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Full text of "Revised History of Harlem (City of New York): Its Origin and Early Annals"

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H A R i. E A\ 

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REVISED HISTORY OF 

HARLEM 

(City of New York.) 

ITS ORIGIN AND EARLY ANNALS 



PREFACED BY 



HOME SCENES IN THE FATHERLANDS; 

OR 

Notices' OF Its Founders Before Emigration. 

ALSO 

Sketches of Numerous Families 

AND THE 

RECOVERED HISTORY OF THE LAND -TITLES. 

tyiTH ILLUSTT{ATIONS ANT) MATS. 

By JAMES RIKER, 

Author of Thb Aknals op Nbwtown ; Life Member of the New York Historical Society ; 

Member also of the Massachusetts Historical Society: The New England Historic 

and Genealogical Society; The New York Genealogical and Bio- 

graphicsu Society; I'he Long Island Historical Society; 

The Pennsylvania Historical Society, etc. (i88i^. 



NEW YORK : 
NEW HARLEM PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

1904. 

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THB HEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

731801 A 

A8TOB, LENOX AKO 

niJDEH FOUNDATIONS 

R 1984 L 



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Copyright, x904» by 
Kcw iMrCem publieMna CoimMn^. 

A a rt'ikU reserved. 



JOURNAL PRESS, 
Elizabeth, N. J. 



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09 
(0 



REVISED FROM THE AUTHOR'S NOTES AND ENLARGED 
BY 

HENRY PENNINGTON TOLER. 



Edited by 

STERLING POTTER, 

Gbkbalocist, 

125 £ast Twenty. Third Street, New York. 



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(DEDICATED BY MR. RIKER.) 

TO 
MY EARLY AND EXCELLENT FRIEND, 

EDGAR KETCHUM. 

WHOSE HEARTY INTEREST IN THIS WORK HAS CONTRIBUTED 

TO RENDER A TOIL A PLEASURE AND TO BRING 

IT TO A HAPPY ISSUE, 

THIS VOLUME 

IS 

CothiaK^ 3n0criBeb. 



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GENERAL CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 
I. 

Dunkirk to St. Malo. Pen-sketches of the coasts of Holland, Flanders, 
Picardy, Normandy, and Brittany. Historic memories awakened. Ink- 
lings of localities and persons connected with our subject. Picturesque 
scenery of the Norman Archipelago. Island of Jersey ; home of the Car- 
terets and Pipons. St Malo quaint and suggestive Page 3. 

2. 

R\RLEM : Springs of its History. Special relations to the countries 
named. Their archives explored; and with good results, touching our 
first settlers. These of various nationalities, but mostly Hollanders and 
French Refugees. Their character bears investigation. Their history 
invites inquiry Page 10. 

3. 

GuMPSES OP THE Fatherlands. Lands of the Huguenots. Retained in 

the sixteenth century the essential features of its ancient state. Noticeable 

characteristics of the country and people. Amiens; its civil history. 

Glance at the national annals down to the Reformation Page 14. 

CHAPTER II. 

AvESNES AND ITS ExiLES. French Refugees at Harlem; district whence 
they came. Walslant, or Walloon Country. Principality of Sedan. The 
Walloons ; origin and character. Avesnes. Its lords and people. Spanish 
tyranny; persecution of the Reformed. They find refuge at Le Cateau. 
That city taken by Count Mansfield. Huguenots slain and scattered. 
Nctherland patriots rise in arms. Walloons join them, but soon yield 
the contest. Liberty crushed ; Protestants in despair ; many leave. The 
De Forests flee to Sedan^ Page 25. 

CHAPTER III. 

OiR Settlers from France and Walslant. Huguenots ; their history to 
the Edict of Nantes. Rest under the Edict. Troubles after the death of 
Henry IV. Louis XIII. sacks their towns and fortresses. A doomed 
people. Era of our Refugees considered. Status of the Huguenot. Many 
seek exile. West India colonies. Casier family. La Montague (Mon- 
tanye), Vermilye, Delamater, etc. Picardy and Picards. The Amienois 
and Amiens: trials of the Huguenx)ts. Two pageants. Demarest. De 
Labadie preaches reform. Antagonisms. An attack and defence; Tour- 
ncur forced to flee. France at war with Spain; hostilities carried into 
Hainault and Artois. Protestant Walloons escape to Holland and Eng- 
land. Du Four, Oblinus, Kortright, Journeay, Tiebout, Cresson, Bertholf, 
etc, seek other homes Page 40. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Hoixand: The De Forests, and La Montagne. Leyden the refuge. Its 
Walloons, and cloth trade. Jesse de Forest and brothers; family items. 
Life at Leyden. Remonstrant troubles. The University. Jean de La 



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viii GENERAL CONTENTS. 

Montagne, student of medicine. University, how located The Klok- 
steeg. Pilgrim Fathers leave for America. Walloons propose the same ; 
not encouraged. War with Spain. De Forest goes to Brazil ; dies. Dr. 
Montanye marries his daughter. De Laefs book, "The New World,** 
stimulates emigration. Tobacco raising promises rich returns. Henry 
de Forest marries Geertruyt Bomstra; and with his brotiier Isaac sails 
for Manhattan Page 70. 

CHAPTER V. 

Emigration. Amsterdam, chief port of departure. Oppression the prime 
colonizing agent. Good proof of character. Our colonists: Captain 
Kuyter, Bronck, De Meyer, Slot, Meyer, Dyckman, Bussing, Terbosch, 
Benson, Dolsen, Waldron, Sneden, Verveelen and Vander Vin. John 
Montanye visits Holland and marries. Brevoort, Van Tilburgh, Acker- 
man, Storm, the Kortrights and Bogert emigrate. French and Wal- 
loons — Tourneur, Delamater, Disosway, Genung, Du Four, Lozier, 
Cousseau, Cresson, etc. Mannheim colonists — Demarest, Casier, Uzille, 
Joumeay, Oblinus, Parmentier, Du Bois, De Voe, Vermilye,^ etc. 
Visitors from Manhattan influence colonization Pag*e 92. 

CHAPTER VI. : 1609-1636. 

Manhattan. Its discovery. Harlem in its aboriginal state. Schoraka- 
pok, or Spuyten Duyvel. Whence this name? Steps to colonize Man- 
hattan Island. Rev. John Robinson. French and Walloon colonists 
arrive. Locality embraced in our history — Yorkville to Kingsbridge. 
Van Twiller appropriated Ward's Island ; gives Van Curler the Otter- 
spoor. Aboriginal Harlem as viewed from McGown*s heights. Great 
Kill, or Harlem River. Papparinamin. The Hellegat. Muscoota, Recha- 
wanes and Schorakin located. Indian names to be cherished. Muscoota, 
or, as afterward called, Montanye's Flat, first of these localities to 
attract the European Page 109. 

CHAPTER VII. : 1636-1640. 

Settlements. The De Forests arrive; granted Muscoota. Dr. Montafiye 
follows. Progress on the Flat. New and trying experiences. "O soli- 
tude! where are the charms?" Van Curler begins improvements. Van 
Twiller makes Barent Blom his overseer. Great and Little Barent's 
Islands ; why so called. Henry de Forest dies. Montanye looks after the 
plantation. Daily fare. The widow de Forest marries Hudde. Hans 
Bergen. Hudde's patent. Hudde and wife visit Holland. The farm sold. 
Bought by Montanye. Claes Swits leases Van Curler's land. It is sold 
to Van Keulen of Amsterdam. Account of Swits. Van Keulen's Hook. 
Arrival of Kuyter and Bronck. Kuyter gets Schorakin ; calls it Zegendal. 
Jochem Pieter's Flat. Montanye's farm named Vredendal. Hudde and 
wife return. Montanye gets his deed. Bronck at Ranachqua; calls his 
home Emmaus Page 125. 

CHAPTER VIII. : 1640-1645. 

Indian Troubles. Friendly relations with the natives of mutual benefit 
Peace broken. Kieft attacks the Raritans. Bloody retaliation on Staten 
Island. A Wickquaskeek kills Claes Swits. His tribe screen him. Kieft 
wants to chastise them ; the Twelve Men advise delay. The tobacco crop. 
Kuyter unable to ship his ; Montanye's crop damaged. The Doctor loses 
his wife. Swits' murder unatoned for; others follow. Time to act; an 
expedition. Indians alarmed, sue for peace. Peace-council at Emmaus. 
Farmers keep at work. Kuyter as church-builder. The Mahicans war 
upon the Wickquaskeeks. These fly for safety to the Dutch. Kieft seizes 
the chance to slaughter them. The savages avenged upon the settlers. 
Kieft and the Otterspoor. Peace again patched up. Death of Bronck. 



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GENERAL CONTENTS. ix 

Montanye leases his farm. Indians resume hostilities. Settlers fly to 
Fort Amsterdam. Kuyter depicts their distresses. Cry to Holland for 
help. Colonists turn soldiers; invade the Indian country. Savages burn 
Kuyter's house. He and Kieft dispute about it Peace for the third 
time; "solid and lasting'* Page 137. 

CHAPTER IX. : 1645-1650. 

Land Patents: Kuyter's triai^s. Sibout Claessen secures a title to 
Hoorn's Hook. Dr. iVander Donck buys Papparinamin Island. Matthys 
Jansen gets a patent for Papparinamin on Manhattan side. Tobias Teu- 
nissen. Jansen- Aertsen patent, since the Dyckman Homestead, — Inwood. 
Montanye marries. Vredendal patent. Isaac de Forest gets a title. Kuy- 
ter's opposition to Kieft. He and Melyn arraigned by the ex-Director, 
before Stuyyesant and Council, for contempt. Are fined and banished. 
Sent away in the ship with Kieft and Bogardus ; are wrecked, and the 
two latter perish. Kuyter and Melyn reach Holland and appeal to the 
States-General. Arrest of judgment. Stuyvesant summoned to answer 
for his severity. Kuyter, on returning to Manhattan, has his property 
and offices restored. Engages in trade. Dangerous to live on the Flats. 
Few places occupied. Peter Beeck buys a plantation at Hellgate. De 
Forest sells his plantation to Beeckman. Kuyter's victory a triumph of 
popular rights Page 146. 

CHAPTER X. : 1651-1656. 

New Efforts, but sad failures. Kuyter resumes his plantation, with 
Stuy\esant, etc., as co-partners. Their contract. Country yet disturbed; 
Kuyter, before proceeding, applies for a groundbrief. Public danger im- 
minent. Indians murder Beeck and his workmen. Threaten Kuyter, 
Beeckman and others. Alarming rumors afloat. Kuyter's popularity. 
Elected schepen. Is killed by the Indians. Sorrow at his fate. Honors 
awaited him. Steps to settle his estate. More trouble. Savages on a 
bloody raid. Slay Tobias Teunissen near Spuyten Duyvel, and Cornelis 
Swits, Beeckman's successor. All the farms laid waste; the district 
abandoned by the settlers Page 157. 

CHAPTER XI. : 1656-1660. 

N'ew Haerlem founded: its court and church. Plan to settle isolated 
farms a failure. Resolved to form a village on the Swits and Kuyter 
lands. Grounds for this measure. Ordinance thereupon. Work begun; 
a village plot and farming lots laid out. The latter, why so narrow. 
Named Nieuw Haerlem. Hindrances. Stuyvesant urges on the work. 
Guarded by soldiers. Indian war at Esopus. Military officers for Har- 
lem. Court of Justice instituted. Church formed. Do. Zyperus engaged 
to preach. John Montanye is chosen deacon. Zyperus* previous history 
obscure. Only a licentiate. Harlem people join Selyn's church at the 
Bouwery. No church built at Harlem yet, nor for years later Page 167. 

CHAPTER XII. : 1661-1662. 

Reawl\ngement of Lands : New Allotments. Grain plenty, but no mill. 
One projected. The Montanyes wish to form a hamlet at Vredendal. 
Council refuse ; will hinder New Harlem. The latter growing. Settlers' 
names, etc. Scandinavian element. Calls for more land. Order there- 
upon. Van Keulen's Hook allotted. Grantees. First "Harlem Land 
Case." John Montanye is Town Clerk. Gets part of Vredendal (the 
Point) ; the Flat to be divided up. Settlers ask Director to modify the 
terms on which they took up land. Declines. Applicants for lots on 
Montanye's Flat First owners. Wm. Montanye a resident The aliena- 
tion of the Flat indisputable. Land speculation. Conveyancing; model 
Deed. Deeds, Wills, etc. ; how executed. Cattle-herder employed. The 



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X GENERAL CONTENTS, 

contract. He gets in trouble ; is superseded. Sneden dies ; and his wife. 
Property sold. Slot made building master. Fence masters. Some chief 
men fined. Mr. Muyden Page i8i- 

CHAPTER XIII. : 1663-1665. 

Stirring events; End of the Dutch rui^e. A wedding; rustic custom ; 
a riot. Death of Dericksen and Casier. Petition again for relief in pay- 
ing for their land. Granted. Indian massacre at Esopus. Montanye's 
sister a captive. Harlem stockaded. Military companies organized ; 
arms and ammunition. Guns mounted. A detachment goes to Esopus. 
Wickquaskeeks camp near Harlem; creates alarm, but tiie Sachem ex- 
plains; brings tidings good and bad. Asks leave to fish. Powder dis- 
tributed. News of an armistice. More settlers from Fatherland. E)o. 
Zyperus goes to Virfi[inia. Want a voorleser. Montanye willing to serve. 
Petitioned for; appomted. Le Maire arrives. Patents taken out. Swits' 
widow surrenders her land. Calves on Little Barent's Island. . Slaves. 
Saw mill. Country menaced by neighboring English. General Assembly. 
Peace with the Indians. English fleet takes New Amsterdam, etc. Called 
New York. Conflicting opinions at Harlem. Waldron retires thither. 
Some leave for Holland. Montanye disaffected. Moesman sells to Capt. 
Delavall. Hymenial Page 197. 

CHAPTER Xiy. : 1665-1666. 

Reluctant yielding to English rule. Local authority suspended. 
Drunken Indians commit abuses. The Schout's disaffection. NicoIIs' 
order thereupon. Harlem to form part of the City. Town officers dis- 
charged. Waldron made constable ; to appoint magistrates and hold 
court. De Meyer's tenant absconds ; leads to an issue with the new court- 
He comes out best. The court carry things imperiously ; banish an in- 
habitant. Waldron accuses Teunissen of stealing a quilt. He resents it ; 
sues for slander. Waldron has the advantage. Comments. Bad feeling 
engendered. Other cases cited. Demarest buys land ; removes here. 
Monis Staeck assaults the herder; is fined. Litigious times. Move to 
erect a church. Stuyyesant feasted. More garden plots laid out and sold. 
The church up and inclosed. A good wife defamed. The Mayor sees 
her righted. The costs. Her experiences Page 215. 

CHAPTER XV. : 1666-1667. 

The Nicolls Patent; the court, mill, church. Grazing customs. Order 
to draw a line for more range for horses and cattle. Governor directs 
a patent to be drafted. The Patent. Not satisfactory, and why. Tour- 
neur "pays" Waldron. Both cautioned by the Mayor's Court. Waldron 
takes his discharge as constable. New officers appointed. Instructions 
and oath. Still at work on the church. Order; trespasses by cattle. 
Sabbath workers arrested. Old story about Tourneur revived. Capt 
Delavall. His antecedents. Proposes improvements. The town acts 
upon it. Verveelen to run the ferry and tavern. Bronck's Land and 
Little Barent's Island. Col. Morris buys the former. Town builds a 
mill-dam; Delavall a mill. The Mill Camp. Montanye voted leave to 
build on his Point. Village expanding ; other house lots laid out. Church 
finished. Burial place located, etc. Meadows granted Tourneur; the 
Bussing Meadows. Montanye gets the church-lot's meadows. .Page 225. 

CHAPTER XVI. : 1667-1669. 

New Nicolls Patent; the Ferry; rupture with Archer, etc Petition 
for a Patent. Town growing in importance. Dairies. Knoet the herder. 
Verveelen ; his ordinary, ferry and rates. Smuggles beer. Compromised. 
Ferry lease. Beer drinking. Brewers. Matthys Jansen's heirs and John 
Archer threaten trouble. The Harlem Patent. Nagel, etc., fined as 



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GENERAL CONTENTS, xl 

rebels. Capt. Delavall going to England. Toumeur, as agent, lets land 
to \y. Gerritsen. Archer buys the Jansen-Aertsen patent. Nicolls won't 
confinn it. Toumeur bargains for Hoorn's Hook patent. Inhabitants 
protest Queer conduct of Verveelen's negro. Baignoux misses his 
nootas. Barker ignores the ferry. Trouble with Archer. His history. 
Lets land at Fordham His cattle trespass; are seized. The Jansen- 
Aertsen patent awarded to Harlem. The ferry incommodious. Spuyten 
Duyvel to be viewed. Tourneur craves Hoorn's Hook. Gets land on 
Cromweirs Creek. Death of the miller. [Vessel built. An erfje granted 
Pelszer. A wagon-road ordered between New York and Harlem. 
Horses, etc., to be branded. Ferry taken to Spuyten Duyvel. Contract 
l^^th Verv'eelen. He to be constable of Fordham. Mill repairs. Delavall 
returns. Hue and cry after a slave. Montanye's Indian deed. Indians 
claim other land. De Meyer sells to Kortright and Low ancestors. Calf 
pasture ; its rules. J. Cresson makes his will ; sells his farm. Le Roy 
names Tourneur sole heir Page 239. 

CHAPTER XVII. : 1670-1672. 

VuxAGE ufk; Harlem two centuries ago. Maturity; accruing responsi- 
bilities. Porkers missing; Tippett suspected; an inquiry. Branding, etc. 
Wolters dies. Waldron buys Dolsen's house. Delamater's will. Wal- 
dron and Verveelen divide meadows. W. Gerritsen mulct for poor 
fences ; his vrouw scolds Waldron. Payment on the Patent. Freeholders 
and lands. Vermilye sells; sale void. Wolters' curators. Cresson vs. 
Delamatcr. Kortright to keep tavern. An erf voted J. Demarest. Wal- 
dron sells Nagel an erfje, etc. Nagel and Vermilye marry his daughters. 
Jansen-Aertsen patent. Order to pay claimants 300 gl. Richard takes a 
bond. L. Gerritsen sells Karsten's erf and garden. Legacy at Leyden. 
New voorleser, Vander Vin. Martino leases town lands. Cresson de- 
nounces the magistrates ; is arrested. Disosway vs. Archer. Colevelt 
vs. Le Roy. Pound ordered. Town debts; accounts audited. Cupid 
captures Meyer and others. Pelszer sues Verveelen. Use of an erfje 
granted .Carstensen. Road to City impassable. Lease by Lourens Jansen. 
Bogert buys Montanye's farm. Journeay sells Storm his Brooklyn lands. 
Bogert makes his will. Mayor's Court, met at Harlem, tries Archer. 
Fordham petty causes to be heard at Harlem. Archer's leases. Tax for 
the voorleser fails ; people prefer voluntary giving. Fines settled. Archer 
gets a patent for Fordham. Claessen, Valentine ancestor. Indian deed 
for De Voe's Point. Toumeur makes his will. Demarest loses a child ; 
makes his will. Leases Moertje Davids' Fly. Montanye's deed for his 
Point The "wagon path" to New York Page 262. 

CHAPTER XVIII. : 1672-1673. 

The dorp or village; incidents and insights. Demarest versus Dela- 
mater; assault. Death of Montanye. His estate. Harlem church to 
have an elder. Deacons' accounts. Church-days observed. Allerheyligen. 
Tippett again, with Hunt and others. Death of Capt. Morris and wife ; 
leave but "one poor blossom." Order; meadows on Fordham side. 
Vander Vin made secretary. Waldron vs. Tourneur; assault. Church 
loft let to Mrs. Montanye. Monthly-mail ; New York to Boston. Town 
patents; none under Stuyvesant. Houselots to be taxed for town ex- 
penses. List. Accounts to be overhauled ; Roelofsen sent for. Journeay 
makes his will. Accounts audited. Creditors. List of freeholders and 
lands. Owners of Montanye's Flat form a combination. A history con- 
nected with this Flat. Cresson and Carbosie make wills. A big row. 
Toumeur lets land at Cromwell's Creek; his death. Dyckman and Biis- 
sing marry. A stroll through New Harlem in 1673. Homes of the chief 
residents. In what style a magistrate lived Page 281. 



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xii GENERAL CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIX. : 1673-1674. 
Recx:cupation by the Dutch. Minute by Vander Vin ; recapture of New 
York. Official letter received. Hearty response. Town officers ap- 
pointed; swear allegiance. Commonalty take the oath. Roll of names. 
Cut pickets for city defences. Morris and Delavall estates. Barent Wal- 
dron, messenger. Carbosie vs. Bogert. Delamater fined for striking 
Adrian Sammis. Plan to alternate crops on the farm lots. Instructions 
to schout and magistrates. Fordham people vs. Archer. Delavall's 
affairs. Petition for his out-garden. Vander Vin retained. Contributors. 
Delamater will not give. Some Englishmen threaten to rob and bum. 
Action taken. A Night Watch; Jansen (Kortright) made captain. The 
Roll. Seasons for thanksgiving, fasting, and prayer. Proclamation. 
Death of Gerritsen. Alarms continue. Beado arrested. His offence. 
Branded and banished. English expected; fears increase. Letter from 
the Governor. A panic. Kiersen and Michielsen tried for shooting a 
hog. Curious examination. Search for horses of late English officials. 
How land sold. Peace. Preparing for it Litigation. Town officers 
chosen. Church accounts audited. Fruits of Nieuwenhuysen's ministry. 
Hot heads from Westchester alarm villagers. Inquiry. Country revert<> 
to the English Page 300. 

CHAPTER XX. : 1674-1677. 

English rule restored; refugees; Capt. Carteret; Indian war; land 
grants; Spuyten Duyvel occupied. Accession of French. Schout and 
schepens superseded. Bastiaensen (Kortright) hires Tourneur farm. 
Tourneurs still vexed by story of the homicide. Mayor's Court checks it. 
Voorleser continued. Delamater and Demarest refuse to give. Terbosch 
to be dunned. Jansens divide their lands. Le Count dies. Capt James 
Carteret. His antecedents. Comes to Harlem. On a committee to get 
the patent confirmed. Palmer assaults Gano, while picking cherries. In- 
dian outbreak at Narragansett. Fear at the news. Precautions ; watch, 
etc. Verveelen cited to the watch. Won't leave his ferry. Vexed by 
Archer, who abducts his goods. Verveelen sues. New alarms. Our 
Indians ordered within Hellgate. Some are stopped, passing Harlem. 
General arming. Night watch; the roll and rules. Indians to plant at 
Spuyten Duyvel. Watch re-formed. De Voe, from Mannheim. Passes 
for Hellgate. Indian troubles end. Farming interests ; concerning fences. 
Straitened for land. Report of Andros' grants; inhabitants petition. 
Persons proper to have land. Van Keulen's Hook surveyed. Coopers 
stopped cutting timber; appeal. Town cuts stockades for the City. 
Clerk's house repaired. Junior David Demarest will not pay toward it ; 
gets into trouble. Senior Demarest and Delamater at issue with the town 
about clerk's salary. What now ensued. The Demarests sell out The 
elder buys land on the Hackensack. Town debts. An assessment. 
Andros' grants cause anxiety ; Carteret, etc., deputed to see the Governor ; 
an episode. Andros very gracious; will send a surveyor. Elphinstone 
grant, etc. Ryder lays out lots for the Harlem people. Dispute over 
meadow on Spuyten Duyvel; Meyer in trouble. Dyckman and Nagel 
secure five lots at Spuyten Duyvel. Lease them. Dyckman Homestead. 
Large order for palisades Page^3i8. 

CHAPTER XXI. : 1677-1682. 

The French leaving; new town house; land questions; Labadists; 
Capt. Carteret; sale of Moertje Davids' Fly. Nicholas de Vaux 
versus Cresson. Sieur Dubuisson. De Vaux removes. The French leav- 
ing. M agister. Town accounts. Subscribers to clerk's salary. The 
Demarests depart. Compromise with Vander Vin. House to be rebuilt, 
Mr. Kip dies ; his widow assigns her contract for timber ; Tourneur to fill 
it. Vander Vin mortgages. Suits about lines on Van Keulen's Hook. 



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GENERAL CONTENTS, xiii 

New oflScers. Codrington weds Miss Delavall. Robbery at De jVoe's. 
Brevoort and Nagel buy o«t Cresson, who leaves. Land case ; Toumeur, 
etc, vs. Col. Morris. Labadists visit Harlem. Entertained by Waldron. 
Pick up stories about Carteret Call at Valentine's house. Object of 
their visit; make proselytes. Seem to confound Waldron with Vander 
Vin. A word for Carteret. He goes to England. Carstensen dies. Rob- 
inson buys Sawkill farm. Oblinus vs. Bogert; meadows. Dii Four 
vs. Bogert. "True Lips," Bear hunt; Rev. Charles Wolley. Robert 
VVolley and partner buy half of Robinson's farm. Timber for Major 
Cuyler. Contract for town house given out. Sale of Moertje Davids' 
Fly. Outside owners. Toumeur, etc., vs. Morris; verdict for plaintiffs. 
Morris ignores it, and holds possession. Mending highway, Barent Wal- 
dron, absent; Constable Vermilye refuses to collect the fine. Offended 
dignity. Work on town house. Proposed to bridge the Papparinamin ; 
but ferry-lease extended. Sieur Dubuisson. Joumeay's estate. Five 
lives lost in Hellgate. Dr. De Forest. Precaution in choosing town 
officers. Tax to pay for town house, etc. Proprietors and free- 
holds Page 347. 

CHAPTER XXn. : 1682-1685. 

Incidents; Death of Delavali., Archer, Dei^amater and Yander Vin; 
TouRNEUR vs. Morris; Dongan's Assembly; town court remodei^ed; 
half-way house; Gloudie's Point occupied, etc Carbosie; given use 
of land near Bogerfs meadows. Bogert scolds the magistrates. Makes 
the amende honorable. Delamater forced to pay up. Barlow vs. London. 
Toumeur, etc., vs. Young. Young sells to Holmes. Old pastors dead. 
Sclyns returns. To preach at Harlem once a year. Death of Capt 
Delavall; his will, etc. Mrs. Tourneur, sick, makes a will, survives; her 
sons Daniel and Jaco marry. How the Tourneur lands were finally 
divided. Brevoort leases Church Farm. Hedding. Baignoux sells. Aid. 
Cox buys out Robinson. Capt Kidd. Gov. Dongan arrives; a General 
Assembly; Harlem joins in choosing delegates. Tourneur vs. Morris; 
proceedings at large. Local doings. Charter of Liberties; its chief 
provisions. Counties and courts erected. Common Council includes Har- 
lem in the Out Ward. Its court, etc. Viervant. Postmael; the Post 
ancestor. Commissioners meet. Give Waldron a deed. Deacons visit 
Carbosie; his will, death. Archer dies suddenly. Nagel's slave fires his 
bam; hangs himself. His body burned. Patents called for with refer- 
ence to quit-rent. Kortright builds the Half- Way House. Tourneur vs. 
Morris; final decision. Meyer again in office. Death of Vander Vin. 
Succeeded by Tiebout. Barent, Waldron settles at the New Lots. 
Gloudie's Point sold ; bought by Resolved Waldron, Barent gets the deed. 
Theunis Iden's and Jacob De Ke/s purchases. Grant to Bickley, De 
Voe's Point Page 374. 

CHAPTER XXHL : 1685-1687. 

Wolves; Delavall estate; tenures; tenths cancelled; new stone 
church; great maize land; Dongan Patent; quit rent; corporation 
rights; Indian claim; common lands; French gone; Dutch manners 
AND customs. Woodlands infested by wolves; a general hunt John 
Delavall makes an exchange with the town; his father's executor. Land 
Tenures; their history. The feudal tenure modified. Free and common 
socage. Quit Rent. The tithes never exacted. Quit Rents compounded 
for. Levied and paid. The tax list ; exhibits the lands occupied. Village 
regulations; refuse straw, chimney ladders. Losses by fire. Lead to 
building outside. Taxed for clerk's salary. New arrangement with Do. 
Selyns. New church. People begin the work. Carpenter's contract. 
First service. Payments. Dolsen and Kiersen lease Great Maize Land. 
Improvements; Hoorn's Hook, Great Barent's Island. Harlem Patent 



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xiv GENERAL CONTENTS, 

to be confirmed. Important saving clause in the New York Charter affect- 
ing said patent. Order to stay the waste of timber. Nagel and Dyckman 
in law about a goose ! Agreement ; that the common lands be drawn pro 
rata, according to the estates. The Dongan Patent. Paid for. Ob- 
vious intent of the patent to confirm rights already granted. Did not the 
City Charter trench on those rights? Indian claim satisfied. Lands still 
in commons. Taken up by allotments in 1691 and 1712. History of these 
divisions important, but hitherto unknown; given in Appendix. Closings 
remarks. French families nearly all gone ; last word about them. Court 
records negative evidence of good morals. Capable of self-government. 
Succeeding times eventful, but more easily traced. A staid Dutch society. 
Style of living, farming, habits, and customs; topics talked about, tales 
of Fatherland ; general thrift ; slow to adopt English modes and manners. 
Their history a legacy of useful lessons Page 396. 

CHAPTER XXI.V. 

Notices of the Patentees and their Heirs or Successors. Benson, 
Bogert, Brevoort, Bussing, Delamater, Dyckman, Haldron, Kiersen, 
Kortright, Low, Montanye, Myer, Nagel, Oblenis, Parmentier, Toumcur, 
Vermilye, Verveelen, Waldron Page 426. 

For notice of other patentees not named here sec Index. 

See Contents of the Appendix on page 780. 



* 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PACK 

Dunkirk to St. Malo ; Vignette Map, 3 

St Oaen, or De Carteret Manor House, Jersey, 8 

Cathedral and Cemetery of St Denis, Amiens, 63 

Holland; Vignette Map, 70 

Leyden, 72 

Walloon Church, at Leyden, 74 

The Zaay Hall, Leyden, 75 

View on the Klokstecg (Bell-lane), Leyden 78 

Autograph of Jesse de Forest, 1621, 83 

Sdioonrcwoerd, 97 

Autographs of the first Settlers, 165 

Autographs of the founders of New Harlem 213 

Xcw Harlem Village Plot, 1670, 260 

View of the Van Bramer House, 356 

Autographs of the founders, etc, 361 

Reformed Dutch Church, erected 1686, .404 

Map of Harlem : Original Lots and Farms, 832 



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MR. RIKER'S ACKNOWLEDGMENTS IN THE PREPARA- 
TION OF THE HISTORY OF HARLEM. 



It is obvious that any work like the following, made up of innumerable 
details, must take character for credibility largely from the reputation of 
its author, since it is scarcely possible to cite an authority for each of the 
multitudinous facts presented, whatever of force and value such a feature 
might impart to the work. And when it is considered how often state- 
ments rest on local inference, or result from careful comparison and 
analysis, the difficulty of giving authorities becomes more apparent, though 
from such processes spring much of the life and spirit of the narrative, 
which the tame letter of the record fails to evoke. 

For a general indication of the sources whence the present author has 
drawn his facts, the incidental references in the ensuing pages to manu- 
script and printed works must suffice. And however pleasant it would be 
to particularize the numerous correspondents who have kindly favored the 
author with facts in their possession, the mere mention of their names 
would fill too large a space in these pages. To all such he now tenders his 
very cordial thanks. Correspondents abroad, who have aided him, are 
noticed on page 13. 

Special encouragement in his work, received from Mr. Henry G. De 
Forest, Mr. S. Whitney Phoenix, and Mr. Samuel Riker, and his estimable 
kinsmen, demands more than a passing acknowledgment, and lays the 
author under a lasting debt of gratitude. 



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HISTORY 



OF 



HARLEM 



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CHAPTER L 



DUNKIRK TO ST. MALO. 




A S the coaster bound 
-^^ for St. Malo leaves 
the old Flemish port of 
Dunkirk, now the nor'- 
most city of France ; hav- 
ing passed through the 
narrow artificial sluice- 
way which stretches out 
from the town a mile or 
more across the broad 
strand, to the open wa- 
ters between the inner 
and outer line of sands 
forming the harbor, or 
roads, of Dunkirk, and 
cleared the ruined walls of castles Verd and Bonne Esperance, 
those trusty sentinels once guarding on either side its mouth; 
he must still feel his way cautiously, to shun the exterior shoals, 
the Braque and Tatre banks, wnich, with others, serve as a 
natural breakwater to shelter the roadstead from the wash of the 
sea. Safely past these impediments, he spreads his broad canvas 
to the breeze, and shapes his course. No trip more hazardous 
than that to St. Malo; an epitome, as it were, of life's voyage 
in those old lands,— ever a struggle, but neither aimless nor fruit- 
less, as shall appear. 

How exhilarating the scene now opened to view, — this grand 
sweep of unique landscape and wide waters! On the left the 
eye takes in the coast, — a line of low sand-hills, but half conceal- 
ing picturesque villages, with their tall spires and busy wind- 
mills, and, in the distant offing, snowy sails wafted on their inward 
or outward mission ; while again, sternwise, the blue waters of 
the German Ocean spread out expansively far northward between 
the English and the Netherland shores. Unlike the zigzag coast 



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4 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

whither our vessel is bound, the latter of these shores stretches 
northeasterly with a seeming even line, but beyond the vision, 
curves gently to the north, skirting the exterior sides of the 
islands of Zeeland and the low dykes of Holland, till, at full 
eighty leagues or more, it reaches that insular pilot station, the 
Texel, behind whose sheltering heights and hamlets the ships of 
Amsterdam, Hoom, and other cities on the Zuyder Zee, usually 
anchor to await a clearance for their destined port. 

The land ahead of us trending nearly southwest, our well- 
laden, clumsy galiot skirts for about twelve leagues the borders 
of Flanders and Picardy, passing the old Anglo-French town, 
Calais, and the Straits of Dover; while the white chalk cliffs 
which here line the coast now project to form the Capes Blanc 
and Gris-Nez, the abrupt termini also of a highland range which, 
penetrating the interior, parts the basins or sections of country 
drained by the rivers TEscaut, or Scheldt, and Somme. Beyond 
the last-named and bolder of these two headlands, our experi- 
enced skipper alters his course to due south, as the coast bends ; 
old Neptune kindly granting a fair breeze down the Channel, 
for better to scud under bare poles before the brawling tempest, 
than to encounter fierce head-winds or the bewildering fog, com- 
mon on this coast, either of which might spoil his adventure. 

A few miles bring us off the harbor of Boulogne, — ^to its 
name often added, for distinction, "sur mer," or "on the sea." 
Claiming, — though in rivalry to Wissen, an ancient port between 
the capes just mentioned, — to be the Portus Iccius whence Julius 
Caesar embarked his legions for the conquest of Britain, Boulogne 
has been the favorite thoroughfare for travel between England 
and France from remote times. The old walled town is seen 
back upon the heights, looking from seaward quite as in cen- 
turies pasf; while, on the flat nearer the sea has grown up the lower 
town, a populous suburb, where then were but two or three old 
monasteries and a few cottages, nestled around the church St. 
Nicholas. Its once famous lighthouse, known as the Tour 
d'Ordre, — but to seamen as the Old Man of Boulogne, — lives only 
in tradition, and the ruins which yet mark its site on the rocks 
at the entrance of the harbor, — ^an old graystone octagon tower 
of Roman origin, which, after battling the storms of over a 
thousand years, was finally undermined and destroyed by the 
sea in 1644. 

The white cliffs, here so noticeable a feature of the French 
coast, presently give place again to sand downs; while our pro- 
gress along the tedious stretch of low-lying country which bor- 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 5 

ders Ponthieu is marked successively by the mouths of the rivers 
Canche and Authie, and the broad estuaries of the Somme. 
Scarce an object is presented to fix the attention or beguile the 
weary hours, save now and then a picturesque g^oup of huts, 
tenanted by hardy Picard fishermen, or distant glimpse of town 
or spire, — perhaps a craft or two leaving the mouth of the Somme, 
with freights from its little port of St. Valery, or the quaint old 
town of Abbeville, or from Amiens, the populous capital of 
Kcardy; these two, with their important manufactures, seated 
far up the valley of the Somme. Imperceptibly steals over one 
a sense of dreariness, which is only deepened by the splash of 
waters and creak of cordage, or even the hoarse wild scream 
of the sea-birds that sail across the vessel's track, bound to either 
shore. 

But hoary History, here dealing with marvellous prodigality, 
has strown these shores with memories of past centuries far 
more enduring than their old cities or crumbling cliffs. Under 
his inspiration the various scenes that meet the eye assume new 
interest, and become instinct with the heroic forms and deeds 
which crowd upon the mental vision. Carried back to the belli- 
cose days of the chivalry, now the potent Duke of Normandy, in 
ambition rivalling a Caesar, musters his three thousand vessels 
from the several Norman ports at St. Valery-sur-Somme, and 
sails to seize the English crown, and win the title of the "Con- 
queror." Or to the martial times of Edward III. and of Henry 
v., successors of this same Anglo-Norman king, as with gallant 
hosts they traverse the region of the Somme, and against g^eat 
odds gain the brilliant victories of Cressy and Agincourt. The 
past revivified becomes as the present, while its magic creations 
impart a new zest to the voyage. E'en our hardy skipper, versed 
only in nautical science, in winds, clouds and storms, in bars, 
reefs and lighthouses, spins from out his store of local yams 
something to enliven many a spiritless scene. It's perchance a 
bold sea-fight 'twixt the rival neighbors so long contesting the 
mastery of the Channel; or yet some touching story of fleeing 
victims of persecution or tyranny, of whose heroism and suffer- 
ings not the half has been told. How exceeding probable that 
it was the experience of Huguenot exiles who, a little more than 
two centuries ago, found a refuge at Harlem, most of whom 
came from this section of France we are now skirting. Along 
the fruitful valley of the Somme were scattered the homes of 
otir Demarest, Toumeur, Cresson, and Disosway, not to enlarge 
the number ; most of them prominent among the Harlem settlers. 



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6 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

and heads of well-known families hereafter to be noticed. Others 
will be brought to light as we extend our voyage. 

The eye is now sensibly relieved, as the coast again becomes 
elevated, and the chalk cliffs reappear, crowned with green wav- 
ing tufts of forests and orchards. At ten miles beyond the 
Somme, and eighteen leagues from Gris-Nez, is visible the gap 
or opening at the river Bresle, which marks the southern limit 
of Picardy. Now, putting helm aport, we bear south-west along 
the rock-bound coast of Normandy, its continuity only broken 
here at intervals by the openings through which the rivers fall 
into the sea, and which form several secure harbors, as Dieppe, 
St. Valery-en-Caux, and Fecamp, near the latter of which the 
bluffs attain an altitude of seven hundred feet. Dieppe is asso- 
ciated with two of our settlers, Lozier and Lemaire. 

