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i 




L 



STANFORD 
UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARIES 




CfU-^. //-r^/ 



77 



The American 
Review of Reviews 



AN INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW 



Volume XXXVI. July-December, 1907' 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS COMPANY; 
NEW YORK: 13 ASTOR PLACE 



COPYRIGHT, 1907, BY THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



X064 51 



INDEX TO THE THIRTY-SIXTH VOLUME OF 

THE AMERICAN 
REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

JULY-DECEMBER, 1907. 



KiSTiAnoN. Work of the, 137. 

I Narigation, Recent Experiments in, 279, 665. 

loistao and Tibet in Ehiropean Politics, 535. 

I and South America, Shortest Route Between, 

lOO. 

a: Cape to Cairo Railwav, 607. 

ultnral Education in Macdonald College, Quebec, 

'anada. 576. 

ica. North and South, WJiy They Are Diflferent, 

kan People, New German Estimate of, 350. 

ration. Compulsory. Between Nations, 373. 

f Exploration: Will the America Fly to the 

»ole? 239. 

itini. The Progress of, 245. 

American, An Artist's Plea for, by Paul de 

ion^re, 688. 

American Painting To-day, 689. 

ic Ubor, South America and, 622. 

ic Ubor Riots on Pacific Coast, 403. 

io Race Problem, 394, 395. 

tv Monthly, Fiftieth Anniversary of, 735. 

aJia. Political Creed of. 24a 

alia, Tniversity Life in, 625. 

ia-FIungary, Affairs in, 18, 152, 533. 

WMiXG, Progress and Records in, 279, 665. 

ttJohn. Resourcefulness of Central America, 69. 

o, George W. Charles S. Mellen : Railroad Or- 

aniier. 169. 

Wir^BryanDebate on " Imperialism," 370. 

»ll Frank W. The Farmer's Debt to Science, 

86, 

*rds. Crusade Against, 345. 

' W. J. Trust Companies and the Panic, 680. 

u Tbe New, 124, 381, 510, 635, 753. 

« * Maine Railroad Acquired by New York, 

•^ew Haven d llartford Railroad, 6. 

n. ^^iDtion of Gas Problem in, 594. 

deis. Loois D. How Boston Solved the Gas 

E*roW«n, 594. 

n tnd Taft as Presidential Possibilities. 397. 

n-BerwTdge Debate on " Imperialism," 370. 

■tt, CoWn B. San Francisco's Regwieration, 195. 

J. E. H. HcKinley Memorials in Sculpture, 467. 

Ma. Daniel H., American Architect, 362. 

»8 Otttlook, A Sound, S, 

»*«. Retirement from, 557. 

ws^ Slackening Pace in, 389. 

^A 8 Confederation, Fortieth Anniversary of, 234. 
™ Position on Japanese Immigration, 537. 
««4ii Railway Commission, 366. 
to Cairo Railway. 607. 
^ X«d of Encouragement for, 7. 
»f on Current Topics, 31, 160, 284, 418, 544, 669. 
™ America, Independent States of, 69. 
f« Anerica. Resourcefulness of, 69. 
f» American Peace Conference, 412, 658. 
™ American Politics. 15. 

S^ Arthur. Developing a National Type of 
Uoi», 321. 

go Charter Rejected, 402. 
^wd. Decay of, 731. 

J^: The Study of the Human Plant, 204, 
E«t rntrainei, and Industry, 604. 
^ Wute of. 94. 



Chilean Ministry, New, 614. 

China, Affairs in, 404, 405. 

China Becomes a Constitutional Monarchy, 537. 

China. Educational Evolution in, 620. 

China's Indemnity to United States, Reduction of, 12. 

Chinese Suspicions of Japan, 404. 

Civilization : Is It Really Traveling Westward? 48a 

Clearing House, Scope and Functions of, 684. 

Clemens, Samuel L. (Mark Twain), Doctor of Let- 
ters, 167 ; His Trip to England, 145. 

Cleveland, City of, Tom Johnson and, 612. 

Cleveland Municipal Campaign : Burton vs. Johnson, 
399 

Coal Supply, Our, How Long Will It Last? 335. 

Cochrane, John Llewellyn. How Long Will Our Coal 
Supply Last? 335. 

College in the South, The. Task of, 246. 

Commons, John R. The Wisconsin Public Utilities 
lAW, 221. 

Confederate Veterans, The South's Care for, 40. 

Congo, King Leopold and, 406. 

Congo, Upper, Railways of, 253. 

Congo, Will Belgium Annex? 407. 

Congress: New Southern Senators, 263. 

Cooper, Fennimore, the Story Teller, 50S. 

Cooperative Consumers' Associations in Russia, 201. 

Copper, Collapse of, 392; the Copper Situation, 605. 

Corporate Misconduct and Its Effects, 499. 

Corporation Control, 517-518. 

Corrigan, John. The Prohibition Wave in the South, 
328 '^ 

Corwine, William R. Does the Country Want Tariff 
Readjustment? 47. 

Criminals, Youthful, 495. 

Crops of 1907, 79, 515. 

Currency Reform Problem, Our, 88. 

De Lonopbe, Pauu An Artist's Plea for American 
Art, 688. 

Diamond " Field." Discovered in Arkansas, 268, 301. 

Disease, Contagious, Do Doctor's Carry? 630. 

Drama, American, Richard Mansfield and His Influ- 
ence on, 424. 

EcoLE DES Beaux Abts and Its Influence on Our 
Architecture, 737. 

E]conomic Motives in Conditions Everywhere, 3. 

Education : French School Girls of To-day, 626. 

Education : Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada, Agri- 
cultural Work of, 576. 

Education : University Life in Australia, 625. 

Egypt, Old and New, 741. 

Elections in Various States, 656. 

Episcopal Church in America, Three Hundred Years 
of, 461. 

Europe, Population in, The Century's Movement of, 
245. 

European Politics, 277, 661. 

Byes, Fraud Upon, 509. 

Fabm, The, the True School. 493. 

Farmer's Debt to Science, 186. 

Feminism, Modem, An Opportunity for, 627. 

Finance : The Wrong of the Great Surplus, 369, 

Financial Panic, The, .643-654, 672, 677. 

Financial Revelation, The West's, 677. 



JV 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXX^I. 



Financial Situation: Increased Demand for Capital, 

259. 
Fiti-Gerald. W. G. Morocco, the Derelict of Diplo- 
macy, 63. 
Fletcherism, Yale's Ebcperiments With, 609. 
Foreign Political Notes, 277, 661. 
France: Affairs in. 531. 
Oleraenceau, Premier, Triumph of, 151. 
Commercial Conditions in, 374. 
Ki'onomic Troubles in, 10, 17. 
(termany. Relations with, 271-272. 
(treat Britain and Spain. Treaty with, 21. 
Japan, Treaty with. Relative to Mutual Interests 

in Far Fast, 20. _ 

Modem. ** Red and Black '» in, 233. 
School Girls. French, of To-day, 626. 
Cnitetl Statts. Tariff Relations with, 2«K). 
Wine Growing Districts, Trouble in, 10, 17-18. 231. 
Fmuois Joseph. Emperor, of Austria-Hungary, 552. 
Freeman, I>»wis R. West Indies in Commerce, 305; 
Railroads and Railroad Building in South Amer- 
ica, 177. 
Frost. I.ines of, Through the Ignited States, During 

the Spring. 80-Sl. 
Fyles, Franklin. Richard Mansfield and His Influ- 
ence on the American Drama, 424. 

GARTiEia). Harry A., Chosen President of Williams 

(^ollege, 144. 
Gns Problem, How Boston Solved the, ."04. 
tJorman-American Republic That Failed, The, 3.13. 
Germans and Denationalization, 633. 
Gvrmam*: Affairs in, 5.33. 

American Tariff and Other Relations with, 260, 483. 

Berlin (^ourt Scandals, The von Moltke-Harden 

Kimlnnd, Russia and the German Kaiser, 485. 
Fill hers and Sons, Battle of, in, 95. 
FrniutN Relations with, 271-272. 
UoliUlon of, 276, 489. _ 
Political Changes in, 153. 
Trades-rnionism in. Growth of, 744. 
Grnn«nv*8 Poorly Paid Professional Men, Unionizing 

Utldrr.* Jeannette L. Victoria: Queen, Wife and 

Mother. 703. 
U)n««*on. William H. The South*s Care for Her Con- 

fetlerate Veterans, 40. ^ ^^ 
Uold. Fall of, A (.Congressional Commission on, 501. 
UvmKI. Maxim, Decline of, 99. 
U*«vt'rnment by Impulse, 225. 
Uivul Britain: 

Vuierlcau Business in, 122. 

Colonial Affairs, 150. 

Ci»lonle8, Self-governing. 411. 

Vijjiland, Russia, and the German Kaiser, 485, 

Foi*<»lgn Relations. 410. 

j louse of rx)rds, Plea for an Unreformed, 255. 

hnlla. Woes of, 150. 

I Huh Bill, Liberal, 16. 

Notes on Affairs in. 409. 

iNilUics and Parliamentary Affairs. 149, 409, 661. 

i*iH»l>lem8 Before British Ministry, 270. 

Urtllway Strike, The Threatened, 662. 

idomia. Agreements with, 615. 

I'l'i^nty with France and Spain. 21. 
UiiHuie, Frank. Scope and Functions of the Clearing 

Mouse. 684. 
<hi^tt. Kdvard, 429. 

M vut'K Conference, Second, and Its Work, 21, 147-148, 
U71, 274, 405-406, 529-530, 660, 727. 

Haiin»r, Charles M. The West's Financial Hevela- 
llon, 677; The Middle West and Wall Street. 83. 

Umi'ls, G. W. Edvard Grieg, 429. 

H.iNWOod Acquittal, The, 2(J."». 

UvaiHt. William R. Fight of. Against Coal Trust, 14. 

£K^ut*y, Francis J., San Francisco's Star Prosecutor. 

T. How Germany Makes Toys for 
Christmas, 708. 
i, New Ambassador to Germany, 659. 



Hill, David Jayne. The Net Result at Th 

Conference, 727. 
Holt, Byron W. The Present Financial Crl 
Horse, Developing a National Type of, 321. 
Housekeeping, CoSperative: Why It Fails, 8 
Hughes, Governor, as a Presidential Possibil 
Hungary, Race Troubles in, 152. 

Iceland's Fight for Autonomy, 628. 

lies, George. Why Is Interest High? 342. 

Immigrant Woman, The. .367. 

Immigration and I^bor. 6.V>. 

Imperialism: Bryan-Beveridge Debate, 370. 

India : A Nation in the Making, 43.3. 

Industrial Efficiency, Have We Passed the Zc 

8J>. 
Infant Mortality. Most Important Factor in. 
Insurance Matters. 13. 
Internationalism, An Age of, .528. 
Interest: Why Is It High? 342. 
Interstate Commerce Commission's Report oi 

man Investigation, 1.'%). 
Ireton, Robert Kmmett. The legislatures i 

Railroads, 217. 
Italian Children, Education of, America's Int« 

375. 
Italian Woman, Extraordinary Civil Status 
Italy, Religious Revival in, .377. 
Ivins, William M. Rubber as a World l*iH>duc 



Jamkstown Tercentennary Exposition, 143, 3J 

Effects at, 519. 
Japan : X Woman's Cuiversity in, 248. 
Affairs in, 278, 404. 
New American Ambassador to (Thon 

O'Brien). 25. 
Talk of War with. Folly of, 130. 278. 
Japanese-American Feeling, 24, 131, 5itt>. 
Japanese, Naturalization of, 247. 
Japanese View of Exclusion, A, 487. 
Jewish Community (Woodbine, N. J.), Self-i 

ing, 3.54. 
Jews, Apostasy Among. 356. 
Jews, Low Death Rate Among, 490. 
Johnson, Charles Culver. Milk Supply as a N 

Problem, .58.5. 
Johnson, John A., Governor of Minnesota. 47< 
Johnson. Tom. and the Citv of Cleveland, 612. 
Johnston, Charles. Three Hundred Years of th^ 

copal Church in America, 461. 
Judson, Fre<lerick N. The I^abor Decisions of 

William H. Taft, 212. 



KiNNOSUKE, Adachi. The Japanese in Korea, 

Knaufft, Ernest. American Painting To-day. 

Art Effects at the Jamestown Ebcposition 

Saint Gaudens and American Sculpture, 2 

Korea : 

Alleged " T^ooting " of. 501. 
Diplomatic Duel for. 357. 
Japanese Absorption of, 277-278, 472. 
Problem in, 404. 

I^BOR, Migrations of. 733. 
Labor Problem, Personal Factor in, 87. 
T^and Policies and Land Grabbing, 379. 
liandis, Kenesaw Mountain. Judge, 498, 
Lanier. Robert S. Has Arkansas a Diamond ** Fi 

301. 
T-jj tin-America as a Field for Capital, 212. 
Tjatin-American Notes. 1.54. 
Ix»ading Articles of the Month, 87, 22.5, 348, 470 

731. 
Lees. Frederic. The Study of the Human Plant 
legislation. Industrial, and Its Cost. 2.54. 
LinnsBUS. After Two Hundred Years, 105. 
Liquor Business, New Plan for State Control of 
Literature: Is It Dying? 115. 
Lumber Industry of America, 561. 
Lusiiania, the New Speedy Transatlantic Liner, 



INDEX TO (VOLUME XXX 1^1. 



Modem : Is He a Poor Father? 378. 
field, Richard, and His Influence on American 
>raiBa, 424. 

and I>iairrams : 
rtic Circle, Showing Alternative Routes for Well- 
nan Balloon Expedition. 241. 
[»e to Cairo Railway, 607. 
iJ Areas of United States, 335. 
rest Regions of the United States, 563. 
Ka, Modem, and Its Political Divisions, 432. 
erboroui^h-Metropolitan Street Railway Com- 
Moiv, Showing Successive Mergers, New York, 

•an. 

mber Producing Districts of the United States, 

H-occo and the French Field of Operation, 273. 
w York- New Haven & Hartford Railroad Sys- 
r^^m, 175. 
rsia, TM\ 

ibber Prodacing Area of the World, 52-53. 
pst Indies, in Relation to North and South Amer- 
ica. 3I>4- 

beat TerritoTy Infested by Green Bugs, 70. 
rk Twain." (See under Clemens, Samuel L.). 
m, Marcus M„ An Example for Retired Business 
Men. r»-iG. 

csw Marcos M. Retirement from Business, 557. 
nage I^ws, French. Proposed Reforms in, 230. 
rin, Winthrop L. The Navy Department and Its 
Work. 614. 

rland Governorship Contest, 264. 
■h. BViction, and Its Precursors, 497. 
tini IvPtters, Some Newly Discovered, 238. 
inley Memorials in Sculpture, 467. 
a**, Slarion. Are Secret Societies a Danger to Our 
High Schools? 338. 

en, C^liarles S. Railroad Organizer, 169. 
ico. Railroad Control in, 747. 
lie W«!t and Wall Street. 83. 

Supply as a National Problem, 585. 

Sapply, The City and Its, 360. 
Vtt, Samuel E. Mark Twain, Doctor of I-^tters, 

i«rr. 

ammedanism. World Renascence of, 492, 745. 

occo: Affairs in. 408. 

rancp in. 271. 273. 

rwich I^initive Expedition Against, 102, 407. 

ituation in, 532. 

he " Derelict " of Diplomacy, 63. 

oring. Progress in, 279. 

licipal : iialveston Plan of City Government, 

Spr^d of, 623. 
licipal Ownership of Telephones in Great Britain, 

ISM- 



rr and the Panama Canal, 136. 

ry Draartment and Its Work, 714. 

ry. Good. Need of, 136. 

ry : The Pacific Cruise, 1^5, 400, 660-(>01. 

tions. Small: Are They Doomed to Destruction? 

340. 
tural Resources, Conservation of, 515. 
Isoo, Milton O. Lumber Industry in America, riil. 
(T York City : Hearst-McClellan Election Uetount 

Bill 14. 
w York City Street Railroads, 518-521. 
w York City Public Service Commission, Recent 

Work of, 2m. 521-523. 
w York Life Insurance Company : Election of D. P. 

Kingaley as President, 13. 
w York, New Haven 9l Hartford Railroad, Under 

President Mellen. 169. 
w York State, Public Utilities Commissions of. 140. 
■TT York State I^egislature : Railroad 2-cents-a-mile 

Bill Vetoed, 5, 9; Measures in, 10; Gas Legisla- 
tion. 261. 
>rth Carolina and " States' Rights," 260. 
jrway. Language Struggle in, 739. 

iiruABT. 30, 159, 283. 417, 543. 668. 
1 Transportation Industry. 738. 



Oklahoma*s Election : Adoption of New Constitution. 

402. 
Oulahan, Richard V. William H. Taft as a Judge on 

the Bench. 208. 

Painting, American, To-day, 689. 

Panama Canal, Our Navy and the, 136. 

Panama, Progress at, 657. 

Papacy, Present Crisis of, in Italy, 507. 

Papal Utterances, Iniportant, 411. 

Parenthood : Is the Modern Man a Poor Father? 378 

Peace, Economic Motives for, 12. 

Peace, Universal : Is It Possible? 226. 

Persia : Anglo-Russian Agreement Regarding, 535. 

Persia, Regeneration of, 599. 

Phelan. James D. The Case of San Francisco, 37. 

Philippines : 

Assembly, Opening of, 537. 

Elections in, 277. 

Railroad Development in, 477. 

Secretary Taft and, 396. 
Philippine Question: Have We a? 397. 
Pius X., The legend of, 491. 
Playgrounds in Chicago, 364. 
Play, Ethical Significance of, 256. 
Plants: Are They Possessed of Senses? 120. 
Polish Autonomy and " International Complications," 

111. 
Polish Emigration, Rapid Increase in, 119. 
Politics, National, 13, 142, 397-398, 527. 657; the 
Chandler and Gray Booms, 400-401 ; Bryan's Can- 
didacy, 401. 
Politics: State Campaigns, 525-526. 
Population in Europe, Century's Movement of, 245. 
Portraits : 

Albert, Marcelin, 17, 231. 

Albert, Prince Consort of Queen Victoria, 705. 

Alexander, E. P., 43. 

Alexis, Czare witch, of Russia, 22. 

Armor, Mrs. Mary Harri.s, 331. 

Austria, Emperor Francis Joseph of, 553. 

Avery, Elroy M., 510. 

Baker, George F., 645. 

Bankhead, .John H., 27. 

Barney, Charles T., 650. 

Bassett, Edward M., 141. 

Beeks, (iertrude. 136. 

Belgians, licopold. King of, 706. 

Benson, Arthur Christopher, 759. 

Berezin, Michael, 2. 

Berkeley, Bishop George, 462. 

Birdseye, Clarence F., 126. 

Bjfimsen, Bjornstjeme, 740. 

Bolquadze, Mr., ?. 

Booth, General ^Villiam, 149. 

Borah, W. E., 6. 

Borne, Federico Puga, 614. 

Bowman, Bishop Thomas, 157. 

Brownson, Rear- Admiral Willard U., 717. 

Bumham, Daniel H.. 363. 

Bums, William J., 200. 

Burton, Theodore E., 389. 

Butler, Nicholas Murray, 391. 

Capps, Rear-Admiral Washington L., 719. 

Carlos, King of Portugal, and Queen Am61ie, 19. 

C^arlyle, W. L., 323. 

Carus, Paul, 383. 

Casson, Herbert N., 382. 

Central-American Peace Conference in session, G5.-. 

Champlain, Samuel de, 637. 

Chanler, Lewis Stuyvesant, 401. 

China, Dowager Empress of, 260. 

Clark, Francis E., 756. 

Clarke, Dumont, 046. 

Clemenceau, Premier, 151. 

Clemens, Samuel L. ("Mark Twain"), 149, 168. 

Cleopatra, Queen, 743. 

Cole, Timothy. 760. 

Colt, Samuel P.. 59. 

Comer, Braxton B., 262. 

Converse, Elisha Slade, 60. 

Cooke, Jay, 753. 



vf 



INDEX TO yOLUME XXX^I. 



Cortelyon, George B.. 643. 

CJovington, W. A., 332. 

Cowles, Rear-Admiral William S., 717. 

Crothers, Austin L., 657. 

Curry, Governor, 541. 

Curtiss, Charles P., 186. 

D'Abruzsi, Duke, 20. 

Dale, Charles H., 59. 

Dana, Charles A., 124. 

Darrow, Clarence S., 5. 

Davis, Jefferson, Statue of, 41. 

Decker, Martin S., 140. 

Dewey, Admiral George, 717. 

Dolan, Thomas, 524. 

Drago, Luis Maria, 148. 

Dunne, F. H., 195. 

Durland, Kellogg, 757. 

Edwards, Augustin, 623. 

Egan, Maurice Francis, 29. 

Kustis, John E., 141. 

Evans, Admiral Robley D., 135, 660. 

Fairchild, James H., 381. 

Finley, W. W., 261. 

Fletcher, Horace, 609. 

Fort, John F.. 657. 

Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria, 553. 

Franz, Governor, 541. 

Fulton, Robert, 389. 

Garfield, Harry A., 144. 

Gilbert, Alexander, 646. 

Gilman, Mrs. Charlotte Perkins, 9a 

Glenn. Governor, 262. 

Golovin, Theodore, 2. 

Goodyear, Charles, 51. 

Gordon. John B., Statue of, 45. 

Gorki, Maxim, 100. 

Gould, George M., 124. 

Grieg, Bdvard, 429. 

GriflSs, William E., 639. 

Grubb, Eugene H., 323. 

Gu^de, Jules, 531. 

Gulick, Luther H., 125. 

Gummere, Samuel, 272. 

Hadley, Arthur T., 386. 

Ilagron, General, 272. 

Haney, William H., 638. 

Harden, Maximilian, 6(>3. 

Harrison. Frederic, 383. 

Haskell. Charles N., 402. 

Hawley, J. H., 6. 

Haywood, William D., 4. 

Heilprin, Angelo, 159. 

Heinze, F. Augustus. 542. 

Heney, Francis J.. 199. 

Hepburn, Alonzo B.. 646. 

Herv6. Kdouard, 531. 

Hi-Hyeung, Emperor of Korea, 130. 

Hill, David Jayne, 659. 

Hobart, Bishop John Henry, 461. 

Holden, P. G., 188. 

Hollander, Jacob H., 104. 

Holle, Ludwig, 153. 

Horsley, Alfred (Harir Orchard), 4. 

Hulbert, Homer B., 35^. 

Ivins, William M., 266, 524. 

Jaur^s, Jean, 232, 531. 

Joachim, Joseph, 283. 

Johnson, John A., 142, 477. 

Johnson, Tom L., 656. 

Johnston. Joseph F.. 262. 

Joline, Adrian H.. 521. 

Jones, Sam P., 331. 

Kampf, Arthur, 156. 

Kaneko, Kentaro. 24. 

Kartashov, Leo, 2. 

Keep, Charles H., 140. 

Kent, Duchess of, 704. 

Kingsley, Darwin P., 13. 

Knox. Philander C. 14. 

Korea, Emperor of, 130. 

Kom, Arthur, 97. 

Lacroiz, General, 272. 

Labovary, Jacques, 617. 



Landis, Kenesaw Mountain, 138. 

Lane, Franklin K., 140. 

Langdon, William J., 199. 

Lee, Stephen D.. 43. 

Lemire, Abbe, 232. 

Leopold, King of the Belgians, 706. 

Lincoln, Abraham, 755. 

Linnteus (Carl von Linn4), 105. 

London, Bishop of, 528. 

McCarroll. William. 141. 

Macdonald. A. A.. 237. 

Macdonald, Sir William, 57a 

McGaffey, Ernest, 127. 

Mcllhinny, John A., 541. 

Maclean, Sir Harry, 68, 155. 

McLougnlin, John. 6a5. 

Mahan, Captain Alfred T., 754. 

Maltbie, Milo R., 141. 

Mansfield, Richard, 425, 427. 

Marconi, Guglielmo, 538. 

Marks, Marcus M., 556. 

Mason, Rear-Admiral Newton E., 719 

Mathews, Shailer, 127. 

Maxoodov, Sadtretdin. 2. 

Mazzini, Giuseppe, 238. 

Mellen, Charles S., 7, 171. 

Metcalf, Victor H., 715, 

Miller, Frederick, 5. 

Miyakawa, Masuji, 639. 

Montt, President, of Chili, 614. 

Moore, Edward A., 511. 

Morgan, Edward M., 281. 

Morgan, James, 635. 

Morgan, J. Pierpont, 645. 

Morgan, John T.. 30. 

Morocco, Southern, Viceroy of, 65, 408. 

Morocco, Sultan of, 62, 6f. 

Mover, Charles H., 4. 

Muhlenberg, William. 463. j 

Mulai Abd-El-Aziz XIV., Sultan of Morocco, 62. <? 

Mulai El Hafid, Viceroy of Southern Morocco, 61 

408 
Nash,* William A., 646. 
Newberry, Truman H., 7ia 
Nugent, John F., 5. 
O'Brien, Thomas J., 25. 
Oospensky, Victor, 2. 
Orchard, Harry, 4. 
Osborne, Thomas M., 140. 
Oscar, King of Sweden, and Queen Sophia, 26. 
Osgood, Herbert L., 128. 
Perkin, Sir William, 158. 

Persian Crown Prince. Sultan Achmed Mirza, 601 
Pettibone, George A., 4. 
Pettus, Edmund W., 264. 
Phelan, James D., ^. 

Pinchot, Gifford, and President Roosevelt, 517. 
Pocahontas, Statue of, 28. 
Porter, Pleasant, 413. 
Portugal, King and Queen of, 19. 
Poznanski, Nicholas, 2. 
Pritchard, Jeter C, 261. 
Prudhomme. Sully, 619. 
Ptolemy Philadelphos, 74a 
Ptolemy Philometer, 743. 
Purdy, Milton D., 139. 
Pushkin, Alexander, 512. 
Rae. Rear- Admiral Charles W., 719. 
Richardson, Eldmond F.. 5. 
Ridgely, William B., 65a 
Riston, Adelaide, 512. 
Robertson, James Wilson, 57a 
Robinson, Douglas, 521. 
Rockefeller, John D., 392. 
Rockefeller, William, 393. 
Rogers, H. H., 390. 

Roosevelt. President 541 ; with Gifford Pinchot, 51^ 
Root, Elihu, and party in Mexico, 539. 
Ross. Edward A.. 500, 759. 
Russell. Charles Edward, 758. 
Ryan, Thomas F., 519. 
Sacue, James E., 140. 
Saint Gaodens, Augustus, 292. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXyi. 



Vll 



why, C. W., 125. 

tysov, Sergius, 2, 

Kent, Herbert H., 610. 

aff. Oen. Morris, 754. 

urx, Carl, 753. 

tt. Chariea, 264. 

bury. Bishop, 401. 

tth. Hoke, 143, 328. 

ith« Justin H., 511. 

eckeU, Rudolph, 198. 

vensTFrank W., 140. 

woa, Frederick C. 38a 

Tens, W. B., 350. 

oe, W. A., 6. 

lart, J. E. B., Statue of, 40. 

atlovslnr. V., 2. 

eden, Kin^ and Qaeen of, 26. ^^ 

re William H.. 208 ; with Mrs. Taf t and son, 267. 

rlor, Edward R.. 280. 

belnoxoY, Michael, 2. 

wnsend, Edward, 64a 

pper. Sir Charles, 237. 

mer, Asa, 189. 

:Vain, Mark,*' 149, lOa 

Tejola, Gonxalo, 614. 

kmb^ry, Armioius, 616. 

n IHijn, O. M.. a 

Ln Troostwijk. W. Doude, 148. 

•rninu Lois A., 614. 

rtoria. Queen (in 1840), 703. 707. 

la Schon, Wilhelm, 664. 

adsworth, James W., Jr., XL 

eLskirchner, Dr., 152. 

endelL Barrett, 640. 

eyertueoser, Frederick, 573. 

hite. Bishop William. 461. 

liite. James Gilbert, 44a 

IkiUoa:, Brand, 624. 

liitney, T. H., 141. 

liitaeU, Lieon, 5. 

^ttier, John Greenleaf, 73a 

Tdener, P. A B., 519. 

lleT, Harrey D., 384. 

lll^ox, William R., 141, 522. 

William II., Emperor of Germany, 275. 

Illiams, John Sharp, 263. 

lIlaoQ, Ao^ustiis E, 657. 

rilson. Ed^r, 5. 

TiIjwii, Woodrow, 145. 

rinnixirton-Insram, Rt Rev. Arthur F., 528. 

*ood. Fremont, 5. 

Toodward, James T.. 64a 

vriicht. Seaborn, 333. 

amajDoto. Admiral, 135. 

uan Sbih-Kal, Viceroy of Pechili, lOL 

elaya. Jose Santos, lo. 

tuiraL Parliamentary Deadlock in, 19. 

oc-eton Preceptorial System, 608. 

acetoa UniTersity, President Wilson's New Plans 

for Social Reorganization of, 145. 
«rftt of the World, The. 3. 131, 259. 387, 515, 643. 
ihibiti^m in Georgia, 143. 
th^Mtion Wave in the South, 328. 
wperity. The Question of, 146. 
idhoaune. Sally, Valuation of, 619. 
t»lic Utilities Commissions of New York, 140. 
Mic Utilities Law of Wisconshi, 221. 

zuoAD Development American, Tendencies of, 348. 
Proad Rates and Just Regulation, 7. 

Re«rnlation and *" States' Righte.*' 260, 262. 
Senrice. American and European, Compared, 
5a*^'i2Sw 526. 

, American, Cost of, 365. 
and Reaction. 38a 
Irmdi Makini^ Money, 303. 
troaik. Retaliation by. 10. 
boada. The L^tdsUtures and the. 9, 217. 
IrtTE. Aerial Mountain, 504. 
' of Current Bmits, 27. 155. 280, 413, 539, 666. 
m Tboneht, Modem Attitude Toward, 750. 
Ncfltfctcd, Education of, 782. 



Robertson. Dr. James Wilson, of Macdonald College. 

Quebec, 576. 
Roentgen Ravs, Dangers of, 632. 
Rome, Municipal Elections in, 151. 
Roosevelt, President, Address of, at Provincetown, 

Mass.. 268. 
Roosevelt. President. Mississippi River Journey of, 

456. 
Root. Secretary, Activities of. 400; His Trip to Mex- 
ico, 530; His Work as Cabinet Officer, 527. 
Rosenthal. Herman. Codperative Consumers' Associa- 
tions in Russia. 201 ; The Regeneration of Persia. 
599. 
Roumanian Farmer and the Russian Revolution. 617. 
Roumanian Peasant and the Jew, 117. 
Rubber as a World Product. 51. 
Russia and England. Agreements Between. 615. 
Russia : Chaos In. 153. 

Duma. Second. Record of, 22-24. 250. 

Duma, The Third, 534, 664, 751. 

Duma, The. and Our Congress, 228. 

Election Law. An Iniquitious New. 23. 

BiUgland. Russia, and the German Kaiser. 485. 

Foreign Relations of, 405. 

Marking Time in. 405. 

Poverty and Politics in, 11. 

Reform in,— Is It Possible? 227. 

School Situation. Chaos in, 496. 

Why Russia She Lags Behind. 351. 

St. Claiil David F. James Gilbert White. American 

Engineer, 447. 
Saint Gaudens and American Sculpture. 290. 
Salvation Army in Berlin. 482. 
San Domingo's Finances. 103. 
San Francisco's Star Prosecutor, Francis J. Heney. 

244. 
San Francisco's Struggle Against Graft. 37. 144, 195. 

244. 
Saunders. William F. President Roosevelt's Missis- 
sippi Journey. 456. 
Scandinavian Problems. Some. 271. 
Schools. Forest, in Germany, 121. 
Sculpture, McKinley Memorials in, 467. 
Sculpture, American, Saint Gaudens and, 290. 
Secret Societies: Are They a Danger to Our High 

Schools? 338. 
Seeds, Latent Life of, 631. 
Senators, New Southern. 263. 
Socialism. H. G. Wcjils on. 496. 
South America and Asiatic Labor. 622. 
South America and Europe, Shortest Route Between. 

108. 
South America, Railroads and Railroad Building in. 

177. 
Spain : Treaty with Great Britain and France. 21. 
Spanish Elections, Side Lights on, 107. 
Speare, Charles F. The Toll of the Tourist, 723. 
Spiritualism, Scientific, Progress of. in Italy, 505. 
Standard Oil and Publicity, 517. 
Standard Oil Fine. 265. 

Standard Oil, Government Action Against, 138. 
Standard Oil on Its Industrial Side, 610. 
Suggestion, a Powerful Factor in Treating the Sick. 

114. 
State Legislation. 143. 
Steel Business Situation, 393. 
Stock Market, Slump in, 259. 
Stock Market, The President and, 268. 
Sweden : Affairs in, 26. 

Taft, Judge Wiluah H., Labor Decisions of, 212. 

Taft, William H., Address by, at Columbus, Ohio. 268. 

Taft, William H., as a Judge on the Bench 208. 

Taft. Secretary, and the Philippines 397. 

Taft, Secretary : His Trip to the Far East, 527, 536. 

Tariff, Bryan-Beveridge Debate on. 603. 

Tariff. Dull Tiroes and the, 656. 

Tariff Readjustment, Does the Country Want? 47. 

Tariff Regulations with Germany, 269. 

Tariff Relations with France, 269. 

Tariff. Wood Pulp and the. 656. 



Vlll 



INDEX TO yOLUME XXXl^L 



Telegrraph, SendingPictures by, 97. 

Telegraph Strike. The, 264. 

Telegraphy, Wireless: First Message Across Atlantic 
Ocean, 538. 

Telephones in Great Britain, Municipal Ownership 
of. 4JH. 

Tobacco Trust, Action Against, 137. 

Tourist: What He Spends Abroad, 723. 

Toy Making in Germany, 708. 

Trades-unionism in Germany, Growth of. 744. 

Trusts and Their Treatment ( Bryan-Beveridge De- 
bate), 90. 

Trust Companies and the Panic. 680. 

Trust Conference at Chicago, 390, 6i">4-655. 



TNn'EBSiTT President, American, German View of. 

110. 
Vasconcellos, Juan Leite da, 98. 
Venezuela : Asphalt Case, Decision in. 270. 
Venezuela: Foreign Claims Cnse, 270. 
Venezuelan Congress. President Castro's Message 

to, 15. 
Victoria : Queen, Wife and Mother, 703. 



Francis Joseph of Anil 



Von Schierbrand. Wolf. 
Hungary. 552. 

Watebway Improvement, 387-388. 516. 

West Indies in Commerce, 305. 

Western Federation of Miners, Trial of Officers ol 

White, James Gilbert, American EJngineer, 447. 

Williams College, New President of (Harry A. (] 

field), 144. 
Wisconsin Public l^tilities I^w, 221. 
Whittier. John Greenleaf. Centenary of, 736. 
William II., German Emperor. Two Addresses of. 3 

Trip to Ehigland, 663; Religious Philosoph: 

748. 
Woman Suffrage in Colorado. 479; Woman Suffi 

Throughout the World. 481. 
Woman's University in Japan, 248. 
Woodbine, N. J., Jewish Community at, 354. 
Wood Pulp and the Tariff, 656. 
Woodruff, Clinton Rogers. Crusade Against 

boards, 345. 
Yuan Shih-Kai, China's Foremost Statesman, 1( 

ZUMBBO. W. M. India ; A Nation in the Making, \ 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 
CONTENTS FOR JULY, 1907. 



Officers of the Second Duma... Frontispiece 
The Progress of the World— 

The Economic Motive Everywhere 3 

The Need of Moderation 3 

The Idaho Trial 4 

Fair Play Better than Strife ^. 4 

A Veto by Governor Hughes. ... 7. 5 

A New England Instance 6 

Rates and Just R^ulation 7 

Capital Must Be Lncourased 7 

A Sound Business Outlook 8 

Rale Fixing by States 9 

A Sane and Brave Position 10 

A Campaign of Retaliation 10 

French Economic Troubles 10 

Poverty and Politics in Russia II 

Economic Motives for Peace 12 

Fair Treatment of China 12 

Our Attitude Toward the East 13 

The Insurance Situation. 13 

Presidential Candidates 13 

Bryan and Hearst 14 

Central American Politics 15 

Re-enter President Castro 15 

FaUitre of the Liberal Irish Bill 16 

... 16 

... 17 

... 18 

... 18 

... 18 

... 19 

... 20 

... 20 

... 21 

... 21 

... 22 



Does the Country Want Tariff Re- 
adjustment? 47 

By William R . Corwine. 
# 

Rubber as a World Product 51 

By William M. Ivins. 
With portrait! and other llluatrationa. 

Morocco, the Derelict of Diplomacy 63 

By William G. Fitz-Cerald. 
With portraits and other lllustratlona. 

Resourceful Central America 69 

By John Barrett. 
With llluatratlona. 



Provisions of the Bill 

The Revolt of the French Midi 

The Problem Before M. Clemenceau. 

His Vigorous Action 

A Revolution in Austria 

Absolutism in Portugal 

Anniversaries in Italy 

The Franco- Japanese Agreement 

The New Triple Alliance. 

The Hague Conference Opens 

The Second Russian Duma Dissolved 

An Iniquitous New Ejection Law 23 

The Duma's Dignified Conduct 23 

Record of the Duma 24 

Japan and die United States 24 

A Perfect Official Understanding 25 

Peaceful, Happy Sweden 26 

With portraiu, cartoons, and other illustrations. 

Record of Current Events 27 

with portraits. 



A Year of Delayed Harvests. 

With maps. 



The Middle West and Wall Street. 

By Charles Moreau Harger. 

Leading Articles of the Month— 



79 



83 



87 



31 
37 



Cartoons on Current Topics 

The Case of San Francisco 

By James D. Phetan. 
With portrait. 

The South's Care for Her Confederate 
Veterans 40 

By William H. Classon. 
With portraits and other Illustrations. 



The Personal Factor in the Labor Problem 

Our Currency -Reform Problem 88 

The Zenith of Our Industrial Efficiency 89 

The Bryan.Beveridffe Debate. 90 

Why Co-operative Housekeeping Faib 93 

The Waste of Children 94 

The Battle of Fathers and Sons in Germany. . 95 

Sending Pictures by Telegraph 97 

A Great Scientific Man of I^ortugal 98 

"Gorki's Finish " 99 

Yuan Shih-kai, China's Foremost Statesman . . 101 

France's Punitive Elzpedition Against Morocco 102 

San DomiiMo's Finances 103 

Linnaeus, after Two Hundred Years 105 

Side-Lights on the Spanish Elections 107 

The Shortest Route from Europe to South 

America. 108 

A German View of Our University Presidents 1 10 

The Autonomy of Russian-Poland Ill 

Why North and South America Are Different 1 13 

StKjgestion, a Factor in Treating the Sick 1 14 

Is Literature Dying 7 115 

The Most Important Factor in Infant Mortality 1 16 

-m « . r. . ... . ,17 

119 
120 
121 
122 



The Roumanian Peasant and the Jews 

Increase in Polish Immigration 

Are Plants Possessed of Senses? 

The German Forest Schools 

Britain as a Field for American Business. . 
With portraits and other illustrations. 



The New Books 

With portraits. 



124 



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THE AMERICAN MONTHLY 

Review of Reviews 



Vol. XXXVI. 



NEW YORK, JULY, 1907. 



No. 1 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



The EecfMumie '" ^ scason that is Comparatively 
iMio€ free from catastrophes of war, and 
Mryw tre. ^^^ more profound disturbances 
that from time to time affect mankind, there 
are nevertheless many lesser indications of 
strife and unrest. In order to understand 
these anVhc, It [^ worth while to ask if tlierit 
are not some underlying causes of a commsm 
nature. We are living In a business ai:t% un- 
der general conditions that arc rapidly chanj^- 
ine \n almost every pare of the world. The 
filain people of all countries, considered in 
the mo^ss, are no longer content merely to 
toil and e>£ist* They wish to improve their 
lut, and rhcy arc determined to have a larger 
share tn tlie good things of this lite. SciL*ncf 
and fnventiun have brought about a stupen- 
dous increase in the production of wealth, 
and the average man everywhere is strujLJiglin^ 
i:i*r » better distribution, To that end he 
Wf^ks % liniier grasp upon the agencies ot 
j^tiVfrnment, in order that unfair handicaps 
ntay be removed, and freedom of economic 




opportunity be better assured. In our own 
country, the great populist and free-silver 
movements of a decade ago were simply the 
organized expression of men's discontent with 
their situation in life. They sought to bring 
about a better adjustment of relations be- 
tween creditors and debtor^, between capital 
and labor, between the great corporations and 
private individuals. The present great move- 
ment in this country for regulating the rail- 
roads and the public-service companies that 
control street transit and other facilities of 
a monopolistic nature owes its strength to 
the widespread determination of the people 
to get for themselves as much benefit as 
possible out of the agencies of civilization. 



The 



FAIt PLAT rXDBR THE nOVKRNMKXT KOR CAPITAL AS 
WKIJ. AS IJkBOR. 

From tbe nimle (Toledo) 



Since the desire for the things 
Heed of that belong to a better standard 
era ion. ^^ jiving and a more agreeable 
condition of life is not only general but very 
intense, there must inevitably follow a good 
deal of clash and strife. It is difficult to 
hold men, under these circumstances, to rules 
of moderation. Capital combines; becomes 
greedy; abuses its opportunities. Its excesses 
provoke reaction. Labor organization, on its 
side, becomes exacting, tyrannical, and des- 
perate in its methods. Even in well-regu- 
lated communities it is hard to maintain the 
supremacy of law and a just balance between 
contending forces in such periods as this 
present era of economic and social change. 
And if it is hard to hold law and govern- 
ment firm in their place and function in 
orderly communities like Massachusetts, it 
is not strange that excesses should occur and 
that public order should suffer in communi- 
ties not so well established. The struggle 
between capital and labor in the Far West 
has gone forward under conditions which 
have not found the agencies of public au- 
thority strong enough to hold firm sway. 
The murder trials now in progress at Boise 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS 




Charles 11. Moyer, 
President. 



Copynplit. H. Myers. 
George A. I'eltilMjne, 
Member Kxecutlve Hoard. 



William I). Haywood, 
Secretary and Treasurer, 



THE OFFICERS OF WESTERN FEl)ERATIO*J OF MINERS ON TRIAL IN IDAHO. 



City, Idaho, whatever may he their outcome, 
throw light upon the dangers that society 
must encounter in new and sparsely settled 
countries, where the strife hetween capital 
and labor becomes intense, and where each 
side takes the law into its own hands and 
strives for victory regardless of methods. 



The 
Idaho 
Trial. 




"Fitli iJuRSLF.V (ilAR-kV ORlHARIl), 



The confession of Orchard is an 
amazing story of crimes com- 
mitted on behalf of the Western 
Federation of Miners against the mine-own- 
ing employers, and against the public au- 
thorities where they were regarded as favor- 
able to capital. It is not for us at this stage 
of the great contest before the judge and 
jury to express any opinion upon the truth- 
fulness of testimony. But no one will deny 
the notorious fact of long-continued turbu- 
lence throughout the mining camps of the 
Rocky Mountain States, and of intense strife 
carried on in a high-handed spirit on both 
sides. The thing to be desired is justice and 
fair play, with much freedom of opportunft)^ 
for both capital and labor under the guar- 
anty and protection of laws, executive offi- 
cers, and judges that will do their dutj^ fear- 
lessly and faithfully. It is fortunate that 
conditions in our Western States are upon 
the whole gradually improving. The proc- 
ess is a painful one, but things are moving 
in the right direction. Every time some 
acute phase of the endless struggle for eco- 
nomic advantage can be met and passed in a 
spirit of reasonableness and compromise 
there is much gain. 

Fair Play ^^ '^ * difficult thing to inducc 
^^stri/J'"'' "^^" ^^° ^^^ prepared for con- 
flict not to fight to the finish 
when a dispute actually arises. It takes 
breadth of view and moderation to accept 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



methods of conciliation or arbitration rather 
than to strike or to fight. But the . peaceful 
way of settling differences is much better for 
everybody concerned. The movement for 
better economic conditions may be a little 
retarded sometimes, but its average advance 
cannot be checked. Labor will be better off, 
therefore, to join hands with capital in se- 
curing the largest possible production, using 
all due vigilance and intelligence to improve 
conditions from time to time. In a period of 
readjustment like this, it is a hopeful sign to 
find masters of industry and capital standing 
up with clear vision and right sympathy for 
the best possible treatment of wage-earners 
and of the public. It is not less a hopeful 
thing to find trusted leaders of the people 
who will never countenance confiscation and 
who will protect the rights of capital as 
earnestly as the rights of labor. 



M Veto by 
Qootmor 
Hugkts. 



For example, Governor Hughes, 
of New York, has attained a po- 
sition that no one will question 
or assail as a champion of the rights of the 
people. His position in that regard will be 
stronger rather than weaker by reason of 
his notable action last month in vetoing the 
bill that had passed the New^ York Legis- 
lature fixing 2 cents a mile as the maximum 
passenger rate on railroads in that State. 
We shall in subsequent paragraphs refer 




JUDGE FREMONT WOOD, OF THE UNITED STATES 

DISTRICT COURT. 

(Who is trying the Idaho cases.) 

again to the bill itself and to the activities of 
Governor Hughes and the New York Legis- 
lature. The point we wish to emphasize 
just here is the value on the part of a high 
official of the quality of fairmindedness. 




THE LAWYERS FOR THE DEFENSE IN THE IDAHO CASES. 
Reading from left to right: Bdgar Wilson, Boise; Leon Whitsell, Wnllace ; .Tno. F. Nugent, Boise; 
Miller, Sp<ik«fl«$ CImML1^J^<^ow, Chicago; Edmund F. Itichardson, Denver. 



Fred. 




THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




O. M. Van Duyn. 
Senator \V. E. Borah. W. A. Stone. J. 11. Ilawley. 

THE LAWYERS FOR THE PROSECUTION IN THE IDAHO CASES. 



Governor Hughes had been largely respon- 
sible for the Public Utilities act, which was 
strongly opposed by the railroads and the 
franchise-holding corporations. It was quite 
commonly assumed that he would sign the 
2-cent-fare bill as in line with his general 
attitude toward railroads and corporations. 
But in his message vetoing the bill he showed 
a well-nigh perfect poise of temper, as well 
as lucidity of mind. 



A New 
England 
Instance. 



New England, meanwhile, has 
been much interested in the ac- 
quisition of the Boston & Maine 
railway system by the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford system. Our readers will 
remember that the last campaign in New 
Hnmpshire turned upon the activit}*^ of the 
& Maine railroad in the politics 
?tate. It is a striking evidence of a 
der of things that President Mellen, 



of the New Haven road, who now comes 
into control of the entire network of New 
England transportation lines, repudiates al- 
together the old methods of corporation poli- 
tics. He has frankly discussed the merger 
with Governor Ciuild and committees of the 
Massachusetts Legislature, and the public 
that is dependent upon the railroads con- 
cerned is not left in any mystery as to what 
is going on. A few years ago a merger of 
this kind would havT been attended by a 
rearrangement of securities, with large issues 
of stock representing no new capital, and 
with bonds floated for the personal benefit 
of a ring of insiders. In short, the sort of 
financing that was practiced a few years ago 
in connection with a change in control of 
the Alton road, and that has been exemplified 
in a larne number of even more flagrant in- 
stances, is what would have happened in 
connection with the transfer of the Boston 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



& Maine to the system of which Mr. Mellen 
is president. The real owners of the securi- 
ties of the railroad companies concerned are 
better protected when a merger is carried 
out, as in this case, openly and under the 
honest regulation of the public authorities, 
than when it means stock-watering and 
financial manipulation, as under methods 
that have until lately been prevalent. 

Ratea Whether Governor Hughes was 
<Mtf jir«f nearer right or nearer wrong in 
^* ^' his reasons for vetoing the 2-cent- 
fare bill, it is" to be remembered that the 
Public Utilities bill, which became a law 
early in June, and goes into eflFect on July i, 
provides an efficient method by which rates 
may be made equitable in case they are too 
high. Many States have now passed 2-cent- 
farc bills; and railroad men are declaring 
these measures to be confiscatory in their 
prindple. For certain small railroads, sepa- 
rately owned and operated, such a rate is 
obviously unjust. On large systems the 2- 
cent rate is not too low for main lines. There 
arc sc\'eral different theories as to passenger 
rate-making, for all of which strong argu- 
ments can be presented. The great desid- 
eratum is moderation and fairness all around. 
Railroads as public servants should give the 
public a service of efficiency and should treat 
all comers on the same terms. But when 
good service and fair treatment are secured, 
it should be remembered that railroads are 
pn'vate business enterprises; that capital so 
engaged has to assume peculiar risks, and 
that the railroad business ought to be profita- 
ble in good times. 

f^^^^^i Much more necessary than an at- 
Jtest Be tack upon average rates charged 
**""'^"^*^* to the public is a movement in 
the interest of the moderate investor in rail- 
road bonds and stocks, in order to break the 
absolutism of the so-called " magnates," 
whose high-handed methods of manipulation 
have given them vast fortunes, while the 
position of the real owners of the railroad 
properties has been precarious. It is not uni- 
fonn 2-cent rates for passengers, or an aver- 
age reduction of rates for freight, that the 
users of railroads chiefly need at present. 
What they principally need is better service. 
The railroads have fallen far behind the 
general progress of the country. They must 
be rebuilt and improved at great expense. 
This will require new capital in large quan- 
tities. European as well as American invest- 




MR. CHARLES S. MELLEN. 

(President of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 

Railroad.) 

ors must be willing to put their money into 
railroads. They will be chary about doing 
this if public regulation is construed as 
meaning a forcing down of average rates. 
The best way to help the railroads is to stop 
the methods which have brought American 
railroad financiering' into distrust every- 
where in the world. The great struggle for 
public control and regulation of railroads 
now bids fair to bring us into an era of com- 
mon sense ,and good understanding under 
the leadership of public men like President 
Roosevelt and Governor Hughes, who stand 
for justice and fair play all around. As we 
have remarked before, the transgressions of 
the railroad companies have been so egregious 
that the only wonder is that the American 
people have not, in their reaction against 
railroad politics and 'other abuses, proceeded 
in a much more drastic way than the work 
of the recent legislatures exhibits. The 
storm is now nearly past. Anti-corporation 
wrath has subsided ; the strength of law and 
of government in America has been vindi- 
cated, and the time has come for scientific 
adjustment and the settlement of each par- 
ticular question as it arises, upon its actual 
merits. There may be some fufther legisla- 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REk'lElVS. 



^ / '/ 




(50VKRN0U HICIIKS TIUU'OIIT THKRR WKRK TOO MANY DANOKROUS KXHIXtRIVi^ AROr.ND. 

(Apropos of his vote of tho 2-ct'nt-fare bill.) — From th^ Jlerald (New York). 



tlon at Washington, and indeed there ought 
to be. But it will not be brought about in 
any spirit of hostility to railroads, nor will 
it endanger anybody's actual- investments. 
Property in railroads has the same right of 
public protection as property in any other 
form. The outcome of the great agitation 
will be beneficial in all directions. 

A Sound ^^^ reaction that has made Wall 
Business Street a dull and gloomy place 
Outlook. ^^,|u pj.Q^g jQ YxsLve been an ex- 
cellent precursor of a new and more whole- 
some activity in financial aflfairs. The sober- 
ing influence has been felt in the entire 
business life of the country. There is not 
quite so much haste to become rich suddenly, 
and the disposition to spend recklessly is 
abating. In a general way the economic 
progress of the American people since the 
year H)00 has been without precedent. 
There will be some slackening of the wheels, 
but present indications do not justify the 
prophets of disaster, l^he demand for labor 
*~ various directions will probably suffice to 
b whatever the railroads may dispense 
in thehr curtailment of new construc- 



tion. The spring and early summer have 
been cold and wet, and the peculiar weather 
conditions \^ ill have had unfavorable effects 
upon the products of farm and garden as well 
as upon the trade of merchants. But crops 
will be large, even if considerably less than 
those of one or two preceding years ; and the 
country will go forward hopefully and busily, 
in a less speculative mood, but with full con- 
fidence and with everything to be thankful 
for. Prosperity was so great that legitimate 
success was leading to unwise speculation. 
Real-estate booms of the dangerous sort were 
to be noted in various parts of the country. 
The craze for shares of stock in copper mines 
and gold mines was making it easy for un- 
scrupulous promoters to fleece myriads of in- 
vestors who were greedy to share in the 
" get- rich-quick " opportunities of the day. 
The slump in Wall Street has served as a 
warning to the country, and the speculative 
craze has subsided, — not soon enough, in- 
deed, for hundreds of thousands of unlucky 
dupes, but soon enough at least to save the 
country from dire disaster. There are no signs 
of serious trouble in the general business situ- 
ation. The farmers are so much ahead from 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



9 



a decade of great prosperity that they can 
easily bear one year of late harvests and 
diminished yields. Our article on that sub- 
ject, to be found on page 79, covers the 
crop situation in detail. The railroads can 
bear some reduction in the volume of freight 
traffic, in view of their total inability last 
year to handle the business that was urged 
upon them. The great industrial organiza- 
tions, like the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion, are fully occupied. The less feverish 
conditions of trade, furthermore, are awan- 
rageous when viewed from the standpoint of 
labor conditions. When some slackening ap- 
pears or is looked for, it is usually easier 
to settle disputes by amicable agreement or 
by arbitration. The quieter times in business 
make men conservative; and labor is more 
ready to see the value of a steady job at good 
pay, and less willing to plunge into so un- 
certain an experiment as a strike. 



long are exempted from the requirement of a 
2j4-cent fare; but in most of the States 
where this kind of legislation was enacted 
there was no effort made to distinguish be- 
tween the weak and the mighty among rail- 
road corporations, nor between the just and 
the unjust. These maximurti-fare laws were 
adopted by Alabama, Arkansas, North Caro- 
lina, and West Virginia among Southern 
States; by Indiana, lUinois, Michigan, Iowa, 
Nebraska, Missouri, and the Dakotas in the 
Middle West, and by Pennsylvania and New 
York in the East. 



Rate 



During the past half-year in 
nxiMb9 about one-third of the States of 
the Union laws have been passed 
which attempt to fix a maximum passenger 
fare to be charged by railroads. In some in- 
stances the rate so established is 2}4 cents a 
mile, in one or two it is 2^4 cents, but in a 
majority of cases it is 2 cents " flat." Illi- 
nois, Iowa, and Michigan conceded a higher 
rate to roads that were shown to be earning 
less than a certain sum per mile, and in 
North Carolina roads less than sixty miles 



A Sane and ^^ impressed the country as signifi- 
Braue cant that the only gubernatorial 

Position. ^ I ^ /• I • 1 • 

veto of 2-cent-fare legislation in 
any of the States should come from Governor 
Hughes, of New York, the one State execu- 
tive who during the present year had suc- 
ceeded against powerful opposition in wrest- 
ing from an unwilling Legislature a law that 
foreshadowed a new era in the State regula- 
tion of public-service corporations. This ac- 
tion of Governor Hughes was based on a 
sound proposition in government, — that the 
rates charged for public service should not be 
arbitrarily disturbed, nor the earnings of pub- 
lic-service corporations arbitrarily reduced, 
unless it be shown as the result of a full and 
impartial investigation that existing rate 
schedules are clearly unreasonable and unjust. 
In the case of the New York railroads there 
had been no legislative investigation what- 




WHAT'S THE MAITKR WITH THE WEATHEH, AXYWAY? 

From the Plain Dealer (Cleveland). 



10 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



ever. It is quite possible that a 2-cent fare 
would have been reasonable for certain lines 
and at the same time unreasonable and unfair 
for other lines. The new Public Service 
Commissions in New York State have been 
created by law for the very purpose, — ^among 
others, — of determining what rates are just 
to both the corporations and the public. 
Governor Hughes was fully justified in his 
insistence that the matter be left to the com- 
missioners and hot be made the subject of 
crude and sweeping legislation. 

^ Yet it is a well-known fact that 

Ccmpxian most of the legislatures through- 

of Retaliation. ^ ^, .. .u ^ ^ j >. 

' out the country that enacted 2- 

cent-fare laws followed practically the same 
course of procedure as the New York law- 
makers did, although it must be said that they 
seem to have been spurred to action by a vig- 
orous public sentiment, while in New York 
hardly a newspaper of any prominence had 
demanded or supported the 2-cent-fare bill. 
The truth is that the motive behind most of 
this legislation was retaliation for real or 
imagined wrongs which the public had long 
endured at the hands of the railroads. On 
the part of the legislatures this retaliatorj' 
spirit found vent in a drastic exercise of 
power. The railroads must be punished for 
their sins and in 2-cent-fare laws the legis- 
latures believed that they had an effective 
way of imposing penalties. The railroads, 
on their part, exhibited a similar spirit, — as 
was not to be wondered at. They could 
make reprisals by withdrawing all kinds of 
cheap excursion rates and this they at once 
proceeded to do in the Middle West, while 
in Pennsylvania certain suburban commuta- 
tion rates were canceled. Up to the present 
time the public's losses in the contest seem 
to overbalance its gains, and we are certainly 
no nearer a solution of the rate problem than 
we were before the legislatures began their 
campaign. 

j^^ The greatly prolonged session of 
New York the New York Legislature had 

Legislature. i . ^ ^ 

several important matters on its 
hands last month. After the passage of the 
Public Utilities bill Governor Hughes re- 
called attention to certain subjects of which 
he had treated in his message as requiring 
action by the lawmaking body. The Legis- 
lature had failed to ace on these matters and 
seemed surprised at the Governor's persist- 
ence. Nevertheless it proceeded to comply 
with his request. The bill for a recount of 



the votes cast at the New York City mayor- 
alty election of 1905 was passed, together 
with a supplementary bill permitting Mayor 
McClellan to ask for the opening of any 
ballot boxes that the contestant, Mr. Hearst, 
does not ask to have opened. Another meas- 
ure that engaged the attention of the legisla- 
tors for the greater part of June was the re- 
apportionment of the State Senate districts, 
made necessary by the decision of the Court 
of Appeals that the apportionment law of 
1906 was unconstitutional. In the reshaping 
of districts a violent controversy arose be- 
tween the leaders of the Senate on the one 
harid and the Republican members of ^ the 
Assembly, headed by Speaker Wadsworth, on 
the other. Both sides were defiant, and at 
one time an all-summer's deadlock was 
threatened. 

French ^^ ^^^ general struggle for eco- 
Eoonomio nomic benefits is at the basis of 
our social and political contro- 
versies in this country, the same thing is to 
be observed abroad. The critical situation \n 
France last month was due to no political 
sentiment or governmental theory, but purely 
to a practical business condition. The south 
of France depends very largely upon the 
wine product. Not only are the hillsides 
planted in vineyards, but broad valleys of 
level land which one would expect to find 
devoted to grass, wheat, and other cereals 
are devoted to vines and nothing else. The 
destruction many years ago of the French 
vineyards by the philoxera was a terrible 
blow to the farmers of that thrifty country. 
Thanks to the successful importation of 
American vines, the production of grapes 
has not only been restored, but greatly in- 
creased in extent and quantity. Overpro- 
duction, and changes in the conditions of de- 
mand and supply, have brought the price of 
their crop so low that it is now produced at 
a sheer loss. The grape producers believe 
that this condition is due to the adulteration 
of wines, and to other causes that the govern- 
ment can remedy. Hence a tremendous up- 
rising of the peasantry and of the people in 
the towns and cities who are dependent upon 
the wine industry as their principal trade, 
with a resulting situation upon which further 
comment will be found on a subsequent page. 
The real remedy, of course, lies in the larger 
cultivation of other crops. But the situation, 
meanwhile, illustrates the fact that all gov- 
ernments are now compelled to give their 
principal attention to problems that concern 



THF. PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



11 




Cofryriifht. 1907, by dnderwood & Underwood, N. Y. 

HON. JAMES W. WADSWORTH, JR. 
(Speaker of the New York Asuembly, whose position on the reapportionment question threatened to 
prolong the deadlock of the I/egislaturc last month.) 



the economic condition of the masses of the 
people, who arc determined to allow no con- 
ditions that law and government can remedy 
to stand in the way of their increasing 
prosperity. 



rtetrta and 

-hHitica Ifi 

Buuia. 



)/, 



Russia the protracted discord 
that was again illustrated last 
month hy a reassert ion of the 
Czar*s autocratic power, though seemingly 
<iue to political rather than to economic con- 
ditions, is in real it}' a discord that grows out 



of the discontent of the people with their 
poverty. They demand reasonable advan- 
tages for their private economic advancement. 
The old-fashioned land sj^stem of Russia 
does not satisfy the peasarlts, and they de- 
mand a government which will remove ob- 
stacles, and give them a chance to prosper. 
So long as the army remains obedient fo the 
Czar and the bureaucracy, it will be prac- 
tically impossible for the Russian people to 
make successful assertion of their constitu- 
tional rights^ It is not so much theoretical 



12 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REl^/ElV OF REVIEWS, 

liberty in the political sense that the Russian that will makoi for peace and harmony, 
people are struggling for as freedom from Meanwhile the multiplication of treaties and 
poverty, with its unbearable associations. A so-called ententes among the nations are so 
few generations ago most men in European diminishing the probabilities of war in par- 
countries worked very hard and were ex- ticular quarters that the reduction of arma- 
tremely poor. The fight against poverty has ments and of expenditures for military and 
been very largely gained in the foremost na- naval purposes will, within five years, be a 
tions. In countries like ours it is not merely more welcome subject of discussion than at 
that everybody has secured the necessaries of the present time. The masses of men in all 
life, but that the masses of people are de- civilized countries will increasingly object to 
manding an increasing share of the luxuries, paying heavy taxes for a kind of expenditure 
In Russia, on the other hand, the bare neces- that brings them no benefit. Proposals like 
sities are not as yet fully guaranteed. The that of President Roosevelt, who suggested a 
demand for modern forms of government limit to the size of battleships, could be 
derives most of its strength from the growing adopted without relative disadvantage to any 
conviction of the people that in no other way power, and with immense benefit to the tax- 
can the handicaps be removed which keep payer. The economic arguments for peace 
the Russian people so miserably poor. will strongly reinforce the ethical and hu- 

• manitarian. 
Economh ^^^ movement for international 

Motives for peace, furthermore, derives its ^^^ The constant practice of justice 
greatest strength from economic ^Tch/"* *"^ fairness in ordinary dealings 
arguments. War is wasteful of capital, and ^ ""' will do as much as anything to 
the masters of industry and trade are opposed lessen the danger of future troubles. Our 
to militarism as a relic of barbarous and un- Government has just now given the world a 
economic ages, when fighting and plundering valuable illustration of such dealings. With- 
were the chief occupations of mankind, out any eflFort at sensational posing in the 
Workingmen everywhere are opposed to war, role of a nation of superior virtue, we have 
because it makes for poverty and misery, re- informed the government of China that we 
tarding all those modern processes that are do not intend to collect the full indemnity 
increasing the welfare of the average individ- awarded to us after the expedition for the 
ual. It is important that wars should cease relief of Peking. We were allotted about 
between nations, just as it is important that $24,000,000, to be paid in small installments 
agrarian and industrial troubles in France through a long term of years, with interest 
should not lead to civil war, or that the which would bring the sum payable by 
struggle for modern government in Russia China to a total of about $40,000,000. We 
should not result in a great revolutionary have ascertained that approximately $11, 000,- 
contest. All sensible people should be glad 000 will fully reimburse the missionaries for 
that the second conference of the nations is damages sustained, as well as repay our Gov- 
now in session at the capital of Holland, ernment for its expenditure in connection 
Wise and thoughtful men must deeply desire with the joint expedition. About $8,ooo,ocx) 
that this conference should have important has already been paid, and in the near future 
results. It is not likely, however, that it will we shall cease to collect further installments, 
do very much toward a lessening of the Secretary Root has informed the Chinese 
burdens entailed upon nations by keeping up Minister to this effect, stating that President 
great military preparation. The important Roosevelt will ask Congress to sanction this 
thing is that the conference is actually in step of justice. Undoubtedly Congress will 
existence, that it brings together able and in- g^vc its approval. It is not for the United 
fluential public men from all nations, and States to suggest that the great European 
that it helps to establish a habit of seeking powers which exacted from China a total in- 
peaceful and legal remedies for international demnity exceeding $300,000,000 should show 
disputes. If this conference should do noth- a like sense of justice. For a good while our 
ing else but provide a permanent court to authorities at Washington have been con- 
which international matters could be referred, sidering ways by which they could expend 
it would have achieved something of impor- the surplus of the indemnity for the mutual 
tance, and would have been well worth benefit of the two countries. It had been 
while. But it will almost certainly achieve suggested that American consulates should 
a number of useful and important results be built in the various Chinese cities. It had 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVOJiLD. 



13 



also bfcn urged with much weight that the 
money be used for bringing young Chinamen 
of talent to this country and educating them 
in our schools and colleges. A better way, 
however, has been found by the Administra- 
tion ; and China will appreciate it. 

Our Attitude ^^^ attitude of the American 
Taamra Government toward China and 
Japan has for a long period been 
one of consistent friendliness. It is the fixed 
policy of this country to prevent the estab- 
lishment on our shores of large bodies of 
Asiatic laborers, whether Chinese or Japa- 
nese. The reasons for this policy are sound 
and far-reaching. It is very foolish to per- 
mit the minor frictions that arise, whether in 
California or in Japan, on account of this 
policy to be magnified into causes of misun- 
derstanding between nations and govern- 
ments. When it becomes perfectly clear that 
this policy is to be maintained without weak- 
ening or wavering, it ought not to be difficult 
to secure for visitors, students, or business 
men from the Orient the most courteous 
treatment while under our jurisdiction. 



The 
Insurance 
Situatioit. 



The great disturbance of the pub- 
lic mind concerning insurance 
management has for the most 
part abated. Many States have made new 
insurance laws, and the companies themselves 
have seen the need of financial reform and a 
stricter regard for the rights of policy-hold- 
m. The New York Life last month com- 
pleted the tedious process of counting the 
votes sent in- by policy-holders under the 
nen- law for its board of directors. The 
administration ticket proposed by the present 
management of the company received some- 
what more than 236,000 votes, and the op- 
position ticket launched by the International 
Committee received about 98,000. There 
were a number of vacancies to be filled by 
new men, and the ticket as elected is one that 
will command confidence everywhere. The 
board met on June 17, and elected Mr. Dar- 
win P. Kingsley president of the company to 
succeed Mr. Alexander E. Orr, who had 
accepted the presidency as a temporary matter 
after the retirement of Mr. McCall. Mr. 
Kingsley had been connected with the com- 
pany in various official capacities for almost 
twenty years, and has recently been first vice- 
president. He has the advantage of being a 
practical insurance man, and he is com- 
mended by all who know him as a man of 
» fxceptional efficiency and high character. 





'^^^^^1 H* ^r "^^^^1 


^^^^B B^p ^ ^^^^^^^^^^IHI 



Pl»oto«:raph by Pach Bros., N. Y. 
PRESIDENT DARWIN P. KINGSLEY, OF THE NEW 
YORK LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. 

With Mr. Paul Morton at the head of the 
Equitable, and Mr. Charles A. Peabody as 
president of the Mutual, the three great 
companies are now directed by men of repre- 
sentative business ability, of scrupulous integ- 
rity, and of a full sense of the responsibility 
that belongs to the management of a society 
for the protection of families. 

Preaf- There now remains only a year 
dentiaJ until the holding of the national 
Candidates, presidential conventions. It con- 
tinues true to-day, as for a good while past, 
that Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. Bryan are the 
only leaders who have an appreciable per- 
sonal following. But for the third-term 
question, and his own absolute declaration 
that under np circumstances would he accept 
the nomination, Mr. Roosevelt would be 
chosen without an opposing voice in the con- 
vention. As matters now stand, the Repub- 
licans are cautiously taking account of their 
available supply of Presidential timber. 
Pennsylvania has brought forward Senator 
Knox, and it is possible that his candidacy 
will take on a serious character. As Attor- 
ney-General and Senator his force and abilit> 
as a public man have been well shown. That 
Ohio will line up for Secretary Taft seems 
no longer a matter of doubt. This energetic 
public servant has been traveling and speak- 



14 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REyiEW OF REyiElVS. 



ing in the West, and there is no difference of that Mr. McClellan would try to secure fur- 



opinion anywhere as to his exceptional fitness 
for the highest office in the gift of the people. 
Governor Hughes, of New York, has within 
the past few .weeks commanded the attention 
of the entire country by his veto of the 2-cent 



ther delay by questioning the constitutionality 
of the Recount bill, and carrying it up to the 
Supreme Court of the United States. The 
position of the Mayor does not commend itself 
to any considerable element of the public 



rate bill and the calm strength he has shown While the majority of New Yorkers would 
in securing the tardy and reluctant adherence rather have McClellan than Hearst for May- 
of the Legislature for his public-spirited or, there is no sympathy with the Mayor's 
program. There is a pronounced movement unwillingness to permit a recount of the votes 
in New York to bring him forward under fair and careful conditions. If Mr. 

Hearst should be 



as a Presidential 
candidate. It is 
fully expected that 
Illinois will pre- 
sent the name of 
Speaker Cannon to 
tbtf convention, and 
Vice - President 
Fairbanks will 
have the support 
of Indiana if he 
determines to per- 
sist in his candi- 
dacy. Several 
other Republicans 
have been promi- 
nently mentioned, 
but their support- 
ers have not yet 
brought them for- 
ward in so dis- 
tinct a manner. 
There are great 
numbers of men 
in various parts of 
the country who 
hold strongly to 
the opinion that 
Mr. Roosevelt will 
b e compelled i n 
spite of himself to 
accept a renomination. There is no evidence, 
however, that he has shifted his position. 




Copyright, 1906, by Underwood & Underwood, N. V. 
SENATOR PHILANDER C. KNOX, OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



Bryan 

and 

Hearst, 



There is sporadic talk in Demo- 
cratic circles here and there of 
some other candidate than Mr. 
Bryan; but as yet no such suggestions have 
for a moment secured pubh'c attention. The 
demand for the recount of the mayoralty vote 
in New York City has succeeded ; and this, 
as far as it goes, is a great victory for Mr. 
Hearst. He moved promptly last month for 
the opening of the boxes in every election dis- 
trict of the city. The Mayor's term in New 
York is four years, and IVIr. McClellan has 
served a year and a half. It was announced 



counted in, there 
might be a consid- 
erable revival of 
his prestige. But 
it is not at all 
likely that he will 
emerge next year as 
a Presidential can- 
didate. His news- 
papers last month 
were announcing a 
great victory for 
him in the fact 
that the federal 
Government is at 
last, after some 
years* delay, on the 
point of bringing 
action against the 
anthracite - coal 
combination, which 
is made up of the 
coal-carrying rail- 
roads. It will be 
remembered that 
Mr. Hearst filed 
information 
against the coal 
trust and secured 
an investigation by 
by the United States District-Attorney for 
New York, which sustained his charges. 
Of all the trusts and combinations in 
the entire country, the one most obvious 
in its monopolistic character and most op- 
pressive of the public has, for many years 
past, been the anthracite-coal combination 
maintained by a group of railroads which 
have regulated the output of the mines, par- 
celed out among them the business of trans- 
porting the coal, and prescribed the selling 
price at a point far above that which natural 
conditions of trade would have fixed. For 
his persistent attacks upon this monopoly, 
and for n^any other efforts in the public in- 
terest, Mr. Hearst is entitled to credit. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE iVORLD. 



16. 




on April 24, at Amapala, in Honduras. It is 
sufficient to say that 'political conditions in 
these countries are still very much unsettled 
and that the good offices of the United States 
and Mexico are always available and fre- 
quently being used to smooth the way to 
peace. On page 69 of this issue Hon. 
John Barrett, Director of the International 
Bureau of the American Republics, gives 
a graphic description of economic and social 
conditions in the five Central-American 
republics. Secretary Root's forthcoming visit 
to Mexico (he will start, it is reported, late 
in the summer), while it has no special politi- 
cal significance, is no doubt in line with his 
visits to the South- American republics and 
Canada, and intended to impress upon these 
countries the friendly feelings toward them 
on the part of the Government and the peo- 
ple of the United States. 



Re-enter 



GEN. JOSfe SANTOS ZELAVA, PRESIDENT CF 
NICARAGUA. 



While the International Peace 
President Conference at The Hague is de- 
"*'^' bating whether it shall consider 
the famous Drago or Calvo Doctrine, which 
would make impossible the use of force in 
the collection of contract debts, it is interest- 
ing to note the message of President Castro 
read in the Venezuelan Congress on June 6. 
Referring to the foreign relations of the re- 



Caem/ 
Ammkmn 

P^itkt. 



There is a persistent endeavor on fT^^ 



the part of newspaper correspond 
ents and students of Central- 
American politics to mark President Jose 
Santos Zclaya, of Nicaragua, as a dreamer of 
ambitious schemes, which include the unifica- 
tion of all the Central-American republics 
into one confederation. Of this confedera- 
tion, say the reports, of course General Ze- 
la)-a would be the head. It is not easy for 
Americans to understand the present political 
situation in Central America, That Senor 
Zcbya is an ambitious man, quite capable of 
^h a dreann as has been attributed to him, 
^cver. is perfectly comprehensible to Amer- 
ican students of the situation between Mexico 
and the Isthmus. It is unnecessary, and 
nwght be confusing, to go into the details of 
tHe alleged barbarous practices of President 
Cabrera, of Guatemala, the confused diplo- 
n^atic relations between that country and 
Mexico, and the desultory fighting through- 
out Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and 
Guatemala which followed almost immediate 




THE NKW rOl.OSSrS OF RIIODKS. 



The ProsUlent of NIcarajjua would l)o tho connoft- 
\t\K link iM'twoen tho two contlnonts with a union of 

^y upon the conclusion of the treaty of peace central Aniorica. 

Iwwecn Nicaragua and Salvador, negotiated From tb« Journal (Minneapolis). 



16 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REk'IElV OF REyiElVS. 



Fa/iur, of ^ SPoA many thought- 
<*• "*»"«' ful Englishmen, even 

In 8/1 Bill 4 I T •! 1 

among ardent Liberals 
themselves, have begun to wonder 
when there will be an end to the 
discomfiture and apparent impo- 
tence of the present Liberal gov- 
ernment. The large features of 
the Liberal program, which had 
behind them the strongest majority 
in the House of Commons ever 
known in Britain, have already- 
failed. The Education bill, the 
Irish bill, and other measures have 
been killed by the House of Lords 
or else repudiated by those whom 
they were intended to benefit. As 
a result of the " half-hearted " 
Irish bill there is now a split be- 
tween the Irish members and the 
administration which amounts to a 
practical dissolution of the alliance 
between these groups. The Birrell 
bill for the improvement of the 
government of Ireland, introduced 
late in May in the Commons, was 
intended to be a half-way house to 
Home Rule. It had been blocked 
out by Mr. Bryce, now Ambassa- 
dor to this country, and finished 
by Irish-Secretary Birrell. After 
much redrafting and amending in 
order to make it meet as nearly 
as possible the views of Ei\glish- 
men and the Irish Nationalists, it 
public, Sefior Castro declares that these are was finally believed that it had the approval 




MK. RGDMOND AND THE IRISH BILL. 

Augustine the Wizard (cheerfully): " IIow does this 
strike you?" 

Mr. John Kkdmoxd : " irm ! Not so bad — as far as It 
goes ! " 

From Punch (London). 



all friendly and increasingly cordial. 

The labors of this government are pervaded 
by a spirit of harmony and courtesy. With firm 
and sure steps we are treading the path of law 
and honor, and we are religiously observing our 
engagements with foreign countries. This gov-- 
ernment's intercourse with the diplomatic repre- 
sentatives here is therefore perfectly cordial. 

The Venezuelan President, whose strength 



of these divergent elements, including the 
leaders of the Irish Parliamentary party. 



Proylalont 

of the 

BUI. 



The central feature of this bill 
was the creation of a Repre- 
sentative Council for Ireland. 
This was to consist of 107 members, eight>'- 
two elected by the Irish householders (in- 



appears to be gradually returning after his eluding peers and women), and twenty- 
long and severe illness, has many great plans five nominated by the crown. Eight of the 
for the advancement and improvement of his existing Irish departments were placed under 
country. In an interview recently granted its control and a new one, the education 
to an American business man he declared that department, created. In addition to the 
extensive railroad building is in contempla- $io,ooo,<xx) of annual expenditure con- 
tion to open up the richest parts of the repub- trolled by these departments, the bill pro- 
lic. He also announced that he had " elimi- vided for an increase of $3,250,000 to be 
nated all graft." With due allowance for spent on public works and " general improve- 
the patriotic exuberance of Senor Castro's ment." The provisions of the bill did not 
phraseology, Americans will sincerely hope extend to the constabulaiy, the courts, the 
that a new era is about to begin for our sister prisons, or the Land Commission. The 
republic on the Caribbean. Lord-Lieutenant was to have general super- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



17 




UARCELIN ALBERT, LEADER OF THE RIOTING FRENCH WINE-GROWERS, HARANGUING A CROWD OF 

VINEYARDERS OF THE MIDI. 



visory control. At first the bill apparently 
met the favor of the Irish leaders, including 
Mr. John Redmond and Mr. Timothy 
Hcaly. Later, however, opposition devel- 
oped, and, at the Irish National Conference 
in Ehiblin (May 21) the bill was denounced 
and rejected as " unfit and insufficient." The 
measure would undoubtedly have been killed 
by the House of Lords had it reached that 
body. Its rejection, however, by the Irish 
people themselves suggests that in future 
any instrument for the government of Ire- 
land in accorda/ice with the ideas of Irish- 
men ought to be framed by Irishmen them- 
selves. Why should not the Irish frame 
their own Home Rule bill and introduce it 
in the House of Commons? Then the Brit- 
ish Empire at large would at least have the 
satisfaction of knowing what the Irish want. 

Vm unoit of '^^^ course of French national 
tkt Fnnek politics during the past decade 
'*'' would appear to have followed 
two main lines: Contests over the political 
and economic position of the French church 
and the growth and ascent to power of 
French labor-unions. The immense power 
of organized labor in the republic has been 
demonstrated on more than one occasion. 
A number of strikes of serious proportions 
dunng recent months, including those of the 
bakers in Paris and the seamen of the Medi- 
terranean ports, have been disposed of * 
after a tensenci ' feeling which has at 



bordered on civil war. The revolt of the 
Midi, however, as it has been called, over 
the wine question, is by far the most serious 
purely domestic problem which has faced the 
republican government for many a year. It 
has not been going well with the wine- 
growers of southern France since the adul- 
teration of wines has attained its present pro- 
portions. Other economic conditions have 
combined to make the lot of the wine-grower 
very hard. In the first place, the Frenchman 
is not drinking as much as he used to ; in the 
second place, when he does drink he is more 
likely to drink beer than wine; and in the 
third place, during the past twelve months 
the wine business of Algeria, formerly an im- 
porter of the French product, has attained 
such a magnitude that the colony now exports 
wine, — duty free, — to the republic. To 
crown the misfortunes of the vineyarder, 
pure-food legislation in England and the 
United States particularly has tended to de- 
crease the export of French wines. All these 
conditions have combined to reduce the rates 
at which the vine-growers of the departments 
of Gard, Aude, Herault, and Pyrenees Orien- 
tates have been able to dispose of their vin- 
tage, so as to make a bare living. 



The Problem ^^^ ^ '°"S time Frenchmen have 
Before M, been particularly prone to hold 
the central government responsi- 
^nything goes wrong. Conse- 
wine-growers appealed at once 



dlfneneeau. 



18 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



to Paris, demanding not only that existing 
legislative and administrative measures for 
repressing the adulteration of wine be carried 
out strictly, but that new laws be enacted 
looking toward the " absolute suppression of 
all vinous beverages other than perfectly 
natural wine." Great popular demonstra- 
tions, meetings, processions, and, later on, 
riots in the cities of Narbonne, Perpignan, 
Montpellier, and Florensac, emphasized the 
earnestness of the people in these demands. 
Not content with demonstrations, these peas- 
ants, under the leadership of Marcelin Al- 
bert, a wine-grower of Argelliers, a remark- 
able leader who has been developed by the 
situation, announced to Premier Clemenceau 
that unless their demands were granted by the 
loth of June they would refuse to pay taxes. 
And they carried their threat into effect. 
The southern Frenchman is good material for 
revolutionary propaganda. It was from the 
Midi, it will be remembered, that, on that 
fateful day in July, 1792, the Marseillaise 
began their historic march to Paris to the 
tune which has since that day been the march- 
ing song of revolution the world over. The 
mayors and municipal councillors of a num- 
ber of the cities of the four departments in- 
volved resigned, and for a time the whole 



wine-growing district was given over to 
anarchy. 



Hia 



Premier Clemenceau, with his ac- 
vigoroua customed vigor, took immediate 

Action. ^ • ^ t 

measure to insure a restoration ot 
order. Certain legislation against wine 
adulteration was at once introduced and 
passed through the Parliament, and troops 
were dispatched to the scenes of violence. 
The two leaders, Albert and Dr. Ferroul, 
were arrested. Thereupon the Mayors who 
had resigned, resumed office. Serious riotinc 
in several of the cities of the Midi marked 
the month of June, so serious, at times, that 
the presence of a large force of soldiers was 
necessary to prevent actual civil war. Upon 
a taunting interpellation in the Chamber of 
Deputies put by the Socialist leader Jaures as 
to the support given the administration by 
the country, a vote of confidence w-as taken, 
resulting in an approval of the government by 
a majority of 4 to i. It is believed that other 
than economic influences are behind the move- 
ment in southern France. It is even whis- 
pered that all the elements of opposition to 
the republic, including the Monarchists and 
Clerical party, have combined to discredit 
republicanism. 



A D^..^i..*s^^ The first Austrian Reichsrath 

A /(evolution . . i i • /• i • 

in elected on the basis or equal uni- 

versal suffrage began its sessions 
on June 17. The venerable polyglot Aus- 
trian Parliament has been revolutionized. 
Universal suffrage has done away with al- 
most all the old lines of cleavage. Its most 
significant result has been the triumph of tfie 
Socialists, — or Social-Democrats, as they arc 
known in Europe, — who have increased their 
membership from less than a dozen to ninety- 
six. Questions of race prejudice will no 
longer divide the Parliament. The division 
will be, hereafter, horizontal, by classes. 
Instead of pan-Slav versus pan-German, 
we shall read, in the future of Social- 
Democrat against Conservative or Mon- 
archist. Hungary also desires universal suf- 
frage. While celebrating, on June 8, the 
fortieth annlversar>' of the crowning of Em- 
peror Francis Joseph as King of Hungary, 
the Magyar Social-Democrats and many pa- 
triotic organization^ petitioned his Majesty 
UNIVERSAL srFFRAGK FOR iirNUARY— THE VIEW OF for unlversal Suffrage in their own part of 
THE MAGNATES. the Dual Monarchy. It is inte;*esting to note, 

Wekeule (Hungarian promicr) : " Thert^'s a In passing, that the Hungarian Government 

frlphtfiil storm raping In Austria. I am afraid it 
will eventually hit us." 




From HiimorUtifichc Dlactter (Vienna). 



is continuing its campaign against Mag>'ar 
emigration. Early last month the government 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



21 




THE PROPOSED PALACE OF PEACE AT THE HAGUE. 
(Prom the design by M. Cardonnier, of Lllle, who won the first prlze.i 



nance of the situation held by each and the terri- 
torial rights of the two contracting parties on 
the Asiatic continent 

In the speech of the French Minister, in 
communicating this docunicnt to the Cham- 
ber of Deputies, there were intimations of 
the conclusion, in the near future, of a sim- 
ilar understanding between Russia and 
Japan and a veiled expression of hope that 
the United States and Japan could also ar- 
rive at some such mutual understanding. 

jy^^ It is in western Europe, how- 
Bjt* ever, that the most significant 
and far-reaching realignment of 
the powers has been recently made. By an 
wdeistanding, amounting to a treaty of de- 
fense and offense, the Anglo-Spanish, Anglo- 
f^tench, and Franco-Spanish ententes have 
Ittn combined into a general agreement re- 
?af^ing the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. 
This agreement, acute observers inform us, 
*n»unts to a second Triple Alliance, — an 
alliance of Great Britain, France, and Spain. 
The understanding had its birth in the feel- 
ing after the Algedras Conference, when 



France and Spain became convinced that it 
was with England rather than with Ger- 
many that they should cast in their lot if 
they wished to secure their own coast lines 
and their dependencies in north Africa, in- 
cluding, in the case of Spain, several groups 
of islands in the Mediterranean and Atlan- 
tic. England gains from this arrangement 
an acknowledgment of her title to Gibral- 
tar, Malta, and Cyprus, and is relieved of 
the necessity of maintaining a strong fleet in 
the Mediterranean, since France must, in 
her own interest, always protect that sea. In 
view of this new " triplice " and the luke- 
warmness of Italy toward her neighbors in 
the Dreibund, the subject of speculation is. 
What will be the German Kaiser's next 
move? 

Tht, Hague '^^^ sccond Hague Conference 
Conference to discuss the different phases' of 
''*"'' the international peace question 
began its sessions on June 15. Forty-six 
states had been invited to send delegates to 
the conference at the Dutch capital. The 
opening sessions, which were presided over 



22 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REFlEW OF REl^/EH^S. 

The Second ^"^6 morc has reaction tri- 
Ruaaian Duma umphcd in Russia ovcF thc liberal 
intentions of Czar Nicholas. The 
second Duma, which was elected in Fcbnian 
last and organized the following month, was 
dissolved by imperial rescript early on the 
morning of Sunday, June i6. The text of 
the ukase dissolving the Duma is very brief. 
As posted on the doors of the Tauride Palace 
and over the desks of all the members it 
reads as follows: 

According to of the funda- 
mental laws of 1906 we ordain : Firstly, that the 
imperial Duma be dissolved ; secondly, that new 
elections of members to another Duma be held, 
beginning September 14, and. thirdly, that the 
new imperial Duma be convoked November 14 
of the present year. Nicholas. 

Peterhof, June 16, 1907. 

In the manifesto accompanying this order 
of dissolution, which was countersigned by 
the president of the Council of Ministers, 
Stolypin, the Emperor set forth in detail. his 
motives for dissolving thc Parliament, He 
referred to the Duma's rejection of the 
" temporary laws," its refusal to condemn 
terrorism, its delay in ratif>'ing the budget, 
the exhibition of revolutionary spirit on the 
part of a number of its members, and, finally, 




ALEXIS, THE YOUNG IIEfR TO THE RUSSIAN THRONE. 

(The latest photograph of the Czarewitch, who Is 
now throe yoars of ape.) 

by Count Nelidoff, Russian Ambassador to 
France, were somewhat overcast by the news 
of the dissolution of the Russian Duma and 
its possible consequences. While the pro- 
grams are being prepared to indicate the sub- 
jects for discussion the outside world looks 
forward with most interest to the debate over 
the question of the limitation or reduction 
of armament, a subject which is almost cer- 
tain to be brought up for informal if not 
official discussion, and the Drago Doctrine, a 
topic of special interest to Latin-American 
states. This also has had no official recog- 
nition on the advance program, but wiil 
probably receive earnest consideration. Much 
interest in both Europe and this country is 
evident in the proposed new permanent Palace 
of Peace at The Hague, which will be erected 
in the near future. We reproduce on the pre- 
ceding page the prize design for this building 
the famous French architect, Cordonnier. 



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PLAYING WITH FIRE. 

Since this cartoon was published the knife of 
dissolution has fallen. But the back^onnd l8 
crowded with other Dumas. 

From Wnhrc Jacoh (Stuttgart). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



23 




IF HE WOULD ONLY OOMK TO LIFE. 

And would 



Thi Cxab (to Premier Stolypln) : 
thej km me also?*' 

Stoitpin: *' Impossible, sire." (Aside.) 
tbej wonld bring him to life." 

Prom Antiterdammcr (Amsterdam) 



"I wish 



it5 Mure to comply immediately with the 
goveniincnt's demand for the exclusion of 
the fifty-five Social-Democratic deputies 
charged with conspiracy against the Emperor 
sod the administration. He said : 

The Duma did not lend its moral support to 
the government in the restoration of order, and 
Russia continues to suffer the shame of an epoch 
<rf crimes and disasters. The examination of the 
hndget created an obstacle to the timely satisfac- 
tica of many of the vital needs of the people. 
Tk r^t of interpellation was transformed by 
a t ymd crable party in the Duma into a means 
of %fatmg against the government and exciting 
<wnsf toward it among large classes of the 

hiidmUMs ^^ these evils the Emperor 
**^*'** ascribes to defects in the present 
electoral law. He therefore has 
Wdcd to change the basis of suffrage. " We 
give Russia a new electoral law and order 
its promulgation in the Senate." In order, 
Ac Czar continued, to prevent the non- 
Russian nationalities from becoming a de- 
cisive factor in the settlement of purely Rus- 



sian questions, the representation of these 
nationalities will be decreased under the new 
law, and in the frontier regions, " where the • 
standard of civil development is low," elections 
will be temporarily suspended. ** Almighty 
God," concludes Emperor Nicholas, " has 
intrusted us with imperial authority over our 
people, and before His throne we must an- 
swer for the fate of the Russian state." The 
proposed new law cuts in half the Polish 
delegation, practically excludes peasants, and 
disfranchises Siberia. Only the constituen- 
cies of conservative and monarchist sympa- 
thies are given an equal or increased repre- 
sentation. As a result of these various 
changes the next Duma will number 442, in- 
stead of 524. Thus ends, at least for the 
present, constitutionalism in Russia. Noth- 
ing remains except broken promises and a 
rankling memory. In the autumn of 1905 
Czar Nicholas promised that the electoral 
system then established should never be 
changed except with the Duma's assent. In 
the summer of 1907 he not only dispenses 
with that assent but announces an iniqui- 
tously unfair law which will make the next 
Duma a mere bureau to indorse his will. 
Alas for royal promises! 

The Duma's J^^^ ^ock of offensc upon which 
Dignified the second Russian Duma was 
wrecked last month is to be found 
in the conspiracy against the life of the Czar 
which was alleged to have originated at the 
convention of the Social-Democrats held in 
London the month before.* Premier Stolypin 
addressed to the Duma (on June 14) what 
amounted to an ultimatum, threatening to 
dissolve that body immediately unless it sus- 
pended its Miviolability, not only in the case 
of the sixteen Social-Democrats against whom 
definite charges had been made, but also in 
the case of the thirty-nine other members of 
that party in Parliament. Under the leader- 
ship of the Constitutional Democrats, who 
during the entire session of Parliament had 
exhibited that moderation and capacity for 
leadership which entitled them to their as- 
cendency, the chamber referred the question 
of this demand to a committee, which was in- 
structed to report the following day. At the 
time appointed the committee reported that 
it had been unable to review all the facts and 
asked for more time. The Duma mean- 
while adjourned until the hour at which the 
report was to be made. The government 
and Premier, however, without waiting for 
any further consideration of the matter, pro- 



i 



24 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 




Pliotorniph by Pach. N. Y. 

BARON KENTARO KANEKO. 
(Who, It was roported last month, will sureopd 
Viscount Aokl as Japanese Ambassador to the United 
States.) 

mul gated the ukase of dissolution. Nine of 
the accused deputies were at once arrested, the 
other seven being in hiding. Extensive pre- 
cautions were taken by the administration 
throughout the entire empire to prevent dis- 
order. A few mutinies and small riots oc- 
curred, but no movement of large extent. 
Indeed, the country received the news with 
great calmness, and it seems "likely that 
some time will elapse before the active re- 
sponse of the nation is heard. It is signifi- 
cant that all the reactionary organizations, 
including the famous, or infamous, Union of 
the Russian People, openly rejoice at this 
suppression of constitutionalism. The Czar 
is reported to have telegraphed to the notori- 
ous Dr. Dubrevin, president of this Union 
of the Russian People, expressing the hope 
that this organization would " teach Russians 
to be law-abiding, obedient, and orderly." 

Record While very little practical or use- 

of the ful legislation was accomplished 

*"""' by this second Duma in its short 

life of three months, its very existence as 

a deliberative and educational body has been 

of immense value to the country. Both 



Dumas have set the Russian people thinking. 
It is interesting to record that the press of 
Moscow and St. Petersburg, with the excep- 
tions of the official Rossia and the reactionary 
Novoye Vretnya, criticise the government's 
action in dissolving Parliament without wait- 
ing for the report of its committee on the 
suspension of members charged with crime. 
The latter journal criticised the second 
Duma as "a body of popular ignorance, 
Constitutional Democrats, Jesuitism, and 
revolutionary stupidity." The Slovo, how- 
ever, which has up to the present sternly 
condemned all alleged revolutionary activity 
on the part of the Duma, declares that the 
Premier's ultimatum was contrary to the dig- 
nity of Parliament in a constitutional mon- 
archy. " The government's action is uncon- 
stitutional and insincere." Meanwhile, the 
non-Russian nationalities of the empire have 
made some orderly progress. The Finnish 
national Landtag, the first national assem- 
bly of the world in which women deputies 
appear and the first in which the Socialists 
are the strongest party, began its sessions on 
May 23. It would seem to be another illus- 
tration of the age-long misfortune of Poland 
that the Polish Home-Rule bill, introduced 
in the Duma on April 23, should have been 
caught by the dissolution and left, as it were, 
hanging in the air. A digest of this bill, 
with Russian and Polish comment. Is found 
on another page this month. 

Mo strain Be- isolated instances of anti-Japan- 
tween Japan and ese feeling on the Pacific Coast, 

United states. • i j- ^^ i i 

includmg attacks on several 
Japanese restaurants in San Francisco by 
labor-union rioters, while occasioning a great 
deal of war talk in the sensational press of 
both this country and Japan, have not had 
the slightest influence upon the correct dip- 
lomatic attitude and the highly friendly 
feelings between the governments of Wash- 
ington and Tokio, nor between the great 
masses of the Japanese and American peo- 
ples. Undoubtedly a strong feeling exists 
in California and our other Pacific States 
against the immigration of Japanese or other 
Oriental people in large numbers. Undoubt- 
edly, also, the labor-union sentiment of the 
large cities on the Pacific is particularly hos- 
tile to Japanese, since these people are not 
organized into unions. But the whole situ- 
ation has undoubtedly been grossly exagger- 
ated. That there exists a popular sentiment 
of any depth in this country unfriendly to 
the Japanese people is no more true than that 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



25 




PboCDfnph 1«f the MtoeaSelbr. N. Y. 

HON. THOMAS J. o'bRIEN, OF MICHIGAN. 
(Who succeeds Hon. Luke B. Wright as our Ambassador to Japan.) 

thfrc exists among the people of Japan an which followed hostilities, it will be remem- 

unfriendly feeling to our own population, bered, Baron Kaneko took a prominent 

Close observers of conditions in the Mi- part in the negotiations which, upon the ini- 

kado's empire believe that much of the pop- tiative of President Roosevelt, finally re- 

ular and journalistic jingoism in Japan has suited in the conclusion of peace. This 

been fomented for political purposes at home, statesman's friendly feelings toward the 

The so-called Progressive party, under the United States (he is himself a Harvard 

leadership of Count Okuma, perhaps the graduate and speaks English perfectly) are 

niost prominent Japanese Chauvinist, is wag- well known. No better method could be 

ing a bitter campaign against the party in desired on the part of the Tokio government 

power, its animosity extending even to the of emphasizing Japan's friendly feelings 



present Japanese Ambassador at Washing- 
ton, Viscount Aoki. 



toward the United States and the Amer- 
ican people. We ourselves are sending one 
of our ablest diplomats of the new Amer- 
ican school to the Japanese capital. Min- 

ti Ui.'X.:j - — " ^^^^^ Thomas J. O'Brien, of Michigan, 

"*** would be recalled and succeeded who has up to the present been United 

V Baron Kentaro Kaneko. During the States Minister to Denmark, goes to Tokio 

Russo-Japanese War and the negotiations to be our Ambassador, succeeding Hon. 



ANrfett ^^ ^^ generally believed last 
!9tM month' that Ambassador Aoki 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REk'lEW OF REVIEWS. 




KING OSCAR AND QUEEN SOPHIA, OF SWEDEN. 
(Who have Just celebrated their golden wedding.) 



Luke E. Wright A further evidence 
of the correct and friendly attitude of the 
Mikado's government was the official direc- 
tions issued on June 13 to the newspapers of 
the empire to abstain from the publication 
of any matter of an inflammatory or agitat- 
ing nature upon the Pacific Coast question. 
One of the results of the recent Franco- 
Japanese understanding (signed at Paris and 
Tokio in May) was the tender by France 
of her good offices to the United States in 
case she might be of service in promoting a 
better understanding between the United 
States and Japan covering their respective 
interests in all parts of the world, particu- 
larly in the Far East. The attitude of the 
United States Government in this matter is 
that of cordial appreciation of French inter- 
est but inability to recognize any features of 
present or" past situations between the two 
nations which might preclude the most 
straightforward and direct dealing. From a 
diplomatic viewpoint the San Francisco in- 
cident is already closed. Those Japanese in- 
dividuals who have suffered as a result of 
mob attack in San Francisco can, under the 
State code of California, recover damages 
"" the city authorities. 



Peaetful, 
Happy 
Sweden, 



While Russia seethes with dis- 
content and revolution her Scan- 
dinavian neighbor nations are 
pursuing their quiet, orderly way, peacefully 
celebrating events of social and scientific im- 
port. The health of King Oscar of Sweden 
has so improved that early in June he re- 
sumed the reins of government, which he 
relinquished on December 14 last, when he 
appointed Prince Gustav, the crown prince, 
to act as regent. On June 6 he and his 
Queen Sophia celebrated their golden wed- 
ding. The Swedish monarchs are much be- 
loved, and it seems appropriate that the large 
sum of money raised as a gift by the nation 
to commemorate this occasion should have 
been devoted by them to pay the admission 
for poor patients to the sanitarium for con- 
sumptives which was founded on the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of the King's reign with 
money raised by the nation in the same way 
and presented to the King. During late 
May and early June, also, patriotic Swedes 
all over the world celebrated the two-hun- 
dredth anniversary of the 'birth of Linnaeus, 
the famous Swedish botanist and naturalist. 
An interpretation of Linnaeus* work will be 
found in our " Leading Articles." 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



{From May 20 to June 19, 1907.) 



POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT— AMERICAN. 

May 21. — Hearings before the Interstate 
Commerce Commission on charges by the Cen- 
tral Freight Association of discrimination in 
railroad rates in favor of the Standard Oil 

Company are begun in Washington Mayor 

Busse, of Chicago, transfers the entire police 




HON. JOHN H. BANKHEAD, OF ALABAMA. 

(Appolntod United States Senator to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Senator Mor^^an.) 

force of the Tenderloin district in an attempt 
to better conditions there. 

May 22— The New York Legislature passes 
the Public Utilities bill. 

May 2X — Governor Hughes, of New York, 
<«nds a special message to the legislature, urg- 
ing the passage of the bill for recounting the 
votes in the New York City mayoralty election 

of 1905 The New York Legislature passes a 

>ccm-fare bill. 

May 27.— The United States Supreme Court 
adjourns until October 14. 

June 4. — President Roosevelt appoints John 
C. Capers, of South Carolina, as Commissioner 
of Internal Revenue ad interim. 

June 5.— An order issued by President Roose- 
velt prohibits persons in the classified civil ser- 
vice from taking an active part in politics. 

June 6. — Pennsylvania Republicans indorse 



the candidacy of Senator Knox for the Presi- 
dency .... Governor Hughes, of New York, 

signs the Public Utilities bill Mayor Mc- 

Clellan, of New York, sends to the State Legis- 
lature a statement of his position on the Re- 
count bill. 

June 12. — Secretary of the Treasury Cortcl- 
you calls on the depository banks for $30,000,000 
to be used in the redemption of Government 
bonds The Government brings suit in Phila- 
delphia to dissolve the alleged combination of 
anthracite coal railroads. 

June 13. — Mayor Eugene Schmitz. of San 
Francisco, is found guilty of extorting money 
from keepers of French restaurants. 

June 17. — Federal Judge McPherson. of Kan- 
sas -City, enjoins the State of Missouri frrm en- 
forcing a maximum freight law and in the 2- 
cent passenger rate case orders that the law be 
tried out for three months. .. .Governor Comer, 
of Alabama, appointed ex-Congressman John 
H. Rankhead (Dcm.) United States Senator to 
fill the vacancy caused by the death of John T. 
Morgan. 

^ June 18. — Governor Hughes, of New York, 
signs the bill providing for a recount of the 
votes cast in the New York municipal election 
of 1905.... The Federal Grand Jury indicts the 
Central Vermont Railroad for giving rebates 
on coffee shipments. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT-FOREIGN. 

May 20. — The Russian Duma passes a reso- 
lution denouncing the plot against the Czar; 
Premier Stolypin gives an account of the dis- 
covery of the plot. 

May 21.— The Irish Nationalist Convention at 
Dublin unanimously rejects the Birrell Home 
Rule bill.... Mr. T. W. Russell. M. P., is ap- 
pointed vice-president of the Irish Department 
of Agriculture. 

May 22. — The Finnish Diet, which was 
elected under the new constitution, assembles 
....The French cabinet agrees on a bill to sup- 
press adulterated wines in the interest of grow- 
ers in the south.... The annual convention of 
the United Irish League of Great Britain is held 
in Dublin. 

May 23. — Premier Stolypin, of Russia, ex- 
plains the government's scheme of land reform 
to the Duma. .. .Nineteen women members are 
present in the new Finnish Parliament. 

May 24. — The second ballots in the Austrian 
general election result as follows : Socialists, 
83; Christian Socialists, 67: German Clericals. 
29; German Progressives, 23; German Radicals, 
24; German Agrarians, 21; the remaining 152 
are divided among fifteen different groups. 

May 25. — The Czar's speech is read at the 
formal opening of the Finnish Parliament.... 
Premier Stolypin, of Russia, summons to St. 
Petersburg the governors of provinces where 
agrarian uprisings are serious. 

May 27. — The Viceroy of India withholds his 



2S 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEiV OF REI^/EIVS. 




1 i«m UiC NEliii^Jiial Pft« A»«fl4tiiafi. W««tilnxtQri. 



THE POCAHONTAS STATUE UNVEILED LAST MONTH 
ON JAMESTOWN ISLAND, VA. 

consent to the Punjaub Colonization bill.... 
The Government of Ecuador is collecting forces 
in the central provinces to crush the rebellion. 

May 28. — The Australian premiers assemble 

in conference at Brisbane The Russian 

Duma rejects a resolution condemning terror- 
ism by a vote of 219 to 146 Lord Methuen 

is made British commander-in-chief in South 
Africa. 

May 30. — The Russian Social-Democrats in 
session in London decide to sever all relations 
with the Constitutional Democrats and other 
Liberal parties in Russia. 

May 31. — King Charles of Portugal consents 
to receive deputations from the houses of Par- 
liament and supports their views. 

June 2. — The Russian Social-Democratic con- 
gress in London passes a resolution condemning 
terrorism and favoring a continuance of the 
Puma. 



June 3. — The British Prime Minister an- 
nounces the withdrawal of the Irish Home Rule 

bill The Russian Duma rejects two stringent 

measures ordered by Premier Stolypin to sup- 
press sedition. 

June 5. — A bill is introduced in the French 
Chamber of Deputies to raise the tariff on oil 
in order to stimulate the alcohol trade and aid 
the wine-growers. 

June 8. — Radical members of the Russian 
Duma are defeated in an attempt to instruct the 
agrarian commission to adopt the principle of 
compulsory expropriation. 

June 10. — The Amnesty bill in the Russian 
Duma is referred to a committee by a vote of 
260 to 165.... The Progressive party in Japan 
adopts anti-American resolutions for use in the 
spring elections .... Mayors and city councils in 
the south of France resign as a protest against 
the government's attitude toward the wine- 
growing districts. 

June II. — The Nationalist party in the British 
House of Commons decides to oppose the gov- 
ernment's Army bill and to open a campaign for 
Home Rule. 

June 12. — The strike of the municipal govern- 
ments in the south of France continues. 

June 13. — The French Chamber of Deputies, 
by a vote of 310 to 261, adopts the first clause 
of a bill for the relief of wine-growers, designed 
to prevent fraud. 

June 14. — PremFer Stolypin, of Russia, pre- 
sents to the Duma a demand for the suspension 
of Social-Democratic members, in order to try 
them for treason The Norwegian Parlia- 
ment votes to grant female suffrage to about 
300,000 persons ; the voters must be twenty-five 
years old, and either they or their husbands 
must pay taxes on an income of $118 in cities 
and $84 in the country. 

June 15. — The Russian Duma is dissolved; a 
motion in the upper house to reform the ruling 
Senate by the appointment of a Senate Premier 
outranking the cabinet ministers and the re- 
moval of the body from the control of the Min- 
ister of Justice is defeated by a vote of 75 to 71. 
June 17. — The Austrian Reichsrath assembles. 
June 18. — The French Chamber of Deputies, 
by a vote of 412 to 158, sustains Premier Cle- 
menceau's decision to suppress by force the agita- 
tion in the wine-growing district of southern 

France A battalion of sappers mutinies at 

Kiev, Russia; the outbreak is suppressed; the 
province of Vologda is declared in a minor state 
of siege; a convention of Social-Democrats is 
broken up by the police. 

June 19.— Meetings of Russian railway dele- 
gates are dispersed by Cossacks. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 
May 25. — France makes public her demands 
on Morocco, which include the settlement of 
all claims, the carrying out of the convention at 
Algeciras in 1902, and the punishment of vari- 
ous trouble-makers Secretary Root takes 

action through the United States Department 
of Justice for the protection of Japanese from 
ill treatment in San Francisco, and also calls on 
the State of California to perform its duty under 
the treaty with Japan. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



29 



June I. — It is announced from Paris that 
France is waiting for the United States to take 
the initiative in negotiations for a tariff ar- 
rangement A proclamation putting the new 

commercial agreement with Germany into effect 
is issued by President Roosevelt (see page 47). 
June 7- — The United States declines the good 
offices of France to further a convention with 
Japan, on the ground that no alliance is needed ; 
the text of the Franco-Japanese convention as 
printed in Paris guarantees the integrity of 
China and the maintenance of the status quo 
in the Far East. 

June 10. — The Franco-Japanese convention is 
signed at Paris by the F'oreign Minister, M. 
Pichon, and Minister Kurino. 

June II. — It is reported that Nicaraguans, 
assisted by Salvador revolutionists, have cap- 
tured Acajutla The British Foreign Secre- 
tary, Sir Edward Grey, informs the House of 
Commons that he hopes to obtain for Great 
Britain the advantages which Germany has de- 
rived from the United States under the new 
tariff agreement. 

June 12. — Advices from London indicate that 
an accord has been reached between Great Brit- 
ain and America regarding certain questions at 
the peace conference to be held at The Hague. 
June 15.— The Second Peace Conference at 
The Hague is opened bv the Dutch Minister of 
Foreign Affairs; M. Nelidoff. is chosen presi- 
dent; he characterizes the idea of universal 
peace as purely chimerical. 

June 18--— The British Foreign Office proposes 
to the United States the extension of the New- 
foundland modus invendi to cover the next sea- 
son's fisheries. 

June IQ. — General Porter, at the second ses- 
sion of the Hague Conference, announces that 
the United States reserves the right to intro- 
duce the question of limitation of armament and 
the Drago Doctrine. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OP THE MONTH. 

May 29. — The funeral of Mrs. McKinley, 
the widow of the President, is held at Canton, 
Ohio; President Roosevelt, four members of 
the cabinet, and other well-known persons at- 
tend. 

May 30. — A Wliite Star Line service is 
^>pened between New York and Southampton 
*>y the steamship Adriatic President Roose- 
velt speaks at Indianapolis at the unveiling of a 
nionument to General Lawton. 

May 31. — A general strike of the French 
na\'al reserves, comprising practically all sea- 
men. 'longshoremCTi, and fishermen, begins at 
ill French ports .... President Roosevelt makes 
three addresses at Lansing, Mich. 

June I.— The Waters-Pierce Oil Company, of 
Missouri, is adjudged guilty of violating the 
anti-trust laws of Texas, convicted of having 
fjjtered the State by fraud, and fined $1,623,900; 
tnc State's request for ouster proceedings is 
granted. 

June 3. — An advance in wages averaging 5 
P^ cent goes into effect in practically every 
conon mill in northern New England; nearly 

jttVno operators are affected The jury in 

uic trial of Haywood for the assassination of 



ex-Governor Steunenberg, of Idaho, is com- 
pleted and sworn in The Jefferson Davis 

memorial is unveiled at Richmond (see page 
40). 

June 4. — The monthly government crop re- 
port shows the lowest average for the growing 
crop in ten years. 

June 5. — The strike of French seamen comes 

to an end Richard Croker's Orby wins the 

Derby.... The Empress of Japan makes an ad- 
dress at a meeting of the Red Cross in Tokio 
....Alfred Horsley, known as Harry Orchard, 
confesses on the stand in the Haywood trial at 
Boise, Idaho, to a series of revolting crimes. 

June 6. — The golden wedding of King Oscar 







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DR. MAURICE FRANCIS EGAN. 
(Appointed United States Minister to Denmark.) 

and Queen Sophia is -celebrated throughout 
Sweden. 

June 7.--The first International Horse Show 
is opened in London. 

June 8. — The Czar of Russia approves the 
recommendation of the Council of Ministers in 
favor of building a railroad from Tomsk to Ber- 
ing Strait and a tunnel under the Strait Es- 
timates of damage caused by the cyclone at 
Kurrachi. India, are between $3,000,000 and 

$6,000.000 Twenty-one persons are killed by 

a cloudburst which destroys the village of Gra- 
dyville, Ky. 

June 9. — In a race from New York to Ber- 
muda, the schooner yacht Dervish wins, her time 
for the 650 miles being 91 hours and 50 minutes. 

June 10. — The eighth International Red Cross 
Confeience begins its session in London.... 
Twenty-eight persons, including twelve women 
and children, are lost in the sinking of a French 



30 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REl^/EH^OF REl^/ElVS. 



schooner off Barbadoes President Roosevelt 

makes two addresses and reviews naval and 
military parades at the Jamestown Exposition 

A launch from the battleship Minnesota, 

with six midshipmen, a second-lieutenant of 
marines, and five enlisted men aboard is sunk in 
Hampton Roads. 

June 12. — President Roosevelt arrives at Oys- 
ter Bay, his summer home. 

June 13. — The 'longshoremen's strike in New 
York City is formally, declared off; about 12,000 
strikers apply for work at the various piers. 

June 17. — Darwin P. Kingsley is elected pres- 
ident of the New York Life Insurance Com- 
pany, succeeding Alexander E. Orr. 

June 19. — The city of Hamburg votes $14,- 

375,000 for the extension of the port The 

German Kaiser reviews nearly all the warships 
of the German navy at Kiel. 
OBITUARY. 

May 20. — Dr. Frank Lowber James, a leading 

authority on microscopy, 66 Dr. John H. 

Packard, a well-known Philadelphia physician 
and author, 75 Sir T. W. White, Bart., 79- 

May 21. — Sir Joseph Fayrer, Bart., physician 

extraordinary to the King of England, 83 

Ex-Congressman John Quincy Underbill, of 

New York, 59 William F. Luxton, a leading 

journalist of Manitoba, 62. 

May 22. — George Henry Fink, known as the 
father of the British House of Commons, 72 

Dr. Augustus Charles Bemays, a noted 

surgeon of St. Louis, 63 Samuel Lord Mor- 

ison, a well-known New York engineer, 55 

Mrs. Ella Farman Pratt, author of books for 

young people, 64 Justice James W. Dunwell, 

of the New York Supreme Court, 58. 

May 24. — Ex-United States Senator John Pat- 
ton, of Michigan, 56 General Henry S. Tur- 

ill, U. S. A., retired, 65. 

May 25. — Rev. Edward Payson Terhune, of 
New York, 76 Theodore Tilton, author, edi- 
tor, and lecturer, 72 Joseph L. Stickney, the 

war correspondent, 58. ...Baron von Roggen- 

bach, late Foreign Mmister of Baden, 78 W. 

M. Wood, former editor of the Times of India, 

78 Most Rev. Augustin Tovar, Archbishop 

of Lima, Peru. 

May 26. — Mrs. Ida McKinley, widow of the 

President, 59 Prof. Albert Harkness, the 

classical scholar and author, 84 Col. Alex- 
andre Cesarin, painter, sculptor, writer, and sol- 
dier Dr. Emile R. Steinbach, the Austrian 

writer on legal subjects, 59. 

May 29.— Rt. Rev. A. T. Lloyd, D. D.. Bishop 
of Newcastle, 63. I 

May 31. — Karl Blind, the German patriot, 8t. 

June I. — General Billot, three times French 
Minister of War, 79. 

June 2. — Ex-United States Senator William 
P. Sheffield, of Rhode Island, 88....Jud-e Wi'- 
liam K. Townsend, of New Haven, Conn., 50 
....William J. Fryer, a well-known architect 
and consulting engineer of New York, 65. 

June 3. — Gen. Thomas Howard Ruger, U. S. 
A., retired, 74. 

June 4. — Dr. Felix Formento, a prominer.t 
New Orleans physician, 70... .Erskine Uhl, sec- 



retary of the International Committee of the 
Y. M. C. A., 66. 

June 6. — Helen M. Gougar, temperance leader 
and lecturer, 64. 

June 7. — Prof. Alfred Newton, pioneer in 
English legislation for the protection of birds, 
78 Edward John Routh, of Cambridge, Eng- 
land, a famous mathematical coach, 76. ...Ex- 
Judge Lewis B. France, of Denver, author of 
books of outdoor life, 74. 

June 8.— Dr. W. G. Neville, president of the 
Presbyterian College of South Carolina, 52 — 
Germania Goodrich Alvord, for many years 
superintendent of public schools in Illinois, 84 

George W. Liniger, of Omaha, art collector 

and Egyptologist, 72. 




THE LATE JOHN T. MORGAN. 

(For thirty years United States Senator froiv 
Alabama.) 

June 9. — Julia Magruder, the novelist, 53. 

June II. — United States Senator John Tyler 

Morgan, of Alabama, 82 Clovis Hugues. 

French poet and publicist, 55. 

June 12. — Henry G. Hanks, a California pio- 
neer and former State mineralogist, 81. 

June 13. — Mrs. W. G. Jones, for many years 
a popular New York actress, 79. 

June 14. — General Bartolome Maso, Presi- 
dent of the embryo Cuban Republic before the 
Spanish-American War. 7$. 

June 17. — Associate Justice Charles Fuller 
Woodward, of the Supreme Court of Maine, 59. 

June 18.— Prof. Alexander Stewart Herschcl, 
the distinguished British astronomer. 

June 19. — Henry Bruce Beach, of Hartford, 
inventor of the well-known Beach boiler, 90. 



CARTOONS ON CURRENT TOPICS. 




IX BARRACKS AT TUB HAGUE. 

The two quacks, England, and America, are represented as calling attention to the diplomatists (Euro- 
pean big guns). They are somewhat preoccupied discussing among themselves the question of whether 
thfir volr«s shall be silenced In military wars. But whatever happens, they will still be kept for royal 
»lote« and for suppressing civil wars !-~IiVom Papapallo (Bologna). 




THE BATTLESHIP ACCORDION. ** COME DOWX ! '* 

^hen folded up, nothing could look more like dis- Baroness von Suttner (carrying an invitation t 

tnnam^nt. This cartoon (from Ulk, Bertin) Indl- the Peace Conference) Invites Mars to come do* 

ate? the German suspicion of EIngland's peace pro- from his pedestal. — From Luatige BlQttcr (Berlin 
teitatloof. 



THF. AMntlCAN MONTHLY REt^lEW OF REyiEtt^H 




*' siTTiNo ON TUB LID" IN JAPAN. From the I nquircT (Philadelphia). 





t'SN'T KNOW it's LOAUKD. 

Itrooklj/n Eagle (New York). 



LiTiLK Jap (to I'ncle Sam) : "Don't "step on the 
tail of my coat!" — From the }iew» (Baltimore). 



CARTOONS ON CURRENT TOPICS. 



33 




THE JAPANR8U BOOIE MAN DOBSN'T ROARB UNCLE BAM. 

The face of the real Jap shows reassuringly behind the war monster the Jingoes would have us believe In, 

From the Satimlnu Qlohc (T'tica, N. Y.). 

1 



-^iiisSi 




-•^v-:- 








WHO SAID "TROUBLE"? 

From the Evening Mail (New York). 



WHAT «;ni:s I'l* must tomk down! 
From the .Ycic« (Baltimore). 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REyiEWS. 




