Skip to main content

Full text of "Review Of The State Of World Marine Fishery Resources Fisheries Technical Paper 335"

See other formats


FIS 
TEC 




| Food 

ind 
lAgrlcul 
lOrganl; 
I of 

the 

United 



Review of the state 
of world marine 
fishery resources 



Marine Resources Service 

Fishery Resources and Environment Division 

FAO Fisheries Department 



The designations employed and the presentation of material in this 
publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on 
the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or 
area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers 
or boundaries. 



M-43 
ISBN 92-5-103471-0 



All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a 
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechani- 
cal, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. 
Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the 
reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 
001 00 Rome. Italy. 



FAO 1994 



Ill 
PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT 

Since the widely-quoted review prepared by the Marine Resources Service on global 
marine fishery resources, (Gulland, 1971), almost every biennium FAO has updated a 
document entitled "Review of the State of World Fishery Resources. Part 1, The Marine 
Resources" (Fisheries Circular 710). This Circular is regularly presented as a background 
document to the Committee on Fisheries (COFI), but is of restricted distribution and, strictly 
speaking, is not a citeable document. The latest and 8th revision printed in December 1992, 
was presented at the 20th session of COFI early in 1993, was a significant expansion over 
Revision 7 with a more readable format and provided the basis for the present document. 
Bibliographic references were never included in Circular 710, but this text has been revised 
to include some of the source material and literature used in its preparation. 

Many persons have contributed to this present technical paper, both inside and outside 
FAO. These persons included: Areas: 21 (J.F. Caddy); 27 (H. Sparholt); 31 (J. Csirke and 
D. Die); 34 (T. Do Chi); 37 (J.F. Caddy); 41 (J. Csirke); 47 (T. Do Chi); 51 (A. Bakun); 
57 (P. Martosubroto); 61 (S. Chikuni); 67 (A. Bakun); 71 (J. Csirke and D. Die); 77 (J. 
Csirke and A. Bakun); 81 (D. Die); 87 (J. Csirke); 48, 58 and 88 (R. Shotton). The special 
topics on tuna and tuna-like species, whales and dolphins and environmental issues in 
fisheries were prepared by J. Majkowski, R. Shotton and A. Bakun, respectively. 

Overall editing was provided by G. Turner, J. Caddy, R. Shotton, J. Majkowski, G. 
Burgos and A. Brunamontini, and statistical data provided by G. Cagnacci, and assistance 
in data analysis was provided by C. Stamatopoulos. 



Distribution: 

FAO Fisheries Department 

FAO Regional Fishery Officers 

Directors of Fisheries 

Regional and International Fisheries Organizations 



IV 



FAO Marine Resources Service, Fishery Resources and Environment Division. 
Review of the state of world marine fishery resources. 

FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 335. Rome, FAO. 1993. 136p. 



ABSTRACT 

This document provides a review, commentary and tabulations of the main trends 
that have occurred in exploitation of fisheries resources since 1970's, largely as 
they are reflected in the FAO database on fishery landings; supplemented with 
selected information from the fishery literature. Reviews were prepared separately 
for the 15 main FAO Statistical Areas that the World's oceans are divided into, 
and then compared from a global perspective to reveal relative trends by species 
and areas, which are highlighted. Several special topics are reviewed, including 
those on tuna and tuna-like species, whales and dolphins, and environmental issues 
in fisheries. 




This design provides the first global view of the geographical distribution of the production 
of plants (phytoplankton) in the oceans, which is the basis for food chains leading to marine 
fisheries. It is redrawn from a composite image of ocean chlorophyll production based on 
remote sensing imagery for 1978-81 prepared under the NSF/NASA-sponsored, US Global 
Ocean Flux Study. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



A. INTRODUCTION 

Recent trends in world fisheries 

B. REGIONAL REVIEWS 

Northwest Atlantic 
Northeast Atlantic 
Western Central Atlantic 
Eastern Central Atlantic 
Mediterranean and Black Sea 
Southwest Atlantic 
Southeast Atlantic 
Western Indian Ocean 
Eastern Indian Ocean 
Northwest Pacific 
Northeast Pacific 
Western Central Pacific 
Eastern Central Pacific 
Southwest Pacific 
Southeast Pacific 
Southern Oceans 



(Area 21) 
(Area 27) 
(Area 31) 
(Area 34) 
(Area 37) 
(Area 41) 
(Area 47) 
(Area 51) 
(Area 57) 
(Area 61) 
(Area 67) 
(Area 71) 
(Area 77) 
(Area 81) 
(Area 87) 
(Areas 48, 58 and 88) 





Page 




1 




1 




11 


(Table 5) 


11 


(Table 6) 


20 


(Table 7) 


26 


(Table 8) 


31 


(Table 9) 


36 


(Table 10) 


45 


(Table 11) 


48 


(Table 12) 


50 


(Table 13) 


54 


(Table 14) 


55 


(Table 15) 


57 


(Table 16) 


60 


(Table 17) 


62 


(Table 18) 


64 


(Table 19) 


65 


(Table 20) 


69 



C. SPECIAL TOPICS 

Tuna and Tuna-Like Species 

Whales and Dolphins 

Environmental Issues in Marine Fisheries 

D. LIST OF ACRONYMS 

E. REFERENCES 

F. MARINE RESOURCES TABLES 



(Table 21) 



70 
74 
76 

81 

83 

101 



BOX" INDEX 



Area Title 



21 The northern cod fishery 15 



27 Multispecies stock assessment 25 



31 Caribbean spiny lobster: a fishery for annual recruits 30 



34 Effects of upwelling on a West African fishery 34 



37 Productivity estimates for the Mediterranean: 38 

evidence of accelerating ecological change 



37 Fishery induced and anthropogenic effects on the Black Sea ecosystem 41 



51 Recent fisheries and environmental findings from the Gulf 52 



81 Orange roughy: a sustainable fishery from 100 year old fish ? 66 



87 Pelagic catches off western South America 68 



A. INTRODUCTION 

The origin for this report can be traced back more than 20 years to Gul land's 1971 
publication H The Fish Resources of the Ocean", which became the 'bible' for anyone seeking 
an overview of the status of fisheries in any one of the major oceans or sub-regions. In addition 
to the reviews on the status of fisheries, Gulland described hydrographic factors controlling 
primary and secondary production, and discussed estimates of the fisheries potential. The 
service provided by his book is evident from the frequency that it is still cited by those preparing 
regional reviews of fisheries resources. Every two years or so , FAO Fisheries Department has 
provided an update of the regional information on the status of stocks throughout the world, and 
this has been the purpose of the FAO Fisheries Circular No. 710 which has now gone through 
eight revisions. With the last such revision it was felt that an expansion of this document and 
more source material should be provided to help those who use this Circular to obtain more 
explicit reference? to facts and figures. In this FAO Fisheries Technical Paper therefore a major 
effort has been made to provide sources for an important part of the background information that 
has been used in compiling the publication. Because FAO staff use data from a number of 
sources which often are not published or exist in a non-citable form, this endeavour is inevitably 
less than complete. The Paper is composed of: 

(i) a general review of trends in world fisheries, 

(ii) more specific reviews of fisheries and marine resources in each FAO statistical area and 
(iii) reviews on tuna and tuna-like species, whales and dolphins and environmental issues in 

marine fisheries. 

From the high seas resources, only tuna, tuna-like species, whales and dolphins are reviewed 
on a global scale in this report: other high seas resources and fisheries are mentioned in the 
regional reviews. Also, high seas resources and fisheries are reviewed by Garcia and Majkowski 
(1992) and straddling and highly migratory resources by FAO (1993c). 

Recent trends in world fisheries 

Up to 1970, judging from statistics available to FAO, the world catch of marine fish 
continued to rise at an overall rate of some 6% per year, but in the early 1970s, especially with 
the collapse of what was then the world's largest fishery for Peruvian anchoveta, this slowed 
dramatically, and during 1980-89 the overall rise was only some 2.3% annually. In 1990 came 
the first decline in FAO's year global data series since 1976 (FAO, 1993a); a drop of some 3% 
to 83 million tonnes (Table 1; Figure 1). A discussion of the socio-economic factors that 
underlay these main statistical trends is found in the special SOFA chapter on "Marine Fisheries 
and the Law of the Sea: A Decade of Change". 1 This important document signals that the 
emphasis on management that FAO has been promoting for at least the last two decades in areas 
with long histories of industrial fishing, is now also required for the so-called "developing 
country fisheries". A change from a focus on short-term development of fishing fleets, to 
proper management is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for sustainable development 
(COFI, 1993). The SOFA fisheries chapter also clearly shows that "Sustainable Development" 
as promoted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 



The State of Food and Agriculture, FAO, 1992. 



-2- 

1992 (UN, 1992), cannot be achieved under open access regimes, whether these are within or 
outside EEZs. The diagnosis offered by the SOFA chapter relating particularly to economic 
considerations, parallels some of the more purely resource-related issues mentioned later in this 
document. 

Are we then reaching in the 1990s the limits of production from "wild" marine resources 
predicted by FAO in the early 1970s? The answer to this question seems not only in the 
affirmative, but for many resources this limit was reached decades earlier than the peak in global 
landings. A combination of factors has helped to mask the depletion of many conventional 
resources. These include: 

(1) The increase in global landings in the 1980s was largely due to increased landings of a 
relatively few species. The five largest fisheries fell within the low-value category of 
small pelagic fish, (with the exception of Alaska Pollock whose unit value has now risen 
with the advent of surimi technology - Roache, 1987; Lanier and Lee, 1992), (Figure 2). 
These accounted for 13 million tonnes of the increase in world landings, but made a 
much smaller contribution to their total economic value. Small pelagic stocks are subject 
to wide natural fluctuations (Gushing, 1973; Parrish & aL, 1983) over close to decadal 
time periods, and in past years, wide swings in abundance of some of these have masked 
declines in some smaller, high value resources. 

(2) In contrast, the SOFA chapter notes that as few as eight species (or uniform species 
groups) made up almost 50% of the total global value, but a much smaller percentage 
of the weight of marine landings. The fmfish made up 19% of this value, and their value 
was dominated by tunas, salmons, Alaska pollock and Atlantic cod. A higher proportion 
(29%) was made up of invertebrates: shrimps, cephalopods, crabs and lobsters. A 
continued investment in fishing fleets throughout the world has meant that although catch 
rates and abundance of these high value species have often declined, the overall level of 
fishing effort has increased so that roughly similar levels of landings are being taken at 
a much greater cost to many fishing nations. Thus, the exploration of new fishing 
grounds in the 1960s and 1970s, initially by distant water fleets but later by coastal 
states, although it has added smaller populations of traditional resources to the pool of 
exploited stocks, has not resulted in any significant net increase in the supply of fish on 
world markets. 



-3- 
Table 1 

Annual world landings of aquatic resources (million tonnes) 
(excluding mammals and seaweeds) 



1948 1953 1958 1963 1968 1973 1978 1983 1988 1989 1990 
-52 -57 -62 -67 -72 -77 -82 -87 



Inland waters 
Anchoveta 


2.5 
0.0 


3.8 
0.1 


5.8 
3.7 


7.3 
9.0 


8.9 
10.0 


6.8 
2.8 


7.7 
1.4 


10.9 
1.6 


13.4 
3.6 


13.9 
5.4 


14.5 
3.8 



Marine 19.4 25.1 30.3 37.6 48.2 56.4 63.8 74.5 82.1 81.0 79.0 

(less anchoveta) 



Total 



21.9 29.0 39.8 53.9 67.1 66.0 72.9 87.0 99.1 100.3 97.3 



GROWTH IN GLOBAL MARINE CATCH 



Million tonnes 
100 



80 



60 



40 



20 



Trend 1948-1971 
Trend 1971-1990 
Actual catch 




0>CD(7>O)Cr>O>O) 



O)O)0)CJ>O>O> 



Source: FAO 



Figure 1 Growth in the Global Marine Catch, 1948-90 
(million tonnes) 



Cumulative catch (million tons) 
28 T 




82 83 84 85 86 87 
Year 



89 90 



Legend 
Alaska pollock 
Chil. jack mackerel 
Peruvian anchoveta 
Japanese pilchard 



p| S. Amer. pilchard 



Figure 2 Catch of the 5 major species J 980-90 

(3) There has been a continual replacement of declining stocks of traditional resources by 
new resources of generally lower value. This has occurred in two ways: first, by the 
exploitation of new resources that have expanded in size to replace those species that 
have been depleted by fishing. Among this replacement group are many short-lived 
species, and many but not all (e.g., squids) are of lower unit value, lower in the food 
web, and some have a higher potential to support heavy fishing. A significant proportion 
of the former target species in statistical (ISSCAAP) 2 groups 31-33, the demersal fish, 
are predators high in the food chain. Second, as the stocks of predatory fish have been 
depleted, formerly discarded species have taken their place in landings and markets. 
Species replacement in landings for both of the above reasons has been particularly 
evident for the slow-growing, high-valued species such as the sea perches and gadoids; 
the Atlantic cod and haddock, the Cape hake, and several other economically important 
species such as the Atlantic herring and mackerel, and is referred to in the sections that 



International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants 



-5- 

follow. In tropical seas this change has been paralleled by declines in high value 'top 
predators' such as snappers and groupers, and increases in small, short-lived trash fish, 
penaeid shrimps and cephalopods. 

(4) Increases have nonetheless been observed in some higher value species: 

an extra million tonnes of tuna catches came mostly from the Western Central Pacific and 
Western Indian Ocean and were mostly landed by distant water fleets (FAO, 1990b; 
1992h). 

shrimp production rose significantly, to a large extent due to increased aquaculture 
production, and was accompanied by the increased use of 'trash 9 (by-catch) fish as 
aquaculture foodstock, to the detriment of fish supplies for food. 

the world catch of cephalopods has grown, again, largely as a result of distant water 
fishing focussing on relatively few outer shelf and oceanic areas especially in the 
Southwest Atlantic, Northwest Pacific and off West Africa (Caddy, 1983). Here, the 
effects of intensive harvesting of these resources are already being felt. 

(5) The possible role of reporting errors in causing inflation of landing figures is less easy 
to establish. In some cases, improvements in statistical reporting certainly have occurred, 
especially in the species breakdown of landings (WHOI, 1991; FAO, 1992b). Elsewhere 
reporting may have deteriorated, as small scale fleets have taken over from the larger, 
more easily monitored industrial vessels. This issue is one of the more urgent ones to 
resolve globally if true trends in marine productivity are to be established as will be 
needed, for example, in order to evaluate the effects of climate change. 

(6) For some inshore and semi-enclosed areas, such as the Mediterranean and Black Seas, 
there is growing evidence that nutrient runoff from land may be responsible for increases 
in both biological production and landings, and with further eutrophication, their 
subsequent decline (Caddy, 1993). 

(7) Continued high fishing intensity will contribute to a loss of biological diversity and there 
are fears that this may lead to more unstable, and possibly lower, catches in the long 
term. 

Analysis of the FAO Yearbook of landing data (FAO, 1993a) by species group over the 
last 21 years (1970-90 incl.) shows that although the aggregate total for landings of most species 
groups rose over the period, when these species are placed in sequence from fast increases to 
very slow or no increase in overall landings, the short-lived species rose fastest, and for the 
long-lived conventional resources the long-term rise was slow, and essentially stopped in the late 
1980s (Figure 3). 




KRILL 



1970 80 
YEAR 



90 



SHRIMPS 



1970 80 
YEAR 



90 




CLUPEIDS 



1970 80 90 

YEAR 




13 



SELACHIANS 



1970 



80 

YEAR 



90 



-6- 




CEPHALOPODS 



1970 80 
YEAR 



90 



OTHER 
CRUSTACEA 



1970 



80 
YEAR 



90 




10 



CLUPEIDS 
MISC. FISH 



1970 



80 
YEAR 



90 



LOBSTERS 



1970 



80 
YEAR 



90 




TUNAS 



1970 




CRABS 



1970 



11 



80 
YEAR 



90 




MISC. FISH 



1970 



80 
YEAR 



90 



15 



DEMERSAL 



1970 



80 
YEAR 



90 



OTHER 
MOLLUSCS 



1970 80 
YEAR 



8 



90 




SHADS + 
DIADROMOUS 



1970 80 
YEAR 



JACKS * 
MULLETS 



1970 80 
YEAR 



Figure 3. Ranking of global landings by species group from the FAO Yearbook data from 
species groups showing a high rate of increase (e.g. 1: krill) to almost no 
increase or a plateau (15: demersal fish) 



90 




90 



Care must be taken not to extrapolate these global conclusions to fisheries for individual 
species in a country or region. This will be discussed later in this report in the sections on 
statistical areas. Several salient features do emerge however, namely (apart from tunas) the high 
rate of increase (and high ranking) of invertebrate resources, and the low ranking for 



-7- 

conventional bottom fish resources. It is interesting to consider in more detail what is the 
species composition of the trend in global marine landings shown in Figure 1 and how the 
number of participating countries in global marine fisheries has changed. Some indirect 
evidence on these points emerges from Table 2. 

Table 2, based on the FAO Yearbook statistics again, compares changes in the number 
of countries reporting and the number of species they reported landing at the start and end of 
the 21 -year interval 1970-90 for the more important marine statistical areas (see Figure 4 for 
geographic boundaries of major fishing areas). Table 2 also illustrates that the small increases 
in global landings, especially since 1970-72, should be considered in the light of a 25% average 
increase in the number of countries fishing in each FAO statistical area and an average 16% 
increase in the number of species reported landed. 

Table 2 also throws light on the relative efficiency of reporting within each area, and/or 
on the selectivity of fishing, if one considers the index in the last column. If all countries were 
sampling the same marine species mix in a statistical area and fully reporting them by all 
species, the ratio C/(AxB) would equal 100%. Evidently, a 100% value for this index is 
improbable, since not all countries fishing an area harvest the whole range of habitats and 
species available or they may have gear that is selective by species and may either discard 
unwanted species or report them as undifferentiated catch. 

Many fishing gears are relatively unselective. Thus, reporting one or only a few species 
in a trawl fishery, for example, implies that either non-reporting or discarding is taking place 
(Vendeville, 1990; Prado, 1992). The very low values of this index of the number of species 
caught for most of the statistical areas means that many species caught are not being individually 
reported by some countries. The tentative conclusion may be drawn that the total for global 
landings is significantly higher than reported, although the extent of under-reporting cannot be 
established without independent data which is unavailable to FAO. 

The increase in the number of species for which landings are now being reported to 
FAO, to some extent reflects more recent accurate identification of resources which were already 
being landed in the past, and either left unidentified, or discarded, but probably more 
realistically, reflects an increase in market price for lower value species. Here, increased 
availability of field guides such as the FAO Species Identification Sheets has undoubtedly played 
a role 3 , although it would be misleading to assume that a better breakdown of landings by 
species has necessarily been accompanied by improved accuracy of reporting. 



3 One consequence of the greater dissemination of species identification guides is that catches 
that previously may have been aggregated into one species get disaggregated into several. This 
can give a false impression that there has been change in the species composition of the catch 
(Fischer, 1989; Fischer & oL, 1987; Cohen & &L, 1990) 



8- 



Table 2 

Summary statistics on numbers of countries reporting catches from key FAO fisheries statistical areas 
in 1970, the number of species reported, and the number of country species units reported. The 
brackets show percent increases of these three categories by 1990 



FAO 

statistical 
area 


A 
Countries 
reporting 


B C* 

Species Number of 
reported countries species 
units 


_3L 
AxB 




No. 


% t 


No. 


% t 


No. 


% t 




21 


11 


(27.0) 


78 


(11.5) 


104 


(56.7) 


12.1 


27 


20 


(20.0) 


110 


(9.0) 


371 


(50.4) 


16.9 


31 


33 


(18.0) 


99 


(17.2) 


251 


(39.4) 


7.7 


34 


28 


(14.3) 


76 


(21.1) 


212 


(43.9) 


10.0 


37 


16 


(37.5) 


94 


(19.1) 


254 


(48.8) 


16.9 


41 


3 


(33.3) 


76 


(10.5) 


97 


(18.6) 


42.5 


47 


11 


(0.0) 


49 


(20.4) 


75 


(13.3) 


13.9 


51 


29 


(6.9) 


78 


(9.0) 


179 


(9.0) 


7.9 


57 


7 


(14.0) 


84 


(22.6) 


105 


(47.6) 


17.9 


61 


7 


(14.3) 


139 


(2.9) 


195 


(36.4) 


20.0 


67 


1 


(100.0) 


31 


(19.4) 


25 


(112.0) 


81.0 


71 


19 


(21.1) 


119 


(21.0) 


316 


(24.1) 


14.0 


77 


14 


(14.3) 


60 


(20.0) 


116 


08.1) 


13.8 


81 


3 


(33.3) 


56 


(19.6) 


67 


(37.3) 


39.3 


87 


5 


(20.0) 


67 


(17.9) 


93 


(22.6) 


27.8 


Mean values 




(24.9) 




(16.1) 




(38.5) 


22.8 



The total countries species units in an area is equal to the total number of species reported 
in an area times the number of countries fishing that area. 



-9- 




FAO- FIR -1990 

Figure 4 Geographical boundaries ofFAO marine statistical areas 



The category "Miscellaneous Marine Fishes" in the FAO Yearbook (FAO, 1993a) throws 
some light on this situation. The 'developed' fishing areas of the North Pacific, North Atlantic (in 
bold in Table 3), show declining landing trends in this category, suggesting some improvements 
in reporting by species. Other areas show increases in this category, implying perhaps, a worsening 
of the statistical situation and/or an increase in landings of 'trash' or low value fish, which are 
commonly associated with intensively exploited tropical trawl fisheries for shrimp. 

Conclusion: To a significant extent, the above analysis of Yearbook data suggests an actual 
increase in number of species subject to directed or mixed species fisheries, with better 
identification of by-catch species and reduction of discards, improved fishing methods, and new 
species entering the market, largely due to a growing scarcity of conventional species. It also 
reflects a marked broadening in the number of countries fishing for these species. This means that 
the very modest recent increases in global landings shown in Figure 1 are largely counteracted by 
declines in individual resources, reflecting the fact that a significant number of stocks have begun 
to be overexploited over at least the last decade. 

The results of ranking the FAO statistical areas according to the percentage of the species 
groups showing overall catch declines are shown in Table 4. Over the 21 -year period 1970-90, a 
long development in resource harvesting is generally associated with a relatively high position in 
this table. Those areas with long histories of fishing (D) that are already fully or overexploited, 
have shown both increases and decreases in landings of species groups, whereas those with shorter 
histories of industrial fisheries (U), except for those harvested by distant water fleets, as yet show 
low percentage declines in species groups. 



- 10- 



TableS 

Ranking of trends in "Miscellaneous Marine Fishes" 
for the main FAO statistical areas from 1970-90 



Rank Statistical Area Comment 



1 


81 


Southwest Pacific 




2 


41 


Southwest Atlantic 




3 


51 


Western Indian Ocean 




4 


57 


Eastern Indian Ocean 


Increasing trend 


5 


31 


Western Central Atlantic 




6 


87 


Southeast Pacific 




7 


61 


Northwest Pacific 




8 


67 


Northeast Pacific 




9 


77 


Eastern Central Pacific 




10 


71 


Western Central Pacific 




11 


34 


Eastern Central Atlantic 


No trend 


12 


37 


Mediterranean and Black Sea 




13 


47 


Southeast Atlantic 




14 


27 


Northeast Atlantic 


Decreasing trend 


15 


21 


Northwest Atlantic 





This provides few grounds for complacency however, given the speed with which fleet build-up 
can occur and any further increases in fleet size should be preceded by careful appraisal of the 
status of stocks. 

A relatively high proportion of long term declines of species groups occurs in those areas 
where fishing has a long history, areas which have been considered as role models for fisheries 
management. This must be of special concern and raise some fundamental questions as to the 
efficiency of strategies that have been used to manage marine fisheries over the last two decades. 
We now seem to be at a critical stage in searching for improved or alternative practical strategies 
for managing coastal fisheries to replace the standard open-access management systems that have 
dominated most marine fisheries to date (Pearse and Walters, 1992). Such management systems, 
to a significant extent, depend on the availability of data from which to assess the potential yield 
from stocks. 

Although the 1980s has been a period of growing awareness and concern for environmental 
change, it is important to continue to single out overfishing (and its economic counterpart, over- 
investment), as the main culprit for local resource degradation over the last 50 years, and that may 
now be leading to a reversal of the long-term positive global catch trend. Recent analyses have 
been quite explicit in this regard in identifying the scope and nature of the problem. One index 



- 11 - 

extracted from FAO statistics (FAO, 19935) is that over the period 1970-89, the global industrial 
fleet size was increasing at a relative rate which was double that shown by global landings. 

The negative consequences of this may be equally serious from an economic as well as from 
a resource perspective (COFI, 1993) and the SOFA chapter arrives at a parallel and remarkable 
conclusion in this regard, namely, that the annual operating costs of the global marine fishing fleet 
in 1989 were on the order of US$ 22 000 million greater than the total revenues, even without 
considering capital costs! 

The perspectives offered in the previous paragraphs have focused principally on the gross 
picture that is emerging with respect to trends in landings from global marine fisheries. This is of 
an unsatisfied demand for fish and fish products that has encouraged individual fishermen, 
governments and entrepreneurs to make individual investment decisions in the means of capture and 
processing that in total are far in excess of any possible level of productivity of the natural 
resources. This situation has been made possible, and exaggerated, by a general failure of most 
management systems to adequately contain the pressure from improved technology and from new 
entries to marine fisheries. More detailed examples are given in the descriptions of events for the 
individual FAO statistical areas that follow. The wide diversity of fisheries situations covered by 
these reviews reflects the wide differences in development both of the fisheries and the differences 
in availability of fisheries information between "developed 9 and "underdeveloped 9 statistical areas. 



B. REGIONAL REVIEWS 



NORTHWEST ATLANTIC (Area 21) (Table 5) 

Total landings of finfish and invertebrates in 1990 were 3.2 million t, up slightly from 1985 
to 1989, but still below the level of landings in the early 1970s. This figure includes a decrease 
in catches of most groundfish species (particularly, cod, haddock and flatfishes) and an increase 
in catches of redfishes, of most invertebrates (lobster, shrimps, squid, scallops and oysters), and 
of small pelagics (capelin, herring and menhaden). Considerable geographical variations remain, 
both in the state of the resources, as well as the criteria used for management. 

The coastal States in the Northwest Atlantic have sharply curtailed or eliminated 
distant-water effort in their exclusive economic zones, and with the exception of stocks on the tip 
of the Grand Banks, and those for which advice has been requested by coastal States, management 
of shelf areas seaward of 200 miles has been conducted through the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 
Organization (NAFO). This organization has attempted to maintain, not completely successfully, 
stock levels or a stock rebuilding strategy by harvesting depleted stocks at the F } level 4 
(Gulland and Boerema, 1973). 



4 The F ol level is the effort level at which the increase in yield produced by one 
additional unit of effort is l/10th of the rate of increase in yield obtained by applying one 
additional effort unit 



- 12- 



Table 4 



Ranking of FAO areas in terms of increasing proportion of 15 selected ISSCAAP species groups 
and super groups showing declines in landings: 1970-90 (see also Figure 1) 



Rank 




Statistical Area 


Decline Increase 


Level of 








% 


% 


Development 


1 


67 


Northeast Pacific 


42 


25 


D 


2 


47 


Southeast Atlantic 


42 


25 


M 


3 


21 


Northwest Atlantic 


33 


50 


D 


4 


27 


Northeast Atlantic 


17 


25 


D 


5 


77 


Eastern Central Pacific 


17 


42 


M 


6 


61 


Northwest Pacific 


8 


42 


D 


7 


34 


Eastern Central Pacific 


8 


42 


U 


8 


81 


Southwest Pacific 


8 


58 


M 


9 


87 


Southeast Pacific 


8 


75 


M 


10 


31 


Western Central Atlantic 


- 


25 


M 


11 


71 


Western Central Pacific 


- 


33 


U 


12 


41 


Southwest Atlantic 


- 


42 


M 


13 


51 


Western Indian Ocean 


- 


58 


U 


14 


37 


Mediterranean/Black Sea 


- 


58 


M 


15 


57 


Western Indian Ocean 


- 


92 


M 


U 


= Coastal States with underdeveloped fisheries 


D 


= 


Coastal States with developed 


fisheries 






M 


= 


Mixed: both U and D present 









NAFO, of which all coastal states except the United States are members, is responsible for 
assessing straddling stocks considered to overlap Canada-Greenland-France (St. Pierre and 
Miquelon) boundaries and stocks exclusively fished by coastal States but which extend beyond the 
200 mile limits into international waters and provides regional statistics (NAFO, 1993a;c), and 
reports of its scientific deliberations (NAFO, 1993b). The F , criterion is still used in the 
Canadian zone (CAFSAC, 1992) and for some NAFO stocks, but quota control has been essentially 
abandoned for most fisheries in southern area 21 (NMFS, 1992a). Some member countries of 
NAFO are promoting the use of F levels higher than F , and object to some NAFO 



- 13- 

recommendations. Fishing by non-members compounds the problem of setting TACs intended to 
lead to stock conservation. 

Difficulties have been experienced in collecting catch data for fitting realistic age-structured 
models for some stocks and there is a growing awareness of the difficulties of quota management, 
especially in mixed species fisheries, where estimates of total removals are affected by misreporting 
(both between species and sub-areas) and by discarding as by-catch. Problems of setting stable 
quotas are made more serious by wide inter-annual variations in recruitment for species such as 
haddock. 

Experience in southern subarea 21 suggests that in the absence of quota or access control, 
commercial catches are likely to decline, as has been largely the case for stocks of haddock, hakes, 
redfish and yellowtail flounder; however, this is also the case for a number of northern stocks 
under quota control. The debate on appropriate catch levels has placed emphasis on the allocation 
process, and it is clear that improved biological advice is only a small component of an efficient 
fishery management system. The search for more efficient mechanisms for interaction between 
fishermen, biologists, economists, managers and politicians will continue to be a priority in this 
region for the foreseeable future. 

Long-term changes in production in the Northwest Atlantic, show the influence of the 
physical environment, especially where a species is close to the extremes of its range. Warm/saline 
and cold/diluted periods in oceanic climate typically last for three to five years: a similar 
periodicity has been noted for northern cod stock recruitment where the catches of cod in the Davis 
Strait increased slightly in 1987 after years of decline. Although winter temperatures were below 
normal, increased summer temperatures in recent years probably account for increased shrimp 
landings and may also affect catches of squids, clams, scallops and crabs, all of which showed 
significant increases, as did northern shrimp landings from the Davis Strait and off Greenland. 

The general increase in landings of invertebrates has been notable over the last decade in 
Area 21; they comprised 32% of the catch in 1990 and a higher proportion of the total value. 
Noteworthy was the American lobster: this valuable species is subject to heavy pressure throughout 
its range and it seems unlikely that recent steady increases are due to improvements in management 
of the resources rather than environmental considerations. 

1. Northern areas: 

Assessments inside the Canadian east coast EEZ are carried out by the Canadian Atlantic 
Fisheries Scientific Advisory Committee (CAFSAC, 1992), and include a three-year management 
plan for groundfish. The industry has asked for stable groundfish quotas in order to assist in 
planning. It has been pointed out that this can only be achieved by constant changes in fishing 
effort from year to year. The CAFSAC plan calls for fishing at the F A level, or higher rates of 
removal if biomass levels are adequate. A new modelling framework ("ADAPT" - Gavaris, 1988; 
Mohn and Cook, 1993) simultaneously takes into account both survey and catch data, giving greater 
consistency of results. The use of teleconferences between fishery assessment workers from widely 
separated locations in eastern Canada is commonly used. 'Precautionary' TACs at fishing rates 
below F j levels are routinely applied in the case of species where quantitative information is poor, 
such as many herring stocks. 



-14- 

For straddling stocks, NAFO has been facing a crisis situation in recent years with the 
recommendations of its scientific committee (NAFO, 1993b;c) being jeopardized by the 
uncontrolled fishing activities of non-contracting parties to its convention within its regulatory area. 
Delays in catch reporting by members have also contributed to assessments with incomplete data. 
A minimum cod-end mesh size is now being promoted in the region with the only exceptions being 
for capelin and squid (for which 60 mm stretched mesh applies). 

Some events in the fisheries of the northern pan of Area 21 may be related to a period of 
local low temperatures of coastal waters. These cold water anomalies (Drinkwater, 1993; Petrie 
and Drinkwater, 1993; Sigaev, 1993) could be due to the effect of increased ice break-up, which 
are believed to be correlated with the impact of climatic change in West Greenland. The recent 
dramatic declines that have occurred in the cod fisheries of the Grand Banks and Flemish Cap may 
be in part a consequence of this (see Box "The northern cod fishery"). 

The following comments apply for the more important resources: 

(a) Demersal fish; Cod catches from the once largest Northwest Atlantic cod stock on the 
Grand Banks and off Labrador increased rapidly after the 1950s with spawning and pre-spawning 
concentrations heavily exploited by distant water fleets. Peak catches of 800 OOOt occurred in 1968 
with a steady decline thereafter to 1978. Inshore catches also declined from some 160 OOOt in the 
1960s to 35 OOOt in 1974. Management was formerly by the International Commission for 
Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (ICNAF), later replaced by NAFO. Early management was restricted 
to mesh size regulation but TACs were introduced in 1973. Following extension of jurisdiction by 
Canada in 1975, CAFSAC has regulated the fishery suggesting a target fishing mortality below or 
at F , to encourage stock rebuilding (see Box: "The northern cod fishery"). 

The Flemish Cap cod stock was at a minimum in 1987 and further declined in 1990-91; 
catches were then set at the lowest level possible (Vazquez, 1993). Cod landings in northern, 
eastern and western Gulf of St. Lawrence dropped from 106 OOOt in 1983 to 47 OOOt in 1989, the 
lowest historical level, partly due to the exclusion of one of the major fleets, France (St. Pierre and 
Miquelon), from this fishery. There are two diverging. interpretations of stock status based on 
survey data and commercial catch statistics respectively. The former suggests biomass has 
declined, the latter suggests that the stock is lightly fished and stable. This latter estimate may be 
biased by misreporting and discarding which are believed to be significant in this fishery. In the 
southern Gulf and adjacent Scotian Shelf stable catches and rising biomass levels are occurring 
under a system of enterprise allocations applied to cod landings by vessels of 50 ft. 



-15- 



BOX: The northern cod fishery 



Depletion of the northern cod stock was evident in the mid-1970s with respect to historical levels 
(Bishop et L, 1993; Davis et aL, 1993) and the quota levels lagged behind stock declines (Box Figure). 
A special meeting of NAFO in June 1992 recommended that catches should not exceed 50 OOOt: the low 
range of F .j values. The meeting could not specify the cause of decline, but in addition to over fishing, 
other negative influences included the impact of current cold water in the Northwest Atlantic on cod 
recruitment, and increased predation on young cod by harp seal populations which have increased in size 
since culling was banned. Recent declines in capelin, the principal food organism of cod, might also be 
involved. 

Disagreements on the management objective for this straddling stock may be a prime cause of stock 
depletion, but the differences in the scientific advice based on commercial catch per unit effort versus 
research survey indices, also contributed to uncertainty of advice. Possible biases in abundance trends 
can probably not be excluded, due to a fixed calender of research surveys on a seasonally migrating 
stock, in a period of changing seasonal patterns. Serious differences in the advice formulated using 
several population dynamic models was the main reason why it was not possible to make an agreed stock 
projection in June 1992. 

The stock decline, about which no one disagrees, also raises a number of controversial political 
issues. These include the need to reinforce the role of fisheries commissions and of coastal States in 
regulating fisheries on those portions of straddling stocks lying beyond EEZs. Although the areas falling 
outside the Canadian 200 mile zone are relatively small, a more significant part of the stock, through 
migration, may occur in these areas at certain periods of the year. Here, there has been a disagreement 
between the coastal States who recommend F , management criteria and distant water fishing countries 
wishing to fish at higher levels of exploitation, as well as problems in deciding on a uniform approach to 
fishery surveillance of all participants. This case also illustrates the difficulties faced by Commissions 
not having independent means to control biases in statistical reporting and surveillance, particularly when 
such reporting has direct implications on the quotas in the following year. The inertia of the quota 
allocation mechanism (Box Figure) is clearly evident, particularly in a period when declining abundance 
was not unambiguously reflected in all of the assessments. The closure of domestic fisheries by the 
Canadian Government in 1992, followed by a compensation package to support fishermen in a province 
with high unemployment and few job alternatives, has had severe consequences for overfishing for 
coastal communities (McClellan, 1993). 



- 16- 



1000- 



i 



%600-i 



13 

400- 

^ 



200- 




1960 



1970 



1 ' \ ' 
1980 



1990 



YEAR 



Box Figure: Landings, TACs and allocation in the northern cod fishery 



LOA, with trip limits applied for smaller vessels. Recent good recruitment is compromised by the 
high discard rates observed by the observer programme on commercial vessels. In the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, density-dependent growth of cod appears of greater importance than other environmental 
effects. Investigations are considering the impact of size-selective mortality in leading to selective 
survival of slow-growing populations. 

On the eastern Scotian Shelf, enterprise allocations and trip limitations also apply with by- 
catch being regulated (CAFSAC, 1991). Yields of cod from fixed gear drop rapidly as mobile gear 
effort increases since the latter gear intercepts younger fish. Commercial trawler catch rate is a 
poor index of abundance since skippers now aim for an optimal species mix and size composition 
to avoid discarding. Observer data appears more reliable, with assessments relying more on catch 
rates from fixed gear which is protected by a special catch allocation. 

Since 1984, a maritime boundary has divided the Georges Bank and Gulf of Maine. Cod 
and stocks northeast of this boundary are considered separate from stocks to the southwest. 
Northeast of the boundary, conservation measures include limited numbers of trips, trip limits, and 
obligatory use of square mesh in trawls. 



- 17- 

Stocks of haddock from the Grand Banks to Georges Bank are in a fragile condition 
(CAPS AC, 1991) as elsewhere in the Northwest Atlantic, with heavy dependence on a few age 
groups. They are subject to high incidental catch as juveniles in other fisheries and low or reduced 
catches have been recommended. In eastern areas, no directed fishery is allowed for haddock to 
assist rebuilding of the stock. On the Scotian Shelf, directed fishing dropped to a low level in the 
early 1970s, but the species quota has still been exceeded due to by-catches in other fisheries. The 
situation is not aided by misreporting between species and areas, which industry admits to be a 
common feature of quota management. In attempting to avoid discards of by-catches, an aggregate 
cod/haddock/pollock quota was introduced in 1989, divided between three 4-month periods. It 
appears however that there are still problems with discarding of the less valuable catch of pollock. 
A haddock nursery area was introduced in 1987 to aid stock rebuilding, and areas were closed to 
fishing where survey cruises had located abundant juveniles. Haddock catches on north-eastern 
Georges Bank declined from 60 OOOt in the 1960s to a few thousand tonnes in 1976. There is some 
recent evidence of slight stock recovery. 

Catches of redfish peaked in the 1960s and 1970s (CAPS AC, 1991). Where effort was 
controlled, stocks in the 1970s and 1980s have shown some recent signs of recovery, as in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence and some redfish stocks on the Scotian Shelf and Grand Banks. Redfish are 
seriously depleted off Greenland, possibly due to the by-catch of juveniles in the shrimp fishery, 
which may be controlling redfish recruitment. On the eastern Grand Banks quotas for this species 
have been exceeded each year and the stock continues to decline. 

Landings of American plaice are far below historical levels on the Grand Banks and effort 
reduction is recommended (CAFSAC, 1991). Other flatfish (witch flounder and yellowtail) are also 
at a low level here, except for Greenland halibut where catches appear to be stable from Davis 
Strait to Grand Banks. There is some evidence that declines in ambient temperature and not 
overfishing is responsible for stock declines of American plaice in northern areas. Elsewhere, high 
discards of small flatfish (some 40-80% by number) are a persistent problem in other fisheries. 
American plaice catches are stable in Flemish Cap. American plaice, and witch and yellow 
flounder are covered by a common quota on the Scotian Shelf, but there has been a general decline 
in catches; the quota is taken largely as by-catch. 

(b) Small pelagic fish: Inshore fisheries for capelin roe were carried out off Labrador in the 
1980s, mainly for the Japanese market, stimulated by the closure of the Barents Sea fishery in 
1986. Acoustic surveys play a large part in assessment as commercial catch rate is not considered 
a good indication of stock size: catch rate in passive gear (traps) is considered less biased. 
Scientific advice cautioned against heavy catches being taken from close to inshore spawning areas 
because of the effect this might have on future spawning and on inshore cod populations feeding 
on these stocks (CAFSAC, 1991). Although capelin catches on the southern Grand Banks have 
been below quotas in recent years the stock appears to be declining and a TAG not exceeding 10% 
of the biomass has been recommended. On the southern Grand Banks a peak catch of 132 OOOt was 
taken in 1975 but the fishery was closed for 1979-86 and, with fishing set at less than 10% of the 
long-term mean spawning biomass, no harvest will be allowed in 1993. 

Herring are caught in a wide variety of gears (purse-seines, midwater trawls, gill nets, weirs 
and traps) which exploit autumn and spring spawning stocks. Their abundance is estimated from 
data on sales receipts indicating quantities landed and log books collected at point of landing. 



- 18- 

These data are now supplemented by acoustic surveys which require a calibrated acoustic 
backscattering cross section: the ratio of incident sound reflected per unit weight of sonified fish. 
Preliminary estimates indicate that acoustic procedures may have overestimated stock biomass, and 
in the case of herring, stock distribution areas in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence have changed. 
Herring fisheries on the southwestern Scotian Shelf peaked in the 1960s, reaching 196 OOOt due to 
development of the fishmeal industry and west purse seines but subsequently the taking of herring 
for meal was banned and it is now used for human consumption. 

The herring stock on Georges Bank was formerly the largest in the West Atlantic with 
landings peaking at 374 OOOt in 1968, but crashed in 1977 under an intensive international fishery. 
After a decade of apparent extinction, there is now evidence of spawning, but no directed fishery 
will be encouraged prior to significant stock recovery. Recoveries have been registered among 
other herring stocks in eastern Canada since the mid-1980s, but further increases in TACs are 
regarded as a cautionary approach. However, to a significant extent herring catches have varied 
in relation to fluctuations in markets for fish and roe and restrictions on fish meal processing. 

