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SW4NST0N STREET (Cerner of Eranklin Street). MELBOIRNE. VICTORIA. 

Reading for the Holidays. 

TWELVE NOVELS for 14. (15 in Stamps.) 
TWELVE POEMS for 14. (1,5 in Stamps.) 

Xulliing Bc-tlti /or Faiinly kcaiinig tan Ih juuua. 

1. CHAELES O MAI.LEY; Charles Lever's stirring romance. 1- 

telling of the adventures of an Irish officer in the 
Napoleonic Wars. 

t. OONIXGSBT; one of the most famous works of the 2. 
statesman novelist. Lord Beaconsfield. 

3. THE SCOTTISH CHIEFS: A stirring tale of the days of 3 

Wallace, by Miss Jane Porter. 

4. THE SCARLET LETTER; Nathaniel Hawthorne's master- 

piece. Tells of the stern, early Puritan doings in . 


5. ALDERSYDE; a charming story of the Scottish border. 

written most graphically by Annie S. Swan. 5. 

6. NEOMl: THE BRIGAND'S DAUGHTER: the title ei- 

plains itself. The novel is one of the most popular 6 
of that popular writer. S. Baring-Gould. 

7. UNCLE TOM'S CABIN. An epoch-making book, by Mrs. ''• 

H. Beecher-Stowe. A tale of the slave days in 
America. "■ 

8. THE FIFTH FORM OF ST. DOJnNICS; one of the best 

stories of school days in England. Bright, having 9 
plenty of incident- By T. Barnes Reed. 


Verne. This is one of the few stories which give 
some idea of the world as a whole. 


Mrs. E. Lynn Linton. 

11. LAY DOWN TOUR ARMS. A thrillinir tale of the four 

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Mrs. Shelley. 

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For 28. 6d. the whole library of twenty-four volumes will be 

THE AlANAQER, "The Review of 




'I'iiE EABTHLY PARADISE; by William Morris. Stories 
Irom tuis great masterpiece of one of the greatebt 
of preeent-uay poets, tola in prose, with copious 
extracts in verse, Dy special permission of the author 

\\ ordsworth of America. This eoition contains speci- 
mens of all his varicius stvies. 

CHILDB HARuLD'S PILGRIMAGE. The book contains 
tiie second portion of Lord Byron's greatest master- 
piece. It IS more popular than the hrst, as it deals 
with the poet's wanuering in better known lands 

POEMS OF Liberty, progress and Labour, by John 
Greenleaf-Whittier. the yuaker Poet of America. He 
has been called the Poet Laureate of the Suffrage. 

WHITTIEES POEMS, contains his autobiographical 
poems and selections from the versa he wrote against 

OOWPEK'S POEMS, including a collection of all his 
poems relating to animals. 

LEGENDS AND BALLADS. A Selection of the be«t 
known legends and ballads in the English tongue. 

ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON. That portion of 
spencers Faerie CJueene which tells of the adventu-ei 
of the Red Cross Kcisiit. 

THE CANTERBURY TALES. in which Geoffrev Chaucer 
tells of a pilgrimage from London to Canterbury five 
centuries ago. 

THE PLEASURES OF HOPE, and other poems, by 
Thomas Campbell. The Scottish poet is chiefly known 
by his battle poems. The Battle of the Baltic. Hohen- 

THE POEJfS OF JOHN KEATS. 'Hiia "Poet of Beanty " 
lived but 25 years, and yet he was one of the greatest 
poets of the 19th century. All his best masterpieces 
are included in the volume. 

IRISH MELODIES, and other poemg. by the greatest of 
Irish poets. Thomas Moore. 

Is or the twelve poets will be sent you by return, 
sent, post free. 

Reviews," Equitable Building, Melbourne. 

December 1, 1906. 

The Review of Reviews. 

Rja n Walker. 2 

Wnen This Reform Spelling is Adopted in the 

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The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, ISOII. 





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The Review of Reviews. 

UNCLE SaM: "John, I don't like to disconrage the 
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December 1, 1906. 

The Review of Reviews, 



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The Review of Reviews. 

December I, 1905. 


By Rev, Lorimer Fisox, M.A., D.D. 

This book should be upon the bookshelves of every reader 
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December 1, 1906.^ 

The Re\/ieiv of Reviews. 

^tuneapaliii Journal.^ 

This Does Settle It, 

President Roosevelt positively cannot accept the nomi- 
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From 15th November, 1906, till 30th April, 1907, Seaside Excursion Tickets will 
be issued at Melbourne and some of the principal stations to Geelong, Queenscliff, 
Dean Marsh, Forrest, Timboon, Portland, Warrnambool, Port Fairy, Carrum, 
Frankston, Hastings, Bittern, Mornington, Stony Point, Sale, Bairnsdale, T(X)radin, 
Foster, Toora, Welshpool, Alberton, or Port Albert, and combined railway and steam- 
boat tickets for the Gippsland Lakes. The tickets will be available for return for two 
months, and the journey may be broken at Melbourne for three days going anrd 
returning. Purchasers of seaside tickets to Queenscliff or to Warrnambool and Port 
Fairy {via Penshurst), and Port Fairy {via Terang) may make Drysdale or Marcus Hill 
or Koroit respectively their destination instead. For full particulars see posters at stations. 


From 15th November, 1906, till 30th April, 1907, first and second class return 
tickets will he issued at Spencer-street or Prince's Bridge station (as the case may be) 
to Toongabbie, Briagolong, Beec'hworth, Yackandandah, Porepunkah, Bright, Huon, 
Tallangatta, Mansfield ; and from certain stations to Healesville, Warburton, and Gem- 
brook; and from Warrnambool, Port Fairy, and Portland to Beechworth, Myrtlefoni, 
Porepunka'h, or to Bright. 


From 15th November, 1906, till 30th April. 1907, through rail and coach tickets 
will be issued at Spencer-street or Prince's Bridge station (as the case may be), and 
at the Central Booking Office, to Forest-road, Sassafras, Olinda, The Hermitage, 
Narbethong, St. Filians, Marysville, Gracedale, Claverton, Nyora, Buxton, Alexandra, 
Acheron, Taggerty, Jamieson, Darlingford, Bousteads, Omeo, Mitta Mitta, Snowy 
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Springs, Anglesea, Airey's Inlet, St. Leonards, Liverloch, and Apollo Bay ; also from 
Geelong and Ballarat to Rivernook. 

Through rail and coach circular tickets will also be issued from Melbourne to 
Healesville (by rail), thence to Marysville and Alexandra-road (bv coach), and 
Alexandra-road to Melbourne (by rail) (and vice versa) ; and Melbourne to Bright (by 
rail), thence to Omeo and Bairnsdale (by coach), thence to Melbourne (by rail), and 
vice versa; also Melbourne to Bright (by rail), thence (by coach) via Omeo and Glen 
Wills to Tallangatta, and thence (by rail) to Melbourne, and vice versa. 

Through rail and coach tickets will also be issued on Sundays, available for day 
of issue only, from Melbourne to Healesville (by rail), thence to The Hermitage and 
Narbethong (by motor or coach). Special cheap fares. 

Through rail and coach tickets will also be issued as follow: — (i) Bright to 
Melbourne and Bairnsdale (by rail), thence to Omeo (by coach). Fares — First class,- 
64s. ; second class, 51s. 6d. (2) Baimsdale to Melbourne and Bright (by rail), thence 
to Omeo (by coach). Fares — First class, 72s.; second class, 59s. 6d. Residents of 
Omeo who take advantage of these tickets will require to pay the coach fare (o Bright 
or Bairnsdale (according to the route travelled) in addition to the above fares. The 
coach fares are — Omeo to Bright, 35s.; Omeo to Bairnsdale, 27s. (3) Beechworth 
to Melbourne and Bairnsdale (by rail), thence to Bright (by coach), thence to Beech- 
worth (by rail). Fares — First class, lois. 6d. ; second class, 88s. (4) Beechworth to 
Bright (by rail), thence to Bairnsdale (by coach), thence to Melbourne and Beechworth 
(by rail). Fare.s — First class, lois. 6d. ; second class, 88s. 

Through rail and coach tickets will also be issued from Melbourne, Geelong, 
and Ballarat, to Timboon (by rail), fhence to Beech Forest, via Rivernook (by coach) 
and Beech Forest to Melbourne, Geelong, and Ballarat respectiveJy (by rail), and 
vice versa. For full particulars see posters at stations. 

AT HOLIDAY EXCURSION FARES, are issued throughout the year by the last 
train on Friday, after 12 noon, and by all trains on Saturday, available for return 
until the last train on the following Monday. 

L. MCLELL.AND, Secretary. 

December I, 190^. 

The Review of Reviews. 

Ryan Walker.'] 

The RulEES op EITBOPE; "That thing gets on our 
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The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 190>i. 


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108 Curtis Road, Balmain. Sydney. 

Mr. Hearne, Chemist. 

Sir. — I am thankful to say that the medicine you sent 
for Asthma has had a wonderful effect. I have not 
taken all the Bronchitis Cure, as I did not need it; 
therefore I send you my hearty good wishes for your 
fntnre success. I myself will, for the benefit of others, 
make it known to all I know. I am 73 years of age- 
Tours truly. JOHN BRAY. 

Alliance-street, Clunes. Victoria 

Mr. W. G. Hearne. Dear Sir,- About three weeks ago. 
while in the vicinity of musty chaff. I gradually felt a. 
difficulty to breathe. My nose began to run, and to kll 
appearances I wa« developing a severe attack of Bron- 
chitis or Asthma. At last could stand it no lonser. 
I then tried your Bronchitis Our©, and its effect wa» 
wonderful In less than ten minutes I was all right 
again. Such a result, and so Quick, astounded me. Thl» 
is no exaggeration, I am pleased to say.— Yours truly, 

8. H. MAYO, 
Meredith, Victoria. 

' I was a bronchial snbject for nearly 40 yean, but 
have found Hearne's Bronchitis Cure a perfect rem«dy." 

Stawell Brewery. 

Stawell. Victoria. 
" Your Bronchitis Cure is a splendid medicine. It 
is the best medicine I have ever used for Coughs, Coldt- 
on the Chest, and Sore Throat." 


Werona, Victoria. 

" I suffered very much from Asthma for four yaart. 
and tried lots of so-called cures, without deriving any 
benefit. I got a bottle of your Bronchitis Cure, No. la. 
last Friday, and a bottle of your No. 2 Medicine, for 
obstinate Asthma, on Saturday. Since the first doM of 
your No. 2 Medicine, I have not had the wheeling at 

" Leongatha," Biversdale Road, 

Hawthorn, Melbourne. 

" Your Bronchitis Cure really acts like magic." 
(Mrs.) E. L. SYrSTES, 
Narracoorle Hotel. Narracoort«, 

South Australia. 

" As my purchases show, your remedies are tucreaslDg 
in sale. I'rom time to time I hear people speaking 
about the good results obtained from them. 'Wlsklnr 
you a very much enlarged sale and great prosperity." 


Chemist, Ballarat. 

" I have purchased a small bottle of your Bronchitis 
Oure. and have only taken four doses, and am glad to 
tell von that I am cured." 


c/o Mr. D. McLean. 

Oamperdown, Victoria. 

" I was laid up for twelve months with Broncbin?. 
during which I tried many remedies, without Bucceii. 
I used two bottles of your Bronchitis Cure, and am now 

completely cured." 

Huntly Street. Elsternwick, Melbourne. 

Sold bv Chemists and Medicine Vendors, and by the Proprietor, 


Forwarded by Post to any Address when not obtainable locally. 

December 1, WW. 

The Review of Reviews. 

Ryan Walker.} 

The Popular Game of Russia Just Now. 






Of every Description. 

Newest and most UP-TO-DATE Designs are now 
arriving by Mail Steamers. Inspection of Oar 
Showrooms Invited, 


i43-'45 Elizabeth=st., Melbourne. 

Warehouse and Factory — Fleming Place, Citt. 


At last a Remedy bas been found that Cures Consumption. 

Mairellous as It may seem after centuries of failure, a remedy has been discovered 
that has cured the Deadly Consumption, even in the advanced stages of the disrate. 
No one will longer doubt that consumption can be cured after reading the proof nt 
hundreds of cases cured by this wonderful discovery^some atter change of climate and 
all other remedies tried, had failed, and the cases had been pronounceii hopeless of 
cure. This new remedy has also proved itself effective and speedy in curing Catarrh, 
Bronchitis, Asthma, and many serious throat and lung troubles. 

In order that all in need of this wonderful product of science may test its efficacy 

for themselves, a company has been formed to give it to the world and a Free 

Trial Treatment can be obtained by writing the Derk P. Yonkerman Co. Ltd., 

953 Oixson Buildings. Sydney. Send no money. Simply mention this paper and ask 

for me Free Trial Treatment. It will be sent you by return of post, carriage paid, 


Don't wait if you have any of the symptoms of consumption, if you have chronic 
catarrh, bronchitis, asthma, pains in your chest, a cold on your lungs, or any throat or 
lung trouble, write to-day for the free trial treatment and book of instructions, and 
cure yourself before it is too late. 

Dr. Derk P. YonkermaD, 
Discoverer of the New 
Core for Consumption. 

Not only Infants, but Invalids and 
persons with delicate or im 
paired digestion, can enjoy 


It is delicious, 
and most 
easily digested 

thrive on it, 
and Delicate 
or Aged 
enjoy it. 

" Bengers Food has by its excellence established 
a reputation of its own." 

"After a lengthened experience of foods both at home and 
in India, I consider " Benger's Food '* incomparably superior 
to any I have ever prescribed.'* 

'bencer'S food is sold in tins by Chemists, etc., everywhere. 

The Review of Reviews. 

December I 1906. 

















INDIGESTION. BILIOUSNESS. SICH.NESS, &c.— "I have often thought of writing to tell you f 

what 'FRUIT SALT' has done for me. I used to be a perfect martyr to Inditrestion and Biliousness. About six or seven i'l 

years back my husband suggested I should try ' FRUIT SALT.' I did so, and the result has been marvellous. I never ^ 

have the terrible pains and sickness I used to have ; I can eat almost anything now. 1 always keep it in the house and ^ 

recommend it to my friends, as it is such an invaluable pick-me-up if you have a headache, or don't feel just right. ^ 

Yours truly 1 August 8, 1900)" ^ 


The effect of ENO'S ' FRUIT SALT' on a Disordered Sleepless and Feverish Condition is simply marvellous. ^ 

It is In fact, Nature's Own Renedy, and an Unsurpassed One. ^ 




All Functional Derangements of the Liver, Temporary Con- 
gestion arising from Alcoholic Beverages, Errors in Diet, 
Biliousness, Sick Headache. Giddiness, Vomiting. Heartburn, 

Sourness of the Stomach, Constipation, Thirst, 

Stein Eruptions, Boils. Feverish Cold with High Temperature 

and Quicl< Pulse. Influenza. Throat Affections and 

Fevers of all kinds. 

CAUTION.— See Capsule marked Eno's 'Fruit Salt.* ^\■it^out it you have a Wortiilbsb Imitatiok. 
Prepared only by J. C. ENO, Ltd., at the 'FRUIT SALT' WORKS, LONDON, by J. C. ENO'S Patent. 


































JAMES STEDMAN Ltd., Sydney. 

Confectioners and Country Storekeepers, write us for our NEW who'esale) CATALOGUE. »-e can All 
»11 your requirements Fresh Stocks of CO.STI VENT AL and AMKKICx.V .SOVELTIES by every mail. 

For mutual advantage, when you write to an adverliier. please mention the Review of Revie 

Decnnh.r 1, 1906. 

The Review of Reviews. 

Ryan Walker.] 

Diagram sliowing how Mr. Citizen became interesteil 
in all the esnosures, investigations and muck-raking 
from month to month, and now, since everything has 
been showji up, how hard it is to satisfy him with 
ordinary news. 


■ Yot 

Your Infant Will 
Thrive on 

h Food i 

nn nn 




□ c 


□ □ 

admirably adapted to the 
wants of Infants." — 


Projesior «/ Chemistry. R.S.C.l. 
Medical • fficer of Health for Dublin. 
City and County Analyst. 

Purveyors by Special Appointment to 


□ □ 




. In the Assigned Estate of the STAR NOVELTY COM- 
|PANY. 229-231 Collins Street, Melbourne. 

Wilson's Common-sense Ear Drums. "Sweet Home " 
Musical Box. Kameys Medieator. Iiilialmeut. and Ointment, 
Siren Whistle. The Climbing Monkey. Beaver Safety Razor. 
Mnsic, The New Wizard Gy -rotary Top. Scarf Pin and Stud, 
New American Stereoscopes and Photos, Views, Memorial 
Cards, Aeol American Harji. Zither and Music, The " Kaiah 
Gold" Brooches. "Rajah Gold" Name Brooches. Quaker 
B.ath Cabinets Complete. Melba Accordions, Multiplex 
Pencil Set. The Umpire Whistle. The "Pan" Two-Tone 
Whistle. Harp-shaped Zither. Best Razor Guard. The 
Lauffliing: Camera, Weather Houses. Rubber Type Printing 
Office Outfits. The New No. -tD.D. Home Medical Apparatus, 
The ' ■ Young Australia' ' Wsitch. Readiug Glasses, The Magic 
Mirror, Gold-filled Scarf Pins. The Double Combination Pin- 
cushion, Thimble and Reelholder, Zobo Brass Band Instru- 
ments, and Zobo Vibrator Buttons. Rolled Gold Muff 
Chains, Rolled Gold Brooches. 

25% Discount Off the Catalogue Prices 

of the Above Lines in the Assigned Estate of the 


Shipments of All Kinds of Goods and Latest Novelties 

AfiiNTUg by Every Mail. 

Send for Quotations of Any Line you are in need of. 

Just Opened a Shipment of Electroplated Ware. 

All Communications. Orl.Ts .iiid Enciniries to he sent 




j>]^.^.,e thu-. paper wtn;ii »riiin»,'. 

The Review of Reviews. 

December 1. 1996. 


Secretary for Mining Companies. 

Flotation of Approved Properties Undertaken. 





The Most Valnahle and Etf ectlvi Remedy for Liver Troobles, Giddlieis. WIM 
In the Stomach, aid all Disorders arising from ion-asslmllatlon of food. 

Belne mild In ttwtr action, they may be taken at any time without discomfort. aa< 

«they are prepared from well-known and tried intfredientt, may t>e takes 

with safety by both sexes. Price. U. Bottle : iBcTudlne pottage, li. 14. 



Tjhompson W/oore <5c Sons, 

. . , 'fffininy Jiy»nis, 





Member of Stock Exchange, Melboiirne. 

First Floor. Telephone 2627. 

ILicenseli Sutiitor, 




3 Post Office Chambers, Pitt Street, Sydney. 


Flotation of Approved Properties in New South 
Wales Undertaken. Tel. 2157. 






J. L. AIKMAN, Proprietor. TELEPHONE 421. 


Secretary for Mining Companies. 

Flotation of Approved Properties Undertaken either in 
t'ominonwealth or London. 

Vicitery's Chambers, 84b Pitt Street, Sydney 

Cable* — ** Earlema n." 



Imtructor : Member io»t. Mining Engr*. 
Bnflind. Write for Free Proipectuf. 






An Up-to-Date American 4.0yclc, Jump Spark Engine at about half 

the price usually quoted. Marine Engines in one. two, or four 

cylinders. Stationary for Irrigation Work, ftc, 2J and 5 h.p. 

CHAS. IIOSMAIT, Sole A^ent, 


You Have a Bad Cou^h 

and a Good Shilling. 


Will Relieve you of both. Posted to any part of the 
Commonwealth, is. sd. GRAY, Chemist, Bondi, Sydney, 


Incorporated Accountant. 

Licensed Auditor. 

Sworn Valuator. 


Granular Lids. 


Tp DpnrTT7P 0CUL.1ST 
. t\, rriULillLn, optician, 

476 Albert Street, MELBOURNE. 



T. R. PROCTER would remind his Patients 

throughout Australia that, having once measured 
their eyes, he can calculate with exactitude the 
alteration produced by increasing age, and adjust 
spectacles required during life without further 

PROCTER'S UNIVERSAL EYE OINTMENT as a family Salve has no equai: cures Blight, sore and inflamed Eyes. 
Granular Eyelids. Ulceration of the Eyeball, and restores Eyelashes. P 6. post tree to any p.-irt of the States. No careful 
housewife should be without PROCTER'S EYE LOTION, tnore especially in the country places, as Infiammation is gene- 
rally the forerunner of all diseases of the H5"e. An early application would cure and orevent any further trouble with the Eye*. 
Bottf««. 3,'- and 3 6, post free to anj part of the ooloniei. £y« Baths, 6d, Interstate Stamps add 10 per cent. 

December 1, 1906. 

The Review of Reviews. 

TRIED ^ dt 


If you have not, study our advertisements, and write to our adver- 
tisers, and see whether they will not serve you as satisfactorily as if 
you shopped in person. 

Whether it be Machinery or Tea, Buggies or Hair Restorer, Gates or 
Biscuits, Patent Medicines or Books, that you require, write our Adver- 
tisers and test their goods. 

It is our wish that the advertisements in this magazine be read by 
its readers " The Review of Reviews " is a high-class production, the best 
magazine of its class in Australasia, and we refuse to take advertisements 
from all and sundry. We discriminate between firms to whom we apply 
for advertisements. The appearance of an advertisement in -'The Review 
of Reviews" is a proof that the firm advertising is a reputable one, and 
that its representations are genuine. We want readers of "The Review, 
of Reviews" to have confidence in its advertisers. 

Write them, and try them ! 


In recent years methods of shopping and purchasing have changed. 
Purchasers do not buy goods on chance, but they rely on the reputation 
of well-known, well-advertised brands. In this extensive advertising cus- 
tomers find security, for the merit of an ai'ticle is soon found out, and 
the thing not up to description goes down Constant advertising of an 
article is therefore an excellent guarantee of that article's worth. 

Misrepresent a line of goods in advertising and it is as good as dead. 
The public will not be imposed upon. 

In a good-class magazine like "The Review of Reviews," advertisements 
can be relied on. The management exercises great care that none but 
reliable advertisements are accepted. 

Don't take chances in buying, 
our columns by our clients. 

Buy well-known goods advertised in 


The Review of Reviews. December i. aon. 



All Strongly Bound In Cloth. 


Nursery Bhymes, and Nursery Tales 4d. The Christmas Stocking, and Hacs Andersen's Fairy 

The Ugly Duckling, and Eyes and No Eyes 4d. Stories 4d. 

The Adventures of Reynard the Fox, and the Adventures Gulliver's Travels— 1. Among the Little People of 

of Old Brer Rabbit 4d. Lilliput. 2. Among the Giants 4d. 

Cinderella, and Other Fairy Tales, and Grimm's Fairy „ ,. , j „. ^ , ., „ .. 

Ta^Ieg 4(1 Baron Munchausen, and Sinbad the Sailor 4d. 

The Story of the Bobins, and the Story of a Donkey 4d. ^sops Fables _ _ ._ ... „ , 2d. 

NOVELS, 4d. Each. 

Charles O'Malley, and Ooningsby. Ro„nd the World in" Eighty Days, and The True History of 

Ben Hur, and The Scarlet Letter. Joshua Davidson. 

Aldersyde, and Noemi the Brig-and's Daughter. '^"^ Fawkee. and The Tower of London. 

Uncle Tom'.s Cabin, and The Fifth Form at St. Dominic's. Lay Down Tour Arms, and Five Weeks in a Balloon. 

Frankenstein, and Stories of Sevastopol. The Conscript, and Tartarin of Tarascon. 


St. George and 

The Pleasures of Hope, ajid The Poems ot John Keati 

The Earthly Paradise, and The Poems of W. Cullen Bryant. St. George and the Dragon, and The Canterbury Tales. 
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage iPt. II.), and Walt Whitman. 

Whittier's Poems of Liberty, Progress and Labour, and 

WhitUer's Poems. Irish Melodies, and Paradise Lest iPt. II.'. 

Oowper's Poems and Legends and Ballads. Robert Browning. 


Send to the MANAGER 

"The Review olf Reviews," Equitable Building, Melbourne. 


December 1, tSSS. 

The Review of Reviews. 


^Sf^^UR beautiful Collotype Pictures, when framed and 
w-'i » liung, add to the charm and attractiveness of any 
^ti^E home. Thev are supplied at the extremely low 
^^^^'^'-•'^^ price of 2/6 each. Many experts have valued 
them at io/6, so none can excuse themselves for having 
bare, unsightly walls on the ground of expense. 

We do not, however, want you to buy the pictures 
without knowing more about them, so we are offering to 
send Albert Moore's lovely picture " Blossoms," for the 
nominal price of 1/-, post free. Do not trouble to buy a 
postal note — enclose twelve penny stamps in your letter, 
containing order coupon, and mail to-day. 









2/€> eacH. 

BLOSSOMS. By Albert iMoore, R.A. (Size, 6J x 22 in.) Mailed 
lo anyone sending Coupon for i/-. 

THE FIGHTINQ TEMERAIRE. By ]. W. Turner, R.A. (i8 

K.A. (i8| \ I2j in ) 

A SUMMER SHOWER. By C. E. Perugini. (I2i .x 19 in.) 

THE MONARCH OF THE GLEN. By Sir Edwin Landseer. 

(Mi X 141 in, I 

BEATA BEATRIX. By Dante Gabriel Kossetti. (14 x 18 in.) 
THE CORNFIELD. By Constable. (14^ x )6iJ in.) 
THE VALLEY FARM. By Constable. (,14! x 16J in.) 
CUPID'S SPELL. By J. A. Wood, K.A. (iiJxiSiin.) 
\ PROSERPINE. By D. G. Rossetti. (9 x 19 in ) 

(The sizes given are of the actual Pictures, and do not include 
the white mounts.) 

These famous pictures look best in a green or brown frame, with 
gold edging. The Collotype prr|"ess excels all others. The Director 
of the National Gallery, Melbourle, says they surpass photographs or 
steel engravings. 


Please send me " BLOSSOiVlS," for which 
I enclose /;- 

Name _ 

To "The Review of Reviews," 

Equitable Building, Melbourne, 

The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 190S. 

[Copy of Poster issiieil by the Ballarut East Ton-n Coii>iiil.) 





The Ballarat East Town Council & Board of Health 

Desire most urgcnlly to call the attention of the Citizens to the following:— 

The British Government, a .short time ag'o. aiii>ointe(l a Committee to con.^ider qiie.-itions con- 
cerning tlie health and phy.sique of tlie people, and to indicate g'enerally the cause of such Physical 
Deterioration a.s does exist in certain classes, and to point ovit the means hy which it can be most 
effectively diminished. 

The Report was completed in 1V1U4. and was presented to both Houses of Parliament by order 
of His Majesty tlie King. 


" That the abuse of Acoholic stimulants is a most potent and deadly agent in producing physical 

Alcohol is not a source of muscular vigour or dexterity, but the reverse. 
Alcohol may produce temporary exhilaration, but depression soon follows. 
The abuse of alcohol impairs the productive powers of the skilled artisan. 
The continued use of Alcohol, whether in the form of beer, wine, or spirits, even although not 

to the extent of drunkenness, often leads to chronic poisoning 
The abuse of Alcohol weakens the natural forces that resist disease. 
The abuse of Alcohol paves the way to consumption. 

The abuse of Alcohol increases the liability to disease, adds to its severity, and retards recovery- 
The abuse of Alcohol perverts the moral nature, affects the judgment and impairs the memory. 
The abuse of Alcohol is increasing the number of men and women who are being confined in. 

lunatic asylums. 
The abuse af Alcohol shortens life." 

It was ascertained by Insurance Tables that "" Of 61.21.5 men between twenty-five and sixty-five. 
1.000 died in one year, but of 61.21.5 publicans no less than 1642 <-He in one year, while of the 
Eechabites (abstainers), only 560 die." Also. "Whereas out of H)0,000 persons aged 30, some 
44.000 would, according to the average rate of mortality, survive to the age of 70 ; over 55.000 
abstainers might be expected to reach that age, or 25 per cent more." 

The Medical profession throughout the Country, to the number of 14,718, and headed by Sir 'William 
liroadbent, lieing deeply impressed with the importance of the above Keport, recently presented a memorial 
to the British Board of Education, askinj;- that Temjierance and Hygiene should be taught in all the 
Elementary Day Schools as compulsory subjects, and with a view of checking the existing evil. 

Sir Frederick Treves, the eminent physician to the King, publicly states that alcohol is "An insidious 
poison, and should be subject to strict limitation, sucli as opium, morphia and strychnine, and that its 
supjiosed stimulating etl'ects are delusive." 

The Right Hon. John Burns, M.P., L.C.C., President to the Local Government Board, emphasises the 
above by declaring that " The abuse of alcohoUc li<iuor is a danger to Labour, a menance to health, and 
an enemy to the Commonwealth. " 

The eflects of parental intemperance on children are deplorable. The children born of drunken parents 
are often physically and mentally weak. The death-rate among the infants of drunken mothers is far in 
excess of the ordinary infants' death-rate. 

Attention to the foregoing is desiral)le that the puldic welfare may be conserved. 

Signed on behalf of the Ballarat East Town Council and Board of Health, 

.1. N. DliNX, .Mayor, 
.J, GENT. Town Clerk. 
2.5th September, Umo. ,1. M. (J ABDIXEK. Medica! Ollicer. 

December 1. MOO. 

The Review of Reviews. 


g- Q Q 

Twenty-Mne Magnific ent 

For 2s. Post Free. 

These Post-Cards have been specially produced 
for us by the New Colourtype Process. 

They are reproductions of Original Oil and 

Water Colour Paintings In all their 

Natural Colours. 

Now that the postal restriction, which prohibited 
writing on the address side has been removed, Picture 
Post-Cards will be much more used, especially as the 
Post Office officials take great pains not to damage the 

Q O Q 


(15 Cap-ds.l 

The Harboar at Venice 

The Sheoherd's Star 
The Weddino Party 
A Neighliourly Chat 
Land of the IVIIdnloht Sun 
Sunset on long Island 
Berkshire Brook in Autumn 
A Passing Storm 
Landscape (Carol) 
In a Bad Fix 
Judgment of Paris 

Three Boatmen of Barce- 
Th< Fishermen's Return 

SERIES No. 2. 
(14 Cards.) 

The Chess Players 


A Summer Day In Holland 

The Fortune Teller (Dc«") 
Venice (Canal) 
The Evening Meal 
Highland Sheep 
The Old Homestead 
The Puritan Girl 
Preparing the Fete 
Sunset on Mount Hood 
the Young Mother 
Street Scene In Venice 
An Old Salt 


^ O C 

Pictvire Post-Cards are becoming 
more and more |)opular, but the best should be 
used ; that is why you should write fur our 
series at once. 

G O '5 

It will be seen from the partioulars given tha-t the two 
Beries embraces a variety of land and seascapes, heads, 
domestic subjects, animal life, etc. They exceed in 
beauty and finish, richness and variety of design, any- 
thing on the market. 

It is of these pictures, which are now for the first time 
reproduced as Post-Cards, that Sir PHILIP BURNE 
Jones writes ;— " I have the greatest pleasure in ex- 
pressing my admiration for the high stand.ird of excel- 
lence obtained in the coloured reproductions of paint- 
ings, which I had the opportunity of seeing the other 
day, and I wish them all the success they so undoubtedly 

^ The Two Series (29 Cards), 2s. post free. 

^ Series No. I (15 Cards), Is. Id. post frRe. 

I Series No. 2 (14 Cards), Is. post free. 



I Equitable Building, Melbourne. 



The Review 


Decemoer 1, 190b. 






Onnmetal Kevless Lever Watch jewelled with ic iewels, nnlv 21*- 

Caunt's "Standard" Silver English lever, £6 10s., £7 lOs. 
Every Watch bears our Guarantee. Visitors are invited to inspect our 
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Jeweller}-, Electroplate, Silver Ohurchplate. Eyesight Tested Gratis. 

T. GAUNT & CO., 

'337-339 BOURKE 



Hair, and Mdr\e$. 

/io one remedy can cure all 

dised5e3 oi the he^ir. WKa.t is 

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harmful or irNcffective , \v\ ar\otKer. 

( 5end,witK stamped erwelope for 1 1 

[\, reply, particulars, enclojirx^ a few V 

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you, free of cx)5t, the cause of H 

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274 Collii\5 :)\r 


6iuoker>. ii 

hat 3"OU -want. 

OlLllJJVCi^. Ill"-- ■- J'«-> ■-....^ J ^ ^. .. 


sihreds It better than any knife 
right into the Pipe Bowl 


No RubblDg Up. No Clogging. 
Price, Cu'.iet and Pip«. (any shape) complete, 3' 3 
i^rnape paid ; Couei Only (send si;e o( top ol 

I ,r*l) 1/6 carnage paid Extra Koives 3d each. 

1 .\geDls wanteil Very liberal terms 

tip iitifl. WTh on. ol theie cc:„,, :'ai Can be had to fit Ehy pipe, you 
hi.e merely 10 drat, the t>lade ilcng ihe ecgc c( the plug and the tobacco, finely .it 
coariely (hiedded as desired, 1! ci.r.ed by a small toiler into the bo»l. ^Ot S 
grain is wasted. As 10 sceed, voo ma, alio* • knile cuuer to ™' »P hispipe 
M and While he is rubbing It up you may smrt euttlng and 
vet have your pipe alight before him. This has actually been dcn^ 

A (ull.jrie pluE drawn three or lout times across the cutter fiUs the pipe: IS 
seconds will do it easily. W.ih a small plug perhaps 30 secnntis «ill be The cutter may be lelt on the bowl, itrheie it acts as an eBecti.e cover, and 
,? ornamental appearance ,n no "ay disfietires the p.oe : ot ti may be taken ofl an* 
replaced in a mornent. As 10 dutablliiy. .» know o^ = cutler that has been in COD- 
ewnt use for eight months without sharpening, and 11 si.u cuts 
well The blade can oe l.ken ou' by j-yone, sharpened and replaced tn a couple ol 
minutes. We have secured the sole right to sell this uselul novelty, bul tn retain 
the privileBC we have 10 S-JI a very !..;•. number w.thtn the ensurng thtee monlbs 
Ihetetore we have fixed the prices very low, and "• "' .f-'P""^ •" ?„^,^ 

ilticrally with tobacconists and others who buy trade lots. 

Send lot a sample cutter and l.:i c,= ,-c.iars. Ibfnable only from . 




the Wonderful Producerand Pre- 
server of Lovely Complexions. 

Acts quickly, naturally and effectively. 

It is invaluable to all who suffer from wrinkles, blackheads, 
tan, and freckles, and all other skin blemishes. It will 
completely remove them, leaving the skin soft and trans- 
parent. 3s. 6d. and 6«. All Chemists, or H. RUBIN- 
STEIN & CO., 274 Collins Street, Melbourne. 

December 1. 1906. y^p Revie» of Rsviews. *=• 


(Annual Subscription, 6/6.) 


Editor English ' Review of Keviewe." 


Editor ' Review of Reviews " for Australasia. Editor American .Montlily " Review of Reviews." 


Page Pack 

His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury— Fiontis- Leading Articles in the Reviews (Continued)— 

' ■ The Ducliess and tlie Cripples 574 

Progress of the World ... 53J Amid Snow and Ice at the Equator 575 

The New Individualism. By I'. R Meggy ... 547 i;;'"' A^'^^'-deens Canadian Ranche 675 

^^■' The Apotheosis of British Sculpture 576 

What th« Law Can Do. ]iy the Editor 551 Mark Twains Autobiography 576 

Interviews on Topics of the Month— '^''^ Diversity of Messenger Duty 576 

Ideals of the Lilieral-Protcctionist Party: The "V^''"" "'■'°"''' "'^ *''"*" 5" 

Hon. Alfred Dealdn .5.5.i ^'"^ Papal Aggression in France 578 

British Trade in Bolivia: Mr. Thos. H. Moore .55.5 -^'i African Pompeii 579 

r- , ^„- The Lottery of Buying 579 

Correspondence 577 yrom the Occult Magazines 579 

Character Sketch — -in Attack Upon English Law 580 

General Trcpnff : By W. T. Stead .560 The Sultan, the Kaiser and Great Britain 581 

Impressions of the Theatre: By W T. Stead^ P"° Islamism 582 

A Messasfe from Mars " 570 ^^"'^ ''""^^ ^''f. ^'"■''^" ^L^^°^^ 583 

The Spriiiif Chicken 572 <'erman Education Under Fire 584 

Ballooning as a Pastime 685 

Leading Articles in the Reviews— What Mr. Beifs Will Has Done 585 

Tlie French Naval Manoeuvres 574 The Awakening of China 585 

The Career of Bu Bekir in Morocco 574 The Premier of Russia 686 

(Continued on next page.) 



Direct Steamers to ENGLAND and the COLOMBO. 

CONTINENT, calling at Adelaide, Fremantle, SPECIAL TOURISTS' RETURN TICKETS are now 

Colombo, Aden, Suez Canal, Naples, Genoa, issued to COLOMBO, available fur 75 days. Fare from 

Southampton (London), Antwerp and Bremen, Mell)ouine, £sS first class, £27 second 

will be despatched as under:- To CHINA and JAPAN. 

Steamer. Tons. Commander. Melbourne. Regular FoUI^-Weekly SefVicS, calling at 

•Grosser ) „ t^ „ , r^ Brisbane, New Britain, New Guinea and 

Kurfuerst J i3>i82 ... E. 1 rehn ...Dec. ii Manila, for Hong Kong, Kobe and Yoko- 

•Barbarossa 10,915 ... H. Langreuter Jan. S hama, connecting at Hong Kong with the 

•Scharnhorst...8i3i ... L. Maass Feb. 5 Fortnightly Express Mall Service of the 

•Bremen 11,570 ... H. Prager ...Mar. 5 N. D.L. from Japan an d China to Europe— 

*Bul0W 8500 ... Mar.26 Steamer. Tons. Melbourne. Sydney. 

*York S500 ...Apr. 23 Sandakan ... ••■ 1793 Nov. ^2 

*Hohenlohe 8500 ... May2i Manila ... ...1790 Dec. 8 Dec. 20 

•Twin Screw Steamers. 'Prlnz SIglsmund ... 3300. ..Jan. 5 |an. 17 

Steamers leave Adelaide following Saturday. "Twin Screw"Steainer. 

FARES TO LONDON : Fares from Sydney to Hong Kong.— I., ^33 ; 

Single. Return TT J^22 ■ III Tic 

First Saloon ^^65 to ^75 ... ;^ii2 n., £23^1., ^,15. 

Second Saloon ... ^{^38 to ^42 ... ^63 Linen Washed on board at Moderate Prices. 

Third Class ^^15 tO;^i7 ... ^'27 English spoken on board. 

Saloon Return Tickets available for Two Years. 

FREMANTLE. F'^"' further particulars, apply to 

Saloon, ;^7 to ^9 Return, ^i. to/ 13 los OSTERMEYER, DEWEZ & VAN ROMPAEY, 

Round the World, ;^i3o, with ^20 Atlantic agents, 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 

CONTENTS — (Qjntinued from page xxi.) 

LsadiDg Articles in the Reviews (Continued)- 

How to Reform tlie House of Lords 

A Britisli View of German Manoeuvres 

How the Greek Clergy are Trained 

President Roosevelt and Spelling Reform .. 
Whr Women Write Good Detective Stories ., 

Canine Intelligence 

A New Kind ot Rubber 

Chas. Jas. Fox Denounced 

Against Teaching Children Christianity... . 

Pope Pius X 

The Athlete's Face During Contests 

Dainty Dishes We Despise 

Tlic Amir and Women's Dress 

The Jockey's t'nhappy Lot 

Can Plants Reason? 


... 586 
... 587 
... 588 
... :'89 


. 590 

... 593 

... 591 

^.., 591 

... 592 

... 592 

... 592 

... 592 

The Reviews Reviewed — 

The North American Review 

The Cornhill Magazine 

The Independent Review 

The Nineteenth Century and After 


The Reviews Reviewed (Continued) — 

The Worlds Work and Play 694 

The Contemporary Review 595 

The Pall Mall Magazine 595 

Tile Bevue de Paris ... 596 

Putnam's Monthly 596 

The Italian Reviews 596 

The Strand Magazine . 597 

The Atlantic Monthly 597 

The Dutch Reviews 597 

The Revue des deux Mondes 598 

La Revue 598 

The Fortnightly Review 599 

Publications Received 599 

Current Histor'jr in Caricature ... .« 605 

The Book of the Month — 

A Plea for the Revival of R«a.Ung : W.T. Stead Gil 

Leading Books of the Month 6J6 

"In the Days of the Comet "—By H. G. Wells ... 617 
Insurance Notes 628 







A Home Cure which never fails. 
It ii ufe, lura, Abioluttlj certain, and 
inezpeDBiTe. A few doiei produce a won- 
derful change. The craving for all 
intoxicanti will be deitroyed, the nerves 
become ateadj, the appetite for food will 
return, refreshing sleep eniuei. This cure 
will surprise and delight 70U. Maj be 


Tbonsasda of Cures ; here is one : — 

Ravtn»thorp<, W.A., 23-9-04. 

Bate /iniihed the half course, uhich hat 

ejected a cure. I have no desire for drink, 

in /act, have a repugnance to the very idea 

of it. Yours faithfully, 

Write for Treatise No. 6. Posted Free. 

TUB Dr. Langston institute, 



Horse Knife, Etclied Ivory Handle. Size 

closed. 3-\i inches. Two Blade witli 

Shackle as drawn, 5s. each; Two Blades, 

^^i^lu.l.^ shackle, ia. 6<i. each : One Bla.le, 

■- '<:: Shackle. 3s. 6d. each. 

\\'. Jno. B.^ker"s Wire Key SportsmaD's 
Knife (Kegisteredi. Size closcit. 4% 
inches. Contains File. 'Wire Key. I-ance 
Blade, Long Skinning Bl.ide. Screw 
Driver. Leather Punch and Tin Opener 
combined. Cartridge Extractor, Cork- 
screw. Gimlet. Khyme'r. Picker, Tweezer 
and Shackle, complete. 22b. 6d. each. 
Leather Pouch made to fit knife, w ith loop 
for bell, at 28. each. 

Very fine quality and finidi. Size 
closed. 3 inches. Contains 
Scissors. 2 Blades. Nail Filer and 
Clciner (combined). Picker and 
Twecrer. lvor>" or St.TK. 12s. 
64 : Pearl or TortoiseshcU. 15s. 

Posted Free Thronghoat the 
ConuQODwealth and N.Z 

Rerirtc or Herieic:, lilijOS. 


Plwto. by] 

[£. H. Mills. 


Phutographed at Aberdeen University for "The Review of Review.." 

Vol. XXIX.. No. 6. 

DECEMBER i, 1906. 

The Rev 





Melbourne, November loth. 

The Federal elections are upon us. 

Those who have neglected their 
opporturtities to get on the roll are 

hopelessly out of it for the coming 
election. But it is not everyone who is on the roll 
who takes the trouble to vote. At the last Federal 
elections the percentage of those who took the 
trouble to take an interest in the Government of the 
country was very, very low. It is sincerely to be 
hoptd that this year that reproach will be removed 
from us. Australian electors ought to take the 
trouble to go to the polls. We are regarded as the 
most democratic country in the world, and it is a 
standing disgrace to us that we do not make better 
use of our privileges. Vote, no matter what side you 
are on, but vote. 

The Federal campaign for the 

jhe coming elections on December 12th 

Elections. is in full swing. Rarely has there 

been introduced into an election 
such an amoimt of bitterness. The leaders of both 
sides have dug up the old bone of contention which 
caused so much bitterness when Mr. Reid went out 
of office. People would have been glad to have for- 
gotten it, and one questions whether the columns of 
letterpress in the daily papers which are being de- 
voted to this old source of trouble are read. It is 
looked upon more in the light of a personal dis- 
pute, and the public becomes very sick of public 
matters into which matters of private quarrel enter. 
The interests of neither party are going to be fur- 
thered by it. ■ It is another illustration of the way in 
which important political interests are pushed aside 
in order to gratify personal feelings, and forms an- 
other strong argument why we should do away with 
partv government. But it evidently takes a lot of 
nausejius medicine to make a national stomach turn. 
It has sw^allowed all the unpalatableness of three 
partv Governments without flinching, in spite of its 
unp'.easantness, and the dose of unsatisfactory poli- 
tics will have to be increased in size and bitterness 
before the country demands the abolition of party 
Government. Both Mr. Deakin and Mr. Reid are 

Melbourne Punch.2 The Dirty Kick-Out. 
The MrLE : " of course I love you, Alf ., but really y.iu w^re 
in my way." 
(The Mule is br.tnded ■■ Labour Party."; 

urging electors (and no one can blame them) to sub- 
scribe to their programmes. But the third party 
has arisen, and is a force to be reckoned with, and 
no power on eart'h can prevent the triangular posi- 
tion in Parliament. An elective Ministry is the 
solution of the trouble, as w-ell as being the only 
thing that will put out of politics the personal bitter- 
ness which Government bv party engenders. 

The elections are bringing some sur- 
Labour prises, not the least of which is the 

Independence, fact that the Labour Party is oppos- 
ing Mr. Deakin. Indeed, the La- 
bour Party seems as anxious to put the Deakin Part)' 
out as it is to keep the Reid Party out. This is 
quite contrary to the expectations of a good many, 
who imagined that as relations had been somewhat 
harmonious between the Government and the 
Labour Party, the latter would decline to put candi- 
dates in the field against any of decidedly liberal 
views. But it is evidently a war, and a war to the 
death, the Labour Partv refusing to accept an\ thing 
in the nature of the smallest compromise, and the 
result will be watched with the keenest interest. 
How the elections will eventuate no one can dare to 

The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 


Mr Justice Higgins. 

I Pholo. 

Sic'iss S/iii/ti 

Mr Justice Isaacs 


prognosticate. The conditions are so mixed, and 
political parties so many and distinct that no one 
can say what the outcome will be. One very amus- 
ing feature of the elections is the pain which is in- 
duced when Laboiu- Leagues refuse to give con- 
tinued support to old represent.itives. Poor Mr. 
Ronald, for instance, who represented a Labour 
constituencv during the last Parliament, signed 
its contract, and obeved its commands, has 
this year been rejected by the Political Coun- 
cil. Of course he complains, and cites faith- 
ful and unswerving obedience to unalterable laws 
during his term ; but Mr. Ronald cannot com- 
plain of rejection at the hands of a body by whose 
decision he decides to abide. One of the first neces- 
sities in a budding Labour candidate is that he shall 
obey the decision of the party and stand down if 
desired, and Mr. Ronald has been through all that. 
It was all right when he was accepted three years 
ago, but all wrong now. The party cannot be 
blamed, it is fair fighting, and open to any party, but 
the remedy is not to whine, but to refuse to sub- 
scribe to its tenets, not to sign its contracts, and not 
to be bound by its behests. Mr. Ronald is onlv 
going thr.iugh the experience that everyone must at 
some time go through who binds himself bodv and 
soul to anv piilirirn] partv. and surrenders his politi- 

cal conscience to the keeping of another. Senator 
Dawson, rejected by the Council of Queensland, 
possibly because of his Melbourne experience this 
year, is also railing bitterly against the Caucus, and 
IS running on his own. 

nigh Court 

The elevation of Mr. Higgins and 
Mr. Isaacs to the High Court Bench 
has provoked no adverse comment. 
It is recognised that each of the 
gentlemen w ill bring to his new duties a skill and 
acumen that will do the position credit. Both art 
exceedinglv well qualified, but it will be rather a 
change for both to rise from the hurly-burly of poli- 
tics, especiallv on the eve of a very mixed general 
election, into the serene atmosphere that surrounds 
a High Court bench. Neither can be said to have 
accepted the position from ulterior motives, for both 
enjoyed lucrative practices, and will probably sur- 
render some financial benefit. Of course there is 
some question as to the necessity for the appoint- 
ments. The statement is made that the work could 
not be overtaken bv the three judges, and if that be 
so, the appointments were necessary. It might be 
well worth considering where the necessitv for ap- 
peals to the Privy Council comes in, with all the 
provision that has been made in the Full Court for 
the satisfvins of the demands of the law. 

Revieic of Reviews. 1/12/06. 

History of the Month. 


The retirement of Mr. Isaacs neces- 
The sitated a re-arrangement of port- 

New Minister, folios, and Mr. Groom becomes 

Attornev-General, Mr. Ewing Minis- 
ter for Home Affairs, wliile Mr. Keating becomes 
Vice-President of the Executive Council. .Mr. S. 
Mauger, one of the strongest supporters of the 
Deakin Government, becomes Honorary Minister, a 
position which is due to him. Indeed, he could not 
have been passed over, for his allegiance to his 
party has been unquestioned, and its leading tenets 
have no more strenuous advocate. It is, however, 
to be hoped that the way soon opens for him to as- 
sume the position of the Head of a Department. 
Mr. Mauger stands in the foremost rank of the com- 
paratively small knot of men in the Commonwealth 
who lead in the cause of Social Reform, and prob- 
ably is better known for his advocacv of such mat- 
ters than even purely political ones. He has for 
many years been the most relentless foe that the 
sweater has known. He has nursed and tended the 
Anti-Sweating League with fatherly care. Indeed, it 
is of his own making (although he gives the credit of 
its inspiration to Mr. W. T. Stead, having adopted 
as the motto of the league Mr. Stead's aphorism. 
'■ The union of all who love in the cause of all who 
suffer "), and it is a credit to him. He has associ- 
ated with him a number of leading men and women, 
but the great success of the Anti-Sweating League is 
due to Samuel Mauger. Thousands of workers in 
Melbourne have need to bless his name for better 
wages and improved conditions of living. It is there- 
fore with unfeigned feelings of pleasure that we 
heartily congratulate him upon his elevation to 
Cabinet rank. In the hajids of men of his calibre 
and character the interests of the countr\' are safe. 

The South Australian elections, held 
The South f|-, demonstrate the feelings of the 
people with regard to the attitude 
taken up by the Price Government 
over the refusal of the Legislative Council to loosen 
the bonds of electors over Council elections, have 
resulted in a victorv for the Government. The Go- 
vernment has gained an extra seat in the city, and 
the whok- of the twelve city seats are now held by 
the Labour Party. This party has also won two or 
thr-.c- seats from the Opposition, so that, including 
the Premier, the partv will have a solid vote of 19 in 
a House of 40 members, and this, with others who 
support the Government in their action, will give it 
such substantial support that it ought to be able to 
carry through its intentions. A curious sidelight 
came in at the elections. Mr. Vardon retired from 
the Council in order that he might =*Tnd for the 
Senate, and a Labour man contested the seat. He 
won it, but the significance of his success lies in the 
fact that he won it upon a franchise which was held 
to be so restricted that the Government went to the 
country on a proposal to reduce it. Taken in con- 


The Meaning 

of the 


credit that is 

ilclba ] iPlioto 

The Hon. S. Mauger, M H.R , 

Newly Appointed Federal Minister (without portfolio). 

junction with the Lower House elections, it seems to 
point to the fact that the present Upper House 
electors consider there is need for refonn, although 
the other side affirm that it proves that the franchise 
is now low enough to return Radicals, and the wis- 
dom of leaving it where it is. 

This fight must not be looked upon 
as a great victory for Labour, al- 
though we would be the last in the 
world to depri\-e a victor of all the 
due to him. But even their best 
friends, I am sure, will not insist that it was a fight 
for the partv as such ; it was a fight for a principle, 
not purelv a Labour one. It was a fight between 
the Houses. The Government had taken a very 
serious step, and the people have emphatically sup- 
ported them, and the result would probably have 
been the same, no maiter what the general predilec- 
tions of the Government might have been. The 
Government that tackled the problem would have 
been returned. But in considering the general ques- 
tion of the advance or retreat of the question of So- 
cialism, this election ought not to enter. The Go- 
vernment probablv got thousands of reform votes 
that othenvise might not have gone to them. The 


The Review of Reviews. 

Decemttr 1, 1906. 

Review of Re'vieia, l/lifiS. 

History of the Month. 


The Bulletin.) Secash. 

In Westralia some persons of no accouut are running what 
they call a secession movement. 

COMMONWEALTH; "What's the trouble?" 

N.S.W, CAKEUTHERS : " I'm howlin' Ijecause he's howlin'. 
He ain't got no right to howl. This is my howl. He's been 
an' tooli my grievance. Boo-hoo!" 

real progri^ss of Labour or Anti-Labour, Socialism 
or Anti-Socialism, cannot be determined till the 
Federal elections. 

The secession suggestion (it is 
Shall There be hardly a movement) in West Aus- 
Secession. tralia seems to be lizzling out. The 
Westerners have, without doubt, 
some reason for being nettled, and bo one will 
grudge them in the sUghtest degree the volcanic out- 
burst which has relieved their feelings. It is infinitely 
better to blow off anv superfluous steam while the 
pressure is low than to wait until endurance is past, 
and the explosion is so big that it scatters evervthing 
to pieces in a general wreckage. Now that the vent 
is ojien there is security, and West Australia will not 
attempt to secede. The railwav will come in due 
course, and the West will feel less isolated. The 
spectacle of Sir John Forrest, on his return to his 
home at the close of the session, displaying unex- 
pected volcanic fury, created almost as much stir as 
if an actual outburst had taken place in the Golden 
West. He has been so quiet and lamb-like during 
this session. But his return home wakened him up, 

and he began wielding the cudgels on his old friend, 
Sir Frederick Holder, and using him as a scapegoat 
to bear the sins of all and sundry who were respon- 
sible for the non-survey of the railway line. He 
charged Sir Frederick with not havmg kept his 
word in pledging himself to do all he could to get 
that surv'ev made. But talk about the hopeless and 
(Juixotean task of tilting at windmills, or of trying to 
smudge the sun ! People smiled, for no man in Aus- 
tralia is more loved and revered for his personal and 
political integrity than Sir Frederick, and no one 
could entertain the thought for a moment that he 
had been false to any pledges. Indeed, the worthy 
Speaker of the House of Representatives need not 
have penned a line to protect himself. His splendid 
record was armour ample enough to guard him 
against any attack. But Sir John's fit of the blues 
has passed. He already feels better, and Sir 
Frederick is not harmed. 

Some of Sir John's Western friends 
State Needs. j^^pg (1^^^ j^g ^^iji ^e defeated at the 

Importance. F^^^eral election, so that he will be 
driven to take up State pontics. He 
ruled the West so long, so strongly, yet withal 
so kindly, that it is no wonder he is regarded as the 
strong nian of the West. But Sir John is not likely 
to be defeated, and, moreover, he would not take 
kindly to State politics after having bad a taste of 
work' in a larger field. He has outgrown local 
politics. Nevertheless, the desire on the part of the 
West to regain Sir John in their State Parliament is 
a very natural one, and it voices a feeling that is 
growing in other States with regard to some of the 
best men who are overlooking State needs as though 
thev were trivial. In Victoria there are several 
grievous examples of this. Men of splendid reputa- 
tion, who could win State seats without any difficulty 
.ire seeking "bubble reputations in the cannon's 
mouth " in Federal politics. A difficulty that the 
States will have to face is the getting of men of the 
highest character, and the best class seem to look 
askance at the State Legislature as being rather in- 
significant. This is a wrong attitude. Some of the 
best reform work is to be done in the State Parlia- 

The New Zealand Government came 
in for a good deal of cricitism, both 
humorous and caustic, over its 
shelving of the Land Bill for this 
session. There is no doubt whatever but that the 
Bill would have gone through both Houses, and land 
reformers outside New Zealand would have hailed 
its passage with delight, not so much for what it 
might have done for that colony as for the object- 
lesson it would have been to sorne of the more con- 
servative States of Australia which are holding on to 
obsolete land laws with the tenacity of an octopus. 
If New Zealand had pas.sed that Land Bill, for in- 
stance, she would have been so far ahead of Tas- 

The N.Z. 
land Bill. 


the Heview of Reviews. 

December 1, 190(i. 


<„ '".^''^ 

-V.Z, Free Lance.'] 

The Land Bill — Rather Thin Ice. 

JOE: " Xot just yet. Bob. It is setting nicely, but wants 
a little more time to make it quite firm and safe. In the 
meantime let's have some fun at the Exhibition." 

mania as to bt? almost out of sight in tlie path of 
land reform, and nothing helps a countrv which is 
lagging behind to do its duty than for .4ome other 
country to whirl away ahead.' It is a good thing it 
is so. It helps to cement the bond of brotherhood 
throughout the world, and shows how- dependent one 
country really is upon another. There is no doubt 
whatever that the passage of the Bill through the 
New- Zealand Houses would have created a tremen- 
dous sensation, and it is a question as to whether 
the Government's position w-ill be any stronger next 
year than it is to-day. One thing is to be said 
against some of the pleas that were made bv Go- 
vernment supporters for holding the Bill over, and 
that is that the voice of the people w-ill be no more then than now, since the same Parliament 
w-ill deal wdth it. There is no general electiop be- 
tween now- and the next session. The Go<-ernment, 
therefore, can hardly be credited with funk or fear, 
as it promises that it w-ill be the first measure sub- 
mitted for consideration as soon as the next session 
opens. Australian as well as New Zealand reformers 
are ver\' anxious that the Bill should not be dropped, 
and it is to be hoped that the Government will stick 
to its guns so as to assist in solving the problem of 
getting land for the landless. 

' God help Tasmania when Tatter- 
ProWdeTe'and ^^" ?^'^' ^o the Premier of Tas- 
Tattersall's. mania is reported to have said 
while in Victoria, attending the 
Premiers' Conference. It is evident from this and 
other remarks that Mr. Evans realises that very soon 
Tattersall s w-ill have to go. Heaven grant it may I 
There is a kind of suggestion that while Tas- 
mania reaps the _;^6o,ooo reward for keeping 
the biggest gambling concern of Australia within 
her borders. Providence does not help her, and 
possibly there may be more in it than dull mortals 
imagine. Some folks think that this anodyne has a 
stupefying effect upon the sensibilitie-s of Tasmanian 
politicians, and that if she threw off its influence 



y.Z. Free Lance."} 

The Last of the Reciprocity Tariff. 
ChoKUS: ■Poor little beggar. He was too sickly to live." 

she Mould re\-ive in a score of ways that would bring 
national prosperity. It is, from one point of view" 
almost impossible tc expect a Parliament that con- 
tentedly draws ;^6o,ooo yearly from an e\'il source 
to be progressive with regard' to other matters. A 
sleeping draught of this kind would paralvse the 
vigour of even progressive New- Zealand. Tasmania 
win be wise if she returns to power men who are un- 
mistakably progressive, and w-ho place clean morals, 
including the expulsion of Tattersall's, right in the 
forefront of their programme. Most of her politi- 
cians look on this ill-gotten gain as so absolutelv 
necessary to Tasmania's salvation, that no progress 
can be made in other ways till it is removed from 
their line of vision. 

It is hardly possible, mavbe, to ex- 
Tourist" l"''^''*^ '" ■'^to'ic'-looking figures the 
Department. value of such magnificent assets as 
New Zealand possesses in the shape 
of natural w-onders. Still less is it possible to calcu- 
late the enjoyment, the interest, the enthusiasm of 
sight-seers as they have gazed in astonishment at the 
wonders of the thermal region, or spellbound on the 
sublime snow-coveired heights of the Alps. Nor can 
one calculate the increased health and added zest 
that is given to the lives of the sight-seers who from 
all parts of the globe crowd into the islands that the 
Maoris picturesquely call "The long w-hite cloud." 
In 1903-4 the visitors numbered 5233 ; in 1904-5, 
5992 ; and in 1905-6, 7142. Estimating each visi- 
tor's expenditure at ^50, the value of the traffic ti> 
the country generally is calculated at over ;£3oo,ooo. 
The department actually received ^15,820. The 
amount spent in advertising in .Australia was ;£788. 
and the expenditure in the country of Australian 
tourists was estimated at _;£2 8,500. 

The great Christchurch Exhibition 

The was opened w-ith due ceremony dur- 

Exhibltion. ing the month. It is to be hoped 

that Australian visitors will take 

e-,ery advantage of the opportunities that will be 

afforded to visit New Zealand during the progress of 

Reriew of Rei-ieus. 1:13:06. 

History of the Month. 


Mil'jinti /!>' /'(nii.'lt.j Desoerate Remedies 

(The officials of the V.R.C. are satisfied that Mr. Bent's 
<iaml)liiig Suppression Bill as it stands will kill horse- 

The V.R.C. : " Bless you. Sir. those blemishes can easily 
be removed. Cure him if you like, but we can't afford to 
kill him. you know." 

the Exhibition. The effort is well worth the patron- 
age of evervbody who can afford the time and 
monev to pay a visit to Christchurch. I would re- 
mind readers again that they can get whatever infor- 
mation they want either from the New Zealand 
Tourist Offices in Melbourne and Sydney, or direct 
from the Tourist Department, Wellington. 

Victoria is muddling along with her 
Victoria's Gambling Bill, manifesting only the 
Gaining Bill, dcl)ating poiwer of a tenth-rate de- 
bating society. Endless amendments 
have been introduced for the purpose of over- 
weighting the Bill, and in this respect some of the 
worst offenders have been some members of the 
Labour Party. Some only, for others of them have 
given a splendid support to the Bill ; but those re- 
ferred to have by every device thev could conceive, 
done their best to block the path of reform. It 
was hoped that the Bill would be through before the 
Cup, but this hope was disappointed. Now^, Labour 
members ought not to oppose social reform. Rank 
Conservatives may, without any surrender of prin- 
ciple. They are not expected to vote for refomi, 
but Labour men, w'ho are supposed to stand for the 
general good, should surely be in favour of killing 
the things that do more harm to the labouring 
classes than an\ thing else, and help to keep them 
down — i.e., drink anfl gambling — or be false to their 
pretensions. It is grievous to note that in New 
South Wales some of the worst opponents of the 
Gambling Bill were members of the party, and ttie 
same thing is happening in Victoria. Verb. sap. A 
politician who changes his coat is more to be feared 
than a straight-out opponent. The parties in the 
two States named should follow in the steps of the 
South Australian party, which stands solirllv for re- 
form wifh regard to these evils. 

Melhoitrne Punch.^ 

(The streets of Melbourne are said to he infested with 
spielers and confidence men from all the States, seeking a 
Cup harvest.) 

Local SPrELER Ito the lyaw) : "Here, I say, this isn't fair 
dinkum. W'hy don't you shift these bloomin' interlopers 
'n give the local ' guns ' a chance to ' earn a honest 
living '?" 




The Melbourne Cup has come and 
gone, leaving the same bad taste in 
the mouth of thousands that dissi- 
pation always leaves. Of course 
there was display galore, but the point that has to be 
remembered is that the Cup is not primarily for the 
mere pleasure-seeker, but primarily and essentially 
for the gambler. It is he who keeps the thing 
going. It forms a holiday for the lady of fashion 
and the gentleman of business, but the face of the 
gambler shows beneath it all. Our opposition is not 
to horse-racing or to pleasure, but to the gambling, 
for it is producing a race of men in these States that 
is a menace to society. It is to men of this charac- 
ter, and the conditions that produce theni, to \Vhich 
we are averse. Sooner or later, it is to be hoped 
when not too late, this young country will see that 
the army of spielers, bookies, fleecers that gambling 
raises, constitutes an under-world that will work 
hopeless ruin to it. 

Victt^ria has one of the worst laws 
in the world relating to vagrants. 
N'o one can be arrested without a 
warrant. In other States they can 
be taken up on suspicion. The result of the Vic- 
torian law^ is that at Cup time the scum of the States 
pours into Melbourne, but although the most notori- 
ous criminals, thieves and vagabonds may be in the 
city, the police are powerless. Melbourne had an 





The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 

extra supply this year, for the New South Wales 
Gambling Act left many of them without means of 
subsistence. Mr. Bent was going to put through a 
Bill all in a hurry, but something happened to it, and 
it is not through yet. What that something is no- 
body knows. It is probably the same thing which 
has attacked the Gambling and the Licensing Bills, 
but it is a pretty serious disease, and ought to be 
diagnosed and dealt with. 