MO OCCASION FOB GRNEBAL ALARM. 

PRB8IDENT RoosBVBLT I ** Don't be afraid, gentlemen ; he will hurt only the crooks.* 
From the Saturday Olobe (ITtIca, N. Y.). 





ROBBIXO PETEB TO PAY PETEB. 

•• We've been tlnod 160,728.489.37, John ! " 

" Good ! Put oil up a cent and a half till the 

t\ru*\ ^mlfJ ' ' Trom tbf AVjr* (Baltimore). 




A RKMIMSOKNCK OF THE NEW YORK Li:OiaLATIVB 

srssiox OK 11K>7. 
Prom the Prrtu (New York). 



LCtSAL ^AR ON THE HARD COAL TRUST. 

Work for the breaker. 
From the Imquitrr (Philadelphia). 



CARTOONS ON CURRENT TOPICS. 



35 




MAP OF THf WESTERN HEMISPHERE AS IT LOOKS TO 
ILMNOI8. 

From the inter-Orean (Chicago). 



*• WHEREAT I WAS MUCH CAST DOWN." — ThCOdore 

Roosevelt, "Hunting Big Game." 
From the Ilirald (New York). 





rxcLK S.\M (to the President) : ** Here, Theodore, 
drop that and get back to your old Job." 
From the Blade (Toledo). 



T'lKT-JY r;(M»D AT ** WI.NVINC THE WEST" HIMSELF. 

From the filade (Toledo). 




REnrRoriTT. 
One good lift deserves another, 
^wn the Journal (Minneapolis). 




VACATICJN TIME ON SAGAMORE HILL. 

From the Tribune (Minneapolis). 



36 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




A NEW FIGURE ON THE MAP. 

An Uncle Sam of Central America would be wel- 
comed by lilB friends to the north. 

Prom the Journal (Minneapolis). 




"CAN IT BE POSSIBLE?" 

From the Evening Mail (New York). 




ANOTHER ENTRY. 

From the Press (New York). 



Bureaucrat : " Thank Heaven I'm In Russia I * 
From the Evening Telegram (New York). 




THE CASE OF SAN FRANCISCO. 

BY JAiMES D. PHELAN. 



§AN FRANCISCO is a typical American 
community. There is nothing abnormal 
about it. It was founded by the pick of 
American manhood. Attracted by the gold 
discovery, there also came to San Francisco 
in the early days a turbulent and disorderly 
element, and when, by ballot-box stuffing, 
this element secured the municipal offices, the 
famous Vigilance Committee was organized 
and a strong and clean government estab- 
lished, which lasted for a generation. What 
is not generally understood, is the fact that 
the Vigilance Committee condemned no one 
without an orderly trial. It was extra-legal, 
but wrought no injustice. 

After the lapse of time, as in other Ameri- 
can cities, corrupt political bossism tempora- 
rily »tablished itself, but was speedily put 
down. We are just witnessing one of those 
recurrent episodes. After ten years of clean 
government the Schmitz-Ruef administration 
was given a brief lease of power by the mis- 
guided votes of labor-unianists, and corrup- 
tion became rampant. Practically a unani- 
mous press condemned it, and under the lead- 
ership of Rudolph Spreckels the citizens have 
destroyed it by simply using legal methods, 
indictment and trial by judge and jury. 
District-Attorney Langdon, who was elected 
on the Union-Labor ticket; Francis J. 
Hcney, Assistant District-Attorney, appointed 
as special prosecutor and who had distin- 
tingubhed himself in the prosecution of the 
Oregon land frauds, and William J. Burns, 
secret service detective, simply collected 
legal evidence and made the task easy. 
So, far from irregular Vigilance-Committee 
methods, which are believed by the people of 
the East to have recently prevailed in San 
Francisco, the prosecution has, while destroy- 
ing graft and corruption, maintained the dig- 
nity and proved the efficacy of the law. San 
Francisco is a law-abiding community, and, 
as in this instance, has rendered a conspicu- 
ous service to the cause of law and order 
which other communities might well emulate. 
It has, by the conviction of Schmitz, pre- 
served the fine traditions of its past and saved 
the honor of its name. 

In the prosecution of offenders, as Presi- 
doit Roosevelt has said in encouraging Mr. 
Hene? in San Francisco and in Oregon, the 
keynote of the campaign has been, " My 



spear knows no brother." Since the prosecu- 
tion began to expose the criminality of 
Schmitz and Ruef and their satellites many 
citizens of heretofore good reputation, as of- 
ficers of public-service corporations, have been 
caught in the dragnet. They had given 
bribes. The prosecution has won the confi- 
dence of the people by declaring that the 
law is no respecter of persons, and the guilty, 
whoever they may be, must suffer alike. As a 
result, San Francisco will now enjoy good 
and stable government for ten years, or until 
men forget the lesson of this prosecution. 
Meantime, and until the election in Novem- 
ber and the inauguration of a new govern- 
ment in January next, the Board of Super- 
visors, thirteen out of the eighteen of whom 
have made full confessions of guilt, will sit 
and act under the suggestions of the District- 
Attorney and the grand jury. They have 
been promised immunity for good behavior. 
This was the only practical course open, be- 
cause, in the first place, their confessions 
made possible the indictment of the principal 
offenders in office and out of office who 
tempted them with bribes, and, secondly, 
should they have been removed, the corrupt 
Mayor would have had the power of ap- 
pointment; s6 that conditions would inevita- 
bly have been worse. 

I have said that the workingmen were 
misled. They believed, in voting for their 
candidates, that they would secure a govern- 
ment devoted to the interests of the common 
people. Unfortunately, the idea of class 
government had been impressed upon them, 
but in every instance they have been betrayed. 
Their Mayor served only the corrupt cor- 
porate interests, and their Supervisors vio- 
lated their pledges, as, for instance, in voting 
for the gas rate, allowing 85 cents a thou- 
sand in consideration of a bribe when the 
platform on which they were chosen called 
for a 7 5 -cent rate. For a bribe they per- 
mitted disfiguring and dangerous overhead 
trolley and poles to be used by the street- 
railway corporations, which hoped to save 
platform expense by the introduction of cars 
of a larger size, manned by the same employees 
as the smaller cars of the cable system, thus 
increasing the labor of the men without in- 
creasing their pay. So the Union-Labor z( 
ministration has been a great injury to tl 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



men who voted for its election and to the 
city at large, a fact which the workingmen 
now realize. Their best and most disinter- 
ested leaders, as well as the national conven- 
tions of the American Federation of Labor, 
have deprecated the entrance of the unions, as 
such, into politics, on account of the tendency 
such a course has to destroy the beneficent 
and helpful purposes of organized labor. 
If there was an idea in the minds of the men 
that in case of strikes and lockouts the munici- 
pal government could and would help them, 
that idea is exploded, because law and order 
must and will be maintained in every Ameri- 
can community, no matter what may be the 
character of the administration. The courts 
will maintain it and the State and federal 
governments are within easy call. It is gen- 
erally agreed among the men themselves, 
after bitter experience, that strikes suffer 
rather than gain by acts of violence. It is 
conceded that it is the plain duty of the 
sworn officers of the law not only to punish 
acts of violence but, better, to prevent such 
acts, and thus save the hot-heads and the ir- 
responsible from the consequences of their 
own folly. 

Last November there was an election in 
San Francisco, when four judges of the Su- 
perior Court were to be elected. " Boss " 
Ruef was then in the full possession of his 
usurped power; He dictated nominations 
and made combinations with a view to elect- 
ing his own men, and yet, when the votes 
were counted, it was found that the people 
had risen superior to his machinations and 
elected three good men out of four, losing the 
fourth by a very narrow margin. This re- 
sult was very cheering to the good citizens 
of San Francisco, and is a safe augury of the 
results of the coming municipal election in 
November, when, no doubt, honorable men 
will be chosen to perform their duty under 
the law, which has been exalted and made 
more sacred by the events of the last six 
months. 

It is true that outside the building trades, 
— where harmony prevails, — there are sev- 
eral strikes in progress at this time, in- 
cluding brewery workmen, telephone girls, 
laundry employees, and street-car men. The 
latter is the only serious strike and, with 
non-union platform men, the cars are being 
operated over all the lines during the day- 
time. On account of high rents for modest 
homes and flats, the men sought higher com- 
pensation, a proposition to which the railroad 
company did not yield. The rapid building. 



however, will soon remove this cause of cooh 
plaint, and it is expected that by the supply 
meeting the demand, a natural process, these 
difficulties will adjust themselves. 

The Japanese are objected to on the broad 
American ground of non-assimilability, but 
the Japanese question has been imfairly 
introduced at this time. There is prac- 
tically no racial prejudice, but the working- 
men have been urged not to patronize tbe 
Japanese restaurants, for instance, because 
they are conducted by non-union help, and 
when union men were found in an es- 
tablishment they were rudely disciplined. 
This is a phase of the boycott, and does not 
rise to the dignity of an international ques- 
tion. San Francisco may be exposed for 
these reasons to occasional turbulence, — a 
manifestation of " Western exuberance," or 
" frontier ruffianism," as it has been called, — 
but shall we condemn the air because it is the 
element of storms and hurricanes? These 
tempests which sweep over democratic com- 
munities sometimes clarify the atmosphere, 
and are soon over; and out of our local 
troubles will come a cleaner government, a 
better conception of the labor question by 
employer and employee, and a stronger loy- 
alty to the law, which, like a rock, stands 
unshaken under the folds of the flag, guaran- 
teeing a square deal, equal rights, and stable 
rule. 

San Frandsco can, with confidence, appeal 
to the people of the East for a better under- 
standing of her case. She has just suffered 
the destruction of $500,(XX),ooo of prop- 
erty, collected $180,000,000 of insurance, and 
has recovered in twelve months the position 
which she had always enjoyed as the chief 
city of the United States on the greatest of 
the world's oceans. The unparalleled re- 
sources of California, the commerce and trade 
of the sea, the enterprise of her citizens, re- 
main intact, and the only problem after the 
fire was the re-housing of business. This has 
been done in temporary structures, and now 
the work of permanent construction is under 
way. As Baltimore and Chicago sought East- 
em financial assistance, so now must San 
Francisco. Heretofore San Francisco was 
financially independent, and at the time of 
the fire owed no money to die East. The 
rates of interest were lower than in any other 
American city, and the wealth of mine and 
field poured in an unceasing stream into her 
lap. That fact, uninterrupted to-day, en- 
ables her to engage capital. Neither did the 
municipality as such owe any money, for, ex- 



THE CASE OF SAN FRANCISCO. 



39 



ceptional among the cities of the world, the 
debt of San Francisco, with $400,000,000 of 
assessed property is, to-day, only $5,000,000. 
There has been absolutely no diminution 
since the fire in customs receipts, now about 
$10,000,000 a year, nor in bank clearings, 
which last year amounted to $2,074,000,000. 
In evcr>' thing that goes to make the city 
great San Francisco, crippled as she is, has 
not only maintained her prestige, but in- 
creased the volume of her trade. The simple 
fact is that San Francisco is a natural city, 
with every resource necessary for the main- 
tenance of a large population, and will so 
remain to the end. The affectionate regard 



m which she is held has been demonstrated 
by the noble response made by the East when 
her needs became known in the hour of 
distress. And she is bent upon justifying 
the faith of her friends by her speedy re- 
habilitation. So far as human hands can 
accomplish it, she will seek to fulfil her 
destiny, preordained by nature, by dedicating 
her matchless harbor and by developing her 
diversified resources for the uses of that com- 
merce and trade which the great ocean at her 
doors requires and demands. There is no 
reason why San Francisco should not during 
the next five years recover her losses, and in 
the next generation double her population. 




FORMER MAYOR JAMES D. PHELAN, OF SAN FRANCISCO. 

(Mr. Phelnn, wlio has served his fellow citizens with great acceptability as 
bead of nhe relief-funds finance committee, visited New York last month for 
the purpose of Interesting Eastern capital In San Francisco investments. He 
consented tp prepare for Review op Rrvirws readers the foregoing brief state- 
ment of conditions In bis city at the present time.) 




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THE SOUTH' S CARE FOR HER CONFEDERATE I^ETERANS. 41 



and other noted leaders on the field of battle. 
Now came the fruition of long years of pa- 
tient and devoted effort in the dedication of 
the imposing monument to President Davis. 
That this time had come was due to the 
work of the women of the South, who, in 
the United Daughters of the Confederacy 
and the Davis Monument Association, had 
collected the funds which made the memorial 
possible. 

It is estimated that there were 75,000 or 
80,000 people at the reunion, of whom per- 
haps 15,000 were actual veterans. The others 
were brothers, sisters, wives, widows, chil- 
dren, and grandchildren of Confederate sol- 
diers, and numerous interested visitors. The 
United Confederate Veterans, the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy, the United 
Sons of the Confederacy, and several auxil- 
iary and memorial associations were repre- 
sented. Gen. Stephen D. Lee, of Missis- 
sippi, the commander of the Confederate 
Veterans, presided at the principal events. 
The social features of the reunion were 
graced by the presence of such notable South- 
cm women as Mrs. Margaret Howell Hayes, 
daughter of Jefferson Davis; Miss Mary 
Custis Lee, daughter of Gen. Robert E. 
Lee; Mrs. ** Stonewall " Jackson, widow of 
the Confederacy's " Cromwellian soldier " ; 
Mrs. J. E. B. Stuart, widow of the dashing 
cavalryman ; Miss Daisy Hampton, daughter 
of Gen. Wade Hampton, and Mrs. W. 
H. F. ("Rooney") Lee. Full of pathos 
was the reception given in the old home of 
Jefferson Davis,— " The White House of 
the Confederacy," — now a Confederate mu- 
seum. Present were Davis' daughter and 
her children, and many of the prominent men 
and women of the Confederacy. About them 
were the arms General Lee had borne, the 
sash he had worn, cherished relics of fallen 
leaders, and tangible evidences of the terrific 
struggles of many a battlefield. Over- 
whelmed by the emotions of the occasion, 
many were moved to tears. 

On May 30 occurred the unveiling of the 
equestrian statue to the well-known cavalry 
leader, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart. This was 
erected by the Cavalry Association of the 
Army of Northern Virginia, and was un- 
veiled by Miss Virginia Stuart Waller, 
Stuart's granddaughter. The principal ora- 
tor of the reunion was Col. Robert E. Lee, 
Jr., grandson of the Confederate commander. 
His address on June l aroused great enthusi- 
asm, bodi by reason of the personality of the 
speaker and by reason of his vigorous and 




FIGURE OF JEFFERSON DAVIS ON THE MONUMENT 
AT RICHMOND. 

striking presentation of Southern views on 
the responsibility for slavery, the idea of se- 
cession, and the Civil War. But the most 
significant and culminating event was the 
unveiling of the monument to Jefferson 
Davis, on June 3, the ninety-ninth anni- 
versary of his birth. This day was wholly 
given to the payment of the tribute to the 
memory of the Confederacy's President. A 
great procession of veterans and others 
marched to the monument, passing, on the 
way, the statues of the soldiers, Lee and 
Stuart. At the time of the unveiling a sus- 
pension of business and traffic wa3 widely 
observed for five minutes throughout the 
South. After an address by Gov. Claude 
Swanson, of Virginia, General Evans de- 
livered the oration of the occasion. The 
unveiling was by Davis* daughter and her 
two young sons. After the unveiling they 
and others of the family were presented to 
the assemblage and received with wild cheer- 
ing and Confederate yells. The monument 
typifies the vindication of Mr. Davis and 
the cause of the Confederacy for which he 
stood before the world. To the vast assem- 
blage present the Confederacy, though dear 
was yet deathless. 



l':iE AMERICAS MDSTHLY kE^IEU' OF REVIEWS. 




The reunion was marked by an absence 
of fatality or serious accident or crime. It 
was a gathering of t>pical Southern people 
of all classes, law-abiding, kindly, courteous, 
and peaceable. Bishop Gibson, in his sermon 
on President Davis in St. Paul's Church, on 
the Sunday before the unveiling of the monu- 
ment, alluded to the large number of men in 
the Confederate army of the moral and per- 
sonal t>'pe of General Lee. He said that 
King Arthur's Round Table had one Sir 
Galahad, but that among the Confederates 
were thousands of men as pure and clean in 
their lives, speech, and thought as their own 
women at home. This was illustrated in the 
reunion at Richmond. 

Cherishing the memories of the past and 
defending the righteousness of its acts, vindi- 
cating the character and purposes of their 
President, the Richmond gathering was com- 
posed of patriotic American citizens of the 
present. In the decorations of the city the 
Stars and Stripes were used side by side with 
the colors of the Confederacy. Speakers 
held up to admiration the virtues and bravery 
of the men who wore the blue as well as of 
those who wore the gray. The resolutions 
of the reunion thanked Congress and the 
President for returning the captured battle 
flags and for providing for the marking of 
the graves of Confederate soldiers buried in 
Northern soil. Senator Daniel, of Virginia, 
in his tribute to the Confederate soldier, said : 
** Boys, we are of the same race as the Yan- 
kee, and the same spirit which made Southern 
arms glorious united the hearts of Northern- 



ers. The courage and gallantr>' were not 
all on the side of the Confederac}." 

THE CONFEDERATE ORGANIZATIONS. 

The events at Richmond have centered at- 
tention on the surviving Confederate vet- 
erans. As the years go by, their ranks are 
thinning. According to the best available 
figures, the number of separate enlistments in 
the Confederate army was from 1,239,000 
to 1,400,000. But many of these were re- 
enlistments, and the terms of service, were 
varied. Reduced to enlistments for a three- 
years' term of service, the estimated numbet 
is 1,082,119. There is a lack of data upon 
which to base any trustworthy estimate of 
the number of survivors. 

The principal association of the surviving 
soldiers is the United Confederate Veterans, 
oriranized at New Orleans on June 10, 1889. 
This body is divided into the Army of 
Northern Virginia- Department, the Army 
of Tennessee Department, and the Trans- 
Missississippi Department, each under a de- 
partment commander. State organizations 
are authorized, and are called divisions. The 
number of separate camps is about 1600, and 
the number of members about 75,000. There 
were 1259 camps represented at the Rich- 
mond reunion. Permanent headquarters of 
the association are at New Orleans, La. 

Gen. Stephen D. Lee, of Columbus, 
Miss., the re-elected commander of the Con- 
federate Veterans, saw a great deal of active 
service in the war. He took part in the 
battles around Richmond in 1862, in Second 



THE SOUTH' S CARE FOR HER CONFEDERATE VETERANS. 



43 



Bull Run, Sharpsburg, the Vicksburg cam- posed of women who are widows, wives, 
paign, and also commanded the Confederates mothers, sisters, and lineal descendants of 
in the successful battle of Chickasaw Bayou, Confederate soldiers, or of those who served 
Miss., and other engagements. General Lee the Confederate cause in a civil capacity. 
was president of the Mississippi Agricultural There are local federations of chapters, gov- 
and Mechanical College from 1880 to 1899. 
As president of the Mississippi Historical 
Society, he was influential in securing the 
legislative establishment of a State History 
Commission as a subordinate feature of the 
sodety. Being given the power of appoint- 
ing the commission, he gave it a competent 
h«id in Prof. F. L. Riley, of the University 
of Mississippi, and thus did much for the 
encouragement of sound historical work in 
that State. The esteem in which he is held 
by his fellow soldiers was shown by his re- 
election at Richmond. 

DAUGHTERS OF THB CONFEDERACY. 

The United Confederate Veterans have a 
powerful auxiliary association in the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy. This body 
has 900 chapters in the United States, North 
and South, with 40,000 members. It is com- 



GEN. STEPHEN D. LEE. 

(Commander-in-Chief of the United Confederate 

Veterans.) 





GEN. 



P. ALEXANDER. 



(General Alexander's ** Military Memoirs of a 
Confederate*' hare recently been published by the 
Serftners.) 



erned by State divisions, which in turn are 
subject to the general organization. The 
aims of the society are social, literary, his- 
torical," monumental, and benevolent. It has 
accomplished notable results in the erection 
of monuments and memorial tablets to com- 
memorate leaders and historical places, has 
coUected much material of historical value, 
and has maintained museums for re!ics of the 
war. The members have also added a de- 
• lightful social element to both the local and 
larger gatherings of the Confederate veterans. 

AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. 

The United Sons of Confederate Veterans 
have numerous local camps throughout the 
United States. They devote themselves to 
historical, social and commemorative under- 
takings. There are many other auxiliary and 
allied organizations, such as the Confederate 
Naval Veterans' Association, the Confed- 
erate States* Memorial Association, the Cav- 
alry Association of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, and societies organized to carry ou*- 
some particular work, such as the JeflFersf 
Davis Monument Association. 



44 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEIV OF REyiElVS. 



CONFEDERATE MEMORIAL DAY. 

Everywhere throughout the South the sen- 
timent of loyalty to, and reverence for, the 
memory of the Confederate soldiers is pre- 
served and instilled in the rising generation. 
Besides the erection of imposing monuments 
to such leaders as Lee, Davis, Jackson, Gor- 
don, and Stuart, there are found in the public 
squares of many cities soldiers' and sailors' 
monuments to the Confederate dead. Like 
the Northern States, the States of the South 
have legally set apart a memorial day for the 
holding of commemorative exercises by the 
veterans and in the schools, and for the deco- 
ration with flowers of the soldiers' graves. 
In the South, however, all the States have 
not fixed upon the same day. Spring comes 
early in the Gulf States, and April 26 has 
been made Confederate Memorial Day by 
Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, and Georgia. 
North artd. South Carolina have selected 
May 10. ' In Tennessee, the second Friday 
in May has been made Confederate Day. 
Virginia keeps Confederate Memorial Day 
on May 30. So that as the spring advances, 
there are several observances of memorial 
day, beginning with the lower South, and 
following on, in the later spring, of States 
to the North, until in Virginia and at the 
national capital both sides honor their de- 
parted heroes upon the same day. They are 
all the nation's, blue and gray. Just as many 
of the Northern States have made Lincoln's 
birthday a holiday, so several of the Southern 
States have set apart June 3, the birthday of 
Jefferson Davis. These are Florida, Georgia, 
Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Texas, and 
South Carolina. In Louisiana this day is 
kept as Confederate Memorial Day, and in 
Virginia it is observed as a holiday in the 
public schools. Lee's birthday, January 19, 
is also a legal holiday in Florida, Georgia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, 
Alabama, and Arkansas. 

CONFEDERATE SOLDI ERS' HOMES. 

Not only has the South memorials and sen- 
timent for the Confederate dead, but also 
practical and generous care for the living. 
Everywhere aid is being extended to the sur- 
viving soldiers who are without means in 
their declining days. To relieve them from 
the stigma of depending upon charity and 
poor relief, liberal provision of soldiers' homes 
and of pensions has been made. Homes for 
aged and infirm Confederate soldiers are 
maintained by nearly all of the Southern 



States. These are of a similar uscfplness, — 
though necessarily conducted on a much 
smaller scale, — to that of the homes for 
Union soldiers supported by the national Gov- 
ernment. An illustration of their work is 
found in the Jefferson Davis Memorial 
Home established in 1904 by the State of 
Mississippi at Beauvoir, the old home of the 
Confederate President. Up to January i, 
1906, III persons had entered this home, 
10 1 being veterans, nine wives of veterans, 
and two widows. Their average age at the 
date of admission was about seventy-one years. 
In the two years, there were twenty-one 
deaths, at an average age of seventy-three and 
one-third years. The Mississippi Division, 
United Daughters of the Confederacy, aided 
in inaugurating the home by providing the 
funds for the erection and furnishing of four 
buildings. The amount expended for the 
home in 1906 was nearly $28,000. In con- 
nection with it, a hospital for the treatment 
of invalid soldiers has just been erected. 

North Carolina maintains a home for Con- 
federate soldiers at Raleigh. The number of 
inmates in 1906 was 150, and $15,000 was 
appropriated for maintenance and $5000 for 
improvements. In Arkansas, the home has 
from eighty to eighty-five inmates^ and for 
the two years, 1905 and 1906, there was 
expended in its support $37,850. TV?fas, in 
1906, expended $86,000 for the support of 
a home containing 320 to 340 inmates. Vir- 
ginia expended $35,000 for her soldiers' 
home xn 1906. Florida maintains a home at 
Jacksonville. Similar work is being done by 
Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, and other 
States. 

CONFEDERATE PENSIONS. 

But the most substantial provision which 
the South has made for the veterans is that 
of pensions. The circumstances under which 
a Confed(?rate pension system has been inau- 
gurated in every Southern State are especially 
calculated to show the practical devotion of 
the South to the cause. After the war and 
the period of reconstruction, the South was 
ravished and exhausted. But with the first 
returning conditions, of prosperity, thought 
was turned toward making provision for the 
needy and impoverished Confederate soldiers. 
Though the South was paying tens of mil- 
lions in indirect taxation to the national Gov- 
ernment which was expended in pensions to 
Union soldiers, she did not hesitate to make 
her burden a double one. The payment of 
pensions to invalid Union soldiers was very 



THE SOUTH'S CARE FOR HER CONFEDERATE I^ETERANS. 



45 



generadly accepted as one of the results of the 
war. But such acts as that of 1890, under 
which vast sums have been paid out to former 
Union soldiers who received no disability in 
war and who are perfectly able to support 
themselves in comfort, and often in luxury, 
have certainly worked a grave injustice to 
the South. In so far as the national pension 
system has come to be a means of distributing 
surplus revenue throughout the country, it 
has surely been exceedingly inequitable to the 
South. But her comparative poverty and the 
unjustly large sums taken from her for the 
national pension system have not deterred the 
States of the South fi;om one after another 
inaugurating Confederate pension systems. 
And the money for these pension systems has 
not been raised by indirect taxation as are 
the revenues of the federal Government. 
Southerners have voted pensions, liberal for 
their means, when the pension tax appeared 
on the face of every man*s tax bill. Willing- 
ness to vote pensions and constantly increase 
them under those circumstances indicates a 
popular and deliberate approval of the ex- 
penditure and a desire to make it, even on 
pain of doing without much needed improve- 
ments in schools, roads and other public 
institutions. 

THE GEORGIA PENSION SYSTEM. 

Georgia is the Southern State which has 
the most liberal and comprehensive pension 
system. From 1878 up to and including 
1906 she has expended for this purpose $10,- 
275,000, and her annual expenditure is now 
between $900,000 and $1,000,000, a great 
annual sum for a single State of the South. 
Since 1896 she has had at the head of her 
system a Commissioner of Pensions appointed 
hv jl|^ Governor, and the development of her 
syscdto has been in many respects, though on 
a smaller scale, similar to that of the national 
system. She began by expending, in 1879, 
$70,580 for artificial limbs, for disabled 
Confederates. In 1889 she began paying 
regular pensions to disabled and diseased 
veterans. Pension provision was made 
in 1893 for the widows of Confederate 
soldiers whose husbands died in service, or 
after the war from disability or disease con- 
tracted in service. In 1896 indigent Con- 
federate soldiers were admitted to her pension 
lit. In 1902 a further extension of the pen- 
aon laws was made for the benefit of indi- 
gent widows of Confederate soldiers, though 
die soldier's death had no connection with 
military service. The following table shows 




From the National Press Ass'n. 

MONUMENT TO GEN. JOHN B. GORDON. 
(Unveiled at Atlanta, Ga., on May 25.) 

the number of each class and the amount paid 

in 1906: 

Amount 

Number. paid. 

Disabled soldiers 2,833 $lo9,050 

Widows (death of husband of 

service origin) 2,551 151,228 

Indigent soldiers 7,734 463,980 

Indigent widows 2,210 132,589 

Totals 15,297 $907,747 

There may be some interest attaching to a 
comparison of the annual amounts paid by 
Georgia to Confederate pensioners having 
certain specific injuries incurred in military 
service with the amounts paid by the national 
Government to Union soldiers with similar 
disabilities resulting from actual military 
service : 

Georgia Con- 
federate. Federal. 

For total loss of sight |150 |1,200 

For loRB of sight of one eye 30 144 

For total loss of hearing 30 480 

For loss of a hand 100 360 

For loss of both hands or feet 150 1,200 

For total disability in one arm 50 432 

For incapacity to perform manual 

labor 50 360 

For loss of a thumb 5 96 

For loss of little finger or little toe. . 5 24 

For the loss of four fingers 20 192 

To indigent Confederate soldiers who 
served at least six months during the Civil 
War Georgia allows $6o a year. Indigent 
widows of such soldiers also receive the same 
amount, as do also the widows of soldiers 
who died in the military sei*vice of the Con- 
federate States, or from causes originating »•* 
that service. 



46 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 




MONUMENT TO GEN. J. E. B. STUART. 
(UriTelled at Richmond on May 30.) 

The following table exhibits the growth of 
the Georgia pension list : 

Amount 

Number. i)ald. 

1879 (for artificial limbs) 1.888 $70,580 

1887 (for artificial limbs) 1.170 .')9,19r» 

1889 2.994 158,790 

1890 3.078 183,415 

1895 7.308 420.340 

1900 11..558 078,100 

1905 15,005 893.00!) 

190(5 15,297 907,747 

It is a matter of great regret that, like the 
federal system, the Confederate pension sys- 
tem of Georgia has been subject to abuses. 
From time to time these have been attacked 
in the newspaper press of the State. In 1902 
the Georgia Commissioner of Pensions wrote 
in his report: ** The pension rolls, under ex- 
isting laws, are being burdened with men 
who never saw the enemy, and, in many in- 
stances, deserters. To allow such is a dis- 
grace to the soldier and the State, and it is 
fastening upon the State a class of unworthy 
beneficiaries." On a smaller scale, the abuses 
that have sprung up in Georgia are exactly 
similar to those which have characterized the 
national system. For one who is acquainted 
with the history of the national system, to 
read of them is but the repetition of a sad but 
familiar story. Occasionally, complaints of 
the abuse of the pension system are heard In 
other Southern States than Georgia. A 
newspaper of North Carolina a few years ago 
reported the State Auditor as saying that the 
county of Burke paid to the State something 



over $4000 in taxes and received over $5000 
in Confederate pensions. The county had at 
that time 254 pensioners, and the county 
pension board had sent in at least 100 more 
approved applications than were approved by 
the State Pension Board. Complaint was 
made that the disposition of a number of the 
county boards was to approve all the applica- 
tions which came in, and that doctors were 
to be found who would give certificates of 
the required disability. 

PENSIONS IN OTHER SOUTHERN STATES. 

In 1906 Alabama disbursed $462,732 to 
15,147 Confederate pensioners. The pen- 
sioners of that State were divided into four 
classes, receiving respectively $60, $50, $40, 
and $30. There were 127 of the first class, 
142 of the second class, 168 of the third class, 
and 14,710 of the fourth class. The first 
class consists of those who are blind or have 
lost two limbs. Soldiers whose disability is 
not so serious are in the second, third, and 
fourth classes. Widows are in the fourth 
class. The system has grown so important 
that the State Auditor, from whose office it 
is administered, recommends the creation of 
the office of Pension Commissioner. 

Texas had 8103 Confederate pensioners in 
1906, of whom approximately one-third were 
widows. She expended for them in that year 
$425,000. Her appropriation for pensions 
for the 3^ear ending August 31, 1907, is 
$500,000. Louisiana provides artificial limbs 
for Confederate veterans in need of them. 
Her pension system is administered by a State 
Board of Pension Commissioners. On Feb- 
ruary 15, 1906, she had 1925 pensioners, for 
whom the annual appropriation was $75,000. 
North Carolina, in 1906, had 14,400 Con- 
federate pensioners on the roll, of whom 4500 
were widows. Her appropriation for pen- 
sions in that year was $275,000, but was in- 
creased to $400,000 for 1907. The pension 
roll of Arkansas was made up of 7340 pen- 
sioners In 1906, and about 2650 were wid- 
ows. The amount distributed to these 
pensioners was $284,000. 

Tennessee has an invalid-pension law 
which divides the disabled soldiers into five 
classes, according to the nature of the dis- 
ability. The amounts paid range from $300 
per year for such injuries as the loss of both 
arms or legs to $60 per year for minor dis- 
abilities. There are now on her roll 3899 of 
these invalid pensioners, at an annual cost of 
$290,CKX). She also provides pensions for 
widows of soldiers in two classes at $72 and 



DOES THE COUNTRY WANT TARIFF READJUSTMENT? il 

$60 per year. There are now 1025 of such Virginia's appropriation was $346,000. Flor- 

pensionerSy requiring an annual expenditure ida had about 3200 pensioners on the roll in 

of about $65,000. The State now appro- 1906 and paid out in that year $294,000. 

priates for its pension system $375,000 a Under the new Florida law pensions range 

year. from $100 to $150. South Carolina had 7750 

TTie pension system of Mississippi provides pensioners in the same year and expended 

for soldiers and sailors, their widows and $198,000. Later information would proba- 

servants. About $250,000 was paid to 7863 bly show considerable increase in number of 

pensioners in 1906. The maximum amount pensioners and in amounts appropriated in all 

paid to a pensioner was $125 and the mini- of these States. 

mum amount $28.30. Six classes of pen- Thus it has been shown that throughout 

sioners are provided for by the law, and the the South the States are loyal to the surviv- 

amounts paid were as follows: ing Confederate veterans, not as a matter of 

Amount Sentiment alone, but that the loyalty has 

_,_^ , Number. .Pf^j^ taken the very practical form of a loosening 

Fine ClASS. 114 914,^OU f . • fr*t « 

Second cUss. 338 25,350 of purse-strings. Their generosity may oc- 

FSJ!rth^dJL.::::::;:::::::::::3.760 iomoS casionally be abused, but, notwithstanding 

fUiS c!*w ,457 12.933 this fact, the abuses by the unworthy few are 

oiZtll ClABS. o.loU otftUVv .1111 1 ri i 

not allowed to lessen the care for the worthy 

'^^^^' '^'^^ $249,985 majority, and, with increasing prosperity, 

Virginia, Florida, and South Carolina also ever increasing liberality to the Confederate 

have Confederate pension systems, for which veterans receives the sanction of public 

they appropriate in the aggregate hundreds opinion in all of the States that seceded from 

of thousands of dollars annually. In 1906 the Union in 1861. 



DOES THE COUNTRY WANT TARIFF RE- 
ADJUSTMENT? 

BY WM. R. CORWINE. 
(Secretary of the New York Committee of the American Reciprocal Tariff League.) 



The first protest voiced against our pres- 
ent tariff conditions came from the 
West This protest ^^as contained in reso- 
lutions adopted at a convention held at 
Denver early in 1905, at which were assem- 
bled representatives of leading live-stock and 
agricultuRil industries from the Central 
West and from the trans-Mississippi and 
trans-Missouri regions. It was felt in those 
sections that our own tariffs had brought 
about a condition in international trade that 
had caused many foreign nations to partici- 
pate in the tariff movement, in which Ger- 
many was the leader, which, if perfected, 
would curtail, if not prohibit, our exports to 
Europe. As agricultural products form the 
largest percentage of exports, and as these 
»cw tariff policies would bear most heavily 
« those products, naturally the tillers of the 
sa! and diose closely identified with farming 
interests became alarmed over the situation, 
and dcnuuided that the United States meet it 



by such change in its tariff policy as would 
enable reciprocal relations to be established 
between this country and the nations with 
which we traded. 

The competition of other wheat-growing 
nations had already been felt by our farmers, 
and in Germany, France, and elsewhere the 
restrictive measures of inspection and of sani- 
tary regulations against our beef and hogs 
and their by-products had served to cut down 
our sales very materially, — in some cases al- 
most to the vanishing point. Small wonder, 
therefore, that these important Western in- 
terests viewed with apprehension any further 
restrictions in the shape of higher tariff 
charges against our exportable surplus. 

Germany's tariff attitude. 

When Germany adopted her new general, 
or, what is technically called her autonomous, 
tariff, she provided another, or lower, tariff, 
schedule, known as the new conventional 



48 



THE AMEKfCAN MONTHLY REyiEU^ OF Kcf^rniv^. 



tariflf. Between these two tariff schedules 
ample margin was given for bargaining with 
other nations in arranging reciprocal treaties 
or commercial agreements by and through 
which there might be established what can be 
termed a close commercial community of in- 
terest. Negotiations were immediately opened 
by Germany with several nations on the con- 
tinent, and the result was the execution and 
ratification of reciprocity treaties or commer- 
cial agreements with seven countries by means 
of which the benefit of the lower or conven- 
tional tariff was accorded to these countries 
in exchange for benefits of a similar character 
in reduced tariff charges granted by those 
nations respectively to Germany. The na- 
tions with which Germany made these ar- 
rangements were Russia, Austria-Hungary, 
Servia, Roumania, Italy, Switzerland, and 
Belgium. Since then Germany has concluded 
arrangements with Bulgaria and Sweden, 
while negotiations are pending with Spain 
for a reciprocal treaty with that country. The 
most-favored-nation clause had been inserted 
in the general treaty entered into between 
France and Germany, after t^he termination 
of the Franco-Prussian War, and in the 
treaty negotiated with England, long prior to 
that time, there was also a clause of this 
character. So far, therefore, as those na- 
tions were concerned it was not necessary for 
Germany to make special reciprocal treaties 
with them. 

THE WEST DEMANDS A TARIFF COMMISSION 
AND RECIPROCITY. 

It is not surprising that those in our coun- 
try producing a surplus of soil products in 
which there was already great competition by 
other nations producing similar products 
should feel alarm over the far-reaching effect 
of this new tariff policy of Germany and 
over the co-operation therein by other na- 
tions, the certain result of which would be 
exclusion from European markets of our sur- 
plus, for which no other market of^cqual 
magnitude had been or could be provided. 
While the Eastern portion of our country 
was paying very little attention to this situa- 
tion, the West had become keenly alive to the 
potentiality for danger to the vast industries 
producing that which is the basis of our 
wealth. The ' agricultural and live-stock 
papers in the farming and cattle regions 
voiced the sentiment of their constituents, 
and this sentiment, growing more intense the 
more the situation was discussed, found ex- 
pression ultimately in a larr^e convention 



called by agricultural interests to be held in 
Chicago in August, 1905. ^ 

There were over 600 ddegates attending, 
the most of whom represented agricultural 
and live-stock organizations. There were a 
few from the East, sent by* some of the com- 
mercial organizations which had been invited 
to appoint representatives.; The convention 
lasted two days and the discussion was led by 
Western men expressing qirnestly the opin- 
ion that Congress, while recognizing the 
principle of protection, ought to establish re- 
ciprocal treaties through a dual, or maximum- 
and-minimum, tariff; ought to provide for a 
permanent tariff commissiX)n, to consist of 
economic, industrial, and commercial experts, 
and asserting the view that the present tariff 
afforded abundant opportu^ty for reciprocal 
concessions without injury' io industry, trade, 
or the wages of labor. Iii taking this posi- 
tion the West felt and said that they were 
standing upon the policy covered in the Ding- 
ley Act, in which, for reciprocal purposes, a 
reduction from the Dinglcy tariff schedules 
not to exceed 20 per cent, had been author- 
ized, and upon the broad platform of Presi- 
dent McKinley as proclaimed by him in the 
memorable address which he delivered at 
Buffalo the day before he was foully assassin- 
ated. They blamed the Senate for its failure 
to ratify the reciprocal treaties which Mr. 
McKinley had negotiated, and demanded 
that the policy of reciprocity be readopted. It 
was stated that they were not advancing any 
new doctrine in asking relief from condition; 
which seriously threatened them, and claimed 
that this relief could be granted without seri- 
ous injury to protected interests. 

When the present Administration ac- 
complished the aversion of the threatened 
trade disaster by means of the temporary 
agreement with Germany, which was to last 
until June 30, 1907, and through which we 
were to receive the benefits of the lower or 
conventional tariff, there was a feeling of re- 
lief, and the hope was aroused that Congress 
would take steps to make permanent an ar- 
rangement by which the benefits of the lower 
or conventional German tariff could be en- 
joyed by this country indefinitely. 

THE AGREEMENT WITH GERMANY. 

A bill incorporating certain amendments 
to the Customs Administrative Act, which 
had been conceded by the State Department 
in the negotiations with Germany, was in- 
troduced in Congress. This bill, with some 
tin.endments suggested by the Ways and 



DOES THE COUNTRY WANT TARIFF READJUSTMENT? 



49 



Means Committee of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, was passed by the House, but was 
not acted on in the Senate. The agreement 
recently promulgated between this country 
and Germany whereby the benefits of the 
lower or conventional tariff are to be contin- 
ued from the expiration of the old agreement 
gives us another breathing spell and another 
opportunity to provide a tariff policy which 
will avert commercial war. This agreement 
with Germany has aroused considerable op- 
position among the " stand-patters," who are 
opposed, apparently unalterably, to any 
change in or modification of our present tar- 
iff. Those who assume this position, how- 
ever, will have to reckon with the sentiment 
in the West, which is rapidly becoming crys- 
tallized in the great agricultural States and 
in the vast regions where the cattle growers 
and the live-stock interests form the principal 
sources of support for the people living there- 
in. One has but to travel in this section to 
find that reciprocity and tariff readjustment 
arc topics of current interest freely talked 
about. It is a live subject there. The 
" stand-patters " will also have to reckon with 
many of the manufacturing centers, where 
the sentiment is growing very rapidly in favor 
of rcdprocity and tariff readjustment. 

SENTIMENT AMONG MANUFACTURERS. 

Many of the commercial organizations in 
manufacturing States have appointed special 
committees to study the subject, and in some 
of them the sentiment is not only strong, but 
is outspoken. The growth of this sentiment 
is evidenced by the action of the National 
Association of Manufacturers in the adop- 
tion, at the recent convention of that body 
held in New York in May, 1907, of resolu- 
tions calling for immediate tariff revision and 
for the creation of a permanent tariff com- 
mission. The resolutions^ were recommended 
by the Q)mmittee on Tariff and Reciprocity, 
>*'hich made a report giving the result of a 
canvass of the members, which showed that 
out of a total of 1800, 55 per cent, were in 
tavorof revision, most of it of a radical kind, 
on^fifth of that 55 per cent, desiring only 
partial revision ; that only 20 per cent, were 
radically opposed to revision ; that 8 per cent, 
were opposed to it on the ground of expedi- 
fncy, while 17 per cent, were indifferent, un- 
informed, and not entitled to vote. This vote 
tabulated by industries showed 56 for, and 
^^ against, revision. This indicates a very 
^wnarkable growth in sentiment among man- 
ufacturers. 



The National Association of Manufactur- 
ers is the largest and most powerful organiza- 
tion of its kind in the United States. Its 
membership is made up from almost every 
State in which there are manufacturing in- 
dustries. 

** TAKING THE TARIFF OUT OF POLITICS." 

While the sentiment among agriculturists 
and manufacturers is strong in favor of tariff 
readjustment, there is also a sentiment, even 
stronger, that the proper method for arriving 
at a readjustment is through study and analy- 
sis of tariff conditions and of our interna- 
tional trade, by a responsible body such as a 
permanent tariff commission. The senti- 
ment in favor of a commission of this char- 
acter is even more pronounced among the 
manufacturers than among the agricultur- 
ists. It has been the experience of the writer 
to talk with hundreds of executive officers of 
manufacturing corporations and firms in 
widely different sections of the country. A 
large majority realize that conditions have so 
shaped themselves that some readjustment of 
our tariff • schedules ought to be made, and 
they would be most heartily in favor of a 
movement having this end in view provided 
they could feel that there would not be the 
upsetting of business which has heretofore at- 
tended tariff discussions and tariff legislation. 
In other words, they would hail as a blessing 
anything which would take the tariff out of 
politics, to use a much-abused expression. 

GETTING REVISION THROUGH A COMMISSION. 

These men to whom I refer realize, of 
course, that this desirable end cannot be at- 
tained entirely, but they do feel that the evil 
effects upon business would be minimized if 
readjustment of the tariff could be approached 
through a commission which would have 
power to investigate, study, and report upon 
all the factors entering into cost of produc- 
tion and of marketing, so that such changes 
as might be recommended, from time to 
time, would be based upon actual analysis of 
all ascertainable facts. It is, of course, un- 
derstood that any recommendation either of 
reduction of tariff schedule charges or of re- 
classification would have to be passed upon 
by Congress before such recommendations 
could become a law, but the impression very 
strongly prevails that public opinion would 
be more favorable to recommendations of this 
character (and that those recommendations 
would be more likely to be accepted by inter- 
ested parties) than to changes made in 



60 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF RE^IElVS. 



usual manner after bitter and acrimonious 
discussion in Congress, with a final rounding 
up of the schedules in the haphazard way 
which has hitherto prevailed. On this point 
reference to the report of the committee of 
the National Association of Manufacturers 
shows that out of 1384 members, expressing 
their views on the subject of a tariff commis- 
sion, 1 22 1 were in favor of, and 153 were 
opposed to, such a commission. Taken by. 
industries, 76 were favorable and one op- 
posed. On the subject of reciprocity alone, 
1260 members were in favor of reciprocal 
relations with foreign nations and 220 op- 
posed, and on the subject of continuing 
the work of the Tariff and Reciprocity 
Q)mmittee 1250 members voted yes and 
57 no. This expression of opinion shows 
how the leaven is working. It is of special 
value because it comes from interests which 
arc protected. 

A POWERFUL UNDERCURRENT. 

In the northern tier of States, or along the 
border of the Great LaLcs, there is a remark- 
ably strong sentiment in favor of reciprocity 
with Canada. This sentiment permeates all 
sections, and as a general statement it is safe 
to say that the manufacturing and business 
interests are overwhelmingly in favor of reci- 
procity with their neighbor across the bor- 
der. They frankly express their views on 
this point. 

The foregoing statements concerning the 
strength of the sentiment in favor of reci- 
procity and tariff readjustment are based 
upon my own actual experience in trips which 
I have taken in various parts of the country, 
not once, but often. In these trips I have 
visited some of the principal points in the 
States of Massachusetts, Connecticut, New 
York, New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Missouri. Dur- 
ing these trips, several in number, I have dis- 



cussed the subject of reclprodty and tariff 
readjustment with manufacturers, merchants, 
bankers, transportation and other business 
men, with agriculturists, and with editors 
and special writers. I have attended conven- 
tions of manufacturing, commercial, and agri- 
cultural bodies, meeting men from all parts 
of the United States, representing every con- 
ceivable variety of interest, and as a result of 
personal contact with many hundreds of men, 
individually and in their representative ca- 
pacity, I have reached the conclusion that 
there is a very strong undercurrent moving 
in the direction which I have indicated in this 
article. Even in some of the cities in which 
the so-called " stand-pat " element is sup- 
posed to be most strongly intrenched there is 
a great deal of quiet thinking being done by 
manufacturers who, when the time for action 
arrives, will be found to be in favor of a sane 
readjustment of the tariff, believing that only 
through such readjustment and the establish- 
ment of reciprocal relations can we properly 
expand our foreign markets to an extent suf- 
ficient to permit, at all times, of an outlet 
for our surplus products. 

AN ISSUE THAT CANNOT BE " DODGED.** 

The friends of protection, who arc in 
power, ought to meet this situation fairly 
and not dodge it. If it is not met, investiga- 
tion strengthens the belief of the writer that 
before long there will come an upheaval 
seriously disturbing to business, perhaps para- 
lyzing it in some directions, creating a con- 
dition of real distress. If the situation is 
faced squarely, and readjustment is under- 
taken m a businesslike way, treating the prob- 
lem as an economic one to be solved rather 
than as a political one to be played with, then 
it needs no prophet to predict great stimulus 
to business through wider markets based upon 
a permanent and not a makeshift settlement 
of the most important economic problem be- 
fore the country. 



RUBBER AS A WORLD PRODUCT. 



BY WILLIAM M. IVINS. 



npHE modern world has gaped with won- In his " Universal History of the Travels 

dcr at the fabulous prices which are and Expeditions of the Castiliahs," Torde- 

paid for an almost invisible speck of radium, sillas (i 549-1 615) tells of it, and for the 

The Old World was just as much be won- first time uses the word " gum " in speaking 

dcrcd when the hunters for strange things of the balls used by the Haitians, and which 

paid a guinea an ounce for a little ball of he took from their word " gumana/' 



pure elastic gum to 
put in their cabinets. 
And now that this 
gum, or " rubber," 
has become one of 
the necessaries of 
life, more than 125,- 
000,000 pounds of 
it arc used in the 
world each year, the 
highest grade, free 
of impurities, still 
costs the manufac- 
turer $1.50 a pound, 
which is one of the 
highest prices paid 
for any of the great 
staple commodities. 
The history of 
rubber involves a 
story of adventure 
and hardship, of 
wrong and crurlty 
and greed, equaled 
only by that of the 
precious metals and 
the precious stones. 
It is certain, from 
some remarks in his 
reports, that Colum- 
bus had his attention 




CHARLES GOODYEAR. 

(Discoverer of the modem process for the viilcaniz.i- 
tion of ruhher.) 



After the Spanish 
discoverers, came the 
French. In 1731 
the Paris Academy 
sent out two French- 
men, La Condamine 
and Fresneau, with 
their staff, to visit 
the equator, to solve 
the problem of the 
earth's shape and 
the oblateness of the 
poles. La Conda- 
mine was something 
more than an astron- 
omer, and to him we 
owe the discovery of 
quinine by the Eu- 
ropean world. In 
1736 he sent home 
from Quito to his 
academy a little bit 
of deep brown, al- 
most black, resinous 
gum, which he said 
was called " caout-* 
chouc," and that is 
the name by which 
it is still known 
generally through- 
out the continent of 
Europe. He said 
which it came was 
which, I may add, 



attracted to the pe- 

cuh'ar qualities of the gum, but it first finds that the tree from 

its place in literature in Oviedo y V^ilda's called the ** hevc,'* 

"Universal History of the Indies,** pub- has come to be the specific name of 

lished in Madrid, in 1536. A little later it is the group which produces the finest grades 

described by the great Jesuit, Father Char- known as " Para " rubber, or the species 

levoix, as a ball used by the " batos " in one " Hevea." Clouth quotes him as saying: 



of their games, and to him the curious thing 
was that 

The ball jumps higher than our balls, it drops 
to the ground and bounces again much higher 
tnan the hand which threw it to the ground; it 
^11« again, rises anew (although not quite so 
h»?h), and the height of tlie jump becomes 
«owly less and less. 



When the bark is slightly cut a white, milk-like 
fluid run out, which hardens in the open air and 
becomes black. The natives make liehls of it, 
which burn without a wick and are very bright. 
. . . In the province of Quito linen material 
is covered with this resin, and the linen is used 
like oilcloth at home. . . . The same tree 
grows on the banks of the Amazon River, and 
the Mainas call the resinous fluid '* cachuchu." 



52 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REI^IEIV OF REHEU^S. 




THE WORLDS RUBBER BELT — ^THE ENTIRE PRODUCT ORIGINATES IN A ZONE EXTENDING 



They make shoes of it, which are waterproof, 
and when these shoes are smoked they have the 
appearance of leather. 

Here at the very outset ot its written his- 
tory we have the prime qualities and the 
prime uses of rubber sufficiently intimated. 
The elastic quality is one of the greatest im- 
portance. The resinous quality, which per- 
mitted it to be used for light, like a torch, is 
its most distinct drawback in industrial use, 
and the chief industrial uses still remain, — 
namely, those of footu-ear and clothing, — 
although, as we shall see, its uses for me- 
chanical purposes, and for what is known as 
druggists* sundries, have really become tre- 
• mendous. 




LEAF AND B» ' 



THE BLACK RUBBER OF THE 



La Condamine also pointed out one of the 
uses to which rubber was put in the Brazil- 
ian forests. He said: 

They make pear-shaped bottles, on the neck of 
which they fasten wooden tubes. Pressure on 
the bottle sends the liquid squirting out of the 
tube, and these bottles resemble syringes. 

It is interesting here to note that this fact 
has given the specific name to the rubber 
plant, and to the whole rubber industry in 
Brazil, where rubber is known 'as " serin- 
gua," and where a rubber gathefer is called 
a " seringuero," and a rubber forest a " serin- 
gal." Our English name is due to the Eng- 
lish chemist Priestley. In 1770 he discov- 
ered that the material was good for rubbing 
out pencil marks, and called it to the atten- 
tion of the English for that purpose, and ever 
since then it has been known in English as 
" India rubber." 

GEOGRAPHY OF RUBBEH. 

Since the days of La Condamine between 
300 and 400 shrubs, herbs, and trees of 
different genera and species have been found, 
which yield a milky latex, having in greater 
or less measure the properties of caoutchouc 
or rubber, — that is to say, its resinousness, 
its impermeability to water, its elasticity, 
and its adhesiveness under a normal temper- 
ature. These plants are distributed through- 
out a geographical zone which any one may 
easily pick out for himself. This zone 
reaches around the world, between the 
Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, constitut- 



RUBBER AS A WORLD PRODUCT. 



53 




AKOUND THE cJLOBE, LETVVEEN THE TROPICS OF CANCER AND CAPRICORN. 



Inj: the equatorial belt, which is the true 
rubber belt. Here and there a little to the 
north, as in India and Mexico, and here and 
there a httle to the south, as in Africa and 
Australia, rubber is found, but not of the 
best, and rarely in paying quantity. The 
highest grades require tropical heat and much 
humidity for the growth of the plant. It 
may be said here in passing that every one of 
these many plants, like the grape, yields a 
product the character of which is determined 
by the chemistry of the soil. The present 
?reat sources of the world's product of rub- 
ber are the Amazon Valley and the Congo. 
A future great source will undoubtedly be 
Ce>ion and the Straits Settlements. The 
present crop, however, is entirely a natural 
and uncultivated one, whereas it is certain, 
as we «ihall see later, from the result of the 
experiments and work already done in Cey- 
lon, that at no very distant time the future 
crop is bound to be a cultivated one. 

THE BOTANY OF RUBBER. 

I have spoken of the many plants which 
yield the gummy latex. Those which are 
really most worth mentioning, however, 
come from four great families, — the Euphor- 
Wrcp (which include the Heveas, Mi- 
cranda, Manihots and Euphorbia), the 111- 
^nce(t (which include the Castilloa and 
Reus), the Apocynacecr (which include the 
l^dolphia, Urceoles, Hancornia, Alstonia, 
l^ickxia, Carpodinus and Clitandra) and 
^^ JscUpiatlecp (which include the varieties 



known as Callotropis, Cynanchum and 
Periploca). 

The Heveas grow principally in the great 
Amazon Valley. The Castilloas grow in 
the South American upland, in Mexico, and 
some in Central America. The Manihots 
and the Hancornias grow in the mountain- 
ous and sandy regions of South America, — 
that is to say, Pernamhuco, Maranaham, and 




LEAF, FRUIT AND CAPSl'LE OF THE I.ANDOLPHIA, 
ONE OF THE UEST VARIETIES. 



54 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEU^ OF REyiEU/S. 



Bahia for the Hancornias, and Ceara for 
the Manihots. 

All of the plants already spoken of are 
trees. The characteristic of the African 
yield is generally that it comes from vines, 
and chief among these is the Landolphia. 
The principal source of rubber in Asia is 
the Ficus, or fig, with which we are all 
familiar in our conservatories and hot-houses 
as the " rubber plant," the leaf of which is 
supposed to be characteristic of all rubber 
plants, but is in no sense so, differing mark- 
edly from both the leaf of the Hevea tree 
and the Landolphia vine. 

The Carpodini and Clitandras are some 
of them small herbs, and some small shrubs, 
which are found in eastern and central Afri- 
ca, and these are like the Guyuale of Mexi- 
co, which three latter constitute the basis of 
a great organization for the extraction of 
rubber which is controlled by a group of 
New York financiers, who have already un- 
dertaken the extraction in Mexico on a very 
large scale and have entered into private 
arrangeinents with the King of Belgium for 
doing the same in the Congo. 

It would be interesting for those who have 
the time and the inclination to study the 
habits of the Hevea tree and the Landolphia 



■■■ 


HI 




:• -.-y -^^ 


^^1 


^H 


BMr^ . ' L*n| 


^- --i. 


^1 


H 


BH^ 'a 




1 


H J ii 


1^ 


^^^BmI ' " "^ I 


^^^5^* V 




1 


I 


Li 


m^ 


1^ 




^^^^^^^^^^ 


^•%^ 


^ 


^^S^tf ^ii^S 



EMPTYING 



•^OUTH AMERICA. 



vine, but this is scarcely the place. It sot 
be said, however, that all nibber-yiddii^ 
plants always grow best where the soil b 
moist and where there is a regular rab- 
falL It will readily be seen that the studr 
of the habits of the plant \s a aecessary 
preliminary to the introduction of a nev 
system of cultivated production. It h» 
been made the subject of the closest possibk 
study ever since the directors of the Botani- 
cal Gardens at Kew, in 1875, sent Mr. 
Cross to Central America to make a studr 
of these plants and their habits, wnth a vicv 
to artificial cultivation in India. There, at 
the present time, many millions of trees hav? 
been planted, and a new industry is grow- 
ing up, which bids fair to be one of the most 
profitable in the world. On this subject a 
little book has been written by Mr. HcAcrt 
Wright, published at Colombo, in Ceylon, 
which is not to be had elsewhere, and which 
I would recommend to all to read in am- 
j unction with Dr. Karl Otto Weber's 
" Chemistry of Rubber," and Franz Clouth's 
" Rubber, Gutta Percha, and Balata," which 
are the only three books that arc really neces- 
sary to the student, but to which we may 
add Wildeman & Gentil's ** Lianes Caout- 
choutiferes," or " Rubber Vines of the Con- 
go," which was published in Brussels, about 
three years ago. 

THE CHEMISTRY OF RUBBER. 

But now we may stop and ask what pre- 
cisely is rubber ? We know that it is a white 
vegetable latex; that when drawn from the 
plant it looks like milk. In fact, it loob 
precisely like the milk of the milk-weed, 
which is allied to the rubber-yielding herbs. 
We know that when dried it loses its white 
color, becomes coagulated, and is then a more 
or less elastic and sticky solid. It belongs to 
the great class of solids known to chemistn- 
as colloids, a good type of which is gelatine. 
, But the chemists agree that we are in almost 
complete ignorance of the real nature of the 
colloidal state, and it is this fundamental 
ignorance which leaves the industrial chem- 
istry of rubber in what is as yet a very 
primitive stage. 

It is a carbo-hydrate, and I might venture 
a fairly scientific definition of it as follows: 
A vvhite or nearly colorless colloid, with a 
specific gravity of about 92 at a temperature 
of 17 degrees C, the product of a vegetable 
latex, and the quantitative composition of 
which may be expressed by the symbol 
^10 "le* 



RUBBER AS A WORLD PRODUCT. 



Weber quotes Seligman as having analyzed 

the latex of the Hevea as follows: 

Percent. 

India rubber 32 

Pruteid and mineral matter 12 

Water 50 

Before rubber can be used at all, all the 
water has to be dried from the latex. It has 
now been discovered that the quantity of 
proteids, resin, and ash depends very largely 
upon the chemistry of the soil, and not only 
affects the elasticity and tensile strength of 
manufactured goods, but their durability, 
and that they constitute a very material ele- 
ment in the mattor of " tractability " in pre- 
paring the raw material for use. The finest 
rubber from Para has, for instance, been 
found to contain less than ij/^ per cent, of 
resinous extract, while at the other extreoie 
African flake contains over 6o per cent., and 
this is the chief determinant in their indus- 
trial and market values. The rubber itself, 
which is held in suspense in the latex, is 
really colorless, exists in globules in sus- 
pense in the water of the compound, and is 
hghter than the water. In the coagulation 
of the latex, which is a process of fermenta- 
tion accompanied by drying, the resin be- 
comes part and parcel of the rubber, and 
where it exists in large quantities the diffi- 
culty and tediousness of the' task of extract- 
ing it is one of the chief elements in the mar- 
ketability of the product. The proteid, or 
albuminous matter, which may amount to 
4 per cent, of the dry rubber, is of a most 
complex nature, and that also affects the 
value of the rubber, for it is responsible for 
the development of bacteria in the finished 
product, \%hich leads to its putrefaction, or to 
what is known to the trade as '* tackiness." 

What has been said is sufficient to indicate 
the tremendous amount of care and skill 
which is required in the purchase of the raw 
material from the long list of so-called rub- 
bers, U'hich differ vastly in their composition, 
to say nothing of the skill required in the 
practice of cleansing, compounding, and 
manufacture, lack of which may affect the 
product of a mill disastrously. 

THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. 

Rubber was of far more interest to the 
botanist and to the chemist than to any one 
else until toward the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century. From 1791 to 181 5 a num- 
ber of English chemists tried to avail of a 
rubber solution for the purpose of making 
waterproof cloth, but quite unsuccessfully. 
Charles Macintosh, whose name has now 




HALF-SPIKAL SYSTEM OF TAPPING, 

become as closely identified with the indus- 
try as that of Goodyear, succeeded in 1823 
in dissolving rubber in benzine, which was 
the beginning of the industrj' of waterproof 
clothing. In 1832 the house of Chaffee & 
Haskins, of New York, founded the Rox- 
bury India Rubber Company, for the pur- 
pose of doing a business of the sort which 
Macintosh was doing on the other side. 
They, however, did not succeed, but they 
had in their employ one Charles Goodyear, 
who devoted his life and his fortune to the 
discovery of what turned out to be the most 
practical of all methods of overcoming the 
adhesiveness or stickiness which militated 
against the commercial uses of the gum. 
Heywood was the first to discover that sul- 
phur lessened the sticky quality of the raw 
material, but it was left for Goodyear to 
demonstrate, in 18^9, that by the combina- 
tion of Tubber and sulphur in proper quan- 
tities and under proper temperature, the 
product would not break at a low tempera- 
ture, and would not become sticky at a high 



56 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REyiE]VS. 



one. This was the solution of the problem, 
and it is this combination of rubber and sul- 
phur under die action of diflEerent tempera- 
tures, resulting in a product of different 
hardness and elasticity, which is known as 
** vulcanization." 

His discovery places Goodyear among the 
greatest of American inventors. Prior to 
his time practically no rubber was used in 
the United States. To-day we are using 
quite one-half of the world's product, and 
rubber may now be regarded as a prime 
necessary of life, and one of the things which 
enters as closely as anything else into the 
satisfactory solution of the tremendous prob- 
lems of transportation and communication. 
Without it the air-brake would be an impos- 
sibility, and without it it would be impossi- 
ble to insulate the wires which are used in 
all the departments of electrical conduction. 
To say this is enough to show how essential 
to industrial progress rubber has become. 
The world might get on without it for shoes 
and clothing, if the worst were to come to 
the worst, but for the purposes of transpor- 
tation under progressive conditions on the 
railway train and on the automobile, for pur- 
poses of insulation for electrical communica- 
tion and lighting, and for the purposes to 
which it is put by the medical and surgical 
professions, rubber is an absolute essential 
for which there is no substitute, and that is 
why it has come to play so large a part in 
the history of progress, — a thing unforesee- 
able, as the whole modem progress itself was 



unforeseeable, at the time when La Conda- 
mine called the attention of the Academy of 
Sciences in Paris to his interesting little balls 
of gum. 

VOLUME OF RUBBER PRODUCTION. 

There has always been much difficulty in 
making any accurate statistics of the world's 
production of rubber, because not only of 
the diversity of the markets, but of the fact 
that the same rubber may appear in a 
number of different markets, and in one 
statement after another, thus improperly 
multiplying itself for statistical purposes. 
Without attempting here to go into the de- 
tails, it may be said generally that the mar- 
ket value of the world's total production of 
crude rubber is about $80,000,000; that the 
market value of the crude rubber which 
passes through the port of Para alone is 
about $50,000,000; that the total volume of 
the world's production, expressed in terms 
of weight, is about 125,000,000 pounds, of 
which the volume of Para rubber is about 
75,000,000 pounds. The value of the prod- 
uct of the Amazon Valley is about 65 per 
cent, of the total product expressed in terms 
of money, leaving about 35 per cent, for 
the rest of the world, and in terms of weight 
about 60 per cent., leaving some 40 per cent, 
for the rest of the world. 

The European and the American con- 
sumption of all grades is about equal. The 
balance was thrown out for a while after 
the tremendous development of the automo- 




From "Ten Thousand MUes In a Yacht," by RicharU Arthur. 

THE PROCESS OF SMOKING RUBBEK. 



RUBBER AS A WORLD PRODUCT. 



67 




*tadis Robber World." "^*^ 

VIEW OF A RUBBER ESTATE AT KLANG-SELANGOR, FEDERATED MALAY STATES. 



bile industry in Europe, but the consumption 
is about equally divided now between Europe 
and the United States. This country, how- 
rvcr^ CfiR'iujTics a larjjer proportion of the 
Pam gradrs* For instance, out of the crop 
«f 1904, uhich was a crop of highest prices, 
the Airicric;in consumption of Para grades 
was csttittiated to have been abnut $28,iX>o»- 
OOOj white the European consumption of the 
«uiir ^rJIktcs was estimate" to be about $23,- 
ooOiPOO. During that year America con- 
mmtAi both In volume and value* 54*4 per 
cent* of the Para crop, and Europe 45.6 per 
cent, l*he statistics for the Para crop may 
be tneate^l as fairly reliable, but this cannur 
be tuid With regard to any of the other crop>, 

THE fcUBB£R MARKETS OF THE WORLD. 

The ^%-fjrIcf's great rubber markets for dis* 
ttibimon to consumers are New Voric, Liver- 
pocJ, London, Antwerp, Hamburg, Li^^hon, 
«id Havre. The Liverpool imports of all 
pi^e» are about 40 per cent, of the Pani 
erop; of <»lber grade.* it handles betsvrrn 
6000 and b$00 tons of 2000 pounds each. 



or, taking the year 1905 as an illustration, 
there was received in Liverpool: 

Tons. 
Of South American grades other than those 

from Parft 1,249 

Of Gold Cpast kinds (Lump, -Flake, Addah. 

Niggers an'a Ivory Niggers) *. "i'.TSl 

or Sierra Leone kinds (Including Nassai, Cana- 

krl, Lahou and Mahou Twists) 834 

Nigger kinds (Brown Niggers and Flakes) .... 1,000 
l^hou kinds (Twists, Niggers and Bassam 

Cake) 475 

r^gos kinds (Lumps and Niggers) 126 

Various other African grades 919 

Many of these same grades get into the 
London market, but indirectly. While Lon- 
don is the direct market for Rangoon, As- 
sam, Penang, Borneo, Mozambique, and 
^Madagascar grades andv some South Ameri- 
can grades, whicfi come/)ut at points below 
Bahia, the total receipts of such grades in 
London by way of direct import are about 
1 500 tons a year. 

All of the rubber from the Congo Free 
State goes to Antwerp, the direct imports 
into the latter market having averaged about 
5 5(X) tons yearly for the last seven years. 
And this Congo or Antwerp crop of, say, 
1 1 ,(XX),ooo pounds, may be taken as of an 



58 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REI^IEIV OF REyiEWS. 




From the " India Rubber World." 

LARGEST PARA RUBBER BISCUITS EVER MADE. 

(They weigh, respectively, 1180, 360, and 145 pounds 
each.) 

average value during this period of 70 cents 
per pound, or, say, $7,700,000. This is all 
controlled and handled by what we in this 
country should call a combination, or trust, 
of the closest kind. The business office of 
one firm constitutes virtually the market for 
the entire receipts, the result of one of the 
so-called auctions showing that 92 per cent, 
of all of the rubber offered at this auction 
passed through a single house. The market 
is a most perfectly controlled and organized 
one, lacking ever>^ element of freedom which 
exists in New York, Liverpool, London, and 
Hamburg. 



The market at Hamburg is a constantly 
growing one, the direct imports into that 
port for the year 1905, the last for which 
I have been able to secure reliable statistics, 
having been 6500 tons, consisting wholly 
of West African, East African, East Indian 
and South and Central American kinds. 
Hamburg is a free market, and in respect of 
kinds other than the Para grades now fairly 
ranks with Liverpool. 

The product of Portuguese African rub- 
bers, known as Benguelas and Loandos, ii 
about 2200 tons per annum at the present 
time, and these grades are very highly es- 
teemed by American manufacturers. 

The rubber coming from French Africa 
arrives at Bordeaux and Havre, and aggre- 
gates about 1200 tons per annum, while the 
Central American rubbers, which now go 
principally to England, amount to about 
1000 tons yearly. 

THE CONDITIONS OF PRODUCTION. 

Prior to the opening of the Congo, or 
prior to the establishment of the Congo Free 
State, some East Indian, a little African, and 
some Mozambique and Madagascar rubbers 
were brought into the consuming markets, 
but these grades, other than South and Cen- 
tral American, did not constitute an impor- 
tant factor in the trade. For the last tvvcnt> 
years, however, they have constituted such 
a factor, and had it not been for their pro- 
duction in such large quantities either cer- 
tain lines of industry must have sufferc.l 




From the "India Rubber World." 



CUTTING RUBBER FOR PURPOSES OF INSPECTION. 



RUBBER AS A WORLD PRODUCT. 



59 



severely, or Para rubber must have gone to 
a most exorbitant price. 

The production of rubber is pecub'ar in 
this, that it cannot be compared with any of 
the great agricultural crops,— cotton, wheat, 
com, or rice. If in any year the price of 
these advances materially the result is an in- 
vitation to larger planting, with a succeed- 
ing larger crop and the consequent re-estab- 
lishment of the balance of price. As the 
consurning demand increases, the planting in- 
creases. In other words, the supply is de- 
termined by demand, the supply itself is 
subject to control in that it may be almost 
indefinitely increased according to the oppor- 
tunity of profit which the situation may offer. 
Such, however, is not the case with the rubber 
crop. First of all, cultivated rubber as yet 
plays no real part in the world's markets, not 
more than lOO tons having yet come into 
consumption in any one year. Now, as to 
the uncultivated plants, the great trees and 
vines which yield the bulk of the product 
are not available until they are at least fif- 
teen years of age, and then in the case of the 
Hevea may yield for twenty years. In tak- 
ing the latex from the Castilloa, however, as 
well as from the Landolphia, the custom has 





"^ M«- CilAKT-ES H. DALE. 

(Pr«idenl of the ^^^^^^^^^ Manufacturins Com. 



COL. SAMUEL P. COLT, 
r President of the United States Rubber Company.) 

been to kill the plant. It will be readily seen, 
therefore, that the industry of the rubber 
gatherer is still of the crudest and most prim- 
itive kind. It might be compared with that 
of the huckleberry picker here. The result 
is that the crop cannot be varied from a large 
crop to a small crop in any year, as in the 
case of wheat and cotton. The problem is 
not one of cultivation, but one almost ex- 
clusively of labor on the one hand, and of 
pushing farther and farther into the forests 
on the other. 

The average annual increase of the Para 
crop during the last twenty years has been 
8 per cent., and during the last five years 
about 4 per cent. The largest increase in 
any single year was 17 per ctnt. The 
Congo crop has remained practically the 
same for the last seven years, and has a 
tendency to decrease rather than increase. 

The rubber forests on the Amazon are 
well preserved, although the hundreds of 
thousands of Castilloa trees, from which 
what is commercially known as caucho is 
taken, are annually killed. In the Congo it 
is found necessary to push farther and farther 
into the interior, and it is the necessity for 
the rubber tribute exacted by the Belgian 
trading companies that has led to the dread- 
ful tyranny to which it has been necessary to 



60 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REf^IElVS. 



resort in order to compel the natives to 
gather a crop, which is growing year by year 
more difiicult of production. 

The fact is that in the great Amazon re- 
gion, as well as in the Congo Free State, the 
labor problem is a fundamental one. Neither 
country is white man's land. No one can 
live and work in these river bottoms except 
a native. The mortality in the State of 
Amazonas, in Brazil, for example, corre- 




THE LATE MR. EMS II A SLADE CONVERSE. 
(Founder of the Boston Rnl>l>er Shoe Company,) 

sponds with almost diabolical exactness to 
the number of tons of rubber produced, so 
that it is said that every ton of Brazilian 
rubber costs a human life, and although there 
are no such atrocities In Brazil as have been 
charged against the Congo, It is nevertheless 
true that the laborers who are brought into 
the rubber fields from the coast do not aver- 
age more than three years of life, and are, if 
not in law, at least in fact, subjected to hard- 
ships never known or endured by the slaves 
in the United States, or even by the slaves 
in the coffee regions of Brazil. This Is 
not the place, however, to discuss this prob- 
lem, any more than It is to discuss the matter 
of the atrocities In the Congo, but the greed 
of man as expressed in terms of rubber has 
proved itself almost fiendish, and the re- 
quirement for this necessary of life probably 



holds more men to-day in abject slavery than 
any other field in the world's work. 

HISTORY OF AMERICAN MANUFACTURE. 

Manufacture of rubber in the United 
States is divided generally into a few great 
classes. They are boots and shoes, clothing, 
mechanical goods, hard rubber goods, and 
druggists' sundries. In point of value the 
boot and shoe industry and the mechanical 
industry are the most important. A fair es- 
timate of the total product of rubber boots 
and shoes in the United States last year, cal- 
culated at net prices to jobbers, is about $50,- 
000,000, while that of mechartical goods, 
upon the same basis, is about $45,000,000. 

In order to make clearer what is meant 
by mechanical goods, it may be said that the>^ 
are vehicle tires of all sorts, belting, pack- 
ing, and hose. The druggists* sundries are 
altogether too numerous even to think of 
classifying, but in point of social value they 
constitute a large factor in the uses of rubber. 

COMBINATIONS AND TRUSTS. 

There have been two great consolidations 
in the rubber manufacturing business in this 
country. The first was that of the United 
States Rubber Company, which, beginning 
in 1892, has now absorbed, with the single 
exception of one large concern in Boston, 
practically the entire rubber boot, shoe, and 
clothing industry in this country. In 1899 
a consolidation of a number of the leading 
manufacturers of mechanical goods wa$ ef- 
fected, under the title of the Rubber Groods 
Manufacturing Company. That company, 
however, did not absorb so large a propor- 
tion of the field to which it devoted itself as 
did the United States Rubber Company. 
About a year ago the United States Rubber 
Company acquired the control of the Rubber 
Cjoods Alanufacturlng Company, and thus 
is to-day the largest manufacturer, directly 
and through its sub-companies, not only in 
America, but in the world. Its total net sales. 
— that is to say, the aggregate of net sales, — 
of all of Its companies, amounted during the 
past business year to $59,452,000. Its cap- 
ital stock is: First preferred, $36,263,000; 
second preferred, $9,848,600; common, 
$25.000,000, — a total of $71,111,600. 

The great builders of this business have 
been the late Elisha Slade Converse, of Bos- 
ton, who founded the Boston Rubber Shoe 
Company ; Colonel S. P. Colt, the president 
of the United States Rubber Company, and 
Mr. Charles H. Dale, the president of the 



RUBBER AS A WORLD PRODUCT. 



61 



Rubber Goods Manufacturing G)mpany. 
Both Colonel Colt and Mr. Dale are men 
of distinguished abilities. The late Mr. 
Converse, who was regarded as the dean of 
the trade, and who had gone into it as early 
as Goodyear 's time, aiforded one' of the best 
examples of the value of character and tem- 
perament in building a great business. 

A GREAT FUND OF RECLAIMED RUBBER. 

No article on rubber would be complete 
without some reference >p its re-use. It is 
doubtful whether the annual crop of new 
rubber would be sufficient to meet the world's 
requirements at reasonable prices. It was 
early found that rubber was impervious to 
"moth and rust." In its manufactured 
form, in combination with sulphur, it was 
bound after a while to lose its elasticity and 
the fabric of which it was a part to undergo 
a disintegration, but . not a decomposition. 
The rubber remained. It was not of the 
same value, either for elasticity or for tensile 
strength, but it was still of great value, and 
how to recover it became the question. This 
led to a series of experiments in the devulcan- 
Ization of rubber, begun by Helmholtz, 
which is now conducted on a large scale by 



two processes, one an acid and the other an 
alkaline process, concerning the respective 
merits of which there is great controversy. 
As yet, however, most of the reclaimed rub- 
ber, so-called, is produced by the acid process. 
Many will be surprised to learn that the 
annual product of the reclaimed material 
amounts, in the United States alone, to 
nearly 50,000,000 pounds, and this must be 
added to the annual rubber crop as a large 
factor in determining price. It is used in 
varying proportions in making compounds 
for the manufacture of all grades of goods 
excepting those requiring the greatest elas- 
ticity and the highest tensile strength, and 
has ai value, according to quality and accord- 
ing to range of prices for new rubber, of be- 
tween 10 and 15 cents a pound. No one 
knows when the rubber particle or molecule 
really disappears. It may be powdered and 
lost through friction, but as long as rubber 
scrap, or shoddy, exists, the rubber which is 
in it also exists in a form susceptible of re- 
use. In this way there has become estab- 
lished in this country what may be regarded 
as a permanent fund of reclaimed or re- 
claimable rubber, to which each year's new 
crop is adding. 




a4H7rMTi*»iirc auii»EiR hoots: tite ' maxing-hwjMj vvhpkf rtLE i^nr-. ake \^!sem0led. 



^v 

^•^ 




m 


f 


' 


4. 


m'jf 


■ 


^^^^^B 

^^^^^^B 






^^^^H 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 



"the most lofty lord, ml LAI AHD-EL-AZIZ \IV. KEfJEXT OF ALMIGHTY GOD ON THIS EARTH." 

(The Sultan of Morocco Is robod as usual In snow-white silk with under petticoats of orange and cloth 
02 of gold. Uls Xace la elaborately painted and made up.) 



MOROCCO, THE DERELICT OF DIPLOMACY. 



BY W. G. FITZ-GERALD.* 



npHE strangest thing I know is xhat Mo- 
rocco, the world's richest prize, should 
have remained intact unto this day. Thirteen 
legations and consulates-general, costly out 
of ail proportion to immediate needs, watch 
the staggering derelict on the spot in Tangier, 
And have we not seen the two greatest mili- 
tary powers on earth at daggers drawn over 
the spoil, and a terrible crisis averted only by 
Mi,. L*it:king down of France at Von Rulow's 
Will, followed by the *' breaking "of Tiu-- 
ophrie Dclcas5L% the strongest Foreign Min- 
ister France ever had ? 

XoH' people are asting: *' Why all this e\- 
cKement over a semi-savage Barbarj^ state 
which many of u^i picture as a worthless 
t! esc IT peopled only by blacks?" Because, 
iunn I he vici%Txjints of strateg}% climate^ and 
mine ml ind agricultural wealth, Morocco 
stands unique^ w*ith a potential trade,- — given 
.1 couple ot decades of development, — of 
>ioo,ooo»aoo a jear. 

[^oolcifig round we see all the n^itiansi 
stfyggtlflg iow existence, for new markets, for 
nor outlets lor thetr people, Germany took 
ihe Dudiies from Denmark, Alsace-Uirrainc 
fnitn France, and Kiao-chau from China, 
France in her t\irn seized Algeria from the 
Dey^, die Sa%^oy from Italy, and Tunis from 
its beys,— ^of course ** to keep order anil 
^upprtw piracy in the Mediterranean 1 " 
(irrat Br»t:iin seized the Transvaal and the 
Orange Free State; Italy covets Tripoli; 
RufiiA laid hands on Manchuria. 

Vet nwie dared touch Morocco; for Tan- 
jiVr anil Ceuta are the keys of the world's* 
htghw^; so that invasion of the Moorish 
Emplfv uxiuld have raised Armageddon. 
Anki the trmjbled seas of diplomacy surrly 
never beheld *o rich a " derelict." Three 
hundred thniisand square miles of earth's 
mmt fertile land lying at Europe's ver>^ door, 
and with I3cx> miles of coast line,^a pcr- 
petitaJ Riviera » — on two of the world's most 
iiDportmoc waten^ays. the Mediterranean 
and the Atlantic. A prize indeed ! 

A penary that would feed an empire, 
Liniftless fisheries, especially below Anadir, 
wbere the Germans are no\v making rich 
Kiuh. Copper mines richer than the fabvj- 
\misif rich Rio Tinto property, just across 

*Hr Rti-Gi'r.ild hnff but t^wnt^y rrfuniprl fnim 
Ui nlfttb ^^pt^nion Into tin* Interior nf ' SiiTiH**f- 



the Straits. And ten millions of a hardy 
fighting race that might well yield a superb 
army of half a million troops, such as could 
be swiftly disposed in European fields should 
occasion arise. A recruiting ground of this 
kind may well counterbalance the rapid in- 
crease pi Germany's population over that of 
her rival. 

How few of us realize that only nine 
miles separate Morocco from Europe, at the 
narrowest point of the Straits of Gibraltar? 
And who shall say in these days of daring 
engineering that this span may not soon be 
bridged, and Europe united with Africa by 
rail? 

A prize, indeed, this Morocco, — one even 
remotely comparable to it does not exist. The 
climate is the lovely climate of southern 
Spain; the richness of the soil would make 
our farmers* mouths water, for it will grow 
and grow with phenomenal luxuriance every- 
thing from w-heat and barley to oranges, 
sugar, tea, coflFee, cotton, cork, and wine. 
If Algeria, with half the area and population, 
and no rivers worthy the name, has a trade 
of $i25,ocx),ooo a year, what would that of 
Morocco be worth if properly developed? 

Even to-day, under conditions recalling the 
regime of the Shepherd Kings of Egypt, with 
crooked sticks instead of ploughs, and camels, 
mules, and donkeys instead of freight-cars, 
the empire's trade totals $2o,ocx),ooo. And 
during our Civil War it grew a considerable 
quantity of cotton, so excellent that as much 
as $1 a pound was paid for it on the Liver- 
pool Exchange. 

THE INROADS OF FRANCE, 

For fifty years France has striven passion- 
ately for this prize, — always by the *' pene- 
tration pacifique " methods however, lest her 
neighbors recall uneasily the old dream of 
" the Mediterranean as a French lake," — 
burrowing on the southeastern frontier; lop- 
ping off oasis after oasis, w'hose pastoral peo- 
ple suddenly find their cotton goods labeled 
" Rouen," instead of " Manchester." 

The whole empire swarms with French 
'' scientific missions," mapping and taking 
notes. True, these missions often lead to 
tragedy, as m the case of Dr. Mauchamp, 
recently murdered in Marraksh ; but, then, 
colonial expansion 'calls for many martyrs. 



64 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REl^/EU^ OF REl^/EU^S. 



And Bu Hamara, the pretender to the throne, 
IS spending French gold in the bazaars; has 
French officers and French artillery. 

Slowly, but with a steadfastness that com- 
mands the admiration of even her enemies, 
France is swallowing Morocco. A few more 
episodes like the killing of zealous Dr. 
Mauchamp in the southern capital, the ston- 
ing of de Girancourt, the assassination of 
Charbonnier in Fez, — and instead of a Ujda 
or Lalla Marnia being occupied, a whole 
corps d*armee will be thrown into Morocco; 
a move rendered necessary by the upheaval of 
fanatical natives and a massacre of all the 
resident Christian traders and consuls, such 
as one looks for from day to day. 

For the French in particular are hated 
from Tangier to the Atlas, as " Nazarenes " 
who have strangled Morocco's Moslem 
neighbors. " Wa wold-el-Harem " ("Sons 
of the illegitimate*') the Moors call the 
French since the forcible occupation of the 
Regency of Tunis, — an event that stirred pro- 
foundly Morocco's high-spirited population. 

Yet nothing seems to stay the march of 
French diplomacy in this matter ; and it aims 
at a stupendous scheme of empire which is 



but dimly realized even in Europe. France 
is working her way southward through the 
rich date country of Tafilat until she reaches 
the Atlantic at Cape Bojador. Then she will 
have her prey completely enveloped. 

Italy's complaisance is won by promise of 
a free hand in Tripoli. So easy is it to give 
away other people's property! Tripoli, of 
course, belongs to Turkey. And Spain is 
hand and glove with her northern neighbor, 
who holds the bulk of her securities, o>wis 
all her railroads, and has a surprisingly loud 
voice in all Madrid matters. This is vcn' 
useful indeed, for unless Spain were friendly, 
some 3CX),ooo men would be required to 
guard the Pyrenean frontier in case of war 
between France and any other great power. 

Besides, has it not been suggested that 
Spain may one day have the mighty fortress 
of Gibraltar restored to her, regardless of 
the fact that England has spent $300,cxx),ooo 
upon it? And may not Spain, too, by way 
of returning the compliment, cede Ceuta to 
her friend, — that stupendous qatural citadel 
on the RiflF coast of Morocco, which many 
eminent authorities call the true key to the 
Mediterranean? 




THF TKIN. K*. Y i VSTl F OK TTl W VT IX THF CKFAT ATI AS MOrXTAIXS, 

<Owr-v>l by Kadi M At-vl cI M.:wk ol C.-wi. a iK^werful sup{*ort«r of Mvlai el Halld.) 



MOROCCO. THE DERELICT OF DIPLOMACY. 



66 




HIS HIGHNESS MULAI EL HAFID, VICEROY OF SOUTHERN MORCKXO AND BROTHER OF THE SULTAN, 

WITH HIS SCRIBES AND SLAVES. 



True, having gained Morocco, the con- 
queror can go no farther westward ; but what 
about eastward and southward? As mis- 
trcft of Morocco she will be at liberty to con- 
soltdbtte her vast African empire, and go 
6ionm 1600 miles to Timbuctu and Lake 
TckjA ^^^ ^hen north again to the great 
I iiljliimn city of Ghadames, in the hinter- 
lailifHiif Tripoli. 

Aid to all this Senegambia, and France 
w3;dben have some 30,000,000 warlike peo- 
ple tuder her sway. These, stiffened with a 
FfVacb backbone, will surely produce 500,- 
ooodcilled fighting men, equal at least to the 
Algerian ^ Spahis or the Senegalese sharp- 
shooters w^hom France now rates so highly. 
Where will Great Britain's tenure of Egypt 
be then, or how shall she hold her ancient 
colonies on the West Coast? 

THE COMING FRENCH EMPIRE IN AFRICA. 

I To this mighty scheme Morocco is the 
\ke\^ ; and once let France get it in her posses- 
sion, and she will surely close all doors from 



Tunis to Senegambia, a coastal range of 3200 
miles. She will then have a monopoly of 
trade totaling between $400,000,000 and 
$450,000,000, and an empire exceeding that 
of Hindostan, whose very name has for 
thousands of years been a synonym for riches. 
And this new empire will lie at France's own 
door, delightfully salubrious in climate and 
with barely 30,000,000 of a native popula- 
tion to keep in order. 

Now contrast this wn'th England's trade 
with India, which is but $350,000,000. 
Moreover it entails the burden of ruling 
300,000,000 of many races and creeds, 6000 
miles from home, and that in a climate so 
unhealthy that white children cannot be 
reared in all the 1500 miles from the Him- 
alayas to Cape Comorin ! 

A few far-sighted statesmen in Germany 
and England to-day foresee clearly this vast 
French empire, fairly consolidated under the 
tricolor, in, say, the middle of this century. 
It will embrace Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, 
Senegambia, the French Sudar, French 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REk'lElV OF REVIEWS. 



Guinea, and the French Congo; the whole 
with a trade exceeding $6oo,ocx),cxx). 

There will be French colonists in swarms, 
and railroads from Tunis into Senegambia, 
and from the Atlantic coast of Morocco to 
the foot of the Great Atlas, ^where the limit- 
less mineral wealth of that giant chain will 
be tapped for 600 miles. There will proba- 
bly be health resorts at Tangier and Moga- 
dor, with great naval stations in between. 
Little heed need be paid in this latter con- 
nection to verbal pledges or even written 
guaranties. French ministers in 1881 gave 
positive assurances that there was no inten- 
tion of fortifymg Bizerta, — and that Tuni- 
sian port is to-day one of the strongest forti- 
fied positions and naval arsenals in the whole 
Mediterranean ! 

Then consider the enormous trade which 
the mere reconstruction of the Moorish Em- 
pire will bring to the French. Steel bridges 
will be needed for the rivers; whole moun- 
tains of cement for breakwaters; and ma- 
chinery, rails, locomotives, and cars. 
Dredgers will be called for to remove silt 
from the eight ports; and lighthouses, steam 
launches, clothing, ammunition, arms, and 
artillery will be also needed. 

WHY MOROCCO IS DERELICT. 

But, it will be asked, what has brought 
about the present crisis in the Moorish Em- 
pire? Why has it become derelict, with the 
Sultan*s name a derisive by- word, and all 



the tribes in anarchy and rebellion ? It is not 
a very old story. Mulai Hassan, the father 
of the present Sultain Abd-el-Aziz, was a 
strong ruler, who sent out into the thirty-t>\o 
provinces kadis or governors whom he knew 
could govern, and whom he knew he could 
handle in turn. He sent native youths to 
be educated in Italy and England ; sent me- 
chanics to Cockeriirs works at Seraing, in 
Belgium, and his warriors to take engineer- 
ing courses at Chatham. 

Even after his death, and while yet Abd- 
el-Aziz was in the tutelage of the harem, the 
empire was ruled by the powerful Vizier Si 
Ahmed ben Moussa, who maintained order 
from the Mediterranean to the Sahara, 
fought locusts and plagues, and was work- 
ing out his country *s salvation when he 
died. • 

Then came the memorable mission of El 
Mnibbi, the War Minister, to the Court of 
St. James, only to bring back with him ideas 
of reform far too radical and violent for the 
country to swallow. He found his young 
master, the Sultan, more than willing to co- 
operate with him; and one unfortunate re- 
sult of this frame of mind was the purchase 
of toy railroads, French motor-cars, gold and 
silver cameras, bicycles, and the like heathen 
truck, which greatly shocked the old viziers 
and Elder Men who stand behind the throne. 
Moreover, Mnibbi being a K. C. M. G. and 
a British protege, with very British leanings, 
France objected to him, and he was presently 




THE RAG-TAG "ARMY OF MOROCCO. — NEVER PAID AND LIVES BY LOOT AND BRIGANDAGE. 



mkdCCd. th£ derelict of diplomacy. 



67 



deposed and " permitted " to make the pil- 
grimage to Mecca. 

After this matters went from bad to worse, 
ending in the Algeciras Conference, which is 
likely to cost the young Sultan his throne, — 
however necessary were all the reforms to 
which the decision of the conference pointed. 
At present Abd-el-Aziz is looking for support 
to Geraiany, especially since the Kaiser took 
the unprecedented step of landing in Tangier 
to make a momentous speech to the German 
traders there. 

THE sultan's strategy. 

The Sultan is, in fact, playing the easiest 
and most profitable game which the monarchs 
of weak and choatic states can play in the 
face of the great powers. In a word, he is 
setting off Germany against France ; and one 
result of this is that the Franco-Spanish naval 
denuMist ration last December, so far from 
impressing the Makhzen, or Moorish cabi- 
net, was the signal for a serious outburst of 
Francophobia. Great Britain might have 
done something useful, for she possessed the 
confidence of the Moors; but now she has 
definitely given France a free hand, a cir- 
cumstance which the Sultan views with dis- 
may as an act of treachery. 

The situation at present is an utter im- 
passe, Abd-cl-Aziz has indorsed all the de- 
cisions of Algeciras and is pledged to carry 
them out. Of course, he could do nothing 
else without backing from some European 
pow^er, and that the conditions of the con- 
ference forbade. Unaided, it is equally im- 
possible for him to carry out his pledges, and 
again the conference has made aid impossible. 

The shereefian finances are exhausted, and 
the last remnants of prestige destroyed by the 
young Sultan's acceptance of the Algeciras 
mandate. For the same reason his rule hard- 
ly mii£ beyond the limits of his palace In Fez. 
AQ Mdmccos orthodox millions regard the 
cnafidste of Algeciras as the first tiec;si%'e step 
tmiard European absorption and the end of 
Moslrm njle in " Sunset-Land." 

For tbh reason their attitude is one of bit- 
ttre** apportion ; and undoubtedly any aiiita- 
for CiQ /otisc them to a dan^'erous pirch of 
taifl^cuni. 1*he young Sultan's adherents 
■t(9^mt mre u mere handful of mercenaries, 
-^-^naiiily offictals who live^ make money , and 

' li nut by his despotic appointment. F(»r 

^farrfthe pretender the court dare not le;ivc 

t hf^ nirfhr rn capital; and down in Marrak^h 

■s half-brother, Mulai el Halid, 

^ ^ the Southj and the strongest mem- 




UNIQUE PORTRAIT OF THE SULTAN OF MOROCCX) IN 

THE HALF TURKISH, HALF GERMAN 

UNIFORM SPECIALLY DESIGNED 

FOR HIM. 

her of his family, was recently declared 
"Sultan of all Morocco!" 

THE country's DESPERATE STATE. 

It is, indeed, a pitiful situation, and 
throughout the land respectable men keep 
order and curse their " half-Nazarene " 
ruler; while the disreputable element are 
fighting, looting, and making " powder talk.*' 
They recall the good old times, ages back, 
when the holy city of Mequinez was built by 
the Christian slaves of Mulai Ismail, who 
would occasionally build up alive into the 
tabia walls one of his white captives when 
he thought the man was shirking his work. 
To-day Morocco seethes with anarchy and 
corruption. 

It is a land of arbitrary kadis and evil- 
working bashas; land of plenty that satisfies 
nobody, a plenty often succeeded by famine 
that lays whole districts waste; a chaotic 



68 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEU^ OF REVIEWS. 




KADI Sre HARRY MACLEAN. 

(Comnumder-in-Chit^f of the Mix>rish Army, with 
his favorite hound, t 



world of warring tribes, equally careless of 
life and death; a land where the rich grind 
the faces of the poor, the governors grind the 
rich, and the Sultan or his viziers grind the 
governors 

The government will not allow grain to 
be sent from one part of the country* to the 
other, and consequently a district may be so 
rich in com one year that the har\est rots 
for lack of labor to gather it. and the follow- 
ing season may see positive star\ation in the 
same section. Indu<rr>- is paralyzed: for no 
sooner does a man show signs of wealth, than 
the local governor comes down upon him for 
blackmail, and if he does not pay he is thrown 
into a dunge<3n and left to starve. — if. indeed, 
he be not decapitated and his head stuck upon 
a spike above the cit>*s gate as a warning to 
others. 

Ever\- c:t>- governor and tribal kadi pays 
the Sultan heavily t<^r his position, on the 
understanding, of course, that he will get 



his capital back with immense interest irom 
the unhappy people he is called upon to 
" govern." Even the Sultan himself is much 
given to " eating up " a country. Old Mu- 
lai Hassan, when he took the fateful journey 
to Tafilat that brought about his death, trav- 
eled with an army of 40,000 men and 75,000 
horses, mules, camels, and asses, and fairly 
ate entire districts clear of food. Little won- 
der that on the return journey the Sultan 
had to bribe some of the fiercer tribes with 
hundreds of thousands of dollars to keep his 
own hordes from annihilation on their way 
north.. 

Morocco, then, is dying, and will soon 
come to earth with a crash that will shake 
half Europe. Her Sultan is surrounded with 
clamant intriguers, from whom not even the 
faithful adventurer Kadi Sir Harry Maclean 
K. C. M. G., may protect him. Mission 
after mission goes up to Fez bearing presents, 
— and demands. 

France insists that the shcreefian army be 
supplied with French instructors, and to this 
the British object. The young sons of the 
Shereef of Wazan have accepted French pro- 
tection, and have thrown all their influence 
into the interests of their adopted country. 
Such is the present condition of Morocco, 
— '* that pearl upon the northwest shoulder 
of the African continent." No wonder the 
late Lord Salisbur>' declared on a memorable 
occasion it was about to become " a great 
trouble to Europe." France is absolutely 
committed to its acquisition; and assuming. 
— which is most improbable, — that Germany 
will permit so momentous a step, an upheaval 
will assuredly take place which must have 
far-reaching effects, for the universities of 
Fez play an important part in the pan- 
Islamic movement, being in constant com- 
munication with Cairo, India, and other cen- 
ters of the Moslem world. 

And, lastly, supposing that France does 
succeed in gaining the ke>- to the mighty em- 
pire she has had in mind for half a century, 
we shall then probably see trouble, for Great 
Britain will be seriously embarrassed on the 
sea both as regards her nav>' and her mer- 
chant marine. At least one-half of her stu- 
pendous (Kean-borne traffic of five billions 
passes within measurable distance of Moroc- 
co: and there will be no friendly spot from 
Tunis to Senegambia; while as to her naval 
bases, we shall see Gibraltar watched by 
Tangier and p<.^^ibly Ceuta; Malta by Tou- 
lon and C^ran, and Cyprus and Eg3rpt by 
Bi/erta, 



RESOURCEFUL CENTRAL AMERICA. 



BY JOHN BARRETT. 

(Director of the International Bureau of the American Republics.) 



npHE best way to understand or study any 
section of this world which may be 
little knov^-n is to locate it on the map clearly 
and then make comparisons as to its size with 
sections better known. 

Central America is sometimes described as 
all that portion of the North-American con- 
tinent lying between the Rio Grande and 
the Atrato rivers; the former dividing Mex- 
ico from the United States and the latter 
forming practically the boundary line be- 
tween Panama and Colombia. Politically, 
however, it comprehends the five independ- 
ent states of Guatemala, Honduras, Sal- 
vador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. In the 
order named, they lie directly south and east 
of Mexico, between the Caribbean Sea and 
the Pacific Ocean. Salvador is the only one 
of the five that borders solely on the Pacific, 
or that has not shores washed by both waters. 



As the average newspaper reader sees the 
names of these republics mentioned in the 
dispatches he thinks of them as indefinitely 
existing somewhere to the distant south of 
the United States. He believes that they are 
nearer Mexico than Patagonia, but he hesi- 
tates before he goes on record to that effect. 
In fact, all these countries, grouped as 
Central America, are so close at hand that 
they are within a few days' steaming of New 
Orleans, Mobile, or Galveston. They are 
much nearer geographically to our gulf 
coast than Panama, which, on account of the 
advertising it has enjoyed from the canal, 
now seems only a few hours from New York. 
Panama, as it looks on the map, should be- 
long to Central America, — it certainly is 
not part of South America. Having for- 
merly been a portion of Colombia, the greater 
part of which is in South America proper, 
it naturally has never been classed 
as belonging to Central or North 
America. 

APPROACHES TO CENTRAL AMERICA. 

A strong influence that has worked 
to make Central America seem far 
away has been the necessity, in the 
past, of reaching the different capitals 
or principal cities either by sailing 
from San Francisco on a journey oc- 




f. *TIAHTIC orr. 



TH£ INDF.PENDENT STATES OF CENTRAL AMERICA, SHOWING THEIR RESPECTIVE CAPITALS. 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REl^lEiV OF RE^lElVS. 




THE OLD MODE OF TRANSPORTATION IN NICARAGUA. 



cupying from ten days to two weeks down 
the Pacific Coast past Mexico, or by crossing 
the Isthmus of Panama and proceeding north. 
The physical conformation of Central Amer- 
ica is such that the high and accessible lands 
suitable for cities and the better classes of 
population are much nearer the Pacific Ocean 
than the Caribbean Sea. The shores and 
the interior facing on the latter sea are 
generally low, and, until recently, when 
banana cultivation began to open them to 
the world, they were a wild, swampy, mos- 
quito jungle. 

The few railroads have started from the 




"»NF- OF THE OLD MISSION CHl^RCHES OF NICARAGUA. 



Pacific Coast and wound their way to the cap- 
itals and commercial centers, but now rapid 
progress is being made toward rail connec- 
tions with the Caribbean side. Costa Rica i« 
already well provided in this respect, and its 
beautiful capital of San Jose is easily reached 
in a day's ride through impressive sccncn' 
from Port Limon. Guatemala hopes to have 
its railr<5ad to the Gulf of Honduras com- 
pleted next fall. Nicaragua is planning a line 
that will connect the Caribbean Sea with its 
great interior lake, while Honduras has be- 
gun a road that is destined to provide an ap- 
proach on the same side to Tegucigalpa. In 
a few years it should be possible to cross by 
rail each Central-American country from 
sea to sea. An era of continued peace, which 
ought to be at hand, would see this desired 
condition of communication soon accom- 
plished. 

COMPARATIVE SIZE OF CENTRAL-AMERICAN 
STATES. 

Very few people have a correct impression 
of the size of Central America as a whole or 
of its states, taken separately. California 
seems like a large State. It extends 770 
miles along the Pacific and has an extreme 
width of 375 miles. If California were laid 
end for end on Central America it would 
cover it with the exception of Salvador, which 
is just the size of New Jersey and occupies a 
little over 7000 square miles. Stated in an- 
other wavr if Central America were lifted up 
bodily and laid down on our Atlantic Coast 



RESOURCEFUL CENTRAL AMERICA. 



71 




A TYPICAL GROUP OF COSTA RICANS. 



It would just hide all New England, New 
York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. In 
short, it has a combined area of approximately 
167,000 square miles. Individually, aside 
from Salvador, already mentioned, the states 
could be compared as follows: Honduras to 
Pennsylvania, 45.000 square miles; Guate- 
mala to Mississippi, 47,000; Nicaragua to 
New York, 49,000; Costa Rica to Vermont 
and New Hampshire, 18,000. 

Data as to the population of these 
states are somewhat contradictory, but 
the ofRcial figures given to the Inter- 
national Bureau of American Republics 
by the diplomatic representatives of these 
countries at Washington are here used. 
Guatemala heads the list with i ,364,678 peo- 
ple. Then comes Salvador, with i ,006,848 ; 
Honduras, with 543,74^ J Nicaragua, with 
423,200, and Costa Rica, with 331,340, 
— a grand total of 3,671,807. This 
nearly exceeds that of either Texas or Ten- 
nessee, and is about twice that of California. 
Such a population should disabuse the minds 
of many persons that Central America is a 
sparsely settled, savage land. Of course, there 
arc considerable portions of the low lands 
and along the seacoasts where the inhabitants 
are few, and even these live in most primitive 
manner, but on the plateaus and higher sec- 



tions of the interior are cities and towns of 
advanced civilization, with up-to-date fea- 
tures of municipal life, and an agricultural 
population that leaves little valuable land 
unoccupied. 

CONDITIONS OF POPULATION AND DEVELOP- 
MENT. 

It is a surprise to the man who has not 
studied Central America to learn that Salr 
vador, with only 7000 square miles, has more 
than 1,000,000 inhabitants. This indicates a 
density of population far greater than that 
of New Hampshire or Vermont, and means 
that there are not many " deserted farms " 
for sale in Salvador! Guatemala, with an 
increasing population that, since the last cen- 
sus, has probably now reached nearly 1,500,- 
000, cannot be regarded as a land of untrav- 
ersed jungle, for the density of population is 
greater than that of Louisiana. Honduras 
has the largest area of unused country, with 
Nicaragua next, but the development of the 
banana industry and the demand for valuable 
timber grown in the low interior sections are 
destined to make every unknown part accessi- 
ble and open to exploitation. 

Too strong emphasis cannot be placed on 
the varied riches and possibilities of these 
five republics. Taken as a whole, they pos- 



72 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REl^lElV OF REl^lEWS. 



scss more agricultural and timber wealth than 
mining potentialities, but they are developing 
rapidly along all three lines in a way to 
prove that they have not been appreciated 
heretofore, either in Europe or in the United 
' States. 

The number of recent disturbances in Cen- 
tral America has given the impression abroad 
that these nations are always in a state of 
strife, and hence that commerce and material 
progress have little to encourage them. A 
consideration, however, of the figures of their 
foreign trade with the world at large, and 
tvith the United States in particular, demon- 
strates that despite warlike struggles at fre- 
quent intervals they have time and money to 
do a very fair business with the outside world. 

CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRAL 
AMERICA. 

People are always asking: What is the 
i climate of Central America; is it not un- 
favorable to North Americans or to per- 
sons accustomed to a temperate climate? 
Were the entire area of Central America sim- 
ilar to the part along the Caribbean coast, I 
should be inclined to speak disparagingly of 
it, but it must be remembered that large sec- 
tions are located either at such an altitude or 
in such relation to prevailing winds that the 
temperature seldom becomes too hot for ordi- 
nary comfort, and never too cold. Even in 
the lower and so-called fever, malarial, and 





THE NATIONAL THEATRE OF COSTA RICA AT SAN J0s£. 



THE CATHEDRAL AT GUATEMALA CITY. 

mosquito districts, it is wonderful what a 
change can be wrought by clearing away the 
jungle, providing good sewerage and pure 
water, and generally developing a sanitar}' 
environment. Then, the terrors of excessive 
heat seem to disappear and the tropics become 
a source of delight. 

What has been done at Panama can be 
duplicated everywhere in Central America if 
the same methods arc 
employed. There is 
hardly a depressing, 
forbidding port of 
Guatemala, Honduras, 
Salvador, Nicaragua, 
and Costa Rica which 
could not be made 
healthy and habitable 
for foreigners if a well- 
developed plan for 
sanitation were carried 
to complete execution. 
This is sure to come 
some day, with the re- 
sult that the whole 
so-called " Mosquho 
Coast " and the re- 
mainder of the Carib- 
bean shore of Central 
America will be busy 
with prosperous com- 
m e r c i a 1 entrepots^ 
which, in turn, will 
be connected by rail- 



RESOURCEFUL CENTRAL AMERICA, 



73 



roads with all parrs of the hitherto impen- 
etrable jungle, as well as with the moun- 
tain capitals and towns. In fact, I look to 
see, during the next twenty years, a trans- 
formation in Central America which will as- 
tonish the world and make it difficult to 
realize that, in 1907, it was conunonly re- 
garded as a terra incognita, 

HOW TO REACH CENTRAL-AMERICAN CITIES. 

The query is often propounded to the In- 
ternational Bureau of American Republics: 
How does a visitor go to the principal cities 
of Central America, and what are the condi- 
tions of travel? The best way to-day to 
reach Guatemala City, the capital of Guate- 
mala; San Salvador, the capital of Salvador; 
Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, and 
Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, is either 
by the way of Panama and the Pacific or by 
San Francisco and the Pacific, except that 
the new- rail route across the isthmus of Te- 
huantepec may presently provide connections 
that will he quicker than the route via Sart 
Francisco or Panama. San Jose, the capital 
of Costa Rica, has direct rail connections with 
Port Liroon, on the Caribbean shore, and will 
soon have a through railroad to Punta Arenas 
on the Pacific Gulf of Nicoya. The port of 
Guatemala City is the town of San Jose, from 
which a railroad runs to the capital. The 
line from the Caribbean, soon to be com- 
pleted, begins at Puerto Barrios. Northvvest- 





THE BANK OF COSTA RICA. 



tHE WHITE HOUSE, SAN SALVADOR. 

ern Guatemala is reached through the ports 
of Ocos and Champerico, and a railroad ex- 
tends from the latter place to several impor- 
tant towns of the interior. The principal 
port of Salvador is Acajutla, from which a 
railroad carries one, in 
five hours, to the city 
of San Salvador. From 
La Libertad there is 
a fair mountain road, 
but it has been little 
used since the railway 
was completed. 

The capital of Hon- 
duras has its port at 
Amapala, on the Pa- 
cific Gulf of Fonseca, 
and a good macadam- 
ized road extends from 
San Lorenzo to Te- 
gucigalpa, on which 
automobiles are oper- 
ated. • A railroad is 
planned and partly 
constructed to connect 
Tegucigalpa not only 
with the Gulf of Fon- 
seca, but also with 
Puerto Cortez, on the 
Caribbean Gulf of 



74 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REI^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



Honduras. When these roads will be coii- 
plcted is, however, uncertain. The chief port 
of Nicaragua is Corinto, on the Pacific side. 
From this port, a railroad runs to Managua, 
and thence to Granada, on Lake Nicaragua. 

PRECAUTIONS FOR TRAVELERS. 

The capital towns of the Central-Ameri- 
can republics vary in population, but all pro- 
vide hotels and clubs that are comfortable. 
New York and Paris hostelries do not 
abound, as there is no demand for them, but 
unless a man is a chronic " kicker " he need 
not be unhappy in his Central -American sur- 
roundings. Whoever goes there should be 
provided with an abundance of light cloth- 
ing, such as white duck, brown khaki, or thin 
flannel. He must guard against the sun in 
the middle of the day, and should wear, un- 
less he carries an umbrella, a pith hat or 
some kind of sun helmet. After the sun is 
well down, the air cools off immediately, and 
the nights are generally cool. Except m tne 
higher altitudes, a mosquito net is absolutely 
necessary, and no traveler along the coast or 
in the low interior should be caught without 
one. If any time is spent in this section, it is 



also well to take regular doses of quinine, ac- 
cording to one's capacity or health, in order 
to guard against malaria. Ordinary care 
should also be exercised in the kind of food 
consumed, and even more care in die kind 
of water that is drunk. 

I do not wish to frighten anybody or make 
it appear that there is any particular danger 
while traveling in these countries. I desire 
rather to make a few simple suggestions, 
which, if followed, will make travel and life 
there more safe and agreeable. As to myself, 
I can say that during many years* residence 
as United States Minister in different tropi- 
cal countries of the Orient and America, in- 
cluding a year at Panama (before it was 
made healthy and sanitary through the great 
work of Colonel Gorgas), I never experi- 
enced a day*s sickness from any kind of trop- 
ical complaint. I exercised common-sense 
care of myself, and nothing more. To-day, I 
visit the heart of the tropics with far less hesi- 
tation than I do New England in winter. 

TRADE^ COMMERCE^ AND FINANCIAL STATUS. 

That this discussion of Central America 
may contain some exact information about its 




l»Mi n| illl IMIHMM \u 111)1 «,o\|UvNM»NI r.NJ.AvK OK HONDURAS, AT TEGUCIGALPA, 



RESOURCEFUL CENTRAL AMERICA. 



75 




SORTING COFFEE, SAN SALVADOR. 



trade, commerce, and general business, the 
latest statistics and figures, prepared in the 
International Bureau of American Republics, 
of which the writer is the director, are given 
in summarized form. The total foreign 
commerce, exports and imports, of the five 
republics amounted last year to the consid- 
erable total of $56,133,000. Of this, exports 
were ?l32, 1 70,000 ^nd imports $23,963,000, 
or a favDrable balance of nearly $10,000,000. 
The share of the L nited States in the above 
tfade Ts ifitcrestinji to note, because it aver- 
aged alxnit haU, The total was $26,376,000, 
of H^iach exports to the United States were 
5i4v992»OtTO, and imports from the United 
Srttes $! I,. 184,000, 

Taking t-ach crinntry in turn for the pur- 
pose of providing accurate and specific infor- 
madon, it is noted that the total trade of 
Guatemala with the world is $i'5 ,082,000, 
of which $6,844,000 are imports and $8,238,- 
000 are exports. Of this, the portion of the 
United States \s $5,582,000, divided as fol- 
lows: Imports, $2,707,000; exports, $2,875,- 
000. The budget for 1906-07 estimates the 



revenues of the government at $25,000,000. 

Salvador enjoys a foreign commerce of 
$9,986,000, divided into exports of $5,640,- 
000 and imports of $4,346,000. The share 
of the United States is $2,580,000, with ex- 
ports of $1,225,000 and imports of $i,355,- 
000. The annual budget for 1906-07 esti- 
mates the national revenues at $8,644,295. 

Honduras conducts an external trade with 
the world of $7,857,000, of which exports 
are $5,564,000 and imports $2,293,000. 
The United States' proportion of this trade 
is valued at $6,322,000, or much the largest 
part, of which exports to the United States 
are $4,632,000 and imports therefrom 
$1,690,000. The last budget places the reve- 
nues at $3,043,000. Although the foreign 
debt is heavy, Honduras has marvelous re- 
sources, which, developed, will enable her to 
meet her obligations. 

Nicaragua's foreign commerce reaches a 
total of $7,128,000, of which $3,926,000 
represents exports, and $3,202,000 imports. 
Of these, the share of the United States is 
nearly half, as the total is $3,757,000, 



76 



THE AMERICAS MONTHLY kE^IEl^ OF REf^/EU^S. 



with exports at $2,089,000 and imports at 
$1,668,000. The annual income for gov- 
ernment expenses is about $20,000,000. 
Nicaragua gives every ev'idencc of being 
on the highway to great material progress, 
and is offering exceptional opportunities 
for the investment of capital in both min- 
ing and agriculture. Great public improve- 
ments are also contemplated that will add 
much to the prosperity of the country. 

Although Costa Rica ranks fourth in area 
among the Central-American republics, she 
stands a good second in foreign trade. This 
amounted, in 1906, to the large sum of $16,- 
000,000, of which the exports were $8,802,- 
000 and imports $7,278,000. The United 
States shared to the extent of about half, or 
$8,135,000, with exports and imports, re- 
spectively, at $4,171,000 and $J .964,00a 
The revenue for i9o6-'o7 is estimated at 

$3,372,795. 

Ever>'body who visits Costa Rica carries 
away a good impression and has great con- 
fidence in its future. The banana business 
has grown to such size that it has become a 
decided source of wealth to the country and 
people. Mining has not been conducted on 
a large scale, but considerable mineral wealth 
is believed to exist in the mountains. 



PWNCIP.\L PRODUCTS SOLD AND BOUGHT. 

The character of the trade of Central 
America with the world and with the United 
States can be best appreciated by noting some 
of the principal articles which are exported 
and imported. Central Americans sell abroad 
coffee, bananas, rubber, cacao, dyewoods, 
valuable lumber, like mahogany and other 
cabinet woods, hides and skins, rice, sugar, 
indigo, balsam, tobacco, and minerals. They 
buy cotton and woolen cloth, machinery, rail- 
way, electric and mining outfits, wheat flour, 
drugs, and medicines, iron and steel manu- 
factures, sacks for export of coffee and fruit, 
canned provisions, and a host of lesser arti- 
cles- The list is long enough to show that 
there are great opportunities in Central 
America for the manufacturers and exporters 
of the United States if they will make vigor- 
ous efforts to exploit it along legitimate lines. 
As this trade will next year reach a total 
valuation of $60,000,000, it should be care- 
fully investigated by all those interested. 

The prindpal centers of trade and indus- 
try in Central America include Guatemala 
City, which has 96,000 people; Coban, 
Toonicapan, and Quezaltenango, in Guate- 
mala, M-ith about 25,000 each; Tegucigalpa 




MERCED STREET IN GUATEMALA CITY. 



RESOURCEFUL CENTRAL AMERICA. 



77 



with about 34,000, and Comayagua with 
10.000, in Honduras; Leon with 60,000, 
Granada with 30,000, and Managua with 
25,000, in Nicaragua; San Salvador with 
60.000, and Santa Ana with 48,000, in Sal- 
vador, and San Jose with 25,000, Heredia 
with 10,000, and Limon with 7000, in Costa 
Rica. Many of these towns are also seats 
of notable institutions of learning, such as 
the schools of law and medicine at Guate- 
mala City, the Institute of Jurisprudence and 
Political Science at Tegucigalpa, the Na- 
tional University at San Salvador, the 
schools of law, medicine, and pharmacy at 
Managua and Leon, and the schools of law 
and medicine in San Jose. 

If any one assumes that because there are 
occasional revolutions in Central America 
and the climate is somewhat tropical, there is 
not a considerable element of highly educated 
and refined men and women in the chief 
cities and towns, he labors under great error. 
A large proportion of the well-to-do people 
have traveled abroad and send their sons or 





NATIVES OF SAN SALVADOR. 

men, who are well known throughout all 
Latin America and who are becoming 
better known in the United States. The 
society found by the visitor in the Central- 
American capitals is always more interest- 
ing and cultured than he expects to meet 
before he has acquired familiarity with 
actual conditions. Guatemala City, for 
instance, is a remarkable capital, with 
nearly 100,000 people, which will become 
a popular point for travelers and tour- 
ists from the United States when the Pan- 
American Railroad or. the new line from the 
Caribbean shore is completed. In fact, 
Guatemala has a splendid future before it, 
but the world has only recently begun to 
appreciate its resources and possibilities. 
Much might also be said of the conditions 
and attractions of the other Central-Ameri- 
can capitals, like San Jose, Managua, Teguci- 
galpa, and Safi Salvador, but there is not 
space in this brief article. 



IfAlJ-n WiLi.ANifc, >.\l.\A.lHhK. 



BENEFITS OF AN 



INTERCONTINENTAL RAIL- 
WAY. 



'^.mrtx ^> the L^^nfted States and lairope 

■ i-.-^iuial advantages in addition to No matter how many steamship lines may 

fiSrlSfc schools. Each country has pro- be put in operation between the Pacific, 

^ttccd writers, historians, poets, novelists. Gulf, and Atlantic ports of the United 

jurists, doctors and surgeons, as well as states- States and Central America, the principal 



78 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REt^/EtV OF REyiElVS. 




