure should be passed upon a High Commis- 
sioner for sanctioning flogging in breach of the law. 
in violation of our treaty obligations, and without 
the sanction of the Secretary of State for the Colo- 
nies. Clearlv if Parliament was to notice the inci- 
dent at all. it could not have said less. The argu- 
ment that Lord Milner was not to be blamed be- 
cause his responsibility was covered by that of th* 
Colonial Secretary- is nonsense, for the chief count 
against him is that after he had officially sanctioned 
flogging he allowed his official chief to declare that 
it was impossible there could be any truth in the 
stories of flogging, because of the admirable system 
both of law and supei-vision existing in the Trans- 
vaal. Mr. Lyttelton passed no censure upon the 
High Commissioner, who had made him eat dirt 
and deceive the House of Commons. The House 
of Commons had a right, and indeed was bound, to 
put on record its disapproval of a Pro-consul who 
had caused it to be deceived. But Ministers, ap- 
parently acting under the dictation of the Jingo 
rump of their parly, decided to oppose the vote of 
censure on the culprit, and to offer instead an 
amendment condemning the fiogging as wrong, but 
abstaining from naming the man who did the wrong. 
" It's very culpable, no doubt, and we know who 
did it, of cour.=e, but for the sake of peace we refuse 
to name him." 

The amendment, lame, inconclu- 

1. AmMrativo sive, and unsatisfactory as it was. 
In Comparative ' . >, -n . -..i. i 

Sio. served its end. Mr. Byles withdrew 

his resolution, and the Ministerial 
amendment was carried bv 355 votes to 155 — many 
Labour members refusing to vote for an amend- 
ment which refused to do what ought to have been 
done, even when admitting in general terms the 
justice of the indictment. The '' argument " of the 
Opposition amounted in brief to this : that Lord 
Milner, than whom Mr. Chamberlain — who had sat 
i« the Cabinet with Mr. Gladstone and Mr. Bright — 
said he had never met a greater man, had placed 
the Empire under such an immeasurable debt of 
gratitude bv his policy in South Africa that it was 
monstrous to condemn him for such a trifle as the 
flogging of Chinese coolies. The real fact is that 
Lord Milner has deserved so ill of the Empire by 
the war which he forced upon South Africa that it 
seems absurd to censure liim for a minor offence 
when that supreme crime remains uncensured. 
When we remember that Lord Milner's policy cost 
30.000 lives of fighting-men and 30,000 lives of 
women and children — that it made us the laughing- 
stock and the by-word of the world — that it cost us 
in hard cash _^2 50,000,000. and inflicted losses 

rribunt.l [March 3. 

Britannia: "This is a free country." 

rXhough the Aliens Act expressly states that want of 
means shall not be a bar to the entry of refugees flying 
from religious or political persecution, some scores of fugi- 
tives from Russia have been rejected.! 

amounting to ^^ upon the Boers — it does 
seem ridiculous to pounce down upon him for an 
unguarded word which led to the flogging of a few 
hundred coolies. 

The abominable hardships inflicted 

The Aliens Act by the Aliens Act upon the un- 

Hamstrung fortunate refugees who fled to our 

shores to escape political oppres- 
sion and religious persecution, have at last been 
terminated bv the action of the Home Secretary. 
Mr. Herbert' Gladstone shrank from the simple, 
straightforward plan of repealing the Aliens Act, and 
hit upon the ingenious device of instructing those 
who administer its provisions to do so in such a way 
as to render it incapable of abuse. Lord Halsbur>- 
furiously assailed the Home Secretary's directions 
as equivalent to the exercise of a dispensing power. 
If so they are illegal, and the sooner the question is 
tried in court the better. But as no one knows bet- 
ter than Lord Halsbury, that the alternative to these 
instructions is the introduction of a Bill repealing 
the Act or amending it out of all semblance to itself, 
this course will not be taken. I confess I don't like 
this svstem of administratively drawing the teeth of 
a measure which ought never to have been passed. 
But it may be the only practical course. 

Mr. Lloyd-George was the first of 

ch^ • the new Ministers to submit a 

New^smpprng ^^gj^,.,^;^.^ proposal to the House. 

It was a Bill providing for the 
better treatment of British sailors, and incidentally 
for compelling foreign shipowners who use our ports 
to conform to the British standard of safety. In 


The Review of Reviews. 

two years' time all ships entering British ports will 
have to bear the PlimsoU mark showing the load- 
line. They will also be subject to the British regu- 
lations provided for preventing the shifting of grain, 
for the prevention of overloading and overcrowding, 
and for the provision of life-saving appliances. In 
order to prevent disasters arising from the shipment 
of foreign sailors, it is enacted that in future every 
man engaged to navigate a British ship must know 
the nautical words of command. As there are 39,000 
foreigners and 42,000 Lascars on our ships, they 
will have to rub up their English. In 1870 there 
were 200,000 British sailors on our merchantmen 
and only 18,000 foreigners. To-day there are 
39,000 foreigners and only 176,000 Britons. The 

Britisher, like the Am.erican, is getting " too 

comfortable " on shore to care to go to sea. To 
tempt him on to the forecastle Mr. Lloyd-George- 
proposes to insist upon a much more liberal dietary. 
and every ship must carry a certificated cook — not a 
French c/ief. of course, but a sailorman who knows 
how to boil and bake and stew. 

jhe After Mr. Lloyd-George came Mr. 

Campensation Herbert Gladstone with his Bill 
for consolidating and extending the Act 

Accidents. Cqj. jj^g Compensation of Workmen 
for Accidents. The Bill continues to exclude police- 
men (who have their own arrangements), clerks, 
out-workers, and domestic servants, but brings in 
sailors, fishermen, postmen, men employed in work- 
shops where there are more than five workmen, and 
men engaged in transport service. It is further pro- 
vided that poisoning by lead, mercury, phosphorus. 
and arsenic, and a mysterious disease called ankvlos- 
tomiasas shall rank as accidents. The minimum 
period of disablement entitling to compensation is 
reduced from a fortnight to a week. There are 
various provisions intended to simplifv and cheapven 
the operation of the Act. Mr. Gladstone fights shy 
of compulsory insurance. But his Bill, which was 
very well received, marks another stage towards that 
inevitable goal. 

If only Ave had the procedure of 
The Reform parliament radically reformed there 
Procedure. would be less need for getting 
round a bad Act by Home Office 
circulars. But of such reform there is little pros- 
pect. The Committee on Procedure has recom- 
mended that the House should rise at 11.30 instead 
of 12.0, that on Fridav night it should rise at 5.0 
instead of 5.30, that the dinner hour should be 
abolished — and that is practically all that is at pre- 
sent proposed to be done. That is mere tinkering 
with the question. The other day a practically 
unanimous House — the majoritv was six to one — 
spent four hours in saying it approved of the Scotch 
Bill for taxing land values, and then wasted so much 
time in divisions that it could not refer the Bill to 
the Standing Committee on Law before the debate' 

Ttibu)u- ] 

June 1, 1906. 

Stood ad- 
There must 
be more 
work done 
in commit- 
tee ; there 
must be a 
time limit 
on speeches, 
and there 
ought to be 
a prelimi- 
nary thrash- 
ing out of 
measures in 
what m a y 
be called 
first reading 
The House 
is eager u> 
All Talk. work," but 

' Here, Miss P . more work and less there are 

Tub Dog : 

talk, please *' , ,. 

[.Mr Crooks, MP. speaking to a rrr7>fnj£- representa- lOO many 

tive, said that too much time in Parliament is spent in e a £ 6 r t O 

talk, and the 

discussion and not enough in action ] 

funnel of the hours of each sitting is much too 
narrow for the flood of sjjeech. 

London, which ought to have 3000 
London miles of electric tramway and has 

Improvements, only 300. is about to be supplied 
with an immense number of motor 
omnibuses, which promise to make London ere long 
as smellv as the Volga, where great sheets of petro- 
leum float on the surface of the river, and even the 
fish have a petroleum taint. These great behemoths 
are, however, very popular. They outpace the 
buses, and, except when the wood pavement is 
slimv. thev are well under control. The new electric 
ti be underground railway has been opened, w'hich en- 
ables anyone to travel frc>ra Waterloo to Baker Street 
in fifteen minutes for twopence, an immense saving of 
time and money. Under the stress of competition 
above ground and below, there is at last hope that 
the London cabmen will consent to a fare of 6d. per 
mile, with a taximeter in each cab. They would do 
twice the business they do to-day, but they dread 
the loss of the chance of extortion, which keeps all 
nervous and inexperienced people out of their 
vehicles. The London County Council has at last 
let the great space in Aldwvch which has remained 
empty so long to a .s\ndicate which pays ;^55,ooo 
per annum for ninetv-nine years' ground rent, and 
undertakes to erect upon the site a theatre, a music- 
hall, an art exhibition, and 176 shops, at a minimum 
outlay of ^500,000. The question of setting back 

Review of Reviews, If6l06. 

History of the Month. 


the crescent between Aldwvch and the Strand is 
left over. The great new buildings for the War 
Office, the Foreign Office, the Ecclesia.stical Coni- 
roissioners, which have revolutionised the ap- 
proaches to Parliament House, are slowly nearing 
completion. By degrees London is being rebuilt, 
and ere long, with the exception of the Champs 
Elysee and the Arc de Triomphe, will vie in Iveauty 
with the Queen of the Seine. 

jhe Even the most bigoted Republican 

Advertising must admit that Royal personages 
Value have some uses — even although 

of Royalty. j^g ^^y declare that the price we 
pay for them is excessive. One of the minor uses 
of Royalty has been illustrated last month by the 
attention which Princess Ena's change of ecclesias- 
tical allegiance has drawn to the claims of the 
Roman Catholic Church. WTiat an advertisement 
the marriage has been ! A few months since nobody 
knew anything about Princess Eiia. Now she has, 
by the mere fact of her betrothal to the King of 
Spain, become a sandwichman or woman for the 
Papacy — on parade in all the newspapers of the 
world. Talk about gramophones ! There is no 
gramophone like a Royal Princess who abjures her 
faith. It would have cost the Pope a million dollars 
to have secured the insertion of the claims of his 
Church in the world's press, and then they would 
have appeared among the advertisements. Whereas 
now, because this young lady is a princess marrying 
a king, the editors run over each other in their 
haste to publish, free, gratis and for nothing, in 
the best position in their news columns, one of the 
most concise and effective statements of the Roman 
creed that has met the eye of this generation. 

Henceforth no one need be under 

faith ""y misunderstanding as to what 

of a Roman ? 's the faith of a Roman Catholic. 

Here it is, under the sign manual, 

so to speak, of the future Queen of Spain, for all 

who run to read : — 

I, having before my ej-ea the Holy Gospels, which I 
touch with my hanci, and. knowing that no one can be 
saved witliout the faith wliicii the Holy Catholic Apostolic 
Eoman Church lioUla, believes, and teaches, against which 
I grieve tliat I have greatly erred inasmuch a^s I have 
believed doctrines opposed to lier teaching, 1 now, by the 
help of God's grace, profess that I believe the Holy Catholic 
Apostolic R'tman Church to 1>e the only true Church 
established on earth by Jesus Christ, to which I submit 
myself with my whole heart. I firmly believe all the 
articles that she propounds to ray belief, and I reject 
and condemn all that she rejects and condemns, and I am 
rea ?y to observe all that slie commands me. And €Si>ecially 
I profess I believe in One only God in Three Divine 
Persons distinct from and equal to each other — that is to 
say, the Fatlier, tl e Son, and the Holy Ghost; the Catliolic 
doctrine of the Incarnation, Passion. Death, and Resurrec- 
tion of Jesus Christ; and the personal union of the two 
Natures, the Divine and the Human; the Divine ifaternity 
of the most holy Mary, together witii her most spotless 
Virginity: and her Immaculate Conception; 

The True Real and Substantial Presence of the Body of 
Our Lord Jesus Christ together with His Soul and Divinity 
in the most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist; 

The Seven Sacraments instituted by Jesus Christ for the 

-SebeUpalter.] fZurich. 

The "One Touch of Nature" at Courrieres. 

What no diplomacy can do, misfortune can accomplish." 
International sympathies were freely expressed in con- 
leotion with the Courrieres mining disaster in Prance. 

salvation of mankind; that is to say. Baptism, Confirma- 
tion. Holy Eucharist. Penance, Extreme Unction, Holy 
Orders, Matrimony. 

I also believe in Purgatory, the Kesurrection of the 
Dead, Everlasting Life; 

The primacy not only of honour but of jurisdiction of 
the Eoman Pontiff, successor of St. Peter, Prince of 
Apostles, Vicar of Jesus Christ; 

The Veneration of the saints and of their images; 

The authority of Apostolic and Ecclesiastical traditions 
and of the Holy Scriptures, which we must interp et and 
understand only in the sense which our Holy Mother the 
Catholic Church has held and does hold, to whom alone it 
belongs to judge of their meaning and interpretation; 

And everything else that has been defined and declared 
bv the Sacred Canons and by the General Councils, espe- 
cially the Holy Council of Trent and by the (Ecumenical 
Council of tile Vatican. 

With a sincere heart, therefore, and with unfeigned 
faith, I detest and abjure every error, heresy, and sect 
opposed to the said Catliolic Apostolic and Eoman Church 
So help me GOD and these Holy Gospels which 1 touch 
with my hana. 

It is difficult for anvone in Europe 
SevoS ^° realise the significance of the 
in America sensational news which has been 

reaching us all last month from 
the United States. Financially the American Com- 
monwealth bears a strong resemblance to Europe 
when the Napoleonic Empire was at the zenith of its 
power. As Napoleon could fill his pit with kings, 
and seated his relatives and his marshals on the 
thrones of Europe, so the gigantic combination 
known as " Standard Oil " reigned supreme over 
the manv kingdoms into which American enterprise 
has parcelled out the business world. As Miss Tar- 
bell has pointed out in an article quoted elsewhere, 
the great trjsts of America are wealthier and more 
pi.werful than many dynasties. They reign with 
absolute sovereigntv over realms whose titles are 
not geographical but economical. Over all this con- 
geries of kingdoms of Beef, Copper, Gas, Railways, 
iron, etc., towered aloft the Standard Oil, uncrowned 
master of them all. For years past the word of 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 190'J. 

Standard Oil was law. Although founded, like othei 
Empires, upon force and fraud, Standard Oil held 
the sceptre of the Continent. Armed with the might 
of immeasurable wealth, it used its power with the 
ruthless indifference to ethical considerations which 
characterises all the monsters which from time to 
time emerge to prey upon mankind. ■' But Childe 
Roland to the dark tower came " ; or, to put it 
plainly, Henn,- W. Lawson, stockbroker of Boston, 
began to publish his' memorable series of articles 
on ■• Frenzied Finance." 

The Passing 

of a 


The Cyclone 

At first the trntcrprise seemed hope- 
less. It seemed as if a boy with a 
pea-shooter was challenging a mas- 
todon. But suddenlv something 
broke. In the great domain of Insurance which 
had become a satrapy of Standard Oil the thieves 
began to quarrel. Still Mr. Lawson continued his 
exposures, which, grim and lurid though thev were, 
paled their ineffectual .^res beside the revelations 
made by the men who but last year superciliously 
brushed on one side the accusations of their critics. 
Then on all sides there spread from State to State 
a movement the like of which we have never seen 
in our time. The people began to realise the ex- 
tent to which they had been swindled. Legislatures 
began to institute inquiries. The nation began 
to stir, the foundations shook, the Empire of Stan- 
dard Oil trembled. Its chieftains fled to Europe 
or took refuge in private fastnesses. The satraps of 
the Insurance world shuddered and died. Strange 
rumours began to come across the Atlantic. The 
Missourians were said to be contemplating the 
seizure of all Standard Oil property in their State. 
What will be done no one knows. As yet we onlv 
see that the cyclone of public indignation is un- 
loosed at last. How many corpses will be dug up 
from below the ruins no one can say. For the 
storm is still raging, and not all the chiefs are dead 
as yet. What a day it will be for Europe when a 
similar cyclone sweeps through the Continent 
destroying the militarv incubus under which the 
nations groan ! 

The death of Susan B. Anthony, 
at the ripe age of eighty-six, re- 
minds those of us who remain 
behind how immense has been 
the progress achieved in the cause of justice and 
liberty by the indomitable energy and unshaken faith 

of the few. \Vhen 
Susan B. An- 
thony began the 
struggle fifty 
years since, the 
political and in- 
tellectual posi- 
tion of women 
was almost incon- 
ceivable to us 
who have enter- 
ed into the fruits 
of her labours 
and those of her 
sisters who 
fought with her 
in the van. The 
victory is still far 
from complete, 
but the progress 
that has already 
V>een achieved 
justified Miss 

Anthony when 
she declared in 
the last words 
she spoke from a 
public platform, " Fiiilure is impossible." We owe 
it to her memory to take up the combat ■o'ith re- 
doubled energy, and to secure the triumph of the 
suffrage movement in America bv winning a decisive 
victory for the cause this side of the Atlantic. More 
than 400 members of the new House of Commons 
are pledged to woman's suffrage. Mr. Thomasson. 
the latest addition to the number, is a declared 
suffragist. All that is needed is an opportunity for 
a division, and it says little for the determination 
and resource of its parlianientar\- supporters that 
such an opportunity has not already been dis- 

The Late Susan B. Anthony. 
A Pioneer of Woiiiin Suffrage in Anieric.i. 

The Index to the January, February, March, April=]Vlay and June 
(1906) is.sues of "The Review of Reviews" will be found on pages 
532. 533 and 534 of this number. 

Berieic of "*ci>if<t, IfSjOG. 


By the Rev. Dr. Watkin. 

The first four native-born Australians to write 
their names on our national history were William 
C. Wentworth, Hamilton Hume, John Batman and 
Rear-Admiral King. Of these Wentworth and King 
•were bom in Norfolk Island, and the other two 
in the ancient and historic town of Parramatta. 
Norfolk Island figured largely in the early history 
of New South Wales. Captain Cook's description 
of its prolific soil led to its early occupation after 
the founding of Sydney. One of the early de- 
.spatches from the British Colonial Office suggested 
to Governor Phillip that Norfolk Island should be 
the principal settlement, instead of Port Jackson. 
The want of a harbour there interfered with the 
oaming out of the suggestion. 


Was bom in 1792, at Norfolk Island, where his 
father was one of the staff of surgeons. He was 
sent home to Cambridge University. There he won 
distinction, in competing for a University prose 
poem on the subject of Australia. The prose was 
carried off bv the distinguished Winthrop Mack- 
worth Praed. More modem literary judges think 
that Wentworth's poem deserved the first place. 
Its closing lines have often been quoted — 

May this lliy last-born infant then arise 
To glad thy lieart, and greet thy parent eyes; 
And Australasia rise, with flag unfurled. 
A new Britannia in another world. 

Ill his early manhood, Wentworth was one of the 
three explorers who discovered a pass across the 
Blue Mountains. 

To present-day Australians, it seems strange that 
New South Wales should have been settled for 25 
yi-ars before the country beyond that range of moun- 
tains was discovered. A number of adventurous 
men had tried in vain to pass the mountain barrier. 
.Among them was Bass, whose name was appro- 
priately given to the Straits he discovered, separat- 
ing Tasmania from the Australian mainland. He 
stated that ' it was impossible to find a passage 
through the Blue Mountains even for a foot pas- 
senger. The earlier explorers had sought a gate- 
way up the gorges, but found them.selves blocked 
by towering cliffs. Blavland, Law'son and Went- 
worth following up the tops of spurs, found, after 
a month of great hardship, a pathway to the plains 
beyond. Wentworth's fame is principally owing to 
his political career. He was the first Australian 
l>atriot. He has had no superior, perhaps not an 
equal, among Australian-born statesmen. 

Sir Henry Park<'S. who, in his earlier political 
<l;iys, was denounced by Wentworth as an arch- 
.\narchist, readilv admitted Wentworth " was 

From a Statue in the Sydney University. 

the ablest man in New South Wales, who, educated 
at Cambridge, and trained for the bar, had large 
capacity of mind, in a powerful and physical frame." 
Although he would be regarded as a Conservative 
now, Wentworth was in the early days of New South 
Wales " a tribune of the people," the advocate of 
a free press, trial by jury, and representative insti- 
tutions. An orator of a high order, the wielder of a 
powerful pen, with the courage of his convictions. 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 19K. 

he denounced the arbitrary action of Governors and 
Government officials, and more than any other man 
brought about the establishment of representative 
government in Australia. 

There are some still living, whu can tell of his 
powerful eloquence, who remember his speech, ex- 
tending over two days, in which he contended with 
Sir George Gipps that the Maoris had the right to 
dispose of their land to private individuals or com- 
panies, without the 
sanction of the 
British Crown. 

Rusden, in his 
" History of Aus- 
tralia," wTiting 
from personal 
knowledge, said of 
Went worth: — 
" Whether in im- 
p e t u o u s youth 
flinging himself 
against the ram 
parts of autocra- 
tic government, 
whether contend- 
ing for a laurel 
crown, on the 
banks of the Cam, 
whether pouring 
forth unreported 
orations with an 
eloquence which 
his auditors re- 
membered to their 
dying days as sur- 
passing that of 
other men ; whe- 
ther on less public 
occasion in coarse 
sometimes using 
language which 
only his enemies 
could wish to cite ; 
whether defying a 
Governor, or 
trampling on a re- 
negade, or a slan- 
derer ; at all times 
he was the ob- 
served of all ob- 
servers, and seem- 
ed able to rise in great emergencies, with greater 
ease to the height of his argument." 

Wentworth's admirers may justly claim for him 
the honour of having been the founder of Consti- 
tutional Government in Australia, as he drafted the 
Constitution for the New South Wales Pariiament. 
All that he advocated was not embodied in the 
New South Wales Constitution Act, but he deserved 

Monument erected by the inhabitants of the Hume River district in honour 
of Hamilton Hume, Esq., to commemorale his discovery of the Hume River, 
17th November 1824. 

Note. — This monument formerly stood beside the tree upon which Hovell 
cut his name, close to the river, it has been removed to the Public Gardens, 
Albury, for better security. 

to be called by Lecky, " the great Australian states- 
man," and Sir Henry Parkes said of him that '' for 
colossal power, clear insight into the principles of 
government, and for comprehensive grasp of almost 
all questions put before him, there have been few 
saperior men in my time anywhere " 

Wentworth was in favour of the creation of an 
aristocracy who should constitute the Upper House 
in Xew South Wales. He failed to carry that. He 

also met with ob- 
loquy, through ad- 
vocating a gra- 
dual, instead of a 
sudden stop being 
put to transporta- 

But his feJlow- 
citizens honoured 
him. He was vir- 
tually the founder 
of the Sydney Uni- 
versitv, and ere he 
left New South 
Wales his friends 
collected funds to 
erect his statue dur- 
ing his life time. 
This was chiselled 
by Tenevari, and 
was unveiled in 
the hall of the 
Sydney Universitv 
in 1862. 

Wentworth died 
in England in 
1872, requesting 
that his remains 
should be brought 
to Australia and 
buried at Vau- 
cluse, his residence 
for years on the 
shores of Sydney 
Harbour. He was 
fitly honoured with 
a public funeral. 
When some years 
since the Mel- 
bourne Evening 
Herald offered a 
prize for the most 
suitable name for 
the capital of the Commonwealth the adjudicators 
selected " Wenhvorth " as the best name forwarded. 
Wentworth deserved that honour, for, as far 
back as 1853, he foresaw the necessity for 
some form of Australian Federation, and 
drafted a report in which he stated that 
cne of the most prominent measures required for 
New South Wales, and the colonies of the Australian 

Revieic of heviews, l/S/06. 

Distinguished Early Australians. 


group generally was the establishment at once of a 
Legislative Assembly, to make laws in reference to 
intercolonial questions, that have arisen or may here- 
after arise in them." In that belief Wentworth was 
far in advance of his time. 

Australian natives will read with interest the fol- 
lowing quotation from one of Wentworth's speeches 
on the Sydney hustings : — " I can truly say the love 
of my country has been the master passion of my 
life. No man's 
heart has ever 
beat with a more 
ardent love of 
his country than 
mine, and it is 
on my native 
land that I here 
stand. From boy- 
hood up to man- 
hood I have 
watched over its 
infant growth as 
a mother over 
her cradled 
child. Its wel- 
fare through life 
has been the ob- 
ject of my devot- 
ed love and af- 
fection, and ncAv 
when my da\ s 
are in the au- 
tumn of their 
cycle, that wel- 
fare is the object 
of my highest 
hopes, and most 
hallowed aspira- 
tions." Austra- 
lian politicians, 
too, will do well 
to r e m e mber 
W e n t w orth's 
words in the 
same speech as 
to the fickleness 
of popular fa- 
vour : — " I know 
the proverbial 
inconstancy of 

the popular gale, that the breeze which filled my flow- 
ing sheet to-day, might become a head w-ind to- 
morrow. I had learned from the unerring history 
of the past, that the misdeeds of public men are 
graven on brass, the records of their virtues and 
services are traced on the sand. I had been in- 
structed by the same stern teacher that the landed 
patriot of to-day — the benefactor of his country and 
his kind — might be the despised exile of to-morrow," 

Tree on the north hank of the Hume River upon which Captain Hovell cut his 
name. !7th Jsoveniber. 18_'4. 


who was born in Parramatta in 1797, while yet a 
youth had now fame as an explorer. In company with 
his brother they discovered the country near Berrima. 
Later on he did exploring work from the Shoalhaven 
River inland, and named Lake Bathurst and the 
Goulburn plains. Still later he had penetrated 
close to the present site of Braidwood. Notwith- 
standing Oxley's 
statement that 
he had demon- 
strated that no 
river could fall 
into the sea be- 
tween Cape Ot- 
way and Spen- 
cer's Gulf, and 
that the country 
south of the 
parallel of 34 
deg. and west of 
the meridian 147 
deg. 30 min. E. 
was uninhabit- 
able, and useless 
for all the pur- 
poses of civilised 
man. Sir Thomas 
Brisbane wish- 
ed explorations 
to be made with- 
in that area. 
His idea was to 
land an explor- 
ing party of pri- 
soners at Wil- 
son's Promon- 
tory-, to travel 
south, to the 
settled districts 
of New South 
Wales. The 
command of 
such a party 
was offered to 
Hume. The pro- 
posal did not 
commend itself 
to his judg- 
ment. He sug- 
gested that explorers should leave the fron- 
tier squatter's station of New South Wales and 
travel south. He offered to take charge of an 
expedition, if he were supplied with six men, and 
six pack horses, and seek to reach Western Port. 
After considerable delay, Hume's offer was accept- 
ed, but, owing to the jealousy or captiousness of 
some Government officials, the Governor withdrew 
his promise of help. Thereupon Hume and Cap- 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1909. 

tain Hoicll agreed to find the men and the neces- 
sary cattle. The Government supplied the ex- 
pedition with six pack saddles and gear, a 
tent, t\vo tarpaulins, a suit of slop clothes for each 
of the men, a few bush utensils, a small quantity 
of arms and ammunition, and two skeleton charts 
for the tracing of the journey. 

Hiune had to sell a very fine imported iron plough 
to help to raise money to purchase the necessary 
supplies. They also took with them two of their 
own carts. The expedition left Appin on October 
3, 1824. While nominally there were two leaders, 
the expedition owed its successful results to Hume. 
It has been said that Hume was all "' determina- 
tion, resource and hope : Hovell all timidity and 

Hovell was no bushman. Disputes between the 
two leaders were of frequent occurrence. Again and 
again, when tremendous difficulties had to be faced, 
HoveU urged that the expedition should be aban- 
doned. Hume's knowledge of bushcraft made him 
fertile in resource. An impro\ised punt, made of 
the body of a cart, covered with a tarpaulin, was 
the means he devised for crossing the flooded Mur- 
rumbidgee. The Murray, when discovered, was 
crossed with a wattle boat thus constructed. The 
bottom was formed of three pieces of stout saplings, 
bound across the ends and middle by similar trans- 
verse pieces. Through these were laced wattles, 
which were bent up to form the sides, binding them 
across from the opposite heads, to keep them from 
springing outwards. This formed a square body, 
on which was stretched the tarpaulin. 

Great difficulties were overcome in crossing moun- 
tain ranges, and cutting through dense scrub. When 
the neighbourhood of Kilmore was reached, the 
supp!v of food was so limited, and the men so worn 
0!it and dispirited, that they were indisposed to go 
further. Hume compromised with them, agreeing 
that if in three days there was no decided prospect 
of making the coast, he would turn back. Three 
days later the partv was encamped on the shores 
of Corio Bay, opposite where the Bird-rock stands. 

The Government had promised to remunerate the 
explorers for the use of their cattle, and make them 
liberal grants of land, if any important discoveries 
were made. 

On their return from their most important dis- 

coveries, money payment for the cattle was refused. 
Hume had great difficulty in getting tickets of leave 
granted to the three prisoners, who were regarded 
as his own men in the party. He obtained an order 
for 1200 acres of land, the value of which at tfiat 
time was half a crown an acre, but he was under 
the necessity of selling it to defray his expenses. 
For some time he was an impoverished man, for 
the sacrifices he made in the cause of Australian 

In 1828 he was second in command of Captain 
Sturt's exjjedition to trace the Macquarie River. 
Sturt saw that Hume was '' an able, sagacious and 
intrepid bushman." Hume ultimately engaged in 
pastoral pursuits, on •' Coomer " station, on the 
banks of the Yass. He lived to a good old age, 
and is buried in the Yass Church of England 

A great injustice has been done to Hume, in the 
substitution of the name of " The Murray " for Aus- 
tralia's greatest river, for that of " The Hume." 
Sturt only intended tlie name of " Murray " to apply 
to the river where he discovered it, below its junc- 
tion with the Murrumbidgee. But, except on a few 
maps, Hume's name is not remembered. One of the 
electorates of the Commonwealth House of Repre- 
sentatives bears the Australian explorer's name. A 
marble monument to his memory stands near the 
historic gum tree, which he marked, close to Albury. 

Victorians owe him a debt of gratitude, Would 
it not be an object worthy of the aims of the Aus- 
tralian Natives' Association to seek to have justice 
done to their distinguished fellow-countryman by 
the restoration of his name to the river he dis- 
covered ? Murray happened to be Secretary of the 
Colonial Office when Sturt made his memorable 
voyage down the river to Lake Alexandrina, and his 
name was given on that account. Australia has not 
done even scant justice to Hume and others. Lieu- 
tenant Hicks, the first Australian to sight the coast 
of "Victoria, and whose name was given by Cook to 
the headland, has had his name removed from the 
Australian map, and Cape Everard is substituted. 
Thomas Boyd, who swam across the Murray with 
the rope bv which the wattle boat was drawn over, 
died near Albury in a wretched bark hut, attended 
by a sickly daughter, and with scarcely the bare 
necessaries of life. 


Review of Reviews. 1/6J00. | ^g ReViCW Of RCVlCWS. 45 » 

in connection with " The Review of Reviews," and shall begin the 
publication of 

,.,7i Serial Story,,. 

The Story we have selected for our readers is one of the most thrilling 
and suggestive of recent days. It is of a high-class character also, 
and will suit exactly the taste of "Review of Reviews" readers. 


By H. G. Wells. 

Mr. H. G. WELLS is familiar to lovers of fiction as one of the most 
thoughtful of present-day writers. His excursions into the realms 
of imagination are well known. Sonietimes his flights savour of 
the prophetic visions of a seer. ♦ 


found to be of enthralling 


PLACE YOUR ORDER for the July Issue with your News- 
agent at once to prevent disappointment. We anticipate 
a heavy increase in orders. 

Review of Kevieat, 1/0/06. 


By a Non-Partisan. 

[The following trenchant criticism of the Tasmanian 
most eminently fitted to give a clear, concise word-picture 


An unusual amount of interest centred in the 
general election for the return of representatives to 
the Tasmanian House of Assembly held on March 
29 for several reasons, one of which was that it was 
the first general State election at which the women 
of Tasmania recorded their vote. For some time 
previously very strenuous endeavours had been 
made, by means of political associations of various 
kinds, to educate the women on political subjects 
and to train them to a sense of their new responsi- 
bilities. The principal societies which undertook 
this preparatory educational work were the Women's 
Political League, the Women's National Council, 
and the Women's Division of the National Associa- 
tion, while Labour organisations, such as the 
Workers' Political League, generally invited their 
women folk to attend their meetings, and on all 
occasions, of course, endeavoured to imbue them 
with the notion that their principal duty now they 
had the franchise was to exercise it in favour of 
Labour men. Meetings of one or other of these 
societies were constantly being held, but the signi- 
ficant feature about most of them was that the work- 
ing women, whom they were specially intended to 
benefit, kept religiously away. The one question 
which seemed to interest the women most was that 
of Local Option. Although Tasmania is admittedly 
the most temperate State in the Commonwealth, yet 
even there the Drink Fiend has done, and is doing, 
incalculable harm, from which, as in every other 
countr)', the women and children are the first to 
suffer. The principle of gi^'ing the people the 
right to decide how many public-houses there should 
be in a district commended itself to the women's 
commonsense, and they are understood to have 
voted strongly for the Opposition in the belief that 
they were in eaniest in the matter, and that if they 
were returned a Local Option measure worth having 
would soon be an established fact. The proportion 
of women who exercised the franchise was smaller 
than that of the men — 42I per cent., as compared 
with 62J per cent. — but this was only to be expected 
considering the novelty of the event, and will pro- 
bably be a diminishing proportion as time goes on. 
But the women were not the only ones who voted for 
temperance reform, as was evidenced by the over- 
whelming number of Local Optionists who were re- 
turned, so that one of the very first measures to be 
put through the new House will almost certainly 
be some law dealing with the subject on practical, 
common-sense lines. 

Elections will be acceptable to our readers. The writer is 
of the recent contests without fear or favour. — Editor.] 


Having said so much with regard to the part 
played by the women, the question arises : What 
was the main dividing line between the parties. Li 
other words: What was the battle all about? This 
is by no means such an easy question to answer as 
it looks. The old fiscal issue which used to divide 
parties into two such clearly-marked hostile camps 
has, of course, disappeared, and no very tangible 
war cry has taken its place. But if I were asked 
to define the most distinctive vote of the campaign 
I should sum it up as Conservatism versus Labour- 
dom. There were several important issues which- 
the electors laid hold of as embodying in more or 
less concrete form the rival parties' distinctive 
planks. There was Local Option, to which refer- 
ence has already been made, and which the Opposi- 
tion tried to appropriate as sacred to themselves ; 
there was the Ability Tax, gauging a man's ability 
to pay by the size of his house, which had been 
first introduced by the Evans Government, and was 
vehemently denounced as grossly inequitable by the 
Opposition, and which was particularly obnoxious 
to the working-classes ; there was free education, 
which the irresponsible Opposition and the Labour 
Party advocated for all it was worth, but which the 
more cautious, because more responsible Govern- 
ment in power was unable to support for lack of 
funds ; there was the policy of closer settlement by 
the purchase of big estates, which both sides ad- 
vocated because it was popular, but which the 
Government had not as yet done very much to earn' 
out ; there was the proposed discontinuance of Tat- 
tersall's, which was only advocated by a few, and 
did not count for very much ; and finallv there 
was the question of land value taxation apart from 
improvements, which the people generally favoured, 
and which p)erhaps more than any other was re- 
garded as the Labour Party's plank. These were 
the main issues on which the election was heH. 


There was a widely-spread feeling in favour of 
reforms which the Government were too Conserva- 
tive to grant, but on the other hand it was generally 
acknowledged that the Premier and Treasurer (Hon. 
J. W. Evans) deserved well of the countr^• for the 
careful manner in which he had steered the State 
vessel through a very difficult voyage, that the 
lessening receipts from Federal sources and the 
continual uncertain^,' as to what those receipts 
would be, increased his difficulties a hundredfold, 

Reviea of Revievg. 1)6106. 

The Tasmanian Elections. 

45. t 

Hon. W. Moore, M L.C. 
(Honorary Minister). 

Hon. A Hean, 

MiniBter of Agriculture. Lands, Works, 
Mines and Railways. 


[The pliotoe. are by J. W. Beattie, Hobart, with the cNception of that of the Eon. A. Hean, which is by the Alha 

Stadio9, Hobart.] 


Ihe Review of reviews. 

June 1, ISO'S. 

and prevented him from embarking in enterprises 
which otherwise he might have initiated for the 
good of the State, thereby obtaining a surplus in 
the face of all these obstacles he had shown him- 
self the right man for the place. These were, gener- 
ally speaking, the \iews of the more moderate mem- 
bers of the community, but those very virtues which 
gained the Premier votes in one quarter lost him 
p-crhaps as many in another. His personal popu- 
larity, however, counted for much. From plain Jack 
Evans, skipper of an ocean steamer, he had risen, 
by sheer geniality and ability, to be successively 
master-warden of our most important Harbour Trust 
and member of Parliament ; from member of Parlia- 
ment he had risen to be Hon. J. E. Evans, Premier 
>-f the State, the accidenlal loss of a colleague made 
him Treasurer and Minister of Education, and, in 
everv capacity he had proved himself equal to the 
responsible duties which devolved upon him. No 
data, he was always ready to speak ; no statesman, 
he dealt with current problems in the light of com- 
mon-sense; and no courtier, he was yet naturally 
courteous and amiable to everyone he met. And in 
the Hon. Alec. Hean, the Premier had a colleague 
who was as popular as himself, who was a practical 
agriculturist of considerable administrative experi- 
ence in his own district, and well qualified to pre- 
side over the Lands Department, of which he has 
been some time at the head. The question which 
the electors had to decide was whether they would 
throw over a Government, which, though cautious 
and slow to move, had yet shown a capacity for 
practical administration of which the Opposition, 
when in office, had given no very startling proof. 

The main importance of the recent election lay 
in the appeal that was made to the nascent demo- 
cracy of the State. The working-classes recognised, 
as thev are beginning to recognise evervwhere, that 
the conditions under which they live are unjust, and 
that that injustice can be remedied, and perhaps al- 
together removed bv legislative means. The\ there- 
fore determined, so far as they could help it, that 
the power of initiating sjch legislation, whatever it 
might be, should be p'.aced in the hands of those 
who were in sympathy with themselves, and who 
had some definite schemes to offer bv which their 
condition might be improved. It did not matter 
very much what tliose schemes actually were, the 
nascent democracy was not altogether prepared to 
criticise very keenly the plans laid down for its 
go id, it was sufficient for the time being that thev 
were put forward by a party which had studied these 
quest ons for yeirs, and which had crystallised its 
asp'rat'ons into definite and tangible forms. On the 
other hand, the upholders of the present state of 
things, the fat-sided and complacentlv disposed bour- 
geois, the comfortable middle-class which profits by 
the existi:ig inequality and swears by its counting- 
h'Tses and its bank«, fought a strenuous battle from 

one end of the island to the other, denounced hip 
and thigh the Socialistic tendencies of the Labour 
Part), but took care to offer no saving policy of its 
own. It was the mistake made by Conser\^atism all 
over the Commonwealth, and which, if adhered to, 
is bound in the long run to drive immense numbers 
of the dissatisfied workers into the Labour Party ;. 
ranks. That, at any rate, was the effect of the Tas- 
manian campaign. The Labour Party had a pro 
gramme, every plank had been considered and dis 
cussed for years, ever\ member of the partv was 
bound to vote for it as one man, and from the head- 
quarters and farthest limits of the Commonwealth 
Labour members came to urge the Tasmanian de- 
mocracy to vote for Labour men. The result was 
that the Labour Partv, w-hich had hitherto been 
an almost negligable quantity, nearly doubled its 
strength, and came back a solid body of seven men 
pledged to certain definite and drastic reforms, and 
ready, when opportunitv occurred, to join the Op- 
position members to oust the Government from 
Its seat. 


Exactly how parties stand it is impossible at pre- 
sent to say. That can only be precisely ascertained 
by a dividing vote. Out of a House of 35 members 
the Premier reckons his supporters at 17, the Op- 
position at six, the Labour members at seven, and 
the Independents at three. So long as the Minis- 
terialists and the Independents vote together, the 
G:nernment is safe, bur the least defection might 
be followed by a shuffling of the cards which might 
lead to a scattering of the present regime. Presum- 
ing, however, that the present Government remains 
in power we may look forward to a continuance 
of the cautious policy which has characterised it in 
the past. Local Option, without compensation, will 
probably be tackled soon ; the Ability Tax, which 
falls so heavilv and unjustly on family men who 
have to take a larger hojse, will be amended with 
a view of making it slightly more acceptable to 
the poorer classes. Tattersall's will be let alone ; 
free education will be dropped : closer settlement 
will probablv be dealt with bv a.sking for power to 
spend a certain amount in the purchase of estates 
without referring each case to Parliament, as is now- 
necessary. Whether the Government will move in 
the direction of altering the Land Tax Act so as to 
enable taxation to be levied on land values only, 
instead of on lajid values plus improvements, re- 
mains to be seen. Commissioner Downie recently 
returned from a trip to the other States, where he 
was sent to make enquiries on the subject, but pro- 
bablv few people expect that the present Govern- 
men: will go out of its way to secure this urgently- 
needed reform. Neither is it ver\ probable that so 
Conservative a Ministrv will accede to the request 
of a recent deputation and introduce a measure 
to enable mun'cipalities, a.s in Queensland and New- 
Zealand, to levy rates on land values apart from 

fieciew of Jieciews, 2/»/0G^ 

7 he Tasmanian Elections. 


improvements, and thereby force unoccupied land 
into use, and do away "ivith that artificial scarcity of 
land which is directly responsible for the housing 
problem as it exists in Hobart and throughout the 
Commonwjalth to-day. 


Among the reprehensible characteristics of the elec- 
tion were the canvassing of electors in their homes, 
a pernicious novelty which was very warmly de- 
nounced, and the driving of electors to the poll, an 
ancient custom which, as the Mercury pointed out, 
is quite as much bribery- as standing a glass of beer. 
Among the noteworthy incidents was the remark- 
able success achieved by Ben Watkins, a mere youth with the Labour Party at his back, who was 
pitted againit one of the most experienced men in 
the House, ex-Minister Bird, and ran him very close. 
The two most sensational incidents were the victory 
of Mr. Herbert Nicholls, the acting leader of the 
Opposition, over Sir Elliott Lewis, Vice-Chancellor 
of the University, and ex-Presid^Mii of the State, and 
the defeat of the Hon. Crosby Gilmore, the At- 
torney-General. But these incidents, sensational as 
they were at the time, have been recently eclipsed 
bv the acceptance of the vacant portfolio of At- 
torney-General by the Hon. W. B. Propsting, 
M.L.C., the late Premier, into whose political shoes 
tiie present Premier stepped, and who recently de- 
serted the Lower for the Upprr Chamber, the very^ 
existence of which he had previously deno'Unced. 
His conduct was considered at the time extremely 
significant, and it was broadly hinted that he in- 
tended to accept the position of Chief Secretary in 
place of Hon. William Moore, M.L.C., who was 
likely soon to retire on account of old age. Mr. 
Propsting's acceptance of office under his former 
rival points to a lack of any real dividing line be- 
tween the two parties in the States, not less than 
to a want of proper spirit in a poUtician who could 
so easilv sink political differences for private ends. 
From the present turmoil of party feeling one 
thing at any rate must result, die education of the 
people in the art of governing themselves. That 
they will govern themselves in the right way at first 
would be contrary to all that historv teaches in the 
past. But out of their very failures success will be 
ultimately snatched, and from now henceforth both 
electors and elected will be making experiments in 
the noble art with more vigour than was ever the 
rase in the past. 


Before closing, I would like to draw^ attention to 
the significant facts that nearly half of the people 
who were called upon to vote w'here contested elec- 
tions were held — 30,273 out of 70,635 — neglected 
their duty, thus allowing the House of Assembly to 
be chosen without taking any part in it one wax 
or the other; and that in not less than eight out of 
27 contested seats candidates were returned by a 
minority vote, the proportion ranging from 41.76 
per cent, to as low as 21.12 per cent, of the pos- 
sible votes. This minority representation, which if 
such a noteworthy feature in all our Australian Par- 
liaments, is yet another illustration of the need of 
the Hare system of proportional representation or 
of some such method ol voting as was so forciblv 
advocated by Professor Nanson in the January num- 
ber of '■ The Review of Reviews." If the political 
leagues would give occasional object-lessons of the 
different systems of voting, and show how a inajority 
representation could easily be secured by simply 
voting for the candidates in the order of prefer- 
ence, this great reform would soon be brought 


The new Ministry, the reconstruction of which 
was officiallv announced on May i, is as follows: — 

Premier and Chief Secretary, and Minister of 
Education, Hon. J. W. Evans. 

Attorney-General and leader in the Council, Hon. 
W. B. Propsting. 

Minister of Lands, Works, Mines, Railways and 
Agriculture, Hon. Alex. Hean. 

Treasurer, Hon. D. C. Urquhart. 

Without portfolio, Hon. W. Moore. 

Both the Opposition and the L;ibour members 
are indignant at the complete somersault turned 
by Messrs. Propsting and Urquhart. The latter, 
though not a Labour member, was largely returned 
on the Labour ticket, and during the recent cam- 
paign denounced the Premier and all his works. 
The latter is, perhaps, congratulating himself on the 
success of a very astute political move, which trans- 
formed two opponents into supporters and friends, 
but defection may break out at any moment in his 
own ranks, which,' combined with a junction between 
the Opposition and the Labour Partv, may bring 
the park r)f cards which he has so ingeniously 
reared in ruin about his head. 

Review of Reviews, 1/6 f06. 


J' 2?"^ /} 

/2^!^"/3' A >"■ 

Fac simile of the ribbon on the Seismograph at the Melbourne Observatory, showing the effect of the San Francisco 

Earthqual<e Shock as felt in Melbourne. 

[Mr. Barncchi, tlie Victorian Government Astronomer, very graciously accorded to a representative of " The Ee- 
view f E views" an interview upon tie interesting record made in the local observatory, when the San FranciBco 
earthquake took phice. The result is c-iven 1 erewith, and also a reproduction o£ the ribbon of the seismograph at 
that part where the shock is recorded. — EdiTOE.] 

The seismograph room at the Melbourne Ob- 
servatory' is in one of the .small basement rooms, 
with all natural light excluded. The first ap- 
pearance of the prone seismograph, with a 
small lamp kept constantly burning at the near 
end of its six or seven feet of length, recalled 
vividly to the ^Titer's mind the gruesome im- 
pression he once received, on viewing at night, 
in an English hamlet where the custom still holds, 
the dead body of a resident. There is no sentiment 
in the seismograph, however; the lamp itself 
serves a scientific purpose, the Government Astro- 
nomer's only thought was to explain the mechanism 
of the machine, and his only care to see that the 
carele-ss layman he had rashly introduced into so 
holy a place did no damage. The layman is even 
now full of thankfulness that in his ignorance he 
did not produce an earthquake record, representing 
a shock which might have left the city of Melbourne 
in as ruinous a condition as that in which San Fran- 
cisco lies at the present day. The way of it was 
this. The ^vriter, in the midst of a lucid explana- 
tion by Mr. Baracchi, approached the record box 
with the intention of using it for a support in making 
notes, when an agonised exclamation, " Oh ! don't 
touch that !" warned him just in time. Had he 
touched the record box, there might hav& been a 
vibration, consequently a record. The seismograph 
does not lie ; ergo, an earthquake on that particular 

Briefly, the seismograph is an instrument, the 
foundation of which is a pillar of masonry reaching 
down into the earth to bed-rock. On this pillar, 
boxed in of course, there is a delicately poised mast, 
to which is swung an aluminium rod, technically 
kno\vTi as a boom, about three feet long, which is 
connected with the recording box. On the recording 
box a small lamp is kept constantly burning, the 
light of which is reflected downwards from a small 
mirror through an aperture at the end of the boom 
on to a ribbon of bromide photographic paper. 

The ribbon moves constantly at a speed regulated 
by a clock in the recording box, and in normal 
conditions a thin regular line is drawn down the 
centre of the ribbon. When an earth tremor comes 
along, the boom sways horizontally according to its 
intensity, a wider portion of the ribbon is exposed, 
and an accurate photographic record, so to speak, 
of the tremor is thus produced. The ribbon is two 
inches wide and thirty-five feet long, and unwinds 
automatically at the rate of five feet a day. Once 
every hour a pointer in the clock falls and a notch 
is produced in the edge of the ribbon. Conse- 
quently, the exact time, to the second, at which a 
tremor occurs is duly recorded. Once a week an 
attendant) visits the room, takes off the completed 
roll, fixes another, and winds up the clock. Daily 
he calls to trim the lamp and listen to the ticking 
of the clock, after which he departs, presumably as 
quickly as possible. The notches on the reduced 
fac-simile of the strip of ribbon shown on this page 
indicate the hours from 11.30 p m., April i8th, to 
2.30 a.m., April 19th. The partition into seconds 
of Melbourne statute time is to allow for the un- 
avoidable but known inaccuracy of the clock. 

The section of the ribbon reproduced shows that 
the first tremors occurred at 11.43 P-"'- ^n April 
18th, corresponding to 5.43 a.m. April i8th at San 
Francisco. The maximum wave was recorded here 
at 12.42 a.m. on April 19th, corresponding to 6.42 
a.m., April i8th, at San Francisco. Another shock 
was recorded here at 5.50 p.m. on April 19th. 

The records show that, allowing for the difference 
between Melbourne and San Francisco time— 18 
hours — the earth tremors travelled the intervening 
distance, about 9000 miles, in a little over an hour, or 
at the rate of rather more than two miles per second. 
The seismograph, although it does not appear as 
frequentlv before the public as the barometer, the 
thermometer, and other scientific instruments, has 
generally, when it does appear, a sensational story 
to tell, and it is sure of a good house. E.iH.W. 

RrvUu Of Revieirs, 1/6/06. 


Worshipping the Spirit of the Originator of the Boycott. 

This younj; man was unknown a year ajro. His suicide was intended to embroil America and 
China. Studen s worship his maiteSt with irirl students near by (a new feature in Chinese lifej 
abettinj,'. He bids fiir to evolve into a ^od of Patriotism. This illustration and the next are from 
oartoons published in Chinese papers. 

Under the above title, from 
the pen of Mr. A. N. Smith, 
the American Outlook for April 
publishes some very striking 
facts regarding America :in(l 
China. It begins with a de- 
scription of America's wonder- 
ful producing capabilities, and 
her favoured position for trade, 
and then passes on to the al- 
most illimitable possibilities of 
the Orient as a market. The 
papulation of Asia and Oceania 
is estimated at eight hundred 
and fifty mll'ions, as against 
seven hundred and fifty mil- 
lions for all the rest of the 
globe, with a land area of but 
little more than one-third of 
the globe (eighteen millior. 
si|uare miles, against fifty 
four million square miles for 
the remainder). On this field 
.\merica < asts longing eyes. '"As 
we (Americans) have already 
reminded ourselves, on the 
ground of capacity, proximity, 

ought to enter into the new 
conditions with the greatest ad- 
vajitages. Since 1898 the bal- 
ance of trade is in our favour. 
China has a long list of com- 
modities- -tea, silk, hemp, jute, 
<--tc. — ^that we must have. We 
have cotton goods, lumber, 
kerosene, flour, etc., which the 
Chinese have come to like, 
upon which, however, they are 
not dependent. We are re- 
minded by the great and grow- 

iig emigrati'in of some of our 
best agriculturists to Canada 

hat oar arable land is practi- 
■ ally exhausted. Hitherto the 
world has gone westward, but 
now the limits have been 
reached, and we must go tech- 
nically west to get our goal, 
which must be the Far East. 
Mr. Carroll D. Wright has re- 
peatedly pointed out that our 
increasing production always 
tends to become over-produc- 
tion. We are perpetually snow- 
ed under by our own pro- 

Boycotting a Shop that sells American Goods. 

American Hour is whiter, cleaner, a* d cheaper than made in South Cliina. Its sale has 
, . . been enormous. Now the mills in Washintjton aresbuttini; down for lack of a niarket. He who 

energy, we are the people who uses American fiour is unpatriotic, and win be boycotted. 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, I'JOe. 

ducts, which must be exported somewhere, but for 
which, practically, we must find a market in the 
Far East. ' To raise the standard of the Chinese 
people one hundred per cent,' says Dr. Josiah 
Strong, ' is equivalent to the discovery of five new 
Ameiicas at a time when there are no more lands 
to be discovered.' '' 

And yet in face of this America has been carrying 
on a policy that has brought into being the Ameri- 
can boycott in China. " The nidus of the boycott 
is in the accumulation of the wTongs of many years, 
of our mistreatment of an ancient, a proud, a sen- 
sitive, and a learned people by a nation that once 
professed to believe that ' all mankind are created 
free and equal.' This is aggravated by the shame- 
ful betrayal of American interests in the Hankow- 
Canton Railway by an American syndicate. The 
Chinese are now united against us as never before. 
Those who know tell us that our trade is becoming 

a vanishing quantity. The lives of all Americans 
in China are in more or less danger ; yet most of 
us continue, in the language of a German proverb, 
to ' hold our mouths open, expecting roasted pigetms 
to fly inside.' Is it too much to say that the .-Ameri- 
can people as a whole are living in a fool's para- 

Now we in Australia are closer to the East than 
is America, and yet we fail to recognise the won- 
derful possibilities' of that field for trade, while our 
policy of contempt towards the Chinese, which can 
hardly provoke a boycott, as our trade is almost 
inappreciable, may yet provoke an antagonism which 
in the future may have disastrous results. The cul- 
tivation of friendly and equal relations with our 
neighbours is not only the ideal which every nation 
should strive after, because of its identity with the 
principle underlying the golden rule, but it is an 
ideal that has great and far-reaching utilitarian pos- 
sibilities as well. 

T. C. MuUcr. .V«c Y<iik.\ IFrom •' LalieS U'eckly." 

Big Submarine Boats at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, Laid up in Winter Quartere. 

Kevtew of tieviews, l/(ijU6, 


By Percy R. Meggy. 

The first part oi this iateresting article appeared 

The principal landowning company in Tasmania 
is the V.D.L. already referred to, the origin of which 
dates back to the very year (1825) in which Van 
J)iemens Land, as it was then called, was pro- 
claimed an independent colony, separate from New 
South Wales. Large returns were then being realised 
by sheepowners from the sale of wool, so the pro- 
moters of the company resolved to start wool grow- 
ing on a large scale with the view of supplying the 
English manufacturers, who then obtained much of 
their raw material from abroad. After numerous 
negotiations the company received grants of several 
blocks of land in the north-western district, amount- 
ing ostensibly to 366,500 acres, but which is said to 
really amount to 422,000. The lands were selected 
in 1827 by a sur\ey party under Mr. Henry Hellyer, 
who named the Emu River from the number of 
emus he saw in the vicinity, Surry and Hampshire 
Hills from their resemblance to the English downs, 
the Arthur River after the Governor, who had just 
commenced his twelve years' reign, and the Hellyer 
stream after himself. As Circular Head and Cape 
Grim, thost- two remarkable spots on the northern 
coast, were already in the possession of tlie com- 
pany, the Goverimient was urged by Mr. Wedge, who 
ofRciallv reported on the countr)- prior to the com- 
pany's grant, to reserve Emu Bay for a township, as 
it was the only place left which was capable of 
affording shelter to vessels, but, unfortunately, the 
advice was not followed, and the natural outlet of a 
great mineral-producing territorv is owned by the 
company. The entire area amoimting to over 
400,000 acres, comprising some of the finest land 
H) that part of the island, was handed over to the 
company for a quit rent of ;£468 r6s. a year, re- 
deemable at 20 years' purchase, a remission being 
allowed for e\"erj' free servant introduced. The 
company expended a lot of money at the start in 
making improvements, and in introducing stock, 
much of which it lost, but the land still remains, 
and people are unable to get hold of it except at 
most imreasonable rates. The manager of the com- 
panv in 1828 was Mr. James Bischofif, who gave his 
name to the famous mountain, where, in 1871, James 
Smith discovered the first trace of tin. The natural 
outlet of Mount Bischoff is Emu Bay, distant 45 
miles, the roadway between the hvo points running 
right through the V.D.L. 's land. As an instance of 
public enterprise on the part of the company, which 
deserves mention, it should be stated that it erected 
a substantial tramway from Emu Bay to the mount at 
a heavy cost, which proved very berveficial to the 

in the last issue ol *' The Review of Revie'ws." 

muiers, and very remunerative to the company it- 
se.f. It has since constructed a railway, which, says 
the ■■ Crown Lands Guide,"' is about to be trans- 
ferred to the lecently-formed railway company named 
after Emu Bay. 1 was told by the Minister for 
Lands that, in accordance with a rule wliich pro- 
vides that a certain proportion of mone) accruing 
from Crown Land holdings should be spent in pro- 
viding railways, ;^iooo had been recently spent 
by the Crown in making a road through a block 
held by the company to enable settlers to obtain 
access to the port at Emu Bay. This expenditure 
had considerably enhanced the value of the com- 
pany's property, for which nothing was obtained in 
return. The Minister added that the company had 
sold a small proportion of their land but generally 
in such a way that the improvements on the por- 
tion sold enhanced the value of the portion which 
the company retained. 