During the month a conference of 
Meeting of the State Premiers and leaders of 
Premiers. Opposition in the State Parlia- 
ments was held in Melbourne, 
chiefly to deal with the question of the financial re- 
lations of the States of the Commorrvvealth. A point 
which will need settlement in the very early future 
is that of the proportion of money to be returned 
to the States for Customs duties, and another one of 
almost equal importance is the question of taking 
over of State debts by the Commonwealth. The lat- 
ter is almost inevitable in a little while, and the 
sooner it is done the better it will be for all parties 
concerned. The proceedings were held in private, 
and only the decisions made known to the press, 
which probablv had the effect of preventing a lot of 
useless talk to the gallery. With regard to the pro- 
vision requiring that three-fourths of the Customs 
and Excise revenue shall be returned to the States, 
a proposal was accepted by the State representa- 
tives, and which the Commonwealth will be asked 
to subscribe to, to the effect that if a fixed sum is 
to be paid instead, it shall be equivalent to the aver- 
age for the first lo years of the amount returned to 
each State, and if there should still after that re- 
main a surplus of Customs and Excise revenue, that 
it should be distributed on a proportionate capital 
basis. A still further very important proposal was 
that which proposed that if the arrangement was 
approved of it should be incorporated in the Con- 
stitution, so that it should not be alterable at the 
whim of anv particular party. It is just as well that 
it should be done. It is far too important a mat- 
ter to be lightly overturned, and is so important as 
to warrant putting into motion the heavv and com- 
plicated machinery necessarv to procure an altera- 
tion of the Constitution. West Australia is not sat- 
isfied w-ith the agreement, and it is curious to note 
how such a thing as the gambling evil of Tatter- 
sail's should have found a place in Inter- State dis- 
cussion upon financial matters. But it did when 
Mr. Evans, the Premier of Tasmania, pleaded with 
the other Premiers that in reform legislation for the 
good of the community thev should not go so far as 
to cripple the interests of the great gambling con- 
cern which brings so much gain to the Government 
of Tasmania. What a commentary- this ! It is 
hardly to be wondered at that the other States 
regard the action of their " little sister " with a 
great amount of grief for selling her birthright for a 
mess of pottage. 

It is very regrettable that Mr. 
Tlie New Churchill should have thrown an 

Hebrides. unwarranted insinuation at the 
Federal Go\emment with regard to 
the Anglo-French arrangements for the New Hebri- 
des. Mr. Deakin contends that he has never been 
consulted about the arrangements, and that pre- 
vious recommendations ha\^ seemed to be igiwred. 
Right through the whole of the arrangement there 
has, from that side at any rate, seemed to be a de- 
termination to settle the question without any re- 
ference whatever to Australia. It is very' stronglv 
telt here that a little more tactfulness is necessarv 
on Mr. Churchill's part, where interests on this side 
of the world are concerned. It is extremely disap- 
pointing to those of us who are anxious that an 
amicable settlement should be come to regarding 
New Hebrides matters to know that some of the 
most important recommendations, i.e., important 
from the point of view of thos-c on the spot, have 
seemed to be consistentlv ignored, although the 
right thing with regard to a joint control has, with- 
out doubt, been done. 

A very livelv diversion was occa- 
sioned at a meeting of the Haw- 

local Politics 
and Local 

British Interests, tnom branch of the A.N.A. the 
other day, when one of the mem- 
bers proposed a resolution to the feffect that the 
Australian Parliament should not interfere with 
matters of purely local British concern, such as 
Home Rule. The meeting resolved itself into a 
very stormy one, one section of the audience at- 
tempting to block the debate by appeals on points 
of order, etc. The debate was eventuallv ad- 
journed, and a livelv discussion is certain to be pro- 
voked when the matter comes up again. But it 
raises a question of very considerable importance, 
to which we have before directed attention. It is 
simply useless to attempt to properly discuss hert- 
questions which pertain peculiarly to Home politics, 
which, by reason of our great distance, we cannot 
rightly judge the merits and- demerits of. More- 
over, we have quite enough to do in looking after 
our own affairs without discussing matters in the I 
settlement of which our opinion one wav or thr 
other is not likely to assist. Whichever wav Britaii^ 
elects to govern herself locally, Australasia is not 
likely to be affected, and, moreover, it is not desir- ' 
able that she sho-jld be affected. Imagine the re- 
mote possibility of a civil w^ar taking place in Bri- 
tain, and Australians hastening to the other side of 
the world to assist either one party or the other, or ' 
else deluging their own country w-ith blood over a 
quarrel brought about by partisanship in a matter 
concerning the government of another countrj-. We 
are so completely home-ruled in Australasia, and 
rightly so, that we can afford to allow Britons to 
look after the ruling of their own home. 

Rei'ietc of Reviewi, IjUIOS. 

History of the Month. 


LONDON, Oct., 1906. 

According to Dr. Dillon, the well- 

, *" . informed correspondent of the 

' tfee'er Daily Telegraph at St Petersburg 

there is at last every prospect or 
the signature of the long-expected Anglo-Russian 
Agreement. As I have laboured sedulously for this 
en°d both in Russia and at home for the last thirty 
years, no one rejoices more at this good news than 
T. But I rejoice with trembling, and refrain from 
hallooing before we are out of the wood. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Dillon the arrangement is to be em- 
bodied not in one, but in a series of agreements. 
The first, relating to Thibet, is complete and ready 
to be signed. It'is based upon the definite repudia- 
tion of all the high-flying schemes of the Anglo- 
Indian Jingoes which led to the late expedition to 
Thibet. Henceforth neither Russia nor Britain is 
to interfere in the land of the Grand Lama. Dr. 
Dillon says that the Russians are satisfied that 
" whatever the English were aiming at before, they 
are perfectly straight at present." This confidence 
will last as' long as Sir Edward Grey is Foreign 
Minister and C.-B. at the head of the Government. 
It is no small triumph for the Liberal Ministry to 
have established sucli confidence in a Court which 
has too often been the victim of the tricks and wiles 
of their predecessors. 

The Anglo-Russian agreement con- 
The future ceming Persia was much more 
Persia. d^'ficult to draw up. Persia can- 

not be trea.-ed like Thibet. Poli- 
cies of absolute non-intervention and of outright 
partition are equally impossible. What can be done 
and what is now being attempted is to delimit the 
respective spheres of interest, if not of influence, 
of Russi.i and Britain on the general princijile — 
the north to Russia, the south to us. When the 
next Persian loan is floated it is to be arranged for 
jointly by the two Powers. This may easily drift 
into an Anglo-Russian condominium over Persia 
similar to the Anglo-French control over Egypt in 
the later days of Ismail. Nothing is said by Dr. 
Dillon as to the thorny question of railway con- 
struction. As for a jiort on the Persian Gulf, that 
will probably not be mooted — save by the enemies 
of Russia. According to Dr. Dillon, an agreement 
with Russia on the Far Eastern question is also 
under discussion, and he hints that it will include 
the opening of the Dardanelles to the Russian fleet. 
That I take leave to doubt. Russia will never be 
willing to purchase the freedom of the Dardanelles 
at the only price at which it can be had — the free 
admission of other fleets to the Black Sea. No 
conceivable advantage arising from her ability to 
send her Black Sea fleet into the Mediterranean 
could compensate her for the loss of the arrange- 
ment which practically guarantees the security of 
her southern frontier. 

While the Governments are thus 
Another attempting to settle all outstanding 

Anglo-Russian , ^ "^ ^ ,, • ^- u 

Agreement. differences, their respective sub- 
jects are hobnobbing on a scale 
without precedent. Three hundred members of the 
House of Commons and a host of British notables 
have signed an address of sympathy to the members 
of the late Duma, which the President and Secre- 
tary of the Trades Union Congress, Mr. H. W. 
Massingham, and others are this month to take to 
St. Petersburg as a token of national sympathy 
with Russia's first representative Assembly. Their 
mission is naturally looked at somewhat askance by 
the Russian Conservatives. Our own Tories would 
hardly have been disposed to regard with sympathy 
a deputation, say, from three hundred members of 
the American Congress and other notable Ameri- 
cans bringing an address of sympathy with the 
Irish people just after Mr. Gladstone had sup- 
pressed the Land League and sent Mr. Parnell to 
Kilmainham. But there is no harm in the address 
save for the danger that such demonstrations of 
svmpathv by foreigners usually tell against those in 
whose interest they are promoted. As, however, it 
is understood the members of the late Duma are 
willing to run this risk, the responsibility rests upon 
them, not upon their English sympathisers. Pos- 
sibly after a few more deputations of this kind our 
Russian friends will not be so morbidly sensitive 
about the kindliest English criticisms, which last 
year thev almost resented as an insult. 

Adequately to express the sympa 
Why Not a thies of our people to the Russians, 
Third? there ought to be yet another ad- 

dress declaring the heartfelt sym- 
p.athy and admiration with which all who know 
anything of the real nature of the struggle going 
on in Russia feel for those brave men who are 
desperately endeavouring to keep the social sys- 
tem from dissolution. From M. Stolypin to 
the humblest policeman in the streets of War- 
saw, there has been displayed in all ranks 
a dogged bravery and a magnificent self-abne- 
gation which cannot be ignored even by those 
whose sympathies are entirely with their oppo- 
nents. Whatever changes may be required in 
Russia — and both the Tsar and M. Stolypin admit 
the need for far vaster reforms than the most ad- 
vanced Radical statesman has ever ventured to carry 
out in Ireland — it is absolutelv necessary to pre- 
vent the whole nation becoming a |)rey to mur- 
derous anarchv operating bv arson and assass'na- 
tion. Until the new Duma meets, M. Stohqiin and 
his agents must see to it that the Government is car- 
ried on, even although they may be murdered at 
their posts. While our 300 members of Parliament 
sympathise with the Liberals who have undisguised 
relations with the Terrorists, there are others who 
do not sign addresses who have not less sympathy 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 

with M. Stolypin, despite his compromising 
allies. There is something mean in refusing to re- 
cognise bravery and self-devotion in those who do 
not happen to be on our side in politics. When 
General Trepoff, for instance, was alive, it was 
regarded almost as treason to liberty to speak a 
good word for him. No sooner does he die than 
even his most Radical opponents sound his praises. 
Whv wait till men are dead to recognise their vir- 
tues ? 

criticisms I have often had occasion to pass upon 
him and his policies during his life. Indeed, ever 
since he took the fatal plunge into Protection in 
order to cover up the trail of the war, I have hardly 
felt any other sentiment towards him save that of 
profound pity. What an end was this to a career 
which had begun so brightly, and which was fol- 
lowed by so many with such high hopes ! His 
physical dissolution — which I sincerely hope may be 
far distant — can hardlv add to the melancholv re- 

^^K"^ bH^^^^Hv h^^^^^H^K v^^^^^^^B 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^'-j^M^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H^I^^Hiai^^BK^^^^^I ^^^^I^^^^^^^H^^^^^^^^B 

^ -■ ii^ 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^P^B^^HP^p^^^"; ^^HHjH^^^^^I^Bt'^- ^^^^'^^>iW|i^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^| 


Pholo hi/l 

Archbishop of Canterbary. Lord Stratbcona. Mr. Carnegie. Principal Marshall Lang 

An Interesting Group at the Aberdeen Celebrations. 

IE. E. mat. 

I was startled the other day to re- 
Mr. Chamberlain's ceive a laconic letter from the edi- 
nealth. tor of a well-known daily paper 

asking me for my " terms for an 
article on Mr. Chamberlain as Empire-breaker, to 
be published on his death." I had not realised how 
imminent in popular opinion was the demise of the 
member for Birmingham. But if "Mr. Chamberlain 
were to die, I should be in no mood to repeat the 

flections aroused by his political decease. Even the 
most ran-orous political opponent must be touched 
bv the picture presented to the world last month of 
the lame old man, with half-crippled hand and 
half-blinded eves, compelled to abandon all his 
political engagements, and to dodge death by a 
flight to sunnier climes at the moment when of al' 
others he ought to have been in his place in the 
House. For Mr. Chamberlain was a very human 

Review of Reviews, l/ll/'ie. 

History of the Month. 


Photo, by] [E. B. mils. 

Lord Strathcona. 

(Ohancellor ot the University of Aberdeen.) 

man, much honester than even his friends quite rea- 
lised, and quite incapable by his impulsive personal 
likes and dislikes of playing the part of dexterous 
cold-blooded Macchiavelli so often attributed to 
him by his foes. I sincerely trust that he may return 
home free from the harassing disabilities of senile 
decay, to lend the assistance it sorely needs to the 
discredited and out-numbered remnant to which his 
(lolicy has reduced the Unionist Party. 

The The latest portrait of the Arch- 

Reopening bishop of Canterbury, which forms 
of the frontispiece this month, was 

the fray. taken on his visit to Aberdeen when 
the King opened the new University buildings. It 
is good to have that firm set face before us, for it 
is round him that the Education battle will rage in 
the House <if Lords. He has alreadv sounded the 
trumpet for the battle. His list of amendments to 
the Education Bill, if carried, will as effectively 
destroy that measure as would a resolution to go 
into Committee this day six months. Since he 
spoke on the second reading the decision of the 
Court of Appeal in the West Riding case has 
turned his flank. We w.iit with interest to see how 
this astute and wary Scot will readjust his strategy 
to meet the new conditions. The law of the land, 
for framing which he, more than any man, was 
responsible, is now declared practically to forbid 
the payment of money from the rates for the teach- 
ing of denominational religion. Cowper-Templeism, 
therefore, by his Grace's own law has a monopoly 
of rate ai(]. How will he face the new situation? 
Fortunately we sh.ill not haw long to wait for an 

Photo, b^] IK.H.Milh. 

Mr. Andrew Cftrnegie at Aberdeen University. 

This iiitere^tijiL' portiait of Mr. Carnegie was t.iken during the 

Quatercenteiiary Celebrations last month. 

The Opening of The great function of last month 
the Aberdeen was the opening of the new Uni- 
University varsity buildings at Aberdeen by 
Buildings. the King. Four hundred years 
ago the University was founded by a Papal Bull, 
the Pope being moved thereto by a Scotch Bishop, 
Elphinstone by name, who harrowed the soul of the 
Pontiff by describing the educational needs of the 
people of Aberdeen, " rude men, unlettered, and 
almost savage." Since that day the descendants 
of these " rude men " have become " orthodox, ortho- 
dox, wha believe in John Knox," but the civilising 
and mellowing influence of education allowed them 
to invite a representative of the Pope to celebrate 
the fourth centenary of the foundation of the Uni- 
versity. The new buildings, which are very com- 
modious and imposing, have been erected largely by 
the munificence of Lord Strathcona, the Grand Old 
Man of Canada, who is now Principal of the Uni- 
versity which he entered as an undergraduate more 
than half a century ago. Aberdeen has ever been 
a poor man's University, but in learning and in re- 
pute it holds its own with the best. At the com- 
memoration last month all the most famous univer- 
sities of the world were represented. .At the ban- 
quet no fewer than 2000 guests sat down to dine in 
a hall erected specially for their accommodation. 

Mr. Haldane signalised his return 

Mr. Haldane's from Germany by issuing a memo- 

" Nation In Arms." randum explaining the principles 

on which he has constituted a Gene- 
ral Staff for the British Army. He then went down 
to Newcastle and made a speech, in which he com- 
bined an appeal to the democracies to initiate a 


The Review of Reviews. 

Vecember 1, 1906. 


by'\ [£. H. Mills 

Ppincioal J. Marshall L»ng. 
(Vice-chancellor of Aberdeen Uni-rersitj-.) 


Sip Fpederick Tpevep. BaPt. 
(Rector of Aberdeen University.) 

reduction of the crushing armaments of the world 
with a declaration in favour of " a nation in arms " 
in the shape of a volunteer force of 900.000 men. 
The difficulty is that the more you appeal for volun- 
teers the more you strengthen the alarmist senti- 
ment upon which militarism thrives. If Mr. Hal- 
dane would promise to cut down the cost of the 
regular army by a million a year for every 100,000 
volunteers passed as efficient something might be 
done. But to keep up our regular army at its present 
strength, and then to super-add at a continually 
increasing cost nearly a million volunteers — that 
does not seem exactly the wav in which to reduce 
the crushing burdens of militarism. Mr. Haldane's 
proposal to render the Militia liable for foreign ser- 
vice should not be accepted until the right to ballot 
for the Militia is abolished. Otherwise we may 
have the principle of conscription enforced by some 
successor of Mr. Haldane who would use the scheme 
of the present War Minister to bridge over the 
gulf between the voluntary svstem and that of com- 
pulsory military service. 

There is some danger lest the pub- 
The Hague j;^, should forget the real aim and 
1907" objects of the next Hague Con- 

ference. Newspapers are discuss- 
ing it as if it were summoned to discuss schemes of 
disarmament. So far from this being the case, the 
assent of Germany to the Conference was only ob- 
tained after it was seen that there was no proposal 
for disarmament on the programme. No doubt thf 
British Government, actively supported bv Italy 
and the United St;ites, will make an effort to secure 
an international veto upon the devotion of any more 

monev than is at present voted to the armies and 
navies of the world; but that is an addition to the 
original programme, of which it forms no integral 
part. While it is well to propose anything and 
everything that may afford an opportunity for pro- 
test against the unceasing increase of military ex- 
penditure, blessed are they who expect nothing, for 
thev shall never be disappointed. The Peace Con- 
gress, which met at Milan last month, has passed 
resolutions in favour of the national federation of 
all peace and arbitration societies, and the forma- 
tion of all such national unions into one great in- 
ternational federation. This was the idea that found 
expression in the International Union which was 
founded in iqoo at Paris, but the idea is still a 
little too advanced to be capable of practical rea- 
lisation. What is wanted is the concentration of 
effort in the attainment of some simple practical 
proposition such as that of the constitution of a peace 
budget based upon decimal point one per cent, of 
the war budget. If that project were put forward 
at the Hague, backed by the example of a great 
Power, it would probably be accepted in principle, 
and the first serious effort to undermine the base of 
militarism would have begun. 

The most important event in 

American American politics last month was 

Oracchi. the nomination of Mr. W. R. 

Hearst for the Go\ernorship of 

New York hv the Democratic Caucus at Buffalo. 

Mr. Hearst is the banner-bearer of what mav be 

called Social Democracy in the United States. His 

strength lies in his newspapers, which serve him 

and his staff of preaching friars as pulpits, from 

Reiieir of Rrvieits, IjlilOlj. 

history of the Month. 

whence he can fill the ears of millions with denun- 
ciations of plutocratic tyranny, the infamy of trusts 
and the corruption of legislatures. He is young, 
wealthy, ambitious and able. He aspires to play 
the part of the Gracchi in American Politics. He 
and Mr. W. J. Bryan, whose manifesto in favour 
of the nationalisation of railroads has rather cooled 
off those of his supporters who were disposed to 
hail him as a Conservative, may be compared to 
Tiberius and Caius Gracchus, whose heroic agita- 
tion and tragic death form so interesting a page in 
the histoTN- of the Roman Republic. President 
Roosevelt's chances of re-election are held to be im- 
proving. He swore, it is true, that he would never 
consent to be nominated as a candidate for a third 
term of office. But already glib sophists are prov- 
ing triumphantlv — with the aid of Macchiavelli — 
that his pledge is no just and lawful impediment 
which ought to hinder his adoption as the Republi- 
can candidate. .Mr. Roosevelt made just the same 
pledge about the Vice- Presidency. But political 
pledges are as piecrust, made to be broken, and 
Mr. Roosevelt will probably follow the example of 
the lady who, swearing she would ne'er consent, 
consented. [Mr. Hearst has been defeated in the 
New York election. — Ed.] 

It is generally believed that Minis- 
ters contemplate devoting next ses- 
sion to a frontal attack on Intem- 
perance and a flank attack on the 
Union. Of the details of either measure nothing 
is as yet known. Whatever measure of piecemeal 
Home Rule mav be brought forward will command 
the support of' the Nationalists— for the Nation- 
alists are politicians, and the Alliance men are the 
reverse. Mr. John Redmond, who made almost the 
only political sjieech of last month; at Grange, in 
Limerick, on September 23rd. indicated with his 
customary frankness and good sense the line which 
his party will adopt when Mr. Bryce's Irish Re- 
form Bill comes to be debated. Starting from, his 
constantly-reiterated declaration that " no scheme 
short of trusting the people fully can ever even- 
tually succeed," he said that the touchstone he will 
apply to the Government proposal is this: "Is it 
a scheme which we can take for what it is worth 
as an instalment without the danger of its breaking 
up the National Party?" There is no reason to 
fear that C.-B., with Mr. Bryce and Mr. Morley 
at his back, could possibly submit any scheme to 
Parliament which did not actually and avowedly 
tend to pave the way to the complete realisation of 
that Home Rule which they desire almost as pas- 
sionately as Mr. Redmond himself. But it is to be 
hoped that before their Bill is produced it will be 
discussed in princijile and in detail with Mr. Red- 
mond, without whose imprimalur it ought never to 
see the light. 

Honie Rule 








stopping Places. 
Hadn't we better stop here?" 
JarveY REDMOND: " Arrah. no, yer honour; 
much hette'r inn away beyant there." 

[Speaking at Grange, co. Limerick. Mr. John Redmond said, 
•• There was a ' Haltway Houfe.' . . . His advice would 
be to reject it."] 

A prodigious amount of pother has 
been kept up all through the 
month over the so-called MacDon- 
nell letters. It is not quite clear 
why Mr. Long should keep harping upon the neces- 
sity for producing the letters which passed on the 
appointment of Sir Antony MacDonnell to the 
Under-Secretaryship of Ireland. What everybody 
believes is that these letters will prove that the Go- 
vernment as a whole was committed by Mr. Bal- 
four, with the assent of Lord Lansdowne and :Mr. 
Wvndham, to the adoption of a rational liberal 
policy in Ireland, and that this policy was checked 
by tlie revolt of the Orangemen and t^e Tory la\y- 
\ers of Dublin, who had no wish to see their 
chances of promotion diminished by the adoption 
of a policy of retrenchment. For Liberals and 
Home Rulers to insist upon the production of those 
letters would be intelligible, but why Mr. Long and 
the Unionists, who hate Home Rule, should clamour 
for their production passes the wit of man to con- 
ceive. Judging from the comments of certain Tory 
papers, .some Unionists are ([uite prepared to head 
a revolt" against Mr. Balfour if the letters convict 
him of committing himself to a policy of devolution 
and the Government of Ireland according to Irish 
ideas. But one would have thought that the Union- 
ist Party was weak enough already without submit- 
ting it to the ordeal of another split. 

A Bishop 




It is very extraordinary how com- 
plete has been the lull in politics 
during the last few months. On 
October 23rd the hurly-burly will 
but for the time being every one has 


The Review or Reviews. 

DfCfmber 1, 1906. 

freslminst'T Gazette.'] 

The White <iheet Competition, 

Mr. GIBSOX BOWLES: "Why didn't you enter, Mr, Bal- 
four? You're just as well qualified as Waltei- Long and 

[Mr, Giteon Bowles intervened in the Long-MacDonnell 
controversy to point out that the real culprit is— Mr, Bal- 

been too busv making holiday to find time either 
to make speeches or to listen to them. Bishop Gore 
has. however, taken occasion to express in a very 
eni])hatic manner his determination to oppose any 
attempt of Parliament to legislate on the recom- 
mendations of the Royal Commission on the Roman- 
ising of the .Church. He has, indeed, as a Bishop 
spread his mantle over the clergy who are admit- 
ted! \ breaking the law, probably relying on the fact 
that the majoritv of Englishmen are much too 
bi'sv about more important things to care a straw 
what particular bib and tucker the grown-up chil- 
dren who ha\e been ordained think it necessary to 
wear in church. That is all very well for a time, 
but that indifference may suddenly disappear and 
our High Anglican friends will then be in for a bad 

Dr. Jameson called at our offices 
South African last month, and I was very glad to 
Affairs. find him looking so well and in such 

good spirits. He has paid a flying 
visit to England in connection with federation and 
railway rates. He has yet another year of office 
before him, if not two, unless something unforseen 
should precipitate a General Election, in which case 
the Doctor will probably secure the rest and holi- 
day which he so much needs. Of the Transvaal 
Constitution Dr. Jameson said it was as good as 
could be hoped for. He would have preferred that 
the establishment of responsible government should 
lie postponed, but if it were granted it could hardlv 
be done in a less obiectionable way. If the British 
stood together they would have no difficultv in elect- 
ing a British majoritv, but the chances of such co- 
hesion on the part of the British, the Doctor ad- 
mitted, were verv slight. All the news to hand from 
the Transvaal last month pointed to the election 
of a mixed majority of Boers and British, who are 
in opiiosirion to the party of ascendencv represented 

Tlie Pope 

the Republic. 

by the Chamber of Mines. A most probable out- 
come of the election, therefore, is a Solomon ad- 
ministration, depending for its existence upon Boer 

There seems no prospect of any 
arrangement between the Pope and 
the French Republic. Pius X. 
seems to be one of those saintly 
good men who are raised up from time to time to 
render impossible the working of the compromise bv 
which the men of this world manage to avoid dead- 
locks. He is the Vicar of Christ, and as such he is 
to be obeyed. In practice this means that we have 
to accept the ideas of a dear, good old Italian priest 
as equivalent to the master thought of the Creator, 
and all the affairs of this world have to be ruled 
in accordance with the notions of a cloistered celi- 
bate in the Vatican. The French Government and 
the French people appear to be quite calm in the 
]iresence of the approaching coUision between 
Church and State, nor will thev even be provoked 
by the somewhat intemperate language of Arch- 
bishop Bourne, who. with very natural esprit de 
corps, has rushed into the arena shouting war-cries 
on behalf of his fellow-prelates, who, after a vain 
attempt in favour of a more re,isonable settlement, 
have fallen into line at a word of command from 
the Pope. The notion expressed in some quarters 
that the Archbishop's diatribe could affect the 
entente cordiale between England and France is 
all fudge. The men at the head of the French Re- 
public are much too well informed as to the real 
sympathy of the English people to be affected by 
the discourse of the Archbishop. 


White Savages 


the South, 

The news that the white savages of 
.\tlanta, in Georgia, have broken 
out in a murderous attack upon 
their coloured fellow-citizens has 
reminded us of one of the open sores of the world. 
The usual allegation was made that some negroes 
had outraged white women. This is on all -fours 
with the storv alwavs spread bv Jew-baiters as to 
the Jews having killed a Christian child to obtain 
its blood for their religious rites. There are more 
white women outraged in the Citv of Chicago every 
year than in the whole State of Georgia, and for 
one white woman who is defiled by a coloured man 
there are io,ooo coloured women who are submitted 
to this degradation by white men. To all civilised 
men a woman is a woman bv virtue of her sex, 
which is not affected by the colour of her skin, and 
if we must lynch for such offences. I. as a white 
man. would like to see the white brutes swing first. 
But it seems that the real origin of the Atlanta 
murders was nothing more or less than an attemnt 
on the part of white labourers to kill out the com- 
petition of the coloured men. Most of the white 
savages who have discredited the name of American 
were, it is said, not the real old Southerners — ' 

Reviea of Rei'iews, 1/11106. 

History of the Month. 


whether gentleman or mean \vhite — but were new 
arrivals who came South seeking work, and finding 
the negroes had the job, set to work to dri\-e them 
awny by shot-guns and revolvers. 

One Thing 


Might be Done. 

The Suffragettes, as it is the habit 
to describe the active, energetic and 
resolute band of women workers 
who are in dead earnest about 
securing the franchise, have been very busy last 
month. They ha're undertaken with a will the duty 
of enlightening 
Mr. Asquith's 
constituents a£ 
to the essential 
justice of their 
claim, and 
wherever they 
have appeared 
they have nnt 
with such earn- 
est support that 
we are not with- 
out hope Mr. 
Asquith himself 
may come to 
realise that the 
question can no 
longer be cush- 
ioned, but must 
be honestly de- 
bated and de- 
cided in the 
House of Com- 
mons. Parlia- 
ment fails in its 
first duty to the 
nation when it 
allovi's itself to 
be jockeyed out 
of all opportu- 
nity to debate a 
great moral and 
political issue 
like this of the 
franchise. \'o 
one asks Mr. 
Asquith or any- 
body else t o 
vote for a mea- 
sure which he honestly brlieves would be detrimental 
to the best interest of the State. But we do expect 
that they will be manly enough not to be afraid to 
stand up in their place in Parliament and justify 
the faith that is within tliem. The essential mean- 
ness of the tactics 111' the Evanses and people of that 
ilk naturally irritates women, hut, as a man, it 
simply disgusts me and makes' one ashamed to re- 
cognise that they belong to our chivalrous sex. 
When the Plural Voting Bill goes into committee 

Photo. ly'i One of tho Latest Portraits of General Booth. [.I--. H . Milh. 

He i« tonring: England on a g-rc:it Campaign, ami is tliorouiihh- up to ilate \>y 
pressing tln' motor-car into lii> service. 

the claim of the women to vote ought to be fully 
debated and decided by a division in the House., 
Vote against it if you must, but, in the name of 
manliness and fair play, vote! 

There seems to be a considerable 

london probabilitv that the next election 

County Council r ^u j i <^ ^ <- i 

Elections. '°"' ^"^ London County Council 

will be the chief electoral event of 

next year. The Conservatives, who have in the 

past disguised themselves as Moderates, are, it is 

reported, about to try the virtues of another alias 

and to appear 
this time as 
Municipal Re- 
formers. The 
ill-fate of the 
Protection! s t s 
who masquerad- 
ed as Tariff Re- 
formers might 
have warn e d 
the Moderates 
that there are 
limits to every- 
thing, and that 
those limits are 
passed when 
cannibals dub 
themselves ve- 
getarians, o r 
when the most 
stolid and reac- 
tionary obstruc- 
tives of all 
municipal pro- 
gress dub them- 
selves Munici- 
pal Reformers. 
These eccentri- 
cities of politi- 
cal nomencla- 
ture are unjim- 
portant. What 
is serious is that 
there is a possi- 
bility that the 
Indepen dent 
Laliour Party, 
in the exuber- 
anc e of its 
youthful enthusiasm, may decide to select the 
County Council Elections as a field-day for adver- 
tising its own existence, and demonstrating its 
strength — or weakness — without regard to the effect 
which such action might have upon the Govern- 
ment of London. It is difficult to believe that Mr. 
Keir Hardie can contemplate such a course. The 
London County Council has been the nursing mother 
of Municipal Socialism. The success with which it 
has administered the greatest city in the world on 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, liOi. 



nmar^ - ." . 

J"* I 

The King and His Prime Minister. 

This interesting picture sliowing the King talking to " C.-B."' 
was taken at Marienbad recently. 

advanced democratic lines has done more than any 
other agency to make the programme of the Inde- 
pendent Labour Party what the Americans would 
call a thinkable proposition throughout the country. 
To risk the undoing of the work of the last twenty 
years by opening the door for the sworn enemies 
of democratic progress would be a blunder in tac- 
tics which the democracy of Britain would bitterly 
resent. One does not easily forgive parricide. 
[Cables state that the Municipal Elections just held 
have gone in favour of the Moderates. This may 
be prophetic with regard to the County Council 
Elections.— Ed.] 

There is no need to get into a flurry 
The Danger ^f alarm over the possibility of de- 
Reaction. ^^^'' t>ut it is just as well to recog- 
nise one or two plain facts which 
ought to give pause to those who may be meditat- 
ing a policy of division. The first is that the pre- 
sent a majority has been in power so long that, for 
mere love of change, many will " give the other side 
a turn.'' (2) Many of the best of the Progressive 
majority have gone into Parliament, and Mr. Bums 
has left Spring Gardens for the Local Government 
Board. (3) The Education question has not 
strengthened the majority either among Churchmen 

Poplars PKjfZR L;ve — — 
io-voavs 'k-uPiR ume ••••• 


t\j-r ',CrtW. /" 'S97 "^l-^ Crooirs mP 

_/"'' 6 (,J. T/ten came Ue i<^\ 
fn^ictry. /axi/>fr/sTTi *ytflofl^n'>' 
"ow(^St'fi(/fOi) stands 

a^ -43 /Ur ^000, aJaU 

p&^ fOOO 


This chart, reproduced by the courtesy of the " Local 
Government Journal." shows the rise of pauperism in Pop- 
lar from 32 per 1000 of the population in 1897 to 70 per 1000 
in 1905. and the fall in figures since the inquiry was hesun 
last January. 

or dissenters. (4) The loss on the steamboats, al- 
though a comparative bagatelle beside the advan- 
tage of the L.C.C. ser\ice, will be used to discredit 
the policy of municipal socialism. (5) And. what is 
perhaps the most serious danger of all from the 
point of view of the Independent Labour Party with 
its Socialist programme, is the Poplar inquiry, 
which in the public mind illustrates and empha- 
sises the evils inseparable from the introduction of 
I.L.P. principles into Local Administration. Of 
course this ought not to tell against the L.C.C. 
whose most conspicuous representative, Mr. Burns, 
instituted the inquiry which exposed the Poplar 
scandals. But we are not dealing with things as 
they ought to be, but with things as they are, and 
with such difficulties to overcome it is little short of 
treason for any one who cares for progress and de- 
mocracy to adopt any policy which might have the 
result of placing the enemy in power. 

Review of Reviews, 1/I1I06. 



By Percy R. Meggy. 


The long-expected battle of Armageddon has 
commenced ; seers have foretold it, prophets have 
predicted it, poets have described it; the booming 
of its artillery is heard among the hills ; the smoke 
from its guns is mingling with the clouds ; the war- 
ring hosts are massing on the plains ; the muttering 
of the combatants soars above the storm ; their vari- 
coloured banners are tossing in the breeze ; privilege 
and monopolv are inscribed on the one, equal op- 
portunities for all on the other. Anarchists with in- 
furiated looks carrying bombs, Socialists with hearts 
inflamed aganst wealth. Communists with their heads 
full of visionary schemes, Capitalists clinging desper- 
ately to the present order of things. Individualists 
seeking more or less vainly to educe harmony from 
the surrounding chaos, and a host of other ists too 
numerous to name, all form part of the disordered 
throng which is enlisted, consciously or uncon- 
sciously, in the great fight that is going on. 


Most of the battles of which history tells have 
been fought for objects which the bulk of the 
people cared little about, and the issues involved 
in which few people could ha\e defined at the time 
or can even now define, but there is no mistaking 
the object of the present war, for war it undoubt- 
edly is, and it will never cease till its object has 
been attained. And that object can be expressed 
in the single word JUSTICE, and justice may be 
defined as equal opportunities for all who are born 
into the world. To each age is allotted its dis- 
tinctive war. As has been more than once pointed 
out but cannot be too often repeated, since it marks 
the line of social development that is being traced, 
religious equality was the watchword of the i8th 
century, political equality of the 19th, and now 
social equality is the watchword of the century 
which has just commenced. The two former have 
been achieved, or so nearly achieved that little more 
remains than to gather up the fruits of the victories 
that have been won, but the last and greatest of 
all, to which the two former served but as pre- 
liminaries, is by far the most important, as it will 
prove by far the most difficult, of all the wars which 
have ever been waged by the human race. But 
there is no doubt as to the ultimate result, since 
the cause for which we are fighting is the cause of 
Justice and of Truth, those twin-born and mightiest 
of the angels who have never been known to suffer 
permanent defeat when tliey huxe once entered into 

the strife. The Anarchist, the Socialist, and the 
Communist have each a more or less definitely con- 
ceived solution for the ills with which, society is 
afiflicted. The old-style Individualist is the only 
one who occupies about the same position which 
he ever did, who still relies on his time-worn for- 
mula of " Whatever is, is right," and who seems deter- 
mined to defend the present state of society with 
his latest breath. But times are changing fast, the 
old order is everywhere giving place to new, and, 
unless the Individualist is prepared to very con- 
siderably enlarge his platform and modify his front, 
he will go down in the coming struggle in the pre- 
sence of forces some of which are of overwhelming 


The old school of Individualism has its most 
striking representative in Mr. G. H. Reid, whose 
latest programme of 20 clauses scarcely contains a 
single plank that is calculated to win the sympathy 
of such as are suffering from the present unjust 
condition of society, and of such as would gladly, 
nay, enthusiastically, support a party that would 
ad\ocate a return to Justice and head a movement 
based on sound economic lines for giving equal 
opportunities to all. In view of the negative and 
unsatisfactory character of the attempt made by 
the anti-Socialists to wage war on behalf of the dis- 
inherited and the oppressed, the great mass of the 
people naturally look to those who belong to their 
own ranks, who understand their needs, and who 
have themselves felt the iron that is entering into 
their soul, for some remedy that will lighten their 
toil, and a willing ear is accordingly lent to the 
schemes which the extremists propound for the cure 
of society. It is true that in opposing Socialism 
Mr. Reid is taking what I believe to be the right 
course, that in advocating the repeal of the Union 
label and of the preference to Unionists clause he 
is acting in the real interests of the workers as a 
whole, and that he deserves our warmest gratitude 
for his timely denunciation of the sham preferential 
proposals put forward by a Government which 
would apparently father any principle, however un- 
just, with the view of prolonging its moribund and 
miserable life. All that is good so far as it goes, 
but something far more radical is required if In- 
dividualism is to retain its hold on the masses. 


We have arrived at a stage in our history when 
some guiding principle is absolutely necessary to 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 

enable us to discriminate between the various ajitag- 
onistic proposals for social reform. In the October 
number of " The Review of Reviews, ' a New Zea- 
lander only voices the feeling which is current on 
every side when he asks for a " definition of right 
or wrong principles in the question of private rights 
or liberties as against State Socialism." At pre- 
sent we are confronted by two e.xtreme parties, the 
Individualists of the old school, who would do 
everything without the State, and the Revolutionary 
Socialists, who would do everything with it. In 
between there is what is known as State Socialism, 
which Bismarck supported, if he did not originate, 
for the purpose of dishing the Social Democrats. 
" Give the workingman the right to work as long 
as he has health." he told the Reichstag in 1884, 
" assure him care when he is sick and maintenance 
when he is old, and the Social Democrats may sound 
their bird-call in vain." But State Socialism has 
de\ eloped in Germany — with its tinkering and arti- 
ficial protective tariffs and consequent high price 
of goods, conceived solely in the interests of the 
landowners and manufacturers and at the people's 
expense, with its military despotism, and its com- 
pulsory legislation of all sorts from the cradle to 
the grave — is but a sorry makeshift for those grand 
principles of personal liberty and social equality 
which should form the basis of everv true Society. 
[t should be remembered, however, to the credit of 
the State Socialists in Prussia that they have suc- 
ceeded in obtaining for the municipalities throughout 
the kingdom, what only one of the Australian States 
has }et succeeded in completely obtaining, and that 
is the right to levy rates on their only true source — 
namely, land values apart from improvements. Is 
there any definite guiding principle to lead us 
through the perplexing labyrinth of the social pro- 
blem? According to Adolph Wagner, the fore- 
most scientific exponent of State Socialism in Ger- 
many, "the jurisdiction of Government is a matter 
not of principle but of expediency," and this view 
probably represents that of the majority of people 
te-day. Among others it is the opinion of the 
leader of the Opposition in Tasmania, who called 
a public meeting recently for the purpose, as he 
informed his audience, of enabling him to clarify 
his thoughts on the subject of Socialism, and the 
conclusion he arrived at was that utility or expedi- 
ency was our only guide, and that each separate 
proposition must be dealt with by itself. 


Over a quarter of a century ago John Stuart 
Mill wrote his famous essay "On Liberty," which 
was an enquiry into the nature and limits of the 
power which could be legitimately e.xercised by 
society over the individual, a question which he 
e\en then recognised as likely soon to be " the vital 
question of the hour," which it has undoubtedly 
now become. He found in self-protection the prin- 
ciple which should " govern absolutely the dealings 

of societ) with the individual in the way of com- 
pulsion and control." Since then we have gone far 
along the road which he opened out, and tli? 
general \erdict seems to he that there are certair. 
• phases of the question with which Mill did not deai 
and that the principle of self-protection, soui' 
though it be so far as it goes, does not sufficiently 
cover the ground. Individualists have widened 
their views very considerably since Bentham's da\s, 
and are now prepared to examine any suggestion 
for the State regulation of the conditions and hoiir-r 
of labour from the point of view of the well-beini; 
of the greatest number, which was Bentham s 
watchword in a much more limited sense than as 
now applied. But, apart from proposals of this 
character, each of which must necessarily be judgeil 
on its merits, and the exact boundaries and limit.; 
tions of which cannot be very rigidly defined, there 
are the Socialistic schemes par excellence for the 
carrying on of certain lines of business by the 
State or the municipality instead of by private enter- 
prise. Is there any definite, clear-cut principle 
which would enable the wayfarer to distinguish Lt 
tween the Socialism which he could support and th.i; 
extreme form of it favoured bv the Labour Part; 
which would abolish private enterprise altogether, 
and which, of course, all Individualists oppose. 
That there is a clear-cut dividing line between the 
two is, I think, evident, and that dividing line is 
traced by the presence of Monopoly. That certain 
forms of Socialism are favoured by Individualists 
is clear, since here in Australia, and in various 
other parts of the Empire, we have socialised the 
Post and Telegraph, the Railways and Tramw;i\s, 
Public Education, and frequently the Water Works, 
Electric Works, and Gas, and this has been done 
with the concurrence as a rule, and in many cases 
with the actual support, of the general body of In- 
dividualists excepting perhaps such extremists 
as Mr. Bruce Smith. Revolutionary Socialists are 
fond of twitting Individualists with being Socialists 
because they believe in the socialisation of indus- 
tries in tiie cases noted above, as if a man who be- 
lieved in the Government running a railway must 
necessarily believe in the Government running a 
shop. But the twitting comes from sheer ignor.iiice, 
since the dividing line between the two forms of 
Socialism is vital, and as a rule very easy to be 
seen. It may be asked : How are we to detect 
the presence of monopoly ? The presence of mono- 
poly can be almost invariably detected by the ab- 
sence of competition. Railways, tramways, the 
post and telegraph, gas and water works, etc., 
where the business is necessarily conducted on 
monopolistic lines, should be undertaken by the 
State or by the municipality as the case may be. 
Wherever the principle of competition is active, as 
in all ordinary businesses, and as in the case of 
transport by sea, the State has no right to inter- 
fere with private enterprise, which may be trusted 

Heview of Reviews, 1J12/06. 

The New Individualism. 


to do tile wiirk as a rule in the most efficient and 
most econnniical \va\ . 

The great fault underhing all Socialistic theories 
is the failure tu realise the beneficence of competition, 
and has led to the most chaotic and terrible results. 
Therefore, they say, it should be abolished, and not 
only competition but liberty too, and an artificial 
state introduced which would be even w'orse, if that 
Ihne possible, than the existing regime. Even Benja- 
imin Kidd. who probed the social problem in such 
.a masterly wa\ , and whose conclusions are generally 
sound, took what I conceive to be an entirely wrong 
view of competition, which he regarded as antag- 
-onistic to the wellbeing of the communitv, or at 
any rate as sacrificing the happiness of the present 
generation at the shrine of a progressive posterity, 
.and, consequently, as requiring the support of some 
ultra-rational sanction in the shape of religion to 
induce society at large to tolerate its continued 
'Existence. Nevertheless competition rightly under- 
stood, instead of being the greatest enemy of 
society, is its greatest friend. The position of those 
who, seeing how men are forced by competition to 
the extreme of wretchedness, jump to the conclusion 
that competition should be abolished was aptly 
•compared by Henry George to that of men who, 
seeing a house burn down, would prohibit the use 
of fire. What is wanted is a grain of imagination 
like a mustard seed to enable us to realise how 
beneficiently competition would work if it were re- 
stored to its natural condition. So long as the pre- 
sent system of land monopoly is allowed to prevail 
competition must continue to do harm, and the 
workers must continue to be ground down. The 
■very first task of the New Individualist would be to 
put his axe to the tree of land monopoly, not bv 
means of a crudely-designed progressive tax, such 
as that proposed by the Labour Party, which would 
operate most unjustly against the large landowner 
■while it would allow the small landowner to go scot 
free, but by means of a tax on land values, apart 
•from impro\-ements equally levied, falling on all 
alike in proportion to the amount of value-bearing 
land (for below a certain line land has no economic 
value), which has been appropriated from the 
general stock. This would be not only just to all 
.parties, to the individual no less than to the com- 
munity, but would have the most beneficent and far- 
reaching effects, since it would force unused or only 
partially-used land into the market, and would en- 
able the would-be land-user to employ himself. If 
'> -such a just and equable tax were imposed, the good 
nffects of competition would soon begin to appear, 
inr the uidening avenues of emplo\nient would 
r.ii)idly absorl) all the available labour, and em- 
])l()yers would be c(im|)eting against each other for 
iMirkers instead of. as now, workers comjieting 
iL;ainst each other for employers. Under the pre- 
sent systeni. moreii\cr. uwing to the miserable in- 

comes of the majority (if the ]ieople, on]}- the 
meanest and cheapest goods ha\e anv chance of 
being sold, and the strenuous competition among 
manufacturers' producers and shojikeepers for the 
patronage of the masses necessarily leads to the 
production of the flimsiest and shoddiest of wari s. 
But under the entirely new condition of society 
which would be produced by the abolition of mono- 
poly, and which people as a rule fail to realise 
for want of the necessary grain of imagination, the 
competition among the employers for workers would 
raise wages to a far higher level than is possible 
under the present regime, and the competition which 
would then ensue for a higher class of goods would 
totally rex'olutionise the present shoddv methods of 

In dealing with such questions as old age pen- 
sions and compulsory insurance, the new Indivi- 
dualist would be guided by a principle which can- 
not fail. He knows that if the laws of wealth dis- 
tribution were allowed to have fair play — if land 
monopoly were rooted out, protective tariffs abolish- 
ed, and preference to Unionists repealed — e\erv 
able-bodied and intelligent human being would be 
easily able to earn a living, cultivate his or her 
higher powers, bring up a family in com- 
fort, and provide for a rainv day. The 
new Individualist, therefore, would concentrate 
all his powers in the endeavour to obtain 
those great reforms, the negation of which is at 
the root of all the hunger and nakedness, all the 
mi.sery and squalor, whicn are the dominant notes 
of the existing regime. It is the paramount duty 
of the State to see that every one of its able-bodied 
citizens has an equal opportunity of earning his 
living, which he would have if the existing uniust 
laws were abolished, in which case the worker would 
be easily able to insure his life against accident and 
to provide for his old age. Let the State do its 
duty in the one case, and there would be no need 
for it to overstep its duty in the other. Old age 
pensions are, of course, supported by very many 
from a feeling of s\mpathy with the lot of the 
workers, whom the present unjust distribution of 
wealth has deprived of the share which they have 
legitimately earned, and who have therefore been 
unable to insure their lives and to provide for their 
old age. Old age pensions also find their strongest 
supporters among the landowners and capitalists, 
who would divert attention from reforms that are 
needed by throwing the workers a sop, \\l:ich the 
Deakin-Lyne clique, at the instance of the land- 
owners, are shrewd enough to make the workers 
themseKes [)rovide by taxing their tea and kerosene. 


The new Individualist would scnrn to ciutv 
fa\'our with the masses by sujjporting principle's 
\vhieli he beliexed to be unsound and contrary to 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, IMi. 

the real interests of the very people for whose 
benefit they were supposed to be framed. But if 
the principle of old age pensions were once adopted, 
and it only remained to find the funds with which 
to carry it' out, he would do his utmost to see that 
the additional taxation required was not filched out 
©f the scant earnings of Labour, as is done in Vic- 
toria and New South Wales, or by the extra taxa- 
tion of tea and kerosene, as is proposed by the 
Federal Government, supported, I am sorry to see, 
by so staunch a democrat as Mr. J. H. Carruthers, 
the Premier of New South Wales, who in this 
matter has fallen very far below his ideal. If old 
age pensions are to be conceded there is only one 
source whence the required revenue should be de- 
rived, and that is from that great communal fund 
of land values, which, having been directly created 
solelv by the presence and needs of the community, 
belongs by right to the community, and should be 
appropriated and expended on its behalf ; no 
graduated tax such as the Labour Party so un- 
justly propose, but equably levied on all alike. 
While admiring the lofty patriotism of the late Sir 
Henry Parkes, who visioned a White Australia 
through the spectacles of a seer, the new Individual- 
ist would despise the narrow-minded action of the 
Labour Party and others who have turned what was 
a noble aspiration into a weapon of cruelty and 
spite. While partly sympathising with the senti- 
ment underlying preferential trade, the new Indi- 
vidualist would recognise in the proposals of Messrs. 

Deakin and Lyne an attempt to sneak in Protection jl 
under the guise of a nobler aim. f 


In the great struggle between Socialism and In- 
dividualism which is now being waged, the new In- 
dividualist, however little he may sympathise with 
the merely negative policy of the anti-Socialists, has 
no option for the moment but to support Mr. Reid, 
since, whatever may be his shortcomings, he is at 
any rate by far the ablest advocate in Australia of 
personal liberty and individual rights. The sweetest 
and most precious thing that this round world holds 
is the right of every man to do what he wills with 
his life, and this paramount liberty, for which our 
fathers for centuries past have fought and bled, is 
offered up as a sacrifice by the so-called Labour 
Party, and is in danger of being trampled in the 
dust! De Tocqueville, who said a good many 
sprightlv things, never said a truer one than when 
he pointed out that Democracy and Socialism were 
agreed as to the primary importance of one single 
word, EQUALITY, but' that, while Democracy de- 
sired equality in liberty, Socialism sought equality 
in compulsion and servitude. The Labour Party 
offer us the latter, which, I am convinced, the 
great majority of the workers, so soon as they 
realise what it means, will indignantly reject, and 
■ that instead of the banner of Socialism, the stan- 
dard of the new Individualism will be unfurled 
wherever the principles of true democracy are rightly 

I have been very pleased with the warm personal link which has been established «ith a 
great many of our subscribers whom I know only by their writing to ask for information upon 
different matters. I shall be glad if this acquaintanceship extends to others. I cannot guarantee to 
be able to answer every enquiry upon social and political matters, or upon any others having re- 
ference to different subjects, but I will do my best to get in communication with friends who are 
authorities upon different subjects, in order to assist my correspondents. If, therefore, any subscriber 
wishes for any information which he cannot get locally, I sihall be pleased to do what I can to help. 
Address to W. H. Judkins, " Review of Reviews," Equitable Building, Melboum*. 

Read Important Announcement on Page 634. 

Review of Retiewa, l/lllOG. 


" You cannot make men better by Pajrliament " 
is the parrot cry which has been shouted into our 
ears continuously during the last few months. It 
is the stock phrase of those who are opposed to 
social reform, and in the recent great battle it has 
been practically the only argument, if argument it 
could be called, that has been used by the other side. 
The repetition of a cry like this would seem to in- 
dicate an anxiety with regard to social reform, a 
desire to make men better. It sounds like a protest 
from men who are anxious to improve conditions, 
but who believe that the passing of Acts of Parlia- 
ment is more likely to retard than to hasten the 
good result. 

But the value of the cry is discounted from the 
significant fact that the men who employ the term 
are opponents of good, upholders of some of the 
worst vices that characterise our country to-day. It 
will therefore be evident that the cry is not a 
genuine one, even if the statement were a perfectly 
true one — you cannot make men better by Act of 

It is as well in the beginning of a duel to have 
the ground clear, so that each party gets a fair 
chance. Likewise in this argument. So it must be 
explained that the men who desire to keep other 
men immoral (this term covers every kind of social 
vice) are the men who express a doubt as to the 
wisdom of using Acts cf Parliament to lift man- 
kind on to a higher plane. 

But the curious position about it all is that not 
one of the reformers, to my knowledge at anv rate, 
has laid down as an absolutely unexceptional rule 
that Acts of Parliament in themselves are going to 
make men moral. It has nowhere been stated that 
Acts of Parliament are to be the only engine which 
will work reform in the individual. But if there is 
one thing more certain than another it is this, that 
Acts of Parliament, by assisting to provide different 
conditions of life, by repression, can help to make 
men better. With just as much or as little sense as 
they cry " You cannot make men better by Act of 
Parliament." the same men might say, " You can't 
make men live longer by Act of Parliament." But 
an Act of Parliament may make a town healthy, 
and add to the length of days of the inhabitants 
bv providing that the city shall be kept clean and 
free from disease-producing filth, and in precisely 
the same way an Act of Parliament can prevent 
gambling by making it illegal, keep people sober 
by blotting out the liquor traffic, make people more 
moral by curbing the social evil — in effect by simply 
helping to bring about conditions which will tend 
to the elevation of the community. 


Nearly every great city has its slum. Even the 
larger of our own cities have them. Evil collects 

in narrow streets and the worst houses, and forms 
a breeding-ground for vice. A man would be pos- 
sessed of hopeless bias if he argued that slumdom 
is a good breeding-ground for virtue. Indeed, its 
conditions necessarily breed vice. An Act of Par- 
liament clearing away the slum and doing away 
with the facilities of slum formation naturally 
makes sweeter conditions, which will have the effect 
of improving the breed of human beings bred there. 
Thus does an Act of Parliament have widespread 
moral results. 


As I write, betting facilities exist in Melbourne 
to such an extent that anvbody and everybody can 
gamble without any difficulty. Even the child, oi 
the wayfaring man, though very much of a fool, is 
not likely to miss the way. Bourke-street between 
Swanston and Rus.sell streets, on the south side, 
holds at certain hours of the day a swarm of 
spielers, thieves and magsmen that are scummed 
from all parts of the States. The Collingvvood 
" Tote " and the city betting clubs are doing a busi- 
ness which savours of the Inferno. Does anyone 
mean to say that conditions like these are not likely 
to affect the rising as well as the risen generation, 
and that the removal of these parasites by the hand 
of the law would not remove the facilities which 
make wrong-doing easy ? 

Men and women drink alcohol because in our 
present economic conditions alcohol is provided for 
them. The desire for alcohol is not a natural one. 
If men grew up without the knowledge of it, there 
would be no craving for it. The appetite is purelv 
an induced one. Can anyone argue with success 
that men would not be made better by the removal 
of temptation and the prevention of the formation 
of a perverted appetite, which removal could onlv 
come about by the voice of the people through Act 
of Parliament? After all said and done, an Act of 
Parliament simply puts up a fence to keep people 
off a field where they will work harm either to them- 
selves or to other people. It is also simply an ex- 
pression of the growing feeling of the community. 

It may be a mightily poor expression, crudely 
formed, badly put together, but nevertheless it in- 
dicates the desire of the majority of the people (or 
is supposed to do so, altliongh it often fails wi'h 
us on account of minority rule). 


But laws should be framed not s'mnlv in ni.-k.' 
people better. To say that an Act of Parliament 
will not make people better is not to give a sufficient 
reason whv the Act should not be framed. Law has 
two applications or intentions. One is undoubtedly 
to make the people better, the other is a simj^Ie 
matter of protection. For instance, the law against 
burglarv may remotelv have as one of its aims the 


The Review of Reviews. 

Dfcember I, I9j'. 

iilea of m.iking the burglar cease to burgle, but the 
dominant idea in the framing of the law against 
burglary is the protection of the householder, and 
in our great fight for social reform one of the aims 
undoubtedly is to improve the condition of the 
community, to make it easy for people to do right 
and hard for them to do wrong; to prevent people 
frorft becoming gamblers and drunkards, etc. In 
this reform this ;ispect is a wide one. 

But there is another aspect as well. Society has 
got to be prott-cted against the depredations of the 
gambler, the drunkard, and the immoral. As it is, 
the community suffers morally, physically and 
linajicially ; and more in this recent struggle than 
at any other time the people have come to the un- 
<lt=rstanding that it is a fight between the forces of 
i,"od and the forces of evil in the community, a 
struggle that will have to be continued until the 
over-world conquers the under-world and completes 
its work by making, through its regeneration, the 
under-world to be no more. Society to-day is 
clamouring for protection against a daily encroach- 
ing foe. To-day liquor and gambling dominate our 
jiolitics, rule our social life, corrupt some of our 
politicians, endeavour to corrupt our police force 
and sometimes succeed, while the decent part of the 
community has either sat still indifferent, or else 
wrung its hands in hopeless despair. Meanwhile 
the under-world laughs merrily and goes on its wav 

XwT Acts of Parliament can make men better, 
or help very largely thereto. They can be one of 
the many determining factors in a man's elevation. 
Acts of Parliament are simply the rules which the 
State householder frames for its good, and it is as 
ridiculous to say that they have no weight in moral 
reformation as to say that the rules which a wel- 
ordered household lays down have no efficacy in pro- 
moting the welfare of its members. The household 
with no laws is likely to go to the dogs ; one with 
stringent guiding rules and prohibitions is likely to 
develop magnificently. The rule of a well-ordered 
household is a series of " thou shalts " and " thou 
shalt nots," a code of laws, and the finer the scale 
on which they are drawn and the better the ad- 
ministration of them, the more likely are the sons 
nd daughters to grow up into good citizens. So 
with the State, which after all is but a household, 
framing laws for its own protection and for the 
development of its citizens. A countn,- without law 
is likely to degenerate into the \vorst tvpe of a law- 
less country, seeing that the golden ' day has not 
yet come when every man will do to others what 
he wants others to do to him. Every law, there- 
fore, which curbs evil instincts, which' regards both 
individual and community rights, which suppresses 
\ice. which rewards virtue, which removes condi- 
tioTis of wrong, which makes conditions for rearing 
in virtue easy, is going to make men better. 

It follows therefore that the present great cam- 

paign in favour of social reform, if successful in 
passing laws to suppress evil, is going to help to 
make men better. The man who finds all his facili- 
ties for wrong-doing cut off is far more likely to 
develop into a better man than if facilities for 
wrong-doing are multiplied. That is all we are ex- 
pecting, that Acts of Parliament shall assist to re- 
move objectionable conditions of society, to bring 
in excellent ones, and to erect the safeguards which 
are necessary for the protection of humanity. 

Xo more striking illustrations of what Acts of 
Parliament can do with regard to social and indi- 
vidual regeneration can be found than in some of 
the legislation passed in Australasia during the last 
few years. In New Zealand, in 1894, electors first 
voted under the Local Option Act on the question 
as to whether the liquor traffic should remain or 
not. In the twelve years which have elapsed since 
that time, Xo-License has by three-fifths majorities 
been won in six localities, with the result that some- 
where about 70,000 people in Xew Zealand are 
living under No-License. The result is so splendid 
that every visitor to these districts is struck with the 
different appearance of the street as compared with 
the licensed areas, while the general tone of the in- 
habitants is greatly raised and offences against the 
general law are very much rarer. In Clutha, where 
Xo-License has reigned for years, children are grow- 
ing up without ever having seen a drunken man. 
Children reared in such surroundings are not likeK 
to develop the drink habit. 

This is a capital illustr.iJon of the good that an 
Act of Parliament can work. What has been done 
in these cases is simply this : the Act of Parliament 
is a channel through which the desires of the people 
can flow. That it has helped to make conditions 
finer and the people better is evident from the 
number of men who now are sober who before were 

The man who insists that you can't make men 
better by Act of Parliament savs that there are 
more cases of sly grog-selling under Xo-License 
than there were under License. That is quite pos- 
sible, but it does not affect the principle which we 
are establishing. Personally, however. I am not 
prepared to grant that assumption. There could 
liardlv be more sly grog-selling under any system 
of Xo-License than there is under our present sys- 
tem of License. Selling during prohibitive hours 
is really sly grog-selling, and everybody knows how 
generally that practice is carried on. Compared 
with the magnitude of the offence under License, 
sly-grog cases under X^o-License shrink away into 
insignificance. But if there is sly grog-selling, it 
merely indicates the lawless spirit of the traffic, de- 
termined to flourish in spite of the law, and forms 
an additional reason why it should be put down. 

Or let us take an illustration that is nearer to 
hand. Only a few weeks ago Xew .South Wales 
passed a rigorous .Anti-Gambling Bill, which prac- 

Review of Reviews, 1111/06. 

What the Law Gan Do. 


tically has the effect of limiting betting to race- 
courses. Some of us would be glad if it went fur- 
ther, but heartily welcome what has been done as 
an instalment of reform. Before this Act was 
brought in, there was in certain parts of Sydney a 
perfect nest of bookmakers and others of the gamb- 
ling fraternity. Facilities for gambling existed on 
every hand. In one street in Sydney, while races 
were going on, I have seen one part round the 
bookmakers' shops so densely thronged that the 
trams had even to stop. A more evil-looking, evil- 
speaking and evil-smelling crowd it would be im- 
possible to conceive of. The very riff-raff of the 
city had gathered there. The same thing now would 
be practically impossible. On the day that the Act 
was passed, the bookmakers' shops closed up and 
these gambling facilities ended. Here is the result 
of it all as given by iNIr. C. G. Wade, the Attor- 
ney-General of New- South Wales, who piloted the 
Anti-Gambling Bill through the House, when he 
spoke at a public meeting a short time ago. He 
said: — 

He believed the Government had only stnirk the blow in 
t"me. In tlie lieart of Sydney there had been a perfect nest 
of evil, whicli was bringing the boys and youths into enslav- 
ing temptation, and keeping their minds in a perpetual state 
of excitement. The first thought of many was centred on 
the question, "What are the odds?" and the last was of 
their employer's interests. There was fast developing a class 
of younj? person with no desire to work or improve himself, 
and his great wish was to become rich without working. 
Whatever complaints were made against the .\ct, it could 
be said that street-betting, which was an absolute curse three 
weelia ago, had now ceased in Sydney. On one day three 
weeks ago no less than 7C00 persons had been counted going 
down Bank-lane, and they could have had only one purpose. 
The thoroughfare was now absolutely empty, and that, too, 
without any harsh efforts on the pait of the police. The 
Chinese, who had thwarted the police for years, had packed 

up their traps and gone to China. Victoria or New 
Zealand. In one place, before the Act came into opera- 
tion, the inmates had understood the preparation of 
fortifications as well as the defenders of Port Arthur, and 
barbed wire, iron bars, and barricades blocked the entry of 
the police. When an entrance was gained, the inmates had 
gone, and there was no evidence to show that gambling had 
been carried on. During the last few weeks, however, there 
had been on sale at the Haymarket odd assortments of 
barbed wire, iron bare, and other material. The success of 
the measure was proved by results, and without being too 
drastic, it would fiee the State of street and shop betting. 

Other States in the Commonwealth need drastic 
legislation just as badly as Sydney, and it will be 
well if the community recognises the enormous 
power that it holds in its hands to assist in the 
regeneration of society and the uplifting of the in- 
dividual by wise legislation. No one pretends to say 
that legislation is going to take the place of home 
training and of mind and heart culture, but Acts 
of Parliament are absolutely necessary in order to 
safeguard the growing interests of the community 
by repressing evil and allowing the freest and 
fullest opportunity for the growth of good. 

" Use moral suasion," say the opponents of re- 
form, while at the same time they do everything 
to prevent the efficiency of moral suasion. There 
is no need for them to say " use moral suasion." 
Those who cry for legislative assistance are the 
verv people who do use moral suasion, and who 
are' quietly educating the people with regard to 
right living ; but they know how hopeless it is to use 
moral suasion when the laws of the country give 
everv facility to the wrong-doer; and when they 
clamour for legislative reform they simply ask that 
the country may have an opportunity for moral 
suasion to have free course and to be glorified. 

Next month ue shall publish a thrilling article, describing Mr. W. T. Stead's visit to a London 
Music Hall and his impressions thereon. 