Northwest Atlantic mackerel stocks are managed as a single unit despite two spawning 
areas; (1) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and (2) between Cape Cod and Hatteras. Both groups 
overwinter in Sub Areas 5 and 6 where they were subject to an intensive fishery by non-coastal 
states which harvested a peak of 430 OOOt in 1973. This fishery was halted in 1977-78 with 
extension of maritime jurisdiction of USA and Canada. There is no catch limit imposed in this 
fishery which with catches of some 50-90 OOOt, is well below F , harvest levels. Potential 
removals of some 200 OOOt annually from a biomass of some 1 million tonnes would not be likely 
to endanger this stock. 

International fisheries for Atlantic salmon are subject to coordination by the North Atlantic 
Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO) and in the USA are covered by a management plan 
that forbids commercial fishing. For stocks in Canadian rivers, the management objective is to 
realize a target escapement of spawners through the offshore and river fisheries. With respect to 
the fishery off Greenland, which intercepts salmon from European and North American rivers, the 
preemptive quota of 900t was not caught in 1989-90, and lower returns to rivers are expected in 
1991. 

(c) Molluscs; Canadian scallop catches on Georges Bank east of the International Court of 
Justice (ICJ) line established in 1984, have averaged around 5 500t/yr (CAFSAC, 1991). The last 
peak recruitment which gave annual catches of 1 1 OOOt was in 1977-78. Catches are controlled by 
an overall TAC, split up under an Enterprise Allocation Plan. A minimum allowable meat weight 
for random samples of adductor muscles in the catch (the only part landed), was enforced in 1986. 
The fishing effort unit used in this fishery (crew-hour-metre) takes into account not only the crew 
size (which determines extraction rate of meats), but also the hours fished and the size of the 
dredge. US sea scallop fisheries are covered by a management plan that specifies a maximum 
average count of 30/lb of adductor muscles ('meats'). 

Catches of squid on the Scotian Shelf off Newfoundland peaked at 162 OOOt in 1979, but 
dropped to 2 OOOt in 1983-88, showed a slight recovery in 1989-90, but again declined in 1991. 
Climatic factors are believed to influence abundance of these annual species. A substantial clam 



- 19- 

resource, Spisula polynyma. has been located on the Scotian Shelf, which, together with ocean 
quahogs, appears to offer potential for a new fishery. 

(d) Crustaceans: Shrimp stocks in Hudson Strait and off Greenland are at the lowest level since 
1987 (Skuladottir, 1993). Efforts are being made to increase mesh size and monitor the fishery to 
reduce discarding. Effort control does not appear to have worked well in the snow crab fishery 
of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and consideration is being given to season/area closures in combination 
with quotas. A claw hardness gauge has been proposed to test for soft shell crabs which may lead 
to closures when soft shells are too abundant. Surveys are now routinely using 'kriging', a 
statistical procedure adapted from mining prospection to outline distribution areas of shellfish 
species. 

II. Southern areas 

United States fisheries are subject to management by regional councils made up of 
government and fishery sector representatives and technical advisers. A Fisheries Management 
Plan is drawn up for most major resources, which takes into account a range of relevant biological 
and socio-economic factors (NMFS, 1992b). The growing importance of sports fishing in the 
southern half of Area 21 is leading to a reaction against uncontrolled effort levels by commercial 
fishing. Limited entry has been accepted in at least some US fisheries and Individual Transferable 
Quotas (ITQs) have even been adopted in the surf clam fishery. This, despite resistance on the 
basis of the unequal distribution of societal benefits that some hqve feared would result for formerly 
open-access resources. There is growing concern in the USA that present marine harvest strategies 
are not sustainable, and other alternatives to limited entry are also being discussed, notably the 
concept of the ecological reserve or marine park. This has the attractive feature that closed areas 
favour a larger role in reproduction to larger, older more fecund fish. 

Fisheries in the southern part of Area 21 (Subareas 5 and 6) have begun to show progressive 
symptoms of overfishing in recent years, especially by the trawl fishery (NMFS, 1992a). In the 
New England area this fishery for 10 key species is covered by the Northeast Multispecies Fishery 
Management Plan which specifies gear type and area/season closures but although permits are 
issued, no quotas are set. The landings of several high value species (cod, haddock and yellowtail 
flounder) are now at or close to all-time low values. In some heavily fished areas such as Georges 
Bank, there appears to have been a change in the fish community favouring low valued species in 
place of a fish community formerly dominated by high value gadoids. Landings have shifted to 
formerly lower value species, including pollock, dogfish (of little value), silver hake, skates and 
flounders. 

Redfish are now taken primarily as a by-catch of the mixed-species otter trawl fishery in 
the Gulf of Maine and by 1987 stock biomass had declined by over 80% since the late 1960s. By 
1987, commercial catch rate indices and research vessel survey abundance indices of yellowtail 
flounder had also declined to record-low levels and the fishery remains heavily dependent upon 
incoming year classes. Recent recruitment of yellowtail flounder stocks has been poor on Georges 
Bank and in the Gulf of Maine. Survey abundance indices for most of the 'other flounder' stocks 
also exhibited declines in 1987. The exploitable biomass of pollack was expected to decline 
beginning in 1987 and landings in 1988 had fallen from the record-high level in 1986 but still 
remain significant. Recruitment of silver hake in the last several years has been of average 



-20- 

strength, but decreased fishing effort from distant-water fleets has helped to steadily increase stock 
biomass from the very low levels of the mid-1970s. Up until 1987, Atlantic herring landings in 
the southern part of Area 21 had remained fairly constant. Maine vessel landings increased slightly 
and landings in the fixed gear fisheries remain at historically low levels. 

Offshore clam fisheries are the subject of a management plan under the Mid- Atlantic 
Management Council and are the only east coast US fisheries to be subject to an overall quota and 
ITQs, set as percentages of the quota. Closed areas exist to protect predominantly small clams. 
Soft-shell and hard-shell clam landings in many areas are depressed, and have been partly 
compensated for by increased landings of ocean quahogs. Only landings of scallops showed an 
increase, probably due to the impact of favourable environmental conditions during recruitment of 
currently exploited year classes, a situation that seems to occur at intervals of eight to ten years. 
The abundance of Loligo squid in research vessel surveys was the lowest in the 1968-87 time series 
but landings of Illex were up significantly in 1987. 

Judging from statistics reported to FAO, resources that have shown recent declines include 
estuarine species (e.g., tomcod, oysters, bay scallop, smelt and char), which may reflect 
deterioration in estuarine environments as much as overfishing. However, landings of Atlantic 
salmon have shown some increase, which may be due to improved river and high seas management 
and curtailment of commercial sea fishing. Increased landings of blue mussel appear to reflect 
increases in aquaculture. Fisheries for other species that have shown declines are inshore species 
such as scup, cusk and wolf fish which are vulnerable to inshore fishing. 

Several fisheries have shown recent increases, and among these are species such as those 
formerly discarded, e.g., Cancer crabs (by the lobster fishery), brill and skates (by trawlers). Two 
valuable crustaceans have posted significant upward trends, American lobster and pink shrimp, both 
of which have been heavily fished, and whose landings are subject to environmental (climatic) 
changes. American lobster fisheries in southern Area 21 are the subject of a management plan 
specifying size limits and trap design. 

Tuna and billfish stocks in the region fall within the mandate of the International 
Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) and total landings are listed in Table 
21. However, within US waters, billfishes and swordfish are the subject of separate management 
plans. 



NORTHEAST ATLANTIC (AREA 27) (TABLE 6) 

Total reported catches in 1990 were 9.2 million t, down slightly from 9.9 million t in 1989 
(FAO, 1993a). Of the 9.2 million 1 8.2 million t, were fmfish and 1.0 million t were invertebrates. 
Most of the demersal stocks continued to exhibit long-term downward trends due to excessive 
fishing pressure, undesirable fishing patterns (i.e., too much fishing on young fish and discarding) 
and poor recruitment, probably related to reduced spawning stock biomass and unfavourable 
environmental changes. 

The level of exploitation of the North Sea cod, haddock, and whiting stocks is very high. 
Most of the caU?h consists of fish which are one or two years old, and fewer than one third of the 



-21 - 

fish alive at the start of the year survive to the end of the yea*. The fisheries are therefore very 
dependent upon newly-recruited young fish. 

The North Sea cod stock has been fished down to the lowest level ever observed (some 
1 OOOt in 1990 down from some 250 OOOt in the 1970s) and it is uncertain whether it can produce 
enough recruits to maintain itself (ICES, 1992a). Fishing mortalities must be reduced to give the 
stock a chance to recover. The year-classes 1986-90 are all below average. Spawning stock 
biomass has fallen to 66 OOOt in 1990, below the lowest acceptable level of ISO OOOt. The 
prospects for the haddock stock are also bad although not quite as bad as for cod. The year-classes 
1987-89 are all very much below average, but year-classes 1990 and 1991 are only a little below 
average. Spawning stock biomass was at a record low level in 1991 of 64 OOOt but will improve 
to above 100 OOOt (advised as the 'lowest desirable 9 level) in 1993 due to the 1990-91 year-classes. 
Spawning stock biomass and catches of North Sea whiting increased in 1990 and 1991, and the 
prospects are a further increase in 1992 and 1993 due to above average recruitment in 1988 and 
1990. Fishing mortality is high, but whiting is a predator on other commercial species and it is 
not desirable to have too big a stock. The situation is less clear with the North Sea saithe. There 
has been a declining trend in the spawning stock from 107 OOOt in 1985 to 74 OOOt in 1990, but it 
now seems to have stabilized. 

The landings of Baltic cod were at a record high in 1980-85, of between 335 000 and 441 
OOOt (ICES, 1992b). The stock suffered a high fishing mortality and has since then been constantly 
declining. The spawning stock has declined from over 800 OOOt in 1980 to 115 OOOt in 1992 and 
is now below the minimum biologically acceptable level. The International Council for the 
Exploration of the Sea (ICES) recommends a total stop for the cod fishery in the Baltic except for 
the small stock in the western Baltic where ICES recommends that fishing mortality be reduced to 
the lowest possible level. In setting the first TAG for cod in the Baltic it was recommended that 
fishing mortality be reduced to the lowest possible level and this was agreed by the countries 
participating in the fishery in 1989. The agreed TACs have always been much higher than those 
recommended by ICES and the resulting fishing mortalities have been at an almost constant and 
very high level. For 1993 the managers have agreed on a 40 OOOt TAG for cod. This corresponds 
to a reduction in fishing mortality to half of the previous level but is still higher than F^ by 
approximately 50%. Recruitment to the stock shows a general downwards trend since 1976. Lack 
of inflow of high salinity water rich in oxygen from the North Sea to the Baltic has resulted in a 
decline in salinity and oxygen content of deep waters of the Baltic. This might have resulted in a 
high mortality on cod eggs which sink after extrusion. 

The Northeast Arctic cod stock was one of the world's largest, with landings on average 
of about 700 OOOt in the 1970s, peaking at 1.1 million t in 1968 and 1969. This fishery was 
controlled by a USSR/Norwegian joint commission (ICES, 1992a). Cycles of production tend to 
be driven by good recruitment when Gulf Stream drift affects Barents Sea temperature. Quotas 
were over-optimistic until recently, and the landings were 332 OOOt in 1989 and in response to stock 
declines quotas were halved to 172 OOOt in 1990 and 1991. The earlier low in capelin abundance 
contributed to poor condition, cannibalism and poor recruitment. Spawning stock increased from 
172 OOOt in 1989 to 571 OOOt in 1991 mostly due to the good survival of a big 1983 year-class. 

The catches and spawning stock of North Sea sole increased sharply in 1990 due to a big 
1987 year-class, and should stabilize at an average (1971-90) level (ICES, 1992a). However, it 



-22- 

is recommended that the spawning stock biomass should not be lower than 50 OOOt in order to 
buffer the possibility of two successive poor year-classes. This stock is known to have widely 
fluctuating year-classes. For North Sea plaice, fishing mortality, yield and recruitment have steadily 
increased from 1964 to 1990. The spawning stock size has decreased slightly in the same period, 
but is still above the lowest acceptable level of 300 OOOt. 

The stocks of mackerel in the North Sea and west of the British Isles have been declining 
since 1973-74. The spawning stock of the North Sea mackerel is at its historic lowest level and 
is only a small percentage of the stock-size in the 1960s. The western spawning stock biomass has 
been rather stable between 1.8 and 2.2. million t in 1984-90. Fishing mortality has increased since 
1984 but is still at a reasonable level. 

The industrial fishery in the North Sea is targeted on small species like sandeel, Norway 
pout, and sprat for fish meal and oil production (ICES, 1992a). Landings were around 1.8 million 
t in the mid-1970s and have fluctuated between 1.0 and 1.5 million t since then. Sandeel is the 
most important species and makes up more than 60% of the total in all years. 

The Barents Sea capelin stock is rapidly recovering from almost complete depletion with 
spawning stock biomass rising from 17 OOOt in 1987 to 2.6 million t in 1990 (ICES, 1992a). The 
1988 capelin year-class is good although still below the long-term average and its growth rate is 
exceptionally high. The fishery was closed from May 1986 to January 1991. The mean annual 
landings in 1973-90 were 1.3 million t and in the winter and spring of 1991 the catch was 679 
OOOt. The Iceland/East Greenland stock fell below the minimum safe limit of 400 OOOt during 1989 
and 1990. Because of the short lifespan of capelin the state of these stocks is highly variable. 

The North Sea herring stock collapsed in the mid-1970s after extremely high fishing 
pressure (ICES, 1992a). From a previous level of several million t of spawning stock biomass and 
a stable annual catch of about 0.5 million t, the spawning stock decreased to 52 OOOt in 1977 and 
the fishery was banned. Since then the stock started slowly producing larger and larger year- 
classes. Now the spawning stock is at 1.3 million t and the catch has been from 492 000 to 
646 OOOt since 1986. The spawning stock is well above the minimum acceptable level of 
800 OOOt which is the minimum spawning stock size for which the recruitment is not suspected to 
be hampered. Large herring are fished for human consumption and young herring for producing 
fish meal and oil, which is, however, not the intention of management since this fishery for young 
herring constitutes 'growth overfishing' and significantly reduces the potential spawning stock size. 

The Icelandic summer-spawning stock supported slightly increasing catches of around 100 
OOOt in 1988-90 (ICES, 1992a). The spawning stock biomass has stabilized around 0.5 million t, 
the highest level since 1947. The Norwegian spring-spawner stock, once the largest herring stock 
in the world with a spawning stock biomass of 10 million t in 1957, has been slowly recovering 
from virtually zero in 1972 to about 1.5 million t in 1990. However, the stock is still at only 60% 
of the lowest level (2.5 million t) known to have given good year-classes in the period prior to the 
collapse. Landings in 1990 were 86 OOOt compared to 10 000-20 OOOt during 1972-83. 

Other smaller herring stocks which have increased or are still at a stable level, include those 
of Skagerrak-Kattegat and western Baltic, several areas west of Scotland and Ireland and several 
in other parts of the Baltic (ICES, 1992b). The main stock in the Baltic has experienced a decrease 



-23- 

in fishing mortality and an increase in spawning stock biomass which is now approaching 
3 million t (ICES, 19925). 

An epidemic of the fungus Ichthyophonus spp. started in 1991 in the adult herring of the 
Norwegian spring spawner stock, the North Sea stock, and the western Baltic stock. The 
processing industry periodically stopped processing herring due to low quality and high frequencies 
of infected fish and mass mortalities were observed during the autumn of 1991 in the Sound 
between Denmark and Sweden. In the autumn of 1992 the frequencies of infested fish were still 
high. The disease is lethal, but it is still not possible to quantify its impact on the sizes of the 
infected stocks. 

Catches and exploitation levels in the traditional redfish fisheries around Iceland, East 
Greenland and the Faroe Islands have been at a fairly constant level between 120 OOOt and 170 OOOt 
since 1980 (ICES, 1992a). The size of the stock is uncertain due to problems in age determination. 
A new fishery began in 1982 on an oceanic stock of Sebastes mentella. in international waters 
between Greenland, Iceland and the Atlantic Ocean north of the Azores. Catches rose from 60 OOOt 
in 1982-83 to 105 OOOt in 1986, but have declined significantly since to 23 OOOt in 1991. 

Hake landings have remained fairly stable since 1978 around 70 000 to 80 OOOt (ICES, 
1992a). The stock status is uncertain, but there is clearly a high mortality on young hake, the catch 
of which are generally discarded. The landings of sardine have decreased from about 200 OOOt in 
1980-85 to 139 OOOt in 1990. Catches of European anchovy have fluctuated between 5 000 and 
34 OOOt since 1979. 

Landings of the northern blue whiting dropped from 1.1 million t in 1979-1980 to 529 OOOt 
in 1990 (ICES, 1992a). The spawning stock was at an historic high of 6.3 million t in 1976-77, 
declined to a minimum of 1.9 million t in 1984 and increased to 2.5 million t in 1990. A fairly 
strong 1989 year-class will result in a stock increase in coming years. Horse-mackerel landings 
have increased in recent years with 441 OOOt reported in 1990. The stocks are supported by a very 
strong 1982 year-class, but unless other strong year-classes appear the resource will be unable to 
support continued landings at the present level. 

Pollution has caused environmental deterioration in some parts of Area 27. The level of 
nutrients, heavy metals, and poisonous organic compounds are high in most sea areas influenced 
by river outlets. Except for the Baltic Sea this is mostly a coastal problem. The pollution of heavy 
metals and poisonous organic compounds have generally decreased in recent years. However the 
pollution by nutrients in river discharge initially increased, but with the clean-up of the major river 
systems (notably the Rhine) in recent years, nutrient inputs may have declined somewhat with 
repercussions on coastal productivity. Especially the eastern part of the North Sea (influenced by 
the rivers Rhine and Elbe) but also the Skagerrak and Kattegat, and the whole Baltic suffered in 
the 1980s from frequent oxygen depletion due to eutrophication. Cod and plaice stocks in these 
areas seem to have been affected. Increased levels of fish diseases are often observed in areas of 
oxygen depletion of bottom water and close to river outlets, but on too small a scale to affect entire 
fish stocks. 

The scientific advice on which management measures are based (e.g. , total allowable catches 
(TAG), minimum mesh-sizes, etc.) is provided by the ICES through its Advisory Committee on 



-24- 

Fishenes Management (ACFM) (ICES, 1992a). However, ICES revised its procedure in 1991-92 
and form of fishery management advice and now only makes recommendations in cases where 
stocks are exploited outside safe biological limits, i.e., where stocks are below or are expected to 
fall below a 'minimum biologically acceptable level' in the near future at present rates of 
exploitation. Minimum biologically acceptable levels for a particular stock are usually defined as 
the smallest spawning stock size that can produce average year-classes or as the smallest historical 
spawning stock size. When stocks are exploited within safe biological limits, ACFM will provide 
options without indicating a preference - but will indicate the biological consequences and risks 
associated with each option. The choice of a particular option is left to the managers. Thus, 
biological reference points such as F^ F 01 etc., will no longer be the basis of ICES 
recommendations. They might still be relevant for stating the consequences of a certain policy. 
Advice relative to the management of Atlantic salmon throughout the North Atlantic (excluding the 
Baltic) has been provided by ICES to NASCO since 1984. 

The Total Allowable Catch system has been used as the standard tool in managing the stocks 
in Area 27 (ICES, 1992a). As a general rule, agreed TACs throughout Area 27 have exceeded the 
TACs recommended by ICES and actual catches have exceeded the agreed TACs. Enforcement 
of management measures has not been adequate in all areas and problems arise from the fact that 
many of the regulated stocks are harvested in mixed fisheries. The reliability of reported landings 
statistics has deteriorated for some stocks as a result of management/enforcement problems which, 
in turn, has reduced the reliability of the scientific advice on those stocks. Discarding of 
undersized fish or due to low prices for specific sizes appears to be an increasing problem. Besides 
this obvious waste of resources this phenomenon makes the assessment of the stocks more difficult 
as data on the amount discarded are difficult to obtain. 

ICES has in some cases in recent years departed from the practice of giving advice based 
on a TAC. For cod in the North Sea misreporting undermined the TAC system and ICES 
recommended an effort reduction with restrictions on the number of days each fishing vessel is 
allowed to fish in addition to TACs. ICES has recognized the need for multispecies assessment and 
advice taking into account both the biological relationships among species and the technical 
interactions in the mixed species fisheries and has been actively involved in the relevant research 
and development of methodologies (see Box: "Multispecies stock assessment"). 



-25- 



BOX: Mutispecfes stock assessment 

Multispecies models are under development within ICES for the North Sea and the Baltic and reflect the 
fact that consumption of fish by other fish is a major cause of death for many species. These models have been 
under development for the last 10-12 years, collecting data and testing them. The models are called Multi-Species 
VPAs (MSVPA) (Sparholt, 1990; Sparre, 1991) because they are conceptually simple extensions of the Virtual 
Population Analysis (VPA) which back-calculates the numbers of fish at earlier ages in the population from the death 
rates and the age composition of the catch. VPAs for many species are done simultaneously so that the prey interact 
with their predators. This affects the death rate due to natural causes used in the VPA for the prey species. 

In addition to the data needs of a VPA analysis, the MSVPA require data about what and how much the 
predators eat (Helgason and Gislason, 1979). This has been obtained by extensive experimental and field studies on 
stomach contents, digestion rates of fish and their diet. In the North Sea two major stomach sampling projects were 
carried out in 1981 and 1991 collecting about 100 000 stomachs of the major fish predators. On the basis of the 
1981 data, such a model has been established and tested. Data from 1991 should be the 'final' test of the model, and 
if no surprises occur, the model is then ready for use in routine assessment. These models cannot predict recruitment 
which is estimated outside the model, hence they cannot provide information on the recruitment to be expected from 
a given strategy to each species. 

The two most important findings by the model are that predation mortalities on young fish are very high, 
often over 65 % per year and that the current fishing pressure remains below that providing the maximum yield-per- 
rccruit. The main practical conclusion of the model is that the total value per recruit (all species) in the North Sea 
fishery may decrease if effort decreases on predatory species, since this will reduce the abundance of their prey. As 
there is no stock-recruitment relationship built into the model it can only be expected to be reliable within stock sizes 
which are above the 'minimum biological acceptance level' However, as noted in the main text, many stocks are 
below this limit, which is a serious constraint on the model's applicability. The MSVPA model for the North Sea 
has confirmed that whiting is an important predator in this ecosystem and that the total value of North Sea catches 
will benefit from an increased fishery on this species. This is therefore a tool which managers can use with 
recruitment forecasts to 'tune' the output. 

In the Baltic, about 80 000 cod stomachs have been sampled from 1977 to 1990 and the MSVPA model is 

i 
now used in the routine assessment of herring and sprat. The assessment of cod will also be done by the MSVPA 

model in the near future. The fish component of the ecosystem in the Baltic is simple with cod as the only important 
predator, and herring, sprat and small cod as the relevant prey, but the MSVPA model will have a significant impact 
on the biological reference points used and on the management strategies followed. Due to the decline of the Baltic 
cod stock a lot of research is at present focused on developing stocking programmes for cod. The MSVPA gives 
valuable information about the likely loss of released juvenile cod due to cannibalism. The average cod stock from 
1977 to 1990 eats each year about 5 OOOt of young cod less than 20 cm in length. One has to count on producing an 
additional 50 OOOt per year just to be eaten by other cod if the aim is to bring back the previous size of the cod stock 
by stocking. 



-26- 
WESTERN CENTRAL ATLANTIC (Area 31) (Table 7) 

This area includes the Caribbean region, the Gulf of Mexico, the north eastern coast of 
South America and the south Atlantic coast of the USA. The Caribbean basin coastal oceanography 
is dominated by the effects of three of the largest river systems in the world; Mississippi, Orinoco 
and Amazon. The runoff of these rivers is related to mesoscale climate changes and has been 
linked to El Nifio events in the equatorial Pacific. Inter-annual variability in this area is also 
influenced by the frequency and intensity of hurricanes, both of which are also related to the 
equatorial Pacific climate. The influence of hurricanes on fisheries productivity is confined to 
localized areas, and largely depends on the intensity and timing of the storm. The influence of 
river runoff patterns however, extends over large areas of the coast and shelf, and is probably the 
major source of variability in fisheries productivity in the area, other than fishing pressure (e.g., 
on Gulf of Mexico shrimp and menhaden, Guyana-Brazil shrimp). It is also well known that 
coastal habitat degradation, due to the pressures of coastal development and tourism, is one of the 
major reasons for decreases in reef fishery productivity in this area. 

Reported landings in the area have decreased from a high of 2.6 million t in 1984 to 1.7 
million t in 1990 (FAO, 1993a). Most of this reduction can be attributed to declines in the catches 
of three US fisheries: the Gulf menhaden, the American oyster and the calico scallop. These three 
fisheries constituted 60% of landings from Area 31 in 1984, but only 40% of landings in 1990. 
Landings from the other remaining fisheries of the region have remained stable over the last decade 
at around a million tonnes. 

The main fisheries within Area 31 are for small pelagics (menhadens, flyingfish, mackerels), 
large pelagics (tunas, billfishes and sharks), reef fish (snappers and groupers), coastal demersal fish 
(drums, weakfish, croaker), crustaceans (shrimps, lobsters and crabs) and molluscs (oyster, scallops 
and conch) (FAO, 1993a). There are some under-utilized resources like cephalopods (squid and 
octopus), small pelagics, deep water shrimps and deep water snappers which may lead to increases 
in landings, but it is unlikely, excepting cephalopods, that these increases will be significant in the 
near future. 

Except for some US, Mexican and Cuban fisheries, there are few resources in the region 
administered through a management plan with a regular mandate for stock assessments. As a 
consequence, knowledge on the status of fishery stocks is limited. However, experts in the region 
agree that a number of the resources are fished at their maximum sustainable level and many are 
overfished. 

There may be hope for increased landings of small pelagics in certain areas, but the total 
landings will always be dominated by the US menhaden catch. Because the Gulf menhaden is fully 
exploited and the Atlantic menhaden is over-exploited, only a limited increase in landings can be 
expected from the latter as stock sizes recover through quota management (NMFS, 1992b). 

The stocks of coastal migratory pelagics (mainly mackerels) are probably heavily exploited 
in most areas and overexploited in a few. The migratory behaviour of these fish and the fact that 
they support artisanal, industrial and recreational fisheries makes their assessment and management 
a very difficult task (Haughton, 1987). These fisheries are highly seasonal and the potential for 



-27- 

conflict between user groups is high as evidenced by the management problems faced by these 
fisheries in the USA. Problems with resource sharing within the USA between commercial and 
recreational fisheries, and with other Caribbean States internationally also have their parallel in 
Central American waters and the Antilles where island nations share the same resource. However, 
for the Lesser Antilles, joint management of shared resources by island countries is fostered by a 
common management approach. For Trinidad and Tobago, consultation on resource sharing is now 
occurring with Barbados for the flying fish resource and with Venezuela for shrimp. 

Distant-water fisheries for large pelagics have expanded within the region in recent years; 
those for tunas by Venezuela, and swordfish by US vessels, being especially notable. Since many 
of these species migrate over considerable distances their utilization and rational management will 
also require close collaboration between the countries of the region. 

In general, our knowledge of the status of reef fish stocks is very poor even in places such 
as the USA (FAO, 1989a; Joseph 1984). The major problem is that statistics are unreliable because 
the fishery harvests a large number of species and uses a type of gear (handlines, traps, gillnets) 
for which estimation of fishing effort is a difficult task. Deep water resources in the region may 
be underexploited but their estimated potential yield seems small. Reef resources within the 
continental shelves of the Caribbean islands and some areas of the mainland are probably extremely 
overexploited (Joseph, 1984; Friedlander and Beets, 1988) and there is widespread concern on the 
high level of artisanal effort and the use of unselective gear such as fish traps (FAO, 1989a). Few 
reef fish can be considered underexploited. Evidence of this is the fact that catches of 
snapper/grouper species have remained at roughly the same level over the past decade in spite of 
the expansion of the fishery to offshore grounds and increased landings of low valued species. The 
snapper-grouper fishery off Venezuela has shown increased landings from 1989 to 1990 which is 
primarily due to changes in the port of landing and on increased reporting of the catch. A serious 
problem with overexploitation of groupers, here and elsewhere in the tropics, relates to their 
extreme vulnerability to fishing on spawning aggregations. A similar expansion in the snapper 
fishery has also occurred in Suriname. Many other groups of reef fish (e.g., parrotfishes and 
grunts) show signs of overfishing in several countries of the area. 

Landing figures for coastal demersals do not include the catch by sports fishermen, or the 
quantities discarded at sea by commercial shrimp trawlers which can be very significant. Along 
the US Gulf and South Atlantic coasts, the catches of preferred species by sports fishermen 
generally exceed the commercial catches. In fact, the growing economic importance of sports 
fishing has seen progressive restrictions being introduced in some areas on the commercial fishery. 
Concern has increased in recent years over the effect that the intense trawl fishery for shrimp in 
the northern Gulf of Mexico has had on species taken incidentally in the catch, notably, marine 
turtles and, primarily in the USA, the juvenile stages of fish of interest to the important sport 
fisheries. Although the long term potential yield of most US stocks of coastal demersals is 
unknown, all their stocks are probably overexploited. Increased landings have been registered for 
sharks and rays, but groundfish stocks on the outer shelf and slope have remained relatively 
untouched throughout Area 31. 

Most shrimp resources of the region seem to be fully exploited, and the industries 
overcapitalized, due to the open entry policy of most countries. The conflicts that the shrimp 



-28- 

industry has with the US Government over by-catch issues seem to be leading to an increasingly 
unpredictable future for this fishery. Turtle excluder devices have been legislated for use in some 
areas and interest is centred on more selective ways of harvesting shrimp. Considerable attention 
has recently been focused (e.g., Mexico, USA, Venezuela, Guyana) on improving management of 
these key resources using economic as well as biological criteria (WECAF, 1989). Cooperation 
in management of common shrimp resources takes place between the USA and Mexico in the Gulf 
of Mexico and the first steps in this direction have been made in the Guyana-Brazil region. 
Discards by shrimp trawlers continue to be significant for different shrimp fisheries in the area. 
These reduce the possibilities for further expansion of bottom fish catches. Given that valuable 
shrimp fisheries continue to receive priority, a more effective use of by-catch is an obvious way 
of increasing yields. 

The US spiny lobster fishery has maintained stable landings over the last decade but again 
at the expense of increased overcapitalisation of the fleet (the same landings could be achieved with 
roughly half the present number of traps) (NMFS, 1992b). Legislation has recently been passed 
to reduce the number of traps in the Florida fishery by establishing trap transferable licences. The 
Florida stock seems to be very heavily exploited and few recruits survive each designated fishing 
season because increased fishing effort over the last decade has progressively shortened the 
effective fishing season (see Box: "Caribbean spiny lobster: a fishery for annual recruits"). With 
the exception of the Bahamas, most other lobster stocks in the region are heavily exploited and 
recent expansions of the fishery to offshore banks (as for Pedro Bank in Jamaica) do not seem to 
warrant new increases in effort and these grounds seem to be fully exploited now, although some 
stock components in deep water may be still underexploited. In several countries (Cuba, Puerto 
Rico, USA) there is evidence that stocks suffer growth overfishing and that landings might increase 
if larger minimum legal sizes were imposed (Burnett-Herkes el aL 1986). Declining recruitment 
in these stocks suggests that there is localized recruitment overfishing. Several countries (Mexico, 
Cuba) are successfully using artificial habitats (casitas) for harvesting and to enhance survival of 
juvenile lobsters. Cuba has restricted fleet size and effort, leading to significant catch increases. 

The American oyster fishery in Area 31 has shown a significant decline in landings over the 
last eight years due to disease and is still not showing signs of recovery (NMFS, 1992b). Landings 
from the US calico scallop fishery have historically responded to the wide fluctuations in abundance 
experienced by the populations of this bivalve. Past peaks in landings should not be taken as the 
norm, but rather as events which repeat themselves at intervals of several years. 

Conch is fished throughout the area and because of its vulnerability and slow growth is very 
prone to overfishing (Appeldoorn, 1992; Berg and Olsen, 1989). Intensive fishing in most areas 
has depleted conch population to the point of forcing permanent (USA, Mexico, Bermuda- Berg 
Si aL 1992a;b) or temporary (Cuba) closure of the fishing grounds to commercial fishing. 
Reseeding programmes to rebuild conch stocks have been tried in many countries but few of such 
initiatives survive today (Mexico, Netherlands Antilles). Concern has been expressed regarding 
the possibility of a reduction of genetic diversity due to conch reseeding programmes (Berg fit aL, 
1986; Campton el aL, 1992). Recruitment to the different adult populations is highly variable with 
some areas receiving a fairly stable supply (Cuba, Bahamas, Belize, Turks and Caicos) and other 
areas characterized by highly variable recruitment (Bermuda, Mexico). Most countries that harvest 
conch today rely on a steady supply of recruits. Stocks in Cuba seemed to recover quickly after 



-29- 

a temporary closure of the fishery and stocks in the USA are steadily increasing after many years 
of fishing closure. In Bermuda, however, in spite of more than ten years of protection, stocks have 
not recovered from overfishing. Countries like Mexico and the Netherlands Antilles maintain 
reseeding programmes as their only hope to rebuild their stocks. 

Octopus fisheries now occur in a limited number of locations, most notably on Campeche 
Bank (Mexico), in Cuba and in Venezuela; this, despite a much wider distribution and growing 
market which could lead to a significantly expanded fishery. The potential for squid fisheries in 
the eastern Caribbean is almost undeveloped and deserves investigation, for both human 
consumption and as a bait for large pelagic and sport fisheries. 

Ciguatera poisoning continues to slow down development of demersal fisheries in the 
northern Lesser Antilles, Outbreaks of the disease are fairly localized but higher demand is 
increasing the pressure to exploit ciguatera-prone areas and therefore increases the chance of 
landing ciguatoxic fish (Vernoux, 1988). 

Some countries of the region have moved to full-scale shrimp aquaculture using wild fry. 
This has led to concern with the destruction of shrimp nursery habitat (mangroves and coastal 
marshes) as a result of pond construction. There is also a problem in some areas with the effects 
of runoff of agricultural chemicals on to shrimp nursery areas. 

This area offers great contrast in terms of management of fish stocks, from some of the 
highly managed US fisheries to the completely unmanaged fisheries of countries like Haiti. This 
partially reflects the difference between industrial and artisanal fisheries but also shows dissimilar 
approaches to management of fish resources by individual countries. The only limited entry fishery 
within the region is the shrimp fishery off northern Brazil but other forms of control such as closed 
seasons and gear restrictions are used by several countries (Dias-Neto, 1991 ; Valentini el aL 1991). 
Most US fisheries are managed through output controls by imposition of catch quotas and/or bag 
limits, however there are instances (e.g., Florida lobster) where a form of input control (limits and 
progressive reduction of the total number of traps) has recently been agreed to by the fishing 
industry. Size limits are also used throughout the region and may reflect biological, economic and 
marketing considerations. 

The very low yields recently obtained from reef fisheries due to overexploitation, has lead 
to policies focusing on development of new pelagic resources at the expense of improvements in 
the management of reef demersals. There is certainly a lot to be gained by attempting to maximize 
the overall bio-economic yield of all reef species. But this strategy would certainly lead to 
overexploitation of some stocks and underexploitation of others, and measures should be put in 
place to prevent population collapses of individual species. Careful consideration needs to be given 
to the interdependency between the artisanal reef fishery and the seasonal fishery for coastal 
pelagics. Agreements have to be reached on separate access rights for these two fisheries, if the 
coastal reef resources are to recover. 



- 3U- 



BOX: Caribbean spiny lobster: a fishery for annual recruits 

Spiny lobsters are distributed over the entire Caribbean and as far south as Northern Brazil; 
however no major fishery occurs within the Gulf of Mexico. Juveniles and adults do not move much 
beyond their settlement area but larvae have the potential to mix throughout the whole Caribbean basin. 
Stocks are close to full exploitation and the annual crop of recruits is depleted each season. For any given 
stock high catch rates are evident at the beginning of each fishing season followed by a decline in catch 
per unit of effort through the season (Figure a). 

Lobsters over the minimum legal size are only common in the landings at the opening of the 
season and thereafter landings become dominated by recruits (Figure b). Given this situation it is critical 
to ensure that the minimum legal sizes allow for sufficient escapement to spawning by adults every year 
to replenish the annual crop of recruits (see, eg, Buraett-Herkes ej al.. 1986). Annual yield in the fishery 
seems largely independent of fishing effort once the annual recruits have been harvested (Figure c). This 
effort pattern has lead to considerable overcapitalization of fishing fleets (e.g., Aiken and Haughton, 
1987). Only recently Florida fishermen have agreed to a scheme to reduce the number of traps in the 
fishery to increase economic viability. The main goals of management should be to reduce excess fishing 
effort, enhance survival of prerecruits and ensure sufficient spawning. Although the first two goals may 
be achieved through local management the third may require Caribbean-wide cooperation (Snead, 1987). 




Season's 
opening 



2 
Year 



I 

o 





Rshing effort 

c 

Box Figures: Showing the rapid fishing down of larger lobsters during the season both in (a) catch 
rate (CPUE), (b) sizes, and (c) how overall landings do not go up significantly with continued 
increases in fishing 



-31- 

M any of the resources of the region are shared by several countries and there is growing 
recognition of the need for cooperation in fisheries management. Countries with isolated island 
shelves could contemplate independent management based on socio-economic considerations. 
Larval dispersal and adult migration characteristics of some stocks may still mean that biologically 
oriented management will have to be coordinated at the regional level. 

Investigations on the marine resources of the area fall within the terms of reference of the 
Western Central Atlantic Fisheries Commission (WECAFC), except for tunas, which are covered 
by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICC AT). The WECAF 
Commission and its two working parties (on Marine Resources and Economics and Planning) meet 
in alternate years, as does its Committee for the Development and Management of Fisheries in the 
Lesser Antilles. 



EASTERN CENTRAL ATLANTIC (Area 34) (Table 8) 

Catches in this region rose to 3.8 million t in 1977, fell to 2.9-3.0 million t in 1985-86, and 
recovered to 3.7-4.0 million t in 1989-90. The magnitude of changes in landings illustrates the 
large fluctuations of the small pelagic resources such as horse mackerel and sardine which are 
usually influenced by changes in climatic and fishing pressure, characteristic of this region. 

Catches were recorded by 21 coastal countries and more than 18 non-coastal countries, 
giving a markedly international character to many of the region's fisheries and the share of landings 
by non- African long-range fleets remains high. It has decreased from 67% of the catch during the 
period 1970-74 to 43% in 1975-79, and was 58% in 1980-84. This share remained at 58% in 1989 
and 1990, partly reflecting policy decision by coastal states, but also the current difficulty of some 
African countries in fully exploiting the resources themselves, especially given the large fluctuations 
of pelagic offshore resources which are of principal interest to foreign fleets. 

Changes in the economies of Eastern Europe may soon result in a reduction of catches in 
Area 34 as their distant water fleets begin to operate under market forces. For example, the former 
USSR caught 40% of the catch, primarily small pelagics, off West Africa in 1990. This represents 
an opportunity for coastal States to benefit by replacing the foreign operations. However, care 
should be taken as the investment risks and costs are high and the prices of small pelagics are low. 



Northern Sector 

In the northern sector from Cap Spartel (Gibraltar Strait) to the north of Cape Timiris 
(Mauritania), the demersal stocks are almost fully exploited or overexploited, both economically 
and biologically. These include cephalopods, hakes and sparids; the one possible exception being 
the stocks of black (Senegalese) hake found to the south of Cape Juby. Fishing effort should be 
significantly reduced for cephalopods and for European hake, which also needs adequate protection 
as small fish. Recent management measures taken in Morocco (closed seasons) have proved to be 
beneficial (FAO, 1992c;d). 



-32- 

The coastal stocks of seabreams are heavily exploited to the north of Cape Juby and 
markedly overexploited to the south of Cape Bojador. The recovery of the stock is threatened by 
the rapid expansion of the cephalopod fishery, which produces a high incidental fishing mortality 
on juvenile seabreams (FAO, 1992d). The large stock of Moroccan sardine seems to have returned 
to historical levels with improved accessibility by coastal fleets off northern Morocco. 

In the Mauritania-Senegal sector the fishery has undergone major development in the last 
ten years, due to increases in fishing by foreign fleets and development of national fishing capacity. 
Catches have not increased, and all the stocks traditionally exploited are considered at least fully 
fished. The levels of abundance of demersal stocks have been seriously reduced since the early 
seventies and the future of the resources is a matter of concern. Pink spiny lobster stocks, which 
were slowly recovering after several years of serious overfishing, are again subject to highly 
intensive fishing with pots and gillnets. Green lobsters were probably underexploited in the north, 
but fishing is intensifying on southern stocks. An unexploited clam stock with a potential of about 
300 OOOt has been discovered off the coast of Mauritania (FAO, 1992d). 

Shrimp stocks of Senegal are fully exploited and the overall potential seems to have 
increased significantly compared to earlier studies. This, and the fact that octopus abundance has 
also increased while that for traditional species has decreased, may be an indication that the 
ecosystem is under severe fishing pressure. 

The large stocks of sardine, mackerel and horse mackerels of this region are highly variable, 
and their assessment difficult. They are periodically subjected to high variations in abundance due 
to climatic changes, to large variations in fishing effort, or both. Because foreign fleets tend to shift 
from one species to another, trends in catch rates are difficult to interpret. The stock of mackerel 
seems to be fully fished, while the stock of sardine north of Cape Blanc has apparently experienced 
a period of increased abundance leading to unusually large catches, especially by foreign fleets. 
Recent acoustic surveys in northwest Africa show that the school density of sardinellas is very high 
particularly off Mauritania, with biomass estimates of around 4 million t. The state of the deep 
sea resources on the slope is unknown. Fishing is intensive on shrimps, hakes and seabreams, either 
directly or through "incidental" mortality resulting from by-catch in the horse mackerel fishery. 
Research effort is insufficient and recent attempts to assess the resources were unsuccessful (FAO, 
1992d). 