These are the m.ain facts with regard to land 
monopoly in the island State. They are well known 
to local politicians who have every now and then 
attempted to grapple with the question in a spas- 
modic sort of way. As long ago as 1886 a few en- 
thusiasts met together in Hobart for the purpose of 
forming an organisation to deal with the question. 
Among those present were Messrs. A. J. (now Jus- 
tice) Clark, Leo. Sussman, A. J. Ogilvie, W. B. 
Propsting, an earnest exponent of the principle 
named I\y, and F. \V. Piesse, generally acknow- 
ledged to have been the ablest and most ardent of 
all the Tasmanian politicians who have advocated 
the taxation of land values apart from improvements. 
As a result of the meeting several pamphlets on the 
subject were published, but ultimately the proposed 
organisation fell through. Another prominent ad- 
vocate of land value t.ixation about that time was 
Mr. John Henry, who was looked upon as the prac- 
tical apostle of the new principle. He was treasurer 
in the Dobson Ministry, which lasted from 1892-4, 
and inspired much of the enthusiasm which was 
evidenced bv that Ministry. The Premier — Mr. 
(now Senator) Henri,- Dobson — told the people that 
our whole system of indirect taxation was grossly 
unjust, as the brunt of the burden fell on the 
masses, while the wealthy landowners escaped com- 
paratively free. He advocated a graduated land 
tax, apparently with the idea of getting at the owners 
of the big estates. Then followed the Braddon 
Ministry, which lasted from 1894-9. Sir Edward 
Braddon continually dangled land value taxation be- 
fore the electors, and during his teiro of office he 


The Review ot Reviews. 

June I. 19M. 

tried to induce Parliament to sanction the issuing 
of a return calling for information of the capital and 
annual value of land apart from improvements. Par- 
liament agreed to the issue of a return but struck 
out the final and most important addition. The 
Premier then attempted to obtain the infomiation 
in spite of Parliament, and issued a return in which 
the landowner was called upon to state the value of 
his land apart from improvements, but the ques- 
tions were worded in such an unnecessarily compli- 
cated way that e\en if they had been authorised 
by Parliament the j>eop;e would have found it ex- 
tremely difficult to answer them. For instance the 
return asked for the " capital value of the perish- 
able improvements, clearing, fencmg, drainage, 
planting, laying down in grass, pasture, and all 
other visible improvements, including such build- 
ings are necessary for homestead and labourers' 
cottages, but excluding tenantable buildings," also 
for the capital value of " tenantable buildings, 
whether business offices, hall or stables." These 
absurd and harassing questions were never answered, 
and only harmed the principle in the eyes of the 
public. Then came Sir Elliott Lewis's Ministr)- — 
1899-03 — of which Mr. P. W. Piesse was a member 
without a portfolio till 1901, when he was trans- 
lated to the Federal sphere, his death, which hap- 
pened not long afterwards, being the greatest loss 
the cause of land value taxation has so far sustained 
in this State. 

The Propsting Ministry, which followed next, 
were avowed believers in land value taxation, and 
their first proposal was for a machinery bill, pro- 
viding for the taxation of land values apart from 
improvements. That was passed by the Lower 
House, but rejected by the Upper. The Propsting 
Ministry was almost immediately succeeded by the 
present Evans' Government, which does not pro- 
fess to have studied the question, but is anxious 
to get information on the point. There is a pro- 
nounced feeling in favour of exempting improve- 
ments from taxa ion in the orchard districts, where 
land is taxed directly it is improved, and long be- 
fore it brings in any return. At a recent election 
for the Legislative "CouncU for the Huon district, 
where the apple industry reigns supreme, both can- 
didates were in favour of exempting improvements 
or they would not have stood a chance of being re- 
turned. The small farmers are also believed to 
be largely in favour of exempting their improve- 
ments from the operation of the land tax, which is 
really a property tax, inasmuch as both the value of 
the land and of the improvements is taxed. 
Members like Mr. W. P. Brownell, who represents 
an orchard d strict at Franklin, occasionally move 
resolutions dealing only with the grievance as it 
affects their particular industry, but there is a grow- 
ing feeling that a great principle is at stake, and 
that it should be dealt with in a statesmanlike way. 
As showing the feeling of the Legislative Assembk 

on the subject at the present time, it may be stated 
that in October, 1904, on the motion of Mr. G. VV. 
Burns, Labour member for one of the mining dis- 
tricts on the West Coast, a resolution was passed 
by 14 to 12 in favour of amending the system of 
land taxation with the view of taxing the unim- 
proved capital value and exempting all improve- 
ments. While chatting on this subject just after 
his election to the Upper House, Mr. Propsting told 
me he inte.ided moving for the appointment of a 
Commission to enquire into the working of land 
valine taxation in the States where it has been tried, 
as was done with very beneficial results some years 
ago when a Commission enquired into the working 
of the Torrens' system of conveyance in South Aus- 
tralia before it was introd.;ced into Tasmania. 

Many of the leading public men of Tasmania, in- 
cluding some of the members of the present Govern- 
ment, are fully alive to the terrible evils of land 
monopoly, and are anxious to devise some scheme 
by which they may be lessened. Among these are 
the Minister for Lands and Works (Hon. Alexander 
Hean) and the Surveyor-General and Secretary for 
Lands (Mr. E. A. Counsel, F.R.G.S.), both of whom 
afforded me every information at their disposal on 
the subject. They are in favour of promoting closer 
settlement by purchasing big estates, subdividing 
them, and offering them to bona-fide settlers at 
reasonable rates. This is a favourite policy in other 
countries besides Tasmania. Here an Act was 
passed to enable the Govermnent to purchase 
esta'.es, but as it was necessary to first obtain the 
approval of Parliament before an estate could be 
bought, the delay prevented any satisfactory pur- 
chase being made. Nor were the blockf recom- 
mended by the Board satisfactory to the Minister, 
as they were not on the line of railway. Mr. Hean, 
therefore, proposes to bring in an amending bill so 
as to empower the Government to purchase estates 
without going to Parliament, and he further pro- 
poses that in future all estates purchased by the 
State for closer settlement must be on the line of 
railway so as to act as feeders to the line. 

Another politician who strongly favours the 
policy of purchasing the big estates is the Hon. W. 
B. Propsting, M.L.C., to whom I have already re- 
ferred. He is also in favour of introducing legisla- 
tion to enable the Government to impose special 
taxation on the V.D.L. Company, whose share- 
holders are mostly absentees, and, neither indivi- 
dually nor collectively, subject to the periodica! pro- 
bate duties which, in the case of ordinan- indivi- 
duals, secure at any rate something to the State 
on the owner's death. Mr. Propsting has long been 
an advocate of land value taxation — as ardent, per- 
haps, as a rising solicitor could profitably be^and 
he has never quite lost the enthusiasm which in- 
fected all those who were concerned in the initiation 
of the movement in South Australia many years 
ago. His latest proposal, however, is neither 

Review of Reviews, If 6/06. 

Land Monopoly in Tasmania, 


worthy of the movement nor of himst-lf. To pass 
an Act specially aimed at a single company when 
there are hundrt^ds of others all sucking the life- 
blood out of the country, preventing its develop- 
ment] and driving people to the other States, would, 
of course, be totally inadequate, besides being grossly 
unjust, but in the present ignorance of economic 
principles, it would be a very popular measure, and 
would stand a good chance of being passed. The 
only sound way of dealing with the question is to 
place a tax on land values all over the island whe- 
ther hdd in small quantities or in large, witho'Ut 
exemptions and without graduations, but for this 
equable and philosophical method of coping with 
the evil the public here are not apparently as yet 
sufficiently prepared. 

Incomparably the ablest advocate of land national- 
isation in Tasmania is Mr. A. J. Ogilvie, a farmer 
of Richmond, near Hobart, whose interesting and 
well-written lectures and articles have had a wide 
circulation. He is in favour of a combination of 
the schemes of Alfred Russel Wallace and Henry 
George — the rep rchase of estates to be subsequent- 
ly leased, with periodical reassessments, giving 
security of tenure and the right to improvements, 
the reservation of all mineral rights, and the taxa- 
tion of such lands as are not bought. No one has 
shown the e\ils of the present system in a clearer 
light than Mr. Ogilvie. I admire his aims, but I dis- 
agree with his means. The object we all have in 

view is the same — namely, to do away with the evils 
of land monopoly, and to give labour access to 
natural opportunities, but our methods differ. 
Ministers of the Crown, politicians, and Land De- 
partment officials, backed up by land nationalists 
and sometimes by Labour members, would get over 
the difficulty by buying the land back. Single- 
taxers, on the other hand, contend that it would 
be grossly unjust to buy back what already belongs 
to the people by right, and we claim that the only 
just and natural method is to place a tax on all 
land values without exemptions and without gradua- 
tions, and to gradually increase the amount till the 
whole of that value, which has been directly created 
solely by the community as a whole, has been ap- 
propriated by the community and expended on its 
behalf. To show how this simple act of justice 
would force all land worth having into use, destroy 
its speculative value, reduce its price and lower 
rent, give every man an opportunity of earning an 
honest living, raise wages to their highest point, re- 
store to men their long-lost independence, enable 
them to marry and bring up a family under such 
favourable conditions as certainly doi not prevail 
now, minimise the temptation to prostitution, dnin- 
kenness and gambling (which are mainly the result 
of CO ditions caused by land monopoly), and 
solve the labour problem, would require a disserta- 
tion by itself, but that it would do all these things 
is as afisolutely certain as that the dawn will follow 
the darkes- n'ght. 


Plio ograph bv] [^Underwood and L'ndenvood. 

The Imperial Chinese Mission for the Study of Social and Commercial 

Conditions in Europe. 

Revieie of Reviews, 2/tijO'J. 




Burlington'] irhoto. 

Rev. Dr. Macdonald. 

Xo man is more 
competent to deal 
with the New Heb- 
rides situation than 
Dr. Macdonald, the 
\eteran missionary, 
who has spent the 
best years of his 
life in the Islands. 
I was consequently 
eager to find what 
his opinion would 
be, and delighted 
til find that my own 
impressions as an 
outsider were iden- 
tical with those of 
so eminent an au- 

■■ You have no- 
ticed,'' said I, •■ that 
a joint commission 
has been sitting in 
London consider- 
ing the whole ques- 
tion of the administration of the Xew Hebrides. 
Personally, I feel inclined to advocate a dual control 
instead of a divided territory, ^'ou are the man on 
the spot. What is your opinion ?" 

'" Yes, like everyone else, I have seen what has 
appeared in the papers as to a joint commission in 
London having agreed to recommend a new ar- 
rangement for the administration of the New 
Hebrides. But, as the terms of the agreement have 
not as yet been made public, at present one can 
say but little on the subject. It seems, however, 
that the labours of the joint commission look in 
the direction of a dual-control rather than in that 
of a partition of the islands. This latter is of course 
possible, and some might prefer it, but there would 
be great difficultv in agreeing upon the dividing 
line, to mention nothing else. I think with you 
that a joint administration is worthy of a 
trial. France, it is understood, is willing to try 
it if we are. With the friendlv feeling that exists on 
both sides the thing should be perfectly practicable. 
Hitherto the joint Naval Commission dealing onl\ 
with certain matters has worked harmoniously, and 
this would merelv be an extension of the same 
principle into a joint commission dealing in addition 
with all matters of Land, Labour, and Trade." 

•■ Supposing that dual control is established. I 
suppose that it will necessarily mean that one set 
of laws will be framed and the responsibility of ad- 
ministering them will be divided equally between 
the two nations?'' 

■ Certainly," said the Doctor, '• and I am glad you 
mention this, because it is of great importance that 
it be clearly understood. By a dual control in the 
New Hebrides we mean a joint commission adminis- 
tering there one set of laws framed as the recent 
joint commission in London framed its agreement. 
In that agreement, indeed, there would probablv be 
found the basis of the necessary set of laws. There 
must, of course, be two sets of administrative offi- 
cers, but equally, of course, only one set of laws 
which all in the group, Eurof)eans of all nationali- 
ties and natives, must equally obey, and to which 
all must equally look for protection and justice. 
As to the two sets of administrative oflficers, we have 
already to begin with the British and French officers 
of the joint naval commission, and the British and 
French residents. There can then be no great 
difficulty as to this. And as to the other thing, 
what great difficultv can there be in, for instance, 
framing one set of laws regarding Land, Labour, and 
Trade to which all must be equally subject, and by 
which all must be equally benefited ? And what 
possible reasonable objection can be alleged ?' 

■■ Supposing, then,'' I said, " that dual control in 
the sense defined is established, will that really get 
over the diffic-jltv of English people becoming 
nationalised French, so as to get the advantages of 
a free tariff to France, or selling out in despair of 
success? Will it not be necessary- for the Com- 
monwealth to an earnest of its good intentions 
to the New Hebrides bv remitting duties as far as 
the Commonwealth is concerned ?" 

■' It would not get over this very grave difficulty,' 
said the Doctor with emphasis. " The French 
authorities have wisely recognised that their people 
in a new place like the New Hebrides have much to 
contend with, and need help. If our Commonwealth 
authorities should not act on the same excellent 
principle, th -n will once more be proved true the old 
saving that ' they do these things better in France.' 
The remitting of these duties would practically be 
no appreciable pecuniary loss to the Commonwealth, 
and would, as vou say, give an earnest of our good 
intentions to the New Hebrides. .-Vs it is in the 
initial stages of settlement that our countrimen in 
the islands need the encouragement and help that 

Revifii of Repiews, 1/6/06. 

Topics of the Month. 


would thus be given, the remission might be granted 
for a fixed number of years. Ac the end of that 
period the matter could be reconsidered.' 

" Supposing, then," I said, " that dual control in 
proposed joint control or administration established, 
what would be the effect in the Xew Hebrides?'' 

■■ It would give to Europeans set-urity to life and 
property, and indisputable titles of land (a thing 
hitherto impossible), and encourage the investment 
of capital necessary to the development of the re- 
sources of the islands. .And it would give the same 
security to the natives, so that they should not be 
deprived of their lands, especially of such of them 
as are necessary for their subsistence, bv fraud 
(native or European) or violence ; so that they 
should not be improperly engaged for senice, or 

improperlv treated while under engagement, and 
duly paid for their services : and so that trading 
with them in or giving them intoxicants, firearms 
and explosives should be effectively prohibited. It 
would put an end to the present chaotic state of 
things in which Europeans are constantly being 
killed by natives, and the latter are going steadily 
forward on the road to extinction. This state of 
things, a scandal to humanity, is not worthy of the 
two great leading civilised powers responsible for 
it, but the proposed dual administration would be 
a remedy for this altogether worthy of them." 

The i-everend Doctor speaks with the certainty 
of conviction, and the powers that be, both here and 
in London, cannot do better than follow strictly 
the letter of his opinions. 



It is not the most 
conspicuous and 
most widely-adver- 
tised forces in the 
social world to-day 
that are the most 
powerful and the most 
worthv of a kindly 
word of notice. 
Among the forces at 
work in Australasia 
t' -dav none works 
more quietly, nor 
shows better results 
m proportion to tht- 
efforts expended 
than the Melbourne 
Cit}' Mission. It is 
just celebrating its 
50th birthday, and 
its record has been 
so good that readers 
of " The Review of 
Reviews " ought to 
know of it. So the 
Rev. E. Steggall, 
the beloved, honoured and successful secretary, and 
I had a chat about its main characteristics. 

" Tell me, I said, " for our readers, who vou (vou 
as the visible body of the Mission), are, what you 
are, and what you do?" 

'• Well,'' he said, " to take one question at a time 
and be explicit, I am, or rather, the Mission is a 
body composed of a Committee of Ministers and 
ymen connected with the leading denominations." 
" Whose work is — " 
" To convert the people, in brief."' 
"And loiik after their creature comforts?" 




E Steggall. 


'■ Most certainly, but our work lies on different 
routes to those traversed by most missions." 

•■ I notice that you don't work to the accompani- 
ment of trumpet blare and much advertising." 

• No, I'll tell you what we do. We plant a mis- 
sioned man or woman, in a district, and they visit 
ever}' home they can that contains' the least, the 
last, and the lost of society — that part of our social 
life wfuch shrinks from view, and lives in back 
streets and lanes and bye-ways which respectable 
folk know exist, but which they never visit, the 
least noticed, the last cared-for, the often lost to al- 
most everj-thing that is good. Among these our 
missionaries work in a wav peculiar to our constitu- 

■' And what is the dominant ch,Tracteristic that 
makes it differ from others ?' 

" Well, most missions of a religious-benevolent 
nature seek to uplift such people by holding more 
or less attractive meetings, and have places for dis- 
tributing charity, and meals, and aft'ording cheap 
lodgings, attracting thus crowds of the needy, and 
larger crowds of loafers. A religious meeting is en- 
dured as the price of a breakfast or something else, 
while the benefactors hope that under the influence 
of a meal, etc., and an earnest exhortation, there 
may come a desire on the part of the helped and 
exhorted to forsake evil and be led to Christ." 

•' But the City Mission " 

" Does its work by the quiet method of house to 
house visitation. Each missionary is assigned a 
district, and visits so many houses a day, taking 
street by street. He or she thus meets directly with 
the people, and generally wins confidence and dis- 
covers whether there is real need. If there is, 
material help is given." 

'■ But the real object of the visit is the regenera- 
tion of the people?" 


The Review of Reviews. 

Juiie 1, 1906. 

" Yes, although we claun that the material help 
we give is more apprnpriatelv gi'i'en, and made 
better use of than is done under other systems. 
But we try to induce a better life, to promote at- 
tendance at some church, to renew old good associa- 
tions (and it is surprising how many there are who 
have had them), and to lead to a higher level. A 
few words of Scripture are read and often prayer is 
offered. It is not long before the poor recognise 
in the missionary a true friend, and they unburden 
their hearts in a truly wonderful way. The visitor 
becomes the friend and adviser in many wa\s." 

'' But you have centres ?'' 

" Yes, each missionarv has a hall or room in 
which meetings, religious and social, are held, both 
for adults and children." 

" Does this clash with tlie churches?" 

■■ No," said Mr. Steggall emphatically, ■' the folk 
we get would not at first go to churches, but they 
often pass on to the churches and the mission thus 
forms a stepping-stone to the churches and to tem- 
perance meetings. We are a valuable adjunct to 
the churches." 

" And how manv missionaries have vou ?' 

•■ Eight, of whom six are ladies. One of these 
has charge of a pre-matemity home and another 
spends much time among the evil that flourishes 
round Lirt'.e Bourke-street, where in a small space 
one afternoon she ccime across 38 young women re- 
garded as outcasts." 

■' Of course yo.i get some help from Govern- 
ment ?" 

■' Xot one penny, sir." 

•■ Why not ?" 

■■ We have never asked for a penny, nor have we 
ever received a penny. Our Mission is supported 
entirely by voluntary contributions." 

Room for thought and assistance there. Truly 
this Mission is as "■ a light shining in a dark place." 
This is organised charity, beginning at the basis, 
too, and not neglecting the superstructure. This is 
the methodical, brotherly charity on the Elberfield 
basis, that I urged an extension of so strongly a . 
couple of years ago, with Mr. Steggall's full appro- 
bation and help, the same in kind, except that the 
religious aid is added. May it grow into a system 
that covers Australiasia. Mr. SteggaJl's address is 
315 Little Collins-street. 







Miss Lind is 
a Swedish 
lady, a philan- 
thropist full of 
good works in 
her own coun- 
try, whose over- 
flowing svmpa- 
t h v extends 
from the living 
even to the 
dead. That is, 
to the seeming 
dead. For Miss 
Lind is quite 
certain that 
many corpses 
are like Kip- 
ling's '' Fuzzy 
Wuzzy," in that 
they are " gene- 
rally shamming 
when thev are 
dead." Well, 
not generally — 
that is an over- 
statement. But 
out of every 1000 corpses, at least ten are not dead 
at all, and the thought of the horror of their awaken- 

Count Karnicki's Invention, 

( Diajjram of the Apparatus ) 

ing when screwed down in the coffin haunts Miss 
I^ind's kind heart. Accompanied by her cousin, 
Baroness Barnikow, she visited the sanctum at Mow- 
bray House to enlist recruits in the cause of the 
society which has been formed to prevent the burial 
of the living before they are dead. 

•' Do you really mean to tell me," I asked, " that ! 
the proportion of quick among the certified dead is 
so large as to necessitate the formation of a society? 
Dc niinimis non curat lex." 

Miss Lind replied : '• That depends upon what 
you think is worth while. Would you think it worth 
while if vou knew that the proportion is one i>er 
cent. '" 

"Never! One per cent, buried alive! Mon- 
strous! It is enough to give one the nightmare. 
Let me see how it works out. In round numbers 
700,000 persons die every year in the United King- 
dom. At your one per cent, rate 7000 are buried 
alive. Think what that means. That this very 
day, and every day in the year, two living persons 
are screwed down into coffins and buried alive ! I 
don't believe it." 

Miss Lind replied : "' We have facts to go upon. 
Miss Cobbe records the case of a graveyard where 
400 bodies were exhumed, where four showed signs 
of life after interment. But the most conclusive 
evidence is that supplied from the experimental 1 

Review of TCn-iercg, I/6J06. 

Topics of the Month. 


cemetery at New York, where the proportion of the 
buried alive was sixteen out of 1200 burials." 

'■ How did they find out ?" 

" It was an experimental cemetery. Every coffin 
was fitted with an apparatus which could signal 
those above-ground if the buried person made the 
slightest movement. As the result sixteen out of 
1200 signalled for deliverance. That seems con- 

" Hum ! A pnmd facie case for inquiry rather 
thati a demonstration. But I don't believe it holds 
good in this country. We do not bury so soon after 
death as in warmer regions. But what do you 
propose to do? Cremation is a safe remedy; or 
would you cut off the head, after Miss Cobbe's 

■' No, we do not propose to commit murder in 
order to avoid the risk of premature interment. 
What we propose is, first, to postpone burial until 
such time as the possibility of a mistake is reduced 
to a minimum." 

"How long is that?" 

" From three to four days. As it is difficult to 
keep the dead in the narrow and overcrowded 
homes of the living, we propose to establish mor- 
tuaries, or resting-places for the dead on their way 
to the tomb. The inanimate bodies would be placed 
in these mortuaries bef<Te burial. They would be- 
under the vigilant supervision of compe- . 
tent attendants, and immediate assistance would 
be rendered on the first symptom of returning anima- 

'■ As most of our dead are not buried before three 

days have elapsed, \our reform would not make 
much change here." 

•' No, not so much as. in other countries. But 
even here it is needed. Then, if you will allow me 
to complete mv statement, we propose that even.' 
coffin should be fitted with the ingenious contriv- 
ance of Karnicki, by which any movement on 
the part of the buried person is instantaneously 
signalled, and at the same time a fresh supply of 
air is introduced into the coffin. ' 

■' You really have such an apparatus ?" 

■■ We real'.v have such an apparatu.s, and would 
like to see it fitted to every coffin. It is quite 
cheap, it onlv costs 12s., and can easily be 
fitted. Nor is there any danger that it will allow 
noxious gases to escape. Professor Richet is much 
interested in this contrivance, but it is of course 
useless unless due provision is made for watching 
the new-made graves." 

•■' Not at all," I replied. ' Your contrivance works 
with a little flag, which is hoisted at the grave head. 
It would be far simpler if all the dead were provided 
with a telephonic attachment so that any movement 
in the coffin, however slight, would ring up the 
sexton. What a gruesome extension of the tele- 
phonic system !" 

Miss Lind shook her head. She was in grim 
earnest, as became the cause which she has at heart. 
She left me the literature of the movement to pre- 
vent the burying of the quick among the dead, from 
which I learned that the Society for Preventing 
Premature Burial has its offices at 12 London-street, 
K.C., where its secretary will be glad to hear from 
anv well-wishers and subscribers. 



Sir John Forrest, the Treasurer of the Common- 
wealth of Australia, is now in England. I called 
upon him to inquire about his present mission, and 
found him the same hearty, straightforward man at 
the Hotel Cecil as in the Federal Parliament in 
Melbourne, just as cheerily optimistic as ever. When 
I arrived he was amused at the description of him- 
self in a newspaper cutting as " The Controller ut 
the Commonwealth of West Australia. " 

Sir John unreservedly informed me that the prin- 
cipal work he intended to devote himself to was the 
consolidating of the public debt of Australia and 
the establishing of one uniform Commonwealth 
stock in place of it. Such consolidation is obviously 
the proper thing. Then- is little doubt that Com- 
monwealth bonds would be steadier and would com- 
mand a better price than State bonds. When the 
d -bts are consolidated into one stock thev will 
probably be a more attractive investment. In the 
event of further loans being required, the Common- 


wealth could obtain better terms than the States 
have heretofore. 

Sir John declined to express any opinion upon 
Chinese labour in .Africa, as he fiad not seen 
the country, and was not fully acquainted with the 
conditions and circuinstances. He could say, how- 
ever, that it was a inatter of great regret to the 
people of .Australia that such a policy had been 
found necessary, as they had all looked forward to 
South Africa as anoth<'r .Australia, another home 
for our countrymen in the Southern Hemisphere. 

Sir John thought that a Commission to inquire 
into the whole question would be welcomed in Aus- 
tralia. One of the chief factors, it seemed to him, 
was the extent and suitability of the land for agri- 
cultural and pastoral occupation on a large scale, 
and whether a large farming population could be 
established in the country where British people 
could make permanent homes. As the climatic 
conditions are some\vhat similar to Australia, he 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1906. 

thought the presence of at least one experienced 
Australian capable of judging of the quality and 
capability of land would be of much advantage to 
all concerned. 

Sir John asked how it came about that there 
appeared in the press misstatements and exaggerat- 
ed accounts of trivial occurrences, adverse to Aus- 
tralia, manufactured by political partisans for poli- 
tical purposes, and why it was that Australia seemed 
to suffer from this source to a greater extent than 
Canada and New Zealand, notwithstanding the affec- 
tion and loyalty of the people of Australia to the ■ 

" The reason is obvious,' I replied. " What is 
everybody's business is nobody's business. The six 
Agents-General are naturally concerned only with 
their own States, and do not see that inaccurate 
statements about Australia as a whole are cor- 
rected. What is needed here is someone who repre- 
sents the Commonwealth of Australia, like Lord 
Strathcona and Mr. Reeves, Canada and New Zea- 
land respectively. Both these gentlemen promptly 
put misstatements about their respective countries 
right. Again, there is at present no one here who 
can speak authoritativelv for Australia. Cables 
about events happening there, published in the 
newspapers here, are as a rjle all that the Agents- 
General have to go upon themselves. To contra- 
dict an erroneous cable when the mail comes in, a 
month later, is of course useless. Such a High Com- 
missioner would also be able to see about systematic 
emigration to Australia." 

I next asked Sir John what he thought about 
the question of Australian immigration. 

" I still hold to what I said in my budget speech, 
the first part of which dealt with the best means of 
increasing the population of Australia. The falling 
off of immigration during the last ten years is, in 
mv opinion, principallv due to the competition of 
tht- United States anil Canada, their nearness to 
Europe, and the consequent cheapness of passage, 
and the facilities they offer of assisted passages and 
free grants of land. We recognise that we want 
more people of the right sort in Australia, and to 
bring that about, three things, in my opinion, are 
necessary. The first is cheap passages to the 
countrv ; the next cheap land on arrival, and the 
third assistance from a Government Land Bank to 
wr.rk the land." 

■' But," I asked, " I understand that the Common- 
wealth has no land ?" 

■ That is so," replied .Sir John, " and in England 
that fact is not, I believe, fully realised. The States 
own all the Crown lands, the mines, the railways, 
and in fact all means of transit. The Common- 
wealth's proposal is that it should select the emi- 
grants in this country, and, without cost to the 
States, land them where required in Australia. 
When landed the Commonwealth's responsibility 
would cease. The States would then take charge. 

provide the land, and make advances on loan to 
the new settlers through the Land Banks, such ad- 
vances to be made on the easiest terms, both as to 
interest and terms for repayment of principal." 

" To do that the Commonwealth would have to 
have an emigration department here?" 

" Yes, but it would be a branch of the High Com- 
missioner's Department, and could be easily organ- 
ised and arranged. Competent men would select 
the emigrants, and see them on board ship. Ar- 
rangements wth shipping companies for cheap 
fares could also be made." 

" Have any steps already been taken in this 
matter ?" 

" Not by the Commonwealth. We are, however, 
anxious to begin so soon as we come to a mutual 
agreement with the States." 

'• Would the State Land Banks not require much 
capital ?" 

" No ; the system has worked splendidly in West 
Australia, and there is little risk. The money is 
always paid back." 

'• Why did General Booth's offer to obtain emi- 
grants fall through?" 

" Because the States did not at that time fall in 
with the plan proposed. The Commonwealth was 
favourable, and was willing to assist in carrying out 
the scheme. I am afraid that there was a feeling 
that General Booth would send out reformed charac- 
ters, who might relapse again. That had a good 
deal to do with it." 

" I understand," I asked, " that Australia is 
flourishing at present?" 

"Yes," replied Sir John, " to a greater extent 
than at any time previously. The external trade is 
increasing year by year, and has increased 8o per 
cent, during the past ten years ; and is at present 
about loo millions a year, 75 per cent, of which is 
done with the British people. All the primary in- 
dustries are prospering, and if we include manufac- 
tures, the total value for this year will probably be 
120 millions. The gold production is worth 16 
millions, the wool 20 millions, while every industry 
is doing well." 

•' Is the Imperial connection much valued in Aus- 
tralia ?" 

" It is always regarded as a matter of course, and 
the contrary is never even thought of. We are 
Britishers heart and soul, and are proud of it — 
proud of our race, proud of their achieve- 
ments, proud of our free institutions. We 
are ■ bone of your bone.' Our feeling is, ' Our 
country, may she be always in the right — but our 
country, right or wrong.' We are, howe\er, proud 
of our self-governing powers, of our political free- 
dom and independence, and will guard them most 
jealously from interference or infringement, of 
which, however, we know there is not even the re- 
motest danger." H.S. 

Kfvieu of Rerietrs, 1/6J06. 

Topics of the Month. 




A genial, typical American mbsionarv 
Dr. Robarts, who for a quarter of a centur)' has 
been labouring among the Armenians in the Pro- 
vince of Vau, called upon me last month. He is 
going back to Vau, and he wants to take one or two 
useful articles with him. 

■' We are developing manufactures in these parts," 
he said, '" and I would be right glad if any of your 
friends would help me to the apparatus cheap that 
I need to set them going." 

■'And what may it be you are wanting?" I asked. 

■' We have been training up a whole crowd of 
orphans," he said. " We have been teaching them 
mechanics and weavins, and now we want to set 


the Rev. good tor them might nevertheless be quite good 

Maokertich I. 
Catholicos :ind Supreme Patriarch of all the Armenians, 

them to work. We have water-power running to 
waste, and we want a turbine, for one thing, to use 
the waterfalls." 

•' We don't keep turbines at Mowbray House. I'm 
sorry," I said ; " but I will appeal to any of my 
readers who mav have one to spare to pack it up and 
send it on." 

■'Then," said Dr. Robarts, "when \ou are asking 
you might just inquire whether any of the mill- 
owners in the North may happen to have sent any 
machinery to the scrap heap, for weaving and such 
like, because what would not be anv longer anv 

enough for us. It would be a real godsend if we 
could get some simple machinery at which we could 
set our lads to work. If anyone would communi- 
cate with me (my address is c/o the " Friends of 
Armenia," 47 Victoria-street, S.W.), I shall be only 
too glad to give him all particulars." 

"Then you believe in the Armenians?" I said. 
'■ You've not lost faith in them yet ?'' 

" No, and never shall," said Dr. Robarts. '■ They 
have their faults. Even Americans are not perfect. 
Bat the Armenians have great virtues. Yes, and the 
chief proof is that they have the virtue that enables 
them to survive. For hundreds of years they have 
been crushed between the upper and nether mill- 
stones, but thev are neither crushed nor broken. 
They are indestructible as adamant." 

" Has their persecution ceased ?" 

■• Not at all. It has changed its form — that is all. 
The Turks have substituted retail for wholesale, 
finding that the latter attracted too much attention. 
But the business is carried on in the same old way 
with the same object — which the Turk can never 
attain. The Armenian suffers, but sun'ives." 

■' What can be done for them?" 

" Educate them, and they are keen for education ; 
teach them the Gospel, and they receive it eagerly 
and die for it gladly ; keep them to industrial train- 
ing : and then, if it be possible, let the Powers fulfil 
their promises, and compel the Turks to refrain 
from oppression." 

■■ But Russia is paralysed, and Germanv is the 
.Sultanas ally." 

'■ If Russia were to become a free country, as was 
hoped when the Duma was proclaimed, the Arme 
nians would have no objection to be delivered by 
Russia. So long, how-ever, as Russia is despotic, 
the extension of her authority over Asia Minor would 
be resented by the Armenians almost as much as 
by the Turks." 

" Well," I said, " so much for Russia ; what about 
Germany ?" 

" Ah !" said Dr. Robarts, ' I wonder. If Germany 
really meditates doing anything in Asia Minor, she 
will have to do it through the Armenians. They are 
the onlv labouring men who are available in the 
country. The Turks and Kurds will not make 
tunnels or build bridges or pile up embankments. 
The .\rmenians will. Hence it is with me a forlorn 
hope, but still a hope, that if that Anatolian Bagdad 
railway scheme is ever pushed in earnest, it may 
bring salvation to the Armenians.'' 

It is a new idea, but, after all, I cannot deny that 
there may be something in it. If so, that is another 
reason for endeavouring to take away the bitter taste 
of A'geciras by giving Germany some concessions in 
.Asia Minor. 

Revieic of Reinewg, 1/6^06. 

Character Sketch, 


Bv \V. T. Stead. 
M. BOURGEOIS, Foreign Secretary; M. CLEMENCEAU, Home Secretary. 

and M. Clemenceau. Thtre has been no political 
revolution in Paris. The same party remains in 
power. It is only the Ministers who have changed. 
Neverthe.ess that change is by no means without 
its significance, especially tor British people. 

There is a certain resemblance between M. Sar- 
rien, the new_ French President, and C.-B. Each of 
them succeeded at a moment's notice in forming a 
much stronger Ministry than anyone anticipated. 
M. Sarrien is not unlike C.-B. in the tenacity of his 
principles and in his unswerving loyaltv to his party. 
Each has been ret;urned uninterruptedly by the same 
constituency for a period of twenty-five years. Both 
have rendered yeoman's service to their respective 
parties both in office and out of it. M. Sarrien has 
held more portfolios than C.-B., for in France Minis- 
tries succeed each other more rapidly than in Bri- 
tain. Home Minister under M. de Freycinet in 
1888, and Minister of Justice under M. Gob'.et, v;ho 
succeeded M. de Freycinet, he was again Minister 
of the Interior under M. Tirard. When M. Bour- 
geois became Prime Minister in 1896, M. Sarrien 
went back to his old at the Home Office. After 
two years he once more exchanged the portfdlio of 
the Interior for that of Justice. When he went to 
the Senate he held a position of commanding in- 
fluence. He was the right-hand man of M. Combes, 
and chief of one of the most important groups in 
the Republican Bloc. But although M. Sarrien had 
thus established his pusition in the hearts of his 
colleagues he, like C.-B., had failed to impress the 
world outside his native land with any sense of his 
great natural ability. It remains to be seen whether 
he will keep up the parallel, and, like C.-B., become 
as famous abroad for courage and skill as he has 
long been esteemed by his own countrymen. If so, 
it will be fortunate for France. So far the omens 
are fortunate. He has found his Sir Edward Grey 
in M. Bourgeois, his John Morley in M. Clemen- 
ceau, and his John Burns in M. Briano. It will be 
very curious to note the furtunes of the respective 
Ministries launched about at the same time under 
similar auspices in the friendly and allied countries 
of France and Great Britain. 


M. Rouvier, who became Prime Minister on the 
fall of M. Combes in January, 1905, has held office 
for an eventful twelve months. Almost at the outset 
he was confronted by the storm raised in Germany 
by the intrigues of M. Delcasse. The military col- 

An Earlier Portrait of M. Clemenceau, 


London has been so absorbed in the political re- 
volution which has installed the Democracy in 
power that it has hardly taken adequate note of the 
significance of the recent Ministerial crisis in France. 
But now that members have begun to settle down 
at St. Stephen's, and Britain is becoming familiar 
with a working Liberal majority of 300 in the 
House of Commons, it may be well to pay a little 
attention to the political situation across the Chan- 
nel. In Paris the old Ministry disappeared, like the 
British, on the eve of a General Election. It de- 
parted as the direct result of a hosti'.e vote occa- 
sioned by the more than passive resistance organised 
by the dis-established clericals to one of the minor 
details of the law separating Church and State. It 
was succeeded by a more Radical ministry which 
is confidently anticipating a success at the polls. So 
far there is a surface resemblance to the political 
situation in France and in Britain. But it is only 
on the surface. M. Rouvier was not Mr. Balfour 
nor M. Doumer Mr, Chamberlain. The majority 
which was behind M. Rouvier is practically the 
same majority as that which supports M. Bourgeois 

Review of Reviews, 2/5/06. 

Character Sketch. 


M. Sarrien ; Premier. -.2 


Leon Bourgeois : Foreign Secretary 

M G Clemenceau : Home Secretary. 
M A. Briand ; Minister of Education ^.iK.TrcrDV 



The Review of Reviews. 

juiif 1, 190':. 

lapse of Russia had, for the moment, left Germany 
free from dread of France's ally on her Eastern fron- 
tier. M. Delcasse endeavoured to improvise a sub- 
stitute for the ally that was /lors de cotnbat, by vamp- 
ing up the entente cordiale with England, so as to 
make it appear a firm fighting alliance against Ger- 
many. In this enterprise he was aided consciously 
or unconsciouslv, bv high placed personages in Lon- 
don, whose misguarded utterances filled Germany 
with alarm lest Admiral Fisher might attempt to 
break Nelson's record at Copenhagen by destroying 
the German navy at Kiel. The Kaiser, believing 
himself to be menaced, felt his way somewhat care- 
fully, and then flung France his challenge in 


A great deal has been written about the Whys 
and the Wherefores of the action of Germany, but 
the whole matter lies in a nutshell. Our King and 
the Kaiser were at that time by no means on the 
best of terms, and they were both much given to 
thinking the worst of each other. M. Delcasse was 
intriguing to such an extent that at least one of the 
new French Ministers firmly believed that he was 
bent upon plunging France into war, and was fram- 
ing his policy for that purpose. England had con- 
cluded an agreement with France, in which, in re- 
turn for the abandonment of French claims in Egypt, 
she undertook to make no objection to France 
doing as she pleased in Morocco. France subse- 
quently supplemtnted her agreement with England 
by a similar agreement with Spain. According to 
the German point of view, these treaties ought in 
common courtesv to have been officially notified with 
all due punctilios to the other signatories of the 
Madrid Convention which governs the international 
relations of Morocco with Christendom. When this 
was not done, the Kaiser fro\vned, but for the time 
laid low and said nothing. But when he found that 
France was beginning to act in Morocco as if her 
agreements with England and Spain had given her 
an international mandate to pacifically permeate and 
virtually absorb Morocco, he cried a halt. The 
fact that Russia had just lost the battle of Mukden 
proclaimed the psychological moment. 


The Kaiser's action pricked the bubble which M. 
Delcasse had been blowing so industriously. M. 
Delcasse had to go. M. Rouvier became Foreign 
Minister and preserved the peace. Lord Lansdowne 
formally assured Prince Metternich that there was 
no treaty of alliance, and that there had been no talk 
of any treaty of alliance with France. But. he added 
significantlv, " if France were to become the subject 
of wanton and unjustifiable aggression, it would be 
impossible for anv British Ministry to prevent this 
country from making common cause with France. 
'■ Good,'' wrote the Kaiser on the side of the de- 
spatch. " We know nov.- where we stand." He had 

little difficulty in securing the consent of M. Rou- 
vier to the conference at Algeciras. In return he 
was believed by M. Rouvier to have anade promises 
to recognise the predominant position of France in 
Morocco, which his representatives at Algeciras have 
been by no means very keen to fulfil. France, how- 
ever, had in the meantime recovered from her scare. 
She had no longer any fear that her armv would 
not be able to arrest a rush on Paris. Her Rus- 
sian ally was no longer in the coils of the Japanese 
war. Moreover, the English entente was seen to have 
been strengthened, rather than weakened, by the 
substitution of Sir Edward Grey for Lord Lans- 
downe. Hence there was no longer any need for 
M. Rouvier. He had weathered the storm. Who- 
ever succeeded him at the Foreign Office would 
have nothing to do but to carry out his policy. 
France, secure of the support of England and 
Russia, could await the delivery of the goods pro- 
mised as the condition of her assent to the Con- 


Attention being thus no longer concentrated on \ 
foreign affairs, domestic questions began to come to 
the front. The great legislative achievement of the 
Bloc or the Radical-Socialist-Republican Union 
under M. Combes, and later under M. Rouvier, was 
the separation of Church and State. When the law 
was still under discussion it was suggested more 
in the interest of the Church than of the State, that 
a careful inventorv should be made of all the sacred 
vessels, ecclesiastical vestments, relics and other 
valuables possessed bv the various churches, in order 
that there might be no dispute as to their title. Un- 
less an exact inventory is taken of the stock-in-trade 
at a dissolution of partnership the door is open for 
endless dispute. No question was raised as to the 
ownership of the ecclesiastical goods and chattels 
being legally vested in the Church. The inventory 
was an informal method by which the State made 
them over to the disestablished communion. The 
clause providing for the inventory was passed with- 
out protest, and when the Bill became law it was put 
in operation in regular course. In Notre Dame and 
other famous cathedrals where there was really a 
great deal of ecclesiastical treasure to be inven- 
toried, every facility was given to the State official 
and the function passed off with mutual good wUl. 
Far different was the case in one or two Paris 
churches, where some militant laymen of the cleri- 
callv-minded persuasion conceived the brilliant idea 
of rallying the faithful to resist the taking of the in- 
ventory as an art of sacrilege. 


The Passive Resisters might have succeeded if 
they could have remained passive. Unfortunately 
they soon drifted into active measures of opposi- 
tion. The gendarmes were attacked, the troops were 
called out. There was a riot in the church, and a 

Review or lievieva, l/i/OO. 

Character Sketch 


suicis de sensation in the newspapers. Ministers of 
course declared that the law must be enforced. The 
sensation created by the free fight around the sacred 
vessels fired the fighting blood of the Clericals in 
various parts of France. In some places the pea- 
sants fel.ed trees, and, filling the church with their 
branches, dfied the myrmidons of the law to enter 
the log-choked edifice. In others there were scrim- 
mages between the faithful and the authorities. At 
one place, Boeschepe, near the Belgian frontier, the 
scrimmage had fatal results. The gendarmes, losing 
pat'.ence, are said to have fired on their assailants 
with their revolvers, and one of the Clerical demon- 
s'.rat rs was killed. Thereupon a hot debate in 
ih.e Chamber. Ihe Conservatives declared that dis- 
esablishment had become murder. The Radicals 
complained that M. Rouvier had been grossly remiss 
in not suppressing flat rebellion with a stern hand. 
A resolution of confidence in M. Rouvier was re- 
jected by a majority of thirty-three — the Right vot- 
ing against him for killing one man, and the Left 
because he had not killed many, or at least because 
he had not been energetic enough in enforcing the 
law, and as energy under such circumstances means 
the use of force, it comes to the same thing. There- 
upon he resigned, and M. Sarnen became Prime 
INIini-ter of France. 


It is probable that the Chamber had got tired of 
M. Rouvier. He had served their turn. He had 
kept the peace, and now this was a handy for 
giving another set of Ministers an innings. M. Sar- 
rien had no difficulty in constituting a Ministry of 
all the Talents on a Radical foundation: — 

M. Sarrien— Premier and Minister of Justice. 

M. L^-)n Bourgeois— Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

M. Cl^menceau— .Minister of tile Interior. 

M. Poincare— Minister of Finance. 

M. Etienue — Minister of War. 

M. Tliomson — Minister of Marine. 

M. Brianil— Minister of Public Instruction and Worsliip 

M. Doumergue— Minister of Commerce. 

M. Georges Levgues — Mitii'iter for the Colonies. 

M. Bartliou— Minister of Public Works. 

M. Euau— Minister of Agriculture. 


The new Cabinet has to face the electors on May 

20th. It co'.ild do little beyond tabling a programme 

aiiministrativi- rather than legislative. The Budget 

must be voted, and then the dissolution. In 

Foreign Affairs the Ministerial declaration runs as 

follows : — 

Fully conscious of the rights and vital interests which our 
diplomacy lias to aifeguard, we are sure that the exercise 
of these riglits and the normal development of those in- 
terests can h& secured without any infringement of those 
of any other Power. Like our predecessors, to whom we 
would render public justice, we hope that the rectitude anil 
disunity of th si attitude will permit the approaching and 
definitive setfement of pending difBcultics. Faithful to an 
alliance whose btneficent influence is equally felt by France 
and R'-ssia and to our friendships, of which we have also 
been able to gauge the stability and value. Prance lias in 
the world a position which is confirmed bv the hope of 
ja^'iro and peace with which she reg.nrds the different 
problems laid by the force of things before the nations. 
This spirit will continue to l)e ours, and this is why we 

shall pursue with confidence a policy which in our opinion 
equally serves our country's catise and the peace of the 

In home affairs the_\ pledged themselves to en- 
force the law with all necessary circumspection but 
with inflexible firmness. M. Clemenceau before tak- 
ing office made the ver\ sensible suggestion that 
instead of using force to compel the Clericals to 
submit to an inventory taken for their benefit, the 
Government should " order their agent to withdraw 
and wait till — to prevent their propertv reverting 
to the State, and to continue enjoyment gratuitously 
the use of the churches — the Catholics apply to the 
authorities for the accomplishment of the formality 
which they have till now opposed." Whether so 
reasonable a strategy could be employed within two 
months of a General Election is doubtful. The 
Ministry, which at its first division, had a majoritj' 
of 305 to 197 votes in the Chamber, may be relied 
upon to act with a keen eye to electoral chances. 



M. Sarrien is sixty-six years old, M. Bourgeois is 
only fifty-five, M. Clemenceau is sixty-four. Ten 
years ago M. Bourgeois was Prime Minister, with 
M. Sarrien as his Home Secretary. To-day the 
positions are reversed, and the younger man serves 
the elder. But in Foreign .Affairs M. Bourgeois 
will probably be as independent as Sir Edward Grey. 
His position, indeed, is more like that which Lord 
Rosebery would have held in the Lib. -Lab. Cabinet 
if he had been willing to serve under C.-B. for M. 
Bo-.rgeois is a man who has a great reputation — 
ivon chiefly by his actio!i at the Hague Conference 
and his abstention from pushing his chances in 
France. He refused to stand for the Presidency 
when M. de Fallieres was elected, and although he 
he has been President of the Democratic Left in 
the Senate he has not taken a leading part or, at 
least, not a pushful part, in French party strife. He 
chiefly differs from Lord Rosebery in being a fer- 
vent advocate of peace and international solidarity. 
His book on " Solidarity," which passed through 
three editions, proclaims the solidarity of the 
human race one of the laws of nature : - 

Solidarity is a great fact which comes home to us more 
strongly as our knowledge and experience widen. We can 
never hope to see justice on a satisfactory basis until the 
world admits the debt which in virtue of the law of 
solidarity weighs on ti-i. Tliis debt is the first charge on 
human liberty. Nor can there be any real liberty until it 
is paid. The attempts t" shirk payment in the past have 
loaded nations with military and fiscal burdens, with 
pnuperism and penitentiary systems, and rendered the 
situation of the wealthy class precarious and often miser- 


M. Bourgeois is bourgeois bv birth as well as by 
name. Unlike M. Louhet and M. de Fallieres, he 
did not come from the peasants. His father made 
and sold watches in the Faubourg St. Antoine when 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, JWS. 

Leon was born in Paris in 185 1. and the bov was 
educated at the Lycee Charlemagne in the Rue St. 
Antoine. He is, therefore, a Parisian bom and 
bred. He was a studious youth, devoted to the 
classics, and with a strong bias for art. His father, 
however, insisted upon his taking to the law, and 
filial obedience deprived M. Rodin of a rival. 
Henceforth sculpture was the hobby of Leon's lei- 
sure instead of the pursuit of his life. He pros- 
pered at the Bar, and became the friend and disciple 
of M. Floquet when he was Prelect of the Seine. 
The attachment stood him in good stead when M. 
Floquet became Minister. ^L Bourgeois was seen 
to be a coming man. He was prosperous, full of 
savoir faire, genial with all men, eloquent, and with 
a happy knack of not making enemies. In religion 
he is a Positi\'ist, although like many other followers 
of Comte, he married a Catholic, and allowed her 
to bring up their daughter in the Roman creed. 
After he had been two years Minister of Public 
Instruction, and had prosecuted the Panamists as 
Minister of Justice under M. Felix Faure, he be- 
came Prime Minister, when he had the satisfaction 
of making his friend M. Berthelot, the distinguished 
chemist, Minister for Foreign Affairs. As Prime 
Minister he was more popular than the President, 
and M. Faure seized the first opportunity to replace 
him by a less conspicuous man. 


Under M. Loubet he was selected as first pleni- 
potentian.' to represent the French Republic at the 
Hague Conference. Up to that time, although he 
had been Prime Minister, he was comparatively 
unknown outside France. At the Hague he made 
an international reputation. Writing at the Hague 
immediately after the Conference closed, I thus 
expressed what I believe was the sentiment of all 
his colleagues : — 

Before the delegates met at the Hague, M. Bourgeois was 
known to he one of lialf a dozen clever Frenchmen, par- 
liamentarians and others, wlio have for a brief season held 
the post of Prime Minister in France. To-day he occupies 
ai unique position in Europe. By universal consent there is 
no new reputation which has yet been made at this Con- 
ference so great as that of M, Bourgeois. So far as new 
reputations go, he has been the man of the Conference. 
His skilfnlness. his extraordinary receptivity, his consum- 
ing energy, and his faculty of grasping the drifts of a 
dozen currents of opinion and forging in a moment a 
formula which will embody all the different shades of senti- 
ment, has been a revelation to many men. France never 
stood more in need of great men than at the present 
moment. It is with hearty delight, a delight felt especially 
by her ally Russia, that a great statesman ha« at last been 
revealed to the whole world in the debates at the Huis ten 
Boach. As Chairman of the Comity d'Examen and as head 
of the French delegation. M. Bourgeois, brilliantly aided by 
his lieutenant. Baron d'E.stournclles, has done a great deal 
to revindicate the repiitation of France is the opinion both 
of her allies and her enemies. 


On his return to France he remained in compara- 
tive retirement for a year or two. He refused the 
Prime Ministership in 1902 in order to have his 
evenings free to spend with his invalid daughter. 
He was elected in June the same year President of 

the Chamber of Deputies. It was just after M. 
Loubet had visited St. Petersburg, and in his ad- 
dress on taking the presidential chair M. Bourgeois, 
Radical though he was, expatiated eloquentK with 
his not verj- sonorous voice on the national pride 
with which he had followed M. Loubet's pilgrimage 
to St. Petersburg : — 

The reception offered to the representative of France by 
the Sovereign of the Russian Empire, the striking proofs of 
the sympathy of the great friendly and allied nation have 
tightened once again the bonds which unite the two coun- 
tries and given fresh force to the superior idea of right, 
progress, and humanity which their alliance symbolises in 
the eyes of the world. 

It is worth while recalling this, for the presence of 
M. Clemenceau in the Ministry can hardlv be re- 
garded in Russia as a remarkable manifestation of 
devotion to the Alliance which binds together 
France of the Revolution and the Muscovite auto- 

After remaining President for a year, domestic 
affliction, culminating in the death of both his wife 
and his daughter, led M, Bourgeois to resign, and he 
remained in retreat for a year. In 1905 he resumed 
his place in the political arena, and was talked of in 
many quarters as a possible President when M. 
Loubet retired. His candidature, however, was not 
seriously pressed, and he remained in resene to be 
utilised as Minister for Foreign Affairs. 


His appointment has been hailed with satisfaction 
at home and abroad. He is a thorough Republican, 
who has been e^-er since its formation an ardent sup- 
porter of the union of all the democratic forces 
which M. Clemenceau labelled the Bloc. He is an 
uncompromising opponent of Clericalism ; his 
speech denouncing the Christian Brothers' svstem 
of education in r9ci was placarded in even,- parish 
in France by order of the Chamber. It was one of 
the preliminary- trumpet blasts which heralded the 
separation of Church and State and the war against 
the monastic orders. In internal affairs he is a 
Radical with Socialist tendencies. He is in favour 
of old age pensions, to be secured bv the co-opera- 
tion of masters, workmen, the State, and benefit 
societies. He has taken much interest in the hous- 
ing of the poor, and is a strong advocate of co- 
operation. When he opened the Co-operative Con- 
gress at St. Etienne in r902, he declared: "The 
Revolution broke might to create right. They must 
create justice bv giving everv one his due through 
solidarity, by guaranteeing everyone against natural 
and social risks. Onlv co-operation ensured that 


But it is naturallv with his foreign policv that 
Englishmen are most Interested. M. Bourgeois's 
policy is peace. M. Bourgeois may be said to have 
sown the seed of the Anglo-French entente when at 
the Hague he co-operated so closely with Lord 
Pauncefote and M. de Staal as to secure the success 

Review of Ret>iews. IfGfOG, 

Character Sketch. 


of the Conference. That tripartite informal aUiance 
of peace — to which America was a cordial adherent 
— foreshadowed the foreign policy which M. Bour- 
geois may be expected to pursue. He will 
strengthen the entente wit;h England, and use his best 
services as honest broker to bring his Russian ally 
into equally close and friendly relations with this 
country. He will not be anti-German. He will, on 
the contrary, be like what he was at the Hague, a 
diligent " smoother " away of points of friction, and 
a promoter of peace and concord all round. When 
C.-B. uttered his memorable en.* for a League of 
Peace last December he could not have foreseen 
that a beneficient Providence would provide him 
with such a staunch Peace Leaguer as M. Bour- 
geois at the Ministn- of Foreign Affairs. Certainly 
as soon as the Morocco trouble is at an end there 
is no task to which M. Bourgeois and Sir Edward 
Grey can more profitably address their attention 
than the arrangement of a general understanding 
between the Powers as to the preservation of the 
status quo, the reduction of armaments, and the ap- 
propriation ever\- vear of a definite percentage of 
the army and naw vote for the promotion of that 
international solidarity the absence of which M. 
Bourgeois long ago declared to be secret to all our 

M. Clemenceau is the only member of the new 
Ministry- when I have known personally for nearly 
twenty years. He was and is a personal friend of 
Mr. John Morley's ; he used to be the most intimate 
friend of the late Admiral Maxse, who was also a 
very good friend of mine. M. Clemenceau has lived 
in America. He married an American. He speaks 
English excellently. He is one of the most brilliant 
of journalists, and one of the most witty and intelli- 
gent of companions. There is also in him. despite 
a certain cynical flippancy of speech which leads his 
critics sometimes to declare that he is at heart a 
mere gamin de Paris, a trace of the strain of a hero. 
He is as intrepid as he is dexterous. He is the 
Ulysses rather than the Nestor of the French Re- 
public. He is only sixty-four, but he has been so 
long a leading actor in the drama of Republican 
politics that he seems always to date back to re- 
mote antiquity. Nevertheless he did not seem to be 
a day older when I last saw him in Paris in 1905 
than when I first walked into the office of the 
Justice in the eighties, and found its editor writing 
under the serene and inspiring gaze of a replica of 
the Venus of Milo. 