More interest is being taken e\erv month in the ideals of "The Review of Reviews," and I am 
grateful to the friends who have sent me the names of friends who they think will be interested in 
them, and in a magazine of such literary worth as "The Review." If any reader has friends (and 
who has not?) interested in social ideals,' will they please send their names, that we may send them a 
sample copy. 

ir >(iu are wishful to help in social reform, ask us also to send you a copy of "How to Help." 

Will any of our readers who feel enthused enough after reading " The Book if the Month," 
to desire to help in the project that Mn Stead there sets out, please write to me. 

I shall also be glad if any of our readers interested in any local effort made to promote social 
reform, to educate and elevate the people, will write me a short account of it, that other folk in 
other places may get inspiration and ideas. W. H. Judkins, " Review of Re\-iews," Equitable Building. 

Eetieir of Reviewi, Z/li/OS, 






[Mr. Reid and Mr. Watson were also written to for a statement of the ideals of their respective parties, but no reply 
has been received from either. An article elsewhere on "The New Individualism," written by a supporter of Mr. 
Reid, may be taken as expressing his views. — Ed.] 

In reply to the question : " What are the ideals of 
the Liberal-Protectionist Party?" the Prime Minister 
(the Hon. Alfred Deakin, M.P.) made the following 
interesting statement : — 

" The Liberal-Protectionist ideal is to foster and 
secure by all possible political means the moral and 
material well-being of the people of Australia. To 
this end the whole policy and principles of the party 
are directed. We are Liberals because we trust the 
people, and aim at their advancement as a 
community, excluding none, and e.xpressly avoid- 
ing every sectional bias. Averse to militarism 
and to aggression, we are keenly alive to the neces- 
sity of preparations both by land and sea for main- 
taining our homes and heritage intact against all 
alien invasions threatening our free institutions, 
social equities, or family life. We are Protection- 
ists belie\'ing that only this policy can promote 
national life, and because the industrial and social 
development of Australia as a whole depends large- 
ly upon legislation of that character. While the 
Commonwealth is liable to be reduced to the general 
level of its lowest competitors abroad, and lies ex- 
posed to invasion from other countries which jea- 
lously safeguard their home interests, all efforts to 
impro\e the conditions of life within our borders 
must be futile. Precautions must be taken by the 
Government akin to those which every wise house- 
holder and prudent business man takes for the 
benefit of his family. Such safeguards are indis- 
pensable both in peace and in war tw promote that 
self-dependence and preserve that power of expan- 
sion which are essential if Australia is to become 
a bulwark of the Empire in the Southern Seas. 

Being Liberals we are not afraid to employ the 
powers of Parliament for the public weal. On the 
contrary, every movement that is really progressive 
in character, making for national stability or poli- 
tical advance, always finds a ready support at our 
hands. It is this very readiness to march with the 
tiines and provide new standards for new occasions 
that has made our party continuously successful in 
its Legislative work. Again for that very reason it 
is exposed to the perpetual antagonism of the sel- 
fish vested interests that seek to impede the free 
growth of our energies and institutions. These in- 

terests and their parasites, though impotent to re- 
sist the forces of progress, contrive by one device 
or another to cripple our measures, hamper their 
administration, and misrepresent their fruits. Never- 
theless with but a few trifling exceptions every Act 
of the Commonwealth Parliament from its inception 
up to date is due to the work of our party. Nor 
could it very well be otherwise, since, neither bound 
down by tradition nor by doctrinaire dogmas, we 
have created, and are continuallv creating our own 
"precedents ''' setting aside outworn shibboleths and 
enlarging previous practice in accordance with ex- 
perience, in pursuit of our ideals. 

Revering the broad principles of Liberalism 
which make for open-minded progress, we move on- 
ward examining every legislative proposition on its 
own merits. We trust to the good sense of the 
community to promote "private enterprise" with- 
out abandoning the use of judicious " State regula- 
tion " where\-er unrestricted license appears to 
threaten the liberty of the citizen or the healthy 
condition of public affairs. We do not lack a pro- 
per element of caution but it is the caution of the 
suspended judgment and of a deliberate choice. 
Our party, absolutely unfettered by class prejudice, 
has for guide the law of evolution, and for goal the 
public welfare. 

Generally it may be said that we lean in all things 
to the humanitaiian, to " humanism " and hope. 
We are far from the Tory- mind which shudders in 
a palsy of fear at every fresh proposal that de- 
parts from use and wont, or disturbs its comfort, 
begets enquiry or demands new thought. The party 
stands equally aloof from the rash and self-confident 
communistic theorists, who, ignoring all that man- 
kind has gained in the past, are prepared to put in 
peril all well-proved methods in order to apply 
hasty and ill-considered doctrines, or to prescribe 
crude experiments on the plea that any change must 
be an advantage. We know that society is not to 
be remodelled off-hand by Statute, nor its complex 
mechanism tampered with by the inexperienced and 
unpractical, possessing no adequate acquaintance 
with the history of its manifold and gradual adjust- 
ments to human needs. 

The Liberal-Protectionists are at least as high in 

Review of Reviews, 1/11/06. 

Topics of the Month. 


their aims and as bold in their aspirations as the 
most sanguine, but they seek, by the saving grace 
of commonsense, to be businesslike in their pro- 
posals, marching from experience to experience ac- 
cording to the sober judgment of the electors whom 
they represent. 

tor the gigantic powers and unscrujnilous 
methods of Trusts and Combines as for the throng 
<jf those who live upon the work of others with- 
out making any real contributions of their own to 
the common weal, they have no respect. 

The Act for the Preservation of Australian In- 
dustries, popularly known as the Anti-Trust Bill, 
antl the Acts which, while encouraging local manu- 
factures, safeguard both the workmen engaged upon 
them and the public who purchase their goods, 

afford an apt illustration of our industrial objects 
and equitable methods. They also supply a key to 
the ideal of our party ; an ideal which, while pur- 
suing social justice, shelters no wrong, however 
hoary, and permits no bars to progress to remain, 
capable of being removed by wise legislation and 
sane administration. 

The L.iberal-Protectionist Party seeks to amelior- 
ate the conditions, multiply the opportunities, and 
enhance the uses of the splendid natural inheritances 
which the Australian people enjoy to-day under the 
protection of the British flag, building up a great 
and free community adequate in numbers, in equip- 
ment, and in capacity to the rich continent now so 
lightly held by us, which we have yet to cultivate 
and make truly our own by a manly policy of cour- 
ageous effort and undaunted self-development. 



South America is for the British public so much 
of a sealed book that I was \ery glad to welcome 
to Mowbray House an old subscriber who has 
spent nearly half a century in that little-known con- 
tinent. Mr. Moore, Inspector-General of the 
National Bank of Bolivia, called upon me last 
month, and kindly consented to be interviewed for 
the benefit of his fellow-subscribejrs. He has spent 
years of his life in Mexico, in Chili, in the Argen- 
tine, and he is at present in London on furlough 
from the responsible post which he occupies in 

" Tell me about Bolivia," I said. 

"Bolivia," said Mr. Moore, "is the Arcadia of 
South America. It is a State w-hich is almost cut 
off from the outer world. Its people live secluded, 
and they have the qualities and the faults of 
the qualities of the ancient Arcadians, who, if 
Greek literature be any guide, were very much like 
the modern Bolivians." 

" Let us have their virtues first." 

" The pre-eminent \ irtue of the Bolivians is their 
.honesty in great things. Bolivia is the only country 
in the world in which bankers can put ^^5000 in 
specie on a mule, and send it without an escort 
through a scantily-peopled w-ilderness without the 
least fear that anyone will steal the money. If by 
any almost inconceivable chance the money was 
stolen, the Indians would never rest till they tracked 
down the thieves and delivered them up to justice." 

" Are thev as honest in everything as thev are in 

"Alas! no. In small things, like their predeces- 
sors in Greece, they are pilferers. And in the ser- 
vice of the State there is much corruption. It has 

been bitterly said that in Bolivia all the intelligent 
men are thieves and all the honest men fools." 

"What about the resources of the country?" 

" They are enormous. Bolivia is simply gorged 
with minerals. Her tin mines run deepest in the 
world. A Bolivian recently sold one-half of one of 
his tin mines for _;^3so,ooo. Her silver mines are 
also fabulously rich, but most of them have been 
ruined by bad management. The country has 
hardly been tapped. Imagine a vast region of 
700,000 square miles served by only one railway 
700 miles long I" 

" Why, the German Empire only covers 208,000 
snuare miles. So Bolivia is more than thrice the 
size of Germany, and has only 700 miles of rail- 

■' That is the fact, and only 1430 miles of 
cart road. Communications are chieflv carried on 
by means of pack mules. What is almost worse 
than having only one railway is that Bolivia has no 
seaport. Her natural outlet to the ocean was taken 
from her by Chili at the end of the w^ar, and to-day 
she is shut up and shut off from the world." 

" How fares it with British trade in this Ameri- 
can Arcadia?" 

" When first I went to Bolivia thirty years ago 
British goods had corrimand of the market. To- 
day Bolivia takes ^^30 of German goods for every 
;£2-] she imports from Britain and ^10 from the 
United States." 

"Why have we lost our premier position?" 

" Partly for our virtues, partly for our faults. I 
have known one British business in Bolivia ruined 
after another simply and solely because of the ignor- 
ance, incompetence, and lack of energy on the part 
of the British guinea pigs who ruled the board of 


The Review of Reviews. 

December J, l$Ot, 

directors in this City of London. Out yonder we 
have lost business chiefly because we were too 
hi:'nest to bribe the Custom officials. Our competi- 
tors shrug their shoulders and say. as it is the cus- 
tom of the countrx', they need not be too squeamish. 
So we get left." 

" Are there any signs that John Bull is waking 
up in Bolivia ?" 

"Alas' no; and the result is he will be hustled 
out of the country before he has time to open his 
eyes. Take this illustration. The only railroad in 
Bolivia is an English line. It has a monopoly — has 
had it for years. It has earned a dividend of from 
ID to 12 per cent., and therewith was content. 
Owing to its monopoly it dominated Bolivia. It 
had only to keep pace with the times, to meet the 
growing needs of the country, to have retained its 
position. But the British Board did not see why 
they should not let well alone — lo per cent, was 
good enough for them. They did not wish to sink 
more capital in branch lines that might not pav lo 
per cent. And so it has come to pass that their 
monopoly is breaking down. The Chilian Govern- 
ment has guaranteed ^2,000,000 for making a new 
railway to the coast. New railways are being built 
from Peru and the Argentine. So our British line, 
like British traders, will get left, and more enter- 
prising competitors will forge ahead." 
"How are the finances of the country?" 
" You almost need a microscope to see them. 
Imagine a country three times the size of Germany, 
with a total national debt (internal and external) of 
less than a million sterling, and an annual revenue 
of about half a million. The whole population of 
the countrv is under 2,000,000, of whom the 
Indians number nearly one half." 

'■ The Indians — are they increasing?" 
" No ; they are drinking themselves to death in 
cheap alcohol imported and retailed by the Gov- 

ernment, which has a monopoly of the supply of 
intoxicants. Next to nothing has been done for 
them, and they are in a worse state than they were 
when the Spaniards landed. They cultivate the 
land with wooden ploughs, and are steadily denud- 
ing the hills of their forests in order to make pas- 
ture land for their goats. They are mist-rably 

" What about the general morality of the Ar- 

" Owing to the high marriage fees charged by 
the priests, 75 per cent, of the children are ille- 
gitimate. The Church hitherto has prevented civil 
marriage. Bolivia this year, I hope, will obtain re- 
lease from the absolute monopoly hitherto exer- 
cised by the Catholic Church." 

"Is there any hope of an improvement?" 

" From the Church, none. Many of the priests 
are drunkards. Nearly every priest has his con- 
cubine, and some more than one. Little or nothing 
has been done for education. Fortunately, the 
Liberals, who are now in power, are anti-clerical, 
and they may follow President Diaz's example in 
founding a progressive State upon an anti-clerical 

"You have been in Mexico?" 

" Yes, I know it well, and esteem Diaz to be one 
of the greatest rulers of the New World. No priest 
is allowed to appear in canonicals in the public 
streets. All the monasteries are suppressed. 
Church and State are separated. But there is a 
school in every village of one hundred houses, and 
all the children are taught English and Spanish. 
Mexico is destined to be to Spain what the fnited 
States is to Great Britain. And if the South Ameri- 
can States have to prosper, like Mexico, they must 
follow the example of Diaz in dealing with the 
Roman Church." 

■ - o(?\je/G)c 


Eeview of Reriewl, l/l$/Oe. 



Ber. il. Madclern writes; — Tlie vt'iy reinoteiioss of 
the South Sea Islands from the throbbing centres of 
life in Australasia and New Zealand is responsible 
for current misconceptions concerning them and their 
people. The near view, in this case, ensures a truer 
perspective of the picture. The local setting of things 
can only be understood on the spot. One must live 
among people to know them and understand their 
ways. South Sea bubbles glitter and enchant when 
blown from a distance ; but no sane rogue would care 
to risk the experiment and the safety of his head on 
the spot. This is understandable enough on the old 
biblical principle. " In vain is the snare spread in the 
sight of any bird.'' 


The uppermost thought in the mind of a visitor to 
tliese enchanted islands is the need of imperialistic 
control. Some of these islands are annexed by Eng- 
land. Germany and France, and Tonga is "a self- 
governing kingdom enjoying, from a Tongan stand- 
point, the questionable advantage of a British Plo- 
tectorat-e. This mixed governmental game is not the 
more excellent way. and is the outcome of a grab-as- 
you-please policy on the part of the great Powers, and 
the inaction or want of promptitude in Downing- 
street to claim this necklace of islands when the chance 
offered. Tliere is no use crying over spilt milk, and 
now that things are as they are, the best alternative 
is for England to buy out the interests of the othei- 

Powers in these islands, or to exchange for them 
teriitory ekewhere. Now that Richard Seddon is 
gone, \\hose initiative in the direction indicated pro- 
claimed him a statesman of the imperialistic order, 
there has been a set-back to the movement which was 
quietly getting under way. 

The nearness of Australia and New Zealand to these 
isla}ids luiturally makes for the creation of a zone 
of British interests in these places. Political, commer- 
cial and religious considerations make desirable the 
supremacy of one controlling nationality in the South 
and South-West Pacific. One looks round in vain just 
now for the statesman with the passion and grip of 
imperialism to lead this movement on to victory. 
Empiie-making demands prescience and breadth of 
statesmanship, and while insular prejudices and low 
political ideals obtain, as they are likely to do, until 
patriotic passion triumphs, and the most capable men 
place then- .services at the disposal of the public for 
the public good. British material interests will suffer 
irretrievable loss. India without Clive. South Africa 
witliout Cecil Rhodes. Au.stralia without Wentworth, 
and New Zealand without Richard Seddon. exactlv 
represents the situation in the South Pacific, without 
the man of the hour to give solidarity to British in- 
terests, to its beautiful and lavishly fruitful islands. 


The High Commissioner's control of these islands is 
no doubt a wise arrangement, and necessajily. per- 
haps, his functions carry with them a measure of arbi- 
trary power from which there is no redi-ess or appeal. 

Nukualofa. Tonga 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 

All provisional gorernment is open to the same ob- 
jection, and presumably must be tolerated until the 
way has been prepared for a more settled order of 
things. It is a common matter of complaint that the 
high-handed and arbitrary exercise of power inherent 
in the conception of a Higli Commissionership involves 
an outrage of British ideas of justice. There is such 
a large margin of personal liberty allowed to the occu- 
pant of the po,sition as should only be sanctioned 
under exceptional conditions, and dispensed with at 
the earliest convenient opportunity. It is easy enough 
to justify deportation under the plea of dreadful 
necessity, and there are occasions when offendei's 
against the good order of the community should be 
dealt with promptly and summarily: but such extreme 
measures do not lend themselves to the admiration 
of those who love fair play. Mr. Shirley W. Bakers 
deportation was pretty generally approved by the 
public conscience, because his continued presence was 
a menace to the peace of the community, and the 
only way to prevent reprisals was to remove him 
summarily. Other interferences with personal liberty 
whicli have taken place since have created a sense of 
insecurity and a fear not altogether unfounded 
amongst English-speaking subjects in the islands, that 
the majesty of the law would have been better up- 
held by the breach than the observance of a judicial 
warship regime. 

Tonga, though an independent and self-governing 
kingdom, with all the forms of responsible govern- 
ment, and judicial procedure, is in the unenviable 
pocsition of being the chosen exploiting ground of war- 
ship interference. Indeed, it is coming now to be 
asked whether the establishment of a British Protec- 
torate in Tonga is not a covert pretence for annexa- 
tion (Vhen the fitting time and excuse comes, for the 
officers of H.M. warship to land and run up the British 
flag. Some countenance, certainly, has been given to 
this surmise by the recent deputation of the Premier 
and Trea^uer of the Tongan Cabinet, and the ap- 
pointment by the High Commissioner of his nominees 
to the vacant pcrtfolios. All this sort of thing, it may 
bii presumed, is admissible on diplomatic grounds, 
where the stronger power extends its paternal tutelage 
to the weaker one. 

All the same, King George Lubon naturally wants 
to know what his kingly authority counts for. or on 
what security of tenure his kingdom stands if the 
High Commissioner can reconstruct his Cabinet over 
his head, and treat him as a mere figurehead of 
royalty. The king's visit to Auckland shortly after this 
coup d'ltat took place, presumably to ascertain his 
legal standing as a monarch, sufficiently indicates his 
mixed feelings of astonishment and alarm in being 
over-ridden in his own kingdcn. 

The Tongans have been rigntly called the Anglo- 
Saxons of the South Pacific. Where a people so in- 
telligent and so open to assimilate modern ideas at- 
tempt to govern themselves according to recognised 
constitutional methods, they should be allowed to 
pursue their own way, and profit by their own mis- 
takes without undue outside interference. Tonga 
presents to the world the astounding spectacle of a 
people who, within the last eighty years, have em- 
erged from heathenism and savagery, and with the 
new Christian ideals taught them by the mission- 
aries, are now seeking to govern themselves in a self- 
respecting way. How much they have accomplished 
in the ascent to their ideals is praiseworthy beyond 
any modern precedent of a people similarly sit-uated 
in the adverse conditions of their past life, which had 
to be ovex'come. The " Laws of Tonga,'' embodied in 
a book bearing that name, and comprising about one 
hundred pages, and turned out by the CJovernment 
Printer in Nukualofa, is a most succinct compendium 

of what an enlightened legislation has already been 
able to accomplish. Drafted with a supreme regard 
for clearness and intelligibility, a man of ordinary 
mental grip could, without much trouble, or the need 
of expensive legal help, understand the law and con- 
duct his own case in. court. Indeed, so wholesome is 
the dread of lawyers in Tonga that they are not al- 
lowed to practice in the courts, and though in evi- 
dence they are content to give their advice to liti- 
gants outside, and to charge them fees in the usual 

In a British Island Confederation, the annexation of 
Tonga as a preliminary step need not ensue, but its 
autoQoniy could be easil.v recognised, and an honour- 
able understanding arrived at to obviate any conflict 
of interests. The people are well aware how much 
they owe to the Christian and civilising influences 
which followed the Englishman's advent among them, 
and they could well be trusted to take their place in 
the coming confederation. 

William Nayler l,Tic.) writes: — This is a subject 
that, for years, has been discussed both by speakers 
and writers, and especially by faddists, who fancy 
that theirs is the perfect system to cure all the faults 
and weaknesses in the present system of voting, and. 
like them. I suppose that I must plead a little guilty to 
being of that cult. I start on the hypothesis that in 
the election of members of Parliament every elector 
.should have the same power to choose or reject every 
candidate. Under the present system, if one party 
has one candidate and the opposite party two or more, 
it is patent to the simplest understanding that the 
latter is severely handicapped — and I purpose en- 
deavouring to devise a system whereby each party 
shall be enabled to use the same amoTUit of influence 
in electing or rejecting each candidate. One would 
naturally have thought that in a country with seven 
Parliaments perfection would have been attained long 
since in the election of members: but the legislatui-e 
has just refused to the nearest plan to perfec- 
tion that has ever been put forward. The present 
system is crude in conception, and appears to have 
been constructed in an adumbrant manner, the framers 
having no conception of the enormous responsibility 
attached to the subject, and is the outcome of the 
patronage system in politics where men without 
ability get pitchforked into positions which they are 
unsuited to fill, as many have no administrative 
ability. For fifty years we" have had in Victoria. Par- 
liaments elected in an unfair way — it is unfair because 
it gives the party with one candidate two chances to 
one against the party who have two would-be mem- 
bers standing for election. The present, at first sight, 
appears to be a fair and honourable plan, but results 
prove that it is so uncertain that it is not what is 
renuired. We have a large uneducated class as 
voters, and as the legislature has endowed them with 
the right to vote, we require a plan that will enable 
them to record their vote in a simple way. and it 
must be completed in one act. Where only two can- 
didates stand for a single electorate, the present plan 
is all that is required : but when three or more per- 
sons stand for election, it shows at once its weakness, 
and. indeed, appears to assist in a species of fraud, 
as if any one section of electors, being nunierically 
strong, chose to combine and only have one candidate, 
they can easily outvote another section who are 
troubled with a plurality of representatives seeking 
for honour on the same ticket, and the plan I am 
about to propose gives each voter equal power in the 
election — in fact, he cannot use equal power if he is 
unable to concentrate his vote on each of the candi- 

Rerietc of Rtvieus, IJll/oe. 





dates as if they were all but one person. Here is an 
imaginary case to show my proposition: — 

Smith, Freetrader 500 Protectionist 

Brown, Protectionist ... 400 

Jones, Labour 390 Freetrader... 

Robinson, Protectionist ... 260 Labour 

This election shows that the Protectionists polled 
660 rotes, and that IVIi'. Brown is the man the elec- 
tors, by a majority, have chosen. Thus every voter has 
shown power to the same degree, and the party in 
the majority win the election, and the most popular 
candidate is also returned. In such a case the Pro- 
tectionists would merely cross out the names of Smith 
and Jones, leaving the names of the two candi- 
dates being of the same political opinions, and the 
most popular man would be sure to come out on top. 
All the electors would not use their privilege, as per- 
sonal prejudice is often rampant at such times ; but 
the public would in nearly all cases choose the most 
popular candidate. For the want of such a system at 
the last Federal election several good men lost their 
election. It appears paradoxical that to • elect one 
member an elector should leave two or more names on 
his paper, but he is entitled to vote for those who 
uphold his principles as well as the man who is fortu- 
nate enough to have but one candidate to support, 
and it is perfectly fair to each party to vote their 
fidl strength for the cause they espouse. If, as is 
the as before, only one-half the voters had polled 
for both Protectionist candidates. Brown would have 
to his credit 790 votes. This plan is perfectly equit- 
able, and can be worked in so simple a way that there 
would be few mistakes made, as all a voter would 
have to do would be to cross out those names that he 
considered were opposed to his principles, and leave 
those of his friends. 


Mr. Percy R. Meggy writes: — 

I wish to thank you for allowing " Vegetarian '' 
to bring forward in your widely-circulated magazine 
one of the greatest questions of the day, into the 
advocacy of which I would gladly throw myself heart 
and soul, if there were not another question more 
important even than that. In a couple of pages 
your correspondent has brought together some most 
valuable evidence from leading scientists, showing 
that man is not naturally a meat eater, but a vege- 
tarian, as is abundantly proved by his close physical 
similarity with the ape, and that a vegetarian diet, 
by which I mean substitution of pidse foods for meat, 
is far more nutritious and beneficial in every way 
than meat. He has also shown wliat I can corro- 
borate from my own experience, that a man can do 
far more mental and even physical work on a pulse 
and fruit diet than he possibly could on a meat one, 
and he might have added what is equally important, 
that in nine cases out of ten a vegetarian would be 
easily able to resist the temptation to smoke or 
drink. Knowing these facts as many of us do, what 
is the plain duty of the man who has a conscience, 
and tries to obey the promptings of his higher .self!' 

Is it not to do all he can, first by example, and 
then by precept, to spread this knowledge among: 
others, and to inculcate the great doctrine of mercy 
to the helpless dumb creatures whose pitiful appeal 
for protection we answer with a knife and nameless 
cruelties in the train and ship? For my own part, I 
would scorn to gratify my palate by the death agonies 
of a living creature, so long as I could satisfy my 
hunger on the far more nutritious products of the 
vegetable world. 

AVe have been so accustomed to hear animals 
spoken of with contempt, as if man only had a 
soul, and the other members of creation had none, 
that most of us believe it ; but it is the narrowest of 
church-taught doctrines, and utterly contemptible 
beside the grand conception so familiar in the East 
that all life — whether of flesh, fish, or fowl — comes 
from the Supreme, and is journeying on through 
countless lives, gathering a rich harvest of experi- 
ence on its way -back to its source, and the shorter 
our sojourn in this present place the longer will be 
our path towards our destined goal. For these 
reasons I should rejoice to hear of the extension of 
the great vegetarian movement in Australia, where 
a marked increase in sympathy for the inferior races 
is very much requiied. 


yiv. Percy R. Meggy writes to say that he has 
been prevented by pressure of work from answering 
the attack made by Mr. J. Miles Verrall. N.Z.. in 
tlie October number of the " Review of Reviews " on 
the Single Tax principles advocated by Mr. Meggy 
in his article on " Land Monopoly in Tasmania," 
published in the June numlier. but he will do so in 
a future issue. 

A subscriber asks us to publish Ernest Crosby's in 
spiring lines on "Life and Death." 


So he died for his faith. That is fine — 

More than most of us do. 
But, say, can you add to that line 

That he lived for it, too." 
In his death he bore witness at last 

As a martyr to truth. 
Did his life do the same in the past 

From the days of his youth? 
It is easy to die! Men have died 

For a wish or a whim — 
I'roni bravado, or passion, or pride, 

AVas it harder for him !•" 
But to live — every day to live out 

.\11 the truth that he dreamt, 
Wliile his friends met his conduct with doubt, 

.\nd the world with contempt. 
Was it thus that he plodded ahead, 

Never turning aside? 
Then we'll talk of the life that he lived, 

Never mind how he died. 

Review of Reviewg, lJ2$/dS. 

Character Sketch. 


So General Tiepoff has gone! The one strong, 
capable man in all Russia ! I sincerely deplore his 
loss. I am one of the few Englishmen who had the 
pleasure of the personal acquaintance of the deceased 
General. I always spoke of the man as I found him, 
and have been freely denounced in consequence by 
sympathisers with the Russian Revolution. Now 
that he is dead, the Radical papers, which de- 
jioiinced me as his tool and ^'neni provocateur, are 
■compelled to pay tributes to L honesty, his liberal- 
ism. I venture to hope that some at least of my 
nialigners may remember with shame the abuse thev ■ 
heaped upon me for speaking up for a man to whose 
true character 1 testified when to speak a good word 
for General Trepoff brought down upon you the 
major excommunication of the Liberals of Russia. 


I met General Trepoff twice, and wrote to him 
many times. 1 ne\er published any report of my 
interviews with him, although I naturally was com- 
pelled to refer to the substance of his communica- 
tions. 1 \oluntarilv assured him that I would not 
publish (lur con\ersation until he had revised my 
notes, as it seemed to me the importance of the sub- 
ject justified mv taking every precaution against any 
misapprehension or misunderstanding as to the views 
which he expressed on that occasion. Only the 
week before his death 1 was discussing with Pro- 
fessor Milyukoff the best way of securing the revision 
of my MSS. by General Trepoff. His death renders 
this impossible. 

In justice to his memory I deem it not only justifi-' 
able, but necessary, to put on record the notes of a 
conversation which at one time promised to bear 
good fruits in the shape of a pacified and liberated 
Russia. Although my notes are unrevised, the whole 
of the conversation was burnt so deeply into my 
memory I have no doubt as to their accuracy. Nor 
will General Trepoflf's friends — and he had many 
friends — resent the publication of notes of a conver- 
sation which, I venture to think, reveal more clearly 
than anything yet printed the man as he was. 


Before jjrinting this record of our interview, it may 
be well briefly to sketch the career of the man who, 
more than any other, was regarded bv friend and foe 
as the incarnation of Power. General Trepoff was 
the remarkable son of a remarkable father. Eighty 
years i\<i • a new-born babv was found on the door- 

step of a respectable family in St. Petersburg. The 
practice of leaving unwanted children about the 
streets is more common in Russia than in other coun- 
tries, and in no other country is such lavish provision 
made for the upbringing of these foundlings. In the 
great State foundling hospitals the infant mortality 
is atrocious. Trepoff pcrc's chance of survival was 
greatly improved that he fell into the hands of a 
Russian householder, who educated him and started 
iiim in the world so successfully that before he died 
his unknown foundling had become Prefect of St. 
Petersburg, and one of the most powerful men in the 
Empire. He became notorious throughout Europe 
from the attempt made to assassinate him by Vera 
Sassonlitch, who was triumphantly acquitted bv a 
jury who would probably have been much more en- 
thusiastic if she had been successful. 


Dmitri Feodoritch Trepoff, the youngest son of 
Vera's target, was bom in 1855. He was there- 
fore but fifty-one when he died. He went 
into the Arniy, and was regarded as a fairly 
average stupid subaltern, who read no books, 
and enjoyed life as Russian officers do. When 
he was twenty-two he went with his regi- 
ment to the Balkans. He fought with characteristic 
courage, was wounded, and went back to the camp 
trom the hospital. When peace was made he came 
hack to Russia, and bv degrees rose to a colonelcv 
in the Horse Guards. He remained with his regi- 
ment until rSpd, w^hen he was made Police Master 
of Moscow. There he remained till the outbreak of 
war with Jajian, w^hen he was gazetted to the com- 
mand of a brigade in Manchuria. The outbreak of 
revolutionary violence in .St. Petersburg deprived 
him of any chance of distinguishing himself in the 
Far East. He was appointed Governor-General of 
St. Petersburg, with fu!l control of the police of the 
Empire. When I reached the Russian capital at 
the end of August, 1905. I found General Trepoff 
the man on horseback. St. Petersburg was as quiet 
as London. Even the disgust excited bv the signa- 
ture of peace was not allowed to cause a ripple of 
discontent upon the sullen and stagnant pool of St. 
Petersburg opinion. 


At the Court and at the Embassies everyone swore 
b\ General Trepoff ; and although in the workshops, 
in the newspaper offires, and in the lower revolu- 

Review of Reviews, I/lJ/oa. 

Character Sketch. 


tionary strata, everybody swore at him, they swore 
under their breath. A distinguished foreign resident 
in St. Petersburg whom I consulted as to the chances 
of a revolutionary outbreak, repUed : " So long as 
Trepoff is in command I am not uneasy. On the 
da\ he dies, or is killed, I shall send my wife hoine." 
It was Trepoff, an ambassador told me, and Trepoff 
alone, who kept the flag flying in St. Petersburg. 
From the Liberals I heard all manner of stories con- 
cerning this jack-booted tyrant, who trampled ruth- 
lesslv upon all human rights and liberties. Trepoff 
was the man of the iron hand and the stony heart. 
Trepoff was the coarse, vulgar, illiterate boor, the 


The Tsar had given me permission to address 
Conferences on the Duma from the English point of 
view. But I was assured on all hands that the Tsar's 
permission was worth but little if it were not counter- 
signed by his omnipotent Master of Police. At that 
time Russian Liberals generally, and Russian Social 
Revolutionaries without any exception, were utterlv 
sceptical about the value of the Duma. I was 
satisfied by my conversation with the Emperor that 
he really and truly meant business ; that, in his 
Majesty's opinion, the Duma was only the first step, 
and if it succeeded he was quite prepared to go fur- 

General Trepoff. 
Died September 15th. 

General Oedulin. 
General Trepoff's successor. 

only instrument at once brutal enough and strong 
enough to serve the turn of an autocrat in despair. 
Whether they blessed him or they banned him, Tre- 
poff was the man of the situation — the vice Tsar, the 
Dictator de facto of the Empire. Those who belit- 
tled him and bemoaned that so mean a man should 
be e.xaltcd to such high office, admitted that how- 
ever petty might be the man himself, the post which 
he occupied made him the most important human 
personality in all Russia — bar none. 

ther. Further, I had received the most positive 
assurances that laws conceding the four fundamental 
liberties of Association, Public Meeting, Free Press, 
and Personal Liberty were in preparation and would 
shortly be published. It seemed to me, therefore, 
that I could not possibly render greater .service to 
the cause of Russia and of humanity than by urging 
the Ru.ssian Liberals to accept the Duma as a first 
step, and by loyally co-operating with the Emperor 
to render possible the peaceful e\olution of Russian 


The Review of Reviews. 

Deeemher 1, 1906. 

liberty. But when I quoted the Tsar's words, my 
Russian friends shrugged their shoulders and said': 
'• Trepoff !" and when 1 urged that after all Nicholas 
II. was Tsar, and not General Trepoff, they said : 
"What about Milyukoff?' To which I answered: 
■' I shall see General Trepoff, and I agree to accept 
the fate of Professor Milyukoff as the touchstone of 
the sincerity of the Russian Government." Under 
those circumstances it can easily be imagined with 
what anxiety I made my way to interview the dread- 
ed Mayor of the Palace. 


As is my wont before proceeding to interview anv- 
one upon whose decision the fate of nations may 

How General Trepoff Restores Order. 

depend, I jotted down roughly on half a sheet of 
notepaper the general line along which I wished the 
conversation to go. These rough notes I reproduce 
as a memento of one of the most interesting inter- 
views of my life : — 

Interview with Tre-poff, 

First object to put myself en rapport in friendly aympa^ 
thetic relations; recall Grcesser also, ancestral genins. 
General opinion he is pillar of situation. 

Emperor wished me to see him, first about my own pro- 
paganda.— Suspicion.— Meeting to set forth English point of 
view. (1) Government sincere; (2) Duma entails— submit- 

ted to Emperor. Will submit it to him as soon as in Rus- 

Milyukoff— Cannot write or say one word until Milyukoff 
is out. and his friends or tried— Whole thing hung up. 

Situation seems to me very daneerous. Baku general. 
You stand between order and authority. Bat law. No law 
in Russia — but Trepoff's will. 


I was \ery fortunate in my interpreter. My old 
friend, Dr. Duncan, a Russian of Scotch descent, 
who for many years had been the chief sanitary offi- 
cer of St. Petersburg, consented to accompany. Dr. 
Duncan was not only an ex-official who spoke Rus- 
sian and English with equal facility; he was an 
old personal friend of the Trepoff family. Nearly 
torty years ago, when Dmitri Feodoritch was but a 
boy in his teens, Dr. Duncan had been entrusted bv 
his father. General Trepoff, with the duty of accom- 
panying his son to London. It was also very well 
known to General Trepoff that I had been received 
at Peterhof, and that I sought the interview at the 
express wish of the Tsar. He also knew that a dav 
or two before my visit I had a long interview with 
Professor Milyukoff", by sisecial order of General 
Dedulin, who had the Professor brought from prison 
to a police station in order that I might inter\-iew 
him. The circumstances, therefore, were propitious. 
But I had heard so much about the ignorance and 
brutality of this jack-booted Dictator that I was not 
a little uneasy as to how the interview would go. 


We were received at the headquarters of the Gov- 
ernor-General, and after a short delay were ushered 
into his presence. At that time General Trepoff had 
been several times doomed to death by the Revo- 
lutionary Tribunal — if so imposing a name may be 
given to the secret juntos of desperate men and 
women who arrogate to themselves the power of life 
and death. Some six or seven attempts had been 
made to assassinate him ; but he seemed to bear a 
charmed life. People still remembered his contemp- 
tuous remark when he believed he was on the eve of 
leaving Moscow for Manchuria : " I prefer to face 
the bullets of the regular soldiers of Japan than to be 
shot at by the bungling amateurs of the revolution." 

As we took our seats and accepted his cigarettes 
in his spacious reception room, it was difficult to 
realise that this tall, handsome soldier was the storm- 
centre of the brooding revolution. Conspirators 
with dagger, poison, revolver, and bomb were wait- 
ing and dreaming of the moment when they might 
gratify their longing for vengeance. The concen- 
trated hate of a million men and women beat about 
this sanctum of autocratic power. And there we sat 
and gossiped pleasantly, as if there were no earth- 
quake trembling beneath our feet. Yet we were in 
the very crater of the revolutionary volcano, sitting 
on the lid with which armed force was struggling 
to shut down the hell fire that raged below. 

Revietc of Reviews, 1J12/lG. 

Character Sketch. 



I began by some complimentary remarks upon the 
tranquillity of St. Petersburg, and repeated some of 
the observations I had heard in diplomatic circles 
concerning his ministrations. General Trepoff, who 
was courtesy itself, chatted awhile with Dr. Duncan 
about old times. We laughed about the Trepoff 
dynasty, and asked him if he had a son to take his 
place. No, he had only daughters, but there were 
other Trepoffs. Then, suddenly brushing aside the 
conventional small talk, the General said : " Perhaps 
Mr. Stead would like to hear my political ideas." I 
confess I was somewhat startled. " Why, of course," 
I said to Dr. Duncan, in English, " I never heard 
before that he had any political ideas. Nothing 
would please me more than to hear his views." On 
the latter part of this being translated, General Tre- 
poff began : — 


" I wish to realise that what I have to say relates 
only to Russia. With the Ausland, the Caucasus, 
Poland, Finland, and the Baltic provinces I have 
nothing to do. They lie outside my jurisdiction, and 
many things have happened there which might have 
been prevented if I had been able to deal with them. 


" The state of Russia is very serious. It is a 
complex situation, due to many causes, the product 
of long years, during which many things have been 
mismanaged and more have been neglected. We are 
to-day reaping the harvest of the faults of previous 
generations. We need not discuss where the respon- 
sibility lies. It is sufficient for us to admit that, as 
the net result of antecedent causes, Russia is at 
present in the midst of a very grave crisis, so grave 
a crisis that it is idle to think that it can be coped 
with by mere repression or by any single measure of 
reform. The evil, which is of long standing, is verv 
deep-rooted, and must be approached on all sides. 
Nothing will do anv good which does not recognise 
the complexity of the problem, and which does not 
seek to deal with all the phases of the malady from 
which we are suffering." 

When this was duly translated to me by my Rus- 
so-Scotch phonograph I was amazed. Here at least, 
from the lips of the Tyrant of the Iron Hand, I was 
hearing the shibboleth of Liberal statesmanship. Mv 
preconceived prejudices against the ignorant Police 
Master, who read nothing, and had not a political 
idea in his head, received a rude blow. 

(1) THE LAND. 

General Trepoff went on : " I will divide the 
subject into four parts. The tirst is the agrarian 
question, the second the industrial problem, the third 
education, and the fourth the Duma. I will deal 
W4th each in turn. 

■■ Of all the troubles which confront us by far the 
most important is that of the land. No settlement 
which does not settle the land question will settle 
anything. An influential Commission is at present 
engaged in investigating this subject with a view to 
immediate action." 

" Where is that Commission ?'' I asked, " and who 
are the Commissioners whom I ought to see?" 

" The Commission is away down near Saratoff," 
he replied. " But you do not need to trouble your- 
self to seek after Commissioners. I can telL you 
everything you want to know. The agrarian ques- 
tion is one to which I have given special attention. 
I know it down to the ground. The agrarian ques- 
tion, briefly stated, is that the peasants have not got 
enough land to live on, and they are suffering in 
some districts very great hardship. This occasions 

Ganaral Trepoff Crowns Himself Tsar. 

discontent, and to remo\"e the discontent is impos- 
sible unless wt- remove its" 


vou a land nationaliser ?" I asked, 


■ An- 
( lount Tolstoy ?" 

'' No," he said, " T am not ; at least, I regard land 
nationalisation as impracticable at present. I would, 
however, move in that direction slowly. I know 
Count Tolstoy's ideas very well. I have been in 
correspondence with him. He is a Henry Georgeite. 
But I will proceed with my programme. I would 
grapple with the agrarian question on four different 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 

lines, all aiming directly at the improvement of the 
peasants' economic position. First of all I would, 
\vhere\er practical, increase the peasants' holding. 
This could be done without confiscation and without 
any revolutionary measures. There are in Russia 
immense areas which are derelict. The owners have 
become bankrupt or have no longer the means to 
cultivate them. I would, as a beginning, tate over 
all land not in cultivation from these causes and 
divide it up among the peasants in need of land. 
There are also other estates which are at the dis- 
posal of the Government. In this way I would par- 
tially satisfy the hunger of the peasants for the land. 
But that is only one of my proposals. My second 
plan is to facilitate to the uttermost the redistribu- 
tion of the population. There are districts where 
the population is congested — ^too many men on each 
square mile. There are other districts which suffer 
from precisely the opposite malady — too many 
squar,- miles to the man. At present there are all 
kinds of difficulties in the way of redressing these 
inequalities by a process of exchange. I would fa- 
cilitate them by removing all legal obstacles, and by 
giving free transport from the congested areas to the 
sparsely inhabited districts. In the third place, I 
would use the Land Bank — ^which in Russia, you 
know, is a political rather than an economic institu- 
tion — as an agencv for making advances to the pea- 
sants to furnish them with the appliances, mechani- 
cal and animal, which they need if they are to cul- 
tivate the soil to any good purpose. By these three 
measures I feel assured that it would be possible to 
remove so much of the discontent among the pea- 
sants that the agrarian question would be reduced to 
manageable proportions." 

It is worth recalling the fact that this conversation 
took place twelve months ago, when Russia was ap- 
parently quite tranquil, before the railway strike. 

" So much for the agrarian problem. Until that 
is settled there can be no real solution of the 
crisis. Legislation on the lines I have laid down 
is being elaborated, and when once the peasant is 
satisfied the revolutionarv crisis ceases to be mena- 


" Now,'' said I, " after the peasants the workmen. 
What of them?'' 

" In the first place, remember," said General Tre- 
poff, '■ that the workman does not cease to be a pea- 
sant because he comes to the town to seek employ- 
ment. But it is true that the economic position of 
the artisan in the great centres of industry leaves 
much to be desired. He is too much at the mercy 
of his employers, who are arbitrary, both in fixing 
the conditions of employment and still more in the 
exercise of the right of dismissal. It is the duty 
of the Government to protect the workman against 
the tyranny and injustice of the capitalist. That 
was the object which I kept constantly before me 

when I was at the head of the police of Moscow. 
You have heard the name of Zubaloff?" 

I admitted that I had heard it. although I did not 
add that I had usually heard it coupled with fierce 
denunciations of himself. 

■ The system carried out by Zubaloff, in conjunc- 
tion, and indeed at the suggestion of myself, was 
an attempt to raise the working classes of Moscow 
in the social scale. We sought our end in three 
w^ays. First, we encouraged the workmen to form 
trades unions for self-protection and for the promo- 
tion of their own economic interests ; secondly, we 
organised a system of lectures on economic subjects 
by competent speakers ; and thirdly, we set on foot 
a wide distribution of cheap and wholesome literature. 
We sought to encourage self-reliance, to develop in- 
telligence, and to promote thrift." 

•■ With what result ?" I asked, wishing to hear from 
the General's own lips what was the official estimate 
of the counter-revolutionary propaganda set on foot 
under police patronage in the old Russian capital. 

'■ With the verv best results," he replied. '" Before 
I set on foot the Zubaloff system Moscow was seeth- 
ing with discontent. Under my regime the work- 
man realised that he commanded the sympathies of 
the Government, and that he could depend upon us 
to defend him from the oppression of his employer. 
As a result, Moscow became tranquil. Once a hot- 
bed of discontent, it is now peaceful, ptosperous and 

I confess that this was a little too much for me. 
I had not then visited Moscow, but I had heard 
quite enough to convince me that the General's op- 
timistic report was so far from the truth of things 
that I had to ask myself whether it was possible he 
could believe the assurances he showered upon me 
with so lavish a hand. A week later when I visited 
Moscow I found the city seething with revolutionary- 
discontent. The bakers were on strike; there had 
been open collisions between the troops and the 
strikers. The compositors were on the eve of strik- 
ing, and in another month the great railway strike 
broke out, with Moscow as its storm-centre. But I 
had come to listen to General Trepoff, not to argue 
with him ; so I asked whether he proposed to extend 
the Zubaloff sy.stem to St. Petersburg. 

•• Xo,'' said he, " not yet. The excitement occa- 
sioned by the disturbance of January has not yet 
subsided, and until it is over these ameliorative mea- 
sures must remain in abeyance so far as St. Peters- 
burg is concerned. But the principle is right, and 
its application is merely a matter of time and of 


•• We now come," said General Trepoff, " to the 
educational problem. This may be divided into three 
sections — elementary, secondary, and University edu- 
cation. There is no doubt that in the matter of 
elementarv education Russia has lagged far behind. 

RmvUvi of Reviews, l/lHIOe. 

Character Sketch, 


It is necessary that some vigorous action should be 
taken, and taken at once. I regard the establish- 
ment of universal compulsory free elementary edu- 
cation as one of the first duties that must be under- 
taken by the Government. Every child born in 
Russia ought to be secured a right to a free elemen- 
tary education.' 

" Splendid !" I exclaimed. " But where is the 
money to come from ? Think of the millions that 
will be wanted to build schools all over the Empire ! 
May I make a suggestion ? Why not suspend the 
building of a new fleet for ten years, and devote the 
whole sum at present spent on the Navy to the 
building of new schools throughout Russia?" 

General Trepoff listened as this was being trans- 
lated to him, and then replied curtly : '■ Russia is 
rich enough to rebuild her navy and build all the 
schools she requires." 

" I am glad to hear it, " I replied : " but I think, 
however rich Russia mav be, it will be difficult to do 

" With regard to secondary education,'' said Gene- 
ral Trepoff, ■■ I regard that as a matter with which 
the Government need not concern itself. Those who 
wish for it are rich enough to pay for it. As they 
pay for it they may fairly be allowed to arrange it 
according to their own ideas. We cannot, unfortu- 
nately, take a similar course with regard to the Uni- 
versities. They are for the most part State institu- 
tions, and the State must control what the State 
supports. There is, however, one change which I 
think might be made with advantage. At present 
every candidate for the service of the State must 
have a diploma showing that he has graduated in 
one of our Universities. I would abolish that. I 
would throw the public career open to all capable 
persons, no matter where they were educated. The 
State, of course, would fix its own tests of capacity, 
which every candidate must pass. But it need onlv 
concern itself with results. It has no need to pre- 
scribe the methods necessary to secure these results. 
If a candidate passed his examination I would not 
ask where he studied. He might have taught him- 
self, have had a private tutor, or have taken his 
courses at a foreign University. What we want is 
all the talents we can command. I am against the 
present monopoly. I would encourage free trade in 


By this time, what with the time required for 
translation back and forth, and with extraneous di- 
gressions, an hour had nearly passed. I ventured to 
ask about Professor Milyukoff, about whom I had 
made urgent representations in other quarters. Gene- 
ral Trepoff said that he had a-sked for a report as 
to how the preliminary inquiries had proceeded, and 
whether or not it was possible to deal with the case 
at once. He hoped to have the report to-morrow. 

" We have not yet touched upon the political side 
of the crisis, which is of very great importance. If 
I have not wearied you, perhaps you could come to- 
morrow, when I will give you my views on that side 
of the question also." 

Of course I was only too delighted to have an- 
other interview, and we parted. Next day we were 
back again punctual to time, and General Trepoff 
resumed his discourse as to the remedies required 
for the body politic. 

'■ Pray assure General Trepoff," I said to my inter- 
preter, " with what delight and surprise I heard what 
he had to say yesterday. I had been told that I 
would (find a mere police master, and, lo ! I came 
upon a broad-minded statesman." 

General Trepoff bowed, and we at once plunged 
into the political question by a question as to whe- 
ther he had decided to permit or to prohibit the ap- 
proaching Congress of the Zemstvoists which was 
to meet at Moscow the following Monday. It will 
appear almost incredible to those who do not know 
the happy-go-lucky methods of Russian administra- 
tion that General Trepoff said he had not made up 
his mind on the subject. He was waiting for a re- 
port from Moscow. Yet at that time delegates were 
already starting for the Congress. 


I asked him his opinion about the Duma. " I am 
in favour of the Duma," he replied. 

•• Mav I ask," I said, " whether it is true tliat when 
the subject was being discussed before the Emperor 
in the Council of the Empire, you said that the 
Duma would undoubtedly limit the autocracy of the 
Tsar, but that it was .necessary to do it?" 

'■ That is not exactly how it occurred," he replied. 
" The Emperor, who presided over the sittings of 
the Council of the Empire, asked each of us in turn, 
' Will the establishment of the Duma limit my 
autocratic power ?' It was a searching question, and 
many of the Councillors evaded it more or less 
adroitlv or absented themselves. I am a plain, 
blunt man, who speaks what he thinks. So, when 
I was asked, I replied : ' It seems to me indisputable 
that the institution of the Duma will, to a certain 
extent, curtail the autocratic power of your Majesty, 
but I think it will be easier to govern Russia if that 
is done.' " 

We then discussed the famous four legs upon 
which the Duma was to stand: — (i) Liberty of As- 
sociation, (2) Liberty of Meeting, {■^) Liberty of 
the Press, and (4) Habeas Corpus. General Tre- 
poff expressed himself in favour of the first three 
legs, but he boggled over the fourth. 

" During the electoral period," he said, " the lar- 
gest possible liberty will be allowed for association 
and public meetings. The law guaranteeing the 
libertv of the Press has been prepared, and will short- 
ly be issued." 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 


" So far, so good," I said ; " but what about per- 
sonal liberty? Is Russia to have a Habeas Corpus 
Act ?" 

General Trepoff replied : '' A Habeas Corpus Act 
is admirable for England, and for similar coun- 
tries : but in Russia it would be premature. Our 
political life is not sufficiently developed. We have 
vast arrears, centuries of development to overtake. 
Institutions that suit more advanced nations would 
not work well with the Russian people." 

" But," I objected, " what is the use of conceding 
all the other liberties of association, free speech and 
free press, if you retain the power of arbitrary ar- 
rest? Who will dare to speak freely under a law 
which permits him liberty of speech, but leaves him 
equally free to be clapped under lock and kev by 
any policeman who dislikes what he said ?" 

'■ Oh," said General Trepoff, '• during the electoral 
period there will be as little arbitrary arrests as 
possible. Even now I am restraining myself with 
the utmost efforts from locking up manv mauvals 
sujets because I hear they are going to stand for the 

" You must understand,'' General Trepoff went on, 
" that there is a great defect in the Russian law. 
All our laws only pre.scribe punishment for the man 
who commits a crime after the crime has been com- 
mitted. What we ought to have is a law that would 
prevent the crime being committed." 

" Which means in practice that you would give 
every policeman right to lock up on suspicion every 
man whom he chose to imagine might at some future 
time commit a crime. In other words, you make 
the police the sole law, and the length of the police- 
man's foot the only standard." 

" You are mistaken," said General Trepoff, " in 
thinking that any man can be locked up bv any 
policeman. If any policeman suspects anv man of 
an intention to break the law he makes a report on 
the subject to his .superior officer, who is then bound 
to make independent inquiries. His report then 
comes before me, and it rests with me to say whe- 
ther or not the man shall be arrested. After his ar- 
rest his case is examined into privately, and if he 
is found to be innocent he is dismissed." 


" Well," said I. " what about Professor Milvu- 

" I have not yet got the report I have ordered. 
But that also followed the ordinary course." 

" Can you tell me," I asked, " what crime Milyukoff 
has committed ? ' 

" No," said the General, " it is so serious that I 
cannot even tell it to you." 

" Well," I said, " you have not even told it to 
Milyukoff himself, and the gendarme- told me that 
they were keeping him in prison until thev had 

discovered what crime it was he was intending to 

'• Professor Milyukoff," he replied, " knows very 
well on what charge he is arrested. If the report 
is favourable I hope I may be able to release him 
on bail in two or three days. But mind, he will 
have to be tried." 

" Of course," I replied. " Try him, and if he is 
found guiltv punish him — hang him if you will. No- 
body will object to a judicial sentence passed after 
fair trial in open court. But what plays the devil 
with everything is the arrest and imprisonment with- 
out trial — especially when, as in this case, the man 
is so well known throughout the world." 

" I know Professor Milyukoff's books," said Gene- 
ral Trepoff. ■■ He is a clever man, but he must obey 
the law." 

" Well," said I, " you say you cannot tell me what 
contemplated crime it was that justified you in lock- 
ing up Professor Milyukoff. But I will tell you that 
even if he had perpetrated the worst crime of which 
vou can accuse him, he would have done less harm 
to Russia and to the Tsar than you. General Tre- 
poff, have done by locking him up untried." 

" How do you make that out ?" said the General. 

" The Tsar," I said, " had painted a beautiful pic- 
ture and hung it up for the admiration of the 
whole world. He called it ' The Duma.' We were 
all admiring it as symbolising the dawn of !ibert\- 
in Russia, when up comes General Trepoff with a 
blacking-brush called arbitrary- arrest, and smudges 
out the whole beautiful picture which the Tsar had 
painted. Now in England and America people no 
longer see the Duma anv more ; they only see the 
arrest of Professor Milyukoff." 

Trepoff laughed. " I could let Milyukoff out at 
once — that rests with me." 


" General Trepoff," I replied, " I have learned 
some things since I came into this room. I now see 
that in Russia there is no law-, there is no judge, 
there is no Tsar ; there is only General Trepoff." 

I think he took this rather as a compliment. I 
told him of the proposal that I should hold confer- 
ences on the Duma from the English point of view. 

He replied : " I regard it as a great kindness that 
you should hold such conferences. I will give the 
authorities directions to aflford you full facilities to 
hold your conferences wherever you please." 

" The Emperor," I said, " thought that in view of 
the excited state of public feeling, it would be bet- 
ter if I held only private conferences." 

" Oh," said General Trepoff, " that belongs to my 
department! You may hold as many public confer- 
ences as you please. I wiU see that the authorities 
afford vou everi,- protection. When do \ou propose 
to begin ?" 

" Answer me another question," I replied. " When 
do you propose to release Professor Milyukoff? Be- 

Review of Reriews, lJl3fC6. 

Character Sketch. 


cause it will be idle to argue to a Russiau audience 
that the Duma is other than a farce so long as you 
keep Milyukoff in prison." 

" Well," he said, '' I told you I would have the 
report in two or three days." 

I replied, " To-day is Wednesday. Thursday is 
one day, Friday is two days, Saturday is three days. 
I will wait till Saturday, and if Milyukoflf is liberated 
then I will begin." 


I took my leave, and I never saw him again. He 
left upon me the impression of a tall, powerful man, 
simple and unpresuming, who had fully realised the 
fact that force was no remedy, and was doggedly 
holding together the fabric of society until the new- 
structure was ready. He was a W. E. Forster kind 
of a man crossed with Sir Charles Warren. I was 
surprised at the frankness with which he admitted 
the faults of the existing system and the width of 
his programme of reform. He may have been pos- 
ing. But, on the other hand, his subsequent career 
justifies the belief that he was honestly expressing 
his inmost thought. In the very last recorded inter- 
view published since his death. General Trepoff is 
reported to have refused to introduce a reactionary 
journalist, M. Sherapoff, to the Tsar, on the ground 
that his Majesty was determined to introduce a con- 
stitutional form of government into Russia, a reso- 
lution in which he— General Trepoff — entirely con- 

When I reported the result of mv interview with 
General Trepoff to my Russian Liberal friends in 
St. Petersburg they shrugged their shoulders. They 
did not disguise their conviction that the General 
was fooling me. '• Maybe," I replied. " The release 
of Milvukoff will be the touchstone of his sincerity. 
If he lets the Professor go free, then I think I shall 
be justified in going ahead." 

'■ Yes." they said, " if " 

I had sufficient faith to make all preparations for 
going ahead. I invited a company of Russian, Eng- 
lish and .\merican friends to a conference at the 
Hotel d'Europe on Sunday afternoon to discuss 
the Duma, and I also invited Professor MilyukofT to 
meet them. 

I admit that my faith was somewhat tried. Thurs- 
<lav passed with no sign. On Friday there was a 
false report that Milyukoflf was released, but he still 
lay behind prison bars. Saturday came, and still 
there was no news of his release. 


I was sitting in my room in the hotel at six o'clock 
on Saturday evening, when a military officer in full 
uniform and decorations was ushered into the room. 
He bow-ed, and then said in French : " His Excel- 
lency the Governor-General of St. Petersburg, Gene- 
ral Trepoff, has commanded me to present his com- 

pliments to Mr. Stead, and to inform him that Pro- 
fessor Milyukoff is free." 

My readers can imagine how I rejoiced over this 
confirmation at the eleventh hour of my confidence 
in the determination of the Tsar and his Mayor of 
the Palace to make the Duma a success. The truth 
of the news of the release of the Professor was gene- 
rally discredited. On Sunday afternoon my guests 
arrived, but the Professor was absent. We got well 
nigh through lunch, and were discussing the advice 
given bv an ex-boss of Tammany in New York as to 
The conduct of an electoral campaign for the Duma. 
Said the newspaper man across the table to another : 
" Stead thinks Milyukoff has been freed. Nothing 
of the kind. Thev are fooling him." 

Just at that moment my friend, Mr. Keay, heanng 
a noise at the door, went to see who was outside. 
Another moment and he returned, his face aglow. 
'■■ Professor Milyukoff," he exclaimed, and we all rose 
in honour of our distinguished guest. 


I had to leave before the rest of my guests to keep 
an appointment at the Anitchkoff Palace, and I did 
not see Professor Milyukoff again till we met at 
Moscow a few days later. Then he kindly read my 
paper to the Conference at Prince Dolgorouki's 
palace, and acted as my interpreter in the debate 
that followed. As might be imagined, his services 
to me w-ere misrepresented. Suspicious Liberals ac- 
cused him of aiding and abetting my propaganda 
for the Duma as a guid pro quo for his release. To 
remove the stigma he wrote a letter in which he 
protested that he would rather remain in gaol to 
the end of his natural life than owe his release 
to one who had undertaken the thankless role of 
parJcamcniairc for the Tsar. General Trepoff was 
equally indignant at the suggestion — a post hoc prop- 
ter hoc suggestion — that my conversation with him 
had anything whatever to do with Professor Milyu- 
koflf's release. Be that as it may, the whole story 
is now on record, and the world can form its own 
judgment. I never claimed to have secured M. 
}sIilvukoff's release. I onlv pointed to that release 
as the first-fruits of the policy which both the Em- 
peror and General Trepoff declared it was their firm 
intention to carry out. But the belief w^as general 
in St. Petersburg that the release resulted from my 
representation, and General Trepoflf was more se- 
verelv baited in the Liberal papers for releasing 
Milvukoff on a foreigner's appeal than he had ever 
been abused for locking him up. 

There is little more to add to this history. But I 
mav quote one or two communications that passed 
between General Trepoff and myself as the sequel of 
this visit. 


T had taken General Trepoff at his word, and I 
had the release of Milvukoff as an outward and 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1$06. 

visible sign that the new regime was about to be in- 
augurated. When I got to Moscow I found to my 
disgust that the Moscow newspapers were not al- 
lowed by the local censors to publish full reports of 
the Zemstvo Congress. At the suggestion of Mr. 
Wilton, the Times correspondent at St. Petersburg, 
I de.^patched the following telegram to General Tre- 
poff: — 

Hm Excelleucij General Trepoff, St. Petershunj. 

Sept. 13. 1905. 
I am amazed and distressed to discover this mornine that 
the Mosco%v papers were forbidden to uiiblish full reports 
of ZemstTO Consress proceedinss. This censorship is so ab- 
solutely contrary to spirit of assurances received from your 
Excellency, I feel, confident some over-zealous underline, ig- 
norant of your broad-minded policy, is actine: in eqtial 
defiance of your wishes and of plain common sense. I feel 

General TrepofF Decorating House Port«rE (Dvorniks) who had 
Displayed the Required Brutality to the Revolutionists. 

aure you will be alad to he informed of this unfortunate 
mistake, which so cruelly misrepresents the liberal pro- 
fession I was so glad to receive from your lips.— STEAD, 
Stavansky Bazar. 

I received no reply, but on the next day the news- 
papers were allowed to publish full reports of the 
Zemstvo Congress. 


After the Congress closed I held my conference on 
" The Duma from an English Point of View.'" Be- 
fore the [laper was read I had been interviewed by 
the Riisske ]'icdemosti on the reasons whv I believed 
the Duma would inaugurate a new- era in Russia, and 
in the course of the interview I natura'.lv referred to 
my talk uith Trepoff. and declared that although 

he might have been a Saul of Tarsus, I would prefei 
to regard him now as a St. Paul after his journey 
to Damascus. This irritated General Trepoff, who 
Sent me a letter in which he complained that I had 
published a report of our conversation without first 
submitting the MSS. to him. I replied that I had 
not pubashed any report of our interview, the his- 
toric importance of which I esteemed far too highly 
to lose the chance of submitting it to his revision. 
As for the reports of newspapers which had inter- 
viewed me, I disclaimed responsibility. What I 
had said I had. spoken so'.elv with a view of remov- 
ing misapprehensions widely prevalent as to his 

For a few days it seemed as if General Trepoff 
intended to carry out his promises. I was allowed to 
hold my meeting at Saratoff without any interference. 
.\ St. Petersburg newspaper was actually forbidden 
by the local censor to publish an article criticising 
me because it did not contain the necessary com- 
pliments. But it was, alas ! soon evident that al- 
though Milyukoff had been released, there was no 
realisation of the necessity for immediately releasing 
the other victims of administrative arrest. It seemed, 
indeed, that, as the editor of the Rtissky Viedemosti 
observed. Saul of Tarsus had been most imperfectly 


My own estimate of the situation on the eve 
of the great railway strike will best be under- 
stood by a perusal of the following letter which I 
sent to General TrepofF on leaving Moscow : — 

To Hi-t Ed-ceUencif General Trepoff, 

ON THE VOLGA. Sept. 18, 1905. 
I have to report to your Excellency briefly two or three 
matters of importance. 

1. Notwithstajiding your positive assurances given to me 
at St. Petersbure that vou would personally order the 
local authorities to give me facilities for holding meetings, 
public or private, the local police tried to interfere with 
my first meeting in Prince Dolgorouki's house, and it was 
only on positive assurances that I had your permission 
they desisted from troubling. May I beg of yoti to give 
instructions to the local authorities at Saratofl, Moscow, 
.-ind Orel that your orders are to lie obeyed, and that every 
facility must be given for my meetings '' 

2. The meeting in Moscow on Thursday was most in- 
teresting and instructive. The speeches made after mv 
address had been read proved that the good effect of the 
Duma, had been suoiled by the continuance of the arbi- 
trar.r proceedings still carried on by your police all over 
the country, I represented the Dum.i, as an offer of peace 
They replied : " Why then does General Trepoff still make 
war upon us? He has released Milyukoff, When he has 
released the thousands of other prisoners of war now iu 
his prisons we will begin to believe that the Duma means 

3. M. Grinmuth of the Moscow Gazette, and Mr. Seriakoff 
of his staff, who are organising a Conservative orthodox 
autocratic propaganda, will arrange for me another meet- 
ing iu Moscow. Tliey assure me that while they are work- 
ing hard in support of the Autocracy and the Church 
their t.a3k is very difficult, and they are both convinced 
that the arbitrary powers of arrest wielded hy the police 
must be abolished. They are both for Habeas Corpus. 
This is most significant and hopeful. 

Review of Eeiiewa, I/12/0S. 

Character Sketch. 


4. It is absolutely necessary, if the elections for the 
Duma are to be carried out intellicently. for you to give 
IMMEDIATE orders to forbid all interference with the 
organisation of electoral committees, and the holding of 
meetings at which the more intelligent can address the 
peasants and explain the duties of an elector. At present. 
as Mr. Grinmuth eoniiilaiiis, the orders which forbid 
meetings are only obeyed by the friends of the Government. 
The revolutionary iiropagandists hold secret meetings, and 
there are no means of counteracting them. 