Bearing westerly from Cape La Heve, near the broad mouth 
of the Seine, — just within which lies Havre, the modem and 
handsome seaport of Paris, and on the opposite shore the anti- 
quated town of Honfleur, its harbor choked with great sand- 
banks, — we now skirt the flat, rich grazing district of Normandy, 
with its numerous villages, and fine old cities Caen and Bayeux. 
We must give the coast a wide margin, to avoid the dreaded 
"Black Cows" and the yet more dangerous rocky reef that lines 
it for some eighteen miles, full half a league from shore, and 
which, proving fatal to a vessel of the Spanish Armada, took its 
name, the "Calvados." 

The peninsula of Cotentin, running northerly twenty miles 
beyond the shore line of the Norman meadows, ends, on the side 
we are approaching, in the picturesque falaise or cliffs of Bar- 
fleur, which stand boldly forth, as if to greet our vessel in its 
track. But passing this cape, and the harbor of Cherbourg, 
noted as the last town abandoned by the English, when finally 
driven from Normandy in 145 1, and now a famous naval station, 
we reach, after a run of a hundred and fifty miles from the Bresle, 
where we first struck the line of Normandy, the western limit of 
this large province, at Cape La Hague. Bearing to larboard 
under favoring winds, we double the cape, and stand again due 
south, up the boisterous race between the island of Aldemey and 
the main, in rough weather extremely dangerous, from its con- 
flicting currents, and run inside Guernsey and the other Channel 
islands, — those ancient appendages of Normandy, and now more 
Norman even than the mother province, though held by the 
English. The rocky headlands on the main serve to mark our 
progress, — ^the stately Jobourg, Gros-Nez and Nez-de-Carteret, 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 7 

respectively five, ten and twenty miles south of Cape La Hague. 
Leaving, to the left, the last of these, sheltering within its pro- 
jecting arm the village and small haven of Carteret, distinguish- 
able by its line of yellow sands, we pass on the right the low 
rocky islets of Ecrehou, and some miles farther, "old" Jersey, 
in area only equal to our Staten Island, but the largest island of 
the Norman Archipelago, and the home, formerly, of the Car- 
terets and the Pipons, not unknown in Harlem story. Difficult 
of approach on account of its cordon of rocks, reefs and shoals, 
we pass near its massive but ruined castle of Mont Orgueil, so 
picturesque in its mantle of ivy, and crowning a high and craggy 
spur that juts into the sea. 

A more than panoramic beauty captivates the eye at each 
stage in this passage, enhanced by that which so multiplies the 
perils of the navigation. Huge rocky debris, environing these 
islands, aboimd on every hand, now a solitary rock, now a con- 
fused cluster, but oft taking most fantastic forms. Some tower 
majestically, like the Caskets off Alderney, above the highest 
reach of the billows, when, storm-driven, they break upon them 
in such grandeur and fury. Others, with black heads but just 
visible amid silvery foam and spray, or lying in fatal ambush 
beneath the surface, prove the g^ave of many a hapless bark, 
especially when enshrouded in sea fog and the helmsman unable 
to discern the friendly buoys. 

Fitting resort for the old Druids was Jersey, with its interior 
of umbrageous gloves and silent vales, where now are rural vil- 
lages and farm seats ; and its exterior, on the north side of bold 
ragged cliffs, rising in places over three hundred feet, and on its 
southern of deep sandy bays, within the largest of which ife seated 
its chief town, St. Helier. Everywhere intersected by winding 
lanes, nearly hidden by bordering hedges ; banks of mosses and 
ferns, rich shrubbery, and vine-embowered, cottage-like houses, 
add new beauty at every turn among its highly rustic walks. 
Toward the western side yet stands the venerable parish church 
of St Brelade, now in its eighth century, and to the north of 
this, the church of St. Ouen ; in the first of which the Pipons, 
in the last the De Carterets, Lords of St. Ouen, worshipped, and 
were entombed. And hard by St. Ouen's Church, the old granite 
manor-house, till late the home of the De Carterets, still lifts 
its quaint double gables, an object of curious legends with the 
islanders.* Remarkable not only for its scenery, but for its 

• Thw ancient seat of the De Carterets (we condense from "Scenic Beauties of 
«e Island of Jersey," by Philip J. Ouless, Esq., of St. Helier) is situated in the parish 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 



unique government and society, remains of an old feudal aris- 
tocracy modeled in the twelfth century by King John of England, 
its industrious people, busied with their dairies, cider-making", 
oyster beds, shipbuilding and marine pursuits, are more of a 
study. Mostly Protestants, of simple manners, very frugal, liv- 
ing quite after the French mode, and speaking only the harsh 
unwritten patois known as Norman French, except in town, 
where modern French, — used in all local court proceedings, — ^is 
more popular than English, they resemble an old Huguenot com- 
munity; and not without cause, as many of that worthy class 
took refuge here during the series of persecutions in France 
which culminated at the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 

Our course from Jersey lying southward, we descry in the 
distance, upon the charming heights of the Cotentin, another 
landmark welcome to the coaster, — the tall spire of the cathedral 
at Coutances. Little else can be seen of this much-admired 
structure, though its huge symmetrical form so towers above the 
town, — ^and anon its receding figure falls far astern. On cross- 
ing the Bight of La Manche, formed by the sudden deflection of 

the coast to the west- 
ward, and between the 
rocky isles the Chaus- 
seys and the more ter- 
rible Minquieres, Brit- 
tany's rugged border 
lifts to view its bald 
cliffs, so wild and des- 
olate in their grand- 
eur ; most conspicuous 
the headland of Can- 
cale, forming a bay in 
the depth of the Bight 
in which lies the islet 
of Mont St. Michel, with its famous old abbey high up on the 
precipitous rock. We must forego a visit to the grand abbey 
hall, where the knights of St. Michel (the creation of Louis XI. 
in 1469) long held their banquets, and pass untested those delec- 

of St. Oucn, from which it takes its name, about six miles from St. Helier, and a 
short furlong from the parish church, on the military road from that town to St- 
Ouen's Bay. To the ola castellated mansion, bclievea to have been built about the 
reign of Edward I., are annexed the more modern wings, which project in front, and 
are not older than the time of Charles IL Entering its low oaken door, which scema 
to have remained unchanged for ages, a fact- is recalled, not least among its pleasing 




St. Ouen or De Carteret Manor-House, Jersey. 



this (strange as it may seem), some episodes in Harlem history could not be written! 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 9 

table bivalves, here abounding, and so toothsome when taken 
from the half-shell. We soon reach the St. Malo roads, and 
the insulated town of the same name, our place of destination, 
with its fleet of traders and its fishing craft. Bars and reefs 
obstruct the entrance; but now, at the mooring, we leave our 
matter-of-fact skipper to sell his lading, and the jolly tar to rest 
his sea-legs at his usual resort in the town, while we proceed to 
explore this quaintly primitive place, which seems to carry one 
back into some by-gone century. We are not now in Jersey, as 
is apparent Hidden within strong walls black with age, and 
seated on a rocky peninsula, which becomes an islet at every 
flood-tide, — here rising forty feet, — ^and at the ebb girt about by 
broad sands, the rank sedge growing there haunted by sea-fowl, 
and under a hot sun emitting no pleasant odors, St. Malo does not 
agreeably impress the approaching visitor. A turn through its 
streets may not better those impressions; but his curiosity is 
deeply enlisted, not only in the place, — a small, sombre marine 
town, with its dingy, oddly-fashioned old houses and its array 
of shipping stores, cordage, cables and anchors, — ^but in its people, 
true to the national instincts, so polite and deferential, yet sur- 
charged with good feeling, so very chatty and free. Wealthy, 
but none too moral, yet (contradiction easy in this land of ano- 
malies) they yield to none in keeping the Sabbath. Once no 
other French port throve as this upon its lucrative foreign trade, 
its cod and whale fisheries, and not less upon rich harvests gath- 
ered in war times by its bold privateersmen, ever as vigilant as 
their trusty night-watch, — not the present patrolling coast-guard, 
but when, a century ago, it consisted of a pack of dogs. These, 
kt loose outside the walls, in charge of a soldier, served both 
as a protection to the shipyards on the strand, where timber and 
cordage lay exposed to pillage by the neighboring peasantry, and 
to raise the cry of warning should an armed foe attempt to steal 
in, either from seaward or via the Sillon, — the long causey, so 
called, that led from the main to the town gate, and where it 
was and still is guarded by a drawbridge and huge round towers 
that flank the gateway. Truly suggestive was the old night guard 
at St Malo of that dogged watchfulness of their rights common 
to this people at large, the violation of which rights by despotic 
rulers had caused such effusions of blood and wholesale expatria- 
tions. But in the centuries since flown, like as the night-watch 
has changed from the canine to the human, so to the credit of 
that fatherland has public sentiment there made great advance in 
all that is humane and fraternal. Yet the story of former wrongs 



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lo HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

which it devolves upon us to tell is fraught with lessons too im- 
portant to be forgotten.* 

2. HAiaKM, — SPRINGS OF ITS HISTORY. 

Within these far-stretching leagues of sea-washed dykes^ 
downs and cliffs, remote from Harlem ocean-wide, lie the open- 
ing scenes of its history. They carry us not only to the great 
marts, but to obscure interior homes of Holland, Belgium, and 
Northern France. Vouched for by records freshly gleaned from 
this richly historic field, involving no small amount of careful 
research, they at once possess the merit of authenticity, and pre- 
sent us pictures of former times which are new in every essential 
of outline and detail. 

Admired and revered world-wide, as are those old conti- 
nental countries, for the peculiar fascination which invests all that 
pertains to them, — ^their remarkable peoples, venerable institu- 
tions, and annals almost unparalleled for soul-stirring vicissitudes ; 
their antique remains and rare works of art, the standing won- 
der of tourists, — how strong their claim upon our remembrance 
and veneration, in their intimate relation of fatherlands, the 
source largely of our brave and virtuous ancestry, and, per 
sequence, a national prosperity that is unexampled, — fact which 
scarce needs an appeal to written history, because attested, as 
well by the characteristics and traditions of our people as by our 
family nomenclature, and the names of our towns, districts, and 
states. Should not these ties of affinity which bind us so strongly 
to the fatherlands lend an additional charm to the study of their 
institutions and epochs ? 

Let credit be given to those primary agencies which paved 
the way for the colonization of our country, — ^those hazardous 
but eventful voyages which began very early in the sixteenth 
century, when a new field for maritime adventure had but just 
been opened to Europe by the astounding discoveries of Columbus. 
It was the heroic enterprise of the merchants and mariners of 
the French seaports, Dieppe, Honfleur, St. Malo, Nantes, Rochelle, 
and others, which, favored by the national prosperity under Louis 

* Oh, for a full toleration in that land with reason endeared to the American 
heart, when no such despotism shall tarnish the public character as the im|>ri9onment 
of a Christian minister on the trivial charge ot exceeding his parish limits in the 
exercise of his functions I We refer to the recent case of M. L^acherct (by report, 
not from him, but others), the excellent pastor of Maubeuge, on the Sambre^ and a 
contributor of materials for this work. Quite too analogous, both as to spirit and 
locality, is this act of intolerance to others of past times recited in these pages. But 
we trust this enlightened nineteenth century will see that old and hideous blot jjipork 
the nation's honor effectually wiped out 1 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. it 

XIL, first thoroughly explored the North American coast, to find 
in the Newfoundland fisheries an exhaustless mine of wealth, and 
to ravish the popular mind with glowing fancies as to the char- 
acter and resources of the New World. Highly conducive to 
this were the several voyages of the Florentine Verrazzano, and 
Cartier of St. Malo, both sailing under the royal auspices of 
Francis I. : the former, after a visit to our coast and harbors in 
1524, returning to Dieppe with report of his success; and the 
other, ten years later, the pioneer explorer of the bay and river 
St. Lawrence. And many a hapless expedition, as that of the 
Picard, Sieur de Roberval, and those growing out of the exigen- 
cies of the Huguenots prior to their first civil war, which, with 
the aid of Coligny and Calvin, undertook to plant colonies in 
Brazil and Florida, e'en by their misfortunes pointed most im- 
pressively to this remote land as the ultimate refuge for the 
oppressed of Europe. This idea of colonizing America, which 
in France slumbered during the civil wars, was revived in the 
time of Henry IV., and with greater promise under his en- 
lightened patronage; when the names of such daring spirits as 
De Vaux, Pontgrave and Champlain fill the page of maritime 
discovery, the last of whom in 1608 founded Quebec, the first 
permanent European colony in North America. The cotem- 
porary efforts of the Spaniards and English, in the same line 
of exploration, concern us less. 

But Holland now appears, a rival in the field of discovery. 
Rife with the spirit of commerce, already enriched by her East 
India trade in spices, silks, and gems, and just concluding a fav- 
orable truce with Spain, which as the fruit of a glorious struggle 
was to virtually secure her independence, with the monopoly of 
this lucrative trade, — she opportunely joins in the arduous search 
for that long-sought passage to the Indies by a western route, 
quicker, as was believed, than by the Cape of Good Hope. To 
this end was the voyage of Hudson from Amsterdam in 1609, 
which, though futile as to its specific object, startled the mer- 
chants and capitalists of Holland, alive to every new scheme of 
aggrandizement, with reports of the noble river explored by their 
t)old English skipper and thereafter to bear his name ; promising,, 
in the affluence of its natural products, its forests of ship-timber, 
and its more valuable furs, to eclipse the fame of Newfoundland,, 
and rival the wealth of the Indies. The importance of this dis- 
covery, confirmed by sundry trading voyages to Hudson's river,^ 
covering a series of years, led to the formation of the Dutch West 
India Company, under whose direction the first colonists pro- 



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12 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

ceeded thither in 1623, composed chiefly of French or Walloons, 
who, driven from their own countries by war and persecution, 
had taken refuge in the free states of Holland. 

From this small beginning, as we know, grew the flourishing 
states of New York and New Jersey, respecting whose origin 
the zeal and industry of the historian has left but little to be 
added, save in a knowledge of the pioneer colonists themselves. 
Of but few of the large number who came from the continental 
parts of Europe have we any personal account prior to their 
advent upon the American soil. Thrown upon these shores, as 
are the delicate sea-shells cast up by restless waves, whose alter- 
nate ebb and flow effaces their tiny furrows in the sand, our 
French and Belgic sires had emerged from rude billows of peril 
and conflict in their native lands, enough, in human view, to have 
swept away all trace of them there. We may follow them in their 
subsequent career, with rarely a failure, by means of scanty 
records ; but this opening chapter of their history, how difficult to 
recover it, especially where is missing the connecting link between 
the exile and his former home in the fatherland.* 

To regain this lost link, this unknown page in the story of 
the colonist, so important a prelude to his after-life, and almost 
of necessity eventful and touching, became a prime object with 
the author. It was to trace these wanderers amid the scenes of 
their native lands and homes, where were their firesides, their 
altars, their fields of conflict, and to study them in the face of 
such circumstances as must have influenced their character and 
destiny. In resolving the causes that led them to abandon their 
native for a foreign soil, we should acquire the means wherewith 
to better apprehend them in their new sphere, which, however 
different, yet involved great sacrifice, danger, and hardship to 
themselves and families; insomuch that the problem of their 
strange exile could be clearly solved only by a knowledge of the 
rugged experiences which had impelled them thereto. Their 
antecedents must aid in forming an estimate of their personal 
worth, and in accounting for their peculiar tastes, habits, and 
attachments. Placing their simple virtues in bolder relief, even 

* Tradition is rarely of much service in this connection. The extravagant stories 
that the worthy Deraarest "purchased the whole of Harlem," and that the Benson 
ancestor, on coming here, "had the choice of the whole island," on which were "only 
five houses," are amusing specimens of the vague and unreliable utterances of tra- 
dition 1 Demarest was a recently-arrived Huguenot exile, and as for Benson, he did 
not come to Harlem till sixty odd years after this settlement began. 

It is quite natural to give credence to such traditions as are flattering to our 
ancestry. But few. comparatively, of our early colonists, on coming here, brought 
much wealth, and fewer, perhaps, had enjoyed rank and position in their own lands. 
Still, our colonists rise in the social scale with later investigations, and it becomes 
more apparent that wealth, rank, and culture were not such rare endowments with 
them as has been supposed. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 13 

their foibles would seem more excusable, when viewed in con- 
tact with the sterner age in which they lived, the conflicts they 
had to wage, and the circumscribed light and advantages which 
fell to their lot. 

So judging, the author was led to make such inquiries abroad 
as have resulted in the recovery of many interesting details 
touching the first settlers at Harlem prior to their emigration; 
facts which, buried for centuries in the musty archives of the 
fatherlands, now come to us with all the novelty of an original 
narrative.* 

Traced to many parts of Western Europe, from the sunny 
plains of France to the bleak, fir-clad hills of old Scandinavia, 
these founders of Harlem were neither exclusively nor mainly 
Hollanders, as has been the common opinion. From the last- 
named section came sturdy Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians, in 
faith Lutherans, and inured to toil, with manners betraying the 
blood of the brusk Norsemen, once the scourge of France and 
the British Isles; but as the native asperity had been softened 
under ages of culture, so had hard fortune, in the case of these 
exiles, added its chastening effects. They were few in number, 

• Baron W. J. C. Rammelman Elsevier, Archivist at Leydcn, Holland, to whom 
I here express mv thanks, has furnished materials of the utmost value^ extracted, 
vith much painstaking, from the ancient archives of the city, the University, and tb<* 
Dutch and Walloon churches there. Mr. Frederick Muller, of Amsterdam, also heartily 
interested himself in causing similar searches to be made at Amsterdam, Slooterdyke. 
and Haarlem, by Mr. Magnin, Brother of the Order of the Netherland Lion, and 
former Archivist of Drentne. Mr. Osgood Field, of London, who, in hours spared 
from mercantile duties, has proven his love for the historic neld, also has my warm 
acknowledgments for aid in procuring, through Mr. H. G. Somerby, since deceased, 
important extracts from the registers of the Walloon churches of London and Canter- 
bury; as also other data from parish registers at Newcastle-on-Tyne, copied by Rev. 
R. Gould, of Earsdon Vicarage. Also Mr. W. Noel Sainsbury, of Her Majesty's State 
Paper Omce, for materials in his custody. Thanks are due to Rev. N. Weiss, late of 
Paris, for the hearty interest he manifested in mv labors, and who supplied some 
useful items from the records at Avesnes, obtained through the agency of M. Lacheret, 
pastor at Maubeuge; and also a valuable brochure upon the church of Le Gateau, 
besides many facts and suggestions pertaining to the general subject of the Huguenot 
refugees and the specific names submitted to him, — he also having the kindness, un- 
solicited, to lay one of mv letters before the Societe de THistoire du Protestant! sme 
francais, a member of which, M. Bordier, an able historian, politely lent his efforts 
to further its object. Also to Hon. Edward M. Smith, U. S. Consul at Mannheim, 
for instituting searches in that city; and to the gentlemen who engaged in them: Mr. 
Eduard Lemp, custodian of the city^ archives; Herr von Feder, Deputy of the Second 
Chamber ana Historian of Mannheim: and M. Ruckhaber, pastor of the Concordia, 
late Walloon church. Also to M. Gerlach, pastor of the Walloon church, Middleburg, 



ceming the Carterets and I*ipons, inserted in the British Press, island of Jersey, 
brought a response from a lineal descendant of Capt. James Carteret, Mrs. Braitn- 
waite, of Terrace House, St. Helier, daughter of the late Gen. James Pipon, of Noir- 
mont, in that island, and whom I have to thank for several communications. And I 
am also happy to acknowle^e the valuable aid iriven me in the speciality to which 
this note refers by the late lamented Professor Pierre Blot, and the artist, Mr. Ed. 
Kalsboven. of New York, but till recently of Amsterdam; as also by Mr. John Cal- 
lanan, of Binhamton, N. Y., deserving to be better known, and who loves to roam amid 
the florid scenes of his native isle. Jersey. His kindness has procured us the view 
of the St. Ouen, or De Carteret Manor-House, obligingly furnished at his request by 
his friend, Philip J. Oules, Esq., of St. Helier, artist and author of "Scenic Beauties 
of the Island of Jersey." 



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14 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

yet included several of undoubted worth and superior attain- 
ments. 

Other exceptions there were; but the community was made 
up mainly and in about even proportion of Hollanders and 
French Huguenots: names than which none suggest a truer 
ideal of sterling character, of patriotism, exalted faith, and heroic 
suffering. Nor do our settlers cast discredit upon this general 
estimate of these classes. They and their families had sacrificed 
much in behalf of liberty and the reformed religion. They were 
men of probity, equal to those of their times in intelligence, edu- 
cation, and enterprise. Highly industrious, they scorned, even in 
poverty, any dependence upon the charitable, while they could 
practise an honest trade or handicraft, such as they invariably 
possessed. In a word, their record, though not faultless, well 
sustains this general good character. Tried men, used to con- 
quering difficulties, undaunted by the exposure and peril incident 
to a wild, a hostile land, theirs was the arduous work of con- 
structing a new society, a civilization to which despotic Europe 
was then a stranger, or which it could not tolerate. Its safe 
^ards, invaluable even for the security of life and estate, — ^the 
church, the school, the civil magistracy, — they were careful to 
bring with them, to plant and nurture as on a more congenial 
soil; and which, deeply rooted, and with broad spreading 
branches, still yield for us their golden fruits. How and under 
what circumstances they acquired these valuable ideas which 
possessed them, this peculiar fitness for their high destiny as 
colonists and founders of empire, is surely a most inviting sub- 
ject of inquiry. 

3. GLIMPSES OF THE FATHERLANDS. 

To catch the spirit and genius of the times under review is 
to ignore such changes, political, moral, and physical, as three 
centuries have wrought ; for Europe of to-day is not the Europe 
of the sixteenth century. By the light of the historic past, its 
wealth of significant fact and incident is more clearly revealed. 
In the land of the Huguenots the remote eras of the Gaul, the 
Roman, and the Frank yet lived in piquant story, and might be 
traced in existing monuments as well as in musty tomes. Still 
in popular use were the old provincial names, time-honored and 
Interwoven with all the history of the country; for not yet had 
revolution stripped the French provinces of these means of iden- 
tity, in its well-conceived but too radical onslaught upon feudal 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 15 

rights and institutions. An exhaustless theme, with our Hugue- 
not refugee, was his dear old Picardie, or Artois, or Norman- 
die; the talisman which in his remotest wanderings, e'en till 
death closed his exile, recalled all that was endearing in the 
word home. In church and state the ancient regime was intact. 
The old provincial dynasties which had grown up and flourished 
under the feudal system, but whose lines of puissant counts and 
dukes were long since extinct, lived even yet in important senses, 
not only in monumental stones and structures, and in the local 
annals and traditions, but in countless charters, privileges, laws 
and usages still prized and cherished by the people. History, 
as if to deepen its impress upon the popular heart, had scattered 
its monuments over the soil with lavish hand ; and around these, 
time, — which in the annals of Gaul meant a score of centuries, — 
had woven its weird and marvellous legends, often a tax upon 
credulity, but perchance too real: some tale of gallant heroism, 
of gentle piety, or dark superstition, touching the heart or quick- 
ening the blood, but, whether true or otherwise, a telling para- 
phrase upon the national traits or instincts. The old baronial 
castle proudly rearing its towers was rich in reminiscences of 
warlike feudal times. The razing its ponderous walls as mate- 
rial for the mason? — sacriligious thought. Dingy cloisters, 
over whose turrets crept venerable ivy, still swarmed with pious 
monks, yet had come to be symbolic of that moral darkness which 
in the early ages first drove the gentle handmaids' religion and 
learning to the covert of such strong and friendly walls. Held 
by the masses in profound veneration, they evidenced the singular 
religious fervor of the race. But here's a touching emblem, the 
cross, — it is coarsely fashioned in stone, — which surprises one 
in some rural solitude, but near the highway, so none may fail 
to see it, and, kneeling, offer up a paternoster. Mute; yet it 
tells, maybe, the affecting tale of some early martyrdom, or of 
the gallant brave slain in battle, on this now sacred spot. How 
suggestive of that strong, unnatural alliance between war and 
religion ; whence bloody crusades against Turks, Albigenses, and 
Vaudois, and, we may add, the Huguenot wars. 

Between the cities or villages all is forest, or heath, or tilled 
lands, but alike a solitude, unbroken by cheery farm-houses or 
villas; no fences even, but rows of ancient yews, or hedge of 
flowering holly or thorn, or yet the natural streams, to mark 
the limits of estates. The farmer, however distant his acres, 
Kves in town or hamlet. The wealth, industry and social life 
concentre in teeming cities or towns. These are mostly seated 



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i6 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

on the rivers, — the latter almost the only medium of domestic 
trade and travel,^-or upon the old Roman ways; cross-roads 
were few and neglected. Treasuries of all that was venerable 
and curious were these cities. Many had sprung from rude 
towns of the Gauls, and owed their first significance to Roman 
civilization and law and the architectural and other improve- 
ments then introduced, — still attested by noble ruins, found every- 
where, of fine structures, besides inmiense stretches of paved 
military roads, bringing the chief places into easier communica- 
tion. Shut up in massive walls, the city, each within itself, 
was a little world, sparing, beyond the necessities of trade, of 
any intercourse or sympathy with others around it. The older 
portions were easily told, the houses so antique, the streets nar- 
row and crooked, with a gutter running down the centre. 
Through others ran canals, lined with vessels receiving or dis- 
charging merchandise, and where stood the tiled houses, two or 
three stories high, occupied by merchants or traders, who mainly 
composed the burghery, — the enterprising and well-to-do middle 
class. More pretentious were the mansions of the lords and 
gentry, — ^the upper strata of society; the lower, — ^the toiling ar- 
tisans and work people, — tenanting squatty, cottage-like houses, 
their low eaves overhanging the humble doorway, with windows, 
or little lookouts, not the best for admitting air or sunlight, but 
quite large enough in cold or stormy weather, since window- 
glass was too great a luxury for the poor. But the clergy often 
surpassed even the nobility in the richness and comfort of their 
abodes, which with monasteries and other houses of the religious 
orders, usually well endowed, engrossed a large area within the 
cities. Above the clustering gables arose the turrets and crosses 
of parish churches not a few, and the lofty spire and pinnacles 
of the stately cathedral; witnesses alike to the devotion and 
taste of their votaries, but the latter the crowning glory of the 
city, whether for the grandeur of its design, or for its wealth of 
sculptures, frescoes, and paintings. Within, its lofty solemn 
arches inspired the worshiper with reverence and awe; its very 
plan, a cruciform, told where his faith should rest; and even 
the dumb effigies of the noble dead, recumbent on their costly 
tombs in the silent transept, read him a lesson upon his own 
mortality. Still, in aid of his devotions, were images, tapers, 
and clouds of incense; with "sacred relics" in profusion, ac- 
credited with healing power and other miraculous virtues, and 
rarely excepting either a piece of "the true cross," or the 
denuded bones of the city's ancient patron, and still guardian 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 17 

saint. The citadel afforded secure quarters to the royal governor, 
who need fear no disaster incident to those times, as insurrec- 
tion, or those more dreaded from want of skill to cope with them, — 
fire, famine, and pestilence, — ^which often caused fearful ravages. 
But what recuperative energy had these cities, and to what un- 
wonted prosperity they attained, especially in the wool and flax 
working districts of the Netherlands and Northern France. 
Grand displays characterized the periodical fairs and the frequent 
religious festivals. Tournament and feats at arms were the 
high sport of the nobility; their pastime, hunting or hawking. 
Tennis or ball playing was the great popular game, and dancing 
the universal amusement for both sexes. Ancient and often 
grotesque customs were kept up with g^eat spirit. Crowning 
the rosiere was a usage not only very ancient (instituted by St. 
Medard of Noyon, in Picardy, in the fifth century), but pretty 
and touching. It was the public presentation of a hat bedecked 
with roses to the most exemplary maiden of the town or village. 
The entire family of the recipient share the honor. "The crown 
of roses," says the Countess de Genlis, "is expected with emotion, 
awarded with justice, and establishes goodness, rectitude and 
virtue in every family.'* 

One of the cities most closely identified with our refugees 
was Amiens. Within its encircling moat and high massive 
walls, strengthened at short distances by round abutments and 
towers, it was not then the open, airy town it now is, since its 
sombre walls have given place to a handsome boulevard; but it 
was noted "for the beauty of its buildings, and for the quality, 
industry and number of its inhabitants." The city lay south 
of the Somme, whose main channel formed a bend around its 
northern part known as the Old or Lower Town, where three 
branches also entered it under arches in the wall, and which, 
diffusing into canals, threaded its narrow streets, here lined by 
low and antiquated dwellings and shops, and uniting again on 
the western side, escaped by a single outlet at St. Michel's 
Bridge. To this portion, which had led Louis XI. to call 
Amiens his Little Venice, lay joining southerly a larger part 
known as the Upper Town, having broad and quite regular 
streets, fine houses, mainly two stories high and of uniform 
style, with two spacious squares "where seven fair streets 
centred." Henry IV. had built its city hall and citadel, the 
latter in the form of a star, with five sharp angles, command- 
ing the northern approach to the city, and though still incom- 
plete, deemed impregnable. But all its fine edifices, the bishop's 



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i8 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

palace not excq)ted, paled before its grand cathedral, Notre 
Dame, pronounced at that time "the fairest and most lovely 
structure in the West of Europe." In plan the usual crucifonn, 
it dated from 1220, when its foundations were laid; excepting 
as to its western front, which was of later construction, verv- 
rich in Gothic decorations, and flanked by two massive unfinished 
square towers of unequal height. From over the transept arose 
a light and airy spire three hundred and seventy feet high. It 
would consume too much space to describe its interior magnifi- 
cence. Among its treasured relics was the decapitated head of 
John the Baptist, alleged to have been brought by a Picard 
crusader from Constantinople, after its capture in 1204. Its 
great value consisted in its entire genuineness, though this was 
not quite demonstrated till 1665, when done in a learned treatise 
prepared at the request of the chapter by the great savant of 
Amiens, Sieur du Cange! Another relic they had, equally real, 
and hardly less valuable, — ^the finger of "doubting Thomas/' 
which had restored his faltering faith by a touch of the Saviour's 
wounds! If aught could better show how strong a grasp old 
superstitions had upon the popular mind at Amiens, it needed 
but a stroll among its numerous abbeys and parish churches, or 
through its great cemetery of St. Denis, hard by the cathedral, 
where monumental crosses, antique and moss-grown, told the 
faith in which slept its dead of many centuries. 

Amiens was the city of the brave Ambiani, who having sent 
a strong force to oppose the victorious Caesar, were at last ob- 
liged to open their gates to this mighty conqueror. Galling as 
was the yoke, it was alleviated by the benefits of the Roman 
municipal government, with its magistracy and senate, having a 
share in enacting the laws and dispensing justice. Upon the 
introduction of Christianity the people chose their own bishops, 
—7a right they had ever since exercised, save when obstructed by 
violence or arbitrary rulers. After the Frank conquest, near the 
end of the fifth century, the powers of the magistrates were 
extended, the senate was opened to all citizens, including the 
clergy; and the bishop, whose functions before were scarcely 
more than spiritual, became, by the elective vote of the people, 
president of the municipal body, and thus was invested with a 
temporal authority and a chief influence in all the affairs of the 
city. The Frankish kings also established in this, as in other 
principal cities, a civil and military governor, called a count, 
who exercised the powers of judge. Charlemagne, among other 
beneficial changes, created judges called scabini, who were 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 19 

elected conjointly by the count, the imperial officers and the peo- 
ple, by which the citizen acquired a new and valued right; the 
political and administrative power being now shared by the 
bishop, the count, and these judges. It was the suspension by 
the counts in feudal times of this important franchise, with other 
abuses of power, that led the burghers of Amiens to form that 
compact for their protection called the commune. This was 
effected at the beginning of the twelfth century (11 13), when, 
revolting against the encroachments of the count and the exac- 
tions of the viscounts which he had arbitrarily substituted for 
the judges, the people, excited thereto by the bishop, and sus- 
tained by the king, Louis VL, constituted themselves an incor- 
poration, adopting a charter which served as a model for many 
other communes in the North of France. "The commune," says 
Thierry, "was sovereign, because it had the right of self-govern- 
ment by its proper laws, and the right of life and of death over 
all its members; it had, following the language of the ancient 
jurisprudence, high, middle, and low justice. Its power, legis- 
lative, administrative, and judicial, was delegated by it to a corps 
of elective magistrates, renewed each year, and whereof the 
head bore the title of mayor (maire), and the members that of 
echevin, or the joint titles of echevin and prevot." King Philip 
Augustus confirmed these rights by a charter in 1190, and this 
ancient form of government still subsisted at Amiens. How it 
had become a great commercial city, the struggles of its citi- 
zens in all the centuries past to preserve their privileges against 
domestic and foreign enemies, and countless other incidents of 
its history, are not essential to our present design. 

The national history counted its centuries before the Chris- 
tian era; its first known epoch was a barbaric age, devoted to 
war and the bloody rites of the Druids, or the religious mysteries 
of the Gauls, who, to propitiate their gods, immolated human 
captives. The Gauls were then divided into three nations, — the 
Belgae, Celtse, and Aquitani; the first being of German extrac- 
tion, and superior in physique, energy*, and courage to the others. 
The Gauls told Caesar that the ancestors of the Belgae had crossed 
the Rhine at an early date and appropriated the fertile country 
north of the Seine and Marne, after driving out the Celtae. These 
three nations were subdivided into independent tribes, as the 
Nervii, the Ambiani, the Veromandui, the Bellovaci, and the 
Suessiones, all of the Belgae, and all tribes of Picardy, except the 
Xervii, which lay next northward. 

Five centuries of Roman subjugation formed the second 



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20 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

epoch, during which Gaul was civilized, through the influence 
of Roman law, letters and arts, and of Christianity. Clovis, 
king of the Franks, overthrew the Roman power in 486, and 
founded the monarchy, which, despite many convulsions, had 
subsisted for twelve centuries. A dismal period of anarchy 
ensued after the death of Clovis, and ended in the dethronement 
of his race. It was marked by the corruption of the church, 
which had allied itself to the civil power, and by the rise of mon- 
asticism, which spread over Northern Gaul in the seventh century. 

The monarchy rose to great splendor and the dignity of an 
empire under the ambitious but wise Charlemagne, who added 
two kingdoms to France. But all this greatness vanished under 
his weak successors. Rent by internal dissensions, a general 
revolt of the nobles and the inroads of the piratical Normans, 
the mushroom empire soon fell asunder; its two acquisitions, 
Italy and Germany, resuming their separate existence, while 
France proper was resolved into numerous petty governments, 
which, ruled by hereditary dukes and counts under what was 
styled the feudal system, subsisted for centuries independent of 
each other, and so far of the crown as to pay it scarcely a nom- 
inal homage. Thus arose among others, in the ninth and tenth 
centuries, the proud earldoms or counties of Flanders (from 
which Artois was subsequently taken), Hainault, Holland, and 
those which afterward united formed Picardy ; besides the duchy 
of Normandy, founded by Rollo and his Norsemen out of their 
rich conquests. 

This localization of power causing many domestic wars, — 
with the utter humiliation of the monarchy, — was, for a time, fatal 
to social order and progress. But this state of things ultimately 
found its remedy, in the perfecting of the feudal system, the 
restraining power of the church, the rise of the spirit of chivalry, 
and, above all, in the famous Crusades, whose object was to 
wrest the land of Palestine from the Mohammedan power. Con- 
ceived in a desire to end the cruelties inflicted by the Turks 
upon Christians going on pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre, and 
first set on foot in 1095 by a Picard called Peter the Hermit, 
these remarkable expeditions were repeated at intervals during 
two centuries. Monarchs took the field, and the chivalry of 
France and the Netherlands, including many from Normandy, 
Picardy, Hainault, Artois, and Flanders, bore a distinguished 
part. Directly productive only of disaster, a prodigious waste 
of life and treasure, and naught in return of which to boast, 
beside valorous deeds, but a brief occupation of Jerusalem by 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 21 

the crusaders, the Crusades, strange as it may seem, ultimately 
wrought out results highly beneficial to society. By impairing 
the strength and resources of the feudal chiefs, great and small, 
who had alike squandered all they had on these costly expedi- 
tions, the way was opened to the monarchy to regain, by degrees, 
its control; and to the cities, to cast off their allegiance to the 
counts or seigniors, — feudal masters, who had long oppressed 
them, — and to accept the protection of the king : nor were efforts 
for aggrandizement relaxed (a policy begun by Louis VI., 
crowned in 1108), till, by the use of diplomacy and force, 
supremacy had been regained over all the French territory 
which had revolted in the ninth century, excepting only the 
Xetherland provinces lying north of Picardy. These, by a 
train of favoring causes, had fallen to the dukes of Burgundy, 
and, through them, to the crown of Spain ; thus exposing to this 
rival power another and more accessible frontier, where no lofty 
Pyrenees opposed a difficult barrier, and which in subsequent 
wars between them became a principal theatre of hostilities. 

But the elevation of the sovereign consequent upon the 
Crusades was no more marked than was that of the subject. 
Everywhere the bands which held the vassal to his lord were sun- 
dered, and the bondman went out free. The dissipated wealth 
of the feudal aristocracy had found its way largely into the 
coffers of the merchants, shipwrights, mechanics and manufac- 
turers. With the development of their energies and resources 
the cities rapidly advanced toward that high state of prosperity 
which they long enjoyed, until arrested by the persecutions and 
dvil wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The church 
temporal flourished, or at least the clergy, who became rich and 
more arrogant; the churches, with the monasteries or abbeys, — 
already enjoying princely endowments, — had added largely to 
their estates from those of the crusaders, who had mortgaged 
or sold them to the bishops, etc., and all this was augmented by the 
recovery of property alleged to have been stolen by the feudal 
lords. From this profusion of wealth at the church's command, 
supplemented by generous donations from the noble or affluent 
and innumerable offerings by the common people, were built the 
magnificent cathedrals of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; 
also cotmtless new monasteries and cloisters. Out of all this 
again came benefits other than the spiritual, — which latter we 
would not undervalue, — ^masses of mechanics and workmen had 
bread, while the large demand for skilled architects and artisans 
became a powerful stimulus to many important branches of art. 



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22 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

To the various home industries thus created, or quickened, were 
added at this period many useful arts, — not to speak of luxuries, 
— through the opening of commercial intercourse with the ori- 
ental countries by means of the Crusades. 

Yet there ensued results of far greater magnitude, — ^least 
anticipated, though essential in the chain of progressive events, — 
when a nation, till then but little given to foreign commerce, 
and strangers to distant sea voyages, having become a thor- 
oughly maritime people, through the acquired arts of shipbuild- 
ing and of navigating the ocean, found in the opportune dis- 
covery of a new western continent so grand a field for exploration 
and conquest, and such alluring prospects of wealth, that, joining 
in the eager strife to seize and possess these advantages, they 
became unwittingly the advanced heralds of our American colon- 
ization. 