THF. NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SAN SALVADOR. 



iMtics and points of this section of the 
North- American amtinent will never be 
I rache\l rapidly and by larpe numbers of peo- 
ple until, the Pan-American Railway system 
is a»n>itructed innw Mexico down through 
tJuatrmala, Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
ttiul \.\>sta Rica to Panama. The line now 
I caches practically to the border of Guate- 
«^><Ua» anvl there are no insurmountable diffi- 
culties in amnevtin^ it with the small systems 
tUM\ul\ in ojH^ration, or in course of construc- 
'»*»i^» in these different states. If the movc- 
UUMU which has been so strongly urged by cx- 
>^*i\atvM lleniy Ci. Davis, of West Virginia, 
*|«ul winch has been approved by the different 
• <u> AuvtMican Conferences, is carried to a 
y'M>.v»MM\»atuMK it will be one of the greatest 
'*»»NNaul Htops to Pan American unity. In 
Y^^ Venn, it hIuuiKI he jM^ssihle for a traveler 



v\» 1 



ew ^ ork and make the 

<^> each ot the Central-American 

»v vouiioH.^hle PviUinan trains. 

^H» sraix i^Vnttal America was under 

^^><hv»nts, ho^'iivnin^ with the in- 

«v» M\y\ }K^y\:!x de Alvarado on 

»»>vl v;»l Vlon/alos de Avila on the 

tN»»n»\M \.u\u* vlv»\\i\ t'rom Mexi- 



'' ^ ^'^ '^''v <ho \mw\ vame up fnmi Pana- 



ma, taking possession of what is now Costa 
Rica and Nicaragua. For long years, Central 
America was known as the Kingdom of 
Guatemala, w^ith governors appointed by the 
Spanish Government, After their independ- 
ence was consummated in the year 182 1, 
and, until 1847, these countries remained as 
one republic. Since they separated there have 
been various efforts to unite them again into 
one nation, but none of these has been com- 
pletely successful. 

THE BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

The International Bureau of the Ameri- 
can Republics, in Washington, which has the 
twofold purpose of developing commerce and 
trade and of promoting better relations and 
closer acquaintance among all the nations 
of the Western Hemisphere, w^ill be glad to 
answer any inquiries from the readers of the 
Review of Reviews about the resources, pos- 
sibilities, and general development of the Cen- 
tral-American republics which maybe suggest- 
ed by this brief description, while the able 
ministers in Washington and consuls-general 
in New York City of these countries are al- 
ways ready to consider legitimate and serious 
questions from those who may be interested. 



A YEAR OF DELAYED HARVESTS. 



npHE first half of 1907 will be notable in 
agricultural annals for its unseason- 
able weather, the uncertainty of its crop 
outlook, its delayed harvests. 

Naturally the present harvest interest of 
the United States concerns wheat, now being 
gathered over the southern half of approxi- 
mately 45,ocx),ooo acres sown in this coun- 
try to that cereal, and which shares with corn 
the precedence among farm products in 
Amenca« Further, it is of wheat alone that 
production estimate can be made at this date. 

OLD-WORLD HARVEST DISCOURAGEMENT. 

Ai the beginning of the growing season 
unfavorable conditions were manifest, not 
aloof in America but to some degree in all 
the Oy-WorliJ grain- raising area. In cen- 
tral Rii$$:a and the Danubian provinces the 
whrat-plant had been damaged; Germany 
rqwrted wheat suffering from winter kill- 
ing; southern Russia and the Balkan states 
had late seeding and lessened acreage because 
of excessive rains; interior France gave dis- 
couraging bulletins; parts of Bulgaria told 
of the severest winter effects in forty years, 
while bad weather lessened India's promise. 
Argentina alone seemed satisfied with crop- 
so^^ing operations. 

European crop news became more favor- 
able in mid-June, when needed rains broke 
droughts in Russia and some other parts of 
Europe, but the wheat situation continued 
below normal. 

In America two compelling factors have 
grcady influenced the yield : The northward 
movement of the " green bug," or grain 
louse, and the southward-reaching line of 
killing frost at an unprecedented ly late date. 

THE " GREEN-BUG " RAVAGES. 

As early as March, a month marked by 
exceptionally high temperature throughout 
the Middle-West grain-belt, the " green 
bug^s " ravages were reported from northern 
Texas, with the pest, fostered by the early 
opened spring, rapidly working into Okla- 
homa. By April it had reached Kansas and 
vas damaging the southern counties of that 
State. A campaign of extermination was 
begun by the entomological department of 
Kansas University-, assisted by millers, grain 
<iealeT8, and commercial clubs. Over 12,000 



boxes of parasite enemies of the grain louse 
were distributed in seventy counties where 
need was greatest. This agency, together 
with the unfavorable weather of May, 
checked the main army's northward progress, 
but not until it had damaged seriously the 
southern portion of the winter-wheat area, 
particularly in Texas, Oklahoma, and south- 
ern Kansas, where thousands of acres were 
totally destroyed. It infested similarly 
southeastern Colorado, where in early June 
farmers plowed under much wheat because of 
injury to the plant. Southern Nebraska also 
at this date was reporting impairment of 
wheat from the insect's inroads. Ohio and 
Indiana about this time noted its presence in 
oat-fields, and it was reported on the western 
edge of Missouri. 

The " green bug " is an importation, first 
described in Italy in 1852. In 1884 it was 
found in Maryland, though not in damaging 
numbers. In 1890 it appeared in Indiana, 
devastating the oats in some counties. It also 
in that year infested Southern wheat-fields 
and was recognized as a pest, its operations 
reaching north to latitude 39° 30'. In 1901 
it appeared in Texas, lessening materially the 
crop yields. Then it created no anxiety until 
the peculiar climatic conditions of the winter 




APPROXIMATE WHEAT TERRITORY INFESTED BY 
GREEN BUGS TO JUNE 12, I907. 



80 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 




UNE OF KILLING FROST ON MAY 27, I907. 
(Note the low latitudes reached In the West.) 



of 1906-7 brought it into renewed general 
activity. 

LATE FROSTS IN SPRING. 

While this injury was progressing north- 
ward, the lowest spring temperature on rec- 
ord was reaching down toward the Gulf in 
lines that surprised and discouraged farm 
managers. Ordinarily, mid-April ends the 
frost damage in the Western wheat-belt. 
This year freezing temperature came as late 
as May 27 over a large portion of that area; 
June 2 recorded the lowest average tempera- 
ture of any June day in the books, while the 
average for April and May was below the 
average of those months in any previous sea- 
son. Even in the South crop experts declare 
the season to have been the most " back- 
ward " since 1855. The frost-line on May 
27 dipped down to the ver\' edge of Oklaho- 
ma, overlapping the northward movement of 
the grain louse. One night's low temperature 
ruined over 5CK),ooo acres of wheat in Kansas 
alone. 

The effect of this delay in summer's ap- 
proach was twofold: First, the winter-wheat 
acreage, which reaches as far north as middle 
Nebraska, was retarded in growth, and by 
the final shcKk on May 27 was greatly im- 
paired in the heading process; second, spring- 



wheat seeding in the Dakotas and in the rap- 
idly growing wheat territory of Western 
Canada was held back to an untimely date. 
The increased area of Western Canada 
farms, however, may oflFset to some extent 
the deficiency in condition, though last year's 
total of 120,000,000 bushels is only to be 
reached by very favorable conditions hciu»- 
forth. 

SPECULATIVE MARKETS* FLUCTUATIONS, 

Speculative markets reflected weather va- 
garies in rapidly rising grain prices. July 
wheat options in Chicago and Kansas Cit>' 
were quoted : 

Kansas CItj. Chicago. 

March 15 75K 77% 

April 1 7134 7SH 

April 15 : T\\ 81 1, 

Mey 1 7.V^ 83»i, 

May 15 SC.v^ 93V. 

Ma.v 21 \\:\\\ lOlC 

June 12 84% 90vi 

The realization, on May 21, of the far- 
mer's dream of " dollar wheat " followed a 
week of pessimistic reports of damage from 
frost and bugs, — but it vanished when early 
June rains and sunshine in part had dissi- 
pated the anxiet>\ 

The Government report on June 10 \%-as 
awaited with intercut. The average condi- 
tion of winter w^eat in the United States on 
June I was given as ^^^ as compared with 



A YEAR OF DELAYED HARl^ESTS. 



81 



82.9 a month previous; 82.7 on June i, 1906; 
85.5 on June i, 1905, and a ten-year average 
of 8 1. 1. The first report of the season on 
spring wheat was made, showing an average 
condition of 88.7, as compared with 93.4 at 
the corresponding date last year; 93.7 on 
June I, 1905, and a ten-year average of 93.3. 

EXPORT DEMAND AND CHANGES. 

This report indicates a probable winter- 
wheat crop in the United States of 381,000,- 
000 bushels, compared with 492,000,000 
bushels last year; of spring wheat, 255,000,- 
000, compared with 242,000,000 last year, 
making a shortage of 100,000,000 bushels 
compared with last year. The six-3^ar period 

shows : 

Bushels. 

1907 636,000,000 

IW)« 735,000.000 

190R 692,000,000 

VMH 552,000,000 

1903 637,000,000 

1902 670,000,000 

London authorities state that the European 
wheat shortage this year will be at least 
120,000,000 bushels, as compared with last 
year, even if Russia should raise as much as 
in 1906, which is considered possible. With 
100,000,000 bushels shortage in the United 
States and 20,000,000 bushels deficiency in 
Canada, a possible result of the month-late 



seeding season, with a similar loss in India, 
probably offset by minor wheat countries and 
Argentina, and • allowing other producers 
whose condition is yet in doubt approximate- 
ly the same yields as last year, we shall have 
for the world's production in 1907: 

BnshelB. 

Europe 1,720,000,000 

North America 743,000.000 

South America 162,000,000 

Other countries 540,000,000 

Total 3,165,000,000 

While this is practically the same yield as 
^903, and considerably larger than the crops 
of 1900, 1 90 1, or 1902, it means that there 
is now a prospect for a possible 240,000,000 
bushels shortage in the world's crop, as com- 
pared with the harvest of 1906. 

GROWING HOME CONSUMPTION. 

The significance of this is the probability 
that the production in this country may easily 
prove insufficient for a year's normal con- 
sumption, necessitating a drain on reserve 
stocks and consequently higher prices for the 
coming twelve months. Europe has been 
drawing oflf American wheat since August, 
1906. For the first ten months of this fiscal 
year Europe took 66,000,000 bushels, as 
against 32,000,000 for the preceding year. 
For the full fiscal year the exports of wheat, 




AVERAGE DATES OF KILLING FROSTS IN THE SPRING OF I907. 
(The April frosts extended well Into the South.) 



82 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



including flour in terms of wheat, will aggre- 
gate about i40,oob,<xx) bushels, against 98,- 
000,000 in the fiscal year 1906 and 44,000,- 
000 in 1905. 

These figures suggest that the ability of 
the United States to contribute to the bread- 
stuff supply of the other parts of the world 
is still considerable in years of normal crops, 
notwithstanding the growth of the consuming 
population and the drift of emigration from 
the agricultural area to the manufacturing 
centers. 

It should be remembered, however, that 
from last year's record-breaking crop Ameri- 
can farmers had on hand March i, 206,600,- 
000 bushels, or 46,000,000 bushels more than 
in March, 1906; 95,000,000 bushels more 
than in 1905, and by far the largest quantity 
in two decades. This should make up for 
considerable deficiency. 

WHEAT SHORTAGE AND PROSPERITY. 

The economic relation of a wheat shortage 
to general prosperity is intimate. In each of 
the five years ending with June 30, 1906, this 
country was growing an average of 660,000,- 
000 bushels, and exporting 140,000,000 
bushels. The totals are : 

Consumption. 
Bushels. 
514,000,000 
467,000,000 
517,000,000 
511,000.000 
595,000,000 





Crop. 


Export. 




Bushels. 


Bushels. 


1002 


748,000,000 


235,000,000 


1003 


070,000,000 


203,000,000 


1904 


038,000,000 


121,000,000 


1905 


552,000,000 


44,000,000 


1906 


093,000,000 


98,000,000 



Average... 060,000,000 142,000,000 520,000,000 

If the present indication of a total yield 
of 636,000,000 bushels be maintained, the 
farmers will not make so bad a showing after 
all, though they may gather some 25,000,000 
bushels less wheat than the average of the 
past six years of plenty. How large will be 
the margin between the total yield and the 
consumption demand will depend on how 
the spring wheat in the Northwest, not yet in 
the heading-out stage, comes on. It may, in- 
deed, turn out that the full average will be 
upheld. 

corn's late start. 

The same climatic conditions in the United 
States that hampered wheat were detrimental 
to corn. Farmers delayed their planting, and 
when at last seedihg was done, cold and 
drought held back the crop's growth until in 
some sections replanting was necessary. As a 
result, the corn crop is three weeks behind 
its usual condition, and over most of the corn- 
growing States it was in mid- June only a 
few inches high. In many fields where v/heat 



was plowed up because of damage from bugs 
or frost, corn took its place, this increased 
acreage probably so offsetting the corn lost at 
first planting that the acreage is brou^t 
practically to that of last year. 

Nothing can be predicted of com until the 
hot winds of summer have passed and danger 
of early frosts in autumn is gone. The 
United States last year raised 2,927,000,000 
bushels out of the 3,795,400,000 bushels 
production of the world, or over 70 per cent 
Thus far the price of corn has advanced 
sympathetically with that of wheat, sharing 
the general influence of an anticipated short- 
age of breadstuffs, and if the crop shall real- 
ize the present fair start, it will add material- 
ly to the farmer's income. Canada, which 
raises only about 35,000,000 bushels, has 
scarcely started on its corn season. 

MINOR crops' outlook. 

The oats crop, which follows closely after 
com and wheat in importance in this coun- 
try, has an average outlook, though backward 
because of the cold spring, and the probabil- 
ities are for about the yield of last year. Some 
sections, notably those of the Middle West, 
where " green bugs " ruined a large acreage 
and frosts did harm, will give small returns, 
but the effect is local, and may not change 
materially the total results. Its increase of 
500,000 acres will go far toward oflFsetting 
the decrease in general conditions. 

Forage crops are likely to show increased 
acreage, taking the place of wheat and other 
crops that because of frosts or insects have 
been abandoned. Barley and rye show con- 
ditions slightly below normal, but this in- 
fluence is not material in the general sum- 
ming up of the farmer's outlook. 

HOW MUCH COTTON SHORTAGE? 

The prospects now are that a cotton crop 
of the proportions of last year is out of the 
question. How much less it will be is a 
fundamental problem in the South. The 
average cotton crop of the past decade has 
been a little over 11,000,000 bales. Last 
year it was 10,777,000 bales. The outlook 
is for something less than this, — it may fall 
as low as 10,000,000 bales. But the milling 
capacity and demand are for at least 1,000,- 
000 bales more, and the effect of a shortage 
would not only decrease the income of cotton 
growers directly (a minor consideration in 
the economic consideration of the matter), 
but would reduce the earnings of transporta- 
tion companies appreciably and intensify the 



THE MIDDLE WEST AND WALL STREET, 



83 



competition among the textile producers of 
the world. Each of these classes would shift 
as much as possible of the burden upon con- 
sumers, giving further impetus to the upward 
trend of cotton prices, which in ^even years 
have increased 20 per cent. 

MOVING THE CROPS. 

No sooner will threshing begin in the 
Western grain-belt than the railroads will 
be met with the old problem of moving the 
crops. Last year this was a trial until mid- 
winter, when it was followed by equal diffi- 
culty in transporting fuel and merchandise to 
those in need. It was explained then that worn- 
out rolling stock and deficient trackage were 
largely responsible for the trouble. Whether 
or not these delinquencies have been remedied 
sufficiently to handle the present harvest re- 
mains to be seen. Railway managers doubt- 
less are well satisfied that there is not on their 
hands another record-breaking yield. Tak- 
ing into consideration the grain yet in farm- 
ers* hands, and the hurried movement that 
hi^ prices may encourage, they are likely to 
have more than enough to do for many 
months to come. 

AMERICAN farmers' GOOD I^ORTUNE. 

Good fortune appears to attend the Amer- 
ican farmer, despite the belated season. The 



prospect for making up from foreign plenty 
the shortage, caused by delayed sunshine and 
abnormal temperature at home, is small. 
Europe, as has been shown, has its own crop 
deterioration to consider; Australia, India, 
and the Philippines will give no marvelous 
returns in food production ; South America is 
optimistic, but the extent of its harvest is yet 
uncertain. Lessened bushels of grain and 
lacking bales of cotton mean continued high 
prices, — not to be beaten down, because no- 
where in the world is an opulence of yield 
visible. 

The American farmer is much better oflE 
than he expected to be when ice and snow in 
May caused alarm. On the whole, his de- 
layed harvest, though lessened in quantity, 
may give him a return almost as satisfactory in 
dollars and cents as some of greater volume 
gone before. With a wheat surplus from 
last year in his granaries, he is in a position 
to contemplate with equanimity the coming 
twelvemonth. 

The consumer may have to face a problem 
of increased living expense, but the farmer, 
even if his corn gives only a moderately satis- 
factory yield, will forget last spring's gloomy 
perspective and consider himself well treated. 
From this source, at least, we need anticipate 
no material lessening of our national 
prosperity. 



THE MIDDLE WEST AND WALL STREET. 

BY CHARLES MOREAU HARGER. 



\X^HEN, in the early spring, reports of 
the Wall Street crash in stocks were 
wired over the country, a central Kansas 
banker was startled by the abrupt entrance 
of an agitated customer. 

" The bucket shop says Union Pacific has 
fallen tuenty-one points, and the whole mar- 
ket has had a panic," was the visitor's an- 
nouncement. 

" Is that so ? " remarked the banker, in a 
non-committal tone, without trace of excite- 
ment, and as if there were no particular 
significance in the matter. 

He utnt on calmly making out twenty- 
dollar notes for John Smith and Richard 
Roc, secured by mortgages on their cows 
and horses, payable sixty days after date at 
8 per cent. 

That was about the effect that the Wall 
Street flurry had on Western banks and 
feancial interests generally. 



To put it bluntly: The West has about 
as much interest in the operations of Wall 
Street as it has in the gambling at Monte 
Carlo. It cares about as much concerning* 
the ups and downs of the men who make and 
break the prices of stock-market securities as 
it cares concerning the operators at Monte 
Carlo. It looks upon Wall Street as a gam- 
bling-place, not as a business center. 

Ten years ago the West was afraid of 
Wall Street. It knew that it owed a great 
deal of money to the East. It feared that 
there might be a pressing for payment and 
that it could not pay. But with the coming 
of a series of good crops, that are yet con- 
tinuing, the West began to rise above its 
financial difficulties; then gathered, slowly at 
first, but more rapidly of late, a surplus 
which has shown itself in increased bank de- 
posits, better dwell '""^ "'*w public struc- 
tures, improvemf ^ort. It ad- 



84 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REI^IE]VS. 



justed its debt to the East and was inde- 
pendent. 

So to-day the West looks on Wall Street 
exactly as it looks* on Monte Carlo, as a 
resort of gamblers whose stakes are railway 
and trust securities instead of ivory counters. 
It seems just as immaterial to the average 
Westerner who wins or who loses at the 
stock-market game as it does whether the 
wheel stops on the red or on the black. 
Possibly the judgment is wrong, but it is, 
nevertheless, the West's opinion. 

Another thing: The average Westerner 
has no more confidence in the stock-manipu- 
lating crowd than he has in the dealer at the 
Monte Carlo hazard. 

Whether this judgment be right or wrong, 
whether this sentiment be unfair or correct, 
has nothing to do with the case, — the judg- 
ment and the sentiment are there, and they 
are so common as to dominate Western 
communities. 

Take the city banker : The president of a 
leading Kansas City bank was also visited by 
an anxious customer, who asked : " Will the 
Wall Street flurry hurt you any?" 

" Will the fate of Wall Street cause the 
West to raise any less wheat this year?" 
replied the banker. 

" No, — of course not." 

" Will it lessen the number of cattle on 
the ranges, or the flocks of sheep in the 
Northwest?" 

" Hardly.' 

" How about the oit wells? the mines? 
the irrigation ditches? Any danger of their 
giving out ? " 

The visitor shook his head. 

"Then why worry about Wall Street? 
So long as our farms and pastures and nat- 
ural enterprises continue to thrive it makes 
no difference to us what * the Street ' does." 

COMPLAINT OF RAILROAD MANIPULATION. 

This is the West's position in brief. It 
aflFects the whole domain of the plains re- 
gion. The West wants straightforward 
business methods, and its complaint against 
Wall Street is that legitimate development is 
not the object of the promoters there. 

For instance, if the railway financiers of 
" the Street " were bending their energies 
toward making the Western railroads serve 
communities well, instead of influencing the 
stock market, the West would be their loyal 
supporter rather than their critic. The be- 
lief that Western roads, made prosperous by 
Western development, have been unfairly 



manipulated by stock jobbers, is the basis for 
much " radical " legislation. 

The process of education on this point has 
been cumulative. It was not alone Lawson, 
nor the insurance troubles, nor the Interstate 
Commerce Commission's investigations by 
themselves, but all of them together, coming 
one after the other to lay their influence on 
the minds of farmers and business men, creat- 
ing an intense suspicion and fear of the " cap- 
tains of industry," and of the ** communit> 
of interests." The former have become, 
in the minds of Westerners, financial high- 
waymen seeking for victims, — and this alien- 
ation may be the source of grave financial 
distress some day. 

THE WESTERN FARMER IN TOUCH WITH 
CURRENT EVENTS. 

A new sort of education has been in prog- 
ress in the West. Each morning, practically 
every farmer .east of a line drawn north and 
south midway east and west, through Kan- 
sas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas, receives his 
mail by rural carrier. Daily papers arc car- 
ried in great bundles, and the reading habit 
has spread enormously throughout the Mis- 
sissippi Valley. The Westerner is in touch 
with the world's events up to the evening 
of the preceding day, — which is a far differ- 
ent thing from being a week or more behind 
the times. The farmer knows the meaning 
of financial terms better than he did in the 
days of arguments on the " per capita " and 
the " heaven-born ratio." He has a bank 
account of his own. Hundreds of countn* 
banks are owned by farmers who have placed 
their savings in bank stock in order to have a 
profitable income, — and because they had no 
immediate possibility of investing it so profit- 
ably otherwise. 

The keynote of the West to-day is opti- 
mism. It has such a tremendous amount of 
business heaped up, such expansive plans for 
the future, that it is unable to comprehend 
any possible influence of Wall Street on its 
aflFairs. 

THE WEST IS BUILDING UP ITS OWN IN- 
DUSTRIES. 

Go into any country district and mingle 
with the crowds in the streets and this im- 
presses itself powerfully upon you. Things 
are coming the West's way with vehemence. 
In every town are new industries; new man- 
ufactories are being built; the money of the 
West is going into plants for making things. 
The industrial era is here. 



THE MIDDLE WEST AND WALL STREET. 



86 



Organize a company and more stock will 
be subscribed than you care to issue. No one 
suggests sending a representative back East 
to get some capital, — as once was the fashion. 
The money is nearer at hand ; it is not neces- 
S3jy to cross the Mississippi River. 

So the Eastern financiers are being elimi- 
nated from direct financial operations in the 
Middle West, and their interest is becom- 
ing'chiefly that of the railroad owners or of 
individual investors in Western properties, 
rather than possessors generally of Western 
securities. 

That accounts for some of the West's in- 
dependence. 

Another thing: The West is terrifically 
busy. Call a meeting of the board of direc- 
tors of a country bank, — ^you will find half 
the members pleading engagements and ask- 
ing that the proceedings be cut short ; invite 
a company of business men together for mu- 
tual interest, and the absences will be many 
because of the press of personal affairs. The 
towns have so much to do that the " town 
roH-s" are forgotten, and politics exists most- 
ly in the newspapers and in the activities of 
the few politicians, rather than in the com- 
munity at large. It is a common complaint 
that it is hard to interest the voters in elec- 
tions. A few years ago (Campaigns were the 
meat and drink of the Westerner. 

A WESTERN SURPLUS FOR EASTERN INVEST- 
MENT. 

The Western bankers have become wise 
in management of their surplus. The rates 
for loans are about two-thirds those of two 
ticcades ago. Few banks pay more than 3 
per cent, on time deposits; most banks pay 
no interest at all. The loan field is neces- 
Narily limited, through the growing wealth 
';t the farmers and the decreased dependence 
on the banks for loans. 

Hence, it follows that the Western banks 
frequently have large surplus funds for 
which they have no immediate call. Some 
bankers are learning that the East wants this 
nwney, and sales of " commercial paper " 
throughout the Western States are numerous. 
Every banker receives daily offerings from 
^ brokers. Scattered through the Missis- 
^ppi Valley west of the Missouri River will 
he found Eastern firms* notes, — factories in 
Massachusetts, stores in New York, pack- 
ing-houses in Chicago, — and the rates are 
sometimes higher than they are at the hank- 
y's home. When the Government opened 
bids for Phib'ppinc bonds a few months ago 



a Kansas City banker outbid the Easterners, 
because he had more money at his command 
seeking investment. 

The bank deposits of the West were at their 
high-water mark this spring. This was the 
explanation of a country banker out in cen- 
tral Nebraska: " Out of my bank last Sat- 
urday was checked $115,000. It went to 
pay for land and to invest in various enter- 
prises. Yet in the week we gained $16,000 
in deposits, meaning that outsiders brought 
approximately $130,000 to the town. That 
was exceptional ; it being the first of March, 
moving time was responsible. But the ten- 
dency for fann savings to come into the 
West is increasing. The farmers of Iowa, 
Illinois, and States of that section, have been 
buyers of securities of late years. They have 
invested in commercial paper of the better 
sort, and in the stocks of Western railroads. 
The shake-up in Wall Street has scared 
them, and they are unloading stocks and 
buying land or farm mortgages. This, in 
my opinion, is responsible for a great deal 
of the land craze now so exciting our 
sectioo." 

** Will it increase, or has it reached the 
maximum ? " 

"It may increase, — but we are selling our 
land. The bank has taken in a great deal 
of land, it standing^ us about $40 an acre. 
On that basis we are netting from rents 
about 8 per cent. Now land has gone to 
$70 to $75 an acre, yet the rents are no 
higher nor the crops larger. Consequently 
we are netting only a little over 4 per cent. 
I would rather take a 5 per cent, mortgage 
on the land than one-third of the crops. As 
I said, the land values are bringing down 
the interest return, — but the dissatisfaction 
with Eastern financial ideas, as the West un- 
derstands them, is turning money this way, 
and is likely to continue to do so for a time." 

With such a condition is it any wonder 
that the West is not greatly interested in the 
proceedings in Wall Street? 

One phase is yet to be noted : The craze 
for regulation of corporations through 
State legislation. 

While the West feels financially inde- 
pendent, while it has its own resources to 
such an extent that it feels able to hold its 
head aloft, while it considers the operations 
of Wall Street manipulators as remote in 
the direct effect, while it boastfully expresses 
its disregard of the ups and downs of stocks, 
while it refuses to become excited over the 
" crashes " and " rallies " of the market, it 



86 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REyiEW OF REI^/EIVS. 



has a nervous apprehension of what the finan- 
cial potentates may do in the future. 

It distrusts them, but it fears the exercise 
of their power. 

This anxiety is the underlying cause of the 
recent erection of a rampart of anti-corpora- 
tion legislation by Western legislatures. It 
is an instinctive provision against being 
crushed by the power of immense sums of 
money, juggled in the hands of men consid- 
ered soulless when the common people's in- 
terests are concerned. When Oklahoma 
wrote its constitution during the past winter, 
— and this must be taken as the latest word 
in constitutions, — it devoted an unusually 
large amount of space to corporations; and 
so severe were the provisions that predictions 
of " driving out capital " are freely made by 
the opponents of the form in which that or- 
ganic law is written. This threat is proba- 
bly groundless. 

Oklahoma did no more than express the 
misgivings that animate Western legisla- 
tures. Many of the laws adopted by them 
during the past winter have been more 
drastic in regulating corporations, especially 
railroads and trusts, than were those of the 
Populist statesmen when in power. In other 
words, the West, now thrifty, intends to 
retain its prosperity free frpm the control of 
stock manipulators-, — as the reformers of fif- 
teen years ago, when* the West was poor, 
sought to regain a freedom of which they 
deemed it had been robbed. 

FRIENDLY RELATIONS WITH THE EAST. 

The action of certain Western bankers, 
referred to above, in buying blocks of Eastern 
industrial securities when interest rates are 
favorable is interesting because indicative of 
an approaching condition likely to become 
general. Broader ideas of financial opera- 
tions are being taught by the new prosperity. 

The time is coming, and it is not far dis- 
tant, when the Western surplus of savings 
and its fund for investment will exceed its 
local needs. The farms cannot keep on pro- 
ducing riches without both supplying the 
demands of home markets and giving the 
banks and investors more capital than is 
needed near at hand. Then the West will 



have to consider investment elsewhere, ai 
unless there shall be developed mighty man 
facturing industries in the West to compa 
with those of the East, the Atlantic Stat 
will receive a large share of the Westc 
loan fund. In other words, the reserves 
Eastern banks will be built up because 
the higher rate of interest there obtainab 
It is in this way that the return flow - 
Western money to the East is likely to coir 
How far in the future this may be is pro 
lematical. It depends largely on the conti 
uance of the abundant crops which hsA 
shown a steady procession of munificence f» 
the past eight years. 

The West has learned to discriminate. 

Time was when the West, embittered I 
hardship, spoke unkindly of the East as a 
oppressor. That day has passed. For tl 
East, as a section of the nation, arc onl 
friendship and sentiments of mutualit 
The Westerner no more holds the Easter 
business man, manufacturer, or banker, n 
sponsible for Wall Street's limelight pci 
formers than the East connects the Wester 
farmer with Jesse James. 

The West is keenly hopeful and is some 
what proud of the unusual financial powe 
that has come to its hands. This power i 
the direct gift of fields and herds and flocb 
The indications are that it is going to con 
tinue; for with the better understanding o 
how to suit production to climate and how ti 
utilize the discoveries of advanced agricul 
ture, a general and overwhelming crop fail 
ure is unlikely. Only a succession of bac 
years can have permanent eflFect. 

On the other hand, many thinking West- 
erners, realizing the Western sentiment to- 
ward the operators of Wall Street, without 
passing judgment on its correctness, fear the 
indirect eflFect of Eastern business stagnation, 
which would aflFect the West through alarm 
in financial circles, as well as in lessening 
the market for the West's products. 

To this extent, they say, the West is an 
interested party, — but the average Westerner 
does not study the situation so analytically, 
and for the present watches the ups and 
downs of " the Street " as he would a lurid 
drama, himself being merely a spectator. 



lead: 



N.ij ---^ - 



^iaa> bet»er= *^-^^._ - r-e 
hjs been '^"""^ .^- -" ^ --^ **" 

ly accepted »^ - _ ^ , ^. _ --.r^ 
that consaer— - --^ -..^rf a^ 
aui indioat^-*-' - ; "- "- ^-_ -- 

. past a?^,.^^ :.-;-: 

labor market * ^^_;_-.-„ 







•bor inarKCT " ^^.;_- 

.ral snaps up t.* " -^-:-T -t -'-*» -- **" ' 

the iiiusck »j^^i tr.i>q'«" \i*j",r:,- :-at v;r. te 

founded or no^ ^^it^dc co.U^g^r ^ ^^^^ ^ ,T^. ^^^r^^^^.^^ ,„a u.t .. 
that hardh an> ar>-rot *«."j~:^,i%e. trusting the men »-''"., „ ,<„. top. 

Uer calculated^^ i^ii; i '1X1 Tts them feel thn ^-e a ' ^ 'lo ,r,..t ..'> 
«^- °^T?tha7^ true ot *« «»J^,"^^''un- much tr^-J'%Pl\^ h bu.incvs . .U ...» 

.ffect upon the - persona^^ ^ f^^.^s ^S^ Tpe sonably PcrmU. to V.^e - ^^ 

fortunate. It^'J^^^Jstrj-. ,f *"^, '^-^^ng hTs hearing to reasc.nahle rem -„>.l 

,,,i^«.; »* '^^c Nvorl-i. the so'"**;!^^^.. ^metimes move* h.m n^'^,; ; ,„„,,.,yrr, 



88 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REyiElV OF REI^IEIVS. 



may be at stake in the case hangs upon the 
extent to which these personal qualities stand 
behind the bond." The possibility of dis- 
charge for presenting a complaint indicates 
lack of good executive management, and has 
given rise to the " business agent." For em- 
ployers to refuse to meet " outside " repre- 
sentatives, Mr. Robbins has a withering con- 
tempt. The privilege of stating complaints 



is the vested right of the workingman. 
" This right of conference is the safet>'-valve 
whereby the labor steam inside the capitalist 
boiler finds its necessary vent without 
blowing up the boiler." In conclusion, he 
says: "Our need is not so much to dis- 
cover brand-new patented * systems,' or guar- 
anteed panaceas, as it is to rediscover each 
other," 



OUR CURRENCY-REFORM PROBLEM. 



ylN interesting paper on currency reform, 
in which. the inelasticity of our national 
bank note currency, the consequent need for 
extra currency in crop-moving seasons, its con- 
traction and inflation on account of its rela- 
tion to the public debt, the danger of infla- 
tion in connection with Panama-Canal bor- 
rowing, the illustrative lesson of New Eng- 
land's experience before the Civil War, the 
artificial value of Government bonds and the 
necessity for maintaining it, and, in addition, 
an examination of the currency-reform 
measure recently proposed by the American 
Bankers' Association and New York Cham- 
ber of Commerce are included, is that by Mr. 
Fred. R. Fairchild, in the Yale Review for 
May. 

In his review he divides the monetary s>^- 
tem into three groups: Gold and silver coin ; 
gold and silver certificates ; and credit money, 
including United States notes, treasury notes 
of 1890, and national-bank notes. Of these 
we have a circulation of about $1,000,000,- 
000 of each. Credit money is imperfectly 
provided for, and this is the root of our cur- 
rency evil. Our antiquated national-banking 
s>'stem explains the inelasticity in our volume 
of bank notes. Originated at the time of the 
Civil War to make a market for Government 
bonds and provide a safe, uniform currency, 
through the 10 per cent, tax on State bank 
issues, it became the general note issue s\*s- 
tem, and, guaranteed by the deposit of Gov- 
ernment bonds, became an artificial market 
for the national debt. 

This destroyed the elasticity of the notes, 
which is abundantly established ever>^ fall 
when a demand arises ft)r more money to 
facilitate the crop movement. At least $1 50,- 
txx>,cxx> is neetled. But we have no bank 
credit to supply it. Countr>* banks habitually 
deposit part of their reserves '\\\ banks in 
Kastern reserve cities. This, in t\irn, finds 
its way into the New ^Ork motley markets, 



and when a demand for its return comes 
from the country banks loans are hurriedly 
called, interest rates go skyrocketing, and 
contraction follows when the countr>''s need 
for currency is greatest. 

Having the national debt as its basis is the 
very worst possible foundation for our cur- 
rency, for there is practically no limit to \\s 
inflation or contraction, which the Govern- 
ment's necessities may cause, regardless of 
business or monetary conditions. Thus b^ 
tM-een April 23, 1880, and October 2, 1890, 
circulation declined from $320,759,472 to 
$122,928,085, a decrease of 62 per cent.; 
while the number of banks increased by 71 
per cent. Note circulation, as shown, d^ 
clined nearly two-thirds because the Govern- 
ment was using its surplus to pay off its debt, 
which was reduced from $1,196,000,000 in 
1879 to $891,000,000 in 1890, — more than 
one-half in eleven years! Government bonds 
immediately rose and circulation consequently 
declined. Contraction of this kind is bad. 
but if an increase in the nation's debt should 
be followed by a limitless expansion, — v;\izt 
then ? The alternative is possible. 

The expected Panama issues may lead to 
note inflation, for these are valid security for 
further circulation. This inflation will have 
no connection with the world's gold stock, 
and to make room for it gold would be forced 
to leave the country, which would materially 
weaken our whole financial system, — the very 
opposite result of an expansion of credit by 
means of deposits based on gold. When 
deposits expand reserves must increase, and 
may lead to the importation of gold; but 
bank-notes may be increased indefinitely and 
lead to its expulsion when the currency be- 
comes redundant. 

A hank-note system based on the general 
assets of the banks, wth a reserve of gold, 
would remove our defects. A note and 'a 
deposit should be regarded as essentially idcn- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



89 



tical credits. Mr. Fairchild here illustrates 
the force of his contention by pointing to the 
history of the Suffolk Bank of Boston* and 
the New England banks of issue, which, " in 
spite of the absence of nearly all the legal 
regulations commonly supposed to be neces- 
sary to sound banking, furnished for twenty 
years a credit currency recognized by con- 
temporary critics and students to-day as 
worthy of the highest praise." While this 
system flourished, the annual loss was only 
$42,000 in an average annual circulation of 
$33,148,000, or one-eighth of I per cent. 

Similarly, have we an excellent illustra- 
tion of the successful operation of an asset 
currency in the Canadian system. Notes are 
issued by chartered banks up to the amount of 
paid-up capital, with the general assets of the 
bank as security. The note-holder is the 
prior-Hen creditor of the bank, and is further 
protected by a redemption fund, composed of 
contributions from each bank of 5 per cent. 
of its average circulation, held by the Cana- 
dian Government. This system enjoys safety, 
elasticity, and convenience. Every year 
Canadian note circulation expands by about 
$15,000,000 between midsummer and Octo- 
ber, and contracts when the crop moving is 
over; so that it is again stable in January. 

" No system involving immediate abandon- 



ment of our bond-secured notes can be seri- 
ously proposed," says he, " for the reason that 
it would result in the depreciation of Gov- 
ernment bonds," and entail loss to the banks. 
To repeal the 10 per cent, tax on State-bank 
notes, he considers inadvisable, also. The 
plan of the American Bankers' Association 
and New York Chamber of Commerce, 
while not perfect, is a step in the right direc- 
tion, especially the suggestion that future 
issues of bonds be not available for bank-note 
security. The present limit to retirement of 
national bank-notes ($9,000,000) should be 
removed entirely, in the opinion of Mr. Fair- 
child. The suggestion for a tax on credit 
currency, while no part of a permanent sys- 
tem of scientific currency, he believes may 
operate as an additional safeguard. 

" Wildcat " banking does not go hand in 
hand with asset currency, but, as a matter of 
historical financial truth,, was connected di- 
rectly with the very system of bond deposit 
which is the foundation of our present na- 
tional banking system. " The superiority," 
says he, " of asset currency over bond-secured 
notes seems to be established both by theoreti- 
cal reasoning and practical experience. The 
situation in the United States is undoubtedly 
a complicated one, and the progress of reform 
must be slow and diflScult." 



HAVE WE PASSED THE ZENITH OF OUR INDUSTRIAL 

EFFICIENCY? 



p ROM an analysis of a bulletin of the De- 
partment of Commerce and Labor, 
which, he claims, indicates impaired efficiency 
on the part of our manufacturing population, 
Mr. J. W. Bennett discusses this question in 
the Arena for May. Briefly summarized, he 
contends that all manufacturing industries 
show decreased efficiency, because there is 
less value produced per worker ; more capital 
IS used per worker ; more expensive and less 
efficient superintendence is now necessary; 
less net value is produced per $1000 capital 
employed, and because miscellaneous expenses 
arc higher. 

There is an unmistakable retrograde move- 
ment. It is accompanied by the greatest con- 
solidation era in our history. The most vital 
argmnent for consolidation is increased economy 
and mcreased efficiency. Is consolidation along 
the lines it is now being conducted rather the 
cause of increased extravagance and inefficienc)^ ? 
Is our theorizing about greater economies in 



large establishments to be all upset by the cold 
logic of facts? This brings us to the important 
question : Why the deterioration ? 

The indirectness of our processes, the pay- 
ment of several profits besides rent, interest, 
and transportation charges, in addition to 
much waste, are responsible for the deteriora- 
tion. For instance: In primitive industry 
food was consumed where it was raised, and 
clothing was manufactured where the fiber 
was produced. Labor was direct. We look 
at a knitting machine and think of the end- 
less number of persons one knitter can supply. 
But we lose sight of the machine maker, 
money-lender, banker, miner, and railroad 
man, who all participate in that process! 
Similarly with every conceivable industrial 
or manufacturing agency. We do not keep 
in our mind's eye the endless processes 
that have to be gone through to get to 
the point of completion, and their waste 



90 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



and cost. Friction is outrunning our in- 
ventive genius. 

Our efficiency, he asserts, is impaired by 
the enormous profits which we pay on each 
of the many processes necessary to create the 
finished article; in interest on increased capi- 
tal ; rents ; transportation ; marketing or dis- 
tribution; by the indirectness of our proc- 
esses; transportation charges made necessary 
through railway exploitation ; growing depre- 
ciation of an increasingly complex and expen- 
sive plant; waste; sham capitalization; di- 
version of the most highly paid executive 
talent to speculative activities for personal 
gain ; unearned salaries ; " red tape *' ; stifling 
of individual initiative and ambition, and by 
multiplying non-productive workers and mere 
idlers. 



' The age of consolidation has becomes the 
age of inefficiency, and with our pitiably 
small production per worker this is a most 
serious matter. Then let us remove the ob- 
stacles to better things (supra) and improve 
the kind of organization we have. Organiza- 
tion is right in principle, but that principle 
to be beneficial must not be restricted for the 
benefit of a few, but must inure to the whole 
people. " The few cannot wallow in un- 
earned wealth," says he, " without destroying 
the efficiency of the many. If we arc to 
maintain a strong, efficient, democratic state, 
we must develop it along the lines of the co- 
operative commonwealth rather than give our 
industrial and political organization over to 
the irresponsible industrial autocracy which 
we have .so blithely built up." 



THE BRYAN-BEVERIDGE DEBATE. 



TN the discussion of " 'Vrusts and Their 
Treatment," in the May Reader, Sena- 
tor Beveridge*s presentation is livelier and 
more concrete than the rather academic and 
platitudinal argument of the Nebraskan. 

Mr. Bryan defines a trust to be a corpora- 
tion, which by itself, or in conjunction with 
others, controls a sufficient proportion of the 
article produced or handled to enable it ap- 
proximately to determine the terms and con- 
ditions of sale or purchase. It appears in 
four forms: The advanced form, such as the 
Northern Securities Company, which aims 
to control other corporations by means of 
*' holding companies," whereby a compara- 
tively few men, with a relatively small 
amount of capital, reduce the amount of 
money necessary to exercise a controlling in- 
fluence in competitive companies, and so ab- 
sorb them. The second is the " duplication 
of directorates," the most insidious form in 
which monopoly manifests itself. With the 
same men directing the aflFairs of several cor- 
porations, the latter practically become one, 
thus suspending competition. This he illus- 
trates by reference to the trust companies, 
banks, and investment companies organized 
by the insurance directors, with which the 
public is already familiar, and pointedly asks: 
" Can a man serve two masters? Can he 
represent, and do it fairly and honestly, the 
stockholders of two companies which deal 
with each other?" Construction and equip- 
ment companies formed by railroad directors 
are other illustrations cited by him. He 



would remedy this by prohibiting the election 
of the same men to a double directorate in 
corporations in competition, or engaged in 
dealing, with each other. 

A third form is found in a combination of 
separate corporations under a contract which 
stifles competition. This should be punished 
by imprisonment. The single corporation 
which buys up enough factories to give it 
control of a given business is the fourth form 
of the trust. The United States Steel Com- 
pany is an illustration. Such " private 
monopolies are indefensible and intolerable," 
for they not only control their patrons and 
employees, but tend to corrupt those in au- 
thorit>% through self-interest, and bankrupt 
all rivals. 

Railroad rebates and a protective tariff 
have been the mainstays of our industrial 
monopolies, and a law authorizing the free 
admission of articles entering into conipeti- 
tion with the products of a protected trust 
and lessening import duties, in general, would 
prove a deterrent. Through its size and re- 
sources a private monopoly may resort to 
unscrupulous methods to kill off competition. 
It can undersell until its rival is ruined, and 
then recoup by raising its prices. A federal 
law forbidding a corporation to do business 
outside the State of its creation, without an 
interstate license, is his remedy for curbing 
*' the private monopoly, which has always 
been an outlaw." The license, he believes, 
should arbitrarily fix, in addition, the pro- 
portion of the total product that the licensee 



ADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



Pfe. 

5t 



'.ations, likewise ? 

terial contributions 

rust problem, for 

ley are fixed up." 

lawful and nat- 

•y pave the way* 

nerships can buy 

Id not corpora- 

r corporations? 

""o prevent men 

than one cor- 

- and absurd. 

rbids such an 

itions arc so 

ey cannot be 



considered apart. No ukase of any autocrat 
on earth ever went so far as Mr. Bryan in 
this respect. The " franchise " plan, while 
constitutional, is not practicable. It would 
lead to too much regulation and so kill busi- 
ness, and not the evils of business. More- 
over, the grant would be arbitrary and would 
only insure four years of stability at a time. 
This would paralyze American business, and 
lead to confusion and instability. It would 
also tend to convert the corporations, through 
their officers and business representatives, 
into a monstrous political machine to per- 
petuate an Administration that was friendly 
to them. 



\TIVE HOUSEKEEPING FAILS. 



k 

I 

ft 
4 



as not may be organized, the families themselves 
' never may not. They believe that what has been 
e fact difficult and expensive for a single family 
for becomes easy for many families. This the 
'on; writer considers pathetic and amusing. 
k " Home and housework are not synonymous. 
/.- Love is physical and psychical, marriage is 
. social, the family is physiological and psycho- 
social, the home is psycho-physical, but house- 
work is industrial, — a thing of an entirely 
"fferent order. Individuals, not families, 
ke a social structure. The members of a 
^y individually mingle with others, but 





Mm 











I'EHKIN* ".It-MAS. 



92 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REyiElV OF REyiElVS. 



criminal, States rights stand in the way of a 
national franchise or incorporation law. 
Therefore, he recommends a plan modeled 
on the present English law, and will intro- 
duce such a bill at the next session of Con- 
gress : " A national law requiring every in- 
terstate corporation doing a business of $5,- 
000,000, or over, which puts stock on the 
markets, conspicuously to publish the exact 
truth as to every possible item that might 
influence purchases." This demands mere 
truth and would end overcapitalization. 
Purchased newspapers, and the corruption of 
public opinion thereby, are other evils of the 
trusts which the people alone can end, " by 
learning to know such papers when they see 
them." On the good sense and pure heart 
of the American people he relies for a solu- 
tion. ■ 

MR. Bryan's rejoinder. 

Replying to Senator Beveridge, Mr. 
nr>'an, in the June Reader, accuses the latter 
of having a confused idea of the trust prob- 
lem and an almost hopeless view of the 
future. Improved machinery', says he, has no 
necessary connection with the trust question, 
and Senator Beveridge does not distinguish 
between an industry on a large scale and a 
monopoly. The latter is not an economic 
development, and its benefits are not equal to 
its evils. There is a leak in the transfer of 
authority, because the operative is so far re- 
moved from the superintendent, which pre- 
vents efficiency and leads to waste. Genius 
is also retarded, and deterioration in quality 
of output is sure to accompany an increase in 
price. Referring to the meat industry, he 
said it was not necessary for one monopoly to 
pack all that the people consume, and reduc- 
tion in price would go hand in hand with 
competition. 

Natural laws are too slow to check the 
trusts, and " the small competitor who has 
been bankrupted by a trust will find no com- 
fort in the confident expectation that some 
>ears after he has gone out of business natu- 
ral laws will break up the trust." This, in 
answer to Senator Bevcridgc's reference to 
the Wire Nail Pool, supra. The Steel Trust 
sells abroad cheaper than at home, and its 
net earnings exceed the total paid in wages, 
unlike the boot and shoe industry of Massa- 
chusetts, wherein there is competition. 

Rebates are not yet ended, as witness the 

prosecutions of Standard Oil, and campaign 

--ntributions will never be satisfactorily 

I until the list of contributors is pub- 



lished in advance of elections. The reputed 
idea of President Roosevelt to defray the ex- 
penses of both parties from public moneys, in 
proportion to the votes cast, and, in addition, 
forbid all other contributions, he considers 
feasible. The " pure food law " has yet to 
be tested, and " publicity " is only a means to 
an end in dealing with trusts. On over- 
capitalization, he believes, the license system 
of the Democratic platform of 1900 is fully 
responsive; and " unjust prices " can- be pre- 
vented by the passage of a federal law mak- 
ing it a penal offense for a corporation en- 
gaged in interstate conunercc to sell in one 
section of the country at a diflFcrcnt price 
from that at which it sells in another section, 
allowance being made for cost of transporta- 
tion. 

Senator Beveridge*s remedy for the ** sub- 
sidized press " is too slow. It would take 
the people too long to find out the purchased 
papers. He therefore naively suggests that 
newspapers having any considerable interstate 
circulation be compelled to publish the names 
of their stockholders and the names of their 
mortgagees. Then the people could judge 
for themselves. In conclusion, he said: 
" Wherever a monopoly is absolutely neces- 
sary there should be ownership by the public 
for the protection of the public, and where 
monopoly is not necessary there should be 
competition among producers for the benefit 
of the public." 

THE INDIANA SENATOR AS CROSS- EXAMINER. 

Senator Beveridge, joining issue with Mr. 
Brj'an's trust of the ** fourth form," supra. 
assumes the role of cross-examiner and asks 
him: Would he dissolve the United States 
Steel Corporation, and how? How far 
would he carry the dissolution? What 
would he do with the hundreds of thousands 
of shareholders? Would he give them stock 
in several smaller corporations, and how 
much? Would he, having dissolved the 
United States Steel Corporation, also dis- 
solve the corporations of which it was 
formed, like the Carnegie companies? 
Would he dissolve all other great corpora- 
tions as well ? Will he furnish a bill of par- 
ticulars? Will he define monopoly as a mat- 
ter of tangible law? Is the percentage of 
control, in order to constitute a nK)nopoly, to 
be the same in all industries, and under all 
circumstances, at all times? How much 
"competition" will he permit? Would he 
dissolve until he restored things to 'the indi- 
vidual basis of forty years ago? Would he 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



93 



dissolve labor organizations, likewise? 
" Platforms ** arc not material contributions 
to a discussion of the trust problem, for 
every one knows " how they are fixed up." 
Mergers in business are lawful and nat- 
ural developments and they pave the way» 
for the corporation. If partnerships can buy 
out partnerships, why should not corpora- 
tions purchase stock in other corporations? 
is a query for Mr. Bryan. To prevent men 
from being directors in more than one cor- 
poration is unjust, unfeasible and absurd. 
Practical business experience forbids such .an 
enforcement, for many corporations are so 
affiliated and interwoven that they cannot be 



considered apart. No ukase of any autocrat 
on earth ever went so far as Mr. Bryan in 
this respect. The " franchise " plan, while 
constitutional, is not practicable. It would 
lead to too much regulation and so kill busi- 
ness, and not the evils of business. More- 
over, the grant would be arbitrary and would 
only insure four years of stability at a time. 
This would paralyze American business, and 
lead to confusion and instability. It would 
also tend to convert the corporations, through 
their officers and business representatives, 
into a monstrous political machine to per- 
petuate an Administration that was friendly 
to them. 



WHY CO-OPERATIVE HOUSEKEEPING FAILS. 



(];OMMUNAL housekeeping has not 
proved a success arid is probably never 
destined to do so. This is owing to the fact 
that it assumes a capacity in families for 
coaunon responsibility and common action; 
in other words, in making " housework " 
the basis of the family relation, and organiz- 
ing different families in harmony thereon. 
The error of this position is shown in Har- 
pers Bazar for July, by Charlotte Perkins 
Oilman, in a hopeful, interesting, and strik- 
ingly onginal presentation. 

Those who favor co-operative housekeep- 
ing she designates co-operators, and those 
who follow the ancient custom, isolators. 
" Both parties are right," says she. " The 
isolators because they uphold an institution 
grounded on essential human needs, and re- 
fuse to ^wt it up even for admitted material 
advantages; the co-operators because they 
clearly see disadvantages which are becoming 
a deadly menace to society, and some of the 
reasons for them. The trouble with the iso- 
lators is that they will not admit the possi- 
bility of growth and improvement in their 
beloved institution, will not hear to reason, 
will not study conditions, make reasonable 
experiments, or do anything but maintain 
the sanctity of the home, on the one hand, 
and wail about the difficulties of housekeep- 
ing on the other. The trouble with the co- 
operators IS not so serious. They have dared 
to look ahead, they have been strong enough 
to defy old habits, they have worked out a 
plan of improvement, and have been willing 
totryjt." 

In tUs plan, however, co-operators fail to 
Aat while work done in a home 



may be organized, the families themselves 
may not. They believe that what has been 
difficult and expensive for a single family 
becomes easy for many families. This the 
writer considers pathetic and amusing. 
Home and housework are not synonymous. 
Love is physical and psychical, marriage is 
social, the family is physiological and psycho- 
social, the home is psycho-physical, but house- 
work is industrial, — a thing of an entirely 
difiFerent order. Individuals, not families, 
make a social structure. The members of a 
family individually mingle with others, but 



i|."l|.|Hi '1,1(1 

=;','(j';/i';!fji 







MRS. CHARLOTTE PERKINS OILMAN. 



94 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REI^IEIVS. 



the family remains separate, — the base of 
society. 

" How, then," says she, " are we to har- 
monize the undeniable truth of the co-opera- 
tor's facts with the as undeniable truth of 
the isolator's feelings? By .leaving the sep- 
arate family in the separate home, and by 
taking the housework out of it." 

What is needed is not convocations of dis- 
couraged families, but capable persons, 
skilled and trained, to do well and' cheaply 
what is now done so ill and so expensively. 
Approximating that lOO families pay each 
$io weekly for cooking service, or $icxx) 
in the aggregate, for about 500 persons, she 
reasons that fifteen cooks could do the work 
well and easily. These might consist of a 
chef at $60 a week, two assistants at $40 
each, two others at $30, aind ten cooks at $20 
each, or $400 for the lot, — a saving of 60 
per cent, in wages, and a raising in the 
standard of cooking at the same time. The 
kitchen must go, in order to bring about 
such an undertaking, and " distributing 
kitchens " be organized to supply the private 
dining-room, which must remain. The es- 
sence of the change would be in the purchase 
of cooked foods instead of raw materials. 

The quality of service would be guaran- 



teed by systematic organization for a limited 
number of patrons. These kitchens should 
be numerous enough to employ about 8 per 
cent, of our population, and not 50 per cent., 
as at present engaged. Rentals would not be 
high, and patronage would be certain and 
limited. Table d'hote menus, including spe- 
cialties for children, invalids, particular 
tastes, etc., based on scientific knowledge, 
could be offered, and all the trouble of " or- 
dering" eliminated. In cities deliveries 
would be by dumb-waiter to the pantry or 
dining-room; in the country by overhead- 
trolley service to the door, — similar to the 
parcel delivery in our great stores. In a 
country place twenty families within a 
radius of one mile could be supplied by three 
cooks. 

Summer resorts and summer schools are 
the two immediate opportunities to test this 
plan; while in citie^ apartment houses built 
for this purpose would serve. Economy 
would follow from the purchase of food in 
quantity, and the quality would improve like- • 
wise. Similar projects for laundry and 
housecleaning could be started, to make 
housework a particular social function, leav- 
ing the private family in the private home, 
where it belongs. 



THE WASTE OF CHILDREN. 



TTWO centuries ago the percentage of 
deaths among infants under five years 
was everywhere measurably greater than it 
is to-day. It is generally assumed that hav- 
ing reached that age there is a strong proba- 
bility that a child will reach adolescence, and, 
after that, manhood. It is now more defi- 
nitely established than ever that most chil- 
dren enter life with an endowment of native 
vitality sufficient to weather the ordinary 
conditions of adversity. Deaths after the 
first few months are largely due to postnatal 
influences and to social and economic en- 
vironment from which the infant has no 
appeal. 

Writing on this subject, in the Popular 
Science Monthly for June, Dr. George B. 
Mangold, of the University of Pennsylvania, 
says that, according to an eminent authority 
on vital statistics, the annual unnecessary 
deaths of infants in England during the 
decade 1851-60 numbered more than 64,000. 
This leads him to remark: "Probably 
'i no other field of human activity has 



man's former ignorance been more lament- 
able in its consequences than in that of 
rearing children, — the future parents of the 
race." 

As late as 1761, 50 per cent, of London's 
population perished before reaching the age 
of twenty. To-day half the people of Eng- 
land do not die until after the fifty-fourth 
year has been reached, and the death-rate for 
children under one year of age had fallen in 
1903 to the creditable figure of 144 per 
1000 births for seventy-six towns. In 
Prussia, from 175 1 -60 only 312 out of ever>^ 
1000 survived to the age of ten, but from 
1861-70, 633 individuals were saved out of 
ever>' 1000, — a promising decline. In France 
during the first seven years of the last cen- 
tury the number of males reaching an age 
sufficient to subject them to conscription was 
only 45 per cent, of the total bom, yet by 
1825 It had risen to 61 per cent., — a health- 
ful gain. In Russia during the same, period 
only one-third of the peasantry reached ma- 
turity, and as few as 36 per cent, reached the 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



95 



age of twenty years. Science has since im- 
proved this outlook. 

Great economic and social changes have 
led to this betterment, and therein has Amer- 
ica made much progress. Before 1850, 27 
per cent, of New Y6rk*s infants died before 
reaching the age of one, and 20 per cent, of 
Boston's. The statistics of the twelfth cen- 
sus furnish a glowing optimism. The death- 
rate for infants fell from 205 per icxx) in 
1890 tp 165 in 1900. Favorable environ- 
ment has had much to do with this decline, 
and the comparative influence of rural life 
over urban life is shown by the figures: 116 
deaths per 1000 infants in rural districts, 
against 180 in the cities in 1900. In Ger- 
many rural infanfile deaths are enormous, 
surpassing our American cities, which, the 
writer states, " indicates a social lethargy 
and backward condition among the agricul- 
tural population." In England the rural 
rate is generally below that of the cities, and 
the death-rate of sons of peers under six 
years of age is less than one-third of that 
among the rest of the population. 

Massachusetts statistics for 1881-96 
sho\ved average variations in cities from 1 1 1 
to 239, the former a residential town, the 
latter an industrial center. For cities of con- 
siderable siase the lowest rates are recorded 
for Seattle, St. Paul, and Minneapolis. The 
rates arc about 100 per 1000 births. In 



numerous Southern cities the death-rate is 
almost criminal; while in a single city, — 
Boston, in one district, the Back Bay, — it is 
only 94.4 per 1000, against 252.1 for poorer 
districts. Buffalo, Rochester, Lowell, Law- 
rence, Haverhill, Newark, and Jersey City 
have made notable progress in saving infant 
life. Better milk inspection, vaccination, and 
increased watchfulness against contagious 
diseases have contributed to this greatly de- 
sired end. 

Among colored infants an investigation 
showed a rural death-rate of 218.9 and a city 
rate of 387. In Charleston it was 419 per 
1000, and generally in Southern cities more 
than 3CX5. This, he claims, is barbarism, and 
calls for serious changes in our methods and 
policies. An infant death-rate of 307 per 1000 
for the Philippines for 1903 is an evidence 
of an inferior and brutal civilization. Low- 
ering the death-rate rather than increasing the 
birth-rate is a physiological advantage which 
enlightened civilization should follow. Social 
reform, good environments, sanitary meas- 
ures, milk inspection, and advancing intel- 
ligence will do much to still further de- 
crease infant mortality. " When the best of 
society's efforts in this direction," says he, 
" have been realized, then a solid basis for 
subsequent reasoning concerning the proba- 
ble future of our race will have been estab- 
lished." 



THE BATTLE OF FATHERS AND SONS IN GERMANY. 



QTUDENTS of history, as well as lovers 
of what is great in literature, agree in 
assigning a very high place to Tiirgenev's 
masterly psychological analysis, " Fathers 
and Sons." Its theme, the discord between 
the young and the old, the present and the 
past, — or passing, — generation, forms also 
the text for a keen analytical study of present- 
day Germany, contributed to the Deutsche 
Rundschau, — under the same title, — by Dr. 
Fricdrich Paulsen, the celebrated philosophi- 
cal writer, now professor of philosophy and 
pedagogics at the University of Berlin. 

The fact, remarks the professor, is not 
new. It is a well-known phenomenon. What 
makes it noteworthy just now is its intensity, 
its poignancy. Never before has the tension, 
—in politics, in the church, in the school, in 
Ae home, — been so great. This is made evi- 
dent by the way the literature of the present 



teems with the subject, the preference, of 
course, being given to the young. 

There is no more popular theme in Germany 
to-day for drama, novel, journal, and so on, 
than the oppression of high-souled youths and 
maidens by narrow-minded parents, and the 
curbing and tormenting of aspiring young men 
by pedantic, overbearing instructors, blind fol- 
lowers of the old order. At educational con- 
ventions the terrors of such regimen are warmly 
descanted upon. Any one acquainted with Ger- 
man merely through its literature must conclude 
that there never has been an age when youth 
was so mercilessly treated. 

The professor goes on to explain the causes 
of this acute state of feeling : the old absolut- 
ist order of things, the blind submission to 
authority in church, school, society, is chang- 
ing to something freer, more enli^tened, but 
the people have not as yet adjusted themselves 
to the new conditions ; hence the jar and the 
-""-' '^ ' feels confident that a normal, 



96 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^lElV OF REl^lElVS. 



harmonious relation of the two generations 
is bound to follow, and, therefore, looks 
hopefully into the future. 

Everywhere in the schools of Germany ef- 
forts are being made to diminish school bur- 
dens, — shorter hours, longer vacations, easier 
examinations, less home-tasks, attention to 
athletics; everywhere improved methods arc 
sought, increasing the teacher's labor, but 
facilitating that of the student. Differentia- 
tion of treatment of pupils, to accord with 
their varied inclinations and endowments, is 
made incumbent upon teachers everywhere, 
and is often gladly followed. And with 
home-training it is the same, — it has certainly 
not grown more severe in the last fifty years. 
On the contrary,' too great leniency has not 
rarely replaced positive demands and action 
on the part of the elders; while, indeed, one 
might easily complain that a careless, de- 
fiant attitude of youth to age has grown more 
common. 

The young are conscious that they are backed 
by the press, literature, public opinion. Thus, 
where the advocates of the young see only vic- 
tims of cruel discipline and pedantic educational 
artifices, the writer sees on the other side parents 
and teachers wounded to the quick, harassed to 
death by insolence, by heedless, selfish, incon- 
siderate conduct. Both sides, then, might in- 
dulge in recriminations, but it is youth that 
makes itself heard, for the old are wont to bear 
such griefs in silence. To characterize the situa- 
tion in a word: the dissolution of the old sub- 
mission to authority in every phase of life has 
thus far found no firm substitute in a voluntary 
self-control so essential to the general welfare. 
This applies to public as well as private life: 
the old forms have grown shaky, the new ones 
are not yet fixed. 

In public matters the last century is un- 
questionably characterized by the weakening 
of authority in every sphere, and by the ad- 
vance of a leveling, democratic tendency. 
Nowhere is this more evident than in re- 
ligious concerns. 

A hundred years ago the great mass of the 
German people still had faith and obeyed the 
church ; to-day their alienation is complete ; they 
proudly take their stand upon reason and the 
science which in their view has definitively put 
an end to belief. It is much the same with the 
bulk of the educated, — at any rate, their religion, 
if they have any, is anticlerical. The great re- 
action in favor of literal belief in the middle of 
last century resulted in divorcing the Protest- 
ant church, also, from culture and science. Thus 
the church has completely forfeited its inner 
power, while its outward strength is steadily 
waning through the progressive secularizing of 
the state. The remnant of dominion which it 
still exercises in the sphere of education serves 



rather to nourish than to quell opposition to it 
In England and America the question of bclcmg- 
ing to a church is a purely free, individual ojn- 
cern ; there is, therefore, no organized religious 
enmity. In Germany there are still vivid re- 
minders of religious compulsion by the state- 
enough to make " infidelity " a synonym for free- 
dom. 

A like condition exists in state and social 
concerns. In the state, jn place of the respect 
for authority which prevailed a hundred yean 
ago, the custom has grown of criticising and 
ridiculing the government. 

A thousand journals furnish their readers a 
daily pabulum of such matter. The old magiste- 
rial government \$ no more, but neither is the 
new order of self-government established ; hence 
the dissonance here also. •This is inevitable, 
since historical and political conditions do not 
permit Germany to assume either an absolutist 
or a republican-parliamentary form of govern- 
ment ; it explains, however, why in state matter?, 
too, there is a widespread sentiment in oppo- 
sition to authority. 

In the social order as well the subjection to 
authority has vanished ; in place of master and 
vassal we have the employer and employee. 
But in this sphere, likewise, remains of thr 
old conditions crop up everywhere, hindering 
the adoption of the new footing of cqualit); 
the attempts to maintain the old privileges of 
authority excite everywhere that spirit of op- 
position and revolution which stamps all Ger- 
man social life. 

Professor Paulsen does not blame the 
youth of his land ; they assume the color of 
their time and surroundings. " They rarely 
hear the tone of reverence; passionate, ma- 
licious, supercilious criticism is what strikes 
their ear on every hand, — at home, in the 
press, in literature, — w^ho still entertains re- 
spect for. anything? Nay, who would in our 
day not be ashamed to still feel respect for 
anything ? " • 

It may be that in education, — as is the case 
in politics, society, the church, — more of the 
absolutist system has remained than is con- 
sonant with the modern spirit. Evidences of 
this are found in the school and the hon^e, — 
particularly the school. 

The school-board member treats the teacher, — 
in accordance with the military regimen, — as an 
authoritative master, not as a friendly counsel- 
lor, and this system, naturally enough, is trans- 
ferred to the relation between teacher and stu- 
dent. That the evils of this method are being 
recognized is evidenced by the efTorts to give the 
higher institutions of learning a freer develop- 
ment, to change the attitude of teacher to 
scholar, to make of the latter a more independent 
worker. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



97 



SENDING PICTURES BY TELEGRAPH. 



T^llE as yet somewhat mysterious art of 
telegraphotography, or transmitting pho- 
tographs over the telegraph wire, is described 
by its inventor, Prof. Arthur Korn, of the 
University of ^lunich, in a recent number 
of the French monthly, Je Sais Tout. In the 
first place, says Professor Korn: 

Telegraphotography rests wholly on the 
strange peculiarity of a body or substance called 
selenium, which peculiarity was discovered by 
chance during some experiments made by an 
English enginter (Willoughby Smith) in 1873. 
Mr. Smith was experimenting for the construc- 
tion of a submarine telegraph cable. At a given 
moment he had need of a substance opposing 
great resistance to the passage of electric cur- 
rents, and he fixed his choice upon a metal 
whose resistance (compared with copper, silver, 
iron, etc.). he knew to be enormous. He chose 
•itlenium, but, as it turned out, he could not 
have made a worse choice, and it was not long 
before he found it out. For such purpose 
selenium is the most whimsical and ihconstant 
ii;strument in the world. It gave Mr. Smith 
one result in the daytime and another and oppo- 
site result in the night. While they were work- 
ingr over their experiments, suddenly and very 
unexpectedly Mr. May, Mr. Smith*s assistant, 
discovered that selenium varies as it is subjected 
to light (by the amount of light, more or less). 
\Vc cannot explain this phenomenon; we leave 
that explanation, as we are forced to leave it, 
t:) the future. The experimental fact is that in 
full light selenium is, relatively, a good con- 
ductor; and that its power of resistance is much 
greater in the dark; and that for that reason it 
is much less of a conductor in the dark, — to 
speak technically its cbnductibility is less in the 
dark than in the light. Naturally enough, the 
fancy of inventors was excited by the discovery 
of selenium's sensibility to light (or to lack of 
light). It was seen at once that it might be 
possible to complete the telephone by an ap- 
paratus showing to the man talking into the 
telephone the person at a possibly great distance 
to whom he is talking, the only thing needed to 
make it possible for the speaker to see his in- 
terlocutor being a small plate of selenium. 

As to the actual process, Professor Korn 
sa>-s: 

A small plate of selenium is passed over the 
image in the camera obscura (the real image of 
a person or of a scene) and then a beam of light 
i> parsed over a screen. This beam of light is 
more or less intense, according to the intensity 
of the current, which, passing from the trans- 
mitter to the receiver over the selenium plate, 
throws light across the different parts of the 
image in the "dark chamber." 

The experimenter sees the image appear on 
the screen if the operation is performed so 
rapidly that all the elements of the object to 
^ transmitted can be retained on the retina. 

Two apparently insurmountable obstacles 




PROF. ARTHUR KORN AND HIS NEW INVENTION. 

arc in our way to obtaining perfect trans- 
mission. The first obstacle is the impossibil- 
ity of obtaining absolutely simultaneous action, 
and the second is the impossibility of exactly 
regulating the intensity of the luminous ray 
by means of currents of variable strength sent 
from the transmitter. It is practically im- 
possible to find an instrument sensitive 
enough, and at the same time rapid enough, 
to seize and to follow the movement. " This 
is why all our researches concerning tele- 
vision have been fruitless." Following is 
Professor Korn's description of his own ap- 
paratus : 

The photograph for transmission must be a 
transparent pellicle. The transparent pellicle is 
rolled on a glass cylinder enclosed in a camera 
obscura, or ** dark chamber," where it is dis- 
placed by two simultaneous movements, one 
movement being a rotation aPound its axis, the 
other a translation along the length of the axis 
(as a hollow screw or a screw-nut runs on the 
.screw-stud). The regular, uniform motion is 
made to • impress the cylinder by the impul- 
sion of a little electric motor whose speed is 
controlled by means of an attachment which 
adheres to the motor. — the attachment is a sort 
of meter or gauge which 'registers the rotations 
of the cylinder. The cylinder is made to prc- 
.sent each one of its points, and, consequently, 
all the points of the photographic pellicle rolled 
on the cylinder <ire subjected to the action of the 
light, the light entering the camera obscura 
through a little window made in order to let in 



98 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REyJEWS. 




ONE OF THE PICTURES TAKEN BY PROF. KORN S 
TELEGRAPHIC CAMERAS. 

the light. This light crosses the photographic 
film in greater or less quantity, according to the 
degree of transparency of the parts that it 
touches. In the interior of the camera obscura 
there is a prism ; the light strikes that prism ; 
the prism reflects it totally on a cell of selenium 
just below it. The sides of the cell are very 
thin and the surface of the cell is very spacious, 
and so the light projected upon it is widely 
spread. The cell resists the electric current 
much less than the plaque resists it, although 



both cell and plaque are of the same metaloid: 
selenium. The selenium cell is traversed by the 
current from a battery of accumulators. The 
intensity of the current varies according to the 
amount of light that falls on the metaloid. The 
current, which is modified by the length of the 
wires, is transmitted to the receiver, wherever 
that may have been set up. 

The Gonsequcnces of this invention will be 
numerous and important. Telcgraphotogra- 
phy will be to illustrated journals what the 
telephone and the telegraph are to journals 
in general. When methods are a little more 
rapid it will be possible to give photographs 
of what passed last night at the Antipodes. 
By illustrating his reports the journalist will 
make his work more striking and more com- 
prehensible; gradually all the journals will 
he transformed and there will be nothing but 
illustrated dailies. The criminal police will 
apply telcgraphotography to their work, and, 
probably, fewer assassins will go free. 

The police of places where a murder has just 
been committed will telegraph the photographs 
of the supposed murderer as he looked with or 
without a beard, and as a disguise would make 
him look. And just so, enterprising journalists 
can present prominent public men, bearded or 
beardless. Police are keen in a scent, and a 
criminal will be at a disadvantage; he will run 
away by train or by boat, while his photograph 
will go by telegfraph, and be waiting to catch 
him as he arrives. The innocent man accused 
of crime can prove by his friends that he is in- 
nocent, and so regain his liberty davs, perhaps 
weeks, sooner than he could have done before 
the discovery of telcgraphotography. If accom- 
panied by the seal of a notary the telegraphically 
transmitted photographic signature will be valu- 
able. In c«lse of an innovation permitting such 
practice, the laws of the different countries will 
have to be modified. 



**THE ONLY REALLY GREAT SCIENTIFIC MAN OF 

PORTUGAL.'' 



I-TE is an archaeologist and has spent most 
of his life studying the antiquities of 
Portugal and ot the Balearic Islands, par- 
ticularly Minorca. A recent issue of the 
Illusfracion Espahola y Americana (Madrid) 
contains an article on the primitive monu- 
ments of Minorca, by Senor Francisco Her- 
nandez Sanz, correspondent of the Spanish 
Roval Academy. In this article a warm trib- 
ute is paid to the aforesaid leading Portu- 
Z'"^ scientist, Senhor Juan Leite da Vas- 
"/^•'"'I'K. This student is unknown to the 
•" • : at larpe, particularly the Enj^lish- 
-.r/^w * -* M or;H. hut is a great man in his own 



countn*. The two scholarly Portuguese pub- 
lications, Os Religioes da Lusitania and 
Archaeologo Portugues, declare that Senhor 
da Vasconcellos is the most eminent of living 
archaeologists. 

Personally, he is a short, square man of quiet 
manner and retiring life, of deep penetration and 
vast scientific learning, who has to be dilig^ently 
sought after to be found. Indeed, he spends 
most of his time, except when some flying trip 
has to be taken to a library or some investigation 
verified, in the Archaeological Museum at Belem. 
just outside Lisbon, where he is deeply eng^rossed 
in the classifications going on of Algave and 
Alemtejo antiquities. So student-like is his ex- 
istence that many of his countrymeA have never 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



99 




SENHOR VASCONCEI.LOS, THE EMINENT PORTUGUESE ANTIQUARIAN, 
(SUndlns by the Degebe L>olinen, the remains of prehistoric civilization In Mlrjorca.) 



heard of him. He passes unknown among the 
crowds of dandies, military men, and Frenchified 
women who throng the streets of Lisbon. Yet 
he b the only really great scientific man of 
Portugal: indeed, it may almost be said that, — 
with the exception of the King Dom Carlos.— 
he is the only man of present Portugal whose 
name is recognized outside of Portugal, for to 
** those who know " among French anti German 
archaeologists he is regarded as one of the great 
thinkers and investigators of the world. 



Aside from his work of classification and 
investigation, Senhor da Vasconcellos is con- 
stantly writing or preparing his materials for 
writing on the subjects of importance and 
interest to him. Pamphlet after pamphlet as 
well as books come from his facile pen, and it 
can be only a question of time before they are 
by translation put within reach of English 
and American scholars. 



"GORKI'S FINISH." 



TJNDER this fomcwhat colloquial Ameri- 
can phrase as a title, the well-known 
Russian literary and art critic, Dr. Filosofov, 
contributes to a recent number of the serious 
review Russkaya Mysl (Russian Thought) 
a kfoi criticism of Maxim Gorki's recent 
work, particularly his somewhat bitter re- 
flections on American social and political 
conditioiis. 

Two things, says this writer, have ruined 
Gorki: "His successes and a naive, poorly 
ifieotcd socisdism.'* The latest productions 



of the celebrated Russian author, particularly 
"The Barbarians," "The Enemies," "In 
America," and " My Interviews," this critic 
thinks, have done so much to injure his lit- 
erary fame, have " indicated such a decompo- 
sition of talent, that it is difficult to believe 
his regeneration possible." 

Rapidly surveying the career of Gorki, 
Dr. Filosofov points out that author's re- 
markable, rapid success. Not even Tolstoi 
and Chekhov, he points out, received such 
" slavish and boundless flattery." Gorki 



100 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REI^IEWS. 



was the hero of a day, the favorite of the 
public, in much the same way as an opera 
singer who in a few years turns the heads of 
all his admirers and then, when he has lost 
his voice, he passes from the scene and sinks 
into oblivion. 
There is reason 
for all this, says 
the Russian critic. 

The passion for 
Gorki has a psycho- 
logical explana- 
tion. He appeared 
just at the right 
time. He touched 
such deep chords 
in human nature 
that he met with 
response through- 
out all "new Rus- 
sia," which had 
just begun to 
awaken. The 
masses believed 
that his talent 
was inexhaustible. 
They flattered him, 
tickled his egotism, 
and almost literally 
made him their 
idol. They gave 
him no chance to 
concentrate him- 
self, to realize the 
limits of his power 
and the nature of 
his talent. The 
drama ** On the 
Bottom " was the 
summit of Gorki's 
productiveness. Af- 
ter the conception 

of this his downfall began. Since the whole 
world has read his productions, the whole world 
now sees how he has fallen, how he himself has 
reached the bottom of man's triviality and pre- 
tentious rhetoric. Gorki sincerely believed him- 
self to be the ruler of the masses, the sovereign 
of their thoughts and hearts, independent, sub- 
ordinate to no human soul, — not realizing how 
he had lost even the shadow of freedom. 

Gorki, says this critic, rarely saw any true 
criticism of his work at home. He did see 
" critical hysterics and the outbursts of ap- 
plause of the mob which, by idolizing him, 
ruined him." Now, this mob coolly an- 
nounces that his latest productions have met 
with unanimous disapproval. 

Gorki's real force, says this critic, lay in 
picturing the type of the Russian tramp, the 
bosyak. As soon as he attempted to sweeten 
the bitterness of this tramp*s lot with the 
sugar of socialism it is quite natural that he 
should have failed." As to his productions 
on American conditions, ** In America," and 




MAXIM GORKI. 



" My Interviews," in these, Gorki for the 
first time concerns himself with the world 
outside his own country and does it "in 
a very careless way." 

He did not know Europe and could not make 
clear t o himself 
what he actually 
demanded from 
Europe. Moreover, 
no artistic instinct 
came to his aid to 
whisper in his ear 
that overstepping 
artistic limits al- 
ways leads to the 
monstrous. H i s 
rage i s certainly 
sincere, his h- 
proach .in i^y 
cases justified; but 
as these are not di- 
rected in the right 
direction and are 
clad in stilted, bom- 
bastic phraseology, 
they appear only 
comical. Europe 
smiled contemptu- 
ously and went 
about its business. 
Gorki, who knows 
so little about 
European civiliza- 
tion, announced to 
the world that he 
was not satisficci 
with that continent. 
He reprimanded it 
in such a tone and 
manifested such 
an ignorance of its 
actual conditions 
that every fair- 
. , , . minded reader is 

inevitably driven to defending Europe. Gorki 
insulted France because he knew nothing about 
her history. And then he came to America. 

No European, says Filosofov, really knows 
much about this land of riddles, — ^America. 
" Most of what we do know about it is rather 
repelling." 

We are under the impression that in America 
everything has been adopted from Europe, that 
the Americans have really nothing they can call 
their own. Besides, to Europeans it is strange 
that a country's history should begin with the 
nineteenth century. Europe has the inheritance 
of a great past. If Paris had no Notre Dame, 
the Eiffel Tower would crush the French capi- 
tal with its frivolous and ugly skeleton of steel. 
Let us imagine, if we can, an immense, wealthy 
country where there is really nothing but an 
Eiffel Tower, — no history, no traditions, no art. 
no literature, no philosophy, only naked capi- 
talism, the cult of Baal, the triumph of matter. 
If America really is such as it appears to the 
average European and to Mr. Gorki, it deser\'es 
to be hated. But is America really such? In 
order to understand the soul of a people it is 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



101 



necessary to search for its inner life. Can this 
inner life be found and apprehended by the ordi- 
nary tourist or journalist who gives us so much 
of " American impressions '* ? All these tales 
about the wonders of American mechanical and 
technical skill have set our teeth on edge, but 
they should not represent the nature of America 
and the Americans to us. Are there not in 
America farmers, with lives of their own ? Are 
there not religious heart-searchings and artistic 
aspirations? Is America really exhausted by 
what Gorki calls " Americanism " ? 

This critic denies the truth of these impli- 
cations and refuses to concede that Gorki is 



qualified to speak upon the matter at all. 
" Europe cannot trust," he says, " Gorki's 
superficial and banal impressions." 

All Gorki has told us about America he learned 
from the window of his hotel or from the plat- 
form of the trolley car. They are little better 
than the usual generalizing impressions of a 
tourist with a poor education and no knowledge 
of the language. What he expected and desired 
from America we do not know. Any provin- 
cial reporter, however, upon an order to write 
a couple of feuilletons, could have described 
America and American conditions just as well 
as Gorki has done. 



YUAN SHIH-KAI, CHINA'S FOREMOST STATESMAN. 



CINCE the death of Li Hu^ig-chang, the 
foremost statesman of China is without 
doubt Yuan Shih-kai. In statecraft and 
statesmanship Yuan was trained by the la- 
mented Li, and it is natural that the younger 
sutesman should possess m.any of the ideas 
and traits of the elder viceroy. When the 
viceregal throne of the metropolitan province 
of Chihli was left vacant by the death of Li 
Hung-chang, Yuan was immediately pro- 
moted to that post from the governorship of 
the province of Shun-tung. Since then he has 
been the cj^nosure of all eyes in the Celestial 
Empire. An interesting character sketch of 
this personage appearing in a recent issue of 
the Illustrated Monthly (Shasin-gaho) , of 
Tokio, is, therefore, worthy of note. 

As the anonymous writer of this article 
says, Yuan Shih-kai holds no office in the 
central government, and yet his influence at 
the Peking court is as great as, perhaps even 
greater, than, that of the most powerful min- 
isters of state, such as Prince Ching, presi- 
dent of the Foreign Office, and Chu Hung- 
chi. Minister of War. Among the viceroys, 
Chang Chih-tung and Shin Chun-ken have 
distinguished themselves by their remarkable 
administrative ability, but in popularity and 
power these two viceroys are hardly com- 
parable with Yuan Shih-kai. It was through 
the diplomatic negotiations between Japan 
and China resulting in the war of i894-'95 
that Yuan first rose to prominence as a diplo- 
mat. At that time he was a stark antagonist 
of the Japanese, and, as the Chinese Minister 
at Seoul, left nothing undone to frustrate the 
Mikado's policy and enterprise in the Korean 
peninsula. Although his ambitious scheme 
in the Hermit Kingdom ended in bitter dis- 
appointment, it was since that time that he 
began to be recognized as a factor in Chinese 



politics. The decade following the China- 
Japanese war has wrought a remarkable 
change upon his mind, and the instigator of 
that conflict is now to all appearance a warm 
friend of the Japanese, willing to adopt their 
political institutions and educational system. 
But can Japan count on him as her true 
friend, ready to stand by her at crucial mo- 
ments as well as in time of peace? Is he a 
sincere believer in modern civilization and 
enlightenment, unswerving in his efforts to 
reform the hoary institutions of the Celestial 




VIAN SHIH-KAI, VKEJvOY OF CHIHLI. 

(The most powerful man In China.) 



102 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^fElV OF REI/IEIVS. 



Empire in accord with the principles of civil- 
ized nations ? These questions the writer an- 
swers in a skeptical tone. 

Yuan Shih-kai has invited many Japanese as 
advisers to various departments of his provin- 
cial government, and persuaded the court at 
Peking to follow his example. In his efforts to 
reform the military and police systems, the ad- 
ministration cf finance and taxation, and educa- 
tional institutions, Yuan has turned to Japan 
for assistance and advice. The Japanese, how- 
ever, will have a rude awakening if they should 
look upon him as their faithful friend. With all 
his professed admiration of modernism, he is. 
after all, not different from his fellow-country- 
men in general, whose characteristic traits seem 
to be egotism and selfishness. Imbued with new 
ideas as he is, Yuan is nevertheless firmly 
wedded to the past. Like all other Chinese, the 
illustrious viceroy is conservative at heart and 
ridiculously proud of his own country, cherish- 
ing contempt for all foreign nations. Moreover, 
Viceroy Yuan is an opportunist, without un- 
wavering principle or fixed aim. To-day he is 
apparently a friend of Japan, but who can fore- 
tell what he will be to-morrow? When the 
present Emperor of China declared his inten- 
tion to adopt reform measures advocated by a 
coterie of radical reformers, Yuan's attitude to- 
ward the movement was apparently so sympa- 



thetic that the Emperor and his lieutenants all 
looked upon him as a supporter of their cause. 
Their hopes were belied, for, when the Empress 
Dowager resorted to a high-handed measure to 
suppress the reform movement. Yuan Shih-kai 
not only remained inactive, but he at once 
changed his front and became a right-hand man 
of the conservative Empress. To-day he is still the 
opportunist that he was in the days of the 
Boxer uprising. While evidently friendly to- 
ward Japan, he entertains no idea of entering 
into a close alliance with her, and asking her 
hearty co-operation in the regeneration of his 
country and in the maintenance of peace in the 
Far East. 

The writer says that Viceroy Yuan docs 
not scruple to employ treachery in dealing 
with Japan, which is but too willing to assist 
China in every way. " Indeed, the viceroy 
does not hesitate to take advantage of the fact 
that the Japanese are far less experienced in 
diplomacy' than are the Russians." The 
writer predicts that upon the death of the 
Empress Dowager the Celestial Empire will 
once again become convulsed with uprisings 
and insurrections. The regeneration of that 
moribund nation, he believes, is now as far 
off as ever. 



FRANCE'S PUNITIVE EXPEDITION AGAINST MOROCCO. 



npHE assassination of Dr. Alauchamp and 
the occupation of Ujda hy the French 
are treated of in an article in Hojas Selectas 
(Madrid). The writer, alluding to present 
conditions in Morocco, says: 

We must strictly distinguish between the atti- 
tude of forced submission assumed by the Mo- 
roccan authorities in reference to the moral pro- 
tectorate of Europe and the resistance, passive 
to-day, but which will perhaps become active to- 
morrow, of the masses of the people, of the 
fanatical majority, to Christian interference in 
the African domains of the Koran. This ren- 
ders merely nominal and inefficacious the sov- 
ereignty of the Emperor. Roghi and Raisuli are 
two armed and still unconquered protests against 
the official complacency of Mohammed Torres. 
Sooner or later these opposing tendencies, which 
have only skirmished with one another in North 
Africa, will meet face to face in internecine 
conflict. 

All these difficulties, however, will not 
avail to retard the progress of events. Com- 
mercial interests are paramount, and the 
Moroccans must yield, in the same way as 
all other peoples of inferior civilization, to 
the inevitable law of progress. If Europe 
were less highly civilized, or if the powers 
could come to an amicable understanding, the 



conquest of Morocco would be accomplished 
in a short time; but civilization is obliged by 
its very nature to have recourse to threats and 
warnings rather than to acts of violence. 

The writer looks upon the assassination of 
Dr. Mauchamp as a striking instance of the 
risk incurred by all Europeans in Morocco. 
The crime was committed at Marrakesh, the 
political capital of the country. The im- 
mediate cause was peculiar and characteristic 

The crime is attributed to a brutal outburst 
of fanaticism caused by preparations for the in- 
stallment of an apparatus for wireless teleg- 
raphy. When the Moors saw that Dr. Mau- 
champ had raised a small mast upon the roof of 
his house, they l)elieved that it had to do with 
some diabolical invention ; and, in their excited 
fanaticism, they pulled down the house and 
killed the unfortunate doctor before he could de- 
fend himself. 

The French Government acted quickly and 
decisively. They required immediate satis- 
faction of the demands which had already 
been made for injuries suffered by French 
subjects, and the punishment of the assassins 
of Dr. Mauchamp as well as the payment of 
an indemnity to his family. It was generally 
admitted that, in this matter, France was dc- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



108 



fending European interests as well as her 
own. On the 29th of March, the French 
troops under General Liautey occupied the 
city of Ujda, situated a few miles from the 
Algerian frontier, without a shot being fired. 
The city contains about 10,000 inhabitants, 
and, although of little strategic importance, 
has considerable value from a commercial 
standpoint, as it is the principal market for 
the trade of the surrounding Kabyles. 

The writer looks upon the French occupa- 
tion as merely the seizure of a guaranty, as a 
kind of hostage, such as any other power 



might claim under similar circumstances, and 
he says in conclusion: 

The common interests of Europe and of the 
civilized world require that the lives and prop- 
erty of Europeans in Morocco shall not be at the 
mercy of fanatical mobs and shall not become the 
prey of wandering tribes. There must be laws 
and courts and a public authority strong enough 
to insure the maintenance of order and the en- 
forcement of the laws. Foreign intervention is 
never necessary where the public authorities are 
eager to punish assassins; but when, as in Mo- 
rocco, these authorities view with a certain com- 
placency the excesses of fanatics, then interven- 
tion becomes both necessary and just. 



SAN DOMINGO'S FINANCES. 



LJAVING been requested on March 24, 
1905, to proceed to San Domingo and 
investigate its financial condition by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, Prof. Jacob H. Hollander, 
of Johns Hopkins University, details the re- 
sult of his researches through many months, 
in an illuminating article in the Quarterly 
Journal of Economics for May. A more dis- 
tressing record of financial mismanagement 
than that exhibited by San Domingo and 
made plain by Professor Hollander has rarely 
been encountered. 

Thirty-five years is the period covered by 
the wildcat methods discussed, and this he 
divides into three periods: From 1867 to 
1887, the genesis of the debt; from 1888 to 
1897, the period of bond issues, and there- 
after, the period of floating-debt accumula- 
tion. At the outset the national debt approx- 
imated $1,500,000, largely of doubtful char- 
aaer. A bond issue in 1869, known as the 
" Hartmont Loan," appeared in the sum of 
£757,000, and this was sold to the public at 
rates ranging irom 50 to 70 per cent. 
Through fraud, neglect, or deliberate defal- 
cation, however, " only £38,095 was received 
and accounted for by the Dominican Gov- 
ernment." Three years later, in 1872, " the 
loan went into default" 

From 1872 to 1880 the floating debt large- 
ly accumulated through unpaid salaries, revo- 
lutionary damage claims, treasury bills given 
for war supplies, and debts contracted by the 
government for current expenses. Interest 
00 these items was as high as 10 per cent, a 
month. The island's bohded debt in 1888 
was $3,850,000, while its floating debt was 
«mewhat uncertain. Then it was that the 
Westcndorp caja de recaudacion, or an 



agreement with the Amsterdam firm that it 
might collect all import and export duties 
during the life and for the benefit of a loan 
of £770,000, was executed. In 1892 the 
rights and obligations of Westendorp & O). 
were acquired by the " San Domingo Im- 
provement Company, of New York," by 
transfer, confirmed by the Dominican Con- 
gress on March 24, 1893. 

Between 1888 and 1898 seven bond issues 
were emitted to discharge floating debts and 
quiet indemnity claims. On January i, 1905, 
the republic's public indebtedness amounted 
to $32,560,459, including interest. All these 
loans represented purposes to which the 
money was rarely applied. " Cut-throat 
terms, prodigal waste, and unchecked pro- 
cedure " marked every one of them. Heu- 
reaux's financial policy was " a mixture of a 
degenerate's cunning and a bankrupt's reck- 
lessness," and his successors were no better. 
Indeed, Professor Hollander says of them: 
" Each successive dictator inclined to become 
a more necessitous and a more reckless bor- 
rower, and each new advance was obtained 
upon harsher terms. The nominal rate of 
interest was rarely less than 2 per cent, a 
month, and with respect to funds or values 
actually received several times that rate." 

Owing to the pressure of the Italian and 
French governments, in the interest of the 
claims of their citizen creditors against San 
Domingo, matters were brought to a crisis, 
and early in 1905 the United States in- 
tervened. President Roosevelt had said: 
" Those who profit by the Monroe Doctrine 
must accept certain responsibilities along with 
the rights which it confers," and this served 
as a premise for American intervention. But 



104 



THE AMEklCAN MONTHLY kE^lElV OF REl^tE]VS. 




DR. JACOB ir. HOLLANDER, 
(Speoinl commlRsIoner to Snn Domingo.) 

action was delayed in the Senate, and a ten- 
tative provisional arrangement was estab- 
lished by order of the President. 

At this stage Professor Hollander took 
hold and unearthed the above facts. Of the 
$32,560,459, aforementioned, he discovered 
that $2I,I04,CXX) was represented by foreign 
claims, while the remainder was due for in- 
ternal debts and claims. Agreements were 
then made with foreign claimants, and a 
New York banking institution was induced 
to handle $20,000,000 of Dominican 5 per 
cent, fifty-year bonds at 96, redeemable after 
ten years at 102 j/2, — subject to the approval 
and ratification of a newly drawn treaty. 
The proceeds of these bonds will be applied 
to the payment of debts and claims as ad- 
justed, to the extinction of particular conces- 
sions and monopolies, and to public improve- 
ments. When the treaty becomes effective 
$2,500,000, now on deposit in New York, 
will be available for these purposes. 

Foreigners will receive, under the agree- 
ments concluded, i 12,407,000 in discharge 
of nominal claims of $21,104,000, and $11,- 
000,000 of internal debts will be satisfied 
with $5,000,000. A general receiver of Do- 
minican customs will be appointed by the 
President, " who shall collect all the customs 
duties of the republic until the payment or 
redemption of the bonds so issued." San 
Domingo, under the convention mentioned. 



will be prohibited from borrowing any fur- 
ther money without the consent of the United 
States, nor can the republic alter its duties 
without our approval. 

We do not undertake to adjust or deter- 
mine the Dominican debt, but merely to ad- 
minister the customs of the republic for the 
service of a new loan, the proceeds of which 
are to be devoted to the discharge of all 
recognized debts and claims, reduced to a 
basis acceptable both to the republic and the 
creditors. 

In the American Journal of International 
Law (Quarterly) for April Professor Hol- 
lander contributes an additional paper on this 
subject, entitled, "The Convention of 1907 
Between the United States and the Donnini- 
can Republic." 

From this discussion we learn more in de- 
tail concerning the new convention with San 
Domingo, passed on February 25, 1907, and 
now awaiting ratification by the Dominican 
Congress. 

"In January-February, 1905," says he, 
" in face of the imminent likelihood of do- 
mestic convulsion and foreign intervention, 
the protocol of an agreement was concluded 
between the Dominican Republic and the 
United States, and this was made eflFective by 
a decree of the Dominican executive of 
March 31, 1905." Under this the United 
States engaged (i) to adjust the Dominican 
debt, foreign and domestic, and to determine 
the validity and amount of all pending 
claims; (2) to administer the Dominican 
custom-houses and to deliver 45 per cent, of 
the receipts to the Dominican Government, 
applying the net remainder to the interest 
upon and the amortization of the .debts and 
claims so adjusted; and (3) to afford the 
Dominican Republic such further assistance 
as it might require to preserve orderly and 
efficient government. 

This was not approved by the Senate, and 
an interim arrangement, on the request of 
San Domingo, was executed. On April i, 
1905, this went into operation, with a nomi- 
nee of the President of the United States in 
charge of the Dominican customs, charged 
with the segregation of 55 per cent, thereof 
for the ultimate payment of the republic's 
debts. This proved a complete success. In- 
surrection ceased ; public officials received 
their salaries; current accounts were paid; 
trade revived ; smuggling was eliminated ; 
local merchants were protected against fraud- 
ulent preferment of their rivals at the cus- 
tom-houses, and importers were encouraged 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



105 



to contract larger credits. A new spirit was 
infused everywhere in San Domingo. This 
led to amazing increases in the customs re- 
ceipts. In 1906 the gross returns were $3,- 
191,916.59, against $2,223,324.51 for 1905, 
and $1,852,209.54 for 1904, — an increase of 
44 per cent, over 1905 and 72 per cent, over 

1904. 

With the satisfactory working of the in- 
terim arrangement, and assured of the good 
offices of our Government, the President of 
the Dominican RepuWic appointed Sefior 
Fcderico Velazquez, Minister of Finance and 
Commerce, a special commissioner for the ad- 
justment of the financial difficulties of the 



republic. He came to the United States in 
the latter part of June, 1906, and made cer- 
tain financial arrangements in harmony with 
the adjustment plans aforementioned. On 
January 5, 1907, a sufficient number of cred- 
itors having assented to the proposed measure 
of adjustment, a new convention was nece3- 
sary, and, on February 8, 1907, this received 
the signatures of the respective plenipoten- 
tiaries at Santo Domingo Gty. This was 
ratified, with but a single unimportant 
change, by the United States Senate on Feb- 
ruary 25, and now awaits the approval of the 
Dominican Congress to become effective. 
Its principal provisions are given supra. 



LINNAEUS, AFTER TWO HUNDRED YEARS. 



J^URING the month of May all Sweden 
joined hands, with rarely witnessed 
unanimit>', in observing the two-hunaredth 
.anniversary of the birth of Carl von Linne, 
better known to the English-speaking world 
by the name Linnaeus, the iiu^Xxtr of modern 
botany, the story of whose life is retold in 
articles appearing in Ord och Bild (Stock- 
holm) and Samtiden (Christiania). 

Before he was thirty Linnaeus had brought 
into final shape his system of classification 
and nomenclature, describing flowers and ani- 
mals and minerals in a way wholly new to 
sdence, — ^a way that is our way to-day and that 
recently drew frcm a noted English scientist 
the judgment that ** the greatest and most last- 
ing service which Linnaeus rendered both to 
botany and zoology lies \n the certainty and 
precision which he introduced into the art of 
describing." As he dealt with flowers, so he 
dealt with men and their manners and every 
natural phenomenon that came under his ob- 
servation. Though he had to write in Latin, 
the old phrases and philosophical vaguenesses 
were thrown to the winds, and in their place 
appeared clear and concise statements of what 
bis senses had noted and his mind concluded. 
( )n that change modern science rests. 

But to find a publisher in Sweden was out of 
the question. He was still hesitating whether 
he should try his luck in son-e foreign land 
when he happened to fall in love with the 
pretty young daughter of a government sur- 
geon. The father made a doctor's degree the 
price of his consent. Where the student had 
vadllated the lover acted promptly. In 1735 
Limanift went to Holland to pass through 
ikf OBoeicanr examinations at the small but 



highly reputed University of Harderwijk. 
Having received degree and diploma as doc- 
tor of medicine, he turned to Amsterdam in 
search of a publisher. The quest was speedily 
brought to a favorable issue, and in quick 
succession the far-famed Dutch presses turned 
out a half dozen of bulky folio volumes with 
Latin titles of unprecedented directness and 
simplicity. 

As work after work issued into light, the 
world cf science held its breath. Their con- 
tents was revolutionary. 

His views and theories and systems " upset all 
botany," as one ancient bigwig put it. But the 
older men had to listen and learn in spite of their 
vanities and their prejudices. Reason was on 
the side of the young Swede. To those that saw 
more deeply, it was evident that he had given 
the natural sciences the instrument wanted above 
all other things : a system of quick and reliable 
classification and identification. Botany and 
zoology were floundering about in a deluge of 
unclassified facts and speculations wholly uncon- 
nected with the facts. The artificial but efficient 
system of Linnreus, based on the number of 
stamens in the flower, was a new Ariadne's 
thread leading out of the scientific labyrinth. 
But he did more. By an ingenious device, — 
a mere " crochet " some called it, while others 
named it a " trick," — he brought complete or- 
der out of chaos. Modem science knows 
the ** trick " under the name of " the binomi- 
nal system of nomenclature." Up to that 
time plants and animals had been named by 
genus only, with cumbersome descriptions added 
for further identification of the species. Lin- 
n.neus established the use of two distinct names, 
one for the genus and one to designate the 
.species. It was as simple as Columbus* egg, and 
as radical in its results. To give full measure, 
he added. — and he was not yet thirty then, — the 
definite establishment of grades of classification 
for botany and zotilogy. Those grades, includ- 
ing class, order, genus, species, and variety, arc 



106 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REI^/EIV OF REI^IEWS. 




THE BEST-KNOWN PORTRAIT OF LINN^US. 

(From the painting by Alexander Koslln, who 
might l)e called the Keynolds of Sweden, in 1774. 
This portrait now hangs in the Uoyal Academy of 
Sciences at Stockholm.) 

in use to-day and will undoubtedly last as long 
as the sciences that employ them. 

Soon Linnaeus was a famous man. Honors 
were heaped on him. The Dutch Govern- 
ment offered him inducements unheard of in 
those days if ,he would enter its service. 

But he was thinking of his waiting bride as 
well as of his badly impaired health, — he had 
been working as many hours nights as in the 
daytime, — and started for Stockholm, which city 
he reached in the fall of 1738. He leh a country 
where the greatest were anxious for his friend- 
ship. He came to another one, — his own, — 
where nobody knew him and nobody cared to 
know him. Envy and ignorance combined to 
keep him down. Those few who were aware of 
his foreign reputation and his scientific achieve- 
ments were the more anxious to push him back. 
They would not even trust him as medical prac- 
titioner. But for the thought of his bride, Sara 
Lisa Moraeus, he would probably have gone back 
to Holland and turned away from Sweden for- 
ever. But his mind was made up to stay, and 
he would not let himself be downed. He brought 
himself to the attention of the Queen and suc- 
ceeded in curing a couc:h that had been annoyinij: 
her in spite of all efforts by her own betitled 
medical attendants. A government position and 
large practice were the reward. He married at 
last. But he would not stay at Stockholm. Tlie 
chair of medicine and botany at Upsala was his 



goal ; and in 1741 he reached it in spite of des- 
perate intrigues against him. He was not loved 
by the mediocrities and the courtiers. At Up- 
sala he remained thirty-seven years, or to the 
end of his long life. Before leaving the Swedish 
capital,' he and five other men of science or- 
ganized the Academy of Sciences, of which Lin- 
naeus became the first president. 

At Upsala he worked as he had never 
worked before, rising at three o'clock in the 
morning and remaining on his feet till ten 
o'clock at night Three times he had to act 
as head of the university, and it is character- 
istic that when he was rector the wild life of 
the students subsided into comparative peace; 
for they loved him as a man in such a position 
has seldom been loved. When the other pro- 
fessors spoke to empty benches, his lectures 
were crowded. Such scenes had not been 
\^•itnesscd since the days of Paracelsus, when 
the great Bombast of Hohenheim scornfully 
burnt the works of Galen and Aviccnna and 
his other famous predecessors. Men came 
from all over Sweden and from every part 
of Europe to listen. And it was not only 
what Linnaeus taught that drew them, but 
the way he taught. His words lived, — and 
remember, this happened at a time when the 
dignity of science was supposed to demand 
that the teacher eschew every touch of human 
feeling, his business being " to inform and not 
to interest." " Make your students love 
what they are studying," was the strange cry 
of Linnapus to his colleagues, — a voice in the 
wilderness that was left unheeded. 

In the summer-time he would lead his pupils 
and his foreign visitors on excursions through 
the beautiful Upland country, there to study all 
the three natural kingdoms. Those were feasts. 
At night the little university town was stirred 
pleasantly by the homecoming of the devoted 
band, — caps and coats decorated with flowers and 
butterflies, song flowing from young throats, and 
merry music from French horns and kettle- 
drums. At the house of the master they made 
halt to bid him good-night amidst uproarious 
cheering. Then, again, he would collect around 
him at Hammarby, his summer home, a small 
group of specially beloved students and g^uests of 
high standing to give them esoteric instruction 
in the natural system of classification which he 
was gradually perfecting to take the place of the 
artificial one. This fact has often been over- 
looked, as well as that he applied this system to 
a list of sixty-one natural families, or only forty 
less than the number contained in the list of A. 
dc Jussieu, the acknowledged inventor of the 
first natural system. 

He wrote volume after volume, until the 
total nlimber approached lOO. He traveled 
through the country in the service of the gov- 
ernment, trying in every possible way to es- 
tablish between the sciences and the industries 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



107 



a connection that it was left to a later day to 
materialize. He wrote descriptions of his 
travels, using his native Swedish to the sur- 
prise and disgust of his learned confreres. 
Nothing human was foreign to him, nothing 
or nobody too humble or too small to attract 
his attention. While thus dividing himself 
between practical and more abstract pursuits, 
he laid the basis for plant morphology, — the 
department of science dealing with the evolu- 
tion of the various parts of the plant; he 
founded the science of plant geography, and 
he tried to trace the unity of the whole or- 
ganic world which Darwin finally estab- 
lished. From the lips of Linnaeus fell the 
famous utterance : " Nature makes no leaps." 
The strain of sp much hard work under- 



mined his health completely at last. Melan- 
choly and pain darkened partly his final years, 
but to the ver>' end it remained true, that 
however much he was admired, he was loved 
still more. Not long before death came» in 
1778, he wrote with trembling hand in his 
diary, using the third person, as was his wont 
in speaking of himself: 

" Linnaeus limps ; he can hardly walk ; his 
speech is mumbling; he can barely write." 

Thus, to the last, he remained the keen and 
impassive observer, applying the same accu- 
racy of observation and description to his 
own symptoms as to the picturing and classi- 
fications of the vegetable and animal king- 
doms, — in other words, the type of the mod- 
ern man of science. 



SIDE-LIGHTS ON THE SPANISH ELECTIONS. 



^^TTHOSE Spaniards who, in the march 
of national life, show something 
more than the frivolity and indifference 
which characterize our manner since the war 
uith North America, may make a memoran- 
dum of two recent events of unusual impor- 
tance from which may be drawn lessons and 
hopes for the future, — the meeting which 
took place between Alfonso XIII. and Ed- 
ward VII. at Cartagena, and the elections 
to the Cortes." 

It is doubtful whether the writer of the 
foregoing bitter paragaph in the Por Esos 
Mundos (Madrid) will find any comfort in 
the sort of interest shown in the elections 
as described in the following ingenuous pas- 
sage frooi the Blanco y Negro: 

The election of deputies to the Cortes was ef- 
fected Sunday with tranquillity except for cer- 
tain incidents, one of which escaped, by a mir- 
acle; from having the gravest consequences. In 
S«tion II of the district of Buena-vista, estab- 
lished in the Mint, right in the room where the 
ballots arc sorted, one of the Republican super- 
visors, whom the president had several times 
called to order for his energetic protests, broke 
the electoral urn and discharged a revolver in 
the president's face. 

This " tranquillity " was also violently in 
evidence in Barcelona, where, according to 
the Naevo Mundo: 

The elections had a sad prelude. One night, 
when all the various chiefs of the Solidarity, 
among them Seaor Salmeron and Sefior Cambo, 
were going to an electoral meeting in the pre- 
rinct of Sans, they were shot at, and Senor 
Cambo was seriously wounded. 

These strenuous incidents surpass in trage- 



dy, though not in humor, the action of the 
President of Costa Rica, who, immediately 
upon his taking office, seized the five men 
who had been his rivals for the Presidency 
and sent them heavily guarded to the coast, 
where they were put aboard ships and sent 
into exile. The above-quoted article from 
Por Esos Mundos, speaking of the late elec- 
tions in Spain, continues: 

The daily press has made and still makes long 
comments on the elements composing the new 
House of Representatives, noting especially the 
undoubted triumph of the Conservatrves, the ad- 
vantageous position of the Carlists, who for 
more than thirty years never dreamed of having 
such large representation in the Cortes, and the 
success of the Catalonian Solidarity, which, be- 
tween Republicans, Carlists, and " Catalanistas," 
makes a minority of thirty-eight or forty votes, 
while in the last Cortes they could scarcely 
count a dozen deputies who entertained ideas of 
'* Catalanismus." 

ThtEpoca (Madrid) quotes short extracts 
from a French article which it characterizes 
as showing special insight. It says: 

Senor Maura is the only leader capable of 
grouping under his flag a compact majority, 
homogeneous and disciplined. The Liberals lost 
largely through internal dissensions and rival- 
ries. Their silly anti-clerical policy is responsi- 
ble for the rising up of the Catholic element. 
In Congress the Conservatives will have to fight 
the anti-d)mastic minority, especially the Re- 
publicans. Happily, the popularity of the young 
monarch and the spontaneous liberalism with 
which he is animated are sure guaranties of the 
failure of any anti-monarchical attempt. The 
overwhelming victory of the Conservatives 
shows that the elections are ** 'ilar 

feeling. When the voting ra- 



108 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REl^lEW OF REVIEWS, 




OrT OF TIIKIR KI.KME.VT. 

Guard : " Here, my good womon, you can't fight 
here. If you really want to get up a scandal you 
had better go and take part In the sessions of the 
Cortes." 



Maura: 



IN TllK MUD. 

* Gracious ! How dirty we are getting.'* 



La Cierva : " Oh, don't trouble yourself aboat 
that. Mud will dry off soon enough.'* 

(This is the way the cartoonist of Blanco y Xegro (Madrid) pictures the post-election situation In Spain). 



tives, and reduces from 240 to 65 the number of 
the Liberals, the explanation of the result is not 
only in the docility of the electoral body. One 
must admit that it manifests the true public 
sentiment. 

In Spain the statement that the elections 
are always in favor of the party in power is 



taken in all seriousness and not at all as an 
attempt to be funny. It spite of evidence to 
the contrary in his case, the accompanying 
cartoon shows that some such accusations arc 
made against the Conservative leader, Senor 
Waura. 



THE SHORTEST ROUTE FROM 

AMERICA. 



EUROPE TO SOUTH 



CEVERAL articles have recently appeared 
in the Ateneo Cientifico y Literario, of 
Madrid, in reference to a proposed railway 
from Dakar in French Senegal to the Straits 
of Gibraltar. Senor Manuel Anton y Fer- 
randiz calls attention to the great shortening 
of the time required for the voyage between 
Europe and South America which would re- 
sult from the construction of this railroad, 
and continues: 

This can be realized by the building of a rail- 
road which, starting at Ccuta, shall traverse 
Morocco from north to south through the most 
level portion of the country, and. following the 
desert along the coast, shall coimect at San Luis 
with the railway already btiilt by the l^Vench 
from that place to Dakar, a line iH)rt, i)rotected 
by Ca|)c Verde. 

'^rhc undertaking, in the opinion of this 
"•"**"- "'ui be compared in imi)ortancc with 



the Pacific and Trans-Siberian railroads and 
with the Suez Canal. The English, French, 
and German steamships now require twenty- 
five days from Buenos Ay res to Hamburg, 
twenty-four to Southampton, and twenty- 
three to Bordeaux, and the shortest route 
from South America to Europe, that from 
Pernambuco in Brazil to Lisbon, requires 
twelve days. Senor Ferrandiz proceeds: 

As can be seen on the map, all these routes 
follow a diagonal course from Europe to South 
America. It, however, we cast our eyes down 
the map, we observe that the lines of the oppo- 
site coasts curve toward each other, forming a 
sort of neck between Cape Branca in Brazil and 
Cape Verde in Senegambia, separating the At- 
lantic Ocean into two great divisions. The dis- 
tance between the nearest ports on each side, 
Pernambuco and Dakar, is only 171 1 nautical 
miles. 

The writer estimates that this distance 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



109 



could be traversed in 
four days at a speed of 
seventeen knots an hour 
and in three at a si>eed 
of twenty- three knots. 
The distance to be cov- 
ered on the proposed 
railroad from Dakar to 
Ceuta would be ap- 
proximately 1875 miles, 
which might require a 
day and a half at a 
speed of fifty miles an 
hour. Allowing one 
hour for the crossing 
from Ceuta to Alge- 
ciras, and eleven hours 
for the 375 nules to 
Madrfd, by way of 
G)rdova, it weuld take 
only six days to go from 
Pamambuco to Madrid 
or seven days to Paris, 
while at present the 
journey occupies fifteen 
or sixteen days. At a 
speed of twenty knots 
an hour the voyage 
from Buenos Ay res to 
Dakar would require 
only nine days, making 
twelve days from 
Buenos Ayrcs to Paris, 
a journey which it now 
takes twenty-five days 
to accomplish. 

In an earlier number 
of the Ateneo, Senor 
Jose Marva treated the 
same question, more 
especially in regard to 
\Iorocco. Alluding to 
the difficulties which 
would have to be over- 
come in the construc- 
tion of a railroad through that country, this 
Spanish writer records the probable opposi- 
tion on the part of Morocco in these words: 

The Sultan will oppose the project more or 
kss openly, because he well knows that a rail- 
road would not only serve the interests of com- 
merce but, passing through the heart of his ter- 
ritory, it could easily be used for the domination 
of his country and would be a powerful arm in 
the hands of the forei^ powers. Morocco is 
stai rebellious to any idea of civilization, and 
Moorish fanaticism resists all progress, and 
therefore is opposed to any improvement in the 
mans of communication. It is very possible 
that at the tx>ttom of this opposition there lies 




THE SHORTEST ROUTE FROM AFRICA TO SOUTH AMERICA. 

(Prom Dakar, hi Africa, to Pemambuco, In Brazil, 
It l8 only 1700 miles.) 



an instinct of the danger which menaces Moroc- 
can independence. 

Even with the Sultan's consent and aid the 
construction and operation of the railroad 
would present great difficulties. The tribes, 
many of which are in a state of chronic re- 
volt, would place every obstacle in the way. 
For they would fear to lose their quasi- 
independence should their hitherto inaccessi- 
ble mountains and rivers be invaded by a 
railroad. With these, as well as wi'th other 
natural and political problems, France will 
have to cope. 



110 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



A GERMAN VIEW OF THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY 

PRESIDENT. 



PROFESSOR ALOIS BRANDL, of 

Strassburg, a noted German Anglicist, 
visited this country during the past year on 
the occasion of the Benjamin Franklin cele- 
bration, and records his impressions of our 
university system in the Deutsche Rund- 
schau. He came, he remarks, solely to learn, 
not to describe, but received so many over- 
whelming impressions that he had to free 
himself by giving vent to them. Though 
his stay was brief, he had exceptional oppor- 
tunities for observation, and found far more 
occasion for praise than blame. As con- 
trasted with German higher education he re- 
gards that of the United States greatly su- 
perior in the attention given to physical and 
moral development, while the Germans bend 
their efforts almost exclusively upon the in- 
tellectual side. He finds, too, that the 
American college students, — and the English 
as well, — ^have a much better command of 
their language than the German students of 
theirs, the frequent writing of essays and the 
debating clubs contributing much to this re- 
sult. On the other hand, the uncertain ten- 
ure and slender pay of the professors elimi- 
nate in a measure the choicest material, other 
callings offering far more brilliant material 
inducements. It would be difficult to give 
in a brief space an adequate idea of the wide 
field covered by the professor's remarks, but 
we reproduce w^hat he says of the American 
university president: 

He must be a strong man who furthers the 
growth and prosperity of the institution in every 
respect. He is responsible to the trustees alone. 
If complaints are made to them against him. they 
must be able to say : ** What do you want ? He 
if. a strong man; we could get no one better; 
we shall stick to him." If he have this backing, 
he is almost unlimited master of the faculty, and 
can dispose of removals as well as appointments 
with a freedom such as with us no minister en- 
joys, no monarch employs. Through such an 
arrangement of dictators the American, as is 
well known, likes to counterbalance the freedom 
of his constitution, in order to secure effective 
management. The head of the Library of Con- 
gress has a like autocratic sway over his '300 
subordinates. On the other hand, the power of 
the president stops at the basis of the university, 
— the student-body. Toward them he usually 
displays the greatest complaisance: for a con- 
siderable falling off of their number, even nu- 
merous failures at examinations, would cast a 
shadow upon the prospects of the institution, and 
is consequently sought to be avoided as far as 
possible. Through the president the student in 
Ar — •*— *— a hand upon his teacher, as with 



us through the college-fee: thus do the inner- 
most wheels Work into each other there. The 
curator of a Prussian provincial uniycrsity, who 
may best be placed upon a parallel ivith the 
president, has an essentially diflFerent office; he 
has less say, but also less care; he is inoom- 
parably more dependent as to what is above and 
more independent below; he is only a respected 
intermediary and not an authoritative leader. 

The strongest university president in 
America, in the opinion of this writer, is the 
president of Harvard, Charles \VillianQ 
Eliot. " They say of him that as a perma- 
nent force he is .more powerful than the 
President of the Republic himself." 