I have compared M. Clemenceau to Mr. Morley. 
To make the resemblance more complete you should 
Sidney Webb element would be missing. I always 
cross Mr. Morley with John Burns. Even then the 
feel a warm sympathy with M. Clemenceau, owing 
to the fact that he has gone through a tribulation 

almost as great as that which I passed through with 
regard to Milner. M. Qemenceau believed in 
General Boulanger. But for M. Clemenceau the 
brave General would never have been Minister of 
War. M. Clemenceau put him in office as a security 
against the enemies of the Republic and of peace. 
He remained there to become the most dangerous 
enemy of the Republic and of the general peace. 
I spent some hours on the night of Boulangers elec- 
tion by popular vote walking up and down the 
Boulevard with M. Clemenceau. Nobody knew 
whether if Boulanger were elected by a large 
majority he would not declare himself Dictator and 
use the army to trample out all opposition. It was 
a thrilling moment. Never was I so deeply impress- 
ed with the worthlessness of all constitutional 
guarantees in the presence of an army. WTioever 
can give the word of command at the War Office 
has the nation at his mercy. Fortunately General 
Boulanger loved his mistress better than the Dic- 
tatorship, and France escaped the imminent peril. 
How often since then I have recalled that midnight 
on the Boulevards especially since I found my Bou- 
langer in Lord Milner. Boulanger and Milner have 
both passed from the scene in which they so cruelly 
betrayed the confidence of their most ardent sup- 
porters, but their names remain imperishable re- 
minders of the danger of relying too absolutely upon 
the most trusted of friends and allies. 

"1789" INCARNATE. 

M. Clemenceau is to me the most authentic incar- 
nation of the Revolution of 1789 now extant in 
Europe. He is the Revolution en bloc. He shares 
its hatreds, he has lost none of its enthusiasms. He 
is a Jacobin reincarnated in the skin of an Oppor- 
tunist. After playing the part of Warwick the King- 
maker, setting up and pulling down one Ministr)- 
after another, he is now saddled with the responsibilit)- 
of office. And as if to salute the new Minister the 
greatest catastrophe in the annals of mining is fol- 
lowed by a strike of miners which laid thousands 01 
men idle. It is very much like the way in which 
John Burns was confronted at the Local Government 
Board by the demonstrations of the unemployed. M. 
Clemenceau has ever been a champion of miners and 
of strikers. After his defeat at the Var election in 
1893, he published an article in La Justice entitled 
"En Avant!" of which an unfriendly critic said: — 

The only thing to be gathered from this article is that he 
reeards strikes and lawless resistance to constituted autho- 
rity as the final and legitimate weapons of those who 
possess nothing. He is nlanifestly ready to offer to lead 
those bent on subveraion. and his cry in "En Avant'" 
means " let the discontented and the refractory rally round 

That article compares with M. Ci^menceau's atti- 
tude to the present strike as much as John Burns's 
Tower Hill speeches compare to his address to the 
unemployed deputation last December. 


M. Clemenceau is a Freethinker who is merciless 


Jhe Review of Reviews^ 

June 1, I90b. 

in his attitude in relation to the Roman Catholic 
Church. To him the Church is a kind of Devil 
Fish, with the religious orders as the arms of the 
octopus. I cannot read Victor Hugo's famous story 
of the tremendous struggle in ' Les Travailleurs de 
Mer " between his hero and the octopus without 
recognising that M. Clemenceau and his friends feel 
themselves and the Republic exactly in that posi- 
tion. La picuvre, with its deadly sucker planted 
thick along every writhing arm, draining the life- 
blood of their victim — that is the anti-Clerical con- 
ception of the Church of Rome. In an early num- 
ber of Le Bloc M. Clemenceau began an article 
headed " The Devil Fish " {La Picuvre) by saying : 
" Perhaps you imagine, like many simple folk, that 
a religious congregation is a society of men who 
gather themselves together to adore God and to set 
an example of a holy life far removed from the low 
greed for earthly things. There are some such. But 
there are thousands of religious communities de- 
voted solely to vulgar trade for filthy lucre." 

He then proceeds to analvse an official return 
.showing that there were then in France 2500 reli- 
gious orders actively engaged in competing in busi- 
ness with the lay citizens, and he invoked against 
them the same kind of trad-s union prejudice that is 
roused by the introduction of cheap Chinese labour. 
These men celibates, without familv or civic ties, 
undercut the marker againU honest fathers of 
families. Thev flourish in the liquor business, 
wholesale and retail, exploiting the most redoubt- 
able of human vices in the interest of the coffers 
of the Church. It is easy to im.igine the play which 
this son of Voltaire makes with these clerical black- 
legs, who keep pigs, manufacture false pearls, and 
distil strong drink for the glory of God and the 
profit of Holy Church. He was the powerful ad- 
vocate of Disestablishment long before the Bloc felt 
itself strong enough to grapple with the Church. 


M. Clemenceau's great distinction has been his 
resolute and unwavering opposition to a policv of 
Imperialism. It was he who more than any man 
deterred France from joining with us in our Egyp- 
tian campaign. He was the inveterate enemv of M. 
Fern', whom he relentlessly pursued and ultim.ately 
overthrew for his policv of Asiatic expansion. It is 
true that M. Clemenceau can hardly be said to be a 
man of peace. He has fought manv duels, includ- 
ing one with M. Dero\i!ede, who accused him of 
being in the pay of Dr. Cornelius Herz and the 
Panamist ring, and his antipathv to foreign expedi- 
tions has usually -been attributed quite as much to 
his distrust of Germany as to any humanitarian ob- 
jections to making war on coloured races. With 
him the memory of the Terrible Year is, still vivid. 
He was mayor of Montmartre in the year of the 
siege, and although he never speaks of Alsace and 
Lorraine, he never forgets. He wrote last vear: — 

Tlie fundamental conditions of peace— not the peace I 
should like, but the onl.7 one which is possible in the pre- 
sent condition of Europe — la that we should dispose of 
sufficient force to discourage every aggressor. Force, alas, 
condiSLS of guns, rifles, and soldiers, as also of alliances and 


But if we can substitute the force of alliances and 
agreements for the costly armaments which are ruin- 
ing civilisation, no one will be better pleased than 
M. Clemenceau. 

The second great distinction of M. Clemenceau is 
the splendid part which he played in the Dreyfus 
affair. He stands in the foremost fighting line of 
the heroic few who stood for justice in the darkest 
days of the reaction. As the Boer War was our 
Dreyfus case, no one can sympathise so much with 
M. Clemenceau as the pro-Boers, both in the hour 
of our defeat and now in the hour of our victory. 
M. Clemenceau who founded the Justice in 1880, 
became the fighting man-at-arms of the Aiirore dur- 
ing the prolonged Dreyfus combat, and rendered 
yeoman's service to the cause of justice. Nor was 
it only with his pen that he defended the right. He 
pleaded the cause before the Court, and on one 
occasion, in February, 1898, he made a powerful 
use of the crucifix as an argument against the re- 
fusal to reconsider the chose jugee: — 

""We hear much talk," said Clemenceau, "of the choie 
jugee." M. Clemenceau raised his head t^ward^ the im- 
mense painting of the Christ on the cross, hanging in view 
of tl e entire companv over the he^ds of the scarlet^robed 
judges. "Look here at the choge jugee. This image placed 
in our judgment halls recalls the most m>Estro::s ,V-idicial 
error which the world has kniwo." (There were ironical 
cries from the audience.) " No. I am not one of His 
ado"P'-«: l)nt I lo^e Him perhaps more than those who in- 
voke Him so singularly, to preach religious proscription!" 

M. Clemenceau is no friend of_ the Russian al- 
liance. If Russia were to become a constitutional 
State that would be another affair. But for him, as 
for most French Radicals, Russia is the enemy of 
freedom and Japan the hope of civilisation in the 
East. In the past he has never hesitated to defend 
even the excesses of the Revolutionaries as the in- 
evitable result of the repressive system which denies 
to Russians the fundamental liberties of civilised 
nations. He is per contra a warm friend of England 
and the English, and has for a year or two past been 
exp)ected as an honoured guest to visit London. 


For ten years, from 1883-1893, he was regarded 
as the master and maker of ministries in France. 
In 1893 he lost his seat for the Var amid the outcrv 
raised over the Panama scandal. In 1901 he 
founded the weekly paper Le Bloc. The title clung 
to the party. The French Revolution, he said, was 
a block, a thing which must be accepted or rejected 
en bloc. In our villainous political slang, Le Bloc 
was the party which went the whole hog for the 
Revolution. In the following year he was elected 
senator for his old constituency, the Var, and now 

of Uevip 


Character Sketch. 


he has taken office as Minister for the Interior. In 
many respects he is the most notable of modern 
French politicians, and there is none whose fortunes 
will be watched with more sympathetic interest on 
this side the Channel. 


M. Cleme c au's personal appearance was de- 
scribed fifteen years ago by one who knew him well, 
but who omitted to say that, whatever he might look 
like, M. Clemenceau is no Puritan. The description, 
however, is accurate, and as M. Clemenceau never 

seems to grow older, it may be accepted as a pen- 
picture of the new Minister of the Interior : — 

In his ."ippeartiDce, M, 01«io«nreau has something of tlie 
character of a Puritan of Cromwell's Conrt. He is a 
midd'e-sized man, thin, with a bi^, bony heid. straight, 
thick eyebrows, and deep-set, twinkling ey«s. To those who 
look closer at the fa,ce it bears traces of continual effort 
and premature fatigue, truces of a something which might 
be politely qualified as scepticism. Wl en he speaks his 
voice is sliarp and his words short, his gestures are de- 
cisive, and, even when his face is in movement, his de- 
livery remnins calm. In the tribune he is a powerful an- 
tagonist. Just as in his exterior appearance there is an 
affectation of cahn and j'ugterily, so in bis sjieecliea there is 
an appearance of the most rigid precision — an api>earance 
with which he deceives himself and others. 


To travel in an 
airship to the North 
Pole might be look- 
ed upon as a wild- 
cat scheme, only 
fit to be regarded 
as the product of 
minds wholly given 
over to imagina- 
tion, without any 
practical turn to 
them at all ; but 
one of the Chicago 
newspapers has, ac- 
cording to T/ie 
World To-day, in- 
structed Mr. Well- 
man, who ,is its 
clrief Washington 
correspondent, to 
make another effort 
to reach the Pole. 
Mr. Wellman has 
already made two 
expeditions, unsuc- 
cessful, of course. 
This time he is to 
travel by airship. A 
good many people estimate that the whole affair is 
simply a scheme to advertise the paper and its re- 
])re.m-ntatives, but T/ie ll'or/d To-day estimates that 
the proprietors of the Record Herald ak sincere, and 
slates that it is quite certain that Mr. Well- 
man is. " Rverybodv who knows him and 
his aspirations and ambitions knows that. It 
is a daring, audacious thing he is prepar- 
ing to do, bJt he has doiu.' daring and auda- 

Mr. Walter Wellman, 

The well-known journalist who 
to tra\el to the North 
Pole liy airship. 

clous things before, and his friends are not in the 
least concerned as to his ability to carry out his 
part of this latest project. The airship may not 
come up to expectations, but Mr. Wellman can be 
depended upon to do his duty. He may fail to 
reach the Pole, and he may lose his life in the 
attempt; but, in either event, there will not have 
been any lack of courage or skill or indomitable will- 
power on his part to help make the expedition a 
success. The world knows more of Walter Well- 
man's newspaper and magazine wTitings than it 
knows of Walter Wellman, the man. He has tra- 
velled extensively, and has met many people, but 
there are other newspaper men in Washington who 
have a much wider acquaintance than he. He is 
even personally unknown to many of his colleagues, 
for he is seldom seen in the press galleries or at 
the other haunts of newspaper men, and he is not 
what in latter-day parlance is called a ' mixer,' or, 
for that matter, a generally popular man. His tem- 
perament and personality do not win him friends 
indiscriminately, but the friends he has are warm 
friends, whose regard for him and belief in him 
and his competence are cordial and complete. 
Born at Mentor, Ohio, forty-seven years ago, he has 
more grey in his hair and more lines in his face 
than the average man of his age, for his previous 
work in the Polar regions, and the busy life he has 
led, have left their marks. He still limps as a 
result of an injury received during his attempt 
tOj reach the Pole." 

Mr. Wellman's two former expeditions were made 
in 1894 and 1898-1899. If the present trip does 
come off, it is certain that the eyes of the world 
W'ill be turned towards the ice-bound regions of the 
North. It is to be hoped that he will not meet with 
the same fate that without doubt met .\ndTee. 

Review of Bevieai, Vdl06. 

Leading Articles in the Reviews. 


Sir Olh'Er Lodge s Answer. 
In the Hibbcrt Journal tor April there is a very 
noteworthy article by Sir Oliver Lodge on " The 
Divine Element in Christianity.' It is a clear and 
explicit answer to the challenge which is addressed 
to every man. It will horrify many; it will bring a 
welcome ray of light to others. For his faith in the 
Divinity of Christ demands as a foundation a denial 
of what manv regard as the fundamentals of the 
Christian creed. In Sir Oliver Lodge's conception 
of the Divinity' of Christ it is es-sential that He 
should not have been miraculously conceived, that 
He should not have been miraculously resurrected, 
and that He should not have ascended up into 
heaven. Instead of being a man unique, excep- 
tional, apart, the whole significance of the Incarnation 
lies in what Sir Oliver Lodge calls the ununiqueness 
of His ordinary humanity. I do not take it that Sir 
Oliver Lodge denies the possibility of the concep- 
tion by the Virgin or of the resurrection or of the 
ascension. He merely maintains that, if such 
things happened in the case of Christ, they are pos- 
sibilities latent in humanity, and may yet become 
the common experience of mankind. Sir Oliver 
Lodge says : — 

The exceptional glorification of his body i3 a pious heresy 
— .% heresy which miss&s the truth lying open to our eyes. 
His humanity is to be recognised as real and ordinary and 
thorough and complete ; not in middle life alone, but at 
birth and at death and after death. Whatever happened 
to him may happen to any one of us. provided we attain 
the appropriate altitude; an altitude which, whether within 
our individual reach or not, is assuredly within reach of 


Sir Oliver Lodge describes six kinds of Chris- 
tianity, and then adds his own. The first is the 
Evangelical or Pauline; the second the Sacerdotal, 
which claims to have Peter as its patron saint ; the 
third is the practical school, with James as its law- 
giver ; the fourth the mystical or emotional, asso- 
ciated with St John ; the fifth the Christianitv of 
M. Pobiedonostseff, which he calls " governing or 
hierarchical Christianity," and which he regards as 
the special offspring of the Evil One: the sixth is 
the Christianity of Jesus of Nazareth. To these six 
Sir Oliver Lodge adds his own, which, he claims, 
embodies the essential truth of all pagan and of all 
other religions. That sixth form of Christianity is 
the pantheistic, which recognises Christ as Di\'ine, 
because it sees in Him the highest point yet reached 
of the manifestation of the God who is immanent 
in all things. The Incarnation is the intensification 
of the doctrine of Immanence. 


Sir Oliver Lodge inclines to the belief that the 
kind of religion taught and intended by Jesus Him- 
self was a blend of numbers one and three, or a 
Paul-James mixture. The worship of God as a 
spirit and the ser\'ice of man as a brother are the 
warp and 'woof of the pure Christian faith, but its 
fundamental substratum lies in the conception of a 
human God, a crucified God, not apart from the 
universe, but immanent in every part of it revealed 
in the Incarnation. Evolution is the emerging of 
God in and through matter. Man is the highest 
point reached, and Jesus the loftiest peak of hu- 
manity. WTiat He reached we may all hereafter 
attain. In Sir Oliver Lodge's eyes the whole value 
of Christianity Hes in the denial of the supernormal 
difi'erence between Christ and the ordinary man. 
Usually theologians level Jesus up to the Infinite. 
Sir Oliver Lodge levels the Infinite down to man, 
Jesus is the mean term, the meeting point at which 
the nature of one and the possibilities of the other 
are most fully revealed, 


What is the God whom Christ revealed ? It is 
'■ the incarnate spirit of humanity, or rather the 
incarnate spirit of humanity is recognised as a real 
intrinsic part of God," In the life blood of Chris- 
tianity this is the most vital element, and it is the 
root fact underlying the superstitions of idolatry 
and all varieties of anthropomorphism. Sir Oliver 
Lodge says : — 

The Christian idea of God is not that of a being outside 
the universe, above its struggles and a4vances. looking on 
and taking no part in tlie process, iolely exalted, beneficent, 
self-determined and complete: no, it is also that of a 
God who loves, who yearns, who stiffers. who keenly 
laments the rebellious and misguided activity of the free 
agenta brought into being by Himself as part of Himself, 
who enters into the storm and conflict, and is subject to 
conditions as the Soul of it all ; conditions not artificial 
and transitory, but inherent in the process of producing 
free and conscious beings, and essential to the full self- 
development even of Deity. It is a marvellous and be- 
wildering thought, but whatever its value, and whether 
it be an nltimate revelation or not, it is the revelation of 

This may seem heretical to many. Sir Oliver 
Lodge consoles himself by reflecting that it certainly 
seemed blasphemous to the contemporaries of 
Christ, but " this was the idea He grasped during 
those forty days of solitary communion, and never 
subsequently let go." 

In Macmillan's for February- Mr. H. L. Puxley 
enumerates the horrors that spring from contamina- 
tion of milk, either by ordinary dirt or by preserva- 
tives, and insists that cleanliness is all that is needed 
to ensure a healthy milk supply. 

Rffiew of Rcvri'irs, IjCjO'j. 

Leading Articles. 



This is the liigh position to which Mr. A. Maurice 
Low, in the Atlantic Monthly, suggests tlie present 
Gemian Emperor may be found to be entitled. His 
sketch is one long eulogy of William the Second. 
He says that — 

This Emperor is a serious man, a fully impressed 
with tl:e respoDfibilities of kingly station, to whom the 
crown is more than a symbol and the sceptre less the sign 
•of power than the vow of duty. 

But " it is the penalty genius pays to mediocrity 
to be misunderstood." His dismissal of Bismarck 
is explained not merely by the Kaiser's desire to be 
master in his own household. But — 

the Emperor was sagacious enough to know that if Bismarck 
rema.ined in power he would again so manipulate affairs as 
to force Germany into war, precisely as he had made the 
first William take the field against Prance. The Emperor, 
in spite of all that has been said to the contrary, is essen- 
tially a man of jjeace, and while he is not afraid to fight. 
lie knows the cost of war, and that the nation Tictorious 
pays a price almost as heavy as the nation defeated. 


He points to the fact, which Englishmen need 
often to remember, that the Kaiser is the grandson 
of Queen Victoria : — 

The Emperor inherits the dominant mental characteristics 
of his grandmother, which made her one of the gre;U figures 
of history. These salient traits are a tremendous grasp 
and intense love of detail, and a capacity to get at the 
bottom of every subject. Queen Victoria would never con- 
sent perftxnctorily to sign a paper that her Ministers might 
lay before her, but insisted upon knowing its full signifi- 
cance. She a passion for hearing about things and 
great events at first hand. In mucli the same way the 
Emperor has liis hand upon the pulse of affairs. 


Of his formidable power as orator Mr. Low 
says : — 

The Emperor is an extemporaneous speaker. It is only on 
rare occasions that he prepares a speech. Anyone who 
reads carefully the Emiieror's speeches will not fail to 
notice that the Kaiser bidding God-speed to his sailors and 
the commander-in-chief of the army addressing a group of 
educated noblemen are different men. In each case he has 
so accurately gauged the comprehension of his listeners, 
and. varied accordingly his language and the very process 
of thought, that the two speeches give the impression of a 
dual personality in their author. 

Another secret of his hold over men is a iieculiar quality 
of mind, the iiower of instinctive judgment and knowledge. 
For William II. combines with the logical and strong 
masculine mind the distinguishing feminine characteristics 
of reaching without conscious reasoning quick decisions 
which are often superior to a man's most careful deduc- 


Of his power of manipulating men Mr. Low 

says : — 

During the winter, when the Reichstag is in session, the 
Emperor regularly attends the receptions given by the Minis- 
ters of the Crown to which the members of the Reichstag 
are invited. Meeting there men who may not be so friendlv 
to his policy as he would like to have them, he attempts 
to convert tlicm by argument, by appeal, by the subtlest of 
flattery, asking them with most engaging frankness to show 
him the fallacy or weakness of bis policy. In this way he 
has won over more than one rebellious member. 

The way in which he made the navy, from being 
least popular into the most popular thing in Ger- 

many, is ajiother proof. Vet anotlier is suggested 
by the way in which he weakened the Social 
Democratic Party by instituting a new order and 
decorating every man, officers as well as privates, 
who served in the Franco-Prussian war, and this by 
way of the looth anniversar\- of his grandfather's 
birth. So " he disarmed a political party with the 
gift of a toy." 


In conclusion Mr. Low says : — ■ 

This is William II.. the man who has been termed badly 
balanced, vain, impetuous. Badly balanced he is not, be- 
cause no man not equably poised could have escaped the 
pitfalls which have surrounded him for the past seventeen 
years. A vain man is usually a foolish man. The Emperor 
is not. Impetuous he is, and yet it is vehemence tempered 
by reason and restraint: he knows when to strike and when 
to hold himself in leasii. When the history of this period 
of the German Empire is written, it may be discovered that 
William the Second was a man who spoke for the future to 
hear. Then it may bo understood tliat his influence was 
for peace and not for war; that he spoke with a jiurpose; 
that he heard the voice of linmanity: that he was one of 
the positive forces of his time. The Hohenzollerns have 
given to history a great elector and .t great king, and 
William the First has been called a great emperor. History 
may yet find that greater than the greatest of his race is 
tlie reigning sovereign: because while the claims of his 
ancestors are written in war, his title to greatness is the 
dower of peace. 


Mr. Norman Shaw describes in Macmillans 
a very risky visit which he paid to the country of 
the head-hunters in Formosa, which, off the beaten 
track, and with a bad climate, remains one of the 
few places unknown to Western men, " Hence its 
great fascination, which is increased by the fact that 
the mountainous interior is inhabited by a race of 
blood-thirsty savages, whose chief delight is to sally 
forth on head-hunting raids.'' 

Few strangers, except some Japanese, have ven- 
tured near the head-hunters' territory, and for hun- 
dreds of jears these tribes, eight in number, and 
akin to the Dyaks of Borneo, have withstood the 
world. They have never known a master, never 
felt the yoke of any man. Not long ago they raided 
Taipeh, the Formosan capital, creeping down upon 
it unexpectedly at dead of night, and sparing 
neither age nor sex in their hunt for heads. More 
commonly, however, they confine themselves to 
stalking the Chinese of either sex engaged in tea- 
picking. They are a small, but athletic and supple, 
race, and their women are not secluded after the 
usual fashion of Asiatic women. The Japanese, re- 
cognising that systematic warfare against these head- 
hunters is impossible, for 100,000 men would be as 
nothing in the dense jungles and virgin forests where 
thev dwell, are trying a policy of conciliation and 
confidence-winning. They encourage the men to 
bring articles for barter, and in time the writer 
thinks they will achieve their purpose, though he 
admits that that achifvni<-nt i.s highly difficult and 

The Review of Reviews. 

June I, tSOti. 


A Proposed Franco-Japanese Alliance. 

In February " A P'riend of the Franco-Russian 
Alliance " contributed to La Keviie an article in 
which he contended that France ought not to lend 
Russia any more mone)-, at ajiy rate not till Russia 
is free. 

Another anonymous, but equally able, writer con- 
tributes to La Revue of March 15th a plea for a 
Franco-Japanese Alliance, chiefly in order that 
France may be<:ome banker to Japan ! He compli- 
menis La Revue on what it has already accomplished 
in the matter of international initiatives, and then 
prepares the ground for a Franco-Japanese Alliance, 
urging that it would be profitable to France, to 
Japan, and to the peace of the world. 


The only opposition in France to a Franco- 
Japan_se Alliance, he says, could come from those 
who pretend that such an arrangement is incom- 
patible with the dignity of France owing to her 
intimate relations with Russia. 

Russia, however, will do nothing to hinder it. On 
the contrary, she recognises that it is her duty to re- 
establish, from the economic point of view, correct 
relations with Japan. Both nations, in fact, reckon 
on friendly economic relations, the surest guarantee 
for good political relations. Russia will further the 
idea of a Franco-Japanese Alliance, because the 
immediate con.sequence of such a diplomatic com- 
pact would promote a Russo-Japanese rapprochement 
which both nations desire, but dare not say so 
openly, and for Russia it would signify a lasting 
fjeace in the Far East. 


In certain circles some uneasiness of another 
nature is felt with reference to Japan. The 
Japanophobes consider the Russo-Japanese War as 
an insolent provocation of the white race by the 
yellow world, but they are really confusing Japanese 
activity with affairs of conquest. Under the mystico- 
Christian inspiration of the Kaiser have arisen 
apostles of a new religion of hatred and oppression, 
demanding a union of whites against the yellow- 
races, with the object of preventing the natural 
development of the latter by keeping them in per- 
petual vassalage. These people are quite con- 
vinced of the aggressive character of Japanese 
expansion. They know that in the event of a 
conflict in Indo-China, France would be materially 
and morally unable to defend her colonies against 
such a formidable military foe, drunk with en 
thusiasm for conquest, as they represent the contem- 
porary Japanese to be. Perhaps this is one of the 
reasons of their Japanophobia. But if Japan be- 
came the ally of France, all this fear and suspicion 
of Japan would disappear, and France would be 
able to save a few millions out of the cost of 
organisation of colonial armaments. 


The advantages of an alliance belong, however, 
to the economic order. Japan has everything to 
make her successful in her enterprises — except capi- 
tal, and therefore she must borrow. Now, the best 
and easiest way to prevent the yellow races from 
becoming an independent isolated economic Power 
Ls to join them, and at present Europeans are in- 
vited to do so. If Europeans neglect the oppor- 
tunity now, the yellow races will have no need of 
them twenty years hence, and we shall see, not the 
grotesque in\'asion of savage hordes imagined by 
the Kaiser, but the inevitable decline of the econo- 
mic supremacy of the West. 

Those who are sceptical of Franco-Japanese ci - 
operation will not understand why Japan, with .l 
very wealthy ally in Eng!;md, and a still wealthier 
and more discreet friend in America, would prefer, 
or only admit, France in this powerful syndicate. 
But the reasons are not far to seek. 


Japan has always been much attracted to France. 
Japar.ese jurisprudence is French. The great 
Liberal movement in Japan was born inder French 
influence. Before the unfortunate Treaty of 
Simonseki the French were the people most beloved 
by Japan, and to-day, again, we have Japanese 

M. Motono, when at Paris, assured the writer that 
the Japanese admired the chivalrous instincts of the 
French people and the French Government desirous 
of reconciling their dutit-s of friendship towards 
Russia and loyalty towards Japan. Another lapa- 
nese scholar described the French race as probably 
the only one which showed no race-prejudice. 

France, in turn, does not conceal her affection for 
Japan. She believes the Japanese capable of the 
most brilliant intellectual, social, polirical, and mili- 
tan- development. 


To come to the main point, there is no more 
realistic nation than the Japanese. The only 
economic rivals Japan has discovered are Germany, 
England, and America, and as she does not wish to 
appeal to the hvo latter, her political friends, and 
themselves commercial arid industrial nations, for 
financial support, she must look elsewhere for a 
banker. The .Anglo-Japauv-se Alliance ought tc) 
guarantee peace, but not the common prosperity of 
the contracting parties. 

The banker which Japan needs is France. France 
is not a competitor of Japan's. It would be much 
easier for France to invite Japan, and assure her in 
advance of a welcome ret-eption, than it would be 
for Japan to come and knock at the door of France. 
Before France can become banker to Japan there 
must be an official rapprochement to establish poli- 
tical confidence between the two Governments and 
mutual confidence between the two nations. 

lUviev of Kfvietcs, l/ii/Od. 

Leading Articles. 


If France does not step in at the present psycho- 
logical moment, Germany, who is not a great banker, 
will do so, for she hjs been already working for 
i>early a year for a rapprochement with Japan. 
Everything combines to hasten the realisation of a 
Franco-Japanese Alliance — the situation in Indo- 
China, the development of commercial Pan-Mon- 
^olism, the internal condition of China, the needs 
'A Russia in her Far-Eastern possessions, the happy 
Anglo-French entente, the financial interest and the 
sorry condition of the political European exchequer 

— ever\\vhere there are solid irrefutable arguments 

for the necessity of the diplomatic work here de- 

s<-ribed. All Japanese statesmen, without exception, 

ire in favour of the scheme which would embrace 

a one desire for peace and prosperity Russia, 
Japan, England, France, and the United States. 


In the first March number of La Revue, E. Revbel 
has a study of the Democratic Evolution of Ger- 


The writer notes that in the year 1905 a wave of 
unjrest and reform has passed over most European 
States, but Germany alone has not seemed to stir. 
He gives various reasons for the apparent passive- 
ness of the German people, suggesting that they 
may not have become sufficiently discontented to 
move, or that their patience is not yet quite exhaust- 
ed. Beer and alcohol, the writer thinks, have pro- 
bably had much to do with keeping the people 
loyal. Not that they are habitual drunkards, but 
that the daily drinking causes lethargy of mind and 

Another factor is religious sentiment, and a third 
is the fact that the Germans ha\^ not hitherto taken 
so active an interest in political events as the people 
of most other countries have done. 


Nevertheless there are indications of a democratic 
awakening. The old Prussian discipline in the 
army has broken down, and the soldier will no longer 
stand bein;; treated as an inferior being, but rebels 
against the brutality of his superiors. Everywhere 
a certain indej'iendence towards authority is mani- 
festing itself. Electoral contests are more spirited, 
and strikes and other popular movements are on the 
increase, .\mong other general causes of demo- 
f-ratic progress mav be mentioned the spread of 
popular education, the establishment of libraries, 
popular theatres, reading clubs, music clubs, etc. 
Thu.s the man of the people is gradually beginning 
to think of other things than his daily life ; his 
horizon being widened, he wants to know what is 
going on in the worJd. 


Before 1870, Germany was an agricultural coun- 
try, but since that date the Germans have become 
more and more industrial. In a word, the German 
people have raised their material and moral condi- 
tion, especially in the towns; but as all progress is 
costly, the working classes have to pay higher rents, 
and consequently they demand higher wages, and 
hence many of the strikes. The feudal world, which 
lived on the land, has been crushed by the young 
industrial bourgeoisie. As it is the workers of the 
towns and great industrial centres who have trans- 
formed England into a democratic State, the indus- 
trial development of Germany is the most potent 
factor in German democratic evolution. 


The democratic evolution, however, is not mani- 
fested in an equal degree in all parts of the German 
Empire. It is much mere accentuated in the South 
and in the West than in the North-East, and the 
States of the South and West are much more ad- 
vanced than Prussia. Nearly all the democrats are 
from the Southern and Western States. Still, the 
democratic evolution is very real, though the con- 
trasts betneen the different regions and the pre- 
ponderance of Prussia may seem to retard it and 
give it something of the character of a struggle 
between the aristocratic North-East and the other 
regions. The drawback is that Prussia, the heart 
of the Empire, remains reactionary, while the demo- 
cratic regions are the provinces. Nevertheless the 
triumph of democracy in Germany is certain. .It 
has already attacked the army and the bureaucracy. 
The spirit of revolt is growing among the people; 
crimes of Use-majeste are more common ; religious 
sentiment has disappeared in the towns, and is dis- 
appearing in the coimtry districts ; and the masses 
are beginning to play an active part in political life. 
A new democratic Germany is at hand. 


The March Westermann contains a most interest- 
ing article, by Julius Bab, on Theodor Storm as a 
Master of the Lyric. The study is based on two 
anonymous articles on the Lyric as an Art-Form, 
which Storm contributed to an art-publication some 
sixty years ago. 

The real business of the lyric, according to Storm, 
consists in maintaining an attitude of mind in the 
poem, which the poem will in t-'m reproduce in the 
mind of the receptive reader, and thus the value and 
the effect of the poem will depend on the most indi- 
vidual representation being found together with the 
most universally available subject-matter. The 
higher the sentiment the more convincing will be 
the form of expression. The lyric ought to offer the 
reader a revelation, a satisfaction which he could 
not give to himself. The perfect lyric first 
appeals to the senses, while the .spiritual arises out 
of it as fruit comes from the blossom. 


The Review of Reviews. 

June I, 1906. 


The Arena for March publishes an interview with 
Mr. D. G. Phillips, a popular American novelist, who 
takes the gloomiest views concerning the immediate 
future of the United States. He has some quaint 
notions concerning England, the influence of whose 
aristocracy is, he believes, corrupting American 
Societ}-, but his opinions about the United States 
are not second-hand: — 

Tie well-known Sepublican organ, the Daili/ Eagle of 
Wichita. Kansas, recently published the following as com- 
ina from a member of the Standard Oil Company: — 

"We are bigger than the Government. Standard Oil is 
stronger than the United States. We own tlie Senate and 
the House. If you pursue your investigations beyond the 
point necessary t» fool tlie public we will have you re- 
moved. We can secure the instant deposition of the secre- 
tary of commerce and labour. Mr. Metcalf, and the com- 
missioner of corporations, Mr. Garfield. It you persecute 
ns in the slightest degree you will be out of your job. and. 
U you keep at the business you will find what we say is ab- 
solutely true. Eockefeller is a bigger man than Eoosevelt." 

There is enough truth in this to give point to Mr. 
Phillips's picture of the growth of plutocracy in the 
American Republic. He says : — 

Prom the White House, where nothing short of a re- 
actionary revolution has taken place, where we find a demo- 
cratio President with the ceremonial of a king — " a cere- 
monial more rigid than that of the Court of the Tsar.' 
according to the wife of one of the ambassadors — down 
through the servants' world of the plutocracy, a new social 
order a.s insidious as it is progressive in character and 
as congenial to monarchal rule as it is fatal to democratic 
government. Privileged wealtli has become the dominating 
power in official America: that is to say. its servants are 
the masters of the people and privileged wealth has set its 
heart on an aristocratic instead of a democratic govern- 

Who can deubt the presence of a powerful, determined, 
autocratic plutocracy that is steadily growing more and 
more arrogant and arbitrary? Look at the courts ; notice 
the steady encroachments of the judiciary— a judiciary 
mads up chiefly of corporation attorneys; note that the 
extension of the injunction power is now being comple- 
mented bv a new engine of despotism — so-called " construc- 
tive contempt": look at the steady and rapid centralisa- 
tion of government, the assumptions of new and undreamed 
of powers by the President, the usurpation of legislative 
aud judicial functions by the bureaux or departments: 
look at the present autocratic character of the once great 
educational forum and popular legislative department of 
government, the House of Bepresentatives. It is to-day the 
creature of the Speaker and the Committee on Rules. And 
a glance at the personnel of the Senate will reveal to the 
most cursory optimist t.he real power behind the throne. 
The Senate is t.o-d.ay the creature of plutocracy and per- 
haps the most powerful engine in the nation for defeating 
the true interests of the people on all vital measures that 
affect corporate wealth. Unpleasant as the fact may he. 
it is nevertheless true that the real power in government 
te-day is privileged wealth acting systematically and often 
corruptly through the agencies of the pjarty-boss, the con* 
trolled machine and its minions in official life. 

Things will be worse before they are better, because the 
plutocracy to-day controls in a large degree the articulate 
class of the republic. The leaders axe theirs. Not all. of 
course, but the great majority, and more will be bought 
over : some by money bribes : more by the lust for power 
and still more effective social bribe. This last is the 
subtle, insidious and, I think, powerful weapon in the hands 
of plutocracy. The Lawyers are largely its hirelings, and 
they become judges, secretaries, and senators. 

The colleges in most European lands are the hotbeds of 
freedom and democracy: with us their voice is being quietlv 
but effectively silenced b.y bribes and the hope of briber. 
The patronage of plutocracy i^ corrupting and morally 
and mentally degrading. And what is true of the college 
and university is equally true of the church. 

.A.gain. men that are' useful are paid— well paid— by the 
triumphant, dollar-worshipping class, but they must be sub- 
servient. For some years to come the buying tip of the 
articulate class will continue. The war against democracy 
will be steadily and aggressively waged: despotic and un 

democratic preoeJeuts will be everywhere established. But 
thoigh the king is on the throne: though plutocracy is- 
rampant in politics, in business, in society; though its 
ascendancy is undeniable in the republic to-day: and 
though I believe it is so firmly entrenched that it will in- 
crease in power and arrogance for a few years to come, 
there are forces at work that will ultimately bring about 
its inevitable overthow. 


When a special commissioner of the Times feels- 
it his duty to write an article to the yorth American 
Review to proclaim that it is the inevitable destiny 
of the British West Indian islands to be absorbed 
bv the American Republic, it must be admitted that 
the end seems to be in sight. This is what Mr. 
W, P, Livingstone has done in the March Xorih 
American Review. He says : — 

The truth of the matter is that, despite all tendencies 
to the contrary, the West Indies are slowly but irresistiWy 
drifting towards the United States, and will inevitably be 
drawn into organic connection with that country. The pro- 
cess is in line with natural law and economic necessity. 
Physically, they are part of the United States, and their 
trade flows thither, because in the United states they find, 
for the majority of their products, their nearest and most 
profitable market. If we take Jamaica, we find that over 
63 per cent of its export goes to the United btates. while 
over 40 per cent, of its imports is credited to the s.ame 
country. It is relying more and more upon delicate and 
perishable produce", which comprises 60 per cent, of its 
total exports, and of this the greater proportion finds its 
way to the United St.ates. the value of fruit alone being 
nearly six million dollars. The other colonies are very 
much" in the same position. Yet. while thus commercially 
dependent on the United States, the relation subsisting 
between them is of the most precarious nature. 

It is in \iew of such facts that very many West-Indians 
believe that the only possible hope for the islands lies in 
the'r cession to the United States, and m their securing. 
like Puerto Eico, a free entry for their produce into Us 
natural market. There has never been any serious public 
consideration of the question, but one finds it pnvatelv 
advocated by planters and merchants everywhere. The 
chief reason tor the absence of a responsible movement is 
the fact that the idea is thought to be unpopular among 
the mass of the people, who might boycott the individuals 
that supported it. The negroes are well aware of the in- 
ferior position occupied bv the coloured population in the 
United States, and it is believed that they would resist 
American domination, though there has never been any 
opportunity of testing their real sentiment in the matter. 

The only alternative, that of absorption by 
Canada, seems remote. It is a curious situation. 
Who would have thought that the lynching of 
negroes in the Southern States would be a more 
effective temporan- guarantee of the integrity- of the 
British Empire in the West Indies than the whole 
British fleet! 


The Indian World of February quotes from the 
Times of India a melancholy article upon the doom 
of the Burmese. The result of the annexation of 
Burmah, according to the writer, is that wealth 
accumulates and the Burmese decay. He says : — 

The material prosperity of Burmah must, grow, for its 
foundations are built on a solid rock of agricultural and 
mineral wealth that h,a3 scarce begun to be quarried, ^es: 
but whnt is to be the place of the Burman lu the new 
State? There is no room for him in Eaneoon. 

The process of displacement, however, does not end there. 
^^,andllay is commonly regarded as a purel.y Burmese city. 
In Mandalar the Burman is jostled bv Sikh policemen 
nnd India, "soldiers. In the great bu«ing market he is 
Elbowed aside by Chinese, Mussulman, and Hindu traders^ 
If he embarks on any enterprise yon may be sure that the 

Hfi-ieic of Hel'ieirSy I/0/O6, 

Leading Articles. 


capital is found by a Madras Clietty or a Chinese money- 
lender, and that but a meagre sliare of the profits finds 
ite way into Burmese cash-boxes. Although the Burman is 
everywliere, it is not he who hafi the money. Of the ruraJ 
districts it is more diHicuIt to speak. If you inquire of 
those wljo know, however, you will invariably be told the 
same tale. Tiiat despite the existence of great, areas of 
nntllled land the Burman falls more deeply year by year 
into the toils of the Madras and Chinese money-lender. 
'luati whei-e ne is not actually expropriatea by tne foreigner, 
he is drifting into the position of the sowcaj's serf. 

There are some who would coldly view as inevitable the 
overwhelming of the Burmese by the mixed low races who 
are pouring into the country, and the extinction of the 
only laughter-loving race in onr Asiatic Empire. Happily 
they are few. 

Unfortunately, whether few or many, they seem 
unable to suggest any means by which the over- 
whelming of the only laughter-loving race in our 
Eastern Empire can be averted. 


How We are Digging Our Own Grave. 

The supreme duty of every foreign Power which 
has acquired dominion over other nations is to dig 
its own grave with the maximum of despatch. In 
other words, just as fathers train their sons to stand 
on . their own feet and make their own way in the 
world, so Empires should seek ever to make their 
subjects fit to dispense with their aid. 


In India the process has been slow but steady, 
and now a distinct national sentiment has been 
developed among the Indian peoples chiefly, it 
would seem, by the spread of the English language. 
The Indian World of February, quoting from the 
Pioneer, says : — 

Unification is. iu essence, an assertion of race differ- 
ence, and the unity brought about by the use of the Eng- 
lish language seems doomed to be used against those whose 
native tongue tlie English language is. . . . The new 
sentiment of Indian nationality embracing, in its scope, 
the Barman and the Mech, the Kol and the Santhal, the 
Naga and the Cossj'ah, as well as the ancient civilised races 
of India, is a very remarkable and interesting result of 
the vigour and efficiency of British rule in India. 


The process of gravedigging is not rapid enough 
to satisfy the Indians. The)- complain that in the 
King's Sf)eech self-go\ernment is relied upon as 
means of promoting prosp>erity and loyalty to the 
Crown in the Transvaal, and they ask, why not also 
in India? — 

May we be permitted to enquire why two different 
policies should be followed in two different parts of the 
Empire, under the same Government and at the same 
time, to ensure a common end — "the increase of prosperity 
and loyalty to the Crown"? If India has not yet been 
fit for free institutions, it is certainly not her fault. If, 
after one and half a century of British rule. India remains 
■where she was in the Middle Ages, what a sad commentary 
must it be upon the civilising influences of that rule! 
When the English came to India, this country was the 
leader of Asiatic civilisation and the undisputed centre 
of light in the Asiatic world; Japan was then nowhere. 
"Now, in fifty years. Japan has revolutionised her history 
Tvith the aid of modern arts of progress, and India, witli 
one hundred and fifty years of English rule, is still con- 
demned to tutelage. 


The Indian World says : — 
The Conservatives used to look npon India as a semi- 
■savage country where personal and autocratic rule was 

believed to suit the genius of its people; but may we not 
hoj)© that Mr. John Morley knows the situatiou better, 
botli as a scholar and a politician? \^ ill tlie Liberal 
Party treat India as tlie Conservatives did, and allow no 
reform in the constitution and Government of the Indian 
Empire? It India finds that there is nothing to clioose 
between the two great parties in England, tlien her loyalty 
and attachment to England will, as a matter of course, 
j-eceive a great shock. . . . Wliy should not, then, the 
Government of India be revised in the light of modern 
progress and be adapted to the needs and requirements 
of the modern day? 


Revision, the editor declares, is imperatively 
needed : — 

Under the system of government that now obtains in 
the country, the development of any popular institution in 
India or even our training for any sort of representative 
government must be considered absolutely impossible. 
Bureaucracy and personal rule, two bastard issues of 
Imperialism, are holding their reins too tight in India 
and it is only upon the ashes of autocracy that the temple 
of freedom can be built. We must therefore wage an un- 
compromising war against autocracy and appeal to our 
Liberal friends in England to help ns in this crusade. 
Once we are down with that feudal and time-worn form 
of government, our salvation will begin to da.wn upon us. 
It will not do any more to tell us that the East is East 
and that no popular government can thrive this side of 
the Medit«rrane:i.n, for Japan has effectually disiielled the 
Western tuperstition on this point and has proved as worthy 
of representative, and self, government as any country in 


It is not given to many poets to achieve such 
fame with one work that many new editions of it 
appear every year, as is the case with Joseph Viktor 
von Scheffel, the author of '■ The Trumpeter of 
Siikkingen." Scheffel is best known by this book 
and two others — " Ekkehard,'' a mediasval prose ro- 
mance, and " Gaudeamus," a collection of students' 

An interesting chapter in the poet's life has re- 
cently been given to the world, and in the March 
number of Wcsterinann is told the love-story of 
Scheffel and Emma Heim, together with the circum- 
stances of the present publication of Scheffel's let- 
ters to his " Emmale," which have appeared in book 
form with Emma Heim's personal recollections of 
the poet. Scheffel's friendship with Emma Heim 
extended from 1851 to the day of his death, thirtv- 
five years later, in 1886. 

In " The Trumpeter of Sakkingen," a tale in 
verse of the Thirty Years' War, which Scheffel wrote 
while he was in Italy, the poet expresses his longing 
for his love in the Black Forest ; but no one, not 
even Joannes Proelss, Scheffel's biographer, seems 
to have been aware that Emma Heim, who cele- 
brated her seventieth birthday in Berlin last year, 
had influenced the poet's work so much. When 
Scheffel returned from Italy to ask her to become 
his wife, it was to learn that her hand had already 
been promised to another. The correspondence is 
an autobiography of the most intimate nature, 
portraying the poet's life, with all its struggles and 
bitterness, as well as happiness. 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, ISOo. 


Help ! Help ! Sir E. Grey to the Rescue. 

The Gerraanophobists of the Fortnightly have at 
least one redeeming virtue. They are so profoundly 
ashamed of their mischievous work that they skulk 
behind pseudonyms and asterisks. Cowards, with 
their visors down month after month, do their best 
to hound Great Britain into war with Germany. 
This month " Perseus '' leads the van, fittingly sup- 
ported by " * * *." Both profess to be consumed 
by a deadly fear lest the Kaiser will gobble up 
Austria-Hungary. Take ''Perseus" first: — 


There is only one statesman capable of restoring the 
European equilibrium. Thi.t statesman is S.r Eawara Grey. 
There is only one means by which might be created a 
counterpoise massive enough to relieve the cause of Euro- 
pean peace Irom its present entire dependence upon the 
Kaisers personal will, and to provide sufficient collateral 
security. Tnat means will be found, if at all, in the definite 
adl esi n of the Tsar to a purely defensive compact or 
alliance formed in the first instance between EnglaBd, 
France, ana ii/ss a. Nothing can set limits to the 
exercise of the German veto in the affairs of Europe. No 
th-ughiful obse ver of international events, indeei, can be 
too sansuine upon this point. It maj' prove that the cause 
of Europe ceased to exist upon the plains of Mulsden. Bnt. 
unpromising as the present sitnat.on in the Tsardom may 
appear, it is nevertheless obvious that until Russia recovers 
her forner in the Continental system there will be 
no adequate security for the western ttatus quo. 

There is no security for .Austria-Hungary, and none for 
Holland ani B-lgium; none for the d'pl matic independence 
of France: none for the sea-p3wer of this country. For a 
German Empire of 61.0(X),Q0O, expanded, as it might be 
exp3ndel even now, by the results of a war such as the 
WilhelmstrasSD has permitted itself to threaten repeatedly 
during the list twelve months, into a pan-German Empire 
of 120,C0O.00O, Antwerp and Trieste for sally ports, would 
sound the knell of British naval supremacy, and would 
create a Colonial d minion for the Kaiser's subjects by the 
dismemberment of the British Empire. The problem of the 
European equil britmi is in reality for all the Great Powers 
except one — an . for all the li tie nations— the problem of 
Atist ia-H Tgariau integr ty. For future purposes all din- 
lomTio roads lead to Vienna, and the alternative upon 
which all the interests of the Western Powers and Russia 
mu=;t. in the long run, depend is the choice, and in time, 
between a politique d'Autriche and a politique d'autruche. 


" * * * " declares out of the plenitude of his inner 
consciousness that — 

a war for breaking the power of Great Britain and taking 
her commerce and her colonies, or for conquering Holland 
or Swi zerland. or for joining the German parts of Austria- 
Hungary to Germany, would powerfully appeal to the 
imagincition rf the masses, and such a war would not onlv 
be immensely popular all over Germany, bnt it would, if 
successful, be exceedingly profitable to t;hat country. 

A page or two later he tells us that 

In these circumstances it appears that Great Britain has 
the dest ny of Europe in her hands, and the question What should Great Britain do if Germany should 
strive to use her oppartunities by an attacK on Austria- 
Hungary or on Holland, and endeavour to become all-power- 
ful in Europe.-' . . . We can really not be expec;ed to 
save Europe against her will. Therefore we must agree witli 
Prance on a plan of action, in case of certain clearly 
ceterminable contingencies. 

Really is it quite decent to allow anonymous 
scribblers to incite nations to impute all manner of 
murderous and fanatical designs to their neigh- 
bours ? 

i ? ^"* Liio uisucd.1 icuiug. aiiu periiaps lue muiinv. 

of the irmv, and it won'd a» ':ist lead to the creation of a 
Continental coalition against Germany, for Germany's weak 
neiebb-urs would regain courage should Germany be greatly 


After a harrowing sketch of the fate of Europe 
under the mailed foot of the Kaiser, "* * *" 

s.ivs : — 


Some years ago the tenant of a house in the 
North-West of London brought me a weird and 
terrible tale of her experiences in one of the rooms 
in h«: house. Everyone who slept in that room was 
wakened up by the attempt of some invisible spectre 
to strangle them. The haunted room became unin 
habitable, and my visitor abandoned the house. 
The story ran that early in the century a litck 
French girl, of the name of Ursula, had been foully 
murdered in that room, and that the spirit of her 
murderer, being unable to leave the scene of his 
crime, perpetually attempted to repeat it. He is 
probably doing it to this day, but I lost all trace 
of the case ten years ago. It is brought back to my 
mind by a somewhat similar story — but this time it 
was the couch, and not the room, that was haunted 
— which Mr. R. B. Span tells the readers of the 
Occult Review for April in his paper entitled " Some 
Glimpses of the Unseen." It is as follows; — 

Two ladies. Miss I and Mme. de B (friends of my 

mother's), were travelling in the Ai s'rian Tyrol, and had 
occasion to stop at a mcnntain village, where they were 
accommod ted at a small hotel (or inn). They occupied the 
same room, a large old-fashioned apartment. 

Miss I had a curious old couch for a bed, and Mme- 

de B had a bed at the further side of the room. Miss 

I was aroused in the night by a horrible sensation as 

of Borne awful p-esence near her, which was quite indescrib- 
able, and as she maved to strike a liaht a hand seiied 
her by the throat and pressed her head back on the pillow, 
nearly strangling her. She struggled violently and 
shrieked, and seized the wrist of the hand which was at 
her throat, bat could find no arm beyond the wrist. Her 

sister. Mme. de B , was awake-:el by the noise and called 

out, and at her voice the hand relaxed its grip and the 
horrit le presence withdrew. Viss I w.-is nearly faint- 
ing with terror, but her s'ster insis'ed that she must have 
been dream'ng, and had a bad nightmare, as there was no 
one or nothing in the room besides t''emee'ves,_ and the 
doors an'l windows were securely fastened. Nath'ng would 

in-^uce Miss I to occupy that bed a?ain, sa her sister 

said she would s^eep there, as she was sure it was all non- 
sense; and so Miss I dressed and lay down on the bed 

at the other side of the room, and Mme. de B took the 


A light was kent burning for Miss I — - -'s convenience, bnt 
it seems thev bo'h fell asleep and the light went out nn- 

accanntablr. M'SS I ws aroused bv V-earine the shrieks 

of her sister, and at once inmred off the bed an-l struck 

a match. Mme, de B hid juH gone through the game 

experience as Mign I h^d. After that they agreed to give 

the couch 'a wde berth." and spent the remainder of the 
hours of darkness to?e*her on the bed at the firther side 
of the room where thev were nndistnrhed. Thev learnt 
later on that someone had been murdered on that conch 
b"- be'ng strangled, bnt not in that house or even that 

Review of Hevieicg, 1/6/06. 

Leading Articles. 



In the Financial Review of Reviews Mr. Keir 
Hardie answers the plaintive cry of the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer when approached on projects of 
social reform, " Where's the money to come from?" 
His proposals are by no means so revo'.utionar)- as 
alarmists might have supposed. The problems 
which he sets himself to solve are : — 

First, how to raise 20 millions additional yearly; and 
secondly, how to adjust the Budget so as to abolish the 
breakfast table duties and the coal tax; pay for all edu- 
cation and the poor from Imperial tunds; provide Old 
Age Pensions ajid one or two otJier reforms. 

He would introduce a new principle into British 
income tax, the principle of taxing incomes derived 
from investments, land and property of all sorts on 
a higher scale than those derived from personal 
exertion. He suggests is. 6d. for the former, to be 
collected at the source, as at present; and is., as 
at present, for the latter. He would exempt from 
the additional tax those with incomes below ;^5oo 
on the whole of their income; below ^£700, on 
jQs°° of their incohie; below ^"locxj, on ^500 of 
their income. He would at the same time readjust 
the Death Duties on a graduated scale. He puts 
his scheme in a convenient table : — 



Value of 



te in thousands 

Estate Duty 

Estate Duty 

of pounds. 

per cent. 

per cent. 

25- 50 



50— 75 

. ... 5 


75— 100 

. .-. 5J 


100— 125 

. ... 6 


125— 150 

. ... 6 


151— 2)0 



200— 250 

. ... 6i 



. ... 7 


300— 400 

. ... 7 


40O— 500 

. ... 7 


500— 600 



600— 700 



70C— 80O 

. ... 7i 


800— 900 




. ... 7J 






. ... °l 



.■:; S..2 


1750— -n.-O 




and so on 
up to 




and 80 on 
up to 



I.eavine the possessor £9,400.000, above which the State 
would take all further estate to itself 


The theory of tlie^e proposals is that the State should 
the aggregate during the whole of the man's life as income 

Income in 
of pounds 

1— 2 

2- 3 
5- 6 








Taxes levied 
at the 


Taxes levied 


t--~ . 


per cent 


o ir. 










s .- 









and 80 on 

= f 




455 per cent. 

and so on ^ 

up to o 


Leaving the possessor a net income of about. t.M0,00O, 
above which the State would take all further income to 

take at one step, at death, about as much as it takes in 
tax on his unearned income. 