Southern Sector 

Recent trawl surveys in Guinea have shown that coastal resources inside 20 m depth 
(roughly at 15 nautical miles, offshore) offer a potential of 45 OOOt for the development of the 
artisanaJ fishery, of which 15 OOOt could be exploited by small sized trawlers. The traditional 
offshore stocks have been very heavily fished by foreign fleets for years. The potential of demersal 
resources is estimated to be around 84 OOOt of which 32 OOOt are of high commercial value and 52 
OOOt are of medium value. The pelagic stocks represent more than 50% of the marine resources 
of Guinea but their potential is unknown. At present, the pressure from foreign vessels is low. 
Recent estimates showed that pelagic and demersal resources have a potential of some 65 000 t. 
Increased fishing intensity of bottom trawlers and small-scale artisanaJ fisheries has led to major 



-33- 

problems for the traditional artisanal fishery. In zones shallower than 20 metres the biomass has 
decreased and the catch rate of sciaenids has increased significantly (FAO, 1992g). 

In the Sherbro area (Sierra Leone and Liberia) the state of the stocks is not well known. 
They have been heavily fished by foreign fleets in recent years, but biological data and statistics 
are still inadequate for a detailed scientific analysis (FAO, 1992d;e). From data collected by an 
acoustic survey in the Sherbro area, it appears that the large stock of triggerfish, Balistes 
carolinensis. which developed in the seventies (Caveriviere, 1991) has practically disappeared, 
possibly because of fishing pressure, but more likely due to a reversal of the earlier change in 
climatic conditions. This change also occurred along the western coast of the Gulf of Guinea where 
landings of the globefish (LagprepMys laevigatus) and of the high value cuttlefish (Sepia 
officinalis) increased significantly. 

Throughout the sector, the most common commercial fish species in depths of less than 50 
m seem to be fished at high levels of exploitation. Demersal stocks, further offshore in 50 to 200 
m, are still not fully exploited. However, it is unlikely that their exploitation rate will increase 
because the fishery is not economically attractive due to the lower density of fish and catch rates, 
and higher fishing costs. The pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis) present in small concentrations from 
Senegal to the Congo, seems to be heavily exploited. Competition exists between artisanal inshore 
and industrial offshore fisheries. As catch rates increase, shrimpers are keeping larger amounts of 
fish by-catch for marketing, and better use is being made of fish which used to be discarded. 

The important and unstable stocks of small pelagics of the C6te d'lvoire-Ghana-Togo-Benin 
area, which collapsed in the past due to both high fishing pressure and unfavourable climatic 
conditions (Binet ej aL, 1991; Cury and Roy, 1991), have returned to record and steady high levels 
since the beginning of the mid-1980s with landings of Sardinella aurita of 80 000 to 106 OOOt/year 
(Freon, 1991). The stock of sardinellas seems to be in good shape. However, low catches of 
Sardinella maderensis which ranged from 20 000 to 48 000 t/year during the same period, are 
of concern. Very little is known about the stocks of anchovy and mackerel. The catches of the 
former species are extremely high while those of the latter appear highly variable (FAO, 1992f). 

Little is known about pelagic and demersal resources in the whole southern Gulf of Guinea, 
where many countries have not yet developed the appropriate data base and research structure. 
Fishing effort on demersal stocks has been concentrated on the inshore zone and on juveniles. The 
demersal stocks of the deep shelf and slope, especially on hard bottoms, still seem to be 
underfished in most of the southern Gulf of Guinea. They may offer some potential for modern 
artisanal fishing with gillnets or longlines. 



-34- 



BOX: Effects of upwelling on a West African fishery 

A small pelagic fishery off the coast of West Africa provides a good example of the effects that 
environmental conditions can have on the abundance of a fishery resource. Sardinella aurita. is mainly 
exploited by the artisanal fishermen from Ghana and to a lesser extent from Togo and Cdte d'lvoire, and 
by the semi-industrial fishery from Ghana and Cote d'lvoire. The success of this fishery depends not only 
on the amount of fishing effort but also on environmental conditions in previous years in the area, i.e., 
the intensity of the seasonal upwelling. 

The solid line in the Figure shows the highly variable catch rate (CPUE) in the fishery from 
1966 to 1980. Conventional fishery models utilized to assess the potential of a fishery are based on stable 
fish populations and do not account for environmentally-induced fluctuations such as was evident in this 
fishery. The intensity of upwelling in the previous years was inserted in the model in order to make it 
more realistic (Freon, 1991). The dotted line in the Figure is the projected catch rate which results from 
adjustments made for different values in intensity of upwelling. The results show a highly unstable fishery 
which collapsed in 1974 due to high fishing pressure and unfavourable upwelling conditions. However, it 
recovered in 1978 and the catch rate (not shown) has stabilized since the mid-1980s. The modified model 
is a useful approach for the efficient management of a fishery provided that the influence of climatic 
variables is known and is restricted to the years preceding exploitation or where they can be adequately 
predicted. 



10- 



5- 



Observed 




T" 

66 



T" 

68 



70 



-i 1 r- 

72 74 

YEAR 



76 



78 



80 



Box Figure: Observed and predicted catch rates for small pelagics (sardinella) of West Africa, 
predicted by a production model with climatic inputs 



-35- 

Research programmes in Cameroon have demonstrated that coastal resources are subject to 
very high levels of fishing mortality, particularly in the estuary where small trawlers operate pan 
of the year. Since the early 1980s, fish catches decreased while those for shrimp, Penaeus notialis. 
increased slightly. There appears to be a need to increase mesh size and possibly reduce fishing 
effort. 

The assessment and elaboration of biological advice for management of the resources in this 
region are undertaken in the framework of the Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic Fisheries 
(CECAF) by the national research laboratories, bilateral assistance programmes, and the FAO 
regional projects dealing with fisheries management. Important initiatives have been taken at 
sub-region level by the coastal countries to promote collaborative assessments on shared stocks 
through working groups and it is the objective of CECAF to promote and support these initiatives 
as far as possible. With a few exceptions, most stocks extend beyond the coastal countries EEZs 
and are occasionally shared, as in the case of horse mackerel, by as many as seven countries. This 
characteristic compounds the difficulties of stock assessment and the subsequent adoption and 
implementation of the management measures necessary for a rational use of the resources. 

In 1988 the CECAF Sub-Committee on Management (FAO, 1989b) went through a process 
of overall review of all stocks in the area and the overall conclusions were: (a) most large stocks 
are fully fished or overfished; (b) pelagic stocks are highly variable and difficult to evaluate: their 
future management must be flexible and take this instability into account; and (c) the rate of 
updating of the evaluations is not satisfactory. In fact, the frequency of the assessment working 
group meetings has decreased considerably during the past few years, because of the termination 
of the Regional FAO/CECAF Project, and due to insufficient development of research at the 
national level in many countries. Despite this, the willingness to increase collaboration between 
coastal countries in the northern CECAF area is very encouraging. 

Some 43 stocks and groups of stocks of importance need to be evaluated regularly in the 
whole CECAF area, many of which are shared by several of the 21 coastal States in the region. 
The data available since 1980 show that the CECAF project and the countries together produce new 
information (often still insufficient) on 20 stocks on average, i.e., 2.5% of the number of available 
stocks. Because these updatings are largely concentrated on the northern CECAF area, the shortage 
of information in the rest of the region is clearly evident. 

During the last biennium, prospects for fisheries research in West Africa and new solutions 
for strengthening national research capacities through regional cooperation have also been 
considered. The main priorities in research items which could be developed at the regional level 
concern resources assessment and monitoring, population dynamics, ecosystem dynamics, typology 
of fisheries, bio-economic analysis and improved support of fisheries research. The CECAF Sub- 
Committee on Management (FAO, 1992c) recommended the continued evaluation of the principal 
pelagic and demersal stocks, the realization of bio-economic analysis of fisheries and the creation 
of a Geographical Information System for oceans and fisheries. 



-36- 
MEDITERRANEAN AND BLACK SEA (Area 37) (Table 9) 

Total landings in the Mediterranean and Black Sea combined varied from 1.9 to 2. 1 million 
t from 1982 to 1988 but declined to 1.7 and 1.5 million t in 1989 and 1990. Most of this decline 
is from landings in the Black Sea where the catch dropped from 833 OOOt in 1988 to 489 OOOt in 
1989 and 428 OOOt in 1990. Preliminary figures for 1991 (GFCM, 1991) suggest an even steeper 
decline in small pelagic catches from the Black Sea. 

Mediterranean resources have a long history of biological investigation, but for many 
countries, research specifically in support of fish stock assessment has only been carried out 
relatively recently, and the application of research to management of marine fisheries is still low 
(Caddy, in press). The pace of ecological change in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Basins 
(Caddy, in press), has accelerated over the last decade, both due to early growth in fishing 
intensity, and progressive anthropogenic effects such as nutrient runoff in this semi-enclosed sea, 
and continues to do so at a rate that is of concern to Mediterranean countries, and this is 
particularly evident with respect to fishery resources (Caddy and Griffiths, 1990; GFCM, 1993). 

Advice and recommendations for the management of the resources are elaborated through 
the General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean (GFCM) and the Joint Commission on the 
Fisheries of the Black Sea. Since 1980, some resource evaluations have been updated within the 
framework of GFCM in a series of technical consultations held regularly in the Western and 
Central Mediterranean area, the Adriatic Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean. 

Although national management authority over demersal resources is limited to territorial seas 
with extensions of from 6 to 30 nautical miles, problems of shared fisheries management have, until 
recently, been relatively limited in the Mediterranean. Shared stock problems for the demersal 
resources are, actually or potentially, for the Gulf of Lions and the Gulf of Gabes, the demersal 
resources of the Adriatic Sea, and some (e.g. , the hake) resources of the Ionian/ Aegean Sea. These 
problems are now being tackled at a sub-regional level through GFCM. The main shared stock 
problems relate however, to the large pelagic fish resources, and to the small pelagic stocks of the 
Aegean, Gulf of Lions, Adriatic and the Sea of Alboran. 

Fishing by some vessels from northern Mediterranean ports along the southern 
Mediterranean shelves historically has occurred, and is still frequently reported (Caddy, 1990a). 
Countries along the southern shores of the Mediterranean in the 1970s and 1980s have already 
been, or are still now, building their fleet and governmental fisheries infrastructure. Problems 
involving shared stocks have been more serious in the Black Sea (Ivanov and Beverton, 1985), 
where formerly the lack of a common framework for management contributed to a degree of 
overexploitation of a number of resources. 

In the western Mediterranean, stocks are fully exploited with the possible exception of 
mackerel and horse-mackerel and, in some areas, sardines, while in the Adriatic and Gulf of Lions 
there is evidence of overfishing of most of the highly valued demersal species such as hake, red 
mullet and clams (vongole). In the central Mediterranean, the demersal resources generally are 
also fully exploited to heavily overexploited, particularly off Italy where demersal stocks are very 
heavily fished. Despite this, landings of demersal species for the whole continental shelf of the 



-37- 

Mediterranean increased for most species by some 3-8% per year between 1975-76 and 1985-86. 
This included overall reported landings of Mullus spp. and hake both of which rose by 5-7% per 
year. Similar rises were reported for prawns and shrimps, but landing trends forPagellus spp. and 
cephalopods were more modest, at 3-5% per year. A few species, such as Maena spp. registered 
small overall declines (Caddy, 1990a). In inshore Spanish waters, an increase in the proportion 
of octopus in the catch has been suggested as a response to declining bottom-fish stocks. 

It may be possible to explain some of this earlier increase as a result of the higher fishing 
effort exerted, and/or improvements to the statistical data base. However, other factors such as an 
increase in productivity of previously nutrient-limited demersal and pelagic food chains due to 
increased nutrient runoff (UNEP/UNESCO/FAO, 1988), seem to be indicated as a strong candidate 
(see Box: "Productivity estimates for the Mediterranean: evidence of acceleratig ecological 
change"). These increases seem to progressively favour pelagic food webs as bottom anoxia 
becomes permanent (Caddy, 1990b; 1993), but the food web is drastically modified and simplified 
with further nutrient enrichment, as has happened in the Black Sea (see Box: "Fishery induced and 
anthropogenic effects on the Black Sea ecosystem"), where dramatic declines in pelagic fish 
production have been registered over the last two years. 

History of management in Mediterranean fisheries 

The overall effects of very high local fishing intensities have been long understood, and 
declining catch rates and small sizes at first capture were soon evident after the second world war, 
particularly in the northern Mediterranean (Caddy, in press). Fishing capacity for demersal 
resources also increased for most of the southern and eastern Mediterranean as a result of fleet 
construction in the 1970s and 1980s, and as a consequence of demersal fish prices which tend to 
be higher than in most other parts of the world (Caddy, 1990a). 

Past heavy fishing effort in Cyprus has reduced catches of formerly abundant species, and 
led to a fishery dependent on smaller species. In response to this situation, typical of a number of 
Mediterranean fisheries, a seasonal closure of the trawl fishery in order to protect the young fish 
stocks was enacted in the 1970s. This measure roughly doubled the fish landings, and increased 
profitability for artisanal and trawl fisheries (Garcia and Demetropoulos, 1986). It also led to 
dramatic rises in fishing effort by both trawl and artisanal fleets, with the result that increased 
profits for individual fishermen are still not being generated by the fishery (Hannesson, 1989). 
Fisheries economists have recommended that in the event of increases in catches due to improved 
management, dissipation of the resultant profits by investment in excess vessels should be avoided 
by licence limitation of both artisanal and industrial fleets. 



38- 



BOX: Productivity estimates for the Mediterranean; 
evidence of accelerating ecological change 



Despite generally high exploitation rates, the overall Mediterranean landings for all species 
continued to rise in the 1970s and 1980s (GFCM, 1991), This is not easily explained in terms of steady 
state fisheries theory, given that landings might have been expected to decline as effort further increased 
and stocks were depleted. An examination of man-induced environmental trends over the last few 
decades, pointed to the likely importance of nutrient enrichment for increasing fishery productivity within 
the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, seas where biological and fishery productivity were formerly 
considered to be strongly limited by low nutrient levels. This hypothesis seems compatible with pollution 
studies carried out under the Mediterranean Action Plan, and with remote sensing imagery available 

fl from NSF/NASA, 1989). 



It seems from GFCM statistics that increases in fishery production in the 1970s and early 1980s 
were particularly evident for semi-enclosed basins such as the Black Sea and Adriatic, where nutrient- 
enrichment from land and river runoff has been more pronounced, than for the generally nutrient-poor 
regions of the eastern Mediterranean and around Sardinia. The effects of large inputs of nutrients, as for 
the Aegean Sea (receiving nutrient-rich water from the Black Sea outflow), and the Gulf of Lions (from 
the Rhone river), also appear to be reflected in recent landings trends; as well as where there is a more 
diffuse discharge of nutrients from human activities, as from the Nile delta (since construction of the 
Aswan Dam). The still largely oligotrophic nature of water masses in the southern Mediterranean as 
shown in Figure a, appears reflected in the significantly lower productivities in terms of tons of fish 
production per shelf area shown in Figure b. 



-39- 



NSF/NASA IMAGERY: MMTCtRANtAN AND BLACK SEA PRODUCTIVITY ESTIMATION 




Figure a: Distribution of phytoplanbon concentrations in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, 
based on 30 NSF/NASA (USA) images in May 198O. 



TOTAL CATCH PER SHELF AREA WITHIN EACH STATISTICAL SUBRBGION 




3T/IIII 



Figure b: Total production of pelagic and demersal fishes (1989) expressed per shelf area 
inside 20O m depth. 



-41 - 



BOX: Fishery induced and anthropogenic effects on the Black Sea ecosystem 

A general deterioration of the marine environment of the Black Sea has occurred (Balkas et aL, 1990), and 
apart from largely contemporaneous events in the Aral Sea, represents the first example of the collapse of fishery 
productivity for a large inland sea. This situation has been particularly pronounced in the Sea of Azov, which has 
been affected by strongly reduced inflows from northern rivers (VNIRO, 1979), diverted for industrial and 
agricultural purposes, and on the northwest shelf of the Black Sea, where the effects of eutrophic runoff, particularly 
from the Danube, first had a strong influence. Uncontrolled fishing, nutrient inputs from other rivers and the littoral 
zone, and the introduction of exotic species, have combined with heavy fishing to change the ecosystem of this 
enclosed water body (Caddy and Griffiths, 1990). 

These anthropogenic effects were felt earliest on the demersal, benthic resources, on anadromous and 
migratory fish species and marine mammals, but have extended through the ecological chain, including the 
phytoplankton and zooplankton. The first two groups were most severely affected by widespread anoxia of bottom 
waters on the northwestern and western shelves of the Black Sea, and in the Sea of Azov, as for wild stocks of turbot 
and other bottom fish and shellfish, and sturgeons and river herring (Zaitsev, 1993). Problems of environmental 
degradation, plus overfishing, are also relevant to the Sea of Marmara (Kocatas et al.. 1993), which prior to the 
1980s, was an essential migratory route for many pelagic species such as bonito, blue fish and mackerel, moving 
between the Mediterranean and Black Seas, but which are rarely encountered now in the Black Sea. 

The first effects of nutrient enrichment and the decimation of stocks of fish predators, appear to have been 
an increase in small pelagic biomass (Ivanov and Beverton, 1985). Biomasses and landings in the Black Sea rose in 
the late 1970s: landings, particularly of anchovy, from a previous level of around 350-400 OOOt to just short of 1 
million t (Box Figure). This was accompanied by a significant decline in species diversity, and increases in 
phytoplankton production. Recent evidence suggests that a collapse in the anchovy stocks occurred in 1988-89, with 
estimates of landings in 1991 of less than 150 OOOt. 

The introduction of an exotic, non-commercial species of coelenterate into the Black Sea, the ctenophore 
Mncmiopsis. which is a predator on fish eggs and larvae, may have acted in combination with heavy fishing and 
environmental changes, and appears to have been a key factor in the collapse of Black Sea anchovy and other pelagic 
fish (Zaitsev, 1993). This situation has preoccupied the international community, and a programme for rehabilitation 
of the Black Sea environment and living resources is now underway. 

Experience from the Black Sea suggests that under nutrient enrichment, heavy fishing of stocks of small 
pelagics may make space for alternative invertebrate planktivores, such as medusae and ctenophores, which compete 
with, and feed on fish eggs and larvae. The effects of nutrient enhancement (bottom up effects) and heavy fishing on 
predators (top down effects), seem to be synergistic in changing the ecological balance towards short-lived 
planktophagic species. If these types of mechanisms apply in heavily exploited marine ecosystems, overfishing could 
reinforce the effects of eutrophication already mentioned above, and appear to provide warning signals to other 
enclosed seas such as the Baltic, Caspian and Yellow Sea (Caddy, 1993). 

The situation with respect to fisheries statistical reporting and joint management of the Black Sea fisheries 
and environment is likely to radically change in future years, now that there are six coastal States which have signed 
a joint Convention for protection of the Black Sea Environment. There is also the possibility of revival of the Black 
Sea Fishery Commission, with participation of all coastal States. 



-42- 



FISHERIES CURRENTL Y FORMERL Y 
YIELD AND SUSTAINABLE OPTIMAL 
REVENUE i FLEET SIZE FLEET SIZE 



\ 



CURRENT 
FLEET 
SIZE 



MSY (late 80's) . 
-1 million tons 



MSY (to mid 80's) 
350-WO,OOOtons 



i 

CURRENT EXCESS INVESTMENT 



PREVIOUS EXCESS 
INVESTMENT 




FLEET SIZE 

Box Figure: A biological scenario for stock increases and subsequent collapse of small pelagics 
in the Black Sea, and its consequences for fishery investment 



-43- 

Relatively few countries have taken management action to control increases in fishing effort 
despite the repeated recommendations of GFCM. Allowing for changes in fishing power, catch 
rates of demersals in inshore fisheries are still generally low, and present levels of landing are 
achieved by exerting a high fishing effort by generally over-capitalized fleets. The top priority is 
still therefore to correct the serious overfishing that exists immediately offshore from most 
Mediterranean littoral zones. It seems likely also, that effort control is a precondition to the 
success of other management measures, such as increasing the size at first capture and, more 
importantly, increasing the spawning biomass and spawning success. At the same time, urgent 
measures need to be taken to protect inshore nursery areas from the adverse impacts of fishing and 
pollution. 

Italy has recently introduced the use of seasonal closures to protect their young fish stocks, 
and this appears to have been effective in the Adriatic in increasing recruitment of red mullet. 
Separate fishing areas in Israel are now allocated for different types of gear in order to reduce 
conflict between trawlers and inshore fishermen. 

The small mesh size used in trawling in many countries continues to be a problem, and the 
need to enforce the 40 mm mesh size regulation has been supported by the Adriatic and Western 
Mediterranean Consultations of GFCM, but not in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean. Here, 
other measures such as inshore closures and direct bans on landing small fish are in effect, which 
are also applicable to gear other than trawls. From the perspective of mesh size regulation of cod 
ends, three categories of demersal resources exist (Caddy, 1990c): 

(a) Fish with large sizes at first maturity, many of which are also the apical predators of the 
demersal system. These include the common hake (Merluccius merluccius). the Angler fish 
(Lophius piscatorius). the small elasmobranchs (especially the Squalidae, Scyliorhinidae and 
Rajidae), the larger Scorpaenidae, the ling (Molva spp.), Conger conger and the larger 
flatfish (including Lepidorhombus spp. and the common sole, Solea solea). For these 
species, the trawl cod-end stretched mesh sizes that would be needed to postpone capture 
until the size at first spawning, would have to be of the order of 80-100+ mm. 

(b) A group of species of considerable importance, such as many seabreams, the common 
pandora, poor cod, the red mullets, Norway lobster and cuttlefish, would require a stretched 
mesh size of at least 40 mm to achieve the same result as for group (a). 

(c) Small species such as small shrimp and cephalopods, gobies, solenettes, and other "forage" 
species, can be taken only with smaller mesh gear, but have considerable local importance. 
For these, a cod-end mesh size of less than 40 mm is required if these species are to be 
available for harvesting. This requirement apparently also applies for mixed catches of small 
demersals and small pelagic fish. 

The effect of a 40 mm or smaller mesh size without effort regulation, risks decimating 
group (a) if spawning fish are fully available to fishing. On the other hand, a mesh size of 40 mm 
or over would capture few of category (c), even if this mesh size is close to optimal for category 
(b). Mesh size regulation appears to be no substitute for protection of sensitive nursery areas, e.g., 
eel grass beds, from the effects of trawling, and the general priority remains with control of 



-44- 

excessive fishing effort, pollution, and prevention of degradation of the coastal zone. A "passive" 
approach to reducing destructive inshore fishing on inshore PoSidonia beds (important as nursery 
areas for young fish) has been tried in some areas: the location of concrete blocks as obstacles to 
inshore trawling. 

Red coral is one of the more valuable Mediterranean resources, being used with similar 
precious corals from Indo-Pacific waters, for production of jewellery. In the past, this species 
occurred in commercially exploitable concentrations off Spain, Algeria and Sardinia, and at lower 
densities elsewhere. Fishermen and industry have been greatly concerned with the declining returns 
to an ever more sophisticated harvest sector (GFCM, 1989), which has exchanged primitive 
dragging equipment for diving equipment capable of operating at a hundred metres depth. A 
rotating harvest scheme was seen by the industry and scientists as one of the few realistic options 
for a heavily exploited resource, which in absence of management is likely to be placed on the 
CITES list of species for which export of the organism or its products is restricted or prohibited. 

Molluscs support some of the more valuable fisheries, with the explosive development of 
mussel culture acting as an indication of enrichment in the Gulf of Lions and Adriatic. Mechanized 
clam ( H vongole H ) harvesting in the Adriatic was one of the single most valuable Mediterranean 
fisheries, but suffered from overexploitation in the 1980s (see Froglia, 1989), and probably also 
from the effects of pollution. Control of licences has recently been introduced. 

Industrial scale development occurred somewhat later for the small pelagic resources and, 
apart from anchovy fisheries, many of these resources are less heavily exploited; reflecting the 
generally high differential in prices received in the region for demersal versus small pelagic 
resources. Large fluctuations in stock size for the small pelagic stocks of the Mediterranean, are 
documented in the fisheries of the Sea of Alboran and the Adriatic. Sardine stock size for several 
areas has been shown to be influenced by primary production (e.g., Vucetic and Alegria- 
Hernandez, 1988), itself responding to levels of nutrient runoff (e.g., in the Adriatic and off the 
Nile delta (Wahby and Bishara, 1981)) which have been generally increasing in coastal waters 
(Pucher-PetkovicgtaL, 1988; Degobbis, 1989; Friligos, 1989). Uncontrolled enrichment processes 
and larval predation, in combination with heavy fishing, have however had serious negative impacts 
on small pelagic resources in the Black Sea (see Box "Fishery induced and anthropogenic effects 
on the Black Sea Ecosystem 11 ). 

The sardine stock appears to be rather underexploited in the northwestern Mediterranean, 
judging from hydro-acoustic surveys, although growing use of high opening trawls in some 
countries has increased utilization of small pelagics, while this gear still maintains pressure on 
demersal stocks. The sardine stock in Morocco appears to be fully exploited, and has declined 
recently relative to the anchovy stock. Small pelagic stocks in Algeria appear to be underfished, 
especially for anchovy, and Mediterranean stocks of horse-mackerel, in general, appear under- 
exploited. Landings of small pelagics have been variable, but an overall increase of roughly 4% 
per year was recorded for all small pelagics combined, over the decade preceding 1985-86 (Caddy, 
1990a). 

Management measures to control fishing have been relatively limited for small pelagic fish, 
apart from restrictions on pelagic trawling in some countries. Few stock assessment 



-45- 

recommendations have been made, except for the Gulf of Lions stock of sardines. The problem 
for most small pelagics, except for anchovy, seems related more to difficulties in achieving 
effective utilization and marketing rather than overfishing. In fact, there is evidence that some 
pelagic resources may have increased in recent years (e.g., Marasovic et aL, 1988). 

Increased interest in large pelagic resources in the Mediterranean has led to heavy pressure 
on the bluefin tuna and swordfish resources, using fishing techniques such as large-scale surface 
drift nets. This is of special concern in the vicinity of straits and along migration routes. Many 
local swordfish fisheries in the Mediterranean appear to now be operating on very young, small fish 
(GFCM, 1990). 

Bonito, Sarda sarda. and swordfish, Xiphias gladius. have shown landing increases 
averaging over 8-10% per year from 1975 to 1985 - figures almost equalled by bluefin tuna. Local 
increases in fishing effort, or new or expanded fisheries, such as those for swordfish in Greece, 
Malta, and the Ionian Sea, appear to account for increased landings, but although local increases 
in fishing effort are implied, there appears to be a real increase in recruitment of small swordfish 
to these fisheries. This may be related to the increase in abundance of their prey, notably the small 
pelagic fish referred to earlier. The need is apparent for some coordination of research and 
statistics gathering, not only for swordfish but also for bluefin tuna. Bluefin tuna is considered by 
ICCAT as in serious need of conservation measures, as are swordfish, bonito and dolphin fish. 
These matters were discussed in a joint ICCAT-GFCM workshop in 1990, which will be repeated 
later in 1992 (Ivanov and Beverton, 1985). Possible problems with other highly migratory species 
may be indicated by the effective termination of mass migrations of bluefish, bonito and mackerel 
into the Black Sea since the 1970s (Ivanov and Beverton, 1985). 

The complex of problems faced in many Mediterranean countries with fishery management, 
are most clearly focused on the coastal zone, where critical habitats for fisheries (nursery areas, 
sites for aquaculture development), often encountered uncontrolled expansion in the use of the same 
areas for other human activities, such as tourism, domestic waste disposal and runoff of chemicals 
from industry and agriculture, and are subject to fishing pressure by artisanal fleets using a wide 
range of gear types. 

SOUTHWEST ATLANTIC (Area 41) (Table 10) 

Total catches in this area increased almost continuously from one million t in the mid-1970s 
to 2.4 million t in 1987, then decreased to 2.0 million t in 1990, to raise slightly to 2.2 million t 
in 1991 . Most of the recent changes are due to the year to year changes in the catches of squids, 
hakes, and other demersal stocks in the Patagonian Shelf and Slope area, and of the sardinella 
catches off Brazil. 

One of the most important fisheries in terms of total landings and value continues to be that 
for hake. Two species of hake are reported in the commercial catches in this area: the common 
hake (Merluccius hubbsi) which is the most abundant and found mainly in the northern Patagonian 
Shelf off Argentina and the continental shelf off Uruguay and southern Brazil, and the Patagonian 
hake (M. polylepisl which is found farther offshore in the southern Patagonian Shelf, around the 
Falkland (Malvinas) Islands, and along the Patagonian Slope. The areas of distribution of the two 



-46- 

species tend to overlap, particularly offshore, where it is difficult to distinguish between these two 
species in the commercial catches. However, it is certain that more than 95% of the hake catches 
correspond to the common hake (Merluccius hubbsi). which is also the one that attracts most of the 
research efforts and is best known in the area (Otero el aL, 1982; Otero and Verazay, 1984; Arena 
61 aL, 1986; Bezzi el aL, 1986; Otero el aL, 1986; Key and Grunwaldt, 1986; Verazay and Otero, 
1986; Angelescu and Prenski, 1987; Arena el aL, 1987; Ubal et aL, 1987; Otero and Verazay, 
1988; Podestd, 1990; Bezzi el aL, 1993). After being stable at around 350 OOOt for several years 
in the early 1980s, total hake catches dropped to 260 OOOt in 1984, to increase again with some 
year to year fluctuations to a new record of 520 OOOt in 1991. 

Hake is mostly exploited by Argentinean fleets that operate over the entire area of 
distribution of the species, by a Uruguayan fleet operating in the Argentinean/Uruguayan Common 
Fishing Zone, and to a lesser extent, by a small Brazilian fleet fishing in southern Brazil. Offshore 
catches of hake by long-range foreign fishing fleets, mainly from Spain, Japan, Portugal and the 
former USSR increased for several years, but are now greatly reduced. Long-range foreign fleets 
were reporting less than 2% of the total catches of hake in this area until 1985, their share 
increased to 16% in 1988, but it is now back to less than 4%. Most of the off-shore catches are 
suspected to be Patagonian hake. Judging from the current exploitation levels and the assessments 
made in the past (Otero el aL, 1982; FAO, 1983; Csirke, 1987; Bezzi el aL, 1993), it is most 
likely that these two species of hake are fully exploited. 

No major changes are noted in the catches of croakers and weakfishes. Most of these stocks 
are moderately to fully exploited (Otero and Ibanez, 1986; Haimovici, 1988; Arena, 1990). The 
stocks of weakfish in the Argentinean and Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone are now stable, after 
having recovered from a collapse in the early 1980s. Some limited possibility for further expansion 
of this fishery exists in northern Brazil. 

Catches of sardinella (Sardinella brasiliensis). taken exclusively by Brazil, declined to 
65 OOOt in 1988 and 32 OOOt in 1990, after being relatively stable at 100 OOOt for several years and 
in 1991 the total catch increased to 64 OOOt . This stock is considered to be fully to heavily 
exploited, and the drop in total landings may be a result of a combination of heavy fishing and 
biomass fluctuations due to natural causes. During the last two years there has been a reported 
increase in the abundance of anchoita (Engraulis anchoita) off central Brazil. This is the 
northernmost area of distribution of this species as well as the main fishery grounds of sardinella 
(Saccardo, 1983; Matsuura el aL, 1985; Matsuura, 1989; Bakun and Parrish, 1990; 1991). 

Besides the sardinella, other clupeoids and other small pelagics are lightly fished in this 
area. The stock of anchoita (Engraulis anchoita) off southern Brazil, Uruguay and northern 
Argentina is virtually unexploited, with an estimated potential of a few hundred thousand t per year. 
Total catches of this species seldom exceed 20 OOOt, mostly reported by Argentina. Although it 
shows some wide year to year fluctuations in its overall abundance, all the assessments made in the 
past (Ciechomski and Sanchez, 1988) clearly indicate that the anchoita has high abundance levels 
and is a key element in the marine food chain in the area. This stock can easily sustain increased 
levels of exploitation, but so far, further development of this fishery has been limited by 
technological and economic factors, and the difficulties to overcome various problems associated 



-47- 

with type of distribution and behaviour of the species, and the quality and cost/value ratio of 
possible products. 

As reported in past assessments (Boschi, 1989), major changes continued to occur in the 
stock of shrimp (Pleoticus muellerrt in the central part of the Patagonian Shelf. After increasing 
from 2 600t in 1981 to 23 OOOt in 1984, catches dropped to 10 OOOt in 1985, 7 OOOt in 1986, and 
2 500t in 1987. However, catches of this species increased to 17 800 t in 1988 to then decline 
steadily to 8 200t in 1991. The wide fluctuations in the total catches of this species are almost 
certainly associated with year to year changes in the overall abundance of the stock, affected by 
heavy fishing and annual environmental changes. 

After a continuous increase from 31 OOOt in 1980 to 350 OOOt in 1986, and a peak catch of 
750 OOOt in 1989, catches of squids in this area declined to 552 OOOt in 1990 to peak up again to 
674 OOOt in 1991. Most of these catches are short-fin squid (Illex spp.) and common squid (Loligo 
spp.) caught by Argentina and by long-range fleets from Japan, Republic of Korea, the former 
USSR, Poland and Spain on the southern Patagonian Shelf and Slope. Several studies have been 
conducted on those stocks, particularly on short-fin squid in the Patagonian Shelf and Slope area 
(Koronkiewicz, 1980; Brunetti, 1981; Otero el aL 1982; Hatanaka & aL, 1985; Hatanaka, 1986; 
Koronkiewicz, 1986; Csirke, 1987; Hatanaka, 1988; Haimovici el aL, 1990), and after a period 
of great uncertainty regarding the state of these stocks, and the fear of overexploitation, several 
management measures were introduced to reduce the fishing effort in some of the main fishing 
grounds. This helped to keep fishing effort under control, although fishing pressure continues to 
be very high. The overall abundance of these stocks is reported to vary widely from year to year 
due to natural causes, and close monitoring is needed for adequate protection. These stocks are 
considered to be fully to heavily exploited in the Patagonian Shelf and Slope, and lightly exploited 
elsewhere, particularly in the northern coastal areas. 

The other important fisheries in the southern Patagonian Shelf and Slope are for southern 
blue whiting (Micromesistius austral! s) (Zukowski and Liwoch, 1977; Inada and Nakamura, 1978; 
Perrotta, 1982; Liwoch, 1986a;b; Csirke, 1987), mostly caught by the former USSR and Polish 
fleets. After being virtually unexploited in the late 1970s, catches of this species increased rapidly 
to a peak of 240 OOOt in 1983, to decrease and remain more or less stable at around 100 OOOt per 
year from 1984 to 1988. Catches have increased in recent years to 130 OOOt in 1989 and to 
190 OOOt in 1990, and decreased slightly to 150 OOOt in 1991. The stock is considered moderately 
exploited, although it would be closer to the level of full exploitation if the recent rate of increase 
is maintained. Other demersal fish stocks in the Patagonian Shelf include the grenadiers (Macrourus 
spp.), tadpole mora f Sal i lota austral is), pink cusk eel (Genypterus blacodes). toothfish (Dissostichus 
eleginoides). sharks, rays and notothenids. Total catches of these species increased steadily 
from less than 20 OOOt in the early 1980s to 125 OOOt in 1988, but decreased to 77 OOOt and 
70 OOOt in 1989 and 1990. Although there is little specific information, most of these stocks are 
considered to be moderately exploited. 

Several management measures have been in force in the area for some years. These include 
restricted licensing of national vessels to control fishing effort on hake, and mesh size regulations 
to reduce capture and discarding of juvenile hakes. Restrictions on pair trawling, and on in-shore 
fishing operations have probably contributed to the recovery of some croaker and weakfish stocks. 



-48- 

Some measures have also been adopted to limit the access and control the operations of long-range 
foreign fleets in the area. 

Argentina and Uruguay continue to maintain close cooperation within the framework of the 
Joint Technical Commission for the River Plate Maritime Front, particularly regarding the research 
and management of fisheries in the Argentinean/Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone. In Brazil, ten 
permanent working groups, responsible for providing advice on the management and development 
of fisheries along the Brazilian coast, continued to update information and data on the assessment 
of the fish stocks of Brazil, although they have been less active in recent years. 

An issue of serious concern for the conservation and long-term management of the fish 
stocks in this area was the rapid development of the offshore fishing in the southern Patagonian 
Shelf and Slope by long-range fleets. Some important fish stocks are being exploited both within 
the 200 nautical mile limit where national jurisdiction can be exerted, and in the area beyond where 
no national jurisdiction is recognized. After the re-establishment of diplomatic relationships 
between Argentina and the UK, the two countries are cooperating to improve the research, 
monitoring and control of fishing in the region. Management measures have been adopted to restrict 
access and regulate fishing effort in some fishing grounds, including voluntary restrictions in fishing 
grounds located beyond the 200 mile limit. 



SOUTHEAST ATLANTIC (Area 47) (Table 11) 

The Southeast Atlantic area, particularly off southern Angola and Namibia, has an 
exceptionally high biological productivity principally because of the upwelling of nutrients resulting 
from the Benguela current which flows northward along the coast. The total fishery potential of the 
Benguela current system is not well known. 

Relatively few species account for the greater part of the total fish biomass: hake 
(Merluccius) are present both inshore and offshore, horse mackerel (Trachurus) and, to a lesser 
extent, chub mackerel (Scomber) are the major offshore species. Pilchard (Sardinops) and anchovy 
(Engraulis) are the most abundant inshore pelagic species of the coastal upwelling system. In 
addition, there are less abundant but economically significant resources of snoek, kingklip, sole, 
rock lobster, dentex and squids (Wysokinsky, 1986). 

Total catches in this area have remained relatively stable at about 2.1 to 2.7 million t per 
year between 1980 and 1989, only to decrease to 1.5 million t in 1990 (FAO, 1992J). Most of the 
fluctuations in recent years are due to changes in the total catches of anchovy (Engraulis capensis) 
and to a lesser extent, cape horse mackerel (Trachurus capensisV These two species together with 
the hakes (Merluccius capensis. M- paradoxus. and M- Bfilli), sardinellas (Sardinella aurita and 
maderensis). pilchard (Sardinops ocellata^l and Cunene horse mackerel (Trachurus trecae) made up 
58% of the total catches in 1989. 

A large share of the catches (43%) was formerly taken by distant water fleets operating 
mainly off Namibia and Angola (ICSEAF Fishing Divisions 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5). This situation 
arose because there was no coastal State control over fishing off Namibia while Namibia's 



-49- 

independence was pending, and therefore this area became one of the few free fishing grounds left 
in the world after the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) went into 
effect. In the same area, Angola which became independent in 1975, is now emphasizing the 
development of its small-scale coastal fishery; previously there had been intense offshore fishing 
effort by foreign vessels operating in its 200 mile zone. 

Upon independence in 1990, Namibia requested all foreign fleets to cease their fishing 
activities off the Namibian coast, pending the approval of a national fishing law, the declaration 
of a 200 mile exclusive economic zone, and the definition of a national policy regarding fisheries 
in the newly independent coastal State. Several options are currently being considered, and further 
studies on the state and potential yields of fish stocks are now being undertaken to help in the 
decision-making process regarding the future exploitation of Namibian fishery resources. Fishing 
by large distant-water fleets in the 200 mile zone off Namibia ceased, at least temporarily, in the 
third quarter of 1990. This caused a reduction in total catches in ICSEAF Divisions 1.3 to 1.5 in 
1990, and hopefully will contribute to the recovery of some of the fish stocks that have been 
severely reduced due to heavy fishing in the past. 

Hakes are the main and most abundant demersal stocks in this area. There are two species, 
Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus. which are not reported separately in the fishery 
statistics (FAO, 1992J). The stock off northern Namibia (ICSEAF areas 1.3-1.4) differs from that 
of the southern part (ICSEAF area 1.5) and is the most important of the two. The northern stock 
is shared with Angola while the southern stock is shared with South Africa. These stocks are 
exploited by foreign long-range fleets in the north (ICSEAF areas 1.3 to 1.5) and by coastal South 
African fleets south. After removal of more than 800 OOOt per year in the early 1970s, catches of 
hake decreased to about 445 OOOt in 1989. All the stocks have been overexploited, although the 
most southern stock seems to show some sign of recovery. 

Of the several pelagic stocks of commercial importance in this area, the most abundant are 
the cape horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus capensis) and the anchovy (Engraulis capensis). The 
cape horse mackerel yielded a catch of almost 500 OOOt in 1989, and is considered to be moderately 
to fully exploited, although this stock is known to be highly variable and is mostly fished by foreign 
long-range fleets. The anchovy stock is exploited almost entirely by coastal South African fleets, 
and yielded almost 452 OOOt in 1989. These stocks are considered to be fully exploited. 

Another important pelagic stock in this area is the sardinella, which is currently exploited 
by the former USSR and Angola. The catch of this species was of 106 OOOt in 1989, and the stock 
is moderately exploited. The Cunene horse mackerel was intensively exploited by the former USSR 
and Angolan fleets, with total reported catches of 159 OOOt in 1989. The chub mackerel stocks are 
heavily exploited, and the pilchard (Sardinops ocellata) stock which collapsed off South Africa in 
the 1960s and off Namibia in the mid-1970s continues to be depleted, showing no sign of recovery. 
A high biomass of round herring (Etrumeus whiteheadi) exceeding 1 million t in ICSEAF Divisions 
1.6 and Sub-area 2, was reported at the Standing Committee on Stock Assessment during the Tenth 
ICSEAF Regular Session held in Palma de Mallorca, Spain, in November-December 1989 
(ICSEAF, 1989). Total catches for this species are of the order of 60 OOOt per year, and the 
perspectives for further development are promising. 



-50- 

Due to the lack of suitable stock assessment data, little can be said about the state of other 
fish stocks being exploited in this area, such as soles, kingklip, fflonkfish, dentex, rock lobsters and 
squids. 