Roosevelt will some day return to private life, 
and then his influence will be rather a personal 
one, on the occasion of political conventions; 
but Eliot, as the ruling spirit of* Harvard, ^jvill 
be a controlling force in the spiritual life of the 
nation as long as he lives. I shall attenipt to 
sketch in a few strokes this remarkable per- 
sonality who has demonstrated in so sigrnal a 
measure what can be made of the office of presi- 
dent. At the Franklin celebration I heard him 
in a public speech. A tall figure, of quiet dig- 
nity; a Low-Saxon face, with a mouth and chin 
of American energy; thus he stepped to tK^ 
speaker's desk, from which much eloquence Ksl^ 
already been directed at the closely thron^«^ 
audience, and b^n with the simple tlieme, 
'* Franklin as Pnnter," without prefatory re- 
marks, citing at once some biographical facrts. 
He emphasized the circumstance that Franlclin 
from the vtrj outset to the close of his carreer 
as a man busied himself with this trade, sho^w^d 
attachment to and preference for it. Throtw^h 
handling the press he was led to authorsliip, 
which, in kccpmg with its origin, was tume<l to 
the directly useful, and that course of actioi:m is 
perceptible even in his most deeply medita^ted 
utterances upon education. Franklin, namely, 
designated the clear, persuasive use of one's na- 
tive tongue as the pith of all culture; starting 
with that, any ancient or modem language mi^ht 
at need be readily acquired. In this way £liot 
led us imperceptibly to the most important edu- 
cational problem of our time. No other speaker 
understood so well to draw present instruction 
from old Franklin. In a few sentences he save 
an illuminating program. But so little did he 
allow himself to be misled into enthusiastic 
exaggeration, that he was indeed the only one 
who dared the role of critic of the hero of the 
day, and that, moreover, with a remark about 
Franklin's lack of nobilitjr as regards women. 
What, finally, he lauded in Franklin's natural 
philosophy are evidently his own aims : absolute 
love of truth, directness, perseverance. In private 
intercourse I was permitted later to come in 
somewhat closer contact with him at Harvard- 
He is no late riser; it was not yet eight o'clock 
when he called for me to accompany him to the 
fifteen minutes' religious service with which his 
university, too, begins the day's work. When he 
became president every student was still com- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



Ill 



pelled to attend; he made attendance optional. 
•"The hundred young people who come of their 
own accord,'^ he remarked to me on entering the 
church, '* rejoice me more than the thousand 
forced ones before." While a hymn was being 
sung I looked over the preface of the hymn- 
book ; Eliot, noticing it, called my attention to 
the word ** undenominational " in the opening 
sentence, to the inter-confessional character of 
the religious service, that is. I saw how the 
** strong man of Harvard " understands how to 
respect . freedom of thought. Still later, at his 
hospitable board, he was an attentive observer 
and left the speaking substantially to the others, 
who all seemed desirous to stand the test of his 
judgment. But all the more did I hear, in his 
absence, of his activity: how he had raised the 
quality and compass of English instruction, in 
order to give the undergraduates a skillful com- 
mand of expiession ; introduced the system of 
writing daily essays, in spite of the considerable 
cost it involved in the way of teachers to correct 
them ; how he had established a closer corre- 
spondence between the university and the higher 
schools; how in the appointment of professors 
he is more intent upon securing a person gifted 
with inward fire than a celebrity boasting pon- 



derous volumes, etc. Eliot exercises an in- 
fluence within the limits of Harvard and far be- 
yond evidently not because he aims at anything 
extraordinary but because he strives for what is 
rational and seeks to accomplish it through the 
directest means. It is the secret of all success 
in practical affairs. 

If we picture the influence of such a man 
extended over decades, — and all the instruc- 
tors of Harvard are Eliot's appointees, — 
continues the German writer, we can realize 
to what a degree the universities of America 
are calculated to assume the complexion of 
their presidents, while with us they maintain 
a historical character. 

This is perceptibly connected with the repub- 
lican form of government, which, strictly speak- 
ing, signifies not the dominion of all but of the 
strong. This vast, unmonarchical America is 
the land of forceful characters; they spring up 
with elemental freedom in academic as well as 
in economic and political life; that is the spirit- 
ual importation which we may chiefly look for 
from the other side. 



POLISH AUTONOMY AND ** INTERNATIONAL 
COMPLICATIONS." 



T^HE bill providing for the autonomy of 
the Kingdom of Poland (ten " gov- 
ernments " of Russian-Poland ) was intro- 
«luccd in the recently dissolved Russian 
Duma by the Polish group on April 
23, with the motion that the project 
be referred to a committee of thirty- 
three. 

In introducing its bill the Polish group 
had a ver>' diflicult problem to solve. The 
n-easure had to be the declaration of the po- 
litical demands of the Polish community and 
at the same time to stand on the ground of 
the real political situation. That is, it had 
to show the Duma and the Russian commun- 
ity that the granting of autonomy to the 
Kingdom of Poland is not inadmissible from 
the point of view of the real interests of the 
Russian state. The Poles made certain con- 
cessions, therefore. They recognized certain 
prejudices of those Russian parties on whose 
support they counted, but understood that 
the autonomous statute must express those 
demands which the Polish community regards 
as necessary. The Polish grou^ understood 
that it was impossible to demand more, and 
that It was impossible to demand less. Hence, 
the Polish community, without difference of 
parties, has expressed its sincere satisfaction 
with the bill, regarding it as an act of politi- 



cal wisdom and moderation adapted to the 
present situation. 

No point was advanced in the bill that 
could be regarded as an aggression upon th? 
reasonably conceived state idea of the Russian 
nation. This temperance of the Poles was 
expressly emphasized by two well-known St. 
Petersburg publicists, — Nestor-Svatkovsky 
(in the Russ) and Pantaleyev (in the Tova- 
rishch ) : The bill did not demand for 
Poland either an army, or a monetary and 
customs separateness, or an independent penal 
code: it restricted itself to the "proximate 
needs of a self-active conduct of the affairs of 
the Kingdom of Poland that are of a purely 
internal nature." Nevertheless, the introduc- 
tion of the bill in the Duma did not make an 
impression favorable to the Poles in the Rus- 
sian press. Organs even diametrically oppo- 
site are of almost one voice in the question of 
Polish autonomy; the organ of the Constitu- 
tional Democrats, the Rech, is in almost per- 
fect tune with the united chorus of the 
Novoye Vremya, Rossia, Sviet, Kyevlanin. 
and others. 

Opposition to the Polish demands hac' been 
expected from the Conservatives, but not from 
the Constitutional Democrats, who in the 
electoral campai^rns had included the demand 
of the autonon^'* -^^ ii-i«-id as a plank in their 



112 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REl/IElV OF REyiElVS. 

platform. Yet an article in the Rech the ** Cadets " dear, was shown in the late 

passed censure on the Polish bill. It found Duma, when the Poles cast the deciding 

fault with the project as being based on votes that enabled the Social Democrats to 

the principle of federation, instead of on obtain the adoption, against the votes of the 

the principle of provincial autonomy; and Constitutional Democrats and of the Right, 

it opined that the bill, in its original form, of Tzeretelli's interpellation concerning the 

had no chance of being adopted. The repressive measures employed by General 

" Cadet " organ concluded its arguments Drachevsky, prefect of St. Petersburg, 

against the project with the assertion that against the workmen. This vote revealed the 

the adoption of the bill would entail the startling fact that the Poles held the balance 

dissolution of the Duma and even interna- of power in the Duma, and that without the 

tional complications. Polish votes the Constitutional Democrats 

The neighbors of the Russian state that are were powerless, 
most closely concerned in the reform of the The bill of Polish autonomy consisted of 
constitution of the empire are Austria-Hun- twenty-four articles. It provided that the 
gary and Germany. Austria-Hungary, " St. Kingdom of Poland, a country constituting, 
Gr." points out (writing in the Tygodnik II- within the limits established in 1815, an in- 
lustrowany, of Warsaw), is not devoid in its separable part of the Russian state, should be 
policy of Polish and Hungarian influences governed in its internal affairs by means of 
which enjoin on the Ministry of Foreign separate institutions on the principle of sepa- 
Affairs the observance of a favorable attitude rate legislation. For the internal affairs of 
toward the Poles. Moreover, the quickest the kingdom there were to be a separate Diet, 
possible restoration of order in Russian-Po- treasury, budget, an administrative body, 
land is in the interest of Austria on account with a viceroy at the head, judicial institu- 
of the vicinity of the Kingdom of Poland to tions, with a Senate, and a Secretary of State 
Galicia. The anarchy in Russian-Poland is for the affairs of the kingdom, who was to 
already stealing across the cordon, and the have a seat in the Council of Ministers. 
Vienna authorities are aware of the fact that j^ ^^e competency of the Diet there is subject 
tranquillity in Russian- Poland can be secured legislation concerning the needs of the kingdom, 
only by autonomy. In the consciousness of as the imposing of all kinds of taxes, with the 
her own interest, therefore, Austria should exception of excises and customs ; the" discussion 
suppon the Polish demands. But Prussia? SLtsir^^ra^^^'i *US^rth^\"li^ 
Prussia s policy with respect to the Poles is istration of the kingdom. From the competency 
known only too well, observes " St. Gr." of the Diet are excluded all affairs of the era- 
Russian journals have freshly communicated P***^* ^^- ^^^ Emperor's civil list; the affairs of 

even the details of the strenuous diplomatic ^^]^A^„^!!f^^S^^^ f""'^^'* ^^^ ^^^ 
J .. c* Tj ^ L • * ^"° "^^y» *s w^^l 2is all Imes of communicauon 
action commenced ih St. Petersburg against belonging to the departments of war and navy; 
Polish autonomy by Berlin circles. The Ger- the currency; customs and excise legislation; 
man Emperor recognizes, according to " N. postal, telegraph, and telephone legislation ; pos- 
W." (in the St. Petersburg Russ), that even ^^^* telegraph, telephone, and railrc^d tariflfs for 
*u -u. *k^ D • /^ / u ij *. communication with Russia and foreign coun- 
though the Russian Government should not tries; penal legislation in the subjects of revolt 
sanction a bill of Polish autonomy passed by aj^ainst the supreme authority, treason, riots; 
the Duma, the very adoption of such a bill violation of regulations of military service ; vio- 
by the Russian Parliament might invest the lation of quarantine, customs, excise, postal, tele- 
struggle of the Poles for political rights with aTd'obhSioni'^ ' "'^"'* '^' 
a character completely different from that The Diet is to assemble annually in War- 
which it has hitherto had, — a character in saw on the order of the Emperor countersigned 
the highest degree undesirable for Prussia, ^y ^he Minister-Secretary of State for the king- 
If discussion of Polish autononjy be excluded ^^C'^^ aTpZ VthTDfet 'frf ttZ 
from the third Duma, that will be the doing, presented to the Emperor for his sanction by the 
according to this Russ writer, of the German Secretary of the State for the Kingdom. The 
Emperor. It is interesting in this connection ^^^ ^'^^ '^ *^ ^ ^.l^^^^Jjy universal, equal, di- 
to recollect that when the Polish .roup in- [SUln^^l.'Sria. feSXili^ ?^ 
troduced its bill. Deputy Punshkievich. a resentatives elected on the same basis as those 
" True Russian/* cried: " What would of the population of the empire. Conflicts aris- 
Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great. l"« between the imperial mstitutions on the one 
and Maria Theresa say of this? " J-" 0^"^^^ ^h^a^n^d'^ ?^T S^J^^ "t^'^ 
1 hat their recreancy to the Poles may cost standing commission composed of a president 



LEADIUG ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



113 



appointed by the Emperor for one year and 
twelve menit)ers chosen by the imperial Parlia- 
ment and twelve chosen by the Diet of the King- 
dom; these members to be chosen at the be- 
ginning of each session of the legislative bodies. 
All the internal functions of the legislative, judi- 
cial» and administrative authorities and of the 
governmental educational institutions, as well as 
the instruction in those educational institutions, 
are to be carried on in the Polish language ; for 
communication with the imperial offices the Rus- 
sian language is to be used. The rights of the 



Lithuanian, Little Russian, and Russian minori- 
ties to their languages in courts, schools, etc., 
will be secured by the first Diet. The further 
articles describe the relation of the viceroy to 
the Diet; the executive authority in the king- 
dom; the position of the Minister-Secretary 
of State for the Kingdom, who is to be 
appointed by the Emperor, in the manner pre- 
scribed for the appomting of ministers, from 
among the Polish citizens of the kingdom; the 
judicial system; the method of self-govern- 
ment, etc. 



WHY NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA ARE DIFFERENT. 



pERHAPS few Americans have ever really 
stopped to think why North and Soifth 
America are so strangely, diametrically differ- 
ent. It is true that part of South America 
is tropical, but there arc vast territories 
where the climate and soil are almost identi- 
cal wirfi our middle and southern West. 
Why is It that the civilization is now so dif- 
ferent, and why have the industrial interests 
of the southern continent been so slow in de- 
veloping? Signor S. L. Racca (in an article 
in the Rivista d' Italia, of Rome) goes back 
to the very beginning of things to account 
for it. 

The early settlers in South America, he 
reminds us, were gold-seekers, pure and sim- 
ple. Although they entered South America 
a century before North America began to be 
settled, inst^d of being a hundred years 
ahead of the new settlements they were a 
century behind them: for their one aim had 
been to exploit their conquest, to extract the 
largest possible amount of gold for the least 
possible expenditure of effort and for the 
shortest possible stay in the new country. 

This process continued uninterruptedly, no 
agriculture bein** practiced save a very little 
done by slave-labor, until the period of the 
struggle for independence from Spain. After 
heroic efforts the patriots found themselves free 
and independent, but masters of an empty house, 
in a continent stripped of all its natural wealth 
of minerals, with a population not only unpre- 
pared for self-government but wholly ignorant 
of agriculture. With such conditions it is only 
natural tfiat long periods of black depression 
followed. Every element of industrial advance 
had to be manufactured from the beginning. 
Their very independence from Europe was a 
commercial disadvantage to them in some cases. 
As long as Brazil was a part of Portugal, 
Brazilian coffee, sugar, and chocolate entered 
Portogal freely and circulated from there over 
afi southern Europe. Owp freed, this advan- 
tage was lost, and Brazilian products had to seek 
other markets. The terrible wars of the Na- 
poleooic period had forced European govern- 



ments to put high taxes on such articles, and 
Brazil found itself hopelessly over-productive of 
a commodity which nobody wanted. 

The real great difficulty, however, with 
South America has always been the impossi- 
bility of " getting together." Distances are 
enormous, population scattered, and physical 
obstacles like malarious forests or impassable 
mountain ranges abound. In order to over- 
come this it has been necessary to bor row- 
great sums of money from European bankers 
for the construction of railroads, which, put 
in over many localities when the demand 
was not sufficient, have not been profitable. 
Added to this have been the constantly fluc- 
tuating currency, which at one time reduced 
Brazil almost to bankruptcy, and a popula- 
tion neither amicable nor homogeneous. The 
author of the article says that a marvelously 
rich soil and a climate eminently suited for 
agriculture can accomplish little against such 
obstacles and such a history, and that for a 
great many years to come 'South America 
will be helplessly dependent upon European 
capital. 

In Brazil the people do not seem able to*leam 
from their most disastrous mistakes, and go on 
year after >ear putting all their eggs into one 
basket, producing coffee and nothing else, and 
losing everything if over-production brings down 
the cost of that commodity. Exports from 
Brazil are increasing, but imports (which repre- 
sent the acquisitive value of the country) have 
gone back .^ little during the last twenty-five 
years. In addition, there is a marked tendency 
to import only the cheapest grade of every va- 
riety of article. 

The experience of Brazil is analogous to 
that of Argentina, save that from a costly 
and oftentimes disastrous attempt to bring 
all parts of the country within reach of the 
center, there does remain a network of rail- 
roads, which will be of value later, .although 
now they often traverse great tracts of wholly 



114 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REyiElV OF REI^IEWS. 



uninhabited land. For a time there was a 
veritable fever of English investment in Ar- 
gentine securities, but the failure of the 
Baring Bank was a fatal blow. There is, 
however, more hope here than in many other 
inflated and burst South American business 
enterprises. The climate is suitable for Euro- 
pean immigration, the soil can raise more 
varied crops, and the people have fewer of 
the bitter internal rivalries which have been 
such a clog to the progress of other countries 
on that continent. 

Now as to 'the relation of all this to com- 
merce with the United States: in the first 
place, nearly without exception, all of the 
banking business is in the hands of Europeans, 
which gives a great advantage to European 
business interests. Second, the very fact that 
such enormous quantities of money from Eu- 
rope have been poured in there has drawn 
the attention of European business men to 
the locality. 

The ships which carry cargoes to and fro are 
almost all European, and American ships are at 
a disadvantage, since they must either take a 
return carg> to Rurope, or, often, return to the 
United States with empty holds. The articles 
which are most exported from South America 
are those on which there is a very large duty in 



American ports, and since the actual distance of 
voyage is no greater to Europe than to the 
United States, it is natural that the trade should 
continue to set away from the northern republic, 
i'httt this condition will continue is shown by 
the very slow growth in variety of products 
mentioned rbove. 

On the west coast, where the financial in- 
dependence of the South American countries 
i> in sight, it might be thought that the 
United States would have a better chance, 
but here racial feeling, the equidistance from 
European markets, habit, and the notorious 
lack of adaptability to foreign conditions of 
y* merican merchants are all elements which 
lead this European sympathizer to predict 
that it will be long befere Uncle Sam will 
dominate in commerce. From all the west- 
ern coast, not only are all the steamship lines 
European, but it is actually a more direct 
route. 

Still the great republic of the north is bc: 
ginning -to bestir itself; its products which 
compete successfully with European products 
in European markets have only to be known 
to succeed in South America, and the advan- 
tages which previous occupation give to Eu- 
ropeans must not be overesrimated in the 
coming commercial struggle. 



SUGGESTION, A POWERFUL FACTOR IN TREATING THE 

SICK. 



TT is well known, says the Hollandsche 
^ Revue, that gaping is as infectious a> 
laughter. 

So, too, when one starts coughing in any 
audience he is instantly followed hy others. A 
Russian physician relates that, at an appearance 
of S5rah Bernhardt in Moscow, in '* La Dair.c 
aux Camelias," the famous actress, in the dyin;; 
^cene, suddenly boRan to cough, when the entire 
audience was thrown into similar fits, thoii^h 
jiist before the silence in the house was siirh 
that one mij^ht have heard a pin drop. 

The Revue then proceeds to quote from a 
recent article by Dr. I. Zechandelaer, show- 
ing that suggestion proceeds not only from 
one mind to another, but even from material 
objects, and refers to Zola's explanation of 
klept(»mania as being caused by the sight ot 
attractive objects displayed on counters or in 
shop windows. We quote: 

Susceptibility to sugj^estion is one of tlie fun- 
damental properties of the human soul, a 
knowledge and comprehension of which is of 
the fir^it importance to physicians and nurses. 
Fcnr of a disease is follower! by an attack of 



the disease dreaded. To class such cases with 
the imaginary sick is wholly erroneous. There 
arc diseases caused by the imagination ; but 
these are quite different from those caused by 
suggestion. 

Dr. Zechandelaer cites several instances of 
this power of suggestion. Here is one: 

A hospital physician in Paris, in the hearing 
of the patient, consulted with his assistant as 
to the course to be pursued in the case. Then, 
with much head shaking, he said to the patient: 
*' There is one last remedy ; but it is so dan- 
pj. rous that I hardly dare to apply it ; but if yon 
1 avc courage to risk it, I will give you the 
tilulcs fulminantcs. It is my last recourse: 
l)nt it is a very hazardous one.'* The patient 
expressed herself ready for the experiment. 
I'Otir pilules were prescribed, only one to be 
t.ikcii per day. The next day the woman re- 
c )vored ; her desire for a cure and her expecta- 
nt n of the marvelous effect of the pilules had 
JK^on so great that, as she hesitatingly acknowl- 
edged, she had taken two instead of one. 
^liortly after which she had felt a shock as if 
nIic had been struck by lightnmg, and from that 
moment had been restored. The fulminant pills 
were made of bread crumbs. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



115 



Every nurse knov%^ that in some cases pow- 
dered sujiar is as effective in producing sleep 
as morphine. Dr. Van Eeden tells of an ex- 
periment made in a hospital, when a glass of 
sweetened water was given to each of the 
hundred patients, after which the report was 
spread that by mistake an emetic had been put 
into the water. Thereupon no less than 
eighty of the number were taken with 
vomiting. 

Marvelous also, and yet comprehensible, 
are the cures performed by suggestion. Dr. 
Zechandelaer claims to have seen cripples 
throwing away their crutches and walking, 
merely upon the doctor telling them, with a 
loud voice and penetrating look, that they 
could walk. He relates, too, a typical case 
that happened in the practice of Prince A. 
von Hohcnlohe, a noted physician in the 
early *2o's of the nineteenth century. One 
day a peasant called upon him who had lost 
the power of speech. The prince, wishing 
first to examine the man's general condition, 
put the thermometer into the patient's mouth 
to get his temperature. The peasant, sup- 
posing this to be the instrument intended to 
cure him, instantly recovered his voice, and 
retained it during life. 

In what w^ay may we suppose that sug- 
gestion operates? We know that mental 
suggestions may greatly affect physical 
processes. 



Many a timid person blushes at the mere 
thought of appearing in a large company (cor- 
puscular change under the influence of sugges- 
tion) ; the thought of being about to lose her 
child causes the mother to shed tears (lach- 
rymal secretion by suggestion); the suggestion 
of delicious food makes the mouth v/ater; many 
persons are attacked with di&rrhea through 
anxiety. In short, the circulation of the blood, 
the action of the heart, the secretor and motor 
functions of numerous organs may be affected 
to a greater or less degree by suggestion. 

To make suggestion effective two things 
are required: Undivided attention and be- 
lieving expectation, — in other words, • faith. 
The faith-cures which have taken place in all 
ages furnish constantly recurring proof of 
the marvelous power of faith. " Upon it are 
based the therapeutic value of talismans and 
amulets, of galvanic crosses, electric belts, the 
pellets and minute solutions of homeopathy, 
of the hydrotherapeutic and pharmaceutic 
remedies of our day." 

Dr. Zechandelaer, therefore, regards sug- 
gestion as one of the most effective expedients 
at the command of both physicians and nurses. 
In his opinion, the nurse should be as fully 
acquainted with this power as the physician ; 
and the doctor who is not aware of the great 
suggestive value of his words and manner of 
acting during the treatment of a case is, ac- 
cording to him, not a good physician. And 
what is true of him is equally true of the 
nurse. 



IS LITERATURE DYING? 



npHAT great writers disappear and leave 
no worthy successors behind them, that 
the twentieth century, so far as it has gone, 
is in the old sense of words unimaginative, 
preferring facts to fancies and exalting sub- 
stance over form, — these are truths which 
are perceived by the most superficial observer. 
At any rate, this is the way the situation is 
sketched by Herbert Paul, the eminent Eng- 
lish critic and historian, in an article in the 
Contemporary Review, Not that we have 
lost our command of literary form, says Mr. 
Paul. The decline of literature cannot be 
due to any want of verbal clothing. "It 
must be connected with some phase, perma- 
nent or ephemeral, of the human mind." 

After trenchantly criticising the literary 
production of Europe and America during 
recent years as being without distinction or 
true greatness, Mr. Paul reminds us that the 
few really great writers of our day are not 



permeated with the spirit of the time, but are' 
survivals: One great wri'ter only, Tolstoi, 
survives, and Tolstoi physically belongs to 
t\\fi Old World, while temperamentally he is 
even older still. He had nothing in common 
with the nineteenth century, except the acci- 
dent of birth. 

He is often called a Socialist,, and Socialism 
is supposed to l)e new. Socialism is not new, 
and Tolstoi is not correctly described as a So- 
cialist. He is a primitive Cliristian, born out of 
due time, a remnant of the past, and not a har- 
binger of the future. As a man of pre-eminent 
and incontestable genius, he belongs to the ages, 
not to the age. No other novelist has quite such 
a power of crowding his pages with perfectly 
unmistakable characters, all different, all con- 
sistent, each as finished as any solitary portrait. 
The art of "Anna Karenina " is consummate. 
The moral force of " Resurrection," the beauty 
of the girl's nature which cannot be degraded 
even by vice, are more wonderful, as they are 
more noble, than any art. But Tolstoi is foUovv- 
ing the gleam, and passing from our ken. He is 



116 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REt^lEW OF REVIEWS. 



at war with modem society, out of all sym- 
pathy with its idols, and entirely contemptuous 
of its passions. 

Tennyson was another example. If any 
man ever kept up the dignity of literature it 
^vas he. 

But though Tennyson has not been dead fif- 
teen years, he seems almost mediaeval in his re- 
moteness. I do not mean that his best poetry is 
dead, or can ever die. It is his conception of his 
task that seems obsolete. Although he made 
good bargains with the booksellers, he did seri- 
ously devote his whole life to the highest literary 
productions of which he was capable. Morbidly 
sensitive to criticism as he was. he felt also that 
genius had its duties as well as its rights, and 
conscientiously discharged them. We have no 
Tennyson now. What should we make of him 
if we had him? Reverence is the keynote of 
'• In Memoriam," as is humor of the " Northern 
Farmer." 

In the history of all civilized communities, 
says Mr. Paul, further, there are periods 
destitute of great literary names. " Our pe- 
culiarity is that we seem to get -on very well 
without them." 

The scientific spirit seems now to dominate 
everything, continues this English critic. The 
world is in future to be governed from the 
laboratory. Science is apparently acquiring 
an absolute domination over the minds of 
men. If, he concludes, science can be proved 
to hold the key to the universe, complete sat- 
isfaction cannot be sought elsewhere. 

As for everything which does not enlarge the 



bounds of knowledge, what is it all but a 
trouble of ants in the gleam of a million million 
of suns? If all science, except natural science, 
be science falsely so called, the human intellect 
must inevitably be drawn away from what can- 
not yield tangible results. History cannot yield 
them. Let bygones be bygones. Why seek ye 
the living among the dead? There is enough 
poetry in the world already. It must be waste 
o1 time to make more. Science is to literature 
as life to death. To become really scientific is 
a resurrection. If these views are widely held. 
more widely every day, the question at the head 
of this article must be answered in the affirma- 
tive. It may be euthanasia, a gradual and easy 
decay. But it is as certain as it is gradual 
The very fact that the name of science is often 
misapplied, that men claim the epithet scientific 
for things which it will not suit, is itself a proof 
of the despotism to which the unscientific world 
submits. Literature may be more tempting than 
most forms of illusion. Other verse besides Sir 
David Lindsay's may -still "have charms.'' 
Science alone is real. The prevalence of that 
creed, or of that superstition, does not seem to 
produce scientific genius, though it has doubtle<;5 
raised the level of the scientific intelligence. Its 
negative eflPect upon literature is more obvious, 
and the effect is not, of course, confined to the 
literature of any. single country. Just as motor 
cars are superseding horses, so is science super- 
seding humanism. At least, so it would seem^ 
Even science may disappoint expectation, and 
the door which no man living has yet entered 
may remain inexorably closed. Among other 
discoveries it may be discovered that there are 
bounds to the discoveries of science. At present 
the trend of opinion is the other way. The pur- 
suit of what Bacon called secondary causes i> 
the most dangerous rival that literature has ever 
encountered. 



THK MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IN INFANT 
MORTALITY. 



CCIKNCK in the last twenty or thirty years 
has cleared up many an Augean stable 
of human disease. To-day a larjje number 
of the terrors of our proximate ancestors have 
ceased to exist, liut the scientific men of 
Kurope are rather inclined to the belief that 
we create diseases almost as fast as we get 
rid of them. It is true that many old and 
dread names have been stricken from the list, 
but their places have been taken by new 
scotirjres. This is true for a large portion 
of nervous diseases, consumption, t>phoid 
fever, and particularly for child ren*s diseases. 
In a recent number of the li'ochc (Berlin^ 
Dr. Paul Mayer a>nsiders the incre:Lse in 
infant mortallt>\ and obser\-es that ** while 
death statisti^^ in almost all diseases have de- 
clined, those in iliseases of the intestines have 
increased. And these diseases have shown 



themselves to be the true destroying angel 
of the nursing babe." The question, then, is. 
Why have these diseases increased? As In- 
fants make up the large proportion of vic- 
tims, we will restrict our inquiry to them 
alone. Dr. Mayer states that " the ansi.%er 
to our question is first to be found in the in- 
creased labor that is being required of wom- 
en, and particularly in the influence which 
industrial life and work are exercising on 
woman and her physical strength.** There- 
fore the German physician proposes pension- 
ing the working- woman before and after the 
birth of her child, free medical attention, and 
rewards to mothers who nurse their children 
for periods of six months and one year after 
birth. The first WiXi of these precautions arc 
fully jiistified by the investigations of Dr. 
Leppmann, who found that children whose 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



117 



motliers worked up to the time of birth, 
weigrhed 5(X) grams less* than children whose 
mothers stopped work two or three months 
before birth. 

These are all important considerations. 
But the most important of all is the necessity 
which exists for the mother to nurse her own 
chHd. 

Of all the vicious influences which afflict so- 
ciety to-day the one which takes the babe from 
its mother is most to be condemned. Some 
women, it is true, cannot nurse their children, 
hut the majority can, and there is absolutely no 
substitute for mother's milk. In Berlin, at the 
time of the censuses of 1890, 1895, 1900, and 1905, 
a large amount of material was obtained in ref- 
trencc to children. Among other things it was 
found that in 1890 out of 1000 children 529 were 
nursed by the mother; in 1895. 446; in 1900, 332; 
The re«=ult for 1905 is not yet available, but I 
liave been privately informed that the figures 
show an even greater decrease. 

The importance of the statistics will be 
appreciated when we consider further. Dr. 
F>fBer, of Danzig, shows that children nour- 
* ished with cow*s milk are ill five times to 
the once of children nourished with the 
mother's milk. Moreover, the Berlin statis- 
tics for 1900 show that children fed by the 
mother are far stronger than children fed 
nith substitutes for human milk. 

Thu'i a mother who can nourish her child but 
does not increases the danger of death from so- 
called English disease ten times, from stomach 



and intestinal trouble eight times, from emaci- 
ation seven times, from tooth and stomach ca- 
tarrh and hydrocephalus five times, from whoop- 
ing cough and cholera morbus four times, con- 
sumption; laryngitis, and pneumonia three times, 
diphtheria, general weakness, and so forth, 
twice. These figures should certainly not have 
to be shown to a real mother more than once 
to cause her to instantly change her course if 
she is following the wrong' one. 

Woman's Work and Race Suicide. 

If there were need of any proof that the 
work of married women bears upon infant 
mortality the thoughtful report of Dr. 
George Reid on the working people of Staf- 
fordshire (quoted in L Illustration, of 
Paris), would be proof sufficient. The pop- 
ulation of Staffordshire is grouped in two 
great centers: The ironworkers and the 
workers on crockery. The wives of the 
ironworkers are housekeepers, they stay 
at home. The wives of the crockery- 
workers go to the factories with their 
husband^. In 1904 infant mortality among 
the people of the crockery manufactories 
was 193 per 1000 births. Among the 
ironworkers there were 156 deaths per 1000 
births. Among the women of the manufac- 
tories there were 15 abnormal and 9.4 pre- 
mature births per 1000, while there were 
only 6 abnormal and 3.2 premature births 
per 1000 among ironworkers. ** Woman's 
place is at home." 



THE ROUMANIAN PEASANT AND THE JEW. 



' I ^HE recent Roumanian pheasant revolt has 
been suppressed with a heavy hand, but 
the outbreak has called the attention of the 
world to the unsatisfactory social conditions 
that were the cause of the rising. . These are 
set forth \tf some detail in an interesting arti- 
cle by M. Jacques Dorobantz,^ in a late num- 
ber of Questions Diplomatlques et Coloniales, 
in which he describes the social and agrarian 
condition of the Roumanian peasantry. 

The Roumanians, he says, are considered 
to be of a happy disposition, forgetting quick- 
ly the evils which befall them ; but he thinks 
the storm which broke out in March of the 
present year will leave a lasting impression, 
since it meant the devastation of the whole 
country-. Beginning in an agitation in the 
district of Jassy, the whole of the northern 
district of Moldavia soon blazed up, and the 
rising quickly spread to Wallachia. In Mol- 
davia, the cry was for land, but in Wallachia 
the cry was for heads, and horrible atrocities 



were committed. Among the fugitives from 
Moldavia, the largest number were Jews; yet 
noonewho has lived in Roumania can say that 
the Roumanians are animated by religious 
passions. The property of both Christians 
and Jews was pillaged indiscriminately. The 
troubles are due rather to the constitution of 
society in Roumania than to the distribution 
of rural property. Miserable as is the condi- 
tion of the Roumanian peasant, it would be 
diflicult to name a state where legislation has 
done more to ameliorate the lot of its peas- 
antry; but this, remarks the writer, is only a 
proof that legislation alone cannot sf)lve social 
problems. 

The creation of a peasant proprictry was brj^'un 
in 1864. At the present moment the lands ex- 
propriated from llie nol>l«'s and tlio>e graiitr<l ))>' 
the state represent 40 per rent, of the ciiltivaMe 
area of the country, and arr divided amon^ 
900,000 families represent int,' 5.f¥»o.ooo persons. 
The system hej^im ^o aii-pirioti^ly doi-s not seem 
to have worked well in tlu- nid. A^ the lands 



118 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REy/EU^ OF REVIEWS. 



conceded were declared inalienable, the small 
industrious peasant, for instance, has been pre- 
vented from extending his domain by the pur- 
chase of that of his indolent neighbor. Anotlier 
serious cause of trouble has been the failure of 
the large private owners to realize that the pos- 
session of extensive lands imposes on them the 
duty of residing on their property in close per- 
sonal contact with the people who cultivate it, 
and in such a matter the law is powerless to 
remedy the evil. A third cause is the Jews, 
who are to be found almost exclusively in Mol- 
davia. They arrive in great bands from Galicia 
and Russia, and settle wherever they note lack 
of initiative and enterprise in the people. In 
this manner two classes of Jews have been 
formed spontaneously. The first, the small 
tradesmen of the villages, who sell on credit to 
the peasant, lend him money, and generally make 
themselves indispensable. This class is far from 
being detested. It is a different matter with the 
capitalist Jew, who relieves the large proprietor 
of all care and worry by hiring his lands, and at 
a higher rate than would be possible by direct 
exploitation of them by the owner. The capi- 
talist Jew it is who has been a veritable scourge 
to the peasants by creating great trusts. 

Among the causes of the explosion the 
writer lays great stress on the habits and 
customs of the country, which he describes as 
being as bad as the laws are reasonable. The 
Moldavian, he says, is lazy and unintelligent. 
Though he might have enough to suffice for 
his needs, he contracts debts in the winter, 
and when the agricultural season comes 
round again he sublets part of his land, and 
oftener than not has to submit to hard terms 
with the Jewish farmer, whose debtor he has 
already become, and hence the mischievous 
labor contracts. On this method it has been 
calculated that the day's wages of the Mol- 
davian peasant this year did not exceed five- 
pence, and in addition to the low wages the 
peasant has had no redress against the in- 
justice and fraud of the contracts. Very dif- 
ferent is the situation In Wallachia. There 
the Jews and the agricultural trusts are al- 
most unknown, and the land is exploited on a 
system resembling the French metayage. In 
some cases the division of profits is on the 
basis of two parts for the metayer and one 
for the master, with the result that a rich 
peasant is not rare in Wallachia, and there 
is the embryo of a rural middle class. 

It is often asserted there is no middle class 
in Roumania to-day. The writer says this is 
a mistake. There is a middle class, — in a 
deplorable condition. The spendthrift habits 
of the people have allowed the monopoly of 
the small industries, etc., to go to Jews and 
foreigners, but there is a formidable number 
of professional and official people, and these 
"intellectuals'* not unnaturally think that 



Roumanian society needs reconstruction. But 
how is it to be brought about in a country 
where 85 per cent, of the population belong 
to the peasant class? Here, the writer aptly 
says, are all the causes which determined the 
Russian revolution, only with this diflFcrcna 
that, in Roumania the political institutions 
are quite secondary in importance compared 
with the social constitution of the country. 
Carmen Sylva Praises the Jews. 

It is a curious coincidence, the appearance, 
at this time, in La Revue, of Paris, of a 
panegyric article on Moses and the Jews, by 
Carmen Sylva, Queen of Roumania. 

The persecution of the Jews, she writes, is 
not a question of religion, but of race. Na- 
tions will not tolerate in their midst a strong- 
er race. The Jews are the only race of the 
world which has not suffered from decadence. 

They are strong, united, charitable, healthy, 
powerful, and all this thanks to the greatest 
sovereign history has ever known, — Moses. If 
the world had only adopted the laws of Moses it 
would have remained immune against many dis- 
eases. Torday our rulers are much occupied 
with their soldiers : but was Moses a bad general 
because he was a great physician? The Jews 
won their greatest victories when they believed 
that God was fighting for them and with them; 
but when they became unwilling to submit to the 
rigor of their laws, their conscience and their 
fear made them realize that- they would be dis- 
persed, and that their misfortunes would restore 
them to their primitive piety. But the Jews 
were destined to be the leaven of other races. 
Their superior health has reacted on their in- 
telligence, and their sufferings have made them 
satisfied with little. Instead of persecuting them, 
people would do well to follow their example, 
and every sovereign ought to be, like Moses, 
educated in the sciences, especially in medicine, 
and ought to study the Bible more than any 
other book. It will be the unhappiest day for 
the Jews when persecution ceases. They will 
then neglect their rites and strict laws, and they- 
will perish by the evils against which Moses 
warned them. 

The Jewsj continues the Roumanian 
Queen, failed to understand Christ because 
they expected a Messiah who would bring 
power, splendor, and glory. Christianity re- 
mained pure only when it was persecuted. 
When it came into honor and power it ceased 
to be Christianity. 

The Jews do not understand disunion. They 
would never have made crusades. They have 
no dogmas to dispute about. Where are the 
dogmas of Christianity? In the Sermon on the 
Mount. When Christ preached poverty and 
charity He sought to perfect the doctrines of 
Moses and introduce mercy, the only doctrine 
wanting in the Mosaic law. But humanity was 
not ripe for clemency. Judaism is free from 
superstition. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 119 

THE RAPID INCREASE IN POLISH EMIGRATION. 

Fmav surprise students of politics anfl city population gave only 1.8. On the other 

f^rvin'r^mi'rc fr» Iao^^ fKo* ^-Ko ««.«- -«,; "^"^' ^* *"^ ^"" o* ^"^ Same pcnocl the pre- 

economics to learn that the first emi- ponderance was in favor of the city population, 

grations trom Foland during the past cen- that gave 1.8 as against 1.4 for the rural popula- 

tury were not exclusively political in charac- tion. This difference in the contribution to emi- 

tcr. They were, — when on a large scale,— ^ration can be explained by the fact that the 

lareelv due to the reorfranizafinn nf \\m^ propaganda for emigration had more effect in its 

largely aue to tne reorganization ot the time upon the ignorant rural population, whereas 

weaving industries, which took place between the political and economic crisis in Russia had 

1880 and 1900. The small producer was, at tr.ore effect upon the city population. Moreover, 

that time, rapidly crowded out by the intro- ^^, "'"^^ ^^^^ \^^^ ^" '"'"^ ^^^* ^^^ element pre- 

ducdon of. modern machinery, backed by V^:UV\L't.^r^VL^t^^:'tZrt 

foreign capital. 1 he first waves of Polish tion pogroms are a sufficient cause. 

G!iSm"'~™H^r:'" ^°''"*'r *'•' • '^^ As for the direction the emigration takes, 
Sn^/mT^rof 1%- . •* V '"* 7^^ '» '^ ^^iefly North America, pre-eminenti; 
FV^er^hnrW-1^ /^y«/««^y.t'ro^y (St. .^e United States, which absorbs two-thirds 

TuTtt^hlnd we'Jvt^"""''""""'"^'"^ - -^'^^^-^^'k^ °^ ''''. emigrants At the 

beginning ot the period examined there was 

This emigration, however, was comparatively a strong current toward South America, 

l^ar'tby Vho'lnrof^r^So'-f^hre^r/- ^ow this current is greatly retarded, and. on 

tion began to- assume larger proportions. This ^"^ ^^"^^ "^"^» a strong current is noticeable 

was chiefly due to external causes, to a propa- toward western Europe, 

ganda for emigration. The South American Of the European countries England ap- 

«nX7''!lf^f?;.fjnn'''"HiH*''„^^^ "^""'^^ ^^""^^^ P^^rs to bc the most attractive to the emi- 

under cultivation, did not Spare means and ^ r n i j <^i t» i i i 

energy to attract settlers from Europe. This ^^^^^ oi rolaiid. 1 he Poles who go there, 

^ve a great impetus to emigration, which rose however, consist almost exclusively of Jews, 

m Europe at large in those three or four years to the center of emigration being London. Ac- 

hitherto unheard of proportions. cording to English statistics of 1904. there 

Poland had its full share in this general lahded in England in that year 46,000 emi- 

movement to South America. This emigra- grants from Russia and Poland, mostly Jews, 

tion, which began in Poland in 1888, made 36,000 of whom settled in London, 
rapid progress, reaching its culminating point When we divide the emigrants according 

in 1890 (some 20,000 persons then emi- to religion, we find that* four-fifths of them 

grated). In the following year, however, it are Catholics. Then come the Jews, the 

began to abate, until, in 1894, »t reached its Protestants, the Greek-Catholics, and the 

low-water mark of 5000. By the end of the sectarians. 

'90's we notice again an increase in emigra- The causes of the emigration are to be 

tion, which has since been steadily growing, sought primarily in the density of population 

Altogether, from 1900 to 1904, there emi- in the Vistula region, — 104 persons to each 

grated from the Kingdom of Poland some square mile, — where there is a rural popula- 

160,000 persons. The number of emigrants tion of 1,000,000 not possessing any land at 

has not been equally distributed over the dif- all, and an equal number not owning suffi- 

fcrent districts of the kingdom. They vary cient land. On the other hand, there is no 

in the different governments from 50.4 to 0.7 demand for labor sufficient to fill up this 

to each 1000 inhabitants. More than any economic gap. The higher developed indus- 

other district did the emigration affect the tries of Poland are located only in the gov- 

govemmcnts of Suwalki, Plotzk, Lomzhe, ernments of Petrovsk and Warsaw, there be- 

and Warsaw, which contributed four-fifths ing engaged in the former 126,000 working- 

of the emigrants. men; in the latter 35,000. In the other 

Taking it altogether, the emigration from governments manufacturing is still in its in- 
die Kingdom of Poland is supplied mainly fancy. Under these conditions the earnings 
by the rural districts. The latter contributed of the workingmen are very small. In the 
1.2 emigrants to each 1000 inhabitants, year 1900, for example, the pay for rural 
whereas the city population gave only i.o. labor averaged per day 34 kopecks (17 cents) 
. . . , , , , t. -. for ni^n» and 24 kopecks (12 cents) for 
an^^r.,,'rpTrroTth1rt\l%;uTa^orwTs?;ii .vomen And this situation, together with 
greater; it gave 2.5 to each 1000, whereas the the political disturbances, was the cause of 



120 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REI^/EIV OF REVIEWS. 



the strong current of emigration within the 
last few years. 

The general effects of the emigration on 
the life of Poland, says this review, are 
beneficial. 

In the first place, the surplus of the popula- 
tion, not being able to find sufficient employment, 
emigrate, thus leaving more room for those re- 
maining. The.n, the emigrants settling in their 
adopted countries, aid their relatives at home 
financially. It is difficult to tell the exact 
amount of money that is sent by the emigrants. 



As an illustration, however, the followinjf num- 
ber may be given: during five months m 1890 
the money received in five governments from th^ 
JJnited States through the postoffice alone 
amounted to 240,000 rubles ($120,000). 

In general, the Polish emigrants settle in 
America under fair conditions. They have 
succeeded in forming Polish colonies, with 
their own schools, libraries, and newspapers 
in Polish. The tendency to preserve their 
national character is strong, although they 
rapidly become American citizens. 



ARE PLANTS POSSESSED OF SENSES? 



QUOTING from a recent work by the 
Dutch botanist, Dr. P. G. Buclcers, in 
which the above question is discussed, Vtagen 
van den Dag, thus summarizes the facts and 
theories therein set forth: 

In various ways we have arrived at the knowl- 
edge that plants possess senses and their neces- 
sary organs. And they may have more of them 
than we yet imagine. The hygrotropic root that 
is so sensitive to water and turns with such cer- 
tainty toward it, must have an organ for this, 
though we have not yet discovered it. The nice, 
dainty taste of numerous plants has been estab- 
lished beyond all doubt, although the organs of 
taste no one has yet seen. How, then, could it 
be discovered that a plant can taste? That a 
plant is aware of light is evidenced by the fact 
that it turns toward it. Gravitation, also, makes 
it grow upward ; at a touch it is impelled to cer- 
tain movements. But is it credible that anything 
can taste either gopd or bad to a plant? Taste 
has meaning only when by its means something 
agreeable can be distinguished from something 
else that is not so. And yet this is the discovery 
that has been made, that plants have the sense 
of taste. 

The dwarfs of the plant-kingdom, the bac- 
teria, are the greatest gourmets in existence. 
'l^hey are so sensitive to the most infinitesimal 
part of some substances upon which they 
feed that they can be drawn from a distance 
toward any such titbit that is offered to them. 
They can even be enticed to the most deadly 
poison when this has been highly flavored 
with a taste of their favorite delicacy. By 
such experiments was discovered the princi- 
pal food of most bacteria; the kali salts. The 
objection that in those cases they are im- 
pelled only by the natural desire for food 
k met by the fact that they have a fancy 
for special delicacies. They thrive finely 
on ulycerine, but cannot be lured by this. 
Again, each group has its own preferred deli- 
cacie*, for which it will go through thick and 



thin, if such expression can be used of a drop 
of water. They must have a good palate, 
therefore, these bacteria, for they show just 
as distinctly a distaste for other substances. 
But these do not furnish the only exam- 
ples of the possession of the sense of taste in 
the vegetable kingdom. This sense occurs in 
nature in the service of propagation. 

The beautiful miniature flora of our forests, 
the mosses, multiply themselves by means of re- 
rnarkable creatures resembling infusoria. These 
living cells are possessed of a long vibrating hair 
by means of which they swim about rapidly in a 
dew-drop. These constitute the semen needed 
tc fertilize the moss. They are attracted by the 
ftmale parts of the moss, which are extremely 
delicate cups, at the bottom of which is an egg 
that can only be developed when it has been 
united with such a bit of seed-animalcula. What, 
now, is it that leads these seed-animacules into 
the right track? Their sense of taste. They 
are extremely partial to the taste of malic acid 
In the laboratory they can be enticed by thou- 
sands into narrow glass tubes containing a solu- 
tion of this acid. This would seem to prove 
that it is not chance but a purposely designed ar- 
rangement that gives a malic-acid taste to the 
moss-egg, by which its fertilizing bacterium is 
attracted. 

Ferns also send off small seed-animalcules 
to effect propagation. If they, too, now, 
were attracted by malic acid confusion might 
easily arise; but their fertilizing bacteria are 
fond of sugar, wherefore the egg-cups of 
ferns have a real sugary taste. 

After such discoveries it can no longer 
seem ridiculous that some botanists have, in 
full earnest, raised the question whether 
plants have not also a sense of hearing. They 
certainly are sensitive to quite feeble atmos- 
pheric vibrations, and this amounts in effect 
to the same thing as hearing. 

A plant must even be aware of some things 
of which we observe nothing. Some ten 
years ago, a Finnish savant, Professor 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



121 



Elving, described the enigmatical influence 
of metals upon plants, an influence op- 
erating from a considerable distance, leading 
the growing plants to incline in the direction 
of the metals. This fact, disputed and 
thought impossible by some, has been fully 
confirmed by others. In these days of the 
Rontgen rays, of the black rays, of radiogra- 
phy, it has been shown that plants are un- 
doubtedly also sensitive to such radiations, 
which, so far as we can yet see, are of no 
practical use, and which yet certainly do not 
stream purposeless through our atmosphere, 
through water and land, and probably 
through the universe. 

The physical sense of plants belongs to the 
latest discoveries in physical science. It has 
long been known that artificially trained 
plants have the tendency to resume their 
original form. It has been known also that 
leaves and flowers put into some unnatural 
position resume their usual position by a 
wonderful twisting and lengthening of their 
stems. This indicates a peculiar power in 
the plant-organism. The plant must feel 
what sort of position the parts of its body 
should have. On this, too, is based its char- 



acteristic exterior, what is technically called 
its habit. 

Long before we can see the leaves or bark of a 
tree we recognize it by its form. This applies to 
all plants more or less; but what it is that en- 
ables us to do this it would be difficult to ex- 
press in words. There must be a«good reason 
for it, but what ? A hint in that direction is 
found in the fact, not known long, that the 
lateral roots of all plants do not appear on the 
main root, — where moisture, nourishment, or firm 
attachment would seem to require them, — ^but 
that this -depends on the form of the main root. 
The latter is mostly bent, as it has to find its way 
among all sorts of obstacles. Now the lateral 
roots always originate on the outer and never on 
the inner sides of the bends of the main root. 

As we pass from the higher to the lower 
organisms in animal life we never arrive at 
a point where the manifestation of sensation 
ceases. They are at last resolved into a body 
consisting of a few cells, which themselves 
also finally disappear, so that a sponge shows 
no trace of nerves or muscles. It is nothing 
more than a congeries of nomads, small 
lumps of living albumen that crawls, eats, 
and multiplies. Yet all these creatures still 
contain within themselves all the riddles of 
sensation. 



THE GERMAN FOREST SCHOOLS. 



TpHERE are few fairy books that do not 
contain the story of a little old man or 
a. little old woman who kept school in a wood. 
Perhaps it was something of the spirit of 
Grimm which led the Germans to inaugu- 
rate a forest school for the benefit of children 
who are not sufficiently strong to endure tui- 
tion in the ordinary classroom. A few min- 
utes' reflection will convince one of the pecu- 
liar advantages of instruction in the open air 
for children who are weakened physically or 
nervously, and the results so far obtained in 
Germany have more than justified the ex- 
periment. In the Ceniralblatt fur Allge- 
meine Gesundheitspflege (Bonn), • Dr. 
Schacfer describes the tw6 institutions which 
are now representative of the movement. 

The first of these schools is to be found at 
Chariottenburg, and we cannot do better 
than quote the words of the Mayor of the 
dty in reference to the purpose and charac- 
ter of the establishment. This gentleman 
says that in the German schools there are 
many pupils of both sexes whose state of 
health positively demands that they be not 
taught in the classroom with other pupils. 



For this category of children the air in a class- 
room occupied by fifty or more pupils is par- 
ticularly unsuitable even under the best of con- 
ditions, the rest periods are too short, and the 
demands of a four or five-hour day are too great 
for them to keep at their work with attention. 
These children are mainly those with lung 
trouble, heart disease, anaemia, and scrofula; 
children who are not sick enough to be put in 
a hospital, but who are still too weak to keep 
pace with the strong. The continuance in a 
crowded classroom means for the majority that 
their trouble will increase if it does not develop 
into something serious. Therefore, the interest 
of both well and delicate children demands that 
they be separated and that the weak ones be 
taken into the open air for their lessons. 

The Chariottenburg school was opened 
April 2, 1904, and it has been clearly proved 
that the pupils leave the institution in far 
better health than when they entered it. 
Further, although the period of study is lim- 
ited to t\^o hours a day, the children are not 
materially behind their stronger fellows, and 
they are able to make almost as satisfactory 
a. showing as the pupils with longer hours. 
So good, indeed, have been the results that 
the establishment has been recently enlarged, 
and 240 children are now in attendance. 



122 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REFlElV OF REyiElVS. 



THE MOVEMENT SPREADING. 

As Dr. Schaefer remarks, however, in 
spite of the good returns the Charlottenburg 
example has not been iollovved as it should 
have been, although now a movement seems 
to be gaining momentum which tends toward 
the development of similar institutions in 
other parts of Germany. This is shown by 
a new forest school which was opened May 
28, 1906, at Miinchen-Gladbach, and now 
fifty children are taking their daily instruc- 
tion under the trees. The Gladbach school 
is located some little distance from the town 
in the Hardter forest. The school is entirely 
surrounded by trees, and it is built in the' 
form of a northern blockhouse. 



The building contains three rooms,— class- 
room, small room for the teachers, and a large 
covered hall, — and a small cellar dpes service 
as a storeroom. About sixty feet from the house 
is a smaller building in the same style of archi- 
tecture as the larger, and here are located the 
closets and washrooms. The large classrooms 
contains all the paraphernalia of the schoolroom, 
but the real school work is done under the tall 
pine trees, where 'desks and benches are in- 
stalled. 

Only when the weather makes outdoor in- 
.struction impossible is the house used. In 
addition to the course of lessons, however, 
the children are taught all sorts of games 
and gymnastic exercises, so that plent>' of 
movement is assured. The course of instruc- 
tion is divided up as follows: 



Monday. Tuesday. Wednesday 

90.30 Hellgfon. Oerman. Mathematics. 

9.30-10. . .Kxerctse at this hour every school day. 
10-10.30. . Mathematics. Natural history. (Jeruian. 
10.30-11 . .Exercise at this hour every school day. 
11-11.30. .History. Mathematics. Writing. 

12 1.unch. 

1-3 Uest on benches under the trees every school day. 

3-3.30. .. .Singini?. (lerman (iymnastlcs. 

3.30-6. . . .Walking or playing every school day. 

t> Milk at this hour every day. 

t;.30 Walk to tram station. 



Thursday. 
Religion. 


Friday. 
Mathematics. 


Saturday. 
German. 


Mathematics. 


Natural history. 


Mathematicf. 


History. 


German. 


Writing. 


Singing. 


German. 


Gymnastics 



At Gladbach the children are selected by 
the public-school physician, and all children 
are excluded who have serious heart or nerve 
trouble and infectious or repulsive diseases. 



There is also a daily charge of 10 cents 
for each child, this sum including the trip 
to and from the city by tram, the second 
breakfast, lunch, tea, and milk at six o'clocL 



BRITAIN AS A FIELD FOR AMERICAN BUSINESS. 



AS a matter of fact, Great Britain, if prop- 
erly approached now, offers an oppor- 
tunity for American proprietary trade more 
promising and more profitable than any other 
market in the world. Occasionally it is given 
to some great financial genius to see things 
as they are. Colonel Yerkes is reported to 
have said \x\ effect, when he was invited to 
investigate South African diamond fields and 
similar openings for enterprise, " London is 
good enough for me." 

These words arc the keynote of nearly 
every issue of a new periodical, Derrick's 
British Report, published in I^ondon, by Paul 
E. Derrick, an American by birth, but of 
long residence in the British capital. In the 
current issue, Mr. Derrick asks: 

Now liow many out of those thousands of 
American visitors, as they take the train at Liv- 
erpool or Southampton to " do the old country," 
ever for a moment realize that they have set 
foot in the richest country, for its size, on the 
face of the earth, — a cotmtry teeming with 



millions of people, each single individual of 
whom has wants to satisfy, and the money and 
will to satisfy them, — wants which, in scores of 
instances, the American producer is well able to 
fulfill, if he but approach the market intelli- 
gently and under guidance? 

Mr. Derrick remarks, very truly, that 
there was a time, not very long ago, when it 
was argued that America did not urgently 
need an extended export trade ; that the home 
demand was more than sufficient to keep the 
factories, and perhaps the farms, busily oc- 
cupied for years to come. 

The times have changed. The great West has 
filled up, and, as the national demand has ex- 
panded, so has the supply; and, in not a few 
instances, at a more rapid rate. There may not, 
even yet, he an urgent need of a greater Ameri- 
can export trade, but signs are not wanting that 
the country is nearer to the need than ever be- 
fore. We find sections of the States in com- 
mercial competition with each other. Chicago 
is competing with New York City; St. Louis 
with Chicago; Minneapolis and Kansas City are 
measuring industrial effort with each other and 
with Omaha. The new South has rapidly de- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



123 



vdopcd commercially. Georgia and the Caro- 
linas are edging in on Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island. Birmingham is pressing against Pitts- 
burg. In short, American manufacturing ca- 
pacity has fully kept pace with territorial and 
population expansion. The trend of events is all 
toward the time when the American producer, at 
least of proi -..c»ry goods, will be more dili 
gently seeking profitable fields beyond the limit 
of his own territory. And it should be remem- 
. bered that the merchant who exploits a new 
market in good times is the merchant who reaps 
the greater and more enduring share of that 
market's profits. Here, within a few day's jour- 
ney of America's chief ports, is a free and open 
market, in which there is in circulation wealth so 
colossal as to almost challenge computation. 

It is pointed out that in Great Britain, 
with an area of less than 122,000 square 
miles, there is a population roughly estimated 
at 44,000,000. These millions live within 
a geographical space no larger than the States 
of New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio com- 
bined, and the deduction is made that this 
fact of having such a tremendous population 
of purchasing people more easy of access than 
in an area so immense as that of the United 
States \s all the better for the American mer- 
chant. He could and can reach the limits of 
Great Britain's boundaries, within twelve 
hours by mail from the chief centers of Brit- 
ish distribution. In round numbers, accord- 
ing to the statistics presented in. the article 
now under consideration, it is shown that, 
five years ago, 13,000,000 males were en- 
gaged in some one of five leading classes of 
occupation. Of this aggregate, over 800,000 
were professional in occupation ; over 350,000 
domestic; over 2,ooOiOOO were following 
commerdal pursuits; over 2,000,000 were 
doing well in the agricultyral and fishing in- 
dustries, and over 7.500,000 were engaged in 
industrial work. The number of females 
working as domestics at the same time was 
reported as being over 2,000,000, over 2,500,- 
000 others being engaged in industrial labor 
of various kinds. Referring to the above 
data, Mr. Derrick remarks: 

In so far as it is possible to put an estimate 
upon the characteristics and wants of people 



from their occupations, we may say that the 
British professional classes and a large propor- 
tion of those unoccupied, — three-quarters of 
whom are women, — are persons of education, 
refinement, and good incomes, ever on the look- 
out for the best the world affords. The com- 
mercial and industrial classes are economical, 
home- loving, and far-seeing people, fond of the 
substantial m food, clothing, and housing; while 
those engaged in agricultural, fishing, and do- 
mestic pursuits, taken as a mass, are shrewd 
people, quick to see value in whatever is offered 
to them for purchase, eager to purchase anything 
that appeals to their frugality and sense of worth. 
The greater proportion of the balance of the 
population not comprised in the foregoing table 
are perhaps children of tender years, with a 
thousand and one wants and exactions on the 
parental purse and prudence. 

" Yes," may say the American manufac- 
turer, " but what have they all got to spend 
for my product ? " 

Now, perchance, comes the most striking 
part of this brief statement on the business 
possibilities of Great Britain: 

These people have enormous wealth to spend. 
How much of it they will spend on the American 
proprietary producer depends upon himself. At 
the end of the fiscal year 1891 there was stand- 
ing to the credit of depositors in the Post Office 
and Trustee Savings banks of the United King- 
dom the sum of nearly $575,000,000. In fifteen 
years* time the amount has grown to $1,025,000,- 
000. And it must be borne in mind that these 
figures do not include the sixty-five odd million 
dollars standing to the depositors* credit in in- 
dustrial companies and co-operative societies, nor 
do they show the gigantic sum invested in build- 
ing societies, workingmen's clubs, and» the like. 
Taking the roughest estimate of the British sub- 
ject's savings, he has been able to put away into 
the Post Office and Trustee banks $450,000,000 
more than he had in iSgo-'gi, and $1,025,000,000 
dollars is now standing at interest in his favor, — 
$1,025,000,000 saved after satisfying all his indi- 
vidual wants and those of his family. During 
1906 the Britisher paid over $120,000,000 in pre- 
miums on ordinary life insurance "policies, and 
about $55,000,000 on industrial policies; in the 
aggregate, these sums exceed the life insurance . 
investments of 1882 by about $90,000,000. To the 
American manufacturer of proprietary goods 
these facts stand as a revelation. They should 
stimulate him to the task of measuring the ca- 
pacity of the British public pocket and figuring 
out what it may possibly contain for him. 



THE NEW BOOKS. 
RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS. 



BIOGRAPHY. 

The life of that remarkable American journal- 
ist, Charles A. Dana, has at length been re- 
viewed by one who knew him intimately for 
many years, Gen. James H. Wilson (Harpers). 
The two men were thrown together during the 
Vicksburg campaign of oitr Civil War, and from 
companionship on the battlefield there resulted 
an intimacy that continued to the end of Mr. 
Dana's career. To General Wilson the life of 
his friend appears in a wholly different perspec- 
tive from that in which most of his journalistic 
contemporaries were accustomed to view it in 
its latter years. General Wilson thinks of Dana 
as a war correspondent and office assistant to 
Stanton, the great War Secretary, in which latter 
position " he was potent in deciding the fate of 
the leading generals, as well as in shaping the 
military 'policies of the Adrninistration." Gen- 
eral Wilson declares that, with the possible ex- 
ception of John A. Rawlins, Dana exerted a 
greater influence over Grant's military career 
than any other man. While a journalist might 
perhaps have written a biography of Dana more 
interesting to journalists, it is doubtful whether 
any of Mr. Dana's newspaper acquaintances 
could have put into the book more of a personal 
history of the past generation. 

An unusual work, combining a good deal of 
popularized science with a study of literary 
personality, is Dr. George M. Gould's " Bio- 
graphic Clinics" (Blakiston, Philadelphia). In 
this five'-volume work we have an absorbingly 
interesting study of the careers of individual 





IJR. GEORGE M. GOULD. 



THE LATE CHARLES A. DANA. 

geniuses, particularly men of letters, tracing 
the origin of their ill health by an exhaustive 
study of their life problems, of their diseases 
past and present, and probably, future. The 
clinical life problems of De Quincey, Carlylc, 
Darwin, Huxley, and Browning, are presented in 
the first volume. In the second attention is 
given to George Sliot, Lewes, Wagner, Park- 
man, Spencer, Margaret Fuller, and Nietzsche. 
Volume 111. considers the influence of ** visual 
function" upon the health of patients; volume 
IV. dissects the life problems of Balzac, 
Tchaikovski, Flaubert, Lafcadio Heam, and 
Berlioz ; while volume V. is taken up with a dis- 
cussion of eye-strain. Dr. Gould, it will be re- 
membered, is editor of American Medicine and 
author of "An Illustrated Dictionary of Medi- 
cine." " The Meaning and Method of Life," and 
other works. 

PROBLEMS OF MODERN LIFE. 

The Macmillan Company has begun the pub- 
lication of a new series of handbooks, to l)e 
known as the "American Social Progress 
Series." It is announced that it is the design of 
these handbooks to furnish students of our 
American social life with statements of the 
newer social thought based upon the accumu- 
lated material of recent investigations. Tlic 
editor of the series is Dr. Samuel McCune Lind- 
say. The first volume to appear is from the pen 
of Prof. Simon N. Patten, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and is entitled "The New Basis 
of Civilization." Professor Patten interprets 



THE NEU^ BOOKS 



125 



Ae social changes of our time in a way which 
leaves no doubt as to the essential conservatism 
of his economic thinking, but at the same time 
points to the legitimate abolition of poverty 
through the natural and rational working of 
agencies already in operation. There is nothing 
distinctly radical in Professor Patten's program, 
but there is much that is inspiring and compell- 
ing to continued effort. 

Dr. Luther H. Gulick, director of physical 
training in the New York City schools, has writ- 
ten an extremely suggestive little book to which 
he has given the apt title of "The Efficient 
Life" (Doubleday, Page & Co.). It is Dr. Gu- 
lick's belief that many men and women of great 
value to the world are from time to time re- 
moved from spheres of usefulness merely be- 
cause they do not know how to manage their 
physical organisms. In Dr. Gulick's view it is 
a good thing to be strenuous in life, but strenu- 
osity is no end in itself. " It is only when being 
strenuous is an aid to efficiency that it is worth 
while; and sometimes the quiet life is more ef- 




DR. C. W. SALEEBY. 

fective than the strenuous one. The pursuit of 
health is not an end in itself, but to live a full, 
rich, efficient life is an end." Reading and fol- 
lowing Dr. Gulick's suggestions in this book 
ought to help many people to raise the standard 
of their individual efficiency, for the advice given 
concerning the conduct and regulation of life 
is both sound and essential. Dr. Gulick deals 
with such homely and everyday topics as " Ex- 
ercise, — Its Use and Abuse," " Meat, Drink, and 
the Table/* " The Business of Digestion," " Fa- 
tigue.'' "Sleep," "The Bath,— For Body and 
Soul," and " Pain, — The Danger Signal." The 
book is the more valuable because it is written 
in full recognition of the fact that probably a 
majority of those who will become its readers 
are people who live in cities and are continually 
under the strain of modern business conditions. 




DR. LUTHER H. GULICK. 

A noteworthy volume of sociological as well 
as scientific import is Dr. C. W. Saleeby's " Wor- 
ry: The Disease of the Age" (Stokes). In 
pleasant, convincing style Dr. Saleeby points out 
the causes, significance, and terrible pernicious 
influence of worry, and the possible remedies. 
Worry and physical disease, worry and mental 
health, worry and intoxicating drinks, the psy- 
chology of worry, and the future of the race are 
some of the phases of the topic which he con- 
siders. 

Two new books on the natural, simple life, 
have been published by Benedict Lust (New 
York). These are "Return to Nature," by 
Adolph Just, a treatise on the care of the body, 
with special reference to the use of water, light, 
air, and food, translated from the German, and 
" The Philosophy of Fasting," by Edward Earle 
Purington. 

A work curiously entitled " Gillette's Social 
Redemption" (Boston: Herbert B. Turner & 
Co.) contains a review of world-wide social con- 
ditions, ending with a summary statement of a 
remedy for present social ills formulated in a 
" system " which bears the name of Mr. King 
C. Gillette. This system is based chiefly upon 
the assumption that "were the great wastes of 
our present system eliminated and effort re- 
warded upon a system of equity, man would be 
able abundantly to supply all his present needs 
by three or four hours' work a day." Mr. Gil- 
lette proposes to brin^ about the amelioration of 
the race "by organizmg a world-wide corpora- 
tion with an unlimited, elastic, and constantly 
self-adjusting capitalization, — a capitalization 
which shall always represent the exact amount 
of the corporate assets, — falling as they fall, ris- 
ing as they rise." In other words, he would or- 
ganize a world trust. The author of the book 
is Mr. Melvin L. Severy. 

A discussion of current college problems fro*" 
the graduate's point of view is presented by ' 



126 




THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



value. Herbert B. Turner & Co. bring out M. D. 
Frazar's " Practical European Guide." Mr. 
Frazar was for many years in the tourist busi- 
ness himself and knows whereof he speaks. He 
lias devoted particular attention in this volume 
to the financial side of European travel, giving 
railway and steamship fares in detail, besides 
the rates at most of the best known hotels 
Josephine Tozier's "Traveler's Handbook" 
(Funk & Wagnalls) is intended for travelers 
intending to visit Europe for the first time 
There are also some excellent suggestions for 
those who wish to tour Europe in motor cars. 
Among the guides to special phases of European 
life or to particular countries, are : " Sojourn- 
ing, Shoppmg, and Studying in Paris" (Mc- 
Clurg), a handbook intended particularly for 
women, edited with a good map, by Elizabeth 
Otis Williams ; " Christian Rome,'* by J. W. and 
A. M. Cruickshank. one of the " Grant Allen 
Historical Studies which the Wcssels Com- 
pany is bringing out ; " The Art Collections of 
Europe/' a guide to the paintings in the Flor- 
entine galleries, by Maud Cruttwell, published 
by Dent in London and imported by Dutton; 
"The Italian Lakes" (L. C. Page), by W. D. 
McCrackan, illustrated ; and ** A Trip to the 
Orient," being the story of a Mediterranean 
cruise, by Robert Urie Jacob, published by the 
Winston Company, Philadelphia. 

A new Labrador book which gives much in- 
formation to the intending traveler in that part 
of the world is Dr. Charles Wendell Townsend's 
" Along the Labrador Coast " ( Boston : Dana 
Estes & Co.). The journey which this book 
records was undertaken chiefly for the study of 
birds, but the author became greatly interested 
in the scenery, the geology, the flowers and 
trees, the fish and fishermen, the Eskimos and 
Eskimo dogs, the Hudson's Bay Company's 
posts, the Moravians, and Dr. Grenfell's 'mission. 
Most of the illustrations of the work are repro- 
ductions of photographs taken by Dr. Glover M 
Allen, who was the companion of Dr. Town- 
send's travels. Both text and pictures form a 
distinct contribution to our knowledge of Lab- 
rador life and scenery. 

*' My Life as an Indian," by J. W. Schultz 
(Doublcday, Page & Co.), is the remarkable 
story of the married life of an* Indian woman 
and a white man in the lodges of the Piegan 
Blackfect at the head of the Missouri River. 
Mr. Schultz gives us a unique picture of Indian 
life on the plains when there was still warfare 
between the tribes and the red men depended 
for subsistence on the wandering herds of buf- 
falo. Mr. George Bird Grinnell, who has him- 
self been a careful student of Indian life for 
many years, declares that " such an intimate 
revelation of the domestic life of the Indian has 
never before been written. The sympathetic in- 
sight everywhere evident is everywhere convinc- 
ing. We feci that the men and women portrayed 
are men and women of actual living existence." 
Mr. Grinnell vouches for the truth of the nar- 
rative. 

Two California books have recently been 
brought out by the publishing house of Paul 
Elder & Co., which was compelled to migrate 
from San Francisco to New York after the 
prcat fire of April, 1906. One of these, " Bird 
Notes Afield," by Charles Keeler, is a second 



CLARENCE F. BIRDSEYE. 

Clarence F. Birdseye, of the New York bar, in 
a volume entitled ** Individual Training in Our 
Colleges" (Macmillan). It is Mr. Birdseye's 
conviction that notwithstanding the immense in- 
crease of wealth among our colleges the average 
student is not getting what he ought to get out 
of his college career, nor as much of real value 
for his later life as did his predecessor of fifty 
or a hundred years ago. In other words, the 
gain of the college in efficiency as an instrument 
for instruction has been accompanied by a loss 
in direct personal influence on the character of 
the student. Mr. Birdseye undertakes to pre- 
sent the student's side of the problem, consider- 
ing the undergraduate as an individual. To 
make his study effective, the author undertakes 
to enter the student's college home life. He 
searches diligently for facts and deals frankly 
and candidy with the facts as he finds them. 
The fraternity question and the various subordi- 
nate problems related thereto claim a large share 
of space in Mr. Birdseye's di.scussion. 

An English translation, by G. M. Craik, of 
Prnf. Adolf Ilamack's " Essays on the Social 
(iospol" has been brought out by Putnams. In 
tlu" volume, which is a part of the Crown Theo- 
l<»gical Library, is included some essay material 
by Dr. Wilhelm Herrmann, of the University of 
,\!arlmrg. 

BOOKS OF TRAVEL AND OUTDOOR LIFE. 

Quite a batch of travel guides, having for 
their scope the entire world or the continent of 
I-'urope or some particular place of interest in 
a European country, is one of the characteristic 
features of the book season. W. R. Jenkins 
brings out in small, convenient form " The Com- 
plete Pocket-Guide to Europe," edited by Ed- 
mund C. Stednian and Thomas L. Stcdman. 
This is an ideal pocket companion for a Euro- 
pean tour. Several excellent maps add to its 



WE NEIV BOOKS. 



127 



edition of a book of essays which has had many 
readers on the Pacific Coast since its first ap- 
pearance eight years ago. The present edition 
takes note of changes that have been made Jn 
the established names of the California birds 
during the interval, as y^ell as all new climatic 
forms that have been distinguished within the 
State's borders. A sketch of bird life on the 
upper Sacramento River and an index to the 
entire volume have been added. All Califor- 
nians, and especially visitors to the State from 
the East, may profit greatly by the information 
contained in Mr. Keeler's interesting book. 

••The Garden Book of California," by Belle 
Sumner Angier, published by the same house, 
deals in a practical manner with various garden- 
ing topics as they present themselves under the 
peculiar climatic conditions of the Pacific Coast. 
Much of this California garden lore is wholly 
new and unfamiliar even to experienced horti- 
culturists of the Eastern States. 

Mr. Ernest McGaffey's "Outdoors: A Book 



«1 




ERNEST m'gAFFEV. 



of the Woods, Fields, and Marshlands" (Scrib- 
ner) contains a series of entertaining essays 
descriptive of Nature's moods as encountered 
in the Middle West. Mr. McGaffey has been 
a diligent student of bird life, and several of 
his papers have to do with the hunting of the 
better known varieties of feathered ^me, espe- 
cially the prairie chicken, the quail, and the 
woodcodc. 

"Fifty Flower Friends with Familiar Faces," 
by Edith Dunham (Boston: Lathrop, Lee & 
Shcpard Company), is a field book intended for 
the use of boys and girls. It has twelve full- 
page colored plates and fifty text illustrations 
from nature by W. I. Beecroft, a botanist who 
is at the same tinie an artist. Not only the chil- 
dren of the family, biit the adult members as 




PROFESSOR SHAILER MATHEWS. 

well, might get much profit and enjoyment from 
a perusal of these descriptions of the better 
known of our Northern fk)wering plants. 

A new garden handbook of great value to the 
amateur is " The Book of Vegetables," by Allen 
French (Macmillan). This work is designed 
to be of assistance to all who have to do with 
vegetable seeds, whether as buyers or sellers. 
It contains a planting table, giving particular 
directions for the culture of all vegetables. It 
does not, however, pretend to completeness, but 
is intended rather as a supplement to existing 
treatises upon the general subject of vegetable 
gardening. 

CHRISTIANITY IN THE LIFE OF TO-DAY. 

A volume by Prof. Shailer Mathews, of the 
University of Chicago, entitled " The Church 
and the Changing Order" (Macmillan), is an 
attempt to show how the church of the present 
day is attempting to adapt itself to modem so- 
cial conditions. The book is frankly written and 
rnakes no attempt to gloss over or evade the se- 
rious mistakes that the modern church has com- 
rnitted, but the author is far from taking a pes- 
simistic view of the situation. Perhaps the most 
important chapters in the book are those which 
deal with the church and social discontent and 
the church and the social movement. These 
chapters are deserving of serious consideration 
by clergy and laity alike. 

In a volume entitled "Jesus Christ and the 
Civilization of To-day" (Macmillan), Dr. 
Joseph F. Leighton, of Hobart College, discusses 
the ethical teaching of Jesus considered in its 
bearings on the moral foundations of modern 
culture. Dr. Leighton studiously avoids ques- 
tions of dogmatic theology and technical dis- 
cussions in Biblical criticism and philosophy 
generally. The primary aim of this book is in- 
tensely practical. It is an attempt to correla** 



128 



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REI^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 




PROFESSOR HERBERT L. OSGOOD. 

the words of Christ with the actual life of the 
modern world. 

AMERICAN HISTORY. 

• 

Prof. Herbert L. Osgood, of Columbia Uni- 
versity, has completed the third and concluding 
volume of his work on ** The American Colo- 
nies in the Seventeenth Century" (Macmillan). 
The present volume contains a history of Brit- 
ish colonial administration during the period 
under review, together with treatment in some 
detail of the external development of Virginia 
and of domestic relations in the other royal 
provinces. The author attempts in this volume 
to trace the history of the British system of con- 
trol as a distinct and separate feature of coloni- 
sation. It is to Ik hoped that Professor Osgood 
will he able to carry on his inquiries through the 
first half of the eighteenth century for the sake 
of the increased light that will he thrown on the 
causes of the American colonial revolt. 

Very timely is the appearance of *' The Birth 
of the Nation." by Mrs. Roger A. Pryor (Mac- 
millan). This little volume is entirely concerned 
with the Jamestown settlement of ityoj. This is 
a plain, straightforward account of the adven- 
tures of the Jamestown colony, and particularly 
of its dealings with the Indians. Luckily, the 
source^ of our infi>rmation on the^e matters have 
Ik en preserved, and Mrs. Prvvjr has made gixxl 
use of them in the construction of this interesting 
narrative. 

" The I'nion Cau^e in Kentucky. i8t»o-'65 '* 
(Putnan\<) is the title of a volume in which 
Captain Thomas S|>eed narrates the struvigle of 
luion men in Kentucky to hold their State in 
the I'nion when other States were seciHiiiig and 
»itrennous etK»rts were iH'ing nude to induce 
Kentuck\ to enter the Svuiihern Confe\leracv. 



Captain Speed also gives an account of the 
services rendered by the Union soldiers of Ken- 
tucky in the war, giving full statistics of the 
numbers engaged and other detailed records of 
Kentucky patriotism. 

The latest contribution to the controversy over 
the so-called Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence is a volume prepared by William Henry 
Hoyt, which presents much evidence tending to 
show that the alleged early declaration of May 20, 
1775; made by Mecklenburg County, N. C, was 
spurious (Putnams). Mr. Hoyt maintains that 
the series of resolves passed in Mecklenburg 
County in 1775 were not a declaration of inde- 
pendence, but were transfigured by the imperfect 
understanding and recollection of many persons 
into such a declaration, and to show also that 
the several versions purporting to have been 
adopted in 1775 traced their. origin to rough notes 
written in 1800 by John McKnitt Alexander, who 
attempted to reproduce from memory the sub- 
stance 'of the resolves of 1775. 

OTHER BOOKS OP THE MONTH. 

A volume entitled " Navigating the Air " has 
been compiled under the auspices of the Aero 
Club of America (Doubleday, Page & Co.). In 
this publication the club undertakes to record the 
personal experiences of the men most distin- 
guished at the present time in the aeronaut's 
art. Various inventions in this branch of 
science are described from the scientific point of 
view, and some of the most famous aeronautical 
specialists in the world are among the contribu- 
tors to the volume. The book is finely illus- 
trated with photographs and diagrams. 

An unusually useful book for parents who 
have children jilst beginning their education is 
Walter Taylor Field's " Finger Posts to Chil- 
dren's Reading" (McCluTg). This little volume 
consists of a series of papers on the advisable 
reading for a child at different stages of de- 
velopment, with lists of works suitable for home 
reading and school and Sunday-school libraries, 
tabulated according to grade. 

A little homily on the ethical influence of chil- 
dren, by T. RatclifTe Bamett, entitled " The 
Blessed Ministry of Childhood," has been 
brought out by Jennings & Graham. 

** Red Russia." by John Foster Frazer (John 
Lane Company), is full of the sensation and 
thrill of revolutionary Russia. It is the terrible 
story of the revolutionary terror from below in 
its struggle with the reactionary terror from 
above. There are some very striking illustra- 
tions. 

A rather ambitious volume which, on the 
whole, fairly wetl reaches its aim, is Mr. Ford 
Madox Hueffer's " Elngland and the English " 
(McClure, Phillips). In this volume, with its 
350 pages, through which are scattered a num- 
ber of suggestive illustrations. Mr. HuefTer at- 
ten^pts to interpret the soul of the English peo- 
ple to the rest of the world. A good deal of his 
attentive is given, naturally enough, to London. 
The main divisions of his book will give, per- 
haps, an idea of its contents : " The Soul of 
London." " The Heart of the Country," and 
" The Spirit of the Pev>ple." 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 
CONTENTS FOR AUGUST, i907. 



Hi-Hyeung, Emperor of Corea, Who 

Has Abdicated Frontispiece 

The Progress of the World— 

TKe Folly ol War Talk 131 

JapvD Notkina to Gain. 131 

WW WouldVUppcn. 131 

The. Feding Aguntt America. 132 

Tbe Real Situation 133 

lapan't Correct Attitude 134 

Tbe Labor Question 134 

Oar Fleet for tbe Pacific 135 

Tbe NavT and tbe Canal 136 

A Good Investment 136 

Need of a Good Navy 136 

Work of tbe Administration 137 

Action Against Tobacco Trust 137 

Afainst Standard Oil 138 

Tbe "Harriman Report" 139 

Coatrolliiw tbe Senrices in New York 140 

The -Up State "Board 141 

bnes for Neit Year 141 

Dark Hones and Otbers 142 

Better Outk>ok for " Jamestown " 143 

Svnmer Law-Making 143 

Probibition in Geoigia 143 

San Francisco's Struggle Against Graft 144 

A New CoU»e Prudent 144 

Dr. Wilson's Plans at Princeton 145 

Mark Twain a Britisb Lion 145 

Tbe Question of Prosperity 146 

The Hi«tte Conference at Work. 147 

Some Topics Discussed in Committee 147 

New Work! Proposals 148 

TKe Conference of 1899 and tbat of 1907.. . . 148 

Britisb Domestic Politics 149 

1 n Britmn's Colonies 1 50 

Tbe Woes of Britisb India 150 

b India Capable of Self Government? 150 

Tbe Triumpb of Premier Qemenceau 151 

Significant elections in Rome 151 

Parliamentary Activity in Austria*Hungary . . 152 

Race Troubles in Hungary 1 53 

German Political Cbanges 1 53 

Tlie Cbaos in Russia. 153 

Latin-American Notes *. . 154 

With portraits, cartoons, and other illustrations. 

Record of Current Events 155 

With portraits and other illustrations. 

Cartoons of the Month 160 

Mark Twain, Doctor of Letters 167 

By Samuel E. Moffett 
With portrait and reproduction of cartoon. 

Charles S.Mellen, Railroad Organizer 169 

By George W. Bation. 
With portrait and map of the New Haven System. 



RaiU-oads in South America. 177 

By Lewis R. Freeman. 
With lllastrations. 

The Farmer's Debt to Science 186 

By Frank W. BickoelL 
With portraits and illustrations. 

San Francisco's Regeneration 195 

By Colvin B. Brown. 
With portraits. 

Co-operative Consumers' Associa- 
tions in Russia 201 

By Herman Rosenthal. 

The Study of the Human Plant.... 204 

By Frederic Lees. 
With illustrations. 

William H. Taft as a Judge 208 

By Richard V. Oulahan. 
With portrait. 

The Labor Decisions of Judge Taft.. 212 

By Frederick N. Judton. 

The Legislatures and the Railroads.. 217 

By Robert Emmett Ireton. 

The Wisconsin Public-Utilities Law. 221 

By John R. Commons. 

Leading Articles of the Month- 
Government by Impulse 225 

Is Umversal Peace Possible? 226 

Is Russian Reform Impossible? 227 

The Russian Duma and Our Congress 228 

Proposed Reforms of the French Marriage Laws 230 

The Revolt of the French Midi 231 

** Red and Black ** in Modern France 233 

Fortieth Anniversary of Canada's Confedera- 
tion. 234 

Some Newly Discovered Mazzini Letters 238 

Will the " America" Ry to the Pole > 239 

Latin-America a Field for Capital 242 

The Political Creed of Australia 243 

San Francisco's Star Prosecutor 244 

A Century's Movement of Population in Europe 245 

The "Arrival" of Argentina 245 

Task of the College in the South 246 

The Naturalization of the Japanese 247 

A Woman's University in Japan 248 

The Case Against the Duma 250 

Unions of Professional Men in Germany .' 251 

Railwajfs of the Upper Congo 253 

Industrial Legislation and Its Cost 254 

A Plea for an Unreformed House of Lords. . 255 

The Ethical Significance of Play. .. , 256 

With cartoons and other illustrations. 



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for sinjgle copies can also be iUl ed, at th e price of $2.50 for the yearly subscription, including postage, or 96 
ecBta for ain^ ocypiea.) THI REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO., 18 Astor Place, New York City. 




HI-HYEUNG, EMPEROR OF KOREA, WHO HAS ABDICATED. 



[The appearance at the Hague Conference last month of a Korean delegation was the sig- 
nal for renewed anti-Japanese disorder in Seoul, capital of the Hermit Kingdom. The refusal of 
the conference to receive these delegates was followed almost immediately by the demand on 
the part of the Korean ministry that the Emperor abdicate. The sending of these delegates 
to The Hague, it was urged, endangered the national welfare of Korea, since by the 'treaty of 
November, 1906, all the foreign affairs of Korea are under Japanese control. The abdication 
ceremonies took place on July 19 at the Imperial palace in Seoul. This abdication is formal ac- 
knowledgment to the world of Japan's full control of the Hermit Kingdom. Yi-Hyeung, other- 
wise known by his title of Ch'yelchyong, succeeded to the throne in 1864. In 1897 he assumed 
the title of Emperor. Ever since 1895, when his imperial consort, Queen Min, was assassinated, 
the Emperor has lived in the greatest fear of being murdered by some of his corrupt courtiers or by 
Japanese intriguers. Up to July, 1894, when war was declared by Japan against China, the mon- 
archy, which is hereditary, was absolute. Japan's influence began at the close of that war and 
has been confirmed by a scries of treaties with Korea, China, Russia, and England. The Japa- 
nese resident-general at Seoul, Marquis Ito, now " advises " the Korean ruler in all matters of for- 
eign rcb' 



THE AMERICAN 

Review of Reviews 

Vol. XXXVI. NEW YORK, AUGUST, 1907. No. 2 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 

Tit F9iit ?" ^^^^' °^ ^^ ^*sh average of influence of the United States more than any 
^Jlu' intelligence that prevails in this other one thing that finally emboldened 
country, it is hard to understand Japan to assert herself and to assume control 
why there should have been so much talk over her own tariff rates. War in modern 
about war with Japan. When the Japanese times presupposes some fundamental dispute 
opened the campaign against Russia there or antagonism that cannot be dealt with by 
had been a long period of serious strain, with diplomacy or arbitration. Furthermore, war 
protracted negotiations touching vital mat- is usually attended by deep feeling on both 
tcrs, and with vast changes impending in the sides. But it so happens that there does not 
political control of regions regarded as of now exist, nor has there ever existed, any 
life-and-death importance to the future of cause of war whatsoever between Japan and 
Japan. Russia was converting Manchuria the United States. Nor is there any warlike 
into an extension of her Siberian empire, feeling in this country against Japan. On 
was making Port Arthur an impregnable the part of the public men and influential 
fortress, was about to acquire Korea, and people of Japan, furthermore, there is no 
was expecting in due time to assume control warlike feeling toward the United States, 
of a great part of China, including Peking. Neither is there any question of interest in- 
From the Japanese standpoint, Russian pol- volved, such as leads nations sometimes to 
icy was not merely fatal to Japan's future find pretext for war because of some con- 
growth of power and influence, but even quest or acquisition they desire to make, 
rocnaced Japan's ultimate independence. Japan possesses nothing that we could ac- 
The war was prosecuted in a blaze of na- quire or could possibly wish to gain. We, 
donal enthusiasm and patriotism such as the on the other hand, have nothing that Japan 
world has hardly ever witnessed. Russia could hope to gain and hold with benefit to 
throughout the war was somewhat estranged herself, as the result even of a successful 
in feeling toward the United States, because campaign, 
there seemed in this country to be so much 

sympathy for the Japanese. Finally the good n^^^t ^^ ^^^ Japanese should precipitate 
offices of President Roosevelt helped to bring Jjf^ouid a war at the present moment 
about a conclusion of the war at the very "Pp^"- ^\^^Ij. ^^^y could unquestionably 
moment when peace was the best thing that support a successful invasion of the Philip- 
Japan could hav^ pine Islands and Hawaii. But, by such an 

act, Japan would absolutely forfeit the po- 

j,^ The Japanese had always re- litical sympathy and financial support of the 

J^JJj garded the Government apd peo- entire world. It would put Japan in the 

pie of the United States as espe- position of an outlaw nation. There would 

cially friendly, and had looked to this coun- follow the instant abrogation of the treaty 

tTy as die chief inspirer of their rapid modern between Great Britain and Japan, which is 

P">gress. Their most difficult and anxious of immense value to the Japanese. Every 

^ of statesmanship had been to secure the phase of the Far Eastern question would be 

^^nnination of the old commercial treaties reopened. Japan's virtual control of Korea 

^1^ which the European powers claimed would disappear, and her influence in Man- 

*^ right to enter the markets of Japan at a churia and China would be nullified. We 

small rate of duty. It was the in the United States care very little for 

CopTrif be 1907. br Thb Revisw op Reviews CoMPAmr. 



132 



THE AMERICAN REyiEli^ OF REk'IEiyS. 



sovereignty over the Philippine Islands, and 
we are there principally in order to fulfill 
our serious responsibilities to the inhabitants 
and to the world at large. But we could 
not, of course, permit the islands to pass 
permanently from our control by so rude a 
method. It might take us several years to 
put our navy in position to cross the Pacific 
Ocean and extinguish the naval power of 
Japan. But we should be obliged to do it if 
the Japanese did not consent to withdraw 
and make due reparation. All Japanese 
statesmen understand that they would have 
much to lose and nothing to gain by war 
with this country. 



The Fetltng ^^^ '^ ^^ ^^^^ ^° ^^"V ^^^^ there 

Against has been much feeling stirred up 
in Japan against the United 
States by sensational newspapers. This feel- 
ing has owed something of its spread and in- 
tensity to the conditions following a success- 
ful war. The triumphs of the Japanese 
armies and navies aroused national pride, 
and made the popular press resentful of 
everything that might seem in any way to 
reflect upon the honor and the greatness of 
the Japanese name throughout the world. 
It was much to be regretted that the school 
incident in San Francisco occurred at such a 



juncture. The behavior of die school board 
of that city was without excuse and was at 
once mischievous and contemptible. Under 
the pretense that full-grown Japanese men 
were entering the primary grades with 
American boys and girls to learn to read and 
write English, an order was issued excluding 
all Japanese children from the regular pub- 
lic schools. No one would have objected to 
a rule fixing an age limit under which the 
large boys and men would have gone to thf 
so-called " Oriental School." Scattered 
among the graded schools of a large city 
were perhaps forty or fifty Japanese children, 
whose presence did nobody any harm. There 
had for a year or more been a rapid influx 
of Japanese laborers at the port of San Fran- 
cisco, and the agitation of organized white 
labor against the Japanese had become so 
bitter that it expressed itself in foolish and 
indefensible ways. It would have been com- 
paratively easy to stem the tide of laboren 
if a certain rowdy element in California 
could have been prevented from creating one 
international incident after another. The 
school trouble was followed by the mobbing 
of Japanese restaurants and various other 
acts of lawlessness against people who had 
the same legal right to be here that any 
American traveler has to be in Japan. 




Spain to Japan : " Say, pard, if I was you I'd leave that fellow alone ! 
From the Plain Dealer (Cleveland). 



THE PROGRESS OF THk WORLD. 



188 



1 • - ♦ 

• 
1 


I . . ^IRJ*^ 


' t 


r o^^H^^^ - HI ' ** 1 


'^ 




1 

V 


\^^^^B "'^* '* '" , j, f m\. j 



THE BRUTAUZATION OF AMERICA. 
The Padfic Coast bat almdy become a ferocioui lion and the whole land ia fast bein? bnitahzed. We fear time may come when we 
rittll be foired to use the rifle arain at thii hideous monster — the rifle which we once tned with succeas at the savage bear from the North. 
Abi! 1 be noble-hearted C^eorsc VVashineton and good-natured Abraham Lincoln, on whose ideals of freedom and iustice the country 
was founded! We wonder what the forefathers are tliinldnff about the present tendency of their country! 



A STRIKING JAPANESE CARTOON FROM A LATE COPY OF " TOKIO PUCK. 



Beat 
9Hmticm. 



It happens that the Japanese 
have their cheap sensational 
newspapers, and all these out- 
rages in California have been exploited in 
Japan, just as a like treatment of Americans 
in any foreign country would be exploited 
by the sensational press of the United States. 
Nevertheless, all thoughtful people in Japan 
arc au*are that these incidents are local, are 
disapproved by almost everybody in Amer- 
ica, and will be guarded against in so far as 
possible. For example, the school board that 
behaved itself in so weak and foolish a way 
H-as appointed by Mayor Schmitz, whose ad- 
ministration was identified to a great extent 
with those very elements that have been re- 
sponsible for the persecution of the Japanese. 
Now that Mayor Schmitz has been convicted 
and sentenced to prison for malfeasance in 
office, a ncw^ Mayor has been appointed, of a 
totally different character- This official. Dr. 
Wward R. Taylor, is a citizen of high 
professional standing, not identified in any 
*ay with municipal factions, and pledged to 
administer the affairs of the city with energy 
*h1 fidelity. It IS to be assumed that he will 



use the full police strength of the govern- 
ment to protect Japanese and all other classes 
of the population. If there are mobs and 
outbreaks against the Japanese in California 
that are not promptly controlled by the local 
authorities. President Roosevelt would un- 
questionably be justified in using several regi- 
ments of the army to protect helpless peo- 
ple who under our treaties and laws have a 
perfect right to be here. Admiral Yama- 
mato, who has been visiting this country 
and who paid his respects to the President 
at Oyster Bay last month, understands the 
situation absolutely, and is now on his way 
home with assurances that fully confirm 
those of the leading statesmen of Japan. The 
Japanese Minister, Baron Aoki, — who, by 
the way, is not to retire, as was recently re- 
ported, but is to remain here indefinitely, — 
is in clear possession of all the facts in all 
their bearings, and sustains relations of the 
most perfect cordiality with our Administra- 
tion. Baron Kaneko is another Japanese 
public man who knows everything that it is 
possible to know about conditions in both 
countries. 



134 



THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF REVlElVS. 



Japan's 
Correct 
AWtud: 



Japanese public men would not 
be doing their duty if they were 
willing to have their compatriots 
maltreated in this country. But it is a mis- 
take to suppose that they have been wrang- 
ling with the authorities at Washington. 
Reports were circulated throughout Europe 
last month that Japan had made demands 
upon our Government amounting virtually 
to an ultimatum. There is not a word of 
truth in these reports. President Roosevelt 
and Secretary Root have been far more ac- 
tive and outspoken in their protests against 
the California incidents than have any of 
the public men of Japan. There are naval 
officers in the navies of all countries who 
have an unfortunate habit of speech and who, 
from the very bent of their occupation, are 
credulous to the point of feeblemindedness 
whenever irresponsible rumors of war get 
into the atmosphere. Some Japanese naval 
men and some American officers may have 
said the silly or boastful things attributed to 
them in the newspapers. But if they were 
actually so imprudent, their talk was the 
mere gabble of messroom or club and never 
meant for publication. There will be great 
effort shown to protect the Japanese on the 
Pacific Coast. Japanese statesmen under- 
stand the nature of our State sovereignty in 
matters of ordinary police regulation. They 
will not, therefore, be petulant or captious 
and they will soon be rewarded by seeing 
fairly good order on our Western Slope. 



Th9 
Labor 



Meanwhile, Japanese statesmen 
will not be misled as to the 
Question. American attitude on the subject 
of coolie immigration. The presence of eight 
or ten million people of African blood gives 
us all the warning we need as to the varied 
difficulties of race problems. It seems pos- 
sible for us to assimilate to our citizenship 
and our industrial life the white immigrants 
from Europe, even though of widely differ- 
ent nationalities. Yet the process of assimi- 
lation, when a million of these people arrive 
every year, is involved in many difficulties of 
its own. The people of our Western slope 
are determined to build their region up on 
the basis of a white population, with its 
recognized social, political, and economic 
standards. If the Japanese had been coming 
in rapidly at the time when we established 
the rule of Chinese exclusion, the gates 
would have been barred against Japanese 
exactly the same as against Chinese. It is 
not a question of superior and inferior races. 



In some ways, if not in most ways, the 
Japanese working classes are superior to 
these white people from Europe who are now 
passing inspection in the port of New York 
at the rate of many thousands every wccL 
It is not that the Orientals are to be looked 
down upon, but that they are so radically 
different as to make any early assimilation 
impossible. Under our existing treaties with 
Japan we have a right to exclude coolie 
labor, and the Japanese have a right to ex- 
clude American labor beyond the old so- 
called " treaty ports." We are authorita- 
tively informed that the Japanese cxcrdsc 
this right. Knowing the attitude of ou, 
Government and the wishes of the people of 
our Pacific Coast, the Japanese Govemmeflt 
does not issue any passports to laboreti de^ 
tined to the mainland of the United States 
6ut the Japanese constitute the prindpal 
labor element of the Sandu icli Islands^ m^^ 
our own Government wa> responsible for 
their coming here from Hawaii. They are 
not coming now from Honc^l ul u, and it b if 
a general way probably correct t«j say dur 
none are coming except the Ifmited nimibef 
who drift across the Mexican or Canadiiaf 
borders. A few Japanese laborers cannot 
change the standards of the Pacific Coast 




A FINANCIAL REASON FOR PBACV. 

Japan : " You may be sure I don't want to get In 
another fight with this load on my back.'* 
From the ^eir« (Baltimore). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE [i^ORLD. 



135 




ISotofn^Ibb^ Brown Bros.. N. Y. 

Admiral Robley D. Evans. Admiral Yamamoto. 

TWO DISTINGUISHED NAVAL OFFICERS WHO FRATERNIZED IN NEW YORK LAST MONTH. 



But the further influx of large numbers is 
distinctly against American policy, and will 
not be permitted. Those who are here and 
have been regularly admitted must be 
treated with scrupulous regard for their legal 
rights. Japanese travelers, students, and 
merchants ^ould be welcomed as represen- 
tative members of a great and brilliant na- 
tion with which we enjoy the most amicable 
relations. 



Ottr nt€t 
for tMe 
Pucific. 



To sum up, then, we have no 
grievance of any kind against 
Japan, and the regrettable inci- 
dents m California are the only ground of 
grie\'ance that Japan could have against us. 
But no sensible person could for a moment 
find in those incidents any difference jipon 
which tvro great nations should go to war, 
sacrifice many thousands of lives, and waste 
diousands of millions of dollars worth of 
property. To mention such a thing is ridicu- 
lous, and to suggest it as likely would seem 
to indicate either a malevolent mind or a 
iecble understanding. But some readers may 



say it is now admitted that we are to send a 
great fleet of battleships to the Pacific Ocean, 
and this must mean that the Government 
seriously apprehends difficulties. Such an in- 
ference is not correct. It is quite true, as 
announced by Mr. Metcalf, Secretary of the 
Navy, that the Government expects in the 
early future to send a fleet of about sixteen 
battleships around the coasts of South Amer- 
ica to our own Pacific seaboard. There are 
those who have said that we ought not to 
send these ships because such an action might 
be construed as a menace of war against 
Japan. If we were to wait for a more per- 
fect accord to exist between the two govern- 
ments, we should have to wait a long time. 
It is not likely that the ships will sail until 
some time next winter. The Pacific Coast 
is just as much a part of our country as is 
the Atlantic. There is no possible reason 
why we should not give our navy the experi- 
ence of this long voyage. Our officers will 
learn a great deal about coaling at sea, and 
the merits and defects of our ships will be 
better understood by the experts after the 



136 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




MISS GERTRUDE BEEKS, OF THE CIVIC FEDERATION. 

(Who has vlHlfed Panama on Secretary Taft's 
authority In behalf of the welfare of Canal em- 
ployees and reports favorably.) 

test of SO extended a cruise. The ships must 
be somewhere, and if a war against us 
should ever break out in the Pacific we 
should have to transfer numerous vessels, 
just as we brought the Oregon around Cape 
Horn nine years ago. No sensible people 
anywhere should regard* the experiment of 
moving our own ships from one seaboard to 
another as a matter of international concern. 
We have no militant designs in the Pacific 
Ocean nor in any other quarter of the globe. 

The Nauu ^^^ inconvenience of so long a 
and the voyage will doubtless call atten- 
tion again to the desirability of 
pushing the Panama Canal to the earliest 
possible completion. The progress of that 
work is, however, limited by conditions of a 
very definite sort. The Culebra Cut can 
proceed only so fast, and it will take a cer- 
tain number of years to complete the canal. 
To shorten that time a very little would in- 
volve added expenditures out of all propor- 
tion. For the present, it seems to have re- 
solved itself into a matter of simple statistics. 
The sanitary conditions in the Canal Zone 
have been made very decent. It is feasible 
to excavate a certain number of cubic yards 



per month, at a given average cost Effi- 
ciency means the achievement month by 
month of these specific results. Major 
Goethals seems thus far to be the man for 
the work. It is a stupendous undertaking, 
but we have entered fairly upon the actual 
work and there will be no letting up of 
pressure until the battleships of the United 
States can pass easily and safely through 
this waterway. 

^ The practical efficiency of our 

i.J^ * navy for purposes of the defenscof 

tnvesimeni. ... n » ■ 

our coast will naturally be greatly 
enhanced when the canal is completed. The 
standard estimates of the cost of the canal 
have been, in round figures, something less 
than $3CX),ocx),ooo. Even if it should cost 
$4CX),ooo,ooo, the actual outlay of the tax- 
payers of the United States would be the in- 
terest charge upon this sum, which at 3 per 
cent, would be $i2,cxx),cxx) a year. The 
navy has cost us in round figures, for some 
years past, more than $100,000,000 everv 
year. It is not difficult to reach the con- 
clusion that the canal will prove an econom- 
ical investment from the standpoint of coast 
defense. In other words, we shall be able 
to save much more than the interest on the 
canal bonds from the naval appropriations 
we should be obliged to make in future if 
we were not to have the use of the canal. 
Thus, if no revenue could be expected from 
the commercial use of the waterway, the 
canal would probably pay us well as a de- 
fensive investment. But there is a very fair 
chance that the canal may earn enough from 
merchant ships to pay interest upon its total 
cost. The Suez Canal is very profitable. 

Need of ^^^^ ^11 ^^^ ^^^^ that has been 
a Good made current by discussions at 
auy. ry]^^ Hague regarding the possi- 
bilit>^ of agreements for the lessening of the 
cost of armies and navies, it is clearly a wise 
policy and a pacific one for the United States 
to keep its navy both large and highly effi- 
cient. A very regrettable accident last month 
in a gun turret of the battleship Geori^a 
during target practice led to the loss of a 
number of lives through the accidental ex- 
plosion of some bags of powder. The mod- 
ern battleship is a terrible machine, and one 
may well hope for the early coming of the 
time w hen the police work of the world can 
be done with mechanisms safe and comfor- 
table for those who must operate them. The 
most practical suggestion in the direction of 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



137 



the lessening of the burden of armaments is 
that which President Roosevelt has several 
times informally offered. The powers will 
not now consider a proposition to keep their 
naval expenditures below a given limit. But 
it would seem entirely feasible to agree that 
the* size of battleships should not be in- 
creased. When one power builds two or 
three new ships of vastly increased size and 
armament, other powers feel obliged to con- 
struct ships of the new class, and the older 
ones become obsolete. If the Jingo party in 
Japan were strong enough at some moment 
of agitation to overthrow a wise and con- 
servative government and to put firebrands 
and a^'tators into office, it is quite possible 
that the only thing that would avail to pre- 
vent a war would be the knowledge that the 
United States is a very strong naval power 
and could inevitably crush the Japanese navy 
\n the end. There are various situations in 
the Western Hemisphere which in the long 
run are vitally affected by the strength of 
the United States Navy. Many nations are 
interested in the maintenance of good order 
in Cuba; and our navy gives us the ability 
to maintain order there with assurance and 
promptness. Several Central and South- 
American republics would now be under 
European seizure and occupation but for cer- 
tain guaranties of order and of debt-paying 
tha: rest uKimately upon the strength of the 



— -^ / 




THAT WAB <'LOUD HAD BETTER MOTE ON OR THERE'LL 
BE A COLLISION. 



United States navy. Just at present it is 
reported that Venezuela is inclined to repudi- 
ate certain awards under arbitration proceed- 
ings, for which we had made ourselves 
morally responsible. It may be necessary for 
us to administer the Venezuelan custom- 
houses to see that these awards are paid. In 
matters of this kind the possession of great 
and undoubted naval strength often precludes 
the necessity of using the ships for actual 
bombardment. Certainly it is to be hoped 
that the time may come when all interna 
tibnal disputes can be settled by arbitration, 
and when the just awards of arbitration can 
be enforced by a regular international man- 
date. But until such a time arrives, the 
peace and order of a large part of the world 
is going to depend upon the ability of the 
United States to enforce justice. 

yif^^ff Washington has seen little this 

t^i^ti ^""^"^^'* °^ ^^^ important figures 
* of the national Government. The 
President and his secretary, Mr. Loeb, are 
at Oyster Bay, where Mr. Roosevelt is get- 
ting as much rest and recreation as his daily 
official work will allow. Mr. Root is at his 
summer home at Clinton, N. Y., and the 
First Assistant Secretary, Mr. Bacon, is in 
immediate charge of the State Department. 
Mr. Taft is enjoying a much-needed vaca- 
tion at Murray Bay, in Canada. Some time in 
the present month he is to visit Oklahoma, and 
soon afterward he will proceed to the Philip- 
pines. No department of the Government 
has of late been confronted with any very 
difficult or critical situations. The Depart- 
ment of Justice, however, has either already 
entered upon, or else taken under considera- 
tion, some important actions in the enforce- 
ment of the Anti-Trust law. 



Action Agatnst^P cndeavor is to be made to 
Tobacco dissolve the so-called Tobacco 
^ ' Trust," and a suit has been 
brought under the Sherman Anti-Trust Law 
in New York. The complaint as filed names 
sixty-five corporations and twenty-nine indi- 
viduals, the American Tobacco Company 
being the central concern which controls the 
other companies. The tobacco business has 
been brought under the control of an organi- 
zation that is more nearly monopolistic in its 
nature than are most of the so-called trusts. 
The Government proposes to restrain the 



lit U rumored that BUI Taft, the genial trarellng nr#>k-/»/<rx TT^.e* t^^^ ^^,^rA^^ ;^ ^«.v,«,-..^« 

man of Waahington, will Include Tokio, Japan, In ^ obacco I rust from engaging n commerce, 

JUa itinermry.) on the ground that Its methods are m re- 

From tiie Record (Chicago). Strain t of the liberty of trade that the law 



138 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REI/IEIVS, 



guarantees. The complaint against the To- 
bacco Trust is novel, in that it suggests that 
" receivers be appointed to take possession of 
all the property, assets, business and affairs 
of said defendants, and wind up the same, 
and otherwise take such course in regard 
thereto as will bring about conditions in 
trade and commerce among the States and 
with foreign nations in harmony with law." 
The direct proposal of the complaint is that 



receivership for the purpose of dissolving 
oppressive trust. 



an 



t 


ij_^^ 

y^^ 


#*' 


Y* 1 







Pbotoflnraph by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y. 

JUDGE KENESAVV MOUNTAIN LANDIS. 

the chief companies of the Tobacco Trust be 
restrained from engaging in interstate or for- 
eign commerce. The proposal of receivers is 
made as an aUernative suggestion, " if the 
court should be of the opinion that the public 
interest will be better subserved thereby." 
This idea has attracted much attention 
throughout the country, and it has been 
widely reported by newspapers in control of 
Wall Street that the Government deliberate- 
ly intends to take control of all the great 
trusts and corporations and administer them 
itself under federal receivers. No such large 
policy could be entered upon without the 
most profound consideration, and it is not 
for a moment to be believed that anything of 
the kind is in contemplation. It is, however, 
an interesting legal point and one appropri- 
ately raised in a suit of this kind, whether 
under the existing laws the Government 
could demand and the courts could grant a 



Against 



Even more important than the 
itandarti action against the Tobacco Trust 
is the one that it is understood 
that the Government is bringing against the 
Standard Oil combination. The Standard 
Oil Trust is made up of a large number of 
different corporations, all of which arc un- 
derstood to be absolutely part and parcel of 
the central or parent company, known as the 
Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. 
Meanwhile various prosecutions of the 
Standard Oil Company have been going for- 
ward for local and detailed offenses in differ- 
ent parts of the country. For example, the 
Standard Oil Company of Indiana has been 
convicted on a large number of counts for 
taking rebates from railroads. These cases 
were tried in the court of Judge K. M. 
Landis, United States District Judge, at 
Chicago. Judge Landis found that if the 
maximum fines were assessed against the 
Standard Oil Company the total would be 
$29,240,000. Before fixing the amount of 
the fine he demanded evidence as to the 
actual ownership and wealth of the Standard 
Oil Company of Indiana. For that purpose 
subpoenas were issued against Mr. Rocke- 
feller and other important •officers of the 
Standard Oil Company, who went to Chi- 
cago and appeared in court on July 6. Judge 
Landis had no difficulty in eliciting what was 
already matter of common knowledge, — 
namely, that the Standard Oil Company of 
Indiana was a part of the larger concern. 
He declared that he would make announce- 
ment of the amount of the fine on August 3. 
However large a sum Judge Landis may 
assess against the Standard Oil Company, it 
is to be remembered that there is no justifi- 
cation whatsoever for the taking of rebates 
by this great monopoly. The whole public 
opinion of the country, as well as the laws 
of Congress and of the States, is against 
these practices whereby the large corpora- 
tions make it impossible for smaller firms 
and companies to do business. The Standard 
Oil Company has solemnly assured the pub- 
lic again and again that for many years past 
it T:as observed the law and taken no rebates. 
Yet the undoubted evidence is to the con- 
trary. Under all the circumstances there is 
no reason for lenience or patience. Not only 
should fines be heavy, but offenses of this 
kind, where it can be shown that they were 
deliberately committed, should involve the 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



139 




HON. MILTON D. PURDY, ASSISTANT ATTORNEY-GENERAL, WHO IS PROMINENT IN THE ACTIONS 

AGAINST THE TOBACCO TRUST. 



guilty individuals in some form of disgrace- 
ful punishment. There may be much differ- 
ence of opinion as to the expediency of try- 
ing to break up large industrial combina- 
tions, but there can be no difference as to 
the necessity of compelling them to discon- 
tinue those methods whereby they induce the 
railroads to crush the American citizen who 
has the temerity to venture into their kind of 
business. The energy and activity of the 
Government in prosecuting offenses of this 
kind arc to be thoroughly commended. 

y.^ It is understood that the very 
"ttmnimwi clear and logical report of the 
*'*^' Interstate Commerce Commission 
covering the so-called Harriman investiga- 
tion was written by Commissioner Franklin 
K. Lane, of California. There is nothing 
personal or vindictive in the document. It 
finds that Mr. Harriman's consolidating 
methods have ended railroad competition in 
I territory equal to one-third of the w*hole 



country. It finds that the methods used by 
Mr. Harriman were largely those of a kind 
of financiering which ought to be brought to 
an end. It recommends that the law should 
in general prevent railroads from investing 
in the stocks, bonds, and securities of other 
transportation companies. The reportMs val«- 
uable as an authentic narrative of the sue} 
cessive steps whereby the great Harriman 
system was built up. It was not the function 
of the commission to advise prosecution. It 
rests with the Department of Justice to bring 
siich action as it may see fit in consequence of 
the information that the commission presents. 
While nc definite statement has been made, 
it may be taken for granted that the Govern- 
ment will bring an ^tion to break up the 
control of Southern Pacific by Union Pa- 
cific, following some of the principles es- 
tablished in the suit against the Northern 
Securities Company. The report may in- 
deed furnish some suggestions for action in 
the courts, but it also provides in ar 



140 



THE AMERICAN HEl^lElV OF kEyiElVS. 




HON. FRANKLIN K. LANE, OF THE INTERSTATE 
COMMERCE COMMISSION. 

more important sense some well-considered 
ideas tpon which Congress should act for 
the better regulation by law of the functions 
of interstate railroads and for the safeguard- 
ing of the issue of new railroad securities. 
There is no intimation as yet whether the 
scandalous facts brought to light in regard to 
the looting of the Chicago & Alton road are 
to be made the basis of civil or criminal 



actions. The report is a document of great 
conservatism, dignity, and value, and justi- 
fies praise of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission as now constituted and of Messrs. 
Kellogg and Severance as the special attor- 
neys who conducted the inquiry for the 
commission. 

Controlling ^ P^^^ of legislation important 
theSeroices enough to Command the attention 
of the whole country was that of 
the present New York Legislature in its pro- 
vision of a new plan for rc^mlatin^ railroads 
and other public-service corjx>rations, Thr 
name of Governor Hughes is identified with 
this conspicuous measure, AppiWntmejiT? 
have now been made under the la^v, and thr 
two commissions are at Mark, ( >iir readers 
will remember that for the purposes of this 
law the State is divided into two districts; 
one comprises New York City, and the other 
the rest of the State. At the head of the 
First, or Metropolitan District, is Hon. Wil- 
liam R. Willcox, who resigned the postmas- 
tership of New York last month to accept 
this new office. Mr. William McCarroll is 
a business man of prominence; Mr. Edward 
M. Basse tt is a lawyer with a great variet>' 
of useful public experience; Mr. Milo R. 
Maltbie is a well-known young student of 
municipal government with an exceptional 
knowledge of street railway and public fran- 
chise conditions at home and abroad. Mr. 
John E. Eustis is a lawyer, a prominent 
member of the Citizens' Union, and a man 




Hon. Frank W. Martin S. Decker. Thomas M. Osborne Charles II. Keep. James E. Saguc. 
Stevens. 

MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC-UTILITIES COMMISSION FOR NEW YORK STATE. 



0'- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE U^ORLD. 




Cannl^te.l9Qn, by Underwood & Underwood. N. Y. 

MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC-UTILITIES COMMISSION FOR NEW YORK CITY. 

From \elt to rigbt : Mllo R. Maltbie, Wm. McCarroll, T. H. Whitney, Secretary ; Pres. W. B. Wlllcox, 

E. Eustis, Edw. M. Bassett. 



of excellent qualifications. These five men 
under the new law have remarkable powers 
vested in them for the constant supervision 
and regulation of transit conditions, lighting 
conditions, and certain other public service 
matters throughout the great metropolitan 
district of New York. It is too soon to say 
what they will do or how they will do it. 
They take the place of the Rapid Transit 
Commission and several other previously ex- 
isting bodies. It is hoped that the new law 
in the hands of these men will enormously 
improve the transit conditions, now so pain- 
fully cong^tcd, 

j^^ The country at large will also 
** i/^statm** be interested in the working of 
**™^' the other cnmmrs^ion which takes 
the place of the State Railroad Commission 
and of se%Tra! other bodies* The members of 
this board are the Hon. Frank W. Stevens, of 
Jamestown, a well-known lawyer; Charles 
H* Keep, of Buffalo, recently Assistant Sec- 
rctaiy of the Trcasun^ at Washington and 
Superintendent of Banks of New York 
Stair; Thomas M. Osborne, formerly May- 
or of Aiihurn and a prominent independent 
Dcinocmt; James E. Sague, who has had 
larige CTtgineering experience in connection 
with tail roads and their equipment, and 
Martin S. Decker, who has for twenty years 
been assistant secretary of the Interstate 
Comnrjercc Commission at Washington. 
These arc ail men of pronounced ability and 



character, and it is to be expected that 
administration will impress itself in a 
firm and dignified way upon railroad 
agement in the State of New York, as 
as upon the conduct of other public-S4 
companies. 

fssuea ^^^ country begins to take j 
for Next ccptibly increasing interest i 
questions and candidates o 
coming Presidential year. There is no 
cation that the tariff question will be p 
nent in the new Congress which is to 
vene next December. It is almost impo 
to revise the tariff in a business-like spi 
the months preceding a Presidential elei 
But undoubtedly the tariff ought in the 
future to be thoroughly overhauled, a 
is a pity that a few schedules by way 
foretaste should not be remodeled in the 
ing session. There will be some fu 
railroad legislation in order, and in one 
or another the question of corporation* 
their control will figure largely in the 
idential contest. If the Democrats were 
sistent and zealous they might force th( 
iff issue to seme advantage. But there 
evidence that the Democratic party is 
longer a free-trade organization or e\ 
party of radical tariff reform. The i 
has gone so heavily into varied manufac 
that it wants protection, and the Soutl 
write such tariff planks as it wishes in E 
cratic platforms. Mr. Bryan still hold 



142 



THE AMERICAN REI/IEW OP REy/El^S. 




GOVERNOR JOHN A. JOHNSON, OF MINNESOTA. 
(High in Democratic national councils.) 

center of the stage as the 
chief Democratic candi- 
date. Other candidates 
will naturally begin to 
be heard from, and al- 
ready there is a good 
deal of talk about Gov- 
ernor Johnson, of Min- 
nesota. 



forcing a renomination upon President Roose- 
velt. The idea has much to commend it, but 
our permanent party mechanisms could hard- 
ly adjust themselves to the shock of such an 
innovation. Meanwhile the demand for Mr. 
Roosevelt's renomination by his own party 
is a very clear and strong one, with the out- 
spoken support of a good many leaders in 
their respective States. Undoubtedly Mr. 
Roosevelt means exactly what he has repeat- 
edly said. But conditions might arise that 
would prove very embarrassing. Meanwhile 
the great fitness o^ Secretary Taft commends 
itself to the judgment of thoughtful men 
throughout the country. In view of criti- 
cisms upon certain decisions of his when on 
the federal bench we publish an interesting 
article this month covering the whole subject. 
The article is contributed by the Hon. F. N. 
Judson, of St. Louis, a distinguished lawyer 
who belongs to the Democratic party. No 
fair-minded labor leaders will be justified in 
opposing Mr. Taft on the score of these de- 
cisions. The candidacy of Speaker Cannon 
is kept prominent in Illinois, and so is that 
of Senator Knox, in Pennsylvania. There is 
no appearance of any organized movement on 



Dark 

Horses 

and Others. 



For some time 
the country 
was wonder- 
ing about Mr. Henry 
Watterson's mysterious 
" dark horse." It now 
appears that he had Gov- 
ernor Johnson of Minne- 
sota in mind. Certainly 
Mr. Johnson has been re- 
markably fortunate as a 
vote-getter in two cam- 
paigns. But as a man 
capable of directing na- 
tional affairs the country 
knows nothing about him. 
Mr. John Temple 
Graves, of Georgia, is 
still insisting in his elo- 
quent way that both great 
parties ought to concur in 




TEDDY AND HIS PRESIDENTIAL SLATE. 
From the AmcHcan (Nashville). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



143 



behalf of Governor Hughes, of New York, 
yet ihcrc is a great deal of current talk about 
his availability as a candidate. Many friends 
of Mr. Cortelyou, Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, are speaking of him as the most de- 
sirable man to bring forward as a " dark 
horse " in case of a deadlocked convention. 
The situation viewed as a whole is quite 
undeveloped. 