The feudal system, under which during the Crusades and the 
many wars of the Middle Ages the military art had acquired 
such brilliancy, had crumbled to decay. The chivalry had long 
since passed its palmy days; though, still having the shadow of 
an existence in the famous semi-religious order of St. John of 
Jerusalem, instituted in the Holy City during the Crusades, or, 
as afterward called from the island made their retreat and 
headquarters, the Knights of Malta; as also in others of more 
modern creation, — in France, the Chevaliers des Ordres du Roi, 
and in the Netherlands, the Knights of the Golden Fleece.* But 
the spirit of chivalry, — ^born of generous impulses, yet perverted 
when the ardent soul of the knight-errant, aglow with martial 
fire and thirsting for bold adventure, could be moved to court 
any peril, in cause noble or trivial, merely to win an approving 
smile from his fair lady-love, — had lost its former prestige, but 
had developed a more general and enlightened philanthropy. 
Time had stripped feudalism of its essential feature, — ^the fasci- 
nating but onerous military service. The weakened nobility 
were no longer to be depended upon by the crown, and the feudal 
had given place to a paid soldiery. But while this hard condi- 
tion of the feudal compact, as regards the vassal, was thus 
annulled, much of the martial spirit, and even some of the grosser 
features of that system, survived. As the villages had generally 
sprung up either upon the estates and about the castles of the 
nobility, whose descendants still occupied them and were the 

* Chevaliers des Ordres du Roi. or Knights of the King's Orders, was the gen- 
eral designation for the two orders, that of St. Michel, before noticed, and that of the 
Holy Spirit, the latter instituted by Henry III., in 1578. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 23 

lords of the soil, or about ancient monasteries, which held the 
fee of the ample domains on which they were seated, the inhab- 
itants of these villages, mainly tillers of the ground, were largely 
tenants either of the nobility or clergy, and many of these peas- 
ants "to the manner born" were still under the old vassalage. 
In such case the poor ploughman or hedger sighed in vain for 
other employment or better wages; virtually tied to the soil, he 
was as much a fixture as his humble cottage, or the old village 
church where he had been christened, at whose altar he had so 
often bowed, and beneath whose shadow, with the forgotten of 
ages, his weary frame would rest at last. So oppressive were 
these bands, even in Picardy and Normandy, that, waiving the 
claim which birth and service gave him upon his lord for pro- 
tection and support, the bondman would often abandon his home 
to carve out a fortune elsewhere. And though at this time the 
relation of modern landlord had been widely substituted for that 
of the feudal superior, yet so slow was this process, and so strong 
a hold had the old system of servitude, that it survived till the 
French Revolution, when it was wholly abolished. 

The more favored freemen within the cities and towns, — 
imbued with a spirit of progress as yet unfelt by the agricultural 
population, and engaged in lucrative pursuits, — ^bore more easily 
the heavy imposts levied by their sovereigns than had their pre- 
decessors the severer exactions of feudalism, though not indeed 
without many a protest Society at large also felt their influ- 
ence, and mainly through their agency had been consummated 
the renaissance, as is called that remarkable and universal devel- 
opment, the expansion of industries, the diffusion of knowledge, 
the revival of letters and arts ; all accelerated by that crowning 
invention, the printing-press. The common mind, liberated and 
awakened to higher impulses, ventured to roam in new channels 
of thought, touching even the intricate subjects of science, religion 
and human rights. Thus was society ripened for the great 
moral reform of the sixteenth century, which, as respects France 
and the Netheriands, was not more remarkable for the ability 
and piety of its advocates, for the breadth and power of its 
manifestation, than for the fiery ordeal to which its adherents 
were subjected, and the ultimate effects of this severity upon 
the welfare of other countries. 

Momentous as was this struggle, both in character and con- 
sequences, we must confine ourselves to two distinct passages in 
its history which bear directly on our subject. The one will show 
by what remote causes and influences were gradually developed 



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24 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

and put in motion the first efforts to plant the seeds of civiliza- 
tion upon the Harlem soil; the other, the circumstances under 
which the mass of the Harlem refugees were impelled to leave 
France and the Netherlands, involving one of the most affecting 
eras in the history of the Huguenots, but which, in view of its 
bearing upon our early colonization, has not been given its due 
prominence by our local annalists. 




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CHAPTER II. 



AVESNES AND ITS EXILES. 



'T' HE old province of Picardy took in a strip of the coast from 
Calais to the river Canche. But its major portion between 
the Canche and the Bresle, and through which flowed the Somme, 
stretched eastward, wedge-like, from the Channel to Champagne, 
having on the north the Walloon provinces of Artois, Cambresis 
and Hainault, and on the south Normandy and Isle of France. 
Its easterly sections, Thierache and Vermandois, were charm- 
ingly diversified by wooded heights, which, however, told of an 
earlier age, when the adjacent Forest of Ardennes, — the "Neur 
Pai," or "Black Country," of the Walloons, — spread its sombre 
shades westward over this region. About these heights four 
noted streams took their rise, — the Scheldt and Sambre, water- 
ing the Netherlands; the Somme and Oise, rivers of Picardy; 
while the hills here diverged in four several chains, or ridges, 
which parted the respective valleys or basins of these rivers. 
Altogether, these formed a most remarkable feature in the 
topography of the country. Often rising to slight elevations, 
rarely did these ranges exceed an altitude which in our land 
of grander proportions would mark them as but ordinary hills; 
yet, with gentle slopes and summits mantled in woods or vine- 
yards, — and here and there some old chateau or castle rising to 
view, — ^they gave a charming variety and beauty to these minia- 
ture countries. One range, crossing the eastern borders of the 
Cambresis, where it formed the large and venerable forest of 
Mourmal, linked with stirring events soon to be noticed, skirted 
for some miles the valley of the San\bre; then from northeast 
wound about to northwest, cutting in halves the Duchy of Bra- 
bant, and parting the basins of the Scheldt and Meuse. Another 
chain, — diverging westerly, then northward, till ending at Cape 
Gris-Nez, on the Straits of Dover, — formed the bounds between 
Picardy and Artois. A third ran southwest, crossing Picardy 
obliquely, then westerly through Upper Normandy, to Cape La 
Heve, at the mouth of the Seine; while the fourth, stretching 



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26 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

westward through Thierache to -Champagne, formed in part 
the series of hills which environed that province and Isle of 
France, — the basin of the Seine, — then followed the southern 
borders of Normandy to Brittany. Within the shadows, so ta 
speak, of these several hill ranges, — in Normandy, along the bor- 
ders of the Somme, in the basin of the Scheldt, and the valley 
of the Sambre, — were the homes of nearly all the French refugees,, 
mostly Picards and Walloons, who came to Harlem. 

In most of the externals of a genuine civilization and pros- 
perity, these were much in advance of the districts farther south. 
This was due jointly to their greater natural resources, and to the 
superior organism and spirit of the people. Artois and Picardy 
both abounded in grains, glasses, and fruits; the one signifi- 
cantly called the "Granary of the Netherlands," the other, the 
** Storehouse of Paris." Flanders was renowned world-wide for 
the products of her looms. Hainault, — ^the "Saltus Carbonarius"^ 
of the Romans (the coal forest), — was rich, not only in coal,, 
but in iron, lead and marble; while the grazing lands, cornfields 
and orchards of Normandy were in unrivaled repute. More 
densely populated than the south, this northern section exhibited 
in its people a more manly development, both physical and mental : 
in stature, above the average height ; and more intelligent, logical^ 
inventive and industrious; better fed, housed and educated. 
While plodding husbandry tamely drove the plow through the 
mellow soils of La Beuce and Toureine, gathered her vintages, 
from Burgundy to Languedoc, and fed her flocks on the g^een 
meadows of Berry and the sterile heaths of Brittany and Les 
Landes; in the north, busy trade and manufactures, enlisting all 
the energies and resources of people and country, brought to- 
most a competence and, to many, affluence. And even hus- 
bandry, better rewarded for its toil, was more ambitious and 
successful. 

No class of Gallic blood was more remarkable than the 
Walloons, — a people at the present day numbering nearly two 
millions, and mainly included within France and Belgium. Time 
has wrought but slight change among them, but we needs must 
describe them as they were. Theirs was a belt of country ex- 
tending eastward from the river Lys, beyond both Scheldt and 
Meuse, and embracing French or Walloon Flanders, most of 
Artois, the Chambresis, Hainault, Namur, Southern Brabant,, 
and parts of Liege and Luxemburg. Within the last lay the 
principality of Sedan, stretched along the east side of the Meuse,. 
on which the city of Sedan, its strong capital, was seated. A 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 27 

fruitful region and, in the sixteenth century, an independent 
Protestant state, it attracted many of the persecuted Walloons 
during the religious troubles of that period. The northern 
limits of the Walloon country would have been nearly defined 
by a line drawn from the city of Liege, on the Meuse, to Calais. 
On the south it was bounded by Picardy, Champagne and Lor- 
raine, provinces which in the times referred to composed the 
French frontier.* 

The Walloons were a hardy, long-lived race, tall, stout, and 
muscular; in which respects, quite unlike the ordinary French,, 
they compared better with their neighbors, the Flemings, but 
again were readily distinguished from the latter both by their 
physiognomy and their speech, which last was a crude French 
patois, spoken by them unchanged for centuries, and still in 
common use among them. Of strong intellects, manly bear- 
ing, a sagacious, practical and laborious people, they were also 
noted for the plainness of their tastes, manners and dress. 
These several traits were clearly traceable to their ancestors, the 
old Belgae, their descent from whom was also unmistakable in 
their coolness and pertinacity, so in contrast with the excita- 
bility and fickleness characterizing the French of proper Celtic 
blood. It was these qualities, combined with a natural love of 
arms, and the courage inherited from their ancestors, — whom 
Caesar describes as the bravest of all the Gauls, — that made the 
Walloons such famous soldiers. Ever tenacious of their rights,, 
and thus excessively litigant, they were yet hospitable and social, 
possessing much of the French vivacity. In domestic life they 
lacked no element of solid, homespun comfort: the plain, sub- 
stantial domicile, roofed with tile or thatch; a bare floor, but 
genial hearth stone, with ample pile of blazing wood, or turf^ 
as it suited ; the oaken board, set with brown ware or pewter,. 

• The term Walloon is derived from the word Gatil; which the Germans, by an 
^Trndogical sabstitntion of W for the Latin G, changed into Wahl, and in the plural 
Whslen* the low Dutch making it Waal and Waalen. But we observe that both Ger- 
Ban and Dutch, in speaking of the Walloons, more commonly used the adjective form, 
aying the Walache — that is, the Walsche people. The old Germans applied this term 
indiioiminately to all the Romanized people along their western and southern borders, 
not the Gauls only, but the Romans; giving their several countries the name ot 
Walschland, as the Germans designate Ital^ even to this day; and which term is also- 
traceable in the Swiss canton of Vallais, in the old canton of Berne, north of Lake 
Uman, or Geneva (embracing the Pays, now canton, of Vaud), and (skipping the 
two provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, eariy overrun by German tribes) as tar to the 
Qorth as WaUoon Brabant. The French themselves used the term Walloon (by them 
vritten Wallon, or Ouallon) only with reference to the French-speaking people of 
Bdgic descent, occupying their northern frontiers, within the Walloon country. The 
tern Walsche was so restricted by the Hollanders; and by WaJschland. or Walslant, 
M they wrote it, they meant the Walloon country, and not the more distant Pays de 
Vand, as was wrongly held by Mr. Vanderkempt, who should have been better in- 
lonncd, in making his translation of the Dutch records at Albany. Almost any of the 
oM Dutch histories will show the correct usuage, but one will suffice: Van Meteren,. 
Amsterdam, 1653, fo I.40, etc. 



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28 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

with goodly supply of simple, wholesome food, — ^this satisfied 
the Walloon ambition in the line of living. Song, or instru- 
mental music, of which they were excessively fond, commonly 
enlivened the social hour. They were very devout, and, as a 
people, intensely attached to the Roman ritual. 

The Walloon emigrations of the sixteenth century, already 
referred to, went largely by way of the Scheldt, the Meuse, and 
their affluents, to Holland. Skirting interiorwise the districts 
which were the homes of our refugees, the Meuse flowed north- 
erly, then swept westward around Brabant, reaching the sea by 
several outlets between the insular parts of South Holland. It 
is unsurpassed for bold and grand scenery, which beginning 
near Sedan, is heightened to the sublime as it reaches Namur, 
where the Sambre enters it. Towering walls of rock, now bare, 
now clad in rich foliage, rise on either side; while here and 
there huge cleft or ravine opens to view some far-reaching and 
romantic vale, or dark unfathomed dell, — fitting retreat either 
for fabled sprites or fairies, or stern feudal chiefs, who once took 
tribute of each passing vessel. Weird stories are woven around 
its fantastic forms and crumbling castles; for example, the 
popular legend of the Fox and Wolf, drawn seemingly from that 
fierce encounter of the year 900, when the shrewd Renard, 
Count of Hainault, with his compatriots, slew the tyrant Zwendi- 
bold. King of Lorraine. But stranger tales were those of the 
sixteenth century, of crafts richly freighted, — ^but not with mer- 
chandise, — stealing down its favoring current, bearing the victims 
of persecution, Protestant Walloons from the adjacent districts, 
to a land of safety. One such family of exiles will claim our 
notice and enlist our sympathies. 

The famed and picturesque Sambre was a principal branch 
of the Meuse, and had its sources in that wild corner of Picardy 
called Thierache, which joined upon Hainault. Flowing north- 
erly, it entered the province just named, near the border of the 
Cambresis, soon passing the city of Landrecy; whence taking 
its course northeasterly through a rugged, wooded country, it 
left again the confines of Hainault before joining the Meuse. 
A league below Landrecy it received the Petit Hepre, and, sev- 
eral miles beyond, the Grand Hepre; these sister streams gently 
coursing their way, in nearly parallel currents, down from the 
principality of Chimay, a few leagues eastward. Between these 
two streams lay the land of Avesnes, an ancient baronial estate, 
whose chief town, seated on the Grand Hepre, six miles from 
its mouth and eight leagues directly south of Mons, is one with 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 29 

the present Avesnes, capital of an arrondissement of the same 
name in the department Du Nord, France. Paris is 123 miles 
to the southwest. 

The town lay mainly upon the left, or south bank, of the 
river, which was not navigable, and within an uneven but, here, 
quite open country, save that to the north of the town the view 
was intercepted by the Hedge of Avesnes, as was popularly called 
a line of pretty heights studded with, forest trees, a spur of the 
historic Ardennes, and which followed the course of the stream 
westward to the Sambre. 

This old town dated from the eleventh century, when Werric, 
sumamed"With the Beard," a bold feudal chieftain, lord of Leuze, 
near the Haine, — ^and who had inherited the lands between the 
two Hepres, given to his ancestor by the Count of Hainaut, — 
erected a castle upon the most northerly of these streams, mid- 
way between its outlet and the even then venerable abbey of 
Liessies, which was seated on the same stream six miles above 
the castle. About this castle the town had grown up. As a 
"key of Hainault," it was guarded with jealous care by the later 
counts, its lords paramount; but cut off, in a manner, by the 
"Hedge," was much exposed to aggression from the French bor- 
der, which was less than two leagues distant. Nor was it spared, 
during a long period in which its ownership was vested in titled 
subjects of France, from too often becoming common plunder 
ground; since among these warlike proprietors were some of 
the most renowned knights of the chivalric ages, whose varied 
and often stem fortunes it had largely shared. But at the period 
of which we write it had withstood the rude blasts of five cen- 
turies; trusting to the old Latin chronicle left by Baudouin of 
Avesnes, who laid him to rest in 1289. 

The old clock in the belfry, that so faithfully struck the hour, 
was not all that was striking about the town: equally so, to the 
eye, was the prevailing architecture, — ^plain, durable, betraying its 
Walloon character, if not a high antiquity. Solid as the old 
stone houses at our Kingston or Hurley, built by the Walloon 
settlers, few of the buildings were grand, or even ornamental; 
and the streets were ill-arranged, — only one, near and parallel 
with the river, running its whole length, crossed midway by 
another at right angles, — while most of the other angles were any- 
thing but right ; and around the venerable cathedral St. Nicholas, 
in the eastern, and plainly the oldest, section of the town, some of 
its "squares'* took the most eccentric and original forms, — cir- 
cular, wedge-like and awry! Yet, ''oppidtim elegans adtnodum 



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30 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

et celebar," says a learned monk of 1655, — "a very handsome and 
celebrated town." 

Many things at Avesnes, surviving its partial ruin by Louis 
XL, in 1477, still wore both a militant and a religious aspect. 
The remains of the old feudal castle, hoary with age ; the smithy 
of the armorer, whose forge and skill could fit you a trusty 
blade or battle-axe, a helmet or a coat of mail; the significant 
sign-board, on which the Walloon youth, ambitious of arms, 
read in rouche francais, his own rude patois, "Sword and Halberd 
Taught Here." It had its sacred crosses, its religious houses, and 
its collegiate church, or cathedral, already named, the latter en- 
dowed in 1534 with a chapter, — or dean, provost, and dozen 
canons, — through the benevolence and piety of the Lady of 
Avesnes, Louise TAlbret, widow of its former proprietor. Lord 
de Croy. Here were convents of the Franciscans, both of monks 
and nuns, mendicants whose austere life and vow of poverty gave 
them great favor with the people; and here also was a congre- 
gation seculiere, or society of Beguines, a less strict order, com- 
posed of worthy matrons passing their waning years in partial 
seclusion from the world, in teaching the young, and in works 
of charity. Devout indeed were its people, Catholics of a loyal 
type, as was apparent from the number and reputed wealth of 
the clergy, and the many abbeys and chapters supported by the 
country at large, from which their superior, the ducal arch- 
bishop of Cambray, drew a liberal stipend. 

Traces of a former vassalage were yet visible among this 
people; but the innumerable wars that had marked their history 
had served to foster the martial spirit and love of liberty derived 
from their ancestors. Yet how cramped the ideas of liberty 
among a people so intolerant of opinions opposed to the teach- 
ings of the church, so submissive to lords and masters not of 
their own choosing, but holding by inheritance, or marriage, or 
even by purchase! But now they were drawn to worthier pur- 
suits than the shedding of blood, — to productive industry; and 
mainly to those solid and useful branches of labor, in a degree 
peculiar to the Hainaulters, and well suited to develop their 
large and sinewy frames, and to form the positive characteristics 
the Walloons possessed. They wrought in timber, iron, and stone, 
and the fine, white sculptor's marble found in their quarries. 
Others worked the collieries, tanneries and potteries scattered 
over the district, or in mills for expressing vegetable oils from 
flax and rape seed and beech mast. The abundant forests sup- 
plied building timber, firewood and charcoal for a large traffic. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 31 

The pastures nourished some flocks and herds. Sheep-rearing 
and flax-growing have activity to the woolen and linen workers, 
whose looms or spinning-wheels in their accustomed niches in 
the owners' dwellings rarely ceased their hum or clatter in work- 
ing hours. 

The well-preserved annals of Avesnes gave witness to the 
warlike proclivities of its feudal lords, around whom, as its cen- 
tre and soul, all its history clustered. Their brilliant exploits, 
rehearsed by admiring vassals, and transmitted down from age 
to age in legend and song, — what a stimulus to that courage and 
martial spirit to which we have alluded ! A famous roll it was, 
of these lords and dames of eighteen generations, who had ruled 
Avesnes since Werric-with-the-Beard reared his castle there, and 
all of whom could boast his Belgic blood. 

It told of bold Thierr\ , son of Werric, whose hache, or axe, 
subdued (and whence its name) the adjoining district, Thier- 
ache; of his nephew and successor, Goswin d'Oisy, proud cas- 
tellan of Cambray, who essayed to strengthen Avesnes and bid 
defiance to his liege lord of Hainault, only submitting after a 
fierce battle of three days on the banks of the Sambre; of the 
equally stern warrior, Gautier Plukellus, who had succeeded his 
uncle Goswin, and was slain, 1147, in an attack on the castle at 
Mons; also of his son Nicholas, who built the castle at Lan- 
drecy, and his son, Jacques d' Avesnes, "the most renowned, 
wealthy and daring knight of this country," and a famous cru- 
sader, v^ho in 1 191 fell in battle in the Holy Land, fighting the 
Saracens under Saladin. Among the succeeding lords were 
two Hughs, counts of St. Paul, also Louis Count of Blois, who 
was slain at the disastrous battle of Cressy, whither he went to 
oppose the invading English, with his wife's father, the gallant 
Sir John de Hainault, whose fame is sung by Froissart. Sad 
the story which was related of a son of Louis, the brave and 
generous Guy, — one of the most affluent of the lords of Avesnes, 
— who, forced to sell his inheritance of Soissons to effect his 
release when a dreary captive in England, and, later, his earldom 
of Blois, to satisfy luxurious living, died in 1397, in comparative 
penury, at Avesnes; this estate passing to his cousin John of 
Brittany, son of the unlucky Charles of Blois, who, in famous 
contest to establish his right to Brittany, had lost both his duchy 
and his life at the battle of Auray. A granddaughter of John 
of Brittany, Frances, Dame or Lady of Avesnes, gave his estate, 
with her hand, to Allan d'Albret, one of the most puissant nobles 
of France, and after her death the unsuccessful suitor of the 



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32 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

much-wooed duchess, Anne of Brittany, subsequently the wife 
of two kings. It was Louise, Lady of Avesnes, Lord Alain's 
daughter, who, in 1495, by wedding Charles de Croy, Prince of 
Chimay, placed the Land of Avesnes in possession of the Croys. 
The latter was an old Picard family ; but when Picardy was under 
Philip, Duke of Burgundy, Jean de Croy, grandsire of Charles, 
attached himself to that potent duke, who made him a knight of 
the Golden Fleece, when he first instituted that order at Bruges, 
in 1430. Charles took his title from the estate of Chimay, to 
which he fell heir, in 1482, on the death of his father Philip, 
and which was erected into a principality four years later by 
the Emperor Maximilian, whose son Philip, King of Spain, con- 
ferred on the new prince the additional honors of the Golden 
Fleece. It was a singular pride, — a result of their training under 
the feudal relation, — felt by the subjects in such marks of distinc- 
tion bestowed on their chief; and how often told and retold as 
household stories. And further, that the prince had held the infant 
Charles V. at the baptismal font, and given him his name, and 
subsequently received from that emperor and king a costly hel- 
met, wrought in silver and gold; and how after him his family 
enjoyed substantial proofs of that monarch's favor. Frances, 
Lady of Avesnes, eldest daughter and heiress of the prince, 
marrying her kinsman, Philip de Croy, — for their parents were 
cousins, — the latter took the estates on the death of his father- 
in-law, in 1527, the next year further securing the land of Aves- 
nes to his house by a release obtained from Henry d' Albert, King 
of Navarre, cousin to his wife, and grandfather of Henry IV. 
of France. 

Since Avesnes fell to the house of Croy, no less than five 
wars between France and Spain had successively convulsed these 
exposed borders. In the earlier of these contests, Philip de Croy, 
now Prince of Chimay and Knight of the Fleece, rendered impor- 
tant service with his Walloon troop; and Charles V., in 1533, 
showed his love for his "nephew" by giving him the title of 
Duke of Arschot, from an estate he held in Brahant. In the 
destructive war of 1543, armies of Francis I. overran this part 
of Hainault, holding Landrecy against a siege of six months, 
conducted by Charles in person; but peace ensuing the next 
year, France restored to Spain its several conquests. Soon after 
this Landrecy was detached from Avesnes, and ceded to the 
crown by the Duke of Arschot, who meanwhile had been created 
a grandee of Spain. After his decease, in 1549, leaving his heirs 
such rich possessions and dignities, the family of Croy became 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 33 

"of greatest revenue and authority of any in Belgium." Philip, 
second duke, now enjoying his father's titles and estates, includ- 
ing Avesnes, had great influence in governmental affairs, as had 
also his brother, Charles Croy, Marquis of Havre, in Hainault; 
in which province their no less proud and aspiring cousins, the 
Counts Lalain, seemed born to the gubematoral seat. Great 
destinies were in the grasp of this influential family. Time was 
to eliminate, as one of the results, an humble transatlantic enter- 
prise, to which some of their born subjects were to contribute. 

Hainault was to have its share in that bloody struggle with 
despotism which rent the Netherlands in the sixteenth century. 
Spain now ruled these provinces as with a rod of iron. This 
policy began with Charles V., and culminated under his son, 
Philip II. One oppressive measure after another, subversive 
of their civil rights, had reduced the inhabitants to a subjection 
well-nigh absolute. 

The religious reform which was rife in France and Germany 
had also spread through the Netherlands, but met with deadly 
composition from the ruling powers, civil and ecclesiastical, being 
subjected to every cruel means for its suppression that these 
could exert, among which was the infamous system of espionage 
and torture known as the Spanish Inquisition. The Walloons 
were of all others most inveterate in their religious attachments ; 
but being essentially French, and living in close proximity to 
France, the Calvinistic views had found early entrance among 
them and made many warm adherents. As a people, their loyalty 
to the crown had been much shaken by the grave inroads upon 
their ancient rights and form of government. The Walloon, 
ever impatient of subjection,-^whence the boastful proverb, that 
"Hainault is subject only to God and the sun," — ^beheld with 
the utmost jealousy his country brought under the dominion of 
foreign tyrants, every part of it swarming with Spanish soldiers, 
whose presence and arrogance so spirited a people could ill 
brook ; while the vile Inquisition, thrust upon them and work- 
ing dismay and death among those indulging the new doctrines, 
was repulsive and terrible, even to many of the Catholics them- 
selves. 

At Avesnes, which since the year 1559 had had a Spanish 
garrison, the new religion found no toleration ; yet, nevertheless^ 
some of its worthy people, members of its old De Forest family 
included, had embraced the new faith, though this exposed 
them to imminent peril; for woe to him who dared avow that 
heresy or quit the old church. 



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34 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Beyond the Sambre, within the borders of the Cambresis, 
was the handsome forest of Mourmal, consisting of heights 
covered with oaks. With a breadth of six miles it stretched 
northward as many leagues, from the bounds of Vermandois in 
Picardy, to near Bavay, the ancient capital of the Nervii. At 
its western edge, on the Selle, an effluent of the Scheldt, five 
leagues from Cambray and two west of Landrecy, stood the small 
city of Le Cateau, or The Castle, so called from its very old 
tower, built by Bishop Erluin. The Cambresis being a fief of 
the German empire, Le Cateau, through the favor of the em- 
perors, had long enjoyed immunities and privileges of which 
its citizens were justly proud. 

For the space of some years many of its good burghers and 
their families had talked together freely and earnestly about the 
Holy Scriptures; but with great secrecy, fearing persecution, if 
it were known to any not in sympathy with them. Unobserved, 
they made visits to the neighborhood of Bohain, a city up the 
Selle, in Vermandois, to hear the evangelical preaching; also 
to Tupigny, in Thierache, and even as far as Crespy, near Laon, 
and Chauny, on the Oise; only to return with stronger faith 
in the gospel plan as found in the Scriptures, and utterly dis- 
satisfied with their old belief. The new doctrines thus spread 
quietly but surely, and the whole town was leavened with them. 

So it stood when Archbishop De Berghes, who was lord 
temporal as well as spiritual of the Cambresis, in order to check 
the growing disaffection of the church, fulminated an edict 
against the practice of attending the so-called Reformed preach- 
ing, reading heretical books, or chanting the psalms of Marot 
and Beza. To this little regard was paid, and two years passed 
by. Then it was repeated, and its execution enjoined upon all 
magistrates. A case was soon found. Certain burghers, who 
with their wives and children had attended the preaching of 
Rev. Pincheart, at Honnechy, a village south of Le Cateau, near 
Fremont, on the line of Picardy, were tried and sentenced to be 
banished. This, and other attacks by .the archbishop's officers 
upon the rights of the people of Le Cateau, led to popular meet- 
ings and strong remonstrances on the part of the latter. The 
numbers of the Reformed meanwhile had rapidly increased, and 
Rev. Philippe, minister of the church of Tupigny, by invitation 
preached for them many times in the faubourgs of the city, and 
organized a church, with a consistory of ten members. On 
August 1 8th, 1566, a deputation from the archbishop visited the 
town, and held grand mass in the Church of St. Martin, when 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 35 

Dr. Gemelli harangued the people, threatening them, should 
they not at once return to the Roman Church and make peace 
with the archbishop, with a ruin as dire as that which over- 
whelmed Jerusalem. Then a conference was held in the town- 
hall; but the appeals of the learned doctor fell powerless upon 
men who valued God^s truth more than an archbishop^s favor. 
Two days after this, the Dean of Avesnes, anxious for some of 
his own flock who had left his fold, visited Le Cateau on his 
return from an interview with the archbishop, and reiterated 
in the ears of the burghers what dangers hung over them all, 
the good with the evil; but to all his arguments they gave 
so brave a response from the Scriptures that he accomplished 
nothing. 

In the midst of many trials of patience, from the repeated 
interference of the castellan and magistrates with the exercise 
of their religion, the news reached Le Cateau August 25th, from 
Valenciennes, a large Walloon town fifteen miles northward, 
that the people there had cast out all the images, relics, and 
other symbols of Romanism from their churches, and that the 
same had also been done in many other cities. This startling 
intelligence brought together that evening a large concourse of 
people, with torches, in the cemetery of St. Martin, to discuss 
this new condition of affairs. Very early the next morning Rev. 
Philippe arrived, and meeting with the consistory at the house 
of Claude Raverdy, it was resolved, after discussion, to follow 
the example of those of Valenciennes, and clear the churches of 
the objects deemed offensive, beginning at St. Martin's. So to 
St. Martin's they went, Philippe and a few others, pulled down 
the images and altars, and burnt them, with all their ornaments, 
and the missals, anthem books and others relating to the mass; 
the like being done in all the other churches, both in the city and 
faubourgs. This ebullition of iconoclastic zeal has been much 
condemned ; but if the Reformed, where largely in the majority, 
as at Le Cateau, claimed the right to order their worship as best 
pleased them, who may question it? 

After this work of expurgation, a large number of ihe citi- 
zens gathered in the Church of St. Martin to hear a sermon from 
Rev. Philippe; many others also from the neighboring villages 
being present, who had come to the grain market. He also 
baptized three infants, and in the afternoon another. 

Though the citizens, Reformed and Catholics, had wisely 
agreed not to harm each other on account of religion, the suc- 
ceeding months were thosi* of great public excitement. Two 



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36 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Huguenots being held prisoners in the neighboring village of 
Troisville by the castellan and echevins of Le Cateau, David Du 
Four and others went with arms and liberated them. These 
magistrates, finding themselves powerless, retired to Cambray, 
leaving the field to the Reformed. The latter chose new muni- 
cipal officers, and put the city in a better state of defense. Pas- 
tor Philippe continued his services at St. Martin's. Three 
couples were joined in marriage December 15th, one of the 
brides being the daughter of Jean De Forest, then living at Le 
Cateau. On Christmas the church, to their joy, celebrated the 
Lord's Supper in the city; whereas hitherto they had gone to 
Valenciennes, or to Premont or Tupigny, and even as far as St. 
Quentin and Laon. 

The next spring, a terrible stroke, planned by the archbishop, 
fell upon Le Cateau. On March 24th, 1567, two hundred cava- 
liers, led by the noted Count of Mansfield, soon after made 
Governor of Avesnes, surrounded the city. The gates being 
secured, the people made a good defense from the ramparts, 
pastor Philippe going from gate to gate to encourage them. 
But an entrance being gained through treachery, the city was 
taken. Philippe and his deacon were the first victims: the one, 
after a cruel beating, was hung; the other, beheaded. The 
pastor's wife was subjected to gross treatment. Many execu- 
tions followed during the ensuing month. One was that of 
David Du Four, before named. He was a tailor at Le Cateau, 
and only twenty-two years of age. But on his examination he 
with firmness declared that "he paid more regard to his salva- 
tion and to God, than to men." He and four others were hung, 
on April 9th. The Reformed who saved their lives were now in 
great affliction. An oath of fidelity to the archbishop and the 
Roman Church being imposed on the citizens, such as could not 
take it were expelled from the city. The Reformed Church, if 
it survived there, existed only in secret. 

Hope was awakened the following year. The persecutions 
under the royal governor, the bloody Duke of Alva, had become 
so insufferable that, in 1568, the more northerly provinces broke 
out in revolt, and took up arms under the lead of that noble 
patriot, William of Orange. Fortune at first did not favor, and 
the prince, with a depleted but heroic band, concluded to join 
the Huguenot army in France. Passing Le Cateau, he "ob- 
tained a slight and easy victory" over the Spaniards at that 
place. But the city being well defended by the archbishop's 
soldiers, and Alva pressing hard on his rear, the great patriot. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 37 

whose triumph yet lay in the future, was constrained to pass on. 

Brighter were the prospects when, eight years later, the 
Walloons struck for their liberties. Unable longer to bear the 
outrages heaped upon them, these at length appealed to arms, 
joining the Flemings and Hollanders in the effort to drive the 
Spaniards from the country; for which a formal league was 
made at Ghent, November 8th, 1576. Sustained by * 'almost all 
the nobility of Hainault and Artois," the Walloon people. 
Catholic and Reformed, joined heartily in the common cause. 
With the latter class, now numerous, especially in the cities and 
tOHTis on and near the Scheldt, this struggle was of highest im- 
port, not only appealing to their patriotism, but holding out the 
promise of religious toleration in case victory crowned their arms. 
But this gleam of hope, bright as a passing meteor, was equally 
transient. The struggle was maintained but two short years, 
when the Walloon leaders, cajoled by royal emissaries, and ex- 
cited to jealousy of their compatriots, the Dutch, first refused to 
contribute further of men or means; then renounced the con- 
federacy, and privately formed a separate league, January 6th, 
1579, in which Walloon Flanders, Artois, and Hainault uniting, 
promised to stand by the king and adhere to holy church. In 
a reconcihation with the king, and renewal of their allegiance 
which followed on September 4th ensuing, the heads of the 
provinces aforesaid pledged themselves to extirpate hersy. 

Thus a death-blow was given to Walloon liberty, while the 
Spanish cause secured the active support of the Catholic Wal- 
loons, both nobles and people; turning their weapons against 
their deserted friends, the Hollanders and Flemings, in their life 
and death struggle. Indeed, the king found no readier recruits 
nor better soldiers than the Walloons ; "a people," says a contem- 
porary writer, "taking delight in war, and whom the Spaniards 
might safely make use of in all dangers." 

As a sequence, Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland, and other prov- 
inces, by a union published at Utrecht, January 29th, 1579. 
formed the free republic known as the Seven United Provinces ; 
achieving their independence after a long and obstinate struggle. 
But the remaining Netherlands, part unwilling, part unable to 
shake off their fetters, relapsed into a more servile bondage to 
Spain and the Papacy. By the king's great clemency, the Prot- 
estant Walloons were allowed two years in which either to return 
to the bosom of the church or leave the country. Shut up to this 
alternative, thousands sought safety in exile. 

Arschot, and the Croys and Lalains, all deeply implicated in 



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38 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

the late revolt against the Spaniards, whom at heart they de- 
voutly hated, were yet among the most active in promoting the 
submission of 1579; and now the Spanish cause had nowhere 
more zealous partisans. And they were pledged to root out the 
new religion, toward which they had only waxed more bitter 
since their cousin Antoine de Croy had embraced it and attached 
himself to the fortunes of Admiral Coligny; and another kins- 
man, William Robert, Prince of Sedan, had generously opened 
his gates to their persecuted and fleeing subjects, with whose 
faith and trials he was in sympathy. How opposite a character 
the Duke of Arschot, the ambitious, selfish courtier, whose frown 
was to be dreaded by the Huguenots, more especially those who, 
living on his own domains, were directly subject to his imperious 
will ! 

In the keeping of such were the destinies of Avesnes. The 
region round had indeed felt the blighting effects of the late 
war. It was invaded in the spring of 1578 by Don John, Alva's 
successor, who, advancing from eastward up the valley of the 
Sambre with his destroying army, captured the chief places in 
revolt, as far as Berlaimont, eight miles northwest of Avesnes, 
with many small towns "commodious for quartering the army ;*' 
then again moving eastward, he took Beaumont, a seat of the 
Duke of Arschot, six miles south of the Sambre; also Chimay, 
in which was the young prince, the duke's son, and his troop 
of horse, these, by courtesy, being allowed to march out with 
their carbines. Then storming Philipville, the Don departed, 
leaving his general, Gonzaga, with horse and infantry, to guard 
these frontiers, — a duty he well performed, dispersing several par- 
ties from France coming to the aid of the Belgian patriots, while 
he also scoured and wasted the country to the very corn-crops in 
the field. 

But this was as nothing to a people inured to the chances of 
war, or the general impoverishment to which they were now re- 
duced, while there was hope of deliverance. But upon the igno- 
minious submission of the Walloon nobles to the Spanish yoke, — 
with the crushing blow thus given to the cause of patriotism and 
religious liberty ; and the successes of the Spanish arms in the 
Cambresis, which reduced the few places still held by the mal- 
contents, to whom no mercy was shown, — ^the Reformed realized 
their desperate situation, and hastened to act upon the proffered 
alternative, abjuration or flight! 

Deeply involved in these trying scenes were some of the De 
Forests already noticed, and of whom much remains to be said- 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 39 

The family, judging from its numbers, had been some time 
settled at Avesnes, where members of it still resided many years 
later. So much is well attested, though there is no redundance 
of details. Of Avesnes we have drawn the sketch as it had 
been and now was ; the little world beyond which, probably, they 
they had never far roamed, till forced to it by the untoward cir- 
cumstances here related. Past are those blithe and budding years, 
spent in childish gambols along its rippling streams and through 
its oaken groves ; or in listening to those winning tales of olden 
times about the lordly tenants of the castle, — whose gray, dilapi- 
dated walls still linked so closely the present with the past, 
till its martial annals were as household words. Maturer life, 
with its stern realities, has also brought more tender attach- 
ments and domestic cheer, as Heaven's kind gifts, and the fruits 
of arduous but welcome toil, — and which, despite life's corroding 
cares, have multiplied the ties of home, kindred and friend- 
ships, which now can grow neither stronger nor dearer. But 
what a change in the times and in our family's prospects ? They 
have heard, have embraced those soul-saving truths, revealed, as 
they believe, from heaven ; and, leaving the confessional and the 
mass, — ^altars at which they had so blindly knelt, — have cast in 
their lot with the devout but despised Huguenots. Their kindred 
adhering only more closely to the old church, caused a wide 
breech : and would it were only in sentiment ! Dangers surround 
the Huguenot portion, and the safety of themselves and little ones 
of tender years depends upon an immediate flight. In the face 
of grave difficulties they have renounced the altars and faith of 
their fathers ; and what heart-struggles it had cost them none may 
realize but those who are led to relinquish a belief in which they 
have been trained and educated from youth to manhood. Now 
they lack not courage to accept the issue, to follow the utmost 
mandate of duty, though home endearments must give place to 
a painful exile. Noble proof of their faith and piety ! 