Until 1989 the exploitation of the stocks of this region was monitored through the activities 
of the International Commission for the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries (ICSEAF) which was mainly 
concerned with the international assessment, monitoring and management of fisheries in the then 
unclaimed waters off Namibia. This regional organization decided to cease its operation early in 
1990 following the declaration of independence by Namibia in April 1990. Namibia is now 
managing fisheries within its exclusive economic zone as of July 1990. 

WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN (Area 51) (Table 12) 

Total recorded landings in the area were 3.4 million t in both 1989 and 1990, having 
increased from 2.9 million t in 1988 and 2.7 million t in both 1986 and 1987. The major coastal 
countries with their total catches in brackets in thousand tons, were: India (1 653), Pakistan (366), 
Iran (209), Sri Lanka (134), Oman (120), UAE (95), Yemen (89), Maldives (78) and Madagascar 
(75). Spain (107) and France (79) also reported major catches in the area. 

Landings in India exceeded 1.6 million t in both 1989 and 1990. This is compared to 
landings of 1 .2 million t in 1988 and 1 . 1 million t in 1987. These increases in Indian landings have 
accounted for the major part of the increase for the total Western Indian Ocean area. Much of the 
increase was for pelagic species, Indian oil sardine, Indian mackerel and anchovy. Mackerel 
landings increased in 1989, more than doubling the level of recent years but declined in 1990. The 
decline was offset by increased catches of oil sardine and anchovy. The demersal finfish catch in 
India consists of a large number of different species, with croakers, Bombay duck and catfish being 
the most important. Catches of croakers contributed substantially to the overall increased landings. 
The total landings of shrimps have remained relatively stable, but a shift in species towards smaller, 
less valuable species has been observed. The shrimp stocks appear to be heavily exploited. 

Accompanying the large increases of Indian landings are the more gradual increase in 
landings in other countries in the region. Pakistan's total landings have been slowly increasing in 
recent years. Landings of shrimps have remained at around 28 OOOt from 1982 to 1988, declined 
in 1989 but returned to the former level in 1990. The shrimp resources appear fully exploited or 
overfished. Attempts have been made to encourage the fishery to move to underexploited resources 
in deeper waters. 

Omani landings increased from around 100 OOOt from 1983 to 1986 to 166 OOOt in 1988; 
the main catches being pelagics (tunas, kingfishes and small pelagics) caught by gillnets. However, 
landings decreased to 118 000 and 120 OOOt in 1989 and 1990 respectively. The Norwegian 
research vessel DR FRIDTJOF NANSEN surveyed Omani waters (1983-84) and found these to be 
very productive areas. This survey gave an estimate of biomass for small pelagics (scads, 
mackerels and sardines) of 1.2 million t and a demersal biomass of 345 OOOt (seabreams, catfish, 
croakers, grunters and emperors). The MSY has been estimated at 270 OOOt of pelagics and 
77 OOOt of demersal fish. 



-51- 

Landings by Iran have steadily increased. The 1989 and 1990 landings of 210 OOOt and 
200 OOOt respectively are more than double those of years prior to 1986. Shrimp landings have 
doubled over a similar period to reach a level near 10 OOOt per year. Tuna and other large pelagics 
yield more than 20 OOOt per year. Landings in the United Arab Emirates have also increased from 
a level near 72 OOOt through the first half of the 1980s to 95 OOOt in 1990. 

Shri Lanka's marine landings have dropped from 180 OOOt in the early 1980s to 140 OOOt 
in 1985-86, recovered to 166 OOOt in 1989, but fell back to 134 OOOt in 1990. Tuna and small 
pelagic species (sardines) caught by gillnets are the largest components of their catches, and there 
has been an offshore expansion in recent years, especially in shark fisheries. To some extent the 
restriction in coastal fisheries has been due to civil disturbances in the country. Pelagics (tunas, 
kingfishes, scads, sardines) form the main catch. A second important group is the demersal fishes 
(emperors, groupers, snappers). The recorded landings by Yemen reached 89 OOOt in 1990, up 
from 73 OOOt over the previous several years. Pelagics comprise the major part of the catch. 
Landings by the Maldives, primarily of tuna and tuna-like species caught by the traditional pole and 
line fishery, rose to 78 OOOt in 1990. Considerable resources of reef fish (groupers, snappers, etc.) 
are virtually unexploited. 

Countering the general rising trend in the region are the landings in the countries most 
directly affected by the Gulf War. Shrimp landings by Kuwait dropped from 5 OOOt in 1988 to less 
than 2 OOOt in 1990. Total marine fish landings have dropped by a similar amount (See Box: 
"Recent fisheries and environmental findings from the Gulf*). Saudi Arabian shrimp landings 
declined from 7 OOOt in 1984 to less than 5 OOOt in 1990, and total fish landings of 45 OOOt in 1990 
are also down from the level of the previous several years. Marine fish landings by Iraq also 
declined from previous years. The magnitudes involved in these reductions are not large enough 
to have changed the rising trend of landings for the northern zone of the Western Indian Ocean as 
a whole. 

Total landings in countries bordering the Southwestern Indian Ocean, including Somalia but 
excluding landings by foreign fleets, have gradually increased from 131 OOOt in 1981 to 290 OOOt 
in 1990. Most of this is accounted for by a continuing large annual increase in landings reported 
by Madagascar and the Maldives, from 51 OOOt in 1981 to 153 OOOt in 1990. The major shrimp 
catching countries in the Southwestern Indian Ocean in 1990 were Madagascar (9 OOOt) and 
Mozambique (6 OOOt). The state of exploitation of artisanal fisheries in the Southwestern Indian 
Ocean is unknown, and the extent to which they interact with the industrial trawl fisheries is also 
unknown. 

The main opportunities for increased catches are in fishery development for small pelagic 
stocks off Mozambique and Somalia, expansion of fishing for demersal trawl fish off Mozambique, 
Madagascar and Tanzania, increased utilization of by-catch from shrimp trawlers and some further 
expansion of artisanal fisheries off Madagascar and Somalia (Ardill and Saunders, 1991). The 
potential for development of fisheries for small pelagics (anchovies, scads, Indian and Japanese 
mackerel, and round herring) in the Southwestern Indian Ocean needs to be assessed to see whether 
harvesting of these resources is economical. 



-52- 



BOX: Recent fisheries and environmental findings from the Gulf 

Following the 1991 Gulf War, international concern as to the environmental effects of the war 
led to a number of rehabilitation and research initiatives in the region. These included a major UN 
interagency effort coordinated by UNEP, the establishment of a reserve and research station supported by 
the EEC in the area of the oil spill in Saudi Arabia, and an extended research cruise by a vessel of the 
US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. All of these activities were supported by 
the countries in the region and complemented by national research and rehabilitation initiatives. These 
actions largely cleaned up the major oil spill and provided valuable environmental information. 

Fisheries in the Gulf appear to have been directly and indirectly affected by the war (Carpenter, 
1992). During the first half of 1991, there was very little commercial fishing in the Gulf, because the 
most valuable shrimping grounds are in the northern part of the Gulf near the war zone and the area of 
the oil slick (Box Figure). Small scale fisheries did however operate south of the war zone. The shrimp 
catch in late 1991 and early 1992 was very low compared to previous years, presumably because of the 
disruption of fishing operations, but an apparent stunting of growth of shrimp in the Gulf was noted. It is 
not known if this stunting was due to reduced sea water temperatures caused by the smoke from burning 
oil wells in Kuwait, water and sediment pollution from the war, or some other natural factor. Although 
oil spills from the war affected the rich fishing grounds off Kuwait and northern Saudi Arabia, otherwise 
there are reports of an overall reduction in oil pollution in the Gulf, probably due to decreased tanker 
traffic. 



Jj Shrimp fishing area 
Oil slick 




Box Figure: Distribution of major oil slicks during the Gulf war in relation to shrimp fishing areas 



-53- 

Several countries (Tanzania, Madagascar, Somalia) are expecting increased catches from 
artisanal fisheries for demersals on the basis of differences between the estimated potential yield, 
and the reported catch. However, because of the difficulty of collecting good landing information, 
real catches may be much closer to the potential yield than present statistics suggest. The 
strengthening of fishery data collection is very important in order to provide a sound data base for 
development and management advice. 

Several resources in the Southwestern Indian Ocean are fully exploited (Ardill and Saunders, 
1991) and most coastal countries recognize that some form of management is required to prevent 
overexploitation. This is the case of the demersal trawl fishery in Somalia, shallow water shrimp 
fishery in Mozambique and Madagascar, and the handline fishery for demersal stocks on offshore 
banks between Mauritius and Reunion. In general, there is a great need for stock assessment work 
in the Southwestern Indian Ocean, which should be focused on several priority resources, such as 
those for valuable crustaceans and fish, and for those stocks with developmental prospects. A need 
also exists to focus research on assessment and management problems of artisanal fisheries, given 
that substantial increases in yield can be expected if these fisheries are properly assessed and 
managed. The area could benefit from more effective management of shrimp fisheries where in 
some cases a 75% reduction in effort could maintain the harvest at the present level, and greatly 
increase the profitability of the fishery. 

Many countries rely on a system of licensing national and international vessels as their main 
tool for controlling fishing effort of their industrial fisheries (FAO, 1986). In practice however, 
it seems that this system is not sufficient to ensure that effort reductions take place when they are 
needed. It is important that countries understand that there has to be a managerial and legal 
mechanism which allows administrations to use the licensing system as a fishery management tool. 

France, Spain, Taiwan (Province of China), Korea and Japan were the principal foreign 
countries fishing for tuna and tuna-like species in the area. This fishery started in 1981 and 
recorded a catch of 277 OOOt in 1990. The state of the stocks of oceanic tuna are covered in Table 
21 and in the chapter on tunas. 

Large unexploited resources of mesopelagic fish (lantern fish) have been detected by the 
Norwegian research vessel DR FRIDTJOF NANSEN, but no economic way of catching these fish 
has been devised. In most cases the concentrations are not high enough for economic exploitation 
by purse seines or midwater trawls. It remains an open question whether the mesopelagic stocks 
might represent potential fisheries for the area. 

The Indian Ocean Fishery Commission (IOFC) (Marashi, 1993) is the regional organization 
for the Indian Ocean (Area 51 and Area 57) that assists and coordinates national programmes in 
fisheries development, promotes regional research activities and examines management problems 
relating to offshore resources. Special committees are set up for the management of fish stocks in 
the Gulfs, Southwest Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean tuna. These committees 
do not regulate fisheries but act as advisory bodies in the management of the fishery resources in 
the various countries in the region. 



-54- 
EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN (Area 57) (Table 13) 

Statistical area 57 (Eastern Indian Ocean) covers the waters of the Bay of Bengal, northern 
part of the Malacca Strait and Eastern Indian Ocean proper. The countries bordering the area 
include India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia. The shelf area 
of the Asian continent stretches from the eastern part of India over the coast of Bangladesh, 
Myanmar and down to the Malacca Strait, with an extensive shelf area found off Myanmar and east 
India. Freshwater runoff greatly influences the northern part of the region, where large rivers enter 
the Bay of Bengal from northeastern India (Ganges River), Bangladesh (Brahmaputra River) and 
Myanmar (Irrawaddy and Salween Rivers). Estuarine resources are important here; for example 
the toll shad, an estuarine species, dominates the marine catch in Bangladesh. 

This area is subject to the seasonal influence of the southwest monsoon (May-September) 
when the sea is relatively rough. Myanmar fish abundance fluctuates according to this monsoonal 
cycle, and in the pre-monsoon period, fish are found in more abundance than during the post 
monsoon. A special characteristic of this area is that it is subject to destructive cyclones that form 
over the open ocean and head for shore in a generally westward direction. The northeastern coasts 
of India and Bangladesh are the most vulnerable to cyclones. 

Reported landings in area 57 reached 2.8 million t in 1990, a slight increase over the 
previous year's catch of 2.7 million t (Table 13). Catches come mainly from inshore, from the 
small-scale fishery. The five countries contributing 85% of the catch in 1990 were India, 
Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand. Increases in the catch were noted for most demersal 
and pelagic species. However, some inshore resources, in particular shrimp, have experienced 
intensive exploitation in coastal waters off east India, Myanmar and Thailand. 

Small-scale and industrial trawl fisheries, fish the same coastal grounds off the Indian coast, 
and user conflict and intense fishing pressure have been reported in coastal waters. To reduce the 
conflict commonly arising between artisanal and trawl fishermen inshore, some countries are 
deploying artificial reefs which provide new fishing grounds for artisanal fishermen, but also 
discourage trawl fishing in these areas. Thailand and, to a certain extent, Malaysia, have considered 
this activity to be one of the programme priorities. 

Under-exploited fish resources may still exist in this region, particularly in the shelves of 
the Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago. Deep sea resources (groupers, snappers, pomfret, etc.) 
have a potential of about 73 OOOt a year on the shelves of the Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago, 
and offer alternatives for the deployment of large Indian deep-sea trawl fleets (Sudarsan, 1990). 
A deep water lobster (Puerulus sewelli) and penaeid shrimp of the genus Aristeus are believed to 
be abundant in the southern part of the continental slope of Myanmar (FAO, 1984), but there are 
no indications that commercial trawling has occurred there. 

A large shrimp by-catch, estimated to be about 120 OOOt in 1990, is discarded off the east 
coast of India by the trawl fishery (Gordon, 1991). In Thailand, however, most of the by-catch 
are used by the fishmeal industry which supports a growing aquaculture industry. 



-55- 

A longline fishery for tuna which targets for sashimi consumption in Japan has developed 
in the Indian Ocean off Indonesia, and although this fishery was initiated by foreign fleets, local 
fishermen are taking over the foreign boats. 

Off northwestern Australia, the demersal fishery is now exclusively in Australian hands. The 
resources are considered fully exploited and all foreign fishing has ceased. A large number of 
species are taken in the southeast demersal trawl fishery, but catches in recent years have been 
dominated by orange roughy at a depth of 800-1 200 m. These stocks are near full exploitation. 

Fishing by foreign vessels in Area 57 has grown less intense. Japan, the Republic of Korea, 
and Taiwan (Province of China) have traditionally fished for tuna employing long-lines but landings 
by these countries amounted to 17 OOOt or less than 1% of the overall catch in 1990. 

Scientific management of fisheries resources is not yet well established in some areas of this 
region, although development of fisheries has reached a point where this is necessary. Fishery 
management involving effort control is better established in Malaysia than in the rest of the region, 
except in Australia, where resource management is well established. Countries in this area are 
members of the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Commission (IPFC) and the Indian Ocean Fishery 
Commission (IOFC). Both of these bodies are only advisory and thus do not have any regulatory 
power. Countries presently exploiting tuna resources in the Indian Ocean are in the process of 
establishing the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission which will be responsible for the management of 
the regional tuna resources. The Bay of Bengal Project (BOBP), a regional project funded by 
multidonor agencies (DANIDA, ODA, SID A, UNDP), has also assisted development of marine 
fisheries, particularly in providing assistance to fishing communities. 



NORTHWEST PACIFIC (Area 61) (Table 14) 

Reported landings from the Northwest Pacific have decreased slightly from a record 26.7 
million t in 1988 to 25.7 million t in 1990 (FAO, 1993a). The decrease was primarily from the 
decline in landings of Alaska pollock and the Japanese pilchard. The total annual landings remain 
among the highest in the world: 31% of the total world marine catch. The production is also 
distinct, being supported by the environmental diversity in the area with its well-balanced 
composition of demersal and pelagic species. 

Salmon stocks in the area, once depleted during the 1960s especially in Russia, began to 
recover since the late 1970s, and appear to have stabilized in recent years. These include odd- and 
even-year class pink, chum (Russian origin), sockeye, coho and Chinook salmons. Catch of chum 
salmon around Japan accounts for more than half of total salmon catch from the entire area. 
Artificial breeding and releasing techniques, along with rehabilitation and enhancement of natural 
conditions in ascending rivers in northern Japan are believed to be partially responsible for this. 

The fishery for Alaska pollock continues to land the highest catch for any single demersal 
fish stock in the world. The catch was over 5 million t from 1986 to 1988 but declined to 4.8 
million t and 4.2 million t in 1989 and 1990. All the stocks are considered to be fully exploited 
and there has been a significant increase in the proportion of undifferentiated (low value) fish in 



-56- 

the catch. A second important demersal fish in the northern part of the area is Pacific cod. 
Landings have increased from around 80 OOOt in the early 1980s to over 200 OOOt in recent years. 
Most cod stocks are fully exploited. Other demersal fish in the north are considered fully 
exploited, and several stocks have been depleted, including bastard halibut, plaice and flounder, 
tonguefish and rockfish. Landings of demersal fish in the south are stable at a low level with the 
exception of largehead hairtail, filefish and sandlances.The catch of largehead hairtail has varied 
from 531 OOOt to 650 OOOt annually since 1985. 

The demersal stocks in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea are seriously depleted and are 
estimated to be at one-fifth to one-tenth of their highest levels (Yu, 1991). There is little sign of 
recovery in these fisheries. Overfishing in these cases may be due to serious losses of post-larvae 
and juvenile fish to the fine mesh fishing gears used in the coastal fisheries. The coastal pelagic 
fish stocks in this area are very productive. They exhibit large fluctuations in abundance and 
change dramatically in dominance from one species to another. These features are most noticeable 
in the stocks around Japan, involving the Pacific herring, Pacific saury, Japanese pilchard, Japanese 
chub mackerel, Japanese anchovy and Japanese jack mackerel. An example of this has been the 
change in abundance of the Japanese pilchard around Japan. The catch in the mid-1960s was 
around 9 OOOt, but exceeded 5.4 million t in 1988, making it one of the world's largest single 
species catches. The catches in 1989 and 1990 were 5.1 and 4.7 million t. A recent analysis of 
the age structure of the stock suggests that a decline in abundance may be forthcoming in the 
future. Management of such unstable pelagic fish stocks is quite difficult, and requires frequent 
monitoring of the population. Clear causes of these changes are unknown; it has become generally 
accepted that they are probably natural causes and there is little evidence of a direct link with 
fishing pressure. 

Landings of Pacific herring have continued to decline from over 200 OOOt in 1985 to 1988 
to 109 OOOt in 1990. Catches of Pacific saury have increased from 274 OOOt in 1985 to 331 OOOt 
and 416 OOOt in 1989 and 1990. Another coastal pelagic fish, the chub mackerel, has declined in 
catch from 1.5 million t in 1986 to 1.0 and 0.7 million t in 1989 and 1990. The total catch of all 
pelagic fish in the area in recent years has continued to be from 6 million to 8 million t. Due to 
the major changes in relative abundance of the different species, it is difficult to establish long-term 
sustainable yields for the individual species. The catch of scads (Decapterus spp.) reached 0.4. 
million t in 1990. The catch was taken by China from the coasts bordering the South China Sea 
and southern East China Sea. 

The annual landings of the Japanese flying squid fishery declined from over 400 OOOt in the 
early 1970s to 200 OOOt in 1988 but have recovered somewhat to 287 OOOt and 298 OOOt in 1989 
and 1990. The cephalopod stocks around Japan are considered fully exploited, but the oceanic 
squids in the northern region, along with neritic cephalopods in the southern region, could provide 
substantially larger catches (Chikuni, 1985). Prawn and shrimp stocks are considered fully 
exploited, and little change in the landings is expected. 

At present, there is no functional multilateral organization to cover the entire area, although 
such an organization would be helpful in the assessment and management of shared fish stocks. 
Present research and management are the responsibility of the individual coastal countries. Five 
bilateral fishery agreements between individual countries currently exist in the region through which 
management of the shared stocks is partially conducted. 



-57- 
NORTHEAST PACIFIC (Area 67) (Table 15) 

The environment: Inter-annual variability in the marine environment of the northeastern Pacific 
Ocean appears to be strongly linked with El Nifio phenomena originating in the tropical Pacific 
(Wooster and Fluharty, 1985). This results in an intensification of anti-clockwise wind circulation 
over the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea, and increased northward transport of water properties and 
organisms within the eastern boundary zone of the ocean. Thus warmer conditions and incursion 
of southern species have generally coincided with El Nino events. The entire period of the late 
1970s and early 1980s generally exhibited enhanced "El Nifio 19 -like characteristics: especially 
marked in 1976 and in 1982-83 (Norton l aL, 1985; Wooster and Hollowed, in press). 

El Nifio conditions appear detrimental to resident fish populations in the southern parts of 
the area (Pearcy, 1992), but favour successful recruitment in some important stocks of the northern 
Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea (Beamish and Bouillon, in press). For example, better than average 
reproduction in many North Pacific groundfish stocks in the late 1970s, coinciding with the 
extended M E1 NinoMike conditions, appears to have been important for sustaining the populations 
through the following decade. 

Fisheries commissions: The Pacific Salmon Treaty, enacted in 1985 between Canada and the 
USA, enables the benefits to be obtained from their management and enhancement efforts. A 
Pacific Salmon Commission establishes general fishery management objectives for international 
conservation and harvest sharing of intermingling Canadian and US salmon stocks. The 
International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC), established in 1923, with membership of Canada 
and the USA, deals with research and management of the Pacific halibut resources in the entire area 
(Marashi, 1993). 

The International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC), established in 1952 with 
Canada, Japan, and USA as members, coordinates collection, exchange and analysis of data on high 
seas fisheries. A very recent development is the North Pacific Marine Science Organization 
(PICES), established in 1992 to coordinate and promote scientific research on the environment and 
resources of the northern North Pacific Ocean (Marashi, 1993). Early membership is expected to 
include Canada, China, Japan, Russian Federation and the USA. Several other countries are 
considering membership. 

Management measures: Much of the 200-mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) within the region 
is under US jurisdiction and in US waters, within the purview of the Magnuson Fishery 
Conservation and Management Act of 1976. This act requires formal fishery management plans 
which are designed to achieve sustainable yield and are implemented through regional councils. 
Regular resource surveys are undertaken for fishery-independent stock assessment. Annual 
assessments of status of stocks incorporate fishery statistics and catch-at-age data with survey 
results to project biomass estimates for each coming year. All of the major fishery stocks of the 
region are managed by catch quotas or harvest guidelines, including the stocks off the British 
Columbia coast of Canada which follows limited entry policies. In many cases resources are shared 
with the USA. Fishing areas have occasionally been allocated for conflicting harvesting methods 
(e.g., pots and longlines versus trawl fisheries in Alaska). By-catches are tabulated and analysed 
as a component of yield. 



-58- 

Over the past decade or so, fisheries in this region have shown a transition from dominance 
by salmon resources, king crab and halibut, to a growing importance of groundfish and other 
species, i.e., more recently exploited resources such as Alaska pollock and other crabs and 
shellfish. Catches in the directed longline fishery for halibut are controlled by a USA-Canada 
agreement and Commission. Strict limits on allowable by-catch of halibut and king crab (now 
severely depressed, but a still valuable but over-capitalized fishery), once attained, result in other 
fisheries being closed even if their own quota allocation has not been reached. This feature may 
have had a positive impact in slowing exploitation, and many fisheries meet criteria. High levels 
of exploitation in new fisheries are discouraged by a requirement that fishing targets not aim for 
an exploitation rate more than 80% of the calculated MSY level. However, although pressure to 
exploit once underexploited groundfish resources has increased sharply, some resources, notably 
large populations of flatfish, can be only lightly exploited under the allowable trawlfish by-catch 
limit for halibut. A search is underway for a new set of "rules" for the mixed species fisheries that 
maximize the net total revenue from die fisheries as a whole. One such working rule that is being 
suggested in US groundfish fisheries is to aim for an exploitation rate that is equivalent to that also 
giving a spawning biomass of 35% of that for the virgin stock. 

The requirement that natural resources be exploited under criteria leading to sustained yield 
is built into the constitution of Alaska, and applies to both commercial and the very important sport 
fisheries. Risk evaluation has been assigned a specific role in the management process. In order to 
avoid strategies leading to stock collapse, fixed escapement policies have been applied. However, 
threshold policies, where the fishery is pursued at a fixed level of exploitation but closed when 
biomasses drop below some preset value, are being explored. 

Catches and stock status: The total fish catch in Area 67 has remained in the neighbourhood of 
3.2 to 3.5 million t for the five-year period 1986-90, following a steadily rising trend through the 
early 1980s. Alaska pollock, presently the largest fished stock in the world, has by itself rather 
consistently accounted for slightly less than half of the total catch in this region. In the Alaska 
pollock fishery, a transition from a formerly foreign fishery for surimi to joint ventures with US 
enterprises and then to a wholly domestic fishery has occurred, except for high seas areas such as 
the "Donut Hole" where an international fishery has been carried out under agreements of the 
parties concerned. Large catches in this international zone have led to concern for impacts on the 
eastern Bering Sea population, and in August 1992, China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, USA, 
Russian Federation, and Poland agreed to a two-year moratorium on fishing for Alaska pollock in 
the "Donut Hole" (an area beyond 200 mile limits lying within the Bering Sea). 

The burst of good recruitment years in the late 1970s and early 1980s built the Alaska 
pollock stocks to very high levels. Presently, the biomass of this stock in the eastern Bering Sea 
appears to be at a moderately high level but a decreasing trend appears to be underway (NPFMC, 
19925). In the Gulf of Alaska, the pollock stock has likewise tended toward a gradual decline 
(NPFMC, 1992a) (but there are indications of an increase in 1992). 

Total landings of the major salmon stocks during 1989 and 1990 are estimated to be 
446 OOOt and 437 OOOt, respectively. This represents a high level of catches relative to previous 
years. Preliminary reports for 1991 indicate a further increase. The recent abundance of salmon 
in the world market has resulted in depressed prices and some economic distress to Alaskan 



-59- 

fishermen, alleviated in part by the high biomass available. In contrast to the Alaskan situation, 
stocks of salmon off Washington, Oregon and California have undergone a major decline since the 
mid-1980s. Some of this decline is attributed to degradation of the freshwater habitat resulting from 
urbanization and long-standing drought conditions. 

Recent halibut landings were quite stable from 1986 to 1988, with catches ranging from 
41 000 to 43 OOOt, close to the record landings in 1962. Landings have decreased slightly in 1989 
and 1990 to 39 000 and 37 OOOt, respectively. Stock biomass appears to have increased during the 
1970s, and probably peaked in 1986-87. Although stocks are still considered healthy, a decline in 
biomass seems to have begun. Management strategies have restricted the commercial harvest and 
have been set at about 75% of the estimated annual surplus production. Problems with regard to 
restricting the amount of fishing effort continue. For example, Canada has instituted a new system 
of individual vessel quotas (IVQ) on a two-year trial basis. 

Landings of flatfish have been affected by early closures due to halibut by-catch restrictions. 
The catch of yellowfm sole in the Bering Sea declined sharply in 1989 and 1990 to around 150 OOOt 
after a long period of increasing catches starting in the early 1970s and culminating in 1988 at 
219 OOOt. The landings of M other flatfish" also peaked in 1988, and also dropped sharply in 1989 
due to early by-catch closure but then rebounded substantially in 1990. 

Pacific cod catches also dropped slightly in 1989 after a continued rise since the mid 1970s. 
Pacific cod also followed the pattern apparent in many of the stocks in the region of a strong 
rebound in 1990, in this case to a new record annual catch. However, recent surveys indicate 
Pacific cod stocks, like the pollock stocks, to be declining. North Pacific hake is another large 
population that now seems to be declining. However, there are indications that the 1990 year class 
may turn out to be large. 

Stocks of Pacific Ocean perch (a long-lived fish, taking 16 years to mature) remain at a 
depleted level, with recent landings of less than one- third those of the early 1970s. Several strict 
management measures have been imposed for some time now, and Pacific Ocean perch is presently 
landed only as by-catch. Recent evidence suggests that the condition of the stocks of this very long- 
lived species has shown limited improvement. 

Sablefish resources in the Gulf of Alaska are considered to be in good condition but, like 
many other important stocks of the region, appear to be in a state of decline. Landings in the 
region in 1989 and 1990 totalled 45 000 and 43 OOOt respectively, down from their 1988 peak of 
52 OOOt. Pacific herring is the only coastal pelagic fish resource being exploited in the area. There 
are believed to be a number of separate stocks, and recent declines in some have appeared to be 
at least partially offset by increases in others. The total landings have been quite steady in the 
1980s, usually in the neighbourhood of 80 OOOt, largely reflecting market demand for roe. King 
crab stocks are in a depressed state, with landings continuing to be only a fraction of those of the 
1970s and early 1980s. Pacific snow crab landings have been steadily increasing, with a particularly 
sharp increase occurring in 1990. 

In summary, the effect of the burst of good recruitment years in North Pacific groundfish 
stocks in the late 1970s and early 1980s, which apparently acted to sustain the growth of the 



-60- 

fisheries through much of the 1980s, now appears to be fading and many of the most important 
populations (e.g., pollock, halibut, Pacific cod, North Pacific hake, sablefish) seem to be in gradual 
decline. The effects of natural trends and fluctuations in the ocean-atmosphere system remain 
beyond human control. Apparently, the recent environmental situation has not been such as to 
produce a high frequency of strong recruitments in these populations. Clearly, even well-posed, 
conservative fishery management plans and procedures can be disrupted by unforeseen long-term 
trends in recruitment frequency patterns. On the other hand, salmon stocks have recently been so 
productive that oversupply has been a problem. 

At this time there is major interest in the region in limiting effort in order to improve the 
economic yield of the fisheries and economic well-being of the fishermen. For the king crab, lack 
of limited entry has generally resulted in very short seasons, substantial overcapitalization, and 
difficulties in rationalizing product extraction and monitoring. Pressures are now growing for the 
institution of individual transferable quotas (ITQ) or, alternatively, community development quotas 
(CDQ), which take into account the needs of native peoples and coastal communities. 

Concern over potential effects of the squid driftnet fishery on salmon and other marine 
populations in this region led to adoption in 1989 of a United Nations resolution calling for a 
moratorium on all large-scale driftnet fishing on the high seas by 1992. Taiwan (Province of 
China), Republic of Korea, and Japan, the major nations involved in this fishery, have each 
announced intentions to abide by the UN moratorium. 

WESTERN CENTRAL PACIFIC (Area 71) (Table 1(5) 

This area extends from the tropics to the subtropics and covers the main continental shelf 
of Southeast Asia, stretching south and east. Oceanic waters are the dominant influence on the 
climate of small island countries. Freshwater runoff from monsoons obviously impacts the western 
part of the area, with freshwater input from the big rivers in Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and 
Indonesia influencing the major shelf area. Another shallow water shelf lies between Indonesia and 
Australia as an extension of the Australian continent, forming an extensive trawling ground between 
the two countries. 

The development of fisheries in the region has intensified since the 1960s, particularly in 
Southeast Asia. Small-scale fisheries contribute the most to the total catch. Landings reached a 
record of 7.3 million t in 1990 (Table 16) with more than 85% of the catch taken by Indonesia, 
Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Demersal and small pelagic fish comprise most of 
the total catch. Shrimp and tuna are the major export fisheries. Fisheries of Papua New Guinea 
remain undeveloped. Small islands are very much dependent on the tuna fisheries. 

Total catch of the region has continuously increased over the last 20 years, but the rate of 
increase has slowed. Certain demersal fish species: including slipmouth (Leiognathidae), catfish 
(Ariidae) and croakers (Sciaenidae) show signs of overexploitation, particularly in the Gulf of 
Thailand and the Malacca Straits. Local pelagic stocks, including mackerels and round scads, are 
heavily exploited in the Malacca Straits, the Java Sea, the inner part of the Gulf of Thailand and 
inner parts of the Philippine waters, while sardines are heavily exploited in the Bali Strait (RAPA, 
1989; SCORRAD, 1990; Silvestre, 1990). 



-61- 

The increase in total catch in the region is attributed primarily to the extension of fishing 
onto new grounds. Some Thailand catches were reported to have originated from outside their 
waters in the late 1970s. Indonesia had also increased its catch in the mid-1980s through further 
development of fisheries in the eastern part of the country. Recent development of industrial fishing 
in eastern Malaysia also contributed to an increase in catches. Some of the overall increases in 
catches are attributable to the increased catch of species such as the squid fishery in the Gulf of 
Thailand in 1980s. Some scientists believed that the increased abundance of squid was a result of 
heavy exploitation on its predators, the demersal fish. 

Few countries in the region have formulated fisheries management plans, integration and 
those measures implemented have not been fully successful in reducing fishing pressure and, as a 
consequence, some of the excess fleet (e.g., Thailand's fleet) have had to compensate by fishing 
in the waters of neighbouring countries through various bilateral agreements. Indonesia provides 
fishing access to foreign fleets 12 miles off its archipelago, primarily in the South China Sea and 
on the Pacific side (CDMSCS, 1991). 

Most stocks of coastal shrimp in Asian waters and in northern Australia are fully exploited. 
Trawl fishing has been banned in the western part of Indonesian waters since 1980 but a recent 
trammel net fishery has continued pressure on the coastal shrimp stocks. Total catches have levelled 
off during the past decade at 200 000 to 300 OOOt. The catch of the northern Australia prawn has 
increased but this was believed to be more related to seasonal variability than to management 
(Anon., 1991). Over-capitalization of the industry has caused recruitment overfishing of the tiger 
prawn. 

Development of new fisheries in the region has certainly been responsible for the increase 
in overall catch. However, fisheries development, particularly in Southeast Asia, has been 
hampered by increased fishing effort on some of the depressed stocks and conflicts among 
fishermen using various fishing gears. Some countries have deployed artificial reefs which serve 
as barriers for inshore trawl fishing (Pauly and Chua, 1988). 

The degradation of coastal environments in the region is a major problem due primarily to 
growth in the human population, movement of people to coastal cities and coastal development in 
the regions. This leads to increased discharge of municipal and industrial effluents, landfill and 
mangrove clearing. Increased agriculture also increases the amounts of herbicides and pesticides 
in rivers which may reduce survival of juvenile fish and shrimp in coastal areas. Other human 
induced activities include increased terrestrial runoff of silt due to land reclamation and 
deforestation as well as recent development of coastal aquaculture which contribute to changes in 
the aquatic environment. These factors are of key importance since a high percentage of marine 
fish production comes from stocks which pass their early and most vulnerable stages in coastal 
waters. 

Management of fishery resources by small island countries in the eastern region, particularly 
for tuna, has been successful through cooperative work of the Fisheries Forum Agency (FFA). This 
organization serves as the focal point for the island States for access of fishing agreements with 
distant water fishing nations. FFA has developed a register of foreign fishing vessels enabling 
member countries to monitor foreign vessels. 



-62- 

The Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) has, with limited success, 
initiated the improvement in the collection of statistics of multispecies fisheries in the countries in 
the region for stock assessment purposes. Regular monitoring surveys by Thailand have been 
directed towards aquatic resource evaluation, the results of which, unfortunately, still do not play 
a major role in management decisions. Therefore, the main priority of fisheries development in the 
region revolves around the question of strengthening fisheries management. The International 
Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM), SEAFDEC and the Association of 
Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are fisheries organizations not directly involved in regional 
management. The Indo-Pacific Fisheries Commission (IPFC) and its subsidiary body, the Standing 
Committee on Resources Research and Development (SCORRAD) are fisheries advisory 
organizations and do not have authoritative power. The ASEAN/US Coastal Resources 
Management Project, coordinated by ICLARM, is playing a significant role directed toward 
integrated coastal area development, including fisheries, in the region. 



EASTERN CENTRAL PACIFIC (Area 77) (Table 17) 

Fisheries in this area are strongly influenced by the California Current System, which is one 
of the major eastern boundary current systems in the world (Bakun and Panish, 1980; Parrish el 
aL 1981; Bakun and Parrish, 1982; Parrish el aL 1983). The shelf along the western coasts of 
the Americas is also relatively narrow in this area, and coastal areas support important fish stocks, 
which are dominated by small pelagics in the upwelling areas off southern California, northern 
Mexico and Panama, tunas and other large pelagics offshore, and highly valuable shrimp stocks 
inshore. 

Total catches in this area have fluctuated between 1.5 and 1.8 million t per year since 1985. 
In 1990 and 1991 the total catch was 1.5 million t, down from 1.8 million t in 1989. Fisheries are 
dominated by pelagic species in terms of volume of catches, and by shrimp species in terms of 
value. The abundance and total catch of some fish stocks in the area tend to fluctuate from year 
to year due to environmental changes, mostly associated with the "El Nino" (Sharp and Csirke, 
1984; Lluch-Belda el aL, 1992). During 1991 and 1992 the area was affected by a mid-intensity 
"El Nino" that is expected to affect fisheries in this region. 

Total catches of Californian sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) were 440 000-480 OOOt per 
year from 1986 to 1988, increased to 510 OOOt in 1989, declined to 400 OOOt in 1990 and increased 
again to 470 OOOt in 1991. This fishery collapsed in the USA in the 1950s and although there is 
a recovery of the stock, the overall abundance is below the previous levels. The stock is considered 
to be moderately to fully exploited, but is subject to wide natural fluctuations, and currently is only 
being exploited by Mexico. Changes in the area of distribution and duration of the fishing seasons 
have been reported during 1991 and 1992, and the sardine has almost disappeared from the Gulf 
of California. 

Total catches of Northern Pacific anchovy (Engraulis mordax) dropped sharply from 
110 OOOt in 1989 to only 6 OOOt in 1990 and 21 OOOt in 1991, after being at around 120 000- 
170 OOOt per year for several years. Most of the anchovy is caught by Mexico to produce fish meal, 
but small quantities are caught in California for live bait. The low catches during recent years seem 



-63- 

to be a consequence of a reduced overall abundance of the stock due to recruitment failure and a 
northern shift in distribution which has affected the Mexican fishery. 

Catches of Central Pacific anchoveta (Cetengraulis mysticetus) continue to fluctuate off 
Panama. After a maximum of 240 OOOt in 1985, catches were 40 OOOt in 1988, 120 OOOt in 1989, 
and 60 000-65 OOOt in 1990 and 1991 . Most of these fluctuations are due to natural annual changes 
in overall abundance and distribution. The stock is probably fully exploited. Catches of Pacific 
thread herring (Opisthonema spp.) continue to fluctuate in the area. It is mostly caught off Panama 
and annual landings ranged from 10 OOOt to 40 OOOt in the last five years. Several stocks of thread 
herring are present in the area, and most are moderately to fully exploited. 

The chub mackerel (Scomber japonicusl is moderately exploited in this area, and total 
catches have been maintained at around 50 000-80 OOOt per year. The Pacific jack mackerel 
(Trachurus symmetricus) is lightly exploited. Catches have remained slightly above 10 OOOt per 
year until 1989, and dropped to 4 OOOt and 2 OOOt in 1990 and 1991. 

Catches of tuna have also been relatively stable since the decline in 1982-83, and have 
recovered slightly. Landings of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) have been in the range of 
about 40 000-80 OOOt since 1986, after a catch of 130 OOOt in 1985. Catches of yellowfm tuna 
(Thunnus albacaresl increased from 130 OOOt in 1983 to 276 OOOt in 1986 and 282 OOOt in 1988, 
to decrease to 212 OOOt in 1991. This stock seems to be fully exploited. The albacore (Thunnus 
alalunga) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesusl are moderately exploited and their total catches are 
relatively stable at about 20 OOOt and 90 OOOt per year, respectively. 

Shrimp stocks (mostly Penaeus spp.) are fully to heavily exploited almost everywhere in the 
area. The stocks off Nicaragua were lightly to moderately exploited, but fishing pressure is building 
up rapidly also there. Catches of squat lobster (Pleuroncodes planiceps) declined from almost 
12 OOOt in 1987 to slightly over 3 OOOt in 1988 and 2 OOOt in 1989 and 1990. This stock seems 
to be lightly exploited and good concentrations have been reported by the R/V DR FRIDTJOF 
NANSEN which surveyed the area in 1987. These surveys, conducted as a part of a 
UNDP/NORAD/FAO Project, also confirmed a total biomass of more than 1 million t of small 
pelagic stocks in the area, and another 250 OOOt of demersal stocks (IMR, 1988). An increase in 
the catches of squids has also been reported with 77 OOOt in 1988 and 83 OOOt in 1990. These 
stocks are lightly exploited and offer some potential for further development, although they are 
highly variable. 

There are no FAO regional bodies in the area. At the moment research and management 
on tuna in the area are coordinated by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) 
based in La Jolla, but not all the countries in the area are members of this body. FAO and the 
Organizacidn Latinoamericana para el Desarrollo de la Pesca (OLDEPESCA) promoted further 
subregional cooperation within the framework of a working group on fisheries research for Central 
America and Panama, of which Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and 
Panama are members. 



-64- 
SOUTHWEST PACIFIC (Area 81) (Table 18) 

This area includes waters off southeastern Australia (namely off New South Wales), New 
Zealand, the EEZs of several island countries, and a large area of deep ocean water. Total catches 
for the area have levelled off for 1988-90 at around 1 million t, after a rapid increase in the early 
and mid-eighties (FAO, 1992J). 

New South Wales is the major centre for oyster farming in Australia, and prawns dominate 
trawl fisheries catches in the north (NSW Fisheries, 1992; Kailola el aL, 1993). Over 60 species 
of fish are taken in the demersal fish catch off southeastern New South Wales, but catches tend to 
be dominated by only a few species. Total catch in this region reached 38 OOOt in 1990-91; 
gemfish, redfish and ocean perch stocks are probably overexploited, and a number of other species, 
most recently orange roughy, are fully exploited. Recently gemfish has suffered a collapse in 
recruitment which suggests that abundance may decline for several years even in the absence of 
fishing. The major demersal stocks off New Zealand are probably fully exploited (Baird, 1992; 
Annala, 1993; New Zealand Fishing Industry Board, 1993). Unfortunately, recent statistics on 
catch and fishing effort for many species are considered inadequate for satisfactory stock 
assessments. 

Landings of blue grenadier increased rapidly from 43 OOOt in 1985 to 392 OOOt in 1990. 
The increased catches of grenadier account for most of the recent increase in landings in this area. 
Stocks of blue grenadier are currently being fished down, and the New Zealand TAG was reduced 
from 250 OOOt in 1989-90 to 200 OOOt in 1990-91 (Annala, 1993), and will almost certainly be 
brought down further. The snapper is New Zealand's most valuable coastal finfish fishery. Snapper 
stocks have shown signs of overfishing for at least a decade, and catches and quotas in most areas 
have been progressively reduced. Most stocks are still under stress and their TACs are being held 
down to promote rebuilding. 