He estimates the yield of the additional taxation as follows: — 

„ .. ..... , ,. . . Millions. 

r rnni the additional 6a. on unearned incomes 10 

From increased graduation of the Death Duties "!,"... ., !!! 4 

Prom graduation of income tax for incomes above £5000 ... [.'. ... ... 6 

Total 80 - 

In another convenient table he shows: — 


Extra Receipts. 

By additional Income Taxes 

Death Duties 

.. ,. Liquor Licences ... 

.. 16 

... 4 
... 7 

B.V resumption of amount handed over to local 


By reduction of Army 

By natural increase of revenue in the course of 
.year ... 








To taking over local exrensoa of Education, feed- 
ing necessitous children, and rroviding the 

children of workhouse parents 11 

To unemployed i 

To Old-aee Pensions for all over 65 -.. 14 

Extra Government emplo.vees' wages 1 


The Breakfast Table Duties 
Goal Tax 




The Review of Reviews. 

June 1. 1906. 


In tlie North American Review for March a wTiter 
makes a passionate plea for subsidies for American 
shipping. By the proposal now before Congress 
the Commission provides for the payment of sub- 
ventions to ten mail lines, to be established as fol- 
lows : — 

The maximum compensation nnder the Bill is : Atlantic, 
1,050,000 <iols.: Gulf. 475.000 dols. ; Pacitic, 1,140,000 dels, a 
total maximum of 2.665. OUO dols. 

The Bill also provides a compensation of 217,000 dols. to 
the Oc«anic line between San Francisco and New Zealand 
and Australia. 

The writer says : — 

This nation to-day, with all its vast wealth, unlimited re- 
sources and mighty commerce, has actually 1D8.000 tons less 
engaged in foreign trade than it had ninety-five years 
ago. Within the last two years Germany alone, with a 
population of only 53,000,000, has built more tonnage than 
the entire tonnage of this country. W"e have naval vessels 
to-day tliat we are not able to furnish with crews. If 
war should come to-morrow, we wonld have magnificent 
vessels of war without men to man them. Had we lost a 
single firstrclass fighting ship in our brief war with Spain. 
we could not have furnisiicd oncers and crew for another! 
These are some of the alarming, humiliating and discred- 
itable conditions which the Commission found. 

The cause of the decline of our merchant marine was 
made plain to this Commission by the testimony given 
before it. It costs from fortv to a hundred per cent, more 
to build an American ship than a foreign one of tlie same 
class. It costs from twenty to forty per cent. moTe to 
operate an American than a foreign ship. All other coun- 
tries, with any attempt at commerce, pay subsidies. 

To-day, we are utterly powerless to protect our foreign 
possessions in case of war. We have no American ships 
to carrj- troops or supplies, and the law of nations, if it 
were otherwise possible, prevent* us from securing foreign 
ships. Should this forty millions be spent, then let us 
pass from the picture of cost to the picture of results. 
It will add 1,500.000 tons to our foreign shipping. It will 
give investment to 700,000.000 dols. of American capital. It 
will give employment to 500.000 American workmen. It will 
keep at home more than half a million dollars, in gold, 
each day now sent to Europe. It will give to American 
labour l.OOO.OOO dols, in work— 1.000,000 dols. in wages each 
day that is now given to those in another land owing 
allegiance to another flag. 

Another \VTiter in the same review points out that 
the United States will have to modify her interpre- 
tation of the most-favoured-nation clause, which 
certainly does seem to operate with monstrous un- 
fairness to this countrj'. The writer says : — 

In 1898 we concluded a commercial agreement with France, 
by which we granted to the latter certain reductions of 
duty in return for equivalent concessions. When Great 
Britain claimed the same favour for its products, under 
the most-favoured-nation clause, we refused to grant it. 
Germany and other countries desiring to obtain the 
concessions granted by us to France had to conclude 
Bpecial reciprocity treaties with this country, while Great 
Britain, having iio concessions to offer, continues to pay 
higher rates of duty on certain imports to the United 
States than other countries, which treat ns far less 

He adds: — 

Unless the United States should see fit to modify its con- 
struction in conformity with the modern European prac- 
tice, the oulv way the Europeans see out of tlie dilemma 
is to follow the example we set in the case of Switzerland 
— namelj", to repeal their most-favoured-nation treaties with 
the United States. 

In the American Review of Reviews for April IsIt^ 
McClear)-, writing on the Single versus the Dual 
Tariff, strongly condemns the latter as a provocation 
to tariff wars. He savs : — 

Norway s idea is unique and is well worthy of special 
consideration. Norway's law carries two rates of dntv, 
after the French system. But. unlike France, Norway gives 
to every ooimtry her best rates of duty, unless she is dis- 
criminated against. She holds in reserve the higher rates 
of duty, to applj- to the goods of anv country that may 
discriminate against the goods of Norway. 


What has been Done ix Twenty-five Years. 
This year has been celebrated, with but little 
notice from the outside world, the twenty-fifth anni- 
versar)- of the Christian Endeavour movement. Mr. 
H. B. F. Macfarland tells the readers of the Nort/i 
American Review the leading facts as to what Chris- 
tian Endeavour has achieved in the last twenty-five 


Mr. Macfarland says: — 

Nothing was further from the mind of Dr. Clark, the 
young Congregational minister of the Williston Church of 
Portland, Maine, when on the evening of February 2nd, 
1881, he organised his young parishioners into tlie first Chris- 
tian Endeavour Society, than that it would figure in the 
aifairs of the nation, much less in the affairs ot nations. 

The constitution gave, as the object of the society, " to 
promote an earnest Christian life among its members, to 
increase their mutual acquaintance and to make them 
more useful servants of God." But the most important 
clause — the stumbling-block to the young people and the 
potent cause of their after-success — related to the pxayer- 
meeting, and stated: "It is expected that all of the active 
members of this society will be present at every meeting 
unless detained by some absolute necessity, and that each 
one will take some part, however slight, in every meeting." 

The pledge provides for personal, systematic and united 
endeavours. It always provides for daily Bible-reading, 
regular church attendance and participation in meetings, 
unless an excuse can be given conscientiously " to his Lord 
and Master." and the pledge has proved fascinating rather 
than repellent, and spiritual rather than mechanical. 


From this cast-iron pledge accepted bv the young 
people of Maine has sprung an organisation that 
circles the world. Mr. Macfarland says: — 

A tiny seed, a great tree: from one society of less than 
fifty members to over sixty-six thousand societies and 
nearly four million members: from one small church in 
Portland, Maiiie, to churches in every Christian community 
and at most of the missionary stations the world round; 
from a few dollars a year, for missionary and other causes, 
to over half a million dollars last year, from less than 
one-sixth of the whole number of societies : from obscurity 
to world-wide fame and influence — this is the qu.arter-of-a- 
oentury storv of the Christian Endeavour movement. In 
much less than a generation it has rea^ched this great 


The fact that it is a religious society causes many 
people to ignore it most illogically. For, as Mr. 
Macfarland says, 

simply as one of the facts of life in our day. the rise 
and progress of the Christian Endeavour movement, for 
example, is sufflcientlv important to be worthy the careful 
consideration of any thoughtful man. regardless of his 
views of religion. If a new political party had, in tlie 
same time, grovm to such proportions and was sliowing 
the same virility and stability, it would be the frequent 
theme of men who. perhaps, do not know even the name 
of the Christian Endeavour Society. If four million people 
were keeping a pledge to read daily the plays of Shakes- 
peare, or the poems of Dante, or the dialogues of Plato — 
to meditate upon them, to bring them to the attention 
of others, and to put their highest teachings into practical 

Review of Revieuii. tl6/0€. 

Leading Articles. 


liviug— that fact wonld interest immensely men who ilr 
not seem to know that the greatest book of all is huTins: 
jnat such place and power in the lives of four millions. 


The most distinctive feature of the movement is 
the immense variety of work that is done under the 
Social Committee. Mr. Amos Wells truly says: — 

The ingenuit.r of the social committee in devising ways 
of reaching tlie young outside of the church, through social 
gatherings and pure amusements, has certainly been mar- 
vellous. The good-literature committee gathers subscrip- 
tions to denominational periodicals; collects for hospitals 
and missionaries the waste reading-matter of the congrega- 
tion: opens churcli reading-rooms, literature tables, or 
book and magazine exchanges: supplies with religious read- 
ing baxber shops, railroad waiting-rooms, and the like; 
keeps scrap-books tearing on the work of the different 
committees; edits and publi.shes the church paper, and 
often prints for circulation the pastor's sermons. The 
flower committee decorates the pulpit, and afterwards, 
with loving messages, distributes the flowers among the 
sick or poor. The calling committee seeks out strangers. 
The relief committee dispenses charitable gifts. The Sun- 
day-school committee prepares itself to fill gaps in the 
ranks of the teachers, hunts up absent scholars, gathers in 
new ones. Missionary and temperance committees agitate 
those causes b.r special meetings and by literature. The 
uaher committee welcomes visitors, and keeps the back seats 
clear. There are invitation committees, to distribute printed 
invitations to church meetings; correspondence committees 
to wat^^h over members as they pass from one place to 
another, and introduce them into some oew society and 
church home. There are pastors' aid committees, to do 
little odd jobs for the pastor. The ingenious young folks 
sometimes even form baby committees, to tend small chil- 
dren while their mothers go to church. 


Dr. Clark's mind is more and more turned to the 
task of making the Christian Endeavour movement 
a great instrument for promoting the brotherhood of 
the nations. He was recently in Scandinavia. I 
hope that in a very short time he will be welcomed 
into Russia. This year the great Convention will be 
held at Geneva, where Dr. Clark hopes that Espe- 
ranto mav be found an invaluable key-language for 
Christian Endea\ourers from the uttermost parts of 
the world: — 

Dr. Clark's character, as well as his consistent purpose, 
is well shown in the four great objects which he set be- 
fore the societies at the convention of 1905. in Baltimore, 
namely — 

1. That they give 1.000,000 dollars to denominational mis- 

2. That they should bring into the ehnrch one million 
new church attendants; 

3. That they should induce one million persons to join 
the church ; 

4. That they should bring one million new members into 
the Christian" Endeavour societies. 

Add to this the present proposal that each of the 
4,000,000 Christian Endeavourers should subscribe 
a jubilee shilling to the building of a great inter- 
national centre and headquarters for the movement. 
Dr. Clark has no monetary interest in this, for the 
United Society, which is the international head- 
quarters, does not draw for its support one dollar 
from the individual societies, but is maintained b\' 
the profits of its own publications. Dr. Oark has 
supported himself by his own wTitings. 

Sir Lewis Michell, writing recently in the Empire 
Review on " Southern Rhodesia," says that in Rho- 
desia " the worst is over." 


The Future Tory-Socialist Alliance. 
Mr. G. S. Street contributes to the Forimgltily 
for April a verv entertaining article on " Socialists 
and Tories," which may be regarded as his contri- 
bution to the optical services which Tories of his 
school are to render to the darkened eyes of the 
Labour Party. He starts well by roundly declaring 
'• that true Toryism and Socialism rightly under- 
stood are the same thing." 


Feudalism was Socialism in the rough: — 

The rendering of various services to the community by 
those best fitted to render them, the most efficient sustenance 
of all workers for their various work, and the refusal of 
opportunities and enjoyments unaccompanied by duties, 
are principles common to philosophical Socialism and his- 
toric Toryism. 


Mr. Street maintains that so far from Socialism 
leading to Communism, it is by Socialism that the 
rights of property ■will be secured: — 

How people can suppose that Socialism is a step in that 
direction I cannot imagine. I should have thought it clear 
that when men are more aptly allotted to their proper 
functions, and more properly cherished in accordance witli 
their services to the community, it will be even more tin- 
likely than now. when position and wealth are so often 
irrational and haphazard, that the community would allow 
the idle and incompetent to share alike with the strenuous 
and nsefnl. 


Mr. Street declares that — 

for many years now the influence — tlie supposed influence. 1 
will say — of capitalism, working for its own ends, has been 
a blight on the Conservative Party, blasting its credit wit:. 
the country as a whole. Brewers, landlords, mine-owners — 
their figures have bulked very sinister in the eyes of wages- 
earning men. A party which is supposed to stand for veste 1 
interests in the first place is doomed. . . . But although 
it contains many mere Conservatives, it also contains 
Tories who have some conception of constructive statesman- 
ship, who aie not frightened b.y the word Socialist, and 
who, like Disraeli and Lord Randolph Churchill, hate the 
- word- Conservative. The ruin which the last-named states- 
man prophesied for his party, if capital should dominate it, 
has well-nigh overtaken it. It can still rise from its fall. 


Mr. Street thinks that Protection will be the basis 

of the new alliance: — 

But could any folly be more illogical than that of 
Socialists refusing to consider taxiff reform, assuming im- 
plicitly that the State should have no control over trade.^ 
Socialists and Labour members are destined to be tariff 

The Tory party of the future is destined to make 
short work of many Conservati\ e shibboleths : — 

■When the State claims to work its children's brains it 
must in justice — as well as obvious sense, if it cares for its 
manhood— attend to their bodies. When its services have 
exhausted the labours of its citizens, it must provide, 
without a taint of derogation and restraint, for their old 
age. To control wages and hours of labour is a sound 
Tory tradition. I would add that in future the ablest Tory 
administrators must not be bullied out of their efforts to 
reform an admittedly bad system in Ireland bv the threats 
of intolerant b gots. That many Tories see their way to 
combining with the intelligence of the working classes in 
constructive statesmanship I cannot doubt. 

After this all that remains to be done is to write 
Hie Jacet on the tombstone of the party which, with 
a brief interral, governed the Empire from 1886 to 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1S06. 


In the Engineering Magazine Mr. O. M. Becker 
describes auxiliary methods of successful labour 
employers in ameliorating the conditions of their 
employes. He calls it " The Square Deal in Works 
Management." It is amply illustrated with pictures 
of recreation rooms, playing fields, rest rooms, etc., 
in works like those of Messrs. Cadbury and Messrs. 
Lever in this country and America. After describ- 
ing also the calisthenic exercises introduced during 
work hours, to relieve the strain on certain muscles 
and to develop those little used, the writer proceeds 
to deal with another factor, one that is ail but 
universally overlooked or neglected — namely, that 
of environment in respect of the aesthetic nature. 
He says : — 

Attention ha^ already been directed to the certain effect 
of slovenly shop surroundings upon the workmen in it. 
Good light, cleanliness, proper sanitation, comfort-able posi- 
tion wnile at work — these and other things have been 
indicated as helpful in making workmen cheerful, happy 
and content. But a shop may have all these thinas and 
still be a cismal, cbeerlees place to work in, whose depress- 
ing influence cannot be entirely dissipated by the lively 
activity of which it is the daily scene. It ig doubtless too 
much to suggest, at least under prevailing industrial condi- 
tions, that every place wheie men and women work should 
be made beautiful. The manager of a foundry or a rolling 
mill would very likely laugh outright at the idea of beau- 
tifying such placee. Commonly located in busy, crowded, 
and dirty districts, ^ridded with railroad tracks and switch 
yards, the build'nge as tall and close to each otlier as 

Sossible, and frequently hidden in clouds of smoke and 
nst, the average factory looks very unpromising indeed 
from the aesthetic point of view. Experience has shown. 
however, that even under most discou-^aging conditions 
there ae p-^ssibilifes. The largest factorv in its line in the 
world was ten years ago no exception to the general rule. 
To-day it ia throughout almost a work of art, internally 
as well as externally. The walls are painted, the newer 
buildings artistically designed, and old ones more or less 
reoniis true ted. \ acant snaces i»ot otberwise utilised sodded 
with grass, shop walls agreeably tinted and at intervals 
hung with pictures and appropriate mottoes. Shrubs and 
vines are eve ywhere in evidence, b^xes of plants and 
flowers gracD minv a window, and trees are found where 
least exnerte'l. Thft whole atmosphere is more that of a 
studio than that of a factory as ordinarily known. And 
tl'e owner asserts most emphatically that all this, along 
with t' e many other aereeable con-^itions he has brought 
about, has a powerful influence upon his operatives, making 
themT>etter men and women and better producers; and in 
consequence that it vielda good interest uwon the invest- 
ment. The'-e i3_ no inherent reason why such conditions 
should not ultimately prevail very largely, or even uni- 

He pfoes on to sav that, though this may seem to 
some the counsel of perfection- 
it is a sat^sfnctinn to reflect that there are very few shops 
indeed that c-^n^ot be m^de tolerably attractive and plea- 
sant, if t^'e pr'^ner effort be but made. Nor is it necessary 
for the shop owners to s-o to lare-e expense. A verv little 
encou'a^'^me^t of the interested ones, and a little more 
example pet by the manap-ement, will go a long way toward 
making work-rooms pleasant. 


The editor, in reviewing; Mr. Bud.gett Meakin's 
" Model Factories and Villages," puts the other side 
when he says : — 

The danger of int^o-'ucing too much of the Sundav school 
spir't, into refo-ms nf t'^'S kind is, that S'^'^ner or later an 
inevitable reirtlon is bound to c^me. Another daneer that 
seems to suggcs* itself from an examination of some of the 
institutions provided, and described in Mr. Meakin's book. 

is the creation of a standard of luxurious surroundings 
which must always remain a contrast with the normal lives 
of the working population. 

It would be a truer service to working i>eople to inculcate 
a really practical form of the "simple life," if such can be 
evolved, than to provide them with middle-class surround- 
ings in the shape of rest rooms, recreation rooms, aud bo 
forth. There is no special virtue iu teaching people to 
surround themselves with mere prettiness. Oriental floor 
rugs and nicknacks may make a room bright and cheerful, 
hut they may also easily lead later on to discontent with 
the stern realities of life. Unfortunately, so many of the 
people who are interesting themselves iu this and similar 
movements, mistake the ideals of their particular station in 
life for primary and imperative necessities. 


Practical Advice to the Intending Settler. 

A colonist in British Columbia contributes to 
Macmillan's Magazine an eminently practical paper 
on " Work and Wages in British Columbia." 
" There is one class of man absolutely certain to 
better his condition by coming to British Columbia," 
and that is the man who can and will work with his 
hands, and leave whisky and politics severely alone. 
" Want of labour and a plethora of politics are the 
curses of Western Canada.'' Dislike Chinese labour 
as you may, you must often employ it. The Japa- 
nese (let Australians, with their dread of the Japa- 
nese, note this), though not kept at bay by ^loo 
poll-taxes, as are the Chinese, " do not like the 
work and will not stick to it." When the fishing 
season comes, the goes off to fish, leaving 
h's employer in the lurch. " The result of all this 
is that in the field of farm labour an English farm 
hand would have no class to compete against in 
British Columbia." 

In two years, the writer says, he has not been able 
to get a farm labourer able to plough and do what 
farm labourers are supposed to be able to do, and 
this near the capital. Let the Colonial training 
homes note the following: — 

The onlv all-ernative to a Chinese cook ia yotir own wife. 
Tlie Indy.helT) i3 a rank impostor: she is too much lady and 
too little help. She p''ts her boots ou'side her door every 
niffht and wonders who cleans them: she can plnv the 
piano moderately, but slie knows nothing of makine butt«r: 
and "the one thing: she cannot do" inclu'^es all those 
things which she is wanted to do. As a nractical man I 
say for heaven's sake let her ston at home, unless she 
comes here expressly to be married; in which case, i.f she ^^ 

be eood-look'ner. let her come. fl 

Very nenrly the same may be said of the gentleman- ^ 
labourer. He is an expensive luxury, and nlthoneb in time 
he may grow into a first-clnss workmnn. it is better that 
lie should do so at some other man's exnense. 

The re^ple we WTnt in this country are the oM-fashioned 
general servants who can cook plainly, wash and scrub, and 
the farm-'abourers who can do any ordinary job upon a 
mixed farm. For them the outlook is bright enough. 

We want them here, too ; and the other Colonies 
want them as well. Indeed, who does not want 
them ? In British Columbia such a capable general 
ser\'ant, man or woman, may get £-\ 12s. to jQ^ a 
month, with board, all the year round. In some 
emplovments wages are higher, but work not quite 


llerific of RfVieirs, I/GJ06. 

Leading Articles. 



A Specimen of Unconscious Irony. 

In the National Rez'/cw for April Lord Milner 
writes on " Great Britain and South Africa." With 
unconscious irony the late High Commissioner lays 
down as ends to be attained those things which he 
more than any other man has ahriost put out of 
our reach. For instance, he begins by saying, " The 
South African question has now got into the ruts of 
party. That is the worst thing that could have 
befallen South Africa or Great Britain." 

Who is responsible for that ? 

Then again he says : — 

We are, I take it. all agreed that in the long i-uu South 
Africa can only remain within the British family of 
Stabea if the majority of her white inhabitants desire, or 
at least acquiesce in, that position. It is not necessary 
that they should all be fervently attached to Great Britain, 
or even to the British connection. But it is necessary that 
there should be a nucleus in whom that attachment is 
really strong, and tiiat this nucleus should be powerful 
enough to counterbalance any actively hostile elements, 
and to leaven the more or less indifferent mass. My plea 
ia for a policy on the part of this country which will 
steadily tend to strengthen that nucleus. 

But who made the majoritv of the white inhabit 
ants of South Africa regard Great Britain with 
enmity, if it was not the man who devastated the 
Republics ? 

In another place he says : — 

The Dutch are not going to feel any enthusiasm for the 
union of South Africa under the British flag instead of 
under their own. It is utterly unreasonable, it is a very 
poor compliment to the Dutch themselves, to expect any- 
thing of the kind. Not enthusiasm — but we may reasonably 
hope acquiescence. 

This can be srot equally, and indeed better, if. while 
treating the Dutch with perfect fairness, we at the same 
time do all we can to strengthen and hearten the British 
element, and to envelop South Africa, as far as possible, in 
a British atmosphere. 

But when South Africa has been enveloped for 
three years in a British atmosphere, in the fumes of 
lyddite shells, even " acquiescence " is hardly to be 
hoped for. Lord Milner warns us that: — 

When once self-government is granted, it would be vain, 
it would even be detrimental to the British cause in 
South Africa, to interfere in the local political struggle, 
however deeply we may be interested in it. 

Let Downing-street only raise a finger and a 
strong current of local feeling will itnmediately be 
set flowing against the party which has Downing- 
street for an ally. 

What a pity he did not remember this when he 
set out to crush the Africanders, and again, at a 
later date, when he threw all his influence into the 
effort to suspend the Constitution of the Cape ! 

He proceeds ; — 

But the non-interference of the Britisli Government is 
one thinsr. the indifference of the British people quite 
another. It makes all the difference in the world to the 
South African British whether we in this country recog- 
nise or do not recosnise that in "keeping their end up" 
Uiey are fighting not only their own battle, but ours. 
Nolihine is calculated to encourage them more than such 
recognition. And. on the other hand, nothing chills their 
affection like being misunderstood or misrepresented at 


Therefore, Lord Milner does his best to clear the 
financial magnates of any responsibility for the war. 
He does not say, although he might say it truly. 
•• Alone I did it." But what led to more " misun- 
derstanding " at home than Lord Milner's own action 
in sanctioning the flogging of the Chinese? 

His concluding words are full of gloom : — 

And if things are not to go from bad to worse we must 
make liaste to revise our judgment and alter our attitude 
towards our fellow-countrymen in South Africa. We are 
losing friends everv dav. ami we cannot afford to lose 
them" I look forward with confidence to the ultimate ver- 
dict of history. But I own that I look forward with 
alarm to the irrep-^rable mischief which may be done 
tjefore that verdict is recorded. 

One consolation is that as none of the good 
things Lord Milner thought he could secure have 
been obtained, his gloomy forecast may be equally 
falsified bv events. 


A particularly interesting scientific article on this 
subject appears in the Monthly Review, by Paul 


The writer begins by an account of the Teich- 
mann blood-test, enabling the presence of blood to 
be known with absolute certainty. Mere proof of 
its presence, however, is insufficient : some method 
is required of answering an accused man who says 
that the blood on his clothes is not a man's, but a 
pig's or a dog's. Now it is known that human blood 
corpuscles are round and coreless ; those of birds, 
fishes, and certain animals are oval and haw a 
core ; there are also differences in the lengths of 
the corpuscles. By a process, of which he gives a 
careful account. Dr. Uhlenhuth describes how he 
has solved the question of nut merely proving the 
presence of blood, but proving to which animal it 
belonged, or whether it was human blood. His 
experiments showed that " a rabbit treated with 
human blood yielded a serum which produced pre- 
cipitation only in human blood": — 

It occurred with constant regularity that the serum of 
rabbits into which human or animal blood had lieen re- 
peatedly injectei produced a sediment only in solu iocs of tlie 
blood used in the treatment, eren when the blood had been 
dried up tor decades past. 

These experiments have been tested over and 
over again, sometimes on blood-stained objects 
from old criminal trials, of which the experimenter 
had no knowledge ; and never have they failed. 


This study of blood differentiation also enables 
one to ascertain whether what is served as beef be 
really beef or merely horse: — 

If the serum of a rabbit treated with horse's blood be 
m'xed witii the suspicious specimens of meat, we can at 
once discern, by the t'jrbidity which ensues, that it is 
horseflesh, and it is immaterial for the result of the experi- 
ment whether this is in the form of minced meat or sausage 
or is in a pickled or smoked state. 


Dr. Uhlenhuth says that, having proved that the 
serum of a rabbit treated with a particular kind of 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 190C 

albumen produced a sediment also in the body albu- 
men of nearly-related animals, and having by this 
means pro\ed the relationship bersveen horse and 
ass, pig and wild pig, dog and fox, it occurred to 
him that from the point of view of natural science 
nothing was of greater interest than proof of the 
blood-relationship between man and ape. He and 
an English investigator found that rabbit seruni 
treated with human blood, added to thirty-four kinds 
of human blood, always produces a strong sedi- 
ment ; and that the same serum mixed with eight 
kinds of anthropoid ape's blood (ourang-outang, 
gorilla, chimpanzee) produced in all the eight cases 
a sediment almost as strong as in human blood. 
Therefore : — 

As it is an established fact that the serum of a rabbit 
treated with hnman blood produces a sediment, not only in 
human blood, but also in ape's blood, but in no other 
kind of blood whatever, this is for even,- scientifically- 
thinking investigator an absolutely sure proof of the 
blood-retationship between mau and apes. 

Although the conclusion is not to be drawn from these 
investigations that man is descended from the anthropoid 
apes with whicli we are to-day acquainted, a blood-relation- 
ship between man and the apes is certainly proved. 

The doctrine of evolution, as propounded "and elaborated 
by such investigators as Lamarck, Darwin, and Haeckel 
thus finds a firm and visible support in biological seriun 


By Arthur Lytteltox and Sir W. des Vceux. 

Mr. Arthur Lyttelton, writing on the Government 
and South Africa in the Kaiiona! Rcviav for April, 
says : — 

Though great injury has already beeu doue, if courage 
has not altogether forsaken the Government there is hope 
that irreparable mischief may yet be averted. For the 
veto is not meant to be employed. Ihe free passage home 
offered to the Chinese will remove the last shred of argu- 
ment that the Chinese are not working voluntarily and 
aa free aeents in South Africa. The repeal of the Ordin- 
ance of 1904. and of the sappleinentarj- Ordinance of 1905. 
so that the responsible government of the Transvaal may 
have a clean slate for subsequent legislation, is again of 
no consequence. To re-enact the provision of those instru- 
ments will be an easy task, and the position of the 
Transvaal legislature in so doing, after they have been 
amended nud the Ordinance carried on for many months hy His 
Majesty's Government, is impregnable. 

He maintains that to interfere with the Chinese 
labour question, even by the use of the Imperial 
veto, must bring disaster on the Government and the 

On this point Mr. Lyttelton finds himself at 
variance wnth Sir W. des Voeux, a Colonial Governor 
who has had a great deal of experience in dealing 
with the Chinese. In his article, '' A Justification,"" 
in the yincieenih Century, Sir William says : — 

I hold most strongly that wlien responsible government 
is granted to the Transvaal the control of the Chinese 
labour svstem should be retained entirely in the hands 
of the Imperial Government. On the whole, though, know- 
ing the possibility of abuse when supervision is lax and 
administration weak. I am by no means enamoured of the 
indentured system. I am yet fully convinced tliat for the 
continued working of the Transvaal mines a similar sys- 
tem, applied either to Chinese or natives, will prove, if it 
has not already proved, absolutely necessary. 


The advent of the Labour members has com- 
pletely upset the nervous system of Maga. In spite 
of Mr Balfour's generous tribute to the good man- 
ners of the present House of Commons, the writer 
of ■' Musings Without Method " bewails the decay 
of mamiers in the House of Commons : — 

The social currency aUo is debased, and wherever we 
looli we see the baletul iufluence of the democracv. lu all 
countries and in all ages democracy has worn the same 
aspect. Cruel in deed, sentimental in word, it has ever 
brcught with it vulgarity and ruin. And those adven- 
turous travellers who have seen the House of Commons 
governed by working men and aliens, bring us back sad 
news. Politeness is gone with wisdom. 


As on the Continent, so in this countrj-, there is a 
carelessness in demeanour, pertness of tongue, 
absence of the old-fashioned respect for age and 
service. The only thing that is worshipped is suc- 
cess. Another paper entitled " The Call to Arms " 
is simply a scream of panic on the approach of 
'• dangerous socialistic measures." It can be imagin- 
ed how badly Maga is upset when it actually speaks 
with respect of the old Liberalism, and appeals from 
the new Liberals to the old for help in this terrible 
social emergency. Pilate and Herod have indeed 
been made friends. " We are not the dupes of a 
senseless panic," it cries, scared by Mr. Keir 
Hardie's statement that the present distribution of 
landed property and capital in this countn- is in- 
jurious to the interests of the people. " We know 
what that means. Other leaders of the Labour 
Party have been saying the same thing on various 
recent occasions, only in stronger and more precise 
terms.'' So with shrill vehemence the writer pro- 
ceeds : — 

To all the rest we would say. Do. for God's sake, wake 
yourselves in time, and ask your own hearts In all 
earnestness whether you do seriously care for the great 
political, religious and social system under which England 
has so long flourished, and which is now openly threat- 
ened. Do you wish to see religion turned out of your 
schools, with the consequences that have followed in 
France, Australia and India; the property of the Church 
and churchmen reduced so low by confiscation as to make 
it impossible for them to support religious education by 
themselves .=■ Do yon wish to see the tyranny of Trade's 
Unions riveted more firmly than ever on the necks of the 
working classes, to the great injury of English trade, 
English workmanship and English character? Do you wish 
to see the British Empire broken up. your colonies lost, 
your trade and commerce confined within narrower limits 
and at the mercy of more powerful competit-ors, your 
industries beaten in the world's markets, and your wealtli 
proportionately diminished? Do you wish to see Home 
Rule conceded to Ireland, which must, inevitably make 
her poorer than ever, and send thousands more of her im- 

?ov6ri3hed peasantry to seek a livelihood in England, 
owering wages at every step they take? Do you wish 
to se« the English aristocracy virtually destroyed, the old 
country life of England made impossible, castles, halls 
and manor-houses deserted or in ruins, parks and forests 
rooted up. the whole face of the country changed, and its 
old English beauty swept away, game exterminated and 
field sports practically annihilated?— do you wish to see 
all this? Let no man treat it as a dream. The longer he 
does so, the sooner will he find it aj stern reality. 

One wonders what Blackivond will find to say 
when the 'Labour Partv reallv sets to work. 

Hetieic of lieiiewg, 2/6/06. 

Leading Articles. 



Mr. Frederic Harrison's Drastic Scheme. 
All old jest current in the seventies, that Mr. 
Frederic Harrison lived in the hope of some day 
seeing a guillotine set up in his back garden tor 
shearing off the heads of the aristocrats, comes back 
to the mind as we read his programme for the re- 
form of parliamentan,- procedure in the April 
A^i>ic/Ciii//t Century. 


Mr. Harrison begins at the beginning. His first 
reform is a reform in the method by which the 
House of Commons is elected. He says : — 

We all trust that, with the scandalous bonus gii-en to the 
rich by the system ot plural voting, there will disappear 
also the unjust and mischievous practice of prolonging a 
genenal election over several weeks. .\s in other countries, 
eilectious should be held throughout the four nations on 
tlie same day. which ought to be made a Bank holiday. 
I would also prohibit the use of motors and carnages 
for men. unless actually occupied by their owner or his 
agents. The lavish use of vehicles to carry electors to the 
poll is a very squalid kind of bribery which ought to be 
suppressed like " treating " and " hired vehicles." We need 
not labour the payment of all Itoria fide election expenses 
with the House and the Government we now have secured. 
The antique paraphernalia of writs, returns, re-election on 
taking office, "swearing-in," and other mummery, will have 
to go. Nothing should prevent the Dissolution of Parlia- 
ment by Royal Proclamation, and the holding ot a general 
olectiori on one given day. at any convenient day at a 
future and reasonable date. 


After the Members are elected, Mr. Harrison says 
it is scandalous they should not have a House large 
enough to seat them ; — 

The " Mother of Parliaments " is really the great-grand- 
mother of parliaments in its old-fashioned furbelows. 
First of all comes the huge absurdity of meeting in a 
chamber which will not seat comfortably halt the mem- 
bers, and into which only three-fourths of them can be 
crushed at a pinch so as to hear worse than in the shilling 
gallery at a theatre. 

He would do awav with the oblong chamber and 
give even- Member a seat in an amphitheatre. 


Mr. Harrison gives C.-B. a friendly lead: — 

We all look to Sir Henry, for the first time at the bead 
of a really business House of Commons, to put his foot 
down on the vulgar scandal of te.a-p.^rtie8 on the terrace, 
dinner-parties in the cellars, gabbling nonsense to stave off 
a division, systematic pairine-. blocking ' by sheer 
trickery, and majorities consisting of overfed, noisy young 
"bloods." whipped up from balls and supper-rooms. 


The first thing to be done is to introduce the 
Standing Crimmittee system: — 

.\t the opening of each session the House should nomi- 
nate as many standing committees as there are separate 
ministerial departments, say finance, foreign affairs, army, 
navy, edncation. local government lor noasibly. agricul- 
ture, post and railwaysi. law. home. Scotland. Ireland. 
Colonies. India-that is, at least twelve or fourteen stand- 
ing committees, each consisting of eleven or thirteen mem- 
bers more or less. To one of such committees every Bill, 
or motion when passed by the House, would be referred 
for consideration. 

The twelve or thirteen committees should sit as com- 
mittees on private Bills now sit. with power to call before 
them and ex.iimine any Minister in either House, to hear 
any MP who desired to address them, and to obtain in- 
fontation from Government offices or elsewhere. On some 
such plan as this every foreign parliament, every county 

conncil, every company, bank or public institution does 
its work. 


Mr. Harrison is very severe upon our Private Bill 
system of legislation: — 

The civilised world can offer no spectacle ot " how-uot-to- 
do-it " more grotesque than the sight ot a committee-room 
in the Lords sitting on a complicated Bill promoted by a 
great railway or a corporation. If this putrescent scandal 
ot Private Bill lesislation were done away, the rooms, 
staff and machinery upstairs would be set free, and the 
call on members' time and labour immense;ly reduced. 
Committees — the permanent department committees — would 
meet at ten a.m. for two or three hours' sitting, three- 
fourths of the House being free from attendance altogether. 
There would then be ample time for a sitting of the House 
itself, of four or five hours— say. from two p.m. to seven 
p.m. Abolish night sittings altoeether. excepting for 
some urgent occasion tor one or at most two hours, but 
always rising before midnight. That is how every busi- 
ness cliambei- in civilised countries does its work. 


Mr. Harrison would reform " questions " : — 

Ui.lil 'questions" can be subjected to some responsible 
control, and carry the right to press the Minister who 
answers, they had better be got out of the way altogether. 
The House— once relieved of the weary work of passing, 
in unwieldy meetings of a desultory kind, interminable 
strings of technical clauses, relieved of the idle worry of 
trumpery "questions," the moving for "returns." nomina- 
tion of commissions, etc.. all which purely departmental 
business would go to the proper departmental committee, 
not to the full House— would get rid of sources of delay, 
trifling and solicitation. A time limit of twenty minutes 
for ordinary speeches would do more to give life to Par- 
liament and to reduce desultory habits than any other 
single reform. 

It is to be feared that Mr. Harrison will get his 
guillotine sooner than he will be able to carry these 

drastic reforms. 


In marked contrast to Mr. Harrison's sweeping 
proposals, Mr. Thomas Burt, in the same magazine, 
puts forward a modest programme with characteris- 
tic diffidence. He says: — 

Almost to a man the Labour members would favour 
earlier sittings, commencing, say. at 10.30 or 11 a.m., and 
ending at 8 or 9 p.m. That. I believe, would meet with 
the approval of a, majority of the House of Commons as 
at present constituted. 

He thinks there is no case for abolishing the 
Grand Committees. The case is strong for further 
developing and perfecting the system. He also puts 
in a plea for Home Rule. 


The Coritcmporarv Rcvinv opens with a lengthy 
paper by Mr. J- A. Spender, on " The New Govern- 
ment and its Problems," from which I make a few 
extracts : — 

Some things the Liberal Party must do or iierish in the 
.attempt. It must abolish te.?ts for teachers and establish 
pubjic control over the schools; it must take the sting of 
-ilaverv out of the Chinese ordinance; it must amend 
Trade' Union law; it must reduce expenditure, or, at least, 
reduce taxation. It is under the clearest pledges in all 
these matters. . . . 

With good luck Mr. Spender thinks the Govern- 
ment may last for five Sessions, about two of which 
are mortgaged to various measures dealing with the 
subjects mentioned above. 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1. 290^ 

When the Poor Law Commission has finished its 
task, which should be in two or. at most, three years' 
time, then will be the time for — 

drawing together the Bcattered legislation on tlie subject 
of uuemploj-ment. and relating it to the Poor Law in some 
comprehensive scheme which wiU enable us to deal accord- 
ing to their merits with tie genuine out-of-work, the aged, 
and deserving poor, the vagrant, the incapable and the 

The public have at last got into their minds _ the 
thoroughly sound idea that the poor cannot be wisely 
treated " in the lump," and that pauperisation covers a 
multitude of different conditions which can and ought to 
be discriminated and variously treated. It remains for a 
statesman to tra^-e the far-rea-ching results of this idea 
and to give effect to them in legislation. 'Ihere has never 
been an administrator at the Local Government Board 
more thoroughly qualified than Mr. John Burns for a re- 
form which, if it is to be sure and lasting, must have tlie 
working classes behiud it. If one may trust the signs of 
the times, the hcst working-class opinion is thoroughly 
prepared for a system which shall be far more punitive 
to the loafer and sponger, provided that it deals humanely 
with the deserving and curatively with the feeble. Here is 
the key to the problem, a.nd I do not think the public 
need fear that serious working men. who know better than 
any of us how genuine distress is overlaid and exploited 
by imposcure, will bring any weak sentimentality to its 


Under this title Mr. H. W. Lucy, in Blackwood, 
savs that the most hopelessly congested district al 
the present time is enclosed by the walls of the 
Palace at Wes'minster. For 670 members sitting, 
room is provided for 306, with galleries for 122 
more. Mr. Lucv reminds us that this trouble has 
been the subject of complaint and inquiry earlier. 
A Select Committee was appointed in 1867, and Mr. 
lAicy recalls the plan presented by Mr. E. M. Barry, 
son of the architect of the present Horses, of a new 
building so ingeniouslv and so happily conceived 
that " if at near or distant date it should be resolved 
to bui'.d a new House for the Commons, it will un- 
doubtedlv be adopted." The essence of the scheme 
is as follows : — 

Adioinins tbe House of Commons is a courtyard known 
as the Commons Court that serves no indispensable pur- 
pose. He nroposed to util'se it as tlie si'e of V-e new 
House, which mis-ht continue to serve ordinary purposes 
till the new building- was completed. That done, the old 
buildin? would not be discarded. The irlass ceiling re- 
moved, and the hidden beauties of the roof restored to 
the lieht of the dav. it would serve as a lobby, giving 
access to t'-e new House, and reserved exclrsively for the 
use of Members. It would contain .a, post-office, rooms for 
the Whips, and a refre'fhment b,a,r in lieu of the stall 
which at that period disfigured the lobbv. 

The new H"nse. thus buttressed, would seat 569 Members, 
benches for 419 be'n? set on the floor. Room would be 
provided for 331 strangers, making a total of 930 less one, 
an increase sliehtl^ exceeding 200. Provis>on of 23 inches 
sittin? room re' Member is made in this estima'e. B-it 
Mr Barrtr sansai'relv anticipated that on crowded nights 
it would he nossib'e to seat 600 Members. .At the bar end 
of the House accommodation would be nrov'ded for 44 
Peers. At the oiuosite end. behind the Sneaker's chair, 
eight seats wuld be allotted for the convenience of per- 
manent seo-etaries and the like having occasion to he 
In attendance at sittings with which their Department 
was specially concerned. 

Apart from the legislative chanber, spacious read- 
ing ard news rooms were provided. A new refresh- 
ment-room on a large «cale was olanned to face the 
River Terrace. The Press Gallery was to be ex 
tended, with the addition of three wrtinsr-out rooms, 
a refreshment-room, and a hat and cloak room. In 

shape the new House would be a square with the 
corners cut off, forming an octagon with four long 
and four short sides. The cost Mr. Barn.- estimated 
at, taking it roughly, about _;^roo,ooo. Subsequently 
this was increased to _;^i 20,000. The Committee 
reported emphatically in favour of the scheme. 


The Marvel of the Telharmonium. 

In the American Revieiv of Rn'iews there is a very 
interesting article describing a new electrical instru- 
ment invented by Dr. Thaddeus Cahill, by which it 
is claimed that all the difficulties of the electrical 
transmission of music have been overcome. In 
future, instead of Paderewski having to travel from 
city to city in order to delight people by his mar- 
vellous p'.aying, he will be seated by himself alone 
in some central point of the world's circumference, 
and by the aid of the Telharmonium audiences in 
everv city of the planet will be able to hear simul- 
taneously, and to enjoy as much the effect of his 
playing as do the favoured few who nowadays can 
squeeze themselves into the concert halls which he 
visits. For the full developinents of this great in- 
vention we must wait until the planet is more plen- 
tifully begirdled with cheap telegraph wires than it 
is at the present moment, but, judging from this 
article in the American Review of Reviiws, there is 
no reason why concerts should not be rendered per- 
fectly audible to a hundred audiences in any great 

Mr T. Commerford Martin declares: — 

In the new art of telharmony we haTe the latest gift of 
electricity to civilisation, an art which, while abolishing 
every musical instrument, from tJie jew's-harp to the 
'cello, gives everybody cheaply, and everywhere, more music 
than they ever had before. Sucii music can obviously be 
laid on " anywhere — in homes, hospitals, factories, res- 
taurants, theatres, hotels, wherever an orchestra or a 
single musician has served before, or wherever tliere is a 
craving for music. The dream of Bellamy in " Ijooking 
Backward " is thus realised, and beautiful music is dis- 
pensed everywhere for anyone who cares to throw the 

The machine weighs 200 tons, and costs about 
;^40,ooo. This is how Mr. Martin explains the 
machine: — 

The Cahill telharmonium may be compared with a pipe 
organ. The performer at its keyboard, instead of playing 
upon ■air in the pipes, plays upon the electric current that 
is being generated in a laree number of small dynamo- 
electric machines of the " alternating-current " type. These 
little " inductor " alternators are of quite simple construc- 
tion, from the mechanical standpoint, though it is need- 
less to say that the inventor did not find out at once all 
he wanted to know about them. That took a good ten 
years. In each alternator the current surges to and fro 
at a different frequency or rate of speed — thousands and 
thousands of times a minute: and this current as it 
reaches the telephone at the near or distant station causes 
the diaphragm of that instrument to emit a musical note 
characteristic of that current whenever it is generated at 
iust that " frequency " or rate of vibration in the circuit. 
The rest is relatively easy. The revolving parts, of the 
little alternators .are mounted upon shafts, which are 
geared together. Each revolvine part, or "rotor," having 
its own number of poles or teeth, in the magnetic field 
of force, and each having its own ansular velocity, the 
arrangement gives us the ability to produce, in the initial 
coijditioD of musical electrical waves, the notes throngn 
a compa?" of five octaves. 

Review Qf Revieics, 1/6/06. 

Leading Articles. 



A Colonial View of the English. 

One of the most suggestive articles in the April 
periodicals is that which Mr. Arthur H. Adams, of 
New Zealand, contributes to the Nineteetith Century, 
In it we have a frank and not unfriendly expression 
of the opinions formed by an intelligent and observ- 
ant Maorilandcr of the Old Countr\^ and its in- 
habitants. He begins by telling us that: — 

Three yea.r3* careful investigation into the national ten- 
dencies and prejuaicies of tlie present-day Englishman has 
led to the w. iters conclusion that the Ensrlishman of the 
centre a.nd the Englishman of the outside are sundered by 
rapidly diverging racial instincts. 

He waited to write out his impressions until he 
had time to reconsider under the sunny skies of Xew 
Zealand, and this is the result: — 

I see the Englishman clear, distinct from us in outlook, 
in aspirations, in soul; and in the final summing-up I see 
the Euglishmnu as an obstacle — nav. the one great danger 
— in the path of any possible scheme of Imperial alliance. 
He has stayed too much at ho^ne. 


Mr. Adams has another fault to find with the 
English: — 

England has been inbreeding too long. And. to the 
Colonial mind, it is to this racial isolation that is due 
the general level of almost intolerable dulness that lies 
like a fog over all England— dulness of outlook, dulness 
of mind, dulness of life, dulness, even, of amusement and 

An Englishman who has long lived in New Zea- 

suggests the analogv of a cart-horse mated with a mare 
of" pedigree — the marriage of the Anglo-Saxon with the 
Celts he had conquered, and with the Normans who con- 
quered him. But afler all these centuries of inbreeding 
the finer points of t'e pedigree mare have been submerged 
in the imperturbable racial qualities of the stolid Anglo- 
Saxon cart-horse. The English race is by now all cart- 


He is di'^gusted with the insularitv of the British 
islanders : — 

In this insular attitude of England we will find the sol© 
harrier in the way of the final fetleration of the Empire. 
This insularity shows itself in manv ways. A man prides 
himself upon never goine out of his county. The limpet 
type of servant is regarded with affection, almost with 
admiration. In the Colonies for a man to remain a. life- 
time in one enioloyer's service argues some flaw in ability 
or enerey or nmbition. In the matter of speech, too, the 
insularity of the English is most clearly appreciable. 
Entrland. sm-ill ns it is. is a perfect hotch-potch of polv- 
glottism. This survival of laggine dialects, even the per- 
petuation, in out-of-the-way corners, of forgotten lan- 
guaees. would be a thing that anv intelligent colonv would 
discourage as a source of national weakness. But tlie 
Englishman takes an absurd pride in the perpetuation of 
such hindrances to communication. 


Mr. Adnms has studied Oxford, and he finds it 
very unlike New Zealand Universities: — 

The fundamental difference, however, between the Ene:- 
lishman who stayed at home and the Fnelishman who 
didn't h'es in t^'e stupendous sretem bv which the Oxford 
man is still r^r'^dnced. For the tvne the Colonies ^ecop'niHe 
has b'lt a I'm'ted scone of usefulness. It has been evolved 
for the p-overnin? of subiect rnre« : and the nations 
within the loose ring of the British Empire have long out- 

grown tlie need of English governance. India, a conquered 
country, is stiU ' run " by a thousand superbly garmented, 
stolid, polo-playing Uxford young men; but there are no 
more Indias, nor, in the general view of the Colonies, is 
there much reason for the continued inclusion within the 
bounds of a possible Imperial alliance of such a doubtful, 
unworkable factor as a country of alien races held by the 


If Mr. Adams scorns the English young man, he 
is no betttr pleased with the English girl: — 

The amiable dulness of the English county girl ia pro- 
bably due to her utter lack of education. The boy goes to 
an expensive public school, a still more expensive univer- 
sity; there is little money left over for the education of 
his sister. And she does not wish it. The eager rush of 
girls to Colonial universities has no parallel anywhere 
save in America. The English ideal of a woman seems to 
be a dull, placidly pretty, regular-featured, aignifiea piece 
of ice. Intelligence, animation, individuality, knowledge 
are not needed. Many county girls that 1 met in England 
seemed to possess no individuality at all; even girls of 
twenty held no opinions of their own. 


Mr. Adams is very supercilious about our country- 
squires and their sons : — 

The impression made upon the Colonial is that the army 
and navy were thoughtiully given to England by a kinu 
Providence tor the sole purpose of providing billets for 
superfluous second sous. His island has made the English- 
man a ruler, an administrator of subject races, a dis- 
coverer, a. sailor, a conqueror. His island has forgrotten 
to teach him to co-operate. 

This lack of education in co-operation renders it 
difficult to him to imagine 

any Imperial alliance on which the Colonies enter, as 
tliey must, on terms of partnership. In such an alliance 
the' Colonies will insist, iu a degree proportionate to 
their strength, on a share in tlie management of the 
Empire, its business, its profits, its emoluments, its dig- 
nities, its defences. 

I may perhaps be permitted to suggest that in the 
Imperial co-operative alliance in which the Colonies 
are to share management, business, profits, emolu- 
merts, dignities and defences, Mr. Arthur H. Adams 
significantly omits all reference to the possibility 
that the poor old Mother Countrv might also ask the 
co-operative Colonials to share the burdens and the 
taxes of the Empire. 

The Anti=German Obsession. 

In the April yaiional the editor pleasantly refers 
to the "event of that Anglo-German war for which 
Wilhelm XL and his entire people prepare by dav 
and of which they dream by night." Mr. H. W. 
Wilson, in an article entitled '' Genuan Hunger for 
Moroccan Pons," sounds a cry of alann lest Ger- 
many might have secured at Algeciras either Mog- 
hador or Casablanca. He says: — 

If she were given a new i>odition on the Central Atlantic, 
her growing navy, which has at its back what the British 
Navy hos not. a great army, would maVe her a peril for 
the whole world. From the British standpoint, the results 
of a Germnn occupation of a Morocco port might be 
summed un thus; 

(1) Enormously increased danger to British commerce in 
time of war. 

i2) The provision of alternative moves, which may be 
difficult to meet and defeat in the war of squadrons, for 
the r:enn''n battle-fleet. 

(J* The linking U" of the German p^Hsessions in the 
Indian Ocean with German territory in Europe. 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1. 1906. 


Mr. Charles M. Pepper discusses under this head- 
ing in Scnbncr's, what he calls " the commercial 
corollary to the Monroe doctrine " for the United 
States — a vast railway of some 5000 miles linking 
Alaska with Buenos Ayres and Hudson Bay with 
Patagonia. The idea is not new ; it has already 
appealed to many minds, but the writer admits that 
it can only be transferred from the ideal tO' the real 
sphere by the co-operation of the many different and 
sometimes rather squabbling and difficult States: — 

The broad idea of the Pan-American Railway may be 
grasped from a glance at the map. where it appears as a 
project in profile. The general direction Is north-west 
and south-east along the giant chains of the Andes. A 
thorough inter-continental railroad should follow the 
route most advantageous for opening up undeveloped re- 
sources and for insuring immigration and permanent set- 
tlement. The governing principle of a long continental 
backbone line with ribs includes development of mineral, 
agricultural and timber resources, while climate is not to 
be overlooked. To temper the tropics is leasible by follow- 
ing the plateaux of the Andes. 

No engineering obstacles which are yet to be overcome 
in the Andes, anywhere from the tapering spurs in Central 
America to the rounded tops in Patagonia, equal those 
•which were surmounted by Henry Meiggs when he built the 
f,-imous railway from Callao to Oroya, or rather when he 
constructed the most difficult sections, for he did not live 
to see the completion of the whole. The wonders of that 
line, incomparable in their scenic grandeur, with its 

inflnitv of switchbacks, tunnels, bridges, viaducts, sharp 
curves and grades, culminating in the Galera Tunnel, 
15.665 feel above sea-level, show the marvels of which 
engineering genius is capable when backed witli unlimited 

He proceeds to hold out a wonderful prospect to 
the twentieth century tourist taking the through 
journev on the Pan-American line of the future. He 
will see 

the relation of sea-level plains, inter-mountain plateaux, 
profound viiUevs, shallow depressions, rushing rivers, dry 
gorges, tortuous canyons, sinuous passes; the sparkling 
verdure and brilliant foliage of the tropics; the treeless 
regions of the Andine deserts, naked cliffs and jutting 
precipices, fleece-hidden summit.s, and the pinnacled peaks 
of tlie eternal snows, often passing from the rankest 
wealth of nature to its most sterile and grudging gifts 
almost as swiftly as the imagination can conceive the 


The Latest Exploit of the Modern Vandal. 
It is enough to take one's breath away to hear 
that if prompt action be not taken by the Govern- 
ments of the United States and of the British Em- 
pire, American and Canadian enterprise in a few 
years will have dried up the American half of 
Niagara. This, however, is absolutely ti^e. The 

Head- Works ol Ontario Co. Toronto and Niagara Power Co. Cinadian Niagara Power Co. Ontario Cc's Transformer House (on Hill), 

Niagara Falls Power Co. Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Manufacturing Co. 

The Utilisation of Niagara Falls by Electric Power Stations. 

Correspondence has been going on lietween the British Ambassador at Washington and tlie United States Secr^ 
tarv, on the question of saving Niagara from the inroads of industrial enterprise^ w IL^^o£Sf^Viti^,°n Ld the 
national Waterways has reported, it is believed that a treaty will be arranged between Great Britain and the 
United States for the preservation of the Falls. 

Review of Reviews, 2^'6/06. 

Leading Articles. 



million horse-power must be sacrificed. The Bri- 
tish and American Governments are believed to be 
in negotiation with the object of securing an Anglo- 
American Treaty to rescue one of the great natural 
wonders and glories of the planet frum desjruction. 

Fro"t fhi- " Eu^inccri^'^ Magazine' ] 

Map Showing Electric-Power Developments at 
Niagara Falls. 

elaborately illustrated article entitled " International 
Aid for Niagara," in the current number of the 
American Reviru.' of Reviews, places the matter be- 
yond dispute. The flow of water over both the 
Falls is 224,000 feet per second, of which only one- 
eighth or one-tenth flows over the American falls. 
The Canadian fall is three times as deep and three 
times as broad as the American. It will not be 
materiallv injured by the loss of the water which it 
is at present proposed to abstract from the river, 
but it is calculated that if 80.000 feet of water per 
second be abstracted the American fall will disap- 
pear altogether, and it will be possible to walk dn,- 
shod to Goat Island. Electrical companies are at 
present authorised to draw off 48,000 feet per 
second, and permission is now being sought to draw 
off 50,000 more. If this permission is given the 
American fall will perish. 