Sedan, on the Meuse, whither many were going, offered the 
nearest retreat; and thither also went the De Forests, by way of 
the French border, some sixty miles southeastward. Though the 
exact date of their exode has not been found, collateral cir- 
cumstances assign it to the period directly succeeding the Wal- 
loon submission. Not to anticipate the important role reserved 
for this exiled family when they shall again come to our notice, 
under better auspices, we dare venture an opinion that it will 
justify this effort, imperfect though it be, to illustrate the more 
obscure portion of their history. 



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CHAPTER III. 

OUR SETTI.ERS FROM FRANCE AND WAI.SLANT. 

A N eventful century in the affairs of France had rolled its 
'^^ round since the collegiate halls of tlie Sorbonne at Paris 
echoed the first notes of the Reformation, uttered by the learned 
and inspired Le Fevre. That period, radiant with hope and 
promise, which directly followed the accession of Francis I., and 
in which the Reformed doctrines, — joyfully embraced by the sober, 
thinking classes, — were rapidly disseminated over all France, had 
been succeeded ( 1 525 ) by terrible persecutions, when at times the 
whole land seemed fairly to reek with the blood of martyrs. 
Forced thereto in self-defense, the Huguenots took up arms in 
1562, whence ensued a ruthless civil war, which raged, with only 
brief intervals, for over thirty years, during the reigns of Charles 
IX., Henry HI., and, in part, of Henry IV. Assuming, as then 
and there was unavoidable, the double character of a politico- 
religious conflict, which involved in its toils king and clergy, 
noblesse and people, these long-protracted and bloody wars ex- 
hausted the country and reduced it to the verge of ruin. Only 
by this heroic stand, however, were the Huguenots able to main- 
tain even a recognized existence in the land ; but when the King 
of avarre, their old leader, — distinguished on many a battle- 
field, — had fought his way to the throne, as Henry IV., he issued 
in 1598 that famous decree for the pacification of his kingdom, 
called the Edict of Nantes, which threw its protecting aegis over 
the Huguenots, and gave them a season of peace and prosperity 
such as they enjoyed at no other period. A knowledge of what 
this edict pledged, and how its pledges wer^ violated in the 
succeeding reigns, will help us to understand the proper status of 
the Huguenots in the time of our refugees. 

The edict was based on a limited toleration, but was "the 
best that the state of the times allowed." It declared a full 
amnesty, conceded to the Huguenots liberty of conscience, made 
them eligible to all public offices and dignities, and for their pro- 
tection provided special chambers within the local parliaments. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 41 

the chief being the "Chamber of the Edict," in the Parliament 
of Paris. They were allowed to build and maintain churches 
and schools in all places where these had been permitted by 
former edicts. But this did not apply to episcopal or any walled 
cities, saving only La Rochelle and a few other strongly Hugue- 
not towns, which for their security they were suffered to hold 
under the edict. Further, all lords, nobles, and other persons 
of the pretended Reformed religion, holding a tenure by knight's 
service, or having the powers of a civil and criminal magistrate 
within their seigniory or manor, might, after due notice to the 
king's officers, and having the place registered, hold religious 
services at their principal residence, or cause them to be held for 
their families, subjects and all who wished to attend. 

The last was a most important concession. The places other- 
wise assigned the Reformed in which to erect churches and 
schools were but few and scattered, and to multitudes in distant 
localities proved of no benefit; but under the friendly shelter 
of private castles and manor-houses many suspended churches 
could be regathered and new ones organized; as was done; 
though often only by persistent effort and in the face of violent 
opposition, because the Reformed worship was seldom tolerated 
nearer any sizable town than from three to five miles, and for its 
peaceful enjoyment the faithful were often obliged to journey as 
many leagues. Laboring under the same disabilities in regard 
to schools, it was creditable to their parental fidelity that the 
secular education of their children was cared for equally with 
their religious training; and hence we notice that nearly all of 
our refugees had enjoyed advantages and were good penmen. 
Under the edict the Reformed were not exempt from such bur- 
dens and annoyances as the payment of tithes to the parish 
priest, and the closing of their business places and suspension 
of all out-door and noisy labor on the oft-recurring festival days, 
when they must join in decorating the fronts of their houses in 
honor of the occasion, or permit it to be done by the official per- 
sons, — ^and to all which it was dangerous to object. 

Briefly, these were the advantages enjoyed by the Huguenot 
population under the edict, during the halcyon days of Henry 
the Great. But trouble began with his assassination, in 1610, 
an event which excited the utmost alarm among the Reformed, 
who in the change of rulers saw reason to apprehend a change 
of policy fatal to their interests. In vain the queen-mother, as 
regent, in the name of the young Louis XIII., as also that king 
liimself, on assuming the reins of power in 1614, tried to allay 



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42 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

these fears by professing a purpose to maintain the Edict of 
Nantes. Concini, an Italian favorite, being elevated to the 
position of prime-minister, the government from the first was 
wholly under Jesuit influence, — which was regaining itself in the 
country; while the king, in 1615, by the arbitrary dissolution 
of the old States-General or national parliament, that "guar- 
dian of the public liberty," for which he substituted an assem- 
bly composed of more pliant materials, plainly foreshadowed the 
imperious policy which he had marked out, and by which he 
sought to centre all power in himself; thus giving caste to an 
administration characterized by a French writer of that day as 
"the most scandalous and dangerous tyranny that perhaps ever 
enslaved a state." 

Soon followed the predicted change of policy touching the 
Huguenots, which, first planned by the Archbishop of Paris, was 
now seconded by the ambitious Charles d'Albert, Duke de 
Luynes, who, with the blood of Concini fresh upon his hands, had 
supplanted the latter in the favor of the king and also as prime- 
minister. It was to humble the Huguenots and take away their 
power of self-protection, by wresting from them their fortified 
towns and their political organization, which latter Henry IV. 
had sanctioned as a means of conserving their interests, through 
their general assemblies. The new government looked with 
jealousy upon these assemblies, som« of whose acts at this feverish 
juncture were dictated rather by passion than cool judgment;: 
and these indiscretions were made a ground for the high-handed 
course to which the government now resorted. 

At the bare mention of the new policy, which the Catholic 
pulpits everywhere zealously lauded, all the old animosity 
against the Reformed again burst forth, bearing fruit in numer- 
ous acts of violence, both in the towns and rural districts. The 
first aggressive step taken by the king was in 1620, when he 
ordered the Catholic worship to be restored in Beam, a part of 
Southern France, where for sixty years the Reformed had been 
the only region. Being opposed, as a flagrant breach of the 
edict, the king invaded Beam to enforce his decree by the 
bayonet. The Huguenots flew to arms, the cautionary cities act- 
ing with great spirit; and war desolated the Protestant com- 
munities of Beam, Guienne and Languedoc. The royal arms 
were only too successful. But Montpellier, chief city of Lan- 
guedoc, having been taken by siege, and the regiments of Picardy 
and Normandy set at work to level its defenses, . here a peace 
was proposed, and concluded October 19th, 1622. Only La 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 43 

Rochelle and Montauban, of all their strong places, now remained 
to the Huguenots. 

Deeply interested were the Reformed at the north in the 
struggles of their co-religiouists in arms ; and scarce dissembling 
their sympathies, they feared as accomplices, being "given over 
to the hatred of the governors, the military commandants, the 
priests and the populace." Mob outrage was common; the fine 
temple at Charenton, near Paris, was pillaged and burned, though 
rebuilt, at the public charge, after peace had been established. 
The government disarmed the Huguenots of St. Quentin and 
others in Picardy, many of whom, in 1621, retired to Geneva,, 
Sedan and England. 

The hollow peace, as it proved, was ignored by Cardinal 
Richelieu, who became prime-minister in 1624. His grand idea, 
the unity of France and the supremacy of the church and mon- 
archy, involved the prosecution of the war against the Huguenots ; 
and the restless state of that people became the pretext. La 
Rochelle must be reduced, and was at length invested by powerful 
armies. The resistance was heroic, lasting a year and three 
months, while half its population died of famine and disease. 
Then it was forced to capitulate, October 28th, 1628. 

Great excitement prevailed during this siege among the 
Huguenots at the north, who, under the guise of visiting, attend- 
ing weddings, etc., often met to confer together about their 
affairs. Hence exaggerated rumors which reached the king's 
camp, of conspiracies in Lower Normandy (about Caen and 
the Bessin), and in Picardy and Champagne. The king had 
demanded of the people of Amiens to send to his camp five 
himdred cloth suits and as many pairs of shoes; but the serge- 
makers, indignant at this demand, threatened the king's officer, 
who fled by night from his lodgings, while the mob threw his 
coach into the Somme. 

But Richelieu followed up his successes. Montauban, in the 
heart of Southern France, was also reduced early in 1629, and 
its defenses razed. All the Huguenot strongholds were now in 
the king's hands, and the last civil war was at an end. The 
"Edict of Grace," so called, issued the same year, fixed the 
condition of the Protestants. Submission and loyalty were the 
specious terms on which they should continue to enjoy their re- 
ligious privileges. But well they knew that this meant nothing 
less than an absolute subjection to the royal will, with no ability 
to ward off any further aggression upon their rights, since they 
were robbed of their only safeguard, — that material power on 



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44 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

which had depended the security of their persons, property and 
religion. 

Alarmed and grieved as were the Protestants at seeing their 
cause thus utterly ruined, their trials were only beginning, for 
they were now to be subjected to a course of proscription, which, 
growing more and more oppressive, was at length to become 
insupportable. Deserted by nearly all the nobility, and gradually 
ousted from government service and from most of the civil 
offices, there was still this gain, — that they were freed from the 
temptations and snares of political life, which rendered so many 
idle and dissolute; while restricted in their pursuits to agricul- 
ture, to trade, and the industrial arts, they were repaid by a new 
development of their industry, and additions to their wealth. 
Even the infertile soils of the south, by dint of their toil, were 
made to wave with bounteous harvests. As merchants and manu- 
facturers their integrity and proficiency was known and recognized 
in other lands. Nevertheless, they were ill at ease. 

Anachronisms in regard to the Huguenots easily occur, from 
inattention to the order of events, or to the many diverse phases 
of their history. The period to which we have now arrived, — 
the era proper of our refugees, — was to them and their compeers 
fraught with no such promise as that which ushered in the 
Reformation ; nor yet a reign of persecutions dire, as that which 
immediately succeeded. In the past, the few bright years of 
Henry IV. came up in the memorlies of long and dismal civil 
wars as a little oasis in the almost boundless desert waste. 
These wars being ended, they now entered upon a term • of 
thirty years, having the semblance of rest, but with its deep 
undercurrents of unrest. Even then was foreshadowed (but our 
refugees did not wait to see it) that final, doleful epoch, opening 
about 1 66 1 with the destruction of temples or churches, with 
arrets du conseil, for excluding the Reformed from trades and 
professions, etc., and closing with the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes in 1685, with dragoons, dungeons and galleys; causing 
multitudes of these purest and noblest of the land, — artisans, 
tradesmen, professors and divines, — to escape to other countries, 
which were thus enriched by their industries, their talents and 
their piety. 

Hence our refugees lived in times of but semi-repose, in which 
painful memories of the past gave ghastly form and reality to 
the graver presentiments of the future. True, it was an age of 
more enlightenment and less fanaticism than those preceding, 
tut the popular aversion to the Huguenots had not essentially 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 45 

lessened. It had only in a degree transferred itself from their 
creed to their position as a social class. They were an unpopu- 
lar minority, having peculiarities repulsive to the habits and 
tastes of the people at large. Their views, feelings and mode of 
life, their strict discipline, the simplicity of their worship and 
scrupulous observance of the Sabbath, afforded nothing in com- 
mon with those within the pale of the dominant church. To 
them the Huguenot appeared reserved, rigid, and even haughty. 
His very gravity was thought to betoken a felt superiority. He 
claimed to be controlled by a purer faith, a better code of 
morals. Intelligence, discrimination and independence, as well 
as piety, were essential supports to the religious tenets he avowed 
and maintained. He valued and improved his freedom to in- 
quire and interchange opinions upon matters of church polity 
and questions of doctrine and discipline, as well as those af- 
fecting his civil rights. Keeping within the limited circle of 
his home and people, and wont to deny himself, the Huguenot 
\*ielded but sparingly to the luxury in which others indulged. 
Thus order and economy ruled both his house and business, and 
brought him thrift. In his frugality of living, and in the time 
saved from useless festivals for needful toil, he found a temporal 
gain. His industry and business assiduity seemed ever to re- 
proach his neighbors with their slackness and improvidence; 
and envy of his superior intelligence, advantages and prosperity 
too commonly showed itself, after the loss of his military and 
political significance, in an air of triumph over his humbled con- 
dition. He still trusted for protection to his legal charter, the 
Edict of Nantes; but this soon lost its prestige with the courts. 
His greatest fear was from the covert designs of government and 
clergy to effect his ruin, — the latter ever and anon reiterating 
their demands for new restraints upon the Reformed. In 1630 
began systematic efforts to reclaim them in the church by means 
of convertisseurs, who were paid a definite sum for every prose- 
lyte; and in 1635 Richelieu created in each province a Royal 
Intendant, "to promote a stronger national unity," but which 
meant the use of all means for suppressing the religion. These 
officials, chosen with special reference to their fitness, dispensed 
their authority with rigor, and first instigated those severe and 
effective measures eventually employed to complete the ruin of 
the Huguenots. The decisions of the Intendant were invariably 
adverse to the Huguenot. And it was usually so in questions 
which came before the local parliaments; the rule obtaining in 
the various tribunals that the Reformed had no rights except by 



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46 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

sufferance. Law and fact were wrested against them; every 
severe sentence became a precedent; and so, by one restriction 
after another, enarly all of value that the Edict of Nantes had 
pledged was taken away long before the edict was formally 
rescinded. With a painful sense of insecurity, it became an ever- 
present, momentous question with this afflicted people, how to 
avert the greater calamities, which passing events so plainly fore- 
shadowed, except by quitting their country. 

What this question involved we may not apprehend. The 
bitter conflict going on within, as the stricken man pursued his 
daily vocation, was often known only to his family and his 
God. Thrice dear to him was his country, so venerable in 
antiquities, heroic in deeds, romantic in legends; all that was 
charming in stream and landscape, genial in the air and gen- 
erous in the soil; all that was prized in institutions and cus- 
toms, in social and home endearments. His religious ideas had 
not weakened, but, onnly in one direction, changed his attach- 
ments. With a sort of aristocratic pride he cherished the heredi- 
tary records of the virtue, constancy, or piety of his ancestors 
who had suffered for the faith. These were the letters of his 
nobility. They were links binding him only the more closely 
t ohis native soil — ^which had grown dearer with every trial or 
loss he had been called to embrace, and with each act of arbitrary 
power designed to force him from its bosom. But the very act 
of leaving was hedged with difficulties: business, property, and 
personal effects were more easily scrifiecd than converted into 
available means. The younger class, with few such entangle- 
ments, found a change much easier than did their seniors; and 
hence the emigrations at this era consisted very largely of the 
former. 

Those spasmodic flights of the Huguenots under some great 
and sudden terror, — of which there had been many in the course 
of their history, when multitudes, by families, and of every age 
and class, left hastily for foreign lands, — had ceased with that 
which took place on the fall of La Rochelle and Montauban, 
when the final blow was dealt to the civil power of the Hugue- 
nots. For the thirty years ensuing, and during which most of 
the Harlem refugees sought other lands, the emigration was not 
large, but of a valuable character. The removals were usually 
undertaken thoughtfully and heroically, — in general, as just said, 
by a young and enterprising class, — in the belief that the time 
had come to leave a country in which, surrounded by so many 
hostile elements, it was especially difficult for them to live, and 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 47 

which threatened to become worse instead of better. Their eyes 
naturally turned toward Holland, England, and America, as 
more hospitable lands, and the chief emigration was to those 
countries from the marine provinces, Picardy, Normandy, and 
those south of them, for which their numerous seaports afforded 
every facility. 

The West Indies, inviting both for climate and fruitfulness, 
were becoming the resort of many for whom the cold region of 
Canada had no attractions. Removals to these islands had been 
going on under the direction of a company formed at Paris in 
1626, at the instance of M. D'Enambus, who the year before had 
visited the island of St. Christopher, in a brigantine from Dieppe. 
There he planted the first colony in 1627, and which became the 
nursery of others afterward formed on the adjacent islands. 
In 1635, Martinique was occupied by a hundred old and experi- 
enced settlers from St. Christopher. But D'Enambuc died. In 
1640 Jesuit missionaries arrived at Martinique (where were then 
near a thousand French, "without mass, without priest,'') and, 
reluctantly admitted by the governor and people, heightened the 
public dissensions which broke out in the islands, and which 
grew so violent five years later, especially in Martinique, that 
many of the Huguenots were glad to get back to Europe ; these 
going mostly to Holland, and some of them, as the Casier family, 
of Calais, eventually finding more tranquil abode at Harlem. 
We shall allude to these again before concluding our account 
of the homes and wanderings of our refugees.* 

Home! Fancy is ever swifter than pen or pencil to draw 
the picture. The old familiar spot around which the heartstrings 
entwine, endeared by many tender associations, perchance made 
sacred by its sanctified sorrows. And how bitter the moment 
when the refugee, gazing upon it for the last time, turned his 
steps toward a foreign soil; like the great patriarch departing 
from Haran, knowing not his destiny, but trusting his covenant 
God. But, alas ! to too many of our refugees, — forced to changes 
as they were by a regard for their personal safety or to secure a 
livelihood, or both, — ^home, as restricted to the place of their birth 
and early life, must have lost much of its significance. To these 
pilgrims home was often less the locality and society of which 

* Inquiry can but partiaUy break the silence which hangs over these wanderings. 
And here starts a quer^: was our David Demarest a sharer with Philip Casier in his 
West India, as he was in some of his subsequent travels? Did he sustain toward Sieur 
Des Marets (an old captain of St. Christopher, who was beheaded September 7, 164 1, 
^ the governor, Dc Poincy, for joining the populace in opposing his tyranny) such 
relations as made him one most deeply affected by his tragic fate? Oisemont, in 
Picardy, the seat of the Demarests, had a Commandery of Malta, of which De Poincy 
*as commander. Strange coincidences, if merely accidental! 



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48 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

they bore the type, than the circle or community of like faith 
in which for the time being their lot was cast. Difficult ofttimes 
as this makes it to trace the refugee to his original home, we 
shall leave the reader to note how far our efforts in that regard 
have succeeded. 

Saintonge was one of the provinces lying within the Bay of 
Biscay, and which, owing to the tendency of the Huguenots dur- 
ing their protracted trouble to remove from the interior into 
the marine districts and towns, became crowded with refugees, 
and were a principal theatre of the bloody civil wars. Sain- 
tonge was the birthplace of our "very learned" Dr. Johannes 
De La Montagne, whose history will contribute much of interest 
to these pages. La Montagne was not his family name, but an 
adjunct which finally took the place of the former, and was 
originally derived, — as correlative facts seem to indicate, — from 
La Montagne, a district of Burgundy. But Dr. La Montagne 
was called a Santo, which is the provincial designation for a 
native of Saintonge, — akin to that of Norman, Picard, etc. His 
birth happening in 1595, but three years before the Edict of 
Nantes restored order to the realm and peace to the Huguenots, — 
and under which emigration mostly ceased up to the death of 
Henry IV., — it is highly probable that La Montagne left France 
somewhere within the ten years of public unrest succeeding the 
murder of the king, and culminating in the last civil wars under 
Louis XIII., which opened in 1620. Prior to that date, how- 
ever, La Montagne and others of his family were enjoying peace 
and security in Holland. He therefore knew as little personally 
of these latter wars as he did of the earlier troubles which pre- 
ceded the Edict of Nantes. Among our French refugee fam- 
ilies his was the first to become exiles. We speak irrespective 
of the Walloon families, of whom the first to flee their country 
were those of De Forest and Vermeille or Vrmilye, the latter, 
in the troubles of the sixteenth century, taking refuge in England. 
Not till after the last civil wars, as before said, and which oc- 
curred quite too early for them to have borne arms, did the body 
of our refugees leave their native France. 

Saintonge counted among its cities La Rochelle, with its 
heroic memories, and which gave us Jacques Cousseau and Paul 
Richard, both sterling characters and identified with Harlem. 
We know not if either was old enough at the time of the final 
siege and reduction of La Rochelle, in 1628, to have shared its 
terrors and miseries; but both probably left on account of the 
severe measures pursued by Louis XIV. for restoring Catholi- 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 49 

cism in that old Protestant stronghold, and which occasioned 
many removals. 

Northerly from La Rochelle, the rugged peninsula of Bre- 
tagne, or Brittany, — jutting far into the Atlantic, — is as remark- 
able for its strange vicissitudes as for its dreary forests, barren 
heaths, pent-up valleys, vast fields of Druid remains, and lone 
hillocks crowned by the ruins of castles ; or yet its brawny peas- 
antry in grotesque garb, and (in Lower Brittany) still speaking 
the harsh Celtic tongue. Long a distinct sovereignty, it was 
conquered by the Norman dukes; later an affluent duchy, for 
which Charles of Blois and his race valiantly but vainly battled 
with the house of Montfort, it was finally engrossed by the 
crown. But not feudal nor royal tyranny cOuld ever crush the 
native independence and hauteur of the Breton, which so cropped 
out in the case of our Claude Le Maistre (Delamater), whose 
ancestors were the lords of Garlaye, in the diocese of Nantes, 
though he happened not to be born in Brittany. Near La Mous- 
saye, in the interior of Lower Brittany, southward from St. Malo, 
was the original seat of the family of our David Uzille. The 
Reformed churches at Nantes and La Moussaye found in the 
Le Maistres and Uzilles warm supporters. 

One of the three districts forming the great Norman 
meadows, whose fine horses and cattle were so celebrated, was 
the Bessin, from a forest leargely converted into tillable lands and 
orchards by the patient industry of its peculiar people, — French 
indeed, but, unlike their neighbors and more like the English, 
being descendants of the Otlings (or Osterlings), a Saxon tribe 
which overran this district in the fourth century. Their small 
town, St. Lo, occupied a rocky eminence, girt on three sides by 
a ravine through which ran the river Vire, parting the low- 
lying Bessin from the mountainous Cotentin. Its streets, lined 
with antiquated houses, ascended steeply to the crown, whereon 
stood its old sombre cathedral. Fully a century earlier it had its 
Huguenot church, which sent delegates to the first synod at 
Paris, in 1559. From this secluded Norman town, — strange tran- 
sition, truly! — a worthy refugee, "Letelier," as with some claim 
to rank he signs himself, found his way to Harlem, to woo and 
wed a Picard's daughter. 

Beyond the Seine, in Upper Normandy, we next find traces 
of our refugees. Dieppe, capital of the high and mainly level 
region called the Land of Caux,* the land of grain and grass, of 

• Pronounced Ko. It is highly probable that our well-known family of Coc derive 
ihctr name from Caux. 



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50 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

cider and perry, embracing the coast country from the Seine to 
the Bresle, was seated at the foot of hills through which flowed 
the river Arques, passing under the great stone bridge that 
united the town to its suburb, Le Pollet, the fishermen's quarter, 
where under the Edict of Nantes the Huguenots had their 
church and enjoyed the ministrations of Montdenis and others. 
Dieppe also had an immense commerce, its mariners famous of 
old for distant voyages. Hence sailed D'Enambus, in 1625, to 
St. Christopher, paving the way for French colonies in the West 
Indies, in which, as before intimated, Harlem settlers first tried 
their fortunes. And from this port many of the refugees took 
ship for other countries, as, we presume, did Francois Le Sueur 
and Robert Le Maire, who came thence to Harlem. How it was 
with these we know not, but may conclude that some left Dieppe 
and other French ports, destined for New Netherland, since its 
invitations to such colonists had already reached these ports 
through intercourse with Holland. Le Sueur was bom at Challe- 
Mesnil or Colmenil, a small borough or market town three miles 
south of Dieppe. His name, — taking such forms with his 
descendants as Leseur, Lesier, Lazear and Lozier, — was well es- 
tablished in Caux, and a century previous had figured among- 
the cloth makers of Rouen. 

Very interesting is Picardy, whence came so many of the 
French exiles who made their homes at Harlem, for longer or 
shorter periods ; in all some thirty families, of which a full third 
were Picards or of Picard descent. Of this class were our Tour- 
neur, Cresson, Demarest, Casier and Disosway, all of whom, 
except the last, served as magistrates. 

But who were the Picards? A quite superior people to the 
average French; being of mixed origin, descendants of both 
Belgae and Celtae, and occupying the border between these two 
ancient nations, or rather the district which parted the Celtae 
from the Nervii, the most invincible of the Belgic tribes. Thus, 
sanguine and choleric like the Celts, they approached the Belgse 
in their moral and physical stamina. In stature above the 
medium, with usually a well-developed frame, they betrayed 
their affinity to the Walloons, whose patois, rough and disagree- 
able, theirs resembled; yet, proud and spirited, they held those 
neighbors, and all others, in secret disdain. The love of inde- 
pendence was not so strong within them as the love of equality; 
it was here their vanity showed itself, but it tempered the popular 
homage to wealth or titles. Though hasty, blunt, and obstinate, 
yet without the effrontery of the Normans or the superstition 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 51 

of the Champenois, — and more religious than either, — the Picards 
were withal lively, generous, honest and discreet. Their con- 
versation sparkled with wit, iiiirth and sarcasm. Necessity, 
rather than inclination, made them industrious, yet they yielded 
their full share of workers and proficients in the arts and 
sciences; as also of able physicians and divines, — some of the 
latter as much distinguished in the controversial history of the 
Reformation as others had been who were its earliest champions. 
With intelligence, and a manly aim to excel in what they under- 
took, even though it were but agriculture, — in which by far the 
greater number were engaged, — the Picards could not but add 
a valuable element to any society so fortunate as to attract them.* 

The narrow strip of the seaboard, in breadth twenty miles 
or less, which stretched southerly from Calais to the Canche, 
embraced the districts of Giiines and Boulonnais, two subdi- 
visions of Picardy. Of its larger part, lying on either side of 
the Somme, but extending a hundred miles inland to the borders 
of Champagne, the coast section called Ponthieu reached some 
thirty miles up the Somme, Abbeville being the chief town. 
Easterly lay, in succession, the Amienois, Santerre, Vermandois, 
and Thierache, their southerly sides forming a line sufficiently 
winding, but, in general, east and west. These seven districts 
composed modem Picardy; but fiye others lying southerly of 
these, — ^to wit, the Beauvoisis, Noyonnois, Soissonnois, Laonnois, 
and Valois, — were equally Picard territory, as proven by the 
characteristics of the people, although these districts had been 
annexed to the Isle of France. 

These several sections of Picardy, save Guines and Boulon- 
nais, were watered by one or more of its three principal rivers, 
the Somme, the Oise and the Aisne; and seated on these were 
most of those fine old cities with strange histories, for which 
Picardy was noted. Two streamlets, engrossing many little rills 
from Champagne and Hainault, united in the centre of Thier- 
ache to form the Oise, which, now stretched westward to Guise 
in the same district, but soon took its course, in general south- 
westerly, nearly parallel with the coast, till it entered the Seine 

* Picard, though a term of disputed origin, is admitted to have been first local 
and restricted to the people of the Amienois. the district in which Amiens, the pro- 
Tincial capital, is seated; but it early spreaa to the whole supplanting all the tribal 
designations. It probably came from the pique, an ancient war weapon, with the Ger- 
man affix ard, meaning species or race; adhering to this people as inventors of that 
weapon, or from the renown the:^ had acquired in handling it. So they became known 
as the Picards, or pike-men. Gibbon, who dates the name not earlier than the year 
1200, says, ''It was an academical joke, an epithet first applied to the quarrelsome 
humor of those students in the University of Paris who came from the frontier of 
France and Flanders." But its occurence early in the eleventh century refutes this 
statement. 



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52 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

at Fin d*Oise, below Paris, distant from Guise ninety odd miles. 
Scattered along its charming banks from Guise downward, at 
intervals of some ten miles, lay, in delightful seclusion, other 
antiquated towns, as Ribemont, La Fere, Chauny, Noyon, Com- 
piegne, Verberie, Creil, Beaumont and Pontois; the last six 
adorned with royal palaces, exclusive of Noyon, a pretty town 
and a bishop's seat, but of more interest to the Huguenots as 
the great Calvin's birthplace. Just above Compiegne, the Aisne, 
a large tributary, entered the Oise from the eastward, and on 
it lay the stately city of Soissons. Below Creil a smaller branch, 
the Therain, entered from the westward, on its upper waters 
seated, within a cordon of charming hills, the venerable town 
of Beauvais. The Somme, rising near the borders of Thierache, 
on passing St. Quentin in Vermandois curved southward to 
Ham, then again to the north to Peronne, when it resumed its 
course westerly past Corbie to Amiens, and thence northwest 
through the Amienois and Panthieu plains to its outlet. The 
region around its head-waters about Vermandois was rendered 
very picturesque by the wooded hills which here crossed Picardy ; 
the broad plains below, just referred to, were less attractive to 
the eye, though varied by a succession of pretty intervals which 
bordered the tributary streams, and whose green pastures, trees 
and shrubbery agreeably relieved the general nakedness of the 
country and the apparent hardness of the whitish soil, the lat- 
ter composed one third of chalk, but productive, and yielding 
fine crops of wheat. The sub-district of Ponthieu, called the 
Marquenterre, embracing extensive pastures adjoining the coast, 
on the north of the Somme, had been recovered from the wash 
of the sea by a line of downs and dykes; to the south of the 
river's mouth the land had a gentle rise toward Normandy, till 
it formed the table-lands of Caux and the chain of cliffs that 
there bound the coast. 

Picardy was originally composed of many small countries, 
or earldoms, instead of forming but one under a single count. 
Never so united and ruled, it was in this respect an anomaly 
among the French provinces. Its ancient tribal divisions deter- 
mined mainly its modern districts, and eight of the dozen com- 
posing it took name from their chief city. Its history, says 
Michelet, "seems to embrace the whole of the ancient history 
of France." Its plains and hills had been trodden by the great 
Caesar and his legions, and it was on the banks of the Sambre, 
near Maubeuge, that he encountered the warlike Nervii, whose 
intrepidity almost wrested victory out of that fatal defeat which 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 53 

broke their power and gave Gaul to the conqueror. Near Sois- 
sons, five centuries later, the warrior Clovis, in an equally decisive 
battle, extinguished the Roman power and established that of 
the Franks. Here also had the Austrasian and Neustrian fac- 
tions found a battle ground, till the defeat of the latter, in 687, 
at Testry, in Vermandois, initiated the varied fortunes of the 
race of Charlemagne. Up the Somme had often rolled that 
fearful tide of Vandal and Norman invasion, which left no river 
unvisited from the Meuse to the Loire, desolating their banks 
and sacking towns, churches and monasteries, and at last contribu- 
ting, with other causes, to the fall of the monarchical power in 
the ninth century and the disintegration of the kingdom. 
Picardy, or rather its several sections, had come within the 
grasp of haughty chieftains, mostly of the family of the defunct 
Charlemagne, and who, as refractory as their compeers ruling 
the larger provinces and equally greedy of dominion, played a 
no less conspicuous part in the turbulent drama of the times. 
The early annals of these small earldoms superabound with deeds 
of rapine and blood. Not content with the conquest of neigh- 
boring towns or territory, they made kings, or humbled them at 
will; and, in fact, these imperious Picard lords for a long time 
ruled the destinies of the kingdom. But what strange freaks 
had fortune played with these old titled dynasties ! Once scarcely 
recognizing any sovereign, and with all the advantage of a 
hereditary entail, yet, one by one they had shared the fate of 
the great provinces. Champagne, Normandy, and others : the old 
counts, with all the dazzling splendor of their houses, had passed 
away, and their possessions, by a studied policy of the kings, had 
been mostly engrossed as crown domains. True, it had taken 
from the twelfth century to the sixteenth to consummate these 
changes. More favored, however, were some of these districts 
which took the form of bishoprics. Descending by the elective 
process from one prelate to another in regular succession, these 
had withstood the feudal powers of the Middle Ages and the 
civil convulsions of many centuries. Not restricted to the exer- 
cise of spiritual power in their bishoprics, some of these bishops 
had come to enjoy great temporal dignity, even the high position 
of peers of the realm, as were those of Laon, Noyon and Beau- 
vais; to the first of whom also pertained the title of duke, and 
to the other two that of count. Herein may be seen the supe- 
rior advantages of the existing hierarchy to hold and transmit, 
or even to augment, its power. All this while the sturdy burgh- 
ery, their rights ever being trampled on, figure in many a sharp 



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54 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

struggle with their tyrannical rulers; but appealing for help 
to royalty only to be ultimately betrayed, vanquished and de- 
spoiled of their choicest franchises, as the power ecclesiastic 
and kingly came to acquire that supreme ascendancy which it 
held in the reigns of Louis XHL and Louis XIV., — ^the times 
of our refugees. 

Of the chief dignitaries then ruling parts of Picardy was the 
Duke De Chaulnes, in whom was the temporal, and Bishop Le 
Fevre, who held the spiritual, power in the Amienois; but more 
of these presently. Augustine Potier was supreme in the Beau- 
voisis, which was the most wealthy bishopric in Picardy. Hold- 
ing the fee of the soil, as had his predecessors, since the year 
1015, when Bishop Roger got the county by deed from his 
brother Eudes, the Count of Champagne, Potier gloried in the 
titles of "Bishop and Count of Beauvais, Peer of France and 
Vidame of Gerberoy." He was also Grand Chaplain to the 
Queen, and intensely zealous for the church and monarchy, 
though it was hinted that his capacity did not equal his ambi- 
tion. The Noyonnois was under the rule of Henri De Barradat, 
to whose titles of Bishop and Count of Noyon was added that 
of Peer of France. The Marquise De Hocquincourt, Charles De 
Monchy, had succeeded his father as royal governor in Santerre, 
for which he was held fitted by his valor and his devotion to 
Louis XIII. This district had been taken from the ancient Ver- 
mandois, in 121 5, by King Philip Augustus, who had annexed 
Vermandois to the crown, after that the old counts, — ^the most 
affluent and potent in Picardy, and whose sway had lasted over 
three centuriies, — had become extinct. It included the cities of 
Peronne, Montdidier, and Roye, the first, the old seat and strong- 
hold of the counts, being now the residence of the governor, and 
deemed the key of France on these frontiers. De Monchy distin- 
guished himself in the war in the Low Countries, etc., and in 165 1 
was made a Marshal of France ; but, taking oflfense at Louis XIV., 
he joined the Spanish cause, and was killed at Dunkirk in 1658. 
Vermandois proper now formed a baliwick, subject to the Bishop 
and Duke of Laon, Philibert De Brichanteau. Thierache was 
mainly engrossed by the Duchy of Guise, — of which the town 
and castle so called was the seat, — ^being still the domain of the 
House of Guise, those infamous and deadly foes of the Hugue- 
nots, and one of whose ancestors, a Duke of Lorraine, had gotten 
this estate by marriage with a grandchild of the great crusader, 
Jacques d'Avesnes. But retributive justice seems to have visited 
the later Duke of Guise, Charles Le Lorraine, who, as admiral 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 55 

of a fleet, had served against the Huguenots at La Rochelle in 
1622. Ambitious and intriguing like his predecessors, he quar- 
reled with Richelieu, and, retiring in 1631 with his family to 
Florence, died in exile in 1640. Ponthieu, much to the dis- 
gust of its people, and in violation of pledges given them by 
Henry IV., had been conferred by Louis XIII. upon one who 
had little merit, unless it consisted in his two plots to dethrone 
Henry IV., for which he lay long in the Bastile ; this was Charles 
De Valois, natural son of Charles IX., of St. Bartholomew in- 
famy. But as he was a good soldier and zealous for the king, 
he ruled till his death, in 1650. Boulonnais and Guines, held 
directly by the crown, had long been ruled by royal governors. 
Louis XL, on recovering the former from the House of Bur- 
gundy, in 1477, had ceded it to the Virgin Mary, by an act of 
homage in the church at Boulogne, and consented to hold it 
of her as a fief; by which curious stroke of policy he thought 
to preserve it to France. Now, what enemy would dare touch 
it; what inhabitant would not die in its defense? And it had 
succeeded admirably! 