Rock lobster is the second most valuable inshore fishery off New Zealand (Baird, 1992; 
Annala, 1993; New Zealand Fishing Industry Board, 1993). Concern has recently been expressed 
over the status of this resource. The fishery is believed to be fished beyond its full potential and 
the resource is declining because of high fishing effort. Biologists are predicting seriously 
diminishing catches unless there is some reduction in fishing effort. The New South Wales rock 
lobster fishery is also showing signs of overexploitation (NSW Fisheries, 1992; Kailola el aL, 
1993). Landings of cephalopods, which had levelled off over the last ten years at just over 
100 OOOt, are starting to show large fluctuations with a record of 228 OOOt landed in 1989 but 
only 92 OOOt in 1990. 

The New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries is responsible for the management 
of fisheries under New Zealand jurisdiction (Annala, 1993; New Zealand Fishing Industry Board, 
1993). In 1986 the Ministry adopted a market-driven system of ITQ within a quota management 
system which has been able to stabilize a number of fisheries at more appropriate economic levels. 
Recently ITQ have been changed from a fixed tonnage to a proportion of a variable overall TAG. 
This new system should be more effective for those stocks that face substantial reductions in their 
TAG in the near future, such as orange roughy. 



-65- 

TACs are determined periodically (yearly for all ITQ fisheries) with the help of scientific 
fishing surveys (Baird, 1992; Annala, 1993). Orange roughy was the most valuable fishery for the 
New Zealand fleet in the late 1980s, but has since been overtaken by blue grenadier (Annala, 
1993). Unfortunately present orange roughy harvest levels will only be obtainable for a few years 
unless new major stocks are discovered (see Box "Orange roughy: A sustainable fishery from 100 
year old fish?). Present assessments suggest that many stocks are at a level below 50% of their 
virgin spawning biomass and some are at 10-20%. Given these parameters, present TACs will not 
ensure sustainable catches in the medium or long term nor will they allow stocks to rebuild. This 
is the reason why significant decreases in TACs are predicted for several orange roughy stocks. 
In fact, TACs of orange roughy off New Zealand have been reduced in the past three years for the 
two largest of the six stocks. 

Because of the imposition of the ITQ system, New Zealand has put considerable effort into 
ensuring their indigenous people receive a fair share of fishing rights. In 1991 a special legislation 
was passed to give Maori people certain special privileges and to promote their access to those 
fisheries where they previously did not participate. 

Australia is adopting a system of Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQ) for some selected 
fisheries, notably the southeast trawl fishery which includes most catches made in New South Wales 
(NSW Fisheries, 1992; Kailola gt aL 1993). Most other Commonwealth fisheries are managed 
by TACs, but few State fisheries are managed that way. New South Wales for example has 
unlimited entry for its prawn trawl fishery (Annala, 1993), whereas Queensland, which fishes part 
of the same stock, does have limited entry for their trawl fisheries. The northern prawn fishery 
and South Australian prawn fishery have had significant experience with limited entry and with 
seasonal closures to increase landings and landed prawn size in order to maximize revenues and 
reduce fishing costs (South Australian Department of Fisheries, 1992). These differences occur 
because of the agreement between the Australian Commonwealth and the States which gives 
jurisdiction of most coastal stocks to the States and most offshore and some shared stocks to the 
Commonwealth (Department of Primary Industries, 1992; NSW Fisheries, 1992; Kailola el aL, 
1993). 



SOUTHEAST PACIFIC (Area 87) (Table 19) 

The northern boundaries in this statistical area now include the coastal zones of Colombia 
and Ecuador, and Peru and Chile. The species and area totals have been revised accordingly. The 
area borders the western coast of South America, with a narrow continental shelf. The central and 
southern part off Chile and Peru is dominated by an eastern boundary current system which 
generates a cold, nutrient-rich upwelling. The northern part off Ecuador and Colombia has a 
tropical climate and is less productive. The central and southern part of this area is dominated by 
small pelagic stocks which sustain its main fisheries while further north, the main fisheries are 
inshore those for shrimp and offshore for tuna. This area is greatly affected by the periodic arrival 
of N E1 Nino* 9 , with the most noticeable impact being on the catches and overall abundance of 
pelagic fish stocks (FAO, 1976; Guillen, 1983; Parrish el aL 1983; Jordan, 1985; CucakSn and 
Mariduena, 1989; Flores, 1989; Yanez, 1989). 



-66- 



BOX: Orange roughy: a sustainable fishery from 100 year old fish ? 

Although present in most deep water temperate oceans, orange roughy only currently supports a 
commercial fishery off New Zealand and Australia. Some scientist claim that these fish may reach 100 
years of age and mature at an age of 20-25 years. The fishery started in the early eighties and was initially 
confined to New Zealand (Annala, 1993), but since 1986, substantial catches have been made off Australia 
(Kailola t al.. 1993). The fishery targets large spawning aggregations which occur in very localized areas. 
Catch rates at the spawning site remain high as long as there are fish spawning, but drop dramatically 
thereafter. The high catch rates obtained by individual boats tended to mask the rapid decline that occurred 
in the spawning population, and were an incentive to increase fishing effort every year. In spite of the 
significant depletion of the presently known spawning aggregations, overall catches in the region have 
continued to increase (Box Figure) as new spawning sites and new fishing grounds have been found. 

The rate of depletion of some of these spawning aggregations has been very high (Annala, 1993), 
with some of the early concentrations having decreased to 10% of their virgin biomass. It is estimated that 
the St. Helens concentration off eastern Tasmania has been reduced to about 50% of the virgin biomass in 
five years (Kailola gt al.. 1993). The longevity and slow growth of this fish suggests that the maximum 
harvest rates that a stock can sustain are around 1-5% of the virgin biomass. Early harvest rates and 
present TACs are both higher than these levels, indicating the fishery will not be sustainable unless new 
stocks or concentrations are found. 

A serious management problem this fishery shares with other fisheries harvesting long-lived 
species, is that any effects of fishing pressure on the spawners will affect recruitment up to 20 years later. 
Assessments are also complicated because of the unknown interchange of individuals between the various 
spawning concentrations, and between the non-spawning and spawning adults. There is the temptation from 
an economic perspective to harvest such slow-growing resources by "pulse fishing'*. However, 
management should set conservative TACs because the very low natural mortality of orange roughy ensures 
that fish which are not caught today will remain in the stock for many years to come and stability in 
landings could quite readily be achieved. 



CO 

T> 
cd 

CO 

O 

CO 
CD 

O 



120 



100 



80 



60 



40 



20 



B Total 

New Zealand 

Australia 




1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 



Box Figure: Trends in orange roughy catches in the Southwest Pacific 



-67- 

After the major decline in catches in the 1970s and early 1980s following the collapse of 
the Peruvian anchoveta, total catches in this area have recovered, and since 1985 they have always 
been above 10 million t per year. They increased to 15.3 million t in 1989 but dropped to 14 
million t in 1990. These totals are above the record catches of 13.8 million t in 1970, when the 
anchoveta fishery was at its peak and dominated the landings. 

The species composition of the catches is now more diversified, although small pelagics are 
still dominant and represent around 90% of the total landings (see Box: "Pelagic catches off 
western South America 9 *). The most important pelagic stocks in this area are the sardine (Sardinops 
sagax) the Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) and the jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) 
(Arana, 1986; Mathisen and Tsukayama, 1986; Pauly and Tsukayama, 1987; Tsukayama and 
Palomares, 1987; Espino and Wosnitza-Mendo, 1989; Parrish, 1989; Pauly and Palomares, 1989; 
Pauly el aL 1989; CPPS, 1993). These three species made up almost 85% of the total catch in 
1990. Other small pelagic fish stocks of relative importance in the area are the Pacific breams 
(Seriolella spp.), the eastern Pacific bonito (Sarda chiliensis). and the chub mackerel (Scomber 
japonicus). The most important demersal fish stocks are the Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi). the 
Patagonian grenadier (Macruronus magellanicus) and the Patagonian hake (Merluccius polylepis). 
After the record catch of 6.5 million t in 1985, total catches of sardine decreased to 5.4 million t 
in 1988, 4.3 million t in 1990 and 4.2 million t in 1991. This stock is mainly exploited by Peru, 
where catches have fluctuated between 1.7 and 3.5 million t per year, and Chile, where catches 
have declined from 2.9 million t in 1985 to 0.7 million t in 1991. The stock is considered to be 
fully exploited, with some concern for overexploitation. 

Catches of Chilean jack mackerel continue to increase with record catches of 3.8 million 
t reported in 1991. This species has a very wide distribution in the southeast Pacific. Chilean and 
Peruvian fleets fish along the coast and the former USSR and Cuba fish offshore. Catches by the 
Chilean fleet have increased consistently, reaching a record 3.0 million t in 1990. Catches by the 
coastal Peruvian fleet have been variable with 136 OOOt reported for 1991, after a maximum of 
504 OOOt in 1977. The stock is also actively exploited by foreign fleets beyond the 200 mile zone, 
and the catches by the former USSR, the main offshore fishing country, increased to more than 1 . 1 
million t in 1990, but changed to 640 OOOt in 1991. The offshore catches by Cuba were of the 
order of 40 OOOt in 1990 and 31 OOOt in 1991. The abundance of this stock seems to have 
increased over the past years, and the expansion in its distribution makes it very difficult to assess 
the long-term potential. It is still considered to be moderately exploited although catches are 
relatively high. 

After its dramatic collapse in the 1970s, catches of Peruvian anchoveta were less than 1 
million t in the early 1980s, almost 5 million t in 1986 and since then have fluctuated between 2. 1 
million t in 1987, and 5.4 million t in 1989, with 4.0 million t being caught in 1991 . It is exploited 
primarily by the Peruvian purse seine fleet off northern Peru, and by the Chilean purse seine fleet 
off northern Chile. This stock is highly variable, and under the present conditions is estimated to 
have a potential annual yield of 2 to 5 million t. It is considered to be fully to heavily exploited, 
and although the purse seine fleets off Peru and Chile are also targeting other small pelagic species, 
they maintain a heavy pressure on the Peruvian anchoveta. Catches of the eastern Pacific bonito 
and the chub mackerel have been increasing over the last few years. Captures of other small 
pelagic species, such as the South Pacific breams (Seriolella spp.), and the Chilean herring 
(Strangomera bentinckri have been more or less stable. 



-68- 



BOX: Pdagic catches off western South America 



One of the most productive areas for fisheries in the world is the upwelling region off the west 
coast of South America. Here the pelagic fish stocks exhibit large fluctuations in abundance and change 
in dominance from one species to another. For example, the catch of the Peruvian anchoveta peaked in 
1970 at 13.8 million t (19.7% of the world's marine catch) and had collapsed to only 126 000 t by 1983. 
There is still not complete agreement on the relative contribution of fishing and environmental changes to 
the collapse. 

Although the anchoveta stocks have recovered somewhat in the late 1980s, other pelagic species 
have filled part of the vacuum created by the decline of the anchoveta population (Figure). These include 
South American pilchard, Chilean jack mackerel and chub mackerel. . Catches of eastern Pacific bonito 
are also increasing, after collapsing in the 1960s. The total landings of all species in 1989 (13.9 million t) 
just exceeded the total landings in 1970. 



Cumulative catch (million tons) 
18 



16 
14 
12 
1CH 

8 

6 

4 

2 






Legend 

Peruvian anchoveta 
S. Amer. pilchard 
Chil. jack mackerel 
East. Pac. bonito 
Chub mackerel 



7071 72737475767778798081 828384858687888990 

Year 



Box Figure: Trends in landings of small pelagic fish of western South America 



-69- 

Landings of the Patagonian grenadier increased consistently from 20 OOOt per year in the 
early 1980s to almost 230 OOOt in 1989, but then declined to 130 OOOt in 1990 to raise to 165 OOOt 
in 1991. Catches of Patagonian hake have also increased from around 20 OOOt in the early 1980s 
to almost 70 OOOt in 1988, have remained above 50 OOOt in 1989 and 1990, to drop to 40 OOOt in 1991. 
These two stocks are exploited off the coast of southern Chile. Catches of Chilean hake dropped to less 
than 50 OOOt in the early 1980s, but then increased steadily to almost 150 OOOt in 1988 and 
225 OOOt in 1990, to decrease to 140 OOOt in 1991. This stock is being exploited off northern Peru 
and central Chile. 

Landings of squid have varied widely from 19 500t in 1985, 4 800t in 1987, 7 200t in 1988, 
and 11 000 and 22 OOOt in 1989 and 1990, with a sharp increase to 130 OOOt in 1991, which is 
believed to be much closer to the potential yield of these stocks. After being considered as virtually 
unexploited in this area, squid fishery had further developed in the area, particularly the one 
targeting on the population of flying squid (Dosidiscus gigas). The management and development 
of this type of fisheries poses some problems, due to the high variability of the stocks which make 
it difficult to plan long-term investments based on the exploitation of a single, highly variable stock. 

Regional research activities regarding fisheries and other marine-related research activities, 
are coordinated by the Permanent Commission for the Southeast Pacific (CPPS), of which the four 
coastal States in this area are members. This area is not covered by an FAO regional body, but 
very good relationships and cooperation are maintained between FAO and the CPPS. 



SOUTHERN OCEANS (Areas 48, 58 and 88) (Table 20) 

The total catch in the Southern Oceans was 429 OOOt in 1989/90 compared to a range of 
458 000-503 OOOt from 1985/86 to 1988/89 (FAO, 1992J). Most of the catch is krill (Fischer and 
Hureau, 1985; CCALMR, 1992a), accounting for 89% of the total in 1989/90. The major krill 
and fmfish catches taken in the Southern Oceans comes from the waters around the islands of South 
Georgia and South Orkney in the Atlantic Ocean (Area 48) (CCAMLR, 1992a;c). 

The major catch of fmfish consists of lanternftshes (Myctophidae), mackerel icefish 
(Champsocephalus gunnarH and Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) (Fisher and Hureau, 
1985; CCAMLR, 1992a). The history of exploitation of fish resources in the Southern Oceans is 
one of continuous shifting from one overfished stock to another less exploited one. The fish 
resources are very limited and their yield too small for them to sustain high catches. 

The krill catches were 395 OOOt in 1988/89 and 381 OOOt in 1989/90 (FAO, 1992J). Most 
of the catch was taken by the former USSR fleet and Japan (Fischer and Hureau, 1985; CCAMLR, 
1992a;c). Because the annual net production of krill is believed to be low compared to the 
available biomass, the resource could be vulnerable to overfishing. Therefore, there is a need for 
precautionary management measures. This need becomes very obvious when considering the 
present degree of depletion of the other more economically viable resources of the Antarctic, and 
the failure of their international management. 



-70- 

The Antarctic fisheries are managed by the Convention for Conservation of Antarctic 
Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) (CCAMLR, 19925). Areas north of 60N are theoretically 
under the responsibility of relevant regional fisheries bodies, but there is no effective fisheries 
management policy in any of these bodies regarding Antarctic resources. The concept of ecosystem 
management followed by CCAMLR is unique to this resource management body, which has wider 
terms of reference than fisheries. The failure to achieve sustainability of important Antarctic fish 
resources, given a primary focus on the interactions among species, combined with the very 
difficult problem of enforcement of an entirely distant water fleet, means that there are serious 
problems in addressing the issue of the interaction between men and the valuable, but fragile, 
harvestable resources. 



TUNA AND TUNA-LIKE SPECIES (Table 21) 

Tuna and tuna-like species belong to the sub-order Scombroidei, which is composed of 
tunas, billfishes, swordfishes and other related species (Collette and Nauen, 1983; Joseph el aL, 
1988). They occur in the tropical and temperate zones. Species of albacore, bigeye tuna, northern 
and southern bluefm tuna, skipjack tuna and yellowfm tuna are referred to as the principal market 
tuna species because of world-wide demand for sashimi and/or canning (Saran, 1991). 

The northern bluefm tuna occurs in commercial quantities in the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans, from 70N to 25 N and, to a smaller extent, south of the equator in the Pacific (Bartoo, 
1987). The southern bluefm tuna is found also in these two Oceans and the Indian Ocean, but from 
10S to 50S (Bartoo, 1987). The bigeye tuna, yellowfm tuna and albacore occur throughout the 
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans between 40-55 N and 40-45 S (Bartoo, 1987). The skipjack 
tuna, of relatively lower commercial value, is also distributed in the three oceans from 50-60N 
to 50S (Bartoo, 1987). Some principal market tuna species undertake long migrations and are 
considered as highly migratory under the Law of the Sea (Hey, 1989). Two other oceanic species 
(slender tuna and butterfly kingfish) occur in the Southern Ocean with a circumpolar distribution 
between 15S and 50S (Collette and Nauen, 1983). Despite their lower value, they offer 
significant potential and are now incidentally caught by the Japanese fishery targeting at southern 
bluefm tuna. Slender tuna are also a significant by-catch of driftnet fisheries (FAO, 1990a; 
Northridge, 1991). 

Other important tunas have more neritic distributions; they live on or close to continental 
shelves and around islands and archipelagos. In this category are found less commercially 
important species such as the longtail and blackfm tunas (Collette and Nauen, 1983). The first 
species occurs in the eastern Indian Ocean, the Pacific off Southeast Asia (mainly in the Gulf of 
Thailand and the South China Sea) and off Australia (20N to 35-40S), and the second in the 
western Atlantic (40N to 25 S). The billfishes include marlins, sailfish and spearfish (Nakamura, 
1985). The swordfish includes one species only. With the exception of two spearfish species, 
these fish have wide geographical distributions, but do not necessarily occur in all oceans. The 
other species of importance to fisheries include wahoo, bullet, frigate tuna, kawakawa, black 
skipjack, little tuna, bonito, Spanish and king mackerels, seerfish and sierra (Joseph sL al> 1988; 
FAO, 1992J). These represent a significant potential for some coastal countries, being frequently 
subject to artisanal and/or recreational fishing. 



-71 - 

Most tuna and tuna-like species are commercially caught with purse-seine, longline and pole 
and line methods (Joseph fit aL 1988; Joseph, 1990). The first and third methods are used for fish 
swimming close to the surface (e.g., skipjack and small to medium yellowfm, albacore and 
northern and southern bluefin tuna), whereas the last method targets fish at greater depths (e.g., 
large northern and southern bluefin tuna, bigeye tuna, yellowfm tuna, albacore, billfish and 
swordfish; the last two species, especially billfish, being by-catch). Most of purse seine and pole 
and line catches are canned, while longline catches with the exception of those of albacore, are 
mainly sold for the sashimi market. 

The use of pole and line and longline methods has been generally declining, while purse 
seining is becoming more popular (Joseph, 1990). This has resulted in increased catches of 
skipjack and small to medium yellowfm, while catches of big yellowfm and the other principal 
market tuna species have remained relatively stable. The other gears used are troll lines, hand- 
lines, driftnets, traps and harpoons. Natural or artificial fish aggregating devices (FADs) are often 
utilized in conjunction with purse-seining, pole and line fishing or hand-lining. 

Trends in Catches and Fishing Operations: The total annual catch of tuna and tuna-like species 
has been steadily increasing from an average catch of about 1.9 million t in the early 1970s to 4.2 
million t in 1990 (FAO, 1992J). During the same period, the catch of the principal market tuna 
species increased from 1.4 to 2.8 million t (FAO, 1992J). With a more than two fold increase in 
the annual catch of skipjack and yellowfm catches, these species made up 45% and 35%, 
respectively, of the 1990 catch of principal market tunas. The catches of the other principal market 
tuna species remained steady (albacore and bigeye tuna) or decreased (southern and northern bluefin 
tuna). 

A total of 71% of the skipjack, 66% of the yellowfm, 58% of the bigeye and 53% of 
albacore were taken in the Pacific in 1990. The Indian Ocean catch of skipjack was 1.6 times 
higher than that in the Atlantic, but that for yellowfm was comparable in the two Oceans. The 
bigeye and albacore catches in the Atlantic were, respectively, 1.5 and 1.7 times higher than those 
in the Indian Ocean. The northern bluefin tuna is taken mainly in the Atlantic (79%) with the 
remainder in the Pacific. Most southern bluefin tuna are taken in the Indian Ocean (61 %) and the 
remainder in the Pacific and Atlantic. 

Approximately 63% of the 1990 catch of the principal market tuna species was taken by the 
traditional tuna fishing countries: Japan (649 OOOt), Taiwan (Province of China) (278 OOOt), Spain 
(262 OOOt), Republic of Korea (233 OOOt), USA (233 OOOt) and France (144 OOOt) (FAO, 1992J). 
Between 1985 and 1990, the combined catch of these countries increased by 30% mainly due to 
increased catches by the Republic of Korea, Taiwan (Province of China), Spain and France. The 
catches of the first two countries more than doubled mainly in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The 
landings of the remaining, mostly developing countries increased by 36% during the period (FAO, 
1992J). Off Southeast Asia in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans, tuna fisheries are growing, 
including the artisanal sector catching mostly small tunas, skipjack and yellowfm (FAO, 1992h;k). 
This sector's growth was also significant in the entire Indian Ocean. In addition to traditional tuna 
fishing countries, Indonesia, the Philippines, Mexico, Venezuela, Maldives, Ecuador, Panama, 
Ghana and the Solomon Islands contributed most to the 1990 catch. In fact, the catches of Indonesia 
and the Philippines have exceeded that of France. 



-72- 

In the early 1980s (mainly in 1983 and 1984), part of the Spanish and French purse-seine 
fleets shifted from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, significantly contributing to the increase in 
Indian Ocean catches of tuna and tuna-like species (more than doubled between the early 1980s and 
1989, with a slight decrease in 1990), while in the Pacific and Atlantic, these catches increased by 
41 % and 6% , respectively. Now, some of the purse-seiners have moved back to the Atlantic. Most 
US purse-seiners have stopped operating in the eastern Pacific because of incidental catches of 
dolphins (see further text); some have now moved to the western Pacific. The Republic of Korea 
and Taiwan (Province of China) have also started substantial purse-seine operations in the western 
Pacific. Coastal countries, including island countries in the Indian and western Pacific Oceans are 
entering the tuna fishing through the purchase of purse-seiners and longliners (Law son, 1992). This 
trend is expected to continue to grow in the near future. 

Because the catches of non-principal market tuna species other than billfish and swordfish 
are mostly taken by developing countries, where the system of collecting and processing fishery 
statistics still needs improvement, catch statistics for these species may be less reliable and few, 
if any, management measures control their exploitation. Also, some catches of these species are 
discarded and not reported by industrial fisheries. The very rapid catch increase from 1970 to 1990 
may partly reflect an improvement in the statistics (FAO, 1992J). Also, the catch composition of 
the secondary species is frequently not accurate, because of likely misidentification of species. The 
1990 catch was composed mainly of Japanese Spanish mackerel (247 OOOt) frigate and bullet tuna 
(215 OOOt), longtail tuna (141 OOOt), narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (115 OOOt), kawakawa 
(98 OOOt), swordfish (77 OOOt), eastern Pacific bonito (54 OOOt), seerfish (46 OOOt) and Indo-Pacific 
king mackerel (43 OOOt) (FAO, 1992J). 

The catch of tunas other than the principal species, also rose from about 0.5 million t in the 
early 1970s to 1.5 million t in 1990 (FAO, 1992J). Only a very small portion of this catch is 
composed of billfish and swordfish (10% in 1990), taken mainly in the Pacific and Atlantic. 

Status of Stocks: (The areas mentioned in this section encompass the assumed natural boundaries 
of stocks, which are not necessarily FAO's statistical areas.) Many stocks of the principal market 
species appear to be heavily to fully exploited and some stocks are overfished (northern bluefin tuna 
in the western Atlantic and southern bluefin tuna). Skipjack in all Oceans is an exception. Also, 
recent studies indicate that the present catch of yellowfin in the western Pacific can be more than 
doubled without adversely affecting the stock. Yellowfin tuna in the central and western Pacific 
and albacore in the Atlantic are moderately exploited. In the Indian Ocean, fisheries for tunas and 
tuna-like species operated at relatively low intensity until the early 1980s, but the status of these 
stocks is not well-known (FAO, 1990b). The status of yellowfin tuna in the western Atlantic, 
albacore in the Indian Ocean and northern bluefin tuna in the Pacific is largely unknown. 

The stock of albacore in the North Atlantic is moderately exploited (ICCAT, 1993). In the 
South Atlantic, MSY for albacore was estimated at 20-28 OOOt, and there is some evidence of a 
decline in the stock to 20-30% of the unexploited level (ICCAT, 1993). In the Indian Ocean, the 
stock of albacore seems to be heavily exploited, but its assessment is uncertain (FAO, 19905). In 
the North Pacific, the albacore stock at present is, at least, one third smaller than that in the mid 
1970s, but the stock seems to be in a stable condition (Shomura, el aL in press). In the South 



-73- 

Pacific, the deep water strata of the resource (older age groups) is presently heavily fished (South 
Pacific Commission, 19925). On the basis of data from that fishery, MSY was estimated at 
31 000-37 OOOt, but might be increased by surface fishing, though this could affect longline catch- 
rates. The 1988/89 combined driftnet, longline and troll catch might be unsustainable, but the 
driftnet fishery ceased in response to United Nations resolution on this fishery (FAO, 1990a). 

In the Atlantic, bigeye tuna are fished at a level close to MSY, which is estimated at 
67 000-76 OOOt (ICCAT, 1993). In the Indian Ocean, bigeye tuna are heavily fished, but probably 
they are in a healthy condition (FAO, 19905). In the Pacific, the stock of bigeye tuna is exploited 
at a level close to MSY (139 000-170 OOOt) (Shomura ei aL in press). In the Atlantic, skipjack are 
only moderately exploited. In the Indian Ocean, the stock of skipjack seems to be in a healthy 
condition, but its potential is largely unknown (FAO, 19905). Catches of skipjack can probably 
be further increased both in the eastern, central and western Pacific (South Pacific Commission, 
1992a; IATTC, 1992). 

The 1989 abundance of medium sized (five to nine years old) and large (over ten years old) 
northern bluefm tuna was two thirds and just over a half, respectively, of the 1970 levels for the 
eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea (ICCAT, 1993). Small fish (two to four years old) have 
been increasing in abundance with large fluctuations since 1970. In the western Atlantic, the stock 
is considered significantly overfished and the biomass of adults is now only 10-23% of the 1970 
level. In the North Pacific, the status of northern bluefm tuna is uncertain and recruitment seems 
to be highly variable (IATTC, 1992). It is probable that the yield-per-recruit could be increased 
by increasing the minimum age of capture to 2.5 years. The southern bluefm tuna in the Indian, 
Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans is overexploited; its parental biomass has been in a continuous 
decline, at least until 1990. Recent analyses have suggested a decline in recruitment from 1975 to 
1983, but subsequent recruitment levels could not be determined. 

The eastern Atlantic stock of yellowfm tuna is exploited at about the MSY level (ICCAT, 
1993). The 1990 catch of 147 OOOt was above the estimated MSY of 132 OOOt due to strong year 
classes, but fishing effort seemed to be slightly below that associated with MSY. The status of the 
western Atlantic stock is uncertain (ICCAT, 1993). In the Indian Ocean, yellowfm tuna do not 
seem to be threatened by overexploitation, despite the tremendous increase of catch during the last 
ten years (FAO, 1992i). However, more research is needed before their status can be precisely 
determined. In the western and central Pacific, most analyses suggest that a doubling of the present 
yellowfm catch is sustainable (South Pacific Commission, 1992a). In the eastern Pacific, the stock 
declined between the 1970s and 1982 and then increased due to targeting at larger fish (improving 
the yield-per-recruit) and due to increased recruitment, which has stabilized since 1985 (IATTC, 
1992). The stock now appears to be slightly underexploited. 

Fishery statistics for billfish and Indian and Pacific Ocean swordfish, are incomplete and 
even basic biological information is limited (FAO, 19905). Some concern has been expressed about 
blue and white marlin in the Atlantic (ICCAT, 1993). Swordfish in the North Atlantic has been 
intensively fished close to the MSY level if not already exceeding it (ICCAT, 1993). There are 
indications that sailfish are moderately exploited in the western Atlantic and less so in the eastern 
Atlantic (ICCAT, 1993). Very little is known about the status of billfish and swordfish in the 



-74- 

Indian Ocean, but the last species seems to be underexploited. Similarly, Pacific swordfish appears 
to be moderately exploited (FAO, 1990b). 

Fisheries Management Concerns: The overall potential yield from the tuna and tuna-like resources 
depends on the combination of fishing techniques used because different methods have different 
ability to target the various age groups. Improvements in the yield can be achieved in some cases 
(e.g., albacore and yellowfin in the Atlantic and northern and southern bluefin tuna) by protecting 
small or immature fish and targeting more precisely older age-groups. Problems occur with 
compliance to the present size regulations (e.g., within the framework of the International 
Commission for Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), especially for northern bluefin tuna in 
the Mediterranean Sea (FAO, in press). In general, small fish frequently aggregate at their nursery 
grounds along the coasts, and large fish occur offshore where they are only available to industrial 
fisheries. The need to protect dolphins in the eastern Pacific may lead to smaller catches of large 
yellowfin usually associated with dolphins, leading to sub-optimal tuna fishing (National Research 
Council (U.S.). Committee on Reducing Porpoise Mortality from Tuna Fishing, 1992). Protection 
of small sizes may be ineffective for stocks with high natural mortality like skipjack, or are locally 
ineffective in areas with intense emigration. 

Bio-economic interactions among fisheries need to be scientifically addressed for the 
resolution of fisheries management problems. Coordinated effort in this direction is being made. 
For example, FAO has initiated a Japan-funded Trust Fund project: "Cooperative Research on 
Interactions of Pacific Tuna Fisheries". Its activities are carried out within a framework of the 
"TUNET" network of ten Working Groups. In 1991, the project sponsored the First FAO Expert 
Consultation on Interactions of Pacific Tuna Fisheries hosted in Noumea, New Caledonia by the 
South Pacific Commission (SPC) and in cooperation with the Office de la Recherche Scientifique 
et Technique Outre-Mer (ORSTOM). 

Dolphins caught incidentally by purse-seiners are one area of concern, primarily for 
yellowfin in the eastern Pacific (National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Reducing 
Porpoise Mortality from Tuna Fishing, 1992). Research and monitoring have been aiming at 
reducing the incidental mortality of dolphins. Also, some management restrictions have been 
imposed. Recently, many canneries have stopped accepting tuna that are caught with dolphins. 
This has implications on the fishing operation in the eastern Pacific, where the fishing intensity has 
decreased (some boats moved to the western Pacific) and less large yellowfin, which are usually 
associated with dolphins, are being caught. 



WHALES AND DOLPHINS 

Whales: Cetaceans are traditionally classified as either large or small. The first group is composed 
of baleen (with the exception of pigmy right whale) and sperm whales, while the second includes 
small toothed whales and dolphins. Cetaceans exist in all oceans, from the Arctic to the Antarctic 
(FAO, 1978; Watson, 1981). Some species including those of major, or formerly major, 
commercial importance (blue, humpback, fin, sei, minke, sperm whales and killer whale) are 
cosmopolitan. 



-75- 

Marine mammal resources are among the most vulnerable to overfishing because of their 
slow growth, low fecundity and, possibly also through the link between social behaviour and 
reproductive success. In particular, unrestrained whaling severely reduced many stocks in the 18th 
and 19th centuries and nearly all species of large whales early in the 20th century, giving one of 
the best examples of non-sustainable development in fisheries. With the exception of minke whale 
(Kasamatsu, 1990; Oeien, 1991), Gray whale in the eastern North Pacific and Bryde's whale in 
some oceans, the large cetaceans have been seriously depleted, in some cases perhaps beyond the 
level of recovery. 

Early concern about unrestricted whaling resulted in the signing of the Convention for the 
Regulation of Whaling in 1931 and the consequent creation of an International Whaling 
Commission (IWC) in 1946 (Gulland, 1990). This did not prevent the serious decline in the 
abundance of important species like the blue and humpback whales. At that time, quotas did not 
differentiate among different species and geographical areas (Lamkester, 1988). Quotas were 
reduced by more than 90% between 1937 and 1969, partly, because of scientific advice given by 
the IWC Scientific Committee and, certainly, because quotas were not able to be filled. Finally in 
1965, the IWC reduced catch limits towards levels which it was hoped the stocks could sustain. 
At the same time, blue whale fishing was banned. In 1972, quotas were set by species and 
specifically for sperm whales by sex. However, they applied to whole ocean areas without taking 
into account possible stock boundaries. By 1976, 13 years after scientists 9 recommendations to 
introduce such a system, all major whale stocks were placed under individual quota regulations. 
The Indian Ocean Sanctuary was established in 1979. 

In 1982, the cessation of commercial whaling was approved pending a Comprehensive 
Assessment. This important decision was based largely on political considerations, despite the 
opinion of some parties that some species, such as southern and northern stocks of minke whales, 
were able to sustain some controlled exploitation. The actual phasing out of fishing was very 
gradual but, by 1988, whaling was dg facto limited to aboriginal subsistence fishing by 
Greenlanders, Alaskan Eskimos and Siberian Aleuts. Limited additional catches were taken for 
scientific purposes by some whaling nations, despite doubts on this procedure forcefully expressed 
by other members of the IWC Scientific Committee. 

In conjunction with the Comprehensive Assessment process, the final Revised Management 
Procedure was adopted in 1992, taking into account existing uncertainties in information and data 
and calling for protection of stocks reduced below 54% of the pre-exploitation level. This coincided 
with the completion of the Comprehensive Assessment for the Southern Hemisphere and North 
Atlantic minke whales. It is planned to assess the other baleen whales in the Southern Hemisphere 
and North Atlantic minke whales very soon. Some traditional whaling countries now hope to 
overturn the moratorium in the context of the Revised Management Procedure, and to re-open the 
minke whale fishery. This clashes with the opposing view of other countries concerned principally 
with conservation, and is leading to a crisis within the IWC. The conservation and management of 
whales was also considered at the meeting of UNCED's Preparatory Committee and by the 
Conference itself in Rio de Janeiro (June 1992). The central role of IWC was re-confirmed, but 
the proposal for a new moratorium did not receive conclusive support. 



-76- 

Small Cetaceans: The knowledge of the biology, stock structure, and status of small cetaceans is 
generally more limited than for large cetaceans. In fact, for some of them, very little is known. 
The populations of some species have a wide geographical distribution and they could be considered 
as highly migratory. However, many other species form local stocks. Small cetaceans have been 
targeted mainly by coastal fisheries (Harwood and Hembree, 1987; Goodall el aL 1988; van 
Waerebeek and Reyes, 1990) even though they also occur on high seas. They have also been 
incidentally caught by many fisheries operating on high seas as well as in EEZs (Peltier l aL, 
1992), but there is frequently little or no information available on these catches. Large scale gillnet 
and purse seine fisheries, both coastal and on high seas take incidental catches of small cetaceans. 
The operation of these fisheries on the high seas is subject to Resolution 44/225 of the General 
Assembly on Large-Scale Pelagic Driftnet Fishing and Its Impact on Living Marine Resources of 
the World's Oceans and Seas, which recommends that a moratorium be imposed on these fisheries 
by 30 June 1992 unless effective conservation and management measures are taken, based upon 
statistically sound analysis. 

The management of small cetaceans resources leaves a lot to be desired. During UNCED's 
process in 1991/92, there was a debate on whether small cetaceans should be managed on a global 
basis (e.g., through IWC with an enlarged mandate) or regionally (through regional fishery bodies). 
No agreement was reached. Fortunately, IWC as well as the Programme and Coordinating 
Committee (PCC) of the FAO/UNDP Marine Mammal Action Plan have recently paid more 
attention to small cetaceans, which are not often considered by traditional fisheries management 
bodies. 



ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN MARINE FISHERIES 

In recent years, an important change in perception has been gradually emerging in fisheries 
science. Traditionally, the point of view has been that fish population dynamics operate within a 
stable environmental context. However, environmentally-induced fluctuations in the 1970s changed 
our views on the validity of steady-state models. Environmental variation often has overwhelming 
effects on fishing success, on fish populations, and on the ecosystems that support them. 

Anthropogenic effects, including effects of runoff from land and possible climate change, 
also now require that stock assessments be preceded by a broader evaluation of the likely nature 
and direction of such change. The importance of reconciling ecological, economic and biological 
criteria in setting management goals needs to be specifically recognized early in the assessment 
process. 

The most dramatic effects of nutrient runoff have involved semi-enclosed systems (Caddy, 
1993) such as the Black Sea and Baltic Sea. However, river runoff entering coastal waters is under 
the influence of Coriolis and other dynamic forces (Mann and Lazier, 1991), and tends to remain 
discrete and close to the coast. Thus, even in more open bodies of water such as the North Sea and 
Adriatic, river plumes may run parallel to the coast for hundreds of kilometres; hence the effects 
of successive rivers may be additive. Other types of rather stable hydro-dynamical structures, 
gyres, etc., also contribute to local retention of water masses (Sinclair, 1988). Eutrophication 
resulting from input and retention of nutrients in coastal waters has resulted in changes in biological 



-77- 

community structure. For example, it has been implicated (Mellegaard and Nielson, 1990) in 
periodic formation of anoxic bottom conditions in the open North Sea off the Danish coast (see 
also, boxes for the Mediterranean and Black Seas). 



Natural Environmental Perturbations 

Establishing impacts of fishing and other anthropogenic effects is complicated by the wide 
natural variations which characterize the dynamics of our planetary system and its coupled oceans 
and atmosphere. A well known example is the El Nino phenomenon which had devastating effects 
on a number of marine populations, particularly in the eastern Pacific (Glantz and Thompson, 1981 ; 
Wooster and Fluharty, 1985). El Nifio episodes appear at irregular frequencies of generally two 
to ten years, but particularly strong El Nifio events may arise only once or twice a century. 
Because the ocean-atmosphere system of the Pacific is so large and so dominant over global 
weather patterns, El Nino events are a major source of climatic variability world-wide (Angel and 
Korshover, 1984). For example, fluctuations in the annual monsoon cycle in the Indian Ocean and 
western Pacific Ocean regions are strongly linked with El Nino occurrences. Apparent connections 
have also been reported to rainfall patterns in such widely- separated regions as northeastern Brazil, 
southern Africa, central North America and Russia (Glantz t aL, 1987). At the time of 
preparation of this document, the global system has been undergoing an El Nino episode of 
substantial intensity (see "Pelagic catches off western South America" box). This event will 
undoubtedly affect both the landings and the population dynamics of important fish populations in 
many regions of the world. 

Another major recent event has been the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the 
Philippines in June of 1991 . Aerosols in the earth's stratosphere due to this eruption appear to have 
led to a recent global average cooling of 0.5C, which is equivalent to the average global warming 
occurring over the past century. The amount of direct solar radiation reaching the earth's surface 
may have declined by as much as 20-30% since the eruption. These effects are expected to persist 
for several years (Anon., 1992). 

Many of the world's commercial fish populations are dependent on estuarine environments 
at some stage in their life cycles. Of those that are not, many inhabit the large areas of the world's 
continental shelves which are affected by freshwater inflows. As noted, these inflows tend to 
spread along shore, rather than dispersing in the open ocean. In such areas, the processes of 
nutrient enrichment, larvae transport and retention, frontal formation, dispersion and concentration 
of larvae and larval food, to which life-cycles are adapted, all tend to be dependent on freshwater- 
seawater interactions. In the second half of the 20th century, global water use has been rising by 
4-8% annually (IPCC, 1990). It is continuing to grow in the developing world, while it is 
stabilizing in industrial countries, withdrawals are nearly equal to locally generated runoff, and 
water quality has deteriorated markedly. 

Moreover, major alteration of sediment loading in freshwater runoff is occurring. Roughly 
30% of the world's freshwater outflow is contributed by the Amazon River system. However, 
Milliman (1981) has estimated that of the roughly 8 thousand million t of sediment carried to the 
sea by the world's 40 largest rivers, nearly 50% comes from the long-ago deforested Hwang-Ho 



-78- 

and Ganges/Brahmaputra systems which together contribute only about 6% of the total freshwater 
outflow; a additional 24% of the total sediment discharge comes from four other major rivers 
draining the Indo-Asian landmass where population densities are high. Rapid development and 
deforestation of African and South American watersheds are leading to massive increases in river 
sediment burdens in these regions. Corresponding effects on anadromous, estuarine-dependent, and 
coastal species may be expected. 

Global Climate Change 

The same factors of human population growth, intensive agriculture, industrial development, 
and deforestation that affect freshwater, estuarine and near-shore ecosystems, also act to change 
the basic climatic context in which these processes operate. Recent decades have seen a continuing 
accumulation of carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse" gases in the earth's atmosphere, leading 
to predictions of global climate changes (Ramanathan, 1988). Although there is controversy as to 
the precise nature of these changes, the bulk of current scientific opinion is that substantial climate 
changes are likely to occur over a relatively brief time scale (i.e. , decades). The effects on marine 
ecosystems and organisms would go beyond mere temperature change. Fish typically have complex 
life cycles in which certain stages are at the mercy of dynamic processes acting within the ocean- 
atmosphere system, which are ultimately driven by the pattern of global heating. This is the very 
thing that is altered by accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases. 

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has assembled the best available 
consensus of views of the scientific community on the probable magnitudes of the expected changes 
(IPCC, 1990). These include an effective doubling of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere between 
now and 2025 to 2050 (for a "business as usual" scenario), with an increase of global mean 
temperature in the range of 1.5C to 4.5C. The direct impacts on the marine system would include 
a sea-level rise of about 20 cm by 2030 and about 65 cm by 2100 with an average rise in the 
temperature of the surface layer of between 0.2 and 2.5C. Despite recent international agreements 
to limit production of ozone-destructive gases, depletion of the earth's protective layer of 
stratospheric ozone is expected to continue unabated at least through the 1990s. 