It is estimated that water-power of the value of 
seven million horse-power is running to waste at 
Niagara. Of this two millions could be captured 
below the Falls, and about two millions are already 
driving the gigantic turbines which generate elec- 
tricity for the various Power Companies established 
on both sides of the Falls. To save Niagara three 


A Scheme with Millio.ns in It. 
In Broad Viezvs for April, Mr. Ernest H. Short 
draws a glowing picture of what Sir W. Willcocks 
proposes to do in Asiatic Turkey. The vallevs of 
the Tigris and of the Euphrates, where once stood 
the Garden of Eden, are now either desert or marsh. 
The great barrage scheme which has worked such 
wonders in Egypt is nothing to what might be done 
on the Tigris. For it is nothing less than the re- 
creation of Chaldea that the British engineer 
proposes to effect. The wilderness with water can 
be made to blossom like the rose, and what is more, 
there is money in it, millions of money in it : — 

One million two hundred and eighty thous.ind acres of 
first-class land are now waiting for nothing except water. 
To auppl.v them It will be necessary to sjiend some 
£600.000 upon the Tigris weirs. The reconstruction of the 
main Xahrwau canal will cost three million pounds, and 
the minor canals, say. another four million pound* — 
£8,000.000 in all. At present this vast acreage is valueless: 
as cultivable land it can be roughly estimated to be worth 
£30 per acre. To repeat, at a cost of £7 per acre, vou make 
1,280.000 acres of land, which is at present valuele'ss. worth 
£38.400.000. Seeing that the price of similar land in Egypt is 
about twice as much as Sir William's estimate, it is surelv 
time for enterprising capitalists to ask whetlier a profit- 
able investment is not disclosed. 

The '■ Ee-rreation of Chaldea " is, however, a far more 
ambitious scheme than that successfully accomplished in 
the Nile valley. Briefly, it amounts to the reconstruction of 
the main irrigation systems which existed in Babylonia 
before the incursions of the Mongols and Tartars. A suc- 
cessful attempt promises that millions of acres of land 
will be absolutely reclaimed from the desert, and from the 
marsh. For a capital expenditure roughly estimated at eight 
million pounds. Sir William Willcocks promises 1.280,000 
acres worth, at least, £30 per acre. In other words, 
£38,000.000 for an expenditure of less than 25 per cent, of 
that amount, with the probability of a constant appre- 
ciation of the value of the land. 

In addition to the desert land higher up the Tigris there 
is the swampy country to the south, between this river and 
the Euphrates. Here. Sir William Willcocks estimates that 
1,500.000 a^res can lie readily reclaimed. At present the arid 
plains and marshy jungles are dotted with a few cultivated 
enclosures. Even these are liable at any time to be swept 
away b.v periodical inundations. Reclamation would entail 
the cutting of tw-o great dykes, one by the east bank of the 
Euphrates, and th« other by the west bank of the Tigris. 
Roughly, the cost may be estimated at £5 10s. per acre, and 
assuming an extremely low value for Mie reclaimed land, 
the scheme would return £22.000.000 upon a capital expen- 
diture of only £13,000.000. 

Mr. Short says : — 

In the meantime, it will Ije recognised to be a thousand 
pities if an.v dog-in-the-manger spirit prevents a thorough 
examination into the feasibility of Sir William Willcoclss* 
scheme, and the construction of the railway from the Medi- 
terranean to the Persian Gulf. 

If this be so, is this not the very place for the 
Zionists? Thev would be just next door to Pales- 
tine, and there would be something irresistiblv at- 
tractive in the spectacle of the Jews of to-dav restor- 
ing prosperity to the land into which their ancestors 
were carried as captives more than two thousand 
years ago. The scheme as a scheme certainly is 
much more promising than either the Anatolian rail- 
wav or the East African Colonv. 


The Review of Reviews 

June 1, 1906. 


Xo less than three articles in the Mouthly Rcviav 
iltal with the transition stage through which, in 
some ways, we are passing. Mr. F. Carrel's " The 
Moral Crisis," a plea for the study of " progressive 
morals,'' and an appeal to the strong to deal wisely 
and gently with the weak ; Dr. Saleeby's " Essential 
Factor of Progress," and Mrs. Steel's contrast of the 
Western and Eastern ideals of marriage. Dr. 
Saleeby rules out of court the possibility of directly 
improving the human stock by improving environ- 
ment. Heredity alone must be reckoned with. I 
believe I am not wrong in saying that Lombroso 
believed that environment cojld and often did over- 
ride heredity ; and that Dr. Bamardo — surely an ex- 
cellent judge — inclined to the same view. Dr. 
Saleeby's essential factor in progress is wise applica- 
tion of what Mr. Francis Galton called '" stirpicul- 
turCj" and what is oftener called " engenics " — good 
breeding. He would preserve and care for the unfit, 
and would nevertheless meet nature's requirements 
by preventing them from reproducing their unfitness. 
He is not very explicit, but I gather that he would 
do this by interning them in asylums and hospitals. 
For the benefit of the race he would also put certain 
restrictions on marriage. Mrs. Steel's artic'.e, which 
is very interesting, is really a plea, I think, for chil- 
dren being more considered in Western marriages 
than at present is often the case. In plain English, 
It means more self-sacrifice on the part of women. 


Writing from personal knowledge in the Empire 
Reviau on " Woman Suffrage in New Zealand," Mrs. 
Grossmann says no great experiment has ever passed 
off more quietly or created less of an upheaval. On 
the whole, the article is very correct, though many 
might think the writer attributes too much to the 
influence of women politicians. She rightly insists 
on the fact that the ICew Zealand women never found 
it necessary to interrupt speakers or to pay forced 
visits to private houses. Men, moreover, were 
the chief champions of their cause on pmblic plat- 

The pith of the article is contained in the closing 
paragraph : — 

So far the franchise has not hroueht ahout anv revolu- 
tion. It has helped to raise the position of women in New 
Zealand, hut not to any remarkahle extent. It has in- 
creased their interest in politics, and certainly promoted 
the introduction of humanitarian legislation into the 
House. It has not affected home-life perceptihly. and it 
has not altered the character of women, ifany prophecies 
of evil have proved false and many hopes have heen 

Politics have not heen raised to a hieher standard. But 
the people are mor*^ effectually represented than ther had 
.ever heen before. 'Women, without clian^ine tl'eir domestic 
character, have become citizens equallv with men. and life 
already has a lars-er outlook for them. But still in New 
Zealand, as elsewhere, it is only the rarer excer'tional 
women who devote themselves to rtolitics. Tlie great out- 
standins: result of the enfranchisement has been the 
strengthening of the popular party. 


In the Independent Rn'ieiu Mr. E. Bruce Forrest, 
a former resident of Ruskin Hall, now Ruskin Col- 
lege, Oxford, describes his experience while there. 
He took up his residence just before the public open- 
ing of the hall in February, 1899. Somehow or 
other the first three weeks were muddled through, 
with strong emphasis on " muddled." Fifteen to 
twenty-five inexperienced working men, in a rambling 
old house, to keep that house in order — well, it 
simply meant that it was not kept in order. 

After three weeks a Council of War was held, 
which drew up a Constitution destined gradually to 
evolve some sort of Order out of Chaos. To this 
end it w-as ordained that household work should be 
done, as much as possible, before breakfast and 
after six o'clock dinner, thus leaving the middle of 
every day free. After this, matters went on very 
well. The house duties were divided into a maxi- 
mum of twenty-five tasks, taken by all students in 
ti:rn; and it was found that the three chief duties 
of the daily " sweep and dust," " wash up," and the 
weekly " scrub," when divided among a houseful, 
and relegated to the early morning and evening, 
need not seriously interfere with .st. dy. Many hand- 
fuls of hard sense, however, seem to have been 1 
•' cotched," as, for instance, that cooks are born, not ' 
made. But on the whole the writer thinks that such 
an experiment in communal housekeeping has much 
vale. It gave a useful training, and much under- 
standing, in many directions, of many problems, and 
there was great charm attached to the free and easy, 
somewhat Bohemian style of existence with a very 
interesting, and at that time also very cosmopolitan, 
bodv of men. 

Child of Villa and Child of Tenement. 

A curious result of what might be called con- 
tradictoriness in a statistical inquiry is reported in 
the ■' Review of Reviews for Australasia.'' The writer 
says : — 

Some little time ago the Melbourne Board of Health insti- 
gated an investi?3tion with the idea of discovering whether 
children in industrial suburbs were handicapi^ed physically 
in comparison with children in residential suhnrhs. Typical 
groups were taken in different parts of Jfelbourne. the ages 
being between 9 and 10 years, and between 12 and 13. In 
each group, twelve of each sex were selected. Kight schools 
were v'sited. and 384 children examined, and it was found 
without doubt that boys in residential suburbs were 
superior to industrial bovs of industrial suburbs, but that 
the reverse condition obtained with girls. 

It is interesting to note that, comparing Great Britain 
with Melbourne residential suburbs, the weight of the 
boys between 12 and 13 vears of aee is 78.0 lbs., as ocmnared 
with 76.7 in the Old Country: while tlie heieht in inches 
is 56.2 in Me'b"urne as compared with 55.0 at Home. In the 
indnstrial suburbs in Melbourne the weieht was 73 8 lbs. 
and the height 52.2 inches. In the girls' class the indnstrial 
suburbs of Melbourne showed 77.1 lbs. as against 76 4 in 
Great Britain, and 56.1 inches as against 55.7 in Great 
Britain, while the residential suburbs gave 75,1 lbs. and 55.8 

It will be observed that both in weight and in 
height the Australian beat.s the Britisher. 

Hfvieu of Reviews, Ij'^/OH. 

Leading Articles. 



Mozart, Beethoven, and Others. 

On January 27th, 1756, Mozart was born at Salz- 
burg, and the musical world has recently been cele- 
brating the 150th anniversary of his birth. Apropos, 
Karl Storck contributes an article on Musical 
Genius to the February number of Westermaiiii. 


He begins b) referring to Gluck and Wagner and 
their methods of reforming the opera or music- 
drama. Gluck desired to create music which would 
appeal to ail nations and so make what he called 
the ridiculous differences of national music disap- 
pear. When he found he could not manage it in 
Germany, he went to Paris. Just a hundred years 
later Wagner also went to Paris, imagining that 
there only he, too, would be able to proclaiin with 
success his ideas of operatic reform. Not that 
Germany was wanting in talent, but it lacked na- 
tional spirit, and Wagner, who did not wish to con- 
quer either Paris or the world, hoped to reach Ger- 
many through Paris. 

To-day, howexer, notwithsta.nding all the talk 
about the internationality of art, we regard music 
which embraces all nations rather as a limitation of 
the greatest powers. We feel that the influence of 
Wagner over the world and his universality lay just 
in his Gennan nationality, whereas it is the inter- 
na: tional qualities of Gluck's works that make the 
revival of them so unsuccessful. But opera — that is, 
music wedded to words — can hard'.v help taking on 
a national character. The great exception is 
Mozart, who has been able to compose music which 
unites in itself characteristics to satisfy and delight 
all nations. He is justly regarded bv the whole 
world as the summit of musical art, though three 
(jther names — Wagner, Beethoven, and Bach — run 
him close for the honour. 


Mozart, says the writer, is the only composer of 
really absolute music. Wagner, on the other hand, 
endeavoured to combine music with all the other 
arts, and Beethoven was the founder of that music 
which does not stand alone, but needs to be united 
to another of the arts. Beethoven's tone-poems 
suggest the idea that the music is connected with 
poetic thoughts or philosophical ideas, or is a 
nature-picture, and he excels all his successors in 
this power of expressing such things in music. His 
music still affects us more than that of any other 
composer. The musical power of Bach in itself is 
stronger than that of Beethoven, but with Mozart 
everything is Titanic. His creative force is divine. 
Composing was to him a necessity. No one is really 
sorry that Mozart's life was so short, because of the 
perfection of his work. He died, like Raphael, in 
his thirty-sixth year. He created the world-lan- 
guage of music, the art of arts ; he is the prototype 
of the musical genius. 

The Demonmc Element in Mozart. 
Dr. Alfred Heuss contributes to the Zeitschnp der 
Inieniatioiwlen Musikgescllschafi for February an 
interesting paper on the ■ Demoniac Element in 
Mozart's Works. " By '' demoniac," or possessed, the 
writer means the innately pas.^iioiiate passages ; and 
Mozart, he say.s, has a strong passionate nature ; 
passionate passages abound in his compositions. In 
his creative work he simply let himself go — with odd 
results occasionallv. 


The Death of a Great Pioneer. 

Miss Ida Husted Harpet contributes to the 
Amen can Review of Reviews a brief but appreciative 
sketch of Miss Susan B. Anthony, the Women's 
Suffrage leader in the United States of America. 
The article is illustrated by a full-page portrait of 
Miss Anthony, and pays a high tribute to the energy, 
intelligence and enthusiasm of this pious woman. 
Miss Harper says that there will never be another 
reformer of equal rank to Susan B. Anthony, be- 
cause the conditions never will demand a similar 
pioneer. She was born in 1820, and she began 
her work in public when she was twenty-nine. She 
made her debut in the work of temperance reform, 
and her lir&t step w^as to insist upon the right of 
women to send women as delegates to tem|ferance 
conventions. This was so fiercely resented by the 
men that she combined with Mrs. Stanton in 1852 
to form a State Woman's Temperance Association. 
It was in the same year that she began the agitatioii 
for the suffrage, which she kept up to the last day 
of her life. It was not until 1868 that she estab- 
lished, together with Mrs. Stanton, the weekly news- 
paper cal.ed Tlie Revolution, which was so far ahead 
of the time that in two years and a half it had to be 
dropped. In 1869 she helped the formation of the 
National Woman Suffrage .Association. From that 
day to the time of her death she devoted herself tr. 
the advocacy of the woman's cause, and she lec- 
tured in all parts of the United States, and besides 
found time to write her four large volumes, " The 
History of Woman Suffrage." She was present in 
London in 1899 at the International Council of 
Women, and again at one held in 1904 in Berlin. 

Miss -Anthony is the liberator of women, ami generations will read the story of her lile 
with gratitude and reverence. When she began there 
was no homogeneity, no esprit de corps among 
women. They suffered many wrongs, but they had 
been taught that to protest was rebellion against the 
Divine will. To face this situation Susan B. .Anthony 
brought indomitable courage, great ability, and im 
mense resources. Miss Harper declares that she 
will ever stand alone and unapproached, her fame 
continually increasing as evolution lifts humanity 
into higher appreciation of justice and liberty. 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1906. 


An Ideal Friendly Society. 
The January number of Chambers s Journal con- 
tains an article on the Holloway Benefit Society, 
originally founded at Stroud in 1875 by George 


The writer, who compares the principles of this 
benefit society with those followed by the older 
friendly societies, quotes the following figures from 
the official returns relating to the chief societies for 
1904: — 

Membership. Total Funds. 

Oddfellows (M.U.) 1.018.685 

Foresters 929,720 

Hearts of Oak 277.461 

Grand United Oddfellows ... 540.986 
Eechabites 339.500 




He points out that no individual member of any 
of these societies has any personal claim on the 
accumulated funds, except in case of illness, and 
asks whether the members are really thrifty. Is it 
for occasional sick-pay and ten pounds at death that 
the subscriber to the Oddfellows' Society pays his 
regular contributions to a general fund ? 


Under the newer method of the Hoiloway Society 
■we are told that each member's contributions are 
paid into his separate account, that he receives sick- 
pay in time of illness, and on reaching the age of 
sixty-five, the whole of his accumulated capital, 
with compound interest, is paid over to him in a 
lump sum, or he may receive it in the form of an 
annuity. If he dies before he is sixty-five, his 
accumulated capital, with compound interest, is paid 
TO his relatives. A healthy man may never require 
to come on the club, and under the old system his 
insurance fund would yield him nothing. 

The scheme of the Hoiloway Society is set forth 
as follows : — 

Members are admitted into the society from fourteen to 
sixty years of aee as share-members. Up to thirty years of 
age a one-share'memlier pays a. penny a day: that is. two 
shillings and fonrpence per lunar month. From the age of 
thirty years onwards lie pays an extra halfpenny per 
month for each year beyond thirty. That is to say. be- 
tween thirty and thirty-one he pays two shillines and fonr- 
pence halfpenny per month; from thirty-one to thirty-two 
he pays two shillinsrs .ind fiyepence; from thirty-two to 
thirty-three, two shillings and fiyepence halfpenny; and so 
on, increasing one halfpenny per month for eyery year up 
to sixty-five. 

As a man advances in years his liability to sick- 
ness increases, and to meet this increasing drain on 
the sick-fund the extra halfpennies are imposed. 
The member who pays a penny a day is called a 
one-share member, but a man may subscribe for 
two or three shares, or only half a share, in which 
cases the payments and the advantages would be in- 
creased or decreased in proportion. 

At the end of each financial year a statement of 
3iis share-account is furnished to each individual 
member, so that he always knows exactly how he 

stands. The penny per day amounts to ;£i los. 
4d. for a year, and as the sum of 5s. per annum is 
estimated as the average cost of sickness for each 
member up to thirty years of age, the member at the 
end of the year has 25s. remaining to his account, 
which is entered in his name in the society's books, 
and remains earning compound interest. 

Among other advantages it may be stated that a 
member can at any time withdraw part of his accu- 
mulated fund and still enjov the benefits of mem- 
bership ; and if he wishes to leave the society alto- 
gether he can withdraw the whole of his accumulat- 
ed capital except two years' appropriation. In fifty 
years the member's capital will amount to ;^2o8 is. 
8d., whereas the members of the old societies receive 
nothing at the age of sixty-five. 


Chopin and His Music. 

In the January Contemporary Review Miss A. E. 
Keeton has an interesting article on Chopin. 

Chopin, she tells us, was a man of moods, and to 
the end of his career he seems to have been unable 
to get accustomed to himself. He was also a pro- 
duct of heredity, a compound of Pole and French- 
man. As he wrote neither opera nor symphony, he 
has been described as a lesser composer, but he 
created a whole pianoforte literature. True, he pre- 
ferred not the forms of the older masters, but his 
etudes, ballades, nocturnes, etc., are as good models 
of musical form as are the preludes of Bach or the 
sonatas of Beethoven. Xo other instrument than 
the piano could express so well what Chopin had to 
say, and he always exhibits the piano at its best. 

Sir Francis Dralte in Verse. 

Blackwood for April contains the second book of 
Mr. Alfred Noyes's English epic on Drake. It 
carries one along with it on its easy flow. One 
passage may be quoted from the story of the old 
seaman, Tom Moone, which suggests the character 
and confidence supposed to reign on board Drake's 
vessel : — 

And once a troop of nut-brown maidens came— 

So said Tom Moone, a twinkle in his eye — 

Swimming to meet them through the warm blue waves 

.4nd wantoned through the water, . , , Shapely of limb 

They were; but as they laid their small brown hands 

Upon the ropes we cast them. Captain Drake 

Suddenly thundered at them and bade them pack 

For a troop of naughty wenches! At that tale 

X tempest of fierce laughter rolled around 

The foc'sle; but one boy from London town, 

A pale-faced prentice, run-away to sea. 

.\sking why Drake had bidden them pack so soon. 

Tom Moone turned lo him with his deeivsea growl. 

■ Because cur Cantain is no pink-eyed boy 
Nor soft-limbed Spaniard, but a stannch-sonled Man, 
Full-blooded; nerved like iron; with a girl 
He loves at liome in Devon; and a mind 
For ever bent upon some mighty goal. 

T know not what — but 'tis enough for me 
To know my Captain knows." 

Reripic of Eei-ietrs, l/'6f06. 

Leading Articles. 



In the Contemporary Review Mr. J. Takegoshi, 
M.P., eulogises the Marquis Saionji, recently created 
Premier of Japan. The appearance of his Cabinet 
is •• the dawn of a new era." The Marquis belongs 
to an illustrious and aristocratic family. More than 
half of his fifty-five years have been spent in 
Europe. From his eighteenth to his thirty-third year 
he lived in France, chiefly in Paris apparently, and 
returned to Japan •' a pure Parisian." Not un- 
naturally, therefore, he is a devotee of European 

When he returned to his country he found things 
tending to be somewhat reactionary ; and, low as was 
the then status of journalism in Japan, he, a noble- 
man connected bv ancestry with the Imperial 
family, started a Liberal daily in Tokvo, through 
the medium of which he preached Constitutionalism. 
He is still, or was till he organised the new Cabinet, 
leader of the Constitutionalist Association in Japan. 

Already he had served in the Marquis Ito's Cabi- 
net, and even been acting Premier during his 
chief's illness : and his coming into power now, after 
Count Katsura, is regarded by the Japanese writer 
of this article as " the victory of democracv against 
bureaucracy, of party government against clan gov- 
ernment, of European progressivism against Asiatic 
conservatism.' Mr. Takegoshi says: — 

As I waa chef de cabinet to Marquis Saionji wlien he was 
Minister of Education some rears ago. I presume to know 
a great deal of his character and thouglits. He is not only 
a politician, but also a reformer. Especially are his views 
on education radical and broad. His aim is to emancipate 
the Japanese people from the yoke of Asiatic thouglits and 
make tliem citizens of the world. 

I may say witliout e.xaggeration that of the numerous 
Japanese politicians he is the one best acquainted witli 
the conditions of Europe. Moreover, he is calm in temper, 
lucid in reasoning, wide in knowledge, and bold in judg- 
ment. He is almost a Frenchman in his thouglits and 
tastes, so mucli so that lie is often styled " grand seig- 
neur " by Tokyo people, and his drawing-room is called 
hig salon. Yet lie is not one-sided. He is one of the most 
devout believers in the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. He may 
not say much, hut genuine integrity to fulfil his words. 
Accordingly Great Britain may also welcome his Cabinet. 


Perceval Gibbon gives in Blackivood a sketch of 
Sergius Witte, whom he describes as a diplomatist 
lost among facts, a trafficker in words, who is face 
to face with the brutality of unglozed actualities. 
'• It has broken him." The chief interest of the 
paper lies in its portraiture of the Count: — 

He is almost contemptuously casual and careless in all 
matters that concern liis attire and outward appearance. 
He has the completest. most unconscious disdain for t! ese 
trifles, and his clotlies hang on him fortuitously. But all 
this is the mere supplement to the face that crowns llie 
whole. Hairj' and hard, with a beard ill-kept and a mous- 
tache "u djablf, the same ruggedness pervades it that 
characterises his every feature. It is stolid, direct, and 
deeply lined; there is nothing of compromise in tlie ex- 
pression, no art of grace, no stud.r in the cast, of it. So 
looms some oppressive village elder; so stares the man who 
is given to blurting forth the obviotis: and so looks 
Count "Witte, who is neither. Tlie head is remarkable in 
that it is quite flat behind, rising from the neck to the 
crown with no curve. And then, there are the eyes. Tl'ey. 

and they alone, betray the fact that in this man there 
dwells a spirit not manifested in the grossness and crude- 
ness of his aspect. Shrined under heavy brows, they are 
pale and indeterminate in colour, but lit with a spark 
that is eloquent enough. They are lambent, inscrutable, 
mesmeric; they are the eyes of an Oriental, wise with an 
infinite subtlety, discriminating pitilessly, discerning in- 
fallibly, probing without ruth or scruple to th* core of 
each matter that invites them. They redeem the face and 
the person and set them at a discount; in them lives the 
real Sergius Witte, the artist in the statesman, the wolf 
or the weasel in the man. the genius in the artisan. If it 
were anything but living truths, immune from doubt and 
double-dealing, that he had now to handle, how these twin 
fires would go to the heart of the thing and grip at once 
upon its weakness. 

After this mav be given a good story he tells of 
Alexander III. : — 

"Do you reall.y think that W"itte resembles me?" he 
asked, for it was commonly said that this was the case. 
The Grand Duke nodded. " H'm." pondered the Emperor. 
" Well, in that case, he won't waste any time before his 


Under this title " Ignota," in the Ji'eslmiiister 
Revim.', reminds us that last month there passed 
awav two of the grandest nineteenth century pio- 
neers, one well known and a woman. Miss Susan B. 
Anthony, the other little known, and a man, Ben 
Elmv, of Congleton, Cheshire, known to many as a 
writer under the pseudonym of '' Ellis Ethelmar." 

Mr. Elmy's experience as a manufacturer led him 
in the eighties to support the fiscal policy of Mr. 
Chamberlain, then know as "Fair Trade": — 

But his strong social instincts and large human sympa- 
thies drove him steadily forward in the direction of the 
most advanced Socialism, and he realised as fully and 
leenlv as do the leaders of the Independent Labour Party 
of to-day that neither Free Trade nor Fair Trade alone 
could solve our social problems, or assure the well-being 
nf humanity. He further saw most clearl.y that no jnst 
Socialism could be built upon the existing legal, social, 
and political subjection of women; so that to his mind, 
for the greater part of his life, the woman question and 
the social question were but two asiiecta of the same 
question, each for ever insoluble without the just solution 
of the other. 

Thinking that women would distrust books written 
on the woman and the sex questions avowedly by a 
man, he adopted a feminine pseudonym — a precau- 
tion fullv justified by the result. Though in his life 
he had much disappointment, yet the uprising of 
labour and the position of women generally during 
the last few years of his life were such as he had 
hardlv dared to hope. 

What Next? 

In the Ninetccirth Century for April a fanatical 
Tariff Reformer attempts to reply to Lord Avebury's 
article in favour of good relations with Germany. It 
is unnecessarv to quote more than one sentence from 
this " reply " : — 

It may be asserted, without fear of contradiction, tliat 
Germany made the South .\frican war. Had Germany not 
sednously cultivated the Boer connection, enoourageii Boer 
ambitions, and flattered Mr. Kruger to the top of his bent, 
the Transvaal war would not have occurred. The South 
-African war cost us £250.000.000. and we may thank Ger- 
man.v for t!ie loss of that enormous sum. 

Review of Heviews, 1/6/06. 

Current History in Caricature. 

" O wad some power the giftie gie us, 
To see ourselves as itbers see us." — Burns. 

The cartoons this month are quite above the 
avL-rage. Although the political foes of the British Go- 
vernment are hopelessly routed, the cartoonists cannot 
retrain from firing some playful squibs after them, 
as a kind of final expression of exultation at victor)-. 
As it does'nt hurt the dead, it is therefore quite 
harmless. A veiy clever cartoon of C.-B. (published 
in another part of this paper), published by Black 
and White, refers to the demonstration in the Ladies' 
Gallery. The Daily Chronicle, representing the 
political marriage of Mr. Chamberlain and Mr. Bal- 
four, and the advent of their son, is very amusing. 
The cartoon showing Mr. Haldane' performing the 
difficult feat of riding at unce the two horses, " Effi- 
ciency " and " Economy," is very apt and s'Jggesti\-e. 
The Tribune's pictjre of Mary and her little lamb 
is splendid, and the Westminster Gazette's cartoon 
by F. C. Gould, " A Horrid Change," is so true to 
lie as to provoke much merriment. The Sontli African 
Nnvs shows C.-B. as hauling down the pirate's 

flag of the foreign financier in South Africa, and re- 
placing it with the Union Jack of equal rights. The 
new discrimination is in favour, not of Boer against 
Briton, but of English ideas against the greed that 
knows neither conscience nor country. 

Local cartoons give the Bulletin's idea of the 
South African muddle in a series of graphic pic- 
tures. Melbourne Punch depicts an imaginary con- 
versation between Mr. Deakin and Mr. Watson, but 
does not hit off the exact situation by any means. 
It is not conceivable that Mr. Deakin desires the 
support of the Labour Party simply and solely to 
keep him in power. The same paper, in another 
cartoon, rather contradicts itself, representing a kind 
of alliance between the same two personages for a 
common object. The Worker represents the Com- 
monwealth as an old motherly hen in a fi^rment over 
the problem of converting the product of six eggs 
into one comprehensive chicken. The work of con- 
verting the debts into one debt would not, however, 
be a task so difficult as the cartoon suggests. The 
Sydney Bulletin suggests that battleship repairs on 
the Australian station would more than pay for 
locallv-owned fleet. 

Daily Chronicle.'] 

*A Family Tragedy. 

SON OF THE HOUSE (to Mr. Balfour): "Father, as a re- 
sponsible person I have come to the conclusion tliat the 
partner of your choice is not, and never can he. an essential 
part of our home life." 

SiEPMOTHEH : " llow Very— interesting. Please don't slam 
the door a" you go out!" 

Westmintter GazHte.'i 

A Dual Responsibility. 

Mr. Haldane has to perform the difficult task of riding 
the two horses " Efficiency " and " Economy " 


RttHev of Uecieics. 1/6/06. 

Current History in Caricature. 


Hop" in "The Bulletin.' 

The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1»0S. 

DaUy Chronicle.'} 

The New Housemaid. 
Miss Haidane : " Before I start the Spring cleaning in 
earnest I may as well get rid of a lot of rubbish!' 


The Expoted Medium 

O.-B. : " Enough . I saj-, of thia foolery. It was all very 
well in the last Parliament, bnt is altogether out of place 
ia this Parliament."— Tariff Beform debate. 

JleXbournf PtrrMffc.] 

Their Noble Object. 
(Mr. Deakin points out that since he and Mr. Watson have 

ideutieal aims, it would be foolish for them to quarrel. i 

ALPilED: "Come, Chris., we mast be friends; we are striv- 
ing for the elevation of the same noble object." 

OHEIS. ; " Tes, Alf., but what is that noble object?" 


SOCIAIilsT: "Here— club him, Chris." 



Now that the sun (King Edward) is again smiling on Ger- 
many she warms herself happily with its rays. 

Sencit of 'Rtvievce, IjijOS. 

Current History in Caricature. 

Melbourne Punch ] 

The Fighting Face. 

(Contest for tbe Heavy-weiglit Prime Miuist«r8hij> of Aus- 
tralia and a purse of £2000 a rear.) 

BOTTLE-HOLDEB DEAKIX : "Be careful of him, Chris.— he's 
got his fiahting face on." 

CHEIS. ^VatsoX: Well, if I can't break it, we'll both 
have a go at him." 


Mapy and Her Little Lamb— New Version. 
It is understood that Mr. Balfour will take his seat to-day. 

I'ht Worker.} 

A Problem. 

Th» BuCed'n.] 

The Broken Ironclad. 

The HEN: "How on earth am I going to hatch six eggs 
into one big chicken?" 

The Australian flagship has returned to S.vdnc.v in a 
crippled condition. 

Australia iconsi lering things through telcscopei: "It 
Beems to me that towage expenses are getting so heav.v that 
that it might be cheaper to build a sound fleet of m.v own." 


The Review of Reviews. 

June i. '906. 

.—^iM ,"■ . V-' 

Westminster Gazette.'] 

A Horrid Change. 

The Ghost (Arthur): "I say. Joe, there's a horrid change 
has come over the House since I played here last! They ac- 
tually call my acting ' foolery ' !" 

Hamlet (Joe) : ■ It's ai; very well. Arthur, but you over- 
did your nan. You needn't have made the Ghost quite 
such a low-comedy character I" 

With One Accord. 
" When they do agree, their unanimity is wonderful. ' 
— " The Critic," Act i. Scene 2. 

A motion was carried that official charges in connection 
with Parliamentary Elections should be defrayed out of 
public funds. — PciTUamentary Report. 

South .l/rican .Ycus.l fCape Town. 

The New Flag. 
"C.-B.":'*'! always hated that black flag; now we'll run 
up the honest one." 

Ihe Bulletin.} 

The Federal Situation. 

The old triangular struggle is expected nest December, 
and meanvihile the old political vehicle remains in much 
the same old plaoe. 


Hevietc of Heviews, l{6/06. 

The Reviews Reviewed. 


The April number of this invaluable survey of the 
Amencau world i.s full of articles of varied interest 
relating to the United States, and several which deal 
brietlv but intelligentlv with European problems. Mr. 
C. U". Keves, in a brief paper, exults over what he 
believe.s to be the general agreement of the geolo- 
gists that from 100 to 150 million yeai-s must have 
elap!=<?d since life appeared on this planet. 

Mr Brook, a foo<l inspection expert, calculates 
tliat the American people spend £l;2uO,000,000 every 
v<^ar on food and drink. They spend £7,000,000 every 
"year on baking powder alone. Mr. Brook calculates 
that food and drink of the value of £180.000,000 
per annum is more or less adulterated. Mr. Henry 
Stead describes what people read in Australasia, 
doing full ju.stice to the Sydneti BuUetiv. Miss 
Hjiirknian eulogises the visiting nurse as a social 
force. She mentions incidentally that "The health 
department of Xew York City supports fifty nurses to 
visit the chddren of the public schools, seven to visit 
and in.<t]uct tubenulosis patients, and two to look 
after pei-sons alllicted with other contagious diseases.'' 

[n view of the light over the Hates Kegulation Bill 
of President iioosevelt and the prospective opening 
of the Panama Canal. Mr. F. A. Ogg's paper on 
Kailroad Uates and the flow of American trade is 
very timely. Mr. T. Y, Chang roundly denies that 
there is any danger of an uprising against foreigners 
in China. 


The .Worth Aimiiaiii Recitw for March contains 
.nrtides on tlic Anierioanisation of the Wefst Indies 
;ind the secret of Count Witte's failure. 

In contrast to the account given as to the inevit- 
able destiny of the British \Yest Indies to drift into 
the bosom of the American Kepublic. take this ac- 
(<vuiit by Mr. Henry James of the extent to which 
the Europeans have annexed Boston. He stood on 
I'.eacon Hill one fine Sunday : — 

There went forward across the top of tlie hill a continuous 
iKissage of men and women, in couples and talkative com- 
p;iDiea. who struck me as labourins; wage-earners, of the 
simpler sort, aira.ved in their Sunday best and decently 
enjoying their leisure. They came up from over the Com- 
mon) they pas.scd or paused, exchanging remarks on the 
beauty of the scene, but presenting themselves to me as of 
more interest, for the moment, than anything it contained. 
For no sound of English, in a single instance, escaped their 
lips; the greater number spoke a rude form of Italian, the 
others some out land dialect unknown to me— thougli I 
waite<l and waited to catch an echo of antique refrains. 
No note of any shade of American 8pe«ch struck my ear, 
save in so far aa the sounds in ciuestion represent to-day 
so much of the substance of that idiom. The types and 
faces bore tJicm out; the people before me were gross aliens 
to a man, and they were in serene and triumphant, 


'rile writer of the letter from Berlin states that : 

It is, indceJ, not impossible that the striking proof of 
their discipline fumislied by the Social Democrats on 
"Quiet Sunday may eventually mark a turning-point in 
the domestic policy of (iermany. For it is pKain that 
Ku.ssia. which the statesmen of Berlin have in times past 
worshipped aa the bulwark of Autocracy, has nothing more 
to teach them, unless it be the advisability of directing 

tlieir eves westward in search of successful methods of 
government. Already the retreat from Russian ante-revolu- 
tionary ide;LS has l>een sounded by the states ol South 
Germany. In the Grand Duchy of Baden, a more liberal 
franchise has quite recently come into operation; in 
Bavaria, manhood suffrage is about to be introduced ; in 
Saxony, the Government has anuounced its determination 
to revise on modern lines the electoral law, which it enacted 
three years ago in consonance with the reactionary- Pras- 
sian model ; and the Grand Duchy is now preparing to 
imitate the example of Baden. In these circumstances, it 
can, notwithstanding the retrograde step taken by the Re- 
public of Hamburg, be merely a question of time before 
the Kingdom of Prussia yields to the cry lor reform raised 
by the Social Democrats. 

The writer of the articles on the American Navy 
says : — 

The general conclusion to which this review of the situa- 
tion leads is that, if the American Navy is to deserve and 
command our good opinion in the future, as it has in the 
past, we must radically change our policy in dealing with 
it, not only as to details of organisation, but as to general 


.Mr. C. M. Taylor, of Sydney, New South 'V\'alos, 
has originated a series of edricational art prints. 
Each picture, 6ay.s the Arena, will impress some great 
l( -son or emnliasise some crime of omission or com- 


iB^ShN ^ 


mm ' ^^ ^ 

Why Hast Thou Forsaken Me ? 


Ihe Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 19.'i. 

mission on tlie part of our civilisation. The first of 
this t«rios of pictures we reproduce in this issue. It 
is entitled " Why Thou Forsaken Me:-" and 
vividly pictures the horrors of the battlefield, the un- 
told misery and tlie want and woe that ever follow in 
the footsteps ot war. Among the early subjects in this 
series of art prints will be • But the Son of Man Had 
No Place to Ifest His Head," ''As It AVas in the Be- 
ginning," and " The King is Dead, Long Live the 
King '" Such prints cannot fail to prove real educa- 
tors, stimulating thought and arousing the blunted 
moral s<'nsibilities of our greed-engros-swl civilisation. 


In the C'nrespondant of March 10th there is an ar- 
ticle by Paul Mimande. on the '' Legislative Elections 
in the French Colonies." 


The writer points out many serious defects in the 
present .--ystem of government, and suggests two sys- 
tems, either of which, he thinks, would be suitable. 
In the fii-st the capital sub.sidises the colony and main- 
tains the pfisoimd of the different services. The local 
administration is diiected by a governor, who is as- 
sisted by a colonial council composed of notables and 
of the heads of the services, and able to transform 
itself by the addition of supplementary members into 
an administrative tribunal. The chief centres have 
mixed municipalities composed of members nominated 
by the capital and of membei's elected bv the inhabi- 
tants, and presided over by a magistrate. 

The second sy.stem is that of self-government. In 
this case the representative of the State becomes a 
sort of diplomatic agent, with a right to \ eto mea- 
sures in violation of the Constitutional laws of the 
capital. The colony is absolute master nf its budget: 
it elects a little local parliament, the governor choos- 
ing the ministers as indicated by the majority; it 
maintains its own officials and police ; it receives no 
subsidy of any kind; and it lives the life of a quasi- 
independent State. 


To the same number J. B. Piolet contributes an ar- 
ticle on the .New Free Sch<x)ls m France. By the laws 
of July, lyOl, and .July, 1904, we are told, no fewer 
than iO.OOO schools «ere closed in, and during 
the pres<^nt nearly GOO more have been closed. Why 
spend forty to fifty million francs in creating free 
Kciiools, and eighteen to twenty million francs annu- 
ally for their maintenance, to destroy them by a 
simple legislative act? Is it worth while to begin the 
worK over again when the same late may overtake 
all the energy spent upon it.' More iver, did the free 
instruction give such results as might rea-sonably 
ha%'e been expected? At the Lyons Congress in 1904 
Auguste Isaac said that the elementary education 
provided bv the State was unsatisfactory: — "The 
impartiality of the modern .State i« an illusion: the 
neutralitv of the State school is a chimera." 

The writer discus-ses in tlie present article Jean 
Hornet's idea of " The Free School of To-morrow," 
as set forth in a brochure bearing this title. >L Hor- 
net would found a.ssociations of parents (including 
mothers), doctors, profe.ssors, business men. workmen, 
etc., to administer the schools, and in the normal 
schools he would give a proper training to such 
teachei-s as understand their'on and know how 
to fulfil it. The schools would no hniger be quite 
fiee, for everywhere it has been found that, with 
g'atuitous instruction, assiduitv in attending the 
schools has diminishetl. Tlie writer tliinks the finan- 
cal problem can be sohed. hut he does not seem quite 
so sure about the recruiting of suitable teachers. 


In the second March number Rene Henry writes on 
Poland : Her Soitows and Her Hopes, which he de- 
scribes as the nation without a State, the nation 
which has been proving for more than a century that 
nations disappear only when they abandon themselves 
and consent to die. He finds the same conviction 
and the same irritation in Poland which exist in 
Hungary. The Hungarians say they would have ob- 
tained s;itisfaction from the Emperor of Austria were 
it not that he is encouraged in his resistance by the 
Gennan lOmperor. In like manner the Poles believe 
that thej would have obtained as complete autonomy 
as FinlaiKJ if the German Emperor was not behind 
the Tsar. , 

The subject of another interesting article forms 
a .striking to the woes of Poland. Comte 
Henri <le Hoissieu writes on Belgium, the first Euro- 
pean State to institute a ^Minister of Industry and 



In the (iiiiiitl Mugnziiie Mr. Horace Xewte, writing 
on •■ Playwriting as a Profession." give.s the aspiring 
playwright much wholesome if, probably, unpalatable 
advice. Whatever he may do, he is hardly likely to 
coin money : more kiclvs than halfpence seems the lot 
of most playwrights. Till I read this article I did not 
realise tliat the vice of playwriting was so common. 

As in success on the stage, so in success in the 
army, those writers frank enough to do so admit that 
luck, .sheer luck, is a large element. Thoroughness 
iii-st. says one nniter, health secondly (even firstly), 
and thirdly ambition. Lord Playfair says "oommon- 
sense, tact and good fortune," and adds, underlining, 
that "the greatest of these is good fortune." "Inte- 
rest and the possession of ample means." says another 
eminent soldier, are highly potent factors in army 
success : — 

A well-known general officer was some years ago asked 
how lie had achieved such srreat success in his professlou. 
aa he had never appeared to ove work himself. The blunt 
reply was: — " What fool could not get on in the Army who 
had £5000 a year!" 


A lawyer and a layman discuss fhe question whether 
juries ensure justice or not; and most readers will 
pixibably think that the lawyer — the Xoes — has it. 
Lack of responsibility of jurymen, popular distrust 
of them, frequent disaoreement of juries, their 
liability to be unduly influencetl by a clever advocate, 
the mischief resulting from juries being swayed by 
local and personal interests- -those are the lawyer's 
chief arguments jurvinen. Generally speak- 
ing, he believes a fairer verdict likely to be obtained 
from a judge than from a jury, and cites Sir George 
Lewis as being of the same opinion. The defence 
article is r.ither on the lines of '■ what has endured so 
long must be good." 


Dora D. Chapman, writing oii this subject, attii- 
butes the desire of so many women to escape from 
the monotony of ordinary home life to the dull, dead 
level to which housekeeping has been reducetl by 
means of stores, and all sorts of modern scientific 
appliances, saving one all thinking. It was ranch 
more interesting to do your own preserving, bacon- 
curing, spinning and herb drying, than to buy jams, 
bacon. Hnen and dried herbs at the stores. Specious 
reasoning; but a which is kept like a home, 
which many English houses are not. will afford scope 
for a fairly energetic woman even now. .And a really 
domestic woman will be domestic, the stores notwith- 


tli^vieic of Rerietc^, If'.'/'J'J 

The Reviews Reviewed. 



The Treasunj in its April number has an article on 
'■ Pictures of the Passion at the National Gallery," 
n ritten by Mr. Francis E. Hiller, who is anxious that 
pictures should Ije h>olve<l at and studied with some 
method, so as to make them profitable and enjoyable 
— hence the present selection of Lenten subjects. 
After the Nativity and the Crucifixion, the subject 
ill the life of C'luist wliich has appealed most strongly 
to painters is tlie Last Supper. Yet the only picture 
representing this subject is a very small one. believed 
to have been paiiite<l by lircole de Roberti. It dates 
from the fifteentli century. Mr. Frederick Rogers, 
who writes on the attitude of the Labour Party 
tn the Church, says it would be a mistake to regard 
the Labour party in the House of Commons as a 
solid phalanx with a definite Socialist policy. He 
thinks the essentials of religion are more largely pre- 
sent in the Party than the essentials of Secularism. 
The Church ought to ti-y to understand the ideals 
of the Labour Party, and. though the Labour Move- 
n;ent may be leavenetl with Nonconformist thought, 
it is probable that it will be more in sympathy with 
tlie national ideas of the Church. 


Scribner's for Apiil is a good number, opening with 
a paper on " The Waters of Venice," by Arthur 
Symons, with colour and black and white illustrations. 
It is an old subjpct, hut freshly treated. There is a 
most interesting paper (to any who care for such a 
subject) on the Caribou and his Kindred bv Ernest 
Thompson Seton. charmingly illustrated. The Cari- 
bou, the writer says, " is to the northern Indians 
what the seal is to the Eskimo and the buffalo was to 
the Plains Indians — it is their staff of life. 
Tl>ey must follow and hunt it successfully or die." 
The Caribou, of course, is the American reindeer, 
of which there are four well-marked species, though 
ten less well-define<l species are often enumerated. 


The April Fnrf nightly, although d sfigured as usual 
by two articles inspired by the intense distmst of 
(rermany, which is so hateful a note in this otherwise 
excellent periodical, is a capital number. The article 
" A French Archbishop," by Constance Elizabeth 
Maud, is the mast charming pen-picture of an ideal 
prelate that I have ever read. Mrs. John Lane's 
social paper on ' .Vfternoon Calls ' is another bright 
;t!id characteristic article. 

Mr. Roger PococU informs iis that a fresh addition 
i^ being made to the anufnl forces of the British Em- 
liire in the shape of a Legion of Frontiersmen which 
"Mr. Haldane has •sanctioned : — 

The Legion received the approval of His 5faje5t.v"s Gov- 
ernment on Feltruarj- 15th. 1906. There were 620.000 qualified 
men in the Empire, of wlioni a twentieth part would malie 
a Legion of Frontiersmen. In return for the henefits which 
i-rise from admitt.Tnce to the Leerion, an annual subscrip- 
tion has to be paid as follows: — Members pledeed t-o ser- 
v.oe, lOs. 6d. ; Members qualified hut not pledged. £1 Is.: 
Honorary members, £2 Zs. 

Mr. Pocock says : — 

A new kind of tree which we have planted, we do not 
know in which direction its branches will spread, or in 
wiiat direction they will fail to grow. Neither ('o weknow 
what manner of fruit will ripen. It mav be an Intelligence 
Department in the field which will render the best service. 
or the Guide Corps, or the Scouts, the squadrons for Si>ecial 
Service, or a whole Arra.v Corps. .\11 this may fail, and yet 
the Legion be justified as a new tie biiidinsr the nations of 
the Empire. 


Mr. Archibald S. Hurd, who appears to have con- 
stituted himself the literary elogist of the new regime 
at the Admiralty, writes on 'Progress and Reaction 
in the Navy." He is enthusiastic in his praise of the 
present .system, ami especially defends its weakest 
point — the new method of educting officers, the prac- 
tical effect of which, some fear, will be the exclusion 
of all but middle and upper class bo,y8 from the en- 
gineering staff of the Navy. Mr. Hurd does not 
share this fear. On the general question h« says : — 

The motto of the new Board of Admiralty is " the fighting 
efficiency of the Fleet and its instant readiness for war," 
and in all departments the naval organisation is being 
tuned up to this pitch. A year or so ago rather more than 
halt of the Fleet of men-of-war were out of commission and 
unreadv for service. To-day every efficient man-of-war not; 
undergoing large repairs in the dockyard is in commission. 

Mrs. Crawford describes with much delight Fogaz- 
zaro's new novel '11 Santo" in an article entitled 
■■ .\ Saint in Fiction." She says: — 

There has recently been published in Italy a novel which, 
both by the nature and the bitterness of the controversy it 
has excited, can only be compared to the appeaiance in 
England of "John Inglesant" a quarter of a century ago. 
or yet, more precisely, to that of Robert Elsmere " some 
few years later. No novel in Italy since "I Promessi 
Sposi ■ has had so startling and sudden a success. 

She regards it as a hopeful sign. S',.e says : — 

Many 9.\Tiiptoms point to a revival of practical Chris- 
tianity among the Catholics of Nortlieru and Central Italy, 
not the least significant of these being the extraordinary 
demand tor the cheap Gospels now l)eing issued iu tens of 
thousands by the Society of St. .Jerome. To these signs of 
the times must be added the reception accorded to the 
novel before us. a reception which of itself guarantees 
some measure of success to that spiritual awakening of the 
nation which Antonio Fogazzarro, poet and patriot, dreams 
of effecting. 

Dr. Saleeby preaches a sermon from the text, " I 
have come tliat .vou may have life and have it more 
abundantly " : — 

We are now possessed, it seems to me. of a criterion of nil 
religiim». They are all products or characters or appanages 
of living creatures, living men. As she judges every other 
character of every living thing. Nature judges them accord- 
inc to their worth for her s ipreme purpose— fulness of life. 
Selfish asceticism, seeking the eternal salvation of its own 
paltry, becmse selfish, soul, will not enter into the rehg on 
of tile future. It has scarcely any survival-value, and 
Nature will have none of it. The morality inculcate! by 
the religion of tJie future is such as best serves Natures un- 
swerving desire — fulness of life. 

Mr. Saxon Mills, writing on Chinese Labour and 
the Government, arrives at the uncomfortable conclu- 
sion that " Ministers seom to have hit upon the worst 
ptASsible policy — that which is least likely to do any 
gcxxl, and most certain to create embarrassment and 
irritation throughout the whole of South Africa." 
Mr. Henry .Tames adds a description of his impres- 
sions of Philadelphia to his pictures of New York 
and Boston. 

The Harbinger of Light for March contains as a 
supplement a lecture by Archdeacon Colley. It is 
certainly a most remarkable story which he tells. Tha 
number contains a character sketch of Madame d'Ea- 
perance. Mrs. Bright continues her notes on Mr. P. 
W. Stanford's seances, and Mr. W. F. Lord writes 
on " N'oble I'lant of" To those who are 
interested in occultism it will prove decidedly inte- 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 19013. 


A posthumous, article by Mr. G. J . Holyoake ap- 
pears in the Independent Ueview, on Woman Sui- 
trage, in which lie makee the following suggestion, 
which 1 do not remember having seen before: — 

Why should not women who desire the suffrage form an 
Electoral College iu every borough, aud ask that every 
hundred women members of the College should be legally 
entitled to nominate one of their Order to vote iu the elec- 
tion of members of Parliament for their borough? This 
would give every thousand women ten representatives at 
the polls. 

Mr. Holyoake's forecast of the coiiseqiienoes of 
granting women the suffrage has been singularly well 
justified by events in New Zealand. He prophesied — 

that it would produce great satisfaction and little ciiange. 
as too few women were politically-minded enough to use it. 

.Mr. fyril .lacksou's chief suggestions iu his paper 
on "Flaws in Jileinentary Education" are smaller and sections of classes; quarterly instead of 
annual promotions; and more individual study. It is 
a sensible paper. 

Mr. W. J. Fisher, ex-Liberal candidate for Canter- 
bury, writes on electoral abuses. Canvassing he con- 
siders valueless, if not mischievous — a question raised 
at the meeting of the Hardwicke Society last month, 
when it was decided that canvassing ought not to be 
abolislied : and he also complains of votere being 
treated by friends of the candidate who are not act- 
ing as his accredited agents, and of the distribution 
of tickets for focKl, etc.. and other but more delicately 
veiled forms of bribery. 

Writing on 'The Taxation of ^Monopolies " Mr. J. 
A. Hobson says that there is the same justification 
for a graduated income tax as for taxing ■ uuearneil 
increment." The State iu either case takes those 
portions of the national wealth which represent the 
product of public activities. He admits that what is 
produced through public is rarely clearly separable 
from what is produced by Individual activities: but 
says that in spite of that, a taxable fund of socially 
created income exists ■ ample to meet the expendi- 
ture involved ill the measures of social reform which 
figure to-day upon the platfonn of practical politics." 



In the April number of PcdTson's Magazine there 
is an interview, by Gordon Meggy, with Mr. Fred 
Pegram, in the series of Masters of Black and White. 
Mr. i'ogram prefer.* to a commission rathei' 
than hurry his work. The editor discusses the Hous- 
ing Que.^tion as a pressing problem of to-day. One- 
eighth is statetl to be a fair proportion of rent 
to income. But in some parts of London 46 per 
cent, of the dwellers pay one-third of their income as 
rent. In the country, as in the towns, the conditions 
are in many cases extremely bad. Town Councils 
would do more had they a fund other than the rates, 
and it is .suggested that the taxation of ground values 
would raise the money for muuicipal housing schemes. 
The case of Liverpool is cited as a successful provider 
of houses for the poorest of the poor. The Liverpool 
Corporation has carried out twelve schemes for 1666 
tenements. The average earnings of each family is 
15s. a week, and rents vary from Is. 6d. for a single 
room on the third iloor to -as. 6d. for four rooms on 
the ground floor. But the standard of decency and 
comfoit cannot be .S45 high in a black dwelling in a 
town as iu a cottage in a garden suburb, and the real 
solution of the housing difficulty in London lies in 
the removing of factories from the town to the coun- 
try, and iu the building of new garden cities. 

Mr. Fry continues to insist on his favourite theme 
that British games must be supplemented by the na- 
tional adoption of ride shooting, that we may become 
a nation of marksmen. He enlarges on the precedent 
set by the Swiss, and gives as a fiontispiece \\ uthrich's 
picture of Wilhelm Tell and his sou, •• the first of 
Swiss marksmen." Mr. Edward Step shows how gar- 
dens may be adorned with " borders beautiful," aud 
adorns his paper with many beautiful photograplis. 
Canon Mcdormack is adduced by the editor as a 
famous Cambridge " Blue," and captain of the Cam- 
bridge ciieket team in 1856. He was one of the win- 
ning crew in the '\'arsity boat-race fifty years ago, 
distinguished himself in high jump and lon^ jump 
and boxing, and still, in his 72nd year, addresses 
large congregations in the open air iu Piccadilly. 
Cycling, golf and football are the chief sports referred 
to. Mr. P. A. Vale enumerates things John Bull 
may learn from his sons. The Colonial charge is that 
the home country- clings loo faithfully to obsolete no- 
tions. The Grand Stand at Epsom is denounced as 
being very badly constructed, the saddling paddock 
a disgraceful anachronism. He urges that 
should be identified by numbers on the saddlecloth, 
rather tlian by their colours. He strongly protests 
against the abuse of the whistle by the referee in 
football. He objects to the English tenuis grip, and 
generally insists that .John Bull is getting perilously 
near his second childhood. 

The story of Mr. Harry de Wimlt, told by Mr. Ray- 
mond Blatbwayt, is the opening article in the April 
number of CaxseU's M'nja-.ine. Mr. de Windt's life 
has been full of adventure. He him.self says : — 

Many years ago I went to Borneo as A.D.C. to my 
brothev-in-law. the Rajah of Sarawak. My iife in the Far 
East, aud all that I saw of Orientalism, fired a natural de- 
sire for constant change into au enthusiasm for travel and 
exploration. But I almost invariably allow myself to be 
guided b.v tiie inspiration of the moment. 

Mr. de Windt has published many songs, though 
he has never bad a music lesson in his life, and he is 
an adept ac palmistry. 

Mr. .Tames A. Manson contributes an article on the 
Dulwicli Picture Gallery, • an art shrine in a wood." 
Though the gallery is only five miles distant from St. 
Paul's, tew Londoners visit it: but this neglect is 
atoned for by country cousins and foreigners. The 
Dutch aud Flemish Schools are well represented, and 
it is asserted that Dulwich Gallery contains a greater 
number of first-class pictures by Albert Cuvp tliaa 
anv other gallery in the world. 

In an article on the Cotton Growei-s, bv G. T. Teas- 
dale-Biickell. the writer says it is not true that there 
are no negro slaves in the United States South, for 
he saw some working in chains at Atlanta about a 
year ago. Under dread of lash and rifle, and watched 
bv two white men, tliev were cutting roads through 
the battlefield. 


Ildrprr'f: Miigazme has unearthed some hitherto 
unpublished letters of Dickens, written from Switzej- 
land to the Watsons, to whom " David Copperfield " 
was dedicated. Mr. W. D. Howells describes the Eng- 
lish Washington Country — Northampton and the vil- 
lage of Little Brington near. The magazine, as a 
whole, is rather too American in interest for most 
English readers. A scientific article deals with 
"Chemistry in the World's Food" — the effect of 
chemical manures in increasing the yield from plants. 
Illustrations are given of mustard, wheat, oats, and 
carrots grown with and without fertilisers, show- 
ing the striking results obtained by the use of the 
best fertiliser for the individual plant. 

llmew of Eevii-wi, 116106. 

J hv Reviews Reviewed. 