The Amienois, as the seat of the provincial capital, was the 
most important division of Picardy. Spreading across the fer- 
tile valley of the Somme in the form of a not very regular quad- 
rangle, it was ten leagues broad and twenty in length north and 
south, reaching from the bounds of Artois, and in part the earl- 
dom of St. Paul, to the hills anticlinal of the basins of the 
Somme and Oise, which separated it from the Beauvoisis. It 
took name from its ancient possessors, the Ambiani, whose juris- 
diction, extending west to the Channel, included Ponthieu, which 
even now was within the diocese of the Bishop of Amiens. Many 
thrifty villages, with broad, well-tilled fields, irrigated by brooks 
and streams, which from distant hill sources gently coursed their 
way to the Somme, gave it the aspect of a rich country. From 
a peculiar feature of its government it was styled the Vidamate 
of Amiens. The office of vidame, once common, was now al- 
most peculiar to this district of Picardy. From some powerful 
chieftain, called in ancient times by the bishop to aid him in 
protecting his domains against the invasions of the Normans 
and the rapacity of native seigniors, had originated the office 
of vice dominus, or vidame. And from the reluctance of the 
proud baron to yield the advantage thus gained, and the inability 
of the bishop to dispense with his services, the office became 
fixed and hereditary. It was now one of chief dignity and in- 
fluence in the Amienois, the present vidame, Honore d' Albert, 



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56 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

being a duke and peer of France. As brother to the prime 
minister, Duke De Luynes, he also had ingratiated himself with 
the king, and through his favor obtained, in 1619, the hand of 
the daughter and heiress of Philip-Emanuel, Lord De Picquigny, 
the last of the vidames of the House d'Ailly; and with her, 
beside the vidamate, the seigniory and castle of Picquigny, on 
the Somme, with an annuity in rents of £9,000. The king, at 
the same time, made him his lieutenant-general in the Govern- 
ment of Picardy;* the next year he was dubbed a knight of 
the King's Orders, and raised to the dignity of Duke De Chaul- 
nes and Peer of France. The important post of Governor of 
Picardy, Henry IV. had conferred, with his name, upon Henry 
of Orleans, Duke De Longueville, at his baptism in 1595, his 
uncle, the Count of St. Paul, acting during his minority. Longue- 
ville's father and his father had held the same post. But in 1619 
the Duke De Luynes aforesaid superceded De Longueville, and 
to him was also given the government of the city and citadel of 
Amiens. But he being killed in 1621, while absent, prosecuting 
the war against the Huguenots, the particular government of 
the city and citadel was transferred to his brother, the vidame. 
The Government of Picardy in the next few years passed through 
several hands, including the Dukes of Elboeuf and Chevreuse, 
both of the noted House of Guise and knights of the King's 
Orders; but Chevreuse retiring in 1633, this position also was 
conferred on the Duke De Chaulness, and to it was soon after 
added the powers of Royal Intendent, an office, as before said, 
created to keep a watch over the Huguenots, and which could not 
have been better bestowed than on the duke, bound as he was by 
every obligation to the king, and also true to the mandates of the 
church.t 

The Bishops of Amiens claimed a succession from St. Firmin, 
— first on the prelatical roll, and held to have suffered martyrdom 
in 287, with many of his flock, by order of the Roman magis- 
trate. The present bishop, Francois Le Fevre, — son of Sieur De 
Caumartin, of Ponthieu, — having become coadjutor to Bishop La 
Marthonie in 1617, the next year succeeded him in the See, and 
though some of the people violently resisted his induction, he 

* The Government of Picardy, as distinguished from the old province, embraced 
only the Amienois, Santcrre, Ponthieu, Boulonnais and Guines; the latter also called 
"Calais and Pais-reconmiis," because it had been recovered from the English in 1558. 

t The Duke De Chaulnes died October 31, 1649, in his 69th jjear, and was suc- 
ceeded in his titles by his son Henry Louis, born 1621; but he dying May 21, 1653, 
without issue, the vidamate passed to a collateral branch of the family. In naming 
this son after the kinp and his late father, the duke showed his attachment to his 
royal patron; and at his baptism by the bishop, June i^, 1625, during a festive season 
at Amiens, hereafter noticed, the widow of Henry I\ . and the king, represented by 
the Duke of Chevreuse, stood as god-parents. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 57 

sustained the character of an amiable and good man, — meas- 
ured by a standard which then and there was not the highest. 
Upon 30,000 livres of income, yielded by his eight hundred par- 
ishes, he lived elegantly in his palace at Amiens. This city, 
described in former pages, with allusions to its early and heroic 
historj', was the capital of the Amienois, as, indeed, of all Picardy. 
It had a brave 50,000 people, more or less. Abbeville, twenty- 
five miles down the Somme, its nearest rival in population, then 
boasted 35,000 or upward; but after Boulogne-sur-mer and St. 
Quentin, each about half the size of Amiens, the Picard cities 
rapidly dwindled to a paltry three thousand, or less. The chief 
spiritual and ecclesiastical authority thus reposing in the bishop, 
and the secular in the duke, — with his numerous functions and 
dignities. — while the provosts and other officials of the king came 
in for a share in the local jurisdiction, it is obvious the people of 
the Amienois had quite enough of rule. Without need to fur- 
ther define their respective powers, we know they made a unit 
against the Huguenots and their interests.* 

Picardy's part in the great moral struggle of the sixteenth 
century was peculiar. Etaples, a little seaport on the Canche, 
sent its Le Fevre to herald the Reformation; Noyon, a Calvin, 
to vindicate it by voice and pen, and give a system of faith to 
the Huguenot churches ; and Cuthe, in Vermandois, the no less 
excellent Ramus, slain in the St. Bartholomew, — worthy repre- 
sentative of its noble martyrs. And humble peasants, back from 
their harvest labors at Meaux, had borne to Thierache a richer 
harvest of precious truth, and planted at Landuzy-la-ville one 
of the earliest of the Reformed churches. Thus nowhere had 
arisen stronger moral forces in support of the religion. On the 
other hand, does not Guise, in Thierache, recall its hereditary 
foes, those sanguinary dukes; and Peronne one of their foulest 
plots, the **Holy League," impiously so called, — which, sworn to 
extirpate the Huguenots, soon plunged the country into the 
bloodiest of its civil wars? But, mark a fact: among the two 
hundred "subjects and inhabitants of the country of Picardy," — 
embracing "princes, lords, gentlemen and others, as well of the 
state ecclesiastic as of the noblesse and third state,'' — who sub- 
scribed this infamous League and took the oath in the town hall 
at Peronne, February 13th, 1577, we find but one of the family 
names afterwards appearing at Harlem; so nicely drawn were 
the family lines between the friends and foes of the religion. 

• Bishop he Fevre died of apoplexy, November 17, 1652, probably after all our 
refugees haa left Picardy. 



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S8 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Zealously did the League pursue its nefarious object of "crush- 
ing out heresy" ; till, at the close of the ensuing civil wars, — in 
which Picardy, while not often the scene of actual hostilities, had 
helped to swell the ranks of the respective armies (its regiment 
being a fixed part of the royal forces), — ^the Huguenot churches 
within its bounds, once numerous and flourishing, were reduced 
to a few scattered and timid flocks. 

Dark pictures of the times preceding loomed up to the 
Huguenot mind at Amiens, where the Reformed opinions had 
early been received with great favor: of Louis De Berguin, a 
Walloon from Artois, who, first to maintain those doctrines here 
in 1527, was burnt for it at Paris; of mob violence; of fines 
and imprisonments for refusing to decorate their houses at Cor- 
pus Christ; of that fell day in 1568, when one hundred and 
twenty Huguenots were slain in the streets of Amiens ; and the 
terror caused by the Paris St. Bartholomew, which was only 
averted here by strict orders from the Duke De Longueville, 
Governor of Picardy. And of the dismal era of the League, 
in which plot were implicated some of the most powerful lords 
of the Amienois; the vidame, Louis d^Ailly, a noble exception, 
having, with his family, embraced the religion. He encouraged 
the faithful, who for a time met at his house for worship ; though 
his successor, Philip Emanuel, last vidame of that house, was 
forced in 1588, by the violence of the people, to pronounce for 
the League. Only when Henry IV. turned Catholic did the 
citizens of Amiens acknowledge him as king, and expel their late 
governor. Count d'Aumale, who was a Guise. But they care- 
fully "stipulated in making their submission that the Huguenot 
preaching should be prohibited in their precincts and suburbs." 
This was on August loth, 1594. Not long after occurred the 
Spanish occupation of the city, — which they entered by an ingen- 
ious sacrifice, — and its deliverance by the armies of Henry IV. 
Peace with Spain soon followed, with another event more felici- 
tous, — the passage of the Edict of Nantes, — arresting the civil 
wars and restoring order to the realm. Then for the rest of that 
happy reign, Amiens, especially, became the mart of a flourishing 
trade and commerce, of which its looms furnished the staples; 
but a half century later the Huguenot emigrations had re- 
duced these industries to the verge of ruin, so alarming in 
1665 as to lead the general government to interpose a remedy.* 
In no wise exempt from the grievances common to the Reformed, 
under the Edict, those at Amiens and vicinity also had their own. 

On June 7th, 1625, Amiens witnessed a brilliant pageant. It 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 59 

was the city's generous welcome to a young queen, sister of the 
king, and child of Henry the Great, — the beautiful Henrietta 
Maria, of scarce sixteen years, — who was on her way from Paris 
to Boulogne to meet her spouse, already wedded though but once 
seen, Charles I. of England, then but two months a king. A 
letter from King Louis, bespeaking for the youthful queen "une 
joyctise entree" had led to ample preparations; so, on the set 
morning the city was all excitement, in every quarter was heard the 
sound of trumpets and drums to muster the military bands, with 
the noblesse, who were present from all the country round to 
take part in the grand reception. 

The Duke De Chaulnes, with three hundred well-mounted 
cavaliers, rode out two leagues to meet the bride and her retinue 
(which last included the queen-mother and queen-regnant, be- 
sides dukes, earls and lords, English and French, with many 
noble dames and damsels, and withal a guard of soldiers), and 
escorted them to the city. Their approach thereto, — entrance 
through the Beauvais gate and march to the cathedral, where 
they were met and greeted by Bishop Le Fevre and the Chapter, — 
was one grand ovation; many complimentary addresses and the 
thunder of musket and arquebus bade the young queen wel- 
come. Just outside the city gate was a magnificent trium- 
phal arch, with a beautiful tableau and other devices, all in- 
tended to please the queen and courtly party. Six other principal 
pieces, replete with designs drawn from classic and French his- 
tory, surprised them along the way to the cathedral. One repre- 
sented Jason and the Golden Fleece, a motto affixed declaring 
"Maria is the Fleece and Charles the Jason." In another, three 
belles personified the goddesses Juno, Minerva and Venus, con- 
tending before Paris as judge for the prize of beauty, the golden 
apple. But Paris, disallowing all their claims, turned and pre- 
sented the apple to Queen Henrietta as "the real beauty." At 
the cathedral Te Deum was chanted, the grand organ pealing 
forth eloquent music, followed by prayers. Then her majesty 
was escorted to apartments in the episcopal palace, where were 
presentations and addresses to the queen, with gifts of some 
dozen of superb hypocras, besides a large variety of living birds 
and game of choice kinds, all in handsome cages. The queen- 
regnant and others of the royal party were sumptuously enter- 
tained at the citadel by the Duke and Duchess of Chaulnes for 
the nine days they were at Amiens ; and then they departed, with 
many rich presents and kind wishes. 

Amiens looked but coldly on another pageant, more signifi- 



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6o HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

cant, if less imposing. The occasions of the two were probably 
among the recollections of some who later lived at Harlem, but 
the following was perhaps more firmly remembered, and with 
more heartfelt endurance. Betimes on Sunday morning, from 
that same Beauvais gate, called also the Gate of Paradise, (from 
a legend that here our Saviour, in the garb of a beggar, once 
appeared to St. Martin), a human stream began to issue, repre- 
senting both sexes and all ages, sires and matrons, blooming 
youths and happy-faced children, all in best attire, which pro- 
ceeded along that well-trodden way, to the pleasant village of 
Salouel, on the Celle, two or three miles to the southward of 
Amiens. With decorum suited to holy time, but enlivening the 
journey by cheerful and pious conversation, the looker-on needed 
not to be told the all important errand upon which these devout 
people were going. 

The Huguenot worship had been long banished beyond the 
gates of the city. Prohibited in express terms, as already seen, 
by the decree which restored Amiens with Peronne and Abbe- 
ville to obedience to Henry IV., this was also confirmed by the 
Edict of Nantes. 

Taught also by experience that they could not meet for 
worship within the city walls, except at the risk of being molested, 
perhaps broken up by a mob, it in some measure reconciled 
the Reformed to what was felt to be a harsh and burdensome 
requirement. The privilege of meeting at Salouel had not been 
gotten without effort. By the edict two towns only in the en- 
tire government of Picardy were allotted the Huguenots, at 
which to build churches. These were Desvres, in the Boulon- 
nais, and Hautcourt, near St. Quentin. Of what advantage was 
this to those of Amiens ? At first these were wont to hold their 
worship within the castle of the Seigneur d'Heucourt, at Haver- 
nas, five miles northerly from Amiens; but the distance was 
so far, and, in inclement seasons, very trying and often fatal, — es- 
pecially to infants taken thither for baptism, as well as to the 
infirm and the aged, — that M. De Heucourt in the year 1600 noti- 
fied the lieutenant-general at Amiens of his intention to have 
public worship for himself, his family, and the inhabitants of the 
city, within his fief of Hem, a village or suburb of Amiens, and 
where thirty-six years previous the Protestants had built a tem- 
ple. This privilege, to which he claimed a right under the edict, 
being denied him, an appeal was made to the king, who gave 
his sanction ; but the opposition of the clergy and the civil author- 
ities was so violent as to nullify it. However, through the 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 6i 

favor of the Lord of Guignemicourt, his chateau was also 
opened to the Reformed, being to the southwest of Amiens, and 
only half as far as Havemas. It was an important gain for 
those of Amiens ; and this became for some years their principal 
resort. As the Count of St. Paul ppsitively refused his consent 
to their meeting in Hem, they obtained permission in 1611 to 
remove their worship to Salouel, and there to build a temple. 
This, as already stated, was a small village on the Celle. It was 
within a fief appertaining to the widow of M. De Heucourt^ 
before named ; and there was nothing remarkable about it but a 
subterranean cavern, used as a refuge, it was said, as early as the 
ninth century. Strangely enough, the bishop and clergy assented 
to this measure, and on February 24th, 1612, half an acre of land 
was ceded to the Huguenots, upon which they erected their tem- 
ple. Here they long met for worship, under the pastorates of 
Le Hucher, La Cloche, Lauberan and Pinette; and to this day 
the by-road leading to it is known as the "Chemin du preche.'^ 
These pastors also labored at Havernas. There was another 
large and flourishing church gathered at Oisemont, a market 
town twelve miles south of Abbeville, where the Huguenots were 
strong. It was some eighteen miles west of Amiens, to which 
its royal provost was subordinate. In the time of our refugees 
this church enjoyed the labors of Rev. Jacques De Vaux, a 
native of Compiegne. One of its elders, living at Oisemont at 
the date of the passage of the Edict of Nantes, was David Des 
Marets, Sieur du Ferets. In 1625 he represented the church in 
the Provincial Synod, held at Charenton, near Paris. Beyond 
question our David Des Marest, who came from Picardy, was 
of this family, but how related we cannot say. 

Would we truly estimate the character of such men as 
Demarest, and Disosway, and Casier, and Cresson, and their real 
value to the community at Harlem, we should follow up the 
pageant last introduced, and admit the moral sublimity of that 
primitive worship, with its power to mould the life, — the fervid 
invocation, the holy song, set to the metrical psalms of Clement 
Marot; the simple Gospel, clothed in the warm, persuasive elo- 
quence of the times, which raised the soul heavenward. We 
would also note the activity and zeal which pervaded the Hugue- 
not churches, and the watchfulness over the walk of the mem- 
bers, which so contributed to soundness of faith and purity of 
fife. 

We might show, were it needful, how this active moral ele- 
ment was effectual for good upon the very society by which it 



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62 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

was scorned and derided; how the trammels upon thought and 
speech had to a great degree been thrown off, in regard especi- 
ally to politics and religion, — subjects once tenderly touched 
upon, but now handled with an astonishing boldness. What 
latitude was taken in the doctrinal disputes between the Hugue- 
not pastors and Catholic prelates, so rife at this period! How 
the popular mind was awakening to the necessity of religious 
reform, and even showing itself among the old clergy, as in the 
earlier days of the Reformation! But alas! it now went little 
beyond efforts to render external rites more impressive, or to 
make the rules of monastic life more austere. A step in the right 
direction was taken at Amiens by Jean De Labadie, later an 
avowed Protestant and founder of the Labadists, of Wieward, in 
Friesland, some of whom visited Harlem five years after his 
death, which took place in 1674. In 1640, Labadie, by invitation, 
preached at Paris. Among the crowds drawn to hear him was 
Bishop Le Fevre, who, charmed with his zeal and eloquence, made 
him a canon in the cathedral. Here Labadie, imbued with the 
evangelical spirit, urged upon his parishioners to read the Scrip- 
tures, and caused many copies of the New Testament in French 
to be distributed ; while his sermons upon repentance, grace, and 
predestination awakened profound interest. But his views were 
severely censured by the clergy and by the Sorbonne; so, after 
a few years' service at Amiens, in which also he had not been 
sparing of the Jesuits, the clamors against him forced him to 
leave. The excitement stirred up by Labadie in the end reacted 
upon the Reformed, to whose "pernicious teachings" his ^'heresy" 
was imputed. 

Picard society was always exceedingly impressionable and 
excitable. But at Amiens its good and bad elements assumed the 
most positive forms. It was a centre of political factions and 
sinister plots; and it was this spirit, long fostered among the 
nobility, that arrayed itself against the ministry of Concini; only 
just failed, in 1636, to assassinate Richelieu during the siege of 
Corbie; and, in 1649, plunged his successor, Mazarin, in the war 
of the Fronde: a war, by the way, in which the Huguenots, by 
keeping neutral, won praise from this minister. 

But with a people, or society, so irascible, it made an element 
in the dangers which beset the Reformed; dangers which were 
now daily thickening by reason of the cruel proscription de- 
signed to crush them. And religious antagonisms needed but 
slight incentive to leap forth into activity. If the Huguenots, 
when assailed by brute force dared stand and defend themselves. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 



63 



it often led to a bloody collision such as that which obliged one 
of our refugees to escape for his life. Daniel Tourneur, with 
other Reformed (according to Toumeur's version of it, — which 
we see no reason to question), had been attending a burial at 
Amiens, when some of the Catholics made a wanton attack upon 
them. The pretext we know not; but Huguenots were de- 
barred from. using the common cemeteries. However, Tourneur, 
young and spirited, — in his veins the blood of the old Picard lords 
De Tourneur, one of whom had fought under William the Con- 
queror at Hastings, — drew his sword, as did others, in self-defense, 
when some of the assailants were slain. Tourneur being charged 




Cathedral and Cemetery of St. Denis, at Amiens. 

with the death of one Tilie Maire, he found it best to take a 
sudden leave. Marc Disosway, who seems to have known of 
this affair at its occurrence, made quite a stir about it at Harlem 
in after years, when he and Tourneur happened to be at variance. 
The breaking out of war between France and Spain in 1635 
caused a considerable influx of Protestant refugees into Eng- 
land, from Picardy, Artois, Hainault and Flanders. Involving 
these provinces in all the perils and disasters of a pitiless border 



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64 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

warfare, and lasting nearly the fourth of a century, it resulted 
in the conquest of Artois, and parts of Flanders and Hainault, 
and their annexation to France. Begun by Louis XIIL, jointiy 
with the Dutch (these agreeing to divide the Spanish Nether- 
lands between them), this war opened adversely to the French, 
for the enemy at once invaded Picardy, overran Thierache, and 
captured Corbie, on the Somme, only nine miles above Amiens. 
In terror the inhabitants of the villages fled with their goods 
into the cities, while the Spaniards, marking their course by 
burnings and massacres, stopped only at the Oise, which they 
could not pass, as the bridges had been broken down. But the 
energy of Richelieu soon turned the tables; for, retaking 
Corbie, he drove the enemy back across the border, and began 
those aggressive movements which, followed up by Louis XIV., — 
after the disasters of the Fronde were repaired, — added, as before 
said, a large domain to France, secured to her in 1659 by the 
treaty of the Pyrenees, and which she has ever since held. 

Although hostilities were so soon transferred to the enemy's 
soil, Picardy was now called upon to maintain garrisons for the 
defense of her extended frontier, and to marshal her forces for 
the seat of war, whence came almost daily some new and alarm- 
ing rumor; a state of things especially disheartening to the 
Huguenots, whose trials before were great enough. With no 
incentive to enter the army in a war waged only for conquest, — 
and to add strength to the despotic arm which was crushing 
them, — it naturally proved a turning point with those who now 
left the country. Their nearness to the Low Country border 
offered the Huguenots of Picardy every facility for escape, as 
did also their several seaports and the long range of coast, fre- 
quented only by fishermen, whose boats often aided fugitives to 
get away when obliged to shun the publicity of the town. Num- 
bers, for sufficient reasons, took the weary and hazardous journey 
through Belgium to Holland ; many going by way of the Ver- 
mandois forests, and resting at Bohain, a little city of wool- 
workers twelve miles northeast of St. Quentin, where were many 
Huguenots ; so fleeing across the Cambresis, or Hainault.* Our 
Demarest and Cresson, Disosway, Tourneur, Le Roy, and others 
from the Amienois and Ponthieu, had the choice of those routes, 
but which they took is left to conjecture. Calais, then the 
extreme northern outlet of the kingdom, at an inviting prox- 

• Jean Cottin, of New York, meichant, who died quite aged, in 1721, was a fugi- 
tive from Bohain, where he left a brother Daniel and sister Susannah, married to 
Louis Libot. He intrusted by his will £36 to Peter Van Oblinus and Samuel Waldron, 
of the town of Harlem; "the income thereof to be yearly employed for and towards 
the maintaining of their minister of the Dutch Protestant Church there." 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 65 

imity to the shores of England, and its people partly of that 
nation, — which had ruled it for over two centuries, till it was re- 
covered in 1558 by the French under the Duke of Guise, — was 
also strongly Protestant, and therefore a great resort for escaping 
refugees. Our Philip Casier was from this place, as was also 
his son-in-law, David Uzille. 

While many left Picardy, the French advance and successes 
in Hainault and Artois were causing a larger migration of the 
Protestant Walloons; and among these also a number whose 
destiny led them to Harlem. We can make but brief allusion to 
such events, military or otherwise, in their respective localities, 
as seemingly influenced their removal. 

Landrecy, on the Sambre, was the first place invested and 
taken by the French on beginning the invasion of the enemy's 
territory, in 1637, and which they held, with adjacent places, for 
ten years. It was during this domination, so odious to the 
Walloons, that Simon de Ruine, living near Landrecy, removed 
with his family to Holland, from which place, fifteen years later 
he found his way to America. Through daughters married to 
Demarests, he has many living descendants. Jean Gervoe, another 
of the Harlem settlers, was from Beaumont, to the east of Aves- 
nes, then a county seat of the Duke of Arschot, but an old appan- 
age of the princes of Hainault. From Mons, the rich capital of 
this province, seated to the north of Avesnes, and within the coal 
region called the Borinage, came David du Four, of the same 
name, — and not improbably the same blood, as the martyr of Le 
Cateau, but whose posterity, which became numerous in his 
coimtry, changed the form of their name to Devoor and Devoe. 

Passing to the west of the Scheldt we find the homes of other 
of our refugees along the banks of the river Lys. The noble 
Scheldt, the boast and pride of Belgium, — rising in the edge of 
Picardy, behind the abbey of Mont St. Martin, and flowing to 
the north, or rather to the northeast, but upon several zigzag 
reaches or courses, — waters the western parts of the Cambresis 
and Hainault, and then, eastern Flanders, forming for some dis- 
tance the barrier between the latter and Brabant. It has passed 
m the meantime Cambray, at the head of navigation; Valen- 
ciennes, Conde, Tournay, — all Walloon cities, — Ghent and Ant- 
werp. At the latter, a hundred and twenty-five miles from its 
tead, — swollen by many tributaries, chief of which is the Lys, — 
the now puissant Scheldt turns northwest for fourteen miles, 
when it divides into two mighty arms, each of which rolls on 
still forty miles to the German Sea. These two broad estuaries. 



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66 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

taking the names of the East and West Scheldt, — ^the latter also 
termed the Hond, — form, in conjunction with the left arm of 
the Meuse, here called the Maas, the fertile Dutch islands of 
Schouwen and Walcheren, in Zeeland, both of interest to us as 
the home or place of sojourn of some of the Harlem colonists. 

Running parallel with the coast, and uniformly thirty miles or 
so therefrom, in a course very direct, the Lys parted Flemish 
from French, or Walloon, Flanders. It was navigated by light 
vessels all the way from Aire, in Artois, to Ghent. About cen- 
trally of the fertile plains between it and the Scheldt lay the 
city of Lille, with its teeming and busy population, the capital 
of French Flanders, and the great city and centre of the Wal- 
loons. Owing its origin to Lideric du Buc, the first Grand 
Forester or Count of Flanders, who, in 640, here built a castle, 
(only the shapeless ruins of which remained), but growing into 
significance as a town in the eleventh century, — when enlarged 
and walled by other of these counts, — Lille had become to the 
Walloons what Ypres, its great rival, which lay but fifteen miles 
northwest, was to the Flemings, — the chief emporium of their 
cloth manufacture. Round about it, and all in Walloon Flan- 
ders, were the large and handsome cities of Douay and Tournay, 
the small cities of Orchies, Armentieres, La Basse, St. Amand, 
etc., besides 193 boroughs and villages. Old towns, and famed 
for their industries, they formed the heart of the great woolen 
and linen country of preceding centuries; enjoying a prosperity 
almost fabulous, till Spanish tyranny and French conquest 
brought blight and ruin. The cruel expatriations thus caused 
gave to Harlem at least four families, who came from neighbor- 
ing places on and near the Lys.* Richebourg, a small city scarce 
noticed by gazetteers or maps, but seated fourteen miles west of 
Lille, on a small branch of the Lys and in the district of 
Bethune, within Artois, was the birthplace of our Glaude le 
Maistre, or Delamater. Delamater's family was from France, 
his immediate ancestor probably from Picardy, whence many 
families seem to have worked up into Artois ; and it is pretty cer- 
tain that Glaude, on leaving Richebourg, took the previously re- 
ferred to course of the Walloon migration to England. We doubt 
if many of these Walloons from Artois went to Holland at that 

• It is said ("Du Bois Reunion," pp. 32, 33) that the Peace of Westphalia, 1648, 
by maintaining the Catholic religion in the Austrian dominions, caused the emigration 
from Artois. But this emigration began years before, and at the date of that treaty, 
which did not restore peace between France and Spain, the former was in military 
possession of Artois. Nor could this province be affected by the pacification of 1648, 
in which the Spanish Netherlands were not included. It is plain that the emigrations 
referred to were not due to that treaty, but to the French invasion. (Sec "Bum's 
Refugees," I«ondon, 1846, p. 42.) 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 67 

time, — for which there was poor inducement for these Spanish 
subjects, — seeing the Dutch were then in league with their enemy 
the French, while the EngHsh held a neutrality, but leaned 
strongly to the Spanish side. In fact, by the threats of Eng- 
land, the Flemish ports were left unmolested till 1644, and from 
these that country was much nearer and more accessible than 
was Holland. Naturally enough, some of these fugitive Walloons 
retired at first into Flanders, hesitating, perhaps, to quit the 
country, as the state of the Protestants was somewhat improved 
under the more humane rule of Philip IV. The family of 
Oblinus, one well known in the early history of Harlem, fled 
from Houplines, two leagues northwest of Lille ; and that of De 
Pre, from Comines, a few miles below Houplines. Kortryk 
was a Flemish town yet further down the Lys, which within the 
previous century had witnessed cruel persecutions, and during the 
existing war, with its calamities, had changed hands four 
times in five years. But one of its families had escaped these 
last troubles by leaving some years before : we refer to the an- 
cestors of the Kortright, or Courtright, family, in its day one 
of the most wealthy in landed possessions in Harlem.* 

On the Flemish seaboard between Calais and the Hond, lay, 
distant a few miles apart, the several old strongly intrenched 
towns of Gravelines, Dunkirk, Fumes, Nieuport, Ostend and 
Sluis, the latter seated ten miles south of the Hond, within a 

• FamiW names were the exception and not the rule among our early Dutch 
colonists. The mass of people in Fatherland used onlv a patronymic, formed by adding 
to the child's Christian name that of the father, with the affix sen, or son; by which 
originated all names so terminating, as for example, Jan Jacobscn (meaning Jan, son 
of Jacob), or Pieter Jansen (Pietcr, son of Jan), and the like. In correct usage in 
•riting, the affix was often shortened to sc or z, and always in the case of females to s. 
Tins custom necessarily produced among the male descendants of the same progenitor 
4j^eat diversity of surnames, if we may, for convenience, so call them. Thus, Pieter, 
^jllem and Hendrick being sons of Jan Jacobscn, would be known as Pieter Jansen, 
^[jllcm Jansen, etc., while their children would be named respectively, Pietersen, 
Willemsen and Ilendricksen, and these names, in turn, each afford other varieties in 
the next generation. On the other hand, this use of the patronymic caused a frequent 
'ccurrcnce of the same name where no family connection whatever existed. The incon- 
venience thus arising, and particularly the liability of confounding persons of similar 
name, was partially obviated by the practice in vogue in Fatherlana, and kept up by 
oar colonists, both in familiar speech and in formal writings, of distingiiishing persons 
by their birthplace (not, as is now the usage, by the residence, except the one and the 
other were the same) ; as, for example, Jan Jacobscn Van Amsterdam, that is, J. J. 
from Amsterdam. This valued link connecting the colonists with his former home, 
it was in many cases directly to his interest to preserve. In Holland, as with us, the 
name of the place thus used often became the permanent family name, of which 
instances atiound. But it sometimes resulted that two or more brothers, born in differ- 
rat places, and from these deriving their respective surnames, gave rise to as many 
famiiics, whose common origin, after a few generations, none would ever suspect. In 
tnany cases the Van has been dropped; and often the name so changed as to disguise 
its origin, as those of Oblinus and Kortright. The first of these derived from 
Houplines; after emigration, probably in conformity to English utterance, became 
Oblinus, and by the usage before mentioned, was then, if not before, written Van 
OWinus. The Kortrights at first also used the Van. 

The subject of our Dutch family names is a curious one. as will be abundantly 
▼erified in the coming pages; and should be first well studied by those who undertake 
to compile Dutch geneadogy. See other remarks and a list of Dutch baptismal names, 
»ith their English equivalent, in "Annals of Newtown," page 265. 



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68 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

harbor on the German Sea, called the Paerdt-markt (Horse- 
market), from the noise of the elements during a storm sound- 
ing very like the neighing of horses. Ducing this century it cost 
the kings of Spain dearly to hold these seaports. Ostend, in 
particular, was taken by the Spaniards from the Hollanders, 
September 14th, 1604, after a terrible siege of over three years, 
in which there perished 80,000 of the former and 50,000 of the 
latter. A few days previous (August 19th) Sluis surrendered 
to Prince Maurice, after an investment of four months, the 
Spaniards having made vain efforts to relieve it. Peace reigned 
from 1069 to 1621 ; when Spain and Holland resumed hostilities. 
In 1635, as we have seen, France took part with Holland; but 
England interposed to keep these ports, — of so much benefit to 
her trade, — open for some years. However, the French, aided bv 
the Holland fleet under Admiral Tromp, took Gravelines in 
1644, and Dunkirk and Furnes in 1646. Mardyk was a rural 
hamlet midway between the first two places, three miles from 
either, where once stood a city claiming to be the famous 
Partus Issius, but, sacked and burned by the Normans, and, in 
1383, by the English, now consisted only of a church and a few 
cottages, which could hardly excite envy, looking out so unpre- 
tendingly upon the sand dunes and the sea. But, in common 
with all that border region, it was to suffer much from the con- 
tending forces. Fort Mardyk, in the vicinity, was seized by the 
French on their taking Dunkirk. After six years they were 
driven out of the fort and both towns by the Archduke Leo- 
pold, Governor of the Low Countries; but the French again 
became masters of all in 1658, conferring Mardyk, with Dunkirk, 
upon the English, now their allies, who, in 1662, restored both to 
the French, whence Mardyk fell under the iron rule of Louis 
XIV. Meynard Journee, a young man born here, withdrew 
during these troublesome times, and after wandering up and down 
the Rhine, appears at Harlem, and finally on Staten Island, found- 
ing there the reputable family of Joumeay. 

Bruges was the last Flemish town as one approached the 
Dutch border, distant eight miles from the coast and ten south 
of Sluis. Very ancient, too, it was the veritable godfather of 
Flanders, to which it had given a name, originally Vlonderen, a 
Flemish term equivalent to Bruges (or Brugge, that is Bridges, 
as its Dutch people called it), and which it early took, from the 
many bridges in the town and environs. Once among the most 
commercial and opulent of the Netherland cities, it dared defy 
the Emperor Maximilian, whose vials of wrath vented upon it. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 69 

and its troubles under Alva, with the rivalry of its neighbors, 
Ghent and Antwerp, had ruined its industries. It was six years 
imder Protestant rule, but on May 22d, 1584, submitted to the 
King of Spain. By degrees its Protestant population forsook 
it; and so did the good Jan Tibout, the Tiebout ancestor, for 
a dozen years town clerk and voorleser at Harlem, and also Joost 
Jansen Kocku\i:, who belongs to its history. 

Sluis was made very secure by the Dutch, after being 
wrested from the Spaniards in 1604, the latter trying in vain 
to retake it in 1621, on the renewal of the war at the end of 
twelve years' truce. Its gardens and bleaching grounds told 
the useful occupations of its people; but its air was so malari- 
ous, as in all that flat country, that strangers could not well 
abide there, even its garrison having to be changed every year. 
But it was the nearest Dutch town within reach of refugees 
from France and Flanders, and its strong walls offered them 
safety, so that many such, — and among them our Casier and 
Cresson, — found a temporary home here. Sluis castle had a 
reminiscence aflfecting to the refugees, for here the Admiral 
Coligny, taken by the Spaniards at the battle of St. Quentin, 
in 1557, was confined, and alone with his Bible in his cell, be- 
came a Protestant, going hence, indeed, to meet a cruel death 
in the St. Bartholomew, but not till he had nobly served the 
Huguenot cause, both in council and in the field. One who 
could wield with equal skill the sword of the Spirit came from 
Sluis at a later day : we refer to Guiliaem Bertholf , parish clerk 
at Harlem, before he entered the ministry to become the "Itiner- 
ating apostle of New Jersey.'** 

* Guiliaem Bertholf and his wife, Martina Hendricks Verwey, with letters from 
Sims, joined the church at Bergen, N. J., October 6, 1684. He lived at Ackquackneck. 
In 1690 he removed to Harlem, continued there about a year and a half, and soon went 
to Holland for ministerial ordination. On his return he became pastor at Hackensack, 
in which service he ended his days, in 1724. Indefatigable in his work, he labored 
extensively among the surrounding churches, several of which he was instrumental 
in forming. Mr. Bertholf had three children when he came to this country, viz.: 
Sarah. Maria and Elizabeth, all bom at Sluis; and afterward Hendrick, Corynus 
Jacobus, Martha and Anna. All were church members at Hackensack. Sarah married, 
1698, David D. Dcmarest; Maria married, 169^, John Bogart; Elizabeth married, 1699, 
John Terhune, in 17 18, Roelof Bogart; Hendrick married, 1707, Mary Terhune; Cory- 
nus married, 1718, Anna Reyersen; Martha married, 1713, Albert Bogart; Jacobus 
married Elizabeth Van Imburi^h; and Anna married, 1718, Abraham Varick, and in 
J 734. Peter Post. Some of this name we have known but to respect; an honor to an 
excellent ancestor. 



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CHAPTER IV. 



HOLLAND : THE DE FORESTS AND LA MONTAGNE. 



'T' H E final adieu to 
"^ Europe marked a 
crisis of no trifling im- 
port, a grand turning- 
point in the life and the 
destiny of our colonists. 
Cherished hopes of a 
return were seldom re- 
alized. That they were 
led to this decisive step 
by a wonderful series 
of providences, we have 
sought to show. So far 
as signal and of general 
bearing, these are mat- 
ters of common history ; 
if less fortunate in our 
search for special causes, 
limited to precise times, 
^places and individuals, 
we must plead the diffi- 
culties attending such 
minute inquiry. But while the craving for such details of per- 
sonal experience can be but partially satisfied, our gleanings of 
this description, reserved for the present chapter and the next 
following, will include some touching passages of refugee life 
in Holland and elsewhere. 

Holland, in natural features simply, had little that was 
winning: a boundless stretch of low pastures, which, walled in by 
lines of dykes, both from the sea and the internal network of 
sluggish rivers and artificial watercourses, formed the tame sur- 
rounding of the Zuyder Zee. The latter, the delight of the 
Hollander, of whose imperturbable nature its broad, glassy bosom 
in its unruffled repose presented a fit emblem, was changed from 




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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 71 

a lake to an inland sea by an inundation in 1282, which, break- 
ing through the narrow barrier on the north, united it with the 
German Ocean, but leaving, to guard its entrance, small patches 
of land, forming the Texel and several lesser islands. The Zuy- 
der Zee had on the west the peninsula of North Holland. On 
the opposite side, which swept in a half circle from north to 
south, it washed the shores of Friesland, Overyssel, Gelderland 
and Utrecht; the latter reaching westerly to South Holland, 
which with North Holland composed but one province. In the 
last-named was Amsterdam, the rich commercial emporium of 
the Dutch, seated in the mouth of the Y, an arm, or inlet, of 
the Zuyder Zee. With these five districts, which nearly encir- 
cled this inland sea, the Seven United Provinces also numbered 
Groningen, to the east of Friesland ; and Zeeland, lying between 
South Holland and Flanders, but broken into several islands by 
the outlets of the Maas and Scheldt. Groningen, with Drenthe 
next southerly, and then Overyssel (of which Drenthe was 
usually reckoned a part), formed in conjunction with Zutphen, 
a section of Gelderland to the south of Overyssel, the great 
eastern boundary of the United Provinces along the German 
circle of Westphalia. 

With all its monotony of landscape, Holland, even in the 
time of our colonists, bore witness to the indefatigable industry 
of its people, in its vast system of canals, extensive dykes and 
drainage, and thorough cultivation; the neatness and thrift of 
its towns and villages, and its incessant activities, domestic and 
maritime. Scarce enough of resemblance was found to ally it 
to the parent country we have so fully described; so striking 
was the difference, both in the temper of its people, and in the 
matters of government and religion; for in all that was essential 
to render its people both free and prosperous, the happy release 
from the double yoke of Spain and the papacy had wrought 
here a marvelous transformation. Its antique cloisters were 
now applied to secular uses, its venerable churches and cathe- 
drals devoted to the Reformed service, its dingy castles the merest 
relics of an expiring feudalism. And if the scarred walls of its 
cities told the tragic story of a recent desperate struggle, innu- 
merable crafts plying upon its canals and rivers, and shipping 
crowding every seaport, as plainly witnessed to its present pros- 
perity. Its glory now was in being free; the recognized home 
of civil and religious liberty! 

But however worthy our study, Holland will now engage us 
only with reference to the homes or the movements of the par- 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 73 

ticular persons whose checkered story forms a part of the history 
we are writing. Every one of the United Provinces was repre- 
sented in the original community at Harlem, though the settlers 
from those provinces hailed chiefly from cities or villages on or 
near the German Ocean and the Zuyder Zee. Naturally, the great 
cities of Amsterdam and Leyden gave the largest number, the 
last-named place being situated but twenty-two miles southwest 
of the former, and at that day communicating with it by means 
of the Leyden Canal, the Harlem Lake, and the Y. 

Leyden was unexcelled for the beauty of its surroundings, 
as Dutch beauty went. It stood in the midst of the Rhineland, 
a fertile flat, aptly called the Garden of Holland. On these broad 
meadows grazed numerous herds, the district being famous for 
its superior butter and cheese dairies. Directly environed by 
pretty villas and gardens, the city was inclosed by ramparts (since 
removed (around which ran a moat, crossed by seven draw- 
bridges leading to the city gates ; the approaches to these, arched 
with the foliage of overhanging trees, most agreeably impressing 
the visitor entering for the first time. The city was intersected 
by the river Rhine, which, rolling down from the classic Alps, 
through two hundred leagues of grandest highland scenery, but 
reft of force and volume by diversion in the lowlands, flowed 
placidly into the city in two branches, which uniting in one near 
the centre, slid on, six miles farther, to the German Ocean; it 
fed canals which traversed the town in all directions between lines 
of shade trees, and under numerous bridges. The thoroughfares 
were broad and cleanly, and the dwellings and shops, — built mainly 
of brick, and standing with gables to the street, — exhibited the 
true Holland style. The Dutch burghers and their vrouws were 
wont to resort for recreation to the shady walks upon the city 
walls ; or to the battlements of the Burg, an old castle or fortress 
rising from a mound in the centre of the town, at a point where 
the Old and New Rhine joined ; and which afforded a picturesque 
view, — rows of curious notched gables, belfries and church 
steeples, with a wide and charming outlook over the country 
beyond. With the advantage of a clear atmosphere (an unusual 
condition in that moist climate) the eye might roam westerly to 
the ocean, see southerly the masts of Rotterdam, easterly follow 
up the tortuous course of the Rhine, descry to the northeast the 
shipping of Amsterdam, and catch glimpses of that great inland 
ocean, the Zuyder Zee. 