5. It seems, therefore, to an English observer familiar 
with the holding of elections that nothing is more 
urgently needed than an immediate abolition of all orders 
or ordinances preventing the free intercourse for electoral 
purposes of all classes of the community. If the educated, 
law-abiding landowner is not allowed to address the 
peasants freely to explain the law and interest them in 
the elections, the field will be left open only to the law- 
breakers, who will secretly do you all the harm they can. 
As you cannot catch the wolves, please take the muzzles 
off the sheep dogs. Unfortunately, your police at present 
often treat all sheep dogs which do not the official as if they were worse than the wolves themselves. 
Believe me you will need the help of all the good does you 

To this letter I had no reply. 

The rest o£ the story is soon told. When the 
strike broke out it was decided to forbid the Revo- 
lutionary gatherings in the universities. General 
Trepoff issued his famous order to the troops not 
to spare cartridges. I left St. Petersburg that night. 
The next day, at Helsingfors, the most eircumstan- 
tial stories were circulated to the effect that the 
General had been assassinated by a man who, in 
discharging his fifth .shot, cried : " I also have not 

spared cartridges." It was all a lie ; but for a day 
or two it produced a great effect in Helsingfors, 
then simmering on the eve of revolution. 


When Witte accepted office he endeavoured to 
keep Trepoff in his old post. The prejudice against 
the masterful Mayor of the Palace was too strong. 
He resigned, and from that time devoted himself 
to protecting the person of the Tsar at Peterhof. 
His influence was great : and Witte's friends openly 
accused him of organising pogroms in order to em- 
barrass the Ministry. Be that as it may. General 
Trepoff at last definitely declared himself in favour 
of Constitutional Government. When it was evident 
that the Tsar must choose between the dissolution 
of the Duma or the appointment of a IMinistry pos- 
sessing the confidence of the majority of that body, 
he unhesitatinglv gave his voice in favour of the 
latter course. When challenged for a reason why he 
proposed placing in office the Cadets, with ISIilyukoff 
at their head, he replied that he thought the alterna- 
tive, the dissolution of the Duma, would render it 
almost impossible for him to answer for the safety 
of the Tsar. His advice was rejected. The Duma 
was dissolved. The Con.stitutionalists were driven 
into the arms of the Terrorists. But although General 
Trepoff died of a broken heart, his dread as to the 
possible effect of this policy on the safety of the 
Tsar has not been realised. 

W. T. Stead. 


{Continued frotii fa-^e 655.) 


Progress of the World, :>:i\. 
The New Individualism, 547. 
What the Law Can Do, r..")!. 
Interviews on Topics of the Month, "i-'^. 
Correspondence, X',. 
Character Sltetch — 

General Trepoff. 563. 
Impressions of the Theatre, -'iTo. 

Leading Articles in the Reviews — 

The French Naval Manrpuvres, 574. 
The Career of Bu Bekir in Morocco, 

The Duchess and the Cripples. 574. 
Amid Snow and Ice at the Equator. 

Ix)rd Aberdeen's Canadian Eancb, 57.5. 

The Apotheosis of British Sculpture. 

Mark Twain's Autobiography, 576. 

The Diversity of Messenger Duty, 576. 

Abdul Hamid, the Sultan, 577. 

The Pap.1l Aggression in France, 578. 

An African Pompeii, 579. 

Tlie Lottery ot Racehorse Buying, 579. 

From the Occult Magazines, 579. 

An Attack Upon English Law, 580. 

Tlie Sultan, the Kaiser and Great Bri- 
tain. 531. 

Pan Islamism, 582. 

More About the German Diabolus, 583. 

German Education Under Fire, 584. 

Ballooning as a Pastime. 585. 

What Mr. Beit's Will Has Done, 585. 

Tlie ■\wakcning of China, 535. 

Tile Premier of Russia, 586. 

How to Reform the House of Lords, 58 J. 

A British View of German Manoeu- 
vres. 537. 

How the Greek Clergy are Trained, 

President Roosevelt and Spelling 
Reform, 588. 

Why Women Write Good Detective 
Stories. 589. 

C.'uiine Intelligence. 589. 

A New Kind ot Rubber, 589. 

Reviews Reviewed, .")93. 
Esperanto, <'iiiii. 

Current History in Caricature, 605. 
Book of the .Month, (ill. 
Leading Books of the Month, (ilti. 
"In the Days of the Comet," 017. 
Insurance Notes, (!:.'!•. 

Review of Revietos, lfl2/06. 




Following is Air. Stead's criticism of "The Sp 
being performetl in Australia. There have been so 
criticism, so I print it in full. — Editor. 

The illogic of confounding, under the generic 
term Theatre, all representations given on the stage 
was brought very- forcibly home to me last month, 
when I witnessed on one and the same day " A 
Message from Mars " at the Avenue, and " The 
Spring Chicken " at the Gaiety. It is difficult to 
conceive two pieces better calculated to bring into 
the clearest possible relief the difference tliere is 
between plays. " A Message from Mars '' is even- 
thing that " The Spring Chicken " is not. Mrs. 
Grundy, in her most exalted state of prudishness, 
could not find a word, a look, or an act to which to 
take exception in the performance at the Avenue. 
At the Gaiety the master of the ceremonies at the 
Floralia of ancient Rome might find cause to blush. 
To confound them both under the same anathema 
is to repeat the blunders of the Fathers of the 
Church, who, in their wrath against licentiousness, 
launched their invectives indiscriminately against 
the whole female sex. Woman is a generic term 
that covers both Jeanne d'Arc and Nana, and on 
the stage there are plays which are representative of 


" A Message from Mars " is a compound of a 
fairy stor\' and a morality play. It is a dramatic 
sermon in three acts, with the simplest of motives, 
and the most obvious of morals. It is a clever satire 
levelled against the egregious selfishness of the 
pampered pharisaic male, to whom his women-folks 
are but humble ancillaries existing for the purpose 
of ministering to his comfort. Three hundred years 
ago the wealthy, smug, complacent, middle-aged 
bachelor, who is admirably represented by Mr. 
Charles Hawtrey, would have been labelled Self- 
indulgence in a morality play, but that would be too 
obvious for our tastes. So he is Mr. Somebody or 
other — I forget the label — but he is Mr. Selfish all 
the time — a smug, complacent, self-deceived, self- 
centred man, who is so supremely concentrated 
upon his own selfish gratification that he has never 
realised that he is selfish. He is not a bad man in 
the ordinary sense of the word. He is a capital 

ring Chicken," as he saw it in London. It is now 
me criticisms in the newspapei-s upon Mr. Stead's 

type of the man who does well to himself, who 
thinks well of himself, who is not a bad-hearted sort 
of a fellow, who is well-to-do, respectable, well fur- 
nished with all the maxims which afford a semi- 
virtuous mask to self-indulgence. He is embodied 
comfort. It sj>eaks in every feature, in his fur- 
lined coat, his luxurious easy-chair before the blaz- 
ing fire, his whisky and soda, his cigars, and above 
all in his calm acceptance, as a matter of self-evident 
right, of the petting and eager homage of the girl 
he is going to marry. When he fusses about his 
little comforts, he is not unkind ; he accepts them 
as a matter of course. He is sure that the girl is 
in for a very good thing in marrying him, and it is 
but natural she should wait upon him hand and 
foot. He cannot lav his hand upon his cigar case. 
His fiancee rushes hither and thither, upstairs and 
downstairs, hunting everywhere for the missing ar- 
ticle. While she has been so engaged he puts his 
hand in his pocket and pulls out the cigar case. 
'■ What a pity !' he exclaims ; and when everyone 
else is thinking of the trouble he has given his lady- 
love, he adds, ■' I might have been smoking all this 
time." That is the kind of man he is. A man who 
has a thousand prototypes everywhere, being the 
natural products of an age where, the marriage mar- 
ket being overstocked with women, the man gives 
himself airs. But it has been so in every age. 
Poverty always fawns on wealth, weakness on 
strength, and the lord of creation has ever been apt 
to regard the homage paid to his power and his 
riches as a legitimate tribute to his own pre-eminent 
intrinsic worth. And he becomes so completely 
spoiled that it never even occurs to his smug, self- 
complacent mind that he is a ver\ selfish fellow. 

At the Avenue this selfishness displays itself in 
mere trifles, in the refusal to pay the tithe of mint, 
anise and cumin which man owes to society. The 
man coming in out of the cold of a winter's dav. 
which strikes through even the thick folds of his 
fur-lined overcoat, curls himself up before his study 
fire and amuses himself with reading a paper dis- 
cussing life in Mars. He has promised to take his 
fiancee and her aunt out to a dance. He flatly re- 
fuses to go. He refuses even to take the trouble 
to call them a cab, and when the difficulty is solved 
by the coming of a rival who takes the ladies off in 

Review, of Revieira, l/li/OO. 

Impressions of the Theatre. 


his carriage, he is incHned to forbid the girl to go. 
Go she does, however, and he curls himself up once 
more to enjoy the warmth of the fire and its accom- 
paniments. An engineer, once a great inventor, now 
a broken-down tramp, forces himself into his pre- 
sence and implores his assistance. The man is pen- 
niless and in rags. His wife is dead, his only 
daughter has disappeared. A partner swindled him 
Lit of the protit of one of 'his inventions, and he 
_ juld not patent the others for lack of capital. Mr. 
Self refuses to help him to anything but whisky and 
biscuits, and the tramp departs. 

Then Mr. Self falls asleep in his arm-chair over 
his treatise on the Canals of Mars, and as he sleeps 
he dreams, and until the end of the second act we 
see his dream as if it were a reality. Amid the 
heralding crash of thunder the stage darkens, and 
then from the far distance can be seen speeding to- 
wards us a visitant from beyond the limits of this 
earth. Nearer, nearer he comes, until at last he 
stands revealed in the library of Mr. Self, a graceful 
figure of a man, a cross between Apollo and Thor, 
a messenger from Mars. Mr. Self, not a little star- 
tled at this strange and unsummoned apparition, is 
informed that his visitant has been exiled from Mars 
for a fault against Otherdom — he had claimed for 
himself the exclusive credit of composing a chant in 
which he had enjoyed the collaboration of a friend 
since dead — and he was forbidden to return until 
visiting the planet whose name in Mars is never 
mentioned in polite society, but which begins with 
H, he had effected the redemption of the most sel- 
fish of all living beings. Therefore, he had made 
his way to England in the first place, and as in all 
England there was no more selfish being than Mr. 
Self, he had arrived to undertake the heavy, almost 
impossible task of redeeming the over-fed, self-com- 
placent man by converting him to altruism. Of 
course Mr. Self does not see it, and won't believe it. 
■■ I'm all right," he says : " you can go back to Mars 
at once." As his visitant refuses to budge, he 
threatens to turn him out, whereupon the stranger 
stretches out his hand; he carries no magic wand, 
Ijut instantly all the furniture reels and staggers to 
and fro, and Mr. Self is doubled up as by a galvanic 
shock. A repetition of this dynamic treatment by 
the Martian reduces Mr. Self to abject submission, 
and he prepares humbly to meet his imperious visi- 
tor in the snow outside the house, where his women 
folk are enjoying their dance. There we find him in 
the bitter cold at the opening of the next act. After 
stamping to and fro for a time in the snow he de- 
cides to go away, and tips a policeman to find him 
a hansom cab. The Martian reappears, and bv his 
magic power reduces him to obedience. A shiver- 
ing beggar-girl implores his charity. He roughly 
refuses, and tells her to go home. " Give to her," 
says the Martian. " But I have no silver!'' " Give 
her gold." Remonstrance being useless, he gives 
her a sovereign, and she departs blessing him. 

"Don't thank me," sa\s Mr. Self, '"thank him." 
Then down the street there is a sudden outcry. A 
poor man has been run over by a motor-car. Mr. 
Self refuses to go to his assistance. " That's for the 
police to do. Let them take him to a hospital.'" 
The injured man, surrounded by a group of lament- 
ing friends and relatives, is brought forward to the 
centre of the stage, where the sorrowing wife does 
her best to attend to her husband. " Give to her, ' 
says the inexorable Martian. " But I have nothing 
left but notes." " Give to her ; give to her all." 
Mr. Self, cowed into submission, hands over reluc- 
tantly notes to the value of ;£8o, and the sufferer 
is borne off, while the doctor and others shower 
benedictions upon Mr. Self for his marvellous gene- 
rosity. There is the rush and clatter of a fire en- 
gine. " What's that ?" said the Martian. ■' Oh, a 
fire somewhere,'' says Mr. Self indifferently. " 'Won't 
you go and help ?'' " No," he replies airily, " the 
fire brigade will look after that." The Martian 
then warns him fhat as he is incorrigible he must 
himself endure the miseries with which he had re- 
fused to sympathise. A newsboy brings a paper 
which announces the failure of a bank, whidh en- 
tailed the loss of every penny he had in the world. 
A servant rushes up to tell him that it is his house 
that is burning, from garret to basement. Through 
the window of the ball-room he sees his rival pro- 
posing to his fiancee, and hears her accept his offer. 
He hears everyone condemn his selfishness and his 
worthlessness. They chuckle over the news of his 
disaster ; they even deride his claim to be a man of 
science. Heavier and heavier fall the blows of 
misfortune, but stUl he is obdurate. Then the Mar- 
tian makes a pass. The fur coat, the evening dress 
disappear, and Mr. Self stands a shivering, hungry, 
ragged tramp upon the kerbstone. As he is won- 
dering Where he can get something to eat, the old 
tramp of yesterday comes along. He is rejoicing in 
the fall of snow which means to him employment in 
clearing it away. Finding another tramp hungrier 
than himself, he gives Mr. Self the last of the bis- 
cuits he had received in the library, and he suggests 
to him the possibility of earning sixpence by clear- 
ing away the snow from the ball-room door. They 
agree to go partners in equal shares and set to work. 
But, alas ! their hopes are disappointed. None of 
the guests will give them a coin. The old tramp, 
disappointed and wretclied, falls fainting in the 
street. Mr. Self rushes to his assistance, and does 
all that he can to restore him to life and hope. 
" Put your hand in your pocket," says the Martian. 
He does so, and discovers a sovereign. " Partner," 
he cries with glee, '' here's a sovereign. Shares, 
partner, shares." And his regenerative work com- 
plete, the messenger returns tn Mars as mysteriously 
as he came. 

In the third act we se<.> Mr. Self regenerated. He 
wakes from his dream, finds his money in his pocket, 
gold, silver and notes. The evening newspaper tells 


The Review of Reviews. 

Dectmber 1, 1906. 

him there is no truth in the failure of the bank, and 
he sees that his house is not ablaze. Again the rush 
of the fire engines is heard. The servant tells him 
that a large tenement house is on fire. He orders 
her to prepare soup for the refugees, and departs 
to gather them in. Then his women folks come in 
with their escort, who proposes and is promptly 
rejected, as he deserves, for he is only another 
Mr. Self fashioned on other lines, and still unre- 
generate. He departs, and then Mr. Self returns, 
followed by a miscellaneous assortment of tatterde- 
malions. He is carrying a child who has fallen 
from a window, and with him is the old tramp. He 
orders them supper, refuses to allow the crippled 
child to be sent to a hospital ; she is to be nursed 
in his own house. The old tramp discovers his long- 
lost daughter, and Mr. Self, now transfigured into 
Mr. Unselfishness, is rewarded by the adoring love 
of the girl whom he is to wed. 

It is a very simple but very pretty play, which 
holds the mirror up to selfish man and makes 
him see the thing he is, in order that he might 
become the thing he ought to be. 


It was not until the evening of the day on which 
I saw " The Message from Mars " that I ventured to 
visit the Gaiet)- Theatre. As I did not want to 
be prejudiced against the stage by seeing it at its 
worst from an ethical point of view, I had hitherto 
given the Gaiet},- a wide berth. It was, however, 
obvious that if I had to form anything approach- 
ing to an accurate impression of the modern theatre, 
I rtiust visit the typical strojighold of the musical 
comedy. So I went to the Gaiety Theatre last 
month. The Gaiety Theatre ! As I came out I 
could not help recalling the ghastly jest of Mr. 
Vimch, who represented one poor, wretched, draggle- 
tailed street walker accosting another as forlorn 
with the question, " How long have you been gay ?" 
For the gaiety of the Gaiety Theatre is as the gay- 
ness of the gay women on the streets, as hollow and 
as base. 

It is a disagreeable thing to have to describe in 
plain English for the ordinary- reader the kind of 
thing that I saw at the Gaiety. The place was full 
of well-dressed men and women. The jeune fdle 
was there in force, and her young man. The scenery 
on the stage was very pretty, the dresses were very 
bright, and there was absolutely nothing to be ob- 
jected to in so far as the costumes went. The 
music was a pleasant enough jingle. The grouping 
of the dancers and their dresses made a kaleidos- 
cope of the stage. There was plenty of bustle and 
melody and laughter. All this may be fully and 
frankly admitted. But as for the piece itself f 

I said somewhat strong things about Mr. Pinero's 
" Wife Without a Smile." But the whole of " The 
Spring Chicken " was little better than a magnified. 

glorified dancing doll. When I left the theatre 1 
was appalled to think that such a performance can 
be applauded nightly by thousands of well-dressed 
English people without a word of protest from the 
press. But the fact stares one in the face. The 
play is no doubt an adaptation from the French, 
but not even the lax and indifferent society of Paris 
would allow such a play to be performed before a 
theatre half full of young girls. The jeuiic file in 
Paris does not haunt the Palais Royal. Her English 
sister has the free run of the Gaiety. And this in 
plain Saxon is what they see. 

In spring, sings the poet, a young mans fancy 
lightly turns to thoughts of love. At the Gaiety for 
■' love read " lust." In spring, runs the Gaiet\ 
variant, the lust of man becomes so ungovernable 
that the husband becomes adulterous. It is almost 
a profanation of adultery to apply such a term to 
the promiscuous animalism which reigns supreme on 
the stage of the Gaiety. Adulterv may be, and 
often is, idealised by love. Of love in " The Spring 
Chicken ' there is rK>t even the remotest glimmer. 
The w'hole musical comedy is one long presentation 
of lust, unredeemed by a single spark of sentiment. 
The whole thing is reduced to the level of the 
monkeys at the Zoo. It begins with the suggestion 
of a mother-in-law to her daughter that the only 
way in which it is possible to keep your husband 
from committing adultery^ in spring time is to mix 
a sleeping powder with his soup. It ends with the 
mother-in-law drinking by mistake an aphrodisiac 
mixed by her husband, who intended to drink it to 
stimulate his passions. It takes immediate effect, 
and the woman rushes about the stage seeking to 
embrace her husband, who, dreading the conse- 
quences of his own potion, flees from her passionate 

The first act is laid in a lawyer's office, much 
frequented by applicants for divorce. The head of 
the establishment is the younger husband, whose 
passions are roused by the arrival of spring. He 
locks himself into his office with frail clients, and 
accompanies them to restaurants of ill-fame. The 
first verse of the opening chorus defines with blunt 
p.irticularity the ethics of the Divorce Court: — 

I( we live in the land we love 

We must love in the land we live. 

Wl:ere our joy is the thirst 

That we satisfy fiist— 
Au excess we've all learned to forgive. 
But when Nemesis waits on us, 
.\ud we realise all too late 

That the fountain is dry. 

Then it's hither we hie 
To consult an able advocate. 

The obligation to break the Seventh Commandment 
could hardly be more cynically set forth. 

We have heard a good deal of the comic drama- 
tists of the Restoration. But I doubt whether 
Wycherley or Congreve ever compressed into any 

Reiif-w of Reviews, 1/11/06. 

Impressions of the Theatre. 


of their comedies a more compact mass of dirty 
allusions and adulterous suggestions than those 
which prettv young girls make on the Gaiety stage 
for the edification of the British public. A wife, 
for instance, sings how her husband, after a visit to 
Paris alone on Sunday, mumiurs in his sleep " Mar- 
guerite,'' and " Oh, my little Marie." She finds in 
his pocket a bill for a hat, '" And what do you think 
is the meaning of that?" And the answer is in the 
r.-frain repeated exultingly by the chorus and wel- 
•i.imed with laug'nter by the audience, " Of course, 
I don't know, but I guess.'' And so it goes on. 
There are four more verses, the audience laughing 
and applauding as it '' guesses " at the adulteries 
which seem to a Gaietv audience so exquisitely 

I suppose I am old-fashioned, but I am certainly 
not squeamish, and I have frequently brought down 
upon my head the denunciations of the conven- 
tional, respectable prudes of both sexes because I 
have ventured to discuss seriously problems of sex 
and to describe evils which it seemed to me the 
duty of law and society to suppress. But how comes 
it that this prudish, proper, virtuous English society 
has not a word to sav in condemnation not of a 
play of illicit love — for there is nctt a scintilla of 
love to irradiate the putrid filth— but of the glorifi- 
cation of libidinousness. The hero of this pestilent 
and pestiferous farrago of filth frankly avows that 
his adulteries in spring time are in no way prompted 
by anv affection or romantic attraction to any one 
woman : — 

I'm fond of any blonde 
If any blonde be fond of me: 
I U let a sweet brunette 
Come walking in my company. 

Ill smile a little wliile 
At any shade of maid you bring; 

I'll kiss that one or this, 
I'm not capricious in the spring. 

Now, do not let anyone suggest that this is 
nothing more than the innocent dalliance of a young 
man and a maid in the pleasant time of May. A 
play w'liich opens in the office of a divorce couif 
lawver and closes in a house of assignation, whili 
the middle scenes are devoted to the making o 
appointments to be kept in cabinets pariiculiers, ha- 
no place for innocent affection. It is ac 
cepted as the normal thing that wives shoula 
betray their husbands, that husbands should be false 
to their wives. The restaurant, '' The Crimson But- 
terfly," with its head waiter who sees wonders 
through the keyholes of " private and particular 
apartments," is not exactly the kind of institution 
to which one would desire to introduce our boys 
and girls. The whole thing is evil to the last degree. 
Everyone is pawing' with vice, hinting at it, grinning 
at it, indulging in it. The whole duty of man in 
spring time is to be false to his wife with the first 
woman whom he can induce to accompany him to 
the nearest cabinet pariiculier. 

It is the morals of the Cities of the Plain served 
itp in the Strand for the delectation of the most 
moral, the most virtuous community in the world. 
If all plays were like '' The Spring Chicken " the 
Puritans were right in shutting up the theatre. And 
I begin to understand the old bitter jest about the 
early Christian who died in the theatre and went 
to hell. When Peter complained t'he Devil had no 
right to a Christian, the plea was barred by the 
Fiend's rejoinder, " I found him on my premises 
and I took him." 

Will every reader help us to double our circulation by recom- 
mending "THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS" to their intimate friendsP 
We wish to make it during 1907 a greater power in education and 
social reform than ever. Will you help us ? 

Revieii of Reviews. l/ll/OS. 

Leading Articles in the Reviews. 


'1 he most noteworthy article in the Correspondant 
of September loth is an unsigned study of the 
French Naval Manoeuvres, which took place from 
July 3rd to August 4th, between Toulon and Merz- 

The significance of these manoeuvres, says the 
writer, wiL easilv be recognised when it is under- 
stood that they brought into action, under one com- 
mander, Vice-Admiral Fournier, all the fighting ships 
of the first line in the French Navy. To these were 
added — first, the most important section of the re- 
serves, and next, the five torpedo flotillas and the two 
flotillas of submarine boats stationed in the Mediter- 
ranean. In the manoeuvres there was no serious 
question of strategy or of tactics in the ordinary 
sense. It was simplv an experiment conducted by 
Vice-Admiral Fournier in " triangular tactics." 

The writer says the lesson of the manoeuvres is 
that the ships, notwithstanding the most praise- 
worthy efforts, were unequal to their task. In future 
ironclads of the highest tonnage should be adopted. 
There should be fewer and larger units. It would 
be much easier for an admiral to manoeuvre eighteen 
ships of 12,000 tons than twelve ships of 18,000 
tons, and these twelve larger ships would cost less 
and carry more guns than the eighteen small ones. 
The writer also recommends that the field of action 
be changed. Cherbourg and Brest will play a more 
important part in war than any Mediterranean port, 
and he would like to see the manoeuvres of 1907 
transferred to the Atlantic and the English Channel. 


A Reproach to England. 

In '■ Pastels from Morocco," which L. J. B. con- 
tributes to the October number of Conilull, we are 
given some particulars of the career of the tyrant 
Bu Bekir as political agent of England in Morocco. 
All who are interested in Morocco know something 
of his misdeeds, but few probably had any idea of 
the disgrace his life has been to England. 

Here are one or two instances: — 

Sitting, as for years it was his custom to sit, at tiie 
door of liis " futidak." loolsins out on the traffic that passed, 
he was shunned and feared by every passer-by who pos- 
sessed anything that Bu Bekir might covet. Nothine was 
too small, notliing too big for his greed. I*;obody was so 
insignificant that his all-embracing tyranny would over- 
look him, or so nowerful that he would hesitate to attack 

A donkey loaded with beans passed the fundak; Bu Bekir 
told his men to take It. The donkey, at European insist- 
ence, was given up a few days later, hut its load had dis- 

appeared. A man passed with the day's tolls from one of 
the city gates ; he was pulled into the house, and the money 
taken from him. A slave girl, walking up the street, took 
Bu Bekir's fancy; she was seized by his men, and was 
still in his house at the time of his death. 

He imprisoned in his own house, and he used the Govern- 
ment prisons as his own. " Bu Bekir wishes him to be 
put in prison." was a sufficient order to the Governor of 
the city; and " Tou are Bu Bekir's iirisoner; you must 
settle with him," was the answer to anyone who was bold 
enough to remonstrate or ask for a trial. 

Thus the protection of England in this case seems 
to have been worse than the injustice of Moroccan 


Social Sii-vitc for .September contains a sketch of 
the Duchess of Sutherland as " Social Servant.' 
Her developrnent of the industry of hand-made fab- 
rics in the Highlands has advanced to such a point 
that no fewer than 11,000 crofters look to the 
Duchess for the sale of their cloth. How a day's 
hospitalitv at Trentham Hall led to her formation 
of the Potteries Cripples' Guild is thus described : — 

In March, 1900, the Duchess of Sutherland was invited 
to entertain at Trentham Hall some 300 crippled children 
from the vicinity of her Staffordshire residence. It was 
characteristic of her not only to accede cheerfully to the 
request, but also to suggest that some more systematic 
assistance should be eiven to these unfortunate children 
than was then afforded. As an outcome of this suggestion 
the Potteries Cripples' Guild of Handicraft was formed, 
with her Grace as President. The Guild had for its ob- 
ject the succouring and teaching of crippled children re- 
siding in the five towns known as the Potteries. A start 
was made with evening classes, and such light handicrafts 
were taught as these children were able to learn. They 
made such progress in twelve months that the Duchess 
was encouraged to open a small workshop for the manufac- 
ture of artificial flowers for millinery purposes. The ex- 
periment proved so successful that ia.rger premises were 
secured, and the industries of repoug^e copper work and 
high-class printing were added. X French fieuri^te was 
brought from Paris in order that the girls should learn 
their craft under the best possible conditions. The ser- 
vices of a lad.v artist were obtained to teach the lads to 
draw and create objects of beauty from a piece of copper. 
Every effort was made to encourage the pupils to exercise 
their owu individuality. Gradually — very gradually — the 
spirit born of the slums was lost, and in its place there 
awoke a desire to overcome the obstacle of deformity V)y 
the development of brain and the acouiremeut of skill. 
It was arduous work, but the Duchess had a profound 
belief in the divine power of art and the possibilities lying 
dormant in these cripples. Ultimately this belief was more 
than justified. This policy has resulted in the Duchess of 
Sutherland's Guild of Handicraft enjoying a uniQue repu- i 
tation for excellent craftsmansliin. It seems that the very 
infirmities uuder which the workers labour have given a 
greater imiietus to the finer Qualities of the brain. So from 
the spirit of mendicity to the s.nirit of craftsmanship has 
the crippled child of the Potteries evolved. 

R«view of Rfvietc^, 1/12J0S. 

Leading Articles. 



Sir Harr\ Juhiiston contributes to the Pa'I Mall 
Magaziih- an interesting sketch of the mountains of 
the moon. The ascent of Ruwenzori, in Central 
Africa, by the Duke of the Abruzzi, leads Sir Harry 
to tell what he has known of this mountain. He 
believes that it is the principal source of the old- 
world legends of the mountains of the moon, its 
.snowy peaks seen above the clouds from the torrid 
plains below seeming something quite preternatural. 
The legends of the mountain attained their greatest 
consistency in the first century after Christ, but were 
revived when Arab travellers in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries reported the existence of these 
snow peaks of Equatorial Africa. Then learned men 
\ disproved their existence. 


But at the same time, two missionaries of the 
Flnglish C.M.S., Krapf and Rebmann, discovered 
Kilimanjaro and Kenia. The former was hailed by 
the .American poet Bayard Taylor as the monarch 
of African mountains. Baker's " Blue Mountains " 
were but the lower parts of Ruwenzori. Stairs and 
Stanley guessed the snow range would reach about 
17,500 feet. Then came Sir Harry Johnston. The 
last altitude he and his party were able to take \dth 
precision on the verge of the snowfields was 14,023 
feet. He calculated Ruwenzori was about 20,000 
feet, and so superior to Kilimanjaro, which has since 
been fixed at more than 19,700 feet: — 

In any case it Is remarkable that such a considerable 
amount of snow and ice should exist actually under the 
Equator at relatively low altitudes- Evanescent snow may 
be seen on Ruwenzori at 12.000 feet, while the present 
writer has walked amongst blocks of half-frozen snow at 
just over 13,000 feet. 

Ruwenzori itself is rather, he thinks, due not to 
volcanic action so much as to a wrinkle in the 
earth's surface : — 

It is one of the rainiest regions of the world: the upper 
elopes must have a rainfall of nearly two hundred inches 
per annum. Many of the foot-hills round the base are 
partially denuded of forest, as the result of long-continued 
agricultural operations. Above 6000 feet the permanently 
inhabited zone almost comes to an end. and one enters a 
magnificent tropical forest. 


Sir Harry describes the wonderful flora of the 
slopes of this mysterious mountain, and then savs : — 

Though the colour of the Alpine zone from 9500 to 13.0U0 
feet is in general of a somewhat sombre cliaracter, with a 
tendency to grey-green, yellow-grey and deep brown, there 
is a certain gorgeous richness in some of its aspects when 
examined at close quarters. For inst,ance, the trunks of 
many dead trees are covered with enormous mantles of 
moss, mantles that may be two feet in thickness. These 
mosses range in tint from yellow-green to red-jjurple, being 
often chestnut-brown, orange and crimson. Ihe short turfy 
grass in places is bright emerald-green, and is dotted with 
" lady's smocks," with maiive orchids, large daisies, yellow 
buttercups, blue forget-me-nots, and other flowers of more 
<ir lees English aspect. 


The Pall 'Mall ]\lagazinc contains an account by 
Mr. Olston Black of Lord Aberdeen's ranche in 
Okanagan Valley, in the Canadian Far West, Like 
other Canadian Viceroys, Lord -Aberdeen has formed 
a permanent affection for this great Colony, 


.\ branch line from the Canadian Pacific Railwav, 
in the heart of the Rockie.s, leads to the Coldstream 
ranche. The place is thus described: — 

The ranche occupies the greater part of a valley which, 
before cultivation began, was a dry and barren place, the 
hillsides thinly clad with the scanty trees of a droughty 
land, while almost the only trees were crowded down in 
the bottom beside the little stream. To a large extent this 
description still holds good- Of the whole 13.197 acres 
forming the estate, 8200 acres form the " range," where 
nothing grows or is expected to grow, except the sparse 
natural herbage, green for a short time in the early sum- 
mer, but brown and dry for the rest of the year. Browu 
and dry, but nourishing all the same. Over this hillside 
range the cattle roajn — a little herd of nine hundred head — 
and thrive and breed. The yearling steers are picked out 
annually, and taken over the mountains to fatten on the 
Albertan prairie till they are ready for transformation 
into beef. Some 1220 acres are under timber- This leaves 
about 3770 acres available for cultivation — ,t, (Quantity which 
might be increased by clearing the strip of forest from 
the bottom of the valley. As a matter of fact, only about 
1700 acres are actually under cultivation. Last year 250 
acres consisted of orchards. 


In planting the orchards the ground around the 
trees is kept clear of other growths. First one hun- 
dred and sixty-nine apple trees are planted to the 
acre. After five years the number is reduced by 
half, and after another five years by yet another 
half. The crop from the orchards in 
1904 amounted to nearly one million pounds in 
weight. Three-quarters consisted of apples, second 
came plums and prunes ; cherries completed the 
total. There is also a hop-garden of one hundred 
and twenty acres, a farm proper of seven hundred 
acres, mostly under wheat, barlev, oats and potatoes, 
with another five hundred acres of artificial hay. 
The population is made up from many nations and 
Continents. The staff of experts consists mostly of 
.Scotsmen and Canadians. The labour bill amounts 
to jCfiioo a year. The uncertaintv of the rainfall 
has made irrigation a necessity:- — 

By an extensive scheme of irrigation flumes and ditches, 
bringing water from mountain tarns eight miles away, 
large and regular production has been made practically 
certain. No pumping is neede<i ; there is plenty of water, 
and all that it needs is direction into proper channels. 
Gravitation does the rest. 

Lord Aberdeen is laying out a number of twenty- 
acre and forty-acre plots for settlers wishing to grow 
fruit, at a price, under irrigation, of about £,}fi an 
acre. The new landow-ners are mostly men of good 
social .standing from the mother country. 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 19^6. 


The iK-vv Victoria and Albert Museum at South 
Kensington is described in the Pal/ Mall Magazine, 
bv Mr. Edgcumbe Staler, as a Valhalla for London. 
The genial chief of the modelling school, Professor 
Lanteri, is said to have created a new period in 
British art: — 

The influence of Professor l.anteri UDon British sculpture 
has l,.een. .ind is. immense. Coming over to England from 
Prance during the disastrous war of 1870-71. he. together 
with Dalou. Gerome. l.e Gros, and other artists, found a 
heart?- welcome and ready assistance at the hands of Leigu- 
ton and other British confrPre*. Dalou became Master of 
Modelling at South Kensington, and when he returned to 
France in 1874, Lanteri was appointed his successor. Con- 
sequently, for ,1 generation and more the latter has been 
moulding not only British clays, but British sculptors. 

When Lanteri's great stone figure of Fame crowns 
the new national Palace of Art, it should, the writer 
says, be hailed as the apotheosis of nineteenth cen- 
turv sculpture in Britain. A curious story is told 
of the selection of sculptors for some of the work : — 

The allocation of four subjects to present students of 
the Royal College was due directly to the hearty patronage 
<if Sir Aston Webb. Their assignment was managed quite 
after the method .idopted in old Florence — the names of 

Constable," " Leighton." " Millais." and " Watts " were 
written ttpon slips of paper, one of which was drawn by 
oach student from a hat. 


The First Instalment. 

The editor of the North AnKrican Review begins 
with the publication of Mark Twain's autobiography 
in the number for September 7th, the first of the 
fortnightly series. He says that he has read a 
quarttr-million of words of the autobiography which 
Mark Twain has already WTitten, and he declares 
that he is convinced that a life story of such sur- 
passing interest was never told before. 

Mark Twain himself speaks in even more glowing 
terms of his autobiography. He begins in the fol- 
lowing characteristic fashion : — 

I intend that this autobiography shall become a model 
for all future biographies when it is published, after my 
death, and I also intend that it shall be read and admired 
a good many centuries because of its form and method- 
It is based on a. system which is a complete and purposed 
jumble. The book is never to end until I die. If I could 
talk to a stenogr.apher two hours a day for a hundred 
years, I would still never be able to put down a teuth 
part of the things which have interested me in my life- 

I told Howells that this autobiography of mine would 
live a couple of thousand years, without any effort, and 
would then take a fresh start and live the rest of the 

He said he believed it would, and asked me if I meant 
to make a library of it. 

I said that that was my design; but that, if I should 
live long enough, the set of volumes could not be contained 
merely in a city; it would recuire a State: and that there 
would not be any multi-billionaire alive, perhaps, at any 
time during its existence who would be able to buy a full 
set, except on the instalment plan. 

Howells applauded, and was full of praises and endorse- 
ment, which was wise in him and judicious. If he had 
manifested a different spirit, I would have thrown him 
out of the window. I like criticism, but it must be my 

With this amusing introduction Mark Twain pro- 
ceeds to begin at the beginning by recording the 
fact that the Clemenses of Virginia were pirates and 
slavers in the time of Queen Elizabeth. He says 
that ■' this was no discredit to them, as it was a re- 
spectable trade then and monarchs were partners 
in it. In my time I have had desires to be a pirate 
mvse'.f. " In the following reign one of his ancestors 
was British Ambassador, and married there and sent 
down a strain of Spanish blood to warm them up. 
This man, or another Geoffrev Clement, helped to 
sentence Charles I, to death. Upon this claim Mark 
Twain says : — 

I have always been obliged to believe that Geoffrey Cle- 
ment, the martyr-maker, was an ancestor of mine, and to 
regard him with favour, and, in fact, pride. This has not 
had a good effect upon me, for it has made me vain, and 
that is a fault. It has made me set myself above people 
who were less fortunate in their ancestry than I, and has 
moved me to take them down a peg, upon occasion, and 
say things to them which hurt them before company. 

After passing through a more or less distinguished 
series of Clemenses, Mark Twain tells how his 
mother was a Lambton, a native of Kentucky, who 
married his father in r823. They removed to James- 
town, in Tennessee : — 

There their first crop of children were born, but as I 
was of a later vintage I do not remember anything about 
it. I was postponed — postponed to ilissouri. Missouri was 
an unknown new State, and needed attractions. 

He wrote about Jamestown in the " Gilded Age," 
and Mark Twain tells us that Colonel SeLers, the 
delightful enthusiast of that story, was in real life 
his mothers favourite cousin, James Lampton. 
James Lampton floated all his days in a tinted mist 
of magnificent dreams, and died at last without 
seeing one of them realised. 

The Diversity of Messenger Duty. 

In the October number of the Roxal Magazine 
Mr. VV. B. Northrop wTites on the strange duties 
which a London District Messenger Boy may be 
asked to undertake. Not long ago a messenger was 
sent for to perform the duty of changing poultices 
for a cantankerous gentleman. But baby-minding 
seems one of the most important occupations, and 
another is leading the blind. 

Here is a table showing the employments in which 
they are most Frequently engaged: — 

Baby-minders and nursemaids. Attendants for new M.P.'s, 
Government couriers. Messengers to Royalty, Trained 
nurses, Globe-trotters on one-minutes notice, .ittendanta 
for T.aluable pets. Reminders for' the absent-minded. At- 
tendants on the blind. Guards for the dead. Public car- 
riers. Bootblacks, Shopping commissioners. Burglar catch- 
ers, Caddies for golfers. Cricket and Tennis attendants. 
Models for artists. Theatre attendants. Guides of all kinds. 
Secret service work. Lunatic minders. Lift operators. Rapid 
travellers. Special clerks. Waiters, Grooms, Actors. 

Review of Reviewi, IjHI S. 

Leading Articles. 



A Character Sketch by M. Mijatovitch. 

The Fortnightly Review opens with a bright, but 
all too brief, character sketch of the present Sultan 
by M. Mijatovitch, " formerly Servian Minister to 
his Imperial Majesty the Sultan,'' but much better 
known in London as the most distinguished diplo- 
matist who has ever represented Servia at the Court 
of St. James's. M. Mijatovitch was one of the most 
u,seful members of the Hague Conference in 1899, 
and it will be an international misfortune if, because 
of the change of dynasty, Servia shou'd not again 
enjov the advantage of securing the services of the 
doyen of her Diplomatic Corps as her plenipoten- 
tiary at next year's Conference. Meantime, being 
relieved from the responsibilities of office, M. Mijato- 
vitch is contributing to the Press of Europe and 
America some specimens of the vast store of his- 
torical treasure that he has accumulated in his long 
and distinguished diplomatic career. 

His sketch of Abdul the Damned and Abdul the 
Assassin in the current number of the Fortmghily 
Rcvinv is a pleasant and delightful surprise. The 
Master of the Massacres may be a very fiend in 
Armenia, but in his private life M. Mijatovitch 
found him a very charming and even a sentimental 
gentleman, towards whom the heart goes out with 
sympathy, even although it is severely limited to his 
domestic virtues. 


How. for instance, can anyone wonder that the 
Sultan made captive the chivalrous heart of the 
Servian Minister when we read this idyllic disquisi- 
tion upon the nature of true love from the lips of 
the Ciimmander of the Faithful: — 

When the telegrams announced the formal engagement of 
King .\lexander of Servia with Madame Draga Maahin, the 
Sultan sent for me. aakine me at the same time to bring, 
if I could, a photograph of the King'a fiancee. I did so. 
The Sultan looked at the photograph for aome time, ob- 
aerved that Mme. Draga was evidently a handaome woman. 
and that ahe had beautiful eyea. 

" Yet." he said, in hia nuiet. earueat manner, " I cannot 
aufficiently wonder that King Alexander, who aeemed to me 
a very shrewd young man. should commit such folly! No 
doul)t the day will arrive when he will see clearly himself 
what a folly he has t;omniitted."* 
And then, after a prolonged silence, he continued: — 
"But, after all. what right have we to complain? W'hat 
right have we even to criticise? Can a man escape his 
destiny? And ia it fair to forget what an irresistible power 
love has? Where is the strong man who is not weak when 
he tinfla himself alone with a. woman with whom he ia in 
lo\e? And are we not all liable sometimes to commit fol- 
lies? Does love ever ask what rank and your dignity? 
Does love ever ask what your father and mother will say 
to that? Does it ever listen to reason? I, verily, do not 
think we have a riiiht to laugh at the folly of this young 
man. Poor Alexander ia evidently deeply in love with 
Draga. All we can do is to wish for him that his love 
bo crowned by true and lasting happiness. I will wire him 
my best wishes, but you must also let him know that I 
shall always rejoice to hear of his happiness-" 

I waa so charmed, and really deeply impressed by thia 
philosophical discourse of Sultan Abdul-Hamid on the 
power of love, that on my return to the Ijegati<.)n I wrote 
it down immediately. He never seemed to me to stand in a 
better light than on that occasion. He evidently knew what 
love wa,s. iuid he seems to have reduced his own experiences 
to philosophical principles, which led him to be fair and 
charitable to others. 

Another storv of a more risque character illus- 
trates Abdul Hamid less of a philosopher and more 
as the Lord of the Seraglio: — 

On one occaaion, in the empty Court Theatre in the Mer- 
rassim Kiosk, an Italian company waa playing the opera 
" Robert le Diable." The Sultan took the Ruaaian Am- 
bass.ador Zinovyeff, the Persian Ambassador and myself in 
hia box. In the adjoining box were a few enuerriea of the 
Sultan. Thoae two boxea contained all the spectators on 
that occasion. Abdul-Hamid, as a true lover of music, lis- 
tened attentively to the singing of the artists on the stage, 
and during their singing never spoke a word with ua. 
But when Pepita, after her beautiful prayer to the Madon- 
na, began to undreaa herself, prior to going to bed, and 
took off her first dreaa, theii her bodice, then her top petti- 
coat, the Sultan turned, alarmed, to Zinovyeff. 

" No doubt." he said. " your Excellency knowa the habits 
of the European young women- Do you think thia young 
actreaa ia going to undress herself altogether in our pre- 

"I hope not!" answered Zinovyeff- "But I do not know; 
the actora, and more esneciall.v the actreaaea, like to hu- 
mour the deaires of their patrons." 

The Sultan immediately ca-ught the meaning of the Rua- 
aian Ambassador, and laughed heartily. 

M. Mijatovitch, who tells us that v^'ith his invisible 
psychological kodak he made inaudible snaps when- 
ever in any of his interviews a flash of mind re- 
vealed Abdul Hamid's soul, declares that he was 
never able to detect in the Sultan even a shadow 
of cruelty. Humph ! But why not ? No one can 
detect shadow^s in the sun. Neither is the shadow 
of cruelty to be found at its source. 


M. Mijatovitch maintains that Abdul Hamid is a 
good Turk, an able man, one of the best and ablest 
of Sultans, a man of great initiative and unusual 
energy. He is also a man full of quiet humour, 
sensitive as to his personal dignity, a man fond of 
pictures and devoted to music and the theatre: — 

He is distinctly a man of aesthetic taste. He ia fond of 
flowers, of beautiful women, of line horses, of lovely views 
of aea and land, of everything that ia beautiful- He is an 
affectionate father. He takea care that the ladiea of 
his harem shall enjoy higher pleasures, and provides for 
them concerts and theatricals. He can be. and is. a de- 
voted friend to his friends. He is able to contract deep 
and faithful friendship. ■»» 

So much does he crave for friendship that he even 
in\ited King Milan to Constantinople to live with 
him as his loving friend. He told M. Mijatovitch to 
tell King Milan : — 

1 often feel (luite lonely, and that I am longing with all 
my heart and soul to have near me a man to whom, as to a 
faithful and sincere friend. I could confide what I have in 
my heart, with whom I could freely exchange thoughts 
and take counsel, and with whom I could share joy and 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, ISK. 

sorrow. I feel deeply that in Milan, I should finil such a 
friend. Write to him to come, that we as friends may help 
each other to bear bravely the load of our destinies. 

What a spectacle I Abdul Hamid and Milan of 
Servia as the David and Jonathan of a scoiBng 
world, whose verdict would have been " Arcades 


M. Mijatovitch thinks the Sultan is a good 
European : — 

If Europe understood rishtly the true situation, ft would 
request Abdul-Hamid to put himself at the head of the 
Pan-Islamic movement, and by his own statesmanlike aViili- 
ties, and his conciliatory character, try to make it a force 
not necessaril.v hostile to Christian interests. Abdul-Hamid 
is more capable than any other living Mohammedan to 
understand that, after all, the best Pan-Islamic policy 
would be to cultivate the best possible and truly friendly 
relations with the Christian nations. 

Hum ! 


In the Fortnightly Review Mr. Robert Dell, writing 
on this subject, puts very clearly the present acute 
religious crisis in France, but, I gather, takes a 
pessimistic view of its being hopefully solved. The 
inference many will draw from his article is that 
either the Pope is purblind to many modern ten- 
ijencies, or he is being extraordinarily badly advised. 
In the French Ultramontane press of late it is con- 
stantly asserted by bishops that the will of the Pope 
is the will of God " absolutely and with no restric- 
tion." Authorised organs even declare that the Pope 
has a divine and immutable right to ratify or refuse 
to ratify civil legislation — "the Deposing Power" 
that is, applied to modern conditions, and even such 
men as M. Brunetiere and the Viscount de Vogiie 
apparently accept these principles. 

As for the demonstration of English Catholics to 
be held, it is stated, shortly in London to bring 
about an entente cordialc between them and the 
French Clericals, Mr. Dell says nothing could better 
show that both parties stand aloof from the general 
life of their respective nations. The Clericals have 
been the consistent enemies of England, and have 
done all in their power to prevent the present good 
understanding between her and France. If any- 
one's interests are served, it will be those of the 
German Emperor. Every Government, and ours as 
well as the rest, must take into account the fact 
that — 

for the nresent Pope, the claim to the Deposing Power is 
no mere shadowy theory, and the supremacy of the Church 
over the State is an inviolable principle to be enforced at 
all costs, .\lready the Pope is attempting to enforce that 
principle in Spain, and is involved in a dispute with the 
Spanish Government merely because the latter has taken 
one more step in the direction of complete religious tolera- 
tion which, in Spain as in all countries where the official 
Church retains any real power, is still far from beini: 

The present policy of the Vatican — that it is 
better to lose everv country to the faith than to 

abate one jot or tittle of the claims- of Rome — is 
an old policy, and that which has lost it the East, 
England, Germany, and now France. 

C)f the assocatwns ailiuclles so much is likely soon 
to be heard, that I quote Mr. Dehs clear statement 
exactly defining what they are: — 

The fi'isociation cuituelle is merely an association decUtree 
under the Law of July 1st, 1901, which has tor its sole 
object the practice of a religion (Veiercice d'un culte); its 
area is that of the old ecclesiastical district, and it can 
be formed by any seven, fifteen, or twenty-five persons, ac- 
cording to the population of the commune; it must draw 
up a balance-sheet and inventory of its properly annually, 
and present its accounts to a general meeting of members 
at least once a year. Outside these provisions, the n^^octa- 
tiotis cultifdles are left perfectly free to impose what condi- 
tions of membership they please, and to make their own 
constitutions and rules. 

The Pope's recent refusal of the request of nearly 
two-thirds of the French bishops to be allowed to 
form such associations on the model of the Arch- 
bishop of Besancon was due to his obstinate notions 
of rigid absolutism and was virtually an attack on 
the autonomy of the French state. 



The Pope, without knowing it, is a puppet in the hands 

of the German Emperor, and the wires of the Vatican are 

pulled by much more astute hands than those of Cardinal 

Vives y Tuto and Cardinal Merry del Val. 

There is a close understanding betyveen the Vati- 
can and Berlin, highly desirable for the latter, con- 
sidering that the Centre Party holds the balance of 
power in the Reichstag, and that the designs on 
Austria and the Netherlands, with which the writer 
credits the Kaiser, make him still more dependent 
on Ultramontane support. 


The law of France must be enforced, and the 
writer hopes that catastrophe may be averted. In 
any case, the responsibility rests on Pius X. and his 
advisers, " who have incited him to do a greater 
injury to the French Church than its worst enemies 
crruld have hoped for in their most optimistic 
moments.'' Mr. Dell, I notice, considers " ap- 
palling " the extent to ^vhich the Church has lost its 
hold on the French people. 

I wish (he says) I could believe any considerable 
body of French Catholics were prepared to save the re- 
ligion of France even without the consent of the Pope, but 
i cannot be so optimistic. It is most improbable that as- 
sociations of Catholics will he formed in more than a very 
few pla-ces unless the Pope relents. 

The Pope, in fact, has ordered the Bishops ; .• 
" organise religious worship," and forbidden them 
all means of doing so. 

Writing: in CnsseWs 'ilaqiizUte for September on 
Women Humorists, Mr. J. Cuming Walters takes for 
his subjects the writings of George Eliot. Miss Con- 
stance Naden, Miss Ellen Thornevcroft Fowler, and 

Review of Reviews, 1/11106. 

Leading Articles. 



Under this title Miss Ellt-n Maples describes in 
the PaH Mall Magasnic the ruins of Timgtid, in 
French Algeria. This is the story in brief: — 

It is not every day that we light upon a city 200U years 
old. It is easier for a town to disappear, like San Fran- 
■cisco, than to re-emerge from ashes like Pompeii and Her- 
culauenm. But when, some years ago, certain French dis- 
■coverers lit ux)on the Roman city in the Algerian hinter- 
laiul, it was hailed as an almost miraculous resurrection. 
It turned out that this was the original Tliamagudas, huilt 
^y the Romans as a station for their Thirtieth Legion, and 
used hy them to bar the advance of the nomad tribes from 
the desert and the interior, who used this way to Rome. 
After 900 years, however, the city was sacked and destroy- 
■ed by the Arabs. So it remained for centuries, until the 
place was inspected and excavated, twenty years ago, and 
came into the light again as a new and wonderful link 
betw^een the old civilisation and the new. 

Landing at Philipville, the traveller takes the rail- 
way across the Atlas Mountains and the desert to 
the terminus at Biskra, where the Sahara really 
begins. Twenty odd miles eastward lies the re- 
discovered city, about a hundred miles or so inland 
from the Mediterranean. The city was built in 
loo A.D. Burnt by the Berbers, it was rebuilt in 
535 by the lieutenant of Belisarius. In the seven- 
teenth century it was again destroyed. In 1880 the 
work of excavation seriously began. Previously the 
Arch of Trajan alone stood high above the buried 
cit)'. The Forum " is of great extent, and includes 
rows of shops, the temple of Victory, the Tribune 
for speeches, the Curia, and of course the Basilica, 
which at Timgad is peculiar in having no aisles." 
One inscription engraved on the pavement of the 
Forum may be quoted. It is as follows : " To hunt, 
to bathe, and to laugh — this it is to live'": — 

This theatre is larger than the one at Pomiieii, but 
smaller than those of S.yracuse and Taormina. Two col- 
umns of the Capitol, which had been overthrown by an 
earthciuake, have been recently re-erected, and form, next 
to the .\rch of Trajan, the most imposing feature of the 
city. There remain also large baths, one of which includes 
three larse halls and annexes, whilst various chambers — 
tepidarium, frigidarium, and so on — are in wonderfuUv good 

The sketch is made more interesting by the ad- 
mirable photographs accompanying it. 


'■ Spearmint in Private Life '' is the subject of a 
sketch in the Fall Mall Magazine by Edward Moor- 
house. In 1904 Spearmint was knocked down for 
300 guineas to Major Eustace Loder. It has since 
w on the Derby and the Grand Prix de Paris. " The 
two races were worth ;^i6,ooo." The writer goes 
on to show that the purchase of racehorses is, to say 
the least, a very speculative proceeding. As a foil 
to Spearmint's 300 guineas, he says: — 

In 1895 there were twenty-two fashionably-bred yearlings 
sold for £48,510. During their active careers on the Turf 
they won stakes of the total value of £2799, leaving a de- 
ficiency of £45.711. 

There are othci cases in which very high prices 
have been more than justified : — 

Cases like that of Sceptre, who. bought as a yearling 
for the unprecedented sura of 10,000 guineas, won all the 
classic races except the Derby, and was sold as a four-year- 
old to her present owner, Mr. William Bass, for the net 
sum of £25,000. The value of the stakes slie won amounted 
to more than £38,000. When M. Edmond Blanc gave 37,500 
guineas for Flj'ing Fox {who had then finished his racing 
career), cautious people stood aghast. But it has since 
proved one of the very greatest bargains ever made. This 
ixorse's progeny have won stakes to the value of over 
£110,000, and four of his sons have been sold for sums 
amounting to £94,000. 

It is stated incidentally that " a classic race " is 
the Two or One Thousand Guineas, the Derby, the 
Oaks or the St. Leger ; and a classic horse is one 
who has won a classic race. The writer adds: — 

This r.aoe of equine aristocrats, of which we have just 
reason to be proud, and which is the envy of all other 
nations who love the horse, has been built up by a careful 
process of selection extending back to the time of the 

When as long a period has been taken in de- 
liberate improvement of the breed of men, one won- 
ders what will be the result. 


The Hindu Spiritual Magazine for August con- 
tinues to keep up the high standard which its 
editor has set before' him from the first. In the 
August number we have, in an article entitled " The 
Mahatmas are not Fictions," an astounding narra- 
tive of the achievements of one Haridas, a Yogee 
at the Court of Ranjit Sing, who proved before 
many English officers and many thousands of natives 
that he possessed the faculty of dying at will and re- 
turning to his body when he pleased. It took thirt)' 
years to acquire this power fully. He allowed him- 
self to be buried alive dozens of times and kept there 
for months. During the time that he was in his 
coffin he declared that he was enjoying an ecstasy 
which he would not exchange for the Kingdom of 
Heaven. The writer gives curious information as 
to the way in which this adept would empty his 
stomach of all matter. It took him eight days' 
preparation before he died. The cell or grave in 
which he was buried was stopped up, and his body 
remained absolutely dead for weeks or months until 
he was dug up at the appointed time and his soul 
returned to its abandoned tenement. In a paper 
entitled " Yoga " particulars are given of the various 
posture in which men practise voga. 

The Occult Review for October contains a very 
weighty article, by Edward Carpenter, entitled '■' The 
' .\ ' behind Phenomena." His conclusion is that 
phenomena are ideas conveyed to our minds by a 
self or selves outside of us. A Californian tells the 
story of how Leland Stanford Junior University was 
founded. It is the one free educational institution 
of its kind in the world. It has an endowment of 
nearly seven millions sterling, is open to all boys 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 

and girls, men and women alike, and was founded 
entirely on the strength of a message from the dead, 
transferred to the sorrowing parents bv a spiritualist 
medium. Senator Leland Stanford had only one son. 
He was immensely wealthy, and he centred all his 
hopes upon his boy, but suddenly the boy took 
Roman fever and died. The Senator and his wife 
were so stunned by the blow that thev first refused 
to allow the body to be buried, and reason itself 
appeared about to give way. At last a medium 
succeeded in getting into communication with them, 
and gave them a message purporting to come from 
the dead boy. On the strength of that they went 
to a seance : — 

They received a. " communication " to the effect that there 
was no cause for grief, that the deatii had been, on the 
contrary, nrovidential ; that thereby the boy's earth-life 
mission would be best fulfilled, and that the vast fortune 
which would have been his, was to be used by his father 
to found a great Califoruian seat of learning, which was 
destined to become a mighty centre of light and under- 

The Senator and his wife were fulh satisfied as 
to the authenticity of the message, and that thev 
were in very truth communicating with the spirit of 
their dead son. Their grief calmed, and they de- 
voted themselves to carrying out the will of their 
boy by founding the university and endowdng it with 
all their n-ealth. What is more remarkable i^ that 
neither the Senator nor his w'ife had before their 
son's death any dealings with spiritualists. The 
motto of the University is '• Use your own judgment," 
and in the organisation the development of character 
and of independence of judgment are placed be- 
yond everything. 

Mr. Reginald B. Span contributes " More Glimpses 
of the Unseen," which are decidedly uncanny. 'V^^lat 
with spectral dogs with staring eyes, and monstrous 
ajje-like ghosts with human faces and of revolting 
hideousness and weird, blood-curdling laughs, we 
feel that when we have finished Mr. Span's paper we 
have indeed supped full of horrors. 

Miss Goodrich-Freer, now Mrs. Spoer, continues 
the extracts from her note-book, and the same writer 
sends a letter in which she describes the persistence 
of evil smells hundreds of years after those who 
have caused them have passed away. The smell of 
stables and tobacco on a spot where Queen Elizabeth 
hunted over three hundred years ago is still there. 
.■\re there, therefore, she asks, ghosts of odours > 
Judging from her paper one would think that such 
things actually existed. 


" I always call a spade a spade," said a man bv 
way of apology for his foul language. "Indeed!" 
said his neighbour. " I should have thought vou 
called it a bloody shovel '." Dr. T. Miller Magiiire 
is a controversialist of the Bloody Shovel method 
of argument. In Broad Vieivs for October he pub- 

lishes an article entitled " English Law a Con- 
temptible Anachronism," which for vigour of expres- 
sion can hardly be excelled. Dr. Maguire tells us 
how he made the acquaintance of a fair and lovable 
creature, a veritable Child of Heaven, who was also 
a daughter of shame, \vho was being torn to death 
by the fell machinery of the fiendish law : — 

As I spoke to her, I saw that she was labouring under 
some strons emotion. Fain would I have soothed that 
Child of Heaven, and tenant of the slum. But she showed 
me a subpfrna which she had received to be a witness. She 
then spat upon it and defiled it, and in a perfect storm of 
tears and passion, as fierce as it was entirely ju.stifiable, 
gave vent to terrible imprecations aeainst the whole of 
that hateful legal system, which, w-hen I was her age, I 
was taught to venerate as the Majesty of English law. 

In his article in Broad Viavs Dr. .Maguire does 
his best to emulate the methods of that Child of 
Heaven. He ransacks his copious vocabulary for 
words of execration and contempt: — 

Verily the Enfriish Themis, albeit arrayed in tawdry and 
costly robes, is an ill-conditioned and ill-bred visen and 
courtesan — it is time she were nublicly stripjied and her 
fulsome features discovered plain in the sight of all me:i. 
Then our people would shrink from her in horror and 

I tried to iirove lately that the Courts of Jusiice were 
even worse dens of inintxiiy, waste, folly and dismay than 
the War Office, the Home Office, Somerset House, and all 
the other ruinous institutions called Government Depart- 
ments. Clergymen, soldiers, authors, teachers, working-men 
and ordinary folk in restaurants have since declared to 
me that I was absolutely true and ri^-ht, and that no wise 
man would touch law with a tongs. 

In order to be ouite certain that I was not exaggerating, 
I went out several times in the course of writing this ar- 
ticle and asked certain neighbours, as L met them casual- 
ly, ' What do you think of English Law?" Shopkeepers, 
agents, caterers, clerks, bankers, men who had been jurors, 
and women of every class replied that they utterly abhor- 
red the whole "system — judges, law, and lawyers. Not one 
person, not even persons whose relatives were lawyers, had 
one good word for this supreme fatuity. 

It is only moderation to sav that everything which solici- 
tors and lawyers touch thev injure or degrade. I have 
been obliged to hearken to them again and again, and on 
only one occasion was their advice worth one penny to 
either myself, my opponents, ajid my clients. 

Our jurisprudence is a blighting moral plague centre in 
our State. I do not exaggerate when I say that there is 
not one man except a paid official of my rank within a 
mile of m.v house who does not curse our law when its 
name is mentioned. Ever.v lawyer when pressed admits its 
folly, cost, and disastrous iuBuence on our social condition- 
In this article we have only a foretaste of what is 
to come : — 

There is nothing which Law. like the Army Council, 
touches that it does not degrade. I intend to return at 
some future period to discussing the divorce Court, that 
whirlpool of domestic hore and family honour; that very 
focus of degradation: that breeding-ground of worse than 
malarial abomination. I iiropose also to discuss our Police 
System and Criminal Law, as I have observed both for a 
quarter of a century. 

The Younri Man for Sept-ember is very topical, in- 
asmuch as it coiit-aiiiK a character sketch of Mr. 
Augustine Birrell and a long illustrated article on 
Rembrandt, whose tercenteuar.v was celebrated on 
August loth last. 

Review of Reiiews, 1/11106. 

Leading Articles. 



How TO Put Salt on the Tail of Pan-Islamism. 
The oiif outstiinding fact in recent diplomatic his- 
tory is that when the British Government was con- 
fronted with the extremely unpleasant prospect of 
having to make war on the Sultan to induce him to 
keep his hands off Egypt, the German Government 
.rendered us every service in its power at Constanti- 
noi)le. The Tabah incident might have had a very 
different ending but for the loyal and steady support 
which the I-vaiser gave to the representations which 
we made to the Sultan. This being the case, I 
must confess that I read with some concern and sur- 
prise the cle\er but mischievous article on " Pan- 
Islamisni : Some Dangers and a Remedy," which my 
son. Mr. Alfred Stead, has contributed to the current 
number of the Fortnightly Review. The article 
might have been more accurately entitled " Pan- 
Islamism : How to Increase its Dangers Beyond all 
Remedy." Absolutely ignoring the loyal aid and 
support which we received from Germany in coping 
with the Pan-Islamic agitation at Tabah, he actually 
takes that incident as an illustration of w'hat he re- 
gards as the pernicious influence of Germany upon 
the security of the Empire and the peace of the 
world. If the Kaiser had done his uttermost to 
thwart our diplomacy at Constantinople instead of 
doing his uttermost to support it. the article in the 
Fortiiiglitl} would still have been injudicious. A..S 
the facts are. it is difficult to find a word to ex- 
press its extreme lack of political common sense. 