Ml. A. P. Sinnett must be congiatiilat<'cl upon 
liaviiirj written one of the most amusing and sugges- 
tive .-lioit stoiies of the year. '' A Bi'idal Pair " in 
April liruud I ieics is a fanciful tale based upon the 
now well-establislied fact of the possibility of two 
alternating personalities in the same body. A bar- 
listor tails in love with a young lady who, when she 
promises to marry liim, is Miss Lucy Vanerby. But 
the boily of lUiss Vanerby is tenanted by two per- 
-■malities, known recspcctively as Lucy and L<'onora, 
. aril with distinct characters, tastes, and memories. 
.Vltcr the barrister Inks wooed and won the love of 
Luc.\ . Leonora suddenly replaces Lucy as the tenant 
(if X'anerby's body. As Lucy's lover knows 110- 
iliing of the sudden change of personalities, there i.s 
:it, first the devil to pay. Fortimatelj- Lp<mora holds 
possession long enough to be wooed and won in her 
turn, ami tlie lucky barrister marries two women in 
one. What will happen after the wedding, when 
Luc.v returns to find her lover has married Leonora, 
is to be told in a subsequent number. 

From a paper on occultists' views in politics we 
li'arn that the invisible world is governed by an ab- 
.vilute monarchy, and that, therefore, occultists are 
alisolutists. As a first step towards dethroning de- 
mocracy Mrs. Bcsant proposes to allow no man a vote 
until he is fifty years of age. 

An article by a clergyman of the Church of Eng- 
land who has a mediumistic wife describes his experi- 
ences. He finds consolation from being told that 
although his church is half empty to the physical eve 
it is packed to the dcHjrs with an immense congrega- 
tion of liisembodied spirits who hang eagerly upon 
■'^ his words. 

Violet Tweedale, writing on Women and the Fran- 
' liise, maintains that the purification of the chui'ches, 

whioli is such a cr.ving necessity of the day, lies in 
I he liaiuls of woman." "The superannuated mar- 
riage service," for instance, must be amended. Violet 
TufMHlale is so vehement a purifier that she rages 
against apples because of the story of Eve's trans- 
What incalculable damage tliat cheap and esculent fruit 

IS laused hnniaiiit.N' ! As I look on its innocent. blusVi- 
iii;- cheek as it lies on my table I feel I owe it a deep 
'grudge. It has prostituted tbe minds of the vast niajorit.v 
'if m.\ sex. 


The .\pril number of the 'World's ITor/,- and I'lnj/ is 
rhieHy notable for Mr. Talbot's description of the 
mammoth Canarders, and the interview with Sir 
William van Home on Canadian and British trade, 
both of which are noticed elsewhere. It is ahso dis- 
tinguished by its demands for many reforms. In his 
" .March of Events," Mr. Norman expresses great re- 
gret that the I'rinie Mini.ster has declined to intro- 
duce tlie metiic system of weiglits and measvires 
into Britain, and that he did not order the removal 
of the grille from the Ladies' Galler.v. Mr. H. G. 
Archer urges that the British army be equipped with 
the aut<miatic rifle, which uses aii<l so diminishes the 
force of recoil by consecutive supply, thus enabling 
the marksman to keep liis rifle to bis shoulder for at 
h'ast t<'n shots, instead of having to lower and reload 
<'ach time he lir*>s. Mr. Harvey Clinton presses for 
the n-moval of the distinction between solicitor an<l 
barrister. Lawyers should be one class, not two. Mr. 
Fred. T. .Jane advises the employment of marines 
as chaulfeurs, their naval experience having made 
them handy, trustworthy, and self-respecting. " H<mie 
(ouiities" gives an interesting account of how a 
small farmer siicceedtKl who taught him.self to read 
ainl write when a boy, and at twenty married on 9s. 

a week. He worked his way up till he is reckoned 
to be worth £200U. Mr. S. L. Bastin has a beauti- 
fully illustrated paper on the rose, the queen of 
flowers. The illustrations are, as usual, a notable 
feature. The portrait of Sir William van Home 
makes a fine frontispiece, and tlic picture of the sta- 
dium at Athens, where the Olympic games have been 
revived, is very interesting. 


Mr. Spencer lidge opens the April number of the 
Eiifjlish Itlustinted Majazine with a sensible article 
on the Cheap Cottage, not the cottage at' £150 or 
£2UU, a price which does not in all cases represent 
the real cost, and which is, therefore, not market 
price. The country cottage, he says, must before 
all things be warm and dry, and we must pay for a 
fabric which will render us immune from such plagues 
as damp and cold. He estimates tlie cost to be nearer 
£30(1 than the figures already named, and gives a 
charming design tor an eight-roomod cottage. 

In the" same number there is an article on Kisses, 
by Beatrice Heron-Maxwell. It is illustrated by well- 
known paintings, and the various kind of kisses are 
described— tbe kiss social, the kiss platonic, the kiss 
spontaneous, etc. 

Mr. J. Loughmore has interviewed Mr. W. Larkins, 
the famous steeplejack who decorated the Nelson pil- 
lar for the centenary celebration. In doing it Sir. 
Larkins was not allowed to drive in any spikes, but 
had to lassoo the pillar at intervals all the way up 
by placing around it bands of rope. To these the 
ladclers were tied, and to reach the capital from the 
ropes it was necessaiy to go out at an angle of forty- 
five degrees. Mr. Larkins discovered a crack in Nel- 
son's arm which lie repaired with cement and a cop- 
per band. 


There are several good articles in the April num- 
ber of Chainbrrs's Journfil. 

First may be mentioned that by " One in the Sec- 
ret," who explains wh.v railwa.vs do not pay better. 
'J he first serious item of loss is caused by competing 
lines, called "strategic railwa.vs." Their construction 
is defended on the ground that if the A. Bailway 
<l(>es not occupy the district, the competing company, 
tbe B. I'ailwa.v. will do so, ami the argument is that 
it pays the A. Railway to build a line and irmk if at 
II loss to prevent the B. Hallway from doing so. Then 
the whole system of promoting Bills and opposing rival 
schemes is" extremely wasteful. The direct oompe- 
titiou between the ra"ilways is often unnecessary. For 
iiustance, four railways compete for the London-Man- 
chester traflic. Tbe" sendees between London and 
Seotlaml are another instance of acute competition. 
There is now a through service between the North 
and Midlands and the South of England, and we 
are tokl that three or four passengers tor the through 
coaches constitute a good load, and occasionally there 
IS no through passenger at all. Many other reckless 
<'xtra\agances are cited, such as that of the Locomo- 
tive Departments on the diffeient lines, etc. 

Tlie article on the Holloway Friendly Society in the 
January number has called forth wmie criticism from 
the older societies, but in the April number the writer 
r<'turns to his subject, and again shows how the Hol- 
loway S(M'iet.v is superior to its pre<lecessors. In- 
(|uirics, with sixpence enclosed, for a cop.v of the 
rules may be addres.sed to Mr. Charles Bennett, Bene- 
fit Society Offiws liu.ssoll-street, Stroud, Gloucester- 
shire, or to -Mr. F. W. Daniels. Coleridge Chambers, 
Corixn-at ion -street, Birmingham. 

The Review of Reviews. 


The Yoany Man's Muijfiziiie ti>i April is quite up to 
the mark. It opens witli a desciiptiim of the " Auck- 
land District Amuial Bible Claav KiKanipment." Then 
follows a very cojuise and biisine^--like paper on 
"Organised P'pr.soual Work." The Kev. A. R. Osborn 
contributes ' Fights lor the Faith." His account of 
the persecutions of tie earl.v Christians at Rome 
thrilKs. Mr. G. Laurenson replies to the Rev. Alex. 
AN'hvte's query in a previous article, 'Should the Ac- 
cumulation of Wealth bv Ijidividuals be Restricted?" 
Mr. Lauren~on believes in vuch interference, and 
states lus reason forcibly. 'J'heip are other articles 
equall.v interesting. 


Sir Herbfir Maxuell and Mr. Herbert Paul divide 
the chroiiifjiir between them. Mr. R. G. Wilberforco 
writes briefly and sensibly on the education of conntTv 


Mr. Charles Barry explains, with the aid of a plan 
and a sketch, how. in his opinion, the seating capacit.v 
of the Hou.>e could be enlarged so as t-o give every 
memljer a seat. At the same time he would doidde 
the Ladies" Gallery and increa.=e the accommodation 
for reporters from 3S to Go. He says : — 

The new ilivisiou lobbies would be constructed res| eo- 
tively in the Commons Court and the Star Chamber 
Court, slisbtly diminishing their present area, it is true, 
bat not to sucli extent a.s to materiall.v interfere with ;he 
light and air the.v afford to rooms o|>enine- upon them. 
Tn© Hous« can thu.s he altered and enlarffei without any 
interference with Sessional business, and ^rfthotit nnn nece^- 
sity for a temimrory Ilouie, such as was apprehended bv the 
Committee of 1B68. 

Tlio lit \ . .1. Hardv. Chaplain of the Forces in 
Hong Koni;. recalls the fact that China was not al- 
ways pacific. Six centtiries before Christ. 

So much did the martial spirit prevail that the Prince 
of the Wu State or Province established two corps of femole 
soldiers. The ladies, however, siesled and laughed in the 
ranks until at length the commanding officer of each corps 
was beheaded for failing to maintain discipline. The corrs 
then became very efficient. 

China is now arming : — 

It is said that there are at present ten divisions, or 
120,000 men. in the new arm.v. properly equipped and trained 
by foreigners. It is hoped tliat within the nest ten years 
the numbers will mount up to half a million. Napoleon s-.iid 
at St. Helena. " Wlien China is moved it will change the 
face of the globe." Well. China is moved with a vengeance 
for past bad treatment, and some will have cause to regret 
that sleeping dogs were not allowed to lie. 

Mr. Hoiiiiiker Heaton pleads for the abolition of 
public patronage in Gi'eat Britain. He sa.vs : — 

This evil was. not nian.v years ago. rampant in Australia. 
It is now unknown there. Instead of allowing public ser- 
vants to prescribe the amount of salary each is to receive, 
to badger ilinisters for api)ointment5. and to threaten con- 
scientiou.s meml>ers with defeat at elections, each State 
Parliament has transferred the appointment, control, and 
i>emun©ration of civil servants to an indei^eudent tribunal, 
constituted for the purpose, called " The Public Service 
Beard." The Board is composed of three members, irre- 
movable, like our High Oonrt judges, except by the vote 
of both Hottses. It inquires into the qualifications of appli- 
cants, determines 'like our Civil Service Commission) the 
nature of the examinations held for the higher classes, 
regulates 'by comparison with the wages paid b.v private 
employers for similar worki the remuneration for each 
claafl. " recommends all appointments and promotions, and 
hears all appeals and complaints. 

Mr. A. M. Watson calls attention to the fact that 
bv the .\ct nassed last session amending the London 

building Acts new rules for the pi-eservation of life 
from fire have come into force. Writing apparently 
Inst year, he says : — 

On the Ist of January. 19.6. there will, in tlie first place, 
be 7700 and odd illegal London shops, the owners of which 
may be called upon to e^iiend a sum variously estimated at 
froin £450,000 to £750.000 and odd; secondly, there will l-.e an 
unknown number of houses of more than thirty feet in 
heigllt. the owners of which may be called upon to expend 
from £5 to £10 on each house in proyiciing statutory means 
of access to the roofs; thirdly, there will be an increased 
expenditure immediately required to make all bnilflings in 
process of construction comply with the provisions of the 
new Act: and, lastly, the owners of high buildings and 
twenty-person buildiiigs should le preparing to meet the 
rules tor existing buildings which will he affected on the 
1st of January, 1907. The outlay under this head has been 
estimated at "from £500 to £600 for each building. 

Mr. R. Dell discusses the probable attitude of the 
Catholic Church in relation to the law separating 
Clniicli and State. He says : — 

If Catholics accept the law. with whatever motives or 
intent thev will be left unmolested; but it will be a truce, 
not a peace between Church and State, if Catholics 1» 
organised as a political party to promote wluit are 
the "interests" — which always mean worldly interest - 
o'' the Church. The French people is irrevocably, fnii' i- 
mentally anti-clerical; it has been so for centuries, and ;•_ 
will always be so; and the Church has no hope of regain- 
ing religious influence unless and until it is prepared to 
abandon all attempt to gain political influence. The choice 
has to l>e made; and it the Church, or Rome, chooses 
political influence, it will infallibly lose both. 

Sir W. H. White shakes his head over the new 
iviiime at the Admiralty. He criticises the official 
statement of the way in which tlie savings have been 
effected. He says ■ — 

Obviously this condition of affairs cannot be perpetuated 
without serious detriment to the efficiency of the Koyal 
Navv and it is as necessary to make adequate provision 
for maintenance of completed ships as to provide for new 
construction on a proper scale. 

He deprecates the policy of eoncealnient . and says: — 
The naval policy of the Biitish Empire is a great public 
interest, if not the greatest. It is contrary to precedent to 
shut out the public from information in regard to the great 
lines of policy embodied in our naval constructiou. No 
committee, however constituted, can be justified in demand- 
ing blind confidence in its conclusions; no Board ot Ad- 
miralty is justified in refusing information ut the nature 
above described 


The Monfhhj Serieic is particularly full of interest 
this month. 


Mr. Algernon Cecil contributes a paper on Mr. 
.Tohn Morlev. which can Ije compared with an etch- 
iiio better than with a portrait. The school of thought 
which Mr. Morlev embodies moie fully than any liv- 
ing man "is fast dying out. Liberalism, in any in- 
telligible sense, will not last another generation, 
And'it is just because English Liberalism is " flicker- 
inc with all the power of the expiring candle "that 
the opinions of its stoutest champion are peculiarly 
interesting. The article, if not exactly a tribute to 
Mr. Morlev as a politician, in spite of the writer's 
admiration of " his shrewd generalisations on public 
policy," evidently credits him with having exercised 
and still exercising a profound influence on th« 
thought of the present generation. For Mr. Morlev's 
style°i[r. Cecil has an admiration as sincere as dis- 
criminating. After all, Mr. Moiley's own description 
of Burke applies equally to him.ielf — that he "has 
the sacred gift of inspiring men to iise a grave dili- 
gence in caring for high things and in making their 
lives at once rich and austere." 

Rerifir of ^^evifui. l/O/OG. 

The Reviews Reviewed. 



Of tlio :ii-tirlc>.s ill tlio ('iiiitrmpomitj — rntlifr n dull 
number on tlic wliolp — perhaps tlie most important is one 
by " Testis " on " Religious Events in France." He .says 
that, although the whole French press pretended that 
last month's ■ iiiventorv " riots were unexpected an<l 
spontaneous, tlu' exact contra rv is the case. The in- 
credible aiisor against the Separation is more sincere 
and justifiable than might at fiift be thong!it, and is 
exactly au.-ilogoiis to that felt by a strong, able-lwxlied 
workni.iii .stigmatised as " t(X) old at forty," or by an 
old go\<'nies.s cast adrift wlien no longer wanted. 

Another fact the writer iiientions is that the I'ro- 
testante in tiio C'evennes, one of France's most Pro- 
testant districts, did not resist the iuventori(>s at all: 
the law fell on th(>m exactly as on the Catholics, and 
sooner or later the Catholics will ask why the Protes- 
tants could submit joyfully to what the Catholics re- 
sisted so stubbornly. Even eminent Catholics hare 
been asking why they have lost the battle. " Testis'' 
replies : — 

I/et the Catholics of France be under no delusion. The 
BoIe reason whv they have lost their battle on the iitiliti- 
cal ground is because ther have fororotten the truly holy 
battle, the intellectual, moral and religious struggle. 

Dr. .1. Holland Kose comments on ''the recent re- 
vival of the Xapoleonic legend," mainly due to the 
astonishing output of memoirs during recent years, 
memoirs full of mistakes which " pleasingly diverei- 
fied dull reality," but did not give a true conception 
of Napoleon. No one would claim for Napoleon ori- 
ginality of thought' or of literary judgment : Dr. Rose 
IS convince<l tliat even in politics and war his ori- 
ginality has been o\er-cstimated. " The great Cor- 
sican larely tr(>uhle<l iiimself to gauge the motives 
influencing the coiuinct of neighbouring States." He 
could not se<' iliings fnnn their standpoint, partly, 
perhaps, l'r(nii lii.s intellectual contempt for that 
standpoint ; au<l he con.sequently miscalculated their 
abilitv and power, and misread their charact^'rs. His 
"intolerant dogmatism" is contrasted with the 
"cautiously constructive diplomacy" of Bismarck, 
much to the advantage of the latter. Despise your 
foe and rigidly resolve never to yield an inch — is this 
true greatnesvs? asks Dr. Hose. It w-as Napoleon all 
over. " The limitations of his nature . . . explain 
why in two years his own conciuests and those of the 
revolutionary wars were overwhelmed b.v the new na- 
tional energies which his domination had aroused." 


Mr. lsi'ue-»t .\. Baker, a well-known librarian. 
writes on " Direction for Popular Benders," pleading 
for guides to the literature of different subjects, 
somewhat on the lines of the .\uierican Library Asso- 
ciation, only nut of such immense size, if they are to 
be "popular." Hi' thoroughly approves of the .\meri- 
can plan of not merely describing but also of stigma- 
tising, if necesr>ary. When '' spade " means rubbish, 
the Americans <lo not scruple to call a spade a spade. 
The future oi the public library movement, he con- 
siders, depends on three things teaching childr<'ii to 
use a lilirar.v, training librarians as professors of 
books, and ])rii\ i<ling means for directing reading. 

Mr, .1. .\, llobson criticises "The New Aristocracy 
of Ml-. Wells," the point of his criticism being tnat 
it is bad for any class, however weak and foolish, to 
be entirely an<l arbitrarily deprive*! of a sliare in the 
government, and placed under absolute control of an.v 
other class, however superior. Does Mr. Hobsoii see 
how this may he applied to a certain ever-burning 

i|U<'stioii regarding women's political rights? Mr. 
Demetiins C, Boidger's description of the " Franoo- 
(ieruKiu Frontier" is chiefl.v of interest to students 
of military problems; but his conclusion is that, al- 
though Nancy ought to be fortified and is not, and 
although hardly en<nigli soldiers are guarding the 
liontier, yet that fortified frontier is a marvellous 
aehie\<'meut, Mr. \V. H. Bennett combats tlie notion 
that arch;eolog,v in anr way rehabilitattis the tradi- 
tional views as to the composition of the Old Testa- 
ment. Dr. P. T. Fors.vth, writing on " The Catholic 
Threat of Passive Resistance," says that when the 
Catholics have as good ground as the NoncDiiformists 
for passive, resistance, it is not only their right but 
their duty to resist passively. " The Catholics want 
from our' State something mfani to be fatal to us. 
But we mean in our compromise with the 
State nothing fatal to them." 



April number is distinctly readable 

readable by the 
civilian as well as by the expert. The " Duty of the 
Flag " is a historic phrase explained by Mr. G. Hew- 
lett. It meant the duty we claimed from the ships of 
other nations passing through liritish .seas to strike 
their flags and lower their topsails in the presence of 
a British ship. The right is trace<l back to the 
dominion of the seas claimed by Kdgar in the year 
!'60. It was insisted upon in the ordnance of Hast- 
ings under King John, and maintained uiid<'r peiialt.y 
of immediate attack by the British ship until the 
heginning of the last ceiitur.v. 

•' Captain I>. X." piu-sues his review of the last ten 
vears of naval administration abroad. France, he 
says, has been slow to Ijnild battleships, but has been 
building up an imnortant destroyei- flotilla of sixty. 
In submarines and submersibles she maintains the 
lead, havin.a no less than ninety-eight. The ITnited 
States has made greater progress in its Xavy than 
German,^ . and has markedly improved in gunnery. 
German.v's naval pro.gramme in\olve« a financial 
strain perhaps hardly lealised as yet by the German 
people. The writei- asks. Where has the two-power 
standard gone? A Franco-Gernian coalition is still 
not au impossibility. C. de Thierry contiasts Eng- 
land and Germany in a paper which regards a conflict 
for life and death between the two Powers as inevit- 
able. If necessity is the tyrant's plea, inevitableness 
seems to be the Jingo's plea. " 'i'he necessity is not 
ethical, but elemental," whatever that may mean. 

^lajor Denny describes the iis<> and development 
of the Canadian military force, and specially <'ulo- 
gi^es the formation of cadet corps and f>f rifle clubs 
tliroughout the Dominion. He exclaims, ■■ How much 
healthier would our weak-kneed, narrow-chested, 
cigarette-smoking yining.sterK become were cadet 
corps a natural concomitant to English home life!" 

Major N'aisli contrasts the ;oluntary system beyond 
the .Ulantic with ours. He says the city armouries 
of New York ahnie have cost two millions. He adds 
that the Canadian Minister of Militia and Defence 
is perfecting a scheme of universal training in the 
schools and (olleges. and teaching those over fourteen 
to shoot. 

■■ Beedos" insistfi that for the upkeep of tile army 
improved barrack accommodation is necessary. He 
asks tliat everv matt shmild have a cubicle of his 
own. He would also enlist more bovs and train them 
for civilian eitiployments which they could follow 
after tl-ey had loft their colours. " Testudo " insists 
that in order to provide for the hasty intrenchment 
of infantry on the battlefield every sohlier shoiiUl be 
supplied on service with some impU'inent with which 
he can ([uickly dig himself into ground of any de- 

The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1900. 


The Cornhiil Magaztne. though not very quotable, 
is vei-y reacbible this month. 

The most interesting paper is Mrs. Archibald 
Little-s ■• Journev of Surprises.'' an account ot her 
iournev through Yunnan (.the most south-iresterly 
and, it seenis, the poorest province ot China) trom 
the Yan^tse, with poor sheep, cattle used only, as 
beasts ot burden, and •■ roads so bad that nothing 
can be taken away to sell advantageously. Ihe 
iournev took fortv-two days, "the hardest as well as 
the lonijest land journey 1 have yet taken. ihe 
flowers seem to have been beautiful, from sweet vio- 
lets to rambler roses, from candelabra cacti to rhodo- 
dendrons. 1 make one extract from this account ot 
a little-known part of the world : — 

One of the great (leliglits along Ibis indescribably bad 
road, and, indeed, all the wa.v to > unnanfu. was the great 
varietv of butterflies flitting across our path, and the tame- 
ness of the birds, who only just rose as we came near, flj-ing 
on to another twiu a little aliead. and then sett ing again, 
thus affording me a view of themselves and their move- 
ments such .IS with my short sight is never possible where 
S,ortlmen are about. I thus had the pleasure o watching 
a Reeves pheasant, looking, as usual, as il something were 
Ued to its tail, it is so incredibly long, dipping into the 
foam ot a cascade between clusters ot ramble roses and ot 
wat?hin<' a hoopoe, with its dainty crest, mak ng its little 
e«ning "preparations, besides many pretty, unknown song- 
sters, who gladdened all the day with their songs. 

Takintr as his title 'A New Tale of Two Cities. 
:Mr Lauiencc Gomme comments on the new phase 
entered upon bv Paris and London. " They have di.s- 
oovered in the idosvncra.sies of each other food tor re- 
flection and studT." Most of the article is taken up 
with a comparison between the characteristics of the 
two capitals, whicii is not particularly novel or sug- 
gestive There is an amusing sketch, " The Is en- 
House of Commons," anent the supposed experiences 
of Air. Titmouse, M.P. ; and the papers " Froin a 
Colleire Window," which have for a year been a fea- 
ture of the I'nrn.lnU. are continued, the twelfth paper 
dealing with religion and the writers conception of 
the meaning of that word : — 

By religion I mean the power, whatever it be. wMch 
makes a man choose what is bard rather than what is 
easy what is lofty and noble rather than what is mean 
and" selfish; that puts courage into timorous hearts, and 
gladness into clouded spirits; that consoles men in grief, 
misfortune, and dis.ippointment ; that makes them joMull.\ 
accept a heavy burden :. that in a word, "Pl'/tS-I"*" "1 /.; 
the dominion of material things, and sets their feet in a 
purer and simpler region. 


The Cf'ifH'y publishes, as its opening paper, an 
account of -^ A Meek at Waterloo." the narrative of 
Ladv de Lancv, the three months' wife of a Colonel 
of Wellington's Staff, who was wounded at the be- 
u-innino- of the battle, and nursed by his young wife 
Uil his°deatb. Prefaced to this narrative, whose art- 
less .stvle invests it with strong human interest, is an 
unpublished letter by Scott, and a letter from 
Dickens, on whom the reading of the narrative 
clearlv made a deep impression. " I shall never think 
of the Duke [of Wellington] any more but as he stood 
in his shirt with the officer in full-dress uniform, 
wrote Dickens, This refers to a passage describing 
how Colonel de Lancy had been twice to the Duke 
(if Wellington's in one day : — 

The first time he found him standing looking over a map 
with a Prussian general, who was in full-dress uniform— 

with orders and crosses, et<^^-tll^ I>"ke ^•'>« ,"L '^ „V' Bi'ch' 
and slippers, preparing to dress tor the Duchess of Riclr 
m"nds hall- the two figures were quite admirable. The 

ball took place notwithstanding the rcmile played through 
the streets the whole night. Many of the officers danced, 
and then marched in the morning. 

Lady de Lancy's account of her nursing her hus- 
band at Waterloo itself shows how lamentably little 
provision there was for sickness. The surgeon's only 
idea seemed to be to bleed an already enfeebled pa- 
tient, and one cannot but teel that here was a good 
life thrown away. Lady Hamilton appears frequently 
in the narrative. 

Another article deal> with the work of Constantin 
Meunier. as " A Sculptor ot the Labourer." The re- 
productions of his work show it to be very vigorous. 
.\Ieunier. who died a year ago. wa.s a Belgian. 
The Historic Palace of Paris described is the Hotel 
de la Kochefoucauld-Doudeauville. The paper on 
■•Lincoln the Lawver " contains several good stories 
of old Abe. He w-as an unusually fair practitioner, 
but anyone who took him for a simple-minded man 
in the "court-room ■' would very soon wake up on his 
back in the ditch." He was a singularly able cross- 
examiner, yet he never succeeded in making more 
than a baire living from his practice, which is perhaps 
n^hy so manv people have forgotten that he ever was 
a fawyer. The rejison why he ditl not pile up fees 
may be gathered from the following ; — 

Yc«, ■ Mr. Herndon reports him as advising a client, ''we 
can doubtless gain vour case tor you: we can set a whole 
neighbon.hood at loggerheads; we can distress a widowed 
mother and her six fatherless children, and thereby get 
for vou six hundred dollars to which you seem to have a 
le°-ai chaim but which rightfully belongs, it appears to me. 
as much to the woman and her children as it does to you. 
You must remember, however, that some things legally 
right are not morally right. We shall not take your case 
but we will give vou a little advice for which we will 
chiirge vou nothing". You seem to be a sprightly, energetic 
man We would advise you to try your hand at making six 
hundred dollars in some other way 


In the, ihuia-mc Mr. J. C. Dollman's art 
is made the .subject of an illu.strated paper by Mr. S. 
L Beiisusan. Mr. Dollman'is work is best summed up 
bv saying that it is a realisation of his own idea that 
painting" should be before all things dramatic. In 
the painting of the picture of ■ Mowgli (Academy 
of 1903), suggested bv Kipling's story, the painter 
did not know where he should get the right kind of 
monkey. Finally he fciuiid a young organ-grinder, 
\\ ho had one of the right kind : — 

The lad was so well satisfied with hia treatment^ that he 
spread the story ot his experiences among his brethren, 
with the result that the quiet corner ot Chiswick in which 
th« artist works was spee.iily crowded with organ-grinders 
and monkeys. These men refused to understand wh.v their 
animals were not required, and on the day when the pic- 
ture was taken to Burlington House, there were half-a-dozen 
disappointed owners of monkeys still waiting in the street 
for a job. 

The Chroniolevs in Cartoon are no less interesting 
thin usual and are this month concerned solely with 
■the Bench and the Bar." from the late Lord Russell 
of Killoweii to Mr. Uufus Isaacs, M.P. 

Mr Ernest E Williams calls attention to the way 
in wiiich Canada is handicapped through lack ot 
cheap means of transit. He enumerates the advan 
taae.s of the Hudson Bav route between England and 
Canada and combats the prevalent notion that this 
route is impracticable. Soinetiiues the Hudson Bay 
route is confounded with the -North West passage 
soutrht for bv Arctic explorers. Hudson Bay is not 
within the Arctic circle, nor is its climate arctic; 
while as regards safety, -Mr. Williams thinks it would 
compare favourable with tiie present St. Lawrence 

Hevieic of Keviewi, 1/6/06, 

The Reviews Reviewed. 



In the Strand ilagazine the symposium seems to 
have entirely ousted tlie interview. In the April num- 
ber «e hiive two symposiums — the first, " My Best 
I'iece of Light Verse," in which Mr. Owen Seaman, 
Mr. \V. S. Gilbert, :Mr. R. C. Lehmann, and other 
writers of hiinuirous poetry select their favourite com- 
position; and the other, a symposium of German 
painters, edited by Adrian Margaux, in which several 
artists select the picture by which they prefer to be 
introduced to the readers of the Strand Magazine. 

Mrs. Herbert Vivian contributes an article on 
Baron 'l':uiohnitz and the Tauclinitz Edition of Bri- 
tish and American Authors, and quotes some of the 
letters wliidh the Lfcipzig House has received from the 
\ariovis authors whose works have appeared in their 
famous "Collection." The first volume of the series, 
Lord Lytton's " Pelham," was published in 1841, and 
in 18()0 the five-hundredth volume was reached. Now 
the number is nearly 4(X)0, about eighty volumes 
beinp; added each year. 

In another article the Ranee of Sarawak describes 
a day spent in Kuching, to her "the prettiest plaoc 
in tlie world." A great tidal river cuts the town in 
two, and the Ranee gives us a charming picture, not 
of the Knglish or lOuropean portion of the town, bvit 
the more interesting native portion. The bazaar is 
more a Chinese street than anj-t-hing else, and the 
Kanee thinks the Chinese " absolutely necessary to 
tile development of a tropical countr.y. Their energy 
IS amazing, and their power of work something ex- 


The London Quarterly lieview for April has less 
than usual of the metaphysical and theological ele- 
ment and more of interest for the general reader. Mr. 
W. B. Dalby indulges in a rapt appreciation of Mae- 
terlinck. He declares that the consciousness of the 
Divine Life is at the basis of all his thinking, and 
that always " as the real Leader of humanity he 
seems to see Jesus Christ Himself." Professor J. S. 
Banks treats of the literary aspects of the Old Testa- 
ment, for in that field, he thinks, Scripture will easily 
iiold its own. The Editor contributes a very pleasant 
article on Holnian Hunt and hLs art and his acquaint- 
ances. Professor Garvie contributes a thoroughly 
good piece of work in an argument for foreign mis- 
sions, which takes a commanding survey of modern 
objections. Mr. A. S. Way find^ relics of ancient 
.\ryan folldore in Shakespeare. Professor Lofthquse 
lakes occasion from the monotheism of the Masai, a 
puzzling tribe of l<:ast Central Africa, to argue for 
an original monotheism revealed to the race, by Israel 
chietly^recogniscd and retained. Wireless telegraphy 
also comes in for a study by P. James. 


The March number is exceptionally good. Tlie 
love of wealth and the public service are con- 
trasted in a very tlioughtful analysis of motives 
by Mr. F. W. Taussig. The writer points out 
tliat the system of constitutional checks pervad- 
ing in Americiu democracy rather tends to hinder 
(aptains of industry of high motive entering political 
life, but he ends with characteristic American op- 
timism. He says, "Our political machinery is im- 
proving: the worship of wealth is diminishing; the 
respoet for public service is increasing. Men of cha- 
racter and capacitv will win in the long run the suf- 
frage of the p<ople." Mr. G. W. Alger exposes the 
emptiness of the "freedom of contract " which 
American judges have been upholding at the expense 

of Labour, and complains that the workers' discon- 
tent with the law lies in the fact that it guarantees 
them individual and not social or industrial freedom. 

John Corbin laments the realistic pictorial scenery 
which transmogrifies the great Shakespearean master- 
pieces, but rejoices that there is a strong and grow- 
ing minority of intelligent people who prefer their 
Shakespeare harmoniously produce<l on a stage, 
instead of destroying the effect which Shakespeare in- 
tended, "it to the utmost. The Elizabethan 
tradition avoids the expense which has so often 
proved ruinous. 

"The Ue.d Man's Last Roll-call" is the title that 
Mr. C. M. Harvey gives to the dis,solution of the 
tribal organisation of the Cherokees, Choctaws. 
Creeks, C'hickasaws and Seminoles, which was to take 
place on tlie 4th of March. " The epoch of the Ameri- 
can Indian is closed." Henceforth, the American is 
absorbed in the general citizenship of the United 
States. The total Indian population of the United 
States, exclusive of Alaska, is said to be 270,000. 
When Columbus landerl they probably did not exceed 
000,000 or 800,000. Mr. Harvey insists that the 
.\merican red man taught the American white nian 
how to fight in the modern way with open formation, initiative and pursuit of cover. At pre- 
sent 30.01)0 Indians are attending school, 40,000 are 
members of churches, 70,000 talk English, most of 
them w-ear civili.sed clothes, onlv 20,000 blanketed In- 
dians are left in the United t^tates. There is fair 
prospect that the Indian will maintain his place 
among other citizens. 

Mr. George Hodges reports that the books of re- 
ligion which are being widely read at present are of 
the Liberal sort, not of the scared and scandalised 
Conservative order. There are good literary articles 
on Anatole France, Letters of Walpole, and the 
.statesmanship of Turgot. 


The Enf/inecring Magazine for April has a great 
deal of human interest in it. Mr. Becker's " Square 
Deal in Works Management " has been separately 
;ioticed. I\lr. F. L. Waldo describes the process of pre- 
paring the isthmus for canal construction work, and 
shows^how the Augean stables of Soanish and French 
insanitation h.ave been cleansed Viy the American 
Hercules. The illustrations give a very pleasing im- 
pression of tlie streets and dwellings, hospitals and 
cars which American sanitary science has introduced. 
The question of the respective relations of the execu- 
tive and the engineering officers in the Navy is dis- 
cussed in two papers, one as affecting the American 
and the other as affecting the British Navy. 


JfacmiUan'x ^fnlJazinr for this month has several 
good papers, one of which, dealing with British 
Columbia, is separately noticed. 


Mr. Francis Fox, writing about "Bread." says 
that his article on the same subject last year brought 
him much correspondence, showing that if the trade 
does know why white bread is so often unwholesome 
the general public does not. Yet it is the public in 
general whom he blames for the amount of bad bread 
sold, not the millers ami bakers, who merely .supply 
what the public demands. White bread, very white, 
the public insists upon; and white bread it gets, not 
now wliitene<l artificially, but by the abstraction of 
the most valuable elements in the wheat. White 
bread is still the bast, but not snow-white, " ansemio " 


//le Review or ixeviews. 

June I. 1906. 


The ]\'-sf minster Bevieu: is an average number. 
The opening paper, ou " The Age of the Ctetrich," as- 
serts that England has been passing through a period 
of make-believe, of which Mr. Cliainberlain is the 
personification. The make-believe as hard as 
ajiything. witness ignorance about South African 
affairs, and the systematic boycott by the papers of 
the Xonconforniist mass meeting in July, 19U3. at the 
Albert Hall to protest against the Education Bill. 
Considering the importance and numbers of the Non- 
conformists, it was carrying the game of make-believe 
too far to ignore such a meeting, as did some of the 
Conser\-ative papeiw. Witness also the boycott by 
the London press of many important meetings of the 
Labour I'arty and Socialists. 

Far the most controver.sial article is on the subject 
of increasing the Deatli Duties by Mr. W. T. Bell, 
who would increase these duties to such an extent as 
to make it practically impossible for any familj' to 
live on the income derive<l from accumulated capital 
handed down to it— at least, to live on such income 
continuously, generation after generation. In short, 
a tax on idleness is what he advocates. Why should 
any man idle away hi.s life because his father or 
grandfather made a huge fortune? But do such men 
idle away their lives as a rule? Do they not often 
do most useful work which could hardly be done by 
any but a leisured class? I'lider the proposed gradu- 
ated scale of duties (from 10 per cent, on £5000 to 
£10,000 to 20 per cent, on estates over £100.000) no 
estate should be reduced to less than £5000. 


Jlr. F. H. Barrow, who says he has worked for 
years among the London poor both with Churchmen 
and Nonconformists, does not seem to have formed, 
on the whole, the highest opinion of the clergy of the 
Establishment, who, he sa.vs, are more their own mas- 
ters than an,v other class of men, and withal often 
astonishingly irresponsible, even idle. He would not 
disestablish the Church, which would largely destro.v 
its value as a national asset, but would turn the 
Bishops out of the House of Lords, confining the 
clerg.v to their true sphere of work, and clearly de- 
fining their duties to the community as agents for 
caring for the sick and aged poor. L'^ssening some 
of the Church's privileges, and subjecting them to 
more control in their secular functions would, he 
hopes, abate that sacerdotalism and assumption of 
siiperiority nhich make them often obnoxious to the 
ordinary citizen. 

There are several other articles, notably one on 
a ramble in Thessaly. but none requiring special 


Mr. Thomas Gibson Biiwh^s i> the subject of Mr. 
Herbert Vivian's ''Study in Personalit.v." in the 
-April number of the Pull Mull Magazine. 

According to every political canon. Mr. Bowle>s con- 
siders his political life has been a conspicuous failure. 
He does not seek office, believing that it involves a 
great sacrific© of independence. To his interviewer 
he says : — 

OfBce is nothin?. The only thing is power — power to get 
tilings done and to prevent thins:s from being done. And 
ife fa on the whole qnestionable wliether an active-minded 
man, with political knowlerige and convictions, does not 
exercise more rea.1 power out of office than in it. 

To stand alone with a purpose has great advantages and 
great delight?. And while I recognise that some members 

of the Government have some powe 7 I env.v none ot' them 
the mark ot the galling collar. 

My desire in embracing political life has l>eeu Ui I'e the 
People's Member, ily desire in embracing political life 
has been to bring about informs which I consider uset'ii or 
necessary to the oounti.v, still more to prevent revolutions, 
which I believe would be mischievous. My successes have 
been few and smuU, mostly- unknown. ... I sai)pose my 
most useful work on the whole is that which has never 
been heard of. I mean my ten years' service on the Public 
Accounts Committee. 

-Vdmirers of Charles Dickens will turn with into- 
itst to the little article, by Mr. Harry Furniss, on a 
.speech made by Dickens at the Garrick Club in 18-54. 
The occasion was a .Shake.speare Birthday Dinner, at 
which Dickens presided, and his speech u as a most 
brilliant effort, yet it is not referred to in any Life 
of Dickens. Not only had it been carefully prepared 
with regard to the matter, hut it was acted in a way 
which stirprised everyone. He dealt with a number 
of Shake-speare cliaracters — Hamlet, Ju.stioe Shallow, 
Macbeth. Benedick, etc. — each time adding quota- 
tions, and .speaking and acting the lines with consum- 
mate skill. 

In another article Mr. C. Lewis Hind takes for his 
tlieme pictures representing the effect of raiusic upon 
performers and audience, and Mr. Alvin Langdon 
Cobuiu, an American, contributes some interesting 
photographs of London. "London," he says, "is the 
sovereign city for the artist. Her streets and build- 
ings are a liberal inspiration, and the man who can- 
not -ee London's charm from the top of an omnibus 
lia^ no sense of art in his compasitiou." 


Mr. C. B. Fry looms largely in the Young Man. 
The opening paper, unsigned, is an enthusiastic tri- 
bute to his immense capacity for work as well as for 
phiv, though he never ^eems to do any work at all. 
rie even edits a magazine without littering his room 
with copy and galie.\s. His scholastic attainments are 
considerable, and one can well imagine that a geneial 
air of briskness and alertness pervades liis Hamp- 
shire iK^me. yU\ Fry himself writes an article on 
" The Sport Instinct." pleading that sport must not 
be condemned " miserable follies (such as bet- 
ting) cline to it. as the parasite clings to the lion." 
and insisting on the extent to which siii^ of the botly 
militate succe.-ss iu athletics. 


The .irena for March contains an admirable re- 
cord of the war against the Standard Oil plutocracy, 
which is at pre.sent absorbing public attention in 
America. I quote el.sewhere from the .statement made 
by Mr. David Graham I'hillips, the American nove- 
list, on the growth of plutocrac.v in America. There 
is a brief but interesting paper on the growth of the 
movement in favour of Direct Legislation bv the 
people b.v means of the Referendum. Four of the 
Western States have embedded Direct Legi.slation in 
their oonstitutions, and Montana will follow suit. 
Tile principle has I)een embodied in many city char- 
ters. Another brief but suggestive paper points out 
that the heart of the race problem is to be found in 
the fact that the law and custom of whites preserve 
white wiiineu exclusively for themselves: they leave 
white men free to prey at will upon coloured women. 
-A oaper on economv makes the curious calculation 
that every .American wnstes at least 2'd. a day. This 
amounts to a sum of C.SOO.OOO.OOO per annum. 

Krri'ic vf Ketieus, li'JfJ'i. 

The Revleivs Reviewed. 



Tlie Indian Wmld is tlie mast interesting and sug- 
gestive periodical that reachets this office from Hindo- 
stau. It<5 editor is an editor. He has a faith, and he 
preaches it, and the selections which he makes from 
Indian and Anglo-Indian publications are varied and 
thoroughly up-to-date. There is an interesting ac- 
count of two great pilgrim gatherings — at Allahabad 
anil at the Temple of Juggernaut. It is something 
■of a shock to learn that the enthusiasm of the devo- 
tees is insufficient to stand the strain of dragging the 
famous car a mile and a half through the sand : " for 
when the first day's excitement was over many of the 
pilgrims cleared off, and the haixl work of dragging 
the wooden-wheeled chariots through the heavy sand 
was nniversaly shirked. Finally, hired labour had to 
do the needful." 

In one article we arc told, on the authority of Mrs. 
Steel, that 

It i3 well to tell the truth solidly sometimes, and the 
truth is this: in sexual matters the standard of national 
morality is far higher in India, than it is in England. 

And in India there lies an ideal of what woman should 
be, which is the highest that the world has ever known. 

In another a Hindoo lady declares that " Modern 
India does not know how to pay respects to women, 
and i.s robbing them of their rights and privileges, 
domestic and proprietary." 

There are articles on the Permanent Settlement, on 
Gold Mining in India, etc. There is a good deal of 
miscellaneous information. Among other items I note 
the extraordinary immunity of Europeans from the 
plague. Last year in Bombay Presidency 250,000 na- 
tives died of the plague and only 10 Europeans. In 
the previous year the figures were 316.000 natives 
and only eight Europeans. 


M. .lean Einot. the editor of Lu Ifeciie, contributes 
to the firet March number another of his articles on 
the science of loiigevit.v. The present chapter is en- 
titled •' The Secrets of Youth," and is a on 
some of the remedies, past and present, for preserv- 
ing youthfulnees. 


He first refers to the " Herniippus Kedivivu.';." a 
work published by Dr. I. H. Cohausen at Frankfort 
in 1742. This German doctor recommended as an in- 
fallible remedy against old age the keeping of the 
tired and worn body in close contact with another 
body ymuig and vigorous. This remedy, which dates 
back to the days of David, was also believed in by 
Knger Bacon and other philosophers. Dr. Cohausen 
ito.s numerous cases of men whose lives were pro- 
limged in this way, and Louis Cornaro attributed his 
old age to the presence of young i)eople in his sur- 

Phe .lewLsh and the Roman doctors had recourse to 

arious means to lengthen life, including such reme- 
dies as the fat of the lion, the skin of the chameleon, 
and the blood of children and adults, and their ob- 
ject wa.s merely to increjise the heat of the bod.v. 

But if we cannot do anHhing that will make youth 
eternal, we can do much to pre.sene it for a good 
long time. The pai.idox that man does not die. but 
that he slowly kills himself, is in many cases quite 
true. M. Finot does not attempt to enumerate all 
the caiKses de.';tructive of youth, but concludes by a 
few words on one of the most mischievou.s — namel.v, 
over-oating. We are, he says, victims of over-eating, 
AVe eat and 'I rink and work without paying the heed to the nee<lfi of the bodv, or rather 

when we du consider the body it ifc usually to act 
contrary to its normal requirements. The poor are 
decim.ated by drink, while the rich die of over-feed- 
ing. The privations of hunger are less dangerous 
than alimentary excess. 


Another interesting paper in the same number 
deals with the Races in Belgium. Under the title of 
"French, Flemish, and Walloons," Henri Jolly de- 
scribes the leading characteristics of the Flemish and 
tlie Walloons and compares them with the French. 
According to Kurth, the territory of the Flemish 
race extends from the South-West to the North-Ea'st 
of Belgium, with a central line from Dunkerque to 
Alaestricht. including Flanders, Brabant, Aritwerp. 
and Limburg, while the Walloon race occupies the 
valley of the River Meuse and the Sambre Canal — 
Hainault, Liege, Xamur, Luxemburg, and the Ar- 

.\s a race, the Flemish are described as laborious, 
sober, religious, and attached to traditions. From 
the familv point of view there is a marked difference 
between the Flemish and the Walloons. The Flemisli 
families of six. ten, and twelve children are common, 
and Camille Jacquard ob.'^erves that if the number 
of births among the Flemish continues at the present 
rate, and the number among the Walloons continues 
to decrease in the proportion prevailing to-day, the 
Walloon region will be completely submerged by the 
Flemish in fifty years. 

.\i,atole Leroj-Beaulieu contributes to the second 
ISIaich number an article entitled " Peace, Chris- 
tianitv, and .4nti-Militarism." He says certain anti- 
inilitarists in France preach disarmament to the na- 
tion aii<l desertion to the soldiers, but fortunately all 
the apostles of peace are not quite so blind. The writer 
considers war an evil, but he is obliged to admit that 
of all the countries of Europe, France, by its geo- 
graphical position and the configuration of its fron- 
tiers, is the most exposed to the danger of war. To 
acquire the right to live in peace France ought to be 
sufficientl.v strong to remain a free and independent 
nation, and to preach disarmament is a most dan- 
gerous proceeding. .\t the present moment the anti- 
militarist propaganda appears a menace to the peac'e 
of France and of Europe. 


In the first March number of the Itenic <lrx Petix 
Mrmdrs M. Kouire writes on the English and .Afghan- 
istan and the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of March. 1905. 

The .'\ngIo-Afghan Treaty, he says, carries on the 
pulitical work of Britain begun in Afghanistan nearly 
a century ago with a view to the defence of India. 
Politically this work of the Anglo-Indian Government 
is to create confidence between Afghanistan and Eng- 
land, and to profit by this confidence to make Eng- 
lanj master of Afghanistan. The writer enumerates 
the various obstacles which have come in the way of 
this policy from time to time — the unwillingness of 
the .\fglian.s to fall in with British views and the 
Ku.ssian penetration into Central Asia. Since .Af- 
ghanistan ha.s become the chief element in the de- 
tence,s of India, he considers in detail the military 
importance of Afghanistan in case of an invasion of 
India — the role Afghanistan has played in the p.T.^t 
from this point of view, the circumstances which 
have led Britain to its strategic value, the 
significance of the Treaty, and the future of Anglo- 
Russian relations in Central Asia. He thinks it pes- 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1906. 

eible for Russia and England to arrive at an entente 
with reference to their Asiatic possessions similar to 
the Anglo-French entente, and he is sure that both 
in England and Russia the idea has warm partisans. 
Considering the past, it may seem unlikely and Uto- 
pian, but to-day, and especially in the futui-e, an 
entente would be justified. It is worthy of a wise 
policy to look ahead and to see in it a future law to 
regulate the relations of England and Russia in Cen- 
tral Asia. 


Camille Bellaigue, writing in the same number, has 
an interesting article on Beethoven's Piano Sonatas. 
The sonatas, he says, are the most " intimate " mas- 
tei-pieces of their composer, and the most personal, 
being the only works he himself interpreted. But 
who can define the elements of Beethoven's sonatas? 

In rhythm Beethoven is the greatest of all musi- 
cians — ni the domain of passion and in the domain 
of peace and calm. As to melody, Beethoven, after 
having sought it in pain and anguish, as his sketch- 
books show, gives it to us at once and for always as 
soon as he has got possession of his idea. Sometimes 
it runs to several lines, at other times a veiy few notes 
suffice. The sonatas are musical, even in their silence. 
As Reinecke says, we must take care to observe " the 
admirable and wonderful silences which Beethoven 
has composed." 

But the moral beauty of the sonatas surpasses all 
their other beauties. The kingdom of Beethoven is 
in himself. With a soul for suffering and anger, he 
is none the less capable of tenderness and joy. There 
is nothing comparable to his desolation but his 
ecstasy and rapture. He knew every form and every 
degree of sorrow, as well as every manner and 
every subtle variety of joy. Every sonata 

represents a struggle — the struggle of life — 
but it always ends in victory. Nothing is more beau- 
tiful tlian his rebellion, except his patience and his 
resignation, for it is not by violence that he liberates 
himself. His whole work is a counsel and a command 
embodied in the two words and the three notes of the 
first theme of one of the greatest sonatas, " Lebe 
wohl !" (Live well), the admirable formula of the 
German adieu. 


In the second March number Rene Pinon writes on 
Venezuela and the French diflficulties. For States a.'i 
well as for individuals, says the writer, it is some- 
times a calamity to be born too rich. Nature has 
overwhelmed Venezuela with advantages, which 
though they may be the measure of her future pros- 
perity, are none the less the source of her present 
troubles. This country pckssesses such elements of 
wealth as attract emigrants and foreign capital, and 
provoke a constant movement of change. Too far 
from Eurooe to fear a military expedition, the Re- 
publics of South America aie most favourable centres 
for ferment and revolution. They are spared the 
necessity of the struggle for life which is the stimii- 
luK which maintains the moral force of nations and 
the national cohesion of neoples. With regard to 
the present conflict with France, the writer thinks 
the ideal solution would be a revolution which would 
relieve Venezuela of the tyranny of President Castro. 


Each of the March numbers of the Eassegna Xa- 
z>on<ile contains, as a first article, a contribution to 
the discussion aroused by the Bishop of Cremona's 
remarkable Pastoral urging the advantages of a sepa- 
ration between Church and State, published within a 

few days of the Pope's encyclical condemning separa- 
tion ais it has been imposed by the French Govern- 
ment. A\ hen it is remembered that Bishop Bonomelli 
is the most distinguished and popular prelate in 
North Italy, the excitement caused by his Pastoral 
can be imagined. The effoils of the liasseQiw are to- 
wards minimising the apparently irreconcilable differ- 
ences in I he the two utterances, and the well-known 
Senator, F. Nobili-Vitelleschi, affirms that the 
Bishop's object was merely to encourage Catholics by 
showing that where a State maintains an inimical, 
attitude towards religion, separation is preferable to 
subjection, and can be turned to the advantage of the 
Church. He further points out that the Pope's final 
letter disapproving of the Pastoral condemns neither 
the author nor the ideas, but merely the inopportune- 
ness of the publication in view of the actual condi- 
tion of affairs in France. 

Events in the Far East give a peculiar interest to 
St. Frances Xavier's impressions of the Japanese in 
the sixteenth century, summarised in an article in the 
Civilta Cutfoticd. It would seem that their intellec- 
tual gifts and their many moral virtues were as 
marked then as now, and of the first Japanese brought 
to him at Malacca by some Portuguese merchants, 
the great missionary wrote : "If all are as eager for 
knowledge as this one, their nation is the most re- 
markable of any we have come across." Later letters 
from Japan describe their honesty, their sense of 
honour, their domestic virtues, and their extraordin- 
ary eagerness to acquaint themselves with the teach- 
ings of Christianity, qualities which made Xavier 
declare that the Japanese were the only Asiatic na- 
tion that gave hopes of permanently embracing Chris- 
tianity. A chatty, series of articles describing in 
sympathetic vein a visit to Ireland begins in the 
same number (March 17th). 

Einaschnento is one of the more recent of the 
Italian magazines, which has for its aim the chronic- 
ling and interpreting the newer literary and arti.stic 
tendencies of the day, more e.specialiy those that 
have their rise in Paris. A recent number (February 
20th) contains an extremely well-informed summary 
of the symbolst movement in France. L. Caouana 
reviews eulogistically the Memoiis of Linda Murri, 
an autobiography in the guise of fiction, in which the 
heroine of a recent cause celebre lays her case before 
the public. 

The Eiristo d'ltalia publishes an excellent article 
on the electoral successes of the English Labour Party, 
and discusses also the evolutionary theories of Pro- 
fessor George Darwin, t'nder the title, " The Cal- 
vai-v of a Queen," G. Galatti sketches the tragic fate 
of Marie Louise of Bourbon, danghte-- of ' Monsieur " 
and of Henrietta of England, who became the wife of 
Charles II. of Spain. The author describes her as 
"adding one more victim to the martvrologv of 
foreign princes.'^es who have paid bitterly for" the 
proud privilege of sitting as Queens on the throne of 
St. Ferdinand." 

Perhaps the most noteworthy article in the Suova 
Autoloqio is that by the Editor. Maggiorino Ferraris, 
describing the amazing growth of agricultural co 
operation in Germany, as reported to the great co- 
operative Congress held at Strasburg last autumn. 
Increasing steadily at the rate of 1000 a year, there 
are to-day over 19,000 co-operative societies — loan- 
banks, dairies, etc. — throughout Germanv, with a 
membership of 2.000,000. It is what Ferr.iris rightlv 
calls " a colossal edifice, stronger than granite, built 
up, step by step, on a basis of thrift, brotherhood, 
and labour." The German Government has had its 
share in fostering the moven>ent. and the writer 
appeals to his own country to do for the Italian pea- 
sant what has been so successful elsewhere. 

Review of Revietca, 1/6/OG. 

The Reviews Reviewed. 



Tb© youveJIe Revue of March 1st opens with an 
article bj; Gabriel Ferry, on Gambetta and the Scru- 
tin dc Liste. 


A quarter ol' a century ago Joseph Keinach contri- 
buted to the Nouvelle Hevue (Oct. 15, 1879) a remark- 
able article on the Scrutin (le Liste in France. In" writ- 
ing it he was intipirecl by the ideas and the doctrines 
ol Gambetta, his friend and political master, who re- 
cognised that the scrutin d'arrondissenicnt could 
furnish Parliament only with representatives of 
iiieiliix-re moral and political culture, more concerned 
uith their personal interests than the public good. 
The scrutin dc liste, it is stated, remains the only 
mode of logical expression of universal suffrage : it 
i.s the only way to direct the democracy. The next 
I'ational consultation is going to revive the questiiui 
of the scivtin d'nrrondissement, and Gabriel Ferry 
takes the opportunity to recall the story of Gam- 
betta and his reform. 

Raqueni has a short article on the New Italian 
Afinistry. He thinks the choice of Count Guicciar- 
iliiii as Minister of Foreign Affairs a very happy one. 
'I'lie Count is a worthy descendant of the Florentine 
nobles who honoured their country by their work. 
Their name is closely connected with the history of 
the Republic of Florence, the most democratic of all 
tlio Italian republics of tlie Middle Ages. The Count 
H not enthusiastic over the Triple Alliance, but he 
IS delighted with the Franco-Italian entente. One of 
the greatest successes of M. Sonnino, the Prime Min- 
ister, is that of Jiaving disarmed the Extreme Left. 
The King is said to approve of the presence of a 
Itepublicnn in the Ministry in the person of M. Pau- 
tano, the Minister of Agriculture, and he iiopes a 
Socialist will soon be added. 


The first article in the second number deals with 
the vSocinl and Democratic agitation in Germany. 
.\ngel Marvaud, the writer, says a wave of agitation 
has been passing over the' plains of the East, and, 
after turning to the South, is now attacking the 
Tvrolian Alps, and is threatening to include the 
H hole Empire. Gathering in its course all the elemcnt.s 
iif ferment, di.scoiitent, and disorder, it not only 
menaces the capitals of the different States, hut 
threatens the windows of the Imperial Chancellor at 
Rerlin. The movement is social and political. In 
recent meetings in the large cities the local authori- 
tievs have been called upon to break witli the agrarian 
policv of the Government, otherwise a general strike 
will be proclaimed — " a political strike of the masses," 
in the words of August Bebel, at Jena. 