The potential consequences to marine ecosystems, and to fish populations, are many and 
varied. Temperature has pronounced physiological effects on organisms, directly controlling 
physiological rates of cold-blooded organisms. Areas of temperature conditions appropriate for 
particular species will probably be altered substantially. Because the changes would be 
unprecedentedly rapid, biological adaptations to the new conditions would lag. Thus fish 
populations may lose access to ocean structures and interfaces vital to their reproductive strategies. 
Migratory navigation may be dependent on ocean temperature gradients and isotherm positions, and 
hence finely tuned migratory behaviours may be disrupted. There may be changes in overlaps 
among various predator and prey species, altering the viability of certain populations within them. 
One concrete effect, which is evident in response to normal climatic variation, is the latitudinal 
movement of the centre of stock distributions in relation to maritime boundaries: this effect, which 
has already been detected in some areas (e.g., the pelagic stocks in the Southeast Pacific), could 
be accentuated by climate change, and lead to gg facto changes in allocation of fishery resources 
between adjacent coastal states. 



-79- 

Variations in wind conditions are among the most important environmental factors affecting 
reproduction of many fish species. One likely "greenhouse effect" is increased contrast in 
temperature between heated land masses and the oceans during the warmer seasons. This would 
amplify sea breezes and alongshore winds, enhance wind-driven offshore transport in the surface 
layer, and intensify upwelling and turbulence in coastal regions (Baton, 1990). On the other hand, 
greenhouse effects will tend to lessen the tropical-polar gradient in global heating. 

The potential effects of climate change on freshwater runoff are uncertain, but it appears 
that many land areas would experience increases in precipitation, while others may experience 
decreases. The IPCC Report (IPCC, 1990) estimates that in some limited areas, as much as a 40% 
to 70% reduction in annual runoff could occur. Increased winter temperatures will have important 
ramifications on seasonal runoff patterns. Marine ecosystems associated with mountainous drainage 
basins will likely be particularly severely impacted. 

Sea level rise would flood shallow water habitat and nursery grounds. Inundation and 
erosion of coastlands could lead to increased marine ecosystem productivity, but also to 
eutrophication and pollution of marine habitats. Sea level is already rising at over one centimetre 
per decade (with regional variations due to local geological movements). Too rapid a rise due to 
climate change might drown coral reefs and reduce fishery production and biological diversity. In 
addition, the fishing sectors of low lying countries would suffer economic distress and dislocation 
caused by loss of coastal property and facilities by coastal flooding and erosion. 

Reductions in the earth's ozone shield may affect both the health of fishermen and others 
involved in exposed outdoor activities and the resources on which their livelihood depends. The 
increased cell damage that affects all organisms exposed to increased ultraviolet radiation affects 
the viability of fish larvae, which are often concentrated very near the sea surface. 

As the above patterns become apparent, it will be important to have already begun 
assembling the necessary information to correlate these to patterns of response of fishery resources. 
This requires collecting and assembling data in ways that will allow definition of sub-regional and 
inter-regional patterns of response, in a period of unprecedentedly rapid global environmental 
change. 



-81- 



LIST OF ACRONYMS 



ACFM 

ASEAN 

BOBP 

CAFSAC 

CCAMLR 

CDQ 

CECAF 

CITES 

COFI 

CPPS 

DANIDA 

EEZ 

FAD 

FAO 

FFA 

GFCM 

IATTC 

ICCAT 

ICJ 

ICLARM 

ICNAF 

ICSEAF 

INPFC 

IOFC 

IPCC 

IPFC 

IPHC 

ISSCAAP 

ITQ 

IVQ 

IWC 

MAP 

MSY 

NAFO 

NASCO 

NORAD 

ODA 

OLDEPESCA 

ORSTOM 

PCC 

PICES 

SCORRAD 

SEAFDEC 



Advisory Committee on Fisheries Management 

Association of Southeast Asian Nations 

Bay of Bengal Project 

Canadian Atlantic Fisheries Scientific Advisory Commttee 

Convention for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources 

Community development quotas 

Commission for the Eastern Central Atlantic Fisheries 

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and 

Flora (IUCN) 

Committee on Fisheries 

Permanent Commission for the Southeast Pacific 

Danish International Development Agency 

Exclusive economic zone 

Fish aggregating devices 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 

Fisheries Forum Agency 

General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean 

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission 

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas 

International Court of Justice 

International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management 

International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries 

International Commission for the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries 

International North Pacific Fisheries Commission 

Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 

Indo-Pacific Fisheries Commission 

International Pacific Halibut Commission 

International Standard Statistical Classification of Aquatic Animals and Plants 

Individual transferable quotas 

Individual vessel quotas 

International Whaling Commission 

Marine Mammal Action Plan 

Maximum sustainable yield 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization 

North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization 

Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation 

Overseas Development Administration 

Organizacidn Latinoamericana para el Desarrollo de la Pesca 

Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer 

Programme and Coordinating Committee of the FAO/UNDP 

North Pacific Marine Science Organization 

Standing Committee on Resources Research and Development 

Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center 



fi- 



SIDA 

SOFA 

SPC 

TAG 

TIM 







UNDP 




Unesco 

WECAFC 

10 



Swedish International Development Agency 

State of Food and Agriculture 

South Pacific Commission 

Total allowable catch 

A network of ten Working 

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development 

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 

United Nations Development Programme 

United Nations Environment Programme 

It 

Western Central Atlantic Fisheries Commission 
Organization 







-83- 
REFERENCES 

Aiken, K-A. and M.O. Haughton, 1991. Regulating Fishing Effort: The Jamaican Experience, 
pp. 139-150. In: G.T. Waught and M.H. Goodwin [eds.]. Proc. Gulf and Caribb.Fish.Inst.. 40. 

Angelescu, V. and L.B. Prensky, 1987. Ecologfa trdfica de la merluza comiin del Mar Argentine 
(Merluciidae, Meriuccius hubbsH. Parte 2. Dinimica de la alimentacidn analizada sobre la base de 
las condiciones ambientales, la estructura y las evaluaciones de los efectivos en su irea de 
distribucidn. Contrib.Inst.Nac.Invest.Des.Pesq..(56n: 205p. 

Angel, J.K. and J. Korshover, 1984. Some long-term relations between equatorial sea-surface 
temperature, the four centers of action and 700 mb flow. J.Climate Appl.Meteorol. . 23: 1326-1332. 

Annala, J.H. [comp.], 1993. Report from the Fishery Assessment Plenary, May 1993: stock 
assessment and yield estimates. MAP Fisheries, Wellington. 24 Ip. 

Anon., 1991. Australian Fisheries Statistics 1991. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resources 
Economics. Canberra, Australia. 36p. 

Anon., 1992. Science update. Global Environmental Change Report 4(13), (10 July 1992):5p. 

Appledoorn, R.S., 1992. Preliminary calculations of sustainable yield for queen conch (Strombus 
gigas) in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, pp. 95-105, In: Goodwin, M.H., S.M. Kau and 
G.T. Waught [eds.]. Proc. Annual Gulf and Caribb.Fish.Inst.. 41: 621p. 

Arana, P., 1986. La Pesca en Chile. Escuela de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Cat61ica de 
Valparaiso, Chile. 358p. 

Ardill, J.D. and M.J. Sanders [eds.], 1991. Priorities for fisheries management and development 
in the Southwest Indian Ocean. FAQ Fish.Rep.. (457): 196p. 

Arena, G., 1990. Evaluaci6n de la captura mixima sostenible de la corvina blanca (Micropogonias 
furmeri) presente en el Irea operativa de la flota uruguaya, mediante modelos de producci6n 
excedente. Frente Maritimo. Vol. 7, Sec. A: 25-35 

Arena, G., W. Ubal, P. Griinwaldt and A. Fernindez, 1986. Distribucidn latitudinal y batim6trica 
de la merluza comiin (Meriuccius hubbsi) y otros organismos de su fauna acompanante dentro de 
la Zona Comiin de Pesca Argentino-Uruguaya. Publ.Com.Tfc.Mix. Fr. Mar.. Vol. 1(2): 253-280 

Arena, G., P. Griinwaldt and A. Fernandez, 1987. Anllisis de posibles cambios en la estructura 
del recurso de merluza en la Zona Comiin de Pesca Argentino-Uruguaya. Publ.Com.T6c.Mix. 
Fr.Mar.. Vol. 3: 25-36 

Baird, G.G. [ed.], 1992. MAP Fisheries Marine Research. Annual Report 1991-92. New Zealand 
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. MAP Fisheries, Wellington. 50p. 



-84- 

Bakun, A., 1990. Global climate change and intensification of coastal ocean upwelling. Science. 
247: 198-201. 

Bakun, A. and R.H. Parrish, 1980. Environmental inputs to fishery population models for eastern 
boundary current regions, pp. 67-104. In: G.D. Sharp [ed.]. Workshop on the Effects of 
Environmental Variation on the Survival of Larval Pelagic Fishes, Lima, Peru, 20 Apr.- 5 May, 
1980. IOC Workshop Rep., 28: 323p. 

Bakun, A. and R.H. Parrish, 1982. Turbulence, transport, and pelagic fish in the California and 
Peru Current systems. CalCOFIRep.. 23: 99-112 

Bakun, A. and R.H. Parrish, 1990. Comparative studies of coastal pelagic fish reproductive 
habitats: the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella aurita). J.Cons.Int.Explor.Mer. . 46: 269-283 

Bakun, A. and R.H. Parrish, 1991. Comparative studies of coastal pelagic fish reproductive 
habitats: the anchovy (Engraulis anchoita). J.Cons.Int.Explor.Mer. . 48: 343-361 

Balkas T. el aL, 1990. State of the marine environment in the Black Sea region. UNEP Reg. Seas 
Rep.Stud.. 124: 41p. 

Bartoo, N. [ed.], 1987. Tuna and billfish: summaries of major stocks. Administrative Report LJ- 
87-26. Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, La Jolla, CA, USA. 

Beamish, R.J. and D.R. Bouillon, in press. Marine fish production trends. In: R.J. Beamish [ed.]. 
Proceedings of the international symposium on climate change and northern fish populations. Can. 
J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 

Berg, C.J., J.B. Mitton and K.S. Orr, 1986. Genetic analysis of the queen conch, Strombus gigas. 
Preliminary implications for fisheries management. Proc.Gulf Caribb.Fish.Inst.. 37:112-118 

Berg, C.J. and D.A. Olsen, 1989. Conservation and management of queen conch (Strombus 4 
fisheries in the Caribbean, pp. 421-442. IQ: J.F. Caddy [ed.]. Marine Invertebrate Fisheries: Their 
Assessment and Management. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 757p 

Berg, C.J., F. Couper, K. Nisbet and J. Ward, 1992. Stock assessment of queen conch, Strombus 
gigas. and harbour conch SL costatus. in Bermuda. Proc.Gulf Caribb.Fish.Inst.. 41: 433-438 

Berg, C.J., R. Glazer, J. Carr, J. Krieger and S. Acton, 1992. Status of the queen conch 
Strombus gigas. in Florida waters. A progress report. Proc.Gulf and Caribb.Fish.Inst.. 41 : 439-443 

Bezzi, SJ., M.A. Renzi and C.V. Dato, 1986. Evaluaci6n de los recursos pesqueros demersales 
del Mar Argentine y sector Uruguayo en la Zona Comun de Pesca. Periodo noviembre 1982-julio 
1983. Publ.Com.T6c.Mix.Fr.Mar.. Vol. 1(2): 409-437 

Bezzi, S., M.A. Renzi, M. P6rez and G. Canete, 1993. The fishery and assessment problems of 
the stock of southern hake (Merluccius hubbsi). ICES Stat.Meeting 1993. CM93/G:68: 14p. 



-85- 

Binet, D., E. Marchal and O. Pezennec, 1991. Sardinella aurita de Cdte d'lvoire et du Ghana: 
fluctuations halieutiques et changements climatiques. pp. 320-342. In: Cury P. and C. Roy [eds.]. 
Pteheries Ouest-Africaines. Variabilit6, Instability et Changement. Ed. ORSTOM, Paris. 

Bishop, C.A., E.F. Murphy, M.B. Davis, J.W. Baird and G.A. Rose, 1993. An Assessment of 
the Cod Stock in NAFO Divisions 2J+3KL. NAFO SCR. Doc. 93/86. 51p. 

Boschi, E.E, 1989. Fishery biology of the prawn from the Argentinian Patagonian littoral (Pleoticus 
muelleri). Biologfa pesquera del langostino del literal patag6nico de Argentina. INIDEP, Mar del 
Plata, Argentina. Contrib.Inst.Nac.Invest.Des.Pesq. . 646: 71p. 

Brunetti, N.E., 1981. Distribuci6n de tallas y biologfa reproductiva del calamar (Illex argentinus) 
en el mar argentine (campanas del B/I H Shinkai Maru", 1978-1979). pp. 1 19-127. la: V. Angelescu 
[ed.]. Campanas de Investigaci6n Pesquera Realizadas en el Mar Argentine por los B/I "Shinkai 
Maru M y "Walter Herwig" y el B/P "Marburg", anos 1978 y 1979. Resultados de la Parte 
Argentina. Contrib.Inst. Nac.Invest.Des.Pesq.. (383): 339p. 

Burnett-Herkes, J., B. Luckhurst and J. Ward, 1989. Management of Antillean trap fisheries - 
Bermuda's experience. Proc.Gulf and Caribb.Fish.Instit.. 40: 5-11 

Caddy, J.F. [ed.], 1983. Advances in assessment of world cephalopod resources. FAO, Rome, 
FAOTech.Pap.. (231): 452p, 

Caddy, J.F., 1990a. Recent trends in Mediterranean fisheries. GFCM Studies and Reviews. (63): 
1-42 

Caddy, J.F., 1990b. A contrast between recent fishery trends and evidence for nutrient enrichment 
in two large marine ecosystems: the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. pp. 137-147. In: K. 
Sheiman, L.M. Alexander and B.D. Gold [eds.]. Large Marine Ecosystem. AAAS Press. 376p. 

Caddy, J.F., 1990c. Option for the regulation of Mediterranean demersal fisheries. Natural 
Resource Modelling, 4 (4) : 427-475 

Caddy, J.F., 1993. Toward a comparative evaluation of human impacts on fishery ecosystems of 
enclosed and semi-enclosed seas. Rev. Fisheries Sci.. 1 : 57-95 

Caddy, J.F., in press. Some future perspectives for assessment and management of Mediterranean 
fisheries. Scientia Marina. 

Caddy, J.F. and R.C. Griffiths, 1990. A perspective on recent fishery-related events in the Black 
Sea. GFCM Studies and Reviews. 63: 43-71 

CAPS AC, 1991. Annual report of Canadian Atlantic Fisheries Scientific Advisory Committee 
(CAFSAC). Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, PO Box 1006, Dartmouth, NS, Canada, B2Y4A2. 



-86- 

CAFSAC, 1992. Canadian Atlantic Fisheries Scientific Advisory Committee (CAFSAC). Annual 
Report (Including Advisory Documents). (1991). Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Government 
of Canada. 14: 180p. 

Campton, D.E., C.J. Berg, L.M. Robinson and R.A. Glazier, 1992. Genetic patchiness among 
populations of queen conch S trombus gigas in the Florida Keys and Bimini. Fish. Bull., 90: 250- 
259 

Carpenter, K.E., 1992. Preliminary Observations on the Effects of the 1991 Gulf War on 
Fisheries. Mar.Poll.Bull.. 24(5): 273-275 

Caverivifere, A., 1991. L'explosion d6mographique du batiste (Bilistes carolinensis) en Afrique de 
1'ouest et son Evolution en relation avec les tendances climatiques. pp. 354-367. In: Cury P. and 
C. Roy [eds.]. Pficheries Ouest-Africaines. Variability, Instability et Changement. Ed. ORSTOM, 
Paris. 

CCAMLR, 1992a. Report of the eleventh meeting of the scientific committee. Scientific Committee 
for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. Hobart, Australia. 26-30 October 1992. 
SC-CAMLR-XI: 487p. 

CCAMLR, 1992b. Report of the eleventh meeting of the commission. Commission for the 
Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. Hobart, Australia. 26 October-6 November 
1992. CCAMLR-XI: 99p. 

CCAMLR, 1992c. Reports of member's activities in the convention area, 1990/91. Commission 
for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. CCAMLR-MA/8: 77p. 

CDMSCS, 1991. State of the Fishery Resources in the South China Sea. Paper presented to the 
7th Session of Committee for the Development and Management of Fisheries in the South China 
Sea, Hong Kong 22-26 July 1991. IPFC:DM/SCS/91/3. 38p. 

Chikuni, S., 1985. The fish resources of the Northwest Pacific. FAOFish.Tech.Pap.. (266): 190p. 

Ciechomski, J.D and R.P. Sinchez, 1988. Analisis comparativo de las estimaciones de biomasa de 
la anchoita (Engraulis anchoita) en el Atlantico sudoccidental en diferentes afios y con distintas 
metodologfas. Publ.Com.T6c.Mix.Fr.Mar.. 4: 117-131 

COFI, 1993. UNCED and its Implications for Fisheries. FAO/COFI/93/Inf.8. 16p. 

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO Species Catalogue. Gadiform 
fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illuestrated catalogue of cods, hakes, 
grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO, Rome, Italy. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. 
125 Vol. 10: 442p. 

Collette, B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. Scombrids of the world. FAO, Rome, Italy. FAO Species 
Catalogue. Vol. 2. 137p. 



-87- 

CPPS, 1993. Informe Final del Seminario Taller y Consulta de Expertos sobre Recursos Peligicos, 
sus Pesquerias en el Pacffico Sudeste, una orientacidn al future. Buenaventura, Colombia, 23-27 
noviembre 1992. CPPS/FAO/PNUD., Santiago de Chile. 38p. y anexos. 

Csirke, J., 1987. The Patagonian fishery resources and the offshore fisheries in the South-West 
Atlantic. FAQ Fish.Tech.Pap.. (286): 75p. 

Cucalon, E. and L. Mariduena, 1989. El fendmeno El Nino de 1987 y sus efectos en la pesquerfa 
peligica ecuatoriana. Memorias del Simposio Internacional de los Recursos Vivos y las Pesquerias 
en el Pacffico Sudeste, Vina del Mar, 9-13 mayo, 1988. Comisi6n Permanente del Pacffico Sur 
(CPPS), Rev.Pacffico Sur. (Numero Especial): 65-82 

Gushing, D.H., 1973. The natural regulation offish populations, pp 391-412 In: F.R. Harden-Jones 
[ed.]. Sea Fisheries Research, ELEK Science, London. 

Cury, P. and C. Roy [eds.], 1991. Pecheries Ouest-Africaines. Variability, Instability et 
Changement. ORSTOM, Paris. 525p. 

Davis, M.B., D. Stansbury, E.G. Murphy and C.A. Bishop, 1993. An Assessment of the Cod 
Stock in NAFO Divisions 3NO. NAFO SCR. Doc. 93/90. 38p. 

Degobbis, D., 1989. Increased eutrophication of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Marine Pollution 
Bulletin. 20 (9): 452-457 

Department of Primary Industries, 1992. Annual Report 1991-1992. Department of Primary 
Industries. Brisbane Queensland, Australia. 104p. 

Dias-Neto, J., 1991. Pesca de camaroes na costa norte do Brasil. Atlantica. 13(1): 21-28 

Drinkwater, K., 1993. Overview of Environmental Conditions in the Northwest Atlantic in 1992. 
NAFO SCR. Doc. 93/50. 33p. 

Espino, M. andC. Wosnitza-Mendo, 1989. Biomass of hake (Meluccius gayil off Peru. 1953-1987. 
pp. 297-305. In: D. Pauly, P. Muck, J. Mendo and I. Tsukayama [eds.]. The Peruvian upwelling 
ecosystem: dynamics and interactions. ICLARM Conf.Proc.. 18: 438p. 

FAO, 1976. Actas de la Reunion de Trabajo sobre el Fendmeno conocido como "El Nino", 
Guayaquil, Ecuador, 4-12 de diciembre de 1974. FAO Inf.Pesca. (185): 41 Ip. 

FAO, 1978. Mammals in the Seas. Vol 1. Report of the FAO Advisory Committee on Marine 
Resources. Working Party on Marine Mammals, Rome, FAO. FAO Fish. Rep., (194): 264p. 

FAO, 1983. Informe del Grupo Ad hoc de Trabajo sobre los recursos pesqueros de la plataforma 
continental patagdnica. Roma, 7-11 Febrero 1983. Una reunidn preparatoria para la conferencia 
mundial de la FAO sobre Ordenacidn y Desarrollo Pesquero. Report of the Ad hoc Working group 
on Fishery resources of the Patagonian Shelf. Rome, 7-11 February 1983. A preparatory meeting 
for the FAO World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development. FAO Inf.Pesca/FAO 
Fish.Rep.. (297): 83p. 



FAO, 1984. Marine fisheries resources survey and exploratory fishing, Burma. Proyect findings 
and recommendations. Fl-DP/BUR/77/003: 40p. 

FAO, 1986. Regional compendium of fisheries legislation (Indian Ocean region). Vols. I and II. 
FAO Legislative Study 42/1. 503p. FAO Legislative Study 42/2. 543p. 

FAO, 1989a. Report of the Sixth Session of the Working Party on Assessment of Marine Fishery 
Resources. St. George's, Grenada, 15-19 May 1989. FAOFish.Rep.. (431): FIPL/R431(En/Sp). 
125p. 

FAO, 19895. Report of the seventh session of the CECAF Sub-Committee on Management of 
Resources within the limits of National Jurisdiction. FAO Fish. Rep.. (406): 83p. 

FAO, 1990a. Report of the Expert Consultation on Large-Scale Pelagic Driftnet Fishing. FAO, 
Rome, Italy. FAO Fish. Rep.. (434): 78p. 

FAO, 19905. Report of the Expert Consultation on Stock Assessment of Tuna in the Indian Ocean, 
Bangkok, 2-6 July 1990. FAO/UNDP Indo-Pacific Tuna Development and Management 
Programme, Colombo, Sri Lanka. lOlp. 

FAO, 1992a. Marine fisheries and the Law of the Sea: a decade of change. (Special Chapter of 
"FAO State of Food and Agriculture") FAO Fish. Circ.. (853): 69p. 

FAO, 19925. Report of the fifteenth session of the Coordinating Working Party on Atlantic 
Fishery Statistics. Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada. 8-14 July 1992. FAO Fish. Rep.. (473): 
34p. 

FAO, 1992c . Report of the eight session of the CECAF Sub-Committee on Management of 
Resources within the limits of National Jurisdiction. FAO Fish. Rep.. (465): 35p. 

FAO, 1992d. Report of the ninth session of the CECAF working party on resource evaluation. 
FAQFish.Rep.. (454): 79p. 

FAO, 1992e. Report of the ad hoc Working Group on the demersal fishery resources in the western 
Gulf of Guinea and Sherbro statistical divisions. CECAF/ECAF/Series. (91/55): 168p. 

FAO, 1992f. Report of the ad hoe Working Group on the Coastal Pelagic Stocks of the Western 
Gulf of Guinea (C6te d'lvoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin). CECAF/ECAF/Series. (91/56): 153p. 

FAO, 1992g. Rapport sur le Groupe de Travail COPACE sur les ressources demersales du plateau 
et du talud continental de la Guinea-Bissau, de le Guine6 et de la Sierra Leone. COPACE/ 
PACE/S6ries- (91/54): 206p. 

FAO, 1992h. Indian Ocean and Southeast Asian Tuna Fisheries Data Summary for 1990. IPTP 
Data Summary No. 12, May 1990. FAO/UNDP Indo-Pacific Tuna Development and Management 
Programme, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 94p. 



-89- 

FAO, 19921. Report of the Workshop on Stock Assessment of Yellowfin in the Indian Ocean, 
Colombo, Sri Lanka, 7-12 October 1991. FAO/UNDP Indo-Pacific Tuna Development and 
Management Programme, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 90p. 

FAO, 1992J. FAO Yearbook. Fishery Statistics: Catches and landings, Vol. 70 (1990). Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. FAO Fish. Series. (38): 647p. 

FAO, 1992k. Report of the Fifth Southeast Asian Tuna Conference, General Santos City, 
Philippines, 1-4 September 1992. FAO/UNDP Indo-Pacific Tuna Development and Management 
Programme, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 26p. 

FAO, 1993a. FAO Yearbook. Fishery Statistics: Catches and landings, Vol. 72 (1991). Food and 
Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. FAO Fish. Series. (40): 654p. 

FAO, 1993b. Fishery Fleet Statistics. FAO Fishing Information, Data and Statistics Service, 
1970, 1975, 1980-1989. FAO, Rome. Bull. Fish. Stat.. (30): 344p. 

FAO, 1993c, World review of high seas and highly migratory fish species and straddling stocks. 
FAO, Rome. FAO Fish. Circ.. (858): 69p. 

FAO, in press. Proceedings of the Second GFCM/ICCAT Expert Consultation on Stocks of Large 
Pelagic Fishes in the Mediterranean Sea, Heraclion, Crete, Greece, 17-23 September 1992. FAO 
Fish. Rep. 

Fischer, W., 1989. The Significance of FAO's Biosystematic Program in the Enhancement of 
World Fisheries. Reviews in Aq.Sci.. 1(4): 683-692. 

Fischer, W. and J.C. Hureau, 1985. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. 
Southern Ocean (Fishing areas 48, 58 and 88) (CCAMLR Convention Area). Prepared and 
published with support of the Commission for the Conservation of the Antarctic Marine Living 
Resources. FAO, Rome. Vol. 1: 232p. 

Fischer, W., M.-L. Bauchot and N. Schneider [eds.], 1987. Fiches FAO d'indentification des 
espfeces pour les besoins de la peche. (Revision 1) M6diterrane et mer Noire. Zone de pdche 37. 
Volumes I et II. Publications pr6par6e par la FAO r6sultat d'un accord entre la FAO et la 
Commission des Communaut6s Europ6ennes (Projet GCP/INT/442/EEC) financde conjointment par 
des deux organisations. FAO, Rome, Vol. 1: pp. 1-760; Vol. 2: pp. 761-1530 

Flores Palomino, N., 1989. Incidencia de los fen6menos "El Nino" en la extracci6n de recursos 
pesqueros marines de la pesqueria peruana en el perfodo 1958-1987. Memorias del Simposio 
International de los Recursos Vivos y las Pesquerias en el Pacffico Sudeste, Vina del Mar, 9-13 
mayo, 1988. Comisidn Permanente del Pacffico Sur (CPPS), Rev. Pacffico Sur. (Niimero Especial): 
467-476 

Freon, P., 1991. L' introduction d'une variable climatique dans les modules globaux de production, 
pp. 395-424. In: Cury P. and C. Roy [eds.]. PScheries Ouest-Africaines. Variability Instability et 
Changement. Ed. ORSTOM, Paris. 



-90- 

Friedlander, A. and J. Beets, 1992. Fisheries enhancement using artificial habitats in the U.S. 
Virgin Islands, pp. 226-242. In: M.H. Goodwin, S.M. Kau and G.T. Waugh [eds.]. Proc.Gulf 
Caribb.Fish.Inst.. 41: 62 Ip. 

Friligos, N., 1989. Nutrient status in the Aegean waters. Appendix V. pp. 190-194. In: FAQ Fish. 
Rep.. (412): 190-198 

Froglia, C., 1989. Clam fisheries with hydraulic dredges in the Adriatic Sea. pp. 507-524. In: 
J.F. Caddy [ed.]. Marine Invertebrate Fisheries: Their Assessment and Management. John Wiley 
and Sons. New York. 757p. 

Garcia S.M. and A. Demetropoulos, 1986. Management of Cyprus fisheries. FAQ Fish.Tech.Pap.. 
(250): 43p. 

Garcia, S.M. and J. Majkowski, 1992. State of high seas resources, pp. 175-236. In: T. 
Kuribayashi and E.L. Miles [eds.]. The law of the sea in the 1990s: a framework for further 
international cooperation. Publ. by the Law of the Sea Institute, University of Hawaii. 

Gavaris, S., 1988. An adaptive framework for the estimation of population size. CAFSAC 
Res. Doc.. 89/34. (Mimeo.) 

GFCM, 1989. Report of the Second Technical Consultation on Red Coral of the Mediterranean. 
FAOFish.Rep.. (413): 162p. 

GFCM, 1990. Report of the GFCM-ICCAT Expert Consultation on evaluation of the stocks of 
large pelagic fishes in the Mediterranean area. FAO, Rome. FAQ Fish.Rep.. (449): 282p. 

GFCM, 1991. General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean. Statistical Bulletin. 8: 210p. 

GFCM, 1993. Fisheries and environment studies in the Black Sea system. GFCM Studies and 
Reviews. 64: 143p. 

Glantz, M.H. and J.D. Thompson [eds.], 1981. Resource management and environmental 
uncertainty: lessons from coastal upwelling fisheries. Wiley-Interscience, New York. 491 p. 

Glantz, M.H., R. Katz and M. Krenz [eds.], 1987. The societal impacts associated with the 
1982-83 worldwide climatic anomalies. United Nations Environment Program. National Center for 
Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado. 105p. 

Goodall, R.N.P., A.R. Galeazzi and A. A. Lichter, 1988. Exploitation of small cetaceans off 
Argentina 1979-1986 (SC/39/SM3). Rep.Int. Whaling Comm.. 38:407-410 

Gordon, A. 1991. The by-catch from Indian shrimp trawlers in the Bay of Bengal: the potential 
for its improved utilization. BOBP/WP/68: 1-27. 



-91- 

Guillen, O., 1983. Condiciones oceanogrificas y sus fluctuaciones en el Pacffico sur oriental, pp. 
607-658. In: G.D. Sharp and J. Csirke [eds.]. Proceedings of the Expert Consultation to Examine 
Changes in Abundance and Species Composition of Neritic Fish Resources. FAQ Fish. Rep.. (291): 
1224p. 

Gulland, J.A., 1971. The Fish Resources of the Ocean. Fishing News Books, England. 255p. 
Gulland, J. A. 1990. Commercial whaling - the past, and has it a future? Mam m. Rev.. 20(1): 3-12 
Gulland, J.A. and L.K. Boerema, 1973. Scientific advice on catch levels. Fish.Bull.. 71(2): 92p. 

Haimovici, M., 1988. Anilisis de cohortes del stock de pargo bianco (Umbrina canosai) explotado 
en el sur de Brasil, Uruguay y Argentina. Publ.Com.T6c.Mix.Fr.Mar.. Vol. 4: 33-40 

Haimovici, M., J.A. A. Perez and E.M.C, Vidal, 1990. Distribution of Illex argentinus in southern 
Brazil. Paper presented at the ICES Symposium on Shellfish Life Histories and Shellfisheries 
Models. Special Session on Squid Recruitment, 26 June 1990, Moncton, Canada. 18p. (Mimeo.) 

Hannesson, R., 1989. Optimum fishing effort and economic rent: a case study of Cyprus. FAQ 
Fish.Tech.Pap.. (299): 57p. 

Harwood, M.B. and D. Hembree, 1987. Incidental catch of small cetaceans in the offshore gillnet 
fishery in northern Australian waters: 1981-1985 (SC/38/SM14). Rep.Int. Whaling Comm.. 37: 
363-367 

Hatanaka, H., 1986. Growth and life span of short-finned squid Illex argentinus in the waters off 
Argentina. Bull.Jap.Soc.Sci.Fish.. 52(1): 11-17 

Hatanaka, H., 1988. Feeding migration of short-finned squid Illex argentinus in the waters off 
Argentina. Nippon Suisan GakkaishL 54: 1343-1349 

Hatanaka, H., A.M.T. Lange and T. Amaratunga, 1985. Geographical and vertical distribution 
of short-finned squid (Illex illecebrosus) larvae in the Northwest Atlantic. NAFO Sci.Counc. 
Studies 9: 93-100 

Helgason, T. and H. Gislason, 1979. VPA-analysis with species interaction due to predation. 
ICES C.M. 1979/G:52 (Mimeo.) 

Hey, E., 1989. The regime for the exploitation of transboundary marine fisheries resources: The 
United Nations Law of the Sea Convention Cooperation between States. Martinus Nijhoff 
Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London. 306p. 

Haughton, M. 1987. The obstacles to fisheries management in Jamaica. NAG A. 10(3): 17 

IATTC, 1992. Annual Report of the Inter- American Tropical Tuna Commission, 1990. Inter- 
American Tropical Tuna Commission, La Jolla, CA. USA. 261p. 



-92- 

ICCAT, 1993. Report for biennial period, 1992-93. Part I (1992). International Commission for 
the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, Madrid, Spain. 375p. 

ICES, 1992a. Reports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fisheries Management, 1991. Part 
1. 368p. 

ICES, 19925. Reports of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fisheries Management, 1991. Part 
2 (Report to the International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission). 72p. Mann, K.H. and J.R.N. 
Lazier. 1991. Dynamics of marine Ecosystems. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 466p. 

ICSEAF, 1989. Proceedings and reports of meetings. Tenth Regular Session. Palma de Mallorca, 
25 November-9 December 1989. Parts I and II, un paginated, (provisional edition). 

IMR, 1988. Prospecciones de los recursos pesqueros de la plataforma pacifica entre el sur de 
Mexico y Colombia, 1987. Reports on surveys with R/V Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, Institute of Marine 
Research (IMR), Bergen, NORAD/UNDP/FAO Programme: 96p. 

Inada, T. and I. Nakamura, 1978. A comparative study of two populations of the gadoid fish, 
Micromesistius australis. from the New Zealand and Patagonian-Falkland regions. Bull. Far. Seas 
Fish.Res.Lab.. (13): 1-26 

IPCC, 1990. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. U.S. Dept. Commerce. 358p. 

Ivanov, L. and R.J.H. Beverton, 1985. The fisheries resources of the Mediterranean. Part Two: 
Black Sea. GFCM Studies and Reviews. 60: 135p. 

Jordan, R., 1985. Ecological changes and economic consequences of El Nino phenomenon! in the 
southeastern Pacific. Biol.ERFEN, (12): 27-33 

Joseph, D.C., 1984. Overview of the commercial fishery of Antigua and Barbuda. Proc.Gulf 
Caribb.Fish.Inst.. 36: 11-14 

Joseph, J. 1990. The world fishery for tunas and the need for international management. (MS). 

Joseph, J., Klawe, W. and Murphy, P., 1988. Tuna and billfish-fish without a country. Inter- 
American Tropical Tuna Commission, La Jolla, CA, USA. 69p. 

Kailola, P.J., M.J. William, P.C. Stewart, R. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve, 1993. Australian 
Fisheries Resources. Bureau of Resources Sciences, Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy and 
the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. Canberra, Australia. 422p. 

Kocatas, A., T. Koray, M. Kaya and O.F. Kara, 1993. A review of the fishery resources and their 
environment in the Sea of Marmara. Part 3, pp. 87-143. GFCM Studies and Reviews. 64: 143p. 

Koronkiewicz, A., 1980. Size, maturity, growth and food of squids, Illex argentinus (Castellanos, 
1960). ICES Shellfish and Benthos Committee, C.M. 19807 k:18: 7p., 2 tables and 6 figures. 
(Mimeo.) 



-93- 

Koronldewicz, A., 1986. Growth and life cycle of the squid Illex argentinus from the Patagonian 
Shelf and Polish squid fishery in the region, 1978-85. Gdynia, Sea Fisheries Institute: 9 p., 12 
tables and 14 figures. (Mimeo.) 

Lanier, T.C. and C.M. Lee [eds.], 1992. Surimi Techology. Marcel Dekker N.Y. 528p. 

Lawson, T., 1992. Status of tuna fisheries in the SPC area during 1991, with revised annual 
catches since 1952. Technical Report No. 29. Tuna and Billfish Assessment Programme. South 
Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 73p. 

Lankester, K. 1988. The scientific justification of management of whale populations in the 
International Whaling Commission. Can . Transl . Fish * Aquat . Sci . . 5408: 14p. 

Liwoch, M., 1986a. Polish catches and fishing effort on the Patagonian Shelf and off the Falklands- 
Malvinas (FAO Division 41, subdivision 38S and 50W) in the years 1978-1985. Gdynia, Sea 
Fisheries Institute, 3p., 8 tables (Mimeo.) 

Liwoch, M., 1986b. Information concerning the results of Polish biological and fishery 
investigations of southern poutassou Micromesistius australis. (Norman, 1937) on the Patagonian 
shelf and Falkland Islands (Malvinas) in the years 1981-1985. Gdynia, Sea Fisheries Institute, 6p., 
13 figures, 27 tables (Mimeo.) 

Lluch-Belda, D., R.A. Schwartzlose, R. Serra, R.H. Parrish, T. Kawasaki, D. Hedgecock and 
R.J.M. Crawford, 1992. Sardine and anchovy regime fluctuations of abundance in four regions 
of the world oceans: a workshop report. Fish.Oceanogr.. 1 : 339-347 

Mann, K.H. and J.R.N. Lazier, 1991. Dynamics of Marine Ecosystems. Blackwell Scientific 
Publications, Boston. 466p. 

Marashi, S.H., 1993. Activities of regional fisheries bodies and other international organizations 
concerned with fisheries. FAO Fish. Circ.. (807) (Rev. 1): 57p. 

Marasovic, I., T. Pucher-Petkovic and V. Alegria, 1988. Relation between phytoplankton 
productivity and Sardina pilchardus in the Middle Adriatic. FAO, Rome, FAO Fish. Rep.. (394): 
306p. 

Mathisen, O.A. and I. Tsukayama, 1986. Bases bioldgicas y marco conceptual para el manejo de 
los recursos petegicos en el Pacifico Suroriental. Lima, Peni, OLDEPESCA, Doc.de Pesca No. 
100: 196p. 

Matsuura, Y., J.C. Amaral, J.C. Sato and S.T.J. Tamassia, 1985. Ocorrencia de peixes pelagicos 
e a strutura oceanografica da regiao entre o Cabo de Sao Tome (RJ) e Canaveia (SP) em Jan- 
Fev/1979. Ser.Doc.Tecm. PDP/SUDEPE. Brasilia, 33: 3-70 

Matsuura, Y. 1989. Synopsis on the reproductive biology and early life history of the Brazilian 
sardinella, Sardinella brasiliensis. and related environmental conditions. Tonvex VII. 8 p. In: 
Second IOC Workshop on Sardine/ Anchovy Recruitment Proyect (SARP) in the Southwest Atlantic. 
Unesco, Paris. IOC Workshop Report, 65 



-94- 
McClellan, S., 1993. The fishery decaylth ... Ceres 142. Vol. 26 (1): 23-27 

Mellergard, S. and E. Nielsen, 1990. Fish disease investigations in Danish coastal waters with 
special reference to the impact of oxygen deficiency. ICES C.M. 1990/E:6. Marine Environmental 
Quality Committee. 21p. (Mimeo.) 

Milliman, J.D., 1981. Transfer of river-bourne paniculate material to the oceans, p. 5-12. la: J.M. 
Martin, J.D. Burton and D. Eisma [eds.]. Proceedings of a SCOR/ACMRR/ECOR/IAHS/ 
Unesco/CMG/IABO/IAPSO Review and Workshop, held at FAO, Rome, 26-30 March 1979. 384p. 

Mohn, R.K. and R. Cook, 1993. Introduction to sequential population analysis. Sci. Council 
Studies No. 17. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization. 108p. 

NAFO, 1993a. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization. Fishery Statistics for 1989. Statistical 
Bulletin No. 39. Dartmouth, N.S., Canada. 299p. 

NAFO, 1993b. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization. Report of Scientific Council, 2-16 June 
1993 Meeting. NAFOSCS.. Doc. 93/17. 154p. 

NAFO, 1993c. Historical catches of selected species by stock area and country for the period 
1981-1991. NAFO SCS.. Doc. 93/5. 26p. 

Nakamura, I., 1985. Billfishes of the world. FAO Species Catalogue, Vol. 2, Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. 65p. 

National Research Council, 1992. Committee on Reducing Porpoise Mortality from Tuna Fishing. 
Dolphins and the Tuna Industry. National Research Council, Washington, DC., USA. National 
Academy Press. 176p. 

New Zealand Fishing Industry Board, 1993. New Zealand Fishing Industry Economic Review. 
New Zealand Fishing Industry Board. 64p. 

NMFS, 1992a, Fisheries of the United States, 1991. Current Fish.Stat. No. 9100. U.S. Dept. 
Commerce, NOA A. 113p. 

NMFS, 1992b. Status of fishery resources off the southeastern United States for 1991. NOAA 
Tech.Mem.NMFS-SEFSC-306. 75p. 

Northridge, S.P., 1991. Driftnet fisheries and their impact on non target species: a worldwide 
review. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. FAO Fish. Tech. 
, (320): 115p. 



Norton, J., D.R. McLain, R. Brainard and D.M. Husby, 1985. The 1982-83 El Nino off Baja and 
Alta California and its ocean climate context, pp. 44-72. In: Wooster, W.S. and D.L. Fluharty 
[eds.]. El Nino North - Nino effects on the Eastern Subarctic Pacific Ocean. Washington Sea Grant 
Program, Univ. Washington, Seattle. 312p. 



-95- 

NPFMC, 1992a. Stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for the 1993 Gulf of Alaska 
groundfish fishery. North Pacific Fishery Management Council, P.O. Box 103136, Anchorage, 
Alaska 995 10. 292p. 

NPFMC, 1992b. Stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for the groundfish resources of the 
Bering Sea/ Aleutian Islands Regions as Projected for 1993. North Pacific Fishery Management 
Council, P.O. Box 103136, Anchorage, Alaska 99510. 297p. 

NSF/NASA, 1989. Ocean color from space. (A folder of remote sensing imagery and text, 
prepared by the NSF/NASA-sponsored US Global Flux Study Office, Woods Hole Oceanografic 
Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543. 

NSW Fisheries, 1992. NSW fisheries, Annual Report 1991-1992. NSW Fisheries. 92p. 

Oeien, N., 1991. Abundance of the northeastern Atlantic stock of minke whales based on 
shipboard surveys conducted in July 1989. Rep.Int. Whaling Comm.. 41:433-437 

Otero, H.O., S.I. Bezzi, M.A. Renzi and G. Verazay, 1982. Atlas de los recursos pesqueros 
demersales del Mar Argentine. Contrib.Inst.Nac.Invest.Des.Pesq. . (423): 248p. 