-According to this writer, we have to face the 
" practical certainty of a bloody war in the spring 
of 1907 " unless'we adopt the "eventful and pro- 
mising line of policy ''' which he recommends. What 
is that policy? It starts from a recognition that the. 
Pan-Islamite movement is " an active reality, ap- 
palling in its [iromise of causing far-reaching disin- 
tegration and danger." Danger to France; danger 
to all the world, but especially danger to us. In 
Egypt, in the Soudan, in .Afghanistan, and in 
.•\rabia, it is a peril to the British Empire. " It is 
a grave question what would happen there were the 
Sultan to preach a holy war against England," which 
"at present " suffers from the fact that she is not 
an cunphibious Power, and therefore cannot land an 
armv in the Balkans. We are, he tells us, still fur- 
ther aggravating this jieril by the foolish wa\ in 
which we are treading on one of the tenderest corns 
of the Mohammedan world in our treatment of the 
Sultan of Zanzibar. Islamism, in short, is an 
i-normous force in the midst of an Imperial struc 
tare. Ill wliicli iht' controlling wires lie f)utside and 
in dthtrs' hands. 

We are. of course, verv familiar with these 
alarms. Thev have been the familiar stock-in-trade 
of the Russophfibist for a hundred vears. But that 
mischievous alarmist used them for the j)urpose of 

committing us to an alliance with the Sultan. Mr. 
Alfred Stead recognises equally with them the 
potential mischief-making capacity of the Sultan, 
but uses it as a plea for a policy of direct and un- 
compromising hostility to that potentate and his 
friend and ally the Kaiser. This, surely, is the 
\ery delirium of political heroics. The Sultan is 
powerful — oh ! so powerful — we dare hardly go to 
sleep at nights for fear he controls and wires and 
shatters with his Pan-Islamite explosive our Imperial 
structure. Therefore let us make war upon him. 
partition the remains of his European Empire, and 
control Constantinople. But behind the Sultan 
stands the embattled might of the German Empir.- 
— a fact which might give some persons, as it did 
Lord Roseberv in 1895, reason to pause. Not so 
with this impatient advocate for a spirited foreign 
policy. Obsessed, apparently, by the success witli 
which the Japanese alliance precipitated war witii 
Russia, he advocates the creation of another allianc-- 
in the Near East for the purpose of clipping th_' 
claws and thw'arting the ambitions of the Sulta:i 
and the Kaiser. There are three small States in th- 
Balkan peninsula which have in recent years been 
occasionally at w"ar and chronically at variance witli 
each other. One of them is ruled by a Germa 1 
prince. A second is under the thumb of Austria. 
But out of these unpromising materials — Roumania. 
Servia and Bulgaria — Mr. Alfred Stead dreams that 
he can manufacture a firm fighting alliance fcr 
Great Britain, with whose aid we can partition 
Turkev. defeat Germany, and control Constantinop' ■ 
— Russia, apparentlv, being an assenting partv to 
this pretty little programme. 

.Surel)' this is the mere midsummer madness of 

Mr. .Alfred Stead declares that there must be a 
very "decided change of heart in Berlin." Th - 
change of heart seems to be much more needed 
nearer home, where it is possible to read such sen- 
tences as these in the Fortnightly Reviav : — 

It is. of course, unfortunate that it is still so possible fc r 
misf^iiided enthusiasts or well-meaning: but impolitic Mini>- 
ter.g of ^Yar to lead the Britisii i)ublic into forgetting ti.e 
fundamentall.v inimical policy of Germany in individual 
.\nfflo-German triendships. 

Choose, and choose wisely and quickly, must be the motto 
for Great Britain, with tl:e G«rman profession of faitli rinz- 
ing in her ears: "There is no God but Allah. Mahomet is 
his prophet, and the German Emperor is the Friend of all 
the followers of Mahomet." 

Yet the last official utterance of Sir Edward Gre\ 
was an expression of his gratitude to the Germans 
for having stood our friend, and not the Sultan's. .■■ 
the critical moment of our first collision with the 
new Pan-Islamism. 

A>s for ■' the one certain and easy method " of 
checking Germany and controlling the Sultan, it is 
an affair of piecrust and gingerbread. We are to 
ha\-e licit a fighting alli.ince, but an entente, with 
Roumani.i, .Servia and Bulgari.i, which, however, is 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1905. 

evidently meant to ripen into a fighting alliance, for 
we are told that an entente with such a group of 
Powers would give us a European army of formid- 
able dimensions. With this army of 750.000 trained 
soldiers, " Germany's misfortune is our oppor- 
tunity '' : — 

Pan-Islamism would be effectually cbecked. aud our posi- 
tion in Constantinople rendered more satisfactory; Ger- 
many would be rendered harmless, and could build ber Asia 
Minor railways without let or hindrance; three States would 
be enabled to develop peacefully and normally; Europe would 
be rid of an unsolved problem, and an international situa- 
tion would be steadied by the appearance of a British- 
Balkan entente. 

This is all very pitiful ! When the sky falls we 
shall catch many larks. I sincerely hope no one will 
imagine from the name of the writer that he in any 
wav expresses mv sentiments or those of anv English 


Bv Profe.ssor Vambery. 
There is not a more fer\ent friend of Islam in all 
Christendom my friend Professor Arminius 
Vambery of Buda Pesth. But his righteous soul is 
ablaze with indignation at the recent developments 
of what is called Pan-Islamism. He does not be- 
lieve that anv real Pan-Islamist movement is pos- 
sible. Writing in the Nineteenth Century, he says : — 

Pan-Islamism— viz., a united action of all Mohammedans in 
the world— is under the present circumstances impossible, 
but a local outburst of political efforts, under the disguise of 
religious fanaticism, deserves the much more our full atten- 

It is because I am a well-wisher of the Mohammedans and 
anxiously desirous to see their lot ameliorated that I must 
declare myself against all adventurous and ill-devised plans 
of forcible revolution, such as the confidence in Pan-Islam- 
ism, which must long remain an empty vision, and. by rous- 
ing the suspicion of the mighty European Powers, will cur- 
tail the liberties the Moslems enjoy at present and will 
uselessly retard the work of their progress. 

He is distressed by the follv of certain hare- 
brained German writers who imagine that the Kaiser 
can use Islam as dvnamite to blow up English and 
French interests in Africa and .-Vsia. He savs : — 

If German politicians imagine that by constantly petting 
the absolutist and ruinous rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid, and 
by striving to represent the Emperor William the Second 
as the protector of Islam, they will attain their end, they 
are sadly mistaken. It is a great pity that the German Em- 
peror is not duly informed of the disaffection and hatred 
he has created amongst the enlightened Turks by the sup- 
port he gives to Sultan Abdul Hamid. for the general 
opinion prevails in Turkey that it is the Kaiser who insti- 
gates the Sultan to continue his absolutist rule, and who 
dissuades him from according liberties to his people. 

Professor Vambery is niuch exercised in his mind 
concerning the licence of the papers in Egypt and 
elsewhere in attacking England. He says : — 

Any open attack directed against England, or any fiery 
appeal in the interest of unity and encouragement to shake 
off the hated yoke of the Christian conqueror is quoted and 
carefully translated in the newspapers of the different 

Therefore, he concludes : — 

Exceptional measures are not only permitted— nay, they 
have become an imperious necessity, and temporar.v restric- 
tion of the Press, for example, is certainly less injurious to 
the welfare of England and Egypt than the political hallu- 
cinations of a certain class of journalists, who, by envenom- 
ing public opinion, do great harm to the moral and material 
interests of their country. 

Mr, Harold Spender's Version. 
Mr. Harold Spender in the Contemporary Review 
writes on England, Egypt and Turkey. He explains 
the action of Turkey in Egypt thus : " She looked 
across the Mediterranean and saw it shining be- 
neath the sun, a glittering prize, grown in twenty 
years from a rubbish-heap to a gold mine. Without 
any warning she stretched out an ugly claw and 
scrabbled at the tempting treasure," Great Britain 
suddenly discovered that she could not relv on the 
loyalty and gratitude of the verv people she had en- 
riched. Mr. Spender bears witness : — 

Whether ordered by the Sultan or the result of an instinc- 
tive religious wave, a new and definite crusade began to af- 
fect Egypt in the summer of 1905. Preachers appeared mys- 
teriovisly in Cairo and sprea* rapidly through the country, 
giving a new and stricter interpretation to texts from the 
Koran, and preaching in strong terms the wickedness of 
obeying the iniidel. 

The disaffection so fanned burst into a flame at 
the Tabah incident, Mr, Spender gives interesting 
quotations from the Egyptian Press showing how the 
anti-British spirit was propagated. Mr. Spender 
goes on : — 

The great point is to realise that a great and formidable 
movement like Pan-Islamism has its roots far too deep down 
in the human heart and mind to be extirpated by a display 
of what is commonly known as " strong measures." 

The remedies suggested by the writer are bars to 
hinder Mouktar Pasha using his position as a 
Turkish resident in Cairo as he has done. Press 
censorship is abhorrent to the English spirit. But — 
if it could be proved that Turkish agitators or Turkish-paid 
Egyptians are attacking England through a free Egyptian 
Press, theu the limit of tolerance would be reached. Even in 
England the Press cannot be used for the sowing of treason. 
Better a few deported Turks than a sprinkling of European 
massacres and more gallows-crops of executed Fellaheen. 

But for the final thwarting of Turkey, Mr. Spen- 
der suggests the opening up of public ser\ice to the 
cultured and intelligent Egyptian :■ — 

There is in Egypt now a large class of wealthy youths who 
look for worthy employment in their own country. The pro- 
blem of the future is to win these meu to our side by pro- 
viding them with the two things they desire— better educa- 
tion and greater responsibility. It is reall.v another form of 
the wider problem — to extend the bounds of self-government 
and to fulfil our mission by training Eg.vpt to rule itself. 

The Suinhnj Strciiil. besides giving; u sketch of not- 
nble open-air services, of famous hymns and their 
authors, treats its readers to an account of municipal 
development in Battersea, under the title of "Cloud- 
Lifting in South Ix)ndon." There i,= nl.<o a little 
science supplied in a sketch by J. J. W ard of the 

Review of Reviews, 111-3/06. 

Leading Articles. 



And his " Potsdam Party " in London. 
" There is no Devil but Germany, and Mr. Hal- 
dane is the prophet of Germany "; in that sentence 
we have the condensed essence of the first twenty 
pages of the new number of the National Review. 
It is impossiiiie not to admire, ahnost to love, 
Colone. Maxse for the splendid pertinacity with 
which he fights a losing cause, despite our conviction 
of the mischievous madness of the principles to 
which he is devoted. The heart always warms to a 
man who lights hard, hits straight from the shoulder, 
calls a spade a spade, and says what he thinks, even 
when we know he is fighting on the wrong side, and 

IVafirc 'Ja<:ch] 


Well, to bo Sura! The Colonial Gentlemen have been busy 

here. too. 

[Some membeis of the German House of Representatives have 

been touring in the Colonies to study them.] 

that his victory would entail untold misery upon 
mankind. We feel, in short, for Colonel Maxse 
something of the sentiment which is inspiretl in 
readers of " Paradise Lost " towards Satan. 

Colonel Maxse is obsessed by an evil spirit which 
leads him to see the hand of Germany in everything 
that goes wrong all over the world. Here is an in 
stance. After deploring the conflict between tin' 
Church and the Repulilic in France. Colonel Maxse 
says : — 

Pius X. owes liis election to the Austrian veto upon Car- 
dinal BampoUa. the Fiencli candidate, which is believed by 
Frenchmen, rightly or wrongly, to have been prompted by a 
hint from Rerltn. Be this as it /nay. the German Kmperor 
has struck up almost as intimate an alliance with the pre- 
.sent Pope as witli tl:e Sultan of Turke.w and it is scarcely 
surprising" tliat Frenchmen sliould detect the Imperial hand 
in the disastrous decision of the Vatican forbidding tlie 
Catholic Church in Fiance from cominjr to terms with the 
Republic. Sucli a policy promotes chaos if it does not actu- 
all.\' provoke civil war, and must still further weaken France 
in the ■:idvantat:e of her German enemy. The international 
aspect of the Church crisis was subsequently accentuated by 
tile election of a German. Father Wernz. as General of tlie 
Jesuits, commonly (railed tlie Black Pope. With two Popes iu 

his pocket Kajser Wilhelm is a happy man, and is manifest- 
ing his joy by showering " Black Eagles " on ecclesiastical 


Colonel Maxse appears to have taken Cicero's 
orations against Catiline as the model for his invec- 
tive against Germany and its Kaiser : — 

We have not the space to recapitulate the various occa- 
sions, nor is it necessary to do so, as they are matters of 
common knowledge, when Russia and Great Britain, Great 
Britain and France, or France and Italy, found themselves 
on the verge of war since 1870: but in every single instance 
there is reason to suspect Germany of having played the 
grand international agent provocateur. That Wilhelm II. is a 
willing and not an inapt pupil of the Iron Chancellor as a 
war maker is shown by his success in promoting the Spanish- 
American War, the South African War. and the Far Eastern 
W'ar, as also by his sinister efforts during the Siam. Fashoda 
and Port Arthur incidents. Let us never forget, for we have 
it on the authority of no less a person than Count Bulow, 
that the German Government followed up the Kriiger tele- 
gram in 1896 by endeavouring to organise a coalition against 
Great Britain, and certainly no stone was left unturned 
during the South African War to enlarge the area of hostili- 
ties. Russian diplomatists could tell a tell on this score 
should their lips ever become unsealed. Wilhelm II. *s latest 
achievement as marplot was his frantic effort to prevent a 
peaceful settlement of the North Sea outrage in October, 
1904. Happily his influence over Nicholas II. bears no pro- 
portion to his activity. 


The South African war, during which the Kaiser 
twice received the thanks of Queen Victoria for 
having averted international intervention on behalf 
of the Boers, was, according to Colonel Maxse, 

The crisis which taught us that Germany was our deadliest 
enemy, wdio was only restrained by a sense of her own naval 
impotence from compassing our destruction. If England 
can only be inveigled into any kind of " understanding " 
with Germany, however intrinsically worthless, the Wil- 
helmstrasse would acquire a powerful lever for undermining 
our entente with France, as the French would very naturally 
feel that we could never he counted upon in preserving the 
balance of Furopean Power upon which the future of France 
depends, and which has been dangerously dislocated by the 
effacement of Eussia. In that case we should inevitably see 
the evolution of that great anti-British coalition under Ger- 
man leadership, which has for many years been the sleeping 
and waking thought of WiUie'.m IT. Such an obvious denoue- 
ment must be obvious to every British statesman whose head 
has not been turned by Imperial flattery. Gernuiny onli/ seeks 
inir friendship in order to detach France from us. 


The worst of it is that this Beelzebub of nations 
has his allies in the British Cabinet. Colonel Maxse 
says : — 

The Potsdam Party in the Cabinet is understood to consist 
of .Mr. Haldane, Lord Loreburn, and Mr. Bryce. Our War 
Minister is believed to be animated by his innate love of Goi- 
many, tlie Lord Chancellor and the Irish Secretary by to 
irresistible attraction which any enemy of their own country 
exercises over a certain tvpe of British Radical. 

Of these, Mr. Haldane is the worst, although in 
Mr. Winston Churchill he has an understudy: — 

There are renewed rumours in Germany of yet another 
fresh naval programme, which we have reason to believe the 
Kaiser is bent on laying before the Reichstag. This is the 
result of our dropping " Dreadnoughts." 

It is verv magnificent all this, hut, oh, how mad ! 


The Review of Reviews. 

De(.*mler 1, 1906. 


Mr. J. Ellis Barker writes in the Contemporary 
.Review on education and mis-education in Germany. 
He points out that in Germany, and especially in 

Pasquino .'] 

The German Trinity. 


Prussia, education was from the first used by the 
Government for the purpose of keeping the people 
in a state of subjection and of mental servitude. 


The German elementary schools, which contain 
some nine million children, were intended, accord- 
ing to Dr. Falk — (1) to promote patriotism; (2) to 
foster religion and morality; (3) to fit the young 
for practical life. The failure of the first is seen in 
the three million votes cast by the Social Deriio- 
crats in 1903, whom the Kaiser described as "fel- 
lows without a Fatherland, enemies of their nation.' 
The second aim is said to be also unattained, for 
the Protestants of Germany, who form two-thirds of 
the nation, are " not at all religious." Church-going 
is not a social obligation. The yearly average of 
illegitimate births in Germany is 180,000, against 
50,000 in Great Britain. There are 12,000 suicides 
in Germany, as against 3000 in Great Britain. 
Toleration is in Germany conspicuous by its ab- 
sence. The third aim is better served. " The Ger- 
man child learns a few necessary things fairly 
well. The English child learns many things ill, of 
which most are unnecessary." The German child 
learns in the elementary schools perhaps too 
slavishlv to obey. The English Board School edu- 

cation errs perhaps in the opposite direction. The 
English Board School encourages the child to 
become a pauper by giving everything for nothing. 
The German parents, who have to pay, value more 
what they get. All classes join in the German 
school. The English Board School is still ;!ie 
charity school of the poor. 


After these concessions to the public elementary 
schools of Germany, the writer proceeds to attack 
the secondarv schools. He savs that they are in the 
main cramming establishments of the worst type, 
treated by parents and children as a great but in- 
inevitable evil. Even the Kaiser denounces the 
miseducation given therein, saving: "We ought to 
educate voung Germans, sons of the nation, not 
voung Greeks and Romans. We ought to desert the 
programme receixed from the ancient monasteries. 
Bodilv exercise in schools has been until very re- 
centlv disparaged. " Germany is by nature a game- 
less countrv." "As regards physical education,' the 
German schools are worthless. " 

Of the twenty-two German Uni\ersities, with 3000 
professors and lecturers and 40.000 students, the 
writer has little good to say. He admits the nimiber 
of students is increasing by leaps and bounds, but 
he says. " It may be doubted whether it is a matter 
for congratulation that the German universities are 
turning out an army of unemployed lawyers, doc- 
tors, theologians and teachers." to form "a huge 
learned, and therefore the more dangerous, prole- 
tariat." The writer ventures to affirm that "the 
average British doctor, lawyer, schoolmaster, or 
clergvman is distinctlv superior to his German col- 
league." "The output of books, mostly worth- 
less, has enormouslv increased in Germany." 


Though Germany is held to be no longer the 
model to Great Britain in elementary, intermediate 
and practical education, the writer admits she is far 
ahead of this country in technical education. Yet 
'" German technical education is more extensive than 
intensive, more showv than practical and thorough. 
He quotes Felisch, who wrote. " we pay for our 
greater theoretical knowledge with diminished 
practical abilitv." The writer emphatically refuses 
to attribute the industrial success of Germany tn 
the general education of its workers. Belgium in- 
dustries, he savs, are comparatively more flourishing 
than those of Germany, yet in Belgium 128 of every 
thousand recruits are unable to write. 

The chief practical value of the German schools 
consists, he maintains, not in the knowledge dis- 
seminated, but in. the discipline instilled. German} 
has learned the lesson of national co-operation, co- 
ordination of all the national forces, and has de- 

Revieic of Heviews, l/li/06. 

Leading Artlclea. 


velopt'd it to a higher fxtent than any other country. 
Our efku'.ition encourages laziness and individual- 
ism. Mr. Barker, who, as has been shown, is not 
lacking in courage, dares to say : — 

I venture empbaticaUy to affirm that Germany, with all 
her schooLs and universities, anfi with her army of 300,000 
teachers, is a far less intellig:ent and far less cultured nation 
than is the British nation. The general intelligence and cul- 
ture of a nation may be measured by the Press, which ap- 
peals to all. and which reflects the national mind as in a 
mirror; and I think that no educate! German will contra- 
dict me it I state that the whole Press of Germany— dailies, 
weeklies, monthlies— is not only vastly inferior to the Bri- 
tish Press, but it is quite unworthy of the intelligence of a 
cultured nation. The German newspapers and periodicals, 
generally speaking, are filled not with facts but with trash. 
The German Press is a century behind the English Press, and 
the low standard of the whole German shows that the 
German nation is not a nation of thinkers. On the contrary. 

These trenchant criticisms are adxanced as a 
warning against modelling British education on the 
more unsatisfactory part of German education — the 
instruction without the discipHne. 


Ballooning, says the Lady's Reulm for Septem- 
ber, is Society's novel method of recuperation, and 
the writer of the article tells of the exploits of vari- 
ous lady balloonists of the Aero Club. The aver- 
age cost of an ascent is stated to be about jQ^ per 

The story of the First Balloon Ascent, by Mr. P. H. 
Oakley Williams, opens the September issue of Pall 
Mall Magasinc, the occasion being the public debut 
of the Citv of London. 

This new balloon is described as the biggest in 
the British Isles, its capacity being 77,000 cubic 
feet. Built and designed by Mr. Percival Spencer 
for Mr. Frank Butler, it has been entered as one of 
the three representatives to champion this country 
in the Gordon-Bennett race on September 30th 
against France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Italy, 
and the United States. Seven persons, including 
the writer, went up in this first ascent, and the cost 
of the expedition was about ;£i6. The writer, a 
neophyte, thinks that a balloon trip gives more en- 
jovment for less money than most other hobbies 
now in fashion. 

There is all the difference, explains Mr. Oakley 
Williams, between a ''soft" and a "hard" descent. 
A balloon coming down with a bump on hard 
ground is apt to rebound several times, and it may 
bounce over hedges into difficult ground, not to 
speak of the Jar to the occupants. 

Trailing is called the prime sport of ballooning, 
coming as near to the joys of flying as may be pos- 
sible : — • 

It means that a rope 250 feet long^ is let down and 
allowed to trail over the face of the country. If it dim- 
l inishes the pace, it eives one an idea of the rate one is 
} travelling, and a senee of motion absent under other con- 
ditions. For example, rou mav be travelling at the rarte 
of thirty or forty miles an 'hoar, hut you arc 
travelling at ithe same velocity a« the wind, you eeem 
drifting absolutely becalmed. 


In the Empire Reviav Mr. Hubert Reade makes 
many suggestions for the University of Johannes- 
burg which is to be founded by Mr. Beit's bequest. 
He hopes that it may be the centre of a new 
national cohesion in South Africa. He hopes that 
it may give the best practical, as well as the best 
theoretical, teaching in agriculture, horticulture and 
viticulture, and so bring in the Dutch farmers ; and 
induce the Dutch churches, too, to let their stu- 
dents study in the Faculty of Theology in the new 
University. In conclusion Mr. Reade says : — 

Mr. Beit's will has, in reality, made British Africa one. 
By his bequest to the Cape-Cairo Railway he has (save for 
the " Wasp's Waist ") linked together Capetown and Alex- 
andria, and those best acquainted with Uganda, with British 
East Africa and with the Soudan, think it by no means im- 
possible that men trained at Prankenwald might do admir- 
able work both as administrators and as agricultural 
pioneers in those vast regions. In a word, Mr. Beit has called 
into existence the " Far North " to satisfy the land hunger 
of the Boer, and has given us the means to make the Boer 
feel himself the citizen of no mean Empire. The Dutch 
colonists in the Hinterland of Mossamedes found their chief 
obstacles in the Portuguese Admiuistration and in the ab- 
sence of markets for their produce. These obstacles will not 
exist in Northern Rhodesia, and if the Afrikanders can be 
trained in practical agriculture and ranching under tropical 
and subtropical conditions, there seems no reason why they 
should not find homes as planters along the Cape to Cairo 
Railway. If part of the Education Fund provided by Mr. 
Beit's will for Rhodesia is .appliel to found experimental 
farms and agricultural schools on the lines of the smaller of 
those in Western Australia, and of those managed by the 
Boards of Agriculture in the United States and Canada, it 
would appear easy for men. who had received their theo- 
retical education at Frankenwald or in England, to acquire 
such a practical training as would enable them to act as 
directors of plantations throughout tropical Africa. Thus 
new prospects would be opened up for the Boer farmers, and 
the area at their disposal for settlement widely extended. 

The Awakening of China. 

Mr. Lionel Giles in the Nineteenth Century pub- 
lishes a translation of a very remarkable pamphlet 
widely circulated in the province of Hunan in China, 
which makes a strong appeal to the Chinese to 
rouse themselves to action for the defence of their 
nationality and Empire. He says. Let these 

methods be adopted, and when put into pactice they will 
prove efficacious. The area of Japan is not greater than that 
of the single province of Ssu-ch'uan, its population is not 
more numerous than that of the single province of Hunan. 
Twenty years ago. as compared with China. Japan was very 
poor and weak; but now. having been stirred into activity, 
it has grown to be a rich .^.nd powerful State. India, both in 
size and population, is not so very far behind China; but 
because as a nation she was incapable of making an effort, 
she has fallen under the dominion of England. In the light 
of these facts it behoves you, sirs, to be neither down-hearted 
nor yet too light-hearted. What yon must do is immediately 
to begin girding yourselves for action. If you can manage 
to do this, though your country were as small as Japan, yon 
can still become rich and powerful. But if you are unequal 
to the effort, then, although your country is as great as 
India, you mast inevitably succumb. 


The Review of Reviews, 

Uecember 1. 1906. 


M. Stolypin and his Prospects. 
The Special Commissioner of the National Re- 
vircc in the October numljer, writing on '" Russia 
from Within,'' devotes most of his article to a dis- 
cussion of the person and the policy of the present 
Prime Minister, M. Stolypin. 

M. Stolypin enjoys a personal reputation of wbich any 
public man in Eussia might well be proud. With him word 
and thought are known to stand in a certain fixed relation 
to each other, both emanating from motives which are re- 
garded by his friends and acquaintances as above suspicion. 
He is a sincere lover of fair play, eschews base actions, and 
is withal tolerant enough to take men as he finds them, and 
to make tlie best of very bad bargains. In a word, he be- 
longs to the highest type of gentleman produced by Russian 
civilisation. The son of a chivalrous general and of a clever 
lady, Stolypin was brought up in the traditions of the old 
school of the Eussian nobility. His mother was a Gorcha- 
koff, whose widespread reputation for esprit was by no means 
usurped. A princess not only in the social but also in the 
intellectual sphere, her double title unhappily died with 
herself. If intellect were hereditary and will-power were 
identical with honesty, the present Premier would indeed be 
the man to lead his people to the promised land. But in- 
scrutable Nature endowed him with other estimable gifts. 
At school he was distinguished by modesty and application 
among his fellows, of whom many were clever and most lazy. 
Mediocre gifts, good conduct in its bureaucratic sense, and a 
happy, easy-going disposition were calculated to attract the 
benevolent attention of his superiors, and P. A. Stolypin has 
uniformly enjoyed the friendship and protection of the most 
Conservative administrators of the old regime. Thus it was 
by appointment, not by election, that he became Marshal of 
the Nobility in Kovno, and, later. Governor of the Province 
of Grodno. 

To tlie Premier's personal friends it appears a good omen 
tliat he invariably stood well with the champions of auto- 
cracy. He was a favourite even of the most reactionary 
among them all. They promoted him over the heads of his 
seniors, suspended traditions and usages in his behalf, and, 
so to say. pitchforked him into high places. For example, 
when the Province of Saratoff was greatly disturbed, dis- 
orders were of daily occurrence, and the redoubtable Plehve 
cast around him for an energetic man to administer it; his 
choice fell lipon M. Stolypin, who, though lacking the bureau- 
cratic qualifications for the post, was none the less appointed. 
But precisely because of his admirable personal qualities, 
his influence upon the Ciown and the nation appears to un- 
biassed Eussians to be fraught with disaster to both. To the 
Crown, because he may all the more easily persuade the 
monarch to fritter away in petty palliatives the precious 
respite bestowed by fate, which might well be used to recon- 
cile people and sovereign and bring together a practical 
Duma. And on the nation his political influence appears not 
less baleful, because with all his sterling qualities M. Stoly- 
pin is sadly deficient in the stern moral fibre which distin- 
sruishes a genuine people's patriot from an easy-going cour- 
tier who sees everything, including his own amiable weak- 
ness, through the roseate medium of optimism. 

His adjoint, M. Kryshanoffsky, recently laid before M. 
.Stolypin a plan for the revival of the Tsar's popularity by 
means of a great money sacrifice to be made by the Imperial 
family. The peasants, he said, want land, and we want the 
peasants' confidence and co-operation. Let the Tsar distri- 
bute, to those peasants who really need more land, cer-tain 
portions of the appanages whence the Imperial family draws 
the funds requisite tor the support of its members. These 
appanages bring in two millions a year. 

M. Stolypin adopted the proposal as his own. 
The Tsar rejected it, but M. Stolypin did not re- 
sign. The scheme was a mad one: — 

It would have put the Imperial house in the power of the 
coming Duma and aroused the passions of the peasantry 
against the landowners. It was just the final touch which 
would have sufficed to send the revolutionary scale down- 
wards and to break the monarchy. 

Vet, says this "Special Commissioner,'' 

the Russian Premier, who has done his best under most tr.v- 
iug conditions, deserves the hearty support of all the patri- 
otic elements in the country. For the cause he represents is 
that of order, of law. of humanity. He is an honest admin- 
istrator in a trothless environment; he is politically little 
in a movement of elemental magnitude, a straw in the eddies 
of a seething maelstrom. Truly he is well worthy of genuine 

Mr. Goldwin Smith has some sensible remarks in 
the Positivist Review for October on the Russian 
Revolution. He says : — 

The way in which we have regarded this revolution has 
hardly been philosophic. The Tsardom is the offspring, not 
of Satan, but of the necessities of a primitive era, though it 
is now out of date, and calls for the exercise of the high 
wisdom which can make the past glide smoothly into the 
future. For all those peasant millions it still forms the only 
bond of allegiance to the State. In the French Revolution, 
the monarchy, instead of being constitutionally limited, was 
prematurely destroyed. The bond of allegiance was broken, 
and tliere followed civil war. 

In the same Review Mr. .Suinnev jjoints out the 
differences between the preseiit movement in Russia 
and the Revolution in France. 

How to Reform the House of Lords. 

Mr. Fretleric Harrison returns to his thesis as 
to the right way to mend the House of Lords in the 
October Positivist Rcviac. He says : — 

All that is wanted for the moment is to turn into an 
understood political system the example tentatively set by the 
Prime Minister in selecting childless men and bachelors for 
all new peerages. If a hundred or a hundred and fifty cap- 
able men could be drawn from the House of Commons (pre- 
sent or past), from the diplomatic, colonial, civil, and mili- 
tary services; from County Councils, public institutions, co- 
operative and trade societies; from the ranks of Privy Coun- 
cillors, Judges, King's Counsel, Eoyal societies, and great 
companies, publicists, professors, and learned societies — and 
without the paraphernalia of heralds, or the endowment of 
families, such men could be infused into the existing House 
without any legislation or bitter contest— tire nucleus of a 
true Senate would be there. The thirty or forty debating 
Peers would he glad to receive fresh blood. The five hun- 
dred silent and absent Peers would remain silent, abserrt. 
and harmless. 

This scheme is not put forward in any party sense. Both 
parties ought to be represented. But, in view of the enor- 
mous disproportion of Peers at present, new creations should 
be in inverse ratio to the actual balance of parties. The cre- 
ation of hereditary Peers might still be retained as at pre- 
sent for those who court rank and honour without power. 
An ancient mjnarchy naturally involves a gradation of rank 
and royal favours. Only this — newly-created Peers uith here- 
ditary titles should have no right to sit in a Eeformed Upper 
Cliamber — either for themselves or tlieir descendants. 

Eeciev? of Remi'ws, 1/12/01. 

Leading Articles. 



Mr. Howari! HeiisniiUi, in the United Scrvnc 
Magazine, gi\es some impressions of the German 
nianoeuN'res. Thev were -this year directed to the 
■defence ot Silesia. The Kaiser's belief that in- 
vasion threatens only from the West seems to ha\e 
been overridden by the newlv-appointed head of the 
General Staff. General Von Moltke. The same in- 
fluence is seen hv the writer in the abandonment of 
' those sweeping charges of cavalry brigades and 
dix'isions that are so dear to the heart of the Kaiser, 
but which are now regarded as almost impossible in 
modern warfare. 

But in other respects German methods are still 
•conservative. For example, the writer savs ; — 

Such lessons as foreign obse vers learnt from the armies in 
tlie field were largely of a negative character. The lessons 
taught both by tiie Boer war and the Russo-Japanese strug- 
gle have apparently been ignored by those responsible for 
the training of the German infantry. The old dense forma- 
tion is still adhered to, and many of the assaults on the 
trenches during tlie second day's ope'-ations were conducted 
almost shoulder to shoulder. Tiie art of taking cover, too, 
was almost entirely neglected, anrl the regimental officers 
were great sinners in this respect. Even when under an 
overwhelming artillery fire they kept their men lianging 
about in the open, often huddled together in dense masses, 
without making the slightest effort to entrench themselves, 
or to take advantage of the natural cover that offered itself. 
Tiie attack forniati-jns were open to exactly the same charge. 

In crossing the country the troops seemed to 
a\oid cover, and only in very few cases to revert to 
hasty shelter trenches. The writer goes on: — 

It seems clear that, so far as the German army is con- 
cerned, the old theory of attack by a quick burst of a huge 
body, and then, firing line and supports all jumbled hope- 
lessly together, a blind faith in dead weight and entliusiasm, 
still obtain a considerable amount of favour. It is to be 
feared that the awakening will be a rude one. 


The German armv has not vet learned the lesson 
(if invisibility. Their grevish-black uniforms are 
conspicuous a mile away, and are extremely hot and 
uncomfortable. The spade work in trench forma- 
tion was well done, but the German militarv passion 
for straight lines and geometrical exactness exposes 
the trenches to deadly enfilading. Of the German 
infantr) the writer speaks in the highest terms. 
Their endurance and feats of marching could be 
1 quailed by very few of the European armies. But, 
says Mr. Hensman : — 

For the rest the German infantryman is still the non-dis- 
ciplined, wooden, unthinking fighting automaton that he has 
always been. Intelligence am mg tlie rank and file is a tiling 
that is apparently unthouglit of in Germany, even if it be 
not actually discouraged. For blind obedience to orders and 
unflinching courage, the German soldier is impossible to 
surpass. But tliink for himself he cannot. He obeys a com- 
mand mechanically, but he could not vary it an inch though 
lli-i life depenfled upon it. 


The same lack of initiative is found in the regi- 
mental officers. Enthusiastic, keen and intelligent 
they were, but — 

Act upon their own initiative, however, tliey would not, 
and when confronted with a crisis or a situation not pro- 
vided for in tlie enormously long and detailed orders issued 
by the staft'. they were as helpless as a rudderless ship. In- 
deed, it is scarcely an e.'jaggeration to say that in the Ger- 
man army to-day the staff does the thinking and the rest of 
the army converts the thoughts into actions, macliine-like, 
and without any independent consideration. 

The whole of the mancEU\res were carried out 
strictly on text-book lines. " The cavalry was some- 
thing of a failure." Its recklessnesss would mean 
enormous loss in time of war, and the horsemanship 
is greatly inferior to that of our own cavalry. The 
honours of the campaign would go to the artillery, 
which was uniformly good. " At picking up range 
the Germans are unsurpassed," The engineers, by 
means of telegraphs and telephones, kept the rival 
commanders in touch with every part of their forces. 
They showed, too, great ability to repair motor- 
cars. The organisation of supply and transport was 
admirable. " The Germans have brought the science 
of feeding an army in the field to a pitch of per- 
fection that is almost beyond credit," The writer 
ccincludes : — 

To sum up, it may be said that the German manoeuvres of 
1906 have shown that as a mechanical fighting force the 
Kaiser's army retains its deservedly high position, but that 
it still lacks that flexibility of action and that power and 
initiative that should pervade all ranks, and without which 
no army can be said to be perfect. 


AIan\ \Vesterns who are accustomed tu think of 
the Greek clergy as ill-educated and ignorant will 
be surprised on reading Rev. Islay F. Burns' de- 
scription in the Sunday at Home of Halki, "A Col- 
lege of the Greek Church." The college is situated 
in one of the lovely group of islands in the Sea of 
Maiftora. The college was founded in 1844, to 
provide "a titting education of our sacred clergy in 
science, religion and morals." The full curriculum 
extends over seven years : — 

The studies of the first four years are devoted to the 
humanities, and comprise language, natural science, and 
pliilosophy. with a wide variety of subjects under each 
head. Thus the languages studied, and that by all. are an- 
cient Greek. Latin. Turkish, Russian and Slavonian, and 
French. In the study of tlie ancient languages philology has 
a special place. The fourth year is a partial exception to 
the above scheme, as certain of its subjects form a transition 
to theolog.v. In the last three years the student is occupied 
partly by some aspects of law, but mainly by theology. 

The student, who must on entry be not less than 
seventeen and not more than nineteen years of age, 
is tested right through his course. The education is 
given free. The number in residence varies from 
seventy to eighty. There are no athletics, and 
though fasts are prescribed the students are well 
i:ared for in the matter of food. 


The Review ot Reviews. 

December 1, ISO:. 


In the Fortnightly Rcvicu.', writing on " The 
President's English." Mr. William Archer avows 
himself an advocate of spelling reform, though rathei 
than spell " fonetikaly " he would "at once go ovei 
to the stagnationists " and write "programme " and 
" prologue ■' to his dying day. " We have made our 
cheap jokes at the President's expense,'' savs Mr. 
Archer ; " now it is time to be serious " : — 

I believe the matter to be a momentous one— more sd. 
perhaps, than the President himself fully realises. I believe 
that the future of the English language hangs in the bal- 
ance, and that there lies before us, during the next few 
.vears. a decision ot world-historic import. 

The .Simplified Spelling Board have been too 
timid in their recommendations, and Mr. Archer 
does not belie\e that reform will make anv real 
headway until their present proposals have been 
enormously extended and amended. English opjjosi- 
tion to them, so far from preventing their adoption, 
will much more probably hasten it. 

The ■' stock argument " against spelling reform is. 
of course, the '' etymological " argument. This 
" has long been abandonee^ by all who have given 
any real thought to the subject " : — 

It is disowned by the very people who, were there anything 
in it. would be the first to insist upon it— namely, the phil- 
ologists ant! language-historians. The history ot the lan- 
guage is written in a thousand volumes, and can never be 
really lost or obscured: and the iiea that our current spell- 
ing; is. in any effective sense, a course of instruction in 
etymology, is patently false. 

Even supposing that current spelling were a \erv 
ready key to etymology, it is a monstrous pretension 
that a hundred million people who have no use 
for this key ought to be encumbered with it through- 
out life, merely for the sake of the few thousands, 
at most, who have some use for it. 


-Admitting the desirability of spelling reform, Mr. 
-Archer thinks the value of the President's proposals 
more than doubtful. He especially remarks that 
nothing is done to remove that perennial rock of 
offence to shaky spellers — the large group of words 
ending in "ieve." "eive," "eave," and "eeve." 
It the Spelling Board's recommendations are adopt- 
ed and put in practice, we shall have a long period 
of constantl\ changing language, and, consequentlv, 
of constantly changing dictionaries. Moreo\er, 
when the Simplified Spetling Board is at length satis 
fied. it does not follow that the rest of the English- 
speaking world will be satisfied. Chaos alone is 
likely to result. 


Mr. Archer insists on 

the advisability, nay. the necessity, of a definite pronounce- 
ment on spelling reform by a special body, so constituted as 

to command the respect of the whole English-speaking world. 
The question should be referred to an InternationaJ Confer- 
ence, Congress, or Commission, which, fairly reiiresenting 
all the communities and all the interests concerned, should 
speak with as near an approach to authority as is possible 
or desirable in our democratic world. 

This Conference President Roosevelt might invite 
to meet at Washington, and delegates from the 
British Islands, the British Colonies, and the United 
States should attend it. to the number of thirtv to 
forty-five in all. 

Phonetic spelling is obviously impossible, for the 
reason that what Aberdeen considers phonetic Lon- 
don does not, and (sad to say), Australia might now 
hardly do so either. Perhaps, however, in the 
course of levelling centuries, phonetic training and 
travel " may beget a composite international pro- 
nunciation which will dominate the whole English- 
speaking world." 


Mr. Frederic Harrison, writing in the Positivist 
Review, says : — 

There is, of course, much in English spelling which is vexa- 
tious and absurd. Many useful changes are being gradually 
introduced, and mAn.v American innovations are quite right, 
an I are being slowly adopted here. Bit to introduce by a 
sudden public order an entire new dictionary would be, even 
it successful, a cause of endless confusion and division 
amongst the reading world. The elder generation would 
never consent to learn a new language, nor would they ever 
read a new book spelt in a way as troublesome to them as 
" Chaucer " or " Piers Plowman " now are to the average 
youth. A young generation which had been brought up on 
fnnetik literature would not read our existing books. Many 
millions ot books would become was:e paper. Sj far from 
the Ruzfelt-Karneggii Nu Slil bringing together our two na- 
tions, it would rudely set them by the ears The laughter 
which the President's order caused would become an angry 
growl, if we thought it serious, here. We may learn many 
things from America, but their literature is the last thing 
we should take as a model. 

This, from Mr. Harrison's point of view, ought 
surely to be regarded as a point in favour of Presi- 
dent Roose\elt, for he goes on to say : — 

A far deeper question remains. This dream ot weldiug 
into one the whole English-speaking people is a dangerous 
and retrograde Utopia, full of mischief and false pride of 
race. It is a subtler and more sinister form of Jingoism. 
We all need to have our national faults and weaknesses cor- 
rected by friendship with those of different ideals and with- 
out our special temptations. The English race is already 
too domineering, ambitious, and self-centre'. Combination 
with America would stimulate our vices, our difficulties— 
and our rivals. But this is too big a topic to treat in a 

Surely this is to go off on a false track I To op- 
pose the reunion of the English-speaking race is 
hardly the line which we ought to expect from thosf 
who believe in the unity of mankind. What is more 
natural than that those who seek the larger unity 
should wish to secure as a stepping-stone thither the 
union of all those who speak the same language, 
read the same literature, and are on the same plane 
of civilisation ? 

Krriea of Review, 1/liiOS. 

Leading Articles* 



Writing on Art and tiie Detective in the October 
Temple Bar. Mr. Cecil Chesterton says that if we 
want to find the best contemporarv mystery stories 
we shall not go to "Sherlock Holmes," or to Mr. 
Arthur Morrison, or to Mr. Fergus Hume. We 
shall rather turn to the work of two women, Mrs. 
A. K. Green and Mrs. Florence Warden. 

\V'h\ wcmii-n should succeed in this branch of 
fiction is explained by Mrs. Green herself. Mr. 
Chesterton writes : — 

In one of ber best stories. " Tbat .\ffair ?Jext Door." Mrs. 
Green introduces us to a very commonplace old maid, like 
most old maids, curious, secretive, keenly observant of her 
neighbours' affairs, and fond of speculating about other 
people's business. Circumstances throw ber into the very 
centre of a mysterious crime, and suddenly reveal in ber 
all the qualities of a great detective. All the characteristics 
which make her a nuisance to ber neighbours make her an 
invaluable ally to the police. The conception is a daring, 
and, I think, a true one. 

I fancy that the two faculties which the great Sherlock 
declared to be the prime necessities of a detective, observa- 
tion and dedut tion, are feminine rather than masculine facul- 
ties. It will hardly be di.=puted that it is so in regard to the 
former: while, as to the latter, what man ever discovered 
as much about the inhabitants of the house opposite as any 
woman will deduce from the shape of their window blinds? 

Mr, Chesterton considers Miss Florence Warden 
even more worthy of note, but her merits are not 
duly acknowledged because criticism does not do 
justice to the mystery ston*. You may have romance 
without incident, or vou may have incident without 
romance. But unlike E Xisbet or Mr. Stanley 
Wevman. Miss Warden has got the real thing: — 

The first chapter of "The Mystery of Dudley Home," the 
first two or three chapters of " No. 5 The Square " strike the 
note that gives the thrill. They are genuinely romantic. 


Dogs a.s Policemen. 

Mr. William G. FitzGerald. writing in the 
October Century, is enthusiastic as to the value of 
dogs in the police service. 

He says a policeman on night dut\ . in a great 
city, if accompanied by a povv.-rful and sagacious 
dog, is more likely tn be respected by criminals than 
the policeman who goes out alone, and he is sur- 
prised that it should have been left to so small a 
State as Belgium to make the initial experiment at 
Ghent and elsewhere in iSgg. In course of time 
the number of dogs was increased, and it soon be- 
came ap]3arent that night crimes almost disappeared, 
\ cunning ruffian might outwit a policeman, but a 
big tr.iined dog rarely failed to inspire terror in the 
most desperate evil-doer. 

In Ghent the night service is nuw maile b\ sonu- 
120 guards and 50 or 60 trained dogs. M. E. van 
Weseniael was the first to suggest dogs as auxi!iar\ 
\ police. The big Belgian sheep-dogs are considered 
the most suitable, and thev undergo a careful traininc; 

Listing from three to six months. When coaching 
the dogs, the brigadiereontrolciir, in civil dress, 
often simulates the appearance of a suspicious 
character, assaulting the night-guards, slouching 
along with suspicious bundles, or scaling high walls, 
and the dogs are taught to obey the commands of 
the police and to attack such persons. 

M. van Wesemael is proud of the achievements of 
his dogs, especially one named Beer. Mr. Fitz- 
Gerald writes : — 

One night Beer came upon five drunken fellows wrecking a 
saloon on the outskirts of the city. The men were making a 
great uproar, and a resolute resistance to the law was 
feared. Beer's muzzle was removed, and the fine animal 
sprang forward without a sound. 'W^hen the patrol reached 
the spot, four of the men had fled, and Beer was clutching 
the fifth by the leg. 

The moment the officer appeared. Beer gave up his pri- 
soner, and was off like the wind on the trail of the fugitives. 
Tho patrol followed with bis prisone", guided by a series of 
short, sharp barks. Presently he came upon the ether four, 
who had turned at bay and were trying to keep the daunt- 
less Beer from tearing them to pieces. Thoroughly fright- 
ened—sobered even — the men offered to give themselves up 
ii' Beer were controlled and muzzled. This was promptly 
done, though not without a little protest from Beer himself, 
and the procession started for the central police bureau, 
with the victorious Beer, now at liberty to give vent to his 
joy, barking nnd lacing round his prisoners, exactly as if 
tliey had been a flock of sheep. 

A New Kind of Rubber. 

In the H'orld's Work and L'lav Mr. B. Wyand 
describes the iww cereal rubber invented by Mr. 
William Threlfal! Carr. Like other boys, when 
wandering through the cornfields, he plucked ears 
of corn and chewed them. Chewed wheat becomes, 
in the process of chewing, a glutinous substance 
having a decided resemblance to rubber. This ele- 
mentary fact he has adapted to the revolutionising 
of a huge industry, masticating the wheat bv ma- 
chinerv . and using saliva in the form of ptvalin. In 
solution ptvalin acts as a ferment, and changes the 
starchy matter in the corn to dextrose : — 

So far, six grades of the rubher have been manufactured. 
No. 1 in the form of a thin solution for waterproofing. No. 
2 in thicker solution for tubing and other fiexible materials. 
No. 3 for tyres. No. 4 as a loaded substitute for linoleum. 
No. 5 still loaded and hardened for paving purposes, 
and No. 6 again still further harc!ened f c r golf balls. Other 
grades will, of cour.^e, be introduced as required, but here 
one has a wide range, from th.e waterproofing solution to a 
golf-ball materia!, the latter combining "the lightness of 
cork with the toughness of chilled steel." 

This rubber will vulcanise. It can be produci-d 
at a cost considerablv less than ordinary rubber. A 
small syndicate has already been formed to develop 
the uses of this cereal rubber, and two Continental 
Governments have made offers for the patent. 

In the S<'ptora)xT issiio of (^iisxrlt's Matia-'nie Mr. 
W. ,\. Soniorsot Shmii t<'Ils the story of tho wrock of 
the Aii^ffiilid and how it provod a gold niiiio. The 
Hon. .J. G. Aikman piirchaisod thp wrecked ship for 
L290 ;ind cleared many tlioiisand.s out of the profit.s 
of hi.s bargain. 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1909. 


[n ''Musings Without Method" Blacku'ood in- 
veighs against the current glorification of Fox. The 
writer says : — 

Concerning no politician has so much cant been spoken 
and written as concerning Charles James Fox. His name has 
heen whispered with a reverential awe by thousands who 
would have shrunk hack in horror had they recognised the 
truth of his career. To him posterity has allowed a latitude 
which it withholds from all others known to history. The 
highly sensitive conscience which found Parnell's disgrace a 
patent necessity does not shrink from the indiscretions of 
Fox. Sir George Trevelyan celebrates in euthusia-stic terms 
" the grateful veneration with which the whole body of his 
Xonconformist fellow-citizens adored him living, and mourn- 
ed him dead." Indeed, there is an element of the grotesque 
in the passionate lespect in which the party of Dr. Clifford 
holds this genial gamester, who loved women and the bottle 
as deeply as he loved the dice-box. For his extravagances 
they have an ever-ready excuse. With the bluff' exclamation 
that " boys will be boys." Cliey sun themselves in the light 
of his dissipations. They take a smiling pleasure in his 
vices, and describe as generosity in him what in another 
they would denounce for blackguardism. 

As a man of pleasure he was supereminent. In an age of 
hard drinking and reckless gambling. Charles Fox had no 

His father took care that, when fourteen years of 
age. he left France a finished rake. After a career 
of fearful extravagance at the gaming-tables, Fox 
set up a bank at Brooks', with Hare and Fitz- 
Patrick as partners. Charles Fox, says the ^yriter, 
went into politics without principles, and without 
principles he remained till the end. He was a 
partisan, and not a patriot. " Wherever there was 
a foe to England, there was a friend of Fox." 
" Throughout the war with Xapoleon, Fox did his 
best to aid the enemy and thwart his own country- 
men.' The writer concludes with the exclamation : 
" How unfortunate is the party of Dr. Clifford, 
which, in spite of its active conscience and high pro- 
fessions, can find no better saints to reverence than 
John Wilkes and Charles James Fox!" 


Miss T-'lorence Hayllar writes in the Independent 
Rei'iac on Christianity and the Child. She raises 
the great question, " How far is a child capable of 
assimilating religious instruction?" The child, the 
writer argues, repeats the history of the race. 
Childhood in the individual corresponds to the 
primitive savage and barbarian stages of develop- 
ment in the race : and it was not to the primitive or 
savage or barbarian man that Christianity was 

The message of Christ belongs to maturity, not 
to childhood. The writer considers the teaching of 
Tesus in the Gospels. Simple in appearance, it 
involves for the most part an experience which a 
child has not attained. The contrast between the 
commands of Christ and the conduct of Christians 
is apt to confuse the young mind. So much, she 

says, of Christ's teaching as is directly contrary to 
the common conduct of ordinarv reputable persons 
should not be brought to the notice of young 
I'hildren. So with the history of the life of Christ. 
The story of the Birth at Bethlehem, of the child- 
hood, and of the three years' ministry may well 
find a place in the child's mind, but she draws the 
line at the Crucifixion. . The historical books of the 
Bible are again \ery perplexing, because of the un- 
christian conduct of many of the Jewish heroes. 
The Acts of the .Apostles she considers to be the 
book which lends itself most easily to a straight- 
forward treatment. Passages from the poetry, phil- 
osophy, and doctrine of the Bible might be com- 
mitted to memory. 

.A.fter this preamble it is somewhat surprising to 
find the writer insisting that Christian children 
should be taught by heart the -Apostles' Creed, or 
some similar form. In addition, children should be 
told, in favourable moments, as much as they can 
understand about Jesus Christ. His life and His 

But the object of the elementarv schools should 
be, she insists, " to furnish the children with a pre- 
paration for higher teaching analogous to that pre- 
paration of the world before Christ came." Justice 
and courage and self-mastery, which are pre- 
supposed and not taught by Cfiristianity, should be 
learnt first, otherwise forgiveness and love are 
dangerous, humility and self-denial become mere 
weakness. The time for distinctively religious teach- 
ing, and for beginning the study of the Gospels and 
the Bible is, the writer maintains, generallv ado- 
lescence, extending from the thirteenth or four- 
teenth to the eighteenth or nineteenth vear. Prepa- 
ration for confirmation should then be taken 
seriously. Then the high and solemn story of the 
Crucifixion should be told for the first time. This 
plan of religious education, she maintains, is the 
natural one : — 

If any plan like this comes to be carried out. a much 
greater importance than is now the case will be attached to 
confirmation and the antecedent teaching. This would fall 
for the most part beyond the period of elementary school 
life, and would in all probability be undertaken, as it now 
generally is. by the clergy; and of all the work in their 
hands would be the most critical and far-reaching. 

This is certainly another way out of the religious 
difficulty. Here is one. evidently a devout believer 
herself, arguing that in the interests of religious edu- 
cation children should be taught the plain funda- 
mental virtues until they have left the public ele- 
mentary school, leaving the clergy to complete the 
religious in.struction by proper training for confirma- 
tion. The writer makes a very valuable suggestion 
with more humility than perhaps is quite necessary, 
that among the studies compulsory before ordina- 
tion, at least an outline of child-study, with the 
necessary psychology and phvsiology pertaining to 
it. should find a place. 


Revieu: of Revifwt, IjlllOO. 

Leading Articles. 



His Crusade against Intellect and Civilisation. 
The National Rcviciv devotes considerable space 
in " The Episodes of the Month " to an account of 
what it describes as the Pope's crusade against 
thought. It declares that nothing can be more false 
than the — 

legend lepresentingr Pius X. " as a liberal and enlightened 
Pontiff of progressive views." Cardinal Sarto's early life in 
an Italian seminarj-. where he was immured until he re- 
ceived priest's orders at the age of twenty-four, has made it 
almost impossible for the Pope to be other than he is. His 
Encyclical of Februarj- 2nd, 1904. " in which he states quite 
simply and literally that the Hebrew patriaichs were ac- 
quainted with tlie doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, 
and found consolation in the thought of Mary at various 
crises in their lives," BhowB its author to be unable to under- 
stand contemporary religious problems, however pure his 
motives and lofty his character. Indeed, his whole-souled 
piety and transparent sincerity add to the hopelessness of 
the situation. Pius X. is bound by his principles " on purely 
theological, and not on merely worldly grounds, to aim at 
sucli a domination over the civil power as was aimed at. and 
in part achieved, bv Gregory VII., Innocent m.. or Boniface 

This revival of medieval pretensions has gradually brought 
Rome into acute conflict with intellectual Catliolicism in 
France and Italy, and threatens to exasperate the faithful in 
Spain, while it must ultimately complicate the position of 
British Catholics. There have already been several ominous 
manifestations of what is nothing less than a crusade 
against thought during the present Papacy. 

The attitude of Pius X. towards Biblical questions is,- need- 
less to say. obscurantist. The Biblical Commission appoint- 
ed by Leo XIII. has been completely diverted from its ori- 
ginal purpose, and its expert members have been swamped by 
bigots, whose sole qualification is their hostility to all criti- 
cism. This Biblical Commission has recently decided that 
Moses was the author of the Pentateuch. It is apparently 
still open to Catholics " to believe that he may have dictated 
parts of it to secretaries, and that additions may have been 
made to it in later times: but the composite authorship, now 
accepted by all Biblical critics without exception, was utterly 
repudiated." We are told that this amazing decree, worthy 
to rank witli the condemnation of Galileo, has alienated 
even the most moderate critical scholars, some of whom 
'■ were perfectly willing that M. Loisy should be condemned, 
but are less pleased at a decree which involves themselves, 
and implicitly condemns such works as those of Pere Lag- 
range. O.P.. and the little book on 'The Tradition of Scrip- 
ture.' by Dr. William Barry, which has recently been pub- 
lislied with the imprimntur of the Archbishop of AVestrain- 

Worse still remains behind. A new Syllabus is 
said to be in preparation, whose 

" object is to purge the Church of the ' intellectuals.' It 
seems likely to be successful." The publication of the Syl- 
labus is expected to be accompanied by the condemnation of 
several Catholic periodicals, and possibly by a decree of the 
Index or the Holy Office condemning certain Catholic writers, 
including some of the beat known English Catholic laymen. 

Mr. HnroM .1. Slipustoiu- lin.s an iiitorcsting iirticle 
in tlio liiiiiii^ of SeptonilxT oil th<^ Desort'.s Natural 
Wat<.r Supply. [11 it ln' doscrilios various cactus 
plantes now Krcnvii in tlu' l<'ai' West <if Aniorica. Mr 
Lntlicr Hurhiuk has <'Hininat<>tl tlic tlionit.; and im- 
pr(iv(xl tho fruit of tli<j prickly poar aft*^ ton yeai's 
of patient iiulu.strv, and two profcK.snr.s of modicine 
arc at work tostiiis; tlic medicinal value of tlio cactus 
in a special lahoratory. 


In Fi-v's Magazine, Mr. C. B. Fry contributes a 
verv original paper on " Facial Expression and 
Physical Effort." It is illustrated by a great num- 
ber of instantaneous photographs, showing the faces- 
of four eminent batsmen, three well-known fielders, 
four lawn tennis champions, three golfers and three 
footballers in their moment of most intense effort. 
In all cases the facial expression is a distortion sug- 
gestive rather of pain than delight, in the case of 
winners as well as in the case of losers. Facial ex- 
pression is " nothing more than sympathy between 
the facial muscles and the muscular tension in other 
parts of the body incidental to concentrated effort." 


A valuable addition to the psychology of sport is 
afforded by Mr. Fry when he speaks of the con- 
centration of will and attention of mind required in. 
athletic feats : — 

From personal experience I can affirm that if a long jum- 
per, either during his run-up or at tlie moment of taking 
off, lets his mind wander ever so slightly from concentra- 
tion on the effort, he knocks from two feet to a yard off his- 
jump—he does 20 feet or 21 feet instead of the 23 feet of 
which he is capable. I go so far as to say that the great 
ditliculty of long and high jumping is to concentrate the 
will. Much the same holds good of sprinting. A runner only 
realises the full speed of which he is capable by an intense, 
concentrated, and sustained effort of will. If during the 
race he allows his mind to wander a hair'.s-breadth off the 
single idea of reaching the tape, his speed falls off. 

Mr. Fry gives a signal example of this truth. At 
one of the inter- 'Varsity sports he says : — 

G. L. Jordan and I were the Oxford representatives. He 
was about a yard the faster over the distance with an equal 
start. I had a bruised heel, and we expected to win with 
Jordan or not at all— in tact, I was only an " off chance." 
In the race, as luck had it, the other three got very bad 
starts and I a very good one. and in consequence I received 
as a gift such a lead that, going unexpectedly sound, I could 
not have been caught. About thirty yards from home I sud- 
denly took my mind off the effort of speed, and wondered 
where Jordan was, and with tlie momentary relaxation of 
mind my speed tell off and the others came up and passed 
me in a flash. Jordan won. so it was all right. But my 
lapse of attention cost me a two yards' lead and another 
yard to the bad. This proves how rigid and concentrated 
is, or should be. the mental attention in sprinting, and I 
am quite sure that the tension of the muscles of the face is 
partly expressive of this mental tension. 

However distorted the face of the winner, Mr. 
Frv says there is absolutely no mistake about the 
pleasure. He thinks that the facial distortion of the 
athlete proves how extraordinarily difficult it is to 
oljtain the ideal balance of muscle which consists of 
contracting only those muscles which, separateh tir 
in combination, are really needed for effectne 
action at the moment. It is necessary to remember 
that the contracted and therefore rigid muscle which 
is doing no work is so much against the desired 

-tion, and is also absorbing energy. "We ought 


-it to make faces. 


The Review ot Reviews. 

December I. 1906. 


Mr. Percy Collins in the World's Work and Play 
describes a variety of " dainty dishes ignored by 
Englishmen." Snails stand first in his main. Paris 
uses 200 million snails, weighing about ten tons, 
every year. In most other European countries 
also the edible snail is counted a luxury, and snail 
eating has extended even to the United States. 
Snails used to be a favourite dish in London res- 
taurants during the eighteenth century. In France 
snails are reared with as much care and forethought 
as a farmer bestows on his cattle. 

Frogs' legs are regarded as a delicacy in nearly 
all the countries of Europe and America. Canada 
for a long time now has been exporting frogs into 
the United States for table purposes. The hind- 
quarters of the frog alone are eaten. " The flesh is 
very ivhite and tender, nutritious and delicately 
fla\"aured. and when nicely cooked is one of fhe 
most dainty dishes that the epicure could desire, 
surpassing in flavour all kinds of fish, flesh, or 
fowl. • 

Hedgehogs are still eaten by gvpsies and certain 
Continental rustics. But : — 

The ancient Greeks recognised tbe flesh of tlie hedgehog as 
a delicacy, while the same dish not infrequently made its 
appearance upon the tables of English farmers a century or 
so ago. In fact, there are records which show that at this 
time hedgehogs were actually bred and fattened for eating. 
When in good condition the flesh is said to be sweet and 
well-flavoured, with a reminiscence of quail. 

The grub of the May bug or cockchafer forms a 
nutritious and palatable repast. Locusts have been 
regarded as luxuries from the earliest times. Lo- 
cust-eating tribes invariably grow fat. Trepang, or 
sea -cucumbers, are very popular in China. The 
edible birds' nests, which fetch as much as r5s. a 
pound, carefully prepared and boiled down form a 
practically tasteless jelly, but with sugar and lemon, 
Juice become perfectly palatable. The chrysalids 
of silkworms are regarded as a luxury by the poorer 
Chinese, who also value the larva; of bluebottle 
flies, which thev speciallv rear in heaps of putrid 

this law was threatened with a fine of fifty rupees, while its 
requirements had to be fulfilled within fourteen days. Un- 
happily, by this change an attractive feature in tbe life of 
the city has disappeared, the lamentable hues enforced upon 
the poor ladies by the .\mir'3 edict emphasising the dirt and 
discomfort of the Kabul streets. 

The Amir and Women's Dress. 

Mr. Angus Hamilton, who has a short article in 
the Lady's Realm for October on Life at the Amir s 
Court, tells how the present Amir put a stop to 
the picturesque dress of the Afghan women. 

Proud ot their prepossessing qualities, the women of Af- 
ghanistan have exploited their charms so much that it was 
left to Ilabib TJUah to impose a check upon the increasing 
attractiveness of the street costume of the feminine portion 
of his subjects. One day, in the spring of 1903. to the un- 
speakable dismay of many pretty women and of all young 
girls, he issued orders, changing the white burka, which, al- 
though covering the head and figure, and leaving a latticed 
ir.sertion before the face, was in a measure attractive. There- 
after these white street robes were to be dyed kharki for 
Jfahommedan women, red or mustard-yellow for Bindu 
women, and slate-colour for other women. Disobedience cf 

The Jockey's Unhappy Lot. 

In Fry's Magazine Mr. Bernard Parsons describes 
his day with Mr. Dillon, the jockey who rode Spear- 
mint when he won the Grand Prix. Mr. Dillon pro- 
tested against the idea held by most people about 
the happenings of the jockey's profession. He is 
reported as saying : — 

They ignore the many hardships tliat he is forced to pirt 
up with, and seem to forget entirely that his whole life 
must be moi*e or less one of the greatest self-denial: for it 
isn't pleasant — especially when one has an appetite like a 
hunter— to see other people feeding on the fat of the land, 
while one has to breakfast off a couple of pieces of dry toast 
and a cup of coffee, and Lunch otf half a dozen grapes or a 
wineglassful of soda-water, to say nothing of spending a 
morning sweltering in a Turkish bath to get weight otf, or 
else tramping a good ten miles on a irot summer day in thick 

Certainly the obligation of having to sweat one- 
self down to a stipulated weight is apt to create a 
feeling of disgust. The jockey told of one case in 
which he had to live in a Turkish bath for almost 
a whole day. He had to ride a horse at Yarmouth 
at yst. 4lbs., and as he weighed 7st. lolbs. he had 
to melt off the 61bs. above what was required. This 
perpetually starving or wasting oneself to a pre- 
scribed weight seems scarcelv human. 

Can Plants Reason ? 