Better ^^^ Jamestown Exposition was, 
Oetiook for unfortunately, far from being 
jemtetmon. fjy^jgj^gj when opened to the pub- 
he, and it may not be easy to live down the 
disappointing impressions that were made 
current some weeks ago. Immense progress 
has been made, however, and during the 
months of September, October, and Novem- 
ber there ought to be a large attendance, 
with a great expansion of friendly interest in 
the efforts that the exposition people are 
making. The new Director-General, Mr. 
James N. Barr, has been prominent in the 
business world as president of the Seaboard 
Air Line Railway. It is to be hoped and 
believed that this exposition, which is much 
more important than the country generally 
supposes, will win full recognition and suc- 
cess before it ends. 

As if the American passion for 
law-making could not be sated 
^^^' by the winter sessions of forty 
State and Territorial legislatures, the labors 
of several of these bodies were prolonged 
this year well into the summer. Tho New 
York Legislature having adjourned without 
effecting a reappointment of Senate districts, 
it was at once recalled in spedal session by 
Governor Hughes, but the greater part of 
July was permitted to pass with practically 
nothing accomplished in the way of bringing 
the Senate and Assembly into agreement on 
this important matter. The Wisconsin Leg- 
islature, after one of the longest sessions in 
the State's history, adjourned on July 17, 
A^ith ^veral meritorious enactments to its 
credit, — notably the Public-Utilities law de- 
scribed by Professor Commons on page 221 
of this Review. The action of the same 
legislature in finally passing a two-cent pas- 
senger fare bill, after the railroad commis- 
sion named by Governor La FoUette had de- 
cided that a two-and-one-half-cent fare was 
the lowest maximum rate consistent with 
reasonable returns to the railroads, occa- 
aooed not a little surprise throughout the 
country. The year's campaign for reduced 



fares in the various State legislatures is re- 
viewed in some detail on page 217. The 
General Assembly of Georgia, which met 
late in June, was called upon to investigate 
the control exercised over the Central Rail- 
way of Georgia by the Southern Railway. 




GOVERNOR HOKE SMITH, OF GEORGIA. 

(Who has been very prominent of late.) 



Oeorgia. 



Prohibition ^" Georgia, last month, both 
fn people and legislators seemed to 

be interested less in the railroads 
than in the prohibition of the liquor traffic. 
In the North and Middle West, where 
" prohibition " was once a burning issue, the 
movement in recent years has lost vigor. In 
the South, on the other hand, valuable 
ground has been gained. A great majority 
of the counties of Georgia have for some 
time forbidden the traffic within their juris- 
dictions. It is, not strange, then, that the 
believers in that method of dealing with the 
liquor problem have at last been able to elect 
a Legislature and a Governor pledged to en- 
act a State prohibition law. It was stated 
late in July that the prohibitory bill passed 
by the Legislature would receive the signa- 
ture of Governor Hoke Smith. During this 
legislative session United States Senator Ba- 
con was elected for another term. In Miss- 
issippi there was a spirited contest for the 



144 



THE AMERICAN RE^lElV OF REyiElVS, 



Democratic primary nomination to the Sen- 
ate between Governor Vardaman and Rep- 
resentative John Sharp Williams. 

8an Francisco* bJ^'' underlying causes and un- 

strugaie foreseen forces at work m brmg- 

Agai.st Graft, j^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^j regeneration 

of San Francisco are set forth by Mr. Col- 
vin B. Brown in a comprehensive article 
which we present to our readers this month. 




PROFESSOR HARRY A. GARFIELD. 

The story of events moved very swiftly last 
month. Mayor Eugene E. Schmitz, con- 
victed on June 13, for extortion, was sen- 
tenced, on July 8, to serve five years* im- 
prisonment in the State penitentiary. In 
pronouncing judgment Judge Dunne admin- 
istered a stinging rebuke to the convicted 
man, and referred to the verdict of the jur}' 
as a message to all people that " in San Fran- 
cisco no man, no matter how exalted his 
station, or how strong and powerful the so- 
cial and financial influences which surround 
him, is above the law." Pending an appeal 
to the State Supreme Court Schmitz an- 
nounced that he would be a candidate for 
re-election to a fourth term as Mayor of 
San Francisco. Indeed, up to the time of 



his conviction he had been virtually admin- 
istering the city government from the count}' 
jail. After his incarceration the government 
had been carried on by James J. Gallagher, 
one of the Board of Supervisors, who had 
acted as Mayor. The board, on July 9, se- 
lected Charles Boxton, another member, to 
succeed Mr. Gallagher, with the understand- 
ing that this choice was only temporary. On 
July 16 a nominating convention, made up 
of delegates from the Building Trsides Coun- 
cil, the Labor Council, the Chambers of 
Commerce, the Board of Trade, the Mer- 
chants* Association, the Real Estate Board, 
and the Merchants* Exchange, met and 
agreed upon Dr. Edward R. Taylor, a prom- 
inent physician and lawyer, dean of the Hast- 
ings Law College and another professional 
school, to be Mayor of San Francisco 
until November, when the next municipal 
election will be held. This choice was im- 
mediately confirmed by the Board of Super- 
visors, which was empowered to elect a 
Mayor. Dr. Taylor has been a resident of 
San Francisco for nearly half a ccnturv. 
and has been identified in a quiet way with 
public affairs for many years. He is knou-n 
to be a man of unusual executive and admin- 
istrative ability and of unquestioned integrity^ 

A Mew Williams College is losing one 
College distinguished president and gain- 
mg another. President Hcnr>' 
Hopkins had all along intended to retire at 
the age of seventy. He is the son of President 
Mark Hopkins, who was president of Wil- 
liams College from 1836 to 1872, and to 
whose influence President Garfield attrib- 
uted so much of his own success in life. The 
new president is Mr. Harry A. Garfield, old- 
est son of President Garfield, who graduated 
at Williams twenty-two years ago. For 
some years Mr. Garfield was a successful 
lawyer in Cleveland, O., and for four years 
he has been professor of politics at Prince- 
ton. He is admirably qualified to direct the 
affairs of one of the foremost colleges of 
America. His brother, James Garfield, who 
was his associate in law practice and in work 
for better politics in Ohio, is now Secretary 
of the Interior in Mr. Roosevelt's cabinet. 
These two sons of a former President of the 
United States have made their way to great 
positions absolutely upon their own personal 
merits. President Raymond, of the Wes- 
leyan University at Middletown, Conn., has 
retired, after a period of service during 
which that institution has made much ad- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



145 



vanccment. The president of Union Col- 
lege at Schenectady, N. Y., Dr. Andrew V. 
\\ Raymond, has also laid down the arduous 
duties of his oflRce, after having made a most 
notable record. 



Dr. wii9om'a ^^' Woodrow Wilson has begun 
Piama at a social reorganization of Prince- 
***' ton College that may fairly be 
called revolutionary. He finds the famous 
upper class clubs working against the most 
manly, democratic and useful life of the uni- 
versity, and to make the matter short he 
proposes to do away entirely with these 
sociedes by absorbing them into a system of 
residential ** quads," each quad presided over 
by a member of the faculty and having its 
own eating rooms and living rooms. This 
residential group would have members of all 
the classes in it, and would, with the aid of 
the present arrangpment of preceptors, form 
its own self-governing system. The situa- 
tion at Princeton is about this: Fraternities 
being forbidden, about twenty-five years ago 
the students began to form clubs where they 
ate, lounged, played billiards, and otherwise 
occupied their time out of lectures. About 
ten years ago these clubs began to increase 
in importance and became more lavish in 
their expenditures, until now two of them 
have buildings which are said to have cost 
nearly $100,000 apiece. Only two upper 
classes are allowed to be members of the 
"h-y." "Cap and Gown," "Tiger Inn," 
" Cottage," and the nine or ten other organ- 
izations of this sort. About two-thirds of 
the upper classes are elected to membership 
on the basis of individual brilliancy in ath- 
letics or other social assets, leaving one-third 
of the juniors and seniors practically social 
pariahs. Thus the student body at Prince- 
ton is split up socially into, first, freshmen 
and sophomores, who may or may not be 
saved; the discarded third of the sophomores 
and seniors, who are certainly lost, the ath- 
letic stars of " Tiger Inn " ; the patrician 
members of the " Cottage " club, and so on, 
ynth the societies frequently canvassing, in 
spite of all " treaties " to the contrary, for 
future members among the lower class stu- 
dents, and even in the " prep " schools. It 
k easy to sec, with President Wilson, that 
fuch a situation does not make for a demo- 
cratic and manly college spirit, or for a well- 
co-ordinated academic life. Any one who 
krvo^-$ the Intense devotion of the members 
of the upper class societies to their clubs, 
among the alumni as well as among the un- 




PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON, OF PRINCETON 
UNIVERSITY. 



dergradute members, will probably be sur- 
prised to see how many Princeton men agree 
wholly or in part with the proposal that 
these organizations shall sacrifice themselves 
for the common good by becoming, each one, 
a center and part of one of the democratic 
" residential groups " that President Wilson 
hopes to put in place of them. No more 
fundamental and courageous move in the di- 
rection of vitality and wholesomeness in aca- 
demic life has been made in recent years, 
and this can be said with a perfect recogni- 
tion of the excellent part played by the so- 
cieties in their own field and of. their high 
tone and ornamental value. 



Mark Twain ^^ ^^'ould be difficult to remem- 
a British ber a British tribute to an Amer- 
ican individual parallel to the 
reception given this summer to Mark 
Twain, — certainly so when one notes the ex- 
traordinarily affectionate tone in England's 
feting. The specific occasion of this out- 
burst of admiration and tenderness for him 
whom Englishmen unhesitatingly and unan- 



146 



THE AMERICAN REI^/EIV OF REVIEWS. 



imously put at the head of our men of let- 
ters, was Oxford*s bestowal on Mr. Clem- 
ens of the degree of " Litt. D. honoris causa/' 
But the university's graceful favor, with its 
picturesque settings becante but an incident 
in the general round of toasting the au- 
thor of ** Innocents Abroad." Englishmen 
are apt to consider Poe and Mark Twain the 
most considerable figures among the produc- 
ers of literature in the history of the New 
World, and they are willing to place Mr. 
Clemens by the side of Charles Dickens as a 
humorist of universal appeal, agreeing that 
there has been no other since Dickens to 
compare with him in reaching the greatest 
number of hearts with honest fun and pa- 
thos. Englishmen have, relatively at least, 
been more sympathetic readers than Ameri- 
cans of Mark Twain's later works, such as 
" Joan of Arc " and ** The Prince and the 
Pauper." Mr. Clemens, at the age of sev- 
enty-two, has passed through the round of 
gaieties, the royal garden parties, the Pil- 
grims' banquet, the dinner by the Punch 
staff and the rest, with a youthful enjoyment 
and verve that do a world of credit to the 
idea that humor and philosophy will keep a 
man young in spite of years. 

j^^ The authentic reports of mid- 
Quesiion of summer from the crops, the rail- 
roaperty. j.^^^^^ ^^^ j^.^^ industry, and busi- 
ness in general scarcely support the Idea, 
prevalent during the past few months, that 
the United States is passing over into a 
period of industrial depression. The wheat 
crop, to be sure, seems to be a hundred mil- 
lion bushels, or 14 per cent, short of la^t 
year's; but that was a " bumper " crop. The 
corn yield promises two and a half billion 
bushels, as compared with 2,700,000,000 
bushels in 1906; but the smaller figure means 
the fourth largest crop in the history of the 
country. There is a fair yield of oats and, 
owing to the late and wet spring, a splendid 
crop of hay. Although bank clearings are 
smaller In New York City, owing to the 
contracted dealings on the stock market, they 
are for the whole country making new rec- 
ords. The prosperity of the plain people is 
shown In the great figures of savings-banks 
deposits, one Institution alone, the Bowery 
of New York, reporting on July ist that it 
had passed the $100,000,000 mark, — a new 
record for savings banks. Retail trade is ex- 
cellent for the season. The railroads are re- 
porting gross earnings something like twelve 
per -rent, greater than the banner year of 



1906. The great equipment companies sup- 
plying cars and material for the railroads re- 
port that they could keep their plants run- 
ning at full speed for an entire year w\x]\ 
only the orders on hand. All this sounds 
wholesome enough. It remains true that the 
intense industrial activity of the past fw 
years has made a great drain on capital, not 
only in the United States, but the world 
over, and when large sums are needed for 
new enterprises, or for the extension of old 
ones, a very high price must be paid for th? 
use of the money, if it can be had at all. 
The consequence is that even the most d^ 
sirable issues of railroad and industrial bonds 
are exceedingly difficult to market, and it is 
the rule that from three-quarters to ninety 
per cent, of such bonds newly issued must he 
held by wealthy underwriting syndicates for 
lack of purchasers. While almost cver>' one 
looks for some slight recession in business ac- 
tivity during the Presidential year, it seems 
likely that there will be work enough for 
everybody at good wages. With less pressing 
demand, however, trade-unionism is not so 
aggressive, and we hear much less of strikes 
in the building trades, on the railroads, and 
elsewhere. A great threatened strike of the 
commercial telegraphers was fortunately 
averted last month through the efforts of the 
Labor Commissioner, Mr. Neill. The an- 
thracite conciliation board reports a clean 
docket. The United States Treasury began 
its new fiscal year last month with a surplus 
for the year just ended of $87,000,000. 



.<< 



•S- "-- 







' (ueiJBati 



V^l '>ia 



'X 



THE TROrr.H 18 OVERFTX)WINO. 

From the Journal (Detroit). 



THE PROGRESS OF -THE IVORLD. 



147 



Th9 Hugm9 ^^^ this issuc of the REVIEW committces, but each country has only one 

Coff/mne* OF REVIEWS reaches its readers vote in committee as also in the plenary ses- 

the Second International Peace sions of the conference. The first committee, 

Conference at The Hague will have been in — that dealing with arbitration and inter- 

scssion for six weeks. A good deal of ear- national commissions of inquiry, — is presided 

nest, if as yet only general, discussion has over by M. Leon Bourgeois, ex-Foreign 

filled these weeks of deliberation. One of Minister of France. The second committee 

the most interesting proposals was made by deals with the usages of war, under the pres- 

thc American delegation, looking toward the idency of Dr; Beernaert, of Belgium. The 

establishment of a permanent international third committee to consider the laws and 

court of arbitration, the organization and usages of maritime war, is under the presi- 

proccdurc of such court to be on a basis re- dency of Count Tornielli, of Italy. Dr. 

sembling somewhat those of the Supreme Martens, the international law expert of 

Court of the United States. For business Russia, presides over the fourth committ^, 

purposes the Conference was divided into which considers the subjects of belligerent 

four committees, three of them subdivided shipping and contraband of war. 
into two sub-committees each. The sub- 
jects allocated to these committees are 
those which were outlined in the original 
Russian program. No committee was ap- 
pointed to discuss the question of armaments, 



Some Topics At the sessions of the first com- 

Dtacuaaeti in mittee Baron Marschall von 

omm ee, gjei^erstein submitted on behalf 



of Germany two proposals: one for certain 
Nor was there a committee for the Drago modifications of the Hague convention for 
Doctrine. The latter subject, however, the pacific settlement of international dis- 
came up for earnest discussion in the Arbi- putes, and the second dealing with the Ger- 
tration committces. The United States has man proposal for a high prize court of ap- 
thc largest representation on each of the peal. In his latter proposal he was sup- 
ported by Sir Edward Fry, on be- 
half of Great Britain. The Mexi- 
can delegate, Senor de la Barra, sub- 
mitted, on behalf of his government, 
the text of a treaty of obligatory ar- 
bitration, signed at the City of Mex- 
ico, in 1902, by representatives of 
seventeen American states, as a sam- 
ple of what an arbitration treaty 
should be. The second committee 
has been considering improvements 
of the rules of land warfare and the 
rights and duties of neutral powers 
in times of war and at the opening of 
hostilities. The discussions before 
the third committee have been on 
such topics as ( I ) naval bombard- 
ment of ports, towns, and villages, 
(2) belligerent war vessels in neu- 
tral ports, and (3) possible amend- 
ments to the Geneva convention of 
1864, as revised in 1906. Gen. 
Horace Porter, of the United States 
delegation, submitted a proposal for- 
bidding the naval bombardment of 
unfortified towns; Sir Ernest Satovv, 
on behalf of Great Britain, an- 
nounced a proposal concerning the 
THE HALL OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE. employment of Submarine mines ; 

(An ontside new of the Ridderzaai. Hall of the Knights. Colonel Tmge for Chma, declared 
In Tbp Hainie. where the second International Peace Con- the unreserved acceptance by hlS 
terence Is in sestion. government of the emblems of the 




148. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



Red Cross; and the Turkish delegation 
declared that their country would retain 
the use of the crescent instead of the cross 
in humanitarian service. The work of the 
fourth committee included consideration of 
the British proposal for the better definition 
of contraband of war, involving its ultimate 
abolition. The committee also discussed at 
length the American proposal for the invio- 
lability of private property (except contra- 
band) at sea during war. 

« Neiu Among the other topics of world 
World interest which have been dis- 
ropoaa a. ^^gg^j ^j^}^ great earnestness and 
vigor so far at the conference are the necessi- 
ty for a declaration of war before the begin- 
ning of hostilities, the limitation of arma- 
ments, and the now famous Drago or Calvo 
doctrine regarding the forcible collection of 
contract debts. Dr. Drago himself, repre- 
senting Argentina, made a strong plea in be- 
half of this idea. The South American del- 
egates to the Hague Conference are men of 




THE SECRETARY-GENERAL OF THE HAGUE CON- 
FERENCE. 

Myneer W. Doude van Troostwljk, of the Dutch 
Foreign OfBce. who has been chosen general secre- 
tary of the conference. 

eminence and are attracting much attention. 
Among them, by far the most talked of man 
is Dr. Drago, who was formerly Minister 
of Foreign Affairs for the Argentine Re- 




DR. LUIS MARIA DRAGO. 

public. He is a young man full of energy 
and intelligence; a lawyer, an author, a 
judge, and a man who has made his mark in 
the New World, and is now making it in 
the Old. In discussing the Amerjcan 
proposition forbidding the collection of 
contract debts by force General Porter 
pointed out that one of the most significant 
features of the present conference is the fact 
that for the first time in history the creditor 
and debtor nations of the world have been 
brought together in friendly council. 

ne Conference J^^^^ ^re a number of interest- 

of 1809 and mg Contrasts between the con- 

thatof 1007. ^^^^^^^ ^^ jg^^ and the present 

one. In 1899 the representatives of the 
twenty-six nations participating met in the 
famous old House in the Woods, in the sub- 
urban part of the Dutch capital. The con- 
ference of 1907, including delegates from 
forty-five nations, meets in the Ridderzaal 
(the Hall of the Knights), in the center of 
the city. In the opening speeches at the 
first conference complimentary references 
were frequent to the Czar of Russia and 
the German Emperor. This year the en- 
thusiastic applause was evoked by the 
names of President Roosevelt as a con- 
tributor to international peace and Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie for his gift of the 
coming International Peace Palace. An 
unexpected result of the appearance of a 
Korean delegation at The Hague was the 
demand, made on July 16, by the Korean 
ministry, that the Emperor abdicate in favor 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



149 




TWO NEW DOCTORS OF LETTERS, " HONORIS CAUSA, OXON." 
<Mark Twain and General Booth leaving the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, after receiving their degrees, 
as seen by the artist of Illustration, of Paris.) 



of the Crown Prince and himself proceed to 
Tokio to apologize to the Japanese Em- 
peror for violating that part of the recent 
Korean- Japanese agreement which puts 
Korean foreign relations under Japanese con- 
trol. Next month the Review hopes to be 
able to present a summary of the results of 
the Peace Conference, written from The 
Hague during the last days of the sessions. 



BriUak 
Domtttle 
f*olities. 



In England Parliament and press 
are still discussing with undimin- 
ished vigor the possibility and ad- 
visabilit>' of abolishing the House of Lords, 
or at least of curtailing its power. By -the 
very large majority of 432 to 147 the House 
of Commons, late in June, after a heated 
three-days debate, voted that the veto power 
of - the- uppeF- house - ought - to— be abol- 
ished. Premier Campbell-Bannerman stated 
that this resolution would not be sent to the 
Lords and would therefore have no legal ef- 



fect, but would simply register the opinion 
of the Commons as to the " subordinate au- 
thority " of the Lords. Legislation dealing 
with the question, however, would be intro- 
duced later by the government. This ques- 
tion of the " mending or ending " of the 
Lords, the discussion in the upper house of 
Mr. Haldane's Army bill, and the ever pres- 
ent Irish Home Rule question have been the 
prominent topics of interest in Great Britain 
during the early summer. To Americans a 
feature of current British history which will 
appeal strongly was the conferring by the 
University pf Oxford of honorary degrees 
upon an unusual number of distiguished men, 
including Premier Campbell-Bannerman, 
General Booth, of the Salvation Army, and 
our own '* Mark Twain." Mr. Clemens has 
been a popular hero in England during his 
recent visit, and it is well to remember, — as 
Mr. Samuel E. MoflFett points out on an- 
other page, this month, — that Mr. Birrell 



150 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS, 



was quite correct when he said : " Ma:rk 
Twain's humor enlivens and enlightens his 
morality, and his morality is all the better for 
his humor." 

,^ June and July were months of 

Britain's parliamentary sessions and anni- 
versary celebrations for many of 
.the British colonies and dependencies. On 
July I the fortieth anniversary of Canadian 
confederation was celebrated throughout the 
Dominion. On the same day it was an- 
nounced that the wheat crop of Western Can- 
ada would total more than 1 20,000,000 bush- 
els, the largest crop on record. The self- 
governing colony of New Zealand is to be- 
come a dominion as soon as the colonial Par- 
liament now in session passes an appropriate 
resolution to that effect. On July i the new 
constitution of the Orange River Colony was 
promulgated. The federal Parliament of 
Australia and the parliaments of the differ- 
ent states, in session during July, gave their 
chief attention to financial and tariff matters. 
Discontent still continues in India, but Sec- 
retary Morley's announcement of the ap- 
pointment of a royal commission to inquire 
into the evils of over-capitalization in the 
colony and the establishment of an advisory 
Council of Notables to serve the double pur- 
pose of ascertaining native opinion and of 
spreading correct information as to the inten- 
tions of the home government will, it is 
ho|:5ed, serve to allay in some measure the 
feelings of the Hindus. 



The 

Woes of 

British India, 



found it impossible to adjust themselves to 
the new industrial environment and have 
been crushed. Agriculture and education are 
in sore straits. It is hardly a matter for 
congratulation, declares this Hindu gcntl^ 
man, that, after a century and a half of 
British rule, only nine Hindus out of even 
100 are literate. 

Is India capa- ^^ ^^ onc thing, howevef, to desire 
bie of Self' economic independence and politi- 
cal autonomy. It is distinctly 
another to be worthy of it and able to main- 
tain it when secured. The views of a cele- 
brated Indian journalist and traveler, Mr. 
Saint Nihal Sing, are interesting and in- 
structive in this . connection. In a recent 
address delivered before a convention of 
Canadian literary and social clubs. Mr. 
Sing said : 

India is changing more rapidly than perhaps 
any other section of the modern world. To ray 
mind Britain has wrought very much for India. 
A couple of centuries ago our land was one reft 
with internal, intestinal feuds. It was worse 
than a " bone of contention," which kept half a 
dozen European nations constantly wrangling 
with one another for the possession of the land 
of gold, as it was then known among the fight- 
ing powers. Its people, ignorant and supersti- 
tious, oppressed and harassed by lawless liber- 
tines and political usurpers, labored under social. 



Political and economic changes of 
world significance are taking 
place in British India, if we read 
aright the signs of the times. Thoughtful 
Hindus are regarding with apprehension the 
various riots and other evic'ences of a rising 
feeling against British rule. The consensus 
of native opinion holds Great Britain respon- 
sible for most of the woes of the great 
peninsula. Prof. S. L. Joshi, a native 
Indian and secretary of the Pan-Aryan As- 
sociation of New York City, recently de- 
clared that the famines in his native land 
are the most serious phase of the present dis- 
turbances. The economy of the Indian vil- 
lage remaining unchanged through centuries 
of political revolution, has lately been ** vital- 
ly affected by the competitive forces liberated 
by western methods of industry.** Under a 
system of free trade and increasing railroad 
facilities the ignorant villagers, formerly 
eking out a bare living at their trades, have 




THE CNKASY INDIAN ELEPHANT. 

Kino Edward: "Hold on there, what alls you?* 
From Kladderadatsch (Berlin). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



151 



economic, and political disabilities. Nationaliza- 
tion and self-government, — of these sentiments 
the native mind was incapable of perception at 
that period. 

This is all changed now. Liberal educa- 
tion has begun to do away with caste. " The 
era of nationalization has already begun and 
a large measure of the self-government of the 
country' by the natives of the soil is within 
sight." As to the desire of the average 
Hindu in this matter, Mr. Sing says: 

Even to the most superficial of observers, it 
is patent that India is, politically speaking, fast 
becoming another ** Ireland." The agitation for 
self-government has been waged for more than 
a quarter of a century with relentless vigor and 
has assumed an aggressively progressive form. 

England has her boycott in India There 

is no use mincing matters by hiding the fact 
that the political agitation in India at the present 
time is simply intense, and, if the demands of 
those who are constitutionally agitating are not 
met in a liberal and satisfactory way, England 
will have to face another " Ireland " in India. 

The verdict of the native Indian press 
is in accord with this view. It is not dis- 
loyalty to Britain, not an attempt at armed 
uprising; it is a feeling on the part of the 
Hindu peoples that they ought to have the 
same mode of government in their domestic 
afFairs as the other British colonies. 



Tke THump 
of 



^ - That Premier Clemenceau has 
Mr the confidence and support of 
the French people in his measures 
to preserve order and secure even-handed 
justice in the diflRculties with the wine-grow- 
ers IS evident from the increasing majorities 
by which votes of confidence are passed in the 
Chambers. Upon the arrest of Dr. Ferroul, 
xMayor of Narbonne, and Marcellin Albert, 
tht leader of the Midi revolt, order was 
quickly restored in the four disturbed depart- 
inents of Aucie, Hcrault, Gard, and Pyre- 
nees Orien tales, — nor* however, until there 
h^d been some loss of life and property, sev- 
eral mutinous outbreaks in the army, and 
some exciting scenes in the Chamber of 
Deputies, The government measure to pre- 
vent adulteration of wine and to correct a 
number of other abuses complained of by 
the discontented wine-growers of the Midi 
requires that ail vincyarders make an annual 
dc!cla ration at the office of the Mayor of their 
oommune concerning the acreage and total 
quantity of wine produced and in stock ; also 
whether this is intended for sale or not. 
By this means the government hopes to keep 
such close track of the wine from grower to 
dealer that it may prevent watering or 




premier clemenceau justifying his 
law" before the chambers. 
From Illustration (Paris). 



WINE 



" sugaring." Other features of the measure, 
which was promulgated on June 29, advise 
and assist the organization of the wine- 
growers into societies to themselves regulate 
the output, to discontinue the manufacture 
of poor wine, and to assist the government in 
suppressing fraud. On July 12 the Parlia- 
ment of the republic adjourned for its sum- 
mer vacation, leaving the proposed income- 
tax law still under discussion. An attempt 
upon the life of President Fallieres on Bastile 
Day (July 14), while possibly the work of 
anarchists, was in all probability the un- 
premeditated deed of a lunatic. 

significant ^he Celebrations, on July 4, of 
Elections the ccntenary of Garibaldi's 
birthday, which was marked by 
unusual enthusiasm throughout Italy, in- 
cluded some interesting ceremonies by Ital- 
ians in this country. The house in which 
\ the Italian patriot lodged while in this 
country still stands, in Staten Island, in New 
'York City, and it has now been preserved 
(through the gifts of Italian- Americans) by 
being inclosed in a structure modeled after 
the Roman Pantheon, the whole to be a 
museum to the great Italian who died twen- 
ty-five years ago. The municipal elections 



152 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF RE^/EIVS. 



in the Italian capital during early July re- 
sulted in an unexpected triumph for the So- 
cialist party, the Anti-Clerical " bloc " elect- 
ing no fewer than twenty-four of the twenty- 
nine members of the council (one-third of 
the entire body) who were chosen this year. 
The influence of the church was not able to 
keep many Catholics even from voting for 
Socialist candidates. Taken in conjunction 
with the remarkable Socialist advance in 
Austria, the recent increase in the Socialist 
vote in Germany (although the electoral 
battle itself went against Socialism in the 
Fatherland), large Socialist gains in the 
bye elections in England, and the growing 
power of socialistic organization and legis- 
lation in France, the result of this election 
is a significant sign of the times. 

Parliamentary Next year Emperor Francis 
Actiuittfin Joseph of Austria-Hungary will 
have reigned over his polyglot 
realm for sixty years. Preparations are al- 
ready in progress for extensive celebrations 





HrNOAHY'S RACE TROPBLKS. 

KoBRuth sowing tho Empire together above, while the 
workman l>elow cheers for universal RiifTrnge ! 

From the ^'eiie? OlUhUchter (Vienna). 



DR. WEISKIRCHNER, NEW PRESIDENT OF THE 
AUSTRIAN REICH SRATH. 



of this event. His Imperial Majes- 
ty is reported to have recently re- 
marked that he himself desires to 
commemorate this occasion by the 
accomplishment of universal suff- 
rage throughout the entire country. 
Austria itself now possesses full 
manhood suffrage, and it is on the 
program of the government to ex- 
tend the unlimited franchise to 
Hungary also. The preponderance 
of Socialist representatives in the 
new Reichsrath has resulted in the 
election of Dr. Weiskirchner, a 
Christian Socialist, as president of 
the Chamber by a large majority 
vote. Dr. Weiskirchner is a com- 
paratively young man, now in his 
forty-seventh year. It is a signifi- 
cant fact that this " orthodox Catho- 
lic politician, whose zeal has not 
been disfigured by ultra-clerical fan- 
aticism," received at the balloting 
the unanimous support of such pow- 
erful and divergent Parliamentary 
groups as the Christian Socialists, 
the non-Clerical Germans, the Poles, 
and the Czechs. 

Race Troubles Hungary, the other half 
in of the Dual Monarchy, 

^ '''"'^""^- Is having her own par- 
liamentary troubles. Count Pejac- 
sevich,Ban of Croatia, an official who 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 




M. LUDWIG HOLLE, NEW PRUSSIAN MINISTER OF 
PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

represents this Hungarian dependency at 
Budapest and is responsible to the Hun- 
garian Prime Minister, having resigned, 
the government appointed Dr. Rakodezay to 
succeed him. This pohtician, who is re- 
ported to be in favor of Magyar preponder- 
ance in Croatia, is in much disfavor in the 
province, and the opposition to him has taken 
the form of some vigorous pubhc demonstra- 
tions. The feeling of Hungary's dependent 
provinces have been further aroused by the 
recently enacted railway- regulation bill, 
\yhich provides that none but Hungarian 
citizens understanding the Magyar language 
can be appointed on the state's railways. It 
is remarkable that the Hungarians, who have 
made such a brave and intelligent fight for 
the use of their language in the army, are 
not able to understand the feelings of the 
Croatians and Slavonians in favor of their 
o^^Ti tongues. 

^tman ^ number of important ministeri- 
^mtai al changes have taken place in 



153 

cent Anglo-Franco-Spanish understanding 
has been one of almost complete isolation. 
Her situation is humorously depicted in the 
^cartoon from IVahre Jacob, which we re- 
produce here. A rather sensational report 
received some credence in the newspapers 
last month to the effect that a secret treaty 
existed, between Germany and the United 
States. It was alleged that certain tariff 
concessions had been made by Germany to 
this country in exchange for what amounted 
to an alliance. Of course secret treaties be- 
tween our own and any foreign government 
are impossible. Inability to understand this 
fact has caused more than one European dip- 
lomat to make miscalculations. 

^Ahe ^i^h the dissolution, on June i6, 
RZiia °f ^^^ ^^^"^ Russian Duma, the 
distracted empire of the Czar en- 
tered upon another period of disorder and 
anarchy. Organized repression from above 
IS met by organized revolution from below. 
Law-breaking, assassination, and robbery 
have burst out again upon an extended scale. 
The assassination, on July i6, of General 
Alikhanov, known as " the Beast," by a 
revolutionist's bomb, removed one of 'the 
most hated of Russian reactionists. The 
Radicals now openly announce that they have 
placed the Czar upon their death roll. These 



OlmB^n. 



Germany. Count von Posadow- 



sVi, Secretary of the Interior, has been suc- 
^d by Herr von Bethmann-HoUweg, 
Prussian Minister of the Interior, and Dr. 
^^^t Prussian Minister of Public Instruc- 
^. has resigned and is to be succeeded by 
^r. Hollc, the Under-Secretary. Germany's 
J*5^ in international politics since the re- 




Y I\ HKR IHOI.ATIOX x^ o\K \VA 

ALLIANCK WITH HKR. 

From ^yahre Jacob ( Stuttgart K 



154 



THE AMERICAN REyiEU/ OF RE^IEIVS. 




THE HAGUE CONFERENCE AND THE DISSOLUTION OF THE RUSSIAN DUMA. 
Czar Nicholas (to Premier Stolypin) : " Thla Is the moment when I must reply to the greeting of tbe 
Hague Peace Conference. Wire them, Stolypin, that I, their patron, drink to them. Vive Liberty. Looj? 
lift' to Peace." 

Stolypin : *' Sire, methlnks I can even now hear the applauRe " 

From the Amttierdammer (Amsterdam). 



Radicals are planning a congress to be held 
in London some time during the current 
month, at which they will prepare a relent- 
less Terrorist campaign, the boycotting of 
the third Duma, and a great armed uprising 
of the masses. As for the third Duma, 
which is to be balloted for in September, it 
is evident that this will not be a Parliament 
in any sense of the word, but merely a 
bureau to register the Czar*s will. It will 
be a thoroughly Russian body, the repre- 
sentatives of the minor nationalities being 
virtually eliminated. Up to the present we 
have seen little more than the beginning of 
the real Russian revolution. The reaction- 
ary court camarilla has proved itself more 
than a match for the earnest but undisci- 
plined Liberals. As the lines of the contest 
are drawn tighter it is evident that years of 
struggle and bloodshed will pass before Rus- 
sia realizes constitutionalism. It may take 
another ten or fifteen years, and it may call 
for armed European intervention, but Rus- 
sia will be free in the end. The wonder is, 
not that freedom and constitutionalism have 



been delayed so long, but that, for so manv 
years, against such tremendous opposirion, 
and through so much oppression and suffer- 
ing, the Russian people still keep up the 
battle. They will win at last. 

Latin- Items of history in the making 
American from our Latin-American ncigh- 
**' bors during the past few wecb 
include the consolidation of the two great 
railway systems of Mexico under govern- 
ment control, with a capital of $460,000,- 
OCX),* the settlement of what threatened to 
be a serious strike among the tobacco-work- 
ers of Cuba, and the purchase by the govern- 
ment of all church-owned property in the 
diocese of Havana ; the exchange, on July 8, 
of ratifications of the Santo Domingo treaty; 
and the installation of a new cabinet in Ven- 
ezuela. An official estimate recently made 
public puts the cost of intervention in Cuba 
(up to June 30 of the present year) at 
$3»5oo,ooo. Unsettled political and eco- 
nomic conditions continue in the Central- 
American States. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



(From June to to July 19, 1907.) 



POLITICS AND <}OVBRNMBNT--AMBRICAN. 

June 20. — Col. Samuel P. Colt withdraws 
from the Rhode Island Senatorship contest. 

June 21. — Ex-Governor Pennypacker of 
Pennsylvania testifies before the Harrisburg 
Capitol Investigation Committee. 

June 24. — President Roosevelt appoints Mich- 
ael E. Bannin, of New York, an Indian Com- 
missioner Governor Hughes, of New York, 

sends to the Legislature a special message urg- 
ing the passage of the Constitutional Appor- 
tionment bill. 

June 25. — Details of the plan for the pension- 
ing of federal civil employees are completed 
at Washington. 

June 26. — The New York Legislature ad- 
journs President Roosevelt appoints Chief 

Justice Walter F. Frear, of the Hawaiian Su- 
preme Court, to be Governor of Hawaii. 

June 28. — Governor Hughes, of New York, 
announces his appointments for the Public- 
Utilities Commissions of city and State. 

June 29. — The United States Government's 
fiscal year is closed with a sur-plus of approxi- 
mately $87,000,000 Governor Hoke Smith, 

of Georgia, urges the limitation of the fran- 
chise and corporation legislation. 

July I.— The New York Public-Utilities 

Commissions begin their official existence 

President Roosevelt accepts the resignation of 
W. R. Willcox as postmaster of New York. .. . 
The Rhode Island Republican State Central 
Committee indorses the candidacy of George P. 
Wetmore for the United States Senate. 

July 2. — Governor Hughes, of New York, 
issues a call for an extraordinary * session of 
the Legislature; Attorney-General Jackson ad- 
vises the Secretary of State to call a special 
election of Senators next fall under the appor- 
tionment of 1894. 

July 8. — The New York Legislature meets in 
extraordinary session; Governor Hughes asks 
for a constitutional apportionment and a law 

for direct primary nominations Mayor 

Eugene E. Schmitz is sentenced at San Fran- 
cisco to five years' imprisonment in the peni- 
tentiary for extortion from French restaurants 

Mayor McClellan, of New York, makes 

sweeping changes in the city departments. 

July 9. — United States Senator Augustus O. 
Bacon, of Georgia, is unanimously re-elected by 

the Legislature The San Francisco Board of 

Supervisors select Charles Boxton, a member of 
the board, to succeed Supervisor James JL Gal- 
lagher as acting Mayor of the city The In- 
terstate Commerce Commission's report on the 
financial operations of E. H. Harriman is laid 
before President Roosevelt. 

July la — The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Railroad is indicted at Chicago on sixty-five 
counts on the charge of rebating. 

July II. — President Roosevelt appoints Frank 



A. Leach Director of the Mint, to succeed 
George E. Roberts. 

July 12. — Announcement is made that Senator 
R. M. La Follette, of Wisconsin, will be a can- 
didate for the Republican Presidential nomina- 
tion in 1908. 




K-MD SIR HARRY MACLEAN. 
(Commander of the Moroccan Sultan's bodyguard ; 
captured by the bandit Raisuli last month and held 
for ransom.) 



July 13. — The report of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission on its investigation of the 
Harriman railroad lines is made public. 

July 16. — Dr. Edward R. Taylor is elected 
Mayor of San Franci.sco by the Board of Super- 
visors. 

July 19. — A clash of authority between the 
State authorities of North Carolina and th** 
United States Circuit Court is occasioned by the 
sentence of ticket-sellers convicted of violating 
the State railroad-rate law. . . .The Rhode Island 
Republican State Central Committee accepts the 



166 



THE AMERICAN RE^/EIV OF REVIEWS. 



resignation of Gen. Qiarles R. Brayton as mem- 
ber of the executive committee. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT— FOREIGN. 

June 20. — The French Government is forced 
to explain to the Chamber of Deputies its action 
in the use of force to restrain the wine-growers. 
The Irish National Directory meets in Lon- 
don .... The debate on the labor question in tli^ 
Transvaal Parliament continues. 

June 21. — In the Transvaal Parliament the 
motion condemning General Botha's labor policy 

is defeated by a vote of 45 to 21 The Cape 

Colony Parliament is opened The French 

Chamber of Deputies, by a majority of 104, up- 
holds the govTmment's decision to suppress by 
force the wine-growers' revolt. .. .Delegates rep- 
resenting all the Russian revolutionary groups 
reject by a vote of 47 to 19 the proposal to de- 
clare a general strike. 

June 22.— The I^rds committee on the reform 
of the British House of Lords meets and elects 
Lord Rosebery chairman. .. .The French Cham- 
ber of Deputies passes the government's bill for 
preventing the adulteration of wine. . . .The Rus- 
sian Zemsto Congress opens in Moscow. 

June 24, — In the British House of Commons 
Sir Henry Campbell- Bannerman, the Premier, 
introduces a motion to curtail the power of the 
House of Lords. • 

June 25. — In the British House of Commons 
a Labor party amendment to the Premier's mo- 
tion proposes the abolition of the House of 
Lords. .. .The Venezuelan cabinet resigns owing 
to the action of the national Congress iiL con- 
demning the policy of the Minister of Finance. 

June 26. — The British House of Commons, by 
vote of 432 to 147, adopts the Premier's resolu- 
tion in favor of curtailing the power .^rfc the 
House of Lords; the Labor party amendment 
for the abolition of the House of Lords is re- 
jected by a vote of 315 to 100 M. von 

Schwanebach, Controller of the Empire, resigns 
from the Russian cabinet. 

June 27. — The South Australian and New Zea- 
land parliaments are opened. 

June. 28. — The French Chamber of Deputies, 
by a rnajprity of 120, votes confidence in the gov- 
ernment's policy regarding the suppression of 
the wine-growers' agitation ; the French Senate 
adopts tlTC bHl for the suppression of the adulter- 
ation of wine.... The Coaistitutional Democrats 
of Russia issue a circular appealing to the party 
to begin preparations for the coming elections 
to the Duma. 

July 3. — The Russian Government orders the 
relaxation of measures against the Jews. 

July 4. — Forty Croatian deputies leave the 
Hungarian Parliament as a protest against the 
government's railroad bill. 

July 10. — The French Minister of Finance, M. 
Caillaux. speaks in support of the Income-Tax 
bill before the Chamber of Deputies. 

^' July II. — The French Senate and Chamber re- 
solve to maintain the present taxation scheme in 
1908. 

July 12. — The French Parliament adjourns. 

July 15. — Richard Croker declines the Nation- 




DR. ARTHUR KAMPF, NEWLY ELECTED PRESIDENT 
OF THE ROYAL FINE ARTS ACADEMY, OF BERLIN. 

alist nomination for the British Parliament from 
East Wicklow. 

July 17. — One hundred and sixty-nine mem- 
bers of the first Russian Duma who drew up the 
Viborg manifesto are arraigned for trial before 
the Court of Appeals at St. Petersburg. 

July 18. — The Korean ministry resigns. 

July 19. — The Emperor of Korea abdicate*^; 
the imperial seal is transferred to the Ciowti 
Prince; the Japanese post forces at all p(»nt< 
of danger in Seoul. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

June 21. — The last question remaining be 
tween the United States and Turkey is settled 
by Ambassador Leishman at Constantinople. 

June 24. — President Roosevelt signs the treaty 
between the United States and Santo Domingo 

June 26. — Secretary Taft announces that 
American occupation will continue in Cuba for 
eighteen months. 

June 29. — It is announced that the Russian 
Government is preparing to take action to pre- 
vent massacres in the Armenian provinces of 
Asia-Minor. . . . A meeting of seven Japane^^f 
chambers of commerce draws up addresses to 
similar American bodies and to President Roosr 
velt regarding alleged discrimination in San 
Francisco. ... The United States takes steps \o 
piircliase all the church property in the (^ban 
diocese of Havana. 

July 2. — It is announced that Honduras, Gua- 
temala, and Salvador have united to oppose 

Zclaya's plan to consolidate the republics 

The United States declines to accept the answer 
made by President Castro of Venezuela to the 
American demands. 

July 3. — France takes formal possession of the 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



157 



new Siamese territory awarded under the recent 
treaty. 

July 4. — Great Britain demands of Morocco 
that prompt steps be taken for the release .of 
Sir Harry MacLean, commander of the Moroc- 
can Sultan's bodyguard, who was captured by 
Raisuli through treachery. .. .Sir Edward Grey 
states in the British House of Commons that 
Great Britain's claim against China is based on 
the damages actually incurred in the Boxer 
outbreak. 

July 5. — M. Pichon, French Minister of For- 
eign Affairs, spates that the relations between 
France and Germany are excellent and that the 
Franco-Spanish agreement is another step to- 
ward the peace of the world. 

July 7. — The leader of the Chinese reform 
movement appeals to President Roosevelt for 
modification of the law ^excluding Chinese from 
the United States. 

July 8. — A semi-official note published in Ger- 
many expresses pleasure with the sentiment of 
France for a cordial understanding between the 
two nations. 

July 9.-~The French Government deprecates 
the sensational comment of certain French news- 
papers regarding the American- Japanese situa- 
tion. 

July 10. — The authorities of the Congo Free 
State request the immediate opening of nego- 
tiations with Belgium for annexation It is 

announced that Russia and China have reached 
An agreement on the customs in northern Man- 
•:huria. 

July 12. — The economic war between Greece 





BUJNZE MEDALLION BY KARL BITTER PRESENTED TO MR. ROB- 
ERT C. OCDEN, OF NEW YORK, ON HIS SEVENTIETH BIRTH- 
DAY BY PARTICIPANTS IN CONFERENCES FOR EDUCATION IN 
THE SOUTH. 



BISHOP THOMAS BOWMAN. 

(The senior Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church celobratod his ninetieth birthday on July 15.) 



and Roumania having ended, 
it is announced that diplomatic 
relations will be resumed.... 
It is announced by President 
Roosevelt, after entertaining 
Admiral Yamamato and Am- 
bassador Aoki, that a thor- 
ough understanding and cor- 
dial friendship exist between 
the United States and Japan. 

July 13. — A statue of Gari- 
baldi, given by Italy, is un- 
veiled in Paris. 

July 14. — It is announced at 
Washington that the United 
States has established a Far 
Eastern Bureau of the State 
Department, to have charge 
of all correspondence and pre- 
liminary treaty negotiations 
with the Oriental governments. 

July 15. — The foreign min- 
isters of Italy and Austria 
meet at Besio, Lombardi, and 
announce that they are in en- 
tire accord. 

July 16. — Preparations are 
completed for a meeting of the 
Russian and German emperors 
in Finnish waters. 

July 17. — President Roose- 
velt receives General Morteza 
Khan» special ambassador 
from Persia, who formally an- 



158 



THE AMERICAN REl^/EIV OF RE^IEIVS. 




THE LATE SIR WILLIAM PERKIN." 
( Discoverer of aniline dyes.) 

nounces the accession of the new Shah to the 
throne. 

THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT THE HAGUE. 

June 20. — It is officially announced at The 
Hague that the reservation of the right of the 
United States to bring up the question of lim- 
itation of armaments does not necessarily mean 
that the question will be raised. 

June 22. — The first and second committees of 
the conference meet and divide into sub-com- 
mittees ; several proposals regulating rules of 
warfare and one providing for tlie consideration 
of the Drago doctrine are introduced. 

June 24. — The first and fourth committees of 
'the conference meet and Delegate Choate of the 
United States introduces in the latter committee 
a motion regarding private property at sea. 

June 25. — The conference discusses the Brit- 
ish and German proposals for a high interna- 
tional prize court. 

June 26.— The British delegates make propo- 
sals to abolish contraband of war. .. .General 
Porter introduces a proposal restricting the 
rights of a belligerent in regard to bombard- 
ment of unfortified towns. 

June 28.— Delegate Choate, of the United 
States, urges the exemption of all private prop- 
erty, except contraband, at sea; this view is 
opposed by M. Nelidoff, of Russia. 

July I. —Queen Wilhelmina. of Holland, re- 
ceives the chiefs of delegations to the confer- 
ence. 

July 2.— The Japanese delegates introduce 
five proposals covering the rights of belligerent 
warships in neutral ports. 



July 3. — Further proposals to modify the con- 
duct of war are introduced at the conference. 

July 4. — A petition signed by over two mil- 
lion Americans and favoring a general arbitra- 
tion treaty is presented. 

July 5. — The American proposal for the invio- 
lability of private property at sea is discussed 
by the committee on the Geneva Convention: 
Great Britain, Germany, and Russia oppose the 
plan. 

July 8. — The American delegation introduces 
a proposal regarding an arbitration court on 
the line^ of the United States Supreme Court 

July 10. — Count Tomielli introduces a pro- 
posal regarding the bombardments of unforti- 
fied towns which embodies the views of all the 
countries interested in the question. 

July 16. — General Horace Porter speaks in 
support of the American proposal for a modi- 
fied Drago doctrine before a sub-committee of 
the conference. 

July 17. — Twenty delegates at a committee 
meeting vote in favor of the American principle 
regarding the inviolability of private property 
at sea ; eleven oppose the proposal. 

July 18. — Delegate Choate states the reasons 
that have led the United States to favor a gen- 
eral arbitration treaty, and Dr. Drago supports 
his doctrine in its original form. 

July 19. — General Porter speaks in opposi- 
tion to a British motion regarding the capture 
of vessels furnishing supplies to belligerents. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OP THE MONTH. 

June 20. — Five men are killed in an automo- 
bile accident about 100 miles from Naples, Italy 

The new Catskill water-supply system for 

New York City, to cost $161,000,000 and to add 
600,000,000 daily gallons to the city's supply, is 
formally inaugurated. 

June 21. — All the native opium dens in Shang- 
hai are closeu by an imperial edict.... The 
State clo.ses its case in the trial of William D. 
Haywood, at Boise, Idaho, for the assassina- 
tion of ex-Governor Steunenburg. 

June 22. — The Consolidated Copper Company, 
of New York, is chartered in Delaware with a 
capital of $50,000,000. 

June 24. — The Pacific Steam Navigation 
Company's coasting steamer Santiago is 
wrecked on the Chilean coast north of Corral ; 
about ninety persons are drowned. 

June 26. — The University of Oxford, Eng- 
land, confers degrees on Ambassador Reid and 

Mark Twain (see page 167) Richard Cro- 

ker's Orby wins the Irish Derby. 

June 27. — King Edward lays . the foiindaticm 
stone of the new extension to the British Mu- 
seum. 

June 28. — It is announced that a great com- 
bination of iron and steel manufacturers is be- 
ii^g formed in Great Britain to fight American 
and German competition to control the world's 
trade. 

June 29.— Contracts are awarded for two 
American 20,000-ton battleships. 

July I.— The corporation of Dublin, by a vote 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



159 



of 28 to 1.3. decides to confer the freedom of the 
city on Richard Crokcr. 

July 2. — Cotton prices advance to the highest 
point since 1876. 

July 4. — Governor Hughes, of New York, and 
President Woodrow Wilson, of Princeton 
University, are speakers at the exercises in 
honor of the signers of the Declaration of In- 
dependence at the Jamestown Exposition. 

July 6. — John D. Rockefeller is a witness in 
the Standard Oil hearing before Judge Landis 
in Chicago. 

July 10. — A legal fight is begun by the United 
States Government against the Tobacco Trust. 

July 15. — An explosion of powder in a turret 
of the United States battleship Georgia while 
at target practice in Massachusetts Bay causes 
the death of ten men and the injury of maT\y 
others. 

July 18. — Three thousand persons are pros- 
trated by the heat during a parade of the Be- 
nevolent and Protective Order of Elks, at Phil- 
adelphia. 

OBITUARY. 

June 21. — Isidor Wormser, a well-known 
New York banker, yy. 

June 22. — Ex-United States Senator Lucien 

Baker, of Kansas, 61 William Findlay 

Shunk, the engineer who supervised the con- 
struction of the New York City elevated rail- 
roads, yy. 

June 23. — Rev. Norman Fox, D.D., ex-Mayor 
of Morristown, N. J. 

June 24. — Joseph Knight, the editor of Notes 
and Queries, London, 78. 

June 25. — Sir John Hall, ex-Premier of New 
Zealand, 82. 

June 27. — Mrs. Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz, 
widow of the famous Harvard professor of 
zoology. Louis Agassiz, 85 Dr. Frank Hor- 
ace Getchell, a well-known Philadelphia physi- 
cian, y2, 

June 28. — Count Peter Heyden, the Russian 
political leader, 71. 

June 30. — General Lono, Spanish Minister of 
War Francis Murphy, the temperance lec- 
turer, 71. 

July I. — Count Constantino Nigra, dean of 

Italian diplomats. 80 Nehemiah G. Ordway. 

for five years Governor of the Territory of 
Dakota, 79. 

July 2. — Hiram J. Ayres, inventor of giant 

powder. 84 Col. Mason Whiting Tyler, a 

veteran of the Civil War, 67. 

July 3. — Rear- Admiral Norman von Hel- 

breich Farquhar, retired, 67 Louis Magee, 

an electrical engineer and authority on the con- 
struction and operation of electric street rail- 
ways. 45. 

July 4 — Prof. Ernst Kuno Fischer, of Heidel- 
borg. Germany, 83.... Dr. Richard Henry Der- 
by, a New York physician of high standing, 63 
— Francis B. Thurber, one of the organizers 
of the New York Board of Trade and Trans- 
portation, 65. 

Jnly 5. — ^Judge Charles Swayne, of the United 



States Court for the Northern District of Flor- 
ida, 65 Ex-United States Senator J. G. Mc- 

Makcn, of Ohio, 61. 

July 6. — Rev. Elijah Ramsay Donehoo, prom- 
inent in Chinese mission work, 68. 

July 8. — Dr. Elseus Sophus Bugge, the Nor- 
wegian philologist, y2 Sir Spencer Walpole, 

K.C.B.. the English writer, 68. ...Dr. Wil- 
liam E. LeGrange Ralph, an authority on 

American birds Prof. James McGranahan, a 

well-known hymn-writer. 67. 




THE LATE ANGELO HEIV-PRIN. 
(NaturaliRt, paleontologirt, traveler, and explorer.) 

July 10. — Rev. William Kirkus, a retired 

Protestant Episcopal clergyman, yy Prof. 

Louis E. Ahlers, of Colorado College, 42 

Sir William Henry Broadbent, physician in or- 
dinary to the King and Prince of Wales, 72. 

July II. — The thirteenth Baron Arundel of 
Wardour, y^. 

July 14. — Sir William Henry Perkin, the dis- 
coverer of the first aniline color, 69. ...Ex- 
State Senator Henry J. Coggeshall, of Oneida 
County, N. Y., 62. 

July 15. — Ex-Congressman John H. O'Neal, 
of Indiana, 69. 

July 16. — Theohold Chartran, the French 
painter, 58. ...Eugene Rene Poubelle. formerly 
French ambassador to the Vatican, 76. 

July 17. — Angelo Heilprin, the geographer 
and explorer, 54. .. .Admiral John Pearse Mac- 
lear, of the British navy, retired, 69. 

July 18. — Hector Henri Malot, the French 
novelist, yy. 

July 19. — Churchill J. White, a pioneer bank- 
er of Kansas City, 82. 



CARTOONS OF THE MONTH. 




" HAVE A LOOK I HAVE A I.OOX I " 

From the Plain Dealer (Cleveland). 




THAT IXTKRVIKW AS IT WASN'T. 

ADMIRAL YAMAMoro: ••(;ood morninp. Mr. PresI- Admiral Yama.moto: "We are going to have a 

dent. We are going to have a war - " ^'«T°^ ^">' ^^^ ;J«-^- 

pRKsinrvT Roosevelt: "Oh, yea, yea! I think 
pKta^iDKNT UnosKVKLT : ** Whttt's that?" ^vo arr." 

From the Tribune (Minneapolis). 







V 





THE IN'TERNATIONAI. PEST. 

The Mikawj: "There's the only * j'ellow peril' 
that yon or I have to fear ! " 

From the Xeirs (Baltimore). 



YOr'HE SAFE FROM THAT CAT, LITTLE BIRD! 

From the (ilohelteuiorrat (St. Louis i. 



WAft*. 1 

WARV 




NEWS TO THEM. 

The (^hecker Players: "What's all the row 
about? " 

From the Journal (Minneapolis). 



•• MADE IN JAPAN." 

From the Prcsa (Philadelphia). 




THE JAP AND JONATHAN. 

I*UrE: *• Please have some sense of decency I You 
«i|it at least wait till the Peace Conference Is 

From Paafitino (Turin). 




l^NPLF Sam: "I didn't nsk anybody to look: 
From the Ohio State Journal (Columbus). 



^ 162 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REV/EiVS^ 




Kidin the Ohio State Journal (Columbus). 




■ r.VTlKNrK. Mill MAN. Till. I t.KF TIIF. BOX OPEN.' 

From the Hrrald (New York). 



CARTOONS OF THE MONIH. 



163 




THK I'RFSIDKNTIAL rAM>ll»ATES A1(E " WAHMINO IT.*' 

From rho Intvr Ormn (Chlrago). 







.^-^^^^^^'^ 






L 




" STixr. ! " 
(Sti^iri<t«Hi by Colont'l Watterson's recent uttera.ices 
00 the subject of Presidential candidate's.) 
From the Journal (Detroit). 



DII, YKS. BUVA.N IS WILLING. 

Mother, may T go in to swim? 

Yes. my darling daughter: 
Hang your clothes on a hickory limb, 

But don't go near the water. 

From the Journal (Minneapolis). 



.tA4 



THE AMERICAN REyiEiV OF REyiElVS. 





IS THIS WHERE MR. HABDIMAN STANDS? 

From the IVorW (Now York). 



*' WHOA I •• 

(Apropos of tbe President's order reserving the 
public timlwr and coal lands.) 

From the Record Herald (Chicago). 




THE DELUGE. 

From the Post (Cincinnati). 



CARTOONS OF THE MONTH. 



165 




THK «1>N?ifErTlt'rT YANKKK IN KIXO EDWAUP'S rol'RT. 



KINO FULL ON DEUCES. 

i\X would !»♦• VIT.V approprlnte for King ICdward to (Apropos of Mark Twalus recent enthusiastic ro 
make Mark Twain a Knight of the Hath.) eeptlon In England.) 

From the Journal (Minneapolis). Prom th«' PUmtei' Press (St. Paul). 




CONBTITITTIONAL GOVERNMENT IN RUSSIA. 

From the World (New York). 




MR. SAMUFI I . CUWKNS (MARK l^'MHi AT SEVENTY-TWO. 



MARK TWAIN, DOCTOR OF LETTERS. 

BY SAMUEL E. MOFFETT. 



^LONG with the splcndiii and touching 
ivclcamc j^jvcn to Mark Twain on his 
ktist, and perhaps his Irtst, \uyage to Eng- 
land, a JCAV captioviis voices urre heard sug- 
k^t^tirtg that it was perhaps a little beneath 
the dignity ni Oxford to bcstoiv her honors 
upon a mere iun-niaker. It happened 
that Mr, Clemens had nut needed to 
uaJt for Oxford to make him a doctor, — 
^ air h»d attended to that six years earlier, 
and her example had been ttd lowed by the 
Univrr^ity ot Missouri. Hut when the cita- 
del nf ac^ile*mk u>nst^rvarisim in England 
(opened (t> ^Mes, the worshipers of the con- 
^enttuna! m literature hail to sic up and take 

An UunoTATy degree usual I v has little re- 
l^mn with the special attainments of the 
recipient. It mrans merely tliat he has done 
^unnethin^ that has hnuii^ht him into note. 
Me may h;ive been elected t]^j\ernor of Mas- 
.jchuwtts, or have brrjken the Arctic records, 
i>r have invented a dfri^'ihlr k«tloon. But a 
d<Kiorrate of letters for Mark Twain is not 
rtierely h«nnrary» bur in the strictest sense 
'-.irned, A doctar*s dei:ree acquired in course 
implici aiHrjtif fr>ur years' wurk in a prepara- 
tory school, four more in Li allege, and two 
i»T ihtec" ye:ir* cif p<istj:raLluate special study, 
tt^Ti m eleven years' u(^rk in all. Mark 
f wain' has been en^ajzed in literary special- 
ization for over forty years, uith a number 
N? )Tar* of preliminary work before that. 
Hk prep;irjitnry schoul was the country 
rnntinii office, and his ciJlege the city 
Me\%*paprr, from which he was graduated, 
>uptma turn iaudc, forty years ap;o. At thir- 
fefn he was breathing the scervt of printers' 
ink Wiien he weiu Kast. at seventeen, 
" U%t \n a<hnire " the w orhl. 'Supporting him- 
<lf by *' subbing '' on New Vork and Phila- 
i^'-lphm papers, he spent his spare time in 
rffe pit b tic libra ries* Tlie library is the real 
univenity of literature. Some kinds of 
inirnine can be pumped into n student by a 
*kfllM in-itniccor, bvit uohrxlv can gain a 
^11 md an appreciatii>n of literature 

bv' listening to lectures, by cramming for ex- 
aminations, or \n any other way than by 
cultivatins: a prolonged and loving personal . 
intiraaa* with books. 



In Nevada and California, when Mark 
Twain was making a reputation as " the 
wild humorist of the Pacific Slope," this in- 
timacy had already been carried to consid- 
erable lengths. ** The Innocents Abroad," 
with whose publication his collegiate work 
may be said to have ended and his post- 
graduate work to have begijn, affords a fair 
measure of the extent of his literary educa- 
tion at that time. There are some consid- 
erable gaps, notably on the side of art, but 
there are allusions throughout which make 
it clear that " the wild humorist " was not 
the unlettered innocent he allowed his Fer- 
gusons to think him. From this time his 
cultural progress was rapid. He explored 
English literature, not only \n its trodden 
highways, but in its half-blazed trail. His 
catholic taste ranged from the medieval 
chroniclers to the modern novelists, but al- 
ways he sought to reach the heart of each 
age through the writers who were nearest 
to it. He loved the unconscious revelations 
of Pepys, and he steeped his mind in Shake- 
speare, the interpreter of every time. He 
wrestled valorously with the writhing sinu- 
osities of the German language, and if he 
did not get the monster completely tamed 
he had it pretty fairly cowed. He made 
the acquaintance of French, and to some ex- , 
tent of Italian, and those fields of Conti- 
nental literature which he could not enter by 
way of the original tongues he inspected 
through translations. And all this time he 
was steadily producing literature of his own, 
-—literature that the Brahminical world of 
the universities no longer pretends to 
ignore. 

At no time, not even when the exuberance 
of youth and the recklessness of mining-camp 
life were combining to give him the reputa- 
tion of an untamed wag, was Mark Twain 
ever a mere joker. As he has lately said in 
his autobiography, his temperament has al- 
ways been inwardly serious. As a boy, with 
his " Tom Sawyer " days hardly over, this 
seriousness cropped out in his family letters, 
full of staid reflections and carefully thought- 
out plans of work. His humor seems to 
have been something apart from himself, — 
almost like the emanation of a second per- 



168 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REI^IEIVS, 



sonality. It bubbled out in quaint, irresisti- 
ble phrases, without will on his part, and 
without efiFort. It made it impossible for him 
to write a commonplace letter. But all 
this was merely the froth of his deeper 
thought. The humorist who has nothing 
but froth dies when the bubbles burst, and 
those readers, a generation ago, who could 
see nothing of Mark Twain*s work but the 
foam, thought that he would disappear, like 
the crowd of newspaper jokers of the day. 
The fact that he has not disappeared, but 
has filled a steadily growing place in litera- 
ture for forty years, ought to make it plain 
that " humorist " is a very inadequate label 
for him. No humorist has ever won perma- 
nent fame by virtue of his humor alone. 
The jokes of Aristophanes were excruciating- 
ly funny in their day, but if our appreciation 
of this old Attic comedy depended on its 
power to keep us laughing now, the shelves 
whereon it reposes would be even dustier 
than they are. Mark Twain holds his place 
because he has thought, deeply and seriously, 
about mankind and its needs. This thought 
has been colored, of course, by his own situ- 
ation and experiences. Once, when he was 
young, and the prizes of life were fresh and 
sweet, and the road from success to success 
stretched invitingly ahead, and the Great 
Divide seemed a long way off, his feelings 
were optimistic. He looked on the bright 
side of everything. If everything was not 
for the best in the best of all possible worlds, 
things were at least doing very well, and 
this was a pretty good world. Later, when 
bereavements came, and disappointments, 
and the rough edges of life intruded where 
their touch seemed a profanation, and fame 
seemed to have less enchantment in the pos- 
sessing than had glowed about it in the 
winning, and the snow fell upon the hair 
of friends, and life offered little more to 
look forward to, his thoughts became more 
somber. But the character of his philosophy 
has never changed. From the first to the 
last he has fought the good fight. Whether 
he has fought in the buoyant certainty of 
victory or in the resigned expectation of de- 
feat, he has always been on the same side. 



He has always tried to lighten the world's 
ills, to abolish injustices, and to help the vic- 
tims of oppression, whether the oppressor 
be an American boss, a Russian Czar or a 
Belgian rubber-trading King. Nobody ever 
needs to ask where he stands. It is enough 
to know that a wrong has been committed 
to know that he is against it. The sufferer 
may be an American negro, an Indian, a 




MR. Prxril'S TRIBUTR TO " A MA8TRR OF HIS ART." 

" Sir. I honor myself by drinking your health. 
LonK life to you — and happiness — and perpetual 
youth I •• 

From Punch (London), June 26, 1907. 

Chinaman, a Filipino, or a Congo savage, — 
he will find a defertder in Mark Twain. 
And with all that there is charity for the 
oppressor, too, unless he has sinned against 
the light. The sympathy with the slave in 
" Huckleberry Finn " was no more perfect 
than the sympathy with the slave-holder who 
suffered from the same system. That is why 
the world is learning to call Mark Twain 
something more than " humorist." 



CHARLES S. MELLEN: RAILROAD ORGANIZER. 



BY GEORGE W. BATSON. 

(Of The Wall Street Journal, New York.) 



AN incident that was destined to have a 
revolutionary effect on the transporta- 
tion lines of New England took place in Con- 
cord, N. H., one summer's day in 1869. 
Charles S. Mellen, a youth of eighteen, fresh 
from high school, was contemplating whether 
it would be Harvard or Dartmouth. He 
happened to meet a friend who had just been 
appointed cashier of the Northern New 
Hampshire Railroad. This cashier offered 
young Mellen a job. And, as luck would 
have it, he dem'ed himself the Harvard or 
Dartmouth which most young men of that 
day envied, and accepted a clerkship in the 
new cashier's office at $25 a month. 

TTiirty-eight years almost to a day are 
passed. To-day the same Mellen is arbiter 
of the transportation destinies of New Eng- 
land. His appears to be a colossal mission. 
It is not merely to unify and harmonize the 
transportation lines of New England and to 
develop their traffic-producing ix)ssibilifles ; 
but, having already raised them out of a 
position of subserviency, to establish them in 
a position of equality among the railroads 
of the country. 

IN THE NORTHERN PACIFIC. 

James J. Hill, the greatest railroad builder 
who has ever lived, and the foremost railway 
economist of the age, was the master-mind of 
the Great Northern Railway, which prac- 
tically parallels the Northern Pacific from 
St. Paul to Puget Sound. A dominant in- 
terest in the Northern Pacific was acquired 
in the middle /go's by Mr. Hill and J. P. 
Morgan. The Hill-Morgan people sought 
to make the Great Northern and Northern 
Padfic friends instead of foes. At that time 
Mr. Morgan was the foremost figure in the 
finandal world. He knew and thought 
Highly of C. S. Mellen. It was not un- 
natural, therefore, that Morgan should have 
selected Mellen for the presidency of the 
Northern Pacific. He was a man of nearly 
thirty years* experience in the railroad field. 
He knew the transcontinental situation well. 

AN EYE TO BUSINESS. 

Now, Mellen had his own conception of 
what the duties of a railroad president were. 



Regardless of the Great Northern, he pro- 
posed to make the Northern Pacific jump 
from the start. He began to look for busi- 
ness and he found it. For illustration: 
James J. Hill was the close friend of Marcus 
Daly, the Copper King. Daly controlled the 
great Anaconda mine of Butte. The Ana- 
conda smelter was over in Anaconda. The 
enormous business controlled by the great 
Daly properties went, of course, to their 
friend, J. J. Hill, and his Great Northern 
road. Mellen decided to get some of this 
business. It was a prize worth going for. 
The Union Pacific and Northern Pacific 
jointly owned the Stewart road from Butte 
to Anaconda. Mellen bought out the Union 
Pacific's interest in the Montana Union Rail- 
way, which controlled this Stewart branch. 
Nobody knew why. Most of the business 
between Butte and Anaconda was con- 
trolled by Marcus Daly and went to his own 
road, the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific. Daly 
hated the Northern Pacific. In his estima- 
tion nothing was too bad to say about it. 
One day Mellen went to Daly and offered 
to lease him this Stewart line between Butte 
and Anaconda. He pointed out that the ac- 
quisition of this would give Daly complete 
control of transportation between Butte and 
Anaconda. Daly was much surprised at the 
offer, but quickly said yes. Nobody saw 
where Mellen gained anything; but the fact 
was that Daly wanted that road. He began 
to think pretty well of Mellen. Possibly the 
Northern Pacific, after all, was not such a 
bad road. Progress was being made. 

THE NORTHERN PACIFIC BEGINS TO JUMP. 

Daly had a 40,000-acre place and race- 
track up in Hamilton, Mont. A fine hotel 
was there, the Ravalli, a favorite amuse- 
ment place for Montana people. The train 
service between Hamiltorf and Butte was 
poor. One day Mellen ordered a new train 
service between these points. He had the 
cars painted green and on the side of each, 
in great copper-colored letters, the words 
" Copper City Limited." They were Mar- 
cus Daly's racing colors. The old man was 
greatly pleased. Mellen became a prince of 
good fellows. It was not long before the 



170 



THE AMERICAN REf^/ElV OF REf^/ElVS. 



enormous business of the Anaconda became 
diverted from the Great Northern to the 
Northern Pacific. J. j. Hill was furious. 
He had not reckoned on this. Thenceforth 
it became a battle royal between Hill and 
Mellen. Mellen's eternal propensity for 
fixing up his connections began at once. He 
plunged right in and began to look for busi- 
ness on every side. He bought roads right 
and left. He bought the Seattle & Inter- 
national, running from Seattle to British Co- 
lumbia, and the Spokane Falls & Northern, 
both largely in Great Northern territory. 
Hill called it an unfriendly act. He did not 
figure on this sort of thing. Moreover, the 
Northern Pacific began to grow at a terrific 
rate. 

HE LEAV^ES THE NORTHERN PACIFIC. 

The Hill influence in the Norfhern Pa- 
cific, however, was increased. The Northern 
Securities Company was formed to hold the 
Burlington, Northern Pacific, and Great 
Northern. Hill was made president of the 
whole. Mellen's days as president of the 
Northern Pacific were numbered. In fact, 
he would have gone to the New Haven in 
1900, when Charies P. Clark resigned, but 
C. H. Coster, the most brilliant lieutenant J. 
P. Morgan ever had, and one of the ablest 
men that ever appeared in Wall Street, said : 
" No. The Northern Paci^c is growing too 
fast under the Mellen spur. The New- 
Haven cannot have him." 

The Northern Pacific situation, however, 
finally became intolerable to Mellen. He 
must have seen that he had no future there. 
Mr. Hill was to rule the Northwest. Some 
men who had Mr. Hill's ear were not over- 
fond of Mellen. He resigned the presi- 
dency. Under his rule the Northern Pacific 
expanded as few roads have expanded before 
or since, — but to just what extent these 
figures will give an idea : 

NORTirKltN PACinO EARNINGS. 

Percent. 
1903. •1897. Increase. 

Gross $46,142,105 $17,929,000 ir»0 

Net 22,110,011 6.734,000 228 

• Estimated. 

"l MUST GET MELLEN OR HE WILL GET ME.*' 

In 1892, when Mellen was general man- 
ager of the New England Railroad, he per- 
formed his duties in his usual aggressive man- 
ner. Charles P. Clark, president of the New 
Haven, began to get scared. He liked not 
such activity in his environment. A friend 
of Mr. Clark tells me that President Clark 



said to him one day: "It's no use. If I 
don't get Mellen he will. get mc! " It was 
not long before Mellen was made second 
vice-president of the New Haven road. The 
years rolled on. Charles P. Clark resigned. 
Immediately after Mellen's resignation froni 
the Northern Pacific he. was mande president 
of the New Haven. The New England in 
which he was born and in which he received 
much of his railroad training seemed to have 
an irresistible call upon his services. 

When Mellen took the presidcnc>' of the 
New Haven road in the fall of 1903 he 
tackled the hardest proposition in his career. 
At that time it was in a state of quasi- 
demoralization. Its operating account had 
reached enormous figures. Few men knew 
how weak its position really was. There 
was great discontent among its employees. 
It was known as the most hated transporta- 
tion monopoly in the United States. Fur- 
thermore, one by one the railroads of New 
England had fast been slipping from New 
England's hands. The Boston & Albany 
had gone to the New York Central and the 
Vanderbilts had acquired a strong voice in 
the Boston & Maine. The shadow of the 
mighty Pennsylvania, under the able adminis 
tration of Alexander J. Cassatt, was fast en- 
veloping the New Haven. Mr. Cassatt wa^ 
elected to the New Haven directorate. His 
road had acquired 20,0CX) shares of New 
Haven stock. People said that the days of 
the New Haven as an independent road were 
numbered. 

CHANGING A RAILROAD MAP. 

But a man of dogged determination and 
great e.xperience in the railroad field had 
taken command. He threw off his coat and 
went to work. Less than four years have 
passed. In that short time the shadow of the 
might>' Pennsylvania has faded int© the dis- 
tance. The Vanderbilts have relinquished 
their grasp on the Boston & Maine. The 
Boston & Albany bids fair again to become a 
New England road. One by one the out- 
siders have been pushed back. In this brief 
period the change in the railroad map of 
New England has been complete! 

The decadent New Haven' of four years 
ago, which operated but 2000 miles of rail 
lines and earned about $50,000,000 gross 
and a surplus of $4,600,000 a year, t^ay 
absolutely dominates 6600 miles of rail lines 
in New England and its vicinity, and hun- 
dreds of miles of water routes b«ides. It Is 
earning something like $150,000,000 gross 




PRESIDENT CHARLES S. MELLEN, OF THE NEW HAVE^ 




Ihe New Vork & New England Railroad, but wa^; ^oon made sc 
Kew York. New Haven St Hartford. He re^fincd that posiriori 
mt of iHe Northern PacifiCp but in igoj returned to ihr Mew HaviMi 



?mcifk 4T»ttf« a^ Rt^neral purchasing agent, the ne?vt year becoming gi-nc 
itWh iJmition bc^jjelcl Jor^ four^years.^ U*".,^^^" retiirnt^d to New Englai 



172 



THE AMERICAN RE^/EIV OF REyiElVS. 



per annum. Its net income approximates 
$35»ooo,ooo a year. Figures have been 
trebled. 

The New Haven's sphere of influence has 
been stretched from New York to Eastport, 
Maine, and Vanceboro on the American- 
Canadian line. It has been extended from 
Boston up into Quebec and over to Oswego 
on the Great Lakes and into the coal fields of 
Pennsylvania. Its marine lines now traverse 
the waters of the Atlantic seaboard from 
Maine to Florida. In a word, the transpor- 
tation lines of New England, under Mellen 
rule, have been raised from a position of 
subserviency, that was fast becoming more 
subservient four years ago, to apposition of 
power and equality amongst the railroad 
systems of the United States. 

The methods by which the transformation 
has been made are simple. Hard work has 
been the biggest factor. Mellen has made no 
spectacular plays in the financial markets of 
the world. He has not made three bonds 
grow where one grew before. In fact, his 
policy is to make $ioo oi stock grow where 
$200 of bonds grew before. 

MeUeh at one time was auditor of the 
Boston & Lowell Railroad. Unexpectedly 
one day he was appointed superintendent. 
The two positions are no more alike than 
cherries and cheese. Mellen had never been 
in the operating department of a railroad. 
But what did he do? A fellow worker of 
that day tells me that Mellen took the mar- 
ket-man's train every morning at 4 o'clock 
for his Boston office. He would go out into 
the yard and talk with the switchman for an 
hour. He would ride in the baggage cars 
to get the views of the trainmen. He would 
return home on the 1 1 o'clock train at night. 
Month after month he tl^jus put in from 
eighteen to twenty hours out of twenty-four. 
He worked as few men have worked. It 
was not long before he knew something 
about running a railroad. 

FACING THE ANTHRACITE COMBINATION. 

Mellen's daring knows no limits. Per- 
haps his purchase of New York, Ontario & 
Western was the most daring coup he has 
ever made. The true story of this coup has 
never been told. It illustrates how in one 
department a position of great weakness in 
the New Haven has been turned to one of 
great strength. 

The anthracite coal roads charged a cer- 
tain price for coal delivered at the various 
New England gateways: Campbell Hall, 



Newburgh, Albany, and other points. The 
price of coal at all points was the same, ex- 
cept at Campbell Hall, where it was 20 cents 
less. The Campbell Hall route into Nen 
England is via the Central of New England 
Railroad and the Poughkeepsie Bridge, 
whose condition was such that it was likely 
to break down if more .than two or three cars 
went over it at one time. Mellen bought the 
Central of New England, which controlled 
this route, and strengthened the Poughkeep- 
sie Bridge. Quietly and without display, coal 
cars began to head for Campbell Hall. The 
coal business via this route soon reached very 
large proportions. The coal business via 
other points began to show a falling off. 
George F. Baer and others of the coal leaders 
awoke one morning with a terrible roar. 
" No wonder," said- they, " coal is going 
through Campbell Hall. It is 26 cents less 
via that route." It was only a matter of a 
few hours before the price of coal via that 
route was jacked up 20 cents a ton. It looked 
as though Mellen was shut off. Certainly he 
felt the weakness of his position in the face 
of the powerful anthracite combination. 

He thought of the Ontario & Western, 
which tapped the Scranton coal fields. He 
learned that Jacob H. Schiff, the able head 
of Kuhn, I^eb & Co., the greatest banking 
house in the world, had control of the On- 
tario locked up in his safe. Without con- 
sulting anybody, Mellen secured an option 
on this control. He went into conference 
with the anthracite leaders. '* Gentlemen, * 
said he, " give the New England roads a 
contract assuring them in the future the 
same proportion of through rates that they 
are receiving now and there will be no 
trouble. That is all we want. Our prosper- 
ity is in jeopardy so long as you can arbi- 
trarily change the division of through rates." 

But Mellen was president of a Podunk 
road. What right had he to ask this of the 
great anthracite combination? Surrender 
such a club over the New FIngland roads i:' 
They chuckled and said, "Never!" Wall 
Street heard the next morning that the New 
Haven had bought control of New York^ 
Ontario & Western. Mellen had exercised 
his option. George F. Baer and his great 
Reading raved ; the Lehigh Valley, Dela- 
ware & Hudson and the New York Central 
raved ; the whole anthracite combination 
raved. And their great financial affiliations 
in Wall Street raved. But all to no avail. 
I doubt if more than one or two of Mel- 
len's directors knew of this affair until It 



CHARLES S. MELLEN: RAILROAD ORGANIZER. 



173 



was ail over. In a day the New Haven was 
made chooser in this situation instead of 
beggar. The relation between the Ontario 
and the Eastern trunk lines to-day is like 
that of a knife poised over a hog*s ham, — 
push it and he squeals. 

KINDS OF RAILROAD PRESIDENTS. 

There are three kinds of railroad presi- 
dents, viz. : ( 1 ) Those who move and act, 
(2) those who sit and think, and (3) those 
who just sit. Happy it is for New England 
and the independence of her transportation 
lines that the man who now holds her 
traflSc destinies within his grasp cannot be 
classified under either of the latter two di- 
visions. 

Had Mellen remained quiescent while the 
aggressive Charles W. Morse was at work, a 
sorry plight the New Haven would be in to- 
day. Morse's ambition appears to have been 
to dominate the coastwise traffic of the At- 
lantic seaboard. New England is dependent 
to a high degree upon her water transporta- 
tion. Had Morse accomplished his ambi- 
tion he would probably have cleaved the 
Achilles heel of the New Haven transporta- 
tion system. But Mellen checkmated Morse 
at every point. Bilious critics criticised, but 
they did not know. Mellen would not per- 
mit Morse to put an iron fence around his 
Sound boats. Neither would he permit him 
to establish a monopoly of the coastwise 
traffic between Boston and New York. He 
has beaten Morse to a standstill. But in 
doing this he has been obliged to create a 
powerful commercial navy. 

BUYING TROLLEY LINES. 

Mellen early saw that the New Haven 
would have to interest itself in electric 
roads. He well knew that no other railroad 
had traffic conditions anything like those of 
the New Haven. About half its earnings 
arc derived from the transportation of pas- 
sengers. It hauls more passengers per mile 
of road than any railroad of importance in 
the United States. Mellen is an astute 
traffic manager. His idea was that electricity 
roust supplant steam as motive power for 
railroads and that the so-called street rail- 
ways would become supplementary to the 
trunk line railroads. It is an evidence of 
Mcllen*s foresight that it is daily becoming 
more evident that electricity will supplant 
steam as railroad motive power. Various 
roads are spending and have spent millions 
for this purpose already, and foremost 



amongst these is Mellen's New Haven. Un- 
der this trolley policy upward of 1400 miles 
of trolley road focated in Connecticut, Rhode 
Island, and Massachusetts liave been pur- 
chased by the New Haven road. 

These purchases have cost many millions 
of dollars, but there has been no attempt to 
juggle securities. In fact, wherever possible 
the wind and water have been squeezed out. 
The New Haven is asking of these properties 
merely enough income return to pay their 
cost price. All their surplus earnings, which 
are rapidly reaching large proportions and 
which would make an important item if 
distributed among the stockholders of the 
New Haven road, are being diverted back 
into these trolley properties for permanent 
improvements and betterments. This policy 
will not only give these securities an infin- 
itely higher value, but will give the people 
in the territory served a vastly improved 
service. As a result of this policy I am told 
by competent judges that the trolley invest- 
ments of the New Haven road have been so 
greatly improved, not only by the expendi- 
ture of surplus earnings, but by the inaugura- 
tion of economic methods of management, 
that they could be sold to-day for two and 
one-half times their cost to the New Haven 
road. 

WHEN FEAR RULED. 

Sixty years ago, when the New Haven 
was extended to Williamsbridge, New York, 
*' fear " rather than '* confidence " was the 
by-word of its management. Therefore, 
when the New Haven might have obtained 
on reasonable terms terminal grounds in 
Manhattan Island to any extent required 
for years to come, it elected instead to make 
a deal with the Vanderbilts* New York & 
Harlem road under which it could get to 
New York City over the Harlem tracks at a 
cost of so much per passenger mile. Thus 
for over half a century the New Haven road 
has been obliged to follow the vicissitudes of 
the Vanderbilt roads as regards New York 
City terminals. 

Owing to the expansion of the New 
Haven's sphere of influence and the general 
development of business the New Haven's 
passenger traffic has outgrown the Grand 
Central facilities. With the gradual unifi- 
cation of the transportation lines of New 
England it will become imperative for the 
New Haven to find its own terminals in 
New York. The management has not been 
asleep to this oncoming necessity. I am told 



174 



THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REI^/EiVS. 



that they have secured something like one 
and one-half miles of continuous water front 
along the Harlem River and that it is not 
unlikely that the future terminals of the New 
Haven system will be located here. Already 
the New Haven has made plans to strengthen 
its traffic facilities along the Harlem River. 
It is just finishing up twelve miles of six- 
track road. It will be one of the finest pieces 
of terminal road in the world. Two tracks 
w ill be exclusively for freight, two exclusive- 
ly for local passenger business and two ex- 
clusively for passenger express business! 

The New Haven is rapidly working to- 
ward a complete electrification of its main 
line between New York and Boston. Al- 
ready about $4,ocx>,ooo has been expended 
on the electrification of the four-track road 
between New York and Stamford, Conn., 
and it is expected that steam motive power 
between these points will be completely elim- 
inated. It is inevitable that this electrifica- 
tion will be continued over the four-track 
line between New York and New* Haven. 
The next step in the electrification of the 
New Haven will probably be taken at the 
Boston end, between Providence and Boston. 

M Ellen's problems. 

Mellen has been working toward one goal, 
— the unification of the railroads of New 
^ England. He has never had time until re- 
cently to give to the matter of the acquisi- 
tion of the Boston & Maine. He must have 
known that the control of this road would 
eventually pass to some other interest; and 
he therefore kept a weather eye on it. Last 
February he learned that the hour of the 
passing of the B. & M. was at hand. He 
knew it would be a staggering blow for the 
New Haven and his plans if somebody else 
got it. He acted quickly and secured an op- 
tion on the shares of the leading stockholders 
of the B. & iVI. To-day the New Haven 
directly owns nearly 40 per cent, and can 
influence the voting of 66 per cent, of the 
stock of the Boston & Maine Road. The 
complete merger of these lines will probably 
be consummated within a year or two. It is 
one of those acquisitions of a connecting line 
which President Roosevelt in his speech in 
Indianapolis on May 30 called desirable. 
The Interstate Commerce Commission in the 
Harriman report the other day said : " It is 
in the interest of the public to facilitate the 
consolidation of connecting lines." 

I have outlined the methods by which the 
new New Haven svstem has been created. 



Mellen delights in seeing his transportation 
lines in first-class shape. The New Haven 
proper has been practically rebuilt in the 
past four years. He has spent $i6o,ocx),ooo 
in this time for improvements, betterments, 
additions, and acquisitions. Mellen has con- 
siderable rounding out to do on his system. 
It is not unlikely that the Bangor & Aroosr 
took and the Boston & Albany will pass to 
his control. I should not be surprised if he 
were to step across the Hudson and acquire 
the Delaware & Hudson, one of the finest 
of the anthracite roads. That he can have it 
if he wants it there can be little question. 
But these matters will depend on the finan- 
cial and economic conditions prevailing dur- 
ing the next year or two. 

The real live problems before Mellen arc: 

( 1 ) To merge into one organization the 
rail lines under the New Haven's control, 
just as the New Haven and New England 
and Old Colony and others have already been 
merged. 

(2) Further to develop and supplement 
his trolley lines and to bring them under one 
smooth-running organization. 

(3) To modernize the railroads of Maine, 
New Hampshire, Vermont, and part of 
Massachusetts ; to develop the traffic possibil- 
ities of this territory as the territory of the 
New Haven has been developed; to reduce 
passenger and freight rates in this territory 
as the passenger and freight rates of the New 
Haven have been reduced ; and to give to all 
New England, as far as possible, a railroad 
service such as part of it now enjoys. 

(4) To strengthen that it may endure 
after he has gone that position of equality 
and independence for the railroads of New 
England which has been created by his labor. 

THEODORE ROOSEVELT'S FRIEND. 

These are problems which Mr. Mellen 
can solve. He is performing a great public 
service which is needed. That is why he 
must win. Moreover he does not work in 
the dark. He indeed knows the meaning of 
corporate publicity. President Roosevelt in 
his message to Congress in December, 1904, 
quoted several hundred words from a speech 
of Mellen then recently made to his em- 
ployees. " Words of sound common sense," 
said President Roosevelt. A few of the 
words so quoted were : 

To my mind, the day has gone by when a cor- 
poration can be handled successfully in defiance 
of the public will, even though that will be un- 
reasonable and wrong. A public may be led, 



CHARLES S. MELLEN. RAILROAD ORGANIZER. 



175 




176 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 



but not driven, and I prefer to go with it and 
shape or modify, in a measure, its opinion, 
rather than be swept from my bearings with loss 
to myself and the interests in my charge. 

Violent prejudice exists toward corporate ac- 
tivity and capital to-day, much of it founded in 
reason, more in apprehension, and a large meas- 
ure is due to the personal traits of arbitrary, un- 
reasonable, incompetent, and offensive men in 
positions of authority. 

If corporations are to continue to do the 
world's work, as they are best fitted to, those 
qualities in their representatives that have re- 
sulted in the present prejudice against them 
must be relegated to the background. They 
must come out into the open and see and be 
seen. They mu.st take the public into their con- 
fidence and ask for what they want, and no 
more, and be prepared to explain satisfactorily 
what advantage will accrue to the public if they 
are given their desires, for they are permitted to 
exist not that they may make money solely, but 
that they may effectively serve those from whom 
they derive their powers. 

Publicity, and not secrecy, will win hereafter, 
and laws be construed by their intent and not 
by their letters, otherwise public utilities will be 
owned and operated by the public which created 
them. 

Prophetic words these! And yet when 
they were uttered great financiers jeered 
them. To-day none is too great to do them 
reverence ! 

M ELLEN THE MAN. 

There is the Mcllen of business and the 
Mellen of friendship and home. If you 
would meet the Mellen of business, go to 
him in his office. If a stranger, you will 
think perhaps that you have found the North 
Pole; the man himself will appear so digni- 
fied and cold. Yet this coldness is analogous 
to the gruflfness of E. H. Harriman and the 
positive fierceness which is likely to meet the 
stranger ushered into the presence of J. P. 
Morgan. Like the gruffness and fierceness 
of these men, the coldness of Mcllen is noth- 
ing but a thin veneer clinging around a 
wealth of sentiment that can be found only 
in great men. 

But the Mellon of home and friendship, — 
you will find him an entirely different char- 
acter. I am told that if you will go to Stock- 
bridge, his summer home, you will stand a 
fair chance of finding him romping around 
the lawn in his shirt sleeves or kicking a foot- 
ball for the amusement of some of his five 
children. He is not a " society man " in the 
loose sense of that term, and as to his private 
character It has always been above reproach. 



President Mellen of the New Haven road 
is not a man of wealth, but he is as surely 
the ruler of his railway empire as is the rail- 
road magnate who rules by the proxies of 
himself and his little coterie of wealthy 
friends. And yet there is no doubt that by 
following certain codes of railway ethics he 
might have owned a railroad. 

The New Haven and the Boston & Maine 
together have about 22,000 shareholders. 
The New Haven itself has nearly 15,000 
shareholders and about 900,000 shares, or an 
average of sixty shares to each holder. There 
is no concentrated stock ownership in this 
property and it is ruled by no one or two or 
three financial groups. Yet with the regu- 
larity of clockwork the proxies go to the 
president's office with supreme confidence 
just as fast as voting time .comes around. 

The //W/ Sireet Journal recently said of 
Mellen: 

His enemies say that he is a much over-rated 
man. His closest friends say that he is the 
foremost railroad man of his time. Rut a man 
cannot be judged by his enemies or his friend^ 
The disinterested public will concede that he i^ 
a man of tremendous force and ability and 
ranks among the greatest railroad captains of 
the lime. 

The shining characteristics of this man 
who has achieved so much and achieved it so 
well are: Energy, aggressiveness, confidence 
and determination. It is a peculiar combi- 
nation. It was inevitable that this combina- 
tion should forni the club of a conqueror. He 
has the determination which becomes more 
determined when it is crossed and the energv 
that is stimulated by ceaseless labor. He has 
the aggressiveness which works best under 
opposition and the confidence which has 
never known defeat. 

Like that little coterie of men who early 
lighted the paths along which the develop- 
ment of our American transportation lines 
has proceeded, — James J. Hill, CoUis P. 
Huntingdon, Commodore Cornelius V^andcr- 
bilt, and Lord Strathcona, — the president of 
the New Haven has that personalit>' \^hich 
rules. 

Mr. Mellen is, comparatively speaking, still 
a young man, being but fifty-six years of age. 
In the normal course of events he should be 
good for at least another decade of activity. 
It is that very decade in the lives of great 
railroad captains in which they have accom- 
plished most. 




A FREIGHT TRAIN PULLING UP THE VALLEY OF THE RIO MENDOZA, ARGENTINA. 

RAILROADS AND RAILROAD BUILDING IN 
SOUTH AMERICA. 

BY LEWIS R. FREEMAN. 



y^LTHOUGH to the North-American 
exponents of that project there has 
seemed a discouraging lack of interest in the 
Pan-American Railway scheme on the part of 
South-American railroad men, there has real- 
ly been no cessation of the activity of the lat- 
ter in pushing development in their more 
immediate spheres. 

" Let us build the lines the country needs," 
they say; " and don't ask us to go out of our 
way to further a scheme which, however 
practicable from an engineering point of 
view, would not pay us dividends in this 
century, and, possibly, not in the next. We 
concede that we might benefit 'indirectly 
through the increased stability of government 
that would follow the building of an inter- 
continental line, but that benefit is too remote 
to interest us at a time when we have ample 
opportunity for expending all our available 
funds in the construction of lines that will 
yicld'rctums from the day they are opened." 
So it happens that, while there has never 
been so much activity in railway construction 
in South America as at the present moment, 
almost without exception the' new lines are 
following the parallels rSlther than the merid- 
ians, running east and \vc^ rather than north 
and south. Thus, ih' central and southern 
Chile three lines are already being built, and 
another is projected, to cut the Cordillera of 
the Andes, — as yet uncrossed by rails, — and 
connect with an equal number of lines from 
Buenos Ayres and Bahia Blanca that are 
Wng rapidly extended westward across the 
ptat Argentine pampa. 



In northern Chile and southern Peru two 
roads already completed into Bolivia, as well 
as one under construction, will become part 
of a transcontinental system when the Argen- 
tine Government line to Jujuy, now rapidly 
nearing the Bolivian town of Tupiza, is con- 
nected, 125 miles farther on, with the Chil- 
ean line from Antofogasta to La Paz. 

In central Peru the wonderful American- 
built Oroya railroad, running from Callao 
and Lima across the first range of the Andes 
to tlie rich valley from which it takes its 
name, is being pushed on through the second 
range to the upper waters of the Rio Ucayli, 
the deep southern branch of the Amazon, 
while, in northern Peru, the road from the 
port of Pacasmavo through the mountains to 
Cajamarca is in process of extension to the 
Rio Maranon, the principal western tribu- 
tary of the great Brazilian river. 

In Ecuador, the road from the river port 
of Guayaquil to Quito, the capital, is nearing 
completion, and surveys have already been 
made in view of its projected extension to the 
navigable waters of the Japura, still another 
tributary of the Amazon. From the north 
Ecuadorian port of Manta a road is also pro- 
jected to open up an extremely rich rubber, 
coffee, and cacao district in the near interior. 

Colombia, most backward of all the South- 
American countries in the matter of railroads, 
is estimating on a plan by which the short 
line running back from her western port of 
Buenaventura may be carried on through the 
mountains to Bogota, the consummation of 
which would make it possible to reach that 



178 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 




THE KAILROAU STATION AT PARAMARIBO. DUTCH GUIANA. 



coast for some distince 
in either direction from 
Georgetown, sees noth- 
ing ahead to warrant 
a further outlay of 
capital. In Dutch 
Guiana, a short freight 
line building back 
from Surinam is prac- 
tically at a standstill 
for lack of funds, and 
in French Guiana the 
scattered mining camps 
of the interior arc am- 
ply served by the river 
boats. 

Very little, indeed 
scarcely any, railway 
work is being done in 
the tropical part of 
Brazil, north of die 
Amazon. At Manaos, 
capital in a day or two by rail, instead of the a thousand miles up that river from its 
fortnight, more or less, at present necessary mouth, an American contractor, who v/as 
by the Magdalena River route. The con- prominent in building Sir William Van 
struction of such a line, while sure to be Horne*s Cuban railroad, has just landed the 
enormously expensive, is believed to be per- first of his construction gangs to conmiencc 
fcctly practicable. work on a short line to serve this most im- 

The northeastern coast of the continent, portant of the world's rubber districts. Some 
partly for political and partly for commercial work is also being done on branches and ev 
reasons, shows no sign of the activity in rail- tensions to the antiquated roads out of Per- 
\\i\y building so noticeable on the western nambuco and Bahia, and on the principal 
coast. In Venezuela, the balance-sheets of line of the country from Rio de Janeiro to 
the Knglish line from La Guayra to Caracas Sao Paulo. Both of these latter cities, how- 

shciws a lesser volume 

of business for the year 
i<K>(i than was the 
a\ cragr during the 
\Si>*s of the past ccn- 
tur>, when the line 
was in sharp aimpeti- 
tion with the old pack- 
tiains, while the Cier- 
n.an line, nuining west- 
watd fn^u Caracas to 
Wilonvia. has had its 
l\u\iiN too t\iU kccpinj: 
w l\at toad it has in rr- 
p.rt ttoni washouts atul 
l.\njN!hirN, to aM\sivicr 

t^O quest io!^ of !\CW' 

Ivif.vh iiulana is 
\:u\r.nc tSo liullnrvs ot 
t!\r tovt ot I tu:l.u)ii's 
V.\n hMv.'^o |v%WM"NNjonSx 

,usi XM" \y<^\\\C\A\:\ \\m\- <^V•.^^\ OV THF >*0 TWIO RAIUtOAD AT SAO PAULO. BRAZIL. 

\N\ui, jM\,Uicl\n>i \\\t ^ vho nn.-*i M*t)vW vw ib^ <\wtin<^t, ^MatUallj si mated, factnff a park.) 




RAILROADS AND RAILROAD BUILDING IN SOUTH AMERICA. 179 




A BRAZILIAN RAILROAD YARD ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF RIO DE JANEIRO. 



ever, have suffered heavily from the low 
price of coffee, and there is little money avail- 
able for any class of development. 

In temperate Brazil, in the rich and pros- 
perous states of Santa Catherina and Rio 
Grande do Sul, it is probable that the re- 
quirements of the large and industrious Ger- 
man population will necessitate a steady ex- 
tension of the several lines now building. It 
is one of these lines that will form the east- 
em section of what will be, for the presenr 
century at least, the most northern of the 
South-American transcontinental railroads. 

According to the present plans, a road 
starting either from Santos, the great coffee- 
shipping port, or Paranagua, on the bay of 
that name, will be run across the southern 
Panhandle of Brazil into Paraguay, connect- 
ing at Villa Rica with the line to Asuncion. 
From here the road will be run along the 
^km flats of the Rio Pilcomayo to the Bo- 
livian tov^n of Tarija, a distance of 500 
miles, in almost a straight line. From 
TaHja one branch will run west to connect 
vkiih the Argentine line at Tupiza, while 
another will \\Hnd northwest across the table- 
knds to La Pa^. This line will be of great 
\m^l to Bolivia in giving her an outlet to 
thel^tlannc. 

In spite of unsettled political conditions In 
Umguay, railroad work is going on in ever>' 
qnrter of that marvelously fertile little 
csofitry, most of the roads, old and new, 
being owned or controlled by the ably man- 
aged Central Uruguay. Lines are In opera- 
tioo to Colonia, opposite Buenos Ayres on 



the Plate; to the Rio Uruguay, on the Ar- 
gentine or western boundary; to and across 
the northern boundary into Brazil; and to 
points on the Atlantic coast. Most of the 
new construction is taking the form of feeders 
to these main lines. 

ARGEXT1NA*S UP-TO-DATE TRANSPORTATION 
SYSTEM. 

To outline any but the most salient fea- 
tures of recent construction in Argentina 
would be impossible in this brief article. The 
total capitalization of the railroads of that 
country foots up to nearly $750,000,000. 
There are something like 15,000 miles of 
line in operation, over which were carried, in 
the year 1906, 30,000,000 tons of freight, antl 
about the same number of passengers, the 
gross receipts amounting to almost $75,000,- 
000. There are about twenty-five separate 
companies, mostly English, and no one of 
them but is extending its lines as fast as its 
capital will permit. The whole of the great 
pampa, — the Mississippi Valley of South 
America, — Is fairly gridironed with the rails 
that have been laid across it In an effort to 
make the transportation facilities keep pace 
with Increasing production, while the begin- 
ning of new extensions, toward the northern 
and western frontiers, as well as the length- 
ening of old ones, goes on steadily year by 
year. 

Argentina Is the only country in South 
America where *he railroad, as In the United 
States, has assumed a definite character, and 
where also, as here, the best brains oif the 



180 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 



country arc employed in its management. 
The Argentine railway in all its appoint- 
ments, and the Argentine railway man in ail 
his characteristics, stand about midway be- 
tween those of England and America. Some 
American rails have been laid in Argentina, 
and a small amount of ancient American roll- 
ing stock is occasionally to be seen, but noth- 
ing new of any description. This is partly 
due to the fact that the buyers are British and 
that freights from England are more favor- 
able than from the United States, and partly 
to the fact that the efforts to introduce our 
goods have been very spasmodic at the best. 
The bulk of Argentine rolling stock is of 
American pattern and English manufacture. 
Several of the roads have had orders waiting 
for Pullmans for some time, but as yet, 
though a number of these cars are in use in 
Chile, none is to be seen east of the Andes. 
Practically all of the passenger-car seats, 
however, both in Argentina and the other 
South-American countries, are from the 
States. 

The Argentine railway man is a good de;>l 
more American in his theory than in his prac- 
tice. This is because everything he does has 
to be passed on by a ponderous, slow-moving 
London board, many of whose members, to- 
gether with their ideas on railroading, arc 
likely to date back pretty well into the first 
half of the last century. If there is one thing 
that it is not permitted to mention to an 
Argentine railway official out of business 
hours it is the " London Board." The lat- 
ter, however, answers admirably the purpoac 
of a " balance-wheel," and there is little 
doubt that the existence of similar institution 5 
in America would have done yeoman service 
in checking the flights some of our own roads 
have gone on. 




ONK nv*M*KVl> ANO Sf\KNn-KlVF M U F> OK 
STRAU.UT TRACK ON 1 UK AKt-lNTlNA TAMIW. 



With the exception of Senor Villalon^ 
the able president of the Great Western, who 
is an Argentifio, all of the prominent railway 
men, — F. C. Barrows and T. C. Gregory of 
the Southern, C. W. Bayne and F. L. Hud- 
son of the Central Uruguay, Messrs. 
Goodge and Simpson, respectively of the 
Buenos Ayres & Pacific and the Ferrocarril 
Oeste, and many others, — though Englisa 
born, learned all of their railroading in Soutii 
America. They arc extremely hard workers 
as a class, but readily accessible at all hour.^. 
There is little of the " insularity " so char- 
acteristic of the English railway man at 
home about them, and they all evince par- 
ticular interest in matters pertaining to 
American railway progress, upon which thcv 
keep remarkably well informed. An imprcs 
sion that one cannot help carrying away from 
a talk on railway affairs with any one of 
them is that, if the London boards would 
relax a bit, and the manufacturers in the 
United States meet them half way, they 
would like to make Argentine roads a good 
deal more American than they are at 
present. 

In addition to all the important officials in 
every department, most of the clerical staffs 
of the Argentine roads are also English ; out- 
side of these, however, practically all em- 
ployees of all classes, — station-agents, telegra- 
phers, machinists, conductors, brakemen, fire- 
men, engineers, and all unskilled hands, — are 
either natives of the country or Italian. 
There are still a few English firemen and 
drivers employed, but no more are being 
brought out, and, eventually, — ^when the 
present British incumbents have been pro- 
moted or discharged, — all hands on the loco- 
motives will be Latins. 

Strange as it may seem, in spite of the fact 
that there are more native than British engi- 
neers employed, the records show that there 
have been fewer accidents to trains driven by 
the former than the latter. The fact that 
the men brought out from England have 
proved rather less sober and reliable than at 
home may have something to do with this 
showing, but the principal reason advanced 
is the real superiority of the Argentines at 
that class of work. During six months spent 
in Arixentina, covering all of a harvest season, 
in which every kind of car and engine in the 
land was in commission to help handle a 
record-breaking harvest, I do not recall hear- 
ifiiT oi a sinjile train-wreck that was attended 
with fatalities. This fact, in the light of the 
fijures 1 have quoted regarding the very con- 



RAILROADS AND RAILROAD BUILDING IN SOUTH AMERICA. 181 




TO MARK ETERNAL PEACE BETWEEN CHILE AND ARGENTINA. 

(The statue of Christ at the summit of the Uspallata Pass, erected to commemorate the settlement of the 
boundary dispute between Chile and Argentina.) 



siderable amount of business handled by the 
Argentine roads, may furnish Americans 
with food for reflection on railway operation 
and management during the existing " Reign 
of Terror " here at home. 

In the matter of track, the average of Ar- 
gentina will class considerably ahead of that 
of the United States. Where we have been 
using soft ties of pine and redwood for many 
years, that country has used Colorado que- 
bracho and other varieties of practically in- 
destructible Paraguayan hard-wood. Much 
of the track of many lines, notably that of the 
Buenos Ayrcs & Pacific, is laid on sleepers of 
steel. Stonc-ballasted ** permanent-construc- 
tion " is also met with much oftener there 
than here. 

In the matter of stations, there is in the 
United States no road running through a 
cxMintry of less than ten . times the density 
of population of the province of Buenos 
Ayrcs^that has buildings to*compare with the 
handsome stone structures to be found at 
towns along the 3(XX) miles of line of the 
Great Southern. 



Of interest at the present moment is the 
completion of a northeastern Argentine line 
to the city of Corrientes, situated on the 
Upper Parana, opposite to a point on that 
river reached by the line from Asuncion, 
thus giving Paraguay railway communication 
with Buenos Ayres and Montevideo, The 
Argentine Government's line to Bolivia has 
already been alluded to, and the transconti- 
nental projects affecting that country will be 
taken up in a moment. 

THE STATE-OWNED ROADS OF CHILE. 

The railroads of Chile are second in value, 
business and general importance only to those 
of Argentina. Except for a number of short 
lines, mostly in the northern nitrate provinces, 
the roads of the country are owned and 
operated by the state. These government 
lines, while by no means as ably managed as 
the big roads of Argentina, still handle an 
enormous amount of business and pay hand- 
some dividends. : 

The main line of the Chilean railway runs 
from Valparaiso to Santiago, and on south to 



182 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



Conccpcion and Valdivia, both of these last 
mentioned ports being on branches of the 
" backbone " road. The present terminus of 
the latter is at Osorno, but grading is already 
completed to Puerto Montt, at the head of 
the Gulf of Ancud, and trains will be 
running to that point by the end of the 
year. 

North of Valparaiso the government line 
in the province of Coquimbo has been pushed 
south until it is almost ready to connect with 
the main line in the -Aconcagua Valley, which 
will make between 800 and QCX) miles of un- 
broken road running through the most fer- 
tile portion of the country. It is the ultimate 
ambition of the Chilean Government to com- 
plete a line from the Straits of Magellan to 
the Peruvian boundary, a plan, however, 
which for many reasons is not likely to be 
carried out much before the completion of 
the great Pan-American Railroad itself. 

The signing last year by Bolivia of a 
treaty with Chile permitting the latter to 
construct a railway from her port of Arica to 
La Paz was a practical relinquishment o\\ 
the part of that country to the territory 
wrested from her by Chile in their war of 
Home decades back. The negotiating of the 
treaty was looked upon as a distinct diplo- 
matic triumph for Chile, and hardly was 
the ink dry upon the paper before her sur- 
veyors, — closely followed by graders, — were 
at work upon the route of the projected line. 
Construction has been pushed since August, 
|c^)S, and, though the undertaking is too big 
a one to be completed in a short time, it is 




niK*;(H. h hiHn UN THE CHILEAN TRANSANDEAN RAILROAD. 



not likely that the work will be allowed to 
languish as it has on some of the govern- 
ment's railway contracts in the south. 

THE ARGENTINE-CHILEAN TRANSCONTI- 
NENTAL LINE. 

Of all these railways that have been re- 
ferred to as either in construction or pro- 
jected, the one exciting by far the most in- 
terest at present is the transcontinental line 
which is to connect Chile and Argentina by 
way of the historic Uspallata Pass. The 
most important fact in regard to this road, 
which it is hoped will be put in operation 
during the coming year, is that it will be the 
shortest and quickest route for all time be- 
tween the two most progressive centers of 
population in South America, Buenos Ayrc!^ 
Rosario and Santiago-Valparaiso. As the 
first South-American transcontinental route 
to be completed, its opening will have a sig- 
nificance akin to that which attached to driv- 
ing the " Golden Spike " on our own Union 
Pacific, away back in the '8o*s. 
' The " ham-bone " of South America, at 
the thirty-fourth parallel, which this line 
roughly ' follows, has a width of about 800 
miles, and so direct is the route that the lay- 
ing of very little over that length of rails 
will be necessar}'. The first portion of the 
Argentine section of the road, the Buenos 
Ayres and Pacific line, has the longest per- 
fectly straight stretch of track in the w^orld, 
— 175 miles without a curve, — and all the 
way across the pampa " straights " of 
twenty and thirty miles are encountered 
almost as often as are 
tunnels in the Andean 
sections. 

SURMOUNTING THE 
ANDES. 



The broad-gauge line 
from Buenos Ayres to 
Mendoza, at the foot 
of the Andes in Ar- 
gentina, and that from 
Valparaiso to Los An- 
des in Chile, arc among 
the pioneer roads in 
their respective coun- 
tries, and even the 
Andean section on the 
Argentine side has. been 
finished for a number 
of years. The princi- 
pal obstacles to a speedy 
comp le tion of the 



RAILROADS AND RAILROAD BUILDINO IN SOUTH AMERICA. 183 




ENTRANCE TO ONE OF THE MANY SHORT TUNNELS ON THE ?.AST SECTION OF THE CHILEAN 

TRANSANDEAN RAILROAD. 



line have been the refractory granite en- 
countered in the great two-mile tunnel at 
the summit, — the longest railroad tunnel ever 
constructed at so great an altitude, — the 
enormous amount of rock-work necessary at 
exposed points in the last ten miles of the 
Chilean section, and the great difficulty of 
getting men to work during the winter 
months. Now that the grading is complete 
on the Chilean side, less trouble will be ex- 
perienced in the matter of laborers, as men 
in the tunnels are safe from snow-slides, the 
terror of those who have had to work in 
the open. 

The Argentine transandean section, which 
follows the Mendoza River from the city of 
that name to the tunnel station of Las Cue- 
Tas, climbs from 2000 to 10,500 feet in a 
distance of seventy miles; on the Chilean 
side, from Los Andes to Portillo along the 
Aconcagua River, about the same elevation is 
attained in forty-three miles. On either side 
the highest grade for adhesion is a little over 
Wi per cent,, beyond which, up to 8 per 
COIL, recourse is had to the rack system. 

The last section of the Chilean transan- 
dean line has been one of the most arduous 



pieces of railway construction ever attempted. 
This has been not so much on account of the 
actual engineering difficulties of simply build- 
ing a railroad over the route selected, but 
rather in building a railroad that will sur- 
vive. The annual snow-fall at the Uspallata 
Pass is something stupendous, and when this, 
after piling up for six months in the winter, 
begins to melt and slide in the spring, the 
Andes themselves are racked to their very 
foundations from the titanic forces then 
turned loose. 

The present coach-road from the summit 
to Juncal is a smooth driveway cut out of 
the solid rock at a gradient of from 5 to 10 
per cent. At the turns it is banked like a 
racetrack to keep the flying coaches from 
going off at a tangent, and along all preci- 
pices is a stone wall three feet high and two 
feet thick. This is the road as if^is eacli 
November after the Chilean Government, at 
an annual expense of $60,000, has put it in 
shape for the summer*s travel. After serving 
its purpose for six months, and lying for four 
months more buried under from five to thirty 
feet of snow, this whole costly piece of con- 
struction is so completely scoured off the far 



1S4 



THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REyiEH^S. 




ONE OF THE HIGHEST RAILROAD STATIONS IN THE WORLD. 

(Crucero Alto, 14.500 feet above sea. level, on the Southern Railroad of 
Peru. Travelers from Mollendo to I^a Paz usually suffer from *' soroche," 
the mountain sickness, at this point.) 



the hands employed In 
running the drills arc 
native Chileans, men 
who, as a class, do not 
take readily to new 
machinery. Under the 
circumstances a very 
creditable amount of 
work has been done, 
but the contractors 
have probably lost a 
good deal of time by 
not employing a dozen 
experienced American 
drillmen from some of 
our Western mipes. 

At present this 
transcontinental jour- 
ney, — o n e of the 
grandest scenic trips 
in the world,— can 
be made only during 
the summer months, 
of the mountains by the spring slides that its Uspallata Pass being crossed at an cleva- 
restoration involves not only a regrading, but tion of 13,000 feet by swift four-horse 
also, through nearly its entire length, a re- coaches, or on mule-back. In this way one 
surveying. may go from Buenos Ayres to Valparaiso 

Under conditions like these ordinary' snow- in from forty to sixty hours, according to the 
sheds, such as our northwestern roads are weather at the summit. When the tunnel is 
provided with, would be of about as much completed this time will be reduced to thirty 
protection as a row of shade trees. In all hours and a daily schedule maintained the 
exposed places, therefore, whether the exi- year round. The time by steamer between 
gencies of grade required it or not, the road- these cities is fourteen days, with a boat sail- 
way has been excavated out of the solid rocV. ing once a fortnight. The advantage to 
From Juncal to Portillo is about eleven Chilean-Argentine traffic is one of the smali- 
miles, but in this distance there occur thir- est items of benefit to be derived from the 
teen tunnels, some of them runi^ing over a opening of this line, for it will also mean a 
quarter of a mile in length. There are many saving of twelve days in both directions for 
who claim that even such radical measure; all passengers and mail between Peru, Bo- 
as these will not be sufficient, but the con- livia, and Chile and Europe, 
structing company, the American firm cf As a carrier of heavy freight this Uspalla- 
W. R. Grace, expresses itself as confident of ta road is not expected to do a big business, 
not only preserving the line intact during the principally because the high price of coal in 
spring slides, but also of keeping it open for that part of the country, as well as the heavy 
traffic throughout the winter. grades over which trains must be hauled, vlrill 

Up to this time the summer tunnel gang? necessitate rates practically prohibitive for all 
h.ave been able to average about a yard a day but baggage and light stufiF of the express 
at each end, progress that seems unaccounta- class. For the very considerable amount of 
bly slow to an American contractor who has business to be done in carr>'ing cattle and 
never attempted construction under similar foodstuffs from Argentina to Chile the road 
conditions. It may be pointed out, however, now building through the remarkable pas»s 
that steam loses a good deal of its expansive of San Martin, at about the fortieth parallel, 
power, and that air needs considerably more will make a strong bid. 

compressing, at 10,500 feet, than at lower The existence of a very low pass, formed 
levels; also, that, until very recently, fuel, by the cutting through the Andes of the chain 
machinery and everything else used on the of lakes from which the Valdivia River re- 
Chilean side had to be brought up on mule- ceives its water, has been known of for some 
back during the summer months, and that time, but it was only last year that a careful 



RAILROADS AND RAILROAD BUILDING IN SOUTH AMERICA. 185 



survey established the fact that a broad-gauge 
railroad could be built from Chile, right 
through the mountains and out onto the 
Argentine pampa, without the construction of 
a single tunnel and at no point attaining an 
elevation of more than 2500 feet. The con- 
struction of such a road was shortly after 
entered upon by a strong Franco-Chilean 
company, after the letter had been assured 
that a leading Argentine line was ready to 
come on and join rails with it at the inter- 
national boundar>'. Trains have been run- 
ning for some time over the first sections of 
both extensions. 

The difference in meteorological conditions, 
— incident to the difference of elevation, — 
of these two great passes is remarkable. In 
April of last year, — early autumn south of 
the equator, — I rode across the Uspallata 
summit over a trail trodden down into three 
feet of snow by a huge herd of cattle that had 
been driven through to break out the way. 
The thermometer stood at fifteen degrees 
above zero, and the following day an addi- 
tional fall of snow closed up the pass for its 
SIX months of winter sleep. Ten weeks later, 
in July, — midwinter, — I passed twice over 
the San Martin route, and on neither occa- 
sion encountered enough snow to come above 
my horse's fetlocks. 



No one of the lakes that are responsible 
for the existence of the San Martin Pass has 
ever been frozen over, and their depth is such 
that steamers of considerable draught may be 
laid against their banks at almost any point. 
Moreover, navigation betv^een the two upper 
lakes, Lacar and Perihueico, is about to be 
opened up through the construction of a lock 
on the connecting river, and it is probable 
that the two lower lakes will also be simi- 
larly united. Small steamers now plying on 
all four lakes are proving of the greatest as^ 
sistance in furthering the railway construc- 
tion work. Unbroken navigation of the 
whole chain will be impossible because of 
the 1200-foot drop from Lake Perihueico to 
Panguipulli, a disadvantage that is more than 
compensated for, however, by the existence of 
a magnificent waterfall of height and volume 
sufficient to furnish power to operate the rail- 
road for a hundred miles in either direction. 

This new road, independent of its undenia- 
ble future as a commercial highway, running 
as it will for a hundred miles along a chain 
of lakes, walled in by perpetually snow- 
capped mountains that in places tower almost 
sheer for 10,000 and 12,000 feet, is destined 
to open up a land of natural wonders fully 
entitled to take rank with anything of the 
kind now known to man. 




A TYPICAL PERUVIAN RAILROAD STATION. 

(MoUendo. at sea level, near one terminus of the Southern Railroad of Peru.) 



THE FARMER'S DEBT TO SCIENCE. 

BY FRANK W. BICKNELL. 