In (ynze Eeiiw we have another article on a topic 
which is commanding a good deal of attention - 
namely, the union of Holland and Belgium. Tlie ad- 
vantages an<l drawbacks are examined once mrire. 
The present writer does not give so rosy a prospect of 
the rapprochement as others have done, but on the 
whole he thinks that it would be a goo<l thing if the 
two nations were to combine. It would be easier to 
defend their .joint territories, and would materially 
aid trade. One point, however, for the Belgians to 
consider is their neutrality as regards the Great 
I'owers, and that is a serious matter. 

There is an appreciation of Bismarck in the same 
review, with extracts from his letter.s. We have 
some of these before, but the article contains much 
that is fresh to the general reader. In a h-tter dated 
1874 the Great Chancellor gives expression 1x) the 
feeling that his work is done, and that he would like 
to retire; Germany is consolidated, and what else is 
there for him to do? Yet it was about thi.s time that 
his tariff policy took shape. 

The question of Government trading in the Dutch 
Indian l'cxss<^ssions is also ably dealt with here. The 
e.Kploitation of mines, the working of plantations and 
other industries carried on by the Government are 
badly done, and a great deal is left undone. The 
Government might make a large revenue out of these, 
Ijut the results are really poor. 

Dp (rids contains the second article on Dutch Trade 
in Per.sia and the Levant, this contribution treating 
of Turkey. The tone of this essay rcniimls us of the 
children's recitation which ends up with " All the 
others sit up late, so why can't I?" Other countries 
do a good tra<le with the unspeakable Turk, or within 
hi.s dominions, so why should not Holland do more 
than it does now? The writer gives many figures 
and interesting details, showing what is done by 
others, and especially by Belgium, ami calls atten- 
tion to the efforts of a patriotic Hollander who is de- 
.serving well of his country in that direction. Hol- 
land is apparently moving, for Resident Ministei's 
and Coii.suls are being appointed, but progress is slow, 
and something must be done to give it a fillip. The 
.N^etherlaiids will prove more formidable competitors 
in coiiinierce tlian they hav<' hitherto l>een ! That is 
the j^ntinient aroused by a perusal of such contribu- 
tions as this. 

A long account of the Central Trade Congress and 
the organisation of German trades into one grand 
society is of interest to all ; the writer is comparing 
the conditions in Germany with those in his own land, 
and urging action on similar lines. 

Vraoen dcs Tijds may be called an economic issue, 
for its contents mainly concern taxation. The third 
article touches the reform of the general prin- 
ciples of taxation existing in Holland, and another 
contrilnition deals with State taxation and how it 
affects the municipalities. The income tax naturally 
collie's in for a large share of public .attention. 

Elserier opens with an illustrated sketch of the 
career and work of Professor .Tergelsma, the nei-ve 
specialist. His father was a preacher, taking care 
of the souls of men, while his son has a<lopted a pro- 
fession which is really akin to that of the father, 
aithoiigh it seems to concern the body only. The 
nerve specialist takes care of the spirit, the mind, 
and elevates its con<lition, and that is practically 
looking after the soul. There is a well-illustrateiil 
contribiition on the Resuscitation of the Minor Arts, 
including tape^stry, weaving of carpets, and the woric 
of straw and cane plaiting. 

Mr. Ernest E. Williams calls attention in the 
Windsor Munozine to tlie wav in whicli Canada is 
handicapped tlirough lack of cheap means of transit. 
He ennnKTates the a<lvantages of the Hudson Bay 
route between England ami Canada, and combats the 
prevalent notion that this route is impracticable. 
Sometimes the Hudson Bay route is confounde<l with 
the North West passage sought for by Arctic ex- 
plorers. Hiid.son Bay is not witliin the Arctic circle, 
nor is its climate arctic: while as regards safety, Mr. 
Williams thinks it would compare favourably with 
the present St. Lawrence route. 


Ihe Review of Reviews. 



The fiist llaich iiuuiljer ot the iCerue de I'uits . 
opens with an article, bv Louis Barthou, ou '• The 
Syndicate Movement Among Teachers in France." 
The law ou protes-sional syndicates or unions in 
France ha.s loug attracted attention. The teachers 
of Var wiie the hrst to torm a teacher.s' syndicate in 
1893 in viol.itiou ot the law. 


Louis Aubert has an article on ' Tlie Inkyo in 
Japan.'' When a Japanese Ijecomes inkyo. it means 
ho has gone into a retreat. The custom, which caiue 
trom Judia, was tirst adopted by the nobles in the 
temples, and then imitated by people ot all classes. 
Tlie;ie people retired trom private life at the age of 
forty to live according to their own tastes, and at 
Kyijto there are beaut itu) gardens which were plan- 
ned and laid out tor the nobility, who, with shaved 
heads and in Buddhist dress, leftthe world to become 
inkyo. To retire at the age of forty is still the dream 
of every Japanese, but the Japanese Government 
does not favour the custom. The nation is, in fact, 
too busy in the world's affairs to permit men of forty 
to retire from activity. 

In the second March number Guglielmo Ferrero 
gives us a study ot Antony and Cleopatra. Historians 
repeat over and over again that Augu.stus was the 
heir of Caesar in the history of the world, and that 
he achieved what his adoptive father had begun or 
planned. This, according to the present writer, is a 
grave error which has prevCiited a proper under- 
standing of tlie two rivals of the last civil war, Octa- 
vius and Antony. Jt the real heir of a policy is he 
Avho carries it cut. the spirit ot Ca-sar continued to 
act in Antony and not in Octavius. In the two last 
years ot his life, C«sar. preoccupied by the. grave 
political and economic situation whicli the civil war 
had created, had hoped to find the solution of all the 
difhcultie.s in the conquest of Persia. 

At his death Antony took up the great idea, but 
tor two years his attention was absorbed by his 
troubles with the conspirators. As soon as possible, 
however, he set about the conquest of Persia, and at 
the beginning of the year 40 B.C., after a sojourn of 
a few months at Alexandria, he left Cleopatra, and 
during the next three years he did not see her again, 
but devoted himself with admirable eneigv to great 
preparations for the conquest of Persia. He did an 
even more extraordinary thing, at least for a lover 
of Cleopatra : he married Octavia, the sist«r of Oc- 
tavius. From B.C. 40 to 37 it would be impos-sible to 
discover the least trace of any influe-ice of ClecH 
patra's over Antony, though Antony's relations with 
the Egyptian Court were by no means broken off. In 
the year b.c. c6 Antony married Cleopatra at An- 
tioch, and then departed fdr Peisia. 


Kriii(isjn(i (February "iStli) contains an article bv 
Major L. L. Seaman, of Xew York, entitled '• Japan's 
Greatest Triumph— Her Conquest of the Hidden 
Enemy, Disease," in which he asserts that, without 
belittling in the degree the bravery of her 
soldiers and the strategical skill of her generals, it 
is to her magnificent sanitary organisation and the 
energetic precautions of lieV medical corps that 
Japan owes her splendid victory in the recent war, 

What avails it that the bravest of armies and 
most cunning of leaders direct their combined force, 
physical and mental, against an open and visible 
enemy which, as the war .statistics of three centuries 
prove, kills only 20 per cent., while the remaining 80 

per cent, are laid low by the lurking, insidious, and 
ever-present foe, Disease? 

Japan, says Major Seaman, has taken to heart this 
lesson from the lecprds of war, and when war became 
inevitable she began to organise forces against this 
.stronger enemy — sent out shrewd medical men to 
study and improve upon the methods of other na- 
tions, gave the chiefs ot her sanitary corps as much 
authority and responsibility in their own sphere of 
action and as much chance of reward and promotion 
as to her iniiitary leaders. 

From a visit paid by himself to the headquarters 
of General Oku s army, Major Seaman found that 
the instrument mast in use in the campaign was not 
the Muratti rifle, but the microscope. He is enthu- 
siastic over the massage treatment, which since long 
ago has played an important part in the cure of 
disease, and has proved very effective. 

Another interesting article in Kringsjaa is Kristian 
Gloersen's description of a Christmas sojourn in 
Uome. 'riie first place v sited was the church, St. 
.Stephen's Rotondo, which is only open ou one day in 
the year — St. Stephen's Day — when service is Hold. 
This church was, as its name implies, torraerly round, 
but additions have since been made to convey the 
idea of a cross-church. The interior is particularly 
gruesome, the walls all round being covered with re- 
pre.sentations of martyrs undergoing the mast ter- 
rible tortures. As the writer says, it must, indeed, 
be well-nigh impossible for ner\ ous people to endure 
the honor of having such ghastly scenes thrust upon 
the s;ght wherever the eye may turn. Herr Gloersen 
also visited the church, Santa Maiia Aracefi, where 
the Holy Child was being exhibited — an image carved 
in the seventeenth century trom the wood of an olire 
tree on t'ne Mount of CHvos. A children's service 
was being held. Herr Ginersen imagined that this 
meant a service for children, and was surprised to 
learn that it meant sermons '.;/ children — infants of 
two and three being lifted up to a sort of pulpit or 
platform to go through a comefly of preaching. Some 
v.ere frightened and wanted to be set down at once, 
but others gaily lisped out .some they had been 
taught dealing with II Santa Bambina, one lovely 
little child of five playing her part with the utmost 
seriousness, turning hep- eves heavenward and using 
the most dramatic gesture-. The effect upon Herr 
rflcersen and his friend was wholly saddening. 

In Varla iNo. 2) there is a pleasantlv-written ac- 
count, contributed by Ebba D. G , of "the Amaran- 
thine Order, which was founded by Queen Cliristina 
(f Sweden and has survived to the present day. 

" La regina iiomade," as that gifted but pleasure- 
loving and restless monarch was called, delighted in 
glitter and extravagant ili-ulay. and the Order was 
founded at a sumptuous banquet which she gave on 
Twelfth Day. KwS, to cnmmemorate the ending of 
that periofl of privation and national peril known as 
■the lnuiel-crown."d bark-bread years," and the glorv 
and renown with which .Sweden, after the Peace of 
Wctphalia, has emerged fn.m the Thirty Ye^ars' War 
-a powerful and triumphant State. The Court of 
Christina was the resplendent gathering-place of the 
foremast savants and bluest-blooded aristocrats of the 
tune, while amba<sadoi-s and learned men from other 
binds added to the wit and brilliance of the chosen 

The banquet was conceived after the .Vugustine 
style— a magnificent at which the guests were 
rods a'ld eoddesses feastin-^ in .\rcadia. and waited 
noon by the illustrious hoste-s her.self in the charac- 
ter of Amarantha. the Shenherdess. In the midst of 
the revelry. Christina chnno-ed her costume and 
passed her splendid fancy dre<;s over to her guests to 

fttciew or Heriftrii, 2/*J/0'J 

The Reviews Reviewed. 


divide among,>t themselves its costlv trimmings aud 
jewels. Then she cliose from amongst those who }^er<' 
wont to shaie her ■ most intimate pleasuirs '' sixteen 
ladies and as many gentlemen to form her Society, 
the members of wliicli were lionouiod with the privi- 
lege of supping with their luxurious Sovereign 3very 
Saturday at I'lrik-dal, there " to learn to understand 
and admire tlie >-eutin;eiits of their Queen." Chief, 
no doubt, among the di.-.tinguisbe<.l members was her 
favourite, the Spanish Ambassador, .Antonio I'.men- 
te'li, wliose birthplace, .\maraiitlie, the Queen had 
evidently wished to honour in naming lirT Society. 

Under its illu.strious foundress the Ordrr was, how- 
ever, short-livid. .\ year later, the restless Christina 
was on her way to Rome, and in her deserted Swe- 
den, as the writer says, her subjects soon got some- 
thing to tliink of than dances in Arcadia. Under 
the Carls, a long period followed of constant wais 
and threatened ruin, and when at last under "the 
time of freedom,'" gaiety and pleasures were usliere<l 
in again, it was a totally different Order which, in 
memory of the gifted monarch, was founded under 
the name of the old. This later Order was of a more 
democratic and at the same time more elevatetl spirit, 
its aim being to " further the glory of the Almighty 
and such pursuit^ as would not displea.te the All- 
seeing Eye." But a sprinkling of religion and morals 
belonged, we are told, to the " picniques " of that 
day, and for that reason a song in praise of virtue 
and rightdoing was sung between the dances. 

The present Amarantha Order, which has, as of 
old, its Grand iJ aster and Gran<l Mistress, itf. 
Heralds, Staff bearers, M.aster and Jlistress of Cere- 
monies and other officials — and these for the most 
part the descendants of distinguished forbears, who 
held similar positions in the Order of their day — 
holds a grand ball every other year. The qualities 
that are required of an Ainarauthi,st are '■ Friendship, 
Sincerity, and Fidelity." 

In an article entiled. " Tobaooo-Growiiig in Ire- 
land,' in the World's Woilc, Mr. de Courcy sug<tests 
another possible remedy for the impoverished condi- 
tion of that country. He describes a visit to the ex- 
perimental tobacco farm of Colonel Everard in co. 
Meath, the crops being grown under the supervision 
of his son, who has studied t'ue question in the to- 
bacco-growing Statt« of America. Colonel Everard 
seems to have no doubt of the commercial success of 
his undertaking, given proper facilities for growing 
and curing the crop — this after experimenting in to- 
bacco-growing since 1898: but the Department of 
Agriculture has seriously handicapped experiments by 
the regulation that no farmer shall grow less than ten 
acres. Hence only one year in all Ireland oould 
be found to undertake the cultivation of tobacco. 
The Parliamentary concessions are also not on the 
liberal side. Colonel Everard replied to all the stock 
allegations against Irish tobacco, adding that the 
American expert who saw his crop said no better to- 
bacco oould be grown in America. The average farmer 
in the States only grows five 1x) ten acres of tobacco, 
wliic.h. in Colonel Everard's opinion, is an exceedingly 
profitable crop to grow, while few, if any. of our 
agricidtural pursuits afford so much employment for 
the rural population. Stdl, the writer doubts the 
success of tJibacco culture in Ireland unless it is 
granted far more liberal concessions than are at pre- 
sent allowetl by Government. 

The Critir of New York, which twelve months ago 
took over the Boston JAtcroiti Winltl, now celebrates 
its twenty-fifth birthday. The e<litor is Miss .Jean- 
nette L. Gilder. 


•' An Expositicni of the Law, Itelating to Factories 
and Shops in Victoria,'' bv iMr. W. .\. Sanderson, 
L.A., LL.iM., Barrister-at-Law. The Factories Act 
in \ ictoria is one of the most just and up-to-date of 
the kind in the world. To the layman, however, it is, 
like moot Acts of Parliament, a little misty. Mr. 
Sanderson has done his work magniliceutly. and has 
boiled it down into a consistency which can be readily 
digested by anyboily. It is divided into fourteen 
chapters, covering the whole ground occupied by the 
Act. Itwill f)e useful not simply to the legal profes- 
sion, but to the members of the public who are inte- 
rested in it. It is pubii^lied at 3 ti by Messrs. Still- 
well and Co. 

A very pathetic interest attac!:es to a book, just 
published by the Sunday School Union of Victoria. 
It is an enlarged edition of •' Cloud and Sunshine," 
which is an autobiographical sketch of Miss R. H. 
Higgens, Miss Higgens has lost both her arms and 
one leg. the result of a strange disease whicli has 
baffled the skill of tlie doc'ors. In spite of her ver- 
rible lo&s, she ha,s managed, by means of an instrument 
attached to the remains of her right arm. to learn 
to write. She is of course l)e<l-ri<lden, but forms one 
of the most beautiful illustrations of Christian forti- 
tude and patience that could be witnessed anywhere. 
In this book Miss Higgens gives a ven- complete ac- 

count of her spiritual exix'rierui',^, and they cannot 
but be inspiring and helpful to anyone who reads 
them. The book ought to be in the" home of ©very- 
body, if only to teach Christian fortitiule and patietice, 
and to make those who enjoy perfect health mindful 
of their blessings. The proceeds of this book go to 
help her and her age<l parents. It is printWl by 
Messrs. Arbuckle, Waddell and Fawckner, and all the 
e.'jpenses are cut down in order to make the profit aa 
large as possible for Miss Higgens. I shall be glad 
to forward it to anyone on receipt of 2s. 3d. 

The Review of Reviews. 


Junr 1, 1906. 

Mr. Booth, tlie President of the Melbourne Espe- 
ranto Club, lias kindly supplied the two following 
specimens to me for the" benelit of Esperanto students. 
I shall be glad if every student will send me tranela- 
lions. They will be submitted to Mr. Booth, and I 
shall publish the best. It will be necessary to allow 
a month to elapse before publifihiug the translations, 
as such great distances have to be traversed in Aus- 
tralasia. This will, however, give everybody an op- 
portunity to reply. The translations will, therefore, 
appear in the August issue. Send replies to W. H. 
Judkins, Editor "Review of Reviews," Equitable 
Building, Melbourne. I shall be glad to get any in- 
formation about Esperanto Societies : — 


(Vera rakonto.) 

Eltirata el gazeto franca, iomete reskribita. 

N.B. — Pro la mauko de sursignaj tipoj estas al ni 
neeble nunc presi multon Esperante tute lau la origin- 
ala verkado. 

En vagonaro sin trovis en .sauia fako kyar pro- 

fesoroj, du el la lernejo de V . kaj du el 

la lernejo de G , kiuj konis unu la alian uur ler- 

neje. Baldau okazis interparolado inter la profes- 

oroj de V ; " Vi scias eble, diris unu el ili al 

sia kunuio, ke dum la lasta libeitempo S-ro S-; , 

profesoro.) en la lernejo de G faris la iilinon 

de la direkt-oro de la dirita lernejo sia ed- 
zino." " Oni diras " li dauris " ke la nova edzino 
estas tiel malbela kiel servi kvazau kuracilo por la 
ama malsano." Kaj la du profesoroj ekridegis pro 
tia rakonteto. Sed baldau unu el la profesoroj de 

G , homo humora, sin levis kaj diris " Estimataj 

sinjoroj, rai havas la houoron prezenti al vi S-ron 
S^ , kiu sidas antau vi.". . . . ! ! 

La vagonaro eniris la stacidomon : la du profesoroj 
de V eliris, kaj, — eniris alian fakon. 


Sendube la tuta niondo sentas la bezonon de in 
internacia lingvo. Sed horaoj ne konsentas kiania- 
niere tia lingvo devas esti starigota. Unuj opinias 
ke unu el la lingvoj mortaj devas esti uzadi : alioj 
ke unu el la vivantaj. Se tamen oni uzadas lingvon 
mortan, — Chu tiu lingvo restas kiel parolita en 
Homo au en Ateno, au chu oni devas peni ghin plibo- 

Se oni provus uzi la lingvon antikvaforme ni 
timas ke hodiauaj honioj trovus ke ghi tute ne taugas 
hodiauajn bezonojn. Sed se oni ghin plibonigi volus. 
tio estus efike elpensi novan lingvon ; kaj tia ja estas 
la Esperanto. 

Se oni proponas lingvon vivan. — Kiu lingvo tiu 
estus? Tio pendas je la nacieco de la proponanto, 
kaj mondano proponus sole lingvon mondan, t. e. Es- 

Ensendita de J. Booth, M.C.E., 

Prez. Esp. Klub., Melb. 


The ordinary meeting of the Melbourne Esperanto 
Club was held as usual at the hoiise of the President, 
Mr. John Booth, M.C.E., Carlton, on Friday, May 
4th. There was a fair attendancie of members present. 
After the re.ading of the minutes, the election and 
nomination of new members, and other routine busi- 
ness, it was announced that arrangements had been 
made for the delivery of an address under the aus- 

pices of the Trades Hall Council, at their rooms, on 
the subject of an International language iu general, 
and Esperanto in particular; also that a similar ad- 
dress would be given before the Young Men's Guild 
iu connection with the Presbyterian Church, Coburg. 
and also that a series of lessons had been commenced 
at the ■• Ideal " tea-rooms in the city. 

A number of interesting exhibits of correspondence, 
and other matters connected with the international 
language, were shown. Amongst these may be men- 
tioned a small publication just received dealing with 
an adaptation of shorthand to Esperanto, a letter 
from a Bulgarian, remarkable for its quaint but ex- 
cellent caligraphy, and one from a Frenchman, not- 
able for its length and obviously fluent, if somewhat 
illegible, writing. 

The latter part of the meeting was taken up with 
Esperanto reading and conversation. 


The iirst step towards official recognition in England 
has been taken through the action of the London 
Chamljer of Commerce, and it was announced that ex- 
aminations in Esperanto on the same basis as other 
Mofiern Languages would be held on the 30th of May. 

Amongst the interesting works lately published is 
■ La inteiTompita Kauto " an Esperanto transla- 
tion by Kabe of '"The Interrupted Song of Eliza 
Orzeszko. Not only is the story in itself beautiful, 
but the translation is simple, flowing, exquisite. The 
young heroine of the story is the elder sister of the 
home, in a measure replacing the mother whom they 
ha\e lost. The simple household is well described, 
and so is the romantic episode of the young girl's 
life as foreshadowed by the title. The price is 8Jd., 
post free. 

Esperanto is making rapid progress in America. At 
Harvard, Professor Ostwald, the CJerman who "ex- 
changed " with an American professor (who is now in 
Berlin) according to the plan of the Tsar, has caused 
more talk about Esperanto than about German ap- 
parently. He heard of tlie former on his journey to 
the States, and quickly became a fervent advocate : 
small wonder when every week brings letters couched 
in this .strain : " I learnt Esperanto last night, and 
hope my letter is understandable; please send me lists 
of books and other information." Not that Esperanto 
can be spoken so quickly. Speaking and writing in 
good style take time and study. 

We have long thought that it would have afforded 
great help to students if an Esperanto version of 
some English book were prepared, so that students 
could practice composition with a ready-made key ; 
therefore a translation of one of the Books for the 
Bairns — " The Golden Fleece " — has been mad© by 
Mr. O'Connor and Mr. Hayes. This little book, "La 
Sercado por la ora Saflano," is published at 6d. net, 
and, as all know, the accompanying Bairns' book can 
be had for a penny. The translation is as nearly a.s 
possible literal, and the little book in its grey cover, 
and with the Lefanu illustrations, will, w© hope, find 
a place on every Esperantist's bookshelf. 

An advertisement will be found on page 2 of this 
issue, telling what publicjitions we have at this office, 
and after three months (time enough for an order to 
London to reach us) we shall have " The Golden Fleece " 
mentioned above. Please order early. 

Send to Editor "Review of Bieviews." Equitable 
Building, Melbourne. 

Revieic of Reviews, 2/S/06. 



The Bold Buccaneer of the Western Main has 
long been a familiar and romantic figure in the 
annals of criminal adventure. Who is not familiar 
with the blood-curdling tales of the pirates, the bri- 
gands of the seas, whose rapacity was as insatiable 
as their cruelty, who sailed their ships under the 
Death's head and cross-bones, and who deposited 
their ill-gotten treasures in some mysterious is- 
lands of the Caribbean Seas ! In the midst of a 
world hag-ridden by ethical scruples and paralysed 
by Christian civilisation, 
the Pirate stands out as 
the supreme embodiment 
of merciless avarice and 
pitiless cruelty. Rightly 
was he described and 
treated as hostis hutnani 
generis. In him all the 
ordinary humane instincts 
were inverted. In place 
of trust there was treach- 
ery' ; in place of com- 
passion, ruthlessness. 
Without compunction, as 
without restraint, he 
preyed ceaselesslv upon 
his kind. He had the 
appetite of the shark, the 
cruelty of the tiger, and it 
is counted as one of 
the few unmistakable 
advances of civilisation 
that his place on the 
high seas knows him 
no more. Against him 
Society waged ceaseles's 
war, until at last tha 
corsair has become a 
more or " less mythical 
ligure, and his familiar 
method of disposing of 
his captives survives 
only as a picturesque 
metaphor. There is a 
certain appropriateness about the fact that the last 
public execution that took place at Newgate was 
the hanging of the three pirates of the Flowery Laud. 
They were but miserable caitiffs who confined their 
piracy to seizing the ship in which they sailed. But 
tliev were strung up all in a row before the eyes 
of all men, and the public executioner made his 
public exit after stringing up the last degenerate 
representatives of the Pirates of the world. 

•" Frenzied Finance." by Thomas W, Lawson. iW. Heine- 
mann. 68.). and " HiRtory of the Standard Oil Company." 
hv Ida M. Tarbell. 2 yols. Ulnstrated. (W. Heinemann. 

Mr T. 
Author of 

We thought we had got rid of Pirates. But, lo ! to 
the confusion and dismay of the optimist, hardly has 
the quicklime eaten away the carcases of the men of 
the Flowery Land than we are summoned to witness 
the evolution of a new race of Pirates. The Bold 
Buccaneer of the Western Main was but a child in 
the Kindergarten of piracy compared with the Bold 
Buccaneer of the Western Strand, to whom the 
British public is now introduced for the first time 
in thf- lurid pages of Mr. Lawson's " Frenzied 

Finance." It is true that 
we have had preludes pre- 
paring us for the ghastly 
record of piracy systema- 
tised into a fine art Mv 
old friend — now, alas ! no 
more— Mr. H. D. Lloyd 
of Winnetka, Chicago, in 
his "Wealth against Com- 
monwealth," lifted the 
curtain slightly. Miss 
Tarbell's story of " Stan- 
dard Oil " never reached 
the ear of the British 
public, until Mr. Heine- 
mann published her 
" History of the Standard 
Oil Company " in two 
large octavo volumes. 
Even Mr. Lawson's 
vigorous exposure of the 
exploits of the Bucca- 
neers, which riveted at- 
tention throughout the 
States, hardly found any 
echoes on this side the 
Atlantic until the scandal 
of the insurance frauds 
last year rang through 
the world. I was in the 
heart of Russia at the 
time, but even there the 
stor}' of the New York 
insurance frauds made 
the ears of men to tingle. Mr. Heinemann has 
now republished " Frenzied Finance " in London, 
and everybody in the Old World has an opportunity 
of gaining some insight into the methods of the 
Buccaneers of to-day. It is only his methods that 
have changed. The Buccaneer is the Buccaneer 
still — merciless, insatiate, the incarnation of a dia- 
bolical cross between the tiger and the shark. He 
no longer sails the seas in the /oily Rover, 
nor does he hoist the black flag. On the con- 
trary, he is most careful to keep up the appearance 

. Lawson, 
renzied Finance 

The Heview of Reviews. 

June I, ISM. 

of being an honest man and a respectable trader. 
He founds universities, he subscribes to missionary 
societies, he poses as a public benefactor. It is true 
rhat his gifts to public purpose are seldom a tithe 
of the sums which he extorts from the public by his 
piracy. But they serve as " ransom '' and conscience- 
mone\. For the modern Pirate has a conscience. 
So had his ancient prototype, who hung up the Ten 
Commandments in his cabin, erasing only ■' Thou 
- alt not steal " as being under the circumstances a 
M-ie too personal to be pleasant. 

Mr. Lawson, the author of •' Frenzied Finance," 
which originally appeared in Everybody's Magazine, 
divides the honour with Miss Ida M. Tarbell, the 
' Istorian of " Standard Oil " in McClure's, as e.x- 

nents of the Financial Buccaneering which our 
-.nerican cousins have developed into an art and 

Xeir Turk World.} 

The Jolly ■• Rogers.' 

a science. Mr. Lawson writes as an insider. He was 
for nine years in the inner circle of Standard Oil. 
He is now attempting to make reparation for the 
losses which he helped — he declares unwittingly — 
to inflict upon the public. Miss Tarbell is an out- 
sider. She is a painstaking, conscientious historian, 
whose chronicles place her in the first rank of the 
capable women of our time. In the current number 
of McClure she draws a very suggestive parallel be- 
tween the Italian despots whose ambitions and 
methods Machiavelli embalmed for all time in his 
'• Prince," and the great freebooters of the West: — 

Four hundred rears ago it was a state which the Prince 
aspired to control, to-day it is a. great bnsiness — a natural 
product like iron or coal or oil; a great food product 
like beef, a great interstate transportation line like the 
railroad, a great deposit for the savings of the poor like 
a life insurance company. These are the kingdoms for 
which the modern man eig-hs. 

Now we will all admit that under the competitive system, 
in a sense, business is war; that is. men are eacii right- 
fully seeking to make his own venture as big and as 
powerful as bis ability and energy permit, out in all war, 
even that of four hundred years ago, there are rules. 
Compare the use of the ancient battering-ram with the 
use of the modern one — the rebate. The former was recog- 
nised as a legitimate instrument, and tf.e latter has always 
been declared illegitimate. That is, when an Italian 
Despot sallied forth to knock down the walls of a city 
he wanted to add to his domain r.e used au instrument 
which the laws allowed; but our mocern captain uses 
as his principal weapon of conquest an instrument for- 
bidden by all the laws of the game. As far as weapons 
of war are concerned, he really gees the Italian Despot 
one better. Not only that; he equals him easily in these 
practices which have always been suppcsetl to be an 
Italian specialty, and which, as has already been pointed 
out, form the backbone of Machiavellianism us it is. 


Miss Tarbell in the following luminous passage 
shows how close is the parallel between " Standard 
Oil" and Italian Machiavellianism: — 

This commercial warfare has been developed by . our 
modern captains to a science as perfect a3 the militarism 
of the nations. Its tactics are as admirable, its plans of 
campaign as clear and able. You want to control beef, 
for instance— an excellent kingdom to master, so steady 
and sure are its resources in a prosperous land. But how 
ciui you do it? It is an industry as old as the nation. 
Ic h;is been built up apd is owned and managed by ten 
tUousand cattlemen on a thousand hills and plains, by 
hundreds upon hundreds of dealers in the numberless 
cities and villages and country-sides of the land, by scores 
upon scores of railroads and steamship lines which com- 
pete to carry its products. Where is the central position 
wbich, controlled, will bring them all, cattle-raiser, trans- 
porter marketman, under your dire<-tion or, if you prefer, 
drive them from the industry? Any modern captain will 
tell vou it is transportation. If you can, by any means, 
so control the railroads and steamships which ship the 
cattle ftrst and the dressed meat later as to obtain better 
rates than anvbodv else, you can control ranchmen and 
dealers. For if yoit can ship what you buy cheaper than 
vour competitors, von can afford to sell cheaper. The 
"world buvs where it can buy cheapest. In time the world > 
market is vours. and when it is yours you can pay the 
r;uichman your own price for cattle. There is nobody to 
offer him another. You can make your own rate for the 
transportation; vou are the only shipper. You can de- 
mand of the consumer the highest price. There is nobody 
to offer him one lower. 

Secure the special favour of the railroad then and the 
rest will be easv, as it is in all great military campaigns, 
where tlie key to the position has been found and where 
all lesourceshave been concentrated on its capture. And 
this favour secured, go after the dealer. It you are a, 
courageous and plausible person, tell him frankly that 
his business belongs to you. and he had better sell at 
once But he does not wish to sell. He has queer ideas 
about the business being his. He stands on wh;it he calls 
his rights, and a fight is as inevitable as it was iQ 
Machiavellis time, when some little Italian town accos- 
tomed to governing itself refused to turn over its keys 
to a big neighbour. And it is beautifully clear from the 
revelations ot, our captains of industry during the laJl 
thirty years of investigation on what plans the fight will 
be fdugbt. Cut off his supply ot me,->t. If he has none he 
sells none. But cattlemen cannot be prevented from sell- 
in-' No but if it costs the obstinate dealer more t<> get 
th'it ineat to his market than it does you to get it to 
vours. he cannot sell at the price at which you sell And 
here enters the railroad rebate-the modern battering-ram 
for crushing those who fight to save their own. Crushing 
them bv preventing them getting tte . s"PPlf_^ o" ,7l"ch 
thev feed at livable rates of transportation. We al under- 
staiid it. For nearly forty years we have had it illu^ 
trafed constantly before our eyes, Kecently we have had 
it od nauieam. Small dealers in oil . and c.oal. and Ittmber 
and salt, and a hundred other things forced into, com- 
Mnation into bankruptcy, or into new '•"!« «/ b"?,'"!^^ 
because they could not get a rate which enabled them to 
sMp the Mg shipper forcing the discrimination nntH 1>« 
Hval succumbed like a wall weakened by incessant batter- 
ing. „ 


But the besieging captain of to-day l>as other 'weapons 
th^n his formidable special rate. Have yoa ever watched, 
month after liont.h. .an attack on a recalcitrant bue.neis 

Krfiew of Iferieicr, i/'-V "j. 

The Book of the Month. 


by some areat leader? It i6 quite as mteresUng m its 
wav as the study of the siege of Toulon, of Vicksburg, or 
of Port Arthur Mines are run under the man's credit and 
exploded at the moment when they will cause the most ton- 
fusipu. abatis are constructed around his markets unni 
■wheneTer he would enter them he falls into entanglements 
which mean retreat or deatli. a system of incessant, deti 
sharp-shooting is kept up, picking off a bit of raw pro- 
duct here, delaying a car-load there; securing the counter- 
mand of an order at tliis point, 
bullying or wheedling into 
underselling at that, trumping 
up law-suits, securing vexatious 
laws. For fertility of invention 
in harassing manoeuvres I re- 
commend the campaign of a 
modern captain of industry as 
far superior to the annoyances 
of the famous guerilla warfare 
of the Spaniards. 


Miss Tarbell does full jus- 
tice to the modern Bucca- 
neers. She says : — 

Our captains of industry are 

poets in tlieir ways — jioeis who 

rhyme in steel and iron and 

coal, whose verses are great 

ships and railways and factories 

and shops. They create that 

the world may have more food 

and light and shelter and joy. 

They create for the joy of it— 

for the sake of feeling them- 
selves grow, for the sake of 

doing for those the.v love. Tbis, 

to a degree is the vision ot 

them all. These are noble ends, 

but they can only be kept so by 

noble means. Yet, almost im- 

mediatel.v comes the realisation 

that this dream of universal 

emjiire cannot be reached by 

the means which human law and 

justice prescribe. What of it.-' 

The man, hot with his vision, 
sees his end as greater than 
truth, than righteousness, than 
justice. He graduall.y, and per- 
haps unconsciously at first, 
works out a modern version of 
the half-pagan formula of 
Machiavelli to apply to a mod- 
ern and Christian situation, and 
the world, dazzled by the mag- 
nificence of his achievement, 
justifies him as he does him- 

But, she points out, the re- 
sults are far from justifying 
his benevolent aspir.itions. 


Miss Tarbtll maintains 
that it is not unjust to sum 
up the practical working 
code of the Princes of 
American Finance in the fol- 
lowing condensed summary 
of Machiavelli's doctrine : 

theory. The first part of '■ Frenzied Finance " is 
devoted to a minute narrative of the floating of 
Amalgamated Copper. He floated it for Standard 
Oil. The mines, originally bought for 39,000.000 
dols., were placed on the market for 75,000,000 
dols. The price was run up 
from 100 to 130, and then 
when Standard Oil had un- 
loaded all the stock the mar- 
ket would bear, the price 
was slaughtered until they 
could buy back their own 
stock at 33. Then they 
raised prices until they 
could sell at a handsome 
profit. When the stock was 
selling at 82, they discover- 
ed that it was not worth 45. 
Mr. Lawson no sooner satis- 
fied himself that such was 
the fact than he began a 
press campaign which tum- 
bled the price of Amalgam- 
ated in three days from 82 
to 66, the panicstricken pub- 
lic unloading their stock 
upon the Standard Oil men, 
who were forced to buy in 
order to prevent the market 
going all to pieces. 

Miss Ida M. Tarbell 
The Historian of 



Success is the paramount dut.v. It can be attained in 
the llighest decree only by force. .\t tinies it rcciuires 
violence, cruelt.w falsehood, perjury, treacber.i'. Do not 
hesitate at these practices, only be sure they ,are necessary 
for the good of the business and be very careful to insist 
upon tlieni always as wise and kind and t.liat tlic.i' work 
"together for the greatest good of the greatest number. 

In Mr. Lawson's book we find a detaili^d drsrrip- 
■tion of the practical working out of this ethical 

It is unnecessary to enter 
into all the details of the 
story. In its essence it is 
very simple. The ablest 
financiers in America, pos- 
sessing fabulous resouices, 
use the power which their 
wealth and their brains give 
them, first to float stock at 
double its value, then to run 
ii up to the maximum prices 
which they can induce the 
public to buv it at. Then 
they use the same machinerv 
to depreciate the value of 
the stock they have just sohl 
until they reach bedrock 
bottom prices, when th<' , 
)-iy m. 

prices up, when they again unload. There is ob- 
\iouslv no end to this kind of roguen, . No horse 
couper in a Yorkshire fair ever dreamed of so deli- 
riouslv delightful a method of fleecing the ])ublic-. 
To buy a horse for a ;£^io note, to sell it for ^£20 ; 
then to buy it back for ^^5 by pointing out 
it had the staggers, and then to resell it for ;^i 5 
111 tile same (Jiirchaser- that in its fssence is tlie 

standard oil." 

Then the same methods are used to 


The Revieiv ot Hevtews. 

June 1, 1906. 

Mr. John D Rockefeller. 

Founder of the Staii-iunl Oil Company. 

A sketch from life in IHOS. From Miss Tarhell's "History of 
the Standard Oil Company." 

method of the modern financier. The public is in 
for a gamble. It never has any chance of seeing 
what k buys for its money, and the Standard Oil 
crowd can rig the market as they please. 

Mr. Lawson's exposition of the methods employed 
by the System is plain-spoken. He says : — 

The *■ System's " fortunes have been won by means of 
marked cards and cogged dice, crooked wheels and bribed 
umpires — in other words, by the corruption of legislatures, 
the undermining of competitors, the evasion of railway 
rates, the wrongful manipulation of stocks, the perversion 
of justice, by intrigue, graft a-nd foul play. 


When the lawmakers are corrupt the law becomes, 
not a terror to evil-doers, but their most effective 
instrument for forwarding their sinister designs. Mr. 
Lawson hails from Boston, and his account of the 
legislature of the State of Ma.ssachusetts is enough 
to make the Pilgrim Fathers turn in their graves. 
He says : — 

Massachusetts Senators and representatives were not only 
bought and sold as sausaces or fish are in the markets, 
but there existed a regular quotation schedule for their 
votes. Many of the nroniinent lawyers of the State were 
traffickers in legislation, and earned large fees engineering 
the repeal of old laws and the passage of new ones. . . . 
The largest, wealthiest and most prominent corporations 
in New England, whose affairs are conducted by our most 
representative citizens, habitually corrupt the Massachusetts 
Legislature, and the man of wealth connected with such 
corporation %vho would enter protest against the iniquity 
would be looked on as^a "class anarchist." 


From the story of the Amalgamated Copper Mr. 
Lawson turns to the scandal of the Insurance Com- 
panies. Here is a description of the immense wealth 
and resources of the three great New York Insur- 

ance Companies whose in this country the 
recent disclosures have paralysed: — 

The Equitable, the New York Life, and Mutual Life In- 
surance Companies, and their affiliated institutions and 
individuals, are to-day by all odds the greatest power in 
ihe world, greater by all odds than any power can possibly 
be gatheied together from ou;side themselves, a power so 
great that the etfort of no mau nor party ot men outside 
themselves can possibly prevail against their wishes. 

First, the three companies I have named have absolute 
possession of property and money in the form of asset-s of 
o\ei- l.Oju.UUU.UOO dols. more than half the combined assets 
of all the insurance companies of Ameiica— and indirectly, 
through their affiliated institutions, ot" an additional sum, 
the aggregate of which is much greater than the assets of 
all the national banks of America and the great financial 
institutions of Europe, such as the Banks of England, 
France and Germany. The three have a ready cash sur- 
plus of almost 200,000,000 dols.. which is greater than the 
combined capital of the four greatest institutions of Europe 
—the Banks of England, Russia. France and Germany. The 
income of these three companies is, each year, luu.000.000 
dols., greater than the combined capitals of the Banks of 
Englanu, Russia, France and Germany— or about 250.000,000 
dols., 200.000.iX)0 of which is taken each year from their 
policy-holders in the form of premiums. Yet out of this 
income there is returned to their policy-holders each year 
in dividenils less than 15.OCO.000 dols., and in total payments 
of all kinds not over 100,000.000 dols. And yet these three 
companies pay out each year in what they call expenses 
to keep the concerns running 50.000,030 dols., paying to the 
officers of the companies 5.000.000 dols. in salaries, almost 
1,000,000 , dols. to their lawyers, and a number of millions 
in various forms of advertising. 


The three companies are absolutely steered and con- 
trolled from n. common centre, and the men who do the 
steering and controlling are the " System's " foremost 
votaries. Henry H. Rogers. William Rockefeller. James 
Stillman. and J. Pierpont Morgan through George W. 
Perkins, a partner in J. Pierpont Morean and Oo. Mr. 
Rogers, vice-president of the Standard Oil Company, is a 
trus'.ee of the Mutual Life, and a director in one of the 
largest trust companies owned by the three great insur- 
ance companiesT the Guaranty Trust Company of New 
York. AVilliam Rockefeller, vice-president of the Standard 
Oil Company, is a trustee of the Mutual Life and director 
in the National City— the "Standard Oil "—Bank. James 
Stillman is a trustee of the New York Life and president 
of the National City— the "Standard Oil"— B ink. of New 
York. George W. Perkins, partner of J. Pierpont Morgan 
and Co., is vice-president and trustee of the New York Life 

New York Herald.2 

Giving him the Glad 

Long Hand.' 

Review of Hevietcs, 1/6/06. 

The Book of the Month. 


and a director in the National City — the " Standard Oil " 
—Bank; while John A. McCall, the president ot the New 

York Life, is a director in the National City — the ' Stan- 
dard Oil —Bank. 

These great institutions own a majority of the capital 
stock or have absolute control of a number of the leading 
banks and trust companies of New York and elsewhere; 
and such ownership shows conclusively tlie linking together 
of the three great insurance companies. 

Therefore you will see that I fully comprehend that this 
power, which you claim to be. and which undoubtedly is, 
the greatest on earth, is absolutely, for all practical 
purposes, in the iiands of three men. and that anyone else 
who attempts to do anything contrary to what tliis power 
allows will find himself opposed bv practically unlimited 
mone.y. wiiich can be used first to corrupt all sources of 
help, including State insurance-law enforcers, and then to 
keep such corruptions from the policy-holdeis bv subsiaising 
the press. 


Mr. Lawson thus summarises the crimes of which 
these companies have been guilty: — 

1. The policy-holders in the great companies have yearly 
paid into their company scores of millions more than neces- 

Mr. James Stillman, 
■ New York Life " and " National City Bank." 

2. The policy-holders have been robbed of scores of mil- 

3. The vast funds now on hand have been habituallv used 
b.v the grafters now in control of them in the rankest kind 
of stock-gambling. 

4. These funds have been used to corrupt the ballot-box 
a«d the law-makers of the country 

Absolute proof of all this has been made public. 


Mr. Lawson is a ver}- vigorous writer, and he does 
not hesitate to call a spade a spade: — 

Infinitely more depraved than tie sneak-thief is the 
high-placed functionary presiding over a great institution 
built up out of the savings of millions of people, paid an 
immense salary for his import:tnt services, trusted with 
vast funds because of his reputation for integrity and busi- 
ness sagacity, who vet uses hi.'^ splendid place to line hie 
. own pockel. Of all fiduciary institutions, life-insurance 
should be the most sacred. Its chief functidn is to 
care for the widow, the orphan, and the helpless. The 
millions of revenue paid annually into the life insurance 

companies of this country represent the blood and tears 
and sweat of millions ot Americans, who thus provide for 
the caie of their dear ones tor the time when death shall 
have put an end to their own income-earning abilities. 
The administrator of a trust so solemn and exalted should 
devote himself to its sale-guarding as a priest dedicates 
himself to the service of his Maker. 


Mr. Lawson naturally indulges in a gloat over 
the retribution that has befallen the Insurance Com- 
panies. He says : — 

The otficers. trustees and hirelings of these great com- 
panies laughed to scorn my statements and called me a liar 
and a scoimdrel. . . . But the great God, who seldom 
allows His children to remain lone deceived to their un- 
doing, l;eard these loud-mouthed protestations, and to-day 
the world is listening to exposures of low. mean thefts and 
contemptible crimes far worse than any to which I had 
pointed. . . . To-day you and your fellow-plunderers stand 
convicted in the eyes of the whole world, not only juggling 
the moneys of the widow and the orphan in the stock- 
market, but of manipulating these trust funds for the 
benefit of .vour own pockets. To-day the world is aghast at 
.your perfidity and amazed at your temerity. You know as 

Mr. William Rockefeller, 
"Mutual Life" and "Standard Oil Company." 

I do that only the very edges 01 mis national cesspool 
have yet hieen uncovered. 


Mr. Lawson as he is self-portrayed in this book is 
a magnified edition of Labouchere, Chamberlain, 
and Dr. Parker rolled into one. He roars at you 
through a megaphone, and his style is fashioned 
upon the scareheads of American newspapers. A 
man of indomitable pluck, of splendid nerve, and 
bulldog tenacity. Here are a couple of pen-portraits 
of the latter-day David who hss gone forth to do 
battle against the Goliath of the Wall Street Gath. 
The first is from the pen of Mr. McKwen : — 

He is handsome, tall, broad-shouldered, strong, well-knit 
and irraceful — still almost youthful physically, despite his 
forty-five years, and the beginning of greyness in (he dark 
wavy hair which covers his large, finely-arched and well- 


rhe Review of Reviews. 

June 1, I'J'M. 

Mr. Henry Rogers, 
" Mutual Life " and tlie " Standurtl Oil Company." 

proportioned head. His forelieiul is liisli and broad, his 
grey eyes deep set under brows that come together and 
give intentness and fierceness to his gaz€. Tvhen he is 

The second is from the pen of Mr. Creelman : — 

Mr. LawBon stood squarely upon his heels, the incarnation 
of strength and courage. Tlie square head, high ana wide 
at the top, the long line of the jaw, and broad fighting 
chin, big blue-grey e.ves, the big flat teeth, the strong 
uose. large firm moulh, sinewy neck, hair.y hands, broad 
deep chest, powerfnll.v curved thighs, aud the steady voice — 
these were eloquent of strength, deteruiiuation and concen- 

.\ MIl.I.ION.MBE— 

Mr. Creelman says : — 

This is the man who left school in Cambridge at the age 
of twelve, walked into Boston with his books under his arm, 
and secured a three-dollar a week position as au office-boy 
almost on the very spot where, after thirty-six years, he 
has worked himself up into a position from which he feels able 
to captain the fight against Standard Oil and its allies. He 
owns a palace in Boston filled with works of art; he has a 
six-hundred-acre fann on Cape Cod. with seven miles of 
fences, three hundred liorses, each one of whom he can 
call bv name; one hundred and fiftv dogs, and a building 
for training his animal.- larger than Maddison Square Gar- 
den. Some of his horses are worth many thousands of doU 
lars apiece. Even the experts of the German Government 
who examined Dreamwold the other day were amazed at 
its costliness and perfection. 


According to his assailants — and they are numer- 
ous enough — Mr. Lawson is " a man who, through- 
out his manv j-ears of active life on the Stock Ex- 
change, came to be generally considered as the 
svnonym of chicaner}' and of misrepresentation." 

But according to himself he is the honestest man 
who ever lived. Replying to one of his traducers, 
he says : — 

Did I make my fortune honestly, you ask? and I answer: 
In thirty-six years of active business life, very active, em- 
bracing "transactions through which I have passed from 
poverty to wealth and back again from riches to poverty. 

and In which I might easily have retained the riches by 
sacrificing a, principle, I have never once in all these years 
and in all tfiese transactions done a wrong to a man, 
woman, or child, uor taken from man, woman, or child a 
dollar unfairly, much less dishonestly. 


Mr. Lawson deals faithfully with the Chiefs of 
Standard Oil. Mr. Rogers, he says, is the man who 
carries the brains of the System : — 

Rogers is a marvellously able man and one of the heft 
fellows living: If .vou knew him only on the social side, 
aud knew him for years, you couldn't help loving him. 
He is considerate, kindly, generous, helpful, and everything 
a man should be to liis friends. 

Once he iiasses under the baleful influence of " The Ma- 
chine," however, he becomes a relentless, ravenous creature, 
pitiless as a shark, knowing no law of -God or man in the 
execution of his purpose. Between him and coveted dollars 
ma.v come no kindly, humane influences: all are tlimst 
aside, their claims disregarded in ministering to this 
strange, cannibalistic mone>'-hunger. which, in truth, grows 
by what it feeds on. 

Here is his description of the nominal head f 
the firm : — 

John D. Rockefeller, however great his ability or worldly 
success, can be fully described as a man made in the image 
of an ideal money-maker and an ideal money-maker made 
in the image of a man. A foot.-note should call attention 
to the fact th;it an ideal money-maker is a machine the 
details of which ;ire diagrammed in tlie asbestos blue-prints 
which p;iper the walls of Hell. 


Xothing in the book is more illuminating than 
the following remark quoted by Mr. Lawson as 
ha\-ing been made to him by Mr. Rogers: — - 

"I do not think a fair judge would find me guilt.v of 
avarice, either in business or in the manner of my living, 
aud yet I am made fairly miserable if I discover that in any 
liusine.^ I do I have not extracted every dollar possible. 
It is one of the first principles Mr. Rockefeller taught me; 
it is one he has inculcated in every ' Standard Oil ' man, 
until to-day it is a religion with us all." 


The question that naturally arises to the mind 
of the reader of this astonishing book is, What's to 
be done? The Old World answer is simple. Buc- 
caneers are enemies of the human race. Civilisa- 
tion hr.nts them down as outlaws. A\Tien they are 
caught they are hanged at Newgate, and their ill- 
gotten booty is confiscated and passed on to the 
public treasury. 

From the news cabled across the Atlantic it would 
seem as if some of the Buccaneers of the Western 
Strand are afraid that the O'.d World method of 
dealing with buccaneers may be tried in the New 
World. But for the sake of civilisation itself it is 
to be hoped that no attempt will be made to re- 
dress public wrongs by private crimes. What ap- 
pears to fit the case is rather the confinement nf 
the buccaneers in a State lunatic asylum. Dipso- 
maniacs may be placed under duress. Whv not 
dollar-maniacs? Their mania is far more danger- 
ous to the community. The sequestration of their 
estates wo'.ild naturally follow. The fortunes of 
such multi-millionaires as the Rockefellers are in- 
sompatible with the safety of the Republic. 

K^rir'c of Revieiffn, IjOfOG. 


safety piX)vision of acquainting the drivei- and keep- 
ing the head out of danger's way. 

The A\>lIington rights of the invention have been 
s(>cured by the Tramway Company, and it is probable 
tliat the device will be a'coepted by most tramway com-, 
pauies throughout the world. Its merit will iiecpst,! 
tate that. 

Mr. Garnet B Holmes. Mr. Arthur D. Allen. 

The Joint Inventors 01 the Hohnes and Allen .Automalie Non-KoulinK 
Swivellins; Trolley-Head. 

The voung men whose photographs accompany this 
are residents of Wellington (N.Z.). Mr. Holmes is 
the 'on of Mr. John Holmes, so well-known in com- 
mercial circles in New Zealand. They deserve some 
public recognition on account of the ingenuity they 
have manifested, and the hard work they have in- 
dulged in, in perfecting a trolley-head for electric 
tram-cars, .\nvbody that has to do with these, both 
eraplovees and' passengers, knows iierfectly well the 
trouble which is experienced with ordinary troUey- 
head«. Their natural instinct, when they leave the 
wire is to catch cross wires. A fertile imagination is 
not noede<l to know what is likely to happen when 
the ami attache<:l to the top of a tramway car fouls 
in cross wires, when the car is going at a good rate 
of speed. The invention of these young men makes 
this danger a thing of the past. Wlien the trolley- 
head, by anv chance leaves the guiding wire, the head 
drnp.^. and";i bell is rung; thus giving the double 

Running Position of the 
Holmes and Allen Auto- 
matic Non-Fouling Swivel- 
ling Trolley-Head for Elec- 
trie Cars. 

Non-Foufing Position after 
leaving Trolley Wire of the 
Holmes and Allen Auto- 
matic Non-Fouling Trolley 

Miss Myrtle Meggy. 


Miss Myrtle Meggy, a 
pupil of the late Mr. Syd- 
ney Moss, the jvell-knowii 
conductor and teacher in 
Sydney, has been creatiui: 
■A very favourable impres- 
sion in the course of a con- 
cert tour from Newfound- 
land to Vancouver. On 
Mr. Moss's death \i\> 
friends and admirers sub- 
scribed over £300 to enable 
Miss Meggy to continue 
her musical studies, which 
she has since done under 
Miss Verne, a famous 
teacher at South Kensing- 
ton, London. Shortly after 
giving her first public re- 
cital in the metroixilis. 
which was very liighly praised by the London critics, 
and especially by the Times, Miss Meggy was offered 
the position of solo piauiste and accompanists to the 
" Grand English Concert Company," which was to 
give a series of 5.5 concerts in Canada. The company 
comprised, in addition. Mdiiie. Langley. a popular 
EngUsh violiniste, well known throughout the Do- 
minion and South Africa; Miss Hope Morgan, a Cana- 
dian soprano; and Mr. Stanley Adams, baritone, 
and manager. Such flattering receptions and notices 
greeted the ooiiipauy from the very commencement 
of the tour that it was decided to extend it to Winni- 
peg, the originally proposed terminus, right through 
to Vancouver. Miss Meggy seems to have ■caught 
on" from the first, herartistic temperainent. briUiant 
technique, and masterly style impre-ssiiig the critics 
all the more on account of her extreme youth. She 
was generally taken for 16. but she was 18 when tlie 
tour coiumenced. ■■ Her talent lies not oidy in her 
technical skill," wrote one critic." "but the true musi- 
cian is there to give what mere brilliancy cannot 
accomplish." This was the general tenor of the com- 
ments, and a brilliant future is predicted for her by 
universal consent. Writing on February- 20 from the 
Province of Alberta, on the ea.steni side of tlie 
Rockies. Miss Meggy refei-s incidentally to the awful 
castastiophe which overtook the iiniiers and residents 
of the township below Mount Frank, who were buried 
beneath a mass of rock which fell from a height of 
2.500 feet to a distance of about a mile, "Huge rocks 
remain heaped up where the.v fell," she writes, "and a 
small town now covers the spot which but a short 
while ago was the scene of such desolation and death," 
The compan.v »>xpected to reach Montreal in April, 
and to !><• back in T/omhoi alxiut tiie end of Mav. 

Kevieir or Reviews, l/6f06. 



April C. — An Imperial force of 600 men is in pursuit 
of a Kaffir chief ... The Loudon "Times" urges the 
Government to support the proposal for univei-sal 
penny postage ... Zionites threaten Dr. Dowie with 
exposure if he interferes with the new order of things 
... A whole tribe of Eskimos is wiped out in Siberia. 
Rather than suffer starvation, the whole tribe com- 
mitted suicide. 