The possibility of an intelligence in the plant is 
the subject of a study by S. Leonard Bastin in the 
Monthly Review. He says it is now an established 
fact that plants can feel. Do they not also posse.'-s 
a discerning power? Manv verv interesting e\i- 
dences of discrimination in plants are adduced. One 
may be quoted : — 

The following instance of a Central American Acacia i- 
quite romantic in its way. but it is vouched for by good 
autliorities. This tree (A. gpherocephala) grows in districts 
where leaf-cutter ants abound, and where the ravages of 
these insects are so dreadful that whole areas of country 
are at times denuded of foliage in a few hours. The Acacia 
has, however, hit upon a unique way of protecting itself 
against the assaults of these enemies. At the end of some 
of its leaves it produces " small yellowish sausage-shaped 
masses, known as ' food-bodies.' " Now these seem to be 
prepared especially for the benefit of certain black ants, 
wiiich eat the material greedily, and on this account it is 
no matter for surprise tliat these insects 1 which are very 
warlike in habit) should make their homes in the Acacia, 
boring out holes in the thorns of the tree to live in. It is 
not very difficult to see how this arrangement works out. 
At the approach of an army of leaf-eating ants, the hordes 
of black ants emerge, fired with the enthusiasm which the 
defence of a home is bound to inspire, with the result that 
the attacking enemy is repulsed, and the tree escapes un- 

Revieir of R'Vieirs, lllijOe. 



This admirable Review is now published on the 7t.h 
and 21st of each month. Tlie English-speaking woild, 
therefore, can now boast a fortnightly review in fact 
as well as in name. It will be very intere.sting to 
note how the experiment succeeds. 

Mr. Goldwin Smith writes a well-balanced article 
on British Empire in England: — 

British Empire in India is in no danger of being brouglit 
to an end by a Russian invasion. It does not seem to be 
in mucli danger of being brougiit to an end by internal 
rebellion. Yet it must end. Such is the decree of nature. 
In that climate British children cannot be reared. No race 
can forever liold and rule a land in which it cannot rear 
it< children. In what form the end would come it has 
hitherto been impossible to divine. " B.v accident " was the 
only reply which one who had held high office in India 
cotild make to such a question on that subject. Since this 
reawakening of the East, a more definite source of possible 
disturbance may be said to loom. In eucoui-aging Japan to 
go to war. Lord Lansdowne may have done sometiiing which 
was far from his intention, and of which he did not dream. 
He may have inadvertently pressed the button of fate. 


Louise Collier Willcox pays a high tribute to G. 
Macdonald, whom she styles "■ A Neglected Novel- 
ist '': — 

The rare beauty of Macdonald's novels is their gift of 
wide horizon and repose. From the clever, mannered, ner- 
vous, swiftly moving stories of our own day. to turn back to 
his work is like coming out of the heated glare of the theatre 
into the blessed sunlight and the open meadows. In the 
attitude towards tlie visible world we find Macdonald's was 
the mystic's consciousness — the great love of space, the sense 
of spirit in the winds and storms, the love of trees and 
flowers, shade and sunshine, stars, waves, even the black 
interstellar spaces as the habitation of spirit, the visible gar- 
ment of the Creator. 


■■ Q ■' writes on Mr. Roosevelt's right to accept a 
nomination, despite the fact that he voluntarily gave 
the following pledge: — 

" On the 4th of March nest I shall have served three and 
one-half ye.a-s, and this three and one-half years constitutes 
my first term. Tlie wise custom wliich limits the President 
to two terms regards the substance and not the form. Under 
no circumstances will I he a candidate for or accept an- 
other nomination." 

While Governor of the State of New York and harassed by 
■ the unremitting etTo:ts of politicians to suhmerKe him in 
the Vice-Presidential office, he declared with all the emplia- 
sis at his command: "Under no circumstances could I o- 
would I accept the nomination for the Vice-Presidency. " 
Later, he added, " My position in regard to the Vice-Presi- 
dency is absolutely unalterable." 

Yet he became Vice-President, and in all proba- 
bility, his pledge notwithstanding, be will be forced 
to accept a thiid term of office for the Presidency, 

The Rev. H. P, Mendes, in an article entitled 
'Palestine and the Hague Conference," says: — 

Let the approaching Hague Conference open the question 
of the reconstitution of the Hebrew nation by the great 
Powers of to-day, even as Belgium and other nations have 
been reborn with independence. 

Then he thinks if the Hague Permanent High Court 
be transplanted " to Zion, dear and hallowed in the 
eyes of all the Catholic, Protestant, Greek-Church, 
Mohammedan and Jewish worlds, the religious or sen- 
timental environment will not be without force," For 
" out of Zion will go forth law, and the word of the 
Lord from Jerusalem." 


The October number of the dtriiliiU Maijazine has 
for frontispiece a reproduction of a newly-discovered 
portrait of Charlotte Bronte. It is a water-colour 
drawing from life made in 1850 by Charlotte Bronte's 
friend, Paul Heger of Brussels. Recently it ^yas ac- 
quired by the trustees of the National Portrait Gal- 

Mr. Arthur C. Benson has an article on the Ethics 
of Reviewing. As a writer of books and a publisher 
of more than one of them anonymously, he maj- be 
said to have some experience of critics. He thinks 
we have a good many reviewers at work, but review- 
ing is a trade rather than an art. M'hat we have 
not got (he says) is a race of wise and artistic critics, 
alive to originality, delicacy, and quality. If we had 
a development of artistic literature there might be 
a development of artistic criticism. When Mr. Ben- 
son was a reviewer himself once, he read everything 
he reviewed. His difficulty lay, not with books ot 
merit and character, but with the vague, unequal 
amateur books that needed to be read more than 
once in the hope of finding a salient feature or tan- 
gible point. 

In an article on the Tides, Mr. Frank T. Bullen 
endeavours to make clear the distinction between 
the oceanic currents and the regular ehli and flow of 
the tide. 


Tlii' October number supplies Liberals with reading 
much to their mind. Perhaps the most notable paper 
is that, noticed elsewhere, by Miss F. Hayllar, who 
applies the science of child study to the elimination of 
the religious difficulty. Of higli importance is W, S. 
Blunt's account of the new Egyptian nationalism. 

Mr. Chiozza Mone.y, M.P., discusses the relations 
of Liberalism and Socialism in the light of the Master 
of Elibank's cry of warning. Mr. Money maintains 
that, wherever two or three men are gathered to- 
getln'r for mutual help. Socialism is in the midst of 
them. He recalls that Professor Dicey recognised the 
perifxi of 186,5-1900 as the perio<l of Collectivism. 
This Mr. Money would describe as the period of Vu- 
conscious Socialism. " The twentieth century begins 
i>, periotl of Conscious Socialism.'' To renounce its 
Socialism would be to destroy the Liberal party. He 
says, if the Liberals imagine that they can exist 
merely by flourishing the Free Trade flag, they are 
mistaken. Liberalism can only be a power by leading 
the nation along the path of sane Collectivism, 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 

ill'. Brailsford considers Sir Edward Grey's foreign 
policy in relation to the Congo and Pau-Islamic move- 
ment. He says that "the old combinations sought 
peace as an interest, or if not peace, then victory, 
for their members. The new combination seeks peace 
as a principle," and has for the first item on its 
European programme the reduction of armaments. 
As •■ a struggle to do justice to one persecuted Jew 
was the means of constituting a great Republican bloc 
in France," so, argues the writer, a concerted effort 
to liberate Macedonia and the Congo might help to 
form, with a full consciousness of high ends, a Liberal 
bloc in Europe. He fears that Sir Edward Grey's 
trust in the gradual enlightenment of Belgium for a 
solution of the Congo problem is not likely to be vin- 
dicated by events. He advocates reform of Turkey as 
a whole on the death of Abdul Hamid by means of a 
working agreement with Germany, who should be 
squared by our support of the Bagdad Railway. 

Mr. A. E. Zimmern. a junior member of the clas- 
sical staff, discusses the difficulties of Oxford in the 
new century. He believes that Oxford is marked out 
to be the intellectual capital of England, to be the 
home of ideas in every department of spiritual ac- 
tivity. To carry out this destiny only those .should 
be admitted who have capacitj' to absorb ideas. But. 
alas! "Oxford notoriously contains hundreds of men 
wlio are, and will remain, totally devoid of ideas." 
They are only there because they can afford to come. 
The expense of living at Oxford is the crux of the 
whole problem. If it were lowered from a minimum 
of £90 to £60, most of the present difficulties would 
disappear. The other difficulties are the competition 
of the younger Universities, the widening breach be- 
tween Oxford and the professions, the deadness of 
classical study, and the pressure of examinations. Of 
the latter he says : — 

The system was not devised, and is not maintained for 
genuine students at all. It is maintained for the sake of 
forcing unwilling idlers to work. It is a gigantic engine of 
compulsion to drive the free Barbarians of England to the 
waters of knowledge. There is only one way of killing the 
present examination system. Fill Oxford with real students, 
and it will automatically disappear. 

Under this heading Mr. G. Lowes Dickinson de- 
clares : — 

Tiie motorists are the chartered tyrants of the road, and 
they use, or abuse, their privileged position with an incon- 
siderate insolence which illustrates forcibly the extent to 
which the wealth of England, during the past half-century, 
has passed away from the hands of gentlemen. 

By way of remedy he advocates considerable increase 
in the tax on motors, a minimum fine of £.50 for 
breach of the law, the reduction of the speed limit to 
ten miles an hour, antl the i^rohibition of the emis- 
sion of vapour and smoke. Motor omnibuses and 
motor vehicles used for trade should not be allowed 
to ply the streets, as they are not yet perfect enough 
to appear in public. 


The contents for October are somewhat below the 
average. Excepting Professor Yamberys paper on 
Pan-Islamism, there is nothing that calls for separate 


Mr. R. E, Macnaughten, formerly of Harrow, laments 
the defective teaching of geography in our pubUc 
schools. He suggests that it should be made an essen- 
tial part of the curriculum, and taught by aid of the 
magic lantern. For lecturers on this subject he says, 
"It so happens that in the Agents-General for the 
respective colonies there already exists a body of men 
who by the very nature of their training and in virtue 
of their office are ideally qualified for such a task." 
If they could be persuaded to deliver lectures on their 
respective colonies at our leading public schools, per- 
sons better fitted for the task could not be found. He 
also advocates co-operation between, say, six public 
schools, whereby an interchange of lecturers could be 


A charming paper by Miss Rose Bradley says that 
through the children one gains a glimpse into the 
heart of Florence: — 

The type appears to have altered little since the days when 
those great masters, strolling through the streets of their be- 
loved city, caught and immortalised the childish forms and 
faces, on canvas, in stone and in marble, wherewith to adorn 
her loveliness. It is rare to meet an absolutely plain child 
in Florence, but it is not only the dark, eloquent eyes, the 
clear-cut features, the clean line of throat and chin, the 
graceful proportions of the small limbs to the body, but it is 
also a certain air of distinction and aloofness in their bear- 
ing which makes it a pure pleasure to watch these children 
at tliefr play. I have heard it said that the real living child 
is almost as important a note in Florentine architecture as 
those cliarming putti which smile down upon us from all 
sorts of unexpected places, in churches, and over windows 
and archways in the street. 

The August number of the New York Critic con- 
tains an article on the well-known critic, Georg 
Brandes. Paul Harboe, the writer, t.ells us that 
though Georg Brandes is the most famous personage in 
Denmark, he is also the loneliest and the least ap- 
preciated. In 1805 his "William Shakespeare" was 
published in Denmark, and his name became known 
in the -4nglo-Saxon world. Now four-fifths of his en- 
tire production exists in Eliglish. 


The World's Work and Play for October fairly 
bristles with interesting papers. 

Mr. Isaac Marcosson describes the beginning of re- 
form at Packingtown. He was in Chicago in Feb- 
ruary, and found in the great packing-houses '• a riot 
of dirt and disorder, and everywhere an indescribable 
stench," He adds: — 

I went to Chicago in August, six months later. A hot sun 
beat fiercely down on the yards. Smoke still hung over tlie 
pens, and the smell of slaughter and of cattle was still in 
the air. But in the packing-houses glistened newly cleaned 
windows; trucks table, sand floors showed signs of recent 
scrubbing; the inside walls were freshly painted or white- 
washed; concrete was replacing wood. New and detached 
toilet-rooms had been put in. The women wore blue uni- 
forms and many men were in white duck. On all sides, in 
English and foreign languages, blazed the words "Be 
Clean." Order was succeeding disorder, for the cleansing of 
Packingtown had begun. 


Under this title Mr. James Blount describes his 
experience in English and American workshops. 
American methods and atmosphere impress him as 
greatly superior. Yet he believes that the British 
workman as a mechanic is undoubtedly a .superior all- 
round man to his American cousin. He recognises 

Reriew of Reviews, l/lS/06. 

The Revleivs Reviewed, 


tlie c>ducatioiial advantages of America over all other 
nations. Ho notes that '"the American looks ahead 
all the time — the Euglisliman is perfectly content and 
satistied with present levrl." He laments tlie intem- 
perance and love of gamhling prevalent in England, 
more so than in America. In America, too, every 
man. whether son of a railway director or son of a 
labourer, beg.ins at the bottom and works upward. 
He sums up by saying that, so long as the present 
social condition^; in England make it impossible for 
the woiking man to r.iise liiniself to a higher level 
socially, so long will England be hand capped in com- 
petition with America. 

There are vivid descriptions of indu.stries as, varied 
as the o.strieh farm in Africa, scent-making as a 
hobby, minting money in London, and cigar-making 
in Holland. The importance of floating docks and 
their superiority to the ordinary dry dock ashore is 
enforced by F. A. Talbot. A floating dock to lift the 
new Cunarders of 45,000 tons could be built for 
£170,000. Mr. F. T. Jane describes our newest battle- 
ships, comparing them with the " Dreadnought." As 
;^ background to all these varied developments of 
human energy may be put the paper by Mr. F. A. 
Ogg, on the vast undeveloped regions awaiting the 
multitudinous presence of man. Canada can, he says, 
provide with the greatest ease for 100 millions more 
people. Argentina can accommodate as large an in- 
crement of liuman life. Western Australia eoukl find 
room for an agricultural population of 10 millions. He 
concludes that there is room enough for industry and 
prosperity for thousands of generations. 


The October number is characteristically Cunfein- 
pnianj. Four articles have claimed separate mention 

Erik Givskov, in a second paper on " Home Indus- 
try in Belgium,'' brings to light the striking fact that 
wherever there are extensive communal possessions 
the wages aio higher than elsewhere in Belgium, even 
though this public land is mostly found in the less 
fertile dLstricts. The well-being of tlie common people 
is superior on poorer land to which they have access, 
than on richer land to which they have not. On these 
facts is based the following plea and prophecy: — 

Tax land values and the land will be available for all who 
desire land, not as an investment, bnt as a means to produce 
for themselves and their fellow men all the commodities of 
life whioli their e.\clU3ion from the land has made artifici- 
all.v scarce. Then co-operation will be an ideal form of pro- 
duction, for the peasant will be permitted to retain all its 
beneflts. no longer being robbed of them by increasing land 
values, Throusli co-operation and electric motive power the 
well-to-do peasants will have at their cnnnnand all the ad- 
vantages which till now have been the monopoly of the great 
manufacturer and of the great fa'mer. Tlien the large towns 
will disappear, and the whole country become one great (war- 
den City. There will be no slums, but a healtliy life for all. 


•'Long Views and Sliort on White and Black" is 
the title under which Mr. Sydney Olivier discusses the 
colour problem. He contrasts the West Indies and 
its policy of eciual rights, with the Southern States 
and ils policy of race distinction. For their results 
he qiiotes Professor Roycc of Harvard, who points to 
Jamaica, where he says ''the negro race question 
seems to be substantially solved." Mr. Olivier says 
of the West Indies; — 

The signiticant fact, then, is that owing to whatever favour- 
ing circumstances the long view has been taken in tliese 
communities, the attitude of ignoring the colour-line; and 
it has produced a situation in which, at any rate, the night- 
mare of racial antagonism does not oppress the small min- 
oiity of white who, in virtue of their capacity, lead and con- 
trol them. The long view— the religious as contrasted with 
the secular— the view of the idealist as contrasted with that 
of the practical man. has justified itself here in practice. 


Mr. H. Morgan-Browne supplies an effective re- 
.ioinder to Mr. Schooling's indictment of local finance. 
He adds ; — ■ 

On what logical grounds objection can be taken to this 
particular form of human activity it is difficult to see. Pub- 
lic bodies can borrow at 3 per cent.; in other words, they 
can command cheap capital. Private companies, as a rule, 
cannot. What, tlien. can be more resonahle than that self- 
contained communities, such as towns, should avail them- 
selves of the cheap capital which their corporate t^ 
I)ility enables them to obtain, in order to carr.v on for the 
good of their members certain services of general utilit.v. 
for which otherwise they would have to pay at a higher rate 
or for a smaller return to a private compan.v. 

Ml-. Edward Farrer writes somewhat discursively on 
Canada and the L^nited States. He says that the 
triumph of Free Trade at the polls in the United 
Kingdom does not mean that Canadians will throw 
themselves into the arms of the Americans. The 
tendency is the other way. He ui-ges that the Govern- 
ment should give Canadians a larger voice in the 
settlement of disputes with Americans. Mr. G. G. 
('iniltoii is roused by the ideal pictures of religious 
education before the- Reformation to produce evidence 
of the shocking illiteracy of the priests and monks, to 
say nothing of the common people. Mr. W. S. 
Palmer gives a subtle version of the resurrection of 
tho body. He emphatically denies that the corpse 
after death is still the man's body. The organic unity 
of life which is the man will, he says, carry on from 
the molecules it built up into a body all the meaning 
they have ever had. Dr. Dillon yiehls to the tempta- 
tion of anti-Germanism. He recalls the times when 
Germany was only held back from aggressive war on 
France b.v other Powers, and states that Wihen Great 
Britain was fighting the Boers, Germany made an 
offer to the Tsar which involved an expedition against 
British possessions in the East. He insists tliat Ger- 
man policy, which is constant, necessitates the mutual 
antagonism of Prance and England. 


Tlie October number is an adniiralilc iiirnliination 
nl interesting articles dealing with the most varied 
topics. A bi'antifully-illust rated sketch of Crewe House 
is given by Mix-; Emmie Avery Keddcll. Conunander 
Currcy. R.N., adds to the description of the " Dread- 
nought " a vivid portraiture of this new monster of the 
deep. As he remarks, it is scarcely credible that the 
f(n'emost seamen on the active list of the Royal Navy 
at the present day. like Admiral Sir .Tuhn l'"isher and 
Vice-.\dmiral Ijoril Chark's Heresford, were actually 
brought up in three-<lecked wooden line-of-battle- 
ships, with smooth-bore guns, A picturesque Nature 
study is contributed by F. U, Kirkman, of Walney 
Island, Morecambe Hay, one of the great breeding 
grounds of the blacklieiided gull, whence it migrates, 
ainiuig other jilaces, to the London bridges, to be fed 
by the admiring Cockney. The hunting story is told 
by G, Denholine .\rnionr of " .\ Duffer's First .Stag." 


The Revlewr of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 

THE REVUE DE PARIS. given to American themes and writers, hut the list 
In the first September numher of the Bmip de Paris "^ contributors shows a number of British and Euro- 
Victor Berard, the editor, refers to the recent meet- P^^^ *»» well as American names, 
ing of the King and the Kaiser. 

France, he writes, need not he disquieted by the 
reconcilation of the King and the Kaiser. Edward 
VII. has always been loyal in his desire for a closer 
friendship between England and France. At the 
present moment immediate interest is centred in 
Morocco. Both by written engagements and vital 
interests England is connected with the French- 
Moroccan affair. If any enirnif is possible between 
London and Berlin we may be sure that Edward 
VII. will not do anything without France. Morocco, 
Tripoli. Egypt, and Mesopotamia are four spheres of 
influence where the pacific and civilising activity of 
Europe is fettered only by the rivalry of European 
Powers; an equitable arrangement might assign to 
each its responsibility and its part in the work. 

In the same number the editor concludes his 
article on Arabia. The liberation of Egypt, he writes, 
.seems to be one of the aims of Turkish policy. The 
Sultan has never been reconciled to the English oc- 
cupation, and though he has maintained territorial 
limits and political conditions, he is in the humour 
for wishing to change these conditions. If the Kaiser 
and the .Sultan do not want war, the Akabah railway 
might, in the hands of the English, become the in- 
strument of a more mischievous policy than Ottoman 
power. The Sultan under German protection, and 
the Ottoman peoples under the influence — that is the 
result of the Turkish Empire after fifteen years of 
Abdul Hamid's rqiime- 


Alfred Droz. writing in the second September num- 
ber, discourses on Intellectual Property. He says 
people cannot fail to be struck by the increase in 
value of certain masterpieces, and they ask whether 
the artist or his heirs should not participate in the 
benefits accruing from such rise in value. Millet, for 
instance, sold his " Angelus " for a small sum, and 
yet extraordinary prices have been paid for this pic- 
ture. A\'ould it not be fair to give some of it to the 
artist or his living representatives? It has been sug- 
gested that a syndicate be formed of artists who 
would engage to sell all their works, and it would 
be stipulated by each artist that whenever a work 
of his changed hands the syndicate must intervene 
and see that some portion of the profit paid by a 
new purchaser be retained for the artist's heirs. 


In October Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons will begin 
the re-issue of Pi.fnaiii's ilonfhhi. a magazine started 
by the late Mr. George P. Putnam in 18o3. AVith 
the new rutnain's Mitnflihi will be incorporated the 
New York Critic, which was founded in 1881 and 
pulilished by Messrs. Putnam since 1898. In the first 
issue of this publication all the contributions were 
printed anonymously. Among the writers were in- 
cluded George William Curtis with his " Potipliar 
Papers " and " Prue and I." James Russell Lowell 
with his •' Fireside Travels," and " Moosehead Jour- 
nal," Thoreau with his "'Cape Cod," etc., besides 
contributions in verse by Longfellow, Stoddard, 
Lowell. Stedman. and others. In 18o7 the magazine 
suspended publication owing to the commercial panic 
of that year. In the new issue precedence will be 


The Xunva Antntnijia has undertaken to introduce 
George Meredith to the Italian public through a 
translation — with some slight cutting down — of 
" Diana of the Crossways.'' Hitherto, it appears. Mere- 
dith has been ignored by Italian literarj- critics, and the 
only one of his novels translated has been " Sandra 
Belloni, " which once appeared as a feuillftun. In the 
same number E. Cecchi writes with much enthusiasm 
and no little discrimination of the author's life and 
work, describing him as a writer " of pure fantasy, 
improbable, legendary, mythological," and his mar- 
vellous art as '"a triumph of invention" and "a 
splendid reflection of the drama of Shakespeare.^^ 
The critic selects " The Ordeal of Richard Feverel " 
for detailed description as being the most charac- 
teristic of the novelist's works. The anonymous 
writer " XXX " displays some anxiety lest with the 
intrnfr coidialr between England and France and the 
renewed friendly relations lietween England and Ger- 
many, Italy should be left out in the cold. He ex- 
presses the hope that the appointment of so dis- 
tinguished an ambassador to the English Court as 
the Marquis di San Giuliano will inaugurate a new 
period of full sympathy and international under- 
standing. The >."ditor, Maggiorino Ferraris, discusses 
the familiar problem: what to do with our boys. 
After condemning both the kind of education given 
to the middle classes in Italy, and the lack of educa- 
tion provided for the poorer classes, he suggests that 
young Italians should be encouraged to complete their 
education abroad, for preference in England, Ger- 
many, or the United States. Of life in England he 
gives many details, all of a flattering nature, and 
recommends a sojourn among us, both for the de- 
velopment of character and the acquisition of indus- 
trial and commei'cial knowledge. 

That the movement for the emancipation of women 
in Italy is growing in a remarkable degree may be 
judged from an ably-written and sympathetic article 
in the Birista il' Italia (August). The author, A. 
Marghieri, who incidentally displays an intimate 
knowledge of the agitation in England, declares him- 
self opposed to the sudden wholesale enfranchisement 
of the sex by means of universal suffrage, as has been 
proposed in the Italian Chamber, but pronouncing 
himself in favour of a scheme by which women over 
twenty-five might be eligible for the franchise either 
on a property or on an educational qualification. 

The Cii-ilfii Catfulica publishes some melancholy 
figures concerning suicides, intended to show- at once 
the growth in the practice of suicide throughout the 
nineteenth century and its comparative rarity in 
Catholic countries. Thus Spain and Ireland are both 
at the bottom of a list in which Saxony, Denmark, 
and Prussia all take a deplorably high place. The 
increase of suicide in both France and Italy during 
the last thirtj- years has, however, been very marked. 
In the whole of Europe for the years 1870-1900 the 
suicides have been calculated at over 1.000,000. Ger- 
many alone being responsible for 300.000. It ha^ 
never been so frequent save in the decadent ages ot 
the later Roman Empire. 

A sketch of the life and work of Giuseppe Giacosa. 
the well-known dramatist, appears in the JJo.s.frg/m 
Xa-ionalc. Those who are able to appreciate Italian 
poetry will find in the same number a very instruc- 
tive study by G. Lesca of Arturo ^raf, the most 
melancholy and forceful poet of contemporary Italy. 

Review of Revieicfi. IIHJ-G. 

The Reviews Reviewed. 



In tlie Stiaml Magazine the interview seems to have 
given place ti> the symposium. In the October num- 
ber tlie opinions of eminent business men have been 
asked in reply to the question. Is a Tuiversity Train- 
ing of Use in Business I-* 

Lord Burton does not consider a residence at Ox- 
ford or CambridRe a good preliminary for a com- 
mercial career. Mr. Beit agreed with Mr. Rhodes, 
and wrote that if a young man intended to follow 
a commercial career and lacked character, the Uni- 
versity would help him ; whereas if he had naturally 
a strong character, the University woidd not take 
any of it away. Character and manners, he addled, 
succeed far more in business than people think. 
Most of the other business men whose opinions are 
quoted are agreed that a University training is a 
help rather than the reverse. 

In another symposium a number of Duti'h artists 
state which of their pictures they consider the best. 
William Maris selects " A Dutch Jleadow " ; W. B. 
Tholen, a coming man in Dutch art, names " The 
Harbour of Harderwyk " ; Louis Apol, a famous 
|iainter of snow and ice, chooses " Winter in Hol- 
land " ; W. C. Nakken, who seeks his siibjects in 
foreign countries, prefers " The Wood-Carriers," a 
Xormandy subject ; and Isaac Israels, the son of Josef 
Israels, selects '' The Workroom." painted at 
Paquin's dressmaking establishment in Paris. Seve- 
ral others are not less interesting, and, it may be 
added, all the pictures are reproduced. 

There is also an article on the PioiWi-Makors of 
To-Day, which is illustrated by drawings of each 
other of the nuMubers of the Fundi Hound Table. 
Mr. Linley Sambourne is depicted by Mr. Bernard 
Partridge. Mr. Bernard Partridge and Mr. H. AV. 
Lucy bv Mr. Linlev Sambourne, and so on. 


Mr. Jonathan Thayer Lincoln opens the September 
AthitiUc Moiitlihj with the Manufacturer's Point of 
View of the Labour (Question. 

The cause of most of the difficulties between em- 
ployer and employed arises, he writes, from the fact 
that each forgets that the other is a human being. 
He recogjiises a great power in the spirit of loyalty 
to the dignity of labour which underlies the trade 
unions, whether this loyalty be realised or not. He 
mentions the case of a strike which was .settled ad- 
vantageously by the plan of making the wages vary 
with the fluctuations of the market, so that em- 
ployer and employed shared alike in the advance or 
depression of market conditions. 

There is an essay on Brag by Mr. Wilbur Larre- 
more. Brag is defined as egotism spoken or acted to 
impress others, and its viciousness consists in being 
bnmd out. That does not imply that all egotism 
should be suppressed. Outside of utilitarian ends, 
self-optimism is much to be desired. The day-dreams 
ot a child fancying himself the central figure in 
heroic deeds of impossible achievement are healthy, 
and a similar faculty, in a solxM-ed form, is an im- 
portant factor in mature intellectual life. 

In an article on the Power of Bible Poetry Mr. J. 
H. fJardiner notes the persisten<'e of the jjower of 
njipeal ot the Old Testament, and especially the 
l)oetical books. There is in addition to the strong 
balance and rhythm of the Hebrew poetry the fact 
that it throbs with the earnestness of the men wlio 
in the stress of the Reformation wrought their trans- 
lations. We must also remember that the sufferings, 
the joy, and the faith aie all uttered as the experi- 
ences of real men. 


l'iu(j n (lis Tijils claims attention this month by 
reason of an article by Dr. Fokker on Esperanto. 
The writer deplores the fact that Dutclimen do not 
appear to be so much alive as other people to the 
advantages of an international language. The English 
and the FT-ench, wliase languages are spoken all over 
the world, have taken up the idea, but the Dutch, 
who could ucit make themselves understood except in 
South Africa and a few colonies, are showing no 
especial interest. Dr. Fokker attributes the slow 
progress of Esperanto in the past to the check given 
to the international language idea by the failure of 
Volapiik. He might have added that "when Esi)eranto 
made its appearance Volapiik was having a boom. 
Esperanto, he say.N, is easier than Volapiik; the latter 
bail the disadvantage of containing sounds, like the 
'' ii " and the "6,'' which the English, Italian, 
Spanish, and Greeks found hard to learn. He then 
gives an outline of the language, concluding with a 
cniicisra of the Dutch instruction books. 

In the same review there is an article on the 
Population question. It is full of references to 
wiiters in various languages, and is a tlioughtful 
contribution to the subject. 

Elsevier contains, among others, two contributions 
of special interest, both well illustrated. The first 
deals with weaving of kofo fabrics by the natives 
of Sangir, in the East Indies. Kofo is obtained from 
the trunk of a tree similar to the banana, and was 
known as long ago as 1095; it is dried and otherwise 
treated in a primitive manner, then woven or plaited 
into garments and ornaments. The second article is 
about deep breathing and physical development. Pic- 
tures are given to show the physical condition of 
schoolboys and others before trying to find a part of 
the iu)urishment of the body in the inhalation of 
fresh air. and other pictures show results obtained 
or obtainable liy this j)ractice. In the case of girls, 
this plentifid iidialation of fresh air is most necessary 
for the proper development of the body, in view of 
the fact that they are to be the mothers of a future 

In On~.(' Eeiiw the most interesting contribution i.s 
that which concerns the State as an employer in 
connection with railways. The State, he contends, is 
not an exemplary master, and the writer gives in- 
stances of the hours of work and the pay. 

In Dp Qids we have several entertaining contribu- 
tions. " Kratulos ; or, the Origin of Speech," a dia- 
logue with a note of reference to the experience of 
Plato, is good. The essay on the establishment of a 
Naval Council, or Admiralty Board, shows that the 
oiganisation of naval affairs in Holland leaves some- 
tliing to be desired. One Minister of Marine will 
do things in this way and his successor does them in 
.some other manner; each Minister linds himself sad- 
dled with the responsibilities of his predecessor and 
wants to make a change. There is no real continuity, 
and the nation loses the advantage of the experi- 
ence of men who have no party ends to serve. The 
issue is an excellent number. 

The September Badiiiiiifun is a very holiday num- 
ber indeed, it,s articles dealing with " The Hunting 
Outlook," with snort in the Donegal Highlands, witli 
the W<\^toi'n Highlands in early summer, and similar 
subj^'ctN. Probably many r<'a<lers will be more par- 
ticularly interest<Ml in Loril Hamilton of Daliw^ll's 
paper on " Tlu> Financial Aspect of Racing," the gist 
of which Ik that it cofitfi racehorse owners, as a body, 
nearly £5 in expenses to win a sovereign. Ho makes 
various sugge^itions as to how this anomalous and un- 
busines<slike state of things could be remedied. 



The Review of Reviews. 

Upcember I, ^S06, 


Jacques Siegfried oontriliutes to the first Septem- 
ber number ot the Birite ilrs Dcti.r Mundif an article 
on "Commercial Echication in France and the 
Leading Countries of the World." 

An accomplished man in the industrial and com- 
mercial world worthy ot the name, says the writer, is 
one who on reading his newspaper in the morning 
recognises instantly the influence which any item of 
news telegraphed from any quarter of the globe 
might exercise on affairs in general and his own in 
particular. Commercial schools have superseded the 
old apprenticeship system, and international con- 
gresses have facilitated the exchange ot ideas. The 
writer gives an outline of what has-been done in 
other countries, and then deals with France and the 
proposed new Technical Education Act, from which 
he predicts excellent results. He says well-trained 
men will never be wanting; the difficulty concerns 
the field of action. Between 1890 and 190-5 French 
trade has increased, but not at the same rate as the 
trade of other countries. In the same period the ex- 
ports of the United States have been doubled, those 
of England have increased 26 per cent., those of 
Italy 90 per cent,, those of Belgium 52 per cent,, and 
those of Germany 71 per cent., whereas the exports 
of France have increased only 27 per rent. The 
writer suggests that the P'rench Government might 
busy itself more with the development of the home 

In the second September number Rene Pinon has 
an article on the Near East, from the time of the 
Berlin Congress (187.5-190e). The sick Turk, assisted 
by the German doctor, he says, is disquieting to Eng- 
land, England's rijle in 1878 has passed to Germany, 
The policy of integrity, the policy of Pan-Tslamism. 
has been taken up by (iermany, and it is her in- 
fluence in the Balkans and in Asia which to-day 
alarms the Power which has need of the routes to 
India, Neither at Vienna nor at St. Petersburg is 
umbrage taken at the progress of German influence 
at Constantinople. Germany hopes to profit by this 
influence to safeguard and to favour the interests of 
Russia and Austria and to renew the Alliance of the 
Three Emperors. Thus it is round Constantinople 
and Salonica that all the combinations of European 
policy gravitate to-day. 

Georges Dumas, who writes on the Love of the 
Christian Mystics, says that medical men, even in the 
second half of the last century, considered mysticism 
mostly as a manifestation of hysteria, and he en- 
deavours to show that this is far from being the case. 
The mind of the niystic is characterised by religious 
feeling, the anguish of doubt, and the "desire for 
holiness, but the mystics differ in the means, conscious 
or unconscious, by which they seek to appease their 
anguish and realise their desire. Mysticism is de- 
fined as the exclusive love of God, All instincts and 
desires not having God for their object are regarded 
as enemies of the soxil. and hence the physical and 
moral discipline. 

The English Labour Party forms the subject of an 
interesting study, by Jacques Bardoux, Also in the 
same number Henri Bonnet has an article on the 
Poor of Paris. He deals with the twenty arrondisse- 
ments in turn, and shows what are the occupations 
of the people and the general characteristics in 


In the first September number of La Revue Dr. 
Lotal has an article entitled " France. Russia and 
Switzerland, " It has reference to France's trade 
with the two latter countries, 


Switzerland, he says, takes the fifth place as a 
market for French goods, coming after England, 
Belgium, Germany and the United States, whereas 
Russia takes the fifteenth place, coming after Tur- 
kev. Switzerland sells much less to France than she 
buys, with Russia it is the other way round. But 
protection, the writer continues, has wrought great 
mischief, especially in the matter of French exports, 
and in France protection reigns supreme. The pro- 
tectionists in the Government and in the Parlia- 
ment will, he sa.vs, ruin French commerce and in- 
dustry; they institute tariffs, make and unmake 
treaties of commerce, and destroy the spirit of 


Count Tolstoy's views of Pascal and Pierre Khelt- 
chitzky aijpear in another article in the same num- 
ber. Love of glory, he says, grows with years, and 
usually it is found united with the desire to be use- 
ful to men, A great moral force will enable men to 
attain glory rapidly, but this same force also shows 
them the vanity of it. Such a man was Pascal. Like 
Gogol, he achieved early in life the passion he de-sired 
so ardently, but it was no sooner attained than the 
vanity of what seemed to them the greatest and most 
precious thing in the world was realised, and both 
recoiled with horror from the seduction which held 
them in its power. Both then, with all their might, 
set about showing to men the awfniness of their 
error by teaching that there is only one thing which 
really matters — namely, religion. Nothing else can 
give a man a true sense of life or of death. 


In the second September number Martine Remusat. 
who writes on some Letters from Ibsen to a Young 
Girl which have recently been published, thinks that 
Hilda in " The ifaster-Builder " was no obscure 
symbol. She is, in reality, a girl of eighteen named 
Emilie Bardach, whom Ibsen met in the Tyrol in the 
summer of 1889, The twelve letters which Ibsen 
wrote to her afterwards show how Ibsen, with all his 
severity, knew bow to flatter feminine vanit.v. Some- 
times the tone is paternal, often he is effusive in 
thanking her for her letters which he reads again 
and again. He cannot chase away the memories of 
that summer, but constantly lives them over again 
and again. He dreams of the enigma which Emilie 
appeared to him. 'Whether Ibsen was already think- 
ing of " The Master-Builder " when he enjoyed the 
companionship of Emilie may remain a niyster.v, but 
if Hilda cEmilie Bardach) is a mystery, a less de- 
cipherable puzzle is Solness (Henrik Ibsen). 


Paid '\"iardot, in the same number, begins some 
Reminiscences. He 4s the son of Pauline Viardot, 
the eminent singer and friend of Turgenieff, and 
consequently tells of the triumphs of his mother on 
the operatic stage, especiall.v as Orfeo. She composed 
a number of operettas for her pupils at Baden. Tur- 
geniefl^ supplying the texts. During the Franco- 
German War she lived in London, her house in 
Devonshire Place being a centre for the refugees as 
well for musicians and singers. 

£ievieir of Reviews, 1/12} 6. 

The Reviews Reviewed. 



Several of the chief articles in the F(iihii(ihtlii Hrrirw 
have been noticed separately; it is a good number on 
the wliole. Mr. T. A. Cook has something to say m 
reply to Mr. Dell's criticism of Mr. Bodley's recent 
book on contemporaiy France, and, rather tardily, 
Burne-Jones's Life by his wife is reviewed. Rather 
tardily,, appears the first part of an article on 
Lafcadio Hearn, but it is none the less a very in- 
teresting article. The writer. Dr. George Gould. 
says Hearn's father was Irish and his mother a Greek, 
and Lafcadio was named after the island on which he 
was born. He cannot have known much of hs mother, 
for the marriawe proved unsatisfactory, and his father 
•divorced his mother when Lafcadio was very young. 
French writers seemed to have had most influence on 
Hearn, especially Flaubert, who was his literary 
deity. There is" another literary article, light and 
very brightly written, on the Italian poet Carducci, 

Mr, Ian Malcolm comes decidedly to the conclusion 
that it is not. The point of his article is that in 
England we have already the group system in prac- 
tice, at all events to a certain extent, and that it 
would be much better for us to adopt it honestly alto- 
gether. We have now eight or nine groups in Par- 
liament differing from one another fundamentally on 
some important questions, yet keeping up the farce of 
-■ party discipline." The admitted genius of the Bri- 
tish people for parliamentary government will, the 
•writer thinks, prevent British groups intriguing for 
mean, unpatriotic ends. The two-party system is too 
limited to admit of real honesty of opinion, and the 
jjroup system would enormously facilitate the work of 
committees and economise the time of the House. 

Mr. B. C. Ba.skerville's view of the present state of 
Poland is that it is parlous. He insists once more on 
the limitations of that typically brilliant person the 
Pole. Except in occasional cases of artistic or musical 
oeniiises, it seems as if of him it bad been decreed 
That, unstable as water, he could not excel. The 
present Polish revolution is not Pole revolting against 
Russian, but caste revolting against caste, the pro- 
letariats against the " privileged classes," To the 
latter belong the Civil servants, who are the product 
of German method graftc<l on to the Slavonic nature, 
which generally means stringent laws loosely ad- 
ministered. There are from twenty to twenty-five 
political parties, but only five have any real import- 
ance, and of these the Realists seem the most mode- 
rate and practical. But their very moderation, their 
desire to bring about desired reforms by evolution 
rather than by revolution, makes them unpopular; 
and it is -the noisier and hastier patriots and Socialists 
who have the upper hand. The Polish question to-day. 
therefore, is virtually a struggle between the local 
Russian Government, the patriot, and the Socialists, 
v\-ho believe in terrorism, and are well organised and 
tenacious. The writer sees no hopeful solution, es- 
pecially as the geographical position of Poland is so 


In tbo paper on ■' .\r(hieology and Infallibility " Pro- 
testant readers will find a clear statement of what 
Catholics mean by the doctrine of infallibility, and how 
they regard belief in miracles. Infallib lity deals with 
divine faith alone, not with human facts, such as 
miracles or alleged miracles. These the Catholic is 
apparently left free to believe or not, as his reason 
can or cannot be convinced. If the Church allows 
what seem superstitions to continue, it is because she 

considers tihe.y do no harm, and that by rooting them 
up too suddenly she might weaken the faith of her 
unlearned adherents, who cannot distinguish between 
essential matters of faith and matters of mere tradi- 

Writing on "Women and War." Gertrude Silver 
suggests that all mothers should help to make the 
nation effic'ent by asking the headmasters of their 
bovs' schools to let their sons join at once the school 
callet corps. She insists that training in pride of 
country — by which she evidently means a very rational 
kind of patriotism — should begin at home in earliest 


Everybody who saw them will remember with de- 
light Miss 'Ida Rentoul's booklets, filled with fairies 
and queer little brownies sufficient to delight the 
heart of the hardest to please child. In conjunc- 
tion with Iier sister, who supplies the letterpress, 
she has iust issued another book entitled '■ Mollie's 
Staircase"" This will he a perfect delight to children. 
The drawing is of the finest, and one can scarcely 
credit that Miss Rentoul is still a very young lady, 
for the drawings have all the finish of an artist of 
many years. The printing is excellently done, and 
is a credit to the printers. It is published by M. L. 
Hutchinson. The poetry, which is supplied liy Miss 
A. 1. Rentoul, is of quite a high order in this par- 
ticular line, and will appeal immensely to youngsters. 

St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Dunedin, lately 
found it necessary to build a third Sunday-school. 
The committee in charge of ways and means con- 
ceived the idea of soliciting from leading people in 
the colonies of Australia their favourite quotation. 
Tlie idea was put into execution, and a booklet was 
the result, a booklet which is quite a .unique con- 
tribution to colonial literature. It gives a con- 
spectus, in brief and pleasant form, of the great 
thouglits that have most impressed themselves on 
men and women of light and leading in Australasia, 
including some of the Governors, Premiers, .Judges, 
Kditors, and leaders of thought. The booklet is got 
up in very pleasant form, and it is most interesting 
as giving a glimpse of the motives and ideals \fli)ch 
inspire those who direct the thought of the lands 
under the Southern Cross. It is one of the cheapest 
shilling's worth (1/1 posted) that we have seen, and 
may be obtained by sending to C. R. Smith, Alli- 
ance Assurance Company. Dunedin. 

Tlic Hnrhinger of LUjht for November contains a 
■-ketch of Mr, W. T. Stead, and a very friendly criti- 
(i'-m of George Taylor, the Australian; an 
article on "Dreams — Their Origin and Significance," 
ancl a large quantity of other interesting matter. 

The Young Man's Magazine (N.Z.) for October 
contains interesting articles on '" Impressions of 
.Japan," Dr. ^X'addell concludes his intoresting 
treatment of "Christ and Modern Fiction," "A 
Roa<ler " discourses on " Patriotism," and there is a 
very beautiful appreciation of Mark Ruth<'rford by 
Rev. H, Kelly, M..\.. of Melbourne. 'I'he number is 
an exceedingly inter<'.sting one. An important an- 
nouncoment is made to the effect that it has been 
found necessary t() increase the price of the magazine 
from 2;G to 3/6. 

We have received a book of Poems from Mr. P. 
Stewart, of Melbourno, The booklet covers ""2 pages, 
an<l right through is of n lofty tone. Mr, Stewart 
has evidently set before him a high ideal, and he has 
attained it. 

Review of Reviews, l/li/06. 


The Growing Evidences of the Importance of the Language. 

The second Congress of Esperanto is now a thing 
of the past, and, looking quietly l?ack, the distinc- 
tive feature of the Gene\a Congress would appear 
to be the amount of steady work done by the \ari- 
ous special committees. Officially, there were only 
the general meetings for all Esperantists; the meet- 
ings of the Language Committee, the members of 
which were elected last \ ear at Boulogne ; and th. 
.Special Congress Committee elected on the opening 
dav ; but these official meetings were supplemented 
bv unofficial ones in such number that a detailed 
account of them is impossible. The business of 
tlie Esperanto Congress concerned Esperanto as a 
language onh ; but when one remembers that its 
members were amongst the foremost intellectuals 
iiom all quarters of the globe, and that these men 
and women are in the van of the progressi\e army, 
oiie can easily realise that advantage would be taken 
of such a gathering to help forward those special 
organisations in the furtherance of which a lan- 
guage such as Esperanto is so useful. Amongst us 
were Pacifists. Good Templars, Christian Endea- 
vourers, Freemasons, Socialists, musicians, mathe- 
maticians, members of the Red Cross Society, etc., 
etc., all of .whom had their own special gatherings. 
It was not possible for everything to be done in 
one building, so the Aula of the University was the 
scene of the general meetings ; the Exhibition was 
in the Beaux Arts building ; the general work, secre- 
tarial and otherwise, and most of the unofficial 
gatherings took place at the Ecole de Commerce ; 
whilst for social gatherings and entertainments the 
Salle des Amis d Instruction, the theatre and the 
Victoria Hall were used. All the buildings were 
nearlv in the same locality ; but it was just here 
that those of us who had been at Boulogne felt some 
lack. We were more widelv separated, so the charm 
of a dav's work together and an evenings amuse- 
ment, where all were in touch, was not so sensibly 
felt ; also at Boulogne it seemed as if everyone 
knew Esperanto, whilst at Geneva itself the number 
of Esperantists was very few. 

For those who were not present I give here a 
leaf or two from an Esperantist s diary. 

Gene\a, Monday, Angus/ 2jth. — What a blessing 
it will be when everyone is bi-lingual. Arriving in 
this foreign station with my luggage despatched in 
advance, how in the world should I have found it if 
I had not known French ? Although we had had 
plentv of fun on the journey, it would ha\e been 
extremely uncomfortable if we had not been pre- 
pared to take things as they came, for though the 
railway authorities had put two saloon carriages at 
our disposal, yet with our large numbers we wanted 

A Snapshot at the Chalet of M Rene de Saussare. 

Dr. Zamenbof (with folded bandsi and other notable 
Esperantists are included. 

three, and on a stiffing hot dav, with one extra 
on every seat, and the corridor filled to o\erf]ow- 
ing, no wonder we were tired (after ten hours of 
it), so that to have to search for luggage through 
room after room piled with boxes and packages of 
every description was not a delightful task. 

Tuesday. — \o time to unpack; obliged to go off 
at once to find where our meeting place is, register 
name and address and secure the green ticket. 
Found the Ecole de Commerce without anv diffi- 
cultv, and there on the first floor was our beloved 
Doctor. Again I am struck with astonishment at 
this wonderful man, who. although he has seen so 
many people since the last time we met, at once 
addressed me by name, and reminded me that at 
Boulogne I had given him the first English hand- 
sh.ike. The rooms were pretty full, and, with re- 
cognition after recognition from Russian, Swede, 
French, German, and so on, the time flew 
so rapidly that I had to be reminded that 
it was necessary to get a meal before the 
first session. Here came one of the slight 
disadvantages of our stay in Geneva. We had at 
different times rooms in six different buildings, and 
for strangers in the town this was a little bewilder- 
ing. Here, too. we recognised the advantage of a 
small town over a large one for our gathering. At 

lievieiv or' Reviews, I/lS/Oe. 

The Great Esperanto Gon^ress. 


Boulogne everyone was on the look- 
out for Esperantists, and^ anyone 
could direct you. But in Geneva, 
as often happens in so large a 
to"\vn, even the inhabitants did not 
know the names of all the streets, 
so could not direct us; and we only 
found the Salle des Amis d'lnstruc- 
tion just in time for the opening 
ceremony. As the meeting was ex- 
clusively for Esperantists who had 
a right to vote, only green tickets 
were admitted, but the hall was 
tilled, galleries and all. The first 
ceremony was the resignation of the 
Committee of Organisation, and 
the appointment of a new Congress 
Committee, in which, as in every 
future Congress, the president and 
vice-president must be natives of 
the country in which the Congress 
is held. 

Then the declaration of the es- 
sence of Esperanto and its neu- 
trality as declared at Boulogne was 
formally confirmed. Dr. Zamenhof 
having first declared the Congress 
officially open, he receiving, as al- 
ways, a wildly enthusiastic recep- 

Went in the evening to the Vic- 
toria Hall for the public meeting. 
Mr. Moschelles was of course on 
the platform with the numerous 
other committeemen, and had ex- 
pected his wife to join him ; but 
we were turned back as not being 
on the acting committee, so con- 
cluded we would be cheeky enough 
to seat ourselves in one of the re- 
served boxes. Here, while I was 
engaged in making notes of the 
proceedings, Mrs. Moschelles made 
some delightful sketches of the in- 
tellectual faces just opposite us on 
the platform. It would be difficult 
for those who have never been pre- 
sent at such a Congress to realise 
the attraction of the sight of those 
forty or fifty idealists from eigh- 
teen to twenty nations, and par- 
tiailarlv when one remembered 
that same counted amongst 
their numbers officers from the Ger- 
man, French, Swedish, and other 
armies, Catholics and Protestants 
of the most determined and oppo 
site views. Socialists and Free- 
thinkers with opinions of the 
strongest, yet Es])eranto had drawn 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, lOvS. 

The Theatre in Geneve, 
In which a plaj- was performed in Esperanto. 

them together as if they were brothers. 

Wednesday Moniiiig. — Blazingly hot e\"en at 9.30 
yet the Aula of the University was full. Long and 
earnest discussions upon the various reports of the 
language and acting committees took place. ■ We 
were due at midda\ at the Bastions for the great 
dejeihicr. at which some eight hundred guests sat 
down, but on way stopped for a photo, to be taken. 
The group on the Uni\-ersity steps was a notable 
sight. A pretty young lady in a white blouse had 
posed just behind a gentleman whose beautiful white 
hair is always noticeable, so she had to change 
places with a black-coated man amid much laugh- 
ter. It is these happy little family occurrences which 
make our Esperanto gatherings as joyful as the 
Christmas gatherings of the olden times. 

After the midday meal, with its speeches, tele- 
grams, jokes and music (we all practised the Es- 
peranto call, to the amazement of some reporters 
who were present), the time was whollv occupied 
with special unofficial committees, 
and, alas ! I badly wanted to be 
present at two which took place at 
the same hour — the Red Cross and 
Teachers' Committees — yet missed 
both, for one was away up in the 
University, the other at the School 
of Commerce. No placard having 
been posted, I failed to find either. 

Musicians, mathematicians, So- 
cialists, Catholics, etc., etc., all 
met in special rooms, and the Bri- 
tish section seized the one unoccu- 
pied half-hour, 6 to 6.30, to dis- 
cuss two important points — the B. 
E. A. registration and the place of 
the next Congress. One enthusiast 
cried out that Esperanto must be 
used, but the "noes " were decided. 
Imagine eighty people with a 
tongue of their own trying to get 
in a discussion on two such sub- 
jects in half an hour in what is, 
after all, a foreign language. 

It was settled tha't we must be courageous and 
invite the Congress to England next year, and then 
we hurried off to prepare for the e\"ening at the 
theatre, where a charming little comedy — " A Letter 
of Recommendation '' — was played by a Russian, 
a Frenchman, and a Portuguese, followed by a 
tragedy of " Edmond de Amicis,'' translated by 
Mnie. Junck — and in which she was the chief ' per- 

Friday. — No time to write yesterday, for we had 
to be at the quay at 8.30 in order to go to 
Ve\ey, Did ever a ship before contain so cosmo- 
politan a crowd? 

" Where will Esperanto be if our ship goes 
down?" was said by one Esperantist. "Ah!'' was 
the reply, " our cause is secure. If we are all drown- 
ed our friends everywhere will only work the harder 
and keep more closely to the rules we have laid 

"It is the day of my life. " I heard someone 
sa\ . " what with the beauty of the scenery, the vivid 
colouring, the delightful little circles for talk of all 
kinds, which formed and broke up, and then formed 
portions of other such little groups." "Have you 
seen M. Deshays? — Do point him out — I must ask 
about his song." "Who knows Dr. Mybs? — I have 
corresponded with him, but I don't know him by 
sight," and so on, .and so on; and, after all, some 
of us missed just the person we badly wanted to 
meet. A touching incident was the boarding of the 
boat at Ouchv by two blind girls, who had come a 
long distance to meet Dr. Zamenhof. They spoke 
Esperanto charmingly, and the younger one said 
to the Doctor: "May I not kiss you, dear master? 
Xe\er can I exprt?ss what you have done for me," 

To-dav at the second general meeting the British 

On the Saisson Glacier. 
Tlie Picnic side of the Congress. 

Review of Review, Ijlil'it). 

The Great Esperanto Gon^ress. 


imitation was aiinouiiCfd and receivt-d with en- 
tliusiasm. I asked one gentleman what we should 
do. tor we could not give our friends the light wines 
they were acrustomed to? ''Do!" he said, "why, 
we will all drink tea." 

At this inorning's session an official letter from 
the Pope was read saying that he would receive the 
" Espero Katolika." The announcement was en- 
thusiastically applauded. 

This evening, alas ! we could not again have the 
theatre, and the rooms in which we met were far 
too small, whether for the concert first or the ball 
I. iter. Then; too, for many of us the day was sad- 
Kned by the sad news of Dr. Lloyd's disappear- 

Saturday. August isi. — Early to the Aula for the 
language discussion. It was definitelv decided that 
the principle cif the language should remain as had 
been fixed by Dr. Zamenhof in the " Fundemento 
<fe Esperanto.'' For technical vocabularies they 
must at present -be left to private initiative, and be 
submitted later to the Language Committee. M. 
Boriac, concluding his report, replaced the power 
of the provisional committee in the hands of Dr. 
Zamenhof. who thereupon declared " that in the 
interests of E.speranto he entreated the Language 
Committee to continue its labours as a permanencv. " 
This declaration was recei\ed with the heartiest ap- 
plause and entirely approved of. For several years 
the Central Office will remain in Paris as hereto- 
fore, and this is made possible by a magnificent gift 
of jQ;!,ooo (towards the rent of the building and the 
salaries of secretaries) by two French Esperantists 
who desire to remain anonymous. A Swiss blind 
man rose to thank the Congress in the name of the 
blind Esperantists to whom new joy had come 
through the medium of Esperanto. Amongst other 
things it was .settled that as soon as possible the 
different n.itionalities should undertake text books 
of the grammar of their own nations in the Es- 
peranto language; thus a .Spanish Esperantist desir- 
ing to learn P'.nglish could learn it by means of 
Esperanto, or if he desired to learn French or Ger- 
man the same means would be available for him. 
Esperantists desire earne.stly to cultivate the mother- 
tongues, and never has there fieen an intention to 
make Esperanto universal, only international. At 
the close of the session the Marquis de Beaufront 

described a visit he had just paid to the veteran 
Professor Xaville, who desired again to express his 
profound svmpathv with the Esperanto movement, 
and, unable himself to take an active part in life's 
duties, he desired M. de Beaufront to give from 
him the kiss of friendship to Dr. Zamenhof, and 
amidst enthusiastic cries of "Viva Zamenhof!" the 
official session was declared to be closed ; Messrs. 
Micheaux, Mudie, Mybs, Hanauer, General Sebert, 
Colonel Pollen, and Pastor Schmeberger being ap- 
pointed the organising committee for the next Con- 

This evening the Victoria Hall was the scene of 
the public closing, when reports were read, tele- 
grams received, and two Swiss girls in their national 
costumes presented a bouquet to Dr. Zamenhof. 
At a quarter to ten a splendid description of the 
Congo was given by Commander Lemaire, illus- 
trated by limelight views. The lecture, if printed, 
would prove a valuable contribution to Esperanto 

Sunday Morning. — Just back from the Esperanto 
service at L'Auditoire, the old chapel in which John 
I\nox preached when at Geneva. Pastor Schme- 
berger took the service, the reading being the de- 
scription of the Tower of Babel. The Rev. G. 
I<.ust, of Cambridge, preached a sermon from the 
text, " The earth is the Lord's and the fulness 
thereof." The hvmns were -beautiful, and the 
nnisic for the Doxology was composed by Mr. Rowe 
(N'ottingham). There was also at the same hour a 
service for Catholics, and the Socialists had a meet- 
ing ; but the solemn and beautiful time in the 
Auditoire left an impression no one of us present 
will forget. The congregation filled the chapel, and 
were of course from many nations. To-morrow a 
large portion of the Esperantists are going for a 
three days' trip in Switzerland. 

The Congress is over, and now we must use all 
our efforts that the next one may be as successful. 
We must study to speak fluently, and not be con- 
tented with slip-shod indefiniteness. Singing, de- 
clamation, and. above all. courtesy must be prac- 
tised ; also stenographers will be needed for jiress 
work. Whether the gathering be at Cambridge or 
elsewhere, in Great Britain it will certainly be. Ger- 
many claims to have the next, then Swedi'u ; Bel- 
gium and Bohemia will follow probably. 


F. (;.(!. (NpIsou. N.Z.) — It is ahvays difficult to 

represent pronunciation ti.v any written metliod when 

exact so\ni(l.s are to he defined, luit hv considering 

various explanations, all more or less appropriate. 

we may net iieai- the truth. The ideal pronunciation 

of Esperanto is one in which every letter has only 

and always one and th<' same sound, hut this is very 

unusual in any national language. In the case in 

point, if wc Kay "j" i.s equal to the Euglisli "y" 

nhicli is approximately true, we are met liy the difli- 

,culty that "y " in "hoy'' has not exactly the same 

rsound as "y" in "yoke." This does not matter 

much at the end and heginning of words, but in 
tlie middle of words sucii as "voio" there is a dis- 
tinct difference lietween " vo-io " (the last syllable 
like "yo" in yoke), and " voj-o " (the first syllable 
like " oy " in " hoy "). 

The ideal pronunciation of " j " in Esi)eranto is 
such that there would he no difference between 
" vo-jo " and "voj-o," where the "j' would be near 
to the sounds of '"y" in "boy" and in "young," 
but not exnctly either of them. 

" O, as in storm," i.s douhtles.s given to avoid 
suggesting anything of a diphthongal nature, which 
is sometimes apt to arise in connection with the Eng- 


I tie Keview of Heviews, 

December I, 1906. 

lisli long open " o." But it seems to us rather an 
unfirtuuate example, as the consonant " r "' lilends 
ivith Towels almost as another vowel would, and it 
is difficult to analyse exactly what part of the sound 
is ! ally due to the "o" and what to the "r" fol- 

"Along'' is well rendered by " laiilonge." 
N )te re the accented letters. — AVe have nut up to 
t'-e present been able to obtain a supply of type to 

enalile us to correctly print these '' sursignitoj." At 
the same time we are conscious of a strong and 
growing dislike among Esperantistg to the ugly repre- 
sentation of the accent by a following " h. ' We 
shall, therefore, in fut\ire simply omit the sign over 
the letters, leaving it to the context to decide as to 
whether " ci '' or " chi." etc.. is intended, except 
in cases of real anibignity, when an '■ h " will be 

An international language is now so generally ecognised as a necessity that it is vei-y rarely needful 
to defend the idea itself ; but English-speaking people so frequently declare that all the world realises that 
Ensjlish must be the needed medium, that it has occured to me "that our readers would like to see m 
juxtaposition the ideas of French and English on this point. The argument for English is taken from 
3[unsey's Magazine, and is by Brander Matthews, he well-known American Vitterafeur ; that for French 
from Concordia^ written by M. de la Grasserie, not presumably as his own conviction, but as the 
opinion he is accustomed to hear expressed. Oddlv enough, both writers consider it as an established 
fact that this world-tongue must replace the mother-tongues of the various peojjles and be universal; m 
this coinciding with some of the objectors to Esperanto, who consider that it is so easy to acquire that 
people will prefer it to their own language: surely an absurd idea, for while the world remains, from a 
geographical point of view, as it is at present constituted, the people of differing nations will remain 
different and retain their own tongue, for a language is a part of and characteristic of a nationality. 

Mr. Matthews, after telling of the need of a lan- 
guage familiar to all men, and expressing his opinion 
that " nothing can be more certain than that the 
majority of mankind can never be made to learn an 
artificial language," continues: 

" French held the foremost place until the sunset 
of Waterloo : and then its chance of establishing it- 
self finally as a world-language departed for ever. . . 
History shows us that it is not by reason of its own 
excellence that a language spreads abroad and is 
spoken by increasing millions ... it must be 
the native speech of a masterful race, reaching out to 
the corners of the earth. ... If there is to be 
a world-language in the future, it will be English. 
That much is certain. ... If not English, then 
there will not be a world-language. ... If our 
own speech is to become the world-language of the 
future, this will not be due to its own merits, but to 
the vitality and to the energy of the peoples that 
speak it. Yet as a matter of fact. English is, on the 
whole, better fitted for this honour tlian any of tlie 
rivil tongues. It is a language of surpassing rich- 
ness, it has a marvellous power of absorbing needed 
words from every other language, dead or alive. It 
has the gift of refreshing itself, of keeping itself 
ever fit for all the varied uses of a race at once in- 
tensely practical and fundamentally imaginative. 
Above all. it is the more advanced language in its 
structure, is far nearer the goal of simplicity than 
any of its rivals, and thrrefnre is faxy to Imrn by 
lar. hy u'nrd of mouth. On the Continent of Europe 
English seems to be slowly taking the place of French 
as that second language without which a man can- 
not consider himself educated. It is our spelling 
which is the chief obstacle to the adoption of 

Here are two opposite opinions, to which may be added the fact that the most cultivated French 
people say that the spcUing of English is its good quality, because it is international, but the pronuncia- 
li III must be radically reformed. One must also rememtjer that EsperautisKs claim every good quality 
of both languages, including style, simplicity, and power of absorbing all needed new words, whilst its 
use would not hurt the nrmour-proprc of any country whatsoever. 

I have vainly sought for any German expression of opinion that their language will become the 
world-tongue. Tliey were disappointed over Volapuk, and think, apparently, that a common inter- 
national tongue is "impracticable because of that disappointment, and because to a German. English or 
French as a world-tongue is unthinkable. Meanwhile new groups are being rapidly added to the Ger- 
man Esperanto Association, and Frankfort petitions that the Congress of 1007 may be held there. 

M. de la Grasserie thinks that an artificial lan- 
guage must be perfect and entirely logical, the faith- 
ful mirror of thought and things, but as thought and 
things change it would have to be modified, would 
soon lose its perfection, and, besides, it would not be 
human ; the language must be national. Xot English, 
for though a sublime jargon, with a simple grammar, 
its pronunciation and extraordinary irregularities in 
the position of its accents make it the despair of 
straiiqcrs because it exacts sucli long practicr before it 
can be nequired. French is, on account of its litera- 
ture, the queen of the world — it has its faults — but 
its liiilliant qualities compensate, qualitv of language, 
quality of expression, and style. Article: subject: 
complements direct, indirect, and circumstantial : in 
an order always the same, fixed and of astonishing 
clearness. It is analytic to excess, and thus in the 
full line of progress its qualities suffice to assure to 
French the first place. Its title to this besides is his- 
torical : in England for centuries French was the sole 
language of the governing classes. Everywhere the 
language of Courts, it has always been understood 
as and will long remain the language of diplomacy. 
French, therefore, may well become the language not 
only international . . . but universal, that is to 
say. substituting all others. This is not an Utopia, 
though the idea may be premature. But there re- 
mains a grave objection ; national pride. Will a 
German ever resign himself to abandon his own 
tongue, and in future speak French only? Would it 
not seem to him to be abandoning his nationality it- 
self? . . . Perhaps the future will answer. We 
believe French will imjiose itself, when the choice 
comes to be made. 