Leyden had early become a principal refuge for the perse- 
cuted. Its brave and effectual resistance during the Spanish 



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74 



HISTORY OF HARLEM. 



siege, in 1574, gave it pre-eminence as a place of strength and 
security, and attracted to its gates the flying multitudes driven 
by oppression from other lands. Of these the Walloon refugees 
were by far the most numerous, and being welcomed by the 
magistrates and people, they formed a church in 1584, the burgo- 
masters, at their request, giving them the permanent use of an 
old edifice erected in the fourteenth century on the Haerlemstraat^ 
in the northern section of the city called Marendorp, and still 
styled as by its Catholic founders, the Lieve Vrouw Kerk, or the 
Church of the Virgin Mary. It was thence known as the French 
or Walloon Church. On a later influx of refugees, this building- 
being found too small for the large increase of communicants,, 
they were permitted to celebrate the Lord's Supper in the Gast- 

huys (or Almshouse) Kerk,. 
which stood convenient to 
the other, on the north side 
of the Breedestraat (the main 
thoroughfare running east and 
west through the city), and 
attached to the St. Catharine 
Gasthuys, which occupied 
grounds in its rear. In 1606 
the Walloons founded a col- 
lege, for the better training of 
their youth in their favorite 
Calvinistic theology, as the 
divinity school connected with 
the Leyden University, though 
now enjoying great patron- 
age, had become much distracted by the doctrinal contro- 
versy between its professors Gomarus and Arminius. Daniel 
Colonius, pastor of the Walloon Church, was made regent of 
the new college. The Walloons, nurtured, as we have seen, in 
the iron cradle of trial, bore with them into exile less wealth than 
virtue, but with the latter a remarkable degree of common sense 
and business energy. At Leyden their skill and industry soon 
told upon the commercial interests of the city, especially through 
the medium of the cloth trade, for which Leyden was now justly 
famed above all the other towns in Holland. Given its first im~ 
petus by Flemish artisans from Ypres, in the fourteenth century, 
the woolen manufacture had grown to such magnitude as to en- 
gross a large share of the activities of the citizens ; by more than 
three hundred busy hand-looms, turning out per annum fifty 




Walloon Church at Leyden. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 



7S 



thousand pieces of cloth — not to include flannels, carpets, baize,, 
etc., amounting in addition to over nine thousand pieces a year. 
The older part of Leyden contained four "vierendeels," or 
quarters ; which districts, surrounded by the several enlargements 
of the city, made from time to time, formed the central part of 
the town, and stretched along the Breedestraat, two upon 
the north side and two on the south. One of the latter, called 
the Woolhouse Quarter, was so named because within its limits, 
on the north side of the Steenschuur Canal, stood the Zaay Hall,, 
the great cloth emporium of the city of Leyden. This building, 
formerly, in popish times, a chapel of the St. Jacob brotherhood, 

had been vacated by 
this order, sold to the 
city, and for some time 
used for the storage 
of wool, whence it 
was called the Wool- 
house. About the 
year 1596, it was re- 
fitted and appropri- 
ated to the cloth trade. 
Here, before they 
could be sold, must 
be brought all the 
serges and camlets^ 
broadcloths, single 
cloths and gentry 
cloths, with some 
coarser sorts, which 
were made within 
the town, to be inspected and appraised, and have attached the in- 
dispensable "vent loot/' or official leaden stamp. And here re- 
sorted the cloth manufacturers and drapers of Leyden, — the for- 
mer to display and sell their goods, the latter to buy. From the 
'*zaays," or serges, the building took its name, the Zaay Hall. On 
every weekday in this great mart for trading was presented an ani- 
mated scene : the inspectors, as required by law, busily examining 
the white, black, or colored goods, to determine both quality and 
quantity ; the noisy klopper, with a blow affixing the proper stamp ; 
and the vociferous salesman, crying his price to the buyers who 
thronged the place ; while, interrupting the buzz of voices, the two 
clocks overhead faithfully struck the hour and half hour, and 
anon, the chime of small bells which also adorned the tower, to 




The Zaay Hall. 



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76 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

each its name, as the Weaver, the Dyer, etc., rung out a pleasing 
melody. 

Another district, called the Gasthuys Vierendeel (Almshouse 
Quarter), had on the north side the Rhine below the junction 
of its two branches, upon the south the Breedestraat, and to the 
east the Wanthuys Quarter. It took its name from the St. 
Catharine Gasthuys, which, with its kerk, before spoken of, stood 
within its limits, a little to the west of that antique and massive 
pile, the Stadt Huys, or City Hall. Through this quarter, along 
the west side of the Gasthuys kerk yard, a little street called the 
Vrouwsteeg (woman's lane) led northward across the Rhine 
to the Walloon Church, and was often devoutly trodden by the 
feet of the refugees. 

In the Gasthuys Quarter lived a Walloon named Jesse De 
Forest. He was one of the exiles from Avesnes, in the prov- 
ince of Hainault, as already noticed, driven by the perils of the 
times to take refuge at Sedan ; and whence the De Forests, after 
a sojourn there apparently of some years, had removed down 
the Maas to Holland. 

Jesse, Jean, Michael and Gerard, recognized as brothers, are 
found at Leyden, with a sister Jeanne, whose husband was one 
Cartier, from Columbier, France. The De Forests stood promi- 
nent among the French refugees. Jesse and Gerard, of whom 
only we shall need to speak further, were by occupation dyers. 
It was their subtle art which imparted beauty and value to those 
useful fabrics displayed and sold at the Zaay Hall. Gerard, 
whose birthplace was Avesnes, married at Leyden, on August 
I2th, 1611, a young lady of French parentage, but born here, 
Hester, daughter of Crispin and Agnes de la Grange, the latter 
now a widow. Surviving his marriage forty-five years, he was 
blessed with a goodly competence and in seeing his children 
respectably married at Leyden. His brother, Jesse, had brought 
a wife with him to Holland, Marie Du Cloux, whom he probably 
married at Sedan, as his eldest son was born there. Five children 
that reached maturity came of this union, namely, Jean, Henry, 
Rachel, Jesse and Isaac. More than once, however, had death 
invaded their circle, taking little Israel and Philippe from their 
fond embrace. Yet having, for love to God, forsaken country 
and kindred, they could accept these painful visitations as the 
salutary chastenings of an All-wise Father, teaching them the 
lesson of resignation to His will, and inspiring a faith to look 
upward and beyond. Diligent also in his vocation, which had 
long ranked among the ''Greater Arts,'* Jesse De Forest, in the 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. jj 

easy position of a master artisan, was one of a limited number 
having license from the magistrates "to dye serges and camlets 
in colors." It was a tribute to his skill ; for only the most expert 
and approved dyers were thus preferred, as on the beauty and 
pemianence of the colors so largely depended the reputation and 
success of the cloth trade of Leyden. Plying his useful art^ 
De Forest mixed his delicate tints, and among his steaming vats 
daily earned an honest living. His home was near the Walloon 
church, at which he and his Marie loved to offer up their devo- 
tions, and where from time to time they dedicated their offspring 
to God in baptism. 

But Jesse De Forest had again fallen upon perilous times. 
Leyden was at this date rent by popular discords, which affected 
the whole country, but this city in particular. While the peo- 
ple of Holland were crushed and humbled by the Spanish war, 
and had to struggle for existence, they showed, as we have seen, 
the deepest sympathy for the victims of oppression who fled to 
their country for refuge. But once in the flush of enjoyment of 
peace and prosperity, and forgetful of their former trials, feelings 
of national pride prompted them to draw lines of social distinc- 
tion, especially between themselves and the foreign population, 
insomuch that the refugees now began to be eyed with contempt, 
treated as inferiors, and often refused employment. This intoler- 
ant spirit was also fostered by the parties and feuds which had 
spnmg up in church and state. The old dispute about predestina- 
tion, which had arisen among the professors at the University, 
had proceeded from the schools into the pulpits, and the peo- 
ple readily took sides. Hence the controversy spread far and 
wide. The pastors of the various churches, as well as their flocks, 
became sorely at issue, many of both classes embracing the Ar- 
minian views; those holding these opinions being called Remon- 
strants. The famous Synod of Dort, convened November 13th, 
1618, on account of these dissensions, remained in session for 
over six months, and handled the Arminian preachers with great 
severity. Its action being sustained by the government, a general 
cnisade against the Remonstrants was instituted, and a large 
number of their ministers, men of undoubted talent and piety, were 
deposed and driven from the country. The Synod of South Hol- 
land, which met at Leyden in July following, though numbering 
but thirty ministers and ten elders, expelled about sixty Remon- 
strant preachers, who refused to subscribe to the canons adopted 
by the Synod of Dort. Many of this proscribed sect left the 
country, a part of whom retired to Denmark, and by favor of 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 79 

the Duke of Holstein, founded the town of Frederickstadt, in 
162 1, though, the troubles over, most of them returned to their 
native country. 

At Leyden, where prior to the Synod of Dort the new sect 
had gained a multitude of adherents, including some of the city 
magistrates, everything was now done to suppress them. Ejected 
from their churches, they met for worship in a private house, 
only to be driven out by a mob. In vain they prayed the magis- 
trates to allow them the public exercise of their religion, urging 
that the Lutherans, English Puritans, and even the Jews, enjoyed 
that right unmolested. A burgher at whose dwelHng they as- 
sembled upon a night in August was heavily fined, and expelled 
from the town for a year. Two months later a zaay-weaver, 
for having a meeting at his house, was mulcted two hundred and 
twenty-five florins, stripped of his rights as a freeman, and ban- 
ished from Leyden and the Rhineland. Sortie of the citizens were 
fined and imprisoned for collecting money in aid of the exiled 
pastors. 

At the University a change was made in the faculty, by the 
removal of all the professors who were Remonstrants, and the 
appointment of approved Calvinists. Even after their ejectment 
they were followed with a malevolence which is in strange con- 
trast with our ideas of toleration. And it was but the culmination 
of this same politico-religious persecution that brought to the 
block that venerable and pure-minded patriot Oldenbarneveldt, 
May 13th, 1619, while the Synod was yet in session at Dort, — a 
cruel episode of the war upon the Remonstrants, and which 
thrilled the nation with horror. The severity toward that sect 
did not cease for some years after; several executions took place 
at Leyden, and this town was the last to grant them toleration. 
These party strifes and public tumults having a tendency to un- 
hinge society, to fetter speech and conscience, to check the indus- 
tries of the people and make a livelihood more difficult, greatly 
disquieted all classes, but more especially the foreign refu- 
gees. 

While these things were transpiring, there attended the Wal- 
loon church a young Frenchman, who was a boarder in the 
family of one Robert Botack, a shoemaker on the Voldersgraft, 
and who was studying medicine under the learned Heurnius at the 
University, where he had been registered as a student November 
19th, 1619, in the Latin style, Johannes Monerius Montanus, or 
as in French, Jean Mousnier De La Montague. His surname 
might betoken social rank, or, as already suggested, point to a 



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8o HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

family origin in La Montagne, or both, yet without doubt 
connects him with 'the talented family of that name which 
became so distinguished in the fields of theology, medicine, and 
literature, during the sixteenth century. Himself, as before 
seen, a refuge from Saintonge, he was twenty-four years of age 
on entering the University. It was directly after the aforesaid 
change in the faculty had taken place, — a change much approved 
by the French families, who as Calvinists were opposed to the 
former regime; and which may have had its weight with Mon- 
tagne in going thither, but more likely the better facilities aforded 
by a new edifice, with the other and peculiar advantages which 
a membership conferred.* 

The University building stood in the southwestern part of 
the city, upon the west side of the street and canal called the 
Rapenburg, where it was crossed by the Nun's Bridge, upon the 
lane running east and west known as the Kloksteeg. The build- 
ing (a very plain structure, formerly a cloister of the White 
Nuns), being nearly consumed by fire November ii, i6r6, had 
been rebuilt with more elegance and better accommodations, and 
adorned with a spire and clock. 

From the eastern windows of the University, looking down 
the Kloksteeg, could often be seen a company of English dis- 
senters, assembling for worship at the dwelling of their pastor, 
John Robinson, on the south side of the street, opposite St. 
Peter's Church. Here were wont to gather the pious Carver, 
and Brewster, and Brewer, and Bradford, Winslow and Stan- 
dish, and many others of the 'Tilgrim Fathers," to receive the 
word of life, "enjoying,** says one of them, "much sweet and 
delightful society and spiritual comfort together, in the ways 
of God.'* Many of these persons working at honest employ- 
ments connected with the staple manufacture of the city, such 
as weavers, carders, dyers, etc., were almost as well known as 
was their pastor, Robinson, who was a constant visitor at the 
University, and a reader at the library, and who being "versed 
in the Dutch language," had "procured him much honor and 
respect," in the pulpit of St. Peter, by his defense of Calvinism 
in the recent discussions. And at the time Montagne entered 
the University, the affair of Brewer and his associate Brewster 
was in everyone's mouth. These worthy men, in a room near 

• Montagrne's age warrants the belief that he had finished a course of study else- 
where before coming to Leyden, and now attached himself to the University, as was 
a common practice, for professional improvement, as well as to secure other benefits 
and immunities which such connection conferred. All thus entering were termed 
students; and so Montagne was always enrolled "student of medicine," though his 
membership was three times severed and as often renewed in seventeen years. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM, 8i 

Robinson's house, were engaged in printing religious books for 
the English dissenters. Being complained of by Sir Dudley 
Carleton, the English ambassador at the Hague, it devolved upon 
the University of which Brewer was a member to investigate 
the matter. The accused persons being exonerated, the affair 
was eclipsed by the graver agitations of the times; yet the fears 
which it excited gave spur to a movement now contemplated by 
the English congregation. 

Robinson and his flock, feeling ill at ease in Leyden, had been 
led "both deeply to apprehend their present dangers, and wisely 
to foresee the future, and think of timely remedy." Having 
resolved upon a removal to some other place, they were look- 
ing toward America as their future home. But several years 
were spent in fruitless negotiation for aid with "The Virginia 
Company of London," and "The New Netherland Company" at 
Amsterdam. At length, obtaining the needed assistance from 
private sources, a good portion of the church, "the youngest 
and strongest part," after a farewell meeting at Robinson's house, 
departed from "that goodly and pleasant citie," July 21st, 1620, 
to embark at Delft Haven. "They that stayed at Leyden," says 
Winslow, "feasted us that were to go, at our pastor's house, 
being large, where we refreshed ourselves after tears with sing- 
ing of psalms, making joyful melody in our hearts, as well as with 
the voice. . . . After this they accompanied us to Delft 
Haven." 

So remarkable an exodus, its preparation, object, and destina- 
tion, being generally known throughout the city, had its influ- 
ence upon others, who like the former, "pilgrims," wearied and 
alarmed by the prevailing disorders, were casting about for a 
better home. It especially affected the French and Belgian 
refugees, to whom another cause of apprehension now presented 
itself. This was a threatened war with Spain, which, reviving 
gloomy recollections of former trials, set many to planning some 
way of escape from the dreaded atrocities of war, to which they 
were likely to be again exposed. Hence the subject of a removal 
to America began to be agitated also among the Walloons at 
Leyden, whose numbers were now daily and largely increasing 
by the arrival of other refugees, impelled by their fears to leave 
the southern provinces; and many needed only the necessary 
means or guarantees of protection, etc., to induce them to emi- 
grate. Of the number pledged to do so, were Jesse De Forest 
and his family, with two named Mousnier, or La Montague, kins- 



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82 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

men, one of whom was our Jean, "student of medicine," and the 
other an "apothecary and surgeon," like the former, single, and 
probably his brother. 

For many years efforts had been making in Holland, by the 
more wealthy Walloon and other Belgian residents, to organize 
a "West India Company," to open up a trade with America. 
During the truce with Spain this project had slumbered, but was 
revived on the prospect of a renewal of the war; the States- 
General being now ready to encourage the formation of the com; 
pany, whose reprisals upon the settlements and commerce of the 
common enemy, by means of its armed vessels, would help to 
weaken his power. 

But the company met with various hindrances, even after 
obtaining its charter in 162 1, not the least of which was the 
want of sufficient capital. Tracts "for the instruction of the 
public," with which the press literally teemed, many from the 
forms of Elzevier, the University printer, set forth the grand 
undertaking in glowing terms, and urged the people to invest. 
But still subscriptions came in slowly; great doubt and uncer- 
tainty hung over "the long-expected West India Company" ; inso- 
much that when, in 162 1, the Walloons began, in imitation of 
Robinson's people, to make plans for their contemplated 
emigration, the hope of aid from this source, especially in 
the tame work of planting a colony, was too faint to be seri- 
ously entertained. Therefore they resolved to apply to the 
English ambassador at the Hag^e in regard to emigrating to 
Virginia. 

Jesse De Forest, whose standing among the Walloons and 
interest in the enterprise, marked him as a suitable person 
to present a letter of inquiry in their behalf, had been 
full twenty years in Holland, and well understood the 
condition and needs of his countrymen, as also their 
peculiar views and aims in respect to this moVement, 
upon which so much was depending. In an ably drawn 
communication to Sir Dudley Carleton, about the first 
of August, 1621, he asks whether His Majesty of Eng- 
land will permit fifty or sixty families, Walloons and 
French, all of the Reformed religion, to settle in 
Virginia; will aid them with an armed vessel to make 
the voyage; will guarantee them protection in their 
persons and religion; grant them land to cultivate, 
and allow them to form a town and enjoy various specified 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 83 

rights and privileges pertaining to the soil and to a free com- 
munity.* 

These inquiries being forwarded to England, were referred 
by the king to the directors of the Virginia Company, who, on 
August I2th, 1621, gave "so fine an answer," — in the words of 
a letter conveying the news to their agent in Virginia, — "as we 
consider they will resolve to go." But the Walloons thought 
otherwise, for as the company "were contented to receive them 
upon certain conditions," and these quite different from their 
own, and could promise no aid in the way of providing ships, it 
virtually amounted to a refusal. 



jfe/* ^' 



"■J^'^ 



Autograph of Jesse de Forest. 
From an original of 1621, in the State Paper Office, London. 

Jesse De Forest continued his calling, and when the people 
of Leyden were registered for a poll-tax in the autumn of 1622, 
the dyer, with his family, numbering his wife and five children, 
and their maid-servant, Margariete Du Can, still lived on the 
Breedestraat, within the Almshouse Quarter. The great theme 
which had absorbed his mind, — ^America, — was nevertheless not 
forgotten. Anon this wish of his heart was to be realized, but 
in an unexpected way. 

The West India Company had so far succeeded in its organi- 
zation, and in raising the necessary amount of capital, as to 
begin operations, through its board of managers, chosen Septem- 
ber 17th, 1622. Under its patronage, and bound to a term of 
service, a company of Walloons, with their families, sailed for 
New Netherland early in the succeeding March; but De Forest 
and the Montagues declined to accompany them, as did most of 
those who had subscribed to the Virginia project. This was not 
the inviting plan of free colonization which De Forest had pro- 

* Dc Forest's letter, translated by Dr. O'Calla^han from the French copy in the 
Broadhead papers, is printed in "Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the 
State of New York," vol iii, p. 9. The signature, as in the copy, is there erroneously 
printed Jose De Forest; see aoove, facsimile of the original autograph, from a tracing 
obligingly sent me by Mr. W. Noel Sainsburyj of Her Majesty s dtate Paper Office, 
London. The closing paragraph of this letter, in the original, reads thus: 

' Sur ce que dessus mondict Seigneur I Ambassadeur donnera avis s'il luy plaist 
comme aussi, si son plaisir de faire expedier le diet privilege en forme heur le plustost 
que faire se pourra a cause du peu de temps qui reste d'icy au Mars (temps commode 
pour femharquement) pour faire I'acceuil de tout ce qui est requis ce faisant obligera 
ses serviteurs a prier Dieu pour I'accomplissement dc ses saincts deseins et pour la 
sante et longe vie. "JESSB Bt Forbst." 



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84 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

posed; and though the adventure was attractive for its very 
novelty, nothing probably but their necessities would have in- 
duced any of the Walloons to accept so tame a servitude, con- 
sidering their natural aversion to restraint and love of personal 
freedom. A new purpose soon usurped his mind, — perhaps it 
had already, — and the fortunes of Jesse De Forest were to take 
a sudden turn. 

The lone ship dispatched with the Walloons, and other ves- 
sels sent out by the company soon after to the West Indies, were 
designed merely to secure possession of the country, and to fore- 
stall the trade. The grand business in hand was the conquest 
of Brazil. Invested with the control of the Dutch possessions 
in Africa and America, with ample powers to trade with and 
colonize those countries, expel the Spaniards, and prey upon their 
commerce, the company now began the most extensive prepara- 
tions to this end. The dockyards of Holland resounded with the 
noise of busy workmen, and loud was the call for seamen and 
soldiers to man the fleet. At length, a powerful armament was 
ready to sail. On December 2rst and 22d, 1623, nineteen ships 
of war left the Texel and the Ems, with the Admiral Jacob Wille- 
kens, joined the next day by three more from the Maas, making 
twenty-two vessels of war destined to operate against the Spanish 
settlements in the West Indies and Brazil. This expedition, de- 
signed also to cripple the maritime power of Spain, and ultimately 
compel her, if not to yield her control of the Low Countries, at 
least to grant civil and religious rights to the inhabitants, and the 
restoration of their sequestered estates to the refugees, was in 
high favor with the Walloons, whose patriotism and martial spirit 
were aroused by this stirring call to arms. For some time Leyden 
had witnessed "nothing but beating of drums and preparing for 
war." Even the excellent Colonius, pastor of the Walloon church, 
had taken the field with Prince Maurice, the Stadtholder, against 
the Spaniards. And so Jesse De Forest, giving up his old occu- 
pation, enlisted in this gjand naval expedition to Brazil. He had 
latterly occupied a house with his brother Gerard, on the Mare, 
a canal running north from the Rhine to the city gate called the 
Mare Port. Gerard was to continue the business, but was licensed 
only to dye in black. Appearing before the burgomasters, Jan- 
uary 4, 1624, and stating that his brother Jesse had *'lately 
departed with the vessels for the West Indies," he requested to be 
appointed in his stead to dye serges and camlets in colors, as the 
number of dyers engaged in this specialty would not thereby 
be increased. And his request was granted. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM, 85 

But here the veil drops over the career of our De Forest. 
The summer was not quite ended when the yacht De Vos brought 
news of Willekens' success in Brazil, but no good news of De 
Forest. He seems either to have fallen at the siege of St. Sal- 
vador, or to have otherwise perished during that arduous service ; 
for the fact of his decease soon became known to his family in 
Holland. The sad tidings, as it reached Leyden, that Jesse De 
Forest, the dyer, was dead, must have caused many an honest 
regret ; but a deeper sorrow, within that small circle of bereaved 
hearts, the desolate widow and orphans, whose wants could no 
longer be met by his provident care. But the breach in the social 
circle caused by the departure of even so good and useful a man, 
— what was it in the grievous mortality which visited Leyden in 
the years 1624 and 1625? Years roll on; and those whom he 
left enjoy the fruits of his patient labor; but the voice of the lost 
husband and father comes back no more. Time buries alike his 
virtues and his foibles, and oblivion claims the memory of Jesse 
De Forest. Ah! not so; he still lives in his last ambitious ad- 
venture, to mould other destinies, which are yet in the unrevealed 
future. 

Near the time De Forest went abroad, our Jean La Mon- 
tagne, latterly a boarder, with other "students," in the family of 
Thomas Cornelisz, on the Breedestraat, in Meat Market Row, is 
found to have quit the University. The coincidence, and at a 
juncture when physicians were needed for the fleet, almost forces 
the conviction that he too had joined the expedition.* But per- 
haps he had merely retired from Leyden to avoid the plague, 
which, as intimated, made fearful ravages in that city in the 
two ensuing years. Leaving this to conjecture, as we must, it 
at least appears that, after having been gone for some time, Mon- 
tague returned to Leyden, and in order that he might continue 
his favorite studies, which had been interrupted by his absence, 
and also enjoy the various privileges of the University, which 
he seems to have valued very highly, was enrolled anew at that 
institution as a "student of medicine," July 7th, 1626. He had 
taken convenient lodgings with the widow De Forest, — now liv- 
ing on the Voldersgraft, the second street east of St. Peter*s 
Church, — whose only daughter, the fair Rachel, had already 
stolen his heart, and to whom*, with the approval of the family, 
as signified by her uncle Gerard, who was present, Montague 
was united in wedlock by the pastor of the Walloon Church, De- 

• One La Montagnc, captain in the Dutch service in Brazil, was killed in the 
Portuguese assault upon Fort Hinderson, 1646. 



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86 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

cember 12th, 1626. Living so near to St. Peter's, one of the 
principal churches in the city, it was here during the following 
year that they had the joy to present for baptism their little son, 
Jolant, their precious first-born, but alas ! destined soon to be taken 
from them. 

Holland was now overflowing with people, all intent on mak- 
ing a Uvelihood, but "where one stiver was to be gained there 
were ten hands ready to receive it." Many, on that account, 
were leaving that country in search of other homes, where they 
might find better opportunities, and obtain a living more easily. 
The possessions of the Dutch in America, known as New Neth- 
erland, presented to such persons special advantages, and very 
alluring was the offer of the West India Company to grant each 
colonist as much land as he should be able to cultivate. So, while 
many of the sturdy sons of Holland were turning their faces 
thitherward, the subject was daily becoming of wider and more 
practical interest. 

Often might have been noticed, poring over the musty tomes 
at the University library, a person of studious mien, known as 
Johannes De Laet, one of the several directors of the West India 
Company, who resided at Leyden. An elder of the church, and 
distinguished for learning, moderation, and probity, De Laet 
enjoyed the public confidence ; and the two Synods of North and 
South Holland, by selecting him to write an ecclesiastical history, 
paid a high tribute to his judgment and impartiality. His pro- 
lific pen had done much to familiarize the public mind with the 
discoveries of the Dutch in America. One of his works, pub- 
lished at Leyden, entitled, "The New World ; or a Description of 
the West Indies," having been five years in print, appeared in an 
improved form in 1630, and gave the first full and authoritative 
account of New Netherland, awaking a lively interest not only 
in the circles of Leyden, but throughout Holland. 

While De Laet's first edition was yet in press, sundry letters 
had been received from the Walloons who had gone out in 1623 
to Manhattan and Fort Orange (Albany), in which they spoke 
in glowing terms of their new home, extolling its "beautiful 
rivers and bubbling fountains," the excellence of its soil, and 
the abundance of its timber, fruits, game, and fish ; then, urging 
their friends to come out with their families and enjoy the benefits 
of a country which fairly rivaled "the paradise of Holland." 

The natural effect of these letters* was to induce not a few 

♦ Quoted in the "Gcdenkwaardige Gcschicdenissen, zo Kerkelyke als Wereldlykc/' 
or "Remarkable Events, as well Ecclesiastical as Secular, from 1603 to 1624," bj Rev. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. - 87 

persons here and there forthwith to emigrate, while in many 
others was awakened a keen desire for fuller information, such 
as the work of De Laet was designated to gratify. The demand 
for the book became so great as only to be met by repeated edi- 
tions. With the original journals of Hudson and succeeding ex- 
plorers before him, many of the details presented were exceed- 
ingly entertaining. 

Opening De Laet's vellum-bound, attractive folio, fresh from 
the press of the Elzeviers, the reader presently found his atten- 
tion drawn to the extraordinary advantages and resources of the 
country around the Island of Manhattan, and bordering the Great 
River of the Mountains. "This land is excellent and beautiful 
to the eye, full of noble forest trees and grape-vines ; and want- 
ing nothing but the labor and industry of man to render it one 
of the finest and most fruitful regions in that part of the world." 

He then condenses the accounts given by "our countrymen 
who first explored this river, and those who afterward made 
frequent voyages thither." The trees are "of wonderful size, 
fit for buildings and vessels of the largest class. Wild grape- 
vines and walnut trees are abundant. Maize or Indian corn, 
when cultivated, yields a prolific return; and so with several 
kinds of pulse, as beans of various colors, pumpkins, — the finest 
possible, melons, and similar fruits. The soil is also found well 
adapted to wheat and several kinds of grain, as also flax, hemp, 
and other European seeds. Herbaceous plants grow in great 
variety, bearing splendid flower*, or valuable for their medicinal 
properties. The forests abound in wild animals, especially the 
deer kind ; with other quadrupeds indigenous to this part of the 
country. Quantities of birds, large and small, frequent the rivers, 
lakes and forests, with plumage of great elegance and variety 
of colors. Superior turkey-cocks are taken in winter, very fat, 
and the flesh of fine quality. Salmon, sturgeon, and many other 
kinds of excellent fish are caught in the rivers. The climate 
diflfers little in temperature from our own, though the country 
lies many degrees nearer the equator than the Netherlands. In 
winter the cold is intense, and snow falls frequent and deep, cov- 
ering the ground for a long time. In summer it is subject to 
much thunder and lightning, with copious and refreshing show- 
ers. Scarcely any part of America is better adapted for colonists 
from this quarter; nothing is wanting necessary to sustain life, 
except cattle, which can be easily taken there, and easily kept, 

W^ilbclmus Baudartius, of Zutphcn; printed at Arnhcm, 1624, in 2 vols, folio. See 
Doc. Hist. N. v., iv. 131. Baudartius was grandfather of our Wilhelmus Beeckman. 



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88 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

on account of the abundance of fodder growing naturally and 
luxuriantly. 

**The Indians are indolent, and some crafty and wicked, hav- 
ing slain several of our people. The Manhattans, a fierce nation, 
occupy the eastern bank of the river, near its mouth. Though 
hostile to our people, they have sold them the island or point 
of land which is separated from the main by Hellgat, and where 
they have laid the foundations of a city called New Amsterdam. 
The barbarians are divided into many nations and languages, but 
differ little in manners. They dress in the skins of animals. 
Their food is maize, crushed fine, and baked in cakes ; with fish, 
birds and wild game. Their weapons are bows and arrows ; their 
boats made from the trunks of trees, hollowed out by fire. Some 
lead a wandering life, others live in bark houses, their furniture 
mainly mats and wooden dishes, stone hatchets, and stone pipes 
for smoking tobacco. They worship a being called Manetto, are 
governed by chiefs called Sagamos, are suspicious, timid, re- 
vengeful and fickle; but hospitable when well treated, ready to 
serve the white man for little compensation, and susceptible of 
being imbued with religion and good manners, especially if 
colonies of well-ordered people should be planted among them, 
who would make use of their services without rudeness or abuse, 
and by degrees teach them the worship of the true God, and the 
habits of civilized Hfe." 

These accounts, here epitomized, were published in French, 
as well as in the vernacular tongue, and being eagerly sought for 
and read, proved a powerful incentive to emigration; turning 
the scale with many desiring a change in favor of that new 
country, whose superior advantages had been depicted with so 
graphic a pen. 

The same year in which the Walloon college was founded, a 
child was bom in the city of Leyden, of Walloon parents, who 
being well-to-do, no doubt educated him in that school of learn- 
ing. This was Henry De Forest, the son of Jesse, and the 
brother of Rachel. Bereft of his father while yet under age, he 
had looked to his uncle, Gerard, for needed counsel ; and there is 
pleasing evidence that the relations of the uncle and nephew were 
intimate and confiding. Time, with rapid flight and many a 
change, had ushered in the year 1636. Henry was now of the 
mature age of thirty years ; his brother Isaac, — an infant of four 
months when the bells rung for the great fire at the University, 
— had grown to be a young man of twenty; Jean, the eldest 
brother, a dyer by occupation, had recently taken a wife, and 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 89 

was living at the Hoogewoert in Leyden; while Jesse, the other 
brother, was spoken of tenderly, — he was dead. 

Since that memorable day when the elder De Forest left the 
shores of Holland, never to return, his family had felt no com- 
mon interest in all that related to America. The favorite theme 
of the social hour, it lent a fascination to their dreams. As 
seated around their smouldering turf fire they talked of the 
eventful past, and now of the flattering advantages to be en- 
joyed in New Netherland, — ^thought of the unwholesome air and 
prevalent agues of Leyden, and of the appalling scenes of the 
preceding year, when pestilence again raged around them, and 
many thousands of their neighbors and townsmen were swept 
off by the plague, — ^the two brothers, Henry and Isaac De Forest, 
resolved to turn their backs upon Holland, for a venture in New 
Netherland. There the tobacco culture now assumed new im- 
portance, and promised large profits to those who should engage 
in it, owing to the late failure of that crop in Virginia, as reported 
by vessels which had returned the preceding fall from James 
River, mostly without cargoes. This then was their opportunity. 
Aided in their plans and preparations by their uncle Gerard, 
whose son Crispin, it would seem, intended to make one of the 
emigrating party, their project doubtless had all the encourage- 
ment and support to be given it by their influential cousin, Mr. 
Johannes Panhuysen, of Leyden, — married to a daughter of 
Gerard De Forest, — who was then a director of the West India 
Company, and represented Leyden in the Chamber at Amster- 
dam, in which office he had succeeded Johannes De Laet. The 
plan seemed complete when their only sister, Rachel, and her 
husband, Dr. La Montague, agreed to go; the doctor, under 
assurances of some preferment there, deciding to give up his 
practice, and his associations and membership at the University, 
which but lately, — that is, on March 3d, 1636, — he had renewed, 
as also his old home on the Kloksteeg, where he had for some 
years lived, at the sign of the Queen of Bohemia.* 

But all things were not yet ready; others who were deeply 
interested in these plans were to be consulted. Across the Zuyder 
Zee, on the west coast of Freisland, and between and extending 

* The Queen of Bohemia, a noble Christian woman, was long an exile in Holland, 
th«h object of profound respect and sympathy among all Protestants; hence her effigy 
open Montage's signboard. She was Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of Tames I. of Eng- 
land, and wife of rrederick V., Elector Palatine of the Rhine and King of Bohemia, 
who had been driven from his dominions by the Catholic powers in 162 1. He died in 
1632, leaving the Queen with a large family. Neal says they "were always the delight 
of the Puritans," the hope of Protestantism in England resting on their expected suc- 
ce^on to that throne; an event which happened not till 17 14, when a grandson of 
the Queen of Bohemia was crowned as George I. 



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90 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

nearly to the towns of Workum and Hindelopen, lies a pleasant 
grazing district called Nieuwlant. Here dwelt the respectable 
Dutch family of Bornstra, to one of whose members, a maiden 
of two-and-twenty years, named Gertrude, Henry De Forest 
was affianced. The same pleasing relations subsisted between 
her sister Margareta and Henry's cousin, Crispin. To marry, 
to leave the kindly covert of the parental roof, and go across 
the sea to a far country, — it was a bold adventure, to which the 
familiar passage of the Zuyder Zee, though that was often dan- 
gerous, was a trifling matter. But what confiding young bride 
ever refused to follow her Henry, wherever he might lead, and 
to feel safe under his protection ? And so it was agreed that the 
nuptials in both cases should take place at the same time, and 
in the seat of Dutch fashion, Amsterdam. Accordingly, on Sat- 
urday, June 7, 1636, the two happy pairs were there, and attended 
by Gerard De Forest, as voucher for his son and nephew, and 
having the written consent of the father of the brides, attested 
by Secretary Van Neck, of Nieuwlant, presented themselves in 
the chamber of the eminent regent and physician. Dr. Claes Tulp,. 
and Jacob Bicker, both schepens, or magistrates, of the city, and 
also the "Commissaries of Marriages," to have their bans regis- 
tered as required by law, and to request the usual publication 
of the same. Names, residence, age, etc., being then recorded,, 
and the record signed by the parties, this first public step toward 
their union, one so trying to bashful lovers, was taken. The 
next was to send notice to Leyden to have the bans published in 
the church on three succeeding Sundays; and this also having 
been done "without delay," the two couples, on Tuesday, July ist,. 
again attended by the father and uncle, Gerard, and by other 
friends, met in Amsterdam, and were married by Dominie Bau- 
dius, probably at the New Church, in the public place called the 
Dam, on whose register the event stands recorded. 

The social festivities, few and simple at that day, the parting 
visits to the dear old homes at Leyden and Nieuwlant, and busy, 
thoughtful preparation at both places for their coming departure, 
could not but wear a tinge of sadness, in view of their long 
and perilous voyage, and uncertain absence from kin and country. 
The kind uncle, Gerard, engaged two persons to accompany them 
in the capacity of farmer and farmer's boy, each of whom entered 
into a formal contract to "serve said De Forest, or his agent,, 
three successive years after arriving in New Netherland." The 
circumstances of Crispin De Forest's marriage, and the active 
part taken by his father in the preparations for the voyage, are 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 91 

reasons for the belief, before expressed, that he also intended 
to be of the party. If so, something changed his purpose during the 
long delay before the others sailed, and Crispin stayed at Leyden. 

The company yet consisted of Dr. La Montague and his 
wife, and three children, Jesse, Jean, and Rachel; Henry De 
Forest and his bride, and Isaac De Forest, with the assistants, 
Tobias Teunissen and Willem Fredericks Bout, both natives of 
Leyden. The last was a sturdy lad of sixteen years, perhaps an 
orphan, for his education had been neglected, but of a surname 
common there, and even distinguished. Teunissen, by trade a 
woolwasher, had reached middle life, having married in 1618. 
An attendant of St. Peter's Church, where he had several children 
baptized, and being known to the curators of the University as 
a trustworthy person, he was employed in 1622 as a nightwatch- 
man at that institution, for which he received six florins a week. 
But time had brought him sad changes, and having been bereft 
of his family, he now resolved to leave behind his native land 
and kindred, and, as he vainly hoped, also his adversities. 

Now arrived the long-expected day of embarkation, when 
hopes and fears, congratulations and farewells, smiles and tears,, 
strangely commingled. The party (except the Montague family, 
who for some reason deferred their going) set sail from the 
Texel for New Amsterdam, October ist, 1636, in the yacht Rens- 
selaerswyck, of which Jan Tiebkins was skipper, and carrying 
colonists to Fort Orange, in the service of the Patroon, Kilian 
Van Rensselaer, of Amsterdam. 

Interrupting for a space the story of these pioneers, let us 
note the movements of others in whom we are interested, who 
were led to follow upon the same adventurous voyage across the 
ocean. 




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CHAPTER V. 

EMIGRATION. 