April 7. — The collapsing of a building in Germany 
during a house-warming dance kills forty-two people 
and seriously injures seventy-one ■. .. A new tower 
added to the Canadian Parliament House collapses, 
owing to faulty masonry work ... Mount Vesuvius is 
in such violent eruption that cinders are falling over 
Naples, t«n miles away ... The Kaffir outbreak in 
Natal is assuming somewhat serious dimensions. A 
conflict has taken place between the Kaffirs and a de- 
tachment of the Natal field force ... Prince Bnlow, the 
German Imperial Chancellor, collapses in the Reich- 
stag ... The National Party is stated to be disap- 
pointed at the action of tlie Government in not ap- 
pointing all the seats in the land commission to Irish 

April 9. — In connection with the locksmiths' strike 
in the French department of Somme, there are nume- 
rous outrages upon the homes and properties of the 
employers ... There are llX),UtXJ coal minere out on 
strike in France. They have reduced their demand 
for 6s. a day to 5s. 9d., but the companies refuse to 
accede to the lower terms ... It is anticipated that 
Great Britain will hand over to France some of its 
West Indian territory as a solace for France obtain- 
ing less of a free hand in Morocco than Great Bri- 
tain has been allowed in Egypt ... The French Go- 
vernment is instituting a committee of defence, for 
the purpose of drawing up a scheme for unifying the 
action of the AFarine departments of the French colo- 
nies, in the event of France being engaged in war 
with any foreign power ... Mr. David George has been 
appointed a member of the advisory committee on 
commercial intelligence of the Board of Trade, in the 
special interests of the Australian Commonwealth ... 
The derelict steamer " Dunmore " has become a 
danger to navigation, as she is drifting in the track 
of the trans-Atlantic liners, and seven British cruisers 
have been sent in search of her to sink her ... The 
election for the division (North-east Suffolk) re- 
sults ui the return of a Liberal candidate ... A flag 
officer on the French fleet announces that there is a 
plot by the Anarchists and anti-militarists to destroy 
France's waiships. 

April 10. — Vesuvius is increasing in activity to an 
alarming state ... A compromise has been arranged in 
connection with the Hungarian crisis ... In connection 
with the Kaffir outbreak several kraals are shelled ... 
The Postal Congress is opened at Rome ... A message 
of sympathy is sent to Prince Bulow in his illue^ ... 
A Russian General is killed by a bomb ... Marshal 
Oj'ama retires from the command of the Japanese 

April 11. — Russia intends to issue a loan for 
£82.000,000 ... A new Education Bill has been intro- 
duced in the House of Commons ... Serious riots occur 
in Persia owing to distress ... Mount Vesuvius is still 
erupting ... It is stated to be the worst eruption since 

April 12. — The Education Bill in the House of Com- 
mons is coining in for a great deal of adverse criti- 
cism ... Another Boxer outbreak occurs in China ... 
The natives, fighting with the deposed Kaffir chief 
B irabaata, are disbanding ... It is intended that Man- 
churia, shall gradually be thrown open to foreigners 
... The Anglo-French Treaty is stated to be unaffected 
by the Morocco decision. 

April 14. — The Japanese tariff is increased from 20 
to oO per cent. ... The postponement of the Peace 
Congress to .June, .'907, has been agreed to ... Presi- 
dent Castro offers to retire if the Venezuelan Repub- 
lic will proceed more harmoniously without him. 

-April 17. — The Kaiser sends a complimentary tele- 
gram to Austria, thanking them for their support at 
Algeciras. The telegram is regarded as a reproof to 
Italy, and not even as a compliment to Austria ... A 
naval mutiny takes place at Lisbon ... A severe earth- 
quake takes place at Formosa. 

April 18. — A movement is on foot in England to 
make early closing compulsory ... Relations are 
strained between the Egyptian Government and the 
Porte with respect to the occupation of the town of 
Tabah by Turkish troops, and the claim of the Porte 
to portion of the territory of the Sinai Peninsula ... 
The mutiny on board the Portuguese ironclad has fiz- 
zled out ... Shots wpre exchanged between the Russian 
Ambassador to Switzerland and Nihilists in the Rus- 
sian Church at Geneva ... The Moscow police are 
stated to be clad in armour to protect them against 
murder ... Jabez Balfour is released after serving 
eleven years' imprisonment ... Private letters state 
that a terrible massacre of Armenians has taken 
place in the Caucasus district of Russia. 

April 19. — The Zulus join the native rebels ... Three 
men are killed by a boiler explosion in a speed trial 
b,y the British ships of the Mediterranean squadron 
... German newspapers still rail at Ital.v, and state 
that Gerraan,y is determined to lead in Central Europe 
. . The trans-Pacific cable from the United States to 
Shanghai is completed. 

April 2U. — A terrible earthquake takes place in San 
Francisco ... An invitation is extended to the King 
and Queen by the Canadian Parliament to visit 
Canada ... There are signs of volcanic eruption in the 
Canar.v Islands ... A torpedo boat collides with an- 
other at the Mediterranean squadron manoeuvres and 
is sunk ... The Pan-Germans in the Reichstag are at- 
tempting to interfere in regard to the Anglo-French 
agreement ... A leading St. Petersburg newspaper 
strongly advocates the establishment of an Anglo- 
Russian entente ... 1400 sailors are placeil under ar- 
rest in connection with the Lisbon mutin.v. 

April 21. — San Francisco is still in flames, and the 
entire citv is practicallv destroyed. The loss of life 
is estimatetl at 5000 to" 10,000 "... The strike of coal 
miners in France has assumed a most serious phase. 
A Lieutenant is stoned to death b,v the strikers ... A 
notable French scientist, the discoverer of radium, is 
crushe<l to death by a dray ... The Pope is suffering 
from heart trouble ■■. The situation in connection 
with the Natal native rising is critical. 

April 23. — Eight Hours Day in Victoria. 

.\pril 24. — An Abys.sinian outlaw is raiding Sou- 
danese villages ... 50,000 persons are reported to have 
been present at the great Olympic games at Athens. 

Review of Revievs, 1/0/06. 

Day by Day, 


April 2o. — The Bolgian training ship " Comte Des- 
met Denaeyer," having on board thirty naval cadets 
bound for Australia, founders in the Bay of Biscay. 
The captain and thirty-three men and boys aie 
drowned ... The Servian regicides plot against King 
Peter ... £13,000,000 out of Russia's loan of 
£02,000,000 is being is.sued in London ... A religious 
fight takes place at Warsaw between the Kom-m 
Catholics and the Mariavites. 

April 26. — ^^An attempt to assassinate ex-President 
Loubet is discovered ... The Italian Minister for 
Foreign Affairs gives expression to feelings of heaity 
friendship towards France and England ... It is an- 
nounced that tlu' Tsar will personally open the Duma 
on. the 10th Alay ... A warning has been issued to the 
Sultan that his occupancy of the Sinai Peninsula will 
not be tolerated. 

.A.pril 27. — 2000 troops are in tlie field in connection 
with the Natal disturbances ... A stir is reported as 
having been made in the English House gallery by 
ladies w hen the Woman's Suffrage movement was 
brought on ... The second reading of the Trades Dis- 
putes Bill is carried in the English House ... Another 
fcxpe*lition is proposed to the Antarctic ... H.S.H. 
Prince Hohcnlohe-Langenburg, late Regent of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gntha, is a probable successor to Prince Bulow 
... The Socialists of Fiance are engaging in an active 

April 28. — Another shock of earthquake is experi- 
enced at San Francisco ... The Porte remains obdu- 
rate oyer the Sinai Peninsula ... The Boers are co- 
operating to check the Xatal trouble ... The Dominion 
Senate adopts the resolution, previously passed by 
the Canadian House of Commons, inviting the King 
and Queen to visit Canada ... The Russian loan of 
£90,000,000, issue<l to the different countries of 
Europe, is a pronounced success. 

.\prii 30.— The British Government stated that it 
will not allow any tampering wdth Egypt ... Very 
warm and friendly relations are growing between 
Afghanistan and India ... The slander in the "Daily 
J[ail," leHecting nn the morals of Australians, is 
sternly repudiated b.% the Agents-General ... President 
Roosevelt is strictly adhering to his decision to refuse 
outside help for the San Francisco sufferers, in spite 
of the fact that large donations have been offered 
from many nations. 

May 1. —An important advance in the wages paid 
to cotton weavers and winders in Lancashire has been 
obtainetl .. Some uneasiness is displayed in Paris at 
the approach of jMay Day. Outrages are feared. 

Mav 2, — The natives of the Transvaal are asking 
for the franchise. They also declare that the Poll Tax 

is excessive, and petition for a reduction ... The Natal 
rebels are sai<l to number 8000 ... An agreement has 
been arrived at between Great Britain and France 
delimiting the Nigeria boundary ... A shocking col- 
liery fatality occurs in Wales. Five men are killed 
and" seven injured ... The King and Queen ascend 
Mount Vesuvius ... The Japanese Mikado reviews 
55,000 veteran troops ... Continual shocks of earth- 
quake are occurring in California. 

May 3. — May Day passed off in Europe without any 
serious disturbance ... 200,000 people are stated to be 
in iK>ed of relief in San Francisco ... The Supreme 
Court 01 Xatal has ordered the extradition Of \V. N. 
Willis ... /'OOO Reservists offer their services against 
Banibaata ... A serious military revolt is rep<>rt«'<i 
from Sebastopol. 

;May 4. — The Turkish Commissioner boasts that 
Turkey has 8f),000 troops on the Egyptian frontier ... 
.Vii ofiict'r is arrested in Paris in consequence of as- 
serting that he would not cause bloodshed. He is to 
be ntiic'd from the army ... Count Witte resigns, and 
51. Goreiiiykine is named as his probable successor ... 
The British Eire Insurance Companies decide not to 
recognise any liability in respect to damage to pro- 
perty pausc<l by earthquake ... The rebel strength in 
.Vatal is reported to be dwindling. 

May .").— An ultimatum has been presented to Tur- 
key by Britain over the Sinai Peninsula ... King Ekl- 
ward speaks in a friendly way at a banquet in the 
Palace El.vsee given by the President of France ... 
British Nonconformists are dissatisfied with the Edu- 
cation Bill ... The Premier of Natal has accepted the 
offer of Imperial troops to crush the Natal rebellion 
... The South .\frican Customs Conference concludes 
its work at Pietermaritzburg ... The Independence 
Party is successful at the Hungarian elections ... The 
Porte and the Persian Government arrive at a settle- 
ment with regard to the delimitation of the boundary 
between Turkey in Asia and Persia ... An indemnity 
of £55.000 has been paid by China to France with 
respect to the massacre of six French Jesuit priests 
in February ... A collision takes place between the 
" Buninyong " and tlie barque " Criffle " in Sydney 

May 7. — .\dmiral Dubasoff, of Mosoow, is wounded 
b.v a bomb explosion ... Turkey is given ten days' 
wrace to withdraw her troops from Sinai ... The 
dreadful discdvery is made that thirty-nine miners 
were uiisnught in the Westphalian coal mine after an 
explosion, ami died of hunger ... President Roosevelt 
sends a message to Congress suggesting that the Go- 
vernment be entrusted with power to control inter- 
state commerce. 

■ - ■)g\3C/<3), 


Review of Errieirs. 1/6/06. 



The Life Superlative. Stoptord A. Brooke ... iPitman) 6/0 
Development and Divine Purpose. Vernon F. Storr 

(Methuen) net 5/0 

The Gospel in Action. Bishop Ingram. ..(Wells, Gardner) 3/6 
The Eeligion of All Good Men. H. W. Garrod 

(Constable) net 5/0 
The New Setormation. J. A. Bain 

^T. and T. Clark, Edinburgh) net 4/6 

Towards the Heights. Charles Wagner (Uuwin) net 2/0 

The Gospel of Life. Charles Wagner iHodrter) 3/6 

The Yoimg Man and the World. A. J. Beveridge 

(Appleton) net 6/0 
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The Philosophy of Eeligion. Dr. H. HofEding. Trans- 
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J. M. Baldwin. Vol. Ill (Macmillan) net 42/0 

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(Macmillan) net 12/6 

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The Siorv of Protestantism. F. Holtierness Gale 

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English Church History. T. Allison (Bemrose) net 4/6 

Aspects of Anglicanism. Mgr. Moyes ... (Longmans) net 6/6 

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The Great Lord Burghley. Martin Hume (Nash) 12/6 

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Insurance l\oies. 



The report and balaiicfi-sheet of tlie Bank of Aus- 
tralasia for the lialf-year ended, October 16tli. 190o. 
appears in these columns. The profit for the half-year 
was £137,451. out ot which a dividend of 12 per cent. 
iia.s paid, absorbing t'OG.IMO, £30.000 transferred to 
reserve fund and £11,000 in reduction of cost of bank 
premises. The reserve fund now stands at £1,'J-50.000 
and capital at £1,600,000. Tlie deposits amount to 
£16,329,o6o, showing an increase of £43,23o on the 
previous six months. Bills receivable, advances, etc, 
stand in the balance-sheet at £14,294,304, an increase 
of £761,666 on the prior half-year, while liquid 
securities iu the shape of cash and Government securi- 
ties amount to the large total of £7,483,788. These 
two items reflect the restricted enterprise in Aus- 
tralia, and were referred to in tlie chairman's S|)eech 
at the meeting of the bank Iteld in London on March 
29th. He stated that while it wa,s a very strong posi- 
tion to hold 7V millions of practically liijuid securities 
against liabilities to the public of 19 millions, it was 
too strong a position from a profit-earning point of 
view, being out of all proportion to what was required 
in the conduct of the business. General conditions in 
Australia were improving, and it wa.s hoped that the 
bank's money would shortly be wanted for these enter- 
prrses. Tlie' directors referred to the appointment of 
Mr. Amos Hellicar to the position of superintendent 
in succession to Mr. John Sawers, and stated that he 
had a long and varied experience in the bank's ser- 
vice, and bad the entire confidence of the directors. 

Tlic report and balance-sheet of the Colonial Bank 
of Australasia Limited for the half-year ended. March 
31st last, which appears in these pages, is a very 
gratifying one, and shows continued progress. The 
profit is the largest to date of any half-year, and 
amounts to £19.40o 2s. lid. Out of this a dividend 
of > per cent, on preference shares and 5 per cent, on 
ordiuai-y shares has been paid, a sum of £10,000 car- 
ried to reserve fund, which is thu.* raised to £90,000, 
and £4195 13s. lOd. is carried forward. Compared 
with twelve months ago the reserve fund shows an in- 
crease of £15.000. deposits an increase of £180.613. 
and discounts and advances an of £159,070 — 
all very satisfactoiy movements. The directors are to 
be conimended on their continuously adding to their 
reserves instead of jiaying away larger dividends which 
the profits would easily enable them to do. It is by 
this means that the Colonial Bank is being placed on 
such a solid basis. The bank is in a very strong posi- 
tion, which will ensure a still larger support being 
given to it. 

A serious collision occurred in Port Phillip Bay at 
11 p.m. on the 27tli ult. between the A.U.S.N. Cxi.'s 
■Aramac" and tlie French barque 'Nantes.'" which 
was anchored in the South Channel. Tlie nicht was 
dark and squalls of rain were driving across the hay. 
The ■ Arainac " was coming up the channel to ilel- 
Ixiunie. and only noticed the barque's lights when it 
lias too late to avoid a collision, and crashed into 
the bow of the ship. A rent 14 feet in length was 
torn in the "Arainac's side abov^e the water line. The 
main deck started and the forecastle fittings smashed 
to fragments. The ''Nantes" was very little in.iured. 
Fortunately no loss of life resulted. 

A collision occurred in Sydney Harbour on 4tli inst. 
between Howard Smith and Co.'s steamer "Bunin- 
yong " and the barque " Griffle." by which both vessels 
v.ere severely damaged. The night was clear, and the 
cause of the mishap is unk^lown. The " Buninyong " 
received the worst in.jury. and was soon found to be 
taking in water rapidly. The passengers were quickly 
transferred to boats and taken ashore without injury, 


Life Assurance Company, Ltd. 

The Premier Industrial-Ordinary Life Office 
of Greater Britain. 


The Company's Record for 1904 : 

Funds _ £1,346,606 

INCREASE IN FUNDS - - 201,346 

Income _ _ £436,326 


Paid Policyholders since Inception... ._ £891,590 

PAID POLICYHOLDERS in 1904... 108.931 

Profits, in the form ot Reversionary 
Bonuses, Allotted to Policyholders 

since Inception £395,525 

PROFITS, in the form of Reversion- 
ary Bonuses, allotted to Policyhold- 
ers for 1904 61,075 

Expenses — 

DECREASE FOR YEAR ... .„ £12,131 


. , FIRE . . 










y Insurance. 


MELBOURNE— 60 Markei Street. 

SYDNEY— 78 Pitt Street. 

ADELAIDE— 71 King William Street, 

BRISBANE-Creek Street. 

PERTH— Barrack Street. 

HOBART— Collins Street. 

LONDON— St. Michael's Alley, Cornhill, B.C. 




The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, liOS. 



Paia-up Capital £1.600,000 

Reserve Pimd 1,250,000 

(Of which £500,000 is iuvested in 24 per ceut. Consols at 85, the remainder being used 
in the business of the bank.) 
Reserve Liability of Proprietoig under the Charter 1,600.000 


With the Accounts for the Half-vear to 16th October. 1905. 
Presented to the Proprietors at tlie ANNUAL GENERAL MEBriNG. held ou THURSDAY', 29th MARCH. 1906. 

At One o'clock. 
The Directors submit to the Proprietors the Balance-sheet as at 16th October last, with the Profit Account for 
the lialf-year to tliat date. After providing for rebate on bills current, for British and Colonial rates and taxes, and 
for all bad and doubtful debts, the net profit for the iialf-jear amounted to £137.451 6s. 8d. 

To this sum must be added £17,105 18s. lid. brought forward from the previou.^ half-.vear, making a total of 
£154,555 5s. 7d., out of which the directors have declared a dividend for the half-.vear at the rate of 12 i)er cent, per 
annum, or £2 8s. per share, Iree of income tax. 

The dividend will absorb £96,000, and the directors have further appropriated £30,000 to the Reserve Fund, and 
£11.000 in reduction of the cost of bank premises. There will then remain £17,565 5s. 7d. to be carried forward to 
the next account. 

The dividend will be payable in Loudon and in the colonies on the 50th inst. 

To the office of Superintendent, rendered vacant by the retirement of Mr, John Sawers, the Directors have ap- 
pointed Mr. Ames Hellicar, who has had long and varied experience in the bank's service, and has the entire 
confidence of the directors. 

Since the date of the last report the bank has opened new branches at Ballina and Nowra, in New South Wales, 
and at Hamilton and Whangarei, in New Ze.iland, and has closed its branches at Winton, in Queensland, and Queens- 
town, in Tasmania. 

W. A. M'ARTBUR, Chairman. 
4 Threadneedle-street, Loudon, 19tl) Marcli, 19^:6. 

PROFIT ACCOUNL, from APRIL 10. 1905, to OCTOBER 16, 1905, 

Undivided profit, April 10, 1905 £113,103 18 11 

Less: Dividend. October. 1905 

Profit for the half .year to October 16, 1905. after deducting rebate on bills current at 
balanco date (£8,042 Us. lOd.), and making provision for all bad and doubtful debts ,, 
Charges of Management — 

Salaries and allowances to the colonial staff, including the Superin- 
tendent's department aud 169 branches and agencies £98,470 5 10 

General expenses, including rent, repairs, stationery, travelling, etc. . . 22,898 18 11 
London — ' ^ 

Salaries 9,512 6 

General expenses 2,924 8 10 


Rat^s and Taxes- 


£133,805 14 1 

£12,636 19 2 
9.810 19 1 

£22.447 18 

£156,253 12 4 

Total amount of unappropriated profit 

From which deduct — 

For transfer to reserve fund 

For reduction in cost of bank premises 

Leaving available for dividend 


£17,103 18 11 

£293,704 19 

£137.451 6 8 
£154.555 5 7 

£113.555 5 7 



Circulation £450.854 

Deposits 16,329.565 2 6 

Bills payable and other liabilities 2.319.698 3 4 

Capital £1.600.000 

Reserve fund 1.250.000 

(Of which £500,000 is invested 
in 2^ per cent. Consols at 85. 
the remainder being used in 
the business of the bank.) 
Profit account ; tindivided bal- 
ance . 113,553 

£19.100.117 5 10 

2.963.555 5 7 
£22.063.572 11 5 


Specie, bullion and cash balances £3 

Loans at call and at short notice 2, 

British Government securities 

India and colonial Government securities ... 

Bills receivable, advances on securities and 

other assets 14, 

Bank premises in Australia. New Zealand 

and London 


981.667 10 10 
967.140 12 2 
175.980 2 10 

,483,788 5 10 
,294.303 14 9 
285.580 10 10 

£22.063.672 11 5 

F. H. BLOGG, Accountant. R- W. JKANS. Manager. 

We have examined the cash and securities in London, and the London books, and have verified the transfers 
from the several branches in the Commonwealth and New Zealand, and we t)eg to report that, in our opinion, the 
foregoing is a full and fair balance-sheet of the bank, and that it exhibits a true and correct view of the state of 
the bank's affairs as shown by the books. 

London. 13th March. 1906. WELTON. JONES and CO.. Auditors 

June 2, 1906. 

The Review of Reviews. 





To be presented to the Shareholders at the Tweuty sixth Ordinary General Meeting, to be lield at the Bank, 126 

Elizabeth-street, at noon on Thursday. 26th April, 1906. 

Tlie Directors tie? to submit to the Sliareholders their Twenty-sixth Report, witlv a Balance-sheet and Statement 
of Profit and Loss, for tlie Half-year ended 31st March, 1906, duly audited. 

After providing: for expenses of manasrement, interest accrued on deposits, rebate on bills current, tax on note 
circulation, income tax, and making provision for bad and doubtful debts, the net profit amounted to — 

£19,405 2 U 
Brought forward from oOtli September. 1905 5,772 11 2 

Which the Direct-ors propose to apportion as follows, viz.: — 
Dividend at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum on preterence shares 
Dividend at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum on ordiiiar.v shares 

To Reserve >\ind 

(making it £90,0001 
Balance carried forward . 

£25.177 14 1 

. £7.601 2 

3,380 18 3 

. 10,000 

4.195 13 10 

£25.177 14 1 

During the half-year Branches of the Bank were Opened at Lake Bolac. Macarthur. Warburton and Werribee. 

The Dividend will be Payable at the Head Office on and after the 27th inst., and at the Branches on receipt of 

The Twentj-sixth Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders will be held at the Head Office of the company. 126 
Elizabeth-street, Melbourne, on Thursday, the 26th day ot .\pril, 19C6, at noon. 

By Order of the Board. 

Melbourne. 12th April. 1906 SEl-BY PAXTOy. General Manager. 

Fop the HALF-YEAR ending 31st MARCH, 1906. 

To Capital paid-up, viz. ; — 
51,184 preference shares paid 

in cash to £9 15s £304.044 

77.278 ordinarj- shares paid 
in cash to £1 153. 

To reserve fund 

To profit and loss 

To notes in circulation 

To bills in circulation 

To Government Deoosits— 
Not bearing interest. £24,088 
9s. 4d., bearing interest, 
£367,091 13s. Id. 

To Other Deposits— Rebate and 

Interest Accrued — 

Not bearing interest, £996.304 

23. lid., bearing interest 

£1,367.540 23. 3d 

155.236 10 

£391,180 2 5 

2,363.844 5 2 

£439,280 10 


15,177 14 


274,518 12 

To contingent liabilities, as per contra 

2,755,024 7 
66,976 19 


By coin, bullion and cash at 

bankers £609.660 13 8 

Bv British Consols. £70,668 15s. 

2d. at £85 pev cent., £6D,C68 

8s. 9d. ; by Victoria Government 

stock and debentures. Metro- 
politan Board of Works. 

Municipal and Savings Bank 

delientures. at valuation. 

£67,369 7s. 2d ' " ' 

By bills and remittances in 


By notes of other banks 

By balances due from other 


By stamps 

B.v real estate, consisting of — 

Bank premises at cost to new bank 196.661 10 11 

Other real estate at valuation 54,059 2 5 

By bills discounted and other advances, 
exclusive of provision for bad or doubtful 

debts 2,558,010 14 5 

By shares in other companies at valuation 270 16 3 

By chattel property at valuation ... 1.200 

By liabilities of customers and others in 
respect of contingent liabilities, as per 
contra 66.976 19 2 

127,437 15 11 

536,815 3 
1,616 8 


28,008 15 
%3 2 





£3,761,681 3 


To current expenses lineluding salaries, rents 

repairs, stationery, etc.) £24.913 14 6 

To bank note tax . . 1,131 7 6 

To transfer to reserve fund . 10. COO 

To balance .. 15.177 14 1 

£51,222 16 1 

By balance brought forward £5,772 11 2 

By gross profits for the half-year, after allow- 
ing -for interest accrued on deposits, rebate 
on bills current, and making provision for 
income tax and bad and doubtful debts ... 45.450 4 11 

£51.222 16 1 


To balance 

, ... fc9u.00ij (J By balance brought forward 

B.v transfer from profit and loss 



£93. COO 


NOTE. — The customary Audiiors Report ami the Directors StattMiient to couiply with the " (..'omponiea Act 1896," 
appear on the official report. 

liecietc of RfNeicit, 1(6/0'}, 


Of ^^ The Review of Reviews for Australasia." 


Let Youth But Know. 100. 

Lord Eandolph CliurcliiU.— Winston 

Churchill, 2U3. 
The First Discoverv of Australia and 

New Zealand, 424. 
The Lite of Archbishop Terarle. 419. 


• Leadingi, lii3, -211, 319, 425. 

MONTH, !Mi, liis. ;io.-., 377. 


Dr. George MacDonald, 146. 

In Memoriani; Josepli Chamberlain, 

by W. T. Stead. 268. 
John Burns of Battersea.— W. T. 

Stead, 262. 
King' Haalion of Xorway. 46. 
Our Faerie Queen. 42. 
Sir Heiirv Irviua:, 61. 
The New British Cabinet.— W. T. 

Stead, 152. 
The New House of Commons.— W. T. 

Stead. 270. 

3211, 426. 

(Australasian) — 

A.N. A. Exhibition. 109. 

A.N.A. Exhibition. 222. 

Anti-Socialism. —Mr. Eeid. 3. 

Anti-Socialism. — Mr. R«id. 115. 

Anti-Socialism.— Mr. Eeid. 326. 

Anti-Trust Bill. 3. 

Australasian Loans. 219. 

British Labour Delegates. 111. 

British Labour Delegates, 329. 

British Liberal Victor.v, 114. 

Bush Fires, Victoria and New South 
Wales, 109. 

Capital Site Quarrel, 3. 

Closer Settlement. 532. 

Colonial Conference, 335. 

GresswelTs. Capt.. Eeport, 217. 

Danysz, Dr., 116. 

Deakin's Pre-Sessional Speech. 325. 

Early Closing Act. Victoria. 9. 

Earlj' Closing Act, Victoria. 333. 

Federal Elections, Approachin?. 220. 

Health of School Children. 113. 

Home Rule Eesolutions, 113. 

Immigration Act. 11. 

Imperial Interference with Domestic 
Legislation, 328. 

Injustice of Justice. 213. 

International Postal Conference. 115. 

Irvine. Mr.— Speech at St. Kilda. 327. 

Irvine. Mr. — Federal Constitution. 327. 

Japan's Famine, 223. 

Juvenile Courts. N.Z.. 333. 

Kanaka Difficulty, 10. 

KaJiaka Difficulty. 331. 

Labour Unions and Political Alli- 
ances, 112. 

Local Option Issues (N.Z.). 8. 

Local Option Polls. South Australia, 

Mail Contracts. 112. 

Maoris. Sale of Liquor to, 333. 

Marshall Islands Trouble, 9. 

Medical Institute and the P.O.. 111. 

History oj the Month.— Ccitlhittcd. 

Naval Defence Eeport, 217. 

Navigation Commission. Federal. 111. 

New Hebrides. 219. 

New Hebrides. 330. 

New Year Prospects, 3. 

New Zealand Elections, o. 

New Zealand Labour Conterence. 9. 

New Zealand Labour Parliament, 115. 

New Zealand Penny Post, 222. 

New Zealand Voucher Incident. 9. 

Northern Territory and South Aus- 
tralia, 8. 

N.S.W. Labour Platform. 115. 

Old Age Pensions Commission. 110. 

Open Commissions of Inquiry, 223. 

Opium. Prohibition of. 5. 

Parliamentary Sittir:gs. Limiting of, 

Political Parties in Victoria, 328. 

Premiers' Conference. 331.. 

Progressive Land Tax. 221. 

Queensland Cabinet Changes. 109. 

Queensland Trade Union Liability 
Case. 332. 

Eabbit Extermination, 116. 

Secession Movement. 111. 

Seddon's Intentions. Mr., 114. 

St.-ite-owncd Freight Ships. 113. 

Tasmaniau Government Policy. 222. 

Tattersall's and Tasmania, 220. 

Tobacco Commission's Report. 218. 

Toll Telephone, 533. 

Transferred Ollioers' Salaries. 330. 

Union Label, 334. 

Wireless Telegraphy. 4. 

Workers' Dwellings. 222. 

(Qenerall — 

Austro-German Alliance. 341. 

Austro-Hungarian Crisis. 22. 

Balfour's Capitulation, 3:8. 

Canals in England, 121. 

Chamberlain's Coup de Grace. Mr., 19. 

Chinese Labour. 335. 

Christian, Death of King. 231. 

Copenhagen. 14. 

Electoral Reform. 226. 

Elementary Schools. 227. 

Entente Cordiale. 227. 

European Outlook. 119. 

Fallieres. President. 231. 

Germany and Britain. 119. 

Germany and tl;e Euroi^an Situation, 

Haggard, Rider. 121. 
Helsiugfors Letter, 11. 
Irish Problems. 20. 
Kaffir Representation, 536. 
King and Queen of Norway, 21. 
King of Spain and his Betrothed. 229. 
King's Speech Debate. 535. 
Kitchener. Lord. 337. 
League of Peace. 341. 
Milner, Lord, 338. 

Morley. Jno., and Lord Kitchener, 537. 
Moroccan Conference. ',^29. 
Moscow Under Fire. 120. 
Naval and Military Budgets. 122. 
New Lilieral Government, 116. 
Peace of the World. The. 121. 
Perks. E. W.. M.P.. 343. 
Political Eevolution, 224. 
Poor Law Commission. 21. 
Power House of the Empire, 534. 
Prince of Wales in India. 23. 
Prologue of the Session, 334. 
Protection. Funeral of, 224. 
Eussian Eevolution. 11. 

History of the Month {Ot:icral)—Cotitiiiueil. 

Eussian Eevolution, 14. 
Eussian Eevolution, 120. 
Eussian Eevolution, 341. 
Eussia in Dissolution, 16. 
Sakhalin Convicts' Children. 102. 
South African Position, 117. 
South African Position, 340. 
Steyn's Letter, President, 340. 
Westminster, New Members at. 357. 
Woman's Franchise. 226. 


Aberdeen. Earl, 156. 

Abrahams, Ernest J. D., 244. 

Abrahams, J. D., and Staff of Heli)ers, 

Airev. Hon. P., 108. 

Antonida, in " A Life for the Tsar," 

Apponyi, Count, 39. 

Apricot Scale, 233. 

Apricot Scale, Apparatus for Treat- 
ment, 254. 

Barlow. Hon. A. H., 108. 

Battenljerg. Princess Ena of. 228. 

Bevan, Eev. Dr., 371. 

Bell, Hon. J. T.. 108. 

Blair, Hon. J. W., 108. 

Blind. Deaf and Dumb Institute Ade- 
lai:;e, 249. 

British Elections — Maps. 226. 

Brown, J. T.. 36. 

Bullen. Frank T., 355. 

Burnand, Sir Francis. 324. 

Burns, Jno., M.P., 262. 

Buxton, Sydney, 155. 

Cairns. Et. Eev. Dr.. 369. 

Campbeli-Bannerman. Sir Hy.. 152. 

Carey, Eev. S. P., M.A., 570. 

Carrington. Earl, 156. 

Charing Cross Disaster. 151. 

Chinese Commission, 564. 

Ohristiania, Royal Palace, 23. 

Christiania, from Oscarshall, 49. 

Churchill. Mr. Winston, M.P., 203. 

Collins and Elizabeth Streets Flooded, 

Compere, Mr., 232. 

Cnnard Liner, Carmania," 242. 

Cussen. Judse. 330. 

Dalgetv Federal Site, 4. 

Danvsz, Dr., 116. 

Deaf and Dumb Institutions, 245. 

Denham. Hon. D. F., 108. 

Denmark, Funeral of King of, 406. 

Doumer, M., 230. 

Edgar, Eev. A. E., 255. 

Fallieres, President, 230. 

Fallieres. President, 367. 

Pitzgibbon. The Late E. G., 5. 

Frederick VIII. of Denmark. U5. • 

Freeman. A. D., 334. 

Flax Beater, 352. 

Fowler. Sir Henry, 157. 

Gladstone, Statue of .Mr., 20. 

Haddon, F. W.. 219. 

Haldaue, E. B.. 154. 

Harcourt. Mrs. L. V., 22o. 

Hentv. Mrs. Stephen, 115. 

Holrovd, Justice. 221. 

Horridge. T. G.. K.C.. 224. 

Irving, Sir Henry. 51. 

Johnson, Samuel. M.A.. 244. 
Kidston. Hon. Wm., 108. 

Kingite Warrior. 350. 

Kirkpatrick, Hon. A., 145. 
" Ko. ' Digging with. 349. 
Kremlin, Moscow. 17. 


Retieit of heciejTs. IjC/OO. 



lltnstratio'iis and Portraits.— Contiinu'd . 

Lake George and Dalgety Sites, 4. 
■• Lif^lit o£ the World, ■ The, 216. 
Lincoln's Loe Cabin, 366. 
Littlejohn, 'T., 112. 
Longworth, Nicbolafi, 345. 
Mac-Donald, Dr. Geo., 146. 
Mailer, Dr. Ramsay, 238. 
Mataatna Girl, 345. 
Maori Pictures, 344. 
Marks, Hon. Major Hy.. 34. 
Moroccan Conference, 229. 
Morgan, Hon. A., 110- 
Moscow, 17. 

Muirav and Its Tributaries (Map), 142. 
Nansou, Prof. E. J., 26. 
Nelson, Sir H., 110. 
Nelson O. Nelson, 138. 
New Guinea, Bishop of, 140. 
New York Custom House, 401. 
New Zealand Continuous Liberal Min- 
istry, 136. 
New Zealand Youn^ Men's Movement 

Pictures, 124. 
Nevsky Prospect, St. Petersburg, 13. 
Nevsky Prospect, .St. Petersburg, 17. 
Nolan, Mrs.. 331. 
Norway, Queen of, 46. 
Norwa.v. King and Queen of, 47. 
Norway, How Tliev Vote in, 50. 
O'SuUivan. Hon. T., 108. 
Peeress at Openinii of British Parlia- 
ment. 407. 
Philp, EcT. Rolx-rt. 371. 
Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey, 55. 
Price, Hon. T.. 142. 
Prince of Wales in India, 21. 
Queen Alexandra, 42. 
Queen of Norway, 46. 
Queensland Cabinet, 108. 
Radowitz, Herr Von. 229. 
Rawson. Lady. 7. 
Ripon, Marquis of, 156. 
Roosevelt, President (group), 67. 
Roosevelt. Miss Alice, 343. 
Roumania. Crown Princess of. 2. 
Rutledge, Sir Arthur, 327. 
Schaliopin. as Soussanine, 59. 
Seddon, Rt. Hon. R. J.. 135. 
Shaw, Mr. Thomas, K.C., 156. 
Smuts, General. 340. 
" Speke." Wreck of. 223. 
Strong, Rev. Dr., 368. 
Suttner, Baroness Von. 118. 
"Taiaha." 553. 
Tai Hung Chi. 564. 
Tattenbach, Count, 229. 
Temple. Archbishop, 420. 
" The Ijiltle Father is With Us," 15. 
Tolstoy, Count. 41. 
Tornado in North .Sydney, 328. 
Tuan Fang, 364. 
Tweedmouth. Lord. 155. 
Urewera Tyi)e, An, 351. 
West, Mrs. Cornwallis, 231. 
Whennanui. Matahera Te, 349. 
Wigg, Dr. Stone. 140. 
Watson, Samuel. 247. 
Yuan-Shi-Kai. Viceroy of Pe-chi-li, 365. 


NOTES, liMi. 214. 


A Brown New Guinea. — Dr. Stone 

Wigg, 140. 
,\ (ireat .Scheme of Social Reform. — 

Rev. A. H. Edgar. 255. 
Americ.ui Matters.— Mr. J. T. Brown. 

BDers and the Kmpirc, The. — Dr. F.n- 

gelenburg, 376. 
Count Tolstoy.— Portrait. 41. 
Fiji. — Major Henry Marks. 34. 
Hungarian Crisis. The.— Coimt •\p- 

r)onyi, 39. 
Innnigr.ition Policy of General Booth, 

The. 37. 
Labour Party.— Mr. Keir Hardie. M.P.. 

Labour and the New British Govern- 
ment. 145. 

InUniCik-s on Topics orlUe Month.— 

Mr. Morley's Chance.— The Parti- 
tion of Bengal, 372. 
Nonconformists and the British Go- 
vernment, 143. 
Some Matters of New Zealand In- 
terest. — Hon. G. Swinburne, 256. 
South Australian Matters. — Hon.' T. 

Price, 141. 
The Church and Social Reform- 
Rev. L. Bevan, D.D., 371. 
Rev. T. R. Cairns, D.D., 369. 
Rev. S. Pearce Carey, M.A., 370. 
Rev. Robert Philp, 370. 
Rev. Charles Strong, D.D., 368. 
The Free Church Victory and After. 

—Dr. Clifford, 260. 
The Irish Party.— Mr. John Redmond. 

M.P.. 373. 
What Should Be Done With South 
Africa? 258. 


Airship Sailing 20 Miles an Hour, 74. 

Afghanistan, Significance of. 79. 
Agnostic's Progress.. An, 186. 

Agnostic's Progress, An, 297. 
Allies. Our. as Trade Rivalff, 69. 

American Boss, Revolt Against, 85. 
American German Amenities. 86. 

American Morality on Its Trial, 187. 

America. Moral Upheaval in, 292. 

American Ocean Nursery, 405. 

American Woman, In Dispraise of the, 

American Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, 

Anti-Germans and France. 181. 

Anti-Semitism in Russia, 404. 

-Applied Science, 282. 

Architecture in Mediaeval Art, 74. 

Architecture, Thought in, 295. 

Are American Ambassadors Inferior 
to European ? 303. 

Asia for the Asiatics, 277. 

Austria, Servia and Bulgaria. 388. 

Ballooning Experiences, 405. 

Beethoven's Ungrateful Nephew, 587. 

Bibliography of Geograph.v, 291. 

Brains and Bridge. 187. 

British Museums, 295. 

Brotherhood v. Niceness, ISO. 

Browne, Sir Thomas, 285. 

Browning and Shakespeare, 64. 

Burns, Jno., M.P., 289. 

Burns. Jno.. M.P.. and his Library, 

Campaign Funds. 278. 

Oaucocracy v. Democrac.y, 178. 

Chastity. Has it Ceased to be a Vir- 
tue .= 184. 

China, The Awakening of, 402. 

Chinaman in California and South 
Africa, 76. 

Chinese Press, 288. 

Church and the French Revolution, 
The. 299. 

Churchill. Lord Randoljjh, and Home 
Rule, 392. 

City Life on Physique, The Effect of, 

Commercialisation of Literature, 83. 

Congo, The Saviour nf the. 279. 

Curling Stone. The Genesis of the. 294. 

Curzon. Lord. An .^nglo-Indian on. 

Decimal Coinage. 77. 

Deer v. Men in the Highlands, oJl. 

Democracj-. Delusions of. 291. 

Depopulation Peril. 593. 

Desertion from .Merchant Ships. 75. 

Dicksee. Frank. 64. 

Dictionary. TMea for Reading the. 176. 

Dictionar.i-. the Making of a, 284. 

Double Personality. A. 403. 

"Dreadnought." The. 390. 

Duelling Among German Students, 71. 

Eastern Ideas of Female Beauty, 284. 

Educational Concordat not Compro- 
mise. 290. 

Kducation Hill. The New. 395. 

l.ctuiui^ .Articles — Continued. 

Equality and Humanity, 280. 

Etiquette in the Court of .Spain. 290. 

Europe's Ruinous Handicap. 397. 

Feeiing and Schooling of Children, 

Finland. Resurrection of. 70. 

Football an Ancient Chinese Game, 

Football : End or Mend, 191. 

Forecast— U.S.A., 67. 

Foreign Missions. 220,0;O.OJO Wontefl, 

France. England and Germajiy. 78. 

Franklin, Benjamin; Bi-Centetiary, 277. 

" From a College Window." 181. 

" From a College Window, " 596 

Free Library and Fiction, 294. 

Gaelic League, 65. 

Qadarene Swine of Muscovy, 132. 

Germany, Foreign Polic.v of, 79. 

German Diplomacy — Its Failure. 175. 

German Diplomacy— Its Failure. 397. 

German Emigration, 404. 

German Peril. An American on the, 

German Shipbuilding, 594. 

German Royal Testing Office, 285. 

Germanisation of Brazil. 189. 

Germanophobists, Our, 185. 

General Election, 'the, Wb. 

Ghost -Story of the Sea. 400. 

Gladstone, Lord Hugh Cecil on. 583. 

Gladstone, Recollections of Mr.. 399. 

Gospel of Disobedience, 295. 

Government, The Cost of, 281. 

Greek Female Dress. 64 

Greek Female Dress. 404. 

Hague Conference, 'the Future, 35. 

Health Facts for Our .Schools, 3%. 

Heine. Letters and Ideals of, 584. 

Hindoo Yogis. 80. 

Hindustani Proverbs. 174. 

Home Rule in the New Parliament, 

Home Rule and Labour. 387. 
House of Commons Reform. 582. 
Housing in London and Manchester, 

How others See Us. 179. 

How Uncle Sam Helps the Farmer, 

How to Educate Children. 189. 
Hypnotic Prophecy. 278. 
Individuality v. Discipline. 285. 
Ingram .Houses for "Young Men. The, 

Irving. Sir Henrv. and his " Shvlock," 

Irving. Sir Henry. Stories .\bout. 189. 
Irish E.vperiment. .\-n, 188. 
Jack London, Home of, 75. 
Japan. Will it be Christianised':' 282. 
Japan. The Real Rulers of. 386. 
Jew in .\merica. The, 69. 
Klinger. Max, 403. 
Labour Party, The Arrival of, 284. 
Labour Programme. Will CrooU>', 84 
Labour Part.v Programme, 174. 
Latin L,eague and England. 73. 
Laundry Work at Sea. 186. 
Levit;;ition, 401. 

Liberal Leaders in Literature. 280 
Lifting a Whole City. 283. 
Light Shedding Thread. 82. 
Light Treatment of Disease. The. 503. 
Literary Articles in the Quarterlies; 

Lords, The Case for the, 591. 
Lord Salisbury's Foreign Policy, 276. 
Mammon in Modern London. 388. 
Manning to Gladstone, 285. 
Materialisation of a Spirit. 85. 
Maxim Stories, 503. 
Milan Exhibition. The. 4C5. 
Milner. In Praise of Lord. 298. 
Mistral. Provence and Provencal. 190. 
Modern Realm of Faery. 71. 
Motherhood, State Preparation for, 

Muni<'ipalisation in Excelsis, 304. 
Musical Genius, The. 586. 
-Music. The Riddle of. 531. 
Mystery of Matter. 188. 
National Gallery Pictures, 190. 


The Review of Reviews. 

June 1, 1906. 

Lending Articles. — Coiitiutuii. 

Nation of Marksmen, A. 176. 

Xavy in the Unionist Decade. Tlie. 504. 

Nero's Rome. 85. 

New Ministry. The. 172. 

New Ministers as Sportsmen, 290. 

New Yorli Custom House, 401. 

Occultism. How to Study. 302. 

Occultism in the Masazines, 405. 

Ouffht France to Lend Russia Money? 

Orders Open to Women, 391. 
Orcliid Growing with Moderate Means, 

Panama, Oanal. 75. 
Peasants' Meeting in Russia. 76. 
'■ Pied Piper " and the Dance of Death, 

The. 384. 
Physical Deterioration, 589. 
Poor Relief in Berlin, 81. 
Population. Re-adjustment of, 72. 
Portsraouth Conference, 65. 
Prince of Wales Characterised. 178. 
Prison Crgche. 70. 
Protection. 291. 
Psychology and Philosophy of Play. 

Puhlic Library and Something More. 

"Quo Vadis." Author at Home. 191. 
R:ice Suicide or Prosperity. 192. 
Redistribution Scheme. 68. 
Reynard the Fox. 389. 
Round Towers. 74. 
Russia's Economic Future. 276. 
Russia in Revolution. 66. 
Russia in Revolution, 82. 
Russia, in Revolution, 182. 
Russia in Revolution. 287. 
Sahara Civilised. The. 595. 
Scandinavian Mtisic, 80. 
Schools. Health Facts for Our. 396. 
Shop-made Nobility. 185. 
Simple Life in Queensland and in 

England, The. 304. 
Socialism and Democracy in Germany. 

Southern States. Progress of. 289. 


Distinguished Early Australians. 

The Tasmanian Elections. 

A Fool's Paradise. 

Land Monopoly in Tasmania. 

Interviews — 

New Hebrides. 

Tbo Melbourne City Mission. 

Sir John Forrest. 

Why Should Tou be Buried Alive? 

Leading Articles — 

What Think Te of Christ? 
France as Banker to Japan. 
A Democratic Germany. 

Leading .irlicks.— Continued. 

Speed y. Fighting Power in Battle- 
ships. 288. 

Sport as the British Bushido, 297. 

State-assisted Emigration of Children, 

State-assisted Emigration of Children, 

State Insurance in Belgium. 302. 

State Insurance in New Zeal.and. 294. 

State Insurance for Working Men. 179. 

Student Christian Movement. 300. 

Suttner. Baroness Yon, 388. 

Telepatli.y Extraordinary. 398. 

Theologians and the Theatre. 591. 

Titled Ladies" as Shopkeepers. 505. 

Trade Rivals. Our .\Ilies as. 69. 

Training the Deaf to Hear. 177. 

Transvaal View of the New Govern- 
ment. 392. 

Village Choirs of the Past. 395. 

Voltaire, Societ.y in the Time of. 501. 

Volunteer. Evolution of the. 177. 

Why Should We Ever Die? 192. 

Women. Orders Open to. 391. 

Yachting on Moderate Means. 185. 


170. :W0. 


Esperanto. 56. 

Esperanto. 139. 

Esperanto, 241. 

Esperanto. 566. 

Jacobitism in the 20th Century, 245. 


»1!1, 4IIS. 


.\ustralia"s Unhappy Insane. — Dr. 

Ramisay Mailer. 238. 
AwaJiening of Cliina. The. 564. 

Leadini^ .it tides— Continued. 

Blackwood in Hysterics. 

A Master of the Lyric. 

The Growth of Plutocracy in America. 

The Destiny of the West Indies. 

The Doom of tlie Burmese. 

India a Nation. 

The Trumpeter of .Sakkingen. 

The German Boge.v Man. 

A Grisly Ghost Story. 

The Latest Phase of -\merican Pro- 

Christiaji Achievement b.y Christian 

The Death and Burial of Oonserv.a- 

Beauty as a Factor in Production. 

British Columbia. 

Roman Ca.tholic and Journalism. 

Lord Milner in South Africa. 

The Blood Relationship of Man and 

The Chinese Question. 

^peeial .Articles — Continued. 

BuUen, Mr. Frank, 355. 

California Fights Her Insect Pests, 

How, 252. 
Cartoonist, The Future of the, 559. 
China, The -\wakening of, 364, 
Commonwealth. What is the Voice of 

the. — Prof. Nanson, 26. 
Deaf and Dumb Institutions, by W. H. 

Judkins, 244. 
Democracy in New Zealand.— Emil 

Schwabe. 155. 
Ethics: A 20th Century Lesson. 138. 
French Premier, The New. 367. 
Future of the Cartoonist, The, 359. 
Historic Sites. The Preservation of, 

Housing Problem, The! — P. R, Megg.v, 

Indeterminate Sentence, The, 256. 
Insane, Australia's Unhappy. — Dr. 

Ramsay Mailer, 258. 
Insect Pests. How California Fights 

Her, 252. 
Land Monopoly in Tasmania.— Percy 

Megg.y, 5d6. 
Land of Silence, The, 244. 
Local Option Poll, The Significance of 

the, 24. 
Maoriland, In the Heart of.— By James 

Cowan, 344. 
Nelson O. Nelson, 158. 
New French Premier, The. 567. 
Preferential Voting. — Prof. Nanson, 26. 
Preservation of Historic Sites, The, 

Representative Reforms. 237. 
State Banks v. State Bonds.— J. M. 

Verrall, 562. 
State of Man After Death. The. 53. 
"The Light of the World," 235. 
Theatre, Impressions of the, 59. 
Tiieatre. Impressions of the. 166. 
Turbine Steamer, The Largest in the 

World, 242. 
Young Men's Movement in New Zea- 
land, The, 124. 

Leading .irli^lc^ — Continued. 

How to Reform Procedure. 

Problems Before the New Government. 

A New House for the Commons. 

The Best Music for tlie Millions. 

As Others See Us, 

The Obsession, 

The Pan-American Railway, 

The Destruction of Niagara. 

The Re-creation of Chaldea. 

Moral Progress and Moral Perturb; - 

Women as Electors in New Zealand. 
Life in a Labour College. 
Child of Villa and Child of Tenement 
The Musical Genius. 
Susan B. Anthony. 
Thrift Among Working Classes. 
The Bard of the Pianoforte. 
Sir Ftancis Drake in Verse, 
The New Japanese Premier. 
A Pen Portrait of Count Witte. 
Pioneers, O Pioneers! 





Heview of Hevieics, l/C/OG. 


From Mr. Wm. Milnes, Pallett-street. New Ciium, Beadigo, Victoria. 

"About eight years ago 1 was, for a conBiderable time, a great sufferer from rbeumatiam. 
Acting on tlie advice gi%en me by several people, I took Warner's Safe Cure. I am pleased to 
say tbat. wben I had taken tie contents ol two bottles, 1 was cured." 

From Mrs. Nellie Davidson, 32 Keig-street, Newtown, N.S.W. 

" Wlien living in Boggabri, about 18 months ago, I was laid up for nearly the whole winter 
with Rheumatism, and could not obtain any relief from any of the several medicines 1 took. One 
itay 1 saw a i amphlet issued by jou, in which was uescrihedi a case similar to my own. and I 
decide;! to try Warners Sale Cure would also benefit me. I took three bottles ol tlic 
medicine, and am very glad to say that I was completely cured, and could go about my worn 
cheerfully. I have not felt the slightest symptom of the return of any rheumatic pain since that 

Prom Mrs. Elizabeth Boshcr, 77 Henderson-road, Alexandria, N.S.W. 

" Previous to leaving England, about 40 years ago, I was a great sufferer from Rheumatism, 
which continued to trouble n;e for about 24 years after my arrival in Australia. I consulted 
several doctors, but they tailed to do me any good. I also tried various advertised remedies, with 
the same unsatisfactory result, and despaired of ever getting relief from the pain. At length I 
tried Warner's Safe Cure — for what reason I cannot tell you. because I did not expect to get any 
more benefit from it than from the man.v other medicines I had taken. I was. however, verV 
pleated to notice a decided change for the better after a short course of Warner's Safe Cure. The 
pains slowly but .surely left me, and at last I became quite free from them. This happened 16 
years ago, ^nd I can honestly say that I have not suffered in the slightest degree from Rheumatism 
since that time, so that I have to thank Warner's Safe Cure for perfectly and i)ermanentlv curing 
me. I may say that my c; se is very well known in Alexandria, as I have for 40 years' resided 
within half a mile of my present address." 

From Mr. Albert E. Long, Port Pirie, S.A. 

" I am pleased to report that I have taken five bottles of Warner's Safe Oure for Rheumatism, 
and that the result was marvellous. The pain has all left me. 1 have gained a stone in weight. 
and am now in good health." 

From Mr. William Pollock McAuslan, 10 Russell-place, North Williamstowii, Vic. 

" Some eight years ago I was laid up with a very persistent atta-ck of Rheumatism, and, 
although I was under the care of a leading medical man. at the end of four or five months, 
instead of getting better. I was growing graduUy worse, and, in the doctor's own words, ' would 
never make any permanent, improvement.' Fearing that his words might come true. I refused 
to take his medicine any longer, and. as a last hope, gave Warner's Safe Cure and Warner's Safe 
fiheumatic Cure a trial. From the taking of the first dose I could see hope ahead, and in a very 
little while all pain had lelt me, und I never had the slightest sign of any relapse until my 
complete recovery some seven weeks later. The doctor's words, thanks to Warner's medicines, have 
not been verified, as from that day. eight years ago, to this, I have not had the slightest 
symptoms of that dreadful complaint." 


From Mr. R. \. Thompson, fining Engineer. 148 Adelaide-terrace, Perth, Vf.K. 

" When writing you some time back as to the efticacy of Warner's Safe Pills in biliousness. 
I mentioned being about to try a course of Warner's Safe Cure for Gout. The result of 
taking the medicine was simply wonderlul, as many people in Perth can testify, and I speak 
gratefully of the benefit I received. Tiie action of the medicine w-as this: First, a" gradual toning 
up of the stomach, then be;ter appetite, purer blood-makin?. and slow (at firsti but sure disap- 
pearance of the Gout. The food taken during the course was plain but wholesome. I am elail 
also to tell you that many of my acquaintances liavc derived great benefit from both the Sale Pills 
and the Safe Cure. ' 


From Mr. F. L. Seager, Waiatah-street, Darlinghurst, N.S.W. 

"About six years aao I had an attack of lumbago, so severe that I could not walk for nine 
weeks. I tried many medicines, porous plasters, and electric batteries, witliout material relief 
My doctor could do nothing for me. Hearing so much about Warner's Safe Cure, I decided to try 
it. After taking the first bottle I felt greatly relieved, and started to walk again, and. after 
taking eight bottles, I was completely cured. I have not suffered in any way since, and strongly 
recommend Warner'B Safe Cure to anyone afflicted with a similar complaint. I consider the 
medicine invalua-ble." 


From Mr. James Spencer. 62 Queen-street, FremanMe. W.A. 

" .Some years ago I was a fearful sufferer from sciatica. Most excruciating pain seized me, 
extending from the hip right dovra to the ankle. None but those similarly afflicted can imagine 
the agony I endured. The pain deprived me of all sleep. I could barely move about. I had 
medical aid, but it did not relieve me. My attention was called to Warner's Safe Cure, and I 
commenced to take it, deriving benefit after the first few doses. By the time I had finished four 
bottles the pain had all vanished, and I could again get refreshing sleep. I have every reason 
to tielieve that Warner's Sate Cure has eradicated all rheumatic poisons from my system, as I 
nave had no return of the pain since that time." 

For mutual advantage, wben you write to an advertiser, please meution tbe Kevicw ef Keviewi 

Kotwic of Heiiiewl. l/fl/M 

'I'm the ROBUR Tea Girl. 

Five or Six Minutes is quite lo'ag 
enough to allow Robur Tea to draw. 
Don't let it stand any longer. Overdrawn 
tea loses its flavour and refreshing 
properties, and is spoilt. 

The No. I grade of Robur h 
especially nice tea. Your Grocer will 
get it for you. if he hasn't already got 
it in stock. You'll be sure to like it I " 


N\it» UtN« OiLt-oH -fiijiy J ir st"^"-' *• Co.. 'ViJi 

Pobur te 


Printed by John Osborne, 508 Albert-street. Eaat ilelbourne. and published by Measrs. E. A. 
Thompson. 362 Little OoUins Street. Melbourne, for ' The Rerlew of Reviews for Australasia."