Text books for tills g eat but easy language can be obta ined at our office. Equitable Buildiiig-. Melbourne. See 
uilvertlsement on page 2.) 

Rerieic of Rei'ieics. I/Ujoe. 

Current History in Caricature. 

"O wad some power the giftie gie us, 
To see ourselves as ithers see us." — BURNS. 

We'ifTtuu^ter r/d^f/fe.] 

The Word-Eater 

'Die \v<inl-e;iter (Logofhaiiits Rooseveltiij feeds on the leaves African World.^ 

of the Dictionary tree. 

Germaay and Her Coloni«s. 

EXCELLENZ DERNBtTEO: " Doniierwetter ! This is worse 
banking! ^\^lat a lot of cleaning up I shall have 
before I can get to work properly!" 

to do 


A Friendly Tip. 

President F.vllieres: "Nicholas, you should get yourself 

a silk hilt like mine; metal attracts the lightning." 

IfebeUpalter.'i [Znrtoh. 

The Latest " Wingei Words." 

\^'ILHRI,^^; "I'll have no pessimists in uiy country." 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, :90S. 

ilelhourne Punch.} 

A Masked Monstrosity. 
{The Federal Labour Party's latest, manifesto puts its 
policy in the mildest and kindliest light, concealing the 
real. Socialistic objective of the Party.) 
Elector : "He looUa pleasant and aflable, you know." 
Ma. REID : "Yes — at present. When you give him full 
power, he will throw oH the angelic mask, and you will 
kuow what Socialism really is." 

UU-.I [Berlin. 

In the Paris Actors' Home. 
COQUELIN : " Don't you think there should be a Home for 
Aged Actresses.^'' 
BERNHARDT: "Aged Actresses! There are none!" 

y.Z. Free Lanee.2 

John Bull in Line ■with John Chinaman. 

Instructions have been given that in future no assisted 
immigrant was to be allowed to leave Home without 
showing that he was possessed of a certain sum of money. 

Assisted IMMIGEANT: Hullo! What's this I've struck? 
Thought this was a free country. 

Lu^tige Blatter.} 


The Inseparables. 

Review of Reviews, 1J12J0G. 

Current History in Caricature. 




Hi'i/c;; PuiicTi.] [Bombay. 

The Bengal Fire. 

SBIJAT PUNCHONATH ito Firemen Morley afld Minto) : 
■Wake up, friends, wake ud! I'ou think there's nothing 
more to be done, except allowing the flames to burn out ! 
And you go to sleep over it ! But — but — the flames do re- 
quire to be put out I" 
iThe agitation against the Partition Question still rages.) 

At Marienbad. 
EDWARD VII. t " I've shrunk already 

/7,« BtiUelinj 

An Attempt to Draw His Fire. 

' No one except Mr. Deakin can tell what the Deakiu 
policy is, and he tells a changing story every day. What 
Is his policy with respect to the Socialism and its advo- 
cates?"— .4r((u». 
. Gr.4xn't : "■ Gam, leave im alone, and do .some fightin' I " 

ALFEE5 THE AFFABLE: "But I am fighting." 

GE.AN^T: "No. you ain't. I 'aven't seen you 'it this 
once yet." 

Kriu- GliihliMcr.-] [Vienna. 

Fast Friends ! 
" But the best of friends sometimes fall out." 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 




The Red Paiot. 

LaboTjB (to Mr. Keir Hardie) : " Steady on with that red 

paint, mate: you're splashing it about too thick I" 

Vtk:} [Berlin. 

The Egyptian Question. 

The Diplomat-^: "Let's go in and discuss the question of 
who's to settle here " 



iletbourne Punch.} 

Ctoser Settlement. 

Premier Bent (to the big holder) : " Come, come, get a 
move on. old man. I'll pay you handsomely to shift. 
Half-a-thousand of my little people could flourish on the 
space you take up." 

T\'estniiii.<ter Gazette.} 

"Top-Side Galow." 
CHINAMAX. ' Dliuk welly bad England side. Opium allee 
same bad China side; Chinaman stoppec Opium ten yea' time 
— tlien send Missionally man help stoppee dlink England 

•■ Top-side Galow " is Pigeon-English for " Excelsior. " 

Review of Reviews, 111*100. 

Current history In Caricature, 


Westminster (<'<ni>ttc.] 

Another Olfer. 

The KaNGABOO: "Look here! if you'll strike up I'll 

Mb. C. : "Oil. bother! it's too hot. aiifl I'm tired. ;iiul 
nobody cares, and what's the use? " 


Weatmimter Gazette.'] 

An Empty Egg. 
THE JOHN BTjLT; COCK: "Humph! empty, of course— just 
what I expected!" 
['»Tlie claim for the tliirty millious which, according to 
Mr. Chamberlain's arrangemeut. were to be paid by the 
Trausvaal towards the coat of the South African "War, has 
been definitely abandoned." — Daily Paper.] 


WeeUy Freeman.^ [Dublin. 

Wanted, a Ne-w Muzzling Order. 

Wynpham to UalpoUR ; " Quick! TJet tlie muz/.Ie on." 
BALFOUR: "I am afraid of the owner. You know Orange 
Billy has him now. ' 


-^^"^ ' -.6* -^"^^"^"^i- ■ > ^ 

Deakin's Dilemma. 

Me. DEAKUf : "Bless me! I thought the brute was a 
friend of mine and would give me his assistance, and now 
he means to get away with my ' seat.' " 



N.Z. Free Lance.'] 

Advances to Workers. 
Town PEKSON: "Me, too, at last!" 

I'ull Mall Magazine.'] 

At Cronberg. 
" .Vlways busy, nephew! What are you nnikinff now?" 
" I'm m:ikinK a bifrger boat than yours, uncle." 
" An odd job for a s ildier, isn't it? Take an old salt's 
advice, and drop it." 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 19Q6. 



Disgraceful Competition. 

Er«siAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL: "Dear me! These beastly 
revolutionaries again !" 

W afire JaCQb.2 

In the Colonial Swamp. 
Prince BFLOW: "Angels and Ministers of Grace defend 
us! That cart has never stuck fast in the mud before." 




1^ ^**'" 

La Silhouette.'} [Paris. 

Great DimDnstration in Favour of Sunday Rest. 

'No exceptions; one day of rest a week for everybody; the 
standard of demand is raised!" 

Melbourne Punch.2 

Ttie Disturbing Element. 
(Sectarianism promises to exert a very powerful influence 
in the forthcoming elections.) 
The Snake : "I'll sneak in between them, and see if I 
can't make some trouble." 

Review or Reviews, 1/12106. 



It may seem absurd to call this sixpenny pamphlet 
the book of the month. But if it accomplishes its 
purpose it will deserve the position of honour which 
I have accorded it. It may not be the book of the 
month for the outside world. But it is the book of 
the month for the readers of " The Review of Re- 
views." For it is their book. I have only edited it. 
Its intrinsic importance lies in the fact that it em- 
bodies the exjierience of some hundreds of readers 
of " The Review," who contributed essays on the sub- 
ject with which it deals, the result being, I do not 
hesitate to say, some of the most interesting and 
suggestive chapters ever published on the question 
of books and their readers. Without more preface, 
what is this "i)lea"? To whom is it addressed? 
How is it sujiported, and what is the plan of cam- 
paign which it foreshadows? 


Let me answer these questions in their order. 
This pam|ihlet is an appeal to all who love books. 
It has a definite aim, and it propounds as definite a 
scheme for attaining it. 

T want your help to carry out my scheme, so as to 
double the number of book-readers in this country. 
It can be done, and therefore it ought to be done. 
And it would be done if we could but rid ourselves 
of the idea that the chief work to be done is to write 
new books, whereas the most important and honour- 
able task is to bring the books which already exist 
into the homes and hearts of our people. 

It is no doubt a humble function, that of the 
publisher or distributer; but, humble though it be, it 
may be more useful than that of the author. 

If we could but get it into our minds that all that 
has been most helpful and most inspiring and most 
energising and most con.soling in our own lives prac- 
tically dees not exist for the majority of our fellow- 
men, 'we should begin to discern how vast a field 
of honourable and useful labour lies open before us. 
We have, as it were, to re-create Shakespeare, Mil- 
ton, Scott. Ryron. Shelley, Spenser, Burns and 
Wordsworth for our fellow-men; we have to bring 
them into their world. 

Within a certain range, narrower or wider as the 
case may be, it depends upon us, and us alone, 
whether the great authors of our race shall exist or 
shall not exist in the minds of manv of our neigh- 
bours. For them the Immortals slumber in the grave 
of oblivion ; it is we alone, each for our own circle, 
who can raise them from the tomb and set them forth 
in all their original splendour before the eyes of our 
fellows. The service is not oije which brings with it 

• '' A Plea for tl;e Revival of Beading:, witli Plan of Cam- 
paign." by W. T. Steail. I'rite sixpence. 39 Wliitefriars- 
steet, London, E.G. 

any fame commensurate with its usefulness. But 
that is the kind of work that needs to be done. 
Will you help me to help you to do it? 

It is a thing quite beyond the pale of dispute that 
the habit of reading books is one of the most useful 
acquired bv mankind. Yet it is largely falling into 
desuetude.' The newspaper habit, the magazine 
habit, the circulating library habits are hustling it 
out of existence, to the no small detriment of the 
moral and intellectual well-being of the coming race. 
An illustration of this is the dying out of the habit 
of family prayers, which prayers did at least 
familiarise the whole of the members of the house- 
hold, from the maid-of-all-the-work to the master, 
with a noble and inspiring literature, elevated in 
style, with a wide and noble vocabulary. 

It is unnecessary here to discuss why this fount 
of popular literary 'culture is drying up. The fact 
remains. Family singing has largely gone the w-ay 
of family Bible reading and family prayer, and we 
are all the poorer for the change. In place of the 
sublimest forms of literary expression we have the 
telegram, the City article, the scarehead, and the 
leading article. That -is what has replaced the 
family rending of the Scriptures. It may palpitate 
with actualitv. It can hardly be said to be lite- 
rature. But the newspaper, both here and else- 
where, constitutes the only literary pabulum of 
the majority of men. In place of the daily reading, 
with prayers and psalms, of sacred books we have 
substituted the newspaper, the miscellany, and the 
novel. But even the worst skimmer of newspapers 
or bolter of novels is a man of letters comjiared wit'" 
millions w'ho never look at a printed page from year's 
end to year's end except to see the odds or to learn 
the result of a horserace. There is ample need for a 
vigorous effort to revive and extend the love of read- 
ing good books amongst the mi 11 inns of the English- 
speaking world. 


The love for the reading of books is an acquired 
taste. Naturally no human being loves to read 
books, for no human being in a state of nature can 
read at all. To acquire the art of reading print is 
a long and difficult oi)eration, which the child, if 
If ft to him.self, will never undertake. 

For the great majority of the human race, even in 
England, the taste for reading books has never been 
acquired. The irksomeness of the reading-les.son 
causes reading to be as distasteful as arithmetic. 
Hence a terrible wastage of the results of our na- 
tional education in the critical years that follow 

In order to show how best to inculcate this vast 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 

maioritv that reads no books with the love of read- 
ing,', the surest and simplest guide is to ask the 
minority who do lo\e books how they acquired the 
taste. About one hundred autobiographical papers 
describing how their authors came to like reading lie 
1 lefore me. They afford a very useful and absolutely 
authentic record from real life as to the secret, the 
open secret, of how men and women learn to love 

The first great lesson we learn from these papers 
is that elocution, good reading aloud, is the surest, 
simplest, and speediest way of awakening a love of 
reading in the average human being. 

The second lesson is that, after the spoken voice, 
the pictured page is that which most effectively pro- 
motes the habit of reading books. It sets up a 
curiosity which reading alone can satisfy. 

Elocution and illustrations, therefore, are the two 
main instruments by w'hich the Reading Revival must 
be promoted, and to these must be added a third, 
which combines elocution and illustration with the 
charm of dramatic representation. 


If anything is to be done on a»comprehensive and 
practical scale to create a taste for reading among 
the masses who at present do not read, the task can 
only be accomplished by adopting the methods and 
acting on the principles which the Church in all 
ages has employed for the purposes of attaining its 
own ends. Those who are readers amongst us, those 
to whom books have come to he their most cherished 
companions, and. as it were, the angel ministrants of 
higher and better world, form what may be called 
the Church of the Readers. As such, our first duty' 
is to recognise what you may call the Communion, 
not of Saints, but of Readers. 

This Brotherhood of Readers, having recognised 
its existence and its obligations to the non-reading 
community, should set to work to fulfil the duty 
which they owe to their brothers by arousing them to 
a sense of the advantages they are losing by their 
apathetic indifference and contented ignorance. 

When the Church is very much in earnest about 
making an attack upon the forces of the world, the 
flesh and the devil, there is no method that has been 
so proved and tested and followed with such success 
as that of holding Combined Mission Services or 
attempting to run a Revival. 

, What I propose is the application of all that is 
best in revivalism to the task of reviving interesting 
books, of increasing the number of readers, and, in 
short, of introducing the greatest number of our 
fellow-countrymen who are now wandering in the 
wilderness in ignorance of the promised land, into 
the literary Canaan which is spread out before them, 
but which they refuse to enter. 


How then should this reading Revival be worked? 
The Plan of Campaign proposed for a Reading Re- 
vival demands: — 

(i) A living centre, whether of one person or of a 
committee, to every district to undert.ike 
the work. 
(2) A combined effort on the part of all lovers and 
readers of books to realise the following 
ideal : 
(a) A Public Library and Reading Room in 

every district ; 
(h) .\ Library in every School ; 
{c) The Utilisation of the Drama; 
(d) A Lads' and Lasses' Library ; and 
((?) A Library in every Home. 

Given this living centre or Committee of the Com- 
munion of Readers in any town or district, the fol- 
lowing suggestions are made for a Reading ^lission : 

The committee would summon a conference to 
which all the ministers of the town and all those 
interested in reading would be invited. To the con- 
ference thus summoned it would be proposed to 
devote one week, say in the early autumn, for a 
special mission week in connection with the revival 
and extension of the taste for reading. On the 
Sunday special sermons should be preached in all 
places of worship, which would be reported in the 
local papers next morning, calling attention to the 
religious significance of the movement which uas 
about to be made on purely secular grounds to 
promote reading in the town. If the town were 
compact and not scattered, all denominations, clubs, 
literary scjcieties, etc., might unite in a series of, say, 
four meetings, to be held Monday, Tuesday. Wed- 
nesday and Thursday, for the special purpose of in- 
creasing the number of readers in the community ; 
or in cases where the town was scattered, and where 
there were great difficulties in the way of the union 
of the churches for any object, each church might 
hold its own meetings with the express object of en- 
listing readers, and the four meetings, whether held 
separately or in a central hall, would be devoted, 
first to a general lecture, illustrated by some fifty 
or sixty appropriate lantern pictures, dealing gene- 
rally with the benefits of reading and setting forth 
the interesting things that were in books. On the 
second night the meeting would be devoted to poetry, 
pictures illustrating the more striking scenes in the 
more popular poets would be shown, and a compe- 
tent elocutionist would recite illustrative extracts or 
set pieces from the poets ; and if besides this a 
choir and an organ could be secured, it would lielp 
to increase the success of the meeting. The third 
nig'ht would be devoted to novels ; nor would there 
be any difficulty in securing a very popular selection 
of pictures to illustrate novels, all of which should 
be on sale at the meeting. 

The fourth night should be devoted to the chil- 
dren, and here there should be no lack of pictures. - 

The object of the lecturer should be to make every 
parent in the town feel he was not doing his duty by 
his children unless he provide them with the litera- 
ture the lecturer recommended. 

Review of Keiieici. Ijllloe. 

The Book of the Month. 


Then, after the Mission was held, the following 
Monday night a meeting of all those whose interest 
had been excited hv the series should be held for the 
purpose of making a personal canvass at once 
through the whole town in order to ascertain how far 
the inhabitants could be induced to become pur- 
chasers of the books in which their interest had been 
excited bv the pictures. Such a canvass would not 
be difficult if the town was of manageable dimen- 
sions, and the number of persons interested was suf- 
ficientlv large to take from twenty to thirty houses 
each. Small printed circulars setting forth the ad- 
vantages of reading, the cheapness with which books 
could be procured, the range of choice, etc., could 
be left at every door in the town. 

Such a work would arouse the whole community. 
In places where they had a Free Library it would 
probably result in an increased attention being paid 
to making it adequate to the needs of the town ; in 
places where there was no Free Library the com- 
m.ittee might naturally set on foot an agitation for 
the adoption of the Free Libraries Act. If after a 
canvass it was found that any particular district 
could not be induced to buy books, the question 
would come as to whether the principle of tract dis- 
tribution might not be adopted with advantage. 

After the house-to-house agitation for a Free Lib- 
rary and the organisation of a Literary Tract Distri- 
bution Societv, it would be natural for the com- 
mittee to set before themselves the definite aim of 
rousing every householder in the town to a sense of 
the duty of providing a library for his own home. 

If there is to be any real, deep, wide, national 
revival of the love of reading we must begin with the 
children. In this matter we have a great deal to 
learn from the Americans. The extent to which the 
public authorities take thought for the children in 
the United States would put most of our British 
authorities to shame. Here and there in the United 
Kingdom the Free Libraries Committee seem to 
realise that everv public elementary school ought to 
be regarded as a branch of the Central Library, and 
treated accordingly. But these cases are exceptional. 
What \ye have to do is to level up our practice both 
in schools and in villages to the highest American 

But it will not do to wait until the public authori- 
ties wake up. The Reading Revivalists ought to be- 
gin operations at once, each in his own district, ap- 
pealing each to the teachers of the schools whom 
they can reach. The ideal — a Library in every 
Home— should have as its complement a Library 
in every School. 

.After reading over the essays of those who have 
told how they fust came to love hooks, it almost 
seems as if the author of the " Psychology of Con- 
version " had some ground for his assertion that a 
radical change .seldom takes places after adolescence. 

If a \outh has not learned to love his books before 
he is out of his teens — the age might be put much 
lower — there is but the most meagre chance that he 
will take to reading in after life. But to help lads 
and la.sses to bridge over the critical age it ought 
to be possible to provide something better than 
" bloods." 

If I propose to see if I can create a Lads' and 
Lasses' Library for the readers of my Books for 
the Bairns who are growing up, it is not because 1 
am inclined to dwell with exaggerated horror upon 
the defects of the reading matter which they con- 
sume by the ton every week. The sentimental novel- 
ette, the blood-and-thunder penny dreadful are bet- 
ter than nothing. But there must be many thousands 
of parents and teachers who deplore the practical 
monopoly of the field of young people's literature by 
the pirate, the brigand, and the burglar. A few 
more or less fainthearted efforts have been made by 
excellent societies to issue penny stories that would 
not depend so much for their attractiveness upon 
blood and murder. But the Lads' and Lasses' 
Library has still to be created, and I confidently ap- 
peal to the parents and to the teacher for their co- 
operation and support in this new enterprise. 


If bnok-reading is to be restored to its proper 
place books must struggle for existence by the use 
of the same weapons as those which have secured 
the ascendency of the newspaper and the magazine. 
We must have books issued with the same regular 
periodicity, in the same manageable compass, at as 
low prices, and with the necessary editorial selection 
and compression. 

If the watchword of the Reading Revival is to be 
a Library in Every Home, it is in the first place 
necessary to show that a Library can be supplied 
on terms which will render it possible to place it in 
every home. 

I think it can be done. Nay. if I meet with 
adequate support and encouragement from those who 
are interested in the education of the people, I am 
prepared to produce that Library, and produce it on 
terms which will not only be within the means of 
every working man and working woman in the land, 
but which would create a fimd available for pur- 
poses of education of at least ;^2o,ooo for every 
100,000 sets of the Library subscribed for. 

I think it ought to be done, and I appeal to you, 
mv readers,. to help me do it. 

The Library for the Million would contain 120 
books, four of which would be issued monthly until 
the bookshelf was filled. 

The whole Library would cost thirty shillings 
complete, each volume being sold separately at three- 

These books for the million would consist of two 
classes, which Ruskin described as Rooks of the 
Day and Books of All Time; the Classics of the 
World's Literature and the books of infcrmation 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 

necessary for the intelligent understanding of the 
news of the day. 

Of the classics, those short enough to be published 
in full would be so published ; but those which ex- 
ceeded the compass of a hundred-page book would 
be lucidly described, with such copious quotations as 
would afford the reader a good general idea of the 
contents of the book. 

Books must be produced short enough for a busy 
man to read one of them in a week, small enough to 
go into his pocket, and cheap enough not to emptv 
that pocket. They must be carefully selected so as 
to contain all the best that has been written bv the 
greatest intellects of the world, and to be rid of 
everything that is neither necessary nor interesting. 
The Library for the Million will have to be the 
cheapest, handiest, most condensed collection of 
books ever published since printing was invented. 

The contents of the Library for the Million 
would be carefully drawn up after consultation with 
the most eminent authorities, in order to supply the 
million with a brief, succinct, lucid and useful series 
of hooks which would (i) introduce them to the best 
literature of the world, and (2) supply them with 
the authentic information necessary to enable them 
to understand the contents of their daily newspapers. 

In compiling the list of the 120 books the first 
object which would be kept in view would be to 
make the range of reading as attractive and interest- 
ing as possible. The Library would not profess any 
desire to turn out learned men. It would not aspire 
to make .scholars. What it would aim at is to make 
the world and the things that are therein more in- 
teresting to the people who used the Library. Out 
of the hundred thousand students who used the 
Library, one thousand might apply themselves seri- 
ously to some one studv and become therein expert 
and learned. That will be all to the good. But 
the main thing is that the remaining 99.000 will, 
even if they never read another book than the 120 of 
our college course, be much more intelligent men 
and W'Omen and much better instructed citizens than 
thev would otherwise have been. 

To give people fresh interest in life, to deliver 
them from boredom, to open up new and enchanting 
vistas into the glories and miracles of existence, 
surely that is work well worth doing, and one in 
which it is good to be able to help. 


In founding this Library an attempt would be 
made to give practical effect to Carlvle's saving that 
the true University is a collection of books. ' The ob- 
ject would be to establish such a University in every 
home in the English-speaking world. Universities 
have their tutors, professors, and classes ; these we 
cannot provide in a library. But here there can be, 
in the first place, selection of hooks ; and in the 
second place, there can be a substitute for the lecture 
in summaries with extracts and illustrations from 
works too voluminous to be read in full. 

The course of reading could be adjusted to the 
leisure of the student. It might be assumed that in- 
stead of having the whole of his time during three 
years, the graduate of this latest born of universi- 
ties could only spare half-an-hour a day for reading 
books. The Library would supply him with a hun- 
dred pages of reading matter every week, of which 
he would only need to read fifteen per day in order 
to keep up with this college course. 

The sub.stitute for examinations would be the 
sending in weekly of indices, analyses, or summaries, 
as the case may be, limited to one thousand words 
of the volume read. As an incentive a prize of five 
pounds might be offered every week for the best 
paper sent in. 

This popular university curriculum would last for 
two years and a-half ; 120 books would have been 
read, of which about half would be of the nature of 
Universitv Extension lectures on a series of volumes 
which could not be otherwise included in the course 
of study. 

When the course was complete, scholarships of the 
total value of ^£400 would be offered for examina- 
tion — sav, in the books devoted to History, Poetry, 
Fiction and Politics — tenable at any University by 
those who succeed in the examination. 

It is hoped that those who are interested in pro- 
moting the revival of reading would endeavour to 
form reading-classes in their own neighbourhood. 

If there are only two or three who compare notes 
at the newsagents' shops where they obtain the books, 
it is a beginning. But it would be easy to form 
classes in connection with Public Libraries, 
Mechanics] Institutes. Churches. Young Men's Chris- 
tian Associations, Pleasant Sunday Afternoon So- 
cieties. Co-operative Associations, Mothers' Meet- 
ings, and the like, at which the weekly volume could 
be read and discussed, where the leader could lecture 
on the book of the week, and the class could ask 
questions or discuss its subjects. Local prizes could 
be given for local examinations. In this way some- 
thing of the help of comradeship might he supplied, 
and some substitute provided for the stimulating in- 
fluences of the common-room of the College. 

For those who are alone there remains the resource 
of correspondence, which could be arranged without 
difficulty, as all the graduates would be in touch with 
each other through the Library. 


If the co-operation of the public is secured. I can 
offer them this Library on terms which will provide 
an aggregate endowment of at least ^20.000 for the 
local educational institutions and libraries of the 
country. Before explaining how this apparent 
miracle can be wrought I beg leave to indulge in a 
brief autobiographical reminiscence. 

:Mv father was the minister of a small Congrega- 
tional church at Howdon-on-Tyne. The village was 
squalid and dirtv. The church was very poor. But 
it was in that unpromising location, in the grimy 

Review of Revi tee, 1112 jOj. 

The Book of the Month. 


church and in the noisy Sunday-school I learned 
most of the lessons which have stood me in good 
stead in after life. Among other things I learned bv 
practical experience how to develop a taste for read- 
ing, and at the same time to make the process a 
source of income to the church and school. 

\\'hen I was a vouth of sixteen or seventeen, earn- 
ing at that time, if I remember aright, the sum of 
six shillings a week as a 'prentice lad in an office on 
Newcastle Quav, it occurred to me that it would be 
a good thing to try to extend the reading habit among 
the members of the congregation. In a feeble, in- 
effective sort of way the Sunday-school sold a few 
denominational and children's magazines to those 
who cared to have them. No systematic effort had 
been made to promote the sale of periodicals. It 
was decided to take the matter in hand, and I was 
dei)uted to make a canvass of our people. 

When the canvass was complete I booked the 
iirder with a wholesale newsagent in Newcastle, w'ho 
allowed us threepence in the shilling discount for 
cash. The net result was at the end of the year 
we had a [irofit of from ^5 to ^7 to hand over 
to the Sunday-school funds, while magazines of the 
annual value of from ^£20 to ^^30 were added to the_ 
literary resources of this small artisan and tradesman 

I have never forgotten that experience. If there 
is to be a revival of reading among our people, 
especially among our people in the village, the task 
must be taken in hand in this fashion. The Church, 
Sunday-schfiol, day-school, or any other local organi- 
sation should appoint its book and magazine secre- 
tary, whose dutv it should be to make a personal 
house-to-house canvass throughout the locality, to 
liring before every individual the books and periodi- 
cals whose sale it is desirable to promote. No work 
can be more important. No work is so generally 
neglected. It is, of course, unpaid \vork — unpaid 
IS is Sunday-school teaching. The orders so ob- 
tained can be booked with the trade on the usual 
terms, or thev can be ordered direct on special terms. 
Out of the discount so obtained, books and news- 
papers can be purchased for the local reading-room, 
or it can be spent in any other way better calculated 
to promote the intellectual, moral, or social welfare 
of the community. 

Whv do I recall these reminiscences of the six- 
ties? Because I am persuaded that the same method 
which was found to be so useful in Tyneside forty 
years ago will be found equally efficacious to-day 
in hel|iing to realise a very simple but very impor- 
tant ideal — the ideal, to wat, of having a library of 
good books in every house in the land. 


Any school, church, reading union, or other local 
centre which obtains by canvass among its own 
members twelve subscribers for the library, can pur- 
chase them through the local newsagent at a discount 
of threepence in the shilling, paying two and three- 

pence for what they will sell to their members at 
three shillings. When the library is complete they 
will have the sum of ^£4 los. profit as an endowment 
for their local library. If they obtain, as they might 
do in any large church or adult school, 120 sub- 
scribers, the net profit would be ^45. 

The net profit thus accruing to the local distribut- 
ing centres would be no less than ;£35,ooo on every 
100,000 libraries sold. 

This is assuming that the Library is issued weekly 
through the trade in the ordinary way. But if. in- 
stead of purchasing small numbers of the weekly 
issue through the ordinary channels, large employers 
of labour, co-operative societies, reading unions, 
adult schools, or other associations were to co- 
operate with me in the production and distribution 
of these books among their members, the benefit 
accruing to the distributer could be materially in- 

Supposing, for instance, any firm, society, or as- 
sociation were to order 100 or 1000 l,ibraries for its 
members, and pay for the same m advance, I would 
supply them at half the published price, plus car- 
riage to the centre of distribution. That is to say, 
I would edit the Library, pay contributors, buy 
paper, set up the type, and bind the books for 15s. 
per Library, leaving the other 15s., minus the cost 
of carriage, to go to the distributer to be used for 
educational or such other purposes as he m'ght think fit. 

The society or reading circle which paid in ad- 
vance would at the end of the two years and a-half 
realise a profit equal to the entire cost of production 
of the Library'. If 100,000 sets were disposed of in 
this co-operative fashion they would be endowed with 
a sum of ^75,000, less carriage. 

This, then, is the secret, the open secret of the 
way in \vhich the Library-University for the 
Million can be established in every house in the 
land, and a profit made at the same time which 
would enable the local reading centres, Sunday 
schools, literary societies, etc., to fill their treasuries, 
besides conferring an inestimable benefit upon their 

The proposition, I admit, seems to be almost too 
good to be true. But it w'ill stand the severest ex- 

That is the business basis upon which I am [ire- 
pared to launch the Library-University for the 
Million. It may seem a gigantic undertaking to 
propose to sell twelve million 3d. books in the next 
thirty months, and it seems, perhaps, even more 
impossible to do so on terms which will have the 
effect of endowing local literary and educational 
institutions with a sum of ;£35,ooo, or ,^£75,000 if 
paid in advance. But the thing can be done, and 
done with ease if you will help. Will you help? 
That is the question, and remember that in helping 
you will not only help the million and help me, but 
you will also help your school or society to share in 
the profit, ' W, T. Stead. 



The Origin and Permanent VaJue o! the Old Testament 

Ti S,t T ■ (Hodder 6/0 

The belMnterpretation of Jesus Christ. Rev. G S 

Tu^^i^V:^^^'^ ,^- >, (Hodder) 5/0 

The Maliiug of Simon Peter. A. J. Southouse 

Wayside Talks. Charles Wagner '(Hodder) 3/6 

Religion of a Plain Man. Father R. H. Benson 
Ti, XT Tj 1 . .,„ . (Burns and Gates) net 2/6 

The New Idolatry. Washington Gladden . (Pitman) 3/6 
Churchmanship and Labour. Rev. W. H. Hunt icom- 

I. r"' * V >T ., . „ (Skeffington) 5,0 

l.eiigion of Nature and of Human Experience. W. 

J. Jupp ■■ „ „ , (Green) net 2/0 

George Herbert. A. G. Hyde (Methuen) net 10/6 

^donis Attis Osiris. J. G. Frazer ., (Macmillan) net 10 6 
Elements of Greek Worship. S. C. Kaines Smith 
„,.„.„ „ (Griffiths) net 2/6 

Thrice-Greatest Hermes. G. R. S. Mead 

_ . . , , , (Tlieosophical Publishing Society) net 30/0 

Principles and Methods of Teaching. James Welton 

Notes on Education. Caroline Southwood Hill 

(Seeley) net 1/6 


Lectures on Modem History. Lord Acton 

TK^ T • « It T, , „ (Macmillan) net 10,0 

The Last of the Royal Stuarts. (Henry Stuart. Car- 
dinal Duke of York). H. M. Vaughan 

Court. Beauties of Old Whitehall. W.''R."'H'"Trow' '"" 

, T^P"!^^ ■ , , „ „ T (Unwin) net 15/0 

iV-^ ?- "®'' 'V '-"U'^S-"- J^- ^- '^■"'^='8 ... (Methuen) 6/0 
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Links in My Life on Land and Sea. Cant J W 

Gambier ... . . (Unwin) net 15/0 

The Cathedrals of England and Wales Vol III T 

F. Biimpus , (Laurie)' net 6/0 

Surrey. Sutton Palmer and A. R. Hope Moncriefl 

, «, , ,„., . (Black) net 20/U 

Memories of Old Wiltshire. Alice Dryden (Editor) 
,, . , . „, , „ (Bemrose) net 15/0 

Memorials of Old Somerset. F. J Snell (Editor) 

,,, ..„.,„ (Bemrose) net 15'0 

Gloucester in National History. F. A. Hyett 

North Devon. F. J. Snell . (Black) net 6'0 

From Valmy to Waterloo. E. B. Douglas (Editor) 

France in 1802. H. R. Torke (Heinenui'^^n) 6/0 

Men and Women of the French Revolution. Philip 

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Count de Cartrie (Lane) net 16/0 

Cyprus. B. Stewart (Skeffington) 6/0 

The New Far East. T. F. Millard . , . . (Hodder) net 6/0 
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(TTnwin) 10 6 
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TT J.I-.,. . „ ^, , (Unwin) net 21/0 

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Carthage and Tunis. Douglas Sladen. 2 vols. 

(Hutchinson) net 24'- 


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teenth Century. H. J. C. Grierson (Blackwood) net 50 
Books that are the Hearts of Men. A. T. Story 
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Ledgers and Literature. G. KnoUys .. .. (Lane) net 3/6 
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TI- . , T . , T. (Unwin) net 3/6 

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Tke Book of Simple Delights. W. Raymond 

o. T TT ,- „ , (Hodder) 6/0 

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Retiew of Rerieits, l/ll/oe. 


^'^ l^oTA. "^^^^ ^'^.rro..ghs^^'--> -' ^'^ 
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Charlotte Corday in Prison. (Poem.) G. K^R^EUZ] '^'° 
King Arthur Pendragon. .Drama.) Arthu'r^DlTro;,' "^' ' ' 
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-\gnus. Orme. Minvale ,xi ji . , ... 

t|,'p1S%1^^'-^hr^'-"->^'«^'™ - ^^etf^en ' 
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Bacheller. Irving Silas Strnn^ '^^^S) 6/0 

Carey, Rosa N. No Friend Like a Sister ' ' ' '""^®"' ^'° 
l&il^.V'^ PHsoners;. (BSSi:;: 
Coke, Desmond. The Comedy of Life iLong) 6 

g^?!' te-Tj^!vi^-ir^'""^--S ti 

Drummond. Hamilton. The Cuckoo w^ ?{S 

Dudeney Mrs. Henry. Gossips Gieen •• ' fcT.sPl! fin 
Everett-Green. E. Guy Fulkes of the Towers ^'° 

Farjeon, B. L. Mrs. Dimmock's Worries^""""'"'""' ^'° 

Fincllater. Jane H. The Ladder to the Sta^s""''"""'"' ^'° 

Pitchett W. H. Ithuriel's Spear '^"^KeTwl t'm 

Eraser. Mrs. Hugh. In the Shadow of the Lord '^' '° 

Freiinssen. Gustav. Holyland (Translated by Mlr^A ^'° 

H^dvKh\^f^''%f',"'''''' 'Chapman'^anT 'i';.',V. U 
Sa^lrirl; &eift'.1?o^i. In^S^lt. A Persian Rose'£l^^"' '" 

&s^o^^"'^he can of the Bloo. '«^5»H ^ 
Hohbes, John Oliver. The Dream and the Business ' 

Hume. Fergus. The Black Patch .. . ''jEolg) 6/0 

MSay"- A^ian"ThTVafi't";%f the Hooou,4^^"^"^''' 

l%%\'''^ Pe^'-'The'^^V^- IT'''^ °"^'-"- '^'"Ch7t?«'; t'l 
Kinge. U. Pett. The Wickhamses (Methuen) 6 


From Fox's Earth to Mountain Tarn. J. H. Crawford 
English Gardens. M. R. GIbad (Melhuen! nVllm 

Rnieic of Hevi.-i.s. l/lflOJ. 






Synopsis : Tlie uiurator. William Loadfortl, is telling of events in his youth before the Great Change. Througlj his 
friend Pai'load he ha? heoonie a Socialist, and is also interested m a great comet whose path is approacliing the eartli's orbit. 
Tliis fact is more important to him than the spread of socialism, for what viill happen if the comet strikes tlie earth ? 
31eanwhile, times are bad in England, owing to strikes, lock-outs, overproduction, and the intrusion of American x^roducts in 
tlie market. And. besides, war has just liroken out between England and Germanj-. Leadford has been engaged to marry 
Nettie Stuart, but she lias broken u-ith him on accoimt of his beliefs. The young man still loves the gii'l and continues to 
\n.<it her. On one of these visits he learns that she has eloped with Edward Verrall, the son of her father's employer. 
Tlie couple have gone to a resort on the east coast. Obeying some vague impulse, Leadford has recently bought a 
revolver. The idea of following his sweetheart now comes to his mind, but to do this he will have to pawn some of 
his belongings. 


Alter our midilay dinner — it was a potato pie, 
mostly potato with some scraps of cabbage and 
bacon — I put on m\' o\-ercoat and got it out of the 
house while mv nidther was in the scullery at the 

A scullerv in the old world was, in the case of 
such houses as ours, a dani]), unsavoury, mainly 
subterranean region behind tlic dark living-room 
kitchen. It was rendered more than typically dirty 
in our case liy the fact that into it the coal cellar, 
.1 yawning pit of black undeanness, 0|iened. and 
difiused small, crunchable particles about the un- 
even brick floor. It was the region of "washing- 
up." that greasy, damp function that followed every 
meal. Its atmosphere had ever a cooling steami- 
ness ; and the memory of boiled cabbage, and the 
sooty, black stains where saucepan or kettle had 
been put down for a minute, scraps of potato peel 
caught by the strainer of an escape-pipe, and rags 
of a quite indescribable horribleness of acquisition. 

called ' di^hclouts," rise in my memory at the 
riajne. The altar of this place was the " sink,'' a 
tank of stone, revolting to a refined touch, grease 
filmed and unpleasant to see. Above this w-as a tai) 
for cold water, so arranged that when the water 
descended it splashed and wetted whoever had 
tu''ned it on. This tap was our water supply. And 
in such a place you must fancy a little old woman, 
rather incompetent and very gentle, a soul of un- 
selfishness and sacrifice, in dirty clothes, all come 
from their original colours to a common dusty dark 
gray, in worn, ill-fitting boots, with hands distorted 
by ill use, and untidy greying hair — my mother. 
In the winter her hpnds would be "chapped," and 
she would have a cough. And while she washes u|i 
I go out, to sell my overcoat and watch in ordtr 
that I may desert her. 

I forget how much money I got. but I remember 
that it was rather less than the sum I had made 
out to be the single fare to Shaphambury. 

I got back home about five minutes to three, re- 



The Review of Reviews. 

December I, 1906, 

solved to Start by the five train for Birmingham in 
any case, but still dissatisfied about my money. I 
thought of pawning a book or something of that 
sort, but I could think of nothing of obvious value 
in the house. My mother's silver — two gravy-spoons 
and a saltcellar — had been pawned for some weeks, 
since, in fact, the June quarter-day. But my mind 
was full of hypothetical opportunities. 

As I came up the steps to our door, I remarked 
that Mr. Gabbitas looked at me suddenly round his 
dull red curtains with a sort of alarmed resolution 
in his eye and vanished, and as I walked along the 
passage, he opened his door upon me suddenly and 
intercepted me. 

He was in the clerical dress of that time, that 
costume that seems almost the strangest of all our 
old-world clothing, and he presented it in its cheap- 
est form — black, of a poor texture, ill-fitting, 
strangely cut. Its long skirts accentuated the tub- 
biness of his body, the shortness of his legs. The 
white tie below his all-round collar, beneath his 
innocent, large-spectacled face, was a little grubby, 
and between his not very clean teeth he held a briar 
pipe. His complexion was whitish, and although 
hewas only thirt)--three or four perhaps, his sandy 
hair was already thinning from the top of his head. 

To your eye, now. he would seem the strangest 
figure, in the utter disregard of all physical beauty 
of dignity about him. You would find him extraor- 
dinarily odd, but, in the old days, he met not only 
with acceptance but respect. He was alive until within 
a year or sp ago, but his later appearance changed. 
As I saw him that afternoon, he was a verv slovenly, 
ungainly little human being. You had an instinc- 
tive sense that so he had been from the beginning. 
You felt that he was not only drifting through life 
eating what came in his way, believing what came 
m his way, doing without any vigour what came 
in his way, but that rnio life he also had drifted. 
You could not believe him the child of pride and 
high resolve, or of any splendid passion of love. 
He had just happened. But we all happened then. 
Why am I taking this tone over this poor little 
curate in particular? 

" Hullo !" he said, with an assumption of friendly 
ease. " Haven't seen you for weeks \ Come in and 
have a gossip.' 

\\\ invitation from the drawingroom lodger was 
in the nature of a command. I would have liked 
\ery_ greatly to have refused it. N'ever was an in- 
vitation more inopportune. But I had not the wit 
to think of an excuse. "All right," I said awk- 
wardly, and he held the door open for me. 

"I'd be very glad if you would," he amplified. 
"One doesn't get much opportunitv of intelligent 
talk in this parish." 

^Vhat the devil was he up to. was mv secret pre- 
orcupation. He fussed about me w^ith a nervous 
hospitality, talking in jumpv fragments, rubbinc 

his hands together, and taking peeps at me over and 
round his glasses. 

"They're going to give us trouble in the North 
Sea, It seems," he remarked with a sort of innocent 
zest. " I'm glad they naean fighting." 

There was an air of culture about his room that 
always cowed me, and that made me constrained 
even on this occasion. The table under the window 
was littered with photographic material and the 
later albums of his Continental souvenirs. On the 
American cloth-trimmed shelves that fiJled the re- 
cesses on either side of the fireplace were what I 
used to think in those davs a quite incredible num- 
ber of books— perhaps eight hundred altogether, in- 
cluding the reverend gentleman's photograph, al- 
bums and college .ind school text-books. This sugc^es- 
gestion of learning was enforced bv the little wooden 
shield bearing a college coat-of-arms that hung over 
the looking-glass, and by a photograph of Mr. Gab- 
bitas in cap and gown in an Oxford frame that 
adorned the opposite wall. And in the middle of 
that wall stood his writing-desk, which I knew to 
have pigeonholes when it was open, and which made 
him seem not merely cultured, but literary. At 
that, he ^ wrote sermons, composing them himself! 

"Yes," he said, taking possession of the hearth 
rug, " the war had to come sooner or later. If we 
smash their fleet for them now. well, there's an end 
to the matter !" 

He stood on his toes and then bumped down on 
his heels, and looked blandlv through his spectacles 
at a water-colour by his sister— the subject was a 
bunch of violets— above the sideboard which was 
his pantry and tea chest and cellar. "Yes," he said 
as he did so. 

I coughed, and wondered how I might presentlv 
get away. 

He invited me to smoke^— that queer old prac- 
tice !— and then when I declined, began talkino- in 
a confidential tone of this "dreadful business" of 
the strikes. " The war won't improve that outlook," 
he said, and was very gra\-e for a moment. 

He spoke of the want of thought for their wives 
and children shown by the colliers in striking mere- 
ly for the sake of the union, and this stirred me to 
controversy, and distracted me a little from mv re- 
solution to escape. 

" I don't quite agree with that," 1 said, clearing 
my throat. " If the men didn't strike for the union 
now, if the>' let that be broken up, where would 
thev be when the pinch of reductions did come:>" 

To which he replied that thev couldn't expect to 
get top-price wages when the masters were selling 
bottom-price coal. I replied : " That isn't it. The 
masters don't treat them fairly. Thev have to pro- 
tect themselves." 

To which Mr. Gabbitas answered: "Well, I don't 
know. I've been in the Four Towns some time, and 
I must say I don't think the balance of injustice 
falls on the masters' side." 

Review of Reviews, 1/11/06. 

In the Days of the Gomet. 


"It falls on the men," I agreed, wilfully mis- 
understanding him. 

And so we worked our way toward an argument. 
" Confound this argument !'' I thought .; but I had 
no skill in self-extraction, and my irritation crept 
into mv voice. Three little spots of colour came 
into the cheeks and nose of Mr. Gabbitas, but his 
voice showed nothing of his ruffled temper. 

■' Vou see." I said. " I'm a Socialist. I don't think 
this world was made for a small minority to dance 
on the faces of everyone else." 

" My dear fellow," said the Reverend Mr. Gabbi- 
tas, " /'/« a Socialist too. Who isn't? But that 
doesn't lead me to class hatred.'' 

" You haven't felt the heel of this confounded 
s\stem. / have." 

" Ah I' said he; and catching him on that note 
came a rap at the front door, and, as he hung sus- 
pended, the sound of my mother letting someone in 
and a timid rap. 

"Now," thought I, and stood up. resolutely, but 
he would not let me. " No, no, no I" said he. " It's 
onlv for the Dorcas money." 

He put his hand against my chest with an effect 
of physical com[)ulsion, and cried, "Come in!'' 

"Our talk's just getting interesting," he protest- 
ed; and there entered Miss Ramell. an elderly little 
lady who was mighty in church help in Clayton. 

He greeted her — she took no notice of me — and 
went to his bureau, and I remained standing by my 
chair but unable to get out of the room. " I'm not 
.interrupting?' asked Miss Ramell. 

" Not in the least," he said, drawing out the car- 
riers and Ojiening his desk. I could not help seeing 
what he did. 

I was so fretted bv my impotence to leave him, 
that, at the moment, it did not connect at all with 
the research of the morning that he was taking out 
money. I listened sullenly to his talk with Miss 
Ramell. and saw only, as they say in Wales, with 
the front of my eves, the small fiat drawer that had, 
it seemed, quite a number of sovereigns scattered 
over its flo<ir. " They're so unreasonable," com- 
plained Miss Rfimell. Who could be otherwise in 
a social organisation that bordered on insanitv ? 

I turned away from them, put my foot on the 
fender, stuck my elbow on the plush-fringed man- 
telboard. and studied the -photographs, pipes, and 
ash trays that adorned it. What was it I had to 
think out before I w^ent to the station? 

Of ciiurse ! Mv mind made a queer, little, re- 
luctant leap ; it felt like being forced to leap over 
a bottomless chasm ; and alighted upon the sove- 
reigns that were just disappearing again as Mr. 
Gabbitas shut his drawer.. 

" I won't interrupt your talk further." said Miss 
Ramell, receding doorward. 

Mr. Gabbitas played round her politely, and 
opened the door for her and conducted her into the 
passage, and for a moment or so I had the fullest 

sense of proximity to those — it seemed to me there 
must be ten or twelve — sovereigns. 

The front door closed and he returned. My 
chance of escape had gone. 

" I imtst be going," I said, with a curiously rein- 
forced desire to get away out of that room. 

" My dear chap !" he insisted, " I can't think of 
it. Surely, there's nothing to call you away.'' Then 
with an evident desire to shift the venue of our talk, 
he asked, "You never told me what you thought of 
Burble's little book?" 

I was now, beneath my dull display of submis- 
sion, furiously angry wdth him. It occurred to me 
to ask myself why I should defer and qualify my 
opinions to him. Why should I pretend a feeling 
of intellectual and social inferiority toward him ? 
He asked what I thought of Burble. I resolved to 
tell him, if necessary, with arrogance. Then per- 
haps he would release me. I did not sit down again, 
but stood by the corner of the fireplace. 

" That was the little book you lent me last sum- 
mer ?" I said. 

" He reasons, closely, eh ?" he said, and indi- 
cated the armchair with a fiat hand, and beamed 

I remained standing. " I didn't think much of his 
reasoning powers," I said. 

" He was one of the cleverest bishops London 
ever had." 

" That may be. But he was dodging about in a 
jolly feeble case," said I. 

" You mean ?" 

" That he's wrong. I don't think he proves his 
case. I don't think Christianity is true. He knows 
himself for the pretender he is. His reasoning's — 

Mr. Gabbitas went, T think, a shade paler than 
his wont, and propitiation vanished from his man- 
ner. His eyes and mouth were round, his face 
seemed to get round, his eyebrows curved at mv re- 

" I'm sorry you think that," he said at last, with 
a catch in his breath. 

He did not repeat his suggestion that I should sit. 
He made a step or so toward the window and turn- 
ed. " I suppose you will admit — — " he began, with 
a faintly irritating note of intellectual condescen- 

T will not tell you of his arguments or mine. You 
will find, if you care to look for them, in out-of-the- 
way corners of our book museums, the shrivelled 
cheap pul)lications — the publications of the R.ition- 
alist Press .Association, for example — on which my 
arguments were based. Lying in that curious limbo 
with them, mixed up with them and indistinguish- 
able, are the endless "Replies " of orthodoxy, like 
the mixed dead in some hard-fought trench. .\ll 
those disputes of our fathers, and thev were some- 
times furious disputes, have gone now beyond the 


The Review of Reviews 

December 1. 190G, 

range of comprehension. You younger people, I 
know, read them with impatient perplexity. Vou 
cannot understand how sane creatures could imagine 
they had joined issue at all in most of these contro- 
versies. All the old methods of systematic think- 
ing, the queer absurdities of the Aristotelian logic, 
have followed magic numbers and mystical num- 
bers, and the Rumpelstikchen magic of names, now 
into the blackness of the unthinkable. You can no 
more understand our theological passions than vou 
can understand the fancies that made all ancient 
peoples speak of their gods only by circumlocu- 
tions, that made savages pine away and die because 
they had been photographed, or an Elizabethan 
farmer turn back from a day's expedition because 
he had met three crows. Even I, who have been 
through it all, recall our controversies now with 
something near incredulity. 

Faith we can understand to-day; all men live by 
faith. But, in the old time, everyone confused quite 
hopelessly faith and a forced, incredible belief in 
certain pseudo-concrete statements. I am inclined 
to sav that neither believers nor unbelie\ers had 
faith as we understand it : they had insufficient in- 
tellectual power. They could not trust unless they 
had something to see and touch and say, like their 
barbarous ancestors who could not make a bargain 
without exchange of tokens. If they no longer wor- 
shipped stocks and stones, or eked out their needs 
with pilgrimages and images, they still held fiercely 
to audible images, to printed words and formulse. 

But why revive the echoes of the ancient logo- 
njachies ? 

Suffice it that we lost our tempers very readily in 
pursuit of God and truth, and said exquisitely 
foolish things on either side. And on the whole — 
from the impartial perspective of my three and 
seventv years — I adjudicate that if my dialectic was 
bad, that of the Reverend Mr. Gabbitas was alto- 
gether worse. 

Little pink spots came into his cheeks, a squealing 
note into his voice. We interrupted each other more 
and more rudely. -We invented facts and appealed 
to authorities whose names I mispronounced ; and, 
finding Mr. Gabbitas shy of the higher criticism 
and the Germans, I used the names of Karl Marx 
and Engels as Bible exegetes with no little effect. 
A silly wrangle ! a preposterous wrangle ! You 
must imagine our talk becoming louder, with a de- 
veloping quarrelsome note — my mother, no doubt, 
hovering on the stircase and listening in alarm as 
who should say : " My dear, don't offend it ! Oh. 
don't offend it I Mr. Gabbitas enjoys its friendship. 
Tr\- to think whatever Mr. Gabbitas says — " though 
we still kept in touch with a pretence of mutual de- 
ference. The ethical superiority of Christianity to 
all other religions came to the fore — I know not 
how. We dealt with the matter in bold, imagina- 
tive generalisations, because of the insufficiencv of 
our historical knowledge. I was moved to denounce 

Christianitv as the ethics of slaves, and declare my- 
self a disciple of a German writer of no little vogue 
in those days, named Nietzsche. 

For a disciple I must confess I was particularly 
ill acquainted with the works of the master. Indeed, 
all I knew of Tiim had come to me through a two- 
cohmin article in T/ie Clarion for the previous week. 
But the Reverend Gabbitas did not read Tlie 

I am, I know, putting a strain upon your credulity 
when I tell you that I now have little doubt that the 
Reverend Mr. Gabbitas was absolutely ignorant even 
of the name of Nietzsche, although that writer pre- 
sented a separate and distinct attitude of attack upon 
the faith that was in the reverend gentleman's keep- 

" I'm a disciple of Nietzsche,'' said I. with an air 
of extensive explanation. 

He ,=ihied away so awkwardlv at the name that 
I repeated it at once. 

"But vou know what Nietzsche savs?' I press- 
ed him viciously. 

" He has certainly been adequately answered," 
said he, still trving to carry it off. 

" Who by ?" I rapped out hotly. " Tell me that !" 
and became mercilessly expectant. 


A happy accident relieved Mr. Gabbitas from 
the embarrassment of that challenge, and carried 
me another 'step along mv course of personal disas- 

It came on the heels of my question in the form 
of a clatter of horses without, and the gride and 
cessation of wheels. I glimpsed a straw-hatted 
coachman and a pair of greys. It seemed an in- 
crediblv magnificent carriage for Clavton. 

" Eh '" said the Reverend Mr. Gabbitas, going to 
the window. "Why, it's old Mrs. Verrall ! Its 
old Mrs. Verrall. Really ! What ca-n she want 
with me ?" 

He turned to me, and the flush of controversy 
had passed and his face shone like the sun. It 
was not every day, I perceived, that Mrs. Verrall 
came to see him. 

" I get so many interruptions," he said, almost 
grinning. " You must excuse me a minute ! Then — 
then I'll tell you about that fellow. But pray don't 
go. I can assure you — most interesting." 

He went out of the room waving vague, prohibi- 
torv gestures. 

" I must go." I cried after him. 

" No, no, no '." in the passage. " I've got your 
answer," I think it was he added, and " quite mis- 
taken " ; and I saw him running down the steps 
to talk to the old lady. 

I swore. I made three steps to the window, and 
this brought me within a yard of that accursed 

I glanced at it, and then at that old woman who 

Review of Hei-iewn, Iil2j06. 

In the Days of the Gomet. 


was so absurdly powerful, and instantly her son 
and Nettie's face were flaming in my braui. The 
Stuarts had, no doubt, already accepted accom- 
plished facts. And I too 

What was I doing here? 

What was I doing here while judgment escaped 
me ? 

I woke up. I was injected with energy. I took 
one reassuring look at the curate's obsequious back, 
at the old lady's projected nose and quivering hand, 
and then with swift, clean movements I had the 
little drawer open, four sovereigns in my pocket, 
and the drawer shut again. Then again at the 
window — ttiey were etill talking. 

That was all right. He might not look in that 
drawer for hours. I glanced at his clock. Twenty 
minutes still before the Birmingham traiij. Time 
to buy a pair of boots and get away. "But how 
was I to get to the station ? 

I went out boldly into the passage, and took my 
hat and stick. Walk boldly past him? 

Yes. That was all right ! He could not argue 
with me while so important a person engaged him. 
I came down the steps. 

" I want a list made, Mr. Gabbitas, of all the 
reallv deserving cases," old Mrs. Verrall was say- 

It was curious, but it did not occur to me that 
here was a mother whose son I was going to kill. 
I did not see her in that aspect at all. Instead. I 
was possessed by a realisation of the blazing im- 
becility of a social system that gave this palsied old 
woman the power to give, or withhold, the urgent 
necessities of life from hundreds of her fellow-crea- 
tures just according to her poor, foolish old fancies 
of desert. 

"We could make a provhioiiaJ list of that sort," 
he was saying, and glanced round with a preoccu- 
pied expression at me. 

" I miist go," I said at his flash of inquiry, and 
added, " I'll be back in twenty minutes," and went 
on mv way. He turned again to his patroness as 
though he forgot me on the instant. Perhaps after 
all he was not sorrv. 

I felt extraordinarily cool and capable, exhila- 
rated, if anything, by this prompt, effectual theft. 
After all, my great determination would achieve 
itself. I was no longer oppressed by a sense of ob- 
stacles ; I felt I could grasp accidents and turn 
them to my advantage. I would now go down 
Hacker-street to the little shoemaker's — get a sound 
good pair of boots — ten minutes — and then to the 
railway station — five minutes more — and off. I 
felt as efficient and non-moral as if I was Nietzsche's 
superman already come. It did not occur to me 
that the curate's clock might have a considerable 
nvargin of error. 


T missed the train. 

Partlv, that was because the curate's clock was 

slow, and partly, it was due to the commercial ob- 
stinacy of the shoemaker, who would try on another 
pair after I had declared my time was up. I 
bought the final pair, however, gave him a wrong 
address for the return of the old ones, and only 
ceased to feel like the Nietzschean superman when 
I saw the train running out of the station. 

Even then I did not lose my head. It occurred to 
me almost at once that, in the event of a prornpt 
pursuit, there would be a great advantage in not 
taking a train from Clayton; that, indeed, to have 
done so would have been an error from which only 
luck had saved me. As it was, I had already 
been very indiscreet in my inquiries about Shapham- 
bury; for, once on the scent, the clerk could not 
fail to remember me. Now the chances were against 
his coming into the case. I did not go into the 
station, therefore, at all, I made no demonstration 
of having missed the train, but walked quietlv past, 
ilo^n the road, crossed the iron footbridge, "and 
took the way back circuitously by White's brick 
fields and the allotments to the way over Clayton 
Crest to Two-Mile Stone, where I calculated I 
should have an ample margin for the 6.13 train. 

I was not very greatly excited or alarmed then. 
Suppose, I reasoned, that by some accident the 
curate goes to that drawer at once ; will he be cer- 
tain to miss four out of ten or eleven sovereigns ? 
If he does, will he at once think I have taken them? 
If he does, will he act at once or wait for mv re- 
turn? If he acts at once, will he talk to my mother 
or call in the police ? Then there are a dozen roads 
and even railways out of the Clayton region ; how is 
he to know which I ha\^e taken ? Suppose he goes 
straight at once to the right station, they will not 
remember my departure for the simple reason that 
T rlidn't depart. But they mav remember about 
Shaphambury ? It was unlikely. 

I resolved not to go directly to Shaphambury from 
Birmingham, but to go thence to \Ionkshampton, 
thence to Wyvern, and then come down on Shap- 
hambury from the north. That might involve a 
night at some intermediate stopping place, but it 
would effectually conceal me from any but the most 
persistent pursuit. And this was not a case of mur- 
der yet, but only the theft of four so\ereigns. 

I had argued away all anxiety before I reached 
Clayton Crest. 

At the Crest I looked back. 'Wliat a world it 
was ! And suddenly it came to me that I was look- 
ing at this world for the last time. If I overtook 
the fugitives and succeeded I should die with them 
— or hang. I stopped and looked back more atten- 
tively at that wide, ugly valley. 

It was my native valley, and I was going out 
of it. I thought, never to return, and vet in that last 
prospect, the group of towns that had borne me 
and dwarfed and crippled and made me. seemed, in 
some indefinable marmer, strange. T was, perhaps, 
more used to seeing it from this comprehensive view- 


The Review of Reviews: 

Dece/nier 1, 1906. 

point when it was veiled and softened by night; 
now it came out in all its week-day reek, under 
a clear afternoon sun. That may account a little for 
its unfamiliarity. And perhaps, too, there was 
something in the emotions through which I had been 
passing for a week or more, to intensify my insight, 
to enable me to pierce the usual, to question the ac- 
cepted. But it came to me then, I am sure, for the 
first time, how promiscuous, how higgledy-piggledy 
was the whole of that jumble of mines and homes, 
collieries and pot-banks, railway yards, canals, 
schools, forges and blast furnaces, churches, chapels, 
allotment hovels, a vast, irregular agglomeration 
of uglv. smoking accidents in which men lived as 
happv as frogs in a dust bin. Each thing jostled 
and damaged the other things about it. Each thing 
ignored the other things about it. The smoke 
of the furnace defiled the pot -bank clay, the clatter 
of the railway deafened the worshippers in church, 
the public-house thrust corruption at the school 
doors, the dismal homes squeezed miserably amidst 
the monstrosities of industrialism, with an effect of 
groping imbecilitv. 

I did not think these things clearly that after- 
noon. Much less did I ask how I, with my mur- 
derous purpose, stood to them all. I write down 
that realisation of disorder and suffocation here and 
now, as though I had thought it, but, indeed, 
then I onlv felt it, felt it transitorily as I looked 
back, and "then stood with the thing escaping from 
my mind. 

I should never see that countryside again. 

I came back to that. At any rate I wasn't sorry. 
The chances were I should die in sweet air, under n 
dean sky. Then, as I turned to go on, I thought 
of mv mother. 

It seemed an evil world in which to leave one's 
mother. Mv thoughts focussed upon her very 

vividly for a moment. Down there, under that 
afterna:m light, she was going to and fro, unaware 
as yet that she had lost me, bent and poking about 
in the darkling underground kitchen, perhaps car- 
rying a lamp into the scullery to trim, or sitting 
patiently, staring into the fire, waiting tea for me. 
A great pity for her, a great remorse at the blacker 
troubles that lowered over her innocent head, came 
to me. Why, after all, was I doing this thing? 

Why ? 

I stopped again dead, with the hill-crest rising 
between me and home. I had more than half a 
mind to return to her. 

Then I thought of the curate's sovereigns. If he 
had missed them already, what should I return 
to? And, even if I returned, how could I put 
them back ? 

And what of the night after I renounced my re- 
venge? What of the time w^hen young Verrall came 
back? And Nettie? 

No ! The thing had to be done. 

But. at least, I might have kissed my mother 
before I came away, left her some message, reas- 
sured her, at least for a little while. All night she 
would listen and wait for me. 

Should I send her a telegram from Two-Mile 
Stone ? 

It was no good now ; too late, too late. To do 
that would be to tell the course I had taken, to bring 
pursuit upon me. swift and sure, if pursuit there was 
to he. No. My mother must suffer. 

T went on grimly tow^ard Two-Mile Stone, but 
now as if some greater will than mine directed 
my footsteps thither. 

I reached Birmingham before darkness came, and 
just caught the last train for Monkshampton. where 
I had planned to pass the night. 



As the train carried me on from Birmingham to 
Monkshampton, it carried me not only into a country 
where I had never been before, but out of the com- 
monplace daylight and the touch and quality of 
ordinary things, into the strange, unprecedented 
night that was ruled by the giant meteor of the last 

There was, at that time, a curious accentuation 
of the common alternation of night and day. They 
became separated with a widening difference of value 
in regard to all mundane affairs. During the day, 
the comet was an item in the newspapers ; it was 
jostled bv a thousand more living interests ; it was 
as nothing in the skirts of the war-storm that was 
now upon us. It was an astronomical phenomenon, 
awav over China, millions of miles awav in 
the deeps. We forgot it. But directly the sun 


sank, one turned ever and again toward the east, 
and the meteor resumed its sway over us. 

One waited for its rising, and yet each night it 
came as a surprise Always, it rose brighter than 
one had dared to think, always larger and with some 
wonderful change in its outline, and now with a 
strange, less luminous, greener upon it that 
grew with its growth, the umbra of the earth. It 
shone also with its own light, so that this shadow, 
was not hard or black, hut it shone phosphorescently 
and with a diminishing intensity where the stimulus 
of the sun's rays was withdrawn. As it ascended to- 
ward the zenith, as the last trailing davlight went 
after the abdicating sun, its greenish-white illumi- 
nation banished the realities of day and diffused a 
bright ghostliness over all things. It changed the 
starless sky about it to an extraordinary deep blue, 
the profoundest colour in the w-orld, such as I have 
never seen before or since. I remember, too, that 

Review of Reviews, 1/11/06. 

in the Days of the Gotnet. 


as I peered from the train that was rattling me along 
to Monkshampton, I perceived and was puzzled by 
a coppery-red light that mingled with all the shadows 
that were cast by it. 

It turned our ugly English industrial towns to 
phantom cities. Everywhere the local authorities dis- 
continued street lighting — one could read small print 
in the glare — and sti, at Monkshampton, 1 went 
about through pale, white, unfamiliar streets, whose 
electric globes had shadows on the path. Lit win- 
dows here and there burnt ruddy orange, like holes 
cut in some dream-curtain that hung before a fur- 
nace. A policeman with noiseless feet showed me 
an inn woven of moonshine, which a green-faced 
man opened to us, and there 1 abode the night. And 
the next morning, it opened with a mighty clatter, 
and was a dirty little beerhouse that stank of beer, 
and there was a fat and grimy landlord with red 
spots upon his neck, and much noisy traffic going by 

I came out, after I had paid my bill, into a street 
that echoed to the bawlings of two news-vendors 
and to the noisy yappings of a dog they had raised 
to emulation. They were shouting: "Great British 
disaster in the North Sea. A battleship lost with all 
hands !" 