A MSTERDAM, as the great commercial mart of Holland, 
"^ and the seat of the principal business chamber of the Dutch 
West India Company, had become the great point of embarka- 
tion for colonists going to New Netherland. They came from all 
parts of the country : not only the native Dutch, and fugitives from 
France and the Catholic Netherlands, but also refugees from the 
German and Scandinavian countries, multitudes of whom, ren- 
dered miserable by the Thirty Years' War, were seeking a home 
and employment in the United Provinces. Of these refugees the 
historian of Holland has drawn the character in happy terms. 
Says Davies : ''Nor was it more in the numbers than in the sort 
of population that Holland found her advantage. The fugitives 
were not criminals escaped from justice, speculators lured by 
the hope of plunder, nor idlers coming thither to enjoy the lux- 
uries which their own country did not afford : they were generally 
men persecuted on account of their love of civil liberty, or their 
devotion to their religious tenets. Had they been content to sacri- 
fice the one or the other to their present ease and interest, they 
had remained unmolested where they were ; it was by their activ- 
ity, integrity and resolution that they rendered themselves ob- 
noxious to the tyrannical and bigoted governments which drove 
them from their native land; and these virtues they carried with 
them to their adopted country, peopling it, not with vagabonds 
or indolent voluptuaries, but with brave, intelligent and useful 
citizens." 

Thus our Captain Jochiem Pietersen Kuyter, who had for- 
merly commanded in the East Indies for the king of Denmark, 
and who with his friend, Jonas Bronck, came out in 1639 by 
way of Amsterdam, was from Holstein ; as were also our Nicholas 
De Meyer and Jan Pietersen Slot, who arrived a few years later : 
all these being sterling men, and, except the last, well educated. 
The small county of Bentheim, — a part of Westphalia bordering 
on Overyssel, diversified with mountain ranges, forests, and fer- 
tile plains, and yielding to a laborious people more than they 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 93 

needed of cattle, wool, linen, honey, etc., all of which found in 
Holland a ready market, and whence had arisen a free intercourse 
between the two peoples, — furnished three colonists, whose sur- 
names yet survive with us, to wit, Adolph Meyer, Jan Dyckman^ 
and Arent Harmans Bussing, the last named of a family not 
unknown to fame in that country ; and two bore prenomens popu- 
lar in their part of Germany, — as among the rulers of Bentheim 
none were such favorites as the late counts Adolph and Arent. 
Other Westphalians found their way to Harlem, as Hendrick 
Karstens, from Oldenburg, whose sons were called Boch, or 
Bouck; Jan Terbosch, from Tellust, or Delmenhorst, whose de- 
scendants are numerous; and Jan Meynderts, from Jever, in 
Oldenburg, and the father-in-law of Barent Waldron. Kier 
Wolters, the Kiersen ancestor, who had lived at Gees and at 
Aernhout, two obscure villages in the "Groot Veenen," or desert- 
like fens of Drenthe, came out via Amsterdam; as did also our 
Benson ancestor, who was originally from Groningen. From 
VVorkum, on the coast of Freisland, came Captain Jan Gerritsen 
De Varies, or Van Dalsen, progenitor of the Dolsen family, of 
Orange County, whose blood may be traced in those of Waldron, 
Kiersen and Meyer. 

Amsterdam itself gave us of its resident families those of 
Waldron, Sneden and Verveelen, familiar names, yet found in 
this State and others, and to which the Slots and Bensons may 
be added. Dirck Benson, the ancestor, though himself from 
Groningen, as stated, had lived at Amsterdam, where he married 
Catalina, daughter of Samson Berck and Tryntie Van Rechteren ; 
whence the name Samson, so common in the Benson family. 
Benson came out about 1648. 

Also from Amsterdam was Hendrick Jansen Vander Vin. 
Well educated, and a good accountant, he was commended to 
the notice of the West India Company, and went under their aus- 
pices to Pernambuco, in Brazil, where he acted as clerk to the 
High Council of Justice at Maurits Stadt, a town built by the 
Dutch near the Reciff. Some fragments of his minutes kept at 
that place in 1646 are yet extant. He was there during the dis- 
mal period of the Portuguese conspiracy to extirpate the Dutch, — 
happily discovered and thwarted, — but which was followed by 
many reverses to the Dutch arms, and then by the surrender of 
Brazil to the rival power in 1654. Vander Vin had left some 
years prior to the final catastrophe, and returned to Amsterdam, 
resuming his business as a notary. But in 165 1 he went out to 
Manhattan Island to see the country. It pleased him so well that,. 



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94 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

returning for a stock of goods to set up trading in New Amster- 
dam, he again repaired thither in 1653, taking his good vrouw, 
Wyntie, to share with him the blessings and privations of his new 
home. He subsequently served fourteen years at Harlem as 
voorleser, and twelve of these as town clerk. 

Joseph and Resolved Waldron, sons of Resolved Waldron, 
of Amsterdam, were book printers. The family was English; 
the name, of repute in England from the time of the Conqueror, 
had spread through nearly all its southern tier of counties. But 
born and raised at Amsterdam, these brothers had acquired all 
the characteristics of Hollanders, having also married Dutch 
wives, the sisters Aeltie and Rebecca Hendricks, whose father, 
Hendrick Koch, was a respectable Amsterdam burgher. It is 
stated on pretty good authority that Resolved had made the 
voyage to Brazil, but of this we will not speak further here. 
Having the misfortune to lose his wife, he married again, on 
May loth, 1654, a lady of thirty years, living near the West 
India House, Tanneke Nagel, daughter of Barent Nagel, deceased, 
of Groningen. Resolved was living at this time in the Teerketels- 
steeg, a short street just north of the Dam; but the same year 
sailed with his family for America. His brother, Joseph Waldron, 
had preceded him to this country by two years, according to his 
son's reckoning. He also was accompanied by a second wife, 
Annetie Daniels, but twenty-five when he married her, at Amster- 
dam, April 4, 1649, she and Resolved's wife being of the same age. 

Near the time Resolved Waldron left for the Manhattans, the 
young John La Montague, who had spent seventeen years at 
the latter place, — indeed had grown up there, where he was highlv 
esteemed, and was now in business with Vincent Pikes, "both free 
traders in company," — arrived at Amsterdam in the ship King 
Solomon. Not only to visit his native land and kindred, — alike 
as strange and new to his eye as though he were an alien, — he 
came to buy a stock of merchandise, and also to sell a lot of to- 
bacco, of which he was consignee, and to invest the proceeds in 
goods for his uncle, Isaac De Forest ; but what more deeply con- 
cerned him, was to choose a wife, the fair one selected being Peter- 
nella, sister of his business partner, and daughter of Jan Pikes, 
of Amsterdam. The nuptial knot being tied by Pastor Meursius, 
at Slooterdyk, a village a mile from Amsterdam, on March 14th 
following (1655), La Montague sailed very soon on his return, 
he wife remaining till after the birth and baptism of her son 
John, which occurred late in the same year. 

Jan Pietersen Slot, before named as from Holstein, and 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 95 

ancestor of the respectable family of Slott or Sloat, of Orange 
County, and of Rockland, and the Ramapo Valley, came out with 
his children, bom and reared in Amsterdam, about the same time 
with Resolved Waldron; and Johannes Verveelen and Jan Sne- 
den followed them, in 1657. Sneden was descended from a 
family long at Amsterdam, and was accompanied to America by 
his wife Grietie Jans, two children, and brother, Claes Sneden. 
They sailed in the St. Jan Baptist, December 23d of the last- 
named year, — one which witnessed the departure of many colon- 
ists for New Amstel, on the Delaware, under the patronage of the 
City of Amsterdam, and among whom was Kier Wolters, father 
of the Kiersens, as before stated. 

Verveelen was born in 161 6, at Amsterdam, but of German 
stock, with an infusion of French, being a son of Daniel Ver- 
veelen, who, with his parents, Hans Verveelen and Catharina, 
daughter of John Oliviers, had some five years prior to the 
birth of Johannes removed to that city from Cologne, on the 
Rhine. Religious intolerance, which culminated in 1618 in the 
expulsion of all the Protestants from that town, had doubtless 
driven the Verveelens to Amsterdam. Here the son Daniel, born 
at Cologne in 1594, married in 1615, and became a "shopkeeper" ; 
and here also his son Johannes, the eldest of six children, was 
reared and educated, and in 1637 married Anna Jaarsvelt, by 
whom he had, all born in that city, three children, Daniel, Anna 
and Maria. The first of these, when a mere boy, preceded his 
father to New Netherland, under the care, we believe, of Dominie 
Gideon Schaets, one of whose daughters he married. After 
several years his father followed, bringing his wife and daugh- 
ters, and widowed mother, Anna Elkhout, aged about sixty-six 
years. 

Utrecht and Arnhem, cities on the Rhine, the latter within 
Gelderland, supplied settlers to Harlem. A hamlet near Amers- 
foort, in the province or diocese of Utrecht, gave us Jan Hen- 
dricks Van Brevoort, who came to this country in boyhood with 
his father, and from whom have sprung the reputable family of 
Brevoort. Several years later (about 1655) the head of the Van 
Tilburg family, Jan Teunissen, emigrated from Tilburg, in the 
Mayory of Bosch (or Bois le Due), in Dutch Brabant; and from 
the same district afterward came two other colonists whose pro- 
geny are numerous and respectable, to wit, David Ackerman and 
Dirck Storm, names not unknown at Harlem. Ackerman was 
from Berlikum. These, with other families, sailed from Amster- 
dam, September 2d, 1662, in the ship Fox, Captain Jacob Huys, 



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96 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

which also brought Jan Terbosch and Robert Le Maire, already 
named and identified with Harlem. 

The large emigration to New Netherland from the exposed 
borders nearest the Spanish possessions, and especially the insular 
district having on the south the river Waal, and on the north the 
Rhine and Leek, furnished Harlem with several substantial fam- 
ilies. Central of the district mentioned, upon the small river 
Linge, which empties into the Waal, stood the city of Leerdam, 
giving name to a county in which it was seated, — a level, graz- 
ing country, otherwise called the Prince's Land, because inherited 
by a son of William of Orange, from his mother, Anne of Eg- 
mont. To Leerdam had retired from the religious troubles in 
Flanders, as before noticed, the family of Sebastian, or Bastiaen 
Van Kortryk, about all we know of this Kortright progenitor, 
with his royal Spanish name. Two sons of Bastiaen, of whom 
we must speak, Jan and Michiel, were born at Leerdam ; but Jan 
married and settled farther up the Linge, at a busy little village 
within sight of Wolfswaert Castle, as also of the ruined abbey 
of Marenwaert, and called Beest, its bailiwick of the same name 
adjoining westerly to the Prince's Land, but within the Gelder- 
land border. The spirit of emigration reaching this locality, 
many of its people began to pack up and leave for New Nether- 
land, in which they had a safe precedent in no less a person- 
age than the village pedagague. Master Gideon Schaets, — much 
reverenced was he and looked up to in those days, — and who, 
in the spirit of his deceased senior, Mathias Bartholomeus Schaets 
(late pastor at Leerdam, who died four years before Gideon was 
born), after a course in theology, had gone thither with his 
family in 1652, under license from the Classis of Amsterdam, to 
preach the Gospel, and to fill "the office of schoolmaster for old 
and young.'* Among those, accordingly, who at length set their 
faces to follow their old preceptor to the New World, were two 
brothers, of Beest, sons of Peter Buys. Aert, the elder, with 
wife and son Cornelis, joining some families from that place, 
and single persons of both sexes, his friends and neighbors, set 
sail from Amsterdam May 9, 1661, in the ship Beaver, reaching 
Manhattan July 29th.* Two years later Johannes Buys joined 
his brother at Harlem. 

* Peter Marselis, his wife, four children and two servants; Frans Jacobson, wife 
and two children: Goosen Jansen Van Noort and Hendrick Dries were among those re- 
ferred to from Beest. The first two went to Bergen, N.J. ; the others, I believe, to 
Albanjr. (See Pearson's Albany Settlers.) Bries must not be taken for Hendrick Volkert- 
sen Bries, from Jever, in Oldenburg, who married at New Amsterdam in 165^, and whence 
came the Breese family of Long Island, Staten Island and New Jersey. Marselis died 
September 4, 1681, leaving descendants. Jacobsen, having a son Jacob Franssen, bom 
in 1664, died about that time, and in 1665, Cornelis Abrahams, from Deyl, near Beest, 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 



97 




SCHOONREWOERD. 

Michiel, or, as often called, 'Chiel Kortright, the other son 
of Bastiaen, had also married and been living in **the Prince's 
Land, near Schoonrewoerd" ; the latter a pretty village two miles 
northerly from Leerdam, whence there had been some emigrating 
to the Colonie of Rensselaerswyck, at the instance of the Patroon, 
who had a seat and estates at Vianen, but four miles from Schoon- 
rewoerd. Foremost in this service were Rutger Jacobsen, who 
went out in the vessel with the De Forests, and also his brother, 
Teunis Jacobsen, the ancestors of families since well known.* To 
the Colonie afterward Dominie Schaets had also gone. Each bit 
of news wafted home from time to time in friendly letters served 
to quicken interest in the new country which had caused so many 
vacant tenements and broken families about Beest and Schoonre- 
woerd. Yet 'Chiel Kortright tarried some years at the latter 

married his widow, Gecrtie G€rrits. She died a widow, at Pemrcpogh, in 1680, having 
tl» year before lost her eldest son Gcrrit Franssen, and married her daughter, Marritie 
Frans, to Johannes Spier, son of Hendrick Jansen Spier, from Ascheward, in Bremen, 
oommon ancestor of the Spier or Speer family of New Jersey. 

The same ship, the Beaver, took over Hugh Barents De Kleyn, from Buren; Aert 
Tcunisz Middagh, from Heykoop (settled in Brooklyn); and Evert Pietersen Keteltas, 
rrtuming to New Amsterdam as "consoler of the sick, chorister and schoolmaster;'* 
also Etienne Gencau, a Huguenot from La Rochelle, his wife Lyria Metereu and three 
dnldren. He lived at Harlem, I believe, in 1675, but went to Staten Island, and was 
ilie Gano ancestor. 

• Rutger Jacobsen was the ancestor of the Rutgers family of New York, and 
also, through bis daughter Margaret, who married, 1667, Jan Jansen Bleecker, from 
Meppel, a progenitor of the highly respectable f ami Iv of this name. Teunis Jacob- 
sen* descendants, who have been numerous in Albany County, took name from 
his birthplace, but shortened to Van Woert. (See Holgate's Am. Gen., Pearson's 
•Mbany Settlers and 0*Callaghan's N. Neth., i. 436, 439). 



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98 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

place, till blest with three or four children ; when he and his elder 
brother, Jan Bastiaesen, whose three sons, bom at Beest, — his 
humble home in a bend of the Linge, — were now fast approaching 
manhood, yielded to the flattering offers held out to colonists, and 
agreed to leave together for that distant land. The contagion 
had also seized some of the neighbors at Schoonrewoerd, one of 
whom was Jan Lou we Bogert, a young man with wife and two 
children, and whose kinsman, Theunis Gysberts Bogert, of Hey- 
koop, two miles northwest of Schoonrewoerd, had already been 
ten years in America. Proceeding to Amsterdam, they all em- 
barked, April 1 6th, 1663, in the Brindled Cow, Jan Bergen, mas- 
ter, in which ship there also sailed several French refugees from 
Mannheim, in the Palatinate, who will command further notice. 

For years the streams of Huguenot emigration setting out 
of France and the Low Countries had been bearing to Holland, 
now a solitary wanderer, now a stricken family, some to abide 
here for a time, others seeking a passage to the New World, but 
destined ultimately to find at Harlem a resting-place. Coming 
by no general or concerted action, but only as a crisis in the 
affairs of each had indicated the time and the mode, it is not 
easy to fix the exact date of their flight, though the era has 
been sufficiently shown. We shall name them, as we have the 
Dutch colonists, in the order of their departure for New Neth- 
erland. 

Daniel De Tourneur (so his name was sometimes written), 
leaving Picardy by a sudden necessity, as already related, and 
coming to Leyden, had here followed the business of a draper; 
and on September 5th, 1650, married Jacqueline Parisis, of a 
Walloon refugee family from Hesdin, in Artois, and a sister to 
Rev. Eustacius Parisis, then of Amsterdam. Nearly two years 
later, Tourneur sailed, with his wife and infant son Daniel, for 
New Netherland, probably in the ship with Dominie Samuel Dris- 
ius, of Leyden, which left Holland April 4, 1652. Jean le Roy, a 
kinsman of Tourneur, appears to have accompanied him with 
his wife, Louise De Lancastre, whose name implies an English 
birth. 

Glaude Le Maistre, or Delamater, as usually written by his 
descendants, had sprung from an ancient house of Brittany, the 
Lords of Garlaye, whose chateau and estates lay in the parish 
of Derval, in the diocese of Nantes. It was eminent in the civil 
and military service, the church, and the law. Its members had 
held commands in Picardy, where one of its now scattered 
branches, in which the name Claude first appears, became allied 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 99 

early in the sixteenth century to the lords of Caumartin. Claude 
Le Maistre, Sieur De Hedicourt, becoming a Protestant, was, 
with others, imprisoned and fined at Amiens in 1588, at the 
instance of the League. He was a man of talent and spirit, 
and showed great valor in opposing the entrance of the Spaniards 
into that city in 1597, when soldiers in the garb of peasants, 
selling apples and nuts, had gained admission. Our Glaude Le 
Maistre was no doubt of this family, members of which had re- 
moved to Artois, where he was born, as before said, in the town of 
Richebourg. After escaping the country he comes to notice at 
Amsterdam, in 1652, an exile and a widower, living in the Tan- 
ners' cross-street, having lost his wife, Jeanne De Lannoy. On 
April 24th of that year he married Hester, daughter of Pierre 
Du Bois, of Amsterdam, though late of Canterbury, England, 
where Hester was born. Some of the Le Maistres had also taken 
refuge at Canterbury, and circumstances make it nearly certain 
that Glaude was among them, and with the Du Boises had left 
England because of the civil wars then raging, or the threatened 
rupture with Holland, and, perhaps, in his case, to take ship for 
Xew Xetherland, as he soon did, appearing with Tourneur first 
at Flatbush, and afterward at Harlem. 

Marc Du Sauchoy, whose name will hardly be recognized by 
his worthy posterity the Disosway family, was a native of Picardy, 
and probably from Amiens. The lords Du Sauchoy came from 
the house of Clermont, in the Beauvoisis, and one of them went 
to the conquest of Britain with the Duke of Normandy. Perhaps 
our Marc, a man of worth and enterprise, was of that blood, but 
we know not. In his exile he worked as a wool-carder, but in 
search of something better, made a voyage from Holland to New 
Netherland in 1655. Sufficiently pleased with the country to 
make it his future home, he returned to Leyden, married, March 
nth, 1657, Elizabeth, daughter of Guillaume Rossignol, and with 
his bride again sailed from Amsterdam for Manhattan, on April 
2d ensuing, in the ship Draevat, Captain Bestevaer, taking with 
him two workmen, and two boys over twelve years of age, to aid 
him in farming. One of the adults was Johannes Smedes, from 
Harderwyck, in Gelderland, and one of the lads, Jean Guenon 
(now Genung), of Leyden, both of whom have many descend- 
ants.* 

David Du Four, a native of Mons, in Hainault, upon this 

• Tctinis Kray (or Gray), from Vcnlo, on the Maas, returned in this ship to 
New Netherland, where he had already lived several years. He was now accompanied 
br his wife and children, one of the latter afterward the wife of Capt. Jan Van 
Dalsen, of Harlem, already noticed. 



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loo HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

place being threatened by the successes of the French in the 
Walloon districts, retired with others of his family to Sedan, 
and afterward to Amsterdam, where Du Four, though fitted by 
education for a better position, became an "opperman," or dray- 
man. Left by the death of his wife, Marie Boulen, with a young 
child, Jean, born during their stay at Sedan, he found another 
companion in Jeanne Frances, a lady of mature thirty-two years, 
from Queivrain, a little east of Mons, to whom he was married 
July loth, 1657. That same year, with his new wife and his 
little son aforesaid, he sailed for Manhattan Island. 

Jean Gervoe and Francois Le Suer went out at near the 
same date, the first being a young man from Beaumont, in Haln- 
ault, and who, choosing the congenial calling of the Walloon, 
afterward served the West India Company as a soldier at Har- 
lem. Le Sueur, the Lozier ancestor, was from Colmenil, in 
Normandy, and was accompanied by his young sister Jeanne, 
neither being married. 

Jacques Cousseau, merchant at La Rochelle in 1653, and for 
four years later, when he returned to Amsterdam, took his de- 
parture soon after, with his wife Madeleine Du Tulliere, for 
America, evidently on the ship Gilded Beaver, which sailed May 
17th, 1658. This need hardly be doubted; Cousseau paid the 
fare of Simon Bouche, who went in that vessel, and directly on 
its arrival at New Amsterdam, several of the passengers, and 
with them Cousseau, on July i8th, applied for and were granted 
the small burgher right. 

Simon De Ruine, another refugee (familiarly known as Le 
Ouallon, — that is, the Walloon), bore a name found at Valen- 
ciennes, near Landrecy, escaped to Holland, tarrying there for 
some years. He went out with his wife, Magdalena Vander- 
straaten, and several children, in the ship Faith, "a private trader 
going to the Manhattans," which sailed February 13, 1659, with 
nearly a hundred passengers, De Ruine* being. the only French- 
man. 



• Gillis Janscn De Mandcville, from Gardcren, in the Vcluwc, Gclderland, and 
ancestor of the American family of Mandcville, came out in this vessel; as did his 
neighbor, also a farmer, Wouter Gcrritsen, from Koetwyck, some three miles from 
Gardcren; and likewise Jan Meynderts, already named. The last two will appear at 
Harlem. 

Gillis (often written Yellis) or Giles De Mandcville was accompanied by his 
wife Elsie Hendricks and four children, having two bom afterward, one being David. 
Yellis bought a farm at Flatbush, which he finally gave to his eldest son Hendrick, 
and got the grant of another, of 30 acres, at Greenwich, on Manhattan Island, laid 
out to him December 5, 1670, and patented December 30, 1680. Here he died between 
1606 and 1 701. All of his children married. He had but the two sons, both of whom 
left descendants. David remained on the farm at Greenwich. Hendrick removed from 
Long Island to Pequannock, N. J. These have given several pastors to the Reformed 
Church, including Rev. Giles Henry Mandcville, D. D. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. loi 

Pierre Cresson was another worthy refugee, and whose fam- 
ily seat, as is believed, was at Menil la Cresson, or Cresson Manor, 
a little northeast of Abbeville, in Picardy, though he was no doubt 
allied to the Cressons of Burgundy, of whom were several Re- 
formed ministers. Such change of residence was common dur- 
ing the long Burgundian rule in Picardy. Pierre, whose char- 
acter for piety is well attested, fled with some of his kin to the 
noted refuge, Sluis, in Flanders, but soon moved farther north, 
and in 1640 is found (with Nicolas and Venant Cresson, both 
married) among the refugees at Leyden. The large number of 
these emigrating to New Netherland had doubtless an effect upon 
Pierre, though, with a vigor and activity, which indeed he retained 
till old age (but at this date scarce more than thirty), he supported 
himself in Holland for about seventeen years, living parts 
of that time at Ryswyk and Delft. Employed as gardener to the 
Prince of Orange, he was ever after known as Pierre Le Gardin- 
ier. But Cresson was at last taken with the favorable offers of 
the City of Amsterdam to those who would go to their new colony 
on the Delaware ; and it seeming a good opportunity for him and 
his growing family, he gathered up his little means, and with wife 
Rachel Cloos and children, embarked, in 1657, ^^ Amsterdam, 
for New Amstel. The next year Governor Stuyvesant, visiting 
the Delaware, engaged Cresson "for his service" at the Manhat- 
tans, "with the proposition that what he owed the city (Amster- 
dam) should be settled.'' Soon after Cresson made a trip to 
Holland, returning in company with several other French agri- 
culturists in the ship Beaver, which sailed April 25th, 1659, reach- 
ing its destination after a quick passage of six weeks. Each 
passing year thus added to the roll of worthy fugitives, who, led 
by an unseen but mighty hand out of oppression into the atmos- 
phere of freedom, were perforce of their common nationality and 
sympathies to find a common home beyond the Atlantic* 

But this roll is not yet complete. England, as already hinted, 
first became an asylum for some of our settlers. Many perese- 
cuted refugees from France and Flanders took that direction, 
embarking usually in regularly plying vessels, but often, if hard 
pressed, venturing to cross the Channel in any sort of craft, even 
at the peril of their lives, while making for the most accessible 
port on the opposite shore. They landed principally at Dover, 

* Ma^^cn Van Wecrt, a hatter from Utrecht, who had visited this countrv five 
years before, came out in the ship with Cresson, in 1659. He married, December 4, 
1660, Susanna, daughter of Abraham Verplanck. The Van Weerts, his children, 
were prominent in the church at Sleepy Hollow, Westchester County. Isaac Van Wart, 
one of the captors of Major Andre, the spy, was a descendant. (See Bolton's West- 
chester, i. 197 f 335). 



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I02 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Sandwich, and Rye, within the counties of Kent and Sussex. 
Meeting a uniform welcome and sympathy, they formed colonies 
and churches at these places, and set up various manufactures, 
mainly those of cloth and linen, in which they were encouraged 
by the general and local authorities. The seaports named, and 
others becoming crowded with these exiles, many by invitation 
went inland to Canterbury, Norwich, etc., and still more up the 
Thames to London, at all which places they founded similar com- 
munities and industries. These colonies were greatly multiplied 
after the time of which we are writing. The story of the refugees 
in England is very touching; while their patient toil, the skill 
and ingenuity they exhibited in the production of various useful 
articles, evoked the admiration of the English; their devotion to 
their religion, their care to maintain its ordinances whereever 
they went, was highly creditable. Kept well informed of affairs 
in their native lands, the sympathy they manifested for their still 
suffering brethren set them in a most amiable light. Bound to 
their fellow-refugees in Holland by common interests as well 
as by many family ties, there was a free intercourse, and removals 
from one country to the other often took place due to these affin- 
ities or the simple desire to better their state; but sometimes 
prompted by dangers which threatened them as a people, or tliose 
countries at large. Ever keenly alive to passing events in anywise 
bearing on their cause or that of Protestantism in general, one 
which greatly affected the refugees was the Peace of Westphalia, 
in 1648, ending the Thirty Years' War, and opening to them a 
new asylum up the Rhine, unto which many resorted, as we shall 
see. 

The family Des Marets was of the old Picard gentry, and 
was also prominent in the church at Oisemont, of which David 
Des Marets, the Sieur Du Ferets, was an elder. His son, Samuel, 
born at Oisemont, in 1599, and taught at the great schools of 
Paris, Saumur and Geneva, became in 1619 pastor of the church 
of Laon. But forced to leave in 1623 by an attempt upon his life 
which nearly proved fatal, he accepted a new charge at Falaise, 
in Normandy, but after a year went to Sedan, and thence, in 
1642, to Groningen, in Holland, as professor of theology. Our 
David Des Marest, who wrote his name thus, was born in Picardy, 
and, as is strongly indicated, was of the same lineage, — for dignity 
of character and fidelity to his religion, worthy so excellent a 
kinship ; the clerical tendency among his descendants is also very 
significant. He went to Holland and joined the French colony 
in the island of Walcheren, at which place his eldest son, Jean 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 103 

Demarest, was bom in 1645. Here David probably married his 
wife Marie Sohier, as a family of this name from Hainault had 
taken refuge at Middelburg in the first Walloon emigrations. 

In 1 65 1 Demarest is found at Mannheim, on the Rhine, 
within the German Palatinate ; to which were going many French 
and Walloon refugees from England, and also from the Dutch 
seaboard, partly in view of an expected war between the English 
and Hollanders, but especially drawn thither by the assurance 
of freedom and protection under the government of the Pro- 
testant Elector Charles Lewis, who, invested by the Treaty of 
Westphalia (1648) with the Lower Palatinate, from which his 
father, Frederick V., had been driven in 1621 by the Catholic 
powers after the battle of Prague, held out strong inducements 
to the refugees, especially Calvinists, to settle at Mannheim, and 
which found a ready response through the lively interest always 
cherished by the refugees, in common with the English Puritans, 
in the strange vicissitudes of his late father, and his excellent and 
yet surviving mother, named in a former note as the "Queen of 
Bohemia." By 1652 Demarest and others among the numbers 
gathered there, joined in forming a French church; the elector 
himself building them an edi^ce, which he called the Temple of 
Concord, because the Lutherans were also allowed to worship 
there. 

Philippe Casier and family, originally of Calais, also found 
this inviting refuge, as did Simeon Cornier, "from France''; 
Meynard Joumee (the Journeay ancestor), from Mardyk, Flan- 
ders; Joost Van Oblinus (now O'Blenis), his son Joost and fam- 
ily, from Walloon Flanders, and Pierre Parmentier, also from 
"Walslant," that is, the Walloon country, — all these afterward 
at Harlem. Here Peter Van Oblinus, son of Joost, Jr., and his 
wife, Marie Sammis, was born in 1662. He was afterward 
distinguished at Harlem. Among the Walloons from Artois 
found here, were Matthieu Blanchan, Louis Du Bois, and Antoine 
Crispel ; Blanchan having sojourned in England, as perhaps had 
the other two, who became his sons-in-law. Others joining this 
Mannheim colony, and to be hereafter noticed, were the families 
of Le Comte, from Picardy, and De Vaux, from Walslant, whose 
descendants are called De Voe. De Vaux and Parmentier were 
clearly names derived from Picardy. 

Philippe Casier was husbandman and something of a trav- 
eler, having lived several years in the island of Martinique, to 
which he had gone with other colonists under the auspices of 
the French West India Company. But weary of rough pioneer 



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I04 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

life among wild Caribs, and more weary of the civil anarchy 
then reigning in the islands, he returned with his family to 
Europe, and tarried awhile at Sluis before removing up the Rhine. 
While at Mannheim, a son, Peter, was bom (1659) to his eldest 
daughter, Marie, the wife of David Uzille, the latter also men- 
tioned as from Calais, but no doubt of the Brittany family. But 
neither was Casier contented at Mannheim, still indulging, as 
it would seem, visions of a better fortune for him in America. 
His wife's brother, Isaac Taine, called also La Pere, "the Father," 
had gone out some years previous, and had been made a burgher 
of New Amsterdam; and thither the Cacier family, Uzilles in- 
cluded, resolved to go.* Returning to Holland, they sailed 
directly for the Manhattans in the ship Gilded Otter, wliich left 
the Texel April 2^, 1660, carrying also Blanchan and others 
from Mannheim, besides a band of soldiers, among whom were 
Jacob Leisler, famous in our colonial history, and Joost Kockuyt, 
heretofore mentioned, afterward part owner of the land since 
forming the "Dyckman Homestead." Later, Simeon Cornier, 
with his wife, Nicole Petit, left Mannheim and returned to Hol- 
land, whence they sailed in the ship Faith, March 24th, 1662, from 
the Texel for the Manhattans, arriving June 13th. 

Isaac Vermeille, one of the Harlem settlers, and head of the 
well-known family of Vermilye, was the son of Jean Vermeille 
and Marie Roubley, who are found among the Walloon refugees 
at London toward the close of the sixteenth century.* They were 
members of the Walloon church, and had several children born 
in that city, among these Isaac, in 1601. The last child was 
Rebecca, bom 1609, and three years later we lose sight of the 
father. Some of the family soon removed to Leyden, where 
Isaac's elder sister, Rachel, who had been admitted to the church 
in London July iSth, 1613, was married April 25th, 1615, to 
Jacques Bordelo, a Walloon from Valenciennes. Jean Vermeille, 
to whom a child was born in 1633, at London, and who married 
a second wife at Leyden in 1647, was probably brother to Isaac. 

• Isaac Tayne, as he wrote his name, obtained a ^ant of land, June 24, 1666, at 
New Castle, Del^ where he was living ten years later. — Pcnn. Archives, i. ^5, His 
wife was Sarah Reson. This name, ending with the French nasal sound ng, is some- 
times written Ting. 

• We nowhere find it stated that our Vermilyes were Walloons, but think it a 
safe assumption, for several reasons. The congregation at London of which they were 
members was then composed quite exclusively of that people. Then their Christian 
names favor it. And one of the Walloon towns bears the name Vermelle: being in 
Artois, southeast of Bethune, near a lake at the source of the Papegay, which latter 
runs northward, entering the Lys near Armenticres. Traced to its origin, the sur- 
name was doubtless the same as the Italian Vermigli. "Its birthplace," says Rev. A. G. 
Vermilye, "was probably Peruggia." Peter Vermigli (or Martyr), the reformer, was 
bom at Florence. Like many others, the name had evidently worked upward to 
Northern France, but how early we know not. Vermeille is the French for vermilion. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 105 

Marie Vermeille (mother or sister?), with her husband, Jean 
Diraanche, stood as godparents for Isaac's daughter, Marie (af- 
terward Mrs. Montanye), at her baptism at Leyden, August 2d, 
1629. Then Isaac first attracts our notice here, with his Dutch 
\Touw, Jacomina Jacobs, but later has two other children bap- 
tized, the last in 1637. Then not finding his name at Leyden 
for full twenty-five years, it seems to imply his absence; aod he 
probably went to Mannheim, as the name Isaac Wurmel, found 
on its civil records, is thought by a good authority there to refer 
to him. However, again at Leyden in the company of other 
French, who "by advice of some gentlemen, and reading the New 
Xetherland conditions, were allured and persuaded to emigrate 
with their families,'* we meet with Vermeille, about to leave with 
them for that much-mooted country, whither during his time so 
many Leyden refugees, back to the De Forests and Montague, 
had already gone. With wife, his two sons and as many daugh- 
ters, Vermeille embarked October 12th, 1662, in the ship Purmer- 
land Church, Captain Barentsen, which on the 14th weighed 
anchor and "passed the last village on the Texel," bound with 
supplies to New Amstel.* 

Soon after this the Palatinate was threatened with hostile 
invasion by the Duke of Lorraine and other neighboring Catholic 
princes. The refugees having everything to fear from such 
enemies to their kind and religion, many more of these hastily quit 
Mannheim. The Demarest, Oblinus and Parmentier families, 
with Journee, returned to Holland, apparently with purpose 
formed of going to New Netherland, for making short stay at 
Amsterdam, they all embarked for that country in the Brindled 
Cow, April 16, 1663, having in company Jean Mesurolle, a Picard, 
but then from Mannheim, Jerome Boquet (Bokee) and Pierre 
Xoue, both originally from Walslant; besides our several Dutch 
colonists before noticed, the Bogerts and Kortrights, from Schoon- 
rewoerd and vicinity. Men, women and children, there were 
ninety odd passengers, the French composing a third. Each 
adult was charged for passage and board thirty-nine florins; 
children of ten years and under, except infants, half price. It 
cost Jan Bastiaensen (Kortnght) for himself and family 204 fl. 

* Charffcs for their passage stand thus in the accounts of the West India Co.: 
"IsAACQ VERNiELK debet 
Voor vracht en costgelt dat hy A®. 1662, 12 Octobr. pr: *t Schip de Purmerlandcr 

Kerck, Schippr. Benjamin Barentsen, is herwacrts gecoraen f. 39 

Voor syn vrou 39 

En 4 kind<rreii, alle boven de 2oe Jacren 156 

/. 234" 



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io6 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

lo St., and David Demarest, 175 fl. 10 St.* These refugees from 
Mannheim nearly all took certificates of membership from the 
French church there. Some others, who followed them ten years 
later, will be noticed hereafter. 

Holland had now lost the special attractions it presented to 
the first refugees. These finding sympathy and employment, 
were generally content to remain as permanent residents. But 
the disturbances of later years had unsettled many, while trade 
had steadily and greatly declined, with no hope of any revival. 
Moreover, other unfortunate fugitives were flocking in "from 
Germany, Westphalia, and those countries which within two years 
had been ruined by hard times, but mainly by persecutions, to 
which the faithful all through France (as also the Waldenses) 
had been subjected." Under these circumstances many were 
easily drawn into the current of emigration to New Netherland, 
which was extolled as "beyond the finest country in the world, 
where everything can be produced that is grown in France or the 
Baltic," and whose virgin soil and settlements, free from the 
tyranny of kings and the contagion of European society, offered 
a most inviting abode and ample scope for enterprise. The most 
flattering reports of that country were rife, as given by those visit- 
ing Holland in search of farm-laborers, and by merchants whose 
business took them over to Amsterdam. Among those by whom 
the section of Manhattan Island since known as Harlem was first 
brought to the favorable notice of the colonists, was Andries 
Hudde, late counsellor in New Netherland, who spent the winter 
of 1638-9 in Holland, and part of whose errand was to send out 
hands to work his tobacco plantation, afterward known as Mon- 
tanye's Flat. It was plainly his representations regarding that 
locality that took Captain Kuyter and others thither, and induced 
Van Keulen, of Amsterdam, to secure the two-hundred-acre tract 
thence called Van Keulen's Hook; the purchase of which was 
effected directly upon Hudde*s return. And Sibout Slaessen, an 
energetic burgher of New Amsterdam, going to Fatherland in 
the autumn of 1649, spent nearly two years between Hoom, his 
native place, and Amsterdam and Leyden, while prosecuting 
charges against Stuyvesant. Bad as, in his view, was the ad- 
ministration, none had a higher opinion of the country, Manhattan 
especially, where Claessen had a fine property opposite Hellgate, 
which he called Hoorn's Hook. And Jean La Montagne, who 

• The Dutch florin or guilder is usually valued at forty cents, the stiver at two 
cents; but taking into account that, in the times we are treating of, money in Holland, 
as compared with labor, commodities, or whatever else it purchased, had about four 
times its present value, certainly these emigrants paid well for their passage. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 107 

revisited Holland in 1654. With his many years* experience in 
the new country, glowing, we dare assert, were the pictures he 
drew of it, — when tenderly pressing his suit with the fair Peter- 
nella, who was to share his home and fortunes. And Nicholas 
De Meyer, the clear-headed and thrifty trader at New Amster- 
dam, making a trip to Holland in 1662, to remain over winter, no 
doubt astonished his auditors as he told of lands on Manhattan 
at one dollar and sixty cents an acre, and his recent purchase of 
two farms in the young settlement, New Harlem. What interest 
must have attached to these accounts by visitants from the New 
World, as every listener caught up the story of its almost fabulous 
advantages and resources ! To the young and ambitious, the far-off 
America had all the dazzling attractions of a fairyland, when so 
often even the tender sex were led as by an irresistible charm, 
in the face of many perils, to venture its wild solitudes. But 
again, with more caution, one of a family first goes to the New 
World, as if to report from personal knowledge upon the expe- 
diency of the change before others should follow; so with the 
Verveelens, the brothers Waldron, Buys, etc. The colonists were 
wont to revisit Fatherland to obtain wives; whence its records 
show many nuptials consummated on the eve of embarkation. 
And timid maidens, in not a few cases, drawn by ties of kinship, 
or some more tender impulse, stopped not to count the hazards 
of the voyage: instance young Barentie Dircks, of Meppel (her 
sister Geertie then some years in New Netherland as wife of Jan 
Metselaer),* going over with other colonists from Drenthe in 
1660 ; lo ! scarce a year passing, when she and a sister, Egbertie, 
found their daring rewarded and the highest aspiration of their 
womanly hearts realized, in Nelis Matthyssen and Hage Bruyn- 
sen, honest Swedes, the one called to the magistry at Harlem, the 
other to become its first miller. All most natural, truly ; yet we 
mistake if these glimpses of simple life among our colonist an- 
cestors are wholly devoid of interest.t 

* Jan Adams Metselaer was born at Worms, in 1626; was in service as corporal 
on the Delaware, and returned to New Amsterdam in 1654. He died in New York 
wi 1696 or 1697. His sons who reached maturity were Jacobus, born 1668; Abraham, 
wn 1671; Hendrick, born 1676. Descendants of Abraham early settled on the Rari- 
tan, and whence the respectable family of which is Rev. Abraham Messier, D. D. 

t The French Refugees were sometimes designated, not by a proper surname, 
bot by the name of some place, evidently that of their nativity or former abode, ap- 
pended to their Christian name. The effect, no other clew to their identity appearing, 
u confusion like that liable to occur in Dutch nomenclature. Cases in point are 
Etienne Rocbelle (his proper name Geneau), Pierre Grand Pre, Jean Belin, Etienne 
BmtOQ, etc., all names of French towns; and Jean Paris, also written De Parisis, but 
no other than Jan Lequicre, from Paris, afterward of B«shwick. Some retained these 
M family names; Button or Baton was perpetuated on Staten Island and in New Jersey. 
Belin, written a Belin, became Ablin. (See also note on Jean Baignoux.) That this 
Jttsignation by place (as well without as with the prefix De or Du) was a usage preva- 
|«nt in France (not to trace it further), anyone who examines the subject will see: and 
It starts the question whether it is always safe to take such prefix as proof of nobility,. 