Otero, H.O. and G. Verazay, 1984. Comportamiento de los modelos de producci6n excedente 
(surplus) en la poblacidn de merluza comun (Merluccius hubbsi). El modelo lineal y el modelo 
exponential. Physis (A), 42(102): 17-24 

Otero, H.O., M.S. Giangiobbe and M.A. Renzi, 1986. Aspectos de la estructura de poblaci6n de 
la merluza comun (Merluccius hubbsh. II. Distribucidn de tallas y edades. Estadios sexuales. 
Variaciones estacionales. Publ.ComT6c.Mix.Fr.Mar.. Vol. 1(1): 147-179 

Otero, H.O. and P.M. Ibanez, 1986. Abundancia relativa de la corvina rubia (Micropogonias 
furnieri). Modelos de produccidn excedente. Publ.Com.T6c.Mix.Fr.Mar. . Vol. 1(2): 341-349 

Otero, H.O. and G. Verazay, 1988. El estado actual del recurso merluza comiin (Merluccius 
hubbsi) y pautas para su manejo pesquero. Publ.Com.T6c.Mix.Fr.Mar.. Vol. 4: 7-24 

Parrish, R.H., 1989. The South Pacific Oceanic Horse Mackerel (Trachurus picturatus murphy!) 
Fishery, pp. 321-331. In: D. Pauly, P. Muck, J. Mendo and I. Tsukayama [eds.]. The Peruvian 
upwelling ecosystem: dynamics and interactions. ICLARM Conference Proceedings. 18: 438p. 

Parrish, R.H., C.S. Nelson and A. Bakun, 1981. Transport mechanisms and reproductive success 
of fishes in the California Current. Biol.Oceanogr.. 1:175-203 

Parrish, R.H., A. Bakun, D.M. Husby and C.S. Nelson, 1983. Comparative climatology of 
selected environmental processes in relation to eastern boundary current pelagic fish reproduction, 
pp. 731-778. In: G.D. Sharp and J. Csirke [eds.]. Proceedings of the Expert Consultation to 
Examine Changes in Abundance and Species Composition of Neritic Fish Resources. FAQ Fish. 
Rep.. (291): 1224p. 



-96- 

Pauly, D. and I. Tsukayama [eds.], 1987. The Peruvian anchoveta and its upwelling ecosystem: 
three decades of change. ICLARM Studies and Reviews. 15: 35 Ip. 

Pauly, D. and T.-E. Chua, 1988. The Overfishing of Marine Resources: Socio-economic 
Background in Southeast Asia. Ambio. 17(3): 200-206 

Pauly, D. and M.L. Palomares, 1989. New estimates of monthly biomass, recruitment and related 
statistics of anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) off Peru (4-14S), 1953-1985. pp. 189-206. In: D. 
Pauly, P. Muck, J. Mendo and I. Tsukayama [eds.]. The Peruvian upwelling ecosystem: dynamics 
and interactions. ICLARM Conference Proceedings. 18: 438p. 

Pauly, D., P. Muck, J. Mendo and I. Tsukayama [eds.], 1989. The Peruvian upwelling ecosystem: 
dynamics and interactions. ICLARM Conference Proceedings. 18: 438p. 

Pearcy, W., 1992. Ocean ecology of North Pacific salmonids. Washington Sea Grant Program. 
Univ. Washington Press, Seattle and London. 179p. 

Pearse, P.H. and C.J. Walters, 1992. Harvesting regulation under quota managemetn systems for 
ocean fisheries. Decision making in the face of natural variability, weak information, risks and 
conflicting incentives. Mar.Policy. 16(3): 167-182 

Peltier, K.M., R.B. Miller and S.J. Chivers, 1991. Composition of the 1990 incidental kill of 
small cetaceans in the US purse-seine fishery for tuna in the eastern Tropical Pacific during 1989. 
(IWC SC/43/SM-2). Rep.Int. Whaling Comm.. 42:517-520 

Perrotta, R.G. , 1982. Distribuci6n y estructura poblacional de la polaca (Micromesistius australis). 
Rev.Invest.Desarr.Pesq.(INIDEP). (3): 35-50 

Petrie, B. and K. Drinkwater, 1993. The influence of the Labrador current on the ocean climate 
of the Scotian shelf and the Gulf of Maine. NAFO SCR. Doc. 93/44. 15p. 

Podesti, G.P., 1990. Migratory pattern of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi and oceanic 
processes in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. U.S.. 88: 167-177 

Prado, J., 1992. List of references of the selectivity of various fishing gears and methods; research 
in this field. FAQ Fish. Circ.. (850): 15 Ip. 

Pucher-Petkovic, T., I. Marasovic, I. Vukadin and L. Stojanoski, 1988. Time series of productivity 
parameters indicating eutrophication in the middle Adriatic waters, pp. 41-50. In: Caddy, J.F. and 
M. Savini [eds.]. FAQ Fish. Rep.. (394): 306p. 

Ramanathan, V., 1988. The greenhouse theory of climate change: A test by inadvertent global 
experiment. Science. 240: 293-299 

RAPA, 1989. Marine Fishery Production in the Asia - Pacific region. FAO/RAPA Publ.. 6: 1 1 Ip. 

Rey, M. and P. Griinwaldt, 1986. Evaluaci6n de la merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) en la Zona Comun 
de Pesca Argentino-Uruguaya. Verano, 1982. Publ.Com.T6c.Mix.Fr.Mar.. Vol. 1(1): 180-190 



-97- 

Roache, J.F. [ed.], 1987. Proceedings of the Atlantic Canadian Surimi Workshop. Clarenville, 
Newfoundland. 28-30 January 1987. 204p. 

Saccardo, S.A., 1983. Biologfa y disponibilidad de sardina (Sardinella brasiliensis. Steindechner, 
1879) en la costa sudeste de Brasil. pp. 449-464. In: G.D. Sharp and J. Csirke [eds.]. Proceedings 
of the Expert Consultation to Examine Changes in Abundance and Species Composition of Neritic 
Fish Resources. FAQ Fish.Rep-- (291), Vol. 2: 553p. 

Saran (de), H. [ed.], 1991. Tuna 91 Bali: Papers of the 2nd World Tuna Trade Conference, Bali, 
Indonesia, 13-15 May 1991. INFOFISH, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 246p. 

SCORRAD, 1990. Papers presented to the 6th Session of the Standing Committee on Resources 
Research and Development. FAO.Fish.Rep-- (463) Suppl. 215p. 

Sharp, G.D and J. Csirke [eds.], 1984. Report of the Expert Consultation to Examine Changes 
in Abundance and Species Composition of Neritic Fish Resources. FAQ Fish.Rep.. (291), Vol 1: 
102p. 

Shomura, R., J. Majkowski and S. Langi, 1993. Interactions of Pacific Tuna Fisheries. Proceedings 
of the First FAO Expert Consultation. Noumea, New Caledonia, 3-11 December 1991. FAO, 
Rome. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap.-(336). Vol 1: 326p. and Vol. 2: 439p. 

Sigaev, I.K., 1993. Oceanographic conditions in some areas of the Northwest Atlantic in 1992. 
NAFO SCR. Doc. 93/1: 5p. 

Silvestre, G.T., 1990. Overexploitation of the demersal stocks of Lingayen Gulf, Philippines, pp. 
873-876. In: R. Hirano and I. Hanyu [eds.]. Proc.Second Asian Fish.Forum. Tokyo, Japan, 17-22 
April 1989. 

Sinclair, M., 1988. Marine Populations. An essay on population regulation and speciation. 
Washington Sea Grant Program. Univ. Washington Press, Seattle and London: 252p. 

Skuladottir, U. , 1993. The catch statistics of the shrimp fishery (Pandalus borealis) in the Denmark 
Strait in the years 1980-1992. 12p. 

Snead, L.L., 1987. A review of United States Caribbean fishery interests. Proc. Gulf and Caribb. 
Fish.Inst.. 40: 33-36 

South Australian Department of Fisheries, 1992. South Australian Department of Fisheries. Annual 
report 1991-1992. 44p. 

South Pacific Commission, 1992a. Report of Meeting, Fourth Standing Committee on Tuna and 
Billfish, Noumea, New Caledonia, 18-19 June 1992. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New 
Caledonia. 43p. 

South Pacific Commission, 1992b. Report of Meeting, Fourth South Pacific Albacore Research 
Workshop, Taipei, Republic of China, 4-8 November 1991. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, 
New Caledonia. 57p. 



-98- 

Sparholt, H., 1990. Improved estimates of the natural mortality rates of nine commercially 
important fish species included in the North Sea Multispecies VPA model. J.Cons.int.Explor.Mer. . 
46:211-223. 

Sparre, P., 1991. Introduction to Multispecies Virtual Population Analysis. ICES Marine Sci. 
Symp., 193: 12-31 

Sudarsan, D., 1990. Marine fishery resources potential in the India exclusive economic zone. An 
Update. Bull.Fish.Surv.Ind.. 20: 1-37 

Tsukayama, I. and M.L.D. Palomares, 1987. Monthly catch and catch composition of Peruvian 
anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) (northern-central stock, 4-14S), 1953-1982. pp. 89-108. In: D. 
Pauly and I. Tsukayama [eds.]. The Peruvian anchoveta and its upwelling ecosystem: three decades 
of change. ICLARM Studies and Reviews. 15: 351p. 

Ubal, W., W. Norbis, B. Bosch and D. Pagano, 1987. Principals factores determinantes de la 
abundancia de la merluza comun (Merluccius hubbsi) en otono en la Zona Comun de Pesca 
Argentino-Uruguaya. Publ.Com.T6c.Mix.Fr.Mar.. Vol. 3: 7-13 

UN, 1992. Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. (Rio de 
Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992). Protection of the Oceans, all kinds of Seas, including Enclosed and Semi- 
Enclosed Seas, and Coastal Areas and the Protection, Rational use and Development of their Living 
Resources. A/CONF. 151/26 (Vol. II). Chapter 17: 129-166 

UNEP/Unesco/FAO, 1988. Eutrophication on the Mediterranean Sea: receiving capacity and 
monitoring of long-term effects. Mediterranean Action Plan Tech. Rep.. (21): 200p. 

Valentini, H., F. d'Incao, L.F. Rodrigues, J.E. Rebelo-Neto and E. Rahn, 1991. Analise da pesca 
do camarao rosa (Penaeus brasiliensis e Penaeus paulensis) nas regioes sudeste e sul do Brasil. 
Atlantica. 13(1): 143-157 

Van Waerebeek, K. and J.C. Reyes, 1990. Catch of small ceatceans at Pucusana Port, central 
Peru, during 1987. Biol.Conserv.. 51(1): 15-22 

Vazquez, A., 1993. An assessment of the cod stock in NAFO division 3M. NAFO SCR. Doc. 
93/85. 3p. 

Vendeville, P., 1990. Tropical shrimp fisheries. Types of fishing gear used and their selectivity. 
FAOFish.Tech.Pap.. (261) Rev. 1: 75p. 

Verazay, G.A. and H.O. Otero, 1986. Nuevas estimaciones del rend i mien to mximo sostenible de 
la poblaci6n de merluza comun (Merluccius hubbsi) a trav6s de modelos de produccidn excedente. 
Publ.Com.TCc.Mix.Fr.Mar.. Vol. 1(1): 233-239 

Vernoux, J.P. 1988. La ciguatera dans Tile de Saint-Barthelemy: Aspects epidemiologiques, 
toxicologiques et prtventifs. Oc6anol.Acta.. 11(1): 37-46. 



-99- 

VNIRO, 1979. Effects of water management on the biological productivity of the Azov and Caspian 
Seas. Proc. Vol. CXXXHI: 171p. 

Vucetic, T. and V. Alegria-Hernandez, 1988. Trends of annual catches or stock densities of some 
pelagic fishes in recent "Pelagia" years in the Adriatic, pp. 133-136. In: J.F. Caddy and M. Savini 
[eds.]. FAQ Fish-Rep.. (394): 306p. 

Watson, L., 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Nelson Canada. 302p. 

Wahby, S.D. and N.F. Bishara, 1981. The effect of the River Nile on Mediterranean water, 
before and after the construction of the high dam at Aswan, pp. 311-318. In: J.M. Martin, J.D. 
Burton, D. Eisma [eds.]. River Inputs to Ocean Systems. Proceedings of a SCOR/ACMRR/ 
ECOR/IAHS/Unesco/CMG/IABO/I APSO Review and Workshop, held at FAO Rome, 26-30 March 
1979. 384p. 

WECAF, 1989. Report of the second Workshop on the Biological and Economical Modelling of 
the Shrimp Resources on the Guyana-Brazil Shelf. Cayenne, French Guiana, 2-6 May 1988. 
Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission. FAO.Fish.Rep.. (418): 89p. 

WHOI, 1991. Toward Improved World Fishery Statistics. Final Report of An International 
Planning Group/ Workshop Sponsored by the Ford Foundation. The marine Policy Center, Woods 
Hole Oceanographic Institution. 7p. 

Wooster, W.S. and D.L. Fluharty [eds.], 1985. El Nino North Nino Effects on the Eastern 
Subarctic Pacific Ocean. Washington Sea Grant Program, Univ. Washington, Seattle. 312 

Wooster, W.S. and A.B. Hollowed, in press. Decadal scale variations in the subarctic Pacific: A. 
Winter ocean conditions. In: R.J. Beamish [ed.]. Proceedings of the International Symposium on 
Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations. Can.J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 

Wysokinski, A. , 1986. The living marine resources of the Southeast Atlantic. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap.. 
(178) Rev. 1: 120p. 

Yafiez Rodriguez, E., 1989. Fluctuaciones de los principles recursos pelagicos explotados en la 
zona norte de Chile y variaciones ambientales asociadas. Memorias del Simposio International de 
los Recursos Vivos y las Pesquerias en el Pacffico Sudeste, Vina del Mar, 9-13 mayo, 1988. 
Comisi6n Permanente del Pacffico Sur (CPPS), Rev.Pacifico Sur. (Niimero Especial): 509-520 

Yu, H.M., 1991. Marine fishery management in People's Republic of China. Marine Policy. 15(1): 
23-32 

Zaitsev, Yu.P., 1993. Impacts of eutrophication on the Black Sea fauna. Part 2, pp. 63-86. In: 
GFCM Studies and Reviews. 64: 143p. 

Zukowski, C. and M. Liwoch, 1977. Biologia i polowy blekitka poludniowego (Micromesistius 
australis. Norman) z szelfu patagonskiego. Biologia i zasoby ryb szelfu argentynskiego. Stud. 
Mater. Morsk. Inst. Ryb . Gydnia f Ser. B) . (49): 5-52 



- 100- 

C. MARINE RESOURCE TABLES 

Notes for all tables 

Source of information for all tables: 1970-1990 Yearbooks of Fishery statistics 

(Catches and landings), FAO, Rome 

Additional sources of information by individual area: 

Eastern Central Atlantic (Area 34) 

1970-1989: CECAF Statistical Bulletins 

1990: Provisional FISHDAB (Fishery Data Base, Rome) 

Mediterranean and Black Sea (Area 37) 

1970-1989: GFCM Statistical Bulletins 
Southeast Atlantic (Area 47) 

1975-1988: ICSEAF Bulletins 

1989: Questionnaires supplied by member countries 

Main fishing countries: The main fishing countries are listed in ranking order by catch size 

Country descriptions: The former USSR is listed as USSR in the tables since the reorganization 

of the States had not occurred by 1990 

Catches and landings: All catches and landings are expressed in metric tons and are rounded 

to the nearest thousand tons 

State of exploitation: The state of exploitation is for the latest information available and noted 

by the following abbreviations: 

? = Unknown/uncertain 

U = Under-exploited 

M = Moderately exploited 

F = Fully/heavily exploited 

O = Over-exploited 

D = Depleted 

R = Recovering 



NOTE TO READERS: If you have information that you believe will contribute to improving 
the accuracy of future revisions of this document, you are kindly requested to entitle it "C710 
revision" and send it to The Chief, Marine Resources Service, FAO, Via delle Terme di 
Caracalla, 00100 Rome 



Table 5 
Northwest Atlantic (Area 21) 

i33zsic8X8*8Zzszxz3zzszz33333Zzxzz2zzzzz3Z3Z333Zzszzz2Z3zzzzzz::zzzzzz:zzz:::zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz:zz::zz3zs3Z3S33zz3szz3zzzx 

Main fishing Catches f'OOOt) State of 

Stock a/ countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

Z8XCXZZXXZt8ZXS8Z3SZStXZ38ZSZZZZ3Z3XZZZZZZZ2ZZXZZ2ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ2ZZZZZZ=ZZZZZZZZZ3Z2ZZZXZZSZZZZZSZZZZ33ZS33S3Z33333XZ33 

Atlantic cod Canada, Greenland, USA, 972 538 654 640 667 601 626 630 543 F-0 
Portugal, Spain, Germany 

Red hake USA, Portugal 45 15 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 D 

Haddock Canada, USA 34 42 67 50 55 35 35 30 25 

Saithe (Pollock) Canada, USA 34 43 54 66 78 75 62 58 50 F 

Silver hake USSR, USA, Cuba 270 136 71 99 103 78 91 106 91 U 

Roundnose Germany, USSR, 42 24 5 5 7 8 6 5 4 M 
grenadier Portugal 

Atlantic redfish Canada, USSR, Portugal 267 165 123 128 166 209 148 162 180 F-0 

Flatfishes Canada, USA, Spain 284 238 212 205 217 220 182 163 159 F-D 

Other groundfish USA,Canada,USSR,Spain 137 118 94 97 111 122 96 90 118 

Capelin Canada, USSR 130 217 42 54 84 66 110 118 184 R 

Atlantic herring Canada, USA 612 320 199 220 223 287 284 275 314 R 

Atlantic menhaden USA 273 267 313 312 222 297 327 326 395 F 

Atlantic USA, Canada, Germany, 355 133 29 55 64 74 79 74 65 U 
mackerel USSR, Bulgaria, Poland 

Other fish USA, Canada, USSR 140 92 59 69 57 80 54 62 63 

Total fishes 3595 2348 1925 2002 2056 2155 2102 2M 2193 

xzz388sxcx8&xxxszzxxzzzzzczzzzztz3szzzzzzz33zzzzzzzzzzzzzzz::zzzzzzzzzz=zzzz::zzzzzzz::::z=z2xzzzzxzzzr;::zzzzzrzzzzz::zzr::zzzzz 



Table 5 (continued) 



ssssssxszssssss 



Stock a/ 



crabs 



Main fishing 

countries 

(1990) 

EXXZZXZI 

USA, Canada 



American lobster Canada, USA 



Northern prawn Greenland 
Other shrimp Canada 



Scallops 



USA, Canada 



Clans (quahogs, USA, Canada 
soft shell) 



Squids 



Other molluscs 



USA 



Catches ('OOOt) State of 

1970 1975 I960 19BS 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
-74 -79 -84 



46 50 95 99 94 



87 85 90 



30 33 43 54 59 60 63 67 74 



12 42 46 56 65 71 76 63 89 f 



13 



8 11 14 15 18 19 20 23 F 



Total crustaceans 


101 


133 


195 


223 


233 


229 


245 


255 


276 




Amer. cupped oyster USA, Canada 


173 


146 


118 


53 


72 


59 


38 


34 


28 
























I 


Cupped oyster USA 




















1 


1 


11 


M 






















s 



73 182 152 108 129 190 191 205 219 P 



231 232 325 435 418 395 382 414 420 



45 117 58 23 23 24 2 37 39 



5 8 16 25 31 28 42 34 27 



Total molluscs 



Others 



527 685 669 644 673 696 676 725 744 



1 1 



1 1 



1 3 



xxzxxaxxzzxxxxsxixjzxsissszsriszszzzzssrzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzsrszzzzzzzzizzzzzzzzzrxstzzzxzzzzzzszrszzzzzzszrsxzszrxx 



Total area 



4224 3167 2790 2870 2964 3081 3026 3086 3221 



a/ Fart of stock occupies Western Central Atlantic (Area 31). 

Management measures, All important stocks in Canadian, NAFO (Northern Atlantic Fisheries Organization) and northern areas 
are covered by catch quotas. These quotas are set by coastal states (Canada and EEC) for waters within 200 miles and by 
NAFO for waters beyond national jurisdiction. In addition to quotas, there are controls on effort, gear, area and season. 



Table 6 
Northeast Atlantic (Area 27) 

SM M M .,.., S 8 .. SSSSSH SSSSSSSSSS .. SSSK 

Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

tttIIlIItMtIi MS ii lS tBsssssss . SSSS3gssssIsrssssss!!Ss . s! . sas .. ssl . ss . ssgsssssBssasss ___ ssssigBsi[sj(ss ^^_ s ^ s _ s ^^^ 

Freshwater and Norway, UK, 56 49 66 85 110 124 172 228 279 ? 
diadromous UK Scotland, Finland 

Plaice Netherlands,Denmark, 184 167 147 203 182 185 192 192 205 F 
UK England Hales 

Common sole Netherlands, France, 31 23 29 34 28 30 28 29 32 F 
Belgium 

Other flatfish Iceland, Norway, 159 127 147 143 140 157 171 180 155 p 
Spain, France 

i 

Tusk Norway, Faeroe Is. 32 34 42 44 44 41 34 43 40 ? 5 

Atlantic cod Iceland, Norway, 1831 1714 1527 1314 1368 1468 1330 1145 955 
Denmark, USSR 

Ling France, Norway, 68 73 84 87 85 87 81 82 74 ? 
Iceland, Spain 

Haddock i Iceland,UK Scotland, 601 385 312 327 364 363 303 239 183 o 
Norway, Faeroe Is. 

Saithe (Pollock) Norway, Iceland, 646 537 439 439 388 409 390 379 373 p 
Faeroe Is., France 

Polar cod "SSR 193 18 29 11 1 ? 
Norway pout Norway, Denmark, 523 541 500 391 285 339 277 352 296 H-F 



"=:::=::r=r:=:is::z:: 



Table 6 (continued) 

8x8xxzxx8x8xxx888sxxxzszxxxsxszsssssssszzs3s3s*8ss8ss5ssssssss:sssss8sss8sss:::r:szsss8s8szsxsxxxsss3sssss8sxxss8sssxxszxxz 

Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1960 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

XXXXXXSXXXXXXXXXSXXXXXfXXXXXXXSSSSSXXSSSSSSSSSZSSXSSXSSXSXSSSSXSSSXSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSZSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSXSSSSSXSXSSSSXSSS 

Blue whiting Norway, USSR, 41 410 729 651 804 693 661 651 566 H-F 
(Poutassou) Denmark, Faeroe Is. 

Whiting UK Scotland, France, 204 220 178 134 113 118 119 94 91 F 
UK England Males 

European hake Spain, France, 97 76 . 66 77 72 72 72 67 68 F 
Portugal, Denmark 

Other gadoids France, Spain, USSR 42 52 53 45 67 55 53 47 45 ? 

Sandeels Denmark, Norway, 358 643 681 657 973 857 1042 1134 753 F 
UK Scotland 

Atlantic Iceland, Norway, 155 312 292 271 253 209 222 175 192 F 
redfishes USSR 



Monk France, Spain, 
(Angler fish) UK Scotland 



35 37 53 60 52 54 55 54 53 ? 



Other demersal Denmark,France,Ice- 145 155 119 118 144 194 200 191 153 ? 
fish land,Norway,Faeroe I 

Capelin Iceland, Norway, 1658 2921 2426 2132 1292 1022 1031 777 797 F 
Faeroe Is, 

Atlantic horse Norway, Denmark, 279 234 169 206 229 261 357 384 405 M 
mackerel Netherlands, Spain 



Atlantic Norway, Sweden, 1373 764 
herring Denmark, USSR, UK 

Scotland, Netherlands 

Iceland, Finland 



1294 1307 1305 1401 1356 1225 H-D 



Table 6 (continued) 



Main fishing Catches {'OOOt) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 

(1990) -74 -79 -84 

8888ZS888Z33838S88S8SSSS8Z8S88S8SSZSS8ZSSSZ8ZSS:SSS:ZSZSZSSS:SS:SZ:r:s=S:ZZrSS:S888S8S:S8ZZSSSSSS88SS88SZ:SZZSSS8SSSSSS8S88 

European sardine Portugal, Spain 161 164 217 220 199 182 175 173 177 F 
(pilchard) 

Sprat Denmark, USSR, Poland 402 748 426 212 200 246 255 209 190 H 

European anchovy Spain, France 35 47 17 13 11 18 17 17 17 F 

Atlantic UK Scotland, Norway, 482 724 589 536 537 616 622 511 585 F 
mackerel Ireland, Netherlands 

Tunas Spain, Portugal 53 49 46 44 53 59 62 48 50 F 

Other pelagic Spain, Portugal 44 53 26 66 52 39 50 52 58 ? - 
fish 8 

I 

Sharks France, Norway, 71 64 56 68 65 70 65 61 66 ? 
UK Scotland 

Skates France, UK England 31 27 27 23 25 30 28 26 23 Some species:D 

Hales, UK Scotland Others: M 

Other fish Portugal, France, 225 183 171 92 63 30 54 38 40 ? 
USSR, Norway 

Total fishes 10215 11571 10512 9997 9506 9333 9519 8934 8152 

Crabs France, UK England 25 33 35 38 34 38 36 33 34 ? 
Hales 

Norway lobster UK Scotland, France 36 40 46 55 51 54 54 49 48 F 

Northern prawn Norway, Iceland 21 33 85 172 127 115 112 113 133 F 

B88888888888888888S83S8888S8S8888SZZ38ZSS8S88C8888SSSS88SS88S888&SSS:SS:8SSSS8ZSZS:SSZSSSSS8Z8SS8SS&SZSZZS8SSSZ8CZSSSSSSS:Z 



Table 6 (continued) 

SSSSSZSSSSSS:S23Sr=ZSS 

Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1965 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

8ZSZZZ3ZSZZZZZZ8Z8888ZZS31ZS8SS3SSSZZZZZZSZZZS3Z3ZSSSZ33SZSSSSS3SSrzSSZ3ZZZSZZZZZZZZZZS3S3SS8ZZSSSSZZZZSESS883333SSZ83S8 

Common shrimp Netherlands, 40 38 46 20 20 21 20 24 16 F 
+ Crangon Germany 

Other crustaceans France, Spain 16 8 6 12 7 7 9 8 7 ? 
Total crustaceans 138 152 218 297 239 235 231 227 238 
Oysters France, Spain 70 99 103 142 146 135 135 144 149 F 

Blue mussel Spain, Netherlands, 293 328 479 538 532 534 494 472 463 F 
Denmark, France 

Scallops Iceland,! Scotland, 41 44 49 50 61 89 64 48 55 F 2 
Faeroe Is, * 

I 

Common cockle UK England Hales, 30 28 17 12 26 50 34 26 33 M 
France, Germany 

Cephalopoda France, Spain, Portugal 36 25 39 38 26 44 42 49 54 U 

Other molluscs France, Portugal, Spain 41 32 27 21 30 37 50 45 38 ? 
Total molluscs 511 556 714 801 821 889 819 786 792 
Others a/ 420000000 

Total area 10868 12281 11444 11095 10566 10457 10569 9947 9162 

a/ Including starfish, purple sea urchin and aquatic invertebrates n.e.i, 

Management measures. The management regime of this region is in a period of transition, with the establishment 
of entailed jurisdiction by the coastal state, and the slow development of a common fishery policy by the EEC. 
A variety of measures, principally catch quotas, and controls on mesh sizes and sizes of fish have been set. 



Table 7 
Western Central Atlantic (Area 31) 



Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 



Freshwater and Venezuela 10 7 10 16 11 13 11 8 8 F 
diadromous fishes 

Snappers Venezuela, Hexico, 21 19 22 22 24 26 23 23 36 H-F 
Cuba, USA 

Groupers Hexico,Venezuela,USA 24 21 26 22 22 24 . 26 27 30 

Grunts Venezuela, Cuba 29 23 8 9 9 9 7 8 8 

Sciaenids Venezuela, USA, Hexico 37 39 31 30 31 29 28 29 28 , 

M 

Sharks and Rays Hexico,Venezuela,USA 9 12 21 25 24 24 30 32 29 K " 

I 

Other demersal Hexico, Venezuela 36 38 51 32 28 33 34 37 36 
fishes USA, Dominican Rep, 

Mullets USA,Mexico,Venezuela 27 23 31 24 27 31 31 34 35 ? a/ 

Atlantic menhaden USA 51 80 83 47 34 26 34 31 34 F 

Gulf menhaden USA 571 636 603 884 829 907 639 583 520 F 

Round sardinella Venezuela 44 40 50 59 84 87 62 72 59 H 

Other clupeoids USA, Cuba 20 15 11 10 6 5 6 9 9 H 

King and Spanish Hexico, USA, 21 22 23 20 20 21 19 21 22 H-F 
mackerels Venezuela 

Other tunas Venezuela, USA 32 35 58 74 56 42 48 56 43 H 



Stock 



Unidentified 
fishes 



Table 7 (continued) 



Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) State of 

countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 



Other pelagic Venezuela, USA, 
fish Mexico, Barbados 



Mexico, USA, 
Guyana, Cuba 



22 25 27 25 24 25 33 29 37 



129 157 244 269 279 259 254 255 300 



Total fishes 



Crabs 



USA, Mexico 



Spiny lobsters Cuba, Bahamas 



Shrimps 



USA, Mexico 



1083 1192 1499 1568 1508 1561 1285 1254 1234 



35 41 49 51 51 56 65 55 48 U 



20 22 24 30 28 26 25 26 22 F-0 



170 166 171 183 201 180 165 174 180 



Other crustaceans St Kitts and Nevis, 1 
Virgin Is. Br, 



1 2 



1 1 



Total crustaceans 



226 230 244 265 281 264 256 256 251 



Oysters USA, Mexico 161 172 206 223 186 173 158 152 127 Culture 

potential 
Cephalopods Mexico, Venezuela 5 7 10 10 13 12 12 18 19 U 



Calico scallop USA 



Other molluscs Venezuela, USA 



9 14 150 126 17 85 122 68 11 M-F 



17 33 38 54 41 49 44 56 54 



Total molluscs 



192 226 404 413 257 319 336 294 211 



Others 



Total area 



1112 



111 



1502 1649 2148 2248 2047 2145 1878 1805 1697 



a/ Probably moderately to heavily fished if the discards by shrimp trawlers are taken into account. 



Table 8 
Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF - Area 34) 

M****itMMsr*isis*ss*sssssasassBSssiBstrssssssssssssss=ss=sssBsssBss=sssssssisr=ssrsssssssssssrrsssasssssK**tists 

CECAF Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) 

Sub-areas stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990a/ State of 

(1989) -74 -79 -84 exploitation 

*M""S**MBBS8SESSBSSSSSSSBSSSSSSSSSSSSSSES8SS8SSSSSSBSSSSSSSS=E88SSSSSSSSSSSBSSBBSSSSSBSSSSSSBS8SSSSBSSrSSSSSSSSSSSB 

NORTH 

All sub-areas Cephalopods Korea Rep. , 173 146 133 96 122 86 108 123 o 
Spain 

34.1.1+34.1.3 Octopus Morocco, 94 79 79 57 64 45 61 62 
Spain 

34.1.3+34.3.1 Cuttlefish Spain,Senegal 30 25 24 16 22 15 17 18 o 
Korea Rep, Italy 

34.1.1+34.1.3 Squids Morocco 14 16 10 2 2 6 9 6 ' 

8 

34.1.1+34.1.3 European USSR,Morocco, 392 630 484 299 316 633 769 972 F ' 
pilchard Romania, Spain 

34.1.3+34.3.1 Sardinellas USSR,Senegal, 162 173 155 134 125 271 293 311 F-0 
Guinea, Romania 

34.3.1 Bonga Senegal, 27 17 16 12 16 7 15 24 ? 
Gambia 

34.1.3+34.3,1 Horse USSR,Germany, 299 313 290 45 58 329 310 263 F 

macterels Senfi 9 al highly variable 

34.1,3+34,3.1 Mackerels USSR, Romania 87 81 82 6 12 86 278 262 F 

highly variable 

34.1.1 Hakes Morocco,Spain 10 20 6 7 6 7 6 7 o 
34.1.3+34.3.1 Hakes USSR, Italy 52 39 22 2 3 7 7 8 0-? 

=S=SSES8BSSSBEBSSSSSSSSBSSBSIESSE8BS8SSSSESSSa=Z=MZ==srSSSaS 



Tables (continued) 
^^ 

Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) 
tub-mil Stock countries 1910 1915 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990i/ State of 

(1989 > " ?4 * - 8 < exploitation 

.. M ,,, 8 SSSSSMS SSK8 SSSSMKSSSM ssassssssiss L S8MS 

34,1,3134,3,1 Sea breams Senegal, USSR 98 53 33 26 25 39 30 31 
Mauritania 



Others 
TofaTiiorth 



' 337 564 444 508 516 
2307 2203 1820 1039 1127 1975 2411 2603 



SOUTH 



34,3,JtJ4,3,4Ull prawns Cameroon, 4 
34,3,5134,3,6 and shrimps Gabon,Nigeria 



34,3,4 Sardinellas Ghana, 57 
C6te d'lvoire 

34,3,6 Sardinellas Congo, Zaire 6 

All sub-areas Bonga Nigeria, 46 
Sierra Leone, 
Cameroon, 
C5te d'lvoire 



Others 



11 20 19 19 21 22 25 



, 



55 66 136 112 113 HO 1 04 



6 11 11 
51 86 95 



u 15 



N 



84 101 100 107 p 

. , 
C6te d'lvoire: D 



291 253 205 268 386 360 328 



"5 609 

ts8ISSMS8SMsss ^^^ 



704 



Tables (continued) 

sssiMMistssssssssssssssssrsscssssssssssssrsssstsssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssrsssssssssssssssssssssrissssiiaiitsMi 

CECAF Main fishing Catches |'000t) 

Sub-areas Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990a/ State of 

(1989) -74 -79 -84 exploitation 

sss3Msssssssssissrcrss!sssrssasssss!sssssrssssissssssssssssssssssrssssrsssssssssssssssssssssMssxrssassi8issiassMtw 

OCEANIC 

34.1.2+34,2,0+ 56 62 119 14 8 10 10 8 ? 

34,3,2+34,4,1+ 

34,4,2 

TUNA 

34 - b / Spain,France, 204 258 306 268 251 264 287 288 H 
Ghana, Japan 

UNKNOWN AREA 

3Ul 120 186 923 995 145 102 94 



ssss . ssss ^ 

Total CECAF Area 3238 3040 2836 3018 3185 3529 3697 4098 



a/ Breakdown by sub-areas for 1990 not yet avalaible, 
b/ Catches in vhole areas; see also Table 21, 



Table 9 
Mediterranean and Black Sea (Area 37) 

zzzzsssHtzzzzzzzzzzzzszzzzzzzzzszzzzzzzszsssszzzzzzszzszszzzzzzzzzszzszzzzzszzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzxzszzzzssszzszzszzssz 

Species Coastal Catches ('OOOt) 

Sectors/ groups countries Remarks 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 b/ 

-74 -79 -84 

8ZSZZZZ888ZZZ8ZZZZZZZZSSZZZZZZZSSZZZZZZZZS::ZSZZZZZZZZZZZZZSSZSS:SZSSSS:ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZSZZZZZZZZSSSZZZZZ:ZSZ8SZZZSS 



Balearic 


Demersal 


Algeria Trawl only 


26.9 


37.0 


43.5 


44.2 


34.7 


34.6 


24.0 


34. 


8 


37.1.1 


Coastal pel. 


Horocco 


93.2 


132.4 


154.2 


146.1 


158.6 


156.6 


173.9 


171. 


6 




Hiscel. c/ 


Spain 


10.2 


22.7 


29.0 


22.7 


21.9 


14.9 


18.0 


17. 


4 


Gulf of Lions 


Demersal 


Finfish 


4.1 


7.2 


8.9 


5.5 


5.9 


12.2 


9.2 


8. 


8 


37.1.2 


Coastal pel. 


France Sardine 


19.7 


18.5 


25.5 


23.9 


21.3 


43.5 


34.7 


35. 


5 




Hiscel. c/ 




9.4 


4.8 


2.2 


2.7 


2.5 


6.0 


8.3 


8. 





Sardinia 


Demersal 


France Trawl only 


33.3 


22.8 


23.5 


31.2 


29.2 


32.9 


31.0 


22. 





37.1.3 


Coastal pel. 


Italy 


58.8 


39.1 


36.9 


35.8 


36.3 


29.9 


21.4 


18. 


1 




Hiscel. c/ 


Tunisia 


15.1 


12.4 


13.1 


16.4 


15.1 


15.8 


13.9 


10. 


8 


Adriatic 


Demersal 


Italy Trawl only 


18.2 


19.6 


18.7 


16.2 


18.6 


20.6 


19.0 


15. 


8 


37.2.1 


Coastal pel. Yugoslavia 


80.2 


91.7 


122.4 


119.8 


91.7 


92.4 


80.3 


84. 


3 




Hiscel c/ 




30.6 


37.2 


33.6 


24.2 


30.3 


14.0 


13.1 


10. 


8 


Ionian 


Demersal 


Albania Trawl only 


30.8 


42.2 


49.7 


87.9 


74.3 


66.2 


70.2 


67. 


8 


37.2.2 


Coastal pel. 


Italy, Libya 


32.2 


43.8 


51.3 


61.2 


65.9 


62.4 


62.4 


59. 







Hiscel. c/ 


Malta, Tunisia 


16.3 


37.2 


41.2 


38.0 


40.3 


38.4 


37.4 


42. 


2 


Aegean 


Demersal 




16.3 


22.2 


26.9 


32.3 


39.0 


38.8 


47.1 


55. 





37.3.1 


Coastal pel. 


Greece 


23.2 


35.8 


46.4 


61.5 


58.7 


65.0 


104.4 


96. 


9 




Hiscel. c/ 


Turkey 


7.5 


10.2 


9.2 


7.7 


6.2 


8.1 


10.9 


11. 





Levant 


Demersal 


Cyprus, Egypt Finfish 


9.7 


12.0 


13.2 


12.1 


14.1 


15.4 


20.1 


23. 


3 


37.3.2 


Coastal pel. 


Israel, Lebanon 


9.1 


9.0 


13.8 


15.7 


18.8 


17.3 


19.6 


19. 


6 




Hiscel. c/ 


Syria,Turkey 


4.1 


3.1 


3.7 


6.0 


5.3 


18.7 


15.8 


12. 


7 


Hhole 


Demersal 




139.3 


163.0 


184.4 


229.4 


215.8 


220.8 


220.6 


227. 


5 


Mediterranean 


Coastal pel. 




316.4 


370.3 


450.5 


464.0 


451.3 


467.1 


496.7 


485. 







Hiscel. c/ 




93.2 


127.6 


132.0 


117.7 


123.6 


116.0 


117.4 


112. 


9 



(0 

I 



Total Hediterranean 548.9 660,9 766.9 811.1 790.7 803.9 834.7 825.4 



Table 9 (continued) 

iKSitisjxtMiiKSKiMSStKKsisKSSsssEsssir!ssssssss:ssss:ssssssssssrssss:its:ssrrrsKssssssetsrssitsttstKxs 

Species Coastal Catches ('OOOt) 

Sector a/ groups countries Remarks 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 b/ 

74 -79 -84 

xxixsxxiMxxxsstssxxsssxxrsssxssxsssstssrs::sssssstsrssssss:ssssssssz:nrssrsss:ss:=ssssstisssrssssssssr!5ssiisssstsssrsss 

Black Sea Demersal Bulgaria,Romania 24,4 31,6 42,3 49,9 48,6 57,6 51.3 43.6 

37.4 Coastal pel. Turkey 293,9 369,0 682,8 655,1 740,3 628,5 735,9 396.0 

Hiscel. c/ USSR 98,6 73,1 99,2 135,9 104,9 105,3 46,2 47,1 

Total Black Sea 416,9 473,9 624,3 840,9 693,8 791.4 833,4 488,7 

Whole area Tunas 22,9 30,1 54,2 62,3 55,4 59,0 69,9 51,8 
37,0 

Dhole area Others d/ 125,6 165,7 229,7 261,1 278,7 303,2 337,7 344,4 
37,0 

Totals Demersal 163,7 194,8 226,7 279,3 264,4 278,4 271,9 271,1 

Coastal pel, 610,3 739,3 1133,3 1119,1 1191,6 1095,6 1232,6 863,0 

Hiscel, c/ 191,8 200,7 231,2 253,6 228,5 221,3 163,6 160,0 

Tunas 22,9 30,1 54,2 62,3 55,4 59,0 69,9 51,8 

Others d/ 125,8 165,1 229,1 261,1 218,1 303,2 331.1 344,4 



Total area 1114,5 1330,6 1875,1 1975,4 2018,6 1957,5 2075,7 1710,3 1489.0 



a/ GFCH statistical divisions (boundaries given in GFCH Statistical Bulletins), 

b/ Breakdown by sub-areas not available. 

c/ Miscellaneous; diadromous, marine fishes n.e.i, 

d/ Others: crustaceans, molluscs, other aquatic animals, 



Table 10 
Southwest Atlantic (Area 41) 

8888888Z88S888S88S8888S8Z8SSSSS8SSSS888SSSSS8SSSSSSS8SSSSS8ZSS8SSS8SSS8SSSSSSSS8SS8SSS8888888X38S&88888S8S88XZZ8S8ZSZ8888Z 

Main fishing Catches ('ODOt) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

Argentine hake Argentina, Uruguay, 144 318 329 376 381 439 434 396 421 F 
Spain, Japan, Brazil 

Southern blue USSR, Poland 11 131 95 104 85 101 132 194 U-H 
whiting 

Atlantic croaker Brazil, Uruguay, 54 84 80 57 70 71 67 61 55 H-F 

Argentina 

Veakfishes Brazil, Argentina, 40 56 77 69 66 60 58 56 50 M-F 
Uruguay 

i 

Sardinella Brazil 174 136 127 124 126 91 65 78 32 
Anchoita Argentina 28 20 18 12 16 20 21 21 14 U 
Red shrimp Argentina 11 10 7 3 18 12 10 F-0 

Other prawns Brazil 48 54 52 69 57 57 49 50 51 F-0 
and shrimps 

Squids and Korea Rep,, USSR, 4 44 150 270 354 744 656 751 552 Patagonian 
octopuses Japan, Taiwan (Prov, shelf: F-0 

of China), Spain Elsewhere: U 

Other demersal Argentina, USSR, 2 11 24 44 74 96 125 77 70 N 
Patagonian shelf Poland 

Others 324 333 360 575 592 701 698 619 580 



Total area 818 1067 1359 1701 1847 2367 2292 2255 2029 



Table 11 
Southeast Atlantic (Area 4?) 