T bought a paper, and w'ent on to the railway sta- 
tion reading such details as \vere given of this tri- 
umph of the old civilisation, of the blowing up of 
this great iron ship, full of guns and explosives and 
the most costly and beautiful machinery of which 
that time was capable, together with nine hundred 
able-bodied men, all of them qbove the average, by 
a contact-mine towed by a German submarine. 1 
read myself into a fever of warlike emotion, Not 
only did I forget the meteor, but for a time I for- 
got even the purpose that took me on to the railway 
station. I boughnny ticket and was onward to .Shap- 

So the hot day came to its own again, and people 
forgot the niglit. 

Each night, there shone upon us more and more 
insistently, beauty, wonder, the promise of the deeps, 
and we were hushed, and marvelled for a space. 
And at the first gray sounds of dawn again, at the 
shooting of bolts and noise of milk carts, we for- 
got : and the dustv. habitual day came yawning and 
stretching back again. The stains of coal smoke 
crept across the heavens, and we rose to the soiled, 
disorderly routine of life. 

"Thus life has always been." we said; "thus it 
will alwavs be." 

The glory of those nights was almost uni\-ersallv 
regarded as spectacular merely. It signified noth- 
ing to us. So far as western Europe went, it was 
onlv a small and ignorant section of the lower classes 
who regarded the comet as a portent of the end of 
the world. .Abroad, where there were peasantries, it 
was different, but in England the peasantrv had al- 
ready disappeared. Everyone read. The news- 
paper, in the quiet davs before our swift quarrel 

with Germany rushed to its climax, had absolutely 
dispelled all possibilities of a panic in this matter. 
The very tramps upon the highroads, the children 
in the nursery, had learned, that at the utmost the 
whole of that shining cloud could weigh but a few 
score tons. This fact had been shown quite con- 
clusively by the enormous deflections that had, at 
last, swung it round squarely at our world. It had 
passed near three of the smallest asteroids without 
producing the minutest perceptible deflection in their 
course; while, on its own part, it had described a 
course through nearly three degrees. When it struck 
our earth there was to be a magnificent spectacle, no 
doubt, for those who w-ere on the right side of our 
planet to see, but beyond that nothing. It was 
doubtful whether we were on the right side. The 
meteor would loom larger and larger in the sky, but 
with the umbra of our earth eating its heart of 
brightness out, and at last it would be the whole 
sky, a sky of luminous, green clouds, with a white 
brightness about the horizon, west and east. Then 
a pause— a pause of not very exactly defined dura- 
tion — and then, no doubt, a' great blaze of shoot- 
ing stars. They might be of some unwonted colour, 
because of the unknown element that line in the 
green revealed. For a little while, the zenith would 
spout shooting stars. Some, it was hoped, would 
reach the earth and be available for analysis. 

Tiiat, science said, would be all. The green 
clouds would whirl and vanish, and there might 
be thunderstorms. But, through the attenuated 
wisps of comet-shine, the old skv, the old stars, 
would reappear, and all would be as it had been 
before. And since this wms to happen between one 
and eleven in the morning of the approaching Tues- 
day—I slept at JMonkshampton on Saturday night — 
it would be only partially visible, if visible at all, 
on our side of the earth. ' Perhaps, if it came late, 
one would see no more than a shooting star low down 
in the sky. All this we had with the utmost assur- 
ances of science. Still, it did not prevent the last 
rights being the most beautiful and memorable of 
hcman experiences. 

The nights had become very warm, and when, 
next day, I had ranged Shaphambury in vain, I 
was greatly tormented, as that unparalleled glorv 
of the night returned, to think that under its splen- 
did benediction young Verrall and Nettie made love 
to each other. 

T walked backward and forward, backward and 
forward, along the sea front, peering into the faces 
of the young couples who promenaded, with my 
hand in niv pocket ready, and a curious ache in my 
he.nrt that had no kindred with rage. Until at last 
all tho pronienaders had gone home to bed, and I was 
alone with the star. 

My train from Wyvern to Shaphambury that 
morning was a whole hour late ; they said it was on 
account of the movement of troops to meet a possible 
rairl from the Elbe. 


The Review of Reviews. 

Decemier 1. 1X6. 


Shaphambury seemed an odd place to me even 
then. But something was quickenhig in me at that 
time to feel the oddness of many accepted things. 
Now in the retrospect, I see it as intensely queer. 
The whole place was strange to my untravelled 
eyes; the sea was strange. Only twice in my life 
had I been at the seaside before, and then I had gone 
by excursion to places on the Welsh coast whose 
great cliffs of rock and mountain backgrounds made 
the effect of the horizon very different from what 
it is upon the East Anglian seaboard. Here, what 
they called a cliff, was crumbling bank of whitey- 
bro'wn earth not fifty feet high. 

As soon as I arri^•ed I made a systematic explora- 
tion of Shaphambury. To this day I retain the 
clearest memories of the plan I shaped out then, 
and how my inquiries were incommoded by the 
overpowering desire of everyone to talk of the 
chances of a German raid, before the Channel fleet 
got round to us. I slept at a small public-house in 
a .Shaphambury back street on Sunday night. I 
did not get on to Shaphambury from Wyvern until 
two in the afternoon, because of the infrequency of 
Sunday trains, and I got no clue whatever until late 
in the afternoon of Monday. 

As the little local train bumped into sight of the 
place round the curve of a swelling hill, one saw a 
series of undulating grassy spaces, amidst which a 
number of conspicuous notice boards appealed to 
the eye and cut up the distant sea horizon. Most 
of these referred to comestibles or to remedies to 
follow the comestibles: and they were coloured 
with a view to be memorable rather than beautiful, 
to " stand out '' amidst the gentle, grayish tones of 
the east coast scenery. The greater number, I may 
remark, of the advertisements that were so con- 
spicuous a factor in the life of those days, and 
which rendered our vast tree-pulp newspapers pos- 
sible, referred to foods, drinks, tobacco, and the 
dnigs that promised a restoration of the equanimity 
those other articles had destroyed. 

But, in addition to such boards, there were also 
the big black and white boards of various grandilo- 
quentlv named " estates." "She individualistic en- 
terprise of that time had led to the plotting out of 
nearlv all the country round the seaside towns into 
roads and building-plots. All but a small portion 
of the south and east coast was in this condition ; 
and. had the promises of those schemes been rea- 
lised, the entire population of the island might 
have been accommodated upon the sea frontiers. 
Nothing of the sort happened, of course. The whole 
of this uglification of the coast line was done to 
stimulate a little foolish gambling in plots. One 
saw everywhere agents' boards in e^ery state of 
freshness and decay, ill-made exploitation roads 
overgrown with grass, and here and there, at a cor- 
ner, a label. "Trafalgar .Avenue, " or "Sea View 

Road." Here and there, too, some small investor, 
some shopman with " savings,'' had delivered his 
soul to the local builders and built himself a house, 
and there it stood, ill designed, mean-looking, iso- 
lated, ill-placed on a cheaply fenced plot, athwart 
which his domestic washing fluttered in the breeze , 
amidst a bleak desolation of enterprise. Then, pre- i 
sentlv, oui railway crossed a high-road, and a row ' 
of niean vellow brick houses — workmen's cottages, 
and the filthy, black sheds that made the " allot- 
ments " of that time a universal eyesore — marked 
our approach to the more central areas of — I quote 
the local guide-book — " one of the most delightful 
resorts in the East Anglian poppyland." Then more 
mean houses; the gaunt ungainliness of the electric 
power-station — it had a huge chimney, because no 
one understood how to make the combustion of coal 
complete — and then we were in the railway station, 
and barelv three-quarters of a mile from the centre 
of this haunt of health and pleasure. 

I inspected the town thoroughly before I made 
mv inquiries. The road began badly, with a row 
of cheap, pretentious, insolvent-looking shops, a 
public-house, and a cab stand, but, after an inter- 
val of little red villas that were partly hidden amidst 
shrubbv gardens, broke into a confusedly bright, but 
not unpleasing. High-street, shuttered that after- 
noon and sabbatically still. Somewhere in the back- 
ground a church bell jangled, and children in bright, 
new-lcoking clothes Avere going to Sunday school. 
Thence, through a square of stuccoed lodging-houses 
that seemed a finer and cleaner version of my native 
s "juare. I came to a garden of asphalt and euonymus 
— the sea front. I sat down on a cast-iron seat, and 
surveved, first of all, the broad stretches of muddv. 
sandy, beach, with its queer wheeled b.ithing- 
machines, painted with the advertisements of some- 
bodv's pills — and then at the house fronts that stared 
out upon these visceral counsels. Boarding-houses, 
private hotels, and lodging-houses in terraces clus- 
tered rloselv right and left of me. and then r.inie 
to an end. In one direction, scaffolding marked a 
building enterprise in progress, in the other, after a 
waste interval, rose a monstrous, bulging red shape, 
a huge hotel, that dwarfed ail other things. North- 
ward, were low, pale cliffs with white denticulations 
of tents, where the local volunteers, all under arms, 
lav encamped, and southward, a spreading waste 
of sandv dunes, with occasional bushes and clumps 
of stunted pine and an advertisement board or so. 
A hard, blue skv hung over all this prospect, the 
sunshine cast inkv shadows, and eastward was a 
whitish sea. It was Sunday, and the midday meal 
still held people indoors. 

A queer world ! thought I even then — to you now 
it must seem impossiblv queer — and after an inter- 
val I forced mvself back to my own affair. 
How was I to ? What was I to ask for? 
My solution was fairly ingenious. T invented the 
following storv : — I happened to be taking a holi- 

Rei-iew of Revieics, 1/1)11)6. 

In the Days of the Gomet. 


diiy in Shaphambury, and I was making use of the 
opportunity to seek the owner of a valuable feather 
boa, which had been left behind in the hotel of my 
uncle at \\'\\em by a young lady, travelling with a 
young gentleman — no doubt a youthful married 
coupie. They had reached Shaphambury sometime 
on Thursday. I went over the story many times, 
and gave my imaginary uncle and his hotel plausible 
names. At any rate, this yarn would serve as a 
complete justification for all the questions I miglit 
wish to ask. 

I settled that; but I still sat for a time, wanting 
the energy to begin. Then I turned toward the big 
hotel. Its gorgeous magnificence seemed to my in- 
expert judgment to indicate the very place a rich 
vr.ung man of good family would select. 

Huge, draught-proof doors were swung round for 
mi" by ,an ironically-polite under porter in a magni- 
ficent green uniform, who looked at my clothes as 
he listened to my question, and then, with a Ger- 
man accent, referred me to a gorgeous head porter, 
who directed me to a princely young man behind a 
counter of brass and polish, like a bank — like several 
banks. This young man, while he answered me, 
kept his eye on my collar and tie, and I knew they 
were abominable. 

" [ want to find a lady and gentleman who came 
to Shaphambury on Thursday," I said. 

" Friends of yours ?" he asked, with a terrible 
fineness of irony. 

I made out at last that here, at any rate, the young 
people had not been. They might have lunched 
here, but they had had no room. But I went out — 
door opened again for me obsequiously — in a state 
of social discomfiture, and did not attack any other 
establishment that afternoon. 

My resolution had come to a sort of ebb. More 
people were promenading, and their Sunday smart- 
ness abashed me. I forgot my purpose in an acute 
sense of myself. I felt that the bulge of my pocket 
caused by the revolver was conspicuous, and I was 
ashamed. T went along the sea front away from the 
town, and presently lay down among the pebbles 
and sea poppies. This mood of reaction prevailed 
with me all tlint afternoon. In the evening, about 
sundown. I went to the station and asked questions 
of the outporters there. But outporters, I found, 
were a class of men who remembered luggage rather 
than people, and T had no sort of idea what luggage 
voung Verrall and Nettie were likely to have with 

Then I fell into conversation with a salacious, 
wooden-legged old man with a silver ring, who swept 
the steps that went down to the beach from the 
parade. He knew much about young couples, but 
onlv in general terms, and nothing of the particular 
voung couple T sought. He reminded me, in the 
most disagreeable way, of the sensuous aspects of 
life, and T was not sorrv when pre.sently a gunboat 
appeared in the offing signalling the coast guard 

and camp, and cut short his observations upon holi- 
days, beaches, and morals. 

I went, and now I was past my ebb, and sat in 
a seat upon the parade, and watched the brighten- 
ing of those rising clouds of chilly fire that made 
the ruddy west seem tame. My midday lassitude 
was going, my blood was running warmer again. 
And as the twilight and that filmy brightness re- 
placed the dusty sunlight and robbed this unfamiliar 
place of all its matter-of-fact queerness, and its 
sense of aimless materialism, romance returned to 
me, and passion, and my thoughts of honour and 
revenge. I remember that change of mood as oc- 
curring very vividly on this occasion, but I fancy 
that, less distinctly. I had felt this many 'times be- 
fore. In the old times, night and the starlight had 
an effect of intimate reality the daytime did not pos- 

I had a queer illusion that night, that Nettie and 
her lover were close at hand, that suddenly I should 
come on them. I have already told how I went 
through the dusk seeking them in every couple that 
drew near. And I dropped asleep, at last, in an 
unfamiliar bedroom hung with gaudily-decorated 
texts, cursing myself for having wasted a day. 


I sought them in vain the next morning, but after 
midday I came in quick succession on a perplexing 
multitude of clues. After failing to find any young 
couple that corresponded to yoimg Verrall and Net- 
tie, I presently discovered an unsatisfactory quar- 
tette of couples. 

Any of these four couples might have been the 
one I sought ; with regard to none of them was tliere 
conviction. They had all arrived on either Wednes- 
day or Thursday. Two couples were still in occu- 
pation of their rooms, but neither of these were at 
home. Late in the afternoon I reduced my list by 
eliminating a young man in drab, with side-whiskers 
and long cuffs, accompanied by a lady, of thirty or 
more, of unconsciously ladylike type. I was dis- 
gusted at the sight of them. The other two young 
people had gone for a long walk, and, though I 
watched their boarding-house until the fiery cloud 
shone out above, sharing and mingling in an un- 
usually splendid sunset, I missed them. Then I dis- 
covered them dining at a separate table in the bow 
window, with red-shaded candles between them, 
peering out ever and again at this splendour that 
was neither night nor day., The girl in iier pink 
evening dress looked very light and pretty to me, 
prettv enough to enrage me; she had well-shaped 
arms and white, well-modelled shoulders, and the 
turn of her cheek and the fair hair about her eai-s 
were full of subtle delights. But she was not Net- 
tie; and the happy man with her was that odd, de- 
generate type our old aristocracy produced with such 
odd frequencv — chinless, large, bony nose, small, 
fair head, languid expression, and a neck that had 


The Review of Reviews. 

Decembtr I, 190S. 

demanded and received a veritable sleeve of collar. 
I stood outside in the meteor's livid light, hating 
them and cursing them for having delayed me so 

That finished Shaphambury. The question I now- 
had to debate was, which of the remaining couples 
I had to pursue. 

I walked back to the parade trying to reason my 
next step out, and muttering to myself, because 
there was something in that luminous wonderfulness 
that touched one's brain, and made one feel a little 

One couple had gone to London ; the other had 
gone to the bungalow village at Bone Cliff. Where, 
I wondered, w-as Bone Cliff? 

I came upon my wooden-legged man at the top 
of his steps. 

" Hello :'■ said I. 

He pointed seaward with his pipe ; his silver ring 
shone in the skylight. 
" Rum." he said. 
" What is ?" I asked. 

" Searchlights ! Smoke ! Ships going north ! If 
it wasn't for this blasted Milky Way gone green 
up tliere, we might see." 

He was too intent to heed my questions for a 
time. Then he vouchsafed over his shoulder : 

" Know bungalow village ? — rather. Artis' and 
such. Nice goings on ! Mixed bathing — something 
scandalous. Yes." 

"But where is it?" I said, suddenlv exasperated. 
" There !" he said. " "WTiat's that flicker? A gun- 
flash — or I'm a lost soul!" 

"You'd hear," I said, "long before it was near 
enough to see a flash." 

He didn't answer. Only by making it clear I 
would distract him until he told me what I wanted 
to know, could I get him to turn from his absorbed 
contemplation of that phantom dance between the 
sea rim and the shine. 

" Seven miles." he said. " along this road. And 
now go to 'ell with yer !" 

I answered with some foul insult by way of 
thanks, and so we parted, and I set off toward the 
buncralow village. 

I found a policeman, standing sky-gazing, a little 
wav bevond the end of the parade. He verified the 
wooden-legged man's directions. 

'■ It's a lonelv road, vou know,'' he called after 

I had an odd intuition that now. at last, I was 
on the right track. I left the dark masses of Shap- 
hambury behind me, and pushed out into the dim 
pallor of that night. 

The incidents of that long tramp I do not recall 
in any orderly succession. The one progressive thing 
is mv memory of a growing fatigue. The sea was, 
for the most part, smooth and shining like a mirror, 
a great expanse of reflecting silver, barred bv slow, 
broad undulations; but, at one time, a little breeze 

breathed like a faint sigh and ruffled their long 
boijies into faint, scaly ripples that never completely 
died out again. The way was sometimes sandy, 
thick with silvery, colourless sand, and sometimes 
chalky and lumpy, with lumps that had shining 
facets ; a black scrub was scattered, sometimes in 
thickets, sometimes in single bunches, among the 
somnolent hummocks of sand. At one place, came 
grass, and ghostly great sheep looming up among 
the gray. After a time, black pine woods inter- 
vened, and made sustained darknesses along the 
road, woods that frayed out at the edges to weirdly 
v.arped and stunted trees. Then, isolated pine 
witches w'ould appear, and make their rigid gestures 
at me as I passed. Grotesquely incongruous amidst 
these forms, I presently came on estate boards, ap- 
pealing, " Houses can be built to suit purchaser," to 
the silence, to the shadows, and to the glare. 

Once I remember the persistent barking of a dog 
from somewhere inland of me, and several times 
I took out and examined my revolver very carefully. 
I must, of course, have been full of my intention 
when I did that : I must have been thinking of Net- 
tie and revenge, but I cannot now recall those emo- 
tions at all. Only I see again, very distinctly, the 
greenish gleams that ran over lock and barrel as I 
turned the weapon in my hand. 

Then there was the sky, the wonderful, luminous, 
starless, moonless sky, and the empty, blue deeps 
of the edge of it, between the meteor and the sea. 
And once— strange phantoms I — I saw far out upon 
the shine, and ven,' small and distant, three long, 
black warships, without masts, or sails, or smoke, 
or any lights, dark, deadly, furtive things, travel- 
ling very swiftly and keeping an equal distance. 
And when I looked again they were very small, and 
then the shine had swallowed them up. 

Then once, a flash, and what I thought was a gun, 
until I looked up and sa\v a fading trail of greenish 
light still hanging in the sky. .And after that, there 
was a shiver and whispering in the air, a stronger 
throbbing in one's arteries, a sense of refreshment, 
a renewal of purpose. 

Sornewhere upon my way the road forked, but I 
do not remember whether that was near Shapham- 
bury or near the end of my walk. The hesitation 
between two rutted unmade roads alone remains clear 
in mv mind. 

At last I grew weary. I came to piled heaps of 
decaying seaweed and cart tracks, running this wav 
and that, and then I had missed the road, and' was 
stumbling among sand hammocks quite close to the 
sea. I came out on the edge of the dimly glittering 
sandy beach, and something phosphorescent drew 
me to the water's edge. I bent down and peered at 
the little luminous specks that floated in the ripples. 

Presentlv, with a sigh, I stood erect and con- 
templated the lonelv peace of that last wonderful 
night. The meteor had now- trailed its shining nets 
across the whole space of the sky and was beginning 

i.'.iicic of Kevieus, IJlijue. 

In the Days of the Gomet. 


to set; in the east, the blue was coming to its own 
again ; the sea was an intense edge of blackness. 

How beautiful it was ! how still and beautiful ! 
Peace ! peace ! — the peace that passeth understand- 
ing, robed in light descending ! 

Mv heart swelled, and suddenly I was weeping. 

I did not want to kill. 1 did not want to be the 
servant of my passions any more. A great desire 
had come to me to escape from life, from the day- 
light which is heat and conflict and desire, into that 
cool night of eternity — and rest. I had played ; I 
had done. 

I stood upon the edge of the great ocean, and I 
was filled with an inarticulate spirit of prayer, and 
I desired greatly — peace from myself. 

And presently, there in the east, would come again 
the red discolouring curtain over these mysteries, the 
finite world again, the gray and growing harsh 
certainties of dawn. My resolve, I knew, would take 
me up again. This was a rest for me, an interlude, 
but to-morrow I should be William Leadford once 
more, ill nourished, ill dressed, ill equipped and 
clumsy, a thief and shamed, a wound upon the face 
of life, a source of "trouble and sorrow even to 
the mother I loved ; no hope in life left for me now 
but revenge before my death. 

Why this paltry thing, revenge? It entered into 
my thoughts that I might end the matter now and 
let others go. 

To wade out into the sea, into this warm lapping 
that mingled the natures of water and light, to stand 
there breast-high, to thrust my revolver barrel into 
mv mouth ? 

Why not? 

I swung about with an effort, 
up the beach thinking. 

I turned and looked back at the sea 
thintr within me said, " No !" 

1 must think. 

Tt was troublesome to go farther because the 
hummocks and the tangled bushes began. I sat 

(To be con 

I walked slowly 
No ! Some- 

down amidst a black cluster of shrubs, a, id rested, 
chin on hand. I drew my revolver from my pocket 
and looked at it, and held it in my hand. Life ? 
Or death ? 

I seemed to be probing the very deeps of being, 
but. indeed, imperceptibh 1 fell asleep, and sat 


Two people were bathing in the sea. 

I had awakened. It was still that white and won- 
derful night, and the blue band of clear sky was no 
wider than before. These people must have come 
into sight as I fell asleep, and aw-akened me almost 
at once. They waded breast-deep in the water, 
emerging, coming shoreward, a woman, with her 
hair coiled about her head, and in pursuit of her a 
man, graceful figures of black and silver, with a 
blight green surge flowing off from them, a pattern- 
ing of flashing wavelets about them. 

Each wore a tightly-fijtting bathing dress that 
hid nothing of the shining, dripping beauty of their 
youthful forms. 

She glanced over her shoulder and found him 
nearer than she thought, started, gesticulated, gave 
a little cry that pierced me to the heart, and fled 
up the beach obliquely toward me, running like the 
wind, and passed me, vanished amidst the black, 
distorted bushes, and was gone, she and her pur- 
suer, in a moment, over the ridge of sand. 

I heard him shout between exhaustion and laugh- 

And suddenly I was a thing of bestial fury, stand- 
ing with hands held up and clenched, rigid in a ges- 
ture of impotent threatening, against the sky. 

For this striving, swift thing of light and beauty 
was Nettie, and this was the man for whom I had 
been betrayed ! 

In another moment I w^as running and stumbling, 
revolver in hand, in quiet, unsusjiected pursuit 
of them, through the soft and noiseless sand. 


Read Important Announcement on Page 634 


The Review of Reviews. 

December 1, 1906. 


The balance-sheet of the Colonial Bank of Aus- 
tralasia Ltd. for the half-year ended September 30th, 
which appears in these columns, is well worthy of 
perusal. The profits amounted to £19,578, and are 
the largest on record. It is to be noted that the 
September half-year is invariably a smaller one than 
that ending in March, but the one just closed is an 
exception. Out of the profits the sum of £10,000 
has been added to the reserve fund, which now 
amounts to £100,000. The dividend has been in- 
creased from 5 to 6 per cent, per annum on both 
ordinary and preference shares. A higher dividend 
still could have been paid, but the directors have 
shor, n a commendable prudence in making consider- 
able additions to the reserves instead of largely in- 
creasing dividends. The bank has made great pro- 
gress during the last twelve months, the deposits 
showing an increase of £413.659 for the year, and at 
September 30th totalled £2,915,562. Discounts and 
advances increased by £214,892, while the liquid assets 
show an increase of £252,575, and now stand at 
within a few hundred pounds of a million sterling, 
which exceeds the amount due to the public on de- 
mand. The directors and shareholders are to be con- 
gratulated on the very satisfactory balance-sheet and 
the strong position of the bank. 

The Premier of New Zealand was recently asked if 
there was any truth in the rumour that it was in- 
tended to amalgamate the business of the Government 
Life Insurance Department with that of other com- 
panies. He replied that thei-e was no foundation 
for the rumour. 

.i disastrous fire broke out on the 22nd October 
in Wellington, New Zealand, in a block of wooden 
l)uildings in Lambton Quay. A strong wind was blow- 
ing, and it was found that the water main had burst 
five miles from the city a few minutes before the 
alarm was given. The flames were therefore unable 
to be checked, and spread with great rapidity through 
two hotels and into the three-story warehouse of 
AVhitcombe and Tombs, wholesale stationers and book- 
sellers. This building was quickly demolished, and 
the fire spread to the new brick banking premises of 
the Bank of New South Wales, which were only com- 
pleted twelvi months ago at a cost of £40,000. The 
interior of tLe bank was entirely destroyed, but the 
further progress of the ttames on that side of the 
street was checked there. Meanwhile blazing frag- 
ments were swept across the street into a wooden 
block on the opposite side, which quickly took fire. 
In this block were destroyed the L'nion Bank, the 
Norddeutscher Lloyd's office, the Alliance Assurance 
Company's office, the New Zealand Company's build- 
ings, and the Wellington Trust and Loan buildings. 
The total value of the property destroyed is valued at 
£100,000, and the insurances amount to about 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS-Edwarrt Fanning. Esq , Chairman ; W. 
Campbell Guest, Esq.; H B, Higgins, Esq,. K C, M.P.; Donald 
Mackinnon, Esq,. M,L.A.; R, O, M Cutcheon, Esq.. ML, A. 

This Company is empowered by special Act of Parliament to per- 
form all classes of trustee business, JOEL FOX, Manager, 



By Special Appointment from Her L*t« Majesty Quebn Victoria 
By Warrant from His Majesty King Edward VII. 


Strong Rooms, Doors and Locks, Etc. 

F. J. LAWN & CO. ac\°ntV 


TEi.F.riiONE 1603. 


Manager and Trustee. 

British Capital to Invest on Mortgage, Large .Sums froir, 
4 per cent. 


CLEM. A. HACK, a.s.a.s.m., 

Mem. Aust, Inst, Min. Engrs.. 

Patent and Trade Marks Attorney, 




Consulting Engineer, 



TEL 1169 

One of the most famous Abbeys iu England — Selby 
Abbey in Yorkshire — was ilestroyed by fire last month. 
The fire started in the north transept, and the choir, 
the roof and the internal fittings, together with the 
belfry, were destroyed, the damage being estimated 
at ,£00.000. ilen were engaged repairing the organ 
of the church, and the fire is attrilnited to the care- 
lessness of one of them. The abbey was one of the 
most beautiful in England, and was founded in 106S 
by William the Conqueror. 

Mr. Douglas Owen, a well-known English authority 
on insurance questions, has contributed an article t<i 
the Lniidon Shippimi Gazette on the effect of the great 
San Francisco conflagration in the safes and strong- 

Semew of Reviews, l/lS/Oe. 

Insurance Notes. 


rooms, as seen by him in his recent trip to that city. 
He states that safes were to be seen scattered in all 
directions, most of them with their doors wide open 
or missing altogether: some with their sides wrenched 
open, and nearly all of them roasted outside and 
scorched within, with the contents burnt to cinders. 
The majority of the strong-rooms were in a like con- 
dition, and about 7-5 per ceut. of the safes and strong- 
rooms failed to preserve their contents from destruc- 
tion. It must be remembered that the ruins stretched 
some three miles across, and the fury and force of 
such a furnace was beyond all imagination. 

From the annual report of the Sydney Fire 
Brigades Board it is seen that the total sum held at 
risk by the insurance companies there at 31st Decem- 
ber last was £75,147,807. 

An important decision has been given by the 
Superior Court of San Francisco on the question of 
the liability of insurance companies for losses sus- 
tained by the tires arising in that city consequent on 
the great earthquake of April last. The Court held 
that the companies were liable for the losses even if 
evidence proved that the earthquake caused the out- 

The steamer " Haversham Grange,' while on her 
voyage from New York to Australia via Capetown, 
was totally destroyed by fire at sea last month. The 
vessel was 800 miles from Capetown when the fire was 
discovered, and all efforts to stay the Hames were un- 
availing. The position for those on board became 
exceedingly critical, until the steamer " !Mataafa ' 
was sighted. The latter came alongside, and took off 
the passengers and crew in safety. The burning ves- 
sel had to be abandoned to her fate, and the rescued 
passengers and crew were lirought to Capetown. The 
amount of the loss involved is estimated at £'3.5O,0OO. 
A large quantity of the cargo for Melljourne and 
Sydney consisted of resin and turpentine, as well as 
general goods. 

The balance-sheet of the Colonial Mutual Fire In- 
surance Society for the twelve months ended Septem- 
ber 30th shows that a very prosperous year has been 
pa>sed through. The net premiums, after deducting 
reinsurances and returns, amounted to the large total 
of £148,010, as against £134.747 for the previous year, 
whereas the losses were £.5"2.3<>7 against £00,031. The 
premium income is therefore £13.:263 greater, and 
the losses £S'2(i4 less than twelve months ago, show- 
ing a total gain of £21, -527 or the year just closed. 
A dividend of 8 per cent, is declared, and a bonus of 
2s. lid. per share, equal to 12^ per cent. — in all 2O5 
per cent. — absorl)ing i^iO.-jOO, in addition to which 
£ is added to reserve fund, making that fund 
£100,000. The directors refer to the valuable .services 
rendered by the Hon. J. F. Levien, -M.L.A...who died 
during the year, and who was a director of the com- 
pany since its establishment, and was' its chairman 
tiir the past ten years. The management is to be 
cimgratulated on the exceedingly strong position of 
the company, as shown by the balance-sheet. In- 
cluded in its assets are fJovernnient and municipal 
securities (at cost) £100.000: fixed deposits, £•")(!, (100 ; 
and real estate, £43. -590: its liquid securities thus 
anionntiug to nearly £200.001). The manager of the 
company is .Mr. W.V.L. Jack. 




PERTH - • - 

T. C. Reynolds, Resdt. Seoretarj 
T. Lockwood, Kesdt. Secretary 
E. Wiokham, Resdt. Secretary 
J. H. Prowse, Resdt. Secretary 
W. A. Tregear, Resdt. Agent. 








Lends to Farmers in Victoria 

£,50 TO £,2000 

At 4M per cent, for 30 Years, with right 
to pay off any half-year. 





, . FIRE . . 










y Insurance. 


MELBOURNE -60 Market SUmI. 

SYDNEY— 78 Pitt Street. 

ADELAIDE— 71 King William Street. 

BRISBANE— Creek Street. 

PERTH— Barrack Street. 

HOBART— Collins Street. 

LONDON''- St. Michael's Alley, Cornhllt, B.C. 




The Review of Reviews. 

Deeembtr 1, 19')6. 




To be Presented to the Shareholders at the Twenty-seventh Ordinary General Meeting, to be held at the Bank, 126 
Elizabeth-street, at noon on Tuesday, October 30th, 1906. 


The Directors bes to submit to the shareholders their twenty-seventh report, with a balance-sheet and statement 
of profit and loss for the half-year ended September 30th. 1906. duly audited. 

After providing for expenses of management, interest accrued on deposits, rebate on bills current, 
tax on note circulation, and making provision for bad and doubtful debts, the net profit amounted to £19.578 16 7 
Brought forward from March 31st, 1906 4,195 13 10 

„.^. , , J. £23,774 10 5 

Which the directors propose to apportion as follows, viz. : — 

Dividend at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum on preference shares £9.121 6 5 

Dividend at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum on ordinary shares ■ .. .. 4,057 1 11 

To reserve fund 10,000 

Balance carried forward 596 2 1 

£23 774 10 5 

In view of the increase in the reserve fund to £100,000, and the continued prosperity of the bank, the directors 
have ple.isnre in recommending an increase in the dividend on both preference and ordinary shares from 5 per cent, 
to 6 per cent, per annum. 

During the half-year branches of the bank were opened at Goroke and Lindenow. 

The dividend will be payable at the head office on and after the 31st inst., and at the branches on receipt of 

The twenty-seventh ordinary general meeting of shareholders will be held at the head office of the Company. 126 
Elizabeth-street, il el bourne, on Tuesday, the 30th day of October, 1906. at noon. 

By order of the Board. 

Melbourne. October 18th. 1906. SELBY P.\XTOX. GeQe^.^I Manager. 


Fop the Half-Year Ending 30th September, 1906. 


To Capital paid-up, viz. ; — 
31,184 Preference Shares, paid 

in cash to £9 15s £304,044 

77,278 Ordinary Shares paid 

in cash to £1 15s 135,236 10 

-£439,280 10 



Reserve fund 100,000 

Profit and loss 13.774 

Notes in circulation 111,035 

Bills in circulation 131,726 

Government deposits — 
Not bearing interest, £34,- 
808 8s. 7d. ; bearing inte- 
rest, £474,893 6s. 8d £509,701 15 3 

Other deposits — Rebate and 
interest accrued — 
Not bearing interest, £968,- 
895 48. 9d. ; bearing inte- 
rest, £1,436,965 16s. 2d. ..£2.405,861 11 

Contingent liabilities, as per contra 

-2,915,562 16 2 
257,081 18 10 


By coin, bullion and cash at 

bankers £655.161 14 4 

British Consols. £70.668 15s. 
2d., at £85 per cent., 
£60,068 83. 9d.; Victoria 
Government Stock and De- 
bentures, Metropolitan 
Board of Works, Municipal 
and Savings Bank Deben- 
tures, at valuation. £67.288 
18s. 2d 127.357 6 11 

Bills and Remittances in 

transitu . , . . 
Notes of other 
Balances due 



Banks . . . 
from other 

174.125 15 
2.175 1 

39.269 16 
1.088 11 

-£999.178 5 6 

Real Estate, consisting of — 
Bank premises at cost to new bank . . 196,648 16 8 
Other real estate at valuation 53,544 7 5 

Bills discounted and other advances, ex- 
clusive of provision for bad or doubtful 
debts 2,461,736 19 7 

Shares in other companies at valuation - . 270 16 8 

Liabilities of customers and others in re- 
spect of contingent liabilities, as per 
contra 257,081 18 10 

£3.968.461 4 8 


To Current expenses (including salaries, 

rents, repairs, stationery, etc.) £26,065 6 9 

Bank note tax 1.120 18 

Transfer to reserve fund 10.000 

Balance 13.774 10 5 

£50.960 15 2 

By Balance brought forward £4,195 13 10 

Gross profits tor the half-year, after allow- 
ing for interest accrued on deposits, re- 
bate on bills current, and making provi- 
sion for bad and doubtful debts 46.765 1 4 

£50.960 15 2 



To Balance . . . . 

£100 000 

By Balance brought forward 

I Transfer from profit and loss . . . . 

.. .. £90.000 
.. .. 10.000 






Note. — The customary Auditors' Report and the Directo rs' Statement, to comply with the 
appear on the official report. 

Companies Act 1896, 


iteview of Keui'eiM, l/l^/Pe. 


Of ^'The Review of Reviews for Australasia. 


Americ-an Socialism— Prof. Prim. 411. 
Coniston— Winston Churchill, 407. 
Ring in the New, 194. 
The Disenchantment— Pierre Loti. 513. 
The Guarded Flame— H. Maxwell. 509. 
The Other Side o£ Death— Leadbeater, 

The Saint— Antonio Fogazzaro, 515. 

(Leading), -JUT, 313, 517. 


72, 163, 286, 365, 475. 


Beit, Mr. Alfred— W. T. Stead, S.'jS, 
British Labour Party, The, and the 

Books that Helped to Make It— W. 

T. Stead. 148. 
Craigie, Mrs., 471. 
Davitt. Michael— W. T. Stead, 254. 
John Bull as International Host— W. 

T. Stead, 45. 
Kenney, Miss Annie, the Suffragette— 

W. T. Stead, 159. 
King Peter I. of Servia, 456. 


ESPERANTO, 37, 147, 260, 351, 464. 


Advertiaiug Australia, 428. 

Ballaiat and Temi>erance Posters. 428. 

Bent, Mr., and Sir Samuel GiUott. 320. 

Bligh, Mr., and Medical Agencies, 219. 

Boxing Contests, 323. 

Canteens Bill, 218. 

Chicago Meat Horrors, 12. 

Child Mortality. 430. 

Chilian Earthquake, 323. 

China and Opium, 431. 

Churchill, Mr., and the Colonies, 10. 

Compulsory Voting, 113. 

Crick, Mr., 219. 

Crick and Willis. 109. 

Education Conference, 116. 

Effective Voting, 319. 

Electoral Reform, 220. 

Election Date (Alteration of Date), 220. 

Empire Day, 14. 

Federal High Commissioner, 114. 

Federal Capital, 222. 

Federal Labour Party Programme, 428. 

Flemington Murder, 215. 

Franchise Bill, South Australia, 426. 

Gambling and Telephones. 426, 428. 

Homes for Workers, N.Z., 10. 

Japanese Squadron, 15. 

Kanaka Deportation, 322. 

Hislorv of tin- Month [ Australasian)— Conlimied. 
Kindergartens, Free, 14. 
Labour Movement and Religion, 15. 
Licensing Bill (Vic), 219. 
Local Option I'oUs. South Australia, 

Mail Contract. 116. 
Medical Inspection of Children, 429. 
Mentally Weak, The, 113. 
Murray. Mr., Resignation of, 320. 
National Annuities, 429. 
New Hebrides, 9. 
N.S.W. Colliery Strike, 431. 
N.S.W. Drink Bill, 10. 
N.S.W. Jubilee. 10. 
N.S.W. Land Scheme, 13. 
N.Z. Exhibition, 427. 
N.Z. Land Policy, 427. 
N.Z. Cabinet. 320. 
N.Z. and Imported Criminals, 323. 
N.Z. Old Age Annuities' Scheme, 12. 
N.Z. Premiership. 109. 
N.Z. Progress. 219. 
Norton, Mr., Exit of, 218. 
Old Age Pensions, 428. 
Papuan Constitution, 319. 
Penny Postage Bill, 425. 
Preferential Trade, 319. 
Preferential Voting. 114. 

Price. Mr., Resignation ot, 426. 

Reciprocal Trade with N.Z.. 9, 425. 
Reform Matters, 322. 

Secession in W.A., 425. 

Seddon, Visit of Mr., 8. 

Separate Representation, 113. 

Social Reform, 113, 217, 427. 

Small Holdings, 113. 

Spain, King of, 15. 

State Schools' Exhibition, 324. 

Sweating, 218. 

Tasmanian Constitution, 430. 

Unemployed at Church. 12. 

Unemployed, The, HI. 

Victorian Women's Franchise, 322. 

Victorian Railways, 111. 

Wages' Boards, Victoria, 14. 

Ward, Sir Josepli, 220. 

West Australian Govoinment Policy, 

White Ocean. A. 430. 

White Slave TrafHc, 114. 

Worrall, Rev. Hy., at the Bar of the 
House, 216. 

(General) — 

.\nglo-Rr,ssian Entente. 223. 

Apotheosis of C.-B.. The, 328. 

Asia and Parliamentary Government, 

Austria and Hungary. 123. 
Bambaata, 23. 
Brvan's Return, Mr., 435. 

History of I he Month {aencral)-Conlinneil. 

Budget ot Peace, 118. 
Campljell-Bannerman. Death of Lady, 

Campbell-Bannerman. The .\potheosis 

ot, 328. 
Chamberlain. Mr.. His Birthday, 331. 
Chinese Question in South Africa. 228. 
Christendom, Reunion ot, 17. 
City Beautiful. Tlie, 124. 
Davitt, Michael, Death of, 124. 
De Wet, Madame, 437. 
■' Dreadnoughts," 328. 
Duma, Dissolution of the, 328. 
Education Bill, 17, 225. 
Egypt. Visit ot Khedive to Constanti- 
nople, 229. 
Esperanto. 16. 
Female Education, 229. 
French General Election, 19, 120. 
French Precepteurs in England, 223. 
German Editors in England, 16, 117, 223. 
Haakon, King, 225. 
Haldane, Mr., at Berlin. 432. 
House of Lords. 123. 
Hungarian Position. 22. 
International Brotherhood, 117. 
Internationalism by Post. 120. 
International Festival, 325. 
Kaiser, The, 22. 

King and Kaiser at Cronberg, 432. 
King and Queen, Visit to America, 21. 
Lawson, Death ot Sir Wilfrid. 229. 
Militarism. Two Views of. 435. 

" Montagu." The Loss of the. 436. 
Moral Instruction in Schools. 120, 226. 

Morley, Mr.. 18. 

Newnham College, 229. 

Old Age Pen.sions, 224. 

Opium Traffic. 119. 

Premiers and Their Wives. 431. 

Reduction in Armaments, 119. 

Reunion of Christendom, 17. 

Revolution in Ru.ssia. 120, 223. 432. 

Russian Duma Elections, 16. 

Russia. Progress in, 22. 

Rio Janeiro and The Hagi;e. 16. 

Roosevelt. Presii'ent. 20. 

Socialism in America, 20. 

South Africa— Sir W. Butler. 329. 

South Africa— Constitutional Problems, 

Spelling Reform. 434. 

Transvaal Constitution, 330. 

Triple Alliance. 224. 

War Curse of Mankind, The, 225. 

War Stores Commission's Report, 435. 

Women and the Franchise. 226, 436. 



America's Fiios, 174. 

Armstrong College. Newcastle. 44'" 


Illustrations and Portraits— CoMttmtcii. 
Asquith, Mrs.. 230. 
Batman, Jno., 125. 
Batman Memorial, 126. 
Batman's Ascent of the Tarra. 127. 
Beit. Mr. Alfred. 353. 
Belt'ast City Hall. 449. 
Bonython, Sir Langdon, 144. 
British Steamships, 227. 
BryaJi, Mr. TV. J. (and Others), 326. 
Burt. Mr. Thomas. M.P.. 149. 
Cambridge and Harvard Boat Crews. 

Chambei-lain. Mr.. 331. 
Charles I.. King of Eoumania, 421. 
Chilian Earthquake Record. 523. 
Clouston. Et. Eev. T. E.. 429. 
Clarke. Archbishop. 245. 
CoUingwood Tote. 51. 
CoUingwood Tote Pictures. 251. 
Craigie. Mrs.. 472. 
Crooks. Mr. Will, 152. 
Cnrzon, Lad.v. 318. 
Davitt. Michael. 124. 254. 
Davitt, Michael— Funeral. 259. 
Fairbairn. Mr. E.. 222. 
First Government House. Sydney, 125. 
Gale, Mr. Jno.. 348. 
German Editors in England. 214. 230. 
Gladstone. Mrs. Herbert, 230. 
Grey. Earl. 251. 
Gridiron Map (Socialism). 32. 
Hardie. Mr. Keir, M.P., 150. 
Harvest«r Pictures, 306. 
Howitt. Dr A. W.. 112. 
Hume. Mr. Hamilton, 129. 
International Woman's Council in» 

Paris. 228. 
Ishikawa. Prof.. 39. 
Japanese Visit to Melbourne. 11. 13. 
Java Scenes. 139. 239. 
Javanese Temple. 129. 
Johnson. Mr. Jno.. M.P.. 154. 
-Jones. Hon. Wm. Hall. 112. 
Jowett, Mr. F. W.. M.P., 153. 
Jndkins, Mr. 'W. H., 7. 
Kaiser and Chancellor, 22. 
Kaiser's Yacht " Meteor." 455. 
Kara. George, of Servia. 468. 
Kenny, Miss Annie. 159. 
King and Kaiser. 424. 
Knibbs. Mr. G. H.. F.E.A.S.. 15. 
Langley, Bishop. 222. 
Lava at Torre Annunzia-ta (Vesuvius^. 

Lawrence. Mrs. Pethwick. 161. 
Lawson, Sir Wilfrid. 229. 
Leslie, Mr. J. C. 350. 
Liberty of the Press. Vic, 221. 
Local Option in N.Z.. 341. 
L.C.C. Education Policy. 6L 
Lockyer. Mr. X. C, 113. 
Maxwell. Mr. H.. 509. 
M'Kay. Mr. B. V.. 306. 
Meakin. Mr. H. W.. 114. 
Melbonrne. 1839. 128. 
Mllyukoff. Prof., 433. 
' Montagu'' on the Eocks, 436. 
Xatal Rebels, 350. 
Xatal Eebels. Trial of. 23. 
Xew Central Eailway Station. Sydney. 

New Zealand Cabinet, 321. 
Xicholls. Mr. C. M.P.. 155. 
Olympic Games at Athens. 95. 

The Review of Reviews. 

I Uitstrations and Portraits — Continual. 
Palace of Peace at the Hague. 118. 
Pankhurst. Mrs., 160. 
Peter I. of Servia. 467. 
Peter I. of Servia. Wife of, 468. 
Pierce. Mr. Lyman L.. 116. 
Queen in a Merry Mood. 351. 
Roosevelt. President. 69. 
Royal Gallery at Houses of Parlia- 
ment, 527. 
Russian Duma Members. 121, 459. 
Russian Duma Polling, 21. 
San Franciscan Earthquake. 18. 123. 
Sanatorium. King Edward VII.. 272. 
Seddon. Et. Hon. R. J.. 24. 154. 
Seddon. Rt. Hon. E. J.— Floral Tri- 
butes, 108. 
Seager. P. S., 110. 
Servian Eoyal Personages. 467. 
Sewell. Miss Elizabeth. 457. 
Shakespeare. Mr. T. M., 350. 
Smeaton. Mr. T. H.. 357. 
Snowden. Mr. Phillip. M.P.. 156. 
Stead. Mr. W. T.. 2. 

State Schools' Exhibition Pictures. 439. 
Stolypin. M.. 529. 
Strong. Dr. Josiah. of X.Y.. 55. 
Suez Canal, Map. 119. 
Sydney New Eailway Station. 221. 
Tate. Mr. Frank. 324. 
Teraperley. Mr. Thos., 549. 
Tote Pictures. 251. 
Tiondhjim Cathedral. 225. 
Valparaiso. 438. 
Vasilyev. Prof.. 40. 
Ward. J., M.P.. 151. 
Welwyn Church. 555. 
Wells. Mr. H. G., 89. 
West Australian Ministry. !15. 
Whiteing. Mr. Eichard. 194. 
Wilson. Mr. Jno., M.P., 157. 
Winborne. Lady. 250. 
Wolstenholme. Elmy. Mrs.. 162. 
Worrall Affair, 216. 
Wride, Geo., 349. 

INSURANCE NOTES, lu."), 211. 314. 
420, o-lG. 


Anglo-German Entente — Dr. Hy. Lunn. 

House of Lords— End or Mend. 44. 
Ishikawa. Prof., delegate from Tokio 

University. 39. 
Russian Parliament. 45. 
Vasilyev, Prof.. Delegate from Dorpat 

TTniversit.v. 40. 
Woman's Rights. 42. 


Abdul Hamid and Pan-Islamism, 495. 

Academic Co-operative Factory, 271. 

Active Old Age, 175. 

Afforestation, 275. 

African, Friends of the. 54. 

Aliens. Desirable. 62. 

Aladyn. 376. 

Algeciras. The End of. 490. 

American Negroes, The Education of. 

Amusing Peeps at the Life of the Poor. 


December 1, 1906. 

Leading Artichs— Continued, 
Anarchist. How to Deal with the, 270. 
An I.D.B. Story, 589. 
Anglo-Saxon Friendship — Is it a Myth? 

Anti-Militarism in France. 176. 
Basutos, Man iage Among the, 71. 
Being Your Own Servant, 499. 
Bengal National Revival. 57. 
Bi-Location, 481. 
Bosanqiiet on Bowling. 385. 
British Character. 265. 
British Climate, 266. 
British Indian. 171. 
British Painting. 65. 
Bryan and Roosevelt Compared. 594. 
Camping Out. 284. 
Canadian Tariff. 55 
Capitalism. 388. 
Chamberlain Town. 264. 
Charles I. of Koumania. 278. 
Children. How to Save the, 174. 
Child Labour and Race Suicide. 380. 
Chinese Slavery in the Philippines, 170. 
China Town. San Francisco. 174. 
Chinese in California. 379. 
Chinese Workmen. 384. 
China Revolutionised. 494. 
Christian Creed, A New. 570. 
Christendom. Reunion of, 55. 
Christ— Was He a Christian? 575. 
Church Restoration, The Eomance of, 

175. 591. 
City Churches. 285. 
Civilised Savagery. 274. 
Corneille Centenary. 275. 
Colombian Trade. 382. 
Colonial Office and Crown Colonies. 330. 
Congo Horrors. 270. 274. 
Conscription. Tl-e Military Case 

Against. 575. 
Criminals in London Streets. 65. 
Crime. Prevention of. 54. 
Crisis in the French Church, 485. 
Crown Lands, 491. 
Cunard Liners. 63. 
Demoniacal Possession, 497. 
Desirable Aliens, 62. 
Discipline or Disestablish, 378. 
Domestic Servant Problem, 488. 
Doubling, 481. 

Diuna. The Russian, 60, 280. 
Duma Denounced, 490. 
Duma, The Dissolution of the. 371. 
Dunmow Flitch. 392. 
Drunkards, How a Judge Eefornis. 382. 
Earthquakes in Jledireval Imagination, 

Eastern Question. 282. 
Education Bill. 66, 276. 374. 
Education and Extermination. 58. 
Elberfeld System in England, 53. 
Electrical Music Supply. 274. 
Emancipation of Women in China. 170. 
Famous Pictures. Cost of. 391. 
Feeding School Children. 268. 
Firearm. The Progress of the. 171. 
Four Acies and Twelve Pigs. 264. 
Friends of the African. 54. 
French Revolution. The. 572. 
Gambling. The Folly and Doom of. 59. 
German Friendship in Eg.vpt, 595. 
German School Doctors. 55. 
Ghosts. The Use of. 266. 
Glasgow, a Model Municipality, 271. 


RFviea of Reiieics, l/lijOO. 

/.I'liidiF? Arliclcs ' Conlniucil 

Greek Building and the Roman Eoad. 

Grey's Elegy. 393. 

Hakiane's Scheme. Mr., 377. 

Hardy. Mr. Thomas, on Church Re- 
storation, 391. 

Hoppers and Hop-picking. 497. 

House ot Lords. 281. 482. 

How a Judge Eetorais Drunkards, 382. 

How San Francisco was Destroyed, 372. 

How to Dish tlie Radicals, 275. 

Ihsen, Henrik. 279, 393. 

Ice Age. 491. 

Tnclcntui-cl Labour in Trinidad. 273. 

India. Tlie Nationalists of. 63. 

Inflammable Cities. 172. 

Intellect and Indies. 171. 

Irelaufl, New Route to, 387. 

Irish,' The Origin of the. 389. 

Irish University Education, 71. 

.Tapan as the New Sinai, 375. 

Japan Since the War, 484. 

Japanese Women, 394. 

Jews and Count Witte, 60. 

Jingo. The Wail of the Worsted. 377. 

John Bull Through Colonial Spectacles. 

Jungfrau Railway. 387. 

Kaffir, The— Is He Lazy? 385. 

Kaiser's New Triple Alliance. The, 375. 

King Edward VII. Sanatorium, 272. 

King and Kaiser at Friedrichshof, 486. 

Liberal Government's First Session, 495. 

Living Pictures on Livins' Plants, 4Q4.. 

London Trafttc, 159. 

Luther— Did He Commit Suicide? 493. 

Manitouism, 377. 

Markets and Misery, 53. 

Marriage Among the Basutos, 71. 

Maximum Wealth. 252. 

Meli'al Inspection of Schools, 381. 

Men-of-War as Bum Bailiffs, 170. 

Millions and Mosquitoes, 65. 

Mill and Spencer Compared, 394. 

Mind of a Dog, The, 266. 

Moore, The Burial of Sir Jno., 394. 

Moriey, Mr., and Indian Reform. 482. 

Moral Instruction. 38a. 

Mounting Big Animals. 392. 

Muckraking as a Profession. 284. 

Municipal Farming. 263. 

Napoleon's Travelling Library. 385. 

Natal Disturbances. 395. 

Nationalists in India. 63. 
N.ative Question in South Africa. 277. 
Native Races. Imperial Control of. 175. 
Negro. The Redemption of the. 59. 
Negroes. How to Deal with the, 57. 
Occultism. 265. 

Occult Reviews. 285, 483. 
Peace Movement. The. 374, 
Peat Bog as a Fuel Mine. 393. 
Pleasant Place. Laying Waste of. 257. 


I.i-adhli: Articles— Coiltini:i-fl. 

Plutocracy. The War on the, 573. 
Polar Expeditions and Naval Training, 

Poster Designing, 63. 
Preference, Not, but Work, 60. 
Press, The, and Charitable Funds. 273. 
Progress ot the Firearm, 171. 
Psychic Locomotion, 265, 
Psychology and Social Justice. 493. 
Regimental Officers. 279. 
•Religious Education in Public Schools, 

Religious Tests in U.S., 56. 
Renan, Early Notes, 336. 
Roman Art, 258. 
Roman Road, The, 65. 
Roosevelt, Mr., 69. 
Roosevelt. Camping with, 173. 
Roumania, King Charles I. ot, 278. 
Russia and the Duma. 70. 
Russia and England in Asia, 372. 
Russian Revolution, 434. 
San Francisco, 372. 
Scandinavian in America, The. 499. 
Scientilic Marvels ot Our Time, 66. 
School Doctors in Germany, 55. 
School Meals in Paris, 61. 
Servile Problem, The, 159. 
Shakespeare's Boys, 54. 
Ships, The Biggest in the World, 53. 
Single Rail Suspended Railway, 492. 
Sneer, The Origin of the, 393. 
Socialism, 53. 

Social Effort by French Catholics, 38^. 
Spelling Reform, 435. 
Sciuandering a Surplus, 278. 
Standardisation in Municipal Lite, 395. 
State Insurance Monopoly, 487. 
State Department for Children, 331. 
Successful Lawyer, The, 277. 
Sunday Schools— Are they Necessary? 

Sweating, 390. 

Swedish System of Gymnastics, 258. 
Technical Education, 257. 
Telephone, The Growth of the, 495. 
Temperature of Hats, 392. 
Tolstoy ou Wontaii's Mission, 492. 
Trade Union Bill, 54. 
Transvaal Constitution, 383. 
Trans'iminal. The. 485. 
Tuberculosis, 390. 
Unearned Increment. Ta.x on, 54. 
Unemployed. 494. 
Unionist Downfall. 70. 
'Vegetarianism. 335. 
Vocation and Culture. 56. 
Wagnerian Drama, 267. 
Wake Up. Uncle Sam, 489. 
Was Christ a Christian? 373. 
What Makes the Successful Lawyer? 

Witte, Count, and the Jews, 50. 

Lending Arlicks—Coiiliinuil. 
Woman, The Fall ot, 283. 
Women— Dr. Emil Reich and Miss King- 
ston, 263. 
Woman's Real Rights, 269. 
Work. Not Preference. 60. 
Zoo. The Food Bill of the. 373. 

291, :»(), .501J. 


After Sixteen Years iW. T. Steadi. 3. 

Anglo-American Friendship (Earl Greyl, 

At the Parliament ot the Nations 'W. 
T. Stead), 459. 

Australians, Distinguished Early (Rev. 
E. I. Watkin, D.D.), 125. 

Collingwood Tote. 231. 

Deadlock in South Australia, The T. 
H. Smeaton), 337. 

Dutch-Colonial Administration iHon. 
Staniforth Smithl, 139. 

Education and Democracy (Sir Lang- 
don Bonython), 144. 

Gambling, Aridibishop Clarke on, 245. 

Gambling Deninn in Australia (W. H. 
Judkins), 27. 

Handicapping of Reform, 341. 

How General Booth Makes Emigrants, 

Java (Hon. Staniforth Smith), 139. 

Law and Order iW. H. Judkins), 130. Diet, The, 450. 

Our Unwieldy States (G. S. Curtis). 452. 

Political Power Plus Property v. Pub- 
lic Interest (W. H. Judkinsi. 332. 

Rise and Progress ot the Stripper-Har- 
vester. 306. 

Rise and Progress of N.S.W. Country 
Press. 345. 

Seddon. The Late Rt. Hon. R. J.. 24. 

Seddon, Tlie Late Rt. Hon. E. J, (E. A. 
Loufrlman). 131. 

Socialism. Mr. J. C. Watson on. 244. 

Socialism. Prominent Anti-Socialists 
on. 32. 

Socialism (Mr. G. H. Reid). 32. 

Socialism (Mr. M'Lean). 32. 

Socialism, Liberty and Progress, 32. 

Social Service, 35, 145. 

Steel and Iron Ore, Direct Process, 311. 

Temple Ruins of Java (Hon. Stanitortli 
Smith). 239. 

To My Headers (W. H. Judkins). 5. 

Totalisator. The. in New Zealand. 338. 

Victorian Licensing Bill (Jno. Valel, 

Victorian State Schools' Exhibition and 
the Education Movement. 439. 


In the Days of the Comet, by H. G, 
Wells, 88, 199, 298, 413, 518. 

(Coiitinticd in parfc oHd.. 

634 The Review of Reviews. December i. ms. 

In order to celebrate the Important step we are taking in 
reducing the price of " The Review of Reviews " from 9d. to 6d., so 
as to touch a still larger constituency, we have decided to offer 




The prize money will be divided. FOUR GUINEAS will be 
paid for the best article the author of which is a pupil in 
any of the State schools of Australasia. FOUR GUINEAS will 
be paid for the best article the author of which is a pupil in 
Secondary schools. This includes New Zealand High Schools. 
SIX GUINEAS will be paid for the best article the author of 
which does not come under the conditions relating to the 
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The article must not be above 3000 words in length. 
Articles become the property of the Editor. The winning 
articles will be published. Manuscripts must be in our hands 
by the 31st January next. Only one side of the paper must 
be written on, and writing must be very legible. A committee 
of prominent gentlemen will adjudicate. 

One of the finest text-books in which to seek for current 
information upon the subject of the Competition is "The Review 
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Articles must be signed with a nom de plume, the name 
for which it stands being enclosed in a sealed envelope. 

On outside of envelope write "Adult," "Secondary School," 
"State School," as the case may be. 


kerieii of Heriirirn. !<U/t6. 


There are some diseases which are incurable, but these are fortunately rare. 
There are, on the other hand, two gfroups of disorders which afflict a large number 
of people, many of whom seem to consider that there is no hope of release, for 
they go on suffering year after year when their cases would readily yield to treat- 
ment if the root of the disorder were attacked. The two groups referred to are 
uric and biliary disorders, and they comprise the following common complaints : — 

I 'Hie. Biliary. 

Rheumatism Indigestion 

Gout Biliousness 

Neuralgia Jaundice 

Lumbago Sick Headache 

Sciatica Anaemia 

Gravel and Stone General Debility 

Bladder Troubles Blood Disorders 

Now all these disorders originate from the same cause — namely, the inability 
of the kidneys and liver to properly perform their function of eliminating from 
the system the urinary and biliary poisons which produce the disease. 

The Kidneys of the average person filter and extract from the blood about 
three pints of urine every day. In this quantity of urine should be dissolved about 
an ounce of urea, ten to twelve grains in weight of uric acid, and other animal 
and mineral matter varying from a third of an ounce to nearly an ounce. If the 
kidneys are working freely and healthily, all this solid matter leaves the body 
•dissolved in the urine, but if, through weakness or disease, the kidneys are un- 
able to do their duty properly, a quantity of these urinary substances remains in 
the blood and flows through the veins, contaminating the whole system. Then we 
suffer from s.imc form of uric poisoning such as Rheumatism, Gout, Lumbago, 
Backache, Sciatica, Persistent Headache, Neuralgia, Gravel, Stone and Bladder 
Troubles. A simple test to make as to whether the kidneys are healthy is to place 
some urine, passed tiie first thing in the morning, in a covered glass, and let it 
stand until next morning. If it is then cloudv, shows a sediment like brick-dust, 
is of an unnatural colour, or has particles floating about in it, the kidneys are 
weak or diseased, and steps must iramdiately be taken to restore their vigour, 
or Bright's Disease, Diabetes, or some of the many manifestations of uric poison- 
ing will result. 

The Liver is an automatic chemical laboratory. In the liver \arious sub- 
stances are actually made from the blood. Two or three pounds of bile are thus 
made by the liver every day. The Hver takes sugar from the blood, converts it 
into another form, and stores it up so as to be able to again supply it to the blood 
as the latter may require enrichment. The liver changes uric acid, which is in- 
soluble, into urea, which is completelv soluble, and the liver also deals with the 
blood corpuscles which have lived their life and are useful no longer. When the 
liver is inactive or diseased we suffer from some form of biliarv poisoning such 
as Indigestion, Biliousness, Anaemia, Jaundice, Sick Headache, General Debility, 
and Blood Disorders. 

So intimate is the relation between the work done by the kidneys and that 
done by the liver, that where there is any failure on the part of the kidneys, the 
liver becomes affected in sympathy and vice versa. It was the realisation of the 
importance of this close union of the labour of those vital organs which resulted in 
the discovery of the medicine now known throughout the world as 

Warner's Safe Cure. 

Certain medical men, knowing what a boon it would be to humanity if some medi- 
cine could be found which would act specifically on both the kidneys and liver, 
devoted themselves to an exhaustive search for such a metlium, and their devo- 
tion was eventually rewarded bv their success in compounding a medicine which 
possesses the required quality in the fullest degree. Warner's Safe Cure exhibits 
a marvellous healing action in all cases of functional or chronic disease of the 
kidneys and liver, and restoring them, as it is able to do. to health and activity. 
it, of necessity, cures all complaints due to the retention in the system of urinary 
and biliary poisons. A vigorous action of the kidneys and liver naturally eliminates 
the poisons, anfl froubles due to the presence of the poisons cease. Cures effected 
by Warner's Safe Cure are permanent simply because they are natural. 

fc-ul uiuwual MuvaulaKc whrn voii wrtlr 

lo an lrl"»Tli«>T n'-... ......ilm.. 'W k».v..->» oI «rv.r>v« 

Revifit of Rtvitat. tlltloS. 



Miss Irene Dillon 

FujlaJ by Suw^r: A- Co., Afe/i. 

I'm the Robur Tea Girl ! 

When you are pouring out 
a cup of Robur *ea you can't 
help sniffing up its lovely flavor 
— it isn't a bit scenty, and yet 
it seems to fill a room with 
its delightful aroma — you can 
feel instinctively that it is pure 
tea. that there is nothing 
mixed in wiih it to give it 
taste or smell — its flavor is 
so natural, so rich, so soft, in 
fact, so truly just the real 
flavor of tea — the sort of 
deliciousness that makes your 
mouth water to get drinking 
it — quickly. 

It's astonishing what a lot of people are using our "No. 1 Grade" just 
now — you'd be surprised if you only knew, and not all rich people either — 
poor people are buying it too — they find they save money, because it goes 
so much further than Ceylon or ordinary blended teas — and they have the 
additional sati<;f.ict'nn of drinking lovely tea all the time — 'Yes ! Ko. 1 Grade 
Robur is great tea. 

Robur tea 

Printed and published by John Osborne. 508 Albert-st.. E. Melbourne; Sule Wliolesale Distributing 
.\gent3: Victoria. New South Wales. Queensland. South Australia and T;<sraania. Messrs. E 
A. Thompson and Co : Xew Zealand and West Australia, Messrs Gordon and Gotch Pt5 . Ltd