TPO farm with the head ; to realize that no 
farmer can succeed by mere brute 
strength, and that drudgery is labor without 
thought, — these are the ideas that have be- 
come firmly lodged in the heads of the farm- 
ers of Iowa. Many thousands of them grate- 
fully acknowledge their debt to Professors 
Curtiss, Holden, Craig, and Kennedy and 
their associates, for helping them to a better 
understanding of the difference between suc- 
cess and failure in the farm business. 

Iowa, with half of her population of 
2,250,000 directly engaged in agriculture, 
and the rest mostly dependent upon it, has 
led the world in originating effective methods 
for carrying the message of the new agricul- 
ture directly to the farms and for making 
good the prediction of the Secretary of Agri- 
culture, himself an lowan, that there will be 
no more serious crop failures. In four nota- 
ble ways, started in this State, have the most 
advanced and practical scientific methods of 
farming and stock-raising secured inmiediate 
and general adoption by practical farmers of 
long and * varied experience. These four 
great movements came in this order: 

(i) The "short course" in stock-judging, 
started at the State Agricultural College at Ames 
in 1899, and now developed into other lines and 
adopted by other States. (2) The local agri- 
cultural experiment stations on the county poor- 
farms, begun in 1903 and '* destined to go around 
the world." (3) The seed-corn special trains, 
started in 1904, which in three seasons covered 
11,000 miles of railway and brought audiences of 
farmers aggregating 150,000 to learn the impor- 
tance of a better selection of seed-corn, care in 
testing before planting, and other facts that have 
increased the average yield of the State by one- 
third in three years. (4) The Department of 
Agricultural Extension in the State Agricultural 
College, started in 1906, liberally supported by 
the State, giving practical aid to every seeker 
for information concerning animal husbandry, 
farm crops, soils, dairying, horticulture, and do- 
mestic science. 

Thirty years ago, with land worth $8 to 
$20 an acre, a farmer could not afford to be 
as careful as he must be to-day, when the 
same land is worth from $75 to $150 per 
acre. There must be better farming in the 
Middle West. Those who want cheap lands 
to quickly skim off the cream of fertility must 
go west and northwest. 



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DEAN CHARLES F. CURTISS. 

(Director of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment 
Station, head of the agricultural division of the Agri- 
cultural College, and orighiator of the ** short 
courses" for farmers.) 



THE FIRST SHORT COURSES IN AMERICV. 

Ten years ago Prof. Charles F. Curtiss, 
succeeding James Wilson, now Secretary of 
Agriculture, as dean of the Division of 
Agriculture in the Iowa State College of 
Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, saw that 
his greatest problem was to get closer to ex- 
perienced farmers. Only a few hundred 
could be regularly graduated from the college 
each year, and most of these were eagerly 
sought by corporations, to manage cream- 
eries, big farms, etc, and as teachers. To 
show the greatest number of farmers how to 
make better use of their opportunities Pro- 
fessor Qurtiss took the first step of those 
rapidly succeeding movements that have 
given, Iowa leadership in agricultural edu- 
cation. 

The first of the famous " short courses " 



THE FARMER'S DEBT TO SCIENCE. 



187 




fJJIE iibnOBi OF TBI tXJUJr-JtJDfilSC; Cl^SS AT THE IOWA H^fltl t^r.Tl K.\L roi.iEi^E * 5H0HT CiRiRSE,' 



uias annourKcd at Ehc college in Ames for 
the finn two weeks in January* viqq. It 
W3S mpen to all the world, without restric- 
*'^ age or qualifications, with very 
■ a^ About 250 men, many of them 
vuci^taalul Stock-breeders, not only from 
1qw:i^ huT from many other States, came to 
this no%tl fchooi, the first of its kind in the 
T'rtW^,^ ^f-Tfr^ P^'*f J^ihn A, Craig, then 
professor of animal husbandry, was in im- 
mediate charge, and he is entitled to rank as 
the pioneer in putting live-stock teaching in 
good pedagogic form. 

The work of the "short course" has been ex- 
tended, until now it includes corn and grain 
judging, dairying, horticulture, and domestic 
science. The attendance reaches about 800 
and includes many who have spent their lives 
in successful agriculture. Quite a number 
bring their wives for the domestic-science 
course, which is also intensely practical. 
Every section of the country, from Canada 
to Texas, from Pennsylvania to the Pacific 
Coast, sent students last January. 

Henry Ebert, a prosperous farmer-banker 
from Red Oak, in the southwestern part of 
the State, convinced his neighbors and the 
business men in the town that they ought to 
have a " short course " in Red Oak. Many of 
them had also attended the Ames ** short 
course," and wanted their neighbors to have 
its benefits. Inquiry at the college assured 



them that instead of Jiscoura^^ing what It^ 
promoters feared mf^^ht be considered a rival 
school, Dean Curtijiji, Professor HoKien and 
their associates were caj^cr to help it, ami 
volunteered to furnish the faculty. The 
business men of Red Oak co-operated, and a 
guarantee fund of I^jax) in $25 subscription^? 
was pledged for the expenses, which included 
$HiX) for pri/e^ for the best corn. l>n or 
twelve members of the Ames faculty and as 
many advanced students acted as lecturers 
and instructors, for which they charged only 
their actual expenses. Other lecturers were 
employed and some local speakers called in. 
The school opened Monday morning and ran 
six full days. The first year, 1905, the at- 
tendance was 240, the second year 334, and 
the third year, in spite of a stormy week in 
January, 420. The corn exhibited becomes 
the property of the association and is sold at 
auction. The growth of interest is shown in 
the amount of each year's sales, beginning at 
$127, going to $350 the second year, and to 
$571 this year. A single bushel brought $39. 
one fifty-ear lot sold for $34.25, two ten-ear 
lots for $10 each, a single ear for $2.25, etc. 
The departments of this school were: Corn, 
animal husbandry, and domestic science. The 
fee for the latter was $1 and for all the other 
work $2. Every one enrolled was entitled 
to compete for any of the corn prizes. With 
the lectures in the evening and the regular 



188 



THE AMERICAN RE^^/ElV OF REyiEWS. 







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PROFESSOR P. G. HOLDEN. 

(Originator of the ** seed-corn special trains," 
superintendent of the extension department, and a 
recognized source of Inspiration to the Iowa farmer.) 



course work of the day classes, nearly every 
phase of farm life was touched upon with en- 
lightenment. The school has always paid 
expenses, without calling on the guarantors. 
Mr. Ebert says that methods of farming, 
especially in corn-raising, have greatly im- 
proved in the vicinity since the "short courses" 
began. Judge Horace E. Deemer, of the 
Supreme Court of Iowa, a resident of Red 
Oak and one of the active organizers of the 
" short course," writes: "Good judges tell me 
that the yield of corn has increased at least 
Ijye bushels per acre as a result of this corn 
school. The results educationally have been 
very great. The farmer down here, — and 
better than that, the farmer's boy, — has con- 
cluded that his business is as honorable and 
worthy as any other, and that it takes just as 
much brains to be a good farmer as to excel 
in anything else. The ' result will be and 
has been to keep the boy on the farm. He 
holds his head as high as any one ; and down 
here we no longer speak of * hayseeds.* " 

Last December a similar school was started 
in Mount Pleasant, in the southeastern part 
of the State, at the urgent request of many 
farmers in that vicinity, who found it paid 
them to attend the " short courses " at the col- 
lege. The movement there was headed by 
State Senator W. B. Seeley, whose brother ly for the use and benefit of the farmers' 
died a few years ago and bequeathed to the sons. " My brother," said Senator Seclc>', 
city and the farmers of the locality an $80,- " was himself a farmer, and desired to help 
000 Y. M. C. A. building, designed especial- the young men of his kind." The building 

was planned for educa- 
tional work, and has a 
successful manual train- 
ing department. So 
here we have probably 
the first farmers' Y. 
M. C. A. building in 
the world. With its 
fine lecture rooms and 
excellent equipment it 
furnished an ideal home 
for the short course. 
As with the southwest- 
ern school, the enthusi- 
asm of the farmers and 
their sons and wives 
and daughters was all 
that could be desired, 
and the attendance of 
357 will be greatly 
increased next year. 

Two other " short- 
course " schools of 
three days each were 

THE farmers' Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, MOUNT PLEASANT, IOWA. hcld during thc WUl- 





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THE FARMER'S DEBT TO SCIENCE. 



189 



tcr and one domestic-science course of a 
week. 

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN IOWA. 

During the year 1905 the agronomy de- 
partment of the Agricultural College, of 
which Prof. P. G. Holdcn was the head, re- 
ceived over 37,000 letters asking for lectures, 
information, or help of some kind. To satisfy 
this desire for information the Legislature 
established the Department of Agricultural 
Extension at the college. The department is 
a part of the division under Dean Curtiss 




"uncle ASA TURNER, 
(President of the Iowa Com-G rowers* Association.) 

and Professor Holdcn is superintendent. 
More than 1600 requests for lecturers at 
farmers' institutes, picnics, county fairs, agri- 
cultural clubs, ** short courses," schools, etc., 
came to the department during its first year, 
but only about one-fourth of them could be 
satisfied. More than twenty-five ** short 
courses " have been asked for this year. The. 
first year's appropriation of $15,000 has been 
increased to $27,000, and this year more lec- 
tures will be given, and a well-sustained six- 
day " short course " will be given in each 
quarter of the State, and as many more as 
possible. The correspondence of the depart- 
ment is enormous. 

THE COUNTY EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

One of the most effective agencies in car- 
rying the message of the better agricultutc 



out to the farms is the local experiment sta- 
tion on the county poor farm, also an Iowa 
idea* The first one was established in Sioux 
County, in the remote northwestern part of 
the State, in 1903. The County Board of 
Supervisors appropriated $300 and the work, 
chiefly experiments in corn-growing, was 
carried out under the direction of Professor 
Holden's department at the college, which 
supervises all the county stations. In the 
fall a farmers* picnic was held on the farm to 
discuss results, and more than 3000 persons 
attended. The seed used is taken from the 
planter boxes of as many farmers in the 
vicinity as possible, is planted without test- 
ing, and given the same treatment as that 
bestowed upon the ordinary fields in the 
neighborhood. Each man's corn is planted 
in an identified plat. Each farmer whose 
seed has been used comes in the fall to the 
picnic to see how his compares with his 
neighbor's corn. More convincing proof 
could not be offered. The man who has 
given no heed to his seed and sees a miserable 
stand of inferior stalks, and more inferior 
ears, concludes as he gazes with envying won- 
der on the large, strong, uniform, well-eared 
plants of his seed-testing neighbor, that he 
will not be caught that way again. Verv 
likely he begins to see in this some explana- 
tion of his neighbor's better home, freedom 
from debt, and general prosperity. A dozen 
or more counties scattered over the State 
have followed the plan started in Sioux 
County, and more will do so this year. The 
influence of these county experiment stations 
has been immediately noticeable, not only on 
the corn crop, but in raising the standard of 
farming in every way. Professor Holden 
and at least one of his assistants attend each 
of the county picnics, and they never farl to 
inspire their eager audience with the belief 
that every one can do better than he is doing 
if he only will. 

GOING TO COLLEGE AT SIXTY. 

Some such hard-headed old farmer as 
** Uncle Asa ** Turner is likely to be on hand 
at the picnic to back up the professor and 
tell his fellow-farmers, as I heard him teil 
them, that they are never too old to learn, if 
they will come with young hearts. He ex- 
plained to them how, though he had raised 
horses all his life, he did not know ** the 
p'ints of a good horse." 

" Wife, I am going to college," was the 
conclusion his astonished helpmate heard one 
evening as he was looking over one of the 



190 



THE AMERICAN REHEIV OF REl/IEH^S. 




THE IDEAL EAR OF CORN. 

(Winner of the Iowa grand 
ctaampionshii). ) 



TYPES OF PRIMITIVE CORN. 
(Contrast these with the Ideal corn, the result of breeding.) 



Ames* "short-course'* announcements. "Why, 
the boys *11 haze you up there!** she ex- 
claimed. But ne said he guessed he*d get 
along with the boys, and off he went. " And 
thanks to Professors Curtiss, Kennedy and 
Craig,'* he now proudly asserts, " I know the 
p*ints of a good horse.** The next year he 
went back and heard about " the corn crank 
from Illinois,'* Prof. P. G. Holden, who had 
just joined the college faculty and was talk- 
ing about corn. " Uncle Asa " wanted to 
know if this man could talk ten minutes 
about corn without running out. Curiosity 
led him to investigate, and he was still fur- 
ther surprised to find how much he did not 
know and could learn from " the dapper little 
professor.** He was coaxed into the class of 
500 studying corn and became very enthusi- 
astic. In a year or two he won the grand 



championship prize for the best corn. Now 
he is president of the State Corn-Growers' 
Association and is fond of going about to 
farmers' meetings, telling how well it paid 
him to " go to college at sixty." He has 
given up the idea of ** retiring " and moving 
into town, has built a fine modern home on 
his valuable farm, and says that is plenty 
good enough for him. " I no longer sec 
things in the same light," he declares. " Life 
on the farm is full and interesting every day. 
It is no longer a dreary round of following 
the furrows." 

The short of it is that from being mere 
machines the farmers have been admitted to 
the wonderful fairyland of science. They 
know how and why things are done, so it is 
more interesting to cause things to grow, and 
to cause them to grow right. This renewal 



THE FARMER'S DEBT TO SCIENCE. 



191 



of interest has been the means of keeping old 
people on their farms, where they are at 
home and happy, instead of moving into the 
nearest little town, where they are likely to 
be unhappy and a nuisance to their neighbors, 
opposing public improvements, unable to ad- 
just themselves to the changes, and least of 
all to idleness and separation from the duties 
of a lifetime of activity. 

Asa Turner's experience is a fair sample 
of thousands of men in Iowa who with grate- 
ful enthusiasm acknowledge what the ambi- 
tious yet conservative group of scientists at 
Ames has done for them. At first the pro- 
fessors were ridiculed as mere theorists,— 
" book farmers, who would starve to death- 
on a quarter-section of land.** But when 
their stock began to win the prizes away 
from the scoffers, and their feeding experi- 
ments were producing such satisfactory re- 
sults in dollars, with equally forcible practi- 
cal results in crop-raising and in the develop- 
ment of new and valuable crops, the farmers 
quit laughing and went to studying to find 
out how it was done. They learned that no 
guesswork was permitted at Ames, and that 
when a result was announced it could be 
relied upon. 

THE SEEI>-CORN SPECIAL TRAINS. 

The most widely known feature of this 
work that has given Iowa her leadership in 



the rapid dissemination and quick and ef- 
fective application of improved methods in 
agriculture was the seed-corn special trains, 
started in 1904 by Professor Holden, with 
the co-operation of the railways of the State. 
During the spring seasons of 1904, 1905, and 
1906 these educational trains traveled over 
ii,(X)0 miles, made 789 stops, and more than 
150,000 people heard 1265 lectures, some- 
times in a large passenger car, carried for 
the purpose, sometimes on the station plat- 
form, and occasionally in a hall. The trains 
were run on regular schedules and good 
audiences were always waiting. 

• ** There are just as many quarter-sections 
around a small town as around a large one," 
said Professor Holden, y so we stopped at 
every station where they^took interest enough 
to advertise the meeting. We wanted the 
farmers from those quarter-sections and their 
sons. The way to get close to the farmer is 
to go to his little town and make him most 
informally at home with his neighbors, with- 
out any * dress-up.' We took away the ter- 
rors of science by showing how simple are 
her laws, so easily understood by all, but 
which no one may violate without paying the 
penalty. We showed how many farmers, 
who didn't test their seed, were wasting one- 
third of their time and one-third of their 
land, planting seed that did not grow, leaving 
vacant places that cost just as much to culti- 



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INSPECTING CORN AT A COUN-PY PICNIC IN IOWA 



192 



THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 



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A GATHERING AT THE MONTGOMERY COUNTY, IOWA, FARMERS PICNIC. 



vate as if they were filled with good stalks, 
each bearing a twelve or fourteen ounce ear." 
The points emphasized in the lectures 
were: 

(i) The low average of thirty-one bushels 
per acre over the State, while many farmers 
were producing sixty to seventy bushels per 
acre. (2) The poor stand, due to poor seed, 
uneven dropping of seed by the planter, and 
poor preparation of the seed-bed. (3) Planting 
unsuitable varieties, and also com which has de- 
teriorated under unfavorable conditions. (4) 
What the farmer himself can do toward improv- 
ing his com by selection and breeding, with 
emphasis on the imperative necessity of careful 
selection and testing of seed, accompanied by 
simple directions for doing it. 

A HUNDRED BUSHELS AN ACRE. 

Professor Holden figures out with startling 
clearness to the corn-grower what his certain 
profits will be, what astonishing gains will 
come to him, from ordinary care. 

" It is customary to plant corn/* he says, 
" in hills three and a half feet apart each 
way, three kernels in a hill. Fair land wilt 
with ordinary care produce a good ear on at 
least two stalks In every hill, and should pro- 
duce three ears. There are 355^ hills to the 
acre, so there should be 10,668 stalks. One 
twelve-ounce ear to the hill makes thirty- 
eight bushels an acre; an eight-ounce ear to 
the hill makes 25.5 bushels per acre. So you 



see two twelve-ounce ears would give seventy- 
six bushels to the acre, and if you add an 
eight-ounce nubbin there are over 100 bush- 
els. Good corn-growers, who give proper 
care to the selection and testing of their seed, 
the preparation of the ground and the culti- 
vation, will have a large percentage of six- 
teen-ounce ears, few small ones, and ver/ 
few hills with less than two good ears. One 
hundred bushels per acre is neither impracti- 
cable nor difficult." 

WORTH TWELVE MILLIONS IN ONE YEAR. 

The average yield of corn in Iowa for the 
ten years ending with 1906 was 31.5 bushels 
per acre. The highest was 40.3, in 1900, 
when the farm value was 27 cents per bushel. 
The lowest was twenty-nine bushels per acre, 
in 1897, when the value was only 17 cents. 
The yield in 1903, the last year before the 
seed-corn special trains, was thirty-one bush- 
els. In 1904 it was thirty-six, in 1905 it was 
37.2, and in 1906, when the farmers were 
getting the full benefit of what they had 
learned, it was forty-one bushels per acre. 
The State had 9,443,960 acres of corn that 
year, and it was worth 33 cents a bushel on 
the farm December i. Suppose the gain 
creditable to the educational campaign to 
have been only four bushels per acre, the in- 
crease over the previous year, and we have a 



THE FARMER'S DEBT TO SCIENCE. 



193 



gain of 37,775,840 bushels, which at the cur- 
rent price of 33 cents was worth $12,345,- 
027, or about 10 per cent, of the value of the 
entire crop. Is it any wonder that the 
farmers of Iowa are grateful to the college at 
Ames, and especially to Professors Curtiss 
and Holden, and are ready to listen to what 
they and their associates may advise? 

THE COLLEGE ITSELF, AND ITS METHODS. 

During the last four years the Depart- 
ment of Animal Husbandry in the college at 
Ames has furnished thirty men to the facul- 
ties of twenty different agricultural colleges, 
and now has applications from other States. 
The enrollment in the regular collegiate 
course in agriculture is larger than in any 
other agricultural college in the United 
States. The animal husbandry department 
has carried on extension work for several 
years on its own account. 

The beginning of the " short-course " idea 
was the ten weeks' "short course" in dairying, 
established in Wisconsin and Iowa about 1890. 
A conspicuous employment of student knowl- 
edge is in stock-judging at fairs, county, 
State and district, with annual contests 
among the students of all the Western col- 
leges at the International Live Stock Exposi- 
tion, held in Chicago in December. Iowa 
has won a majority of the honors. Scholar- 
ships at the college are given by the State 
Fair as prizes in a stock-judging contesr 
among low^ boys. This fair is an educa- 
tional institution in itself, bringing together 
30,000 people a day for nearly a week. It 
\s being housed in its own brick buildings of 
ample size, and the Legislature has just given 







IOWA MORTGAGE-LIFTERS. 

(Grand champion Berksblres shown by the Iowa 
International Stock Show in Chicago 



it an $80,000 building in which to show the 
3000 swine that are exhibited, — more than 
any other show in the world can boast. The 
cattle show is not exceeded by any pure-bred 
show. The college is liberally supported by 
the State, and the last three splendid new 
buildings, just now being finished, cost over 
$1,000,000. An annual tax of a fifth of a 
mill is provided for new buildings. A- cor- 
respondence school and a summer school are 
being planned, to further extend the useful- 
ness of the institution. It is advertised by 
the results it shows and by the fame of its 
men. Dean Curtiss has been for years recog- 
nized as one of the most eminent authorities 
on live stock in America, and the feeding and 
breeding experiments he has carried on have 
been as notable in practical results as the corn 
experiments by Professor Holden. 

AGRICULTURE IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

" A farmer who has a $100,000 farm near 
a good town," said Professor Holden, *' told 
me the other day he was afraid to send his 
only son to the high school in town, because 
the teachers there were likely to lead the boy 
away from the farm and try to persuade him 
that he * ought to be doing something better 
than farming.* I find many farmers have 
the same feeling toward the high schools. 
The teachers, having little interest in 01 
knowledge of agriculture, constantly hold 
before the boys the attractions of other ways 
of living, and discourage them from follow- 
ing the business their fathers are soon going 
to be ready to turn over to them. The farm- 
ers are entitled to a fair showing of th^ dig- 
nity of agriculture and of the opportunities 
and demand for brains 
in the business. The 
elements of agriculture 
must be taught in the 
public schools, and it 
will soon be done. The 
sentiment for agricul- 
tural high schools is 
strong, and another 
Legislature will proba- 
bly make some provi- 
sion for them. Teachers 
must be prepared to 
lead the children with 
sympathy and under- 
standing to a wider 
knowledge of the com- 
mon things about them. 
«. . ^ „ * *u — in short, to prepare 

state College at the , . i-r » 

in 1906.) them for life. 



•^ 






194 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEIVS. 




MISS RAUSCH S CLASS IN DOMESTIC SCIENCE AT THE MOUNT PLEASANT SHORT COURSE- 



DOMESTIC SCIENCE THE WOMAN S PART. 

Improvement in the Iowa farmer's home is 
keeping pace with that in the fields and barn- 
yards, and it can no longer be said that the 
stock is better housed than the family. 
Roomy, comfortable, well-kept homes are in 
the majority. 

Miss Mary F. Rausch, the practical en- 
thusiast in charge of domestic science in the 
extension department in the college, has her 
time .pledged months ahead for lectures at 
farmers* institutes, county fairs, schools, 
women's clubs, " short courses," etc. With 
common sense and tact she has won the at- 
tention and respect of experienced house- 
keepers, who are grateful to her for showing 
easier and better ways of doing things. She 
thinks it is wiser to show a farmer's wife 
how to make a good pie than to argue with 
her about the unhealthfulness of all pie. She 
insists that the farmer's wife shall have a 
share of his prosperity and generally finds 
the men in hearty sympathy with her» once 
the> are shown liow to h'ghten the wife's bur- 
dens. One farmer who said her lecture cost 
him $ioc^ in " modern fixings," including 
water in the house, told Miss Rausch that it 



was a mighty good investment, it made I 
wife so much happier. Sanitary improi 
ments and various reforms follow her ll 
tures. 

"Almost every day," said Miss Rau« 
" women come to me and say that their ill 
would have been much caster and happier 
they had learned some of these things at \ 
'beginning of their married life. 'Dicy fl 
me they and their children are healthier siB 
they learned to bake their bread thorougl 
and chew their food well. This is one 
the results of the bread-making contests i 
have had all over the State. Many wool 
are eager to hear about the right foods i 
little children, and profit by what they 1«U 
Even the older women resolve to begin doi 
their housework in the easier and better wi 
One woman seventy-six years old drove thi 
miles and back every day for six days to i 
tend the domestic-science course. 

" I believe," Miss Rausch summed 
her work, " that the day is coming, and v< 
rapidly, too, when people will think that 
is just as important for a girl to learn how 
keep house intelligently, economically a 
healthfully as it is for a young man to p 
pare for his life work," 



SAN FRANCISCO'S REGENERATION. 

BY COLVIN B. BROWN. 



CAN FRANCISCO is essentially a com- 
mcrcml city'. Its harbor, locked in by a 
wind-break cif high hills, is big and deep 
enough to accommodate any possible demands 
that may be made upon it. Across the Pa- 



will probably ever be built within the 
State. 

INCOXVEXIENCE BUT TEMPORARY. 

The disaster which befell San Francisco 



d6c Ocean, to the west, lies the Orient, with in April, 1906, did not affect any of the 
irs hundreds of millions of people. South- natural resources upon which the city de- 



_ward lies the west^ 
t^ast ^i South 
ocrica, Panama, 
Mexico. To 
north lies Alas- 
On the land- 
side of the 
^lles an excep- 
nally frrnle and 
itictivc country. 
Here practically 
ev-erj' crop known 
to the north and 
south temperate 
zones is grown suc- 
cessfully. Last year 
this hinterland of 
San Francisco pro- 
d u c e d 4,700,000 
centals of wheat, 
24/xx),ooo bushels 
of barley, 50,000 
carloads o f fresh 
fruit and its prod- 
ucts, 41,000,000 
gallons of wine, 6,- 
500,000 bushels of 




JUDGE F. H. DUNNE, OF SAN FRANCISCO. 
(In whoBe court the graft casos were tried.) 



pends for its trade 
and commerce. 
That section in 
which business was 
housed was de- 
stroyed by fire. The 
volume of commerce 
waiting to be han- 
dled was as big as 
ever, and the lack 
of warehouses and 
office buildings was 
but a temporary in- 
convenience. 

This was so pat- 
ent to every burned- 
out San Francisco 
business man that 
before the ashes of 
his former site were 
cold he was plan- 
ning to reopen, and 
had telegraphed 
East for a new ^stock 
of merchandise. The 
inevitable result was 
that the need of 



potatoes and other vegetables in propor- business housing facilities was immediate and 
tion, 22,000,000 pounds of wool, 900,000,- pressing. Stocks of goods en route at the 
000 feet of lumber, 35,000,000 barrels of time of the disaster began to arrive at the 
petroleum and $19,700,000 worth of gold; Oakland freight yards. To these were soon 
and this is but a small fraction of the added cars ordered by telegraph. Within a 
gross products of the region and but a sug- few weeks 10,000 carloads of freight were in 
gcstion of their great variety. The products the Oakland yards waiting to be unloaded, 
of forest, field, and mine are conveyed by a The railroads began to run short of rolling 
network of railroads and two important navi- stock and threatened to charge demurrage on 
gable rivers to a common focal point at San cars that were not unloaded within a given 
Francisco, where river steamer and railroad time. In the meanwhile about half the 
car meet the ocean freighter. Upon the city's population were clamoring for a chance 
snow-dad peaks of the Sierra Nevada moun- to replace the personal effects they had lost 
tain range which sweeps down the eastern in the fire. Merchants naturally saw op- 
border line is stored sufficient water to irri- portunity for profits, quick and big, if they 
gate tvtry acre within the valleys and provide could but get a place in which to display 
power for every railroad and factory that their goods. The demand for carpenters 



196 



THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REVIEIVS. 



was tremendous. The supply was below 
normal, many having fled the city. What 
followed was a matter of course. Those who 
had buildings to erect began bidding against 
one another to get mechanics. Wages were 
forced up almost to where they were in pio- 
neer days. What had been residence prop- 
erty before the fire now became valuable for 
business purposes. The artisan with a dou- 
ble wage found that he had to pay a double 
rent. The corner grocer and butcher were 
informed that from twice to many times the 
former rent would be demanded by the land- 
lord. Consequently groceries and meat ad- 
vanced stifly in price. As was to have been 
expected, an era of high prices ensued. 

EFFECT OF HIGH PRICES. 

Unlike Baltinfiore, San Francisco is far re- 
moved from densely populated centers. To 
a very large extent she is dependent upon her 
own population for. any work there is to do, 
and any sudden/ demand in excess of the sup- 
ply of labor is bound to furnish workingmen 
with an excuse for demanding increased pay. 
In the case of San Francisco, however, it is to 
be remembered that the workingmen were by 
no means alone in seizing the opportunity 
to make profit out of conditions. Lumber 
dealers combined and sent the price of their 
commodity higher than it had been in years. 
Cement dealers did likewise. Structural ma- 
terial of all sorts advanced in price. The in- 
creased cost of labor was but one of the fac- 
tors in the increased cost of building. 

Notwithstanding this condition of high 
prices, which was evidently but temporary, 
property owners were not deterred from mak- 
ing improvements, permanent and substantial 
as well as temporary. Throughout the city 
was heard the sound of hammer and saw, the 
rumbling of trucks, and the puffing of hoist- 
ing engines. Some temporary buildings were 
erected almost overnight. Big steel-frame, 
fireproof buildings, whose walls had with- 
stood the heat, were repaired and made even 
better than before. Many new buildings 
of the " Class A " type were started. 
Instead of a city bowed down by the 
awful calamity of earthquake and fire, 
it immediately became and has since prac- 
tically continued to be a very ant-hill of 
industry, where all are busy with a fixed pur- 
pose, and most are more prosperous than ever 
before. This statement needs only to be 
modified to this extent: 

There were certain lines of industry in 
San Francisco which failed to benefit by the 



increased demand for labor and were ui 
doubtedly affected by the increased ccst ( 
living. Reference is made to the employa 
of the street railroads, telephone compan] 
laundries, and the like. Demands made iq 
on employers for increased wages were n 
fused and strikes followed. The most scr 
ous of these was the strike of the strcet-d 
employees, who demanded $3 for an t\z% 
hour day. The union to which these peopi 
belong had subscribed to an arbitration agra 
ment, and the officials of the company <^ 
ciared that the strike was in direct oppos 
tion to the agreement. Every street-car i 
the city was stopped ; business suffered i 
consequence, and there was a general tigh 
ening of the money market. At this wririn 
the cars are running, but the service is by i] 
means so good as before the strike. Thi 
tl.is matter will be properly adjusted there 
no doubt; but at present it occupies a posiric 
of peculiar importance in the San Francis 
situation. 

UNION-LABOR RULE. 

In order to understand the situation it wi 
be necessary to go back to 1900, when a ne 
charter adopted by San Francisco and a 
proved by the State Legislature, went in] 
effect. Under this charter the Mayor, elcctt 
for a two-year term, was given greatly ti 
creased powers. He was given the appoin 
ment of all his subordinates and was ala 
responsible for the administration of afeii 
James D. Phelan was the first Mayor und 
the new charter, and during the second yz 
of his term a teamsters' strike occurred, wHj 
was marked by peculiar vindictiveness 21 
brutality. Mr. Phelan, as Mayor, acccdi 
to demands made upon him by an organii 
tion of business men calling itself the Ei 
plovers* Association and placed policemen 
uniform on the wagons to protect stril 
breaking drivers. The strike was settled 
a manner which left both sides discontente 
but it had showed the workingmen of S; 
F ancisco that if they could control the offi 
of Mayor they would hold the whip hand 
any future labor troubles that mi^ht occur. 

With this object in view the Union-Lab 
party was organized, and Eugene E. Schmil 
leader of a theatrical orchestra and memh 
of the Musicians' Union, was nominated f 
Mayor. The nomination was secured largi 
through the efforts of Abraham Ruef , ^ ck 
personal friend of the candidate. At xh 
time Ruef was conducting a small law prs 
tice and dabbling in Republican politics '* < 



SAN FRANCISCO'S REGENERATION P^ 



197 



the side." He had just been defeated at the 
Republican primaries, and it was this that 
determined him to throw his influence to the 
Union-Labor ticket and take charge of the 
campaign. To the surprise of the business 
community Schmitz was elected by 21,000 
votes. 

That the city prospered under his admin- 
istration seems to be the general opinion. 
In any event, he was again elected in 1903, 
this time by 26,000 votes, an increase of 
5000; and this notwithstanding the fact that 
he was pitted against Franklin K. Lane, 
present member of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission and an experienced Democratic 
politician, and Henry J. Crocker, one of San 
Francisco's wealthiest and best-known citi* 
zens. Schmitz was again elected in 1905, 
this time winning by 42,000 votes, and car- 
rying with him the entire Union-Labor tick- 
et. An analysis of this vote showed that the 
ticket was supported by many of the business 
men of the city, principally the smaller class 
of retailers. This was presumably upon the 
theory that unionism, strongly intrenched in 
power, would make for high wages and high 
wages make good business. 

With the Mayor whom he had been main- 
ly instrumental in placing in office, and 
whose strong personal friend and legal ad- 
visor he was, Abraham Ruef, the erstwhile 
Republican boss, was in a position of remark- 
able power for good or evil. 

A PROFITABLE LAW PRACTICE. 

As early as 1902 it began to be rumored 
that the only effective way in which to se- 
cure special favors from the administration 
was by employing the services of Attorney 
Abraham Ruef. Little by little these ru- 
nx>r$ spread. It was openly stated that un- 
der the guise of legal services Ruef was sell- 
ing licenses, protecting illegal enterprises, 
and securing great profit out of his friend- 
ship with the head of the city government. 
Major Schmitz was spoken to on the sub- 
fcct and stoutly maintained that Ruef was 
an excellent lawyer and a man of unblem- 
ished character, in whose judgment he had 
the utmost confidence. By the end of the 
second Schmitz administration it was openly 
stated in the press and on the streets that 
Ruef, and not Schmitz, was Mayor de facto, 
and that all matters coming before the May- 
or for approval were first submitted to him. 
That this was the view of the case taken by 
many large corporations and by practically 
all persons conducting business requiring li- 



cense seems undisputed. Ruef's law prac- 
tice grew enormously, and by the end of the 
second administration he was known to be a 
wealthy man, with an income running into 
thousands a month. It was not until 1905, 
however, that charges of graft became open 
and notorious. Heretofore, it had been 
charged that Ruef was simply acting as at- 
torney for those who hired him in the belief 
that his friendship with the Mayor made his 
services more valuable than would be those 
of an outsider. Now, however, it was open- 
ly argued that these " attorney's fees " were 
divided with the Mayor and the Board of 
Supervisors. 

This was the condition of affairs when the 
disaster of April, 1906, fell upon the city. 
In those awful days politics and talk of graft 
were forgotten. Every one's attention was 
turned to relieving distress and preserving 
order. The way Mayor Schmitz arose to the 
occasion surprised even his most ardent ad- 
mirers. So well did he conduct himself that 
he immediately became one of the most ad- 
mired men in California. Grasping the sit- 
uation with a master hand, without regard to 
politics, he called to his aid the leading busi- 
ness men of San Francisco, many of whom 
were his bitterest enemies. Under his lead- 
ership these men, organized into committees, 
administered a relief fund running into the 
millions, accounting for every cent, and main- 
tained order where there otherwise would 
have been chaos. 

SPECIFIC CHARGES OF GRAFT. 

While Mayor Schmitz and his committees 
were thus conducting affairs others, with a 
seemingly larger self-interest, were looking 
about to see how money Avas to be made. It 
was not at all certain but the business center 
of the city would shift permanently. Prop- 
erty values outside the burned district rose 
enormously. Speculation was rampant. 
There was a general scramble for special 
privileges, and the services of Abraham Ruef, 
the attorney, were in greater demand than 
ever. Then arose the cry of graft, so loud 
and insistent that it could not be ignored. It 
was charged that the United Railroads, 
which is the name the local street railway 
goes by, had bribed the Board of Supervisors 
to grant an overhead trolley franchise in 
place of the open-slot system wanted by the 
people; that the gas company had bribed the 
members of the board to raise the price of gas 
from 75 to 85 cents per 1000 feet; that the 
telephone company had paid to keep a rival 



198 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




MR. RUDOLPH SPRECKELS, 

(Who pledged $100,000 from his private fortune 
toward the expenses of the San Francisco graft In- 
vestigation and prosecutions.) 



out of the field; that low dives and resorts 
were opening up under police protection and 
paying tribute to Abraham Ruef and the ad- 
ministration which he controlled. Every- 
body believed that there was truth in many 
if not all of these statements, but how to in- 
vestigate the charges and procure indictments 
and C(;nvictions where the administration con- 
trolled every branch of the city government, 
including a large section of the judiciar>' and 
the sheriff's office, was a question. 

Rudolph Spreckels, a young millionaire 
banker, son of Claus Spreckels of sugar fame, 
came forward with an offer to pledge $ioo,- 
ooo toward defraying the expenses of a 
searching investigation of all charges of graft 
and the prosecution of offenders. Ex-Mayor 
James D. Phelan agreed to stand by him in 
the matter. William J. Langdon, who had 
been cleced District-Attorney on the Union- 
Labor ticket, announced his intention to con- 
duct the inquiry regardless of his party affili- 
ations with the administration or who might 
be brought to book; and it was evident that 
he meant what he said. Abraham Ruef was 
one of those who believed that Langdon in- 
tended doing his duty. Strange as it may 
seem, Ruef actually succeeded in getting the 
board to remove Langdon and to appoint him 



instead. This showed how completely \ 
controlled the board, and the act was cuii 
strued by the public to be a virtual acknow| 
edgment of guilt. Intense excitement a 
sued. A mass meeting of business men \\\ 
called to meet on Union Square. This md 
ing was packed and captured by Ruef. 

DIVISION INTO FACTIONS. 

Rudolph Spreckels, by virtue of his ofi^ 
to furnish funds, immediately became lead^ 
of the graft prosecutions. Of course, he vc^ 
charged with ulterior motives. Those wl^ 
were in the w'ay of becoming indicted In 
mediately charged him with seeking politiq 
preferment and financial gain. They al^ 
charged him with a desire to revenge himscj 
on Patrick Calhoun, president of the L nit^ 
Railroads, who had beaten him in a railw^ 
franchise deal. Calhoun has since been it| 
dieted for bribery in connection with the ^ 
curing of this franchise. Those who suppoi 
Spreckels, such, for instance, as James I] 
Phelan, whose civic patriotism has ne\d 
been questioned, declared that Spreckels wj 
and is animated only by a desire to clean oij 
a corrupt city administration and restore Sa| 
Francisco to the place to which it is eniitiej 
among progressive American cities. 

Spreckels* first move was to secure the sfl 
vices of Francis J. Heney, who had gained I 
reputation for himself while acting for ilj 
United States Government in the prosecutia 
of the Oregon land frauds. With Hen^ 
came William J. Burns, a detective in tJj 
employ of the United States Secret Seniv.1 
Both Heney and Burns secured leave of a^ 
sence from the Government in order to fl| 
able them to conduct the work of investi^ 
tion and prosecution in San Francisco, hj 
said that in giving them their instnictio^ 
Spreckels stated that he wished 'the who! 
matter to be probed to the very depths, r« 
gardless of who might be affected, and thi 
no quarter was to be shown even to his c!o^ 
est personal friends should any such be fouij 
to be mixed up in the riot of municipal gratj 
The prosecution was to be thorough an| 
without fear or favpr. 

The matter of the legality of the action (| 
the Board of Supervisors in removing Lanj 
don ^nd appointing Ruef as District-Attoi 
ney was taken into court, and after a bittt 
fight the courts decided such action to hav 
been illegal. Francis J. Heney w^as then a| 
pointed by District-Attorney Langdon as h 
assistant. 

Results followed. Abraham Ruef was » 



SAN FRANCISCO'S REGENERATION. 



199 



dieted for extorting money from the French 
restaurants, and when arraigned for trial, af- 
ter having exhausted every legal quibble, 
pleaded guilty. Mayor Schmitz was indict- 
ed on a charge similar to the one to which 
Ruef pleaded guilty. He was in Europe at 
the time, but hastened back to face the accu- 
sation. He was found guilty before a jury 
and sentenced to five years in the State pen- 
itentiary. Fifteen of the eighteen members 
of the Board of Supervisors confessed to hav- 
ing accepted bribes for the granting of fran- 
chises from various corporations, immunity 
being granted in return for their confessions. 
Upon these confessions indictments were 
found against Patrick Calhoun, president of 
the United Railroads; Thornwell MuUally, 
its vice-president; Tirey L. Ford, its chief 
attorney, and against Frank G. Drum, John 
Martin, Eugene de Sabla, G. H. Umbsen, 
J. E. Green, A. K. Detweiler, and Louis 
Glass, all prominent officials of leading pub- 
lic-utility corporations. 

The prosecution announces its intention 
of pushing the charges against these promi- 
nent men with all the vigor that character- 
ized the prosecution of Ruef and Schmitz. 
The result is that the city is divided into two 




ASSISTANT DISTRICT-ATTORNEY FRANCIS J. HENEY. 

(The chief figure In the prosecution of the San 
Francisco grafters. Mr. Ileney hnd won his spurs 
as United States riovemment counsel in the Oregon 
land-fraud cases. His fearlessness has made him a 
marked man on the Western coast.) 




WSnUCT-ATTORNEY WILLIAM J. LANGDON, OF SAN 
FRANCISCO. 

(The Union Labor ofBcial who prosecuted his 
party associates when he had become convinced of 
their ^llt.) 



factions. One of these supports the prose- 
cution. The other is opposed to it. The 
striking thing about the situation is that 
many of the leading bankers and business 
men of the city are on the side of the oppo- 
sition. 

THE DIFFERENT VIEWPOLNTS. 

In order to understand the different view- 
points it is necessar)' to consider the present 
condition of municipal officialdom. Every 
official of the city is a member of the Union- 
Labor party. The chief executive is in jail 
convicted of a felony. All but three of the 
eighteen Supervisors, which are the law- 
making body of the city,' are self-confessed 
felons. The chief of police has been indicted. 
A strike of the street-car men is in progress, 
and this strike has been a big money loss to 
business. Patrick Calhoun, president of the 
United Railroads, is - looked upon as the 
champion of the interests of the business com- 
munity as opposed to the claims of the strik- 
ing carmen. Many claim to see in Calhoun's 
prosecution an effort to aid the strikers, and 
openly state this to be their opinion. Others 
claim that the prosecution of so many promi- 
nent corporation officials at the present time 
not only aids the strikers and frightens away 



aoo 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




DETECTIVE WILLIAM J. BURNS. 

(The man who secured the eTidence involving the 
San Francisco supervisors, Ruef, Mayor Schmltz, 
and other well-lcnown citizens.) 

capital, but leads the world to think that 
property is unsafe in San Francisco. 

Francis J. Heney, in a letter to the San 
Francisco press, puts the matter in this wise: 

The moment that a politician is charged with 
crime the charge is made by himself and friends 
that the attack is prompted by political motives. 
This cry was made by Ruef and Schmitz when 
the graft prosecutions were commenced. At that 
time it was claimed by Schmitz, Ruef, and their 
friends that Mr. Langdon, Mr. Rudolph Spreck- 
els, and myself were maliciously endeavoring to 
destroy the Labor-Union party and labor unions 
generally, and that this purpose constituted our 
sole motive in undertaking the prosecution of 
the alleged grafters. At that time most of the 
banks and most of the merchants and rnany of 
the wealthy men who arc now denouncing us 
were loud in their praises. They wanted to* see 
'• all of the grafters " sent to the penitentiary. 
We heard then that it would be a splendid thing 
to relieve the city of its incubus of corruption. 
The moment that we commenced to uncover rich 
criminals and to demonstrate that our motto 
would be " No man is above the law." the atti- 
tude of many of the bankers, merchants and 
predatorial rich changed. Now the prosecutors 
are charged with a malicious desire to perpetuate 



the Labor-Union party and labor unions in \ 
eral. \ 

In this same letter Heney charges fl 
representatives of nearly every bank in : 
Francisco have met and pledged Patrick ( 
houn their support; that they have woil 
upon the fears of the merchant and other k 
rowing classes with the statement that 
prosecution is injuring the credit of the c 
So the prosecution is very far from rtztH 
the united support of the business inten 
of San Francisco, and to this extent itj 
working under a great disadvantage, j 
the same time it seems certain that the prd 
cut ion will proceed as it has commenced i 
will not cease its efforts until ever\' man \ 
dieted for the giving of bribes has been d 
victed'or acquitted by a jury, and this 
spite of any opposition that may arise. Tl 
matter will probably be definitely decided 
the election for city officials which will ta 
place in November. It will then be decidi 
whether the mass of the people approves 
a continuance of the prosecution. So tar 
is known it has not yet been determined dc 
nitcly how many tickets will be in the tic 
nor what these tickets will represent. Th 
matter will be determined at the primari 
which will be held on August 13. 

Paradoxical as it may seem, there is pro 
ably no city to-day in the United States 
free from graft as San Francisco. The sd 
confessed boodlers who constitute the Bt)a 
of Supervisors still remain in office, but th 
are under the absolute domination of the 
who have pledged themselves to elimina 
graft from municipal affairs and restore 
stable city government. It seems undoubti 
that the great majority of the voters are 
sympathy with this purpose. 

FINANCI.\L CONDITIONS GOOD. 

Financially San Francisco is in an exa 
lent condition. With an assessment roll 
$429,000,000 it has a borrowing capaci 
under the charter of $60,000,000, where 
its present bonded indebtedness is but $! 
000,000. Nearly $80,000,000 has been c 
pended in rebuilding since the fire. A biill 
tin issued by the California Promotion Coi 
mittee gives the following summary for i 
month of June: Value of building pcrmi 
issued, $3,916,450; bank clearings, $17; 
307,227; customs receipts, $668,176. Du 
ing the last week in June San Francisa 
bank clearings amounted to $43,969,000. 
against $30,316,113 for the correspondii 
week last year, and $33,480,200 for the con 



CO-OPERATiyE CONSUMERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN RUSSIA, 



201 



spending week in 1 905. According to clearing- 
house statements, San Francisco is doing more 
business than all the other cities of the Pacific 
Coast combined, the total clearings for all 
other Pacific Coast cities amounting to only 
$41,292,000 for the week used for compari- 
son. Customs receipts for the port of San 
Francisco during the fiscal year ending June 
30 amounted to $10,147,010.86, as against 
$7,449,196.41 for the year ending June 30, 
1906. The past year's customs receipts are 
the highest in twent>*-four years. 

Such a showing as this is surely remarka- 
ble in consideration of the fact that San 
Francisco is engaged in a physical and moral 
clean-up such as perhaps never before occu- 
pied the time and attention of any people. 
The physical regeneration which has taken 
place during the past year has been a sur- 
prise to the city's most sanguine friends. In 
almost every instance new buildings have 
been of a better class than those destroyed. 



More than half the burned area is now 
under cover, and it has been but a little more 
than a year since the disaster. Moral re- 
generation is proceeding with equal certainty. 
Those who are at the head of the graft 
prosecutions have demonstrated that they are 
without fear and that there is to be no cessa- 
tion in the work of moral clean-up until 
every guilty person has been discovered and 
punished. And when the world wakes up to 
the fact that the seemingly impossible has in 
fact been accomplished, — that San Francisco 
has restored all her facilities for trade and 
established an honest and stable city govern- 
ment, — then there will be no difficulty in 
securing all the outside capital that may be 
necessary. San Francisco will beat down all 
obstacles which may oppose her progress, be- 
cause the physical facts are in her favor and 
she has an American citizenship of pioneer 
blood that nothing but complete victory will 
satisfy, now that the battle is on. 



COOPERATIVE CONSUMERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN 

RUSSIA. 

BY HERMAN ROSENTHAL. 



/^O-OPERATION in general was known 
to the Russians in the Middle Ages. 
The Druzhina, or Vataga, dating back to the 
thirteenth or fourteenth century, was the ear- 
liest manifestation of co-operative activity in 
the land of the Czars^ Originally organized 
for co-operative hunting and fishing, these as- 
sociations gradually came to include groups 
of laborers known as artels. There were 
etriels of porters, boatmen, teamsters, pack- 
ers, sorters of hemp and flax, and of bank 
and stock-exchange messengers. 

With the native artel as a basis, the idea 
of co-operation was stimulated into new 
life by the teachings of Schultze-Delitsch in 
the *6o's of the last century. His Genossen- 
schaften (association) system found enthusi- 
astic supporters in the Baltic provinces, and 
subsequently all over Russia. 

The founding of the first co-operative con- 
sumers' society in Riga, in 1865, was soon 
followed by many others. Almost all of them, 
however, passed out of existence after a short 
period, and but one of these early associa- 
tions, the co-operative consumers'' society, 
" Merkurius," founded in Warsaw, fn 1869, 
in still flourishing. • The general reason for 



the failure of the early consumers' associa- 
tions lay in the fact that they were not 
founded in response to any popular demand ; 
their organization was not prompted by dire 
need, and, consequently, the principal motive 
and stimulus for co-operation was totally 
lacking. 

The writer participated in the co-operative 
movement of the '6o's in south Russia. To 
gether with other young idealists of that 
period he saw in co-operative associations s 
means for stimulating the growth of broadei 
political ideas in Russia. But as a means tr 
an Qr\A^ and not the end in themselves, these 
early sexrieties were foredoomed to failure 
Many other causes, like mismanagement and 
want of experience, contributed also to ac 
complish the doom of the pioneer co-opera 
tiv associations. 

Me)st prosperous among the co-operativ( 
consumers' assexriations in Russia at present 
are the so-called " manufacturing industrj 
co-operative consumers' associations," mainl) 
composed of laborers and employees in fac 
tories and other industrial establishments 
Greatest of these is the asse)ciation connecter 
with the Putilov works, in a suburb of St 



202 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REI/IEIVS. 



Petersburg. It was started in 1880, with 
about 100 members, and a capital of 750O 
rubles. The association's membership at 
present is 2168, and it not only possesses con- 
siderable funds, but has also its own bakeries, 
breweries, stores, dining-halls, and other real 
property. The goods handled by this asso- 
ciation are bought directly from domestic and 
foreign producers, and the enterprise yields a 
munificent profit (from 100 to 200 per cent, 
on the capitalization). Members owning 
shares receive substantial dividends, some- 
times up to 24 per cent., and the common 
consumers get a bonus on every dollar's 
worth of purchase. Besides this, part of the 
net profit is used for benevolent purposes, for 
schools, invalids' homes, asylums for the aged, 
etc. 

For the great success of this co-operative 
association credit is due, in no small degree, 
to a couple of prudent stipulations in its 
statutes: i. That members holding shares 
may be expelled if not actually patronizing 
the association. 2. That even non-members 
become entitled to a bonus on every dollar's 
worth of purchase, by which inducement the 
trade of the association is kept steadily in- 
creasing. 

Unfortunately, the factory co-operative as- 
sociations do not always serve the interests of 
the workingmen. In most of the industrial 
communities of the Ural districts there exist 
so-called " consumers' stores," which are sup- 
posed to aim at oflEsetting the extortionate 
prices for necessities charged by local small 
dealers. These stores, -however, are often 
controlled by the factory owners and managed 
by them more for their own profit than for 
the protection and benefit of the workingmen, 
who under such circumstances are even worse 
off, — because they are compelled to buy their 
provisions from the factory store alone, — 
than when dealing with the local merchants. 

Quite important a part is played by the 
rural consumers* co-operative associations, 
which are not only very useful, but even 
nec«ssary in remote localities. In this connec- 
tion it might be mentioned that the co-opera- 
tive bakeries in the country districts are, rela- 
tively, the best paying of all common enter- 
prises. It IS obvious that the rural associa- 
tions should meet with greater success than 
those in the industrial communities, for the 
reason that the peasants are, to a far greater 
extent than the factory- workers, exposed to 
the extortions and trickeries of the local deal- 
ers. Since the abolition of the saloons and 
bar rooms, after the establishment of the 



liquor monopoly, the former inn-keepers have, 
in a great many instances, sought a livelihood 
as storekeepers, in which capacity they cm- 
ploy all their innate and experience-developed 
ingenuity to squeeze the last kopeck out of the 
poor peasant. 

The co-operative movement is particularly 
strong in the villages of the government 
Nizhni Novgorod. In seven districts there 
are fifteen consumers' associations, of which 
nine have been organized within the last three 
years. The success of all these co-operative 
associations would, however, be immensely 
greater, and the actual proceeds would in- 
crease considerably, if the various organiza- 
tions grouped themselves together for the pur- 
pose of buying their goods. But so far the 
associations seem rather desirous of keeping 
aloof, one from another, than of working for 
unification and the common advantage ob- 
viously incident thereto. 

The best results are undoubtedly presented 
by such co-operative associations whose mem- 
bers belong to the same class of society. To 
this kind of associations the five greatest ones 
in Russia, as far as membership is concerned, 
are counted. First among these stands the 
railway employees* association, in Perm, 
which, in 1902, had 88cx) members, and a 
net profit of 71,164 rubles from the pre- 
ceding year. Second in importance is the 
" Officers' Economic Association," of St 
Petersburg, with 5374 regular members and 
2606 annual subscribers. After these come 
the co-operative associations of the machine- 
shop workmen, in Kolomny, the factory- 
workers, in Orechowo-Syjewo (government 
of Vladimir), and the employees of the Ycka- 
terininsk Railway. 

In contrast to the above associations are 
those which are composed of different social 
elements. Some of them iiave, through wise 
management, been able to keep up their ex- 
istence, and have even prospered, as, for 
instance, the " Mutual Help Society," of 
Novgorod and the co-operative consumers' 
association, in Tikhwin (government of Nov- 
gorod), The latter was, at one time, even 
in such a flourishing condition that the mem- 
bers were allowed a dividend of 26 per cent, 
on their shares and, besides this, a bonus of 
9 per cent, on every dollar's worth of pur- 
chase. But, on the whole, these mixed co- 
operative societies enjoy, in the greater num- 
ber of cases, only a comparatively short period 
of prosperity, after which they appear to fall 
into decay quite rapidly. The reasons for this 
are many and characteristic of Russian life. 



CO'OPERATIl^E CONSUMERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN RUSSIA, 



203 



1 ake, for an example, the general consum- 
ers* association, in Perm. It was organized 
in 1897, ^vith 323 members, and its early 
career was marked by great, even phenom- 
enal, success. Elated on this account, the 
shareholders suggested the extension of the 
business into commercial fields which were 
strange to the original purpose of the enter- 
prise and received but meager patronage 
from the greater number of the members. 
The result was, that the stores of the associa- 
tion were packed with a stock of non-selling 
articles, the carrying of which consumed a 
good deal of the profit made on the sale of 
necessities, thus causing a stagnation, or even 
retrogression, in the business of the associa- 
tion. 

Still more precarious became the condition 
cf the co-operative association in Samara, 
principally through the indiscriminate use of 
the credit system. According to the statutes 
of that association, share-holding members 
were entitled to temporary credit, when buy- 
ing goods, for a certain amount, the size of 
which should be regulated by the capital rep- 
rcsefited by the shares. This rule, if ad- 
hered to strictly, would have caused no in- 
convenience or embarrassment, but instead of 
that, the directors and managers extended 
credit to their friends and acquaintances al- 
most unlimitedly, with the unfailing conse- 
quence that many of these favored costumers 
incurred considerable debts to the associa- 
tion and, on being refused further credit ac- 
commodation, dropped out altogether, leaving 
their unpaid bills behind. Such a state of 
affairs, must, of course, be exclusively blamed 
on the management of the association, whose 
recklessness, in this case, hardly falls short 
of being criminal. 

The once prosperous " Mutual Help As- 
sociation " in Moscow can ascribe its recent 
decline to the frequent changes in its man- 
agement, causing the exploitation of a num- 
ber of different business policies, at the great- 
est cost and with the most damaging effects 
to the association. A society of similar name 
in Odessa was precipitated into the throes of 
dissolution by undisguised mismanagement. 
Twenty-seven men were employed in its two 
little stores, and practically the entire profits 
were gobbled up for salaries to directors, man- 
agers, help, etc. Taking the majority of 
mixed consumers* co-operative associations 
into consideration, it may be generally stated, 
that the " educated " element in them has 
quite often, by insisting on the introduction 
of business policies' incompatible with the 



true aim of the ehterprise, hampered the 
sound development and progress of the lat- 
ter, and even contributed to its complete fail- 
ure, in ma^ny instances. 

The number of co-operative consumers* as- 
sociations in Russia was (in November, 
1903) 824. In order to compile some statis- 
tics, in regard to these, the " Permanent Com- 
mission for Co-operative Associations ** sent 
out some inquiry blanks which, in 204 cases, 
were properly filled out and returned. From 
these reports is gathered that the 204 asso- 
ciations had together 91,417 members and 
26,402 annual subscribers, making a total 
number of about 118,000 customers. The 
average membership of the associations was 
577. The number of employees was 3258, 
or 16 per association, and the expenses for 
wages and maintenance of these amounted to 
I »i 3 1, 307 rubles, or averaging 5515 rubles 
for each association. The total capital 
reached asum of more than 4,000,000 rubles, 
which item was counterbalanced by a total 
indebtedness of nearly an equal amount. Of 
the entire net profit, — 1,270,000 rubles, — 
256,539 rubles were distributed as dividends 
on shares, 590,857 rubles as premiums on 
purchases, and 68,155 were paid into the 
government as taxes. On the average, each 
association made a net profit of 6260 rubles, 
of which it disbursed 125 1 rubles in share- 
dividends and 2882 rubles in premiums. For 
educational purposes the 204 Russian co- 
operative societies set aside 4836 rubles, or 
23^ rubles per association, and for benevo- 
lent institutions, 38.6 rubles each. 

Since eight years back there exists in Mos- 
cow a ** Purchasing Union of Russian Con- 
sumers* Co-operative Associations,** which, 
in 1904, had been joined by 126 individual 
associations, and gave fair promise of success 
along the line of saving expenses for the vari- 
ous organizations in making wholesale pur- 
chases. 

Political conditions in Russia have, no 
doubt, had their share in stunting the natural 
growth and progress of the co-operative asso- 
ciations, which have likewise been handi- 
capped by other agencies, as set forth previ- 
ously. Yet, enterprises of this kind are ur- 
gently called for by the need of the times, 
and it can ^ be safely asserted that the co- 
operative consumers* associations are destined 
to play anjmportant part in the future na- 
tional life^ of Russia. The statistical data 
in this article are taken from the Archiv fiir 
SozialwlssenschaftUche Fortra^^e, and have 
been verified from Russian sources. 




THESE BOYS ARE OF THE SAME AGE, BUT OF WIDELY DIFFERENT DEGREES OF MENTALITY. 

(Three French lads of eleven years of age, whose heads are of unequal volume. Number 1 [at the left) is 
five years In advance of the normal ; No. 2, two years In advance; No 3, five years behind.) 

THE STUDY OF THE HUMAN PLANT. 

BY FREDERIC LEES. 

[This account of how the physical, mental, and moral value of children is ascertained in a 
Paris laboratory for experimental psychology is contributed by one of the workers in the 
laboratory. Mr. Lees is an officier de I' Instruction Publique. — The Editor.] 



npHE ** human plant," — to borrow a happy 
"*' expression that recently originated with 
one of our leading magazines, — is at last 
being studied with the seriousness that it 
deserves. In various parts of the world, but 
especially in France, scientists are beginning 
to devote their attention to child life, with 
the object of discovering in what way it can 
be ameliorated, physically, intellectually and 
morally. The progress that they have made 
is already noteworthy, full of promise for 
the future, and shows that they were not 
wrong in thinking that, since investigators 
into the subject of vegetable biolog\' had at- 
tained such mar\Tlous results, they them- 
selves might reasonably hope to do likewise 
in their infinitely more important branch of 
biological science. 

In the foundation of a laboratory for the 
scientific study of children the lead has been 
taken by Paris. Due to the initiative of Prof. 
Alfred Binet. the eminent head of the Lab- 
oratory of Psycholog}' at the Sorbonne, it 



has been established in one of the buildings 
of a large free school in the Rue dc la 
Grange-aux-Belles, a street in the center of 
one of the most populous quarters of the 
city, A better field for observation could not 
have been chosen, the scholars being numer- 
ous, of various ages, and of many classes of 
society. The methods employed for ascer- 
taining their physical, mental and meral 
value are also extremely interesting, and 
might well be adopted by scientists and peda- 
gogues of the New World. 

On the occasion of a recent visit to this 
school and laboratory Professor Binet oblig- 
ingly consented to explain to me how the 
idea had originated, and in what manner he 
conducted his experiments. He said: 

Look at these twenty to thirty pupils -who. 
more or less attentively, are listening to their 
master. Do you really think that all these boys 
have similarly moulded minds? — that they all 
have the same aptitudes and the same needs? 
People thoui^ht so at one time. We knovr bet- 
ter now. We have come to see that educa- 



THE STUDY OF THE HUMAN PLANT. 



205 



tion is a question of adaptation, and that in 
order to adapt it to the needs of a child we 
must make ourselves thoroughly acquainted with 
his or her mental and physical characteristics. 
The principle, therefore, that guided me when 
forming this new laboratory was the knowledge 
of the average state of development of children 
of all ages.— an entirely new idea in pedagogics, 
and one which I imagine will prove to be very 
fruitful. What my assistants and I set ourselves 
to tind out. in a strictly scientific manner, was 
the physical and mental value of the average 
child at various ages. Once having discovered 
this, we drew up tables of averages, and it 
is thanks to these that we are able to make pre- 
scriptions so definitely whenever a fresh subject 
arrives at our laboratory of experimental psy- 
diology. We are liblc, for instance, to say : " This 
boy*» growth i:^ rL-Urded. Though twelve years 
of a^c, he has ovAy the development of a child 
of nine* He wiM rt^quire special attention and 
special nourisliment. This other scholar, on the 
contrary, is physically in advance of his age. 
He is more muscular, taller, and stronger than 
a boy of ten." A tliird boy, we note, shows a 
remarkable marit^ry i iver himself, while a fourth 
is emtftional an<J nervous. One is an observer, 
calm and calculating; the other, imaginative. If 
the most is to be made out of them in later life, 
they -must be educated differently. Now, don't 
you think that schoolmasters would be very glad 
to learn how to study their pupils in this way? 
Don't you think that it is sometimes advisable to 
consult a doctor on delicate points concerning a 
pupil's health? Don't you think that parents 
would be grateful if such an interest as >ye 
show here were universally taken in their chil- 
dren's welfare? Don't you think that society 
would benefit enormously if similar laboratories 



to ours were opened in connection with every 
communal school in the land? 

As we left the classroom and walked across 
the playground toward the entrance to the 
laboratory, Professor Binet informed me that 
at any rate the boys seemed to appreciate 
the care with which they were being studied. 

We have sometimes difficulty in keeping them 
away, so fond are they of being measured and 
weighed. Yes; we always begin by taking their 
measurements. The body and the mind ar;^ 
closely united. A child who is weak, who di- 
gests badly, and whose growth is slow, cannot 
work properly in a class, and it would be un- 
just to punish him for showing want of atten- 
tion. You won't make his digestion any better 
by punishing him, or improve the deviation of 
his backbone by making him copy out a hundred 
lines of Moliere. Every time that a schoolboy 
shows signs of prolonged laziness, the master, 
instead of punishing him, should first of all find 
out if there is not some physical cause at the 
root of the evil. 

We had entered one of the rooms of the 
laboratory, and the first thing that I noticed 
was that the walls were covered with various 
apparatuses, portraits, charts, etc. To the 
left was an apparatus for measuring heights. 
By its side was a series of pieces of wood 
of varying length, each representing the 
height at a certain age. Above were the 
framed portraits of children, normal and ab- 
normal, photographed according to M. Ber- 
tillon*s anthropometric system. Not far awa\' 




THESE SEVEN FRENCH BOYS ARE EACH ELE\'EN YEARS OF AGE. 

PHYSICAL GROWTH. 



NOTE, HOWEVER, THEIR UJTEQUAL 



203 



THE AMERICAN REk'lElV OF RE^^/EIVS. 




DETERMINING A SCHOOL BOY S SENSITIVENESS AND ACCURACY OF TOUCH. 

(Conducting an experiment with the psycho-metric apparatus at the Paris Laboratory of Experimental 

Psychology.) 



were various instruments for measuring the 
width of the shoulders, the development of 
the head, the muscular force of the hands ; a 
chart bearing letters of different sizes for the 
testing of the eyesight; and a net bag contain- 
ing a number of skeins of variously colored 
wools, which were used to ascertain if a 
pupil were color-blind. 

Some of these instruments are worth examin- 
ing more closely. This steel ellipse, which when 
clinched in the hand registers the strength of 
the muscles of the fore-arm, is called a ** dynamo- 
meter." Here is an " aesthesiometer," an instru- 
ment for measuring the degree of sensation by 
determining at how short a distance two impres- 
sions upon the skin can be distinguished. The 
tactile sensibility of one boy may differ widely 
from that of another, and it is important to 
know that fact when drawing up a record of 
their general state of health. The two steel 
points of the "aesthesiometer," which, as you 
see, are about an inch apart, are applied to the 
back of the subject's hand, after he has been 
blindfolded or told to look the other way. 
Should his sensibility be keen and normal he 
will distinctly feel the contact of the two needles ; 
but if, on the other hand, it be deadened, he will 
think that he is being touched by only one point. 
— a curious fact that has often been studied by 
experimental psychologists. 



The day's work in the adjoining school 
having come to an end, several of the pupils 
who had not yet been entered in the registers 
of the laboratory came to be examined. The 
first experiment was what Professor Binet 
called une experience d'attention. To a 
group of five boys sitting around one of the 
tables was given a passage from a classical 
author. This they had to read to themselves 
for ten minues, at the end of which time they 
committed as much of it to paper from mem- 
ory as they could. " The testing of the mem- 
ory of each pupil when entering a school is 
of the greatest importance," said M. Binet, 
by way of commentary. " What is the good 
of burdening the memory of a child with 
twenty lines of verse when he is by nature 
incapable of ever learning them correctly? 
To do so would be quite as absurd as forcing 
a lad with a weak stomach to swalloAV a 
quantity of indigestible food." 

In another part of the laboratory two 
boys were measured for height and width of 
shoulders by assistants, while Professor Binet, 
sitting at a table near at hand, tested a third 
boy*s suggestibility by means of a simple ap- 



THE STUDY OF THE HUMAN PLANT. 



207 




MEASITRING THE PHYSIQUE AND THE NERVES. 

(Experiments on children In the Paris Laboratory of Experimental Psychology. 

Sorbonne, is seated on the right.) 



Prof. Alfred Binet, of the 



paratus consisting of two cardboard disks, 
one of which, bearing lines of varying 
length, could be revolved in such a way as 
to make these lines appear through a slit in 
the upper one. For a time the lines increase 
in length, but finally become invariable. An 
inattentive child will jump to the conclusion 
that they increase always, but one who is not 
so easily taken in will observe the change. 

The director of the communal school, M. 
Vaney, next tested the vital capacity of one 
of his scholars by means of the spirometer, — 
an apparatus consisting of two graduated bot- 
tles, one filled with water and provided with 
tubes, which measures the capacity of the 
lungs. Blowing through a mouthpiece, after 
taking a deep breath, the boy displaces a cer- 
tain quantity of water, and his lung capacity 
is registered in cubic centimetres. " The 
greater one's respiratory capacity," said M. 
Vaney, " the greater is one's vitality, the 
greater is one's endurance to fatigue." 

" Nothing is negligible in the psychologi- 
cal study of children," might be Professor 
Binet's motto. He has even called in the as- 



sistance of a Parisian palmist, who sur- 
prised him with the accuracy with which she 
read the characters of the hundred boys who 
were presented to her. In no fewer than 
sixty cases did she read the lines of their 
hands aright. 

The lesson which this learned French 
savant would teach the pedagogic world of 
Paris and other great cities has already borne 
fruit. In the Rue Lecomtc, in the populous 
seventeenth ward of the French capital, 
there has just been opened a special class for 
" abnormal children," and other similar 
classes are to be formed in other quarters. It 
is of the greatest importance that the normal 
and the abnormal should not be together, 
owing to the detrimental influence of the lat- 
ter over the former. The bad must be sifted 
out from among the good pupils, and taught 
by methods specially adapted to their particu- 
lar cases. This, however, cannot be done 
without laboratories such as that of the Rue 
de la Grange-aux-Belles, and it is for that 
reason that Prof. Alfred Binet hopes to 
see them some day scattered all over the land. 




HON. WILLIAM H. TAFT, WHILE UNITED STATES CIRCUIT JUDGE. 

WILLIAM H. TAFT AS A JUDGE ON THE BENCH. 

BY RICHARD V. OULAHAN. 



\4^R. TAFT is the very personification of 
energy. He is a human steam engine. 
He is always busy. Work, and hard work, is 
his pleasure. A handsome man, he would 
attract attention from that circumstance 
alone. He breathes good will and suggests 
mental, moral, and physical wholesomeness. 
Yet, with all his pleasant informality and his 
frequent laughter, he has a dignity of manner 
and carriage that commands respect and at- 
tention. You feel that he is a man of brain 
power, one of the few men who seem to 
grow greater the more intimately you know 
them. 



Captain Seth Bullock, plainsman and 
friend of President Roosevelt, paid, in homely 
phrase, one of the highest tributes that could 
be paid to any human being, when he was 
asked his opinion of Mr. Taft. Captain 
Seth has the plainsman's reticence of speech. 
He could not gush if he tried. " What is ft 
about Taft that you like?/' he was asked. 
He hemmed and hawed before he answered, 
** He's simply all right. He's a man you 
don't have to be introduced to twice." 

It is this ability to make people feel at their 
ease that is one of Mr. Taft's greatest 
charms. He seems to take an interest in 



IVILLMM H. TAFT AS A JUDGE ON THE BENCH. 



209 



evcoiKxly he meets. There is nothing of the 
politician in his method of treating people. 
His manner is too natural to be studied. The 
farmer's boy who comes to Washington to 
find out about the chances of getting an ap- 
pointment to the Military Academy is on 
friendly terms with the Secretary of War 
after they have talked five minutes. The 
statesman, the military hero,. the newspaper 
correspondent, the department clerk, are all 
treated alike when they call on Mr. T^ft. 
He plays no favorites among those whom he 
believes to be fair and square. 

THE NEW ENGLAND CONSCIENCE. 

Mr. Taft has the New-England con- 
science, and this helped him in his judicial 
career. If he thinks a thing is wrong he 
docs not hesitate to say so. This phase 
of his character takes a peculiar form. 
He will go out of his way to avoid 
hurting the feelings of any of his fel- 
low-men; he does not like to inflict pain; 
but frequently, when it was to his personal 
and political advantage to be silent, he has 
spoken out, because silence would mean a 
misunderstanding of his attitude. He wanted 
everybody to know how he stood. When he 
went to Ohio in 1905 to serve as temporary 
chairman of the Republican convention he 
made a speech which was in substance an 
appeal to his party brethren to smash on 
election day the Republican machine in Cin- 
cinnati. Taft was talked of at that time as 
a Presidential possibility. He knew that his 
course would injure him in the party organi- 
zation ; that he would make enemies of many 
whose friendship would be valuable if he 
were a candidate for an elective office. But 
to him words of praise for the Republican 
machine ticket in Cincinnati or silence on the 
subject meant hypocrisy, and his New-Eng- 
land conscience told him to go to the 
other extreme. It is this peculiarity in 
Taft's temperament which amazes those 
friends of his who think he should trim 
his sails in the winds of popularity. 

He exhibited the trait while he was on the 
federal judidal bench. The prospect of a 
political future cut no figure with the young 
jurist. He has no apologies to make for his 
course at thar time and would not brook any 
questioning of its fairness. To-day, as a 
candidate for the Presidential nomination, 
with the labor element a powerful factor in 
the determination of the result, he will not 
hesitate to tell exactly what he did as a judge 
when labor injunction cases were brought 



before him. If anybody anxious to injure 
Mr. Taft*s prospects for the Presidency 
wishes to get the record of his course in the 
labor cases he need not pursue secret methods 
to obtain the information. Let him apply 
to the office of the Secretary of War, Room 
226, second floor, War Department Build- 
ing, Washington, D. C, and a genial gentle- 
man of large frame will furnish it cheerfully. 
Taft is not ashamed of anything he has done 
or afraid of the consequences of it. 

Taft was thirty when he became a judge 
of the Superior Court in Cincinnati and only 
thirty-five when he was appointed a judge 
of the United States Circuit Court. His am- 
bition had tended to the federal begch, and 
this office appeared to pave the way for the 
realization of his wish to be a member of the 
highest tribunal. The world knows how, 
when offered an appointment as an Associate 
Justice of the United States Supreme Court, 
which meant the fulfillment of his heart's de- 
sire, he placed duty ahead of everything else 
and declined the tender. He was then in 
the Philippines and he preferred to stay there 
at the sacrifice of personal comfort and indi- 
vidual taste, because his departure from Ma- 
nila would cause lack of confidence among 
the native people and interfere with the work 
he had set out to do. The real Taft stood 
out in these words telegraphed to President 
Roosevelt : " Look forward to time when I 
can accept such an offer, but even if it is 
certain that it can never be repeated, I must 
now decline." And when the President in- 
sisted that he, as President, " saw the whole 
field " and intended to make the appointment, 
Taft came back with reasons which convinced 
Mr. Roosevelt thajt the big man who wanted 
to be a Supreme Court jurist but. refused for 
the sake of conscience was entitled to have 
his own way. 

Dignified on the bench, his sedate man- 
ner was tempered by a suggestion of kindli- 
ness and charity that he could not conceal. 
One of those associated intimately with him 
in the days when he wore the judicial ermine 
has said, " He was Judge Taft in the court- 
house, but Bill Taft away from there." His 
interest in young men, and particularly in 
young lawyers, was shown frequently. The 
law school of which he was dean was a source 
of great pride to him. One day, while hearing 
a case in the federal courtroom, he saw five 
law students whom he knew, sitting in rear 
seats. " Bring five chairs up here," he said 
to an attendant, and then told his secretary to 
invite the five students to sit beside him, a 



210 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REP^IEIVS. 



mark of distinction and honor. The young- 
sters thought the secretary was joking, but 
he pointed to the chairs and convinced them. 
So the five, embarrassed but elated, took seats 
beside the Judge. " I thought that you'd be 
able to hear better up here," was Taft's ex- 
planation. 

Another act of kindness was shown to a 
young attorney from Kentucky who had 
brought suit for damages against a railroad 
company in behalf of a woman who had been 
injured by a train. The attorney's petition 
was poorly prepared, so poorly that it would 
not have stood the test of a hearing. " I give 
you leave to amend that petition," said Judge 
Taft,*and he pointed out wherein the paper 
was defective. The attorney did not appear 
to understand what was required of him. 
Judge Taft detected the trouble. " Let me 
see that petition," he said. He struck out 
some sentences in the document and made in- 
terlineations with a pencil. Then he handed 
it to the attorney for the railroad, a man 
of prominence in legal circles. " I guess 
that's all right," he remarked, and the rail- 
road's representative, who was prepared to 
make technical objections, reluctantly ac- 
cepted Judge Taft's disposition. The young 
fellow won the case. 

READY TO ACKNOWLEDGE ERROR. 

As a judge Taft earned the reputation of 
being fearless and just, and it was this repu- 
tation which accounts in part for his popu- 
larity in Ohio. He was never afraid to strike 
at evil and always ready to accept full re- 
sponsibility for his judicial decisions and or- 
ders. Yet he was as ready to acknowledge 
any error on his part, and a remarkable in- 
stance is recorded where he actually apolo- 
gized to a litigant for uncomplimentary allu- 
sions made from the bench. The town of 
Hartwell, in Hamilton County, Ohio, be- 
came involved in a dispute with a railroad 
company. There were writs of injunction 
and mandamus and other proceedings sought 
by the town authorities or the company. The 
Mayor of Hartwell turned the hose on work- 
men who tried to lay rails at night. When 
one aspect of the case was brought before 
Judge Taft he took occasion to criticise the 
Mayor severely. The Mayor, willing to be 
made a victim of the court's power to punish 
for contempt, wrote a letter to Judge Taft 
complaining bitterly that the court's reference 
to himself was obiter dictum and was en- 
tirely outside the court's powers. The 
Mayor confidently expected to be haled be- 



fore the bar. To his surprise, ho^vcvcr, he 
received a letter from Judge Taft admitting 
that he had gone farther than he should in 
his comments on the Mayor's attitude and 
asking the Mayor to accept his apology for 
what he had said. 

That was Taft all through. Conscien- 
tiously believing originally that it was his 
duty to rebuke the Mayor, he saw the matter 
in a new light when an argument to show 
that he was wrong was presented and he made 
haste to correct the error, and, to emphasize 
the change of view, added an apology. 

THE STERN AND FEARLESS MAGISTRATE. 

Another instance shows Taft as the em- 
bodiment of stern justice, knowing his duty 
and permitting no interference with its ful- 
fillment. An elderly man had been convicted 
of pension frauds in Judge Taft's court 
Under the law it was optional with the Coun 
to impose a sentence of imprisonment in a 
penitentiary or a jail. A son of the convicted 
man knew Judge Taft and had been on 
friendly terms with him. Presuming on 
their friendship, the son saw Judge Xaft 
privately and proceeded to give reasons why 
the father should be sent to jail instead of the 
penitentiary.. Judge Taft was angry. In 
language that left no doubt as to his state of 
mind, he told the son that any repetition of 
the attempt to influence him in a judicial 
matter would result in a term in jail for con- 
tempt. Crestfallen and humiliated, the son 
went away, believing that his father was cer- 
tain to get a penitentiary sentence. Judge 
7*aft sent the convicted man to jail. Those 
who know his peculiar judicial fitness do not 
need to be told that Taft was not influenced 
in any way whatever by the son's plea. He 
considered the matter on its merits and de- 
clined to allow his mind to be prejudiced 
against the father for the son's indiscretion 
or in the father's favor by the son's distress. 

JUSTICE TEMl>ERED WITH MERCV. 

It was not often that Judge Taft shov^^ed 
anger, but when he did there was nothing 
half-hearted about it. A man who had heard 
some idle talk about Taft came to tell the 
Judge of it. People were saying, he as- 
serted, that Taft would not do full justice to 
one side in a pending case. " You get out 
of here or I'll throw you out," he shouted. 
As a matter of fact,' the case was not before 
Taft's court. He hated a meddler. He 
would not tolerate a tattler. 

When Judge Taft holds the scales of jus- 



WILLIAM H. TAFT AS A JUDGE ON THE BENCH. 



211 



dec he holds them squarely. With it all, 
however, he is actuated by a spirit of consid- 
eration for the unfortunate and ready to 
show mercy whenever his sense of right 
tells him it is proper to do so. Toward the 
end of his career as a federal judge a young 
man was convicted in his court of violating 
the postal laws. Judge Taft was convinced 
that the offense was due more to ignorance 
than to criminal intent and he suspended sen- 
tence. " Come back to me in six months/* 
he said to the defendant. The Philippine 
War w:as on when the six months expired. 
The young fellow who had been convicted 
appeared before Judge Taft with the laconic 
introduction, " IVe come." " I see you 
have," said his Honor, " but what can I do 
for you?" Judge Taft had nearly forgot- 
ten the circumstance, but it was recalled 
to his recollection by attaches of the court. 
Then he put the young man through an ex- 
amination as to what he had been doing in 
the probationary period and received satisfac- 
tory answers. "-And what are you doing 
now?" he asked. " I'm trying to get into 
the army," was the answer. " Will they 
take you?" "I think so, but I told them 
I couldn't enlist untU I'd seen you." " Well," 
said Judge Taft, " you show yourself to me 
here with Uncle Sam's uniform on and you 
needn't come after that." The boy enlisted 
and his sentence was remitted. 

A LABOR leader's CONFmENCB IN THE 
JUDGE WHO HAD JAILED HIM. 

It was Taft who rendered the first opin- 
ion upholding the validity of the Sherman 
Anti-Trust law, and it was Taft who sent a 
labor leader to jail for contempt in interfer- 
ing with the operation of a railroad then in 
the hands of the court over which Taft pre- 
sided. The man whom he jailed was Frank 
Phelan, a lieutenant of Eugene Debs in the 
American Railway Union. There were mur- 
murs in Cincinnati that Judge Taft would 
not leave the bench alive if he sent Phelan 
to jail. Members of the order to which 
Phelan belonged crowded the courtroom 
with identifying badges conspicuously dis- 
played. Judge Taft read his opinion in the 
case and ordered that Phelan be confined in 
jail for SIX months. Then he stepped f^om 
the rostrum and went to his private room. 
There was not the slightest sign of trepida- 
tion in his manner or a hesitating note in 
his voice as he delivered his judgment. 



Months after, Phelan, released from jail, 
went to Ludlow, a suburb of Cincinnati, 
where most of the railroad men who had 
gone on strike at his command resided. The 
agitator who had counseled violence of a 
radical kind was touched by the suffering 
among the families of the strikers, many of 
them still out of employment. Phelan 
wanted to help them, and curiously enough 
the man to whom he applied for advice and 
assistance was Judge Taft. He called at the 
judge's office in company with another man 
and was received without any delay. 
"Hello! Phelan," said Judge Taft, "what 
can I do for you ? " A gentleman who was 
present on that occasion vouches for the 
statement that Phelan explained his business 
in words somewhat to this effect : " Judge, 
I came to tell you that I never realized what 
great suffering I would create until I went 
to Ludlow this morning. I'm willing to 
serve another six months or a year if you'll 
help me to get work for these men. All 
those who went out on strike and who testi- 
fied that they went out through sympathy 
only, told an untruth, and so did I, for I was 
sent here by Debs to take these men out as 
I saw fit." 

But strongly as his sympathy was aroused 
by what Phelan said. Judge Taft held that 
it would be improper for him to make any 
suggestion to the railroad company to give 
employment' to its former employees. " I 
can't tell the railroad people how to run 
their business," he said. This incident is told 
merely to show the wonderful human sym- 
pathy which Taft possesses and which he 
makes people understand. Phelan, in spite 
of the scoring and the punishment- he had 
received from Taft, felt that he would find 
the stern judge a kind friend, and his recep- 
tion proved that he was not^mistaken. Taft 
never bears mahce. He is as willing to 
forget as he is to forgive when satisfied that 
a fault which he condemned has been hon- 
estly atoned for. 

Long years of work on the bench did not 
produce in him the idea that he is not as 
Other men. There is no false dignity about 
him. Off the bench he was as jovial as could 
be. While on the bench he maintained a 
dignity that was impressive, but not repel- 
lant. Whatever he does, he does as part of 
the day's work, not hampered by any ideas 
of his greatness. He is too busy to think 
about his own personality. 



THE LABOR DECISIONS OF JUDGE TAFT. 

BY FREDERICK N. JUDSON. 

T^HE present Secretary of War, Hon. for a public office. The reason is obvious. 
^ William Howard Taft, has had the ex- The high intelligence of our American elcc- 
ceptional experience of beginning his distin- torate recognizes that the judges do not speak 
guished public career with judicial service their individual judgments, but, in the words 
on the State and thereafter serving on the of Blackstone, " are the living oracles of the 
federal bench. He was justice of the Su- law," who declare and apply the laws of the 
perior Court of Cincinnati from 1887 to land. 

1890, and among his immediate predecessors It is to be assumed, therefore, that Judge 
in that court were Hon. Judson Harmon, Taft decided cases involving the rights and 
ex-Attorney-General of the United States; duties of labor and capital, as he decided 
Hon. Joseph B. Foraker, ex-Governor and other cases which came before him, accord- 
now United States Senator. After some two ing to the law and facts as presented for 
years' service as Solicitor-General, under determination. It has not been intimated 
President Harrison, Mr. Taft was appointed that he did not declare the law correctly, or 
judge of the Circuit Court of the United, that his decisions were bad law in any legal 
States, holding that position until 1900, when sense. What, therefore, is really meant by 
he resigned to accept the appointment of the suggestion is that the law as declared 
Governor of the Philippines. in certain decisions of Judge Taft was un- 

it has been intimated from time to time, satisfactory to certain class interests. While 
though not very definitely, that certain de- this impersonal position of a judge is clearly 
cisions of Judge Taft while on the bench recognized, there is so much public interest 
were unfriendly to organized labor. Such a in questions relating to the legal rights and 
suggestion, analyzed in view of the position duties of combinations, both of capital and 
of the judiciary in our political and judicial labor, that the decisions of Judge Taft in 
system, is really an imputation upon the intel- this class of cases should be clearly under- 
ligence of the electorate. A judge does not stood, and therefore will be briefly reviewed 
make the law, nor does he decide cases ac- from a legal and not from a partisan point 
cording to his private judgment of what the of view. 

law ought to be; but he declares and applies ^^^^^ ^^ bricklayers' union et al. 
the rules of law to the facts presented as he 

finds them in the statutes or adjudged prece- The first of these opinions was delivered 
dents, the recorded depositories of the law. by Judge Taft while on the Superior Court 
It is true that our unwritten and non- bench of Cincinnati, in 1890, in the case of 
statutory law has been termed judge-made Moores vs. Bricklayers' Union et al. (23 
law. But it is only in a very limited sense, if fVeekly Law Bulletin, 48). This case is 
at all, that this expression is applicable to interesting as involving the application of 
the case of an individual judge. His per- the law to what is known as a secondary boy- 
sonality may be impressed upon the develop- cott, that is, a boycott not against an cm- 
ment of the law, as that of Judge Taft was ployer but against a third party dealing with 
doubtless impressed, by the clearness of his an employer, who is a stranger to the con- 
grasp of the fundamental principles of the troversy between the employer and employee, 
law in their application to new conditions; This was not an injunction suit, nor did 
but his opinions must be in harmony with the it involve any issue between the employees 
current trend of judicial authority, and, in and their employer, either directly or through 
the last analysis, with the advance of an en- any refusal to handle in other places the so- 
lightened public opinion. We have had fre- called " struck work " from the shop of the 
quent instances in this country where judges, employer. It was a secondary boycott pure 
after leaving the bench, have become candi- and simple, in the form of a suit for damages 
dates for public office, but very rarely have incurred by the plaintiff through a boycott by 
the judicial decisions of a judge ever been the Bricklayers' Union, declared on account 
discussed with reference to his availability of the plaintiff's selling lime to the employer, 



THE LABOR DECISIONS OF JUDGE TAFT. 



213 



Parker Bros., who had been boycotted by 
the union. This primary boycott had been 
declared against Parker Bros, by the Brick- 
layers' Union because of their (Parker 
Bros.') refusal to pay a fine imposed upon 
one of their employees, a member of the 
union, and to reinstate a .discharged ap- 
prentice. 

Parker Bros, had brought suit and had 
recovered damages before a jury in another 
court against the same defendants on ac- 
count of this same boycott (21 Weekly Law 
Bulletin, 223). Moore Bros., the plain- 
tiffs, had been awarded $2250 damages 
by the jury on account of this secondary boy- 
cott, and it was this judgment which was 
affirmed on appeal in an opinion by Judge 
Taft. This case has become a leading one 
on the law of boycotting. The right of 
legitimate competition in business with the 
incidental injuries resulting therefrom, as il- 
lustrated in the then recently decided Mogul 
Steamship case in England, was distinguished 
by Judge Taft from the case then at bar, 
where the immediate motive of injuring 
plaintiff was to inflict punishment for re- 
fusing to join in the boycott of a third party. 
Such a motive made the act malicious and le- 
gally actionable in the case of an individual 
and a fori tori in the case of a combination. It 
was said, after reviewing the English cases: 
" We do not conceive that in this State or 
country a combination by workingmen to 
raise their wages or obtain any material ad- 
vantage is contrary to the law, provided they 
do not use such indirectmeans as obscure their 
original intent, and make their combination 
one merely malicious, to oppress and injure 
individuals." 

It was further said that a labor union 
could provide for and impose a penalty 
against any of their members who refused t6 
comply with such regulations as the associa- 
tion made. They could unite in withdraw- 
ing from the employ of any person whose 
terms of employment might not be satisfac- 
tory to them, or whose action in regard to 
apprentices was not to their liking, but they 
could not coerce their employer by boycotting 
him and those who dealt with him ; that even 
if acts of this character and with the intent 
are not actionable when done by individuals, 
they become so when they are the result of 
combination, because it is clear that the ter- 
rorizing of the community by threats of ex- 
clusive dealing in order to deprive one ob- 
noxious member of means of sustenance 
would become both dangerous and offensive. 



This decision, subsequently affirmed by the 
Supreme Court of Ohio without opinion, has 
been accepted as the correct exposition of the 
law, and the secondary boycott, so-called, 
that is, a boycott against a stranger to the 
trade dispute, has been practically discon- 
tinued and abandoned by intelligent labor 
unionists as an unwise and unreasonable 
weapon in such controversies. 

TOLEDO AND ANN ARBOR ENGINEERS^ STRIKF 
OF 1893. 

The so-called labor decisions of Judge 
Taft while on the federal bench related di- 
rectly and primarily to the federal character 
of such controversies, in that they involved 
the supremacy of the federal power in the 
protection of interstate commerce. Though 
there were only two such cases decided by 
him, the decisions attracted general attention 
on account of the widespread industrial dis- 
turbances of 1893-4. 

The first of these cases was decided April 
3, i893» in the matter of the strike of the 
engineers on the Toledo and Ann Arbor 
Railroad (54 Fed. Rep., 730). The engi- 
neers on strike were members of the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, of 
which P. M. Arthur was the chief. Under 
the then rule of the brotherhood, known as 
rule twelve, the engineers in the employ of 
the connecting railroad companies, members 
of the brotherhood, refused to handle and 
deliver any cars of freight from complainant's 
road as long as the strike of the engineers 
of that road, who were members of the 
brotherhood, was unsettled. It is obvious 
that this involved practically a paralysis of 
the business of interstate commerce between 
the complainant and the defendant railroads. 
The Toledo road thereupon applied for an 
injunction against the connecting roads, al- 
leging the existence of a combination viola- 
tive of the Interstate Commerce act, prevent- 
ing the performance of their duties in regard 
to interstate commerce in the exchange of 
traffic, and asked the court to enjoin this 
unlawful interference. A motion was filed 
by the complainant for a temporary injunc- 
tion against Mr. Arthur to restrain him from 
enforcing rule twelve, whereunder the em- 
ployees of the defendant companies were re- 
fusing to handle the cars of the complainant 
company. 

The opinion of the court by Judge Taft 
was notable in its clear exposition of the 
power of a court of equity in the issuance of 
a mandatory preliminary injunction where 



214 



THE AMERICAN REk'lEW OF REVIEWS. 



necessary to prevent irreparable injury. 
" The normal condition," it was said, — " the 
status quo, — between connecting common 
carriers under the Interstate Commerce law 
is a continuous passage of freight backward 
and forward between them, which each car- 
rier has a right to enjoy without interruption, 
exactly as riparian owners have a right to 
the continuous flow of the stream without 
obstruction." Usually the status quo in the 
injunction can be preserved until final hear- 
ing by an injunction prohibitory in form, but 
where the status quo is not a condition of 
rest, but of action, the condition of rest, that 
is, the stoppage of traflic, will inflict irrepara- 
ble injury not only upon the complainant 
but the public. In such cases it is only a 
mahdatory injunction compelling the traflic 
to flow as it is wont to flow, which will pro- 
tect the complainant from injury. The form 
of the remedy must be adapted to the 
emergency, and where the continuity of in- 
terstate traffic is threatened an injunction 
mandatory in term is often the only eflEective 
remedy. 

Still more important was the opinion in its 
clear analysis of the position of employees of 
railroads engaged in interstate traffic, and 
their rights and duties as such employees 
under the Interstate Commerce act. The re- 
lation of such employees to their railroad 
companies is one of free contract, and is not 
analogous to thj^t of seamen in the maritime 
service, who, to a certain extent, surrender 
their liberty in their employment and arc 
punishable for desertion. The employment, 
therefore, in the case of railroad employees, 
was terminable by either party. The court 
could not compel the enforcement of personal 
service as against either the employer or the 
employed against the will of either. The 
court said especially was this true in the case 
of railroad engineers, where nothing but the 
most painstaking and devoted attention on 
the part of the employed will secure a proper 
discharge of his responsible duties; and it 
would even seem to be against public policy 
to expose the lives of the traveling public and 
the property of the shipping public to the 
danger which might arise from the enforced 
and unwilling performance of so delicate a 
service. While a court of equity could not 
specifically compel the performance of a con- 
tract for personal service, it did not follow 
that there were no limitations upon the right 
of employees to abandon their employment, 
— that is, as to the time and place of the ex- 
ercise of such right (sec remarks of Supreme 



Court in Lemon case, i66 U. S.), so as to 
avoid imperiling life or property. 

Though the relation of railroad employ- 
er and employed was one of free contract, 
the court also held that while the relation 
continues they were bound to obey the 
statute compelling the interchange of in- 
terstate traffic, and also bound by the orders 
of the court enjoining their employer cor- 
poration from refusing such interchange. 
A combination of the employees to refuse, 
while still holding their positions, to perform 
any of the duties enjoined by law or by the 
court upon their employer, would be a con- 
spiracy against the United States and punish- 
able as such. 

The court therefore held that 'the manda- 
tory injunction was properly issued against 
Arthur, compelling him to rescind the order 
to the engineers in the employ of the defend- 
ant directing them not to handle complain- 
ant's freight. ^ 

The engineers of the defendant companies 
had no grievances against their own employ- 
ing companies; and their refusal to handle 
freight of complainant company was in no 
sense a strike for the betterment of their own 
conditions of service, and was therefore not 
a strike but a boycott, and this would neces- 
sarily paralyze the movement of interstate 
traffic. 

The effect of this decision was far-reach- 
ing. It was the first judicial declaration of 
the duties of railroad employees in interstate 
commerce. It was followed in other circuits 
and was not only approved by the general 
public, but was accepted by the railroad 
brotherhoods as a fair statement of the law 
under the peculiar conditions of the railroad 
service. The result was the abrogation of 
rule twelve by the brotherhood of the engi- 
neers, and since that time, as was signally 
shown in the extensive railroad strike of the 
following year, the railroad brotherhoods, 
not only the engineers, but the conductors, 
firemen, and trainmen, have been conspicuous 
for their conservatism in the adjustment of 
differences with the management of their re- 
spective companies. 

THE PHELAN CONTEMPT CASE. 

In the following year, 1894, came the 
great railroad strike inspired by the Ameri- 
can Railway Union, growing out of the strike 
of the Pullman employees at Pullman, III. 
The officials of the union demanded all the 
railroads to boycott the Pullman cars, and 
declared a strike of the employees on any 



THE LABOR DECISIONS OF JUDGE TAFT. 



215 



railroad on their refusal to declare such a 
boycott. The Cincinnati Southern, an inter- 
state railway, was in the hands of a receiver, 
who had been theretofore appointed by the 
United States Court of Ohio, and the re- 
ceive^ applied to the court for protection 
against one Phelan, an official of the Amer- 
ican Union, who was engaged in inciting a 
strike among the employees of the railroad. 
There was no complaint by the employees 
of this road, a^ there had been none by the 
employees in the Arthur case, for the better- 
ment of their condition of service. The de- 
mand was that all traffic should be suspended 
and business paralyzed until all the roads 
should consent not to carry Pullman cars. 
In the words of the court, the purpose was to 
starve the railroad companies and the public 
into compelling the Pullman Company to do 
something which they had no lawful right to 
compel it to do. 

It seems that a restraining order had been 
issued by the court prohibiting any interfer- 
ence with the management of the receiver in 
the operation of the road, and Phelan had 
used language defying this order. He was 
thereupon attached for contempt, and after 
a hearing was adjudged guilty of contempt 
in an opinion by Judge Taft (62 Fed. Rep., 
803). The opinion emphasized the same 
distinction which had been pointed out 
in the Arthur case in the preceding year. 
The employees had the right to quit 
their employment, but they had no right 
to combine to injure their employer, in order 
to compel him to withdraw from a mutually 
profitable relation with a third party for the 
purpose of injuring the third party, when 
the relation thus sought to be broken had no 
effect whatever upon the character or reward 
of their services. As the purpose of the com- 
bination was to tie up interstate railroads, 
not as an incidental result of a lawful strike 
for the betterment of the employees' own con- 
ditions, but as a means of injuring a third 
party, it was an unlawful combination, vio- 
lative of the anti-trust act of 1890. It was 
also a direct interference with interstate com- 
merce. 

Thus, if Phelan had come to Cincinnati 
and had urged a strike for higher wages, or 
to prevent lowering of wages, he would not 
have been liable for contempt, but he had no 
right to incite the men to quit, when they 
h^ no grievances of their own to redress, as 
It was then esscnrially a boycott and not a 
. strike. 

It was in this Phelan case that Judge Taft, 



in determining the limits of the rights of 
labor organizations, made this lucid and nota- 
ble statement of the extent of their rights, 
which has been frequently quoted : 

The employees of the receiver had the right to 
organize into or join a labor union which would 
take action as to the terms of their employment. 
It is a benefit to them and to the public that 
laborers should unite for their common interest 
and for lawful purposes. They have labor to 
sell. If they stand together they are often able, 
all of them, to obtain better prices for their labor 
than dealing singly with rich employers, because 
the necessities of the single employee may com- 
pel him to accept any price that is offered. The 
accumulation of a fund for those who feel that 
the wages offered are below the legitimate mar- 
ket value of such labor is desirable. They have 
the right to appoint officers, who shall advise 
them as to the course to be taken in relations 
with their employers. They may unite with 
other unions. The officers they appoint, or any 
other person they choose to listen to, may advise 
them as to the proper course to be taken, both in 
regard to their common employment; or if they 
choose to appoint any one, he may order them 
on pain of expulsion from the union peaceably 
to leave the employ of their employer because 
any of the terms of the employment are unsatis- 
factory. 

This declaration of the right of organiza- 
tion and representation of labor unions hai 
been often cited and quoted in support of 
the unions, and was applied, as will be seen, 
most effectively in their behalf in the 
Wabash strike of 1903. 

The jurisdiction of the United States 
courts in the protection of interstate com- 
merce, and the supremacy of the federal 
power in such questions, were thereafter fully 
sustained by the Supreme Court of the 
United States (see in re Debs case, 158 
U. S., 564; also in re Lemon, 166 U. S. 
548). 

The reason of the prompt acceptance of 
this application of the law by Judge Taft 
was the universal recognition that a boy- 
cott by railroad employees in interstate 
commerce, as distinguished from a strike, 
was impracticable and inadmissible, in 
view of the paramount public interest con- 
cerned. It is true that in ordinary trade 
disputes the public convenience and even the 
public necessities are not always given the 
weight they should have. But wherever in- 
terstate or foreign commerce are involved 
the public interest is made paramount by the 
laws of the United States. All classes of the 
community, workingmen as well as capital- 
ists, are interested in the prompt transmission 
of the mails and in the uninterrupted passage 
of person and freight. This principle of the 
protection of commerce against interruption 



216 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



has become firmly intrenched in our juris- 
prudence. Under the law declared in these 
cases, our commerce is subject to be inter- 
rupted only by the incidental injury resulting 
from cessation of service, and not by boycotts 
or sympathetic strikes not related to the bet- 
tering of the conditions of the employees' 
service. That this principle is firmly estab- 
lished is primarily owing to the clear and 
courageous enunciation of the law by Judge 
Taft. 

THE ADDYSTON PIPE & STEEL COMPANY CASE. 

The same principle of the freedom of in- 
terstate commerce from illegal restraint de- 
clared in the Arthur and Phelan cases was 
also held by Judge Taft to apply to a business 
combination, or a " trust," in the Addyston 
Pipe & Steel Company case (85 Fed. Rep., 
271). In this case there was an allotment 
of territory, comprising a large part of the 
United States, among a number of companies 
engaged in the manyfacture of iron pipes, 
and in that territory competition was elimi- 
nated through this allotment of territory, 
and through a system of pretended bidding, 
giving an appearance of competition, at pub- 
lic lettings, when in fact there was no com- 
petition. The decision of the Court of Ap- 
peals, rendered by Judge Taft, was after- 
ward affirmed by the Supreme Court of the 
United States. His opinion is a notable con- 
tribution to the law, in its masterly analysis 
of the essential distinction between the legiti- 
mate contracts in restraint of trade, which are 
merely ancillary, or incidental, to some lawful 
contract, and necessary to protect the enjoy- 
ment of the legitimate fruits of that contract, 
and the agreements where the sole object is a 
direct restraint of competition, and to en- 
hance and maintain prices. These latter 
agreements are unenforceable at common 
law, and are violative of the anti-trust act 
when made with reference to interstate com- 
merce. 

The distinction here so clearly pointed out 
has been the basis of the construction of the 
anti-trust act by the United States Supreme 
Court in all its subsequent decisions. 

JUDGE TAFT's opinion SUPPORTS THE 
UNIONS IN WABASH STRIKE CASE. 

The words of Judge Taft in the Phelan 
case quoted above, setting forth the rights 
of labor organizations under the law, were 
directly invoked and applied on behalf of 
the labor unions in a notable case, that of 
the threatened strike on the Wabash Rail- 



road by the Brotherhoods of Railroad Train- 
men and Firemen in 1903 (121 Fed. Rep., 
563). In this case, the representatives of 
these two brotherhoods, after failing to se- 
cure the advance of wages and betterment of 
conditions demanded by the brotherhoods, 
had been forced to call a strike as their last 
resort, and thereupon an injunction was filed 
by the railroad company, in the United States 
Circuit Court in St. Louis, against the ch- 
eers of these brotherhoods; enjoining them 
from calling a strike on the Wabash, as an 
interstate railroad, on the ground, among 
others, that the officials of the brotherhoods 
were not employees of the railroad, and that 
their action in combining in calling a strike 
would be a direct interference with interstate 
commerce, and was therefore an unlawful 
conspiracy. 

The rights of organization and the rights 
of representation, as set forth by Judge Taft, 
were thus directly involved. The writer 
represented those brotherhoods in the hearing 
on the motion to dissolve the injunction 
granted in this case, and used the above 
quoted statement of Judge Taft as the most 
lucid and effective defense of the action of 
the brotherhoods and their officials. The 
Court (Judge Adams) found from the evi- 
dence that there was an existing dispute 
about the conditions of service on the rail- 
road, and that the officials of the brotherhoods 
had been directed by the members of the 
brotherhoods to call a strike; that they had 
a right to be represented in such matters by 
their own officials, and that the two unions 
had a right to act in unison in their effort to 
secure the betterment of the conditions of 
their members, that an agreement to strike, 
under those circumstances was not an un- 
lawful conspiracy, and the injunction was 
thereupon dissolved. It was said in the 
opinion that on the subject of the organiza- 
tion of labor, and the right of labor .unions, 
no one had spoken more clearly and accepta- 
bly than Judge Taft, in this language above 
quoted. (After the dissolution of the in- 
junction, the differences between the railroad . 
and its employees were amicably adjusted, 
and the threatened strike was averted.) 

Thus, while the law was declared by 
Judge Taft as to the limitations upon the 
lawful action of labor unions, the essential . 
principles involved in the right of organiza- 
tion were also announced by him in the same 
opinion. This right of organization of work- 
ingmen in the unions would be futile without 
the right of representation by their own offi- 



THE LEGISLATURES AND THE RAILROADS. 



217 



cials in the cflFort to secure the betterment of 
their conditions. The remedies adopted by 
workingroen, sometimes mistaken remedies for 
the enforcement of their rights, such as the 
closed shop and the boycott, are only weapons 
for the enforcement of the fundamental right 
of collective bargaining for the common bene- 
fit. There is no foundation, therefore, for 
the suggestion that the decisions of Judge 
Taft were in any sense unfriendly to labor, 
and it is clear that through his lucid declara- 
tions of the rights of labor the railroad broth- 
erhoods secured the judicial vindication of 
their right of combination and of representa- 
tion in their demands for the betterment of 
their conditions. 



While these important decisions were ren- 
dered by Judge Taft, declaring the freedom 
of interstate commerce from illegal combina- 
tion both of labor and capital, the limitations 
upon the rights of organized labor, as well 
as the essential principles involved in the 
right of organization for the betterment of 
their conditions, it would be an imputation 
upon the brilliant judicial record of Judge 
Taft to suggest that in any of these opinions 
he declared the law as a friend of any class, 
or that he made any judical utterance in any 
of the cases otherwise than as a living oracle 
of the law, bound to declare, in every case 
brought before him, not his own private 
judgment, but the judgment of the law. 



THE LEGISLATURES AND THE RAILROADS. 

BY ROBERT EMMETT IRETON. 



There must be just and reasonable regula- 
tion of rates, but any arbitrary and unthinking 
movement to cut them down may be equivalent 
to putting a complete stop to the effort to pro- 
vide better transi>ortation. — President Roosevelt, 

TX/'HEN the President of the United 
States thus admonished the nation at 
large in his address at Indianapolis on Memo- 
rial Day, it is obvious that he had in mind 
the anti-railroad crusades in the several 
States during last winter. Never in the his- 
tory of railroad legislation have our transpor- 
tation sy-stems run counter to a campaign so 
comprehensive, widespread, and disturbing as 
the general trend of "regulation" in almost 
every State Legislature in session during 
1907. It seems as if a legislative tempest 
against the railroads had been unloosed si- 
multaneously in more than thirty States upon 
a given signal. The welcome accorded it by 
our lawmakers is inexplicable, unless we are 
prepared to admit that our Government, as 
has been charged frequently, is one of im- 
pulse. On this hypothesis it is readily un- 
derstood. 

Thirty-five States, in all, attempted to 
enact lau-s reducing freight or passenger 
rates, establishing railroad commissions, in- 
creasing the powers of existing commissions, 
regulating car service, demurrage, safety ap- 
pliances, block signals, free passes, capitaliza- 
tion, liability for accidents to employees, 
hours of labor, blacklisting, strikes, etc. 
Scarcely a department or single activity in 
railroading was overlooked. Not all proVed 



successful; but a sufficient number of new 
measures found their way into our various 
State statutes to assure us that our lawmak- 
ers were engrossed with the railroad prob- 
lem, and, further, that they intended to 
teach their victims and, incidentally, certain 
critics, what adequate State control meant. 
In quantity, at least, their output is com- 
mendable. 

Certain causes undoubtedly Contributed to 
this harvest of restrictive legislation not in- 
separable from the railroads themselves. For 
years it had been their custom to. grant re- 
bates to favored shippers and to discriminate 
against persons and localities. Convictions 
under the Elkins act for such oflEenses were 
rare until President Roosevelt bestirred him- 
self. Then they came thick and fast. The 
people and the press learned more of rail- 
road iniquity and double-dealing in two 
years than either had previously known in 
a generation. Investigations into the affairs 
of -certain prominent railroad systenis were 
followed by convictions and heavy fines, and 
finally by a federal law enlarging the pow- 
ers of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 
Shocking revelations of graft among the em- 
ployees of a railroad supposed to be above 
suspicion, disclosed about a year ago, and 
shameful discrimination in car service, fur- 
ther heightened the indignation of the peo- 
ple against the methods prevalent in general 
railroad administration. 

Popular discussion added to this state of 
public feeling, and this was intensified by 



218 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REyiEVVS. 



the freight-car shortage of last year. To 
make matters worse, an aflErighting series of 
accidents, with appalling fatalities, seemed 
to clinch the case against the railroads and 
add to their delinquencies that of criminal 
negligence. Thus, at the beginning of 1907, 
the people had weighed the railroads and 
found them (i) wanting in obedience to 
law and fair dealing, (2) unable to handle 
the country's business, (3) tainted with dis- 
honesty and graft, and (4) grossly indif- 
ferent to the safety and security of passen- 
gers. 

Resentment was kindled to a white heat 
at this time and restrictive measures were 
proposed. But the hour of reprisal had not 
yet come, and the patience of the people, 
everything considered, was more than the 
railroads had any right to expect. Indeed, 
it was almost ultra-human. Reason still 
prevailed; but other forces were to triumph 
and to threaten with a consuming wrath the 
railroads' prosperity. Convicted at the bar 
of public opinion of dishonesty, incompe- 
tence, and negligence in its physical admin- 
istration, it only remained to bring home to 
the transportation system the suspicion of 
unfairness in its financial transactions. 

Last February the Interstate Commerce 
Commission gave the people an insight into 
the devious methods of modern railroad 
finance, by which a few financial manipu- 
lators, through an adroit readjustment of 
the securities of a certain railroad, using 
another road as a speculating machine, pro- 
fited to the extent of millions of dollars at 
the expense of the public. Convinced 
through this • disclosure that the railroads 
were morally oblique and lost to all sense 
of common honesty and decency, the dis- 
heartened and disgusted conservatives were 
powerless to avert the radical crusade that 
followed. To the charges against the rail- 
roads, that of " public plunderer " was 
added, and the work of retaliation and repris- 
al started, under the sage direction of ambi- 
tious politicians, doubtless, who never miss an 
opportunity to corral a majority. Local con- 
ditions and a rankling hostility for the dis- 
continuance of free passes to legislators are 
additional links in the cTiain of circumstances 
responsible for this era of ** regulation." 

The railroads had sown the wind and 
now they are reaping a whirlwind of ad- 
versity, distress, and embarrassment. * While 
they have brought it upon themselves in 
great degree, the severity and thoughtless- 
ness of this campaign are not beyond the 



pale of criticism. The movement was too 
sweeping, and altogether too sudden, to ad- 
mit of opportunity for that economic con- 
sideration and debate which the vital im- 
portance of the transportation problem, and 
its myriad inter-relations, demanded. With 
very few exceptions, the attitude of the legis- 
lators responsible for reduced railroad rat« 
seemed to spring from a desire to legislate 
first and reason later. To enact a law that 
would cripple the railroads and leave to 
the latter the task and cost of its judicial in- 
terpretation seems to have been an ideal per- 
formance of duty. This, of course, is inde- 
fensible. , 

WRONGS TO INVESTORS. 

Uniformity was sought without discrim- 
ination or foresight. Railroads in densely 
populated districts and those in sparsely set- 
tled rural localities were given alike a two- 
cent* rate. Worse than this: roads of dif- 
ferent earning power in the same State were 
assigned a level rate. The prosperous and 
well-established road and the struggling pio- 
neer were bracketed, — to sink or swim. 
Equality is equity, but it looks like confisca- 
tion in such cases. Those who have invested 
in properties thus affected and menaced have 
a right to redress under the constitutional 
guaranty of due process of law for such an 
attempted deprivation. To the public, like- 
wise, is this a hindrance and a wrong. Tend- 
ing to discourage investment, it arrests rail- 
road development, when the same is urgently 
needed in view of our expanding commerce 
and industry, while it clogs industrial prog- 
ress by stifling individual initiative. No con- 
siderate and advised approach was made by 
the lawmakers, and, doubtless, much of their 
work will be nullified by the courts, leaving 
as its net result a damaged railroad credit. 

REAL PROGRESS IN SOME OF THE STATES. 

But all of their work was not wasted. 
Real constructive legislation was enacted in 
many States in regard to corporate control, 
safety appliances, block signals, working 
hours, rights of emplojrees, railroad mergers, 
valuation, capitalization, publication of rate 
schedules, etc., while in the States of South 
Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, and 
Wisconsin the rate question was given fair 
and temperate consideration. In South 
Carolina the Senate negatived a bill for a 
tvvo-and-one-half-cent rate, and instead of 
assuming the guilt of the railroads, appointed 
a committee to investigate discriminations. 



THE LEGISLATURES AND THE RAILROADS. 



219 



South Dakota authorized its commission to 
establish a maximum passenger rate of two 
and one-half cents a mile, and, in addition, 
instructed it to ascertain the actual cash 
value of railroad property in the State on 
which to base equitable rates. Pending this* 
ascertainment, it is not expected that the 
commission will enforce a reduction. 

LEGISLATURE VERSUS COMMISSION. 

Tennessee refused to pass a bill reducing 
passenger fares, because there was no public 
demand therefor, and, further, " in view of 
the fact that the railroads in Tennessee were 
not earning from their passenger traffic, in 
proportion to the trains run, as much as the 
average in the United States." Wisconsin's 
action is contradictory. When the commis- 
sion ordered the roads to adopt a two-and- 
one-half-cent fare the latter acquiesced. An 
attempt to enact a flat two-cent rate passed 
the House, but was defeated in the Senate 
on June 14 by a vote of 21 to 6. On July 
1 1 , however, a two<ent fare bill was adopted 
by the Senate by a vote of 9 to 8, Lieutenant- 
Governor G>nnor casting the deciding ballot. 
Having been approved by the Governor this 
treasure will become effective on August 15. 
At this writing there is much dissatisfaction 
expressed over the Senate's action. In the 
opinion of the railroad commission a two-and- 
onc-half-cent rate is the lowest the passenger 
traffic will bear. A comprehensive Public- 
Service law was enacted in this State and is 
descnbed elsewhere in this number of the 
Review of Reviews by Professor Com- 
mons. 

Arizona, Florida, and Maine had meas- 
ures before their legislatures to reduce pas- 
senger rates, but the same were not success- 
ful. Texas had almost one hundred railroad 
bills presented for its consideration, and one 
was a measure to reduce passenger charges. 
It failed to pass, but may become a law at a 
spcdal session. New York adopted a two- 
cent bill, but it succumbed to the Governor's 
veto. A Public-Utilities bill, promoted by 
Governor Hughes, generally regarded as the 
most comprehensive and far-reaching meas- 
ure for corporate regulation ever adopted in 
any State, became a law. Kentucky, Louisi- 
ana, and Maryland had no legislative ses- 
sions; and California, Connecticut, Dela- 
ware, Idaho, Massachusetts, Mississippi, 
Rhode Island, Utah, and Wyoming gave 
little or no consideration to restrictive rail- 
road legislation during the recent sessions. In 
those States no hostility to the railroads was 



shown, save that in Massachusetts a resolu- 
tion was adopted calling for an investigation 
into railroad passenger fares, w^ith a view to 
their uniformity and equalization. The re- 
port must be submitted to the next General 
Court on or betore January 15, 1908,- and 
some steps may then be taken. 

California's action shines in marked con- 
trast with most of her sister States. The 
Sacramento lawmakers passed a law which 
reads: *' Every railroad corporation has 
power to regulate the time and manner in 
which passengers and property shall be trans- 
ported, and the tolls and compensation to be 
paid therefor, within the limits prescribed by 
law and subject to alteration by the Legisla- 
ture. To regulate the force and speed of 
their locomotives, cars, * * * and to 
establish, execute, and enforce all needful and 
proper rules and regulations for the manage- 
ment of its business transactions usual and 
proper for railroad corporations." This gen- 
erosity must have prostrated the railroads! 

LOWER FARES IN TWENTY-ONE STATES. 

An analysis of the general results shows 
that passenger fares were either actually re- 
duced or affected in twenty-one States : Ala- 
bama, Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, Illinois, 
Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Minne- 
sota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, North 
Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Penn- 
sylvania, South Dakota, Virginia, West Vir- 
ginia, and Wisconsin. Two-cent rates now 
prevail in Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, Min- 
nesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, 
and Wisconsin; and in Ohio, since 1906; 
two-and-one-half-cent rates in Alabama 
and North Dakota. North Carolina has 
established a two-and-one-quarter-cent rate; 
West Virginia, a two-cent rate for railroads 
over fifty miles in length; Iowa, a sliding 
scale of from two to three cents per mile; 
Michigan, a two, three, and four-cent rate; 
Kansas, Maryland, and Mississippi, two-cent 
rates for mileage books ; the railroad commis- 
sions of Georgia and South Dakota have been 
authorized to establish a two-cent and a 
two-and-one-half-cent rate, respectively; and 
Oklahoma specifies in its new constitution a 
maximum charge of two cents for passenger 
fare. Virginia's Corporation Commission has 
adopted a two-cent rate for trunk lines, a 
three-cent rate for minor roads, and a threc- 
and-one-half-cent rate on one or two lines. 
Kansas may adopt a flat two-cent rate on the 
supposition that what is remunerative in Ne- 
braska should prove equally remunerative in 



220 



THE AMERICAN REl/IElV OF REVIEWS. 



Kansas! Georgia's Legislature is !n session 
as we go to press. 

OTHER NEW LEGISLATION. 

Freight charges were lowered in many 
States. The Commodity Freight Rate law of 
Minnesota is probably the most scientific and 
equitable, and is being used by many Western 
roads as a basis. Commissions in other 
States have adopted it as a model. 

Laws prohibiting free passes were enacted 
in Alabama, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Min- 
nesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, 
New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Da- 
kota, and Texas. 

Eleven States created railroad commis- 
sions: Colorado, Indiana, Michigan, Mon- 
tana, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, 
Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Ver- 
mont. Sixteen others gave increased power 
to existing commissions, apart from rate reg- 
ulation: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Illi- 
nois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, 
Nebraska, New Hampshire, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, 
Washington, and Wisconsin. 

Montana's new commission held its first 
meeting at Helena on July lo, and declared 
the freight and passenger rates now in force 
to be the maximum rates hereafter to be 
charged, with the exception of a coal rate on 
the Great Northern and a lumber rate on 
the Northern Pacific, which will be fixed 
by agreement after consultation with the 
roads. 

RESULTANT LITIGATION. 

Suits have been instituted to test the legis- 
lation recently adopted in Alabama, Georgia, 
Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Ne- 
braska, Nevada, North Carolina, Pennsylva- 
nia, and Virginia. The railroads in Arkan- 
sas, Kansas, Michigan, and Wisconsin are 
giving the new rates a trial; similarly, in 
Illinois, for ninety days, after which suit will 
be filed if the laws are confiscatory. 