88888S8S8SSS883S883ssssssBsssssss8SSssBssssssssssssssssssssssssrssssssssssss8ssssssssssss8Sssssssss8S38XS8S888S8SS8S8SSSS8 

Stocks Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) State of 

Species ICSEAF countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
divisions (1989) -74 -79 -84 a/ 

8S8888888888S88S8SSSSS&8SSSS8888S8S888SSSSS8SSS8SSSS8SS8S8S:SSS:SSS8:S8:S8SSSS8SSSS8SS8SSSSSS88SSS88888S888S8X88888888S8 

Hakes 1,311,4 USSR, Spain 414 280 162 212 231 136 212 137 

1.5 Spain, USSR, 231 162 116 173 150 163 97 174 
S, Africa 

1.6 S, Africa 164 106 89 100 109 104 90 83 OR 
2,1+2,2 S, Africa 55 53 43 56 51 41 45 52 R 

Kingklip All sub-areas S. Africa, 12 10 8 16 17 14 9 8 

Spain, Japan, , 

USSR 

M 

Ul 

Large-eyed 1,3+1,4 Bulgaria 15 23 6 1 1 1 1 D: mid 1970s ' 

dentex R: no sign 

Panga 1,6+2,1+2,2 Japan,S,Africa 86222222 F 

Sardinella 1,1+1,2+1,3 USSR, Angola 92 125 205 211 165 108 133 106 M 

Cunene 1,1+1,2 USSR, Angola 31 45 28 53 54 39 63 

horse mackerel 

1,3 USSR, Angola 159 190 60 28 55 51 91 96 F-0 

Cape horse 1,3+1,4+1.5 USSR, Romania, 161 386 283 426 448 518 539 440 H-F 

nackerel Bulgaria, 

S, Africa, 

Germany, Spain 

1,6+2,1+2,2 S,Africa,Japan 32 52 17 27 32 39 41 59 H-F 

88S88888888888SS888888888S8SSSS8S8S8SS888S8S8SSSS8SS:S8SSSSZS8:SS:SSSSSS8S8SSSrrs::SS8SSSSSS888SZSSSSS88SS8SSS8SSSSS:8SS88 



Table 11 (continued! 



Stocks Main fishing Catches |'000t| State of 
Species ICSEAF countries 1970 1975 I960 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
divisions (1989) -74 -79 -84 a/ 



Pilchard 1,3+1,4+1,5 S. Hfrica 4(2 279 47 57 5] 67 66 79 D 

1,6 S, Africa 68 85 44 33 36 41 42 35 D 

Anchovy 1,3+1,4+1,5 S, Africa 211 212 190 52 16 376 118 158 F-0 

1,6 S.Africa 2]} 244 315 273 300 593 565 294 F 



1,1+1,2+1,3+ USSR, Spain 3 77 33 28 28 31 11 12 
mackerel 1,4+1,5 S.Africa 



1,6+2.1+2,2 S.Africa 58 2 3 4 3 5 8 17 F-D 

I 

M 

Others 377 455 615 375 375 386 391 442 X 



Mai area 2755 2778 2283 2104 2125 2729 2500 2258 1530 



a/ 1990 species breakdown not available, 



Table 12 
Western Indian Ocean (Area 51) 

XXIXXXtMXtIItfZXZZZ8ZZZZXZZaZtZZX8ZZZS8ZS3ZZZZ8ZZ8ZZSZZZZ*SZZZ3ZZZZZZZSZZZZS8S38SX3ZZSSS8ZZSSSZZZZZZiKZZSZZXSZZZZZZ 

Hain fishing Catches ('OOOt) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

zzxszxxiiztitisxxixxszzssszzxzzzxzzszzzzzszzzzxzzzzzzzszzczzszzzssszzzzzzzzzzzszzzzzzzzszzzzszzzzzszzszzzzzzzxzszzzzzzzsss 



Shad (Hilsa) 


Pakistan 


11 


9 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


Giant sea perch 


Pakistan 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 








Flat fishes 


India 


12 


10 


14 


9 


15 


12 


8 


21 


17 


Bombay duck 


India 


94 


122 


100 


104 


95 


88 


98 


116 


124 


Sea catfishes 


India, Pakistan 


60 


58 


52 


33 


45 


45 


57 


48 


49 


Lizard fishes 


India, Egypt 


2 


8 


9 


6 


6 


8 


7 


10 


10 


Pike congers 


India, Pakistan 


9 


17 


11 


11 


10 


7 


6 


7 


9 


Groupers 


UAE, Saudi Arabia, 


4 


4 


12 


19 


20 


20 


25 


22 


23 




Pakistan, Oman 




















False trevally 


India 


5 


3 


6 


4 


5 


3 


5 


6 


8 


Snappers 


UAE, Saudi Arabia 


4 


5 


7 


8 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


Ponyfishes 


India 


16 


7 


14 


12 


16 


10 


6 


11 


11 


Grunts 


Pakistan 


3 


4 


4 


8 


8 


7 


10 


7 


7 


Emperors 


UAE, Tanzania, Saudi 


6 


12 


18 


27 


34 


34 


42 


38 


36 


(Lethrinids) 


Arabia, Mauritius 




















Croakers, drums 


India, Pakistan 


39 


101 


111 


146 


150 


152 


151 


199 


226 


Goatfishes 


India 


3 


5 


9 


19 


12 


9 


22 


20 


19 


Porgies, 


Oman, Pakistan, 


8 


10 


14 


15 


17 


21 


21 


15 


14 


seabreams 


Korea Rep. 




















Threadfins 


Oman, Yemen, Tanzania 


1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


Other identified 


India, Tanzania, 


14 


26 


26 


20 


28 


31 


44 


43 


43 


demersal percom, UAE, Italy 


Demersal 


Oman, Egypt, 


32 


44 


51 


39 


36 


20 


18 


31 


33 


percom, n.e.i, 


Sri Lanka 




















Black pomfret 


Pakistan 


4 


5 


3 


4 


4 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Butter fishes 


India, Pakistan 


23 


28 


36 


28 


23 


25 


29 


31 


" 


Carangids 


India, Pakistan, UAE, 


28 


53 


59 


65 


73 


80 


88 


161 


171 




Sri Lanka, Egypt 




















Sardinellas 


India, Pakistan, UAE 


163 


237 


266 


253 


242 


213 


237 


286 


314 


Anchovies 


India, Pakistan 


31 


40 


53 


48 


40 


34 


55 


56 


94 



H-F 



U-H 

XIZZtSZZZZtXZZZXCZXZZZ3ZZZeZZZZZZZZSZZZ3SZZZZZSZ2ZZZS5ZZS:ZSZ==ZSSZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ3ZZZZZC:S:ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ33ZSZZ 



Table 12 (continued) 



mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 


******* 
Main fishing 


** 


*** 


BESSCZSS 


successes: 

Catches ( 


EfiSSSSS 

'OOOtJ 


2S59SSSS 


SSC5 




State of 


Stock 


countries 


1970 


1975 


1980 


1985 


1986 


1987 


1988 


1989 


1990 exploitation 




(1990) 


74 


79 


-84 














XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXCXXXCCZX&XXXXSXCr 


xxzxsxxxxxxsxzxxxsxsszzzzxxxxzzz: 


:zxz3xxxzxzxsxz3xx8Xszxzs3X38XS3X38333X33X3**S3Ss 


Wolfherrings 


India, Pakistan 


7 


11 


16 


19 


12 


12 


12 


17 


24 


Hixed clupeoids 


Pakistan, India, 


70 


60 


100 


74 


79 


110 


130 


125 


132 




Sri Lanka 




















Other identified 


India, Sri Lanka, 


22 


29 


41 


41 


42 


46 


64 


70 


50 


pelagic percom 


, Oman, Pakistan, 




















Pelagic 


Yemen, Oman 


188 


143 


115 


86 


79 


68 


85 


77 


85 


percom, n.e.L 






















Seerfishes 


India, Oman, 


22 


27 


44 


76 


72 


82 


77 


66 


61 


(kingfish) 


Pakistan, UAE 




















Skipjack 


Maldives, Spain, 


35 


28 


51 


125 


137 


156 


191 


219 


201 




France, Sri Lanka 




















Yellowfin 


Spain, France, Oman, 


25 


28 


45 


89 


107 


115 


166 


136 


162 




Taiwan (P. China), 


















i 

to* 




Panama 


















M 

00 


Longtail tuna 


Iran, Oman, Pakistan 


12 


14 


12 


37 


31 


37 


40 


36 


36 ' 


Kawakawa 


India, UAE, Maldives 


2 


3 


15 


26 


25 


20 


30 


17 


17 


Big-eye 


Taiwan (P. China), 


12 


20 


24 


31 


35 


37 


40 


33 


33 




Korea R,, Japan, France 




















Albacore 


Taiwan (P. China) 


8 


8 


10 


7 


8 


9 


' 11 


6 


8 


Southern bluef in 


Japan 


5 


3 


5 


3 


2 


2 


3 


3 


1 


Billfishes 


Sri Lanka, Korea, Oman 


4 


4 


5 


10 


11 


12 


12 


12 


10 


Other tuna 


Pakistan, India, 


24 


26 


25 


20 


32 


45 


36 


50 


58 




Madagascar, USSR 




















Hairtails 


India 


21 


37 


38 


66 


56 


56 


43 


40 


41 


Indian mackerel 


India 


113 


66 


49 


99 


75 


77 


75 


163 


124 


(Rastrelliger) 






















Sharks, rays 


Pakistan, India, 


101 


107 


97 


86 


89 


92 


96 


96 


96 




Sri Lanka 




















Other fish 


India, Iran, Pakistan, 


250 


343 


349 


565 


587 


606 


621 


761 


668 




Madagascar, Sri Lanka 





















1494 1767 1922 2344 2375 2437 2677 3069 3046 



Table 12 (continued) 

itiSM:issMiSM8:5Msssissss::8::sss:::5!s:s:::::::s:s:s:s:::s::::::::s:::::::::::::::::::nsiKiKi:K!:KsiwxKWSiMt 

Hain fishing Catches ('OOOt) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 198? 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

iim:iriK:mxxn:!Ks:t::ri::ti::::::::" 

Crabs Madagascar, Bahrain, 012222233 
Pakistan 
n,Odian,Hadagascar 453555556 



Shrimps India,Pakietan,Iran, 200 225 222 259 239 231 245 239 258 F-0 



Other crustaceans India, Sri Lanka 8 16 21 11 10 11 11 14 12 

Total crustaceans 212 247 248 277 256 249 263 261 279 

Cuttlefishes Taiwan (P, China), 10 13 7 8 8 5 4 6 10 

Yemen, Korea I, Oman 

Other cephalop, India, Iran, 3 9 13 21 19 31 38 41 39 
and bivalves Tainan (P, China) 

Total Mlluics 15 22 20 29 27 36 42 47 49 

Others 000010111 

ttms8tinmins&iHs:cts::::::::::t::::::::::K^^ 

Total area 1719 2036 2190 2651 2659 2722 2983 3378 3375 



M 



Table 13 
Eastern Indian Ocean (Area 57) 



Main fishing Catches j'OOOt) 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

Zaxxxxxxxxtxxxxxxxx8xxxxxxxxx8xxxxxxs8xxxs8xxxzxxszzzzzzzzszzzzzzzzzzszzzszzzzzzzzzzxzzzzzzzxsxxz88z8zzxs8xx888xsssszxs8 



Toll shad 
Giant seaperch 
Flatfishes 
Sea catftshes 
Lizard fish 
False trevally 
Sillago-whitings 
Ruffs 
Snappers 

Threadfin breams 
Fonyfishes 
Croakers 
Goatfishes 



Bangladesh 



India 

India 

India, Malaysia 

India 

Australia 

Australia 

Indonesia 

Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia 

India, Indonesia 

India, Malaysia 

India 

Half beaks, needlefish India, Indonesia, Australia 
Barracudas India, Indonesia 
Threadfins India, Indonesia 
Carangids Indonesia, India, Thailand 
Butterfishes India 
Sardinella, sardines India, Thailand, Indonesia 
Anchovies India 
Holfherrings India 
Other Clupeoids Indonesia, Australia, Malaysia 
Kingfish, seerfishes India, Indonesia 
Skipjack Indonesia 
Yellowfin Indonesia, Japan, 

Taiwan (Prov, of China) 

Bigeye Taiwan (Prov. China), Japan 
Albacore Taiwan (Prov. of China) 
Southern bluefin Australia, Japan 
Marlins, billfishes, Taiwan (Prov. China), Japan 

swordfish 
Other tuna Indonesia, India 









11 


72 


84 


104 


106 


111 


112 


1 


1 


2 


4 


5 


6 


6 


7 


7 


2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


5 


4 


9 


6 


17 


20 


29 


31 


40 


34 


33 


45 


45 


2 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


4 


6 


5 


3 


4 


4 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 


1 


2 


3 


3 


4 


5 


5 


5 


6 


5 


4 


4 


6 


9 


11 


12 


10 


13 


2 


4 


6 


7 


7 


9 


9 


12 


14 


1 


5 


10 


7 


10 


11 


9 


10 


10 


28 


34 


40 


35 


32 


38 


39 


45 


50 , 


21 


29 


40 


42 


51 


53 


55 


51 


44 - 


















K) 


2 


4 


5 


5 


9 


9 


3 


10 


15 


1 


9 


8 


10 


11 


15 


14 


7 


8 ' 


2 


3 


6 


7 


7 


8 


9 


9 


10 


4 


11 


8 


7 


9 


10 


11 


13 


12 


15 


26 


60 


78 


81 


91 


115 


94 


93 


6 


8 


14 


11 


15 


22 


10 


12 


15 


4 


66 


89 


95 


115 


135 


98 


101 


103 


15 


24 


36 


24 


28 


26 


17 


15 


17 


5 


8 


11 


16 


21 


17 


16 


17 


16 


57 


32 


69 


54 


59 


68 


68 


64 


76 


10 


16 


22 


21 


25 


28 


51 


49 


49 


3 


6 


11 


12 


12 


13 


14 


19 


20 


5 


10 


10 


12 


12 


14 


13 


18 


18 


4 


12 


13 


12 


12 


12 


14 


8 


10 


3 


3 


5 


3 


20 


33 


30 


13 


32 


21 


19 


24 


25 


20 


17 


16 


11 


9 


2 


3 


5 


6 


5 


4 


3 


3 


2 



16 38 42 38 



57 



52 66 72 



XZSIXXXXXIBZIZXXZXZZXXZXXXZZXXXZXXXXXXZXXZXZZZZZXZZZXZXXXSZSZZZSZZXZZZZSSSSZXSSSSZZZZZSZZZZZZZZZZZZXZZZZZZZZZXZZZZXZXXZZXZ 



Table 13 (continued) 

88S88S8SS888S8S8ssssss8S8sssssss83S3S8ssssscsssssssssssssss33ssssssssssssssssssss3sssss3ssssssssrssssssss8SSSSssss8SSS8SS 





Main fishing 








Catches 


('OOOt) 










Stock 


countries 


1970 


1975 


1980 


1985 


1986 


1987 


1988 


1989 


1990 




(1990) 


-74 


-79 


-84 














S888388SSSS888&8SS8S8S88S8883S8SS&8S83888S3S8S8S888S38SS83 


SSS3SS3SSSS3SS3SSSSSS88SSSSSSSSS8SSS3SSSSS3SSSSSSSSSSS33S8SSSSS8: 


Hairtails 


India, Indonesia 


23 


31 


34 


41 


36 


33 


28 


19 


31 


Mackerels 


Indonesia, Malaysia 


15 


37 


108 


124 


105 


109 


107 


107 


111 


(Rastrelliger) 


Thailand, India 




















Sharks and rays 


India, Indonesia, Australia 


31 


38 


50 


47 


53 


59 


78 


65 


64 


Other, identif. fish India, Malaysia, Indonesia, 


35 


60 


101 


105 


121 


151 


189 


190 


199 




Thailand, Australia 




















Marine fishes n.e.i 


. Myanmar, Thailand, India, 


457 


682 


917 


956 


1049 


1068 


1066 


1102 


1150 




Malaysia, Bangladesh, Indonesia 




















Total fishes 




811 


1234 


1802 


1932 


2118 


2284 


2307 


2326 


2446 


Sand and mud crabs 


Thailand, Indonesia 





4 


8 


8 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


Lobsters 


Australia 


12 


14 


16 


17 


16 


17 


18 


14 


19 K 


Penaeid shrimps 


Malaysia, India, 


3 


30 


67 


61 


67 


67 


98 


107 


H 




Indonesia, Thailand 




















Sergestid shrimps 


Malaysia, Thailand 





2 


11 


11 


9 


8 


8 


9 


9 


Other crustaceans 


Bangladesh, India, Indonesia 


29 


44 


70 


83 


97 


115 


89 


89 


98 


Total crustaceans 




44 


94 


172 


180 


199 


217 


223 


229 


249 


Abalones 


Australia 


6 


5 


7 


7 


7 


6 


6 


5 


6 


Oysters and mussels 


Thailand, Australia 





1 


6 


6 


6 


9 


13 


13 


13 


Scallops 


Australia 


4 


4 


18 


15 


12 


9 


7 


5 


6 


Cockles and clams 


Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand 





27 


109 


76 


73 


71 


70 


73 


68 


Cephalopoda 


Thailand, Malaysia, India 


2 


12 


24 


28 


33 


45 


53 


76 


36 


Other molluscs 


India, Thailand 








1 


2 


6 


7 


3 


3 


3 


Total molluscs 




12 


49 


165 


134 


137 


147 


152 


175 


132 


Jelly fishes 


Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand 





2 


29 


25 


64 


32 


3 


2 


2 



Total area 867 1379 2168 2271 2518 2680 2685 2732 2829 

88B888888M88888888888888S888SS888888888S8SS8SSSZ88SSS8S8S88SS888SSSSSSSSS8SS8SS3S8S8S88S38S38S88SSSSSS8S88888Z8S88S88S8CS 



Table 14 
Northwest Pacific (Area 61) 

XXXXXZXXXXXXXZZZZZZZSX8SXXXXZ8XI 

Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

Ziz8izx*xxzxx8xizxxxi>izxsxzzxztzxxxxxzzzxzzxxzzzzxxzxxzx8xzzxzzzxxxxxxzzxzx88x8xzxxxzxxxxxx8xxz88x8xzxxxzxxxc8xzxxxxsx 

Salmon Japan, USSR 186 230 239 334 250 287 258 386 361 D-R 

Alaska pollack USSR, Japan, 3014 3564 3618 4733 5154 5009 5108 4827 4225 F 
Korea Rep,, Poland 

Other demersal Japan, China, Korea 1683 2072 1830 1999 2213 1994 1807 1852 1786 F-0 
Rep., USSR, Taiwan 
(P, China), Hong Kong 

Pacific saury Japan, USSR, 283 334 235 274 251 227 347 331 416 

Taiwan (P. China) ^ 

N 

Japanese jack Japan, Korea Rep, 192 116 108 174 122 201 274 212 250 . 
mackerel 

Pacific herring USSR 465 248 145 203 249 255 213 118 109 

Japanese Japan, USSR, 157 1433 3959 4723 5191 5321 5429 5143 4735 F 
pilchard Korea Rep, 

Japanese Japan, Korea Rep, 441 356 349 349 412 308 304 316 442 
anchovy 

Chub mackerel Japan, China, Korea Rep., 1554 1789 1354 1217 1479 1133 1138 981 673 
USSR, Taiwan (P, China) 

largehead China,Korea Rep., Japan, 673 571 657 636 566 556 531 591 650 F 
hairtail Taiwan (P, China) 

i 

Tunas, Japan, Ch'ina, 384 419 449 423 481 454 534 542 617 F 
billfishes a/ Taiwan (P, China) 

XXZZXZZXXSZXZSZXZZZXXZSZXXZZZXXXXZXZXXXZZXZXXZZZSZZZZZZSSZZZZSZZZZZZZZZXXSSZZXZSZZZZZXXXXXXXZKSZXXXZXXXSKXZZZZZXZZZXXXXXXX 



Table 14 (continued! 



Hain fishing Catches |'000t| State of 
Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1969 1990 exploitation 
(1990| -74 -79 -84 

stuu::sixsx:si::::x:::s::::::::::::::::::n^ 

Other small Japan, China, Taiwan 187 523 758 879 55] 1002 910 987 1099 
pelagic (P. China) , Korea Rep, 



Marine fiehee China ( Korea Dero,Japan, 2844 3522 1809 3949 4234 4289 4661 4768 
n.e.i, Hong Kong, Korea Rep, 



425 285 267 192 143 264 231 287 298 P 
flying squid 



Others 1872 2499 2957 3761 4031 4521 4926 4954 



Total area 14560 17961 20734 23846 25709 25821 26671 26295 

5 

W 



a/ Includes skipjack tuna, larger tunas, smaller tunas and billfishes, 



Table 15 
Northeast Pacific (Area 67) 

I88888888II38S8SSS8S888SBSSSSS8SS3S8SSSSS3ZS8SSSSSSSSSS8SSZSSSSS3SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS8SSSSSS8S388SS8SSSS8SSSSSS8S3SSS3888S18 

Main fishing Catches ('OOOtj State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

88888S388883838S38888888883883883S88883838SS88S88S3888SS33S888SSSS8S88S888888S83S83S8838888SSS888888S8S8S833S33SSS88388S3 

Salmons USA, Canada 197 219 354 435 396 318 340 446 437 F 

Pacific halibut USA, Canada 25 14 19 34 41 42 43 39 37 F 

Yellowfin sole USA 56 76 86 203 179 183 219 153 150 H 

Other flatfishes USA, Canada 172 112 118 134 166 126 179 110 154 H 

Pacific cod USA 79 62 112 138 172 208 245 222 261 H 

Alaska pollack USA, Korea Rep. 1063 888 1086 1399 1605 1714 1550 1494 1568 F 1 

North Pacific hake USA 169 163 95 99 186 298 199 241 184 H ' 

Pacific ocean perch USA, Canada 109 41 26 22 32 34 33 32 49 D 

Sable fish USA 47 26 24 30 40 48 ' 52 45 43 M 

Pacific herring USA, Canada 114 101 78 83 68 85 84 85 82 

King crabs USA 40 53 3 7 12 13 10 12 15 D 

Pacific snow crabs USA 31 52 39 39 50 52 66 75 97 F 

Pacific oceanic USA 54 67 22 14 28 32 33 36 26 F 



Others 236 184 260 245 230 296 292 290 325 

88888>t888888888888SS88S888SS888S888SZ888SS88SSSSSS88S8S888S8SS8SS88888SSSS8:888S8888SSS8S888888888S8S8SSSSSS8888S888S8S8 

Total area 2392 2060 2322 2882 3205 3449 3345 3280 3428 



Table 16 
Western Central Pacific (Area 71) 

8SISS8SSSrSSSSSSSS8SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSB8SSSSSSSSBSSBSSSSSBSSS=SSSSSSS88S8SSSSBSBSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS8SBSS8SSSSSSSSSSSSSKS 

Hain fishing Catches ('OOOt) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

SS8SSSSSSSSS8SSSSSSSSSSBS8SSSSBSSSSSSSSSSSSSSBSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS8SSSSSSSSSSSSBSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS8SS88SSSSSXSBBSSSBSS8MX8 

Demersal fish Philippines, Indonesia, 491 612 613 682 734 756 764 800 804 P 
Thailand, Halaysia 

Coastal small pelagic fish 

Kackerels Thailand, Indonesia, 222 227 255 325 304 305 294 311 323 
(Rastrelliger) Philippines, Halaysia 

. Round scads Philippines, Indonesia, 264 343 275 327 357 364 312 360 402 
Thailand, Halaysia 

i 

Sardinellas Indonesia, Philippines, 175 341 392 298 320 341 394 441 480 - 
Thailand u 

I 

Anchovies Philippines, Indonesia, 146 166 209 307 252 264 289 289 274 H 
Thailand 

Total coastal small pelagics 809 1077 IS 1257 1233 1274 1289 1401 1479 
Coastal larger pelagic fish 

King/Spanish Indonesia, Philippines, 55 61 79 72 83 84 83 88 86 
mackerels Thailand 

Smaller tunas Thailand, Philippines, 62 94 160 203 194 260 324 346 296 H 
a/ Halaysia 

Total coastal larger pelagics 117 155 239 275 277 344 407 i34 382 



Table 16 (continued) 



Hain fishing Catches f'OOOt) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 

(1990) -74 -79 -84 

Sxxxssssxss:8ssss>sss3xtxsszs::ssssstssss^^ 

Skipjack tuna Indonesia,Philippines 42 70 99 137 151 164 170 159 195 F 

Major oceanic countries c/ 31 48 47 39 42 34 39 40 37 F 

Non-coastal countries d/ 103 156 227 207 362 346 449 412 417 F 

Total skipjack tuna 176 274 373 383 555 544 658 fill 649 

Yellowfin tuna Indonesia, Philippines 48 62 77 94 94 85 93 117 139 see 

Hajor oceanic countries c/ 4 8 10 7 4 8 13 11 , 10 tuna 

Non-coastal countries d/ 27 56 99 74 116 167 102 145 152 review 

Total yellowfin tuna 79 126 Iflfi 175 214 260 208 273 301 

Fenaeid shrimps Thailand, Indonesia, 195 217 206 173 203 207 227 234 228 F-0 M 

Malaysia, Philippines a! 

i 

Other shrimps Indonesia, Vietnam, 83 135 140 152 153 162 180 177 179 
and prawns Thailand, Philippines 

Total shrimps and prawns 278 352 346 325 356 36T 407 in 407 

Cephalopoda b/ Thailand, Philippines, 95 134 152 159 185 186 184 188 184 U-H 
Indonesia, Vietnam 

sz88S88C8S8SSS8:essss:tsssss::::sss:s8:ss::s:8s:s8sss::::ss::ss:::::ss::=ss:s::::2:sr:s::ss:8:s8sss:sss:8s:888S8s:s:ssz::ss 

Total area 4471 5118 5455 5909 6418 6840 6953 7248 7311 



a/ Bullet and frigate tunas, kawakawa and longtail tuna, 

Nominal statistics are incomplete, only a few countries separated these species, 
b/ Squids, cuttlefish and octopuses, 
c/ Fiji, Kiribati, Solomon Islands, etc, 
d/ Japan, Korea Rep., USA and Taiwan (Prov, of China). 



Table 17 
Eastern Central Pacific (Area 77) 

ssssssssssssssssssassssasszsssssssss&sssssssssssssssssssrsssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssxs 

Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) a/ State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

S888888888888S888SSSS883SS888SS8S8SSSSS88SSSS88SSSS:SS:S8S8SSSS::SSSS:SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS8SS8SSS8SSS8S8SSSS8S8SSS8&SS8S 

Freshwater and USA 222234622 
diadromous fishes 

Demersal fishes Mexico, USA 79 68 91 71 61 65 70 64 73 U 
Chub mackerel Mexico, USA 1 15 38 47 50 47 52 60 78 M 

Pacific jack USA 19 27 38 10 11 12 10 13 4 U 
mackerel 

Californian Mexico 58 142 353 372 471 477 446 509 399 M-F ' 

pilchard (sardine) to 

%j 
i 

N, Pacific anchovy USA, Mexico 92 238 280 154 123 167 119 111 6 U 

Central Pacific Panama 37 104 103 241 84 127 39 121 60 M-F 
anchoveta 

Pacific thread Panama 17 19 19 2 5 11 41 18 34 M-F 
herring 

Other coastal Mexico, USA 7 12 19 14 12 20 19 20 17 U 
pelagic fishes 

Skipjack tuna USA, Japan, Mexico 58 119 108 129 62 52 86 80 45 M 
N. bluefin tuna USA 9 8 2 4 5 1 1 1 1 H 

Albacore Taiwan (P. China), 15 20 24 34 33 24 26 21 17 M 
Japan, Korea Rep. 

Bigeye tuna Japan, Korea Rep. 42 70 64 78 100 98 80 78 83 M 

EZZSEZZzzHMSZSZzzszzEEZszzszzzzszzESSEzsszEssszEssszEszszzsEzssszszszszsssszsszszssssEEzszsssEzzszzzzszssssszzssszzzszsz 



Stock 



Table 17 (continued) 



Main fishing Catches f'OOOt) a/ State of 

countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 



Yellowfin tuna Mexico, USA, 170 202 151 231 276 272 284 277 257 P 
Venezuela, Japan 

Other oceanic Mexico, Japan, 37 34 32 30 33 43 40 41 45 U 
fish USA 



Unidentif, fishes Mexico 



119 96 135 135 142 118 119 109 176 



Total fishes 



762 1176 1459 1554 1471 1538 1438 1525 1297 



Dungeness and USA 
Pacific rock crabs 



2 1 1 1 2 2 U 



Shrimps Mexico, Cost a Rica, 68 58 75 84 82 85 78 83 67 F 
Panama 






Other crustaceans Mexico, El Salvador, 2 3 11 9 13 18 10 10 10 
USA 



Total crustaceans 



72 62 86 94 96 105 90 93 77 



Squids 



Japan, Korea Rep,, 11 14 23 25 36 68 76 81 83 U 
USA 



Other molluscs USA, Mexico 



17 15 25 21 28 27 38 43 47 



Total molluscs 



28 29 48 46 64 95 114 124 130 



Others 



USA, Mexico 



Total area 



10 



6 10 14 19 20 16 



15 



865 1277 1599 1704 1645 1757 1662 1758 1519 



a/ Species and area totals have been revised because of boundary changes between areas 77 and 87, 

the latter now including Ecuador and Colombia, the catches of which were previously included in the former, 



Table 18 
Southwest Pacific (Area 81) 



Hain fishing Catches ('000 t) State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 

(1990) -74 -79 -84 

ssssssssssssssBsssssssssssassssssssssssssssssssssssssssEsssssssstssssssssrssssssssssssssssssssBsssssssssBsssssssttssscssss 

Blue grenadier New Zealand, Japan, 7 49 38 43 187 181 246 210 392 F 
(Hoki) USSR 

Southern blue New Zealand, USSR, 23 19 17 8 17 14 19 32 42 ? 
whiting (Pout as sou) Japan 

Orange roughy New Zealand a/ 1 42 44 47 49 56 54 50 P-0 

Oreo dories New Zealand 9 33 35 22 23 23 IB 21 ? 

Other demersals 60 80 121 116 107 110 127 113 141 



Greenback horse, USSR, New Zealand, 13 13 23 42 133 135 96 94 in ? 
jack mackerels Japan 

Other small pelagics 12 25 15 20 21 20 21 20 24 



Snoek New Zealand, Japan 17 21 30 18 18 36 30 27 29 ? 
Sharks and rays N.Zealand, Australia 5 7 13 16 14 16 21 16 19 ? 
Unidentified fishes 14 29 17 54 20 142 190 158 25 



Total fishes 151 253 349 396 586 726 829 742 854 

S8S8S S8B 8 SS 8S888S S 8SS SSS . SSSSS . S= . SSS . SS .... S .. SSSK 



Table 18 (continued) 



'Main fishing Catches |'000t| State of 

Stock countries 1970 1515 1980 1565 198$ 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990| -74 -79 -84 



Australia J.Zealand 19 20 18 17 IS 13 18 17 13 F 



I 1 5 11 16 18 25 24 24 F 



New Zealand, USSR 8 37 116 123 101 104 135 228 96 ? 
Korea 



Total lolluscs 29 8 139 151 132 13S 178 269 133 



Rock lobsters Uealand, Australia 5 4 5 6 5 5 4 4 3 F-0 



62 58 56 25 32 30 36 48 45 i 

M 

lotalarea 247 373 549 578 755 896 1047 1063 1035 



a/ Substantial catches of orange roughy, lade by Australia since 1986, are reported to FAO 
as "other finfish", and are part of the group of "other demersal" in this table. 



Table 19 
Southeast Pacific (Area 87) 

Zzzzzzzzzzz3z88zzzzz8zzszzzzs38zzzzzz3zzszszzzzszzzzss::sss::s:s2zrs:s:ss:sz:s:z:sz:s:szzzzzzzzzzzszzzzzzzzzzzszzzzzz8zzss 

Hain fishing Catches ('OOOt) a/ State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 I960 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

zzzzzzzzc8Z23zzzzszzzzzsz8zszzz:zzzzzzz:s::rzssss:::sss::s:::srr:s:=:r:::ssss:s::s:::sz:::zzzzzzz:::zz:sz2rzzzszzzzzzszzzs 

Chilean hake Peru, Chile, USSR 139 194 85 47 74 64 150 156 225 F 

Chilean jack Chile, USSR, Peru, 173 776 1845 2148 1961 2682 3246 3655 3828 H 
mackerel Cuba 

Patagonian hake Chile 9 37 32 39 57 69 57 52 

Patagonian Chile 3 22 19 37 132 212 227 128 
grenadier 

South Pacific Peru, Chile 16 18 20 20 41 48 30 22 17 
breams JJ 

M 

South American Peru, Chile, USSR, 103 1512 3743 6509 4961 4950 5383 4530 4254 F-0 
pilchard (sardine) Ecuador 

Chilean herring Chile, Cuba 131 31 35 38 38 32 30 164 299 

Anchoveta Peru, Chile 6959 2251 884 987 4945 2101 3613 5408 3772 F-0 
(Peruvian anchovy) 

East, Pac. bonito Peru 51 7 18 10 5 19 35 27 40 

Chub mackerel Ecuador,Chile,Peru 103 527 412 201 149 174 236 245 402 M 

Squids Chile, Peru 1 . 1 2 19 6 5 7 11 22 U 

Others 362 402 677 713 746 727 765 836 906 

CSZZZZZZZZZZBCZZZZZZZZZZZZZSSZZZSZZSZZZSBZZSZZZZZZZSZZZSZZZZZSZZSZZZZZSZZBBZZZSSSBSZZSZSZZZZZZZZSBSZSZZSZBZZSZZZZZZZZrzZZB 

Total area 8038 5731 7780 10743 13002 10991 13776 15338 13945 

a/ Species and area totals have been revised because of boundary changes between areas 77 and 87, 

the latter now including Ecuador and Colombia, the catches of which were previously included in the former. 



Table 20 
Southern Oceans (Areas 48, 58 and 

zzsszzzzzzszzzzzzzzzzzsszzzzzzzzzzzzz 

Main fishing Catches j'OOOt) a/ State of 

Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 198S 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 

szissxizzzazzziissixxzzizzEaiigzazzxzzszazzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz:zzzzz:zzxz::zzzzzz:zxzzzzzzs:zzzxz::z:::zz::zsz: 

Notothenia rossii 
Area 48 b/ 
Area 58 c/ 

Notothenia squamifrons 
Area 48 b/ 
Area 58 c/ 

Patagonotothen brevicauda 
Area 48 b/ USSR 3 18 12 16 9 13 13 ? 

i 
Notothenia gibberifrons jj 

Area 48 b/ USSR 8 7 8 2 3 10 2 F-0 



USSR 


63 


7 


11 


2 




















USSR 


47 


13 


5 


2 


1 

















USSR 





1 . 





1 








2 


1 





? 


USSR 


22 


11 


7 


7 


2 


3 


5 


5 


3 


F-0 



Champsocephalus gunnari 


Area 48 b/ 


USSR 


3 


62 


63 


16 


14 


71 


36 


22 


11 


F-0 


Area 56 c/ 


France, USSR 


24 


26 


10 


8 


17 


4 . 


2 


24 


1 


F-0 


Other fishes 
























Area 48 b/ 


USSR 


1 


16 


17 


8 


4 


5 


19 


34 


32 




Area 58 c/ 


USSR 


3 


1 


1 


8 


1 


3 


1 


2 


1 




Area 88 


Poland, USSR 








1 














1 







Total fishes 
Area 46 




87 


97 


116 


47 


36 


88 


80 


72 


43 




Area 58 




96 


53 


23 


25 


21 


10 


8 


31 


5 




Area 88 










1 














1 











Table 20 {continued) 



Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) a/ State of 
Stock countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1967 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990] -74 -79 -84 

:::::::^ 



Krill 

Area 48 OSSR,Japan,Chile ( Poland 5 9) 253 161 426 347 363 395 350 

Area 58 Japan, USSR 27 I 6 IS 29 7 30 

Urea 88 Japan 1 5 5 4 1 

Total areas 

Area 46 92 190 369 228 462 435 443 46? 393 

Area 58 96 80 127 31 37 39 15 31 35 

016540011 

:::::::::^ 

Total Southern Oceans 168 271 502 264 503 474 458 499 429 



N 

0) 

w 



a/ Split year fishing season; July 1 to June 30; 

split-year data shovn under the calendar year in which the split-year ends, 
b/ Principally around South Georgia, 
c/ Principally around Kerguelen, 



Table 21 
Tuna and other tuna-like species 



Main fishing Catches ('000 t) State of 

Ocean Species countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 

(1990) -74 -79 -84 a/ 

xxxzxxxxxiXXXxxxxxxzzzxzz2Z2Z2xxxzzzzzz2zz2zz:2222Z222zz22Z2zzz2zz22zzzzz2zz2Z22ZZ2z:2zz22xz22X2zxz2Z222zz2zzzxzzzxz:2X2Z2 

Atlantic Albacore Spain, Taiwan 78 72 64 73 75 64 67 64 69 North: H 

(Prov. of China) South: H 

Bigeye Japan, Spain, 51 53 66 77 60 49 57 70 65 P 
Portugal, France, 
Ghana 

N, Bluefin France, Spain, 16 23 22 26 21 20 25 23 23 West: D 

Italy, Japan East: F 

Skipjack Spain, Ghana, 75 85 131 114 115 108 142 115 133 M ' 
France, Brasil w 






Yellowfin Spain, France, 86 124 142 148 133 136 130 155 159 East: F 
Venezuela, Taiwan Vest: ? 

(Prov, of China) 

Billfishes, Spain, Italy, USA, 21 21 29 42 41 45 52 54 51 Blue & white 
swordfish Algeria, Japan tnarlin: F 

Sailfish, east: U 
Swordfish, north: F 

Total principal tunas, 327 378 454 480 445 422 473 481 500 
billfishes and swordfish 

Small tunas Turkey, Hexico 88 86 121 100 86 106 120 108 112 
and seerfishes Ghana, Senegal 

Total Atlantic Ocean 415 464 575 580 531 528 593 589 612 



Table 21 (continued) 

===:=:==r==rrzrrr=======r=rz:r 

Hain fishing Catches ('000 t) State of 

Ocean Species countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 a/ 



Indian Albacore Taiwan 11 11 16 9 28 42 41 19 40 F-? 
(Prov, of China) 

Bigeye Korea Rep, Taiwan 16 33 37 43 47 49 54 40 43 F 
(P. China), Japan 

S, Bluefin Japan, Australia 50 38 43 35 27 26 23 19 16 D 



Skipjack Maldives, Spain, 38 34 63 137 149 169 205 238 221 L-H 

France, Indonesia 

i 

Yellowfin Spain, France, 30 38 55 101 118 129 180 154 180 F jjj 
Oman, Taiwan , 

(Prov, of China) 

Billfishes, Taiwan (Prov. of 6 7 10 17 18 18 18 16 14 Swordfish: K 
swordfish China), Sri Lanka, 

Korea Rep., India, 

Japan 



Total principal tunas, 151 161 224 342 387 433 521 486 514 
billfishes and swordfish 

Small tunas India,Sri Lanka, 56 86 140 214 221 262 278 278 285 
and seerfishes Pakistan, DAE, 
Yemen, Iran 

Total Indian Ocean 207 247 364 556 608 695 799 764 799 



Table 21 (continued) 



Main fishing Catches ('OOOt) State of 

Ocean Species countries 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 exploitation 
(1990) -74 -79 -84 a/ 



Pacific Albacore Taiwan (P. China), 121 118 104 105 108 110 116 162 124 North: F 
Japan, USA, Korea R, South: F 



Japan, Korea Rep. 83 125 111 124 150 150 121 128 150 F 
N. Bluefin Japan, USA 20 19 19 11 14 12 6 9 6 ? 

i 

Skipjack Japan, USA, Philip., 395 506 666 661 815 756 935 868 885 M 
Indonesia, Taiwan 
(P, of China) 

Yellovfin Mexico,USA,Japan, 300 390 400 476 542 602 586 627 648 East: N , 
Philip,, Indonesia Center i west: U * 

Billfishes, Japan, Taiwan 59 60 62 57 66 73 76 76 81 Swordfish: H 
ewordfish (Prov. of China) 

Total principal tunas, 978 1278 1362 1434 1695 1703 1840 1870 1894 
billfishes and swordfish 

Small tuna Indonesia, Philip,, 340 369 532 627 641 695 815 874 918 
and seerfishes Japan, Thailand, Korea R. 

Total Pacific Ocean 1318 1647 1894 2061 2336 2398 2655 2744 2812 



Total all oceans principal tunas, 1456 1817 2040 2256 2527 2558 2834 2837 2908 

billfishes and swordfish 

Total all oceans small tunas 484 541 793 941 948 1063 1213 1260 1315 

and seerfishes 

Total all tunas and tuna-like fishes 1940 2358 2833 3197 3475 3621 4047 4097 4223 

ItSSSSSSMMSSEIEESSEBSSSSSSSSESSESSESSSSSSESSSSSSSSSESSSSSSSSSSSSESSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSasaSSESSSSSSESSSSES 

a/ Refers to no specific FAO statistical area(s), but the entire stock. 
b/ Includes S, bluefin caught in the Pacific and Atlantic. 



5 



t'