In Missouri the State and federal courts 
became involved and by agreement the two- 



cent law went into operation for ninety days 
from June 19. After its practical results arc 
known the federal court will pass on its con- 
stitutionality. A similar conflict between 
State and federal authority has been precipi- 
tated in Nebraska by the filing of counter 
suits; while in North Carolina, Judge 
Pritchard, in the United States Circuit 
Court at Asheville, has enjoined the enforce- 
ment of the new laws on evidence presented 
by the railroads, and has ruled that the lat- 
ter had established a prima facie case of at- 
tempted confiscation. The State Railroad 
Commissioners have been called upon to re- 
but the same, and evidence is now being 
taken by a special master in chancery. 

Following this action in the federal court, 
a State jurist has instructed the grand jury 
at Raleigh to indict every violator of the 
new law, holding that only the State appel- 
late courts could assume jurisdiction in 
appeals on State indictments, in the first in- 
stance, and that federal injunctions did not 
run against such process. The press of 
North Carolina is insistent on the enforce- 
ment of this law by State officials, despite the 
action of the federal court, and its status is 
decidedly complicated and uncertain. 

That the railroads will fight some of these 
laws to the end is a foregone conclusion. 
Probably the chief battles will be waged in 
Missouri, Minnesota, North Carolina, and 
Pennsylvania. If successful in their efforts 
therein, in all likelihood suits will be pressed 
in every other State in which these lau-s arc 
being enforced. On the wisdom of their 
course much depends. Before carrying the 
fight too far the carriers should bear in mind 
its possible aftermath, and the action of the 
railroads in Ohio, Wisconsin, and Arkansas, 
in accepting the reduced rate laws, is im- 
portant in this connection. The movement 
for railroad regulation and control, — 
whether inspired by resentment or reason, — 
is everywhere manifest and determined, and 
seems to have the backing of the American 
people. Recession is no part of their present 
programme. 



THE WISCONSIN PUBLIC-UTILITIES LAW. 



BY JOHN R. COMMONS. 

(Professor of Political Economy in the University of Wisconsin.) 



'Y'WO States in 1907, New York and Wis- 
consin, enacted laws to regulate pub- 
lic utilities. The contest in New York was 
spectacular and attracted national attention, 
because the law was drafted under the di- 
rection of the Governor and forced through 
a reluctant Legislature without amendment. 
The law in Wisconsin was the product of 
prolonged legislative deliberation. This was 
possible because the period of contest over 
the control of corporations had culminated 
t\vo years before in the movement led by 
Governor La FoUettc. As a result of that 
contest the Legislature of 1907 was the first 
one elected under the direct-primary system 
of nominations without the intervention of 
party conventions, and it would have been 
difficult to find a half-doa^n members who 
took orders from anybody. 

Another result of that contest was the 
Railroad law of 1905, which had established 
the principle of regulation through a commis- 
sion appointed by the Governor and had 
worked out the procedure and authority of 
that commission. This law was described by 
the present writer in the Review of Re- 
views for July, 1905. What remained for 
the Legislature of 1907 was simply to bring 
all other public utilities under the same com- 
mission and to deal with the questions of 
franchises and the relation of municipal gov- 
ernments to the State commission. This was 
facilitated by the fact that the existing com- 
mission, appointed two years before by Gov- 
ernor La Follette, had the confidence of all 
parties and interests on account of the ability 
and moderation of its members. This had 
been shown especially in their decision, after 
thorough investigation, placing passenger 
fares at 25^2 cents at the time when other 
States without investigation placed them at 2 
cents. The Wisconsin and New York laws 
are alike in that both State utilities like rail- 
roads and municipal utilities like gas are 
brought under the regulation of the same 
commission. They differ from the laws of 
Massachusetts, which provide a separate com- 
mission for railways. These three States, 
however, are the only ones that regulate 
mimidpal utilities through a State commis- 



sion. Many other States have railroad com- 
missions, but they leave whatever regulation 
they have of local utilities to the local gov- 
ernments. 

Another condition that made possible the 
Wisconsin law of 1907 was the Legislative 
Reference Department at Madison, with its 
staff of lawyers, investigators, and statis- 
ticians, and its ability to lay before the law- 
makers the experience of other States and 
countries and the advice of experts. 

The Public-Utilities bill was introduced 
three times by the Assembly Committee on 
Transportation during the six months' ses- 
sion of the Legislature of 1907, — first as a 
rough skeleton, next as a comprehensive bill, 
and last as a completed law. After each in- 
troduction extended hearings were held by 
the joint committee of the two houses. The 
public-utility corporations, through their 
State associations, appointed committees 
whose members attended the hearings and 
were enrolled as lobbyists, as required by law. 
The cities of Milwaukee and Madison were 
represented by their city attorneys, and one 
member of the joint committee. Senator 
Lockney, was also city attorney of Wau- 
kesha. The detailed work of the joint com- 
mittee was conducted by Senator George B« 
Hudnall and Assemblyman' C. F. Stout. 

The law as finally adopted consists really of 
three laws : First, an amendment to the Rail- 
way law of 1905, placing telegraph companies 
and street railways under the same provisions 
as steam railways and interurban electric lines ; 
second, the Public-Utilities law proper, regu- 
lating heat, light, water, power, and tele- 
phone companies; third, a Street-Railway 
law providing for indeterminate permits simi- 
lar to those of the Public-Utilities law. A 
fourth bill, requiring physical connection and 
prohibiting • duplication of telephone ex- 
changes, was defeated by a vote of the As- 
sembly. By separating the measure into four 
bills the committee was able to allow for 
differences in the treatment of different utili- 
ties and to prevent the opposition of one class 
of utilities from defeating the measure as a 
whole. The wisdom of this procedure was 
shown in the defeat of the fourth bill. 



222 THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 

property represented by the capitalization. 

THE FIRST STEP.-PHYSICAL VALUATION. P ^P^g, thj Wisconsin Wea of physical valu- 

A significant feature of the Wisconsin leg- ation as the starting point, every citizen can 

islation is its disregard of stocks and bonds determine for himself just as well as the com- 

and its reliance on the physical valuation of mission whether the rates and fares charged 

the property as the first step in regulation, by the corporations are yielding an excessive 

The New York law and the Street-Railway profit. Publicity of this kind will force the 

law of Massachusetts attack the problem of commission to act and to reduce the rates if 

regulation through the control of future capi- profits are excessive, or to vindicate the cor- 

talization. The New York commissions porations if the profits are reasonable, 

have power to prohibit the issue and trans- It is this feature of the law which nullified 

f er of stocks, bonds, and other evidence of in- the argument of the Social-Democrats and 

debtedness, and to prevent the transfer of some Democrats that the munidpalities in- 

shares to holding companies. The Wiscon- stead of the State commission should be given 

sin law begins at the other end of the prob- the power to regulate rates and charges, 

lem and, for the purpose both of regulation Conceding, as they did, that a State commis- 

and of publicity, inquires into the present sion should ascertain the values and regulate 

structural value of the property. This does the accounts in order to have uniformity, it 

not mean that the commission shall disregard makes practically no difference whether the 

other elements of valuation, — in fact, it Is municipal council or the State commission 

required by the law to take all elements into regulates the rates. Neither one could reduce 

account, as indeed the courts would require the rates below a fair profit as decided by the 

if it did not. But the physical valuation is courts, and either one would be forced by 

necessary in order that the public and the public opinion and political agitation to rc- 

courts may know exactly how much is al- duce excessive rates to fair rates. With the 

lowed for the other elements. The com- additional fact that the municipality is one 

mission is required to value all of the prop- of the parties in interest, the conclusion neccs- 

erties in the State and to publish both the sarily follows that the regulation of rates 

actual value ascertained when all elements should be left to the State conunission. The 

are taken into account and the physical value municipal council as well as associations of 

ascertained by its engineers. The principle citizens are given full power to require the 

had been adopted in the Railroad law of State commission to investigate and act. 

1905 and it required no argument to adopt securikg uniformitv of accounts. 
It m the Public-Utilities act. 

In this respect the law goes beyond any A further element of publicity is the corn- 
existing law and carries the idea of publicity parative analysis of accounts for all public 
to its logical conclusion. Accompanied by a utilities reduced to the standard unit of prod- 
complete system' of uniform accounting with uct. In this respect the law is an advance 
special precaution as to depreciation and con- on any legislation in this or other countries, 
struction accounts, every person in the State The commission is required to publish in its 
may know at the end of each fiscal year ex- annual reports these comparative statistical 
actly the rate of profit which each company tables, and this will do for all public utilities 
or municipality has made on its actual prop- what in England is done for the gas undcr- 
erty invested. This is a protection both to takings by the private publications known as 
the corporation and to the public. Nearly " Fields' Analysis " and the " Gas World 
every State commission created in other States Analyses of Accounts." The commission, 
to regulate corporations has sooner or later however, has an advantage over private edi- 
fallen under the control of the corporations torship, because it prescribes and supervises 
supposed to be regulated. The reason ap- the accounts of the companies and municipali- 
pears to lie mainly in the fact that essential ties so that the comparisons shall be abso- 
elements of publicity have not been required, lutely uniform. By this provision the dti- 
The commissions have been able to hide be- zens of each locality will know all the items 
hind closed doors. Even with the power to of cost and profit involved in furnishing each 
control the issues of stocks and bonds the thousand feet of gas, or kilowatt of dec- 
commission cannot go behind the existing tricity, or thousand gallons of water, corn- 
capitalization, but can control only the future pared with the cost and profit in other locali- 
issues for extensions and improvements. The ties. It is an interesting comment on the 
public is not ip formed of the true cost of the neglect of this essential method of publicity 



THE IVISCONSIN PUBLIC-UTILITIES LAW. 



223 



by the Massachusetts Gas and Electric Light 
Commissioners that the recent law governing 
the Boston gas company requires that com- 
pany to publish a similar analysis of accounts 
in one of the daily papers, but without the 
supervision of the commission. Such publf- 
cation lacks verification and of course is not 
accompanied by comparisons with other com- 
panies. The Wisconsin law seeks to remedy 
both of these defects of the Massachusetts 
law and to carry out the idea of publicity so 
that every citizen can easily comprehend the 
accounts. 

ENCOUR-AGING PRIVATE INITIATIVE. 

The most serious objection to govern- 
mental rate regulation is its probable damag- 
ing effect on enterprise and initiative and on 
the investment of capital for extensions and 
improvements. If profits are excessive they 
are likely to be reduced without regard to 
whether they are the legitimate reward of 
enterprise or the illegitimate plunder of 
monopoly. The Wisconsin law attempts to 
meet this objection in various ways. It pro- 
vides for the " sliding scale," profit-sharing, 
or other devices that may increase the profits 
on condition of reducing the prices. The 
commission is authorized to investigate and 
sanction such devices if reasonably. Herein 
the law is elastic enough to offer opportunity 
for ingenuity and experiments that may com- 
bine the principle of State regulation with 
that of private initiative. Certain private 
managers are already planning to come for- 
ward and to submit schemes for approval 
under this section of the law, and there is 
no reason why municipalities might not also 
introduce devices to reward municipal man- 
agers in proportion to reduction in costs. 

The law also requires depreciation to be 
made good by means of the charges paid by 
consumers, and of course gives full credit for 
construction out of new capital. Physical 
valuarion and public accounting make this 
provision definite and precise. Furthermore, 
the detailed comparative statistics of unit 
costs mentioned above enable managers to 
keep posted and to improve their own man- 
agement wherever deficient. The commis- 
sion will do for all properties what a trust 
does for its several properties, — hold each 
manager up to an exact comparison with 
every other manager. In this respect both 
municipal and private ownership will gain. 
Finally, as a prod to enterprise, the law, after 
giving complete protection to capital legiti- 
mately invested,, seeks to base its tenure on 



good behavior. This is done through an- 
other feature of the law, the substitution of 
" indeterminate permits " for limited fran- 
chises. 

THE INDETERMINATE PERMIT IN PLACE OF 
THE LIMITED FRANCHISE. 

An indeterminate permit is defined as .the 
right to continue in business until such time 
as the municipality exercises its option to 
purchase the property at a just compensation, 
determined by the State commission. Any 
corporation operating under an existing fran- 
chise is permitted to Surrender it and to re- 
ceive by operation of law an indeterminate 
permit, agreeing thereby to sell to the mu- 
nicipality as provided and to waive the right 
to insist on the fulfillment of any contracts 
regarding rates or services which might be 
set up as a defense against the orders of the 
State commission. The corporation gets m 
return protection against unnecessary com- 
petition, to be decided by the commission, on 
the part of either another corporation or a 
municipal plant. This does' not apply to tele- 
graph or telephone companies. The inde- 
pendent telephone interests, now operating 

•nearly one-half of the telephones in the State, 
are permitted to go ahead and finish their 
State system of competition in all localities. 
The State and not the municipality in their 
case is looked upon as the unit. Had the 
Legislature proceeded to restrict further tele- 
phone competition it would have been com- 
pelled to order physical connection and in- 
terchange of business and joint rates between 
competing companies, aiid the objections to 
physical connection were so influential that 
the Legislature declined to order it. 

The indeterminate permit is the logical 
outcome of rate regulation. This was shown 
by the curious manner in which it was 
adopted for street railways in the last days of 
the session. The Railroad law of 1905 was 
intended to include interurban electric lines, 
but they wei^ defined as electric lines oper- 
ating in more than one township or city. In- 
advertently, perhaps, this brought nearly 
every street-car company under that law, be- 
cause nearly all of them have suburban ex- 
tensions. At any rate, the railroad commis- 
sion assumed jurisdiction in the case of the 
Milwaukee street-car company and pro- 
ceeded to make a physical valuation and to 

•examine its accounts on petition sent in by 
the municipal council for better service and a 
3-cent fare. In order, howcfver, to make its 
position certain, the commission asked the 



224 



THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF RE^IEIVS. 



Legislature to amend the law either by adding 
street-cars or by striking out electric lines. 
Since the street-car companies made no ob- 
jection the Legislature practically decided 
early in the session to add them by amend- 
ment to the Railroad law. 

Meanwhile, in the Milwaukee case, it was 
known that the street-car company would set 
up the plea that, since its franchise expires in 
twenty-seven years, it is entitled to a sinking 
fund that will wipe out its capital of some 
$30,000,000 at the end of that period. If 
this were allowed, as it probably would be, 
then a 5-cent fare would be necessary. 
Thereupon the city attorney of Milwaukee 
appeared before the committee and asked 
that the indeterminate permit of the Public- 
Utilities bill, applying only to light, heat, 
water, and power, be applied also to street 
railways. This would eliminate the sinking 
fund and make a 3-cent fare possible. Since 
the Public-Utilities bill was then on its final 
passage the committee decided simply to in- 
troduce a new bill composed of the sections 
relating to indeterminate permits adapted to 
street railways. In this way the Legislature, 
starting out on the platform of all political 
parties opposed to perpetual grants and favor- 
ing short-term franchises, ended by permit- 
ting all existing franchises to be extended in- 
definitely. The logic of rate regulation had 
exposed the fallacy of trying to protect the 
rights of the public by cutting off one of the 
main incentives of private enterprise. 

MUNICIPAL OWNERSHIP. 

On the other hand, the Legislature sought 
to protect the rights of municipalities by en- 
larging their powers of purchase, ownership, 
and operation. A law enacted some years 
ago prohibiting the, construction of a muni- 
cipal plant in competition with a privrate com- 
pany is repealed so far as existing franchises 
are concerned. Municipailities are given 
authority to construct, purchase, own, and 
operate utilities except telephones and street- 
cars. The companies agree, as a condition of 
the indeterminate permit, to sell their prop- 
erties to the municipality at any time at " a 
just compensation " ascertained by the State 
commission. This feature of the law, as 
finally adopted, is problematical, because it 
is uncertain whether " a just compensation " 
may not include payment for franchise 
value. The phrase was proposed by the 
corporation lobbyists, who claimed that 
without it they could not induce capital 
to invest and could not therefore come 



in under the indeterminate permit. Yet 
both they and the lawyers of the Legis- 
lature concluded that an indeterminate per- 
mit has no franchise value. Just compcnsa-* 
tion, however, as construed by the courts, 
may include other elements of excessive valu- 
ation which will make municipal purchase 
impracticable. The law, in fact, though pro- 
viding for municipal ownership, is not a 
municipal-ownership measure. It is strictly 
a measure for the regulation of utilities, 
whether operated by municipalities or com- 
panies. The municipal-purchase feature is 
looked upon merely as asserting the principle 
that the corporations hold their positions on 
good behavior. 

FULL CONTROL OF RATES AND CHARGES. 

In the regulation of rates, fares, and 
charges the Wisconsin legislation marks an 
important advance on that of New York 
and other States in the fact that the com- 
mission fixes the rates absolutely and not 
merely the maximum rates. It is as much an. 
offense for a corporation to charge less as it 
is to charge more than the rate set by the 
commission. This is designed to prevent dis- 
crimination, but the commission is required 
to make a comprehensive classification of 
services for each utility, in which it may take 
account of the quantity purchased, the time 
when used, and* any other condition that rea- 
sonably* justifies a difference in the rate per 
unit of service. Thus discriminations arc 
authorized, but they must be open and rea- 
sonable and must be established only after 
public investigation. 

By the enactment of this law the railroad 
commission becomes to the fullest extent a 
public-service commission. Every public 
utility in the State, except streets, highways, 
and bridges, is brought within its jurisdiction. 
It becomes also a local government board, for 
it regulates towns, villages, and cities in their 
management of these undertakings. Its 
authority is great and far-reaching. It cm- 
ploys experts and agents and fixes their com- 
pensation, and can draw on all of the unap- 
propriated money in the State treasury. It 
enters into the daily life of the people more 
than all other agencies of government com- 
bined. This will become more evident as 
time goes on, for under its control is placed 
the development of the enormous water 
power of Wisconsin, which eventually, 
through electricity, will h'ght the streets and 
houses and furnish motive power to operate 
railways, factories, and possibly even farms. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



GOVERNMENT BY IMPULSE. 



POLITICAL orators exercise a mystic 
sway over most peoples, but the enchant- 
ment of the human voice is singularly com- 
plete over the average American audience. 
We love the thrilk it calls forth, the impulses 
it radiates, and we love the orators because 
they make us enthusiastic. This fondness 
for the stimulant of declamation is a mild 
manifestation of our national psychology of 
impulse. We patronize disgusting yellow 
journals for the same reason, and ignore self- 
respecting newspapers. And, in a measure, 
this is true of art, of literature and of the 
drama. We carry our impulses to the polls 
and reward charlatans and demagogues with 
o£Bce. Consequently, we debar men of great 
executive ability from public office. We have 
created ** parties " through impulse, and have 
conferred upon them the privilege of run- 
ning a device known as the Government. 

To assist us the better in this impulsive 
undertaking we have developed a complex 
party system, with party orthodoxy, tradi- 
tions and tyrannies that play vpon the entfre 
gamut of human, feelings. We control our 
parties through " politicians," who secure 
power through votes, and whose daily task 
is the invention of cunning devices for catch- 
ing voters. Disraeli said that his country was 
governed by Parliament, not by logic; we 
can affirm that ours is governed by politicians, 
not by postulates. In our play to control the 
votes of the people we haye two parts: the 
"organization," secret and sinister; and the 
" spectacular," composed of orators, hand- 
bills, and great headlines in party papers. 
Human impulses must be converted into po- 
litical majorities, and, with the aid of the 
orator, the politician succeeds in so doing. 
This dual power is almost irresistible. If the 
voters stopped to reason, the " bosses " would 
starve; but, thanks to our impulsiveness, our 
reason is lulled and the politicians thrive. 
** In any case, whether convention or con- 
gress, legislature or council, the power of the 
dual forces is revealed," says Mr. Samuel P. 
Orth, in the July Atlantic Monthly. " You 
sec the subtle strength of the boss intrenched 
behind the voters who have allowed them- 
selves to be deceived by the noisy emissaries 



of the machine, — voters who have been ruled 
by impulse, not by reason." 

It was so in the days of the Federalists and 
Anti-Federalists, the primordial political par- 
ties in America. Washington was elected 
with practical unanimity, but with his elec- 
tion it ceased. Burr converted Tammany in- 
to a violent and vicious political machine, and 
in Philadelphia gentle Quakers partook of 
the general excitement that moved the punc- 
tilious Puritans of Boston. An abounding 
commercial prosperity following the War of 
1812 brought a lull in the strife of national 
politics; but it could not last. Andrew Jack- 
son appeared upon the scene and again there 
was turmoil. Indeed, the records of political 
struggles of earlier times reveal more dis- 
creditable outbreaks of impulse than what we 
experience to-day. Barriers to suffrage and 
office, property tests, religious tests, etc., were 
common in many States. It was all part of 
the politicians* game to stir human prejudices 
and passions, and the party slogans prove this. 
"Turn the rascals out!" which defeated 
Adams; " Fifty- four forty or fight! " which 
defied reason ; ** The re-annexation of Texas 
and the re-occupation of Oregon ! " " Let 
well enough alone!" and "Stand pat!" of 
the present day, are illustrative. 

Clay, Webster, Calhoun, Cass, Blaine, 
and Reed were all victims to national im- 
pulsiveness. Clay was defeated five times 
for the Presidency, three times at the polls 
and twice in convention, because of the fol- 
lies and prejudices of the people. This sen- 
timentalism and impulse enter the council 
chambers of the State and infest the legisla- 
tive halls. Party rule does not cease with the 
election. A few cases are on record where 
personal judgment ruled in times of unus- 
ual public agitation, — such as Washington in 
averting war with England and refusing all 
solicitations for a military alliance with 
France, and Hayes' indorsement of specie 
payment resumptions. " Indeed," says Mr. 
Orth, " it is such sound and unbiased service 
as this that in the ultimate issue alone saves 
the Republic from a cataclysm of sentimental- 
ism and impulse." Our lawmakers are too 
shortsighted. They interpret clamor for de- 



226 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



mand, and if all the acts passed in frenzy, to 
please the people, were erased from the stat- 
utes our folios would shrink to octavos. 

The legislative body lies nearest the voter, 
and is the least stable of our divisions of gov- 
ernment. The executive office is less mobile, 
but election by the people makes it amenable 
to their impulses. The one division that rep- 
resents conservative wisdom is the judiciary. 
It is the conserving force of the Union. 
When impulse and thoughtlessness sway the 
populace the judiciary remains amenable to 
reason. " Our Supreme Court is a unique 
and magnificent tribunal, and we can easily 
believe that it was conceived in a moment of 
inspiration, so that its unbiased wisdom 
might guide the destinies of the Republic." 
Our Government thus ranges all the intervals 
between impulse and reason, but we should 



strive for a just subordination of one to the 
other. If universal liberty and suffrage lead 
to impulse and unreason it is but an incident 
in the glorious reality of self-govemmtnt, — 
as sound as the common sense of all the peo- 
ple, and as weak as the prejudices and im- 
pulses of the masses. 

When the profound depths of human con- 
victions are aroused the people do not err. 
Their ultimate judgment of right and wrong 
is sound. " To broaden the influence of rea- 
son in our plain Anglo-Saxon natures, to 
teach the virtue of moderation to abide with 
the virtue of courage, becomes the hard task 
of the patriotic citizen. Then the natural 
political propensities of the American people 
will become a noble rivalry of intelligent 
conviction, not a foolish and destructive war- 
fare of blind partisanship." 



IS UNIVERSAL PEACE POSSIBLE? 



M. 



GABRIEL HANOTAUX, one cf of the movement to bring about disarmament, 
the French Academy Immortals, and so assure the peace of the world. Like 
contributes an article to the Revue Heh- others who have treated the same subject, M. 
domadaire (Paris), in which he discusses Hanotaux confesses that there can be cited 
with his usual effectiveness the pros and cons no specific arguments against a jcustom which 

has subsisted since the beginning 
of time, and that all deductions 
must hinge on a personal bias one 
way or the other. He also relates 
the opinion expressed by Bismarck 
to Crispi, to wit: "Disarmament 
is not. possible, and even if armies 
were all reduced to an equal foot- 
ing, the principle of inequality, in 
the matter of offensive or defens- 
ive power, or ability . to strike, 
would still remain.** Says M. 
Hanotaux: 

All the world agrees that peace is 
desirable. Fighting has become less 
prevalent among human beings than 
It formerly was, and it remains to be 
seen whether legislation can do for 
nations what it did for common law 
and order. What the pacificists ask 
is peace organized and sanctioned. — 
almost, indeed, imposed, — as being tlic 
only course consistent with modern 
ideals of civilization and human prog- 
ress. Ten years ago it was inter- 
national arbitration that was in 
vogue, that constituted the all-suffic- 
ing remedy. It was found, however, 
THE HAOTJE coNPERKNCE. that \\\ arbitration, the question of the 

Bertha von Spttner : •• Do not toaso tho boast ! It will bite ! " sanction applicable {sancxrc^ to bind >. 

Germany and Franco aro dopfctod as irritating tho oonfor- was the most dlttiCUlt thmg to decide: 

ence, while England and Italy look on in amnsomont. how were the arbiters to impose 

From M'ahre Jacob (Stuttgart). their decisions and who was to decide 




LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



227 



as to the qualifications of the arbiters? At the 
Hague Conference of 1899 it was decided that 
the conscience of the nations was an appraisable 
quantity and that the conscience should be the 
guide.* Some* nations accepted the notion; others 
withdrew their adhesion. Nevertheless the 
Transvaal War and the Russo-Japanese War 
took place without the intervention of the con- 
science of the nations. Still the court of arbi- 
tration exists, but with nothing like its original 
potentiality. 

M. Hanotaux is of the opinion that the 
pacificists, if they do not produce better and 
more effective results, are in a fair way to 
falling into universal derision. To bring a 
bevy of diplomatists together who shall de- 
liver themselves of grandiloquent platitudes 
addressed to the goddess Irene, only to re- 
turn to their capitals subsequently to com- 
mission their war ministers to increase their 
armaments, would be simply to invite the 
laughter of the human race upon the acts of 
the conference, and to make of the Peace 
Palace a colossal monument to pitiless mock- 
ery. At least let the deliberations aim at 
being spcdfic ; if laws are to be evolved, let 
the laws be explicitly stated. Says the 
academician : 

Let us see what the problem of disarmament 
involves. According to the pacificists they in- 
clude diminution of pttjl^c and private expenses, 



abolition of the ruinous and illogical system of 
armed peace and, of course, the question of 
slaughter. Bismarck would appear to have given 
the absolutely correct answer to the idea of 
limiting armaments by means of international 
engagements and pledges, when he told Crispi 
that there is no means of establishing a system 
of proportion between countries, at least one 
which shall neutralize points of superiority and 
inferiority. Big states will remain big states, 
little states will remain little. . Moreover, the 
limitation of armaments will create in favor of 
the strong, and to the detriment of the weak, 
a right of interference. Every nation will have 
its eye upon its neighbor, and will want to knov/ 
how much powder, how many cannon it has in 
its arsenals. Recriminations, reproaches, dis- 
cussions, and denunciations will follow thick 
upon each other, and the big nations alone will 
rejoice, since they will have every legal oppor- 
tunity of interfering in the affairs of the little 
countries. In limiting force, the law of obliga- 
tion will also be limited, and those whom obliga- 
tions bind will cease to care for the rights of 
others. 

Is this question of universal peace to be 
relegated, then, .to the realm of chimeras? 
No, says M. Hanotaux ; the cause is not lost, 
provided that the present conference be prac- 
tical in producing measures which shall lead 
to international understandings. If it can do 
this it will have accomplished much, — as 
much, indeed, as can be expected of it. 



r 

1/ ■ 

IS RUSSIAN 



REFORM IMPOSSIBLE? 



'T'WO European publicists of note have, in 
current magazines, seriously considered 
the question as to whether Russia can really 
be reformed or not. These publicists are M. 
Lcroy-Beaulicu, the French economist, who 
has just returned from a professional trip to 
the Czar's dominions, and Signor laccarino, 
one of Italy's best-known travelers and 
ethnographers. Both writers virtually con- 
clude that the real and practical crisis of the 
Russian revolution is yet many generations 
distant, and in perusing the two articles one 
is conscious of a certain note of pessimism 
which suggests that Russia is a country in 
which a high degree of political civilization 
is the remotest of contingencies. It was to 
the Paris Institute of Political Sciences that 
M. Leroy-Bcaulieu lectured on the present 
situation in Russia. The economist takes 
exception to the view that Russia is likely to 
regain her position in Europe by reaffirming 
her autocratic principles and methods. He 
says: 
"In Russia, as elsewhere, absolutism and 



autocracy are anachronisms, and although the 
present government pretends to maintain her 
position theoretically, she is so enfeebled that 
her autocracy is dying of inanition. It was 
the chief blunder of the Russian absolutists 
that they thought they could raise a Chinese 
wall between their own country and western 
Europe and prevent all notions of liberalism 
and freedom from penetrating. This capita! 
blunder, added to the fact that Russia could 
initiate no timely reform for the country and 
the ever-growing populations, is responsible, 
more than any other event, for the troubles 
m which she finds herself to-day. Had she 
given the people a participation in their own 
government in the first day^ of the present 
Czar's reign the country would have been at 
peace at present. As it is, political construc- 
tion of any permanent kind has been thrown 
back at least two generations." 

In order to demonstrate the lack of real 
cohesion among the people, M. Leroy-Beau- 
lieu relates that at the opening of the first 
Duma many of the more intelligent mujiks 



228 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEW OF REVIEWS. 



pointed out the Japanese representative as 
the " real liberator of Russia," and that when, 
in the course of the war, he (M. Leroy- 
Beaulieu) expressed at a Moscow popular 
club his hope that victory might smile upon 
Russian arms, he was curtly informed that 
good Russians did not want victories, but, 
rather, defeats, as being the surest guaranty 
to the people that the day of constitutional 
government would be brought nearer. " A 
final triumph," they declared bitterly, 
" would only have the effect of throwing 
back for twenty-five or even fifty years the 
liberal reforms which our defeats are bound 
to bring about." 

The national half-heartedness displayed at 
so critical a period as the late war, M. Leroy- 
Beaulieu insists, has had the effect of prac- 
tically rupturing the Franco-Russian alliance. 
There is no longer any confidence in it, either 
on the part of the French or on the part of 
the Russian Conservative party, which looks 
upon France as the nursery of revolutions. 
There are not wanting some who assert that 
France was the very cause of what has been 
called the Russian Revolution, and it is for 
this reason that Russia is to-day trying to 
arrange a better understanding with her old 
rival, England, her virtual isolation being 
now a fact. According to the French econ- 
omist, the ascendency of the Conservative 
party is assured for " the next thirty years, 
not to say fifty," and the popular factions 
have, as matters stand, little chance of at- 
taining a full measure of constitutional or 
representative government. 

Signor laccarino, writing in the Rwista 
d* Italia (Rome) starts out with the alarm- 
irtg assertion that the effects of the recent 



war between Russia and Japan have entirely 
destroyed that balance of power which for 
the past thirty-five years has assured the 
peace of the Old World. It has had the 
effect, he says, of involving both Europe and 
Asia in all future political moves. 

With so many religions, nationalities; with 
the ever-active usury of some 5,000,000 Jews; 
with aspirations for autonomy in Finland, Cau- 
casia, Bessarabia, and Poland, what superhuman 
strength shall he possess who can bring order 
out of such chaos and reconcile all conflicting 
aspirations? Could it be otherwise than that a 
country so heterogeneous in its composition 
should remain forever the home of the conspira- 
tor, the revolutionary, and the senseless anarchist ? 
Peoples so different can never look upon them- 
selves as equals, and those who really desire a 
better future for Russia must seek not to destroy 
the imperial power, but to assure to each ethnical 
group the means of working out its own salva- 
tion according to the methods most suitable to 
it and in accordance with all modem exigencies. 

Unlike the majority of publicists, the 
Italian thinks that there is no race on the 
earth which is so much predisposed to social- 
ism as the Slav race, nor any more practical- 
ly coUectivist. In this lies the best hope of 
Russian reform, since it will be possible to 
co-ordinate all the various elements on a 
basis which, however material, also possesses 
in it something of the sentimental. Reform 
for Russia must first start with a propaganda 
of national unification, only possible, it is 
clear, owing to the diversity of the elements 
on the basis of a community of national in- 
terests being established. A just division of 
the soil will bring about a national sentiment 
which will, in its turn, consolidate Russia as 
an effective unit among . the great world 
powers. But, says the Italian, that day is 
far from ours. 



V 



THE RUSSIAN DUMA AND OUR CONGRESS. 



IN a recent issue of the monthly magazine 
of St. Petersburg Istoricheski Vyestnik 
{Historical Messenger), published by the 
well-known reactionary, A. Suvorin, the 
owner and editor of the Novoye Vremya, 
Mr. Matrossov, one of his constant con- 
tributors, endeavors to find fault with 
our Republic and its Congress by draw- 
ing a parallel between the latter and 
the Russian Duma. It is evidently an 
inspired article, written in the interests 
of the autocratic ministry, which, after 
the dissolution of the second Duma, is 
trying to find an excuse for returning 



to the old regime. A general comparison 
is made as follows: 

The United States Congress is the representa- 
tive body of a republic assumed to be the freest 
in the world, legislating for a nation apparently 
at the height of its political might and industrial 
prosperity, amid conditions of what seems like 
profound internal peace. The Russian Duma, on 
the other hand, is the house of representatives 
of a constitutional monarchy, where the nation, 
through a long and painful process of social 
evolution bordering on revolution, is barely 
struggling up the steep grade of a constitutional 
life. The Duma has yet to conquer for itself its 
own political competency and that amid a bloody 
mist darkening the country. This divergence, 
however, is more apparent than real. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTR 



229 



The United States, regarded as pre-emi- 
nently the Republic, " the greatest democracy 
of the world," is really, says this writer, less 
democratic than Great Britain or Holland, 
and is at the present time the greatest plu- 
tocracj' in the world, " with pronounced ten- 
dencies to engage in political^ adventures." 

The power invested in the President, consti- 
tutionally at least not less than in reality far ex- 
ceeds the power of a constitutional monarch. 
He can veto any legislation by Congress. A 
concurrence of a two- thirds majority in each 
house of Congress is necessary to pass a jaw 
over the President's veto, — a procedure, which, 
with the usual relative strength of parties preva- 
lent in Congress, turns out to amount to a mere 
jus nudum. Add to this the President's right to 
submit legislation to Congress, to call an extra 
session of either one or both houses, to adjourn 
them in case they disagree as to the date of ad- 
journment, and you have the imposing sum total 
of constitutional prerogatives for the old-fash- 
ioned President. The Chief Executive of the 
modern school, not satisfied with this modicum, 
considerably widened his legislative domain. 
Leading Senators and Congressmen are invited 
to the White House, and at a family luncheon 
or dinner are drafted into the President's serv- 
ice 'to promote in Congress his pet legislation, by 
enlisting in their turn a sufficient majority in 
both houses. With the advance column well 
drilled, comes the official message itself, recom- 
mending legislation. The so-called independent 
has repeatedly protested against this unconstitu- 
tional drawing-room influence on legislation, but 
in vain. 

ITiis, says the Russian writer, is sufficient 
to show that as regards the relations existing 
between the President and the United States 
House of Representatives, in the real power 
and importance of the latter as well as of the 
lower houses of European parliaments, let 
alone Great Britain, ** there is no essential 
diflFerence between them so as to exclude al! 
comparison between legislative activity of the 
Russian Duma and that of the lower house 
of Congress." A comparison of the two from 
a constitutional standpoint, — that is, their 
functions as determined on paper, — is omitted 
here, as it can have only an academic interest. 
The profound peace and prosperity of the 
country amid which the United States Con- 
gress u'orks, Mr. Matrossov continues, is 
illusor>% 

The frequent general strikes, the bloody col- 
lisicms of ivorkingmen and Socialists with the 
police, the savage reprisals of the so-called coal, 
iron, and railroad police and other minions in 
the pay of capitalists, the massacres of negroes 
and all other forms of industrial warfare and 
oppression and race hatred, all this points to 
deep social unrest and forbodes revolution. 

The high level of culture, the tactfulness, 
executive ability, and perfect suavity of the 




CZAE NICHOIJkSAND THE DUMA, — IN THBBB CHAPTEB8. 

He tried to coddle the first Duma and humor it. 
The second he was content to try to lead. The third 
he will ride and break. 

From Vlk (Berlin). 

officials and employees of all ranks connected 
with the American House of Representatives 
service are striking by contrast with the " un- 
due severity and carping fault-finding of 
Baron Osten-Sacken, chief of the guard of 
the Taurida Palace, his assistant, the notori- 
ous Ponomarov, ensign of the gendarmerie, 
not to speak of the lower ranks with their 
annoying, pestering rudeness and utterly mis- 
placed executive zeal." 

The men running the elevators in the United 
States Capitol are sometimes highly educated and 
with some political past. The employees of the 
electric- lighting and steam-heating plants of the 
Capitol surpass their Russian confreres by their 
efficiency, experience, and salary. Messengers 
and employees of the House of Representatives 
differ still more from the employees of the same 
kind in the Duma. The Russian messengers, 
hall-boys, guard, or any other employee about 
the Taurida must perform all kinds of errands, 
be a jumping- jack for every one of higher rank. 
The American employee has strictly defined 
duties, e. g., to issue books to the public from 
the record room of the House, care of committee 
rooms, mailing of official matter of certain mem- 
bers or committees. The Congressional post- 
office and the barber shop are conveniences un- 
known in the Duma. Tampering with Con- 
gressmen's mail, as was done with the mail of 
deputies of the Duma, is unthinkable. Congress- 



230 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



men frequently abuse their right of ** franks.*'— 
e. g., mailing free of postage, under the guise of 
** public documents," articles of furniture, uten- 
sils, pianos, and even dairy-cows. Such abuse 
of their privileges on the part of federal legisla- 
tors of ** the greatest democracy " may appear 
improbable to a Russian; the facts, however, 
have been established by a searching investiga- 
tion conducted by a jonit committee appointed 
by the House and the Senate. 

The Secretary of the Duma and the clerics 
of the House, nominally performing the same 
functions, diflPer widely in several respects. 

The secretary and his assistant are elected 
from the members of the Duma, serve with- 
out salary, and work under the supervision 
of the president. The Russian secretary, ac- 
cording to his functions, is simply a trans- 
mitting agency, an intermediary between the 
groups of Dumaists introducing bills, and 
the Duma itself or its committees. The 
American clerk of the House is a Congress 
official, appointed by the Speaker, with a 
salary of $5000 a year, and is the head of a 
whole staff of clerks of the House Office. 



These clerks' salaries range from $900 to 
$3000 a year. In comparison with the slender 
pay-roll of the Duma office, as drafted by the 
budget committee of the Duma or " the beg- 
garly propositions to this effect made in full 
session, the above amounts seem immense." 

There is very little in common between the 
names and jurisdictions of the committees of 
the Duma and the fifty-one committees of 
the House. The following are the names of 
some of the Russian committees: On Inter- 
pellations, Freedom of Conscience and In- 
violability, the Budget, Famine Relief, the 
Unemployed, Drumhead Courts-Martial, 
Auditing, Finances, Agrarian Affairs, Ex- 
amination of .the Duma Mail, and six sec- 
tions of the Committee on Credentials. 

The secretaries of the Duma committees, 
like their chairmen, are chosen from among 
their members, while the clerks of the House 
committees, in the United States Congress, 
are also the private secretaries of their chair- 
men, with an ample salary. 



PROPOSED REFORMS OF THE FRENCH MARRIAGE 

LAWS. 



TN France there is a pronounced movement 
in favor of more liberal marriage laws; 
Indeed, there are not only at Paris, but also 
in the provinces, even many advocates of the 
union libre, or common-law marriage. In 
response to these tendencies, expressive of the 
demands of the radical French democracy 
for greater individualism, the French Minis- 
try of Justice has instituted a commission to 
revise the French marriage laws. The work 
of this commission, together with the various 
aspects of the marriage question in France, is 
discussed in yjord und Siid, by Dr. Ludwig 
Fuld. 

Before the French Revolution divorce was 
unknown to the French law. When the 
Constitution of 1791 formulated the propo^' 
sition that marriage Is a contract, laws were 
promulgated permitting and regulating di- 
vorce, In agreement with the liberal ideas of 
the time. Subsequently Napoleon exercised a 
great influence on the regulation of the mar- 
riage laws, also recognizing divorce in his 
Code civile. After the Restoration divorce 
was abolished, separation from bed and board 
being substituted therefor. This obtained 
down to 1884, and the social conditions aris- 
ing therefrom furnished endless material for 



most of the novels and plays of the period. 
Although the evil consequences of that 
measure were thus laid bare by some of the 
foremost men of the nation, it was only in 
1884 that new divorce laws were framed, 
restoring within certain limitations divorce 
as laid down in Napoleon's Code civile. 
These new laws again have inspired some of 
the masterpieces of French literature. The 
historian Sorel asserts that they have under- 
mined the stability of marriage to an alarm- 
ing degree. Among the novelists Paul Bour- 
get condemns divorce on principle, holding 
it responsible for the deterioration of the peo- 
ple, while the two brothers, Paul and Victor 
Marguerite, demand even more liberal di- 
vorce laws, denouncing the continuation of 
the marriage bond when love has ceased as 
Immoral, and espousing the rights of the in- 
dividual as against the state and society. 
Hervleu, a member of the commission; 
Brieux, and others, urge a modified reform 
of the marriage laws. Hervieu's proposition, 
that love should be classed in the Code civile 
among the duties incumbent upon husband 
and wife, was made the butt of the comic 
papers. 

The commission has proceeded far enough 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH, 



231 



in its work to indicate the aim and scope of 
the proposed revision. The writer in the 
German review says in reference to this: 

The propositions to be laid before the Parlia- 
ment make far-reaching concessions both to 
feminism and to individualism. The reaction 
of individualism, in which must be included the 
so-called aestheticism, against the doctrine of 
the sacritice of the individual to the well-being 
of the community at large, has made extraordi- 
nary progress in France, and to this it is chiefly 
due that a large portion of the French people, 
especially the women, call for more elastic di- 
vorce laws, which are incompatible with the 
idea that marriage represents a bodily and 
spiritual union that may terminate only with 
the death of either the husband or the wife. 

The commission has declared itself in 
favor of ** trial marriage," in that it proposes 



a law permitting divorce after a trial period 
of two or three years, on the ground of in- 
compatibility. This is a harking back to the 
liberal laws of the time of the first French 
Revolution, which, however, finally led to 
unions coming perilously near to free love. 
Strangely enough, many women approve of 
this proposition, although they would be the 
first to suffer from the evil consequences of 
a relaxed morality. The commission further- 
more proposes to give to the married woman 
complete control of her own property. This 
is an immense step in advance over the present 
Code civile, under which a wife is absolutely 
under the tutelage of her husband in all busi- 
ness matters. 



THE REVOLT OF THE FRENCH MIDI. 



QEVERAL articles in the current French 
reviews dealing with the crisis in the 
French wine industry enable the American 
reader to understand the causes which have 
led to the uprising of the wine-growers in 
the South of France. 



terprise in the South of France. The worst 
part of the business is that all this miser>' 
has not been brought about by the vic- 
tims of it, but that it is the consequence 
of fraud. 
. Both this writer and Francis Marre, who 



In the Grande Revue M. Paul* Pelisse says has an article in the Correspondent on the 
that never at any time in PVench history has sanrie subject, quote statistics to show that 
there been such a rising of the people for there is no over-production of natural wine, 
purely economic reasons. It is a revolution, Before the appearance of the phylloxera the 
some will say. No, says the writer; per- production was indeed higher than it is at 
emptory a r g u - 
ments from men 
dying of hunger. 
Since IQCX), when 
the crisis began 
to be felt, there 
have been all 
manner of con- 
gresses and depu- 
tations to minis- 
ters, with little 
result. After the 
phylloxera, the 
worst enemy of 
the wine-grower, 
has come the 
cheapening of 
sugar. Disaster 
has followed dis- 
aster, the land 
has depreciated, 
and the Credit 
Foncier will not 
assist any new en- 




THE LEADERS OF THE WINE REVOLT IN FRANCE. 
(Marcellln Albert the second figure from the left.) 



232 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



present. The markets are glutted with wine 
adulterated with water and sugar in its man- 
ufacture. The law, says M. Pelisse, must 
set limits to the amount of water which may 
be used ; but as regards the use of sugar the 
Legislature can do nothing, owing to the 
complicity of the government of I903» which 
favored the introduction of sugar in the man- 
ufacture of wine in order to balance its 
complicated budget. 

As one remedy M. Pelisse suggests that 
when sugar is used as alcohol it ought to be 
taxed as alcohol. The mere suppression of 
adulteration with water and sugar would not 
suffice to dispel the crisis; more abundant 
distillation should be encouraged. 

WHY THE GOVERNMENT HAS FAILED. 

M, Marre says there is still such a thing 
as unadulterated wine. He explains how 
much the chemist can do by analysis, but he 
says there are anomalies in the law which 
should be removed forthwith. The Cham- 
bers have omitted to furnish the government 




TllK ARBK 



r.rMlTlK. THE CIKRH AI, MTMBKR OF THB 
iHAMHKK OK I»K1'ITIKS. 




(Declarlnj: his party's laok 
ministry 



i)f conlidonoo In the 



From L'llhistnitiun (Tarisi. 



•* YOr, MONSIEUR CLEMENCEAU, HAVE BEEN A LITINQ 
CONTRADICTION TO THE MIDI." 

(The Socialist deader In the French Parliament. 
M. Jaur^s, accusing the Premier of bad faith toward 
the wlne-growers.j 

From L'lUuatration (Paris). 

with the means to enforce the law as to adul- 
teration. But though Parliament has not 
voted sums to defray the expenses of analysis 
in the laboratories, the Minister of Agricul- 
ture has placed certain sums at their disposal. 
Unfortunately, however, no laboratories were 
at first qualified to examine properly the sam- 
ples seized, and now only a few exist. There 
are, in fact, still fifteen French departments 
in which the suppression of food adulteration 
is not possible. When a parliamentary com- 
mission demands the immediate rigorous en- 
forcement of the law relating to fraud, it 
asks a thing absolutely impossible, since the 
analytical laboratories do not know either 
officially or legally how to detect adulteration 
by water. 

The commission defines wine as the liquid 
exclusively obtained by fermentation from 
the juice of the fresh grape. Such a defini- 
tion condemns all forms of adulteration, in- 
cluding water and sugar. But much more 
is necessary- than a correct definition. Aa 
the measures proposed and adopted are futile 
so long as the state laboratories are not put 
in possession of the legal means which will 



lad 



Leading articles of the month. 



233 



enable them to iadopt methods by whfch all frauds resembles a famous horse which had 
fraud wherever jit exists will be condemned, every good quality and only one defect, — 
French legislation in regard to the wine namely, that of being dead. 



RED AND BLACK" iN MODERN FRANCE. 



**\X7'E will try to determine the contrasts 
that have ruled France during the 
last decade," says Ragnvald Moe in the in- 
troduction to an analysis of the present 
French situation which appears in Samtiden 
(Christiania), "contrasts that are not new, 
but have asserted themselves periodically 
throughout the nineteenth century, but which 
have now divided the nation as never before. 
For the French nation is torn up; the great 
nation which knew so well how to amuse 
itself has become restless, uncertain and grop- 
ing, dissatisfied with itself, and dissatisfied 
with the old' forms." 

Mr. Moe points out that the troubles of 
France are universal, and that the country is 
still largely representative of the civilized 
world, but in this fact the Frenchmen find 
no longer any consolation. They are tired of 
being the political experimentation field for 
the rest of the globe. They realize that they 
have been fighting for others, and benefiting 
others, not themselves. 

The most serious feature of the difficulty 
seems, according to the Norwegian writer, to 
lie in the growing inclination, among his- 
torians and politicians alike, to regard the 
dividing contrast as so deeply rooted that, in 
fact, it split the nation into two wholly 
incompatible and irreconcilable parts, — a 
" red " France and a " black " France. From 
being political it has become psychological, 
even such writers as a Fustel de Coulanges 
fears. 

Then the opinions of one after another of 
the French historians are examined by Mr. 
Moe, from Tocqueville to Aulard. In all 
the same thought and the same fears are 
found mirrored. Tocqueville traces the diffi- 
culty back to the ancient regime, which he 
holds responsible for the tendency toward 
extreme centralization and administrative 
guardianship which characterizes modern 
France. Quinet goes still further, tracing 
the roots of France of to-day down to the 
later Roman empire. 

What is called le Bos Empire, with its un- 
whoksome ideas of the state, with its craving 
for unity and authorit>r, with its leveling and 
extermination of all distinctions, ha*? passed into 
the French people, first through direct inheri- 



tance, next through the Catholic church, and 
finally through conscious imitation by jurists 
and statesmen. 

To Renan the cause of all the trials of his 
country appeared to lie in the suppression of 
the Germanic element, which stood for indi- 
vidual liberty, by the Gallo-Roman element, 
with its supreme re^^ard for reason and ab- 
stract right. The revolution only fastened 
down and systematized what was a fact when 
it broke out, and thus the nation has become 
merely an aggregation of bricks, without 
liberty or initiative left to the individual 
member, 

Taine took the same idea and worked it to 
its utmost consequence, until he established 
the absolute identity of the radical of to-day 
with the, Jacobin of loo years ago. The 
worship of the abstract lies at the bottom of 
it all, and the result is the establishment of 
the abstract state, with no right of existence 
left for the individual except as a duly fitted- 
in member of that state. Mr. Moe continues: 

Tainc lacks the sense for objective historical 
development, however ; that is, he conceives this 
development as completed. He is a historian as 
well as a psychologist, but he deals with his sub- 
jects in the spirit of a paleontologist. Man or 
an epoch are to him equally an ossification, a 
fossil remnant of something that once lived, 
of which each successive phase turned to stone, 
settling down layer upon layer, but so that each 
layer, from the first to the last, contained the 
entire spirit of existence. 

Having applied his method to the revolu- 
tion, Taine, according to Mr. Moe, applied 
it to Cathohc France, only to find the same 
spirit on that side as on the other. His con- 
clusion was that the two forces opposing each 
other were one at the bottom. The " red " 
side started out to fight for the principle of 
individual liberty, but was, by psychological 
conditions, forced into a struggle for the es- 
tablishment of a principle of tyrannical au- 
thority, — a principle which is and has always 
been that of the church. The two -opposed 
parties may differ as to means ; each one may 
want to exclude the other from power, but 
their aim is the same: establishment of com- 
plete unity based on a central tyrannical 
authority. 

To this common idea P. Seippel, another 



234 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RByiEWS. 



noted historian, has given the name of " the 
principle of moral unity," while to the men- 
tal attitude determining it and determining 
the fate of all France, according to his view 
also, he has given the name "the Roman 
mind." He finds salvation, however, in a 
" third " France, which he sees in the com- 
mon people, the workingman and the peasant, 
who go on laboring and building up the na- 
tion without patience or heed for the quarrels 
of " the two brawlers above." Mr. Moe 
questions the existence of such an element 
wholly free from the dividing spirit. He 
gives as important contributing causes of re- 
cent events in France the voluntary with- 
drawal of Liberalism from the fight between 
the two extremes and the absence of a na- 
tional institution around which the people 
can gather regardless of minor differences. 



The main disturbing facto: lies to him in 
the contrast existing within 4e state itself: 
its authority being lodged \\ a parliament 
which i$ at once the historical heir and mod- 
ern exponent of the principle of central au- 
thority, and the expression of the popular 
determination to apply modcni principles of 
self-government. To him the situation of 
France in this respect is the situation of 
every other European country, although 
nowhere else the problem is brought to 
an issue so sharply and so clearly. He 
believes that the problem will be solved, 
because in France men have the faculty 
of forgetting their own selves in the ser- 
vice of great ideas. He thinks, too, that 
sharp as the split is between " red " and 
" black " France, there is no unbridgable 
chasm between them. 



FORTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF 
CONFEDERATION. 



CANADA'S 



A S the present year of grace marks the for- 
^^ tieth in the life of the neighboring Do- 
minion, it is not cause for wonder that Cana- 
dian periodicals should refer to the progress 
made since confederation at length. In the 
Canadian Magazine for July (which appro- 
priately might be styled a ** Confederation " 
number), there are four distinct contribu- 
tions on this subject : " The Fathers of Con- 
federation," by Mr. John Lewis; "Journal- 
ism at Confederation," by Mr. J. E. B.,Mc- 
Cready; " Vicereines of Canada," by H. V. 
Ross ; and " Canada's Possibilities and Per- 
ils," by Mr. John Maclean. 

These separate papers are replete with his- 
torical interest, not alone for the Canadian, 
but for the American or the European who 
would know something of the Dominion of 
Canada's past history and present outlook, 
and would prefer to peruse it in brief narra- 
tive sketches of its leading statesmen, to- 
gether with an outline of its journalistic 
progress, rather than glean the same from un- 
inspiring official facts and figures. Mr. 
Lewis devotes much space to a presentation 
of Sir Etienne P. Tache, probably Canada's 
most famous statesman before confedera- 
tion ; and to Macdonald* Brown, Tilley, 
Mowat, Tupper, and Langevin. Sir A. T. 
Gait, who advocated a federal union as early 
as 1858; D'Arcy McGee, the brilliant young 
Irclander, and Sir George Cartier, also re- 
ceive distinguished mention. 



" To whomsoever we may assign the chief 
credit for bringing about confederation," 
says he, " two faces in the picture [an ac- 
companying illustratioa] stand out as those 
of the men who had most to do with work- 
ing out the system. They are Sir John Mac- 
donald on the federal side, and Sir Oliver 
Mowat on the provincial side. Macdonald 
was at the head of affairs from 1867 to 1873, 
and again from 1878 to his death in 1891. 
Mowat was Premier of Ontario from 1872 
to 1896. Those were formative years, years 
in which the bounds of federal and provin- 
cial authority were settled, and the machin- 
ery of the government put in working order." 

While Canada was discussing the terms of 
confederation the roar of the guns of our 
own Rebellion was sounding in her ears. 
'* That this was done peacefully," says he, 
" detracts from the picturesqueness of our 
history, for it would tax the powers of a 
Macaulay to make the report of a debate in 
Parliament as thrilling as the battle of Get- 
tysburg. Yet there is something worthy of 
thought and study in the very fact that con- 
federation won for us in a peaceful way what 
other countries have won by civil war and 
wars of conquest, — freedom, union, and 
great expansion of territory." 

The difficulties confronting Canadian 
statesmen forty years ago were many. Racial 
and religious issues were added to the neces- 
sity of establishing new channels of trade, 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



285 




THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 



for reciprocity with the United States had 
been abrogated, and war with this country 
seemed ever imminent. A mere strip of terri- 
tory in the midst of the continent, it was 
not then a country stretching from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific. These disadvantages 
were faced, however, and to-day, after forty 
years' trial, Canada's constitution is worlring 
well and is a good instrument of government. 

At the time of the formation of the Do- 
minion no daily paper therein had a circula- 
tion of 15,000. AH told there were not 
more than* a score of papers published, — 
twelve in Ontario and eight in Quebec. Af- 
ter confederation the maritime provinces had^ 
their own journals, and their number in 1874 
was eight. Canadian dailies total more than 
one hundred to-day, and their aggregate cir- 
culation has increased fifteen-fold since 1867. 
Journalism, however, at that date was a 
great power, and has not since produced more 
forceful writers : In Ontario, George Brown, 
William McDougall, John Cameron, James 
Beatty, and Thomas White have had no suc- 
cessors of greater ability and few equals as 
editorial writers. In Quebec, Edward Goff 
Penny, D'Arcy McGee, and John Dougall 
wielded trenchant pens; while Nova Scotia 
had William Annand, E. M. McDonald, 
William S. Fielding, John G. Bourinot, 
George Johnson, and Martin J. Griffin. Liv- 
ingston, Elder, and Anglin are names fa- 
mous in New Brunswick's newspaper his- 
tory, and Whelen, Laird, and Lawson in that 
of Prince Edward Island. 

While the newspapers have been enlarged 
and improved, the status of the leader-writer 
has declined. At confederation, says Mr. 
McCready, the leading journals were all 
strongly partisan; the independent newspa- 
per had hardly yet come into being. Colora- 
ble and favorable reports of public men and 
events appeared in " party " organs, and vice 
versa. Telegraph service was limited and 
costly, and letters took the place of the tele- 
graphic reports of to-day. Pen pictures in 
those days anticipated the plate pictures of 
statesmen nowadays. New members of Par- 
liament were always objects of attraction and 
curiosit)', and this was notably true of Donald 
A. Smith, John C. Schultz, Amor De Cos- 
mos, big Bunster, and long-haired Thomson, 
of Cariboo. There were few voters beyond 
the Great Lakes in 1871. 

Because " business " is at present bigger 
than politics it has absorbed many of the Do- 
minion's ** big " men. This, he contends, ac- 
counts for the fact that journalism and poli- 



tics ^orty years- ago attracted more men of 
foremost ability than is the case to-day in 
Canada. Newspaper men were ofttimes as- 
saulted by aggrieved members who had been 
criticised or caricatured severely. The 
writer himself narrowly escaped upon one or 
two occasions, so the pace could not have 
been a very tame one. He closes his sketch 
with an anecdote at the expense of the press 
gallery. It was the custom of that body to 
select from the House membership one to 
wKorn was accorded the title of the " Wick- 
edest Mart in the House." Upon occasion 
the choice of the scribes was one " Blagdon." 
When the telephone was first introduced a 
connection was made with a church in Otta- 
wa from the reporter's gallery and the pencil 
wielders were invited to test the apparatus 
on the following Sunday. They did so, and 
a solemn stillness and awe fell upon them 
as they heard for the first time the sounds of 
the organ, — as \i from an unseen world. 
Waiting for the opening invocation to follow 
in the clear, reverent voice of the pastor, they 
were considerably amazed to hear the harsh, 
coarse voice of Blagdon ! " There was no 
more solernnity after that." 

Mr. Maclean appraises the Dominion's 
possibilities and points out its disadvantages, 
but, on the whole, reaches optimistic ton- 
elusions. With boundless wheat fields, large 
orchards, extensive forests, fine fisheries, im- 
mense mineral deposits and coal areas, large 
cattle, sheep, and horse ranches, and marvel- 
ous iron ore deposits, only a prophet could 
predict the growth of the country in the next 
fifty years. Capital and energy alone are 
needed for the development of these wonder- 
ful resources. In 1867 the population was 
only 3,500,000 ; to-day it is 6,500,000. Over 
200,000 immigrants arrived last year, repre- 
senting forty nationalities. Fifty different 
languages are spoken in Canada, and during 
the past nine years, of the total immigration 
60 per cent, was English and 40 per cent. 
foreign. This makes the patriot ask, " What 
will be the outcome ? " 

With the Canadian Pacific crossing the 
continent, and three transcontinental rail- 
roads now in process of construction, rapid 
development is assured. In five years some 
towns have doubled their population. Win- 
nipeg has jumped from 42,340 to more than 
100,000, and more than thirty languages are 
heard in its streets. " The whole country is 
passing through an era of unbounded pros- 
perit\% the people are full of enthusiasm, and 
a great future Mes ahead." 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



287 



Political, commercial, industrial, educa- 
tional, and religious problems, which will tax 
the common sense and good judgment of 
high-minded citizens, may be expected to 
arise from this rapid development. The for- 
eign factor has awakened some alarm, but 
with 95 per cent, of the population of the 
Dominion native there is very little cause for 
trepidation. Strikes and labor disputes, lust 
for power, political and business corruption, a 
tendency among farmers for luxury and ease, 
— these are some of the evils to be dreaded. 
" When wheat becomes of greater value than 
men, and materialism sways the will and de- 
grades the passions and the imagination, men 
will lose sight of their relations to their fel- 
lows, and forget the true destiny of empire. 
The greatest peril which Canada has to fear 
at the present time is the baneful spirit of 
materialism.** 

She needs, he believes, our sound training 
in citizenship, through the schools, the press 
and the pulpit, and men of character, of high 
ideals and sterling principles. She is full of 
silent possibilities, of unborn energies, which 
will yet break out to assist humanity to the 
best there is in the world. 

Nine interesting sketches of the ladies who 
have led Canadian social life at Ottawa since 
confederation are contributed by Mr. H. V. 
Ross. Lady Monck, Lady Lisgar, Lady 





SIR CHARLES TUPPER. 



SENATOR A. A. MACDONALD. 

(The Senator and Sir Charlos Tiipper are the only, 
** Fathers of Confederation " who are Btill living.) 

DuflFerin, Princess Louise, Lady Lansdowne, 
Lady Stanley, Lady Aberdeen, Lady Minto, 
and Lady Grey, the present Vicereine, are the 
gentlewomen who have presided at Rideau 
Hall. Their charms, personalities, and char- 
acteristics are delightfully portrayed, and, as 
well, their social triumphs and entertain- 
ments. Lady DuflFerin and Lady Aberdeen 
appear to have been the most successful. The 
former gave a state ball in 1876 which cost 
$100,000, and while she was mistress of 
Rideau Hall it fairly glowed with social fel- 
lowship and good cheer. Lady Aberdeen was 
more noted for her " home ** qualities and 
benevolence. She founded the " Victorian 
Order of Nurses,** which flourishes to-day 
and keeps her memory green in the hearts of 
thousands of the needy sick. All of the vice-, 
reines were favorites with the people of the 
Dominion and partings were always regret- 
ful. This result could not have been other- 
wise. "In choosing colonial governors,'* says 
Mr. Ross, " the wise old British Government 
has exercised great care that able statesmen 
should be sent to the important Canadian 
post; but, inasmuch as empires have been won 
and lost through a woman's smile, equal care 
has been taken to see that the men selected 
had clever, tactful, and winsome wives.*' 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REI^IEIVS. 
SOME NEWLY DISCOVERED MAZZINI LETTERS. 



COME unpublished letters of Giuseppe 
Mazzini have appeared in the Nuova 
Antologia (Rome). They were addressed 
to a Russian lady who was inconsolable on 
account of the loss of her two young chil- 
dren. The letters passed into the hands of. 
Signora Georgina Saffi, who has authorized 
their publication in the belief that they 
would interest the many admirers of Maz- 
zini because of the light they throw upon his 
religious convictions. The following ex- 
tract from one of these letters is especially 
significant : 

As I have told you, I am not a Christian. My 
God has almost nothing in* common with the 
God of Christian dogma ; but I am profoundly 
religious; firstly, by my heart and by the voice 
of my conscience, and then by my intellect and 
through study. When I was a student I was 
sometimes led astray into the path of atheism ; 
it was history and science that caused me to re- 
trace my steps. In studying history, — not the 
history of individuals, but that of the masses. — 
from age to age, 1 perceived the action of a 
power, of a law. which, little by little, leads us 




GIUSEPPE MAZZINI. 
(From the painting by Felix Moscheles.) 



upward and extracts good from evil. There has 
been no great and' noble idea that, once pro- 
mulgated, did not triumph in the end, although 
it might traverse centuries of obstacles and per- 
secutions; there has not been one holy aspira- 
tion which, starting with a handful of believers, 
who were called fanatics, was not certain to in- 
crease the number of its adherents, beconic 
socner or later a church, and modify the domi- 
nant religion; there has been no evil enterprise, 
whether of ignorant barbarians or ruthless ty- 
rants, that was not followed by a powerful re- 
action of the good, by an enlargement of the 
sphere of civilization, by the advance of liberty. 
Progress was therefore a law, and science 
showed this to me even in the material universe. 
It was evident that a plan of education had been 
traced out for humanity. Our progress may be 
rapid or slow, according to our endeavors and 
according to the use we make of our freedom, 
but, sooner or later, we infallibly follow^ this 
guidance. This supreme law is an intelligent 
and beneficent law. We have not made it; 
Therefore, some one higher than ourselves has 
made it and this some one is God. 

Naturally the chief theme of the letters 
is the question of immortality, and the writer 
often regrets that he cannot use his eloquence 
with his friend face to face. He writes: 

Absent, I do not know what to say to yon. 
You suffer terribly and I am unable to console 
you. Near to you . , , ,\ could tell you that 
there is no death; that your children still live; 
that life is not a lie; that its aim ought to be 
attained ; that your love and theirs is a promise ; 
that under different forms, but recognizing one 
another, you will meet again. How can you set 
foot in that little chamber without feeling this.^ 
Without feeling that your love and your adora- 
tion of those objects that recall the lost ones to 
you are a species of pledge? Without feeling 
that when we plant a flower on the grave of 
those whom we have lost we have not per- 
formed an act of folly, but rather an act of faith ; 
that we believe in a kind of contact with those 
who are far from us and believe that they could 
suffer from our forgetf ulness ? 

A curious passage in one of the later let- 
ters shows that the " ruling passion " was 
never long absent frohi Mazzini's mind. It 
appears that the appeal was unsuccessful. 
Another quotation : 

If I did not believe that you cannot misin- 
terpret my thought or see a kind of indelicacy 
where there is only a sacred purpose, I should 
not write as I am about to do. But I have faith 
in you. This is the matter in hand. We be- 
lieve, myself and some Polish and Hun^rian 
friends, that it might be of great utility to 
those national causes for which I strive, to send 
two of our friends to the United States in order 
to come to an understanding with the clement in 
that country which sees in the struggle and the 
triumph a new role for America, and for us. 
We are poor and the miserable sum of 1500 
francs is lacking for the accomplishment of this 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 239 

purpose. They are collecting mcney for me in native land of Russia, ended, — as your friends 

Italy at the present moment; but this money, — know, — on the field of battle. He died in a 

as is well known, and I should not otherwise ac- second engagement at the side of Langiewicz. 

cept it, — is exclusively destined to the Venetian Langiewicz possesses his wallet, his watch, sev- 

enterprisc which we are organizing for^ the eral other small objects. He would give them 

spring. Therefore, I have only 2000 francs at up,^-regretfully, 1 assure you, for he loved him 

ray disposal, and this is not enough. well, — with a declaratoiy certificate, to any Rus- 

Now, do you recall the Russian name Pot- sians. He believes that Potnebia himself would 

nehia? Your friends knew him, loved him, ad- approve this utilization of his souvenirs for the 

mired him ; I, too, have seen him, and he well advantage of the common cause to which he 

merited their regard. His life, devoted to his sacrificea nis life. 



WILL THE "AMERICA" FLY TO THE POLE? 

A SSEVERATING that the airship Amer- ticn to weight, in gliding over ice-floes. Rain 
ica is no toy, but a big, stout, steel- is not feared by him; but wet snow or sleet 
muscled, strong-hearted machine, built for adhesion is a matter of moment. By pump- 
war, work, and endurance, Mr. Walter ing hot air, released by the gasoline combus- 
Wellman answers his own query in Mr- tion, into the balloon the skin of the reservoir 
Clures Magazine for July. When it sets is kept a few degrees above the surrounding 
forth upon its voyage it will weigh 22,840 temperature, thus tending to melt adhering 
pounds of men and material. Hydrogen is snow or sleet. 

its life principle. This is carried in a balloon The car of the balloon is V-shaped, and is 

made of three cottons, all rubbered, with a vul- 115 feet in length, eight feet high and three 

canized outer caoutchouc surface, well calcu- feet wide at the top, and is made of steel 

latcd to shed rain and snow and prevent tubing. The bottom is the gasoline tank, 

moisture entering the fabric. Leakage is It has fourteen sections, each more than eight 

counteracted by gasoline consumption, 6800 feet in length, used for navigation purposes, 

pounds of which are carried in a tank. An motors, sleeping, etc. The deck is 115 feet 

approximate loss of hydrogen is placed at 264 in length and two and one-half feet wide. 

pounds each day, and of gasoline consump- It is only six feet from the bottom of the 

tion at 660 pounds. The lightening of carpo balloon, and the suspension apparatus consists 

is estimated, therefore, to be more than twice of steel cables. The crew comprises four 

as rapid as the loss of lifting force. More- men, and with fair winds the ship may 

over, by means of a two-way valve in the reach the Pole in one day, with calms, two 

motor, gasoline and hydrogen are alternately days; contrary winds, five days; and with 

obtained, and this enables the aerialists to unusual winds, — never. 
consume their surplus hydrogen for fuel, dur- Mr, Wellman intends to return, and as- 

ing their flight. signs four reasons for his faith: First, be- 

Thc distance from his base in Spitzbergen cause the chances of making the return jour- 

to the Pole and back again is 1236 sea-miles, ney in ten days or two weeks are fair. 

His store of fuel is roughly estimated: Second, because the balloon can be kept 

Hours of motoring with gasoline, 150; with afloat for twenty-five to thirty-five days, in 

hydrogen, 30; total, 180 hours. With a which time they should reach land, in the 

speed of fifteen miles an hour his radius event of everything else having to be sacri- 

of action would be from 2250 to 2700 ficed. Third, because they have a sledging 

sea-miles, — an allowance which he considers outfit and a dozen picked dogs to take them 

ample, particularly in view of the fact that back to land, if the airship takes them to or 

the North Polar area has a relatively light near the Pole. Fourth, because their sup- 

vi-ind movement. To prevent the airship plies will last them until June i, 1908, and 

rising too high a guide rope, constructed of materials are at hand for a comfortable hut. 

leather, covered with metal scales, in sec- He concludes: 

tional parts, very closely resembling a ser- ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^,^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^, ^^ f^r^„„^ ^^y 
pent, W2S devised. This is also utilized as a (frop us, we hope we are prepared for all even- 
compartment for food storage. Another de- tualities,— food enough for a wintering in our 
vict, called the retarder, hangs from the for- own larder, and much more food if nature fa- 
t ^ r ^L I'u - k..^^ «««u- ^^,r vers, in our nfles and cartridges. Should it be 
ward part of the car, like a huge snake, cov- „^^^,,^^^ ^^ ^^„,j p^.s the long night of the 

ercd with pointed steel scales, designed to winter at the North Pole itself, be it land or 
ofer die maximum of resistance in propor- ice-sheeted sea,— the six-months* night, with the 



240 



THB AMBklCAN REI^IEIV OF REyiElVS. 




SIDE VIEW OF THE POLAR AIRSHIP *' AMERICA." 
(The airship is 180 feet long.) 



moon, the stars, and the glorious aurora for our 
illuminant, — and there await the coming of the 
six-months' sun, before setting out on the long 
journey homeward. 

Mr. Wellman Describes His Balloon, the 
"America." 

In a recent interview with a representative 
of Reuter*s Agency, Mr. Wellman is re- 
ported to have said (we quote from the 
Journal de St, Petersburg) : 

** This present attempt is really the first 
attempt to make a practical use of aerial 
navigation, because all the other attempts 
were experiments. Our guidable balloon is 
absolutely new in every detail, and we hope 
to realize our object, — that is, to go from 
Spitzbergen to the Pole and return in one 
day. One of the most important changes 
made was the enlargement of the balloon. 
The length of the America has been in- 
creased by eighteen feet. Her ascensional 
power has been increased by 3000 pounds, so 
the actual ascensional power is I9»500 
pounds. The balloon is 184 feet long and 
her maximum diameter is fifty-two feet. She 
cubes 265,000 cubic feet. With the excep- 
tion of Count Zepplin's * dirigible,* the 
America is the largest airship ever made. 

" The keel, or spine, of the balloon is 
formed by a steel reservoir eighteen inches 
in diameter and 115 feet long. In reality the 
upper part of the reservoir constitutes the 
deck of the balloon. To avert all danger 



of explosion we have subdivided this reser- 
voir into fourteen compartments, or tanks, 
and we can take oil from any one of the 
tanks without opening any of the others. 
The truck is covered or surrounded by silk, 
stretched very tightly. The side is a vertical 
plane and the broad roof is a horizontal 
plane. The whole thing was built to give 
stability to the ship when it is in the air. 
The stern of the ship is a rudder of about 
900 square feet, shaped like a bicycle wheel, 
which, in spite of its size, weighs only thirt>' 
pounds. A little forward of the center is 
a very heavy motor (seventy horsepower, 
steam), weighing 900 pounds, which will 
work incessantly and regularly and stably as 
long as we want it to work. In this new 
balloon the propellers, which are like those 
used in all the French army * dirigibles,' 
are in the center, on either side. The com- 
partmentage is formed by triangular spaces 
in the interior of the chariot contained in 
the balloon. The compartments will easily 
hold ten or twelve men, twelve dogs, and 
our equipments. Hanging from the roof, 
running on light rails, is a reservoir holding 
600 pounds of provisions. We have 6800 
pounds of petroleum in our reservoirs, 
enougfi to run the motor 150 hours at a 
normal rate of fourteen knots. 

" The weight of the cargo will decrease at 
least 600 pounds a day (the motor will con- 
s' me as much as that weight in oil), while 



LE/IDING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



241 




MAP SHOWING ALTERNATIVES FOR A RETURN JOURNEY FOR THE WELLMAN BALLOON EXPEDITION. 

(The ligurea indicate sea mllea.) 



the loss of ascensional power by escape of 
gas through the envelope will probably not 
exceed 1 50 pounds per day. So, at the very 
least, we shall have between 4CX) and 500 
pounds of ascensional power, — which repre- 
sents just as much gas as we need.. Gen- 
erally, aeronauts allow the surplus gas to 
escape through the valves, but we reasoned 
that it would be a pity to waste such good 
combustible, since hydrogen gas has exceed- 
ingly high caloric power. By making a few 
experiments, we found that we could burn 
the surplus hydrogen in our motor. While 
we are on our trip to the Pole we shall keep 
in touch with the earth by means of our 
guide rope. At the highest we shall not run 
up more than between 300 or 400 feet. We 
shall let the guide rope drag. 
"This guide rope is absolutely indispensa- 



ble to the safety of air navigation. Our rope 
is pretty heavy, and it will be heavier, be- 
cause, instead of using a simple steel cable, 
we have had constructed a kind of leather 
serpent, fifteen inches in diameter and 130 
feet long, weighing about 1400 pounds. This 
we shall fill with our reserve provisions. 
The guide rope hangs by a steel cable. It is 
covered with little steel scales to protect it 
from the weather and to facilitate its sliding 
over the ice and snow. On the w^ater it 
floats. 

" Thanks to our enlargement of the balloon 
and to the reserve rations stored in the guid? 
rope, we shall have in all 3000 pounds of 
food, — enough to keep us ten months. We 
could live in the balloon ten months without 
getting out of it. So, let come what will, 
we are ready." 



242 



THE AMERICj4N REVIEW OF REl^lEWS. 



LATIN.AMERICx\ A FIELD FOR CAPITAL. 



POSSESSING vast potentialities that arc 
not appreciated, Latin- America is a 
great undeveloped field for United States 
capital. It is on the verge of a forward 
movement that will astonish the world, and 
if American investors desire to take advan- 
tage of the same their time is the present, or 
Europe will control the situation. Basing 
his statements on an experience of six years 
in Latin-America, Mr. John Barrett, direc- 
tor in the International Bureau of American 
Republics, thus advises us in the Bankers' 
Magazine for June: 

Mexico is being exploited to-day by the aid 
of $7CX),ocx),ooo of American capital, and 
there is room for ten times that amount dur- 
ing the next twenty years in every country in 
South America. It has been rumored in 
Europe that $2,000,000,000 of European 
capital would find its way to South America 
within the next ten years. In Cuba we have 
embarked more than $150,000,000; and in 
Porto Rico, Santo Domingo, Haiti, and the 
Central-American States, $50,000,000 more, 
yet experts agree that the development of 
their resources has only begun. With per- 
manent law and order established, these 
investments would be increased substan- 
tially. 

Colombia is our nearest neighbor in South 
America, only 950 miles from Florida. It is 
as large as France and Germany combined. 
It has a marvelous variety of climate, and is 
rich in mineral wealth. Every important 
vegetable and timber growth is found there. 
Railroads are wanted to open up its wide 
area and reach its gold, copper, and platinum 
mines. Its cities need electric-light plants 
and street-car lines, its timber, of great value, 
should be brought to market, and its numer- 
ous water powers are other sources of profit. 
A representative of a great English banking 
house told the writer that $25,000,000 of 
foreign money could be profitably invested 
during the next ten years in Colombia. All 
this is measurably true of Venezuela. 

In considering Colombia, Venezuela, Ecua- 
dor, Peru, 'and Brazil as purely tropical 
countries unsuited to Americans, there is a 
grave mistake. It is not nearness to the 
equator that determines heat or cold, but 
altitude above the sea level: and there are 
many large and cool areas wonderfully min- 
gled with low tropical valleys, with fertile 
soil and varied resources, to be found. Ecua- 
dor, five or six times larger than Pennsyl- 



vania, is illustrative. Quito, its capital, is 
situated near its center, and *thc country 
abounds in Andean uplands. A railroad 
built by two Americans in Ecuador, and an- 
other in Colombia, will form two important 
links in the contemplated pan-American rail- 
way system. 

Brazil alone is larger than the Um'tcd 
States. Rio Janeiro, its capital, spent more 
money last year for public improvements 
than any city in the United States, excepting 
New York ; and the central government and 
the different states are expending larger sums 
for river and harbor improvements than the 
Government or States of the United States. 
These facts should convince the most skepti- 
cal that Brazil is a field for investment. A 
harbor to cost $14,000,000 will soon be con- 
structed at Rio Grande do Sul. Railroads to 
connect Rio Janeiro with Montevideo, capi- 
tal of Uruguay, on the south, and with Asun- 
cion, capital of Paraguay, on the southwest, 
are projected. The Amazon is being im- 
proved for navigation and towns and cities 
are springing up everywhere. These will re- 
quire water-works, electric lights, sewerage 
systems, and street-car lines. In the interior 
are mountains of iron and coal and forests of 
valuable timber. Brazil offers a safe field 
for the investment, in the near future, of 
$100,000,000 of American capital. 

Bolivia is to have from the United States 
$50,000,000 for railroad development. Peru's 
copper mines now utilize many millions of 
American dollars, and Paraguay's agricul- 
tural and timber wealth is a profitable ven- 
ture for capital. Uruguay is deserving of 
consideration from the fertility of her soil, 
and is spending $10,000,000 to make her 
harbor at Montevideo one of the best in all 
America. Chile is heavily exploited by Eng- 
lish and German capital. The government is 
spending $10,000,000 for the improvement of 
the harbor at Valparaiso. This country is 
extremely inviting. 

The Argentine Republic is the " Wonder- 
land " of South America. Buenos Aires, its 
capital, has a population of 1,000,000, and its 
foreign trade in 1906 amounted to $562,- 
000,000. This seems incredible for a coun- 
try with only 6,000,000 people, but it is the 
truth. It surpasses Japah, with 40,000,000 
of people, and China, with 300,000,000 of 
inhabitants. It signifies a per capita trade of 
$100, proportionately greater than any other 
country on the globe. Its railroad systems 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



243 



rival our own, and those of Europe as well. 
American capital could not be employed bet- 
ter anywhere than in developing the vast 
agricultural possibilities and mineral wealth 
of the Argentine Republic. 

Money is needed everywhere in South 
America for American branch banks, rail- 
roads, electric rail and street-car lines, elec- 
tric-lighring plants, water- works, sewerage 
systems, harbor improvements, agriculture, 
timber, and mineral exploitation. Four-fifths 
of South America has known no serious revo- 
lution in the last fifteen years, and its foreign 
trade in 1906 was valued at $2,035,350,cxx). 



Of this, the balance in its favor was $241,- 
165,000, its export surplus. In conclusion, 
Mr. Barrett pays a tribute to Secretary 
Root's efforts in his recent visit to South 
America to promote mutual good will be- 
tween that country and our own. " As a 
result of Mr. Root's visit to South America 
a new era has already dawned in the rela- 
tions of the United States with her sister na- 
tions, and it now remains for the capital of 
this country, accumulated through our past 
prosperity and looking for new fields, to im- 
prove the wonderful opportunities in the 
southern continent." 



THE POLITICAL CREED OF AUSTRALIA. 



A CLEAR and moderate statement of Aus- 
tralia's present political position is to 
be found in the Hon. J. W. Hackett's paper 
on ** Some Federal Tendencies in Australia," 
in the Journal of the Royal Colonial Insti- 
tute. One of the chief difficulties of Austra- 
lian political life, this statesman tells us, is 
the avoidance of public duties by those best 
fitted for them. The reason for this, he says, 
is partly because '* the man in business cannot 
afford the risks of placing 1000 or 2000 miles 
bct^vecn his work and his home," and partly 
because the better-off Australians so often 
leave the continent to reside elsewhere. There 
is another reason : " the fear that large sec- 
tions of our best material decline to offer 
themselves as targets to the unmeasured and 
often dishonest invective and public misrepre- 
sentation which they must face from plat- 
form, press, and even Parliament." 

Proposals are therefore being made for 
fixing the honorarium of members in each 
Federal House at £500, £600, or even £750 
a year, instead of £400. 

Another troublesome tendency is the three- 
party system, in which many see the chief 
danger which Federation has now to face. 
So weary have Parliament and country be- 
come of the bad results of a minority govern- 
ment kept in office at the will of a second 
minority, that a most drastic innovation has 
been suggested, the hint for which has been 
derived from Switzerland : that Ministers be 
directly elected from and by the houses 
of Parliament, and when the members of 
the cabinet differ, the two Houses act as 
umpire. 

Another tendency which Mr. Hackett 
notes is the democratizing of the Senate, " the 



capital experiment of the federal constitu- 
tion." By the Commonwealth Constitution 
Act, the difference of position and functions, 
formerly always associated with a second 
chamber, are obliterated. This may lead to 
unexpected results, but Mr. Hackett believes 
those results likely to be good rather than 
evil. It may alter the whole face of state 




PREMIER DEAKIN POINTS OUT AUSTRALIA. 

Alfred (the Teacher) : " Here, Johnny Bull, I 
am determined to make a scholar of you. That's 
.Australia. You've simply got to recognize Its ex- 
istence.*' 

From Punch (Mell)ourne). 



244 



THE AMERICAN REl^fElV OF REVIEWS. 



politics; it may go a long way toward the 
unification of Australia ; and it may mortally 
wound responsible government as understood 
in Australia* 

Protection, Mr. Hackett says frankly, is 
becoming, and, in fact, is, one of the main 
articles of the political creed of the people of 
Australia. " For good or for evil, the com- 
monwealth must be added to the protective 
people of the world." There is no doubt also 
that Australia intends to be a self-defended 



nation ; and equally no doubt as to the popu- 
lar wish being that the commonwealth her- 
self should direct man, officer, commission, 
and pay her own contribution to imperial 
defense. Perhaps she may even wish to con- 
struct her own ships in Australia. Another 
federal tendency as to which therr can be no 
doubt is what is known as a " White Aus- 
tralia," the case for which is stated by Mr. 
Hackett. Such is the political creed of the 
young democracy at the antipodes. 



SAN FRANCISCO'S STAR PROSECUTOR. 



T^HE dramatic success of Assistant Dis- 
trict-Attorney Francis J. Heney in the 
prosecution of the San Francisco grafting 
cases has aroused the interest of the whole 
country, and stimulated public curiosity con- 
cerning the personal history of this fearless 
prosecutor. This curiosity will be partially 
gratified by an article from the pen of Lin- 
coln Steffens which appears in the August 
number of the American Magazine (New 
York). Heney's career, it appears, has been 
as picturesque and as full of exciting epi- 
sodes as most of those that figure in the dime 
novels of a generation ago. Heney grew up 
in San Francisco, but early in life fared forth 
in quest of even more adventure than that 
Western metropolis afforded. He led a reck- 
less life in Idaho and Arizona, and the crisis 
of it all was a bitter and long-continued feud 
ending in Heney 's " killing his man." We 
need not give the details of this unpleasant 
episode. Suffice it to say that as Mr. Stef- 
fens has reviewed the evidence Heney appears 
to have been justified in his act. According 
to Arizona standards his act was not only 
palliated, but was applauded. As Mr. Stef- 
fens puts it, " all men felt, and many had 
said, that Heney should not have taken what 
he did from Handy (the man whom he 
slew). But his restraint was understood for 
what it was, moral courage." 

The young attorney soon became involved 
in political fights, and it was not long before 
he rose to leadership in his party organiza- 
tion, — the Democratic. " He was a good 
leader; honest, sincere, and not afraid; and 
his followers were like him, gay, enthusiastic, 
and unselfish. Their platform was (first) 
good men in office, (second) economy, and 
(third), — as a corollary, — no graft." In 
course of time Heney and his friends got 
into control, not only of the county organi- 



zation, but of the Territorial party machine. 
President Cleveland had just been elected for 
the second time, and Heney with his young 
Arizona Democrats secured the appointment 
of the Territorial Governor. Heney himself 
took the Attorney-Generalship, because, as 
he now says, he was afraid that the Gov- 
ernor would go to grafting, and he thought 
that it was his place to mount guard. An 
investigation of the retiring Republican ad- 
ministration apparently revealed many in- 
stances of petty thieving, but before long 
Heney found that the new administration 
was getting involved in grafting* operations 
quite as serious as those that they had un- 
dertaken to stop. Heney*s subsequent course 
of action was characteristic. " He was dis- 
gusted, but he fought. He brought suits 
against his own good men, just as he had 
against the bad men in the old administra- 
tion." Among these suits was one against 
his own brother, who was really innocent of 
offense, but was the only responsible party 
on the bond of one of the grafters, so that he 
was made to pay. Another suit was against 
his law partner, whom he had appointed a 
chancellor of the university, and who had fol- 
lowed the custom of taking more money for 
his services than the Jaw granted. He was 
made to pay back the money. 

In attempting to explain his attitude to- 
ward corrupt politics Heney has said : 

No, it's not a mere matter of good men and 
bad men. I suppose I seem always to be trying 
to put crooks in jail, and I am, but I know that 
that won't straighten the crookedness. That's 
what I used to think. Now I realize that my 
fight isn't against men, but a system, and my 
hope is that the evidence I produce of crime may 
help good men and women to see that there arc 
certain causes of all this corruption of ours, 
causes which they must remove if we are ever 
to achieve good government in Arizona, Oregon, 
California, — the United States. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 245 
A CENTURY'S MOVEMENT OF POPULATION IN EUROPE. 

PROFESSOR SOMBART, of Berlin, tremes. The present extent of German terri- 

contributes a careful article' to the tory contained 25,000,000 inhabitants in 1816; at 

Wocke. which is rich in statistical infomja- Zs^^"!^^' '^L^tll' ,''^^^,'f,Z 

tion concerning the developments of popula- and England a smaller death-rate than Germany. 

tion in the great European states during the i i -r 

past hundred years. The vast increase in ^^l ^^ ^^^ ^1^^*"? °* ^^^ ^°^^' population 

numbers in countries the world over,— of Lurope which has already taken place 

France forming a notable exception,— he re- ^»^^»" ^^s borders, as aflfecting the share of 

marks, is beyond doubt the central problem J"f various nations, this writer presents the 

around which all the material problems of iollov\»ng tables: 

our time, and almost all the spiritual ones, ^^ ^*^*^ inhabitants op bdbopb thkrb fell to 

revolve. By careful investigation he comes ''«" ^^^''^ «*• "^^^ «'r^'''=« • 

to the conclusion that, on the whole, the chief r- — in tho year* 



X ^L- • • ^ * L u- • 1801. 18.,i>. 1905. 

cause of this accession is not to be sought in a <;reat Britain and Ireland 93 104 105 

suddenly augmented birth-rate, but in a de- £^fg,?^**f y*.*".^.*; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; \l {% J? 

creased death-rate consequent upon the dimi- France /.\\\ ,\V.V.V.\'.'.V.\\\\\^% 137 94 

/ ^1 1- • ^* t ' Germany 160 138 145 

nution of war, upon the elimmation of epi- Austria-Hungary 114 • 117 

demies, the increase of wealth, but most •^^I^X^'ln^oVWii^/benmirk:: 29 29 2! 

particularly upon improved hygiene, etc. Russia 200 215 285 

After giving very detailed statisticial state- K .""^. .^^''AT' \\\\\\\\\\\\iw^ 95 so 

ments regarding the various European coun- Balkan states 33 60 53 

tries, he thus sums up : of 1,000 KLROriCANS THERR WKBB in THB YBAB 

Surveying the forest of figures through which «„-j-„,^ ^®4V^ ^^50: l»^^ 

we have wandered, this general impression is i!atin ..:;;;:::::;;;;:;;::; 355 321 251 

conveyed : a prodigious increase of the popula- Slav '...!.*. .268 310 376 

tion of Europe within the last 100, particularly ,tti ., \ r^ 

within the last fifty or sixty years. Upon the While the Germanic peoples have about 

same extent of territory upon which barely two maintained their position, the Latins have 

generations ago (the middle of the nineteenth b^^ thrust far back. They hadtto give way 

century) 250,000,000 people lived, 400,000,000 are ^^ ^1 o, ^ «« rr r i. j j 

now living The various countries display, of ^« ^^^^ Slavs. If Europe a hundred years 

course, great differences. Not to mention Ire- ago was preponderatingly, — that is, almost 

l^nd, there arc countries in Europe where the three-fourths, — Germanic-Latin, it is to-day 

gain in population has been very slight, like preponderatingly,— likewise, three-fourths,— 

France; others, — Russia and England,— whose f^ : • ci • a j l j j 

numbers have doubled in two generations, with Germanic-i>lav!C. And a hundred years 

intervening gradations between the two ex- hence r * 



THE "ARRIVAL" OF ARGENTINA. 

'X'HE prodigious development of the United analogous to that of the United States, says 

States within the last few generations M. Burnichon, in Etudes (Paris). It was 

has had the effect of making the people of the expressed conviction of the late Sefior 

the Argentine Confederation very indifferent Pellegrini, ex-President of Argentina, that 

to, if not wholly contemptuous of, certain by the end of the twentieth century the 

other countries in the Western Hemisphere, republic should attain the world-importance 

progress in which, if it has not been so self- which now attaches to the United States. 

assertive or rapid, has at any rate proceeded Says M. Burnichon : 

along lines so logical and methodical as to A glance at the natural advantages of the Ar- 

warrant the belief that the economic future g^^tine Republic, as \vell as at the stage of 

^^ «4.^« <.«.««>^ ;^ ««. l^^«. ^« ^.11.. «^,.,-j u^^ economic advancement it has now reached, will 

of these States IS at least as fully assured from show with sufficient clearness that Pellegrini. 

the point of view of lasting soundness as that a profound economist, indulged in no fanciful 

of the United States. ream. Its superficies is six times that of 

Among the Latin countries of the south '^^"^^' *^^ plains are watered by superb rivers, 

• ^ 1 ^ A ^' i_ • y means of which the interior is placed in 

one can point only to Argentina as having f^eh with the coast. The Parana runs through 

any claun to a potentiality of development le country for more than 2000 miles, with a 



246 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



breadth varying between two and three miles, 
carrying to the ocean a volume of water amount- 
ing to some 30,000 cubic meters per second, or 
once and a half that of the Mississippi, twice 
that of the Ganges, four times that of the Dan- 
ube, five times that of the Nile, and one hun- 
dred times that of the Seine. The Amazon 
alone exceeds it in this respect. It is capable 
of floating ships having a draught of eighteen 
feet, six hundred miles in the interior. 

As for Buenos Ay res, it is the twelfth port 
in all the world. In 1904 its shipping-trade 
aggregated 10,500,000 tons for the port of 
Buenos Ayres alone, — that is to say, its ship- 
ping had doubled itself in ten years. . . . 
In 1886 the railway system of the republic 
amounted to 5836 miles; in January, 190S, 
to 19,901 miles, and at the present moment 
considerably over 20,000 miles. In comfort, 
speed, and general equipment the trains equal 
those of the United States. By 1909 if will 
be possible, on the completion of operations 
now in execution, to travel from Buenos 
Ayres to Valparaiso in less than forty hours. 
The Argentine Republic will by the construc- 
tion of her railroad system assure her future 
as certainly as Canada has assured hers. Her 
enormous cereal resources will be the first to 
profit by the systems, for, although her great 
mineral riches are practically untouched, 
Argentina is essentially an agricultural coun- 
try. In fifteen years she has quadrupled her 
area of cultivation. In 1905 she boasted 
10,273,000 full acres in tillage (of which 
5,000,000 were for corn), or only 3 per cent, 
of the superficies of the country. Besides 
this, some 60,000 acres are given over to 
stock-raising, the returns for 1^06 being 
128,000,000 sheep, 35,000,000 cattle, and 
some 7,000,000 horses and mules. Who 
shall say, then that her cereals, meats, cotton, 
and , fruit may not prove a fierce competitor 
in European markets? 



That the farmer has entered endiusiasdc- 
ally into the exploitation of this promised 
land is, M. Burnichon assures us, an indis- 
putable fact. The price of farms is increas- 
ing every day; many that sold over twenty 
years ago for $250 arc now cheap at $200,- 
000. In some cases they exceed 200,000 
acres in extent. Unfortunately, hands are 
wanting, the result being that labor is at a 
high premium, and since machinery is scarce 
the aggregate of shipments of cereals to out- 
side markets is by no means what it mig^t 
be. It is to be remembered that in order to 
exploit her 350,000,000 acres Argentina has 
but a population of 5,000,000, of which 
Buenos Ayres alone has 1,000,000. With 
its temperate climate and its immerae 
agricultural resources, it offers in all 
probability a better field for colonization 
than any new country in the world. Says 
M. Burnichon: 

Although the time of dirt-cheap bargains is 
gone, settlers can easily become their own mas- 
ters, wa^es being abnormally high, and tilled 
lands being available for purchase on a yearly 
instalment plan. Unfortunately, there has hith- 
erto prevailed a system which the Argentine 
Government now proposes to remedy: Till 
1905 the best lands were in the hands of spccti- 
lators, who, by extortionate rates of interest 
made matters hard for the poorer immigrant 
Thus in 1905, a year of wondrous prosperity, 
some 100,000 of the immigrants returned either 
to Europe or North America, taking out of the 
country some $1,500,000. — a loss sufficient to 
awaken the government to a sense of patriot- 
ism. Italy and Spain . supply the largest con- 
tingent of immigrants, while English capital in- 
vested in the country is worth $1,000,000,000, 
France and Germany contributing some $200,- 
000,000 apiece, — money paying from 5 to 7 per 
cent, to investors. Its commercial budget for 
the year 1906 shows that in exportations and im- 
portations the sum of $400,000,000 was ex- 
ceeded,— or, proportionately to the population, 
twice as much as the commerce* of France. 



TASK OF THE COLLEGE IN THE SOUTH. 



^npHE specific relation of the college in the 
-*• South to that section's moral and in- 
tellectual development is one of rare signifi- 
cance. It is capable of rendering it unique 
service, in its present peculiar difficulties. 
Prof. S. C. Mitchell, of Richmond College, 
submits a trenchant, but altogether too brief, 

.paper on this subject in the South Atlantic 
Quarterly for July, in which he points out 
several definite ways in which the college is 
helping the South. 



Following the Civil War, it brought moral 
reinforcement through its reliance upon truth 
and its appeal to reason and conscience in the 
allayment of passion. It stands for freedom 
in thought and utterance. It promotes the 
spirit of nationality and adjusts our people to 
the life of the nation as a whole. Ir has fol- 
lowed the transition from agriculture to in- 
dustry, and promotes it by offering courses in 
industrial chemistry, electricity, mining and 
engineering. It is a pioneer for univer^ ed- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



247 



ucation and an adequate public school system. 
It molds public opinion in the interest of 
general enlightenment. It brings to bear on 
the negro problem the light of science and 
the charity of reason, devoid of prejudice. It 
socially unifies the South and makes for gen- 
uine democracy. 

To pursue these purposes the Southern col- 
lege must cultivate in its students independ- 
ence and individuality in thinking on every 
fact, — whether in nature, in society, or in the 
State. It must continue to advocate uni- 
versal education and the frank avowal of in- 
dividual conviction, to vitalize reason and 
stimulate it to do its perfect work. Society 
must be presented as a whole, with its limit- 
less interplay of human forces. " I account,'* 
says he, " this right focusing of the student's 
view of the world, as the test of the worth of 
a Southern college." Viewing the world 
from the attitude of a particular class, or 
denomination, is fatally defective, because it 
lacks that adjustment to actual conditions 
which alone insures success. 



The student should be trained in the spirit of 
the publicist, to lead intelligent public opinion 
and divorce it from reliance on the politician. 
Patriotism and nationality should be its prin- 
ciples, and in them its students should be 
grounded, and taught to analyze in a spirit 
of judicial candor. " The college to-day must 
live and move and have its being in the mul- 
titude. Its office is to transmit truth as the 
atmosphere diffuses light." The expert is 
finding a larger place in our democracy, and 
increasing importance is attached to special 
knowledge and trained men. " We are be- 
ginning to learn that the structural force of 
society is, after all, the idea. , . To 
create and to energize the idea of social prog- 
ress, of national integrity, — of industrial 
justice, and of spiritual power, is the real 
work of the college. . . In the recon- 
struction of the South, so distinguished a role 
has been assigned to college men as to inspire 
them with the loftiest ideals and to string 
with energy their purpose to bring our 
democracy to its highest fruition." 



THE NATURALIZATION OF THE JAPANESE. 

¥N an article in the North American lie- in the United States. The President's rec- 
x'ieiu of June 21 Mr. K. K. Kawakami ommendation for a Japanese-naturalization 
presents an appeal to " rational-minded law is of great moment to many subjects of 
Americans " for an extension of the natural- the Mikado in this country, who have estab- 
ization privilege to his countrymen resident lished considerable business and are keenly 

alive to all vital po- 
litical issues in this 
country. The prob- 
able number desir- 
ous of- becoming 
American citizens, 
according to his ap- 
proximation, is in- 
significant ; but it 
makes up in qualit>' 
for its numerical 
weakness. 

This class includes 
" members of the 
faculties of several 
American colleges," 
scientists, writers, 
and authors. Argu- 
ments against their 
admission to citizen- 
ship are most super- 

AN rXPLE^ANT AWAKEXINO. fl^j^,^ j^^j^^ f^^^j^j 

TTncle Sam Is aroused from his dream of universal peace by the swarming ri*.;fK#.r unnn ^ Vi • 

Japanene. who arc overmnnlni? his territory. neiiner upon c n e 

From Kiadderadatach (Berlin). Carcful Study of the 




248 



THE AMERICAN REl^/EU^ OF REI^IElVS. 



naturalization laws now in force nor upon 
the close investigation into the real status of 
the Japanese population in America. 

Taking, as the best available statistical 
enumeration of Japanese residents in the 
United States, the census compiled by Japanese 
consuls in this country, he estimates the num- 
ber now in the United States at 49,598. These 
he subdivides and classifies as follows: (i) 
Officials and students, 978; (2) profession- 
als, 410; (3) merchants and employees, 
• 405 1 ; ( 4 ) farmers, 1 700 ; ( 5 ) laborers : 
farm, 21,707; railroad, 7471; domestic, 
7483 ; miscellaneous, 5798. ' Of these, stu- 
dents, officials, and laborers will all return 
very probably to Japan, — the laborers as soon 
as they have saved a modest sum, and the 
students and officials on the completion of 
their special missions. 

Assuming that of the 405 1 merchants only 
1000 are such in reality, the 3051 being em- 
ployees, in conjunction with 410 professionals 
and 1700 farmers, we have only 31 10 Japa- 
nese subjects likely to apply for American 
citizenship. This, of course, is merely an ap- 
proximation, but it represents the number 
likely to remain in America permanently. 

" What loss," says he, " will this country 
suffer in naturalizing such a comparatively 
small number of industrious, intelligent, even 
intellectual, Japanese? What danger, in- 
dceed, will there be in giving them the priv- 
ilege of voting? Have they not come from 
a country where a local self-government and 
a constitutional government have been suc- 
cessfully practiced for a score of years? Docs 
not America allow even Russian peasants to 
cast the ballot after a few years of residence, 
— peasants who, long oppressed under an ab- 
solute government, have no knowledge of the 
working of a free government until they 



come to this country? Surely, Mr. Roose- 
velt's suggestion in regard to the naturaliza- 
tion of Japanese ought not to be ignored, as 
it unfortunately has been." 

Contending that only a small number will 
apply for citizenship, and those of the best, 
he pertinently asks: Are the present naturali- 
zation laws powerless to discriminate against 
ignorant and undesirable applicants? The 
new naturalization laws leave to official dis- 
cretion the rejection or admission to citizen- 
ship of those intellectually or morally un- 
fitted. 

Mentioning several Japanese subjects 
whose names are favorably known to Ameri- 
can readers, he continues : " To enumerate 
all the representative Japanese in Amerrca is 
alike impossible and superfluous; suffice it to 
say that these are men who are most anxious to 
sec the present naturalization laws so amend- 
ed as to render them justice, believing that 
the laws as they stand not only cause them 
many inconveniences, but subject them to 
needless indignities." Some of these have 
brought their wives with them, and others 
have married American women. Moreover, 
Japanese are not " clannish," and endeavor 
to adjust themselves to their American envi- 
ronments. 

In conclusion, he says : " With all his in- 
tense patriotism and his deep love for the 
Land of the Rising Sun, the Mikado's sub- 
ject is, after all, not unlike the subject of 
the Kaiser, who, emigrating to the United 
States, becomes in a few years an enthusiastic 
admirer of his new country, ready to defend 
everything American. It is unfair and un- 
manly to close to him the door to American- 
ization, and declare that the son of Nippon is 
inherently incapable of becoming a faithful 
member of the Republic," 



A WOMAN'S UNIVERSITY IN JAPAN. 



TN their eager and clever adaptation of 
western methods of civilization the Japa- 
nese do not abandon their old customs ; they 
cling to them and cultivate them with patri- 
otic fervor. We find an evidence of this in 
the University for Women at Tokio, where 
there is a curious mingling of western and 
eastern culture. Captain von Pustau, of the 
(icrinan navy, found much to interest him 
on vi!*iting that institution, and gives a rather 
drtnilfd account of its workings, in the Ber- 
lin H'orhf. 



The university owes its origin, he remarks, 
to the ever-growing consciousness of the 
upper classes of Japan that their own in- 
creased culture and participation in public 
affairs demand a more elevated and compre- 
hensive education on the part of their women 
than they are capable of obtaining in the 
girls' schools even of the modem type. 
When, therefore. Professor Narusc agitated 
the question of founding a university, in 
1895, he was promptly seconded in his ef- 
forts by a great number of wealthy and in- 



'LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



249 




iy-v 



THE HALL OF THE WOMAN'S UNIVERSITY IN TOKIO. 



fluential men. The following year he had 
700 subscribers, among them being Mar- 
quis Ito, Count Okuma, Kobuta, the present 
Minister of Education, besides some noted 
financiers; so that it was made possible to 
erect a portion of the buildings in 1900, on 
a marvelously beautiful site in the suburbs 
of Tokio, starting w^ith an attendance of 
300 university students and 500 pupils in the 
girls' high school attached to the university. 
The Empress evinced her interest in the 
new institution by a considerable gift of 
money, and it has from the outset had a 
brilliant development, being mainly sup- 
ported by private contributions. It is con- 
templated to enlarge its scope by the addi- 
tion of an elementary school and kindergar- 
ten. The objects aimed at, according to the 
statutes, are : ** To advance the general cul- 
ture of the students, in order that they may 
in the future be able to fulfill their duties as 
women, wives, and mothers upon the basis 
of modern conceptions of culture." To gain 
admission, the pupils must be over seventeen 
and have successfully passed through the nor- 
mal school. Their good conduct must be 
vouched for by a reputable citizen of Tokio. 
If their behavior gives rise to censure, or if 
they are unequal to following the courses of 



study, they are summarily dismissed. Up to 
the present there are three different three- 
year courses, — namely, domestic economy, 
Japanese literature, and English literature; 
courses are to be established also in peda- 
gogics, music, art, and science. There arc 
a number of optional studies, — ^Japanese, 
Chinese, and English literature, philosophy, 
music, painting, etc. 

The university exhibits on the greatest 
scale a combination of a girls* boarding- 
school and school of domestic economy, since 
over 1000 pupils are housed and boarded for 
the ludicrously small sum of $3.57 a month, 
paying, in addition, not quite a dollar a 
month for tuition. To quote directly from 
Captain von Pustau*s article: 

That special value is attached to the develop- 
ment of character is attested by the fact that 
ethics takes precedence in the scheme of instruc- 
tion and is taught by the director himself, — 
Japanese ethics, be it noted, which places woman 
in a much more dependent position as regards 
the opposite sex than is occupied by her in Ger- 
many,— not to say America. Much as has been 
adopted of the western scheme of education, the 
principle has been steadily maintained that the 
pupils should, above all, remain daughters of 
their country, the faithful guardians of its cus- 
toms and traditions. As an outward sign of 
this spirit, the broad avenue leading to the uni- 
versity is lined with magnificent cherry trees. 



250 



THE AMERICAN REl/IEii^ OF REl/IEWS, 



whose superb, rich blossom is the national flower 
of Japan. Besides a large staflF of excellent pro- 
fessors, there are a number of Japanese and four 
English or American woman instructors. Cap- 
tain Pustau was specially struck, on his re- 
peated visits, by the extraordinary zeal and con- 
centration of the students. 



Great stress, besides, is laid upon health and 
bodily development, and to this end the esthetic 
exercises, copied from America, take the lead- 
ing place, the young girls going through all sorts 
of gymnastics with hoops, flags, fans, dubs, 
etc., to the accompaniment of music Dancing, 
too, is practiced, to cultivate grace. 



/ 



THE CASE AGAINST THE DUMA. 



T)R. DILLON, in the Contemporary Re- 
vieuf, appears actually to rejoice over 
the fall of the Duma. For the action of M. 
Stolypin he has nothing but praise: 

It was in the best interests of representative 
institutions in Russia that the Second Duma was 
dissolved. It is to be hoped that the third ex- 
periment will be successful. The Cabinet has 
done its best to bring about this result. The 
Imperial Manifesto struck the right note. The 
promulgation by the Czar himself of the new 
electoral law was another step in the right di- 
rection. Whatever the outcome of the new 
measures may be, the Premier has done his duty, 
and deserved well of the community. 

The case against the fifty-five deputies 
whose exclusion was demanded by M. Stoly- 
pin was an exceedingly strong one. Few 
normal parliaments would have hesitated un- 
der the circumstances, but the Duma was far 
from being a normal assembly. It was the 
patron and defender of assassins. 

A large number of the deputies were not 
men of good-will: 

They had put their faith in violent measures 
and had come to the Tavrida Palace solely for 
the purpose of organizing a vast popular move- 
ment, into which the troops were to be drawn, 
and of leading it against the p^overnment and 
the regime. Almost at the openmg of the Duma 
about half its members listened with satisfaction 
to the statement made by their spokesman that 
they had come not for legislative work, not to 
pacify the country, btit to revolutionize it. And 
the declaration was loudly cheered. 

The action of the Duma on the nation 
was unmistakable, but it was irritating, not 
tranquilizing. Lawlessness spread, murder- 
ers were heroes, property was a crime, life a 
gift to be taken back if used against the ter- 
rorists. The Qjnstitutional Democrats were 
shrewd, shifty, and resourceful, a party of 
tactics, but not of principles. They were 
made of soft, yielding stuff, and their pro- 
gramme was a mirage. They were alto- 
gether out of place in an assembly where 
the majority of the deputies were in grim 
earnest trj'ing to pull down the whole politi- 
cal and social fabric. Their negotiations 
with the government for the formation of a 



Center party broke down because they were 
compelled to rely upon the Poles for sup- 
port. They finally precipitated the decision 
to dissolve the Duma by their failure to come 
to a prompt decision over the question of the 
deputies. Dr. Dillon's indictment against 
the Duma amounts to this : That it was com- 
posed of men who did not believe in it, and 
merely utilized it as an instrument to effect 
a revolution and bring about the downfall 
of the existing regime. 

Dr. Dillon approves of the new election 
law, and believes that the majority of the 
new Duma bids fair to be at least capable of 
legislating for the nation. He gives a useful 
summary of the changes effected under the 
new law: 

In future the number of deputies will be 
smaller than it was, 442 instead of 520; the num- 
ber of cities with separate representation will be 
fewer. — five in lieu of twenty-six; the total of 
non-Russian elements in Parliament will be con- 
siderably curtailed, and the loss will fall mainly 
upon the non- Russian elements of the popula- 
tion. Thus European Russia will send 403 rep- 
resentatives to the Duma, and the remainder 
will be delegated by the Kingdom of Poland, 
the Caucasus and Asiatic Russia. The Polish 
Club, which contained forty-six members in die 
Second Duma, will have but ten in the Third, 
and will, therefore, be unable to turn the scales 
now to the Right, now to the Left. The Cau- 
casus will also have ten deputies to look after its 
needs, but two of them will be chosen by the 
Caucasian Cossacks. Russia in Asia will send 
fifteen members to the Duma, but seven of them 
will be elected by the Russian elements of tlic 
provinces of Tomsk and Tobolsk, and three by 
the Cossacks. Consequently the provinces and 
districts which are inhabited by non-Russians 
will be represented by twenty-five deputies all 
told, and Turkestan in particular will have none. 
In the five cities, — St. Petersburg, Moscow. 
Kieff, Odessa, and Riga, — ^which retain a sep- 
arate representation, the ballot will be direct, 
that is, the constituents will vote not for dele- 
gates who are to choose the deputies, but for 
deputies. Everywhere else the voting will be 
indirect, as heretofore. Again, the peasants will 
no longer obtain a lion's share of representation 
in the rural districts. The other landowners 
will inherit all the power which the peasantry 
heretofore wielded over and above its own fair 
share. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



251 



THE UNIONIZING OF GERMANY'S POORLY PAID 
PROFESSIONAL MEN.' 



TT has so often been asserted that a classi- 
cal education is a mere waste of time, 
and that a scientific training is the only 
guaranty of both success and wealth, that 
the acute observer is amazed when he con- 
siders the position of technically educated 
men in Germany. In a country where tech- 
nical training has been developed to an ex- 
tent unknown in other civilized states, he 
will find that the scientific education has not 
meant prosperity for the university graduate. 
The position of the German physicians has 
been growing increasingly serious from an 
economic standpoint, and during the past 
year more or less concern has been felt 
at the grave situation in other scientific de- 
partments. Indeed, it is stated with no small 
amount of justice that the physicist, the elec- 
trical engineer, the chemist, is in a position 
far inferior to the carpenter, the mason, the 
ironworker, and the discontent is so general 
that a strong movement toward unionizing 
technical forces is on foot. In a recent issue 
of the Frankfurter Zeitung we find a long 
discussion of the problem. 

This careful journal says that " the golden 
stream which has flowed from the industrial 
life of Germany has benefited only a thin 
strata of the population, while the men who 
have created that life, the graduates of our 
colleges and universities, have not been bene- 
fited at all.'' It also draws attention to the 
contrast between the actual profits in the 
technical trades and the salaries received by 
the men managing the factories, a contrast 
so glaring 

that it led to the formation two years ago of the 
Bund dcr Technisch-industriellen Beamten. 
This society has brought to light much which 
seems incredible. For example,- we hear of men 
with diplomas from our best universities receiv- 
ing Sj cents a day, even less, and the increase in 
wage is so small that in the great majority of 
cases the sum of $50 a month would not be 
reached for more than ten years. Moreover, the 
men must frequently obligate themselves to re- 
lease to their employers any invention they may 
make, together with all claim for royalty, while 
practically all chance for improving their posi- 
tion is stifled by conditions m the service con- 
tract which are repulsive even to the morally 
obtuse. And not only are they repulsive, but 
they ignore all individual riffhts, — witness one 
of the largest Berlin factories where the amount 
of salary is a ** trade secret," the divulging of 
which may mean instant dismissal. 

Thi3 writer estimates that 60 per centum 
of the college-bred technical men in Ger- 



many receive less than $500 a year, 25 per 
centum from $500 to $750, and only 15 per 
centum more than $750. But in order " to 
obtain this trifling wage a young man costs 
his parents from $1000 to $4000." 

"a stupendous overcrowding.'' 

The Frankfurter Zeitung considers that 
" conditions are absolutely chaotic, and as a 
result of the increase in the number of our 
technical schools, without any adequate in- 
vestigation of the needs of the professions, 
there is a stupendous overcrowding of the 
different departments." 

Consequently, in the case of an offer in the 
Rheinland of a place with $45 a month salary 
there were 270 applicants, and a place with $50 
brought 700 letters. Further, in the best of our 
technical papers, as the Elektrotechnischen 
Zeitschrift and the Zeitschrift des Vereins 
Dcutscher Ingenieure, we constantly find an ex- 
tensive list of applications for positions, appli- 
cations which in many instances are heartrend- 
ing. It is an ordinary thing to read of "$25 to 
be paid for a position," or of $40 to $50 for the 
same thing, or " for three years I will pay 10 
per centum of salary to the person who procures 
a position for a constructor with twelve years' 
experience," and so forth. In the Essener An- 
zexger we saw a short time ago this advertise- 
ment : " Engineer, forty-thr^ years old, for 
nineteen years active as chief and sub-chief engi- 
neer, office and outdoor work, desires at once 
employment in any place, even as foreman or 
laborer." And it would be possible to cite in- 
definitely similar evidences of the deplorable con- 
dition of the German technical professions. 

The condition which the German writer 
describes is no ordinary one, and these ad- 
vertisements have in general no relation to 
the " want ads " which appear in American 
papers offering rewards for positions. As 
the same writer says, " we have here a seri- 
ous menace to German industry, since there 
are at least 300,000 to 400,000 men with 
superb technical training who are threat- 
ened with a mere hand-to-mouth existence. 

Indeed, ordinary mechanics have more than 
once declared that they would not change places 
with the engineers and physicists who have made 
German technical skill famous the world over. 
And the wisdom of this view will at once appear 
if >ye cite the instance of only one Berlin factory 
which was forced to raise the wages of its lock- 
smiths twice the past year. During the discus- 
sion with his men the director referred to the 
salaries of his college-bred assistants, and re- 
marked that if the wages of the workmen con- 
tinued to increase it would soon be possible to 
obtain two university men for one locksmith. 
To this the mechanics replied, with evident scorn. 



252 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS. 



" these people are foolish to accept their present 
salaries. * Therefore, we find the question firmly 
posed: Shall technical skill be unionized? An 
answer to this question seems only possible in 
the affirmative, and this applies not only to the 
technical men but also to that vast army of em- 
ployees, bookkeepers, cashiers, clerks, who are 
to-day utterly defenceless before the exploita- 
tion of their superiors. 

The German Musician as a Waffe-Earner. 

A recent article in the Soziale Praxis 
(Berlin) discusses wage and salary condi- 
tions among the German musicians. The 
writer refers to the " desperate position of the 
majority of German musicians that has been 
given wide discussion recently in the columns 
of the press." The musicians themselves, 
through their organization, the Allgemeine 
Deutsche Musikverein, -have also tried to 
remedy the situation by petitions and appeals 
to the public and government. But so far 
these efforts have not been fruitful. In order 
to appreciate, however, the importance of 
the question attention is called to two recent 
books which " should be read by every one 
interested in German music." The first of 
these books is "Die Soziale Lage der 
deutschen Orchestermusiker'* by Paul Mar- 
sop (Shuster and Loeffler, Berlin), and the 
other is entitled "Die Lage der Orchester- 
musiker in Deutschland/' by Dr. Heinrich 
Waltz (G. Braunschen, Karlsruhe). 

According to«TDr. Waltz, the situation 
may be summed up in the statement that 
with few exceptions " the position to-day of 
the orchestra musician in Germany is a pre- 
carious one." 

The exceptions to this rule are members 
of the great orchestras, although even in 
these cases only the first positions are well 
paid. The two leaders at the Imperial 
Prussian Opera House receive $1500 and 
$1250 a year, tut this is an unusually high 
wage; and in the larger court and city thea- 
ters the pay of the orchestra musicians is 
notoriously insufficient. The Soziale Praxis 
says: 

The tables which Waltz publishes show how 
filled with care and denial is the existence of 
these artists, ai d how little their material life is 
fitted to strengthen them for the great bodily 
and mental exertions which they are compelled 
to make. Musicians who have to fulfill the 
highest artistic demands. — for example, the mem- 
bers of the Hamburg Stadttheatre orchestra, — 
receive only $350 a year, and in the smaller 
towns, as Rostock, Wurzburg, Nuremburg, 
which must have their Wagner performances, 
the pay is from $20 to $25 a month. 

The season in the larger theaters is about 
nine months, but in the smaller it is only 



from November to Palm Sunday. The rest 
of the time the personnel must live as best 
it can. Therefore the places in the summer- 
resort orchestras are eagerly sought. A posi- 
tion at one of the great resorts, however, 
merely assures the musician a bare living, ob- 
tained at great expenditure of labor. In 
many instances the men must play three times 
daily in wind and rain, and even when there 
are not so many performances the work is 
rigorous to a degree. Moreover, in the great 
resorts, Homburg, Kreuznach, Kissingcn, 
the salary is only from $27.50 to $40 a 
month, and in the smaller, Bad Reinerz, Sal- 
zungen, Landeck, the wage is from $17.50 
to $27.50 a month. In connection with these 
statements it should be said that the musician 
has little or no time to earn additional money. 
At best only violinists and 'cellists can earn 
a little extra, but these men are usually 
obliged to hold themselves always at the dis- 
position of the leader. Thus they are in no 
sense masters of even a small portion of their 
day. 

These pitiful salaries are arrayed against a 
constantly increasing artistic demand. The 
work which the musician must do to-day is 
vastly greater than that which was required 
thirty years ago. Mere waltzes and marches are 
no longer sufficient. There must be grand 
opera and symphony concerts. Dr. Waltz says 
that from thirty-six to thirty-eight hours are 
spent in public every week by the average Ger- 
man musician, and this does not include the 
many hours spent in practice and rehearsals. 

The position of the higher-class musicians 
is desperate enough, but it appears favorable 
when compared to that of the men in the 
music-halls, beer-gardens, and similar places. 
These musicians belong to no orchestra, and 
they play when and where they can. But 
they naturally suffer from the irregularity 
of their work, and they arc also compelled to 
accept any price that may be offered. It 
frequently happens, as the Fachzeitung fur 
Zivilmusiker reports, that these men play 
for six or eight hours at a ball or 
other entertainment for $1 or 75 cents; 
and it appears from a canvas made by 
a musical organization that in Berlin 26 
per cent, of the independent musicians 
do not earn $12.50 a month, and 44 
per cent, do not receive $15. In the 
small orchestras which share the profits the 
pay is little better. In Heidelberg, for 
example, the members of a " mutual " orches- 
tra received $225 annually, and in Gera the 
receipts were, for a stated period, only $50 
to $75 a head. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



263 



RAILWAYS OF THE UPPER CONGO. 



DISTRESSING reports have reached us 
more frequently than any constructive 
tidings anent Belgium's exploitation of the 
Congo. Because of this fact we are glad to 
record a friendly tribute to the enterprise and 
achievement of the Belgians in that region. 
Mr. Demetrius C. Boulger, writing on rail- 
road construction in the Congo under the 
Leopold regime, in the Engineering Maga- 
zine for July, says the story is really a ro- 
mance that would fill a volume. '* It seems 
to be forgotten," says he, " by some of our 
latter-day critics, that the Berlin act, which 
is so often invoked by persons who have evi- 
dently never read it in its entirety, laid down 
in one of the sections of its first article that 
the construction of railways was to be un- 
dertaken chiefly with the view of abolishing 
human portage. Although twenty-two years 
have elapsed since the signature of that act 
by fourteen powers, not one of the five hold- 
ing territory therein has constructed a single 
mile of railway in the Congo basin, except 
the Congo State." This speaks well for 
Leopold's rule. 

Water communication was first attempted. 
In December, 1881, the first of the Congo 
Government's steamers was launched on 
Stanley Pool. It was only five tons. Dur- 
ing the subsequent twenty-five years a regular 
fleet of steamers was added, of over 500 tons 
each. In March, 1887, King Leopold 
granted a concession for the construction of 
a railroad from Matadi, the ocean port of 
the Lower Congo, to Lcopoldville, the river 
port on Stanley Pool. In 1898, ft became 
available for traflic, and human portage has 
ceased to be known throughout the whole of 
the Cataracts Province since its construction. 
Evils resulting from the employment, — some- 
times forced, — of natives in this work, Mr. 
Boulger says, were inevitable, and the price 
that had to be paid for a great and highly 
beneficent result. Continuing, he says : " No 
government could have shown more clearly 
than the Congo State that it realized that 
portage was a system to be superseded by 
something better in the Upper Congo region 
as quickly and as effectively as had been done 
in the Lower Congo." 

In 1898, the year of the official opening of 
the line to Stanley Pool, the question entered 
upon its third stage. Orders were issued for 
the survey of a railroad from Stanleyville to 
die Nile. In January, 1902, a concession 
was granted to a company formed specially 



to fill up gaps in the river navigation caused 
by cataracts, through the construction of 
short railroad lines. One line to turn the 
cataracts at Stanley Falls is completed and 
in working order ; and a second, to turn the 
cataracts of Hell's Gate and Sendwe, is pro- 
gressing with remarkable rapidity. 

" The starting point of these railways is 
Stanleyville, a picturesque and growing town 
on the left bank of the main Congo River, 
situated at an altitude of about 1400 feet 
above sea level. The first half of the line 
rises steadily and slowly to a maximum alti- 
tude of 1750 feet. The second half is an 
equally gradual descent to Ponthierville, 
which is less than 1550 feet above sea level. 
Except for this very small ascent and descent 
the construction of the railway presented no 
features of great difficulty. As, however, 
the track passes through a dense forest, it 
was not easy to determine which was the 
best line to follow. The clearing of the for- 
est has been accomplished only for a very 
few yards on each side of the rails. Cer- 
tainly the most serious part of, the work was 
the cutting of the track through the wood 
and undergrowth, owing to the fact that the 
timber could not be burnt on the spot, but 
had to be carried into the open. A further 
cause of difficulty was the eradication of the 
roots and undergrowth, while numerous 
watercourses required either extensive drain- 
ing and the construction of culverts, or, at 
certain points, the building of bridges. How- 
ever, none of these last named was of any 
important dimensions. Out of the twenty 
constructed only ten exceeded fifty yards in 
length." 

Labor had to be organized, for it was en- 
tirely local. Over every 100 laborers was 
a European foreman. On this phase of the 
problem the writer cites Mr. William Edgar 
Geii's views, from which we extract: 
" While in construction of the chemin de fer 
du Congo certainly hundreds have lost their 
lives, and I have no doubt thousands, yet in 
the long run it will prove to be of great value 
in saving human life. It is also a great sav- 
ing of human health. The old caravan route 
was flanked with the graves of carriers and 
of whites who fell by the way, and diseases 
were developed by the journey. Now many 
sufferings are avoided. Before the railway 
was opened the journey took twenty days, at 
a cost of £50. There is now a great saving 
of time, and the trip costs only £2. This 



254 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REI^IEIVS. 

IS a prodigious saving, and with regard to and water is being opened up for a distance 

the Great Lakes Railway it is not only a of not less than 860 miles above Stanley 

great material help, but also furnishes a new Falls, and already 300 miles of it is open to 

idea to the whole native mind, — not simply traffic" 

to those living in proximity to the line, but He thus concludes: "What the Belgians 

to millions of natives that have heard rumors have accomplished with regard to the Congo 

of this strange mode of transportation. . . is that they have supplemented the defects of 

With regard to the work, 2300 native work- nature and vanquished the obstacles that ren- 

men are employed and but thirty whites, dered navigation on the great river of dubi- 

. . . I carefully scrutinized the native ous value. By the railway in the Lower 

employees, and found them strong, robust, Congo they placed the upper river in 

and jolly. . . Indeed, they impressed me direct communication with the ocean and 

as being prosperous and well satisfied with thereby with the outer world. By the two 

their employers, their employment, and their railways that I have described in this paper 

•wages." they have evaded and turned the obstacles 

The line from Stanleyville to Ponthier- which were assumed to render the river use- 

ville, — a distance of eighty miles, — begun in less as a waterway above Stanley Falls. 

January, 1903, was completed in March, They have thus insured the prolongation of 

1 906. On a new line from Kindu there are the magnificent water, route which traverses 

at work $000 men, and thirty kilometers out their territory in its first portion from west 

of 320 are completed. It will be finished by to east, and in its second from north to soudi. 

1909. The navigable channel from Pon- It is this that constitutes the real source of 

thierville to Kindu has been greatly im- the present prosperity and the future and 

proved in addition. " A new route by land much increasing prosperity of their CQlony." 



INDUSTRIAL LEGISLATION AND ITS COST. 

T EGISLATIVE interference in labor af- £100 was los. With iron and steel, £1 

fairs, viewed from the angle of the hu- compensation per £100 has been paid. Under 

manization of industry, is an inestimable a new law, operative on July i, these 

boon, but when it adds to the cost of produc- rates are all doubled. Statistics proving that 

tion, and thus increases the toiler's burdens, mining, manufacturing, railroad and seafar- 

it is something of a handicap. At present in ing work is nine times more dangerous than 

England and in the United States there is an textile-working alone, the writer assumes 

unusual amount of activity in framing indus- that this new act may impose a tax of £5 8s. 

trial legislation, and to jshow that improve- per £100 of wages paid on British industry 

ments have been effected far more by the de- in general. 

velopment and application of scientific work- This will not fall on capital alone. Much 

ing methods than by legislative enactments in- will fall inevitably on labor, supposedly a 

tended to be ameliorating is the task which gainer by this legislation. Further economies 

Mr. T. Good sets himself in Gassier s Mag- will be attempted, elderly and delicate men 

azine for July. In general, the benefits secured will not be retained, and young and strong 

by legislation cost more than they are worth, ones will be speeded up. There are other 

and the latter is not the most effective means ways of benefiting labor than by means of 

to improve the condition of the operatives, legislation. Much mining legislation has 

Confined to his experience in Great Brit- been secured, and mining is now as safe as 

ain, there is, nevertheless, sufficient relevancy human foresight and present knowledge pcr- 

to American conditions to make his paper one mit. But much of the general improvement 

of interest to our readers. Taking up the is not due to legislative interference at all, 

new Workmen's Compensation act, imposing but to the spread of knowledge, the growth of 

liability on employers, he says that when the science, and the natural development of hu- 

act of 1897 was passed insurance companies manitarian ideas, — to voluntary effort quite 

charged only is. 6d. per £100 of wages as a as much as to compulsory regulation. " The 

premium in the case of risk on textile opera- moral, social, and educational conditions of 

tives. In 1905 this had risen to 6s. With our miners have been materially improved; 

railroads, cost of compensation in 1905 per and this improvement in the individual, this 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



255 



improvement in humanity, due to the influ- 
ences of a progressive civilization, is reflected 
not only in improved technical knowledge, 
but in increased thought and care; and in- 
creased knowledge and caution bring a huge 
increase in safety. Partly through legisla- 
tion, but chiefly, we believe, through im- 
proved knowledge, there has been a large 
measure of progress in lessening personal risk 
and injury during the last fifty years." Fa- 
talities dropped from one in every 250, be- 
tween 1845 and 1855, to one in every 770, 
between 1896 and 1906. 



State regulation within a period of about 
half a century has added 2s. per ton to the 
cost of coal getting, thus increasing the cost 
of production. This means £24,ocK),cxx) 
a year, and with £37,000,000 threatened, 
in addition, for workmen's compensation, 
the writer thinks it is time to halt the 
movement for restrictive legislation and to 
adopt a new policy in industrial affairs, to 
settle the differences of capital and labor 
without state interference. The latter is a 
tax on production and a commercial handi- 
cap. * 



A PLEA FOR AN UNRE FORMED HOUSE OF LORDS. 



'T'HE efforts now being made by Premier 
Campbell-Bannerman to discipline the 
alleged refractory English House of Lords 
by bringing it within the jurisdiction and 
under the subjection of the Commons has 
aroused the keenest interest throughout the 
United States and in all European countries. 
Many nations, including our own, have trou- 
ble with their " upper house " at intervals, 
hence all are anxious to learn just what can 
and will be done by the English in the matter 
of controlling the actions of their hereditary 
legislators. 

Naturally enough, the English newspapers 
and periodicals have opened their columns 
wide for discussion of this topic, not by any 
means a new one, but always interesting and,* 
as a rule, timely. Premier Gladstone, when 
endeavoring to pacify Ireland, a few years 
ago, complained, early and after, of the Lords 
and their evident antagonism. He, figura- 
tively, held a " big stick " over the opposition 
peers and eventually created some additions to 
the peerage from his own party to help along. 

In the current National Review, Lord 
Willoughby de Broke gives his views on this 
subject in the form of " A Plea for an Un- 
reformed House of Lords." He takes for his 
theme, prindpally, Lord Newton's bill to 
reform the Lords. The outcome of the bilFs 
introduction was the reference of all schemes 
of reform to a representative committee o^ 
the Lords, with Lord Rosebery as chairman. 

The writer assimies a defensive attitude 
and consistently maintains it in a respectful 
way. Referring to the ministerial resolution 
inspired by the Premier he says this resolu- 
tion, however innocent in appearance, aims 
at completely subverting the present relation- 
ship between the two houses of Parliament by 



placing the peers under the autocrac); of the 
Commons. At the same time, Lord de Broke 
admits that reform is necessary. 

The effect of the passage of such a bill, in 
the writer's opinion, is thus stated: 

In effect the result of the passing of Lord 
Newton's bill would be to pull to pieces an in- 
tegral portion of a very ancient fabric gradually 
knitted together through the ages, strong enough 
to resist the wear and tear of centuries, yet prob- 
ably from its very nature peculiarly sensitive to 
any attempt at alteration or reconstruction. 
. . . For this measure does not merely aim 
at the reduction of the hereditary element upon 
which, from its inception, the House of Lords 
has depended for its composition ; it is at once 
perfectly plain that if it becomes law heredity 
pure and simple will no longer entitle the holder 
of a peerage to a seat in the House unless he 
has stood the test of election, or is invested with 
one of certain qualifications set forth in the 
schedule of the bill ; so that by abolishing forth- 
with the claim of any peer to be summoned to 
the House solely in virtue of the fact that he is 
exercising a right and a privilege conferred on 
him by the Crown, what has been called a modi- 
fication of the hereditary principle really amounts 
to a fundamental alteration in the basis and con- 
stitution of the House of Lords. 

The defects of the House of Lords that 
the Rosebery committee is considering, on 
suggestion, are ( i ) the unduly large number 
of peers; (2) scanty attendance at sessions 
of their House; (3) the hereditary basis of 
the House; (4) the absence of representa- 
tives of the important classes, and (5) the 
undue preponderance of the Conservative 
element. Lord de Broke, in his plea, con- 
siders each of these defects in turn, and makes 
a clear presentation. 

The alleged defects of ultra-conserva- 
tism, in the eyes of the party in power a 
misdemeanor almost amounting to a crime, 
this writer refers to in this fashion: 



256 



THE AMERICAN REI^JEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 



Even if it were desirable that the upper house 
should be a kind of reflex of the lower, it is very 
doubtful if machinery to secure this object could 
be invented. Conservatism seems to be the in- 
separable attribute of a second chamber, and a 
House of Lords containing a strong Radical 
proportion, or possibly a Radical majority, 
would be a pure contradiction in terms. The 
idea of having political parties more evenly bal- 
anced sounds plausible enough, but in this event 
all important divisions would be conducted on 
party lines. 

The plea of Lord de Broke embraces sev- 
eral examples of upper house legislation 
deemed by him to be instances of wisdom 
and proper discretion. Referring to the Edu- 
cation and Trade Disputes bills, the writer 
declares that: 

Not only did the House of Lords present to 
the nation an edifying example of debating power 
and expert knowledge of the nature of the busi- 
ness to be transacted, but its deliberations were 
invested throughout with the perception that the 
one thing the people of this country, were de- 



termined upon was not to allow anything to im- 
pair the teaching of religion in elementary 
schools. In handling the bill this was the chief 
principle the peers kept in view. No better ex- 
ample than the passing by the House of Lords 
of the Trade Disputes bill can be found of its 
willingness to give effect to what is conceived to 
be the clearly expressed wish of the vast ma- 
jority of the electors, even though the provisions 
of the bill were directly opposed to the best tra- 
ditions that have previously animated the legis- 
lation of this country. 

The writer of the " Plea," in connection 
with the view just quoted, further declares 
of the House of Lords that: 

It has hitherto correctly gauged the tem- 
per of the nation, bowed to the clearly ex- 
pressed popular will, even against its own 
natural inclinations and leanings, and on one 
occasion saved the country from a real calam- 
ity. At the present moment the House of 
Lords probably stands higher in the estima- 
tion of the English people than ever before. 



THE ETHICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PLAY. 



T^HAT a child needs to play in order to be 
healthy, to acquire control of its mental 
faculties to think and to do, needs no discus- 
sion ; but the place of play in human conduct, 
as related to ethics, is a question for determi- 
nation. Dr. Luther H. Gulick, in the Homi- 
letic Review for July, elucidates this problem. 

" Play " may mean amusement or recrea- 
tion, or " that thing which children do when 
adults suppose they are amusing themselves." 
Play demands intense attention, for it is a 
development of personal activity, — of the 
highest part of the self. When a baby drops 
a spoon from a high chair and, on regaining 
it, repeats the process seventy-nine times, it is 
not amusing itself. It is learning in a prag- 
matic way something about its own power in 
relation to that object It could not be called 
recreation, for recreation follows labor. Play 
is rather the pusuit of the ideal as it then ap- 
pears. When a baby lies on its back and 
plays with its toes, it is actuated by a similar 
impulse to Livingstone when he crossed 
Africa, Abruzzi when he sought the North 
Pole, or the violin-maker who made violins 
better than was necessary through sheer love 
of the undertaking. They are all in pursuit 
of an ideal. 

He illustrates this very charmingly by re- 
ferring to an experience with two little girls, 
sisters, who were playing together. They 
did not always agree. Presently one said to 



the other: "Let's play we were sisters"; 
and then there was a new atmosphere. Each 
treated the other in an ideal fashion, and their 
relations were established on an ideal basis. 

The lash of economic necessity has not pro- 
duced the great poems or statues of the 
world. Play is not something less than work. 
It is a difference in attitude. One may play 
when cooking,^-or one may work. One is 
the pursuit of the ideal ; the other is the yield- 
ing to the compulsions of life. Play is part 
of one's life work, and when it can be made 
the great work it is ideal and glorious. 

Ethical conduct springs from self-control, 
not from control by others. This is a pri- 
mary reason why children should play, and, 
in this connection, " the boy without a play- 
ground is father to the man without a job," 
— that is, using " job " in the sense of a life 
enthusiasm, or work. But there must be a 
kind of ** mutual-consent control " in the 
play, such as that seen in " team " play, 
which, the writer believes, is the ** highest 
type of moral power, — the individual sinking 
himself into the consciousness of the whole." 
While not under compulsion the individual is 
one of the group, yet is at his highest when 
completely lost in the whole. When this 
idea extends to all society, the passionate de- 
votion of the individual in seeking to ally 
the self with the ** game of the whole," — 
not seeking self-expression, will be realized. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 
CONTENTS FOR SEPTEMBER, 1907. 



The Dowager Empress of China. Fronuipiece 
The Progress of the World— 

The Slump in the Stock Market 259 

IncreMed Demand (or Capital 259 

How Will Business Be Atfected? 259 

260 
260 
261 
261 
262 
263 



A Time (or Conservatism 

North Carolina and the Southern Railway. 

Is the New Rate Confiscatory? 

The State Law to Be Obeyed 

The Situation in Alabama 

New Southern Senators. 

The Maryland Governorship 264 

The Telegraph Strike. 264 

The Haywood Acquittal 265 

The Sundard Oil Fine 265 

Probiiw New York I^pid Transit 266 

The Philippine Election. 



„ 267 

Two NoUble Addresses 268 

The President and the Stock Market 266 

America Producing Diamonds? 266 

Our TanK Relation with Germany 269 

Our Relations with France 269 

The Diplomacy o( Senor Castro 270 

$5 WJ.000 Fine 270 

Problems Be(ore the British Ministry 270 

Britain at The Hague 271 

Some Scandinavian Problems 271 

Can France and Germany *'Make Up?" 271 



A Smaller French Army . 

France's Task in Morocco 

Bombardment o( Casablanca 

Results at The Hi^e. 

No Agreement as to Armament Reduction . . 



272 
272 
273 
274 
275 



Is Gennany Really Isolated? 276 

••A Chain of Ententes CordiaUs" 276 

Korea a Japanese Province 277 

The lapanese Program 276 

The New Treaty Between Japan and Russia. . 276 

Elnd o( the Journalistic War with Japan 276 

Progress in Ballooning and Motoring 279 

With portraits, cartoons, and other llloBtratlons. 

Record of Current Events 260 

With portraits and other illustrations. 

Some of the Current Cartoons 264 

Saint Gaudens and American Sculp- 
ture 290 

By Ernest Knautf t. 
With portrait and other illustrations. 



Has Arkansas a Diamond " Field "?. 

By Robert S. Lanier. 



301 



The West Indies in Commerce 305 

By Lewis R. Freeman. 
With illustration!. 

Developing a National Type of Horse 321 

By Arthur Chapman. 
With portraits and other illostrations. 

The Prohibition Wave in the South. 326 

By John Corrigan. 
With portraits. 

How Long WillOurCoalSupply Last? 335 

By John Llewellyn Cochrane. 
With chart and diagram. 

Are Secret Societies a Danger to Our 

High Schools ? 336 

By Marion Melius. 

Why Is Interest High? 342 

By George lies. 

The Crusade Against Billboards.... 345 

By Clinton Rogers Woodrutf . 

Leading Articles of the Month— 

Tendencies o( American Railroad Development 346 
Are the Small Nations Doomed to Extinction? 349 
A New German Estimate o( the American 

People 350 

Why Russia Lags Behind 351 

The German-American Republic diat Failed . 353 
The First SeK-Governing Jewish Community 

Since the Fall o( Jerusalem 354 

Apostasy Among the Jews 356 

"A Yankee Tilt (or an Empire" 357 

The City and Its Milk Supply 360 

Daniel H. Burnham: American Architect . . . 362 

How They Played at Chicago 364 

How Much Have Our Railroads Cost? 365 

The Canadian Railway Commission 366 

The Immigrant Woman 366 

The Wrong o( the Great Surplus 369 

The Brvan-Beveridge Debate 370 

Compubory Arbitration Between Nations 373 

Is France in a Bad Way Commercially? 374 

America's Interest in the Education o( Italian 

Children 375 

The Extraordinary Civil Status o( the Italian 

Woman 377 

Is a Religious Revival Beginning in Italy? 377 

Is the Modem Man a Poor Fattier? 376 

The Way o( the Land Transgressor 379 

With portraits, cartoons, and other illustrations. 



The New Books 

With portraits. 



361 



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Copyright 1907, by C. G. Bain. N. Y. 



THE DOWAGER EMPRESS OF CHINA, THE MOST POWERFUL WOMAN 

RULER IN THE WORLD. 



(Tzu-hsi, the Dowager Empress of China, maternal aunt of the reigning Emperor Kuan^- 
hsu, who is now in her seventy-third year, is suffering from an incurable disease which will 
probably carry her to her grave in a few months. She has just announced her intention of abdi- 
cating the great power she has wielded for more than thirty years and of handing over the car^ 
of state to the Emperor. Tzu-hsi is one of the most remarkable women of the world's histor>\ 
Of Manchu origin, she was the favorite concubine of Hsien-feng, uncle of the present Em- 
peror. It was her son, T'ung-chih, who preceded Kuang-hsu on the throne. This remark- 
able woman is said to be in favor of many reforms in the administration of the Chinese Em- 
pire. For the past quarter of a century hers has apparently been the only mind powerful enough 
to cope with the political and economic situation in the Celestial Empire.) 



THE AMERICAN 

Review of Reviews 



Vol. XXXVI. 



NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER, 1907.' 



No. 3 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 

The Slump ^^^ stock market witnessed dur- increased There is a simple philosophy to 

in tke ing August the sharpest slump in Demand for the monetary situation in these 

toe a •'• quotations of standard securities ^p ^ - great markets. It is a philosophy 
since "the silent panic" of March 14 last, which is simple, at least t9 the student of 
It was evident at that time to far-sighted political economy, but unfortunately not all 
observers that there were no substantial our statesmen nor even all our financial 
grounds for another " bull market " in the writers are trained economists. The expla- 
ncar future. Nevertheless, stocks had been nation of high rates for money all over the 
advanced by manipulation and partial recov- world is that the capital sought for the cre- 
er>' of confidence by from 15 to 20 points, ation of new enterprises, like railway exten- 
It was found imposible to hold such an ad- sions, new rolling mills, new buildings, and 
vance, and on Monday, August 12, a sharp the opening up of new countries, does not 
break occurred, followed by further sharp equal the demand for it. Every civilized com- 
plunges downward on Wednesday, the 14th, munity to-day produces annually not only 
and Friday, the i6th. The net result of these all that is needed for its immediate consump- 
changes in some of the stocks most largely tive wants, but a surplus over for making ad- 
dealt in appears in the following list: ditions to the existing equipment of produc- 
Hi^h, i^w. March, AuTiT. ^[«"- ^^ IS not money which is lacking, in 

stock. 1906. 1907. 1907. the sense of gold com and notes. It is a su- 

AS"r sTmng::::::;:i7f' i04y. m ficient supply of raw material, labor, and 

Hiu.*rohio.::::::;:::i25^ lo^ li^ machinery to create all these new works. 

<'hi., M. & 8t. Paul 199% 122^ 117^ Men who wish to enter, upon such creations 

inlrr-Mlt*' ^m 5.5% 22% ^8% ^eek to borrow the capital of others through 

.V Y>**ntnii. . ::::::: :irm. 111% 99^ the form of banking credits. They find that 

P»*nn8.vlvanla 147% 115 114% , ,. C i i i T'r 

Reading 104 91 85U those credits are exhausted or reduced. 1 hey 

!•"'?• .sa7.''™m:::::::'"b1t 'Wi '^i then offer a higher bid for surplus capital 

by offering new securities cheap. In order 
j^ j^^ The slump in prices shown above to buy these new securities, holders of old 
to Local is not due primarily to anything securities are willing to sacrifice them in 
***' inherent in. the stocks. With the some cases at reduced prices in order to take 
exception of the traction stocks, they are all the new. In other words, the mass of securi- 
good dividend earners, and the properties are ties, both old and new, competing for a 
\n sound condition. The fall in prices is due, market, is in excess of the combined demand 
primarily to the absorption of capital the for securities at former prices. Hence the 
world over. If it were local to the United fall in their current quotations. 
States, as some of the critics of the Adminis- 
tration would have us believe, it might be ^^^ ^^^^ As to the effect of present con- 
attributed to local causes. In fact, however, Buaineaa Be ditions in the stock market upon 
it affects Great Britain, where the price of ^^ *' general business, they are likely 
consols has fallen as low as 8oJ4j or lower to be felt more or less, but probably not in 
than at any time since 1848 ; it affects Berlin, so spectacular a degree as in the stock market, 
where serious banking troubles have been Already many railways have discontinued or 
feared; and even affects Paris, where the curtailed improvements. This means that 
Bank of France carries a stock of gold which their demand for steel rails, ties, terminal 
makes the Paris market almost impregnable, facilities, and new cars and engines will be 

Copyrifbt 1907. by Thb Review of Reviiws Company. 



260 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




THE rUAHIl OP THE STOCK MARKRT. 

From the Inquirer (Philadelphia). 



less than it has been. Inevitably those who 
produce these articles wilt be compelled to 
some extent to curtail their demand for 
articles of general consumption. Such events 
as the suspension of the Pope Manufacturing 
Company are significant of another factor 
operating in the market, — the inabilit}' of big 
industrial enterprises to continue to do busi- 
ness on borrowed capital. The banks in 
husbanding their cash against emergencies, 
and in cutting down loans to the margin of 
safety upon securities which have fallen in 
value, will necessarily be compelled to limit 
the accommodations they have heretofore 
granted to certain manufacturing enterprises. 
Hence come suspensions and receiverships as 
the necessary result of the increasing strin- 
gency in the money market. 

A Time '^^^ remedy for all of these things 
for is simply to wait until new capital 
conaervatum. ^^^^umulates from the excess prod- 
uct of going industries. In the meantime, 
however, it is important under such con- 
ditions that confidence should not be impaired 



or credit unduly strained. Secretary Cortcl- 
you seems to be pursuing a conservative 
course toward the money market by wth- 
holding his aid until the most critical season, 
when the crops have to be moved. It matters 
less whether the crops are large than wliat 
price is received for them. If the price is 
liigh and American production is able to meet 
a considerable part of the foreign demand, 
then credits will be created in favor of this 
country which will tend to relieve to some 
degree the pressure on the market. There 
is no reason to believe that we are on the 
eve of a great panic, if prudence and cxm- 
servatism prevail, but unusual caution should 
undoubtedly govern all those who arc doing 
business with borrowed capital. 

North Carolina ^^^ ^hort month ago a straneer 
and to American procedure mUbt 
"stateRights.-^^^^ thought that the whole ocm- 
try was on the brink of a serious disrupticMi 
on account of the supposed differences be- 
tween the national Government and that of 
one of the States on the subject of railroad 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



261 



regulation. Yet a calm examination of the 
matter from the standpoint of to-day shows 
that nothing could have been farther from 
the range of probability. It was thought in 
July that the federal courts would obstruct 
the enforcement of North Carolina's new 
Railroad-Rate law, and that the general Gov- 
ernment would become the champion of the 
railroad corporations against the State. The 
• Southern Railway had, in fact, obtained from 
the United States Circuit Court an injunc- 
tion against the State officials pending the 
determination of the constitutionality of the 
new law. It was held by the railroad and 
its counsel that the law was confiscatory, 
masmuch as the reduction in passenger fares 
from 3j4 to 2% cents per mile meant that 
the road must be operated at a loss, if at all. 

,^ ^^ The press and people of North 

Mea Rate Carolina were quite ready to re- 

onfiBca ory ^^^ ^^^ action of Judge Pritchard 

of the Circuit Court when he granted this 

injunction. The point of constitutionality 

had comparatively little weight with them. 

In North Carolina, as in nearly all the 

States which have recently passed new rate 

laws, there had been practically no expert 

investigation of the economic justice of such 

iegfslation. It had simply been assumed that 





JUDGE JETER C. PPITCHAPD, OF THE UNITED STATES 
CIRCUIT COURT. 



the railroads were getting too much and pub- 
lic opinion demanded a reduction of fares. 
It was natural enough, perhaps, that people 
who believe that they had been oppressed 
by the railroads for years should be impatient 
at the suggestion that there could be such a 
thing as unfair exactions on the part of the 
State Legislature. Yet sober second thought 
must have convinced many, even among the 
champions of the new law, that the only way 
o£ determining the justice or injustice of such 
a law would be through submission to the 
courts, and that the issue of constitution- 
ality must sooner or later be decided by the 
federal rather than the State courts was not 
open to serious question. 



PRESIDENT W W. FTNLEV. OF THE SOUTHERN 
RAfl-WAV. 



theatre Law ^ast year the New York Legis- 
to 8e lature passed a bill reducing the 

Obeyed. . • ? o i_ 

price of gas to oo cents per thou- 
sand feet. The gas company claimed that 
this rate was confiscatory. Pending final de- 
cision of the matter the citizens are compelled 
to pay the old rate of $i.oo per thousand, 
although it is believed to have been con- 
clusively shown that the company can well 
afford to provide gas at the lower rate. If 
the decision shall eventually be in favor of 
the rate prescribed by the Legislature, con- . 
sumers will get back all the excess that they 



THE AMERICAN REyiEU^' OF REP^IEWS. 




since excess fares could not be paid back to 
passengers on account of difficulties in identi- 
fication. In North Carolina the matter was 
finally adjudicated by the railroad's acceptance 
of the State law, Governor Glenn and the 
other State officials promising to withdraw all 
prosecutions of the railroad company's agents, 
and further agreeing, in case the new rate 
should be clearly shown to be confiscator}', 
to call a special session of the Legislature to 
amend the law. Thus the Southern Railway 
has put itself in the position of obeying the 
State law, while at the same time it retains 
the privilege of appealing for redress from 
the State to the federal courts if the oper- 
ation of the law should result in injustice. 



IS no longer talk of con- 
between State and federal 



Th€ SHuatton ^,^^^ 
ifi flict 

Aiabama. authorities, but it IS admitted 
that in North Carolina, as in many other 
States where similar laws have been put in 
force, the question of railroad passenger fares 
is still an unsettled one. In Alabama, as in 



GOVERNOR GLENN, OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

(An RggresRlve advocate of State Rights in tlio 

recent dispute with the Southern Railway.) 

will have paid since the law in question went 
into effect. In the case of a railroad a similar 
arrangement would, of course, be impossible, 





'DON'T 8HOOT, MR. CBOrKETT, I'LL COMB DOWN." 

From the Consfilution (Atlanta). 



GOV. BRAXTON B. COMER, OF ALABAMA. 
i Who vigorously asserted the State's prerogatlvei In 
the contest with the Southern Railway last month.) 

North Carolina, the Southern Railway made 
an agreement with the State government by 
which it accepted the railroad act of the last 
Legislature. In Alabama also there had been 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



263 



a federal injunction for enforcing rhe State 
laws, but that is suspended, and the case now 
pending in the federal court will be finally 
adjudicated by the United States Supreme 
Court. The license of the company had been 
suspended in Alabama on technical grounds, 
but on conclusion of the agreement with the 
State authorities this license was restored. 
Neither in Alabama nor in North Carolina 
has there been what some of the newspapers 
have been pleased to call a " victory " for 
either side of the controversy. The only 
principle that has been established thus far is 
the regularity of appeal to the federal courts. 





Copyriehi. 1907. by Bert G. Covell. Birminjrham. 
SENATOR-ELECT JOSEPH F. JOHNSTON, OK ALABAMA. 

Now that both States have admitted this 
point, there is really no longer a question at 
issue. Whether or not the new rates in these 
and other States are confiscatory will have 
to be decided after due ijivestigation. 



New 
Southern 
Senators. 



CopyrtftebrCBTierfinst. WMhin^ton- 
HON, JOHN SHARP WILLIAMS. 



MISSISSIPPI. 

seat 



(s«c««fal In the Priniaries for nomination to a 
In the United States Senate.) 



The vacancy caused by the death 
of the venerable Senator Pettus, 
of Alabama, occurring only a 
few weeks after that of his colleague, Senator 
Morgan, was promptly filled by the Legisla- 
ture's selection of ex-Gov. Joseph F. John- 
ston to fill the unexpired term and also 
the full term beginning in 1909. The Hon. 
John H. Bankhead had already been chosen 
as Senator Morgan's successor. Senator- 
elect Johnston has long been a prominent 
factor in the industrial progress of his State, 
besides serving two terms as Governor. He 
is a good representative of the new South. 
In Mississippi's primary contest for the Sen- 
atorship, which in that State is practically 
equivalent to an election by popular vote, 
Governor Vardaman was defeated by the 
Hon. John Sharp Williams, the Democratic 
leader in the House of Representatives. Mr. 
Williams has served seven terms in the 
House and will bring to the Senate seat an 
unusual parliamentary equipment. In the 
Mississippi primaries for the Governor 



264 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IEIVS, 




'* eliminate the illiterate negro voter." It 
will be difficult for them to over-come such 
objections as, in 1905, swamped the similar 
** Poe *' amendment by 20,000 majorit>'. 
The Republicans, moreover, have been fortu- 
nate in securing as their candidate for C5ov- 
ernor a ver>' efficient public servant, George 
R. Gaither, of Baltimore, personally com- 
mended by the independent and even the 
Democratic press. He led in the anti-spoils 
campaign of 1895, which made Lloyd 
Lowndes the only Republican Governor of 
Maryland since Reconstruction days. If Mr. 
Gaither is elected in the face of long-in- 
trenched and popular Democratic adminis- 
tration it will be a tremendous tribute of 
non-partisan confidence in his personal hon- 
esty and abilit}'. 



The 

Telegraph 

Strike, 



After several postponements and 
supposed settlement the 



one 



MR. CHARLES SCOTT^ OF MISSISSIPPI. 

ship, which were held at the same time, the 
successful candidate was the Hon. E. F. 
Noel. Among the contestants for the nomi- 
nation, the campaign made by Mr. Charles 
Scott, of Rosedale, had attracted attention 
beyond the borders of the State. Although 
defeated, Mr. Scott's vigorous battle in be- 
half of clean politics was commended by 
friends and opponents alike. 

j^^ A .portent of national politics in 
Maryland 1908 may be read from the 
Qovernorehip. jyi^ryland Governorship contest 
now waging. Democrats and Republicans 
both, in their State conventions last month, 
demanded a corrupt-practices act» and a di- 
rect-primary law in elections of State Sena- 
tors and other officials. In their ticket, 
however, and their ballot-law convictions, 
the Republicans seem to have their best 
chance during a decade of capturing the in- 
dependent vote, so important in Maryland. 
They call for a repeal of the " Wilson " 
law, which has facilitated trick ballots, and 
otherwise hampered the Election act of 
1896; w-hile the Democrats, who have nom- 
inated Judge Austin L. Crothers, of the 
" Eastern Shore," for Governor, again de- 
clare for a constitutional amendment to 



strike of commercial telegraphers 
assumed serious proportions last month. The 
Western Union opera to r^ of Los Angeles 
were the first to quit work and their example 
was soon followed in Denver, Kansas City, 
New Orleans, Chicago, and New York. By 
the time the strike had extended across the 
continent the real reasons for the movement 




Pbotornpb by Clinedinat. Wasbinfton. 

THE LATE EDMUND W. PETTUS. OF ALABAMA. 
(Oldest member of the Senate.) 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



265 



had become obscured. The striking opera- 
tors were either unable or unwilling to give 
the press any clear or definite statement of 
their grievances. A union operator had been 
discharged at Los Angeles and there was a 
dispute between the company and his fellow 
operators as to the cause of his discharge. 
Demands for increase of pay and reduction 
of hours also figured iii the matter, and the 
telegraph companies maintained that the 
operators were trying to force the adoption of 
the closed shop throughout the country. 
However this may have been, the strike soon 
spread to more than fifty important cities, 
and at those points upward of 4000 operators 
left their keys. Both the Western Union 
and the Postal companies were* aflFected. 
Strange as it may seem, the business of the 
country was only slightly impeded by this at- 
tempted tie-up. Both companies were able 
to fill a majority of the strikers' places al- 
most immediately. Competent hands, in 
many cases trained in the Western Union's 
schools for telegraphers, were ready to take 
the abandoned jobs. When the news ser- 
vice of the metropolitan dailies was tempo- 
rarily crippled, the long-distance telephone 
was resorted to. On the whole, the general 
public hardly sufferftl any serious incon- 
venience. The rniirond telegraph service, 
manned by a liistfnc! corp^ of operators, was 
undisttiTbed, The strike at best is a crude 
.md ill-rcgulateJ means of obtaining indus- 
trial justice; but when the great public, to 
uhom every body of strikers must turn for 
support, f* kept in ignoriince of the strike's 
just Location, rhere can be nothing hut ulti- 
mate disaster in store for the rank and file 
of the sfriker* and their leaders. 



j^ William D. Haywood, secretar>' 
and trea^iurf r fsf the Western Fed- 



/«9iiir . f ration of miners, after a most re- 
mtirkabTr triaK was acquitted on July 28 of 
rhe charpT of conspiracy to murder ex-Gov- 
pmor Steunenberg, of Idaho, Whatever may 
ht alie^d a& to the motives that lay back of 
the proiecution of Haywood and his brother 
officials m the miners* vinion, it cannot be 
contmded that the trial itself was unfair. 
The proceedings were distinctly creditable to' 
the jo«ng State of Idaho, which newspapers 
ifi i^ Ea*^i had patron izsingly styled a frontier 
qOTniiiniti% Indeed, the people of Idaho, 
w^v fTjrmrr Governor had been assassinated 
in a most cowardly manner, behaved through- 
out the trial with a restraint and moderation 
that we should hope to see imitated, under 




From the Leader (Cleveland). 

similar circumstances, in our older and more 
populous States. The prosecution of Hay- 
wood practically rested upon the testimony of 
Harry Orchard, the arch-assassin, whose self- 
confessed record of murders had horrified the 
world and staggered the credulity of men to 
whom acquaintance with crime is an incident 
of the day's work. The judge's charge to 
the jury made it clear that the statutes of 
Idaho require corroborative evidence in con- 
spiracy cases, and in the Haywood case such 
evidence was lacking. Immediately after 
Haywood's acquittal President Moyer, of the 
Western Federation, w^ho had been held on 
the same charge, was released on bail. The 
trial of George A. Pettibone was set for 
October i , next. 

j^^ Reference was made in these pages 
standard Oil last month to the efforts made 
by Judge Landis, of Chicago, to 
obtain evidence as to the actual ownership 
and wealth of the Standard Oil Company of 
Indiana before fixing the amount of its fine 
for violation of the Interstate Commerce 
law in the matter of taking railroad rebates. 
It will be remembered that the company had 
been convicted on 1462 counts. The maxi- 
mum fine under the 000 on 



266 



THE AMERICAN REP^IEIV OF RE^IEi^S. 




have shown the company's innocence were 
excluded as evidence from the former triaL 
Meanwhile, the Standard Oil Company of 
New York has been indicted by the federal 
grand jury at Jamestown for recei\'ing re- 
bates from railroads. The Government has 
brought suit against the Powder Trust un- 
der the Sherman Anti-Trust act, petitioning 
for a receivership, as in the case of the tobac- 
co monopoly. It is understood that proceed- 
ings will also be begun against the Har- 
vester Trust. 

Probing ^^^ recently appointed Public- 
Neui York's Service Commission of New 

Rapi^ Transit y^j.j^ (.j^. ^^ ^^^ ^ arduOUS 

summer task in probing .the management of 
Greater New York's rapid-transit facilities. 
Soon after the commission was organized, 
Chairman Willcox announced the appoint- 
ment of William M. Ivins as special counsel 
to investigate the I nterborough- Metropolitan 
and the Brooklyn Rapid-Transit systems. 
At the same time Mr. Abel E. Blackmar 
was appointed as assistant counsel to the 
commission. Mr. Ivins has been able to 
elicit important testimony on the subject of 
New York's transit congestion, and the com- 



From the Leader (Cleveland). 

each count. And this maximum penalty, 
amounting to the great sum of $29,240,C)C», 
was assessed by Judge Landis, on August 3, 
against the oflFending company. The magni- 
tude of this fine,^-comparable only with in- 
demnities paid by nations as the result of 
wars, — has powerfully impressed the popular 
imagination. It was understood even before 
the sentence was pronounced that the -com- 
pany would appeal. A wTit of error was 
granted on August 9 by Judge Grosscup. 
In the ordinary course of legal procedure 
some time must elapse before steps can be 
taken to collect this unprecedented fine, even 
if it is affirmed by the higher courts. The 
defense now put forth by the Standard's 
officers is that certain facts which would 




Copyright by Underwood .1 Underwood. N. Y. 

MR. WILLIAM M. IVINS. 

(Special eounsol to the Pii bile -Service Commission 

of New York Tlty.) 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



267 




SE|-HETAR\^ tAFT. MK^ TAFT . ANI« MAi^TEK CHARLKS TAH. 
rVl*. M^ Mfw. Taft. with their jciimjr*>f4t rton, will »fkll /I'nni K**jiHU^ cm Sfpt^Tnlj*T HI, poJuk' first to 

Ja^ttn. tlMI«p ttt tho rhllltiptDcn. jiml rptumlnn to .\ Hiii hy wh>- of 

4n4 ftivlln. Tbe Jonmi'j will cieotjpy tiver rhriM? i th^*^ 



rhi* Tranrt-SllK'rlHn ro[ilt\ Moscow, 



mtfisioti hss til ready formulated and issued 
defintcc orders for the improvement of loail 
ti»ctlitjrs which should be of |;reat \'alue to 
the |iubljc* Meanwhile what is known rs 
the " Up-State Commission " has held hear- 
ing to ascertain the grievances of shippers 
and ctmsi^ntT% on the railroads of New York 
State und has invited suggestions of proposed 
rdrm and regulations. 



n* 



Tlic first election to the Philip- 

pme National AssemblvT hc^ld on 

^ ' July 30, was notable chiefl) for 

the small vote cast when judged according to 

American standards. All modern records for 



" apathy ^ nt elections were broken when the 
Filipino voters were ut^ahle to nniiiter more 
than 10 per cent, of tht'ir potential strength 
even m the most advanced communities. 
Under svich conditions the result of the bal- 
loting can have Htrie significance. The Vic- 
torians part\% the Na^^ionalists, had been 
pledged to an agitation ffir inuneiliate inde- 
pendence, but it is hardly conceivable that 
anything can be actoniplis^hed ro that end 
by their rcprrscnrarivf^s in the National As- 
sembly, Serrrtary X^ift, \i ho is about to 
start on a journey an mod thr -^sorld, will 
be present at the opening session of the As- 
sembly in October. It is said that the Naqion- 



268 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



alists will now demand a readjustment of 
the native members of the Philippine Com- 
mission, so as to give their party representa- 
tion. A regrettable incident of the election 
was the choice of one Gomez, a notorious 
criminal, to represent the city of Manila. 
Political conditions in the archipelago seem 
to demand the kind of investigation that 
Secretary Taft will be able to give them. 

Two Secretary Taft's speech at Co- 
Notabte lumbus, Ohio, on the evening of 

Addresses, ^^g^gj jg^ ^^5 ^^ ^[,1^ defense 

of the Administration's attitude toward the 
railroads and the great industrial corpora- 
tions. . The Secretary's analysis of the Rate 
law of 1906 and its practical workings was 
the clearest and most convincing exposition 
of the subject that has been made in any pub- 
lic address. President Roosevelt, speaking 
on the following day at Provincetown, 
Mass., at the laying of the corner-stone of 
the Pilgrim monument, made clear the pur- 
pose and motive of his administration in tak- 
ing action against ** the wealth which works 
iniquity." " We are acting," said the Presi- 
dent, " in the interest of every man of prop- 
erty who acts decently and fairly by his fel- 
lows ; and we are strengthening the hands of 
those who propose fearlessly to defend prop- 
erty' against all unjust attacks. No individ- 
ual, no corporation, obeying the law, has any- 
thing to fear from this Administration." 

Tha President ^"^"^^ch as Wall Street seemed 
and the disposed to hold the Administra- 
stock Market, ^j^^ accountable for the recent 
depression in railroad and industrial securi- 
ties there was spedal interest in the Presi- 
dent's utterances at Provincetown, in so far 
as they had a bearing on the current business 
situation. Mr. Roosevelt discussed the matj^ 
ter in the following words: 

During the present trouble with the stock 
market I have, of course, received countless re- 
quests and suggestions, public and private, that 
I should say or do something to ease the situa- 
tion. There is a world-wide financial disturb- 
ance. It is felt in the bourses of Paris and Ber- 
lin, and British consols are lower, while prices 
of railway securities have also depreciated. 

On the New York Stock Exchange the dis- 
turbance has been particularly severe; most of 
it I believe to be due to matters not particularly 
confined to the United States and to matters 
wholly unconnected with any governmental ac- 
tion ; but it may well be that the determination 
of the Government, in which, gentlemen, it will 
not waver, to punish certain malefactors of 
great wealth, has been responsible for something 
of the troubles, at least to the extent of having 



caused these men to combine to bring about as 
much financial stress as they possibly can in or- 
der to discredit the policy of the Government, 
and thereby to secure a reversal of that policy, 
so that they may enjoy the fruits of their own 
evil doing. 

That they have misled many good people into 
believing that there should be such reversal of 
policy is possible. If so, I am sorry, but it will 
not alter my attitude. Once for all, let me say 
that as far as 1 am concerned, and for the eight- 
een months of my administration that remain, 
there will be no change in the policy we have 
steadily pursued, no let up in the effort to secure 
the honest observance of the law, for 1 regard 
this contest as one to determine who shall rule 
this Government, — the people through itheir gov- 
ernmental agents, or a few ruthless and deter- 
mined men whose wealth makes them particu- 
larly formidable, because they hide behind the 
breastworks of corporate organization. 

I wish there to be no mistake on this point. 
It is idle to ask me not to prosecute criminals, 
rich or poor. But I desire no less emphatically 
to have it understood that we have undertaken 
and will undertake no action of a vindictive 
type, and above all, no action which shall in- 
flict great or unmerited suffering upon the inno- 
cent stockholders and upon the public as a 
whole. Our purpose is to act with the mini- 
mum of harshness compatible with obtaining our 
ends. In the man of great wealth who has 
earned his wealth honestly and used it wisely 
we recognize a good citizen worthy of all praise 
and respect. 

America ^^^ article on another page dc- 
Producing tails thc probability that in south- 
Diamonds? ^^egj^rn Arkansas there has been 
discovered the first real diamond-field in 
America. Nine diamonds out of ten pur- 
chased in this country have been coming 
from a single South-African Company, — the 
De Beers. Last month this company ab- 
sorbed its largest competitor, the Premier 
Mines, the productiveness of which had re- 
cently increased until it was yielding about 
one-half as much diamonds as De Beers 
Mines themselves. Besides this, the De 
* JBeers Company has contracted to handle 
thc output of the chief among the remain- 
ing independent companies. The South- 
African diamond fields were opened only in 
1867; since that time more diamonds have 
been found than the whole world produced 
since the middle of the seventeenth century; 
and in spite of this flood of precious stones 
prices have increased about 100 per cent. 
Artificial diamonds have been constructed by 
Moissan, of Paris, and also by the English 
scientist, Crookes, but are mere laboratory 
curiosities; the melting and crystallizing of 
pure carbon on a " commercially profitable " 
scale remains the secret of nature. Great 
interest will center around this Arkansas 
discovery. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



269 



Ottr Tariff WTicn CongTCSS mccts it is inti- 
ReJmtiona mitk mated there will be laid before it 
ermany, ^^^ draft of a new, broad, and 
comprehensive treaty having for its aim fair 
tariff rates to German products and the se- 
curing for American merchants of valuable 
trade concessions in their dealings with Ger- 
man business men. When the new tariff 
went into effect in Germany in March, 1906, 
the Berlin government notified the United 
States that it would from now on accept the 
American interpretation of the " most fa- 
vored nation " clause, which meant that the 
minimum rates would not be extended to 
American products unless our Government 
entered into a special agreement for that 
purpose. Anxious not to disturb the com- 
mercial relations between the two nations 
and to abstain from giving cause for a 
tariff war and desirous to furnish strong 
proof of its friendly attitude to this country*, 
the German Government agreed to a ** pro- 
visorium," or a temporary arrangement (un- 
til such a treaty could be concluded ) , where- 
by the minimum rates of the new German 
tariff were to be applied to imports from the 
United States until July i, 1907, while Grer- 
many was to continue to enjoy the minimum 
rates conceded under the Dingley tariff. 

^ The interval of sixteen months 

^^ T*mporar§/ ^ was granted with the distinct 
"'^'^***''**'' understanding that the two gov- 
ernments would use their best endeavors 
to bring about an equitable and compre- 
hensive adjustment of their tari^ rela- 
tions. It was in keeping with that under- 
standing that Secretary Root sent a tariff 
commission to Germany last fall to confer 
with a similar body of German experts on 
all the points of difference. As it was im- 
possible to submit the treaty to Congress be- 
fore December, 1907, and the " provisorium " 
was to expire on July i, a temporary agree- 
ment was arranged on the basis of such con- 
cessions as the President had the authority 
to grant without recourse to Congress. This 
agreement, subsequently ratified by the two 
governments, went into effect July i last. 
While it has been concluded only for the 
term of one year, it can be automatically con- 
tinued in force beyond that period until no- 
rice of an intention to terminate it. 

Mwt Bain ^^ ^^^ t^rms of this agreement 

•ftiM the United States secured the 

Anamgemtid, jninimimi rates of the German 

tariff on all but a few products, the articles 



excepted constituting but 3.3 per cent, of our 
total exports to Germany. In return we 
grant to Germany the reduced rates author- 
ized under section 3 of the Dingley tariff, 
including sparkling wines and also certain 
modifications of our customs regulations, the 
most important of which are as follows: 

(i) In the case of articles subject to ad va- 
lorem rates of duty, export price is to be taken 
as a basis in arriving at the value of articles 
imported into this country from Germany, when- 
ever such articles are not sold in " usual whole- 
sale quantities " in Germany, being manufactured 
exclusively for export. (2) Special Treasury 
agents sent to Germany to investigate values and 
prices are to be accredited to the German Gov- 
ernment through the usual diplomatic channels 
just as the diplomatic and consular officers are. 
This will give them a standing in Germany 
such as they have hitherto lacked and 
make their work more effective. (3) Cer- 
tificates of the German Chamber of Com- 
merce are to be taken as competent evi- 
dence by American appraisers in estimating the 
value of imported merchandise. To the extent 
that such certificates will help our appraisers to 
arrive at a correct estimate they will be of as 
much value to this country as to Germany. 
Should some of them prove misleading or in- 
accurate, — which is exceedingly improbable in 
view of the official character of those bodies, — 
they are subject to rejection as much as any 
other evidence, the Board of Appraisers still re- 
maining the sole judge of the value of imported 
merchandise so far as the levying of import du- 
ties is concerned. 

Summing up the terms of the agreement, 
we secured from Germany reductions of duty 
which on the basis of the trade statistics for 
1905 amount to about $7,cxx),cxx) and are 
probably greater now ; on the other hand, the 
saving of duties to Germany will amount to 
about $200,000. The average rate of duty 
on all imports under the American tariff is 
about 25 per cent, ad valorem, and on duri- 
able imports alone about 45 per cent. The 
average rate of duty under the new German 
conventional tariff is less than 8 per cent. 
The 'additional concessions granted by us in 
the form of modifications of the customs 
regulations cannot be estimated in dollars 
and cents; but while they will undoubtedly 
prove beneficial to German trade, they will 
prove no less beneficial to our own interests. 



Our 



Our tariff relations with France 
ReiatJona with are less Complicated. Under the 
^ ' commercial agreement of 1898, 
now in force, France receives the benefit of the 
reduced rates under section 3 of the Dingley 
law, except that on champagnes, while in re- 
turn we enjoy the minimum rates on a limited 
number of articles, — ^viz. : canned meats, 
fresh and dried fruits, logs, staves, paving 



270 



THE Ah4ERICAN RE^^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



at The Hague, to which she promised faith- 
fully to submit by her adhesion to the claims 
treaty of February, 1903. Belgium's claim 
against Venezuela for injury to property in- 
flicted during one of the recent revolution- 
ary movements was submitted to arbitration 
and a decision rendered in favor of the Euro- 
pean nation. The government at Caracas, 
however, declined to abide by the decision. 
A later report, happily, intimates that the 
amount adjudged the Belgian creditors ($2,- 
cxx),cxx)) will finally be paid. 

He imposes a '^ ^ ^ ^ remarkable statesman, 
$5,000,000 Senor Castro, besides refusing 
^'"' to arbitrate the claims of five 
American citizens for damages inflicted dur- 
ing revolutionary outbreaks, has also just 
brought about a successful outcome of his 
litigation against the New York & Bermu- 
dez Asphalt Company. The Venezuela 
Court of First Instance at Caracas, on 
August 12, found the company guilty of hav- 
ing extended assistance to the Matos revo- 
lution, which was directed unsuccessfully 
against President Castro some years ago, and 
condemned the company to pay a fine of $5,- 
ooOyOOO to the Venezuela Government, — a 
sum which coincides exactly with the esti- 
mated cost of putting down the rebellion. 
It will be remembered that when Mr. Her- 
bert W. Bowen was American Minister to 
Caracas our State Department sent what 
was at that time regarded as an ultimatum 
to Venezuela in regard to the asphalt matter. 
The return of Mr. Bowen to the United 
States, however, put an end to the investiga- 
tions, and since then the matter has dragged 
along in the Venezuelan courts until the im- 
position of the $5,000,000 fine. The pre- 
sumption, of course, must he that the Ven- 
ezuelan high court has acted with judicial 
propriety and equity in the matter. The of- 
fense is a grave one. Americans who have 
studied the matter, however, will entertain 
more than a reasonable doubt as to whether 
the contribution to the Matos faction was 
not given under compulsion, the Venezuela 
Government being unable to protect foreign 
concerns against such an outrage. 

Problems Before^ ^^^J^ej of by-eleCtionS III 

the British England have recently resulted 
Ministrv. j^^ setbacks for the present Lib- 
eral ministry. Most significant among these 
iMoaso, sir. your monkey has taken • ^y^^ ^\^^ triumphal campaign of Mr. Victor- 

Grayson from the Colne Valley division of 
Yorkshire. Mr. Grayson is the first out- 



blocks, hops, pork and lard. In addition 
to that the French, without any obliga- 
tion on their part, have been admitting under 
the minimum rates of duty our kerosene, 
cottonseed oil, and Porto Rican coffee. The 
French are naturally anxious to secure the 
reduced rates of duty on champagne which 
have just been granted to Germany, as well 
as the benefit of the customs modifications. 
These concessions can be extended to France 
under the same authority as they were given 
to Germany in returrt -il^ the extension of 
the minimum duties of France to additional 
American products. The matter constitutes 
at present the subject of diplomatic negotia- 
tions between the two countries, and it is 
expected that it will be brought to a satis- 
factory conclusion in the near future. 

TA- /»;-/«-.-«„ It would seem to be an odd co- 

The Diplomacy ... , , 

of Senor incidence that at the same mo- 
Castro. ^^^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^ eminent South- 
American delegates to the Hague Confer- 
ence, — Dr. Luis Drago, of Argentina; Dr. 
Barbosa, of Brazil, and Senor Triana, of 
Colombia, — were impressing the distin- 
guished representatives of the world by their 
eloquence and their statesmanship, the gov- 
ernment of Venezuela should have declined 
to abide by a decision of the arbitration court 




A BUITISH VIRW OF THE BELGO-YEXEZrELAN 
DIFFLRENCK. 



Beu;h M : 
my bag." 

TTxn.K Ham: "That so? Ain't he cute? 
From Punch < London). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



271 



and-out Sodalist member of the British Par- 
liament. He calk himself " the member of 
the disinherited of earth, the aged poor, the 
sweated worker, and the starving child." 
He will oppose a great many features of the 
Liberal policy, and has already spoken 
against the $250,000 parliamentary grant to 
Lord Cromer for his services in Egypt. 
Among the items on his program of reform 
arc: (i) "The right to work," (2) old-age 
pensions, (3) votes-f or women, (4) national- 
ization of the land, (5) free trade, (6) free 
maintenance of school children, (7) the abo- 
lition of the House of Lords, (8) an income 
tax, and (9) public ownership of the liquor 
business. The ineffectiveness of the Liberal 
ministr>' in bringing about the passage of 
much-needed and much-promised reforms, in- 
cluding the Education bill, curtailing the 
power of the House of Lords, and relief for 
evicted Irish tenants, has estranged not only 
the electorate but a number of its own mem- 
bers. The Earl of Sefton, Master of the 
Horse, appointed by Sir Henry Campbell- 
Bannerman, has resigned, because he is " not 
in accord with the extreme measures of the 
government." 

BrHmJm Some observers of English .do- 
«< mestic and international politics 

"'**' believe that they see in the hesi- 
tancy of the British delegates at the Hague 
Conference over questions of armament a 
reflection of the general indecision of the 
Liberal government. , In order to carrj' 
through the sodal reforms to' which they are 
pledged the Liberals must have money, and 
they cannot seriously reduce their military 
and naval expenditure,— ^by far the largest 
item in the expense budget of John BulK — 
without forfeiting, somewhat. Great Brit- 
ain's rank as a war power; Such a pol- 
icy, however, they arife- not led to believe 
the British Empire in general could afford 
to indorse. The recent serious strike of 
dockers and carters in Belfast, in which the 
discontented workers were afterward joined 
by the " R. I. C.,"— Royal Irish Constabu- 
lary, — resulted in a great deal of destruction 
of property in the north of Ireland metropolis 
and the dispatch of more than 7000 regular 
troops to that city. 

g^^^ There is a pecuh'ar interest to 

Smmdim/am Americans in two of the items 

of news which have recently 

come to us from the Scandinavian countries. 

King Oscar, of Sweden, has appointed a 



commission to gather statistical and other 
data on Swedish immigration to this countr>'. 
The number of Swedes leaving their father- 
land for homes in our great American and 
Canadian West has been increasing phenom- 
enally during the past two decades. King 
Oscar ife anxious to learn what is the draw- 
ing power and, if possible, how the sons of 
old Sweden may be induced to remain at 
home. More Swedes than Noruxgians come 
to the United States, possibly because demo- 
cratic conditions in this country are so dif- 
ferent from the aristocratic surroundings in 
their own, even more different than those in 
democratic Norway. The other fact of par- 
ticular interest was the journey to Iceland by 
King Frederick, of Denmark, and his ap- 
pointment of a commission to formulate a 
more progressive liberal policy toward that 
ancient Danish possession. The Icelanders, 
many of whom have recently emigrated to 
the United States and Canada, are a people 
of ancient culture and strong intellectual at- 
tainments, and a vigorous movement for ab- 
solute independence, if not separation, has 
gained much headway among them during 
the past quarter of a century. King Fred- 
erick announces that, while he will not con- 
sider such a thing as separation, he recog- 
nizes the " extraordinary claims of the Ice- 
landic people to govern themselves " and 
pledges his royal word that he will honor 
this in future legislation to a much greater 
extent than ever before. 



Can France 



More than one event of intense 
and'eVrmanjf interest to Frenchmen has 
'^ marked the international situa- 
tion during the past few weeks. The repub- 
lic's problem in Morocco, with its solution 
involving not only a great expenditure of 
money and life, but possibly a radical read- 
justment of France's relations to other Euro- 
pean powers, has been the topic of greatest 
moment. Just how the German Kaiser 
would regard the spectacle of French war- 
ships and soldiers beginning what is virtually 
the conquest of Morocco, — that was the sub- 
ject of greatest concern to the Paris govern- 
ment. As we have pointed out in another 
paragraph, Germany's acquiescence in the 
French movements in North Africa was as 
evidently unqualified as it was unexpected. 
A good deal of talk about a coming Franco- 
German understanding has appeared in the 
French and some of the German journals. 
Although there would seem to be ITttle hope 
of an understanding under the present con- 



272 



THE AMERICAN REt^IEIV OF RE^IEIVS. 




tion of the army strength in France indicates 
the confidence of the Paris government that 
Germany would not take advantage of the 
situation. This reduction in the strength 
of the peace footing of the army was not ef- 
fected without considerable opposition, and 
one of its results was the resignation of Gen- 
eral Hagron, who was president of the Su- 
preme Council of War. Three other distin- 
guished generals followed his example. The 
Militarist party claim that this reduction 13 
due to Socialist agitation. The recent So- 
cialist Congress at Nancy, however (August 
14), while condemning war, reaffirmed its 
declaration of last year that it is the duty 
of French Socialists to defend the country if 
it is attacked. Whether or not Premier Cle- 
menceau has substantial assurances that Ger- 



CENERAL HAGRON AND GENERAL LACROIX, OUTGO- 
ING AND INCOMING COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF 
OF THE FRENCH ARMY. 

ditions, particularly while the memory of 
Alsace-Lorraine still rankles in the French 
breast, there are indications that both gov- 
ernments, at least, would welcome the pass- 
ing of the day of enmity. 



A Smaller 
French 
Army. 



There is more than one indica- 
tion of the desire of the Ger- 
man Kaiser to conciliate France. 
Early in August, for the first time since the 
war of 1870, a French musical society, with 
the approval of the German Governmentf 
paraded flying the tricolor during the musical 
fetes in Alsace. On the other side, it has been 
contended that the recent temporary reduc- 





By prrmluioii af Clurlc* W- Furlorkf. 
SAMUEL hlMMEHE, AMEllltAK MINISTER T>* 
ROCCO. 

(From a photograph taken on the eustonis 
Tani^ier.) 

many contemplates no unfriendly act, 
mains true that more than 100,000 Fr 
men have now returned to their homes 
occupations to add to the industrial we 
if not to the glory, of France. 



THK LOST PROVINrKS AI.\VAY8 AN OBSTACLE. 

r.KHMANY (to Franco): "My dear Marianne, I 



France's 
Task In 
Morocco. 



Will France, in order to ir 
safety for European life 
property in thost cities of 



lovo to mako up with you But yo" nju«t ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ Algeciras Conference au 

r those blark gopRlos [marked * Alsaoe-Lor- , . , , i* t /• i 



should hi 

tako off those hlark gopRh'S [ruunvfu ^*i.-.nvv-»^wi- i-ii ^ i*u/^ j*. 

ralne'I or you cnnn<.t possibly aee me as I am." thonzed her tO police, be t<^rced tO COnqucr 

From KioihUrmintHvh (Berlin). the entire country? Such would appear to 



THE PROGRESS, OF THE iVORLD. 



273 




MORtlCCtl A Nil THE FMENt H KIKLfJ OF OPERATION 1^- 



French cruiser was ordered to Casablanca. 
AU the foreign residents of the region had 
taken refuge in the French » Spanish, and 
British consulates, which, when the French 



be the final outcome of 
the campaign inaugurated 
tm August 6 by the bom- 
bardment and practical 
destruction of the tov%n 
of Casablanca by French 
warships* The condition 
of affairs in Morocco 
has long-'bccn intolerable 
frnm any civil fas cd view- 
point. After the long- 
drawn-out deliberations 
of the Algeciras Confer- 
ence (January i6 to 
March 31* 1906), France 
and Spain ucre given a 
** mandate '* or authority 
from combined Europe to 
keep order in certain 
Moorish cities. Late in 
July the bandit chief 
Rakyii,— v%ho» it will be 
remembered, some years ago captured and 
held for ransom the American citizen Per- 
dicaris, — made a brilliant stroke by raid- 
ing the ontsltirts of Tangier and cap- 
turing Sir Harry Mac Lean, the British warship arrived » were surrounded by hostile 
cammandcr-in-chief of the Moorish army- Arab tribesmen. 
The Kaid, Raisuli announces, is to be 

held as a hostage until his demands have Bombardment ^^^ local Moorish official hav- 
b<?cTi granted by the Sultan* Soon after this *>/ ing admitted his inability to 

mfrmatitmal kidnapping episode eight Euro- "'*' ''™' maintain order, and having 
p«fans were murdered in the city of Casa- called upon the French for assistance, a num- 
btanca, which Is a small, ver>' old town on ber of marines were landed from the cruiser. 
the Arlanric mmr. 24X) miles southwest of Upon disembarking, early on the morning 
l^an gter. Fearing a general massacre, a of August 4, these were immediately at- 
tacked by Moorish troops^ 
\vho opened hre at close 
range. A sanguinarj^ bat- 
tle follovved between the 
Arabs and the Kuropcan 
soldier) , the French cruiser 
opening fire and shelling 
t h e Moorish batteries 
Scenes of great disorder 
and violence followed upon 
t)ie firing, a ragfng moh of 
Moors attacking and pil- 
Ujiing the entire city. The 
Jews particularly were 
massacred by hundreds. 
Another French warship 
soon appeared upon the 
*, M-L^ r.,ri r.* scene, accompanied h\ a 

MOEorco's AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES TEMPT FRANCE. Spanish cruiscT, and troops 

(Heaps of canteloupe melons piled up on the 8uk de Barra, outaido ^'^re landed tO the number 
iMngifT. Such «]uant!tles are brought In twice a week from the country.) of 4OOO. General Dfudc, 




274 



THE AMERICAN REk^IEiV OF REI^IEU^S. 




DID THXY REALLY DISCUSS PEACR AT THV HAQUV, — OB WAB? 

The Peace Angel : ** Bless you, my dear children ! ** 
Mars : *' Swear fidelity to her ! Swear it on my sword ! ** 
Chorus of the Powers : " Ain«n, Father Mars ! " 

Fronj the AmBterdammer (Amsterdam). 



the French commander, was chosen to 
head the allied troops, Spanish and 
French, and rein fo /cements were hurried 
from France, until by August 20 a state 
of almost actual war existed in Morocco. 
The Moors are a people brave to fanati- 
cism, and France's task in subduing them 
is likely to be a tax upon even her great 
resources. The rest of Europe, including 
Germany, appears to regard the republic's 
action as not only proper but inevitable. In- 
deed, some of the officially inspired German 
journals are now telling their readers that 
the fate of Morocco is practically sealed, that 
the country must inevitably become a French 
protectorate, and that the Algeciras Confer- 
ence was really unnecessary. The foreign 
office at Paris, for its part, has officially an- 
nounced that " on no account will the 
French Government follow a policy of con- 
quest or embark upon an expedition into the 
interior of Morocco, which would be con- 
trary to the wishes of the French nation, — 
unless events should force our hand." If 
the fanatical chiefs should succeed in forcing 
a " jebad," or holy war, France might find 
her task well nigh beyond her 'powers. 



Reautta 

at 

The Hague. 



It cannot fail to be very gmtifi' 
ing to American citiau>ns tp pH^ 

ize that, just as in i8^ A g^^ 
American delegation saved the first ^H^ 
Conference from a virtual failure, SQ ifcf 
representatives oi the United State* ^llir 
second conference, in the present year, ^ff^ 
been the chief instruments in preventinftl^ 
august international gathering from adjote* 
ing without the achievement of any ^^ 
stantial results. Disregarding the piirri^ 
academic discussiuns during the confcrcntt, 
may be stated that the rcat ii^ork CHI |e 
divided into two cla^es,^ — the of*c 
composed of technical propositions 
render the conduct of war more humfl 
the other of polincal proposition*, tnvc 
the principle of preventing wars bet^*ccii \ 
tions. The proposition of the United Si 
forbidding the bombard ment of undef 
towns and villn^cs was unanirnouslv 
proved in Comi^iission, as was als^' 
posal to add to the rules of sea warfare the 
provisions of the Geneva Convention. The 
proposition for the prohibition of submarine 
mines was blocked by Great Britain and 
Germany. On the other hand, the Britidi 



rfc CHI m 

"« 

tmaii^pi 

snYolfnl 




THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



275 



proposal for the abolition of contraband of 
war, although it received a majority of votes 
in the conference, is to be considered buried, 
since all the great naval powers, including 
the United States, except Great Britain her- 
self, arc against it. The American proposal 
concerning the collection of contract debts, — 
the much-discussed Drago Doctrine, — was 
unanimously approved. The American pro- 
posal, brought forward by Mr. Choate, for 
making the arbitration court more permanent 
and compact, was also approved. It now 
seems probable that during the last days of 
the conference (it is believed that the ses- 
sions will close by the middle of the present 
month), a permanent arbitration and prize- 
of-war court will be elaborated and made 
a permanent institution. 

noAar^tut^/' agreement was reached on 
as to Armament the subject of limitation of arma- 
*^* ^' ment. The conference would go 
no further than to declare its opinion that 
limitation was desirable. The British reso- 
lution on this subject, which was passed 
unanimously, is as follows: 

This conference confirms the resolution adopted 
by the conference of 1899 regarding the limitation 
of military burdens, and as military burdens have 
been considerably augmented in almost all coun- 
tries since 1899. it declares it is highly desirable 





THE GERMAN KAISER, 
YACHT, THE 



able seaman, on his 
hohenzollern/' 



THF SVPOBD OF DAMOCLES AT THE HAOCB. 

(According 10 the cartoonist of KladderadatHch 
*B«rtln>. what frightenod the powers mo»t at the 
vntff ronfereni^ was th«* possibility of a Japanese 
Atter!«n war.) 



to see the governments earnestly resume the 
study of this question. 

M. Leon Bourgeois, one of the French del- 
egates, and generally regarded as the ablest 
diplomatic and legal representative at the 
present conference, has more than once an- 
nounced that " the purpose of the Hague 
Peace Conference of 1907 is not the pacific 
organization of war, but the judicial organi- 
zation of peace." The month of August was 
noteworthy, also, for several other interna- 
tional conferences at which the idea of uni- 
versal peace was prominent, notably the Zion- 
ist Congress, held at The Hague, and the 
International Socialist Congress, which be- 
began its sessions on August 18 at Stuttgart. 
As might have been expected, the Peace Con- 
ference has shown many possibilities as a thea- 
ter for international intrigue. One of the 
most significant and, to Americans, interest- 
ing developments along this line has been the 
very evident desire on tffe part of Germany,' 
through her delegates at The Hague, to se- 
cure the good will of the United States of 
America and of the French Republic. 



276 



THE AMERICAN REVIEiV OF REyiElVS. 




18 THE WORLD IN AWE OF THE OEBMAN KAISER? — ^A JAPANESB VIBW. 

(Toklo Puck attempts to express the feelings of Russia, Japan, ^nd the United States while the Ciar and 
the Kaiser were " visiting." Read the Inscriptions.) 



1$ Germany ^ cordial Understanding with 
Really France, even to the point of com- 
taoiated? ^^^^^ foFgetfulness of old scores, 
and an agreement amqunting to a working 
alliance with the United States, — these, in 
the opinion of more than one student of con- 
temporary European politics, are the consum- 
mations which the German Kaiser has set 
before his eyes to compensate his empire for 
the practical isolation in which it has been 
placed by the chain of alliances, ententes, and 
understandings, effected by his Britannic 
Majesty, King Edward VII., during his 
continental tours of the past two years. In 
addition to the Franco-Russian alliance there 
now exist in Europe cordial understandings 
between England, France, and Spain, to 
which Italy is probably a party, regarding 
the future of the Mediterranean and North 
Africa, and between England and Russia, 
with Japan in full agreement, as to the Bal- 
tic, the Balkans, and* the Far East. Official 
advices, moreover, inform us that a new 
Austro-Italian treaty has actually been nego- 
tiated, according to the main terms of which 



Italy agrees to hold the Adriatic against a 
pan-German invasion. 

"A Chain of ^^ "^^^ ^^» ^ ^^^ timid Rus- 
Ententes sian Liberals have feared, that 
the interview of the German and 
Russian Emperors at Sw^'nemunde, on August 
3, will result in deepened reaction in Russia. 
It is more probable, however, that Germany's 
relations to Russia's ally, France, as to her 
problem m Morocco, and how Germany is 
to be affected by the recently concluded An- 
glo-Russian agreement, were the chief 
topics of discussion. King Edward's sub- 
sequent journey to Ischl, where he met the 
aged Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria 
(it was during the latter's seventy-seventh 
birthday celebrations), was the occasion, we 
are told in the dispatches, for the strengthen- 
ing of the ties of friendship between Great 
Britain and Austria and for a clear under- 
standing upon the Macedonian question, and 
perhaps for an expression of views on the 
part of the aged Austrian Kaiser as to the 
fate of his own polyglot empire when he 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



277 



shall have passed away. King Edward later 
met the German Kaiser at Wilhelmshohc 
(on August 14), and the cordial relations 
of the two monarchs were emphasized. 
Whether or not, as some clever newspaper 
correspondents would have us believe, the 
British King succeeded on that occasion in 
convincing his royal nephew that none of his 
royal conferences had for its object the isola- 
tion ot Gcmiany, the fact remains that this 
isolation i^ recoijntzeil ui Berlin. It is also 
true* beyond a [loul>t. thnt the conclusion of 
the a^rrcements enumerated above has been 
the si;^nal for, if nut the occasion of, Ger- 
man friendly advances toward France and 
the United Sfatcs. 

n^rsa T'^'o higlily significant develop- 

41 japtMtse ments in the international rela- 

Pn^vitwe. ^j^^^ ^^ ^j^^ Japanese Empire 

marked the months of July and August. 
During the fortnight following the abdica- 
tion of the Korean Emperor, Yi-Hyeung, 
and the accession to the throne of the well- 
meaning but incompetent Prince Yi-Syek, 
the status of the unfortunate Hermit King- 
dom as a Japanese protectorate was fixed be- 
fore the world. A number of riots followed 
the abdication of Yi-Hyeung on July 19. 



There were also several international " mis- 
sions " to interest the world in the fate of 
Korea. That country, however, since the 
signing of the convention on July 25, though 
nominally an independent state, has become, 
in reality, a Japanese province. Korea is 
now full of Japanese soldiers, and outward 
order at least has been restored. The con- 
vention, drawn up by Japan and agreed to 
by the present ruler, practically reduces the 
peninsula to the position of a Japanese 
Egypt, with Marquis Ito as its Lord 
Cromer. The clauses of this convention are 
as follows: 

(i) The administration of Korea is placed 
under the secure guidance of the Japanese Resi- 
dent-General ; (2) The enactment of all laws 
and ordinances and the transaction of important 
State affairs shall receive the approval of the 
Resident-General; (3) The appointment of all 
high responsible officials shall receive the ap- 
proval of the Resident-General; (4) Only per- 
sons recommended by the Resident-General shall 
be eligible to office in the Korean Government ; 
(5) A distinct line of demarcation is to be drawn 
between administrative and judicial affairs; (6) 
Foreigners are to be employed only with the 
consent of the Resident-General; (7) The first 
clause of the convention of August 22, 1904, pro- 
viding for the employment of a financial ad- 
viser, is annulled. 




A DITTCH VIEW OF THE SENDING OF THE AMERICAN FLEET TO THE lACIFir. 

I'sicxjs Ram (to the Mikado): "My good friend, Mikado: "(treat heavens! There is gunpowder 
»y nhi%m aro b«*nt on the friendliest of mlsslonB. in that tobacco!" 
*>«iike>, now. Itft us Hmolce Ihe pipe of peace together." T^nclk Sam : " (Jreat Svott ! Who would have be- 

MiKAiir*: •• My good brother, nothing would please lleved it ! That tobacco was probably grown in Mn 
ri*«* nkor**." iiila." 

From the Aumirrtlammrr (Amsterdam). 



278 



THE AMERICAN RE^/EIV OF REyiElVS, 



A Qraduai ^^^ absorption of Korea by 

Abtorption Japan has been a more gradual 

If apan. ^^qq^^ ^j^jj^ may be generally 
understood. For centuries China and the 
Island Empire have struggled over the Her- 
mit Kingdom. At the close of the Chino- 
Japanese War, Korea, while nominally in- 
dependent, became really subservient to 
Japan, and it was the growth of Russia's in- 
fluence in Seoul that eventually forced Japan 
to fight the northern empire. By the treaty 
of February 3, 1904, Japan bound herself 
to guarantee the safety of the Korean Em- 
peror and the independence and territorial 
. integrity of the country. A subsequent 
treaty (signed August 22 of the same year) 
gave her the right to take charge of Korean 
finance and diplomatic affairs. The next 
year (November 17, 1905) a third treaty, 
negotiated against the protests of the Em- 
peror who has just abdicated, placed the con- 
trol and direction of all Korean foreign af- 
fairs in the hands of Japan. The mission of 
the Korean delegates to the Hague Peace 
Conference gave the Japanese authorities 
their pretext for declaring that this agree- 
ment had been violated and for instigating 
the demand for Yi-Hyeungs abdication. 

j^^ Eventually Korea will be thor- 

Japaneae oughly absorbed by Japan. We 

Program, q^^^^ qj^ another page this month 
a graphically told outline of the part played 
by two American diplomats in determining 
the international fate of " the Land of the 
Morning Calm." A pamphlet just issued 
by the Japanese residency-general at Seoul, 
entitled " Administrative Reforms in Korea," 
with the aim of vindicating the work of 
the Japanese in the Hermit Kingdom, 
announces that the plan of the Tokio 
government is to assume charge of the af- 
fairs of the peninsula very gradually. A 
modem administration of the government, 
which has become so corrupt and inefficient, 
would entail a large number of officials and 
bring about a deficit in the revenues. The 
first items on the program of reforms, says 
this pamphlet, cover the system of taxation 
and the army. 

T.. ^ T ^ The conclusion of the general 

The New Treaty . -n * it 

Between Japan treaty between Russia and Japan 

and/tussla. (^j^^^j ^^ j^,y ^^) ^^^^^ ^^^ 

close of the negotiations following the recent 

war between the two countries. The powers 

reciprocally guarantee their territories on ^;;;^J"^^^.r '^^ ^"^^^*- wish rd got my Panauu 

♦he Pacific coast of Asia and agree to respect 



the independence and territorial integrity of 
China. Certain rights of navigation and fish- 
eries are confirmed to Japan, the commercial 
convention expiring in 191 1 and that relat- 
ing to the fisheries eight years later. This 
instrument completes a circle of agreements 
between the great sea powers of the world, 
with the exception of the United States and 
Germany, concerning China and the entire 
Pacific coast of Asia. Unless Japan shall 
become involved in hostilities with Germany 
or the United States, we shall have no war 
in the Far East before 191 5, at the earliest, 
in which year the Anglo- Japanese ten-year 
treaty expires. Japan now has clear under- 
standings with Russia, Great Britain, and 
France. A German-Japanese war scarcely 
seems possible, unless the Island Empire 
should have designs on the German colony 
in China, — a possibility which may be safely 
neglected in discussing the problem. 

End of the ^^ ^s gratifying to record that 
*'^JI^"J^'^^'"'J^P^^^^-^^^^^^^ relations con- 
apan. ^j^^^ undisturbed by the war of 
the yellow press in both countries. In a re- 
cent speech on the war scare Ambassador 
Aoki remarked: 

A psychologist would find it interesting to fol- 
low the building up of the fabric of falsehood 



i:^^^;- 




A TOrClI <»K TUK KIHINO SUN. 

pREainENT Roosevflt: "A nice, genial orb. tb**. 



From Punch (London). 



WE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



279 




** LA PATRIE," THE FRENCH STEERABLE WAR BALLOON. 
(Floating; over Paris, and carrying Premier Cl^menceau and Minister of War General Piquant.) 



and fallacy, as an irresponsible person here tells 
an irresponsible paper something, which it prints. 
and which an irresponsible agitator cables to a 
negligible Japanese Jingo paper, and which it 
prints in connection with irresponsible comment 
and invented interviews, the whole coming back 
here magnified and distorted, but presented as 
an index of universal Japanese setitiment. The 
thing is ridiculous, of course. Still, when one 
considers the possibilities it is gigantically 
wicked. 

The pending visit of our peaceful Secre- 
tary of War Taft to the Far East, includ- 
ing a brief sojourn in Japan, may be ex- 
pected to emphasize the cordiality with 
which the great bulk of the American people 
M^.*^u r..-. jM..Pi/.t .,; Japan. If the Island 
Kmpire has a just c^use for complaint on the 
score of some provisi!>ns in the existing treat- 
ties between the two countries, diplomacy 
and gofMi, »ottnd juilgment will prevail in 
correettrwg this cause tor complaint when the 
trczty' h renewed or revised in 1909. 

While tlif entire world is await- 
jmtd ing with interest the announce- 
*'^'''»' meat thnr Mr. Walter Wellman 
has started on his atl venturous balloon search 
tor the North Pole, and the Hague Con- 
f r -_: :7< .nlpmnly deliberating upon the 
rules for balloons in warfare, the French and 
German army staffs have been quietly de- 
veloping the military balloon until an actual 
achievement has been made which is remark- 
able. On July 22, the Patrie, the dirigible 
French war balloon, carrying not only 



Premier Clemenceau but General Picquart, 
Minister of War, made a successful ascent to 
a height of 2600 feet, and floated over Paris 
for three hours, proving herself capable of 
being steered absolutely at the will of her 
conductor. Our own army has apparently 
taken up ballooning for military purposes 
in real earnest. During the month of June 
two ascensions in military balloons were 
made by Captain Chandler, during one of 
which he went from Washington to Harris- 
burg, a distance of 104 miles, at an average 
rate of th>rty-five miles per hour, retaining 
complete control of his machine all the 
while. Improvements in efficiency and speed 
in automobiles have become the order of the 
day. Especially noteworthy, however, is 
the recent achievement of Prince Scipione 
Borghese, the Italian motorist, who won the 
auto race from Peking to Paris, having made 
the longest automobile run on record. He 
covered the 7000 miles in exactly two 
months, and, although encountering great 
difficulties, had no accident or repairs except 
the replacing of a wheel. His route was 
through the Gobi desert and southern 
Siberia, to Moscow, to Posen, and to Berlin. 
A Prussian army officer, Lieutenant Graetz, 
has already started to emulate this feat by a 
ride across Africa in a motor-car. He ex- 
pects to cover the continent from German 
East Africa to the southwestern African 
possessions of the Fatherland in about six 
weeks. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



(From July 20 to August tO, mrt.) 



POLITICS AND OOVBRNMBNT—AMBRICAN . 

July 23. — ^The caucus of New York Republi- 
can assembljrmen at Albany accepts as a party 
measure the Senate Apportionment bill as passed 
by the Senate. .. .The Public- Service Commis- 
sion of New York City appoints Abel E. Black- 
mar counsel and William M. Ivins special coun- 
sel. 

July 24. — ^The extraordinary session of the 
New York State Legislature adjourns after 




MAYOR EDWARD R, TAYLOR, OF SAN FRANCISCO. 

passing the compromise Reapportionment bill; 
all the nominations of Public-Service Commis- 
sioners are confirmed by the Senate. 

July 25. — The American Protective Tariff 
League attacks the proposed tariff agreement 
with Germany as unlawful and unfair. 

July 27. — Southern Railway officials, after a 
conference with" Governor Glenn, of North 
Carolina, decide to sell tickets at the rate pre- 
scribed by the State law after August 8. 

July 30. — The Hardman-Coyington Prohibi- 
tion bill is passed by the Georgia House of Rep- 
resentatives by vote of 139 to 39 (see page 328). 
The Ohio Republican Central Committee in- 
dorses Secretary Taft for the Presidency by 
vote of 15 to 6. .. .The United States Govern- 
ment enters suit at Wilmington, Del., for the 
dissolution of the powder trust, asking for a 
receivership. .. .In the first elections for the 



Philippine Assembly the Nadonalists choose a 
large majority of the delegates In the Mis- 
sissippi Democratic primaries Representative 
John Sharp Williams wins the nomination to 
the United States Senate by a small vote orer 
Governor Vardaman; E. F. Noel is nominated 
for the Governorship. 

July 31. — Governor Curry, of New Mexico, 
discusses with President Roosevelt plans for 
Territorial reforms. 

August I.— President Shonts, of the New 
York Interborough-Metropolitan Railway sys- 
tem, is on the stand at the first day's session of 
the Public- Service Commission's investigation 
of the transit merger. 

August 2.— The Secretary of State of Ala- 
bama revokes the license of the Southern Rail- 
way to do business in the State Oklahoma 

Republicans nominate Frank Frantz for Gov- 
ernor of the proposed new State. 

August 3 —Judge Landis, in the United Sutes 
District Court in Chicago, fines the Standard 
Gil Company $29,240,000 for accepting freight 
rebates. 

August 6.— The Alabama Legislature elects 
Joseph F. Johnston United States Senator in 
place of the late Edmund W. Pettus Gov- 
ernor Smith, of Georgia, signs the State Pro- 
hibition bill, to take effect on January i, 1908. 

August 8. — Governor George C. Curry, of 
New Mexico, is inaugurated at Santa Fe. ... 
The Southern Railway makes all the concessions 
demanded by the State of Alabama regarding 
the rates for passenger fares. .. .Maryland Dem- 
ocrats nominate Judge Austin L. jCrothers for 
Governor. 

August 9. — Judge Grosscup, in Chicago, grants 
a writ of error to the Standard Oil Company in 
the rebate cases. 

August TO. — In the United States District 
Court of Minneapolis the Wisconsin Central 
Railway Company is fined $17,000 for rebating. 

August 14. — The official appointment of E. M. 
Morgan as postmaster of New York is an- 
nounced Maryland Republicans nominate 

George R. Gaither for Governor. .. .The San 
Francisco primary elections result favorably for 
the reform element. 

August 15. — The Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road secures a federal injunction restraining the 
State of Alabama from enforcing the freight 
and passenger rate laws. 

August 16.— The final report of the Pennsyl- 
vania capitol investigating commission recom- 
mends civil and criminal proceedings against all 
persons concerned in the fraudulent fumishii^ 
of the capitol. 

August 19. — Secretary Taft speaks on the re- 
lation of the general Government to railroad and 
industrial corporations at Columbus, Ohio. 

August 20. — President Roosevelt, in an ad- 
dress at Provincetown, Mass., defines the policy 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



281 



of the Administration regarding the prosecution 
of lawbreakers. 

POLITICS AND OOVERNMENT—POREIQN. 

July 2a — ^Japanese troops kill and wound 

Korean rioters m Seoul Sir George S. Clarke 

is appointed Governor of Bombay. 

July 21. — Greneral Delacroix is chosen as com- 
mander-in-chief of the French army to succeed 
General Hagron, who was retired at his own 
request, owing to his disapproval of the measures 
reducing the strength of the army. 

July 23. — The former Emperor of Korea con- 
firms his abdication. .. .Russian Social- Demo- 
crats succeed in bringing about great strikes in 
Moscow and Vladimir industrial regions. 

July 24, — Attorney-General Morris, of New- 
foundland, resigns ; Governor MacGregor is sum- 
moned to St John's owing to fear of a cabinet 
crisis. 

July 25. — An agreement for the control by 
Japan over Korean affairs is signed by the Pre- 
mier of Korea and by Marquis I to, Resident- 
General of Japan. 

July 29. — In the elections to the Councils-Gen- 
eral of France the Progressives and Socialists 
make heavy gains. 

Jwly 31- — The French Government begins to 
withdraw troops from the Midi and decides to 
release the wine-growers' leaders on bail. 

August 2. — It is announced that the French 
Minister of Public Works has approved the 
plan to connect the valley of the Rhone with 

Marseilles by canal The Evicted Tenants' 

hill passes its third reading in the British House 
of Commons and its first reading in the House 
of Lords; John Bums' Pure Food bill passes its 
second reading in the House of Commons. 

August 16. — The Pure Food bill is passed by 
the British House of Commons. 

August 19. — The Transvaal Parliament votes 
to buy the Culinan diamond, valued at $1,000,- 
000, and give it to King Edward as a mark of 
gratitude for the recent constitution. 

August 20. — The preliminary election for 
members of the Russian Duma results in a 

Liberal victory The New Zealand upper 

house rejects the bill passed by the lower house 
making women eligible to election to the Legis- 
lative Council. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

July 27. — Venezuela, replying to the recent 
note of Secretary Root, refuses to arbitrate the 
American claims. 

July 29. — It is announced that Russia and 
Japan have concluded a treaty guaranteeing 
each nation's rights and possessions in the Far 
East. .. .Official notice of temporary tariflf con- 
cessions with the United States by the French 
Government is received in Washington. 

July 31. — Moroccan tribesmen raid Casa- 
blanca, killing the native guards and seven Euro- 
peans It is announced in Brussels that Bel- 
gium will protest to the powers in case of the 
failure of Venezuela to carry out the full Hague 
award. 

August I. — ^Thc French Government an- 
nounces that it has had the King of Annam de- 



posed and a regency established Spain pre- 
pares to join with France to avenge the murder 
of Europeans in Casablanca; France announces 
that the Pasha will be held responsible for the 
safety of Casablanca. 

August 2. — French and Spanish warships are 
sent to Casablanca and transports and troops 
are held ready to start ; the French residents are 
on board an English steamer in the harbor. 

August 4. — The Morocco governing board 
apologizes for the recent outrages. 

August 5.— It is announced that the German 
and Russian Emperors are in accord on all in- 
ternational questions and that the chief interest 
of both governments is to maintain the peace of 
the world. .. .Inhabitants of Casablanca drive 
oflF the hostile Moorish tribesmen outside the 
city; Italy demands reparation for the murder 

of her subjects Six thousand Turkish troops 

invade Persia and massacre many Christians. 

August 6. — After a treacherous attack by 
Moorish troops on a French landing force at 
Casablanca, warships bombard the city, killing 
many men; additional forces are landed from 
French and Spanish cruisers Venezuela ad- 
vises Belgium that the disputed claims of Bel- 
gium creditors will be paid in accordance with 
the decision of the Hague Tribunal. 

August 7. — France submits formal demands 
to the Moroccan Government; the garrison at 
Casablanca is disarmed. 

August II. — The Moors continue their attacks 
on the French forces outside Casablanca, but 
are repulsed with great loss British and Rus- 
sian ambassadors in Constantinople succeed in 
inducing the Porte to issue orders stopping the 
advance of Turkish troops into Persia. 




MR. EDWARD M. MORGAN. 

(The new Postmaster of New York.) 



282 



WE AMERICAN RE^IElV OF REVIEWS 




FROM PEKING TO PARIS BY AUTOMOBILE, — CROSSING A SIBERIAN RIVER. (ScC pOgC J/Q.) 



August 15. — King Edward and Emperor 
Francis Joseph meet near Ischl. 

August 18. — Captain Calder, commanding a 
small frontier force in British Guiana, invades 
Venezuela and seizes a quantity of balata which 
it was alleged had been collected on British ter- 
ritory. 

THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT THE HAGUE. 

July 20. — In a plenary session the conference 
unanimously approves the proposal to adapt the 
Red Cross convention to naval warfare. 

July 26. — The British proposals for the aboli- 
tion of contraband of war are debated. 

July 27. — The American proposals for arbitra- 
tion on the recovery of debts are passed by thirty- 
seven votes, seven abstaining. 

August 3. — The American proposal regarding 
a permanent court of arbitration at The Hague 
is adopted by the sub-committee; twenty-five 
delegates vote in favor of the motion, and twelve 
are absent. 

August 6. — The British proposal for a reduc- 
tion of armaments is modified to meet the ob- 
jections of Germany, the motion now saying that 
limitation is " highly desirable." 

August 8. — Representatives of subject nations 
resolve that they ought, in case of rebellion or 
other disorder, to have all the rights of bellig- 
erents. 

August 13. — Five countries, including Mexico, 
present a counter-proposal regarding the perma- 
nent court of arbitration. 

August 14. — The committee on land warfare 
approves the proposed changes in the convention 
of i^<99 and again votes against the use of ex- 
plosives from balloons. 

August 17. — The conference, in plenary ses- 
*on, unanimously approves tlu* British resolu- 



tion that it is desirable for the powers to resume 
the study of the question of limitation of arma- 
ments. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OP THE MONTH. 

July 20. — In a collision of freight and excur- 
sion trains on the Pere Marquette Railroad near 
Salem, Mich., thirty persons are killed and nearly 
seventy wounded. 

July 21. — By the sinking of the steamer Co- 
lumbia off the California coast more than fifty 
persons are drowned. 

July 22. — More than 400 Japanese are reported 
killed by a colliery explosion in Bungo Province. 

July 23. — The new port of Zeebrugge, on the 
sea terminus of the Bruges ship canal, is opened 
by King Leopold of Belgium A military diri- 
gible balloon is successfully tested over the city 
of Berlin. 

July 27. — The British battleship DcUerophon. 
sister ship to the Dreadnought, but of 700 tons 
greater displacement, is launched at Portsmouth. 

Eight lives are lost by the burning of the 

steamer Prontenac on Cayuga Lake. N. Y. 

July 28.— William D. Haywood is acquitted of 
the murder of ex-Governor Steunenberg. of Idaho. 
.... Fire at Coney Island, N. Y., does damage to 
the extent of $1,500,000. 

July 29. — An anti-alcohol congress is opened in 
Stockholm, Sweden. .. .Fire wipes out the Long 
Beach Hotel, on the south shore of Long Island. 

July 30. — The foundation stone of the Carnegie 
Palace of Peace is laid at The Hague. 

August 4. — A centennial celebration of the 
founding of Cooperstown, N. Y., is begun. 

August 8. — A general strike of the men em- 
ployed in the building trades in Washington, D. 
C, is ordered. 



RECORD OF CURRENT El^ENTS. 



283 



August 9. — British consols make a new low 
record in London. . . . A strike of telegraph oper- 
ators spreads through many American cities. 

August 14. — The Eighth International Zionist 
G>ngress opens at The Hague. 

Augfist 15. — A tablet at Gloucester to com- 
memorate the early English settlement in New 
England is unveiled with an historical address 
by Senator i^odge Many of the summer ho- 
tels at Old Orchard,, Me., are destroyed by fire. 

August 18. — The International Socialist Con- 
gress opens at Stuttgart. 

August 20. — President Roosevelt speaks at 
Provincetown, Mass., at the unveiling of the 
monument to commemorate the landing of the 
Pilgrims. 

OBITyARY 

July 20. — Gen. John Marshall Brown, of Port- 
land, Me., 69.. ..Gen. George W. Mindil, for 
many years chief examiner of precious stones at 
the port of New- York, 64.... Mrs. Lyman Ab- 

!>ott, 70 Maj.-Gen. John W. Younghusband, 

C S. L, 85. 

July 22. — Wilhelm von Kardoff, the German 
statesman, 79. 

July 23. — William Hamilton Russell, the New 
York ardiitect, 51. .. .Col. Will S. Hays, a news- 
paper writer and poet of Kentucky, 70. . . . Sam- 
uel Henshaw, a well-known landscape gardener 
and horticulturist, 73. 

July 24. — Edward J. H. Tamsen, former sheriff 
of New York County, 58. 

July 25. — Col. Philip Figyelmessy, Hungarian 

patriot and friend of Kossuth, 85 Mrs. Susan 

Bullitt Dixon, of Kentucky, 78 President 

Richard H. Halsey, of the Wisconsin State Nor- 
mal School at Oshkosh. 

July 26. — Former Chief Justice Thomas Nel- 
son, of the Oregon Supreme Court, 88. 

July 27. — United States Senator Edmund W. 
Pettus. of Alabama, 86 Rev. William Ash- 
mead Schaeffer, D.D., president of the board of 
•publication of the General Council of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church, 55. 

July 28. — Cagt. William Budd, a veteran naval 
officer in the Civil War, 78. 

July 29. — Cortlandt Parker, the oldest practic- 
ing lawyer of the New Jersey bar, 89 Rev. 

William Henry Lord, a well-known Episcopal 
rector in Western New York, Vermont, and New 
Jersey, 78. 

July 30. — Brig. -Gen. Charles Francis Powell. 

U. S. A-, retired, 63 Edmond Demolins, the 

French sociologist, 55. 

July 31. — Count Steven Karolyi, of Hungary. 

62 Ex-Judge Francis Miles Finch, of the 

New York Court of Appeals, author of "The 
Blue and the Gray," 80. . . .Joseph Hatton, the 
English author and journalist, editor of The 
People, 66 Dr. William T. Howard, of Balti- 
more, 86 Ex-Congressman Samuel M. Steph- 
enson, of Michigan, 76. 

August I. — David Christie Murray, the Eng- 
lish novelist and pla)rwright, 60 Dr. Lucy 

Hall-Brown, an eminent woman physician of 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

August 2. — Rev. Charles Crane. D.D., a well- 
known Methodist clergyman of Boston, 53. 



August 3. — Augustus Saint Gaudens, the sculp- 
tor, 60 (see page 290). 

August 4. — Prof. John Rose Ficklen, of Tulane 

University, New Orleans, 49 Richard James 

Meade, fourth Earl of Clanwilliam, 75. 

August 7. — George Wallace Delamater, a for- 
mer State Senator of Pennsylvania, 58. 

August 9. — Ex-Justice Augustus Bockes, of the 
New York Supreme Court, 90. 

August 10. — Cardinal Dominico Svampa, 
archbishop of Bologna, 56. 

August 12. — St. George Kempson, editor of 
the New York Insurance Journal, 49 Ex- 




THE LATE JOSEPH JOACHIM. THE VIOLINIST. 

Mayor Sydney Smith, of Providence. R. I., 7S. 
....Robert A. Pinkerton, of the famous de- 
tective agency, 59. 

August 14. — Gen. William Birney, U. S. A., 
retired, 88. 

August 15. — Joseph Joachim, the violinist, 76. 

August 16.— Col. Hiram Parks Bell, the last 
surviving member of the second Confederate 
Congress. 80. ...Edwin Rogers, the inventor of 

the electric push-button. 65 Miss Kate Cas- 

satt McKnight, of Pittsburgh. 

August 17. — Chief Good Voice, of the Sioux 
Nation. 

August 18. — Rear-Adm. Joseph Adams 

Smith, U. S. N., retired, 70 George Hoey, 

the actor, 53. 

August 19. — Rev. Luther H. Barber, the old- 
est clergyman in Connecticut, 91 Prof. E. E- 

bogue, head of the department of forestry at 
the Michigan Agricultural College, 42. 

August 20. — Rev. Charles Comfort Tiffany, 
for many years archdeacon of New York, 78. 



SOME OF THK CURRENT CARTOONS 




THE NEW PIPE LINE. 

From the Evvning Mail (New York). 




'OP cdritsE THAT $29.*J40.000 pink will comf. out up aoainst it. 

OP THK RARKKL." *' If I had begun to play Rolf twenty years ago I 

nilRht have bren champion." — John D. Rockefeller. 
From the Evening Journal (Sew York). 



From the Trihunr (Minneapolis). 



SOME OF THE CURRENT CARTOONS. 



285 




Frum ^ufli/i iXew Ycirk). 




tJNCLB SAM GIVES JAPAN A POINTER ON BUMPS. 

From the Saturday Olobe (Utlca). 



2d6 



THE AMERICAN RE^/EIV OF RE^IEIVS. 





" STBIKBS, STRIKES, STRIKES ! * 

From the Evcnino Mail (New York). 
(Tn the domestic situation last month, when the 
cartoonists had tired of the questions of presidential 
nominations and Standard Oil, they devoted them- 
selves to the railroads, Secretary Taft*s world tour 
and the strike of the telegraph operators.) 



SKCIIKTARY TAFT BKGINS HIS FOirRTH U>OP AKOrND 
THE PUVNET. 

Prom the Anwricnn (New York) 




Wll.LIAMS-VARDAMAN CONTEST FOR THE SENATORSHIP 
IK THE MISSISSIPPI PRIMARIES. 

From tho SpokvHinnn-Rrvinr (Spokane). 



The Railroads : ** I guess there's nothing to do 
hut to take It. The doctor says it*s for the good of 
my system — but it's the bitterest pill I've had to 
Hwallow yet." 

From the Inlcmaiional SymUcate (Baltimore). 



SOME OF THE CURRENT CARTOONS. 



287 




THE SITUATION IN MOROCCO. 

Pftim Miv Inquirer (Philadelphia). 




%^:^ 




UNCLK SAM HAS FILLED TBI PIPE WITH PEACB IT LOOKS AS IF THE STAND PAT CLUB WAS OOINO TO 
TOBACCa BUT WILL THE WOKLD SMOKE IT? LOSE ANOTHER MEMBER. 



From the SpokcMtnan-Revicw (Spokane). 



From the Record-Herald (rhicago). 




Geumany (con hrio) 
[The ' 



TWK.VTY-FIVK VKARS OF THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE. 

: "WE ARE A HAPPY FAMILY,— WE ARE:" Austria {piano r 

Italy (ilubiotio) : *' Wp irerc ! *' 
Triple Alliance" has Just reached Its twenty-flfth anniversary.] 
From Punch (London). 



' We are I 




AX ArcKSSIOX OF DOUBTFUL VALL'E. 

No. 3 (RrsHiA) AT THE Door: "May I come in? 
I am the third party." 

(:r.R.\iA.\Y ANH ArsTiciA : "The third? Oh, all 
rlgiit. lUit ni«* you quitr stiro you are still an Em- 
peror? " 

I'rom Pa tn] Hi no (Turin). 



A PRIENDLT TIP. 

President Fallieres : " Nicholvfi. you ahould get 
yourself a silk hat like mine; metal attracts the 
Ughtnlng." 

From Juanid (Mimlch). 



SOME OF THE CURRENT CARTOONS 



289 




AX EfJTPTIW VIKW OK TIIK HAaii: iruXFEttEXi'E. 

From jAih-Lah (Cairo). 

The cartoonists all over the world have been 
poking fim at the Ilamie (Conference as a meeting for 
war rather th^n for peace. Even the Journals of 
Hpypt take this view. 



THK .SIA>W rUOOKESS OF PEACE. 

.\t a meeting of members of the Inter-Parlia- 
mentary Union In London a resolution was passed 
regretting the slow progress made at The Hague In 
the promotion of permanent peace. 

From the Tribune (London). 





rCH»0 PEACE ! 

BAaoxcj».s vox Slttxer : ** The poor yoimg man ! 
If ihey pile any more burdens on his back, he will 
bmk down altogether." 

Prom Kladderadalach (Berlin). 



A SWISS VIF.W OF THK CONFERENCE. 

Edward ; '* Come, my children, he is almost ex- 
hausted. Let poor Michel (Gormany) quietly choke 
himself with his cannon and his playthings." 
From ycbelftpaltcr (Zurich). 



SAINT GAUDENS AND AMERICAN SCULPTURE. 

BY ERNEST KNAUFFT. _ 



I. 
PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT wrote, on 
August I, to the Numismatic Society: 

You will be pleased to know that we are now 
completing a new coinage of the eagle and tHe 
double eagle designed by §aint Gaudens, than 
whom certainly there is no greater artistic genius 
living in the United States or elsewhere. 

The artistic world holds the same high 
estimate of this great sculptor, who passed 
away at his home in Cornish, N. H., on 
August 3, in the sixtieth year of his age, 
leaving behind him not only a galaxy of 
m.onumental sculpture of rare strength and 
beauty, but an influence for good upon 
American art that cannot for years to come 
lose its potency. It seems an opportune mo- 
ment to give a brief consideration to this 
great man and this salutary influence. 




PETER COOPER. 

(By Augrustus Snint Gaudons, south of Cooper 
TTfilon. New York. It was at Cooper T^nlon that 
Saint Oaiidens received his flrst education in art.) 



IL 

Born in Dublin, in 184^, the son of i 
French father and an Irish mother, Augustu* 
Saint Gaudens was bruuf^ht to 'New \'ork 
City in infancy. At the a^e of thirtctrn Jir kvM 
apprenticed to a cameo cutten He ^rvcd 
six years working at the wheels studying 
drawing at night> first at Cooper Union 
and then at the Academy of Design* At 
nineteen he went to Paris, entering tbc 
studio of JoufEroy, m the fxole des Bcaux- 
Arts. Here he studied for three years. 

At the breaking out of the Franco-Prus- 
sian war he went to Rome, where he re- 
mained another^ three years. When he re- 
turned to the United States, in 1874, he w^ 
thanks to his practice in €aji>eo cutting, hh 
study in Paris, and his residence in Rome, u 
practical workman, a trained student, and m 
cultured student as well, imbued with the 
spirit of the early Remiissance, Mr, Lorado 
Taft well says: 

He (Saint Gaudens) lias been of hh tinie ri* 
they (the masters of the early Kcir ) 

were of theirs, taking ihu themes of cm 
the portraits and memorial a as they hixxt: t^ii^- 
to him, and rtaking of thtni works of etidtuicig, 
value. ("History of American Sculpture/') 

It is absolutely necessary to recogni/.c the 
significance of this definition of the spirit of 
the Renaissance if we \\oiild comprehend the 
greatness of Saint Gaudens and his influence 
on American sculpture. Mr. Kenyan Otx 
states the matter in this wise; 

The sculptors of to-day nre working in the 
spirit of the Renaissance, bin the very essence &i 
that spirit is personality,— individualism, — indi^ 
pendent study. 

It must be remembered that prior to Saiiit 
Gaudens' day the Neo-Classjc or Pseudo*^ 
Classic held sway in this country. Powers* 
"Greek Slave," Stop's *' CIp^'pntrM " Pr\lnr>- 
er's " White Captive," and the whole con- 
course of effigies that so opprcssingly (espe- 
cially when in midsummer their bronze cuti- 
cle is besmeared with caterpillars) flank the 
Mall in Central Park, are echoes of Flax- 
man, Thorwaldsen, and Canova, the ex- 
ponents of the Neo-Classic style of the early 
nineteenth century. This style is lifeless^ 
characterless, tame. Except for out-of-door 
monuments bronze was used infrequently, 
terra cotta rarely; marble was the popular 




AUGUSTUS SAINT GAUDHNS. 
nrimw %n XrtJWH^, iwEi.A?*o^ MARCH a^ 1848. mm i\ cmsi'^ii, s, a , Ai'iir^r 3, rg 



<Hi 






cm 



kt3crn 



tou»il ATnerican sculpture a weed, be left it a Hrtuer, 
mclhods of technique; from Itaty he imbibed the spirit nf tlu' 
and -without any display of obtrusive originality, and witli linr i;iMt iincj imj 
»Tid most conscientious v,'orkmansbip, he created .1 ^erii^s nf niumerpitcts iba 
*d*lpturc to a foremost plane in the world's nrt, and M-t ctudi ,1 hicb qatidarc 
f[«ictaticm of artists to follow, th^it there is grt-ru prnniiM- ibai Americm scu 
i kecffc its place in that high position to which be rai^rd it ) 



Me learTied from 1 

Retiai^ii^aTice; yt't \\ 

rnrr t:iste :in(f iiidon 

bat 

L f 



292 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



medium, and it was sandpapered down to a 
surface that rivaled wax figures. 

The Renaissance spirit is the very opposite 
of sandpapered art. Its keynote is rugged- 
ness and frankness and sincerity. The 
Renaissance excelled in portraiture, — and 
in portraiture united (as in its tombs) with 
ideal figures and decorations. Saint Gaud- 
ens* monuments are at once portraits and 
decorations. And therein lies their greatest 
influence on sculpture of to-day. 

The first commission that he received for 
a monument was, in 1878, for the " Farra- 
gut," now in Madison Square, New York 
City. Its portrait qualities cannot be ^pa- 
rated from its decorative qualities. 

The Farragut monument is a wondrous 
piece of work for a debutant. It not only 
shows none, of the baitings and stammerings 
of a beginner, but, what is more remarkable, 
none of the usual extravagance. In nine 
cases out of ten a beginner portraying a hero 
on the prow of a vessel, the wind blowing 
his coat, would have been much more 



theatric and flamboyant. Of Farragut's pose 
Mr. Taft says: 

He (Saint Gaudens) has planted him firmly 
upon his two feet, and these well apart, as ir 
Donatcllo's *' St. George," the attitude of a man 
who accommodates himself to an unstable basi>. 
like the farmer erect in his jolting wagon, or the 
sailor on the swaying deck of a vessel. 

No, there is no school-boy rhetoric here. 
Everything is restrained, quiet, and dignified. 

It was not until years later, when he 
modeled his " Deacon Chapin, — the Puri- 
tan," at Springfield, Mass., that Saint Gaud- 
ens let himself out, as it were, and said 
some things in plastic form (as Berlioz did 
in music) that had hitherto not been thought 
suitable to the art. 

For \{ ever there was movement in plastic 
form, here it is; the sturdy old deacon fairly 
cuts the air as he " hoofs it " ( the only ex- 
pression to use) to some meeting, Bible under 
his arm, to " prove his case " by quotation 
from holy writ. His stout walking-stick 
will resound on the meeting-house floor as 




(By Augustus Saint (;audpns. in Madison Square. Now York. The pedestal designed In collaboration 

with Stanfonl White.) 



ST. GAUDENS AND AMERICAN SCULPTURE. 



293 



soon as he enters. This is strong movement, 
but it is not flamboyancy. The action does 
not detract from the fine characterization of 
the Historic type of the Puritan. 

Action IS, too, the keynote of the " Sher- 
maxi " statue. 

Kenyon Cox, in his " Old Masters and 
New," gives us one of the best art criticisms 
written in this country in his estimate of the 
'* Sherman," showing us the way one artist 
looks at the works of another. He says: 




t£t| ^*tf 11^11^4 N .»: t tjftucfenii- LTnfi^Eii Park, i'lsi- 
««b4h«C»hI b> ^timfonl White j 

Tf.^ ^*,,,.-, .c about twice the size of life in 

so tbat the figure of the Clen- 

i:^, would be about twelve feet 

V cf«ct he sits his horse^ his mili- 

itig out behind him, hb ttf^users 

- ,.; Ail over his shoes, his hat In his ngbt 

u i ipitig at arm*s length \>ehind the knee, 

r; ; irc heafL like that of an old e:ifilc, 

i-ri I, / !-ai^bt forward. The horse is a^ h<n% 

^ ^ ; , u -^^ hb nder, with a tremendous stride; 

11 bi|? bead, closely reined in. twitches 

' ii^Uj at the bridif. Before the horse and 

fto^, balf walks, hailf Hies, a splendicj winded 




Copyright by tbe Detroit Photo Ca 



THE PURITAN. 



([Deacon Samuel Chapln], by Augustus Saint 
Gandens, at Springfield. Mass. The portrait here is 
entirely ideal. The low pedestal indicates one of 
Saint Gaudens' innovations ; prior to this time most 
monuments were mounted too high In the air to be 
easily seen.) 

figure, — one arm outstretched, the other brand- 
ishing the pahn, — Victory leading them on. 
She has a certain fierce wildness of aspect, but 
her rapt gaze and half-open mouth indicate the 
seer of visions : peace is ahead and an end of 
war. On the bosom of her gown is broidered 
the eagle of the United States, for she is an 
American Victory, as this is an American man 
on an American horse; and the broken pine 
bough beneath the horse's feet localizes the vic- 
torious march, — it is the march through Georgia 
t') the sea. 

The information that Mr. Cox further 
gives us in regard to Saint Gaudens' method 
of work is valuable because it is quite au- 
thentic, Mr. Cox being an intimate friend 
of the sculptor. He tells us that eleven 
years elapsed between the commission for the 
** Sherman '* statue, in 1892, and the unveil- 
ing, in 1903. During three of the eleven 
years the work was interrupted by a grave 
illness; during the other eight years he was 
more or less constantly at work on the group. 

He estimates that it cost him about three 
years of actual labor. His infinite painstaking, 
his constant revision, his inability to rest satis- 
fied with anything, if he could conceive of a pos- 
sible betterment, spread the three years out over 
the eight. 



294 



THE AMERICAN REk'/ElV OF REt^/ElVS. 



In 1897 Mr. Saint Gaiidens went to Paris and 
there began the full-sized group, devoting most 
of his time to it. and in 1899 the horse and rider, 
without the Victory, were exhibited at the Salon 
of the Champ de Mars. The merit of the statue 
was at once recognized, and it was given a 
pli'ce of honor and greatly praised by artists 
and critics. At the Paris Exposition of 1900 the 
whole group, in plaster, was seen for the first 
time, and for it and a group of earlief works 
the sculptor was awarded a grand prix. 

In spite of this success, he was not satisfied 
with the work*. It was to be cast in Paris, but 
returning, seriously ill, to this country, he 
brought a plaster cast with him, built a studio 
near Windsor, Vt., in which to set it up, and 
began making changes. He remodeled the head 
of the Victory, her wings and palm branch, the 
cloak of the rider, and various smaller details, 
and sent the remodeled parts to the bronze- 
founders in Paris. The group, with these 
changes, was then sent, still in plaster, to the 
Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, where it 
was the principal cause of an extraordinary 
honor to the artist. The jury of the Section of 
Fine Arts, composed of painters, sculptors, and 
architects, unanimously recommended that a 
special diploma and medal of honor, apart from 
and above all other awards in. the Exposition, be 



created for Mr. Saint Gaudens, and the recom- 
mendation was adopted by the general jury and 
the award was made. This success, like former 
ones, seems to have been a signal to the artist 
to recommence his struggle for perfection. Tlie 
•bronze was brought to Windsor and set up in 
the open air, and experiments in gilding and 
toning were begun, while the base was remod- 
eled and twice cut in granite. Finally, in the 
spring of 1903, the work was ready to hie shipped 
to New York and placed upon its pedestal in the 
Plaza, near the entrance to Central Park. 

l^his rehearsal of Saint Gaudens' constant 
labor and revision may equally as well serve 
as a description of the art life of the typical 
American sculptors. Intense industry, con- 
centration upon their problems in hand, and 
self-sacrifice for dieir art are a national 
characteristic, — whether it be Saint Gaudens 
working like a Titan on half a dozen mas- 
terpieces at once in the apogee of his career, 
or young Barnard beginning his study in 
Paris and living the first year on $89, or 
Paul Bartlett supporting himself by hack 
work from boyhood and erecting a found r}' 




From a Copley Print. Copy right. 1897. by Curtis A Camcioa. 

THE SHAW MONITMENT. 

(By Augustus Saint Gaudens, on the^ Boston Common. The sculptor remodeled this many times, 
being occupied wilh it from 1884 to 1890.) 



SAINT GAUDENS AND AMERICAN SCULPTURE. 



296 



in his studio, where he cx« 
perimcnts on his patinas as 
strenuously as did Palissy 
with his glazes, or wheth- 
er it be Proctor, now 
studying animals in Colo- 
rado, now assisting Saint 
Gaudens on the horse of 
the Logan monument, or 
working in his Paris stu- 
dio on the immense 
'Quadriga," for the 
World's Fair of 1893* 

In the short space al- 
lowed to us in this article 
it is out of the question to 
go into further detail in 
regard to Saint Gaudens' 
other works. But it may 
be said that the same dec- 
orative creation, the same 
arduous labor and con- 
stant revision accompanied 
their production, and the 
same success crowns their 
final appearance. 

The ■ Shaw Meraori- 
rL" with its detail and 

-riF>]extty that would 

l\y havr swamped the 

■ rage anisr, was revised 
ni remodeled ]\i%x as was 
the *' Shcrtnan/' and in 
the final effect the for- 
ward mmement m both 
Ciie \x^i<f and his horse and 
the troops behind the