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io8 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Such moral courage as they exhibited, especially the refugees, 
commands admiration; such trials as they endured when called 
to resist or flee oppression, appeal to our sympathies! Clinging 
to their faith or principles though at the cost of their peace and 
safety, and all the endearments of home, country and kindred; 
choosing rather to venture the treacherous ocean and the dangers 
of an untried wilderness where still was sovereign the savage 
and the beast of prey, — and all to secure the sacred boon of liberty 
denied them in their native lands; do they not deserve the first 
place in history, and in the grateful remembrance of those who 
are reaping the benefits of their labors and sacrifices? 

when it may serve only to show the birthplace, or residence, or perhaps the place of 
the family origin; as le or la often indicated names derived from a trade, calling, office, 
etc (See Index, Chaudronnier.) The children of some of our refugees, ambitious to 
assume prefixes, sometimes made bad work of it; thus the name Le Maistre (the 
Master), taking on the De (and whence Delamater), came to signify of the Master I, — 
a use of the prefix wholly inappropriate. On the contrary, the sons of Dr. La Montagne 
very properly prefixed the Dc, and the fact adds strength to our hypothesis as to the 
source of that name. Very few old names among us at present, whether of French, 
Dutch, or other descent, preserve their original form; a result to be deprecated, thoug^h 
a return to the early orthography may now be neither practicable nor desirable. 




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CHAPTER VI. 

1 609- 1 636. 

MANHATTAN. 

T X the year 1609 a Dutch ship was feeling it way along the then 
wild and unfrequented coast of North America. Her in- 
trepid commander, as in former fruitless voyages made for the 
same object under English patronage, was still eagerly seeking 
a western route to China, the golden Cathay of the ancients. 
Dispatched in this instance by the East India Company, of Hol- 
land, the Half Moon left Amsterdam the 4th of April, and after 
gaining the American waters had explored each principal bay 
and inlet from north to south, and now again to northward, five 
weary months, but with no results. To one of less resolution 
than Henry Hudson the case might well have seemed hopeless, 
but still the undaunted mariner continued the search. 

The 3d of September dawns upon the vessel enshrouded in 
a dense sea-fog, which at the hour of ten, lifting its vapory man- 
tle, leaves upon her spars and rigging myriads of watery jewels 
which sparkle in the sunbeams, bright harbinger of a coming 
success, while the ship, quitting her moorings, spreads her "main- 
sail and spritsail," and under a clear sky and with a balmy breeze 
from the south-southeast resumes her northerly course. Five 
hours pass, when Hudson makes the headlands of Neversink, 
"very pleasant, and high, and bold to fall, withal" ; and "at three 
of the clock in the afternoon" approaches "a very good harbor," 
into which flow "three great rivers." These at once arrest his 
attention; their sources wrapped in mystery naturally invite the 
boldest speculation. Has he not been told "there was a sea lead- 
ing into the Western Ocean by the north of Virginia?" Curiosity 
and hope receive a new impulse; surely he has found at last the 
long-desired passage! 

Hudson at first stands for the northernmost river, but repelled 
by a very shoal bar before its mouth, changes his course and bears 
away across the bay, where another passage seems to open, casts 
his anchor, and prudently sends in the yawl to sound. On a 



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no HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

favorable report he again weighs, runs farther in with the ship, 
and finally drops his kedge on the soft, oozy bottom at a depth of 
five fathoms. Hudson takes the latitude, — forty degrees and 
thirty minutes, — and enters it in his log. As the vessel rides at 
ease upon the bosom of these expansive waters, no fellow-craft 
greets the eye of the brave mariner ; not so much as a tiny sail 
breaks the monotony of the scene. The undulating land is beau- 
tiful in varied shades of green, but, as far as the eye can scan, 
bare of human habitation, — even to a rustic cabin, — ^all yet appears 
lone, wild, charming in its very air of desolation. The fish seem 
surprisingly tame as they swarm about the vessel, and the white 
sea-gull disports itself familiarly, soars upon its broad pinions, 
or stoops to kiss the wave. 

But the arrival has not passed unnoticed. Some of the 
tawny natives, engaged in fishing, — for the salmon, and mullets, 
and rays, were plenty, — espy, far out on the ocean (so the red 
man handed down the story), a large and strange-looking object.* 
Hastening back to land, they break the news to some of their 
countrymen, who also go out, in order to discover what it may be. 
They view with astonishment the strange phenomenon, now so 
near as to be plainly visible, but are quite disagreed as to what it is ; 
some take it to be an enormous fish or animal, others a very big 
wigwam floating on the sea. As the curious object comes nearer 
to the land their apprehensions increase; they conclude that it 
possesses life, and resolve without further delay to put all the 
neighboring Indians on their guard. Messengers depart to carry 
the news to the scattered chiefs and braves, and to urge their 
immediate presence. Many of these soon arrive in breathless 
haste, and, viewing the queer object which has now gained the 
very entrance of the river or bay, finally conclude that its nothing 
less than the wigwam of the great Manitto, or Supreme Being 
himself, who has evidently come to pay them a visit. This opin- 
ion prevailing, they begin preparations to give him a suitable re- 
ception. The women must cook the most savory food, and a 
grand kintekoy or dance be given, measured to their best music, 
as "an agreeable entertainment for the Great Being." 

Early the next morning Hudson, after sending the boat to 
take soundings farther up the bay, finds a better anchorage ; and 
remaining there all day, some of the crew go ashore to draw a 

♦ The Indian tradition of Hudson's visit is taken from Heckwcldcr; otherwise 
the facts have been drawn from oriipnal statements bv De Laet, Tuet. Vander Dond^ 
and others, every circumstance and intimation being aulv weigheo. We believe these 
-will warrant all the amplification here given, the traoitionarx part finding strong 
-confirmation in these authors. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. in 

net for fish, returning with ten big mullets, a foot and a half long, 
and a great ray, taking four men to haul it into the ship. By 
this time the Indians, having carefully watched the movements 
of their strange visitor, are so well assured of his supernatural 
character and friendly mission, that they resolve to venture out 
to the ship and extend him a welcome. Two of them, clad in 
loose deer skins, and taking a bundle of green tobacco as a 
present for the Manitto, launch forth in their canoe, and being 
admitted on board the vessel, manifest their pleasure at seeing 
the pale-faced strangers by every sign and exclamation at their 
command expressive of wonder and delight. Making their offer- 
ings, they receive in return a few knives and beads. Admiring 
the dress worn by the Europeans, they signify a wish to have 
the same for themselves ; but so far from showing any rudeness, 
their decorum is such that the officers notice it and declare them 
**ver>' civil." 

On the succeeding day Hudson and others from the ship 
made a formal visit to the land, when the assembled Indians, 
"men, women and children," received and entertained them in 
their best manner. "The swarthy natives all stood around and 
sung in their fashion," says Hudson ; the ceremony without doubt 
indicated more of fear and reverence than of confidence, and was 
designed to propitiate his favor. The usual present of green 
tobacco was given, and refreshments served, including bread made 
of maize, or Indian corn, of which Hudson partook and found 
it "excellent eating." Then the ship's party strolled "up into the 
woods, and saw great stores of very goodly oaks and some cur- 
rants." Many Indians of both sexes also visit the ship during 
the day, '*in their canoes made of a single hollow tree," says Hud- 
son. They are dressed, "some in mantles of feathers, and some 
in skins of divers sorts of good furs." About their necks are 
ornaments of copper. They bring offerings of dried currants, 
"sweet and good," and Indian hemp. These expressions of good- 
will do not throw the shrewd navigator off his guard. From 
common prudence he "durst not trust them," yet his keen eye 
can detect no lurking evil intent, and he frankly admits that "they 
appear to be a friendly people." Such is his testimony of "the peo- 
ple that he found dwelling within the bay." Their entire deport- 
ment thus far had betrayed only profound respect and veneration 
for their mysterious visitors. 

But, strange, pleasing hallucination of the untutored son of 
the forest, how quickly did one untoward circumstance dispel it 
forever, reduce his supposed divinity to the level of a mortal. 



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112 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

and place him in the attitude of an enemy ! On the morning of 
the 6th, the weather being fair, Hudson, with more accurate 
conclusions as to the best direction in which to continue his search, 
ordered John Coleman and four others to proceed with the yawl 
"over to the north side, to sound the other river," yet little dream- 
ing that all that was to impart fame to his voyage hung upon its 
undisclosed mysteries. Rowing twelve miles to its mouth (the 
Narrows) they ascended and entered a spacious harbor, "with 
very good riding for ships," whence extending their search two 
leagues up "a narrow river to the westward between two islands"* 
and reaching "an open sea,"t they were returning filled with ad- 
miration of the country, "as pleasant with grass and flowers and 
goodly trees as ever they had seen," when suddenly, in a manner 
unexplained, they came in fatal conflict with the natives, twenty- 
six in number, in two canoes. Coleman was slain by an arrow, 
and two others of the crew wounded, but strange to say the sav- 
ages did not follow up their advantage. A rain set in, which 
extinguishing their match, made their guns useless, and after 
toiling all night "to and fro on their oars" the party reached 
the ship. They declared "they were set upon" by the In- 
dians; the latter have not left us their story! Why, so su- 
perior in force, did they spare any of the whites to tell their 
tale? Why the sudden change which Hudson observed in the 
temper of the savages? Peradventure in this affray the Indi- 
ans were "more sinned against than sinning;" then the case 
becomes clearer. If, smarting under a deep sense of unpro- 
voked injury, they retired to dress their wounds and bury their 
dead, then the news, which spread rapidly, at once stamped the 
new-comers as enemies. 

Suspicious of the savages from the first, Hudson now had 
great reason to fear an attack. He thereupon ordered a strict 
watch to be kept day and night to prevent a surprise, which in- 
deed the Indians were plotting, and only seeking an opportunity 
to execute, as was apparent from the many canoes filled with 
armed men which prowled around the ship. Admitting but few 
of the savages into the vessels, he seized two, who came on board 
with a treacherous design, and held them as hostages. Passing 
the Narrows, September nth, Hudson entered the harbor with 
his ship. The morning of the 13th found him skirting "that 
side of the river that is called Mannahata," having "fair weather, 
the wind northerly." With the full of the tide he casts anchor 
opposite a gorge in the hills from which a stream, meander- 

• Kill Von KuU. t Newark Bay. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 113 

ing through verdant meadows, empties into a small cove or 
bay (Manhattanville). 

News of his coming has preceded him. From one Indian 
village to another and from wigwam to wigwam runners have 
carried the startling tidings ; delegations from the Flats and parts 
contiguous have poured in through the ravine till the multi- 
tudes crowd the beach and crown the acclivities, eager to catch 
a sight of the big canoe, about which and its inmates such 
strange rumors have spread far and wide, exciting "great sur- 
prise and astonishment among the Indians." Hudson and his 
officers greet with civility the natives, who here approach the 
ship in four canoes, bringing *'great store of very good 
oysters." He accepts the present, and gives them some trinkets 
in return ; but the menacing attitude of the savages only the day 
previous indisposes Hudson to any intimacy, or to admit any 
of them on board, — a wise precaution, as events will show. 

Barred from intercourse, and withal ignorant of their lan- 
guage, Hudson could as yet have acquired but scant knowledge 
of the country from the natives. But this was in a measure 
supplied by his own habit of close observation, noting objects 
so trivial as the ornaments and tobacco-pipes of the natives, 
whence he inferred the existence of copper. And on this bright 
September morning, while cooling breezes from the north amble 
through the rigging of the ship as it lies idly at anchor for sev- 
eral hours waiting for the tide to set in, and the practised eye 
of the great navigator surveys on the one hand the pure watery 
expanse, on the other the charming wooded bluffs which here 
adorn the Island of Manhattan, doubtless it penetrates the 
notable cleft in the heights, opening to him a distant vista of the 
broad and beautiful plains upon which our interest centres, as 
vet, save only to the aborigines, a very terra incognita! We may 
read his emotions as, turning from this scene, he records in his 
journal the admiration of a sailor: "It is as pleasant a land as 
one need tread upon ; very abundant in all kinds of timber suitable 
for shipbuilding."* 

Hudson ascends the river. A fortnight spent in its further 
exploration and he has realized, not the prime object of his 
ambition, but results in the highest degfree important; the best 

• Hudson's Journal, as quoted by Dc Laet (sec Coll. N. Y. Hist. Soc, ad scries, 
"Tol. i, p. 300), places this incident in latitude 40** 48', which agrees well with the 
locality given. Juet's J[ournal (ibid., p. 325) gives the date and other particulars, and 
when closely studied aids in fixing the locality beyond a reasonable doubt. See also 
the Bubjcct of Hudson's voyage carefully treated in Yates and Moulton's Hist, of N. Y., 
which unhesitatingly gives this incident as happening when the ship was "anchored off 
Manhattanville." 



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114 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

indeed of all his voyages. Since he first entered Sandy Hook 
he had been delighted with the country. He had penetrated 
nearly to its source the noble river which was thereafter to 
take his name, finding at every stage in his progress something 
new to admire in its extended reaches, its majestic highlands, 
its fruitful vales and its grand and diversified scenery. Now, 
elated with his valuable discoveries, inspirited by the bracing 
air and gorgeous appearance of the highlands, clad in the 
richest hues of autumn, he is on the downward passage. At 
break of day October 2d the ship leaves its moorings at "Sleepers* 
Haven," near the jutting Senesqua, or Teller^s Point, at the 
mouth of the Croton, and with canvas bending under a stiff 
breeze from the northwest, runs down twenty-one miles till, 
the tide setting in too strongly, it again casts anchor at the 
upper end of Manhattan Island, near the beautiful inlet Schora- 
kapok, since "by the Dutch" called the Spuyten Duyvel. 

But unlooked-for danger was lurking in its track. An inci- 
dent of the upward voyage, already alluded to, now had a most 
painful sequel. The two natives whom Hudson kept on board 
as hostages were carried up the river. But haughty captives 
were not to be beguiled by a voyage in the big canoe of tlie 
great Manitto, nor long amused by the red coats with which 
they were bedecked. In the highlands these restless spirits 
escaped through a port-hole and swam off, hurling back, from a 
safe distance, cries and gestures of scorn and defiance. Making 
their way down the river, and thirsting to avenge the indigni- 
ties offered them, they sounded the war-whoop to rouse their 
people to arms, and at the head of Manhattan Island collected a 
force, with the evident purpose of seizing the ship and appro- 
priating the rich booty which it contained. 

No sooner does the returning vessel heave to near their place 
of ambush than several canoes dart out, filled with armed war- 
riors, led on, as is observed, by one of the savages who had 
escaped from the ship. Hudson, seeing their hostile design, 
warns them to keep off. Hereupon two of the canoes fall back 
near the stern and let fly a volley of arrows. Six muskets 
return the assault, and two or three Indians are killed. Mean- 
time the ship having gotten under way, the main body of war- 
riors, about a hundred, collect at a point of land (now Fort 
Washington) to get a fair chance at her as she slowly moves 
along. But a falcon-shot from the vessel kills two of them, and 
the rest flee into the woods. They are now quite discomfited; 
yet about ten of the boldest, still firm in their purpose, jump into 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 115 

a canoe and paddle to meet the ship. Another cannon-shot 
kills one of their number and pierces the canoe. A volley of 
musketry slays three or four more, and puts an end to the fight. 
The savages are left to mourn the loss of nine of their braves, 
while Hudson pursues his way to the ocean. Ah, hapless fate! 
which at this first interview thus sealed in blood an enmity between 
the two races, destined for half a century to redden the soil of 
Manhattan Island with Christian blood to glut the Indian's ven- 
geance. The inlet where began this fatal encounter soon took 
the name of Spuyten Duyvel, but for what reason has not been 
explained. True, that veritable author, Diedrich Knickerbocker, 
makes it the presumptuous boast of Petrus Stuyvesant's valiant 
trumpeter, who essayed to swim the stream in a storm, spyt den 
duyz'cl, but was seized and carried under by his satanic majesty 
in the form of a huge mossbunker! But for those to whom 
this story may wear a tinge of incredibility we give another 
possible derivation. By what more fitting, term could the sav- 
ages, so apt in the choice of their names, have designated Hud- 
son's ship, recalled as an uncouth monster vomiting streams 
of deadly fire, than by that which (from the object adhering 
to the locality) found its Dutch equivalent in Spuyten Duyvel, 
that is, Spouting Devil? But if this also will not bear criticism, 
we ask the reader to soberly weigh a fact which seems to indi- 
cate the true source of the queer designation in question. From 
the large spring which sprouts or bubbles out near the foot 
of Cock Hill and flows into the creek, "The Spring" became 
but another name, with the early settlers, both Dutch and Eng- 
lish, for the locality known as Spuyten Duyvel; and an ancient 
record of 1672 expressly calls it Spuyten Duyvel, alias the Fresh 
Spring ! 

Hudson's discoveries so aroused the enterprise of the mer- 
chants and shipmasters of Holland that for a series of years vessels 
were annually dispatched to New Netherland to prosecute dis- 
cover>' and the fur trade, for which purpose they were some- 
times ''ordered to remain there the whole year." That section 
of Manhattan Island in which our interest centres could not 
long elude these enterprising Dutch traders, though this seat 
of the hostile Manhattans remained inaccessible for years after 
they had gained a foothold on the upper Hudson. Wrapt in 
that normal state which for untold ages had known no change, 
its weird charms must have strangely impressed such daring 
spirits as were foremost to navigate its untried waters or first to 
penetrate its slumbering solitudes. The Hollander, — ^his eye ac- 



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ii6 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

customed only to a flat country, to dykes and polders, — beheld 
with admiration this majestic display and picturesque blending" 
of heights and low land, of wood and meadow and meandering 
brooks. But no hum of busy industry caught his ear, no familiar 
sight yet met his eye; the waters' gentle ripple, the wind's 
moaning through the tall pines, the cry of startled beast or bird 
was his greeting. The group of rustic cabins and the moving 
forms of dusky savages, clad, if at all, in skins or furs and feath- 
ers, but enhanced the weirdness of the scene. Lucky, too, was 
he if his first welcome was not conveyed by the swift-winged 
arrow from behind the thicket, as was the case with Captain 
Dermer, ten years after Hudson's visit, but before the Dutch 
had yet occupied Manhattan Island. Coming from the east- 
ward, and passing "a most dangerous cataract among small, 
rocky islands," he soon found greater perils than those of Hell- 
gate in the hostility of the natives; for, says he, "the savages 
had great advantage of us, in a strait not above a bow-shot, and 
where a multitude of Indians let fly at us from the bank ; but it 
pleased God to make us victors." Only escaping, as his words 
seem to imply, and as had Hudson, by making his assailants feel 
the superiority of firearms, it seems hardly credible that such 
was ever the rude and perilous state of our beautiful Island, the 
now secure abode of peace and refinement. 

As introductory to the history of the section in which we are 
most interested, we must notice the advent and progress of set- 
tlement upon the southern point of the Island, which antedated 
by some thirteen years the first known attempt to locate at Har- 
lem. The idea of a permanent occupation of the country natur- 
ally followed upon the more intimate knowledge of its resources, 
acquired through the frequent visits of the Holland traders. 
But the first move in that direction must be accredited as be- 
fore mentioned, to Rev. John Robinson, pastor of an English 
congregation at Leyden, and to the directors of the company 
engaged in trading to New Netherland. In negotiating with 
said directors, Robinson had informed them that upon condition 
of' the government protection, etc., he was "well inclined to 
proceed thither to live," and also "had the means of inducing- 
over four hundred families to accompany him thither, both out 
of this country (Holland) and England," who would "plant 
there a new commonwealth." But the company's charter mean- 
while expiring, the directors, on February 12th, 1620, laid their 
case before the States General and besought them to take these 
colonists under their protection and detail two ships of war to 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM., 117 

convey them to that country, in order to keep out other nations 
and make it "secure to the State." 

But this application failed, as did another of similar import 
made the next year to the London Company by the French and 
Walloons of Leyden, as heretofore noticed. Nevertheless the 
States General were not indifferent to the benefits likely to accrue 
from such colonies being planted in New Netherland. Hence in 
their charter to the West India Company, in view of '*the g^eat 
abundance of their people, as well as their desire to plant other 
lands," they enjoined upon the company, as one among the im- 
portant objects contemplated, "to advance the peopling of those 
fruitful and unsettled parts."* Accordingly a first act of the com- 
j)any was to equip and send out (March, 1623) a vessel of 130 
lasts, the New Netherland, in command of one familiar with the 
voyage. Captain Comelis Mey, and which carried about thirty 
families, "mostly Walloons," with a few single men, all engaged 
to the company for a term of service, and who were to occupy and 
garrison several new points along the coast, besides forming a set- 
tlement up the Hudson. Captain Mey was to be the director or 
governor in New Netherland, with a deputy in the person of Cap- 
tain Adrian Tienpont, who accompanied him. Arriving at Hud- 
son's River about the beginning of May, they lay at anchor for 
several weeks at Manhattan, where eight men were set ashore "to 
take possession" for the company, and others dispatched for a like 
object to the rivers Connecticut and Delaware. About eighteen 
families proceeded with the vessel up the river to Castle Island, at 
or near which the Dutch had for nine years maintained a trading- 
post. Choosing a spot for a settlement still higher up (within the 
present city of Albany), there they "made a small fort," and en- 
tered into "covenants of friendship" with the Mahicans or River 



• No credit is due to the statement that colonics were planted in New Netherland, 
on Manhattan Island or elsewhere, prior to 1623. Sir Dudley Carieton, English am- 
bassador at the Hague, no doubt makes a true representation when, in a letter of Febru- 
ary 5, 1621 (February 15, 1622 N. S.), to the I^eards of the Council in England, he 
says: "About four or five years since, two particular companies of Amsterdam 
merchants began a trade into those parts betwixt 40 and 45 degrees, to which after 
their manner they gave their own names of New Netherlands and the like; whither they 
have ever since continued to send ships of 30 and 40 lasts, at the most, to fetch furs, 
vhich is all their trade j for the providing of which they have certain factors there 
continually resident trading with savages, and at this present there is a ship at Amster- 
dam bound for those parts; but I cannot learn of any colony either already planted 
there by these people, or so much as intended; and I have this further reason to 
believe there is none, because within these few months divers inhabitants of this 
country to a cotisiderable number of families have been suitors unto me, to procure 
them a place of habitation amongst his Majesty's subjects in those parts; which, by 
his Majesty's order, was made known to the Directors of the Plantation; and if these 
countrymen were in any such way themselves, there is small appearance they would 
desire to mingle with strangers, and be subject to their government." (Col. Hist, of 
N. Y., ^: 7. Stusrvesant docs not claim for the Dutch anv earlier possession of Man- 
hattan Island. Ibid, 2: 412. See also ibid, i: 149, and Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4to, 3: 
31. 3^) 



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ii8 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Indians, the Maquas, and other neighboring tribes, who **desired 
that they might come and have a constant free trade with them, 
which was conchided upon." Such a beginning had the now 
weahhy capital of the State. 

Those left to form a trading-post at Manhattan intrenched 
themselves at Capsee, on the southern end of the island, and built 
them hausse **of the bark of trees." Three years later Gov- 
ernor Peter Minuit came out, Manhattan Island was purchased 
from the Indians "for the value of sixty guilders," — ^twenty- four 
dollars and, with a view to making this "the principal colony," 
the settlement, which had already received important accessions 
from Holland, with a supply of live stock and farming tools, 
was further increased by the families from Fort Orange, who, 
disquieted by a recent affray with the savages in which some of 
their number were slain, gladly accepted this change ; and as the 
Manhates "were becoming more and more accustomed to the 
strangers."* New Amsterdam, as now called, and containing 
two hundred and seventy souls, was permitted, April 7, 1628, 
to welcome its first minister, Rev. Jonas Michaelius, from Hol- 
land. This devoted man, educated at Ley den, preached a 
dozen years, then went out to Brazil with the great expedition 
in 1624. After a short term of service at St. Salvador he 
labored a year or two in Guinea before coming to New Am- 
sterdam. Here at once he "established the form of a church," 
but as the Walloons and French knew very little Dutch, he 
preached to them in their own language. Hither resorted the 
Indian hunters, bringing quantities of furs, of which from year 
to year valuable cargoes were taken to Holland in the company's 
ships. Their agents also used every means to increase this trade 
by exploring in their yachts all the adjoining coasts, while others 
scoured the woods and sought the Indian villages for friendly 
traffic. But it was not only the fur trader, the hunter tracking 
the game, or the amateur drawn hither by curiosity to see the 
countr}' ; others were already intent upon finding out its varied re- 
sources, — the husbandman noting the quality of the soil, the 
mechanic and artisan whatever for each had a practical business 
value, the scientist or naturalist in quest of mineral and other 

• Harlem was settled before New Amsterdam, if we may credit the tradition 
current among our old New Yorkers half a century ago; the first colonists, after 
living here awhile, for some cause removing to the lower end. Such, then, and even 
laterthis was the popular belief, as we have had it from the lips of several aged persons 
lonp since deceasecl. But finding no mention of this either in Wassenaer or De Laet, 
or m any contemporary or early record, we suspect the tradition is due to the removal 
from Fort Orange or to the abandonment of Harlem for a time by its first settlers 
because of the Indians, as hereafter related, or perhaps to the confused and faded 
memories of both. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 119 

treasures, — some new wonder in every stone, tree, shrub, and 
flower, every beast that starts at his approach, or bird that warbles 
from the bough. Much of this useful information was presently 
transmitted to Fatherland, both in private letters from the colonists 
to their kindred and in official reports to the West India Company. 
Isaac De Rasieres, who came out in 1626 and served some two 
years as chief commissary and secretary at New Amsterdam, has 
left us, in an account written after his return to Holland, the 
earliest known description of Manhattan Island by an eye-witness. 
It is, he says, "full of trees, and in the middle rocky," but the north 
end "has good land in two places, where two farmers, each with 
four horses, would at first have enough to do without much clear- 
ing." So early had the attention of the Hollanders, instinctively 
attached to rich bottom lands, been drawn to these fertile plains, 
then known to the colonists as the Flats of the Island of Manhatta. 

In tracing the history of this section of the Island, the terri- 
torial limits will be those given in the patent or charter granted 
the inhabitants of Harlem by the colonial governor NicoUs in 
1666, which embraced all the upper portion, from Kingsbridge 
south, as far as Manhattanville on the west side and Seventy- 
fourth Street on the east. 

Of those who early manifested an interest in this particular 
section were Wouter Van Twiller, now Director-General of the 
colony, and his friend Jacobus Van Curler, who bore the title of 
Jonkheer. They were both young men, from the same place, 
Xieukerck, and Van Curler, had accompanied the new director 
hither in 1633. A residence of three years giving them the op- 
portunity to spy out the land, Van Twiller had improved it by 
selecting for himself several choice tracts in the vicinity of New 
.\msterdam, among which was the island lying "over against" 
the Flats, and known to us as Ward's Island. The Jonkheer, in 
his rambles, had fixed his covetous eye upon these rich Flats, 
and, with leave of the director, had pre-empted a goodly section 
bordering upon the river, opposite the island referred to, and 
which obtained the name of the Otter-spoor, or the Otter-track. 
It is scarcely a departure from the literal facts to picture these 
two dignitaries upon one of their tours of observation up the 
island ; and in fancy we may accompany them. Van Curler well 
knows the lay of the land, for he loves to scour the woods in 
quest of game; but one of his feats, which he took some pride 
in relating, was the killing an hundred and seventy black-birds at 
a single shot! 

Quitting the drowsy little town of New Amsterdam, its 



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I20 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

thatched roofs and its fortress with low turf wall receding from 
view, we follow the Indian trail leading to Wickquaskeek, or 
"the birch bark country," which lies beyond the quiet waters of 
the Papparinamin, as that part of the Spuyten Duyvel was called 
where it turns the extreme northerly point of Manhattan. Spring 
is in her loveliest attire. Around and along our pathway she 
displays in rich profusion her grandest works. Plains scarce 
trodden by human kind, save by the red man, are clothed in all 
the beauty of their pristine verdure, while the rock-capped hills 
and the resonant forest echo back and forth the sounds of wild 
and savage life. Plumed songsters fill the woods and enliven 
our journey with their music. Perchance the shrill cry of the 
eagle, startled from its eyrie, or the plaintive note of the cuckoo, 
or the busy hammer of the woodpecker, in turn arrests our atten- 
tion. 

"And playful squirrel on his nut-grown tree: 
And every sound of life was full of glee, ... 
While hearkening — fearing nought their revelry — 
The wild deer arched his neck from glades, and then, 
Unhunted, sought his woods and wilderness again." 

Treading that "central" part of Manhattan, in our day res- 
cued from mercenary uses and restored again to nature and art, 
to resume under their culture more than its original beauty, we 
emerge upon the bluff near that romantic spot since known as 
McGown's Pass, and before us lie the "Flats of Manhattan." 
Let us survey the charming panorama which opens to our view, 
note its more striking features, and point out the several sections 
of the land, as it is subdivided by the aborigines, under distinc- 
tive names. At our left a chain of high land extends away to the 
northward till lost to the eye, but broken at one point by a 
ravine, beyond which are dimly visible through the entangled 
foliage the silvery waters of the majestic Mahican-ittuck, or 
Hudson. In the distance a lesser stream, which flows from the 
Papparinamin, and is known simply as the Great Kill (its Indian 
name is undiscovered), comes gently coursing toward the troubled 
waters of the Hellegat.* Familiar to us as the Harlem River, it 
has been fitly designated as "one of the sweetest streams that ever 
gave a charm to landscape." Along the heights through which 

• Muscoota, says the History of Westchester County, was the aboriginal name 
for Harlem River, but various original authorities agree in making it the common 
Indian term for flats or flatland! After diligent but vain search among our early 
records to discover some warrant for applying it to the river, we gave it up, when an 
inquiry addressed to Mr. Bolton, and answered with his usual courtesy, failed to elicit 
his authority on this point. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 121 

flow its upper waters, the scenery, though less imposing, still rivals 
that of the classic Hudson in all that is picturesque and pleasing. 
On the hither side the banks, rising boldly from a rocky base 
and clothed with lofty forest trees, present by their very abrupt- 
ness a fine contrast to the eastern shore, where undulating hills, 
woodland and meadows form a gradual descent to tnc water's 
edge. Here, aforetime, till its quiet was invaded by the snort 
of the iron horse, the visitor loved to tarry, wrapt in the con- 
templation of a scene sublime, and quite forgetful of the outer 
world, till his reverie was broken by the wild cry of the heron, 
or the plunge of the kingfisher as it darted from an overhanging 
bough, — "most celebrated and besung of all other birds,'* — species 
which had ever haunted these waters and nested in the lofty pines. 
Lingering tenant of these solitudes, the heron was seen at early 
dawn assiduous at his piscatory work. Taking his gloomy stand 
in the water's edge, and motionless, as if meditating mischief, he 
kept his head turned on one side, and eyed the pool intently for 
an opportunity to strike his prey. If undisturbed, he spent the 
day, resting when gorged, with his long neck sunk between his 
shoulders, but retiring long before night to his retreat in the 
woods. The scene is better depicted by MXellan, in "The Notes 
of the Birds." 

" Far up some brook's still course whose current mines 
The forest's blackened roots, and whose green marge 
Is seldom visited by human foot, 
The lonely heron sits, and harshly breaks 
The sabbath silence of the wilderness: 
And you might find her by some reedy pool, 
Or brooding gloomily on the time-stained rock, 
Beside some misty and far-reaching lake. 
Most awful is thy deep and heavy boom, 
Gray watcher of the waters ! Thou art king 
Of the blue lake; and all the wing'd kind 
Do fear the echo of thine angry cry. 
How bright thy savage eye! Thou lookest down 
And seest the shining fishes as they glide; 
And poising thy gray wing, thy glossy beak 
Swift as an arrow strikes its roving prey. 
Ofttimes I see thee, through the curling mist, 
Dart like a spectre of the night, and hear 
Thy strange, bewildering call, like the wild scream 
Of one whose life is perishing in the sea." 

Hellgate, or Hellegat, as the name was given by the Dutch, 



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122 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

after an inlet of the West Scheldt, lies in full view at our right, 
the terror of ancient voyagers, and whose conception of it is well 
given in these words of an early writer: "Being a narrow pas- 
sage, there runneth a violent stream both upon flood and ebb, 
and in the middle lieth some islands of rocks, which the current 
sets so violently upon that it threatens present shipwreck; and 
upon the flood is a large whirlpool, which continually sends forth 
a hideous roaring, enough to aflfright a stranger from passing 
further, and to await for some Charon to conduct him through/' 
The Indians, in the last century, had a tradition "that at some 
distant period in former times their ancestors could step from 
rock to rock, and cross this arm of the sea on foot." 

Beneath us spreads out, as a royal tapestry of velvety green, a 
section of rich bottom land, known to the Indians by the euphonic 
term Muscoota, that is. The Flat, as the whites, who adopted the 
name, rendered it. The hills form its southern limit, with a 
fresh water run long known as the Fountain, from its spring 
upon the hillside, and which, passing out to the Great Kill, skirts 
northerly a point or neck of land opposite Hellegat, its surface 
slightly elevated, and which the natives call Recha wanes, or, as 
interpreted, the Great Sands ; since the Benson or McGown prop- 
erty. It is bounded southerly by a creek and broad marshes, 
which stretch from the Bay of Hellegat even to Konaande 
Kt>ngh.* 

Beyond the creek of Rechawanes Hes Van Curler's grant, 
reaching away to the Great Kill, a broad and level tract, called 
in the language of the natives Conymokst, but by the Dutch the 
Otter-spoor, from the little amphibious animal which sports here- 
about, burrows, and leaves its foot-tracks (spoor) on the mar- 
gins of its streamlets and river, and whose furs are so coveted 
by the Dutch trader. Northerly still lies Schorakin, with a mostly 
level surface, and stretching along the Great Kill upward toward 
the hills. It is partly separated from the Otter-spoor by a creek 
and meadows, and partially hidden from ' view by the Ronde 
Gebergte, or Round Hills. One is an abrupt wooded eminence, 
by modern innovation styled Mount Morris, but which the Dutch 
called the Slang Berg, or Snake Hill, from the reptile tribes that 
infested its cleft rocks and underbrush even witliin the memory 

• An Indian term which occurs in a Dutch document of 1669 (see under that 
year), but misread, apparently, by the late Dominie Wcstbrook, who rendered it King's 
Highway, the proper Dutch for which is Koning's Hooge Weg. It may come from 
ko, a fall or cascade, and ononda, a hill; kong signifying elevated place or locality. 
Hence probably refers to the spring aforesaid, but possibly to a village site (an Indian 
village, or pernaps the one contemplated in i66i), nunda being the terni for village. 
It approaches in sound nearly to the Iroquois Genunda, or Kannata, Village on the 
Hill, and from which, says Charlevoux, the name Onada is derived. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 125 

of the living. Southerly from it the gneiss rock crops out in 
huge, disordered masses. A little way to the right is the other^ 
a lesser height or ridge, and which to the inhabitants came to be 
known as The Little Hill, when was built opposite to it (Kings- 
bridge road only parting them) the goodly Dutch farm-house of 
Johannes Sickels, still standing in 123d Street. Strewed over 
the plain, and here and there conspicuous, are rounded boulders 
of gray, red, and ferruginous sandstone, unlike any rock found 
here in situ, and whose presence is ascribed to some mighty action 
of nature in times far remote, by which they had been drifted 
and deposited here. The hugest of these weather-beaten boul- 
ders, which lay behind the Sickels house, still lives in memory 
and in the written romance of the Child of the Singing 
Rock.* 

O'er all this fair domain still roams the haughty Manhattan 
or Wickquaskeek, as properly called, making forest and waters 
alike contribute to his subsistence, as though he yet held rights 
in the soil, notwithstanding the sale, ten years previous, to the 
West India Company. So the sachems of Mareckaweek, or 
Brooklyn, — a fact quite remarkable if they were not a band of 
the Manhattans, — claim the two islands, one before referred to, 
l>'ing opposite the Otter-spoor and called Tenkenas, since named 
Ward's Island, and the other called Minnahanonck, now Black- 
well's Island. But cast the vision across the intervening cen- 
turies, and it strips this virgin landscape of its almost bewitching 
charms ; its every feature changes like a dissolving view, and the 
congregated homes of a cultivated people engross these several 
tracts of many hundred broad acres, forming one of the fairest 
sections of our great metropolis! Gone is every memento of 
the aborigine, save a 'few uncouth names or unearthed relics.t 
The former, as applied to places within Harlem, we have en- 
deavored to rescue, because, however unintelligible or difficult of 
rendering are such Indian terms, they are, as admitted, usually 



• The Bachelor's Ward, or the Child of the Singing Rock: a Legend of Harlem, 
was befi^un in the New York Sun of September 24, i860, and extended through twenty- 
two chapters. It was written by Mr. William K. Pabor, then of Harlem, son of the 
late Alexander Pabor, whose father, Martin Pabor, by birth a Swiss, came to this 
country via Bordeaux, about 1803, and died at Bloomingdale, May 16, 18 16, aged 48 
years. 

t A deposit of Indian arrow-heads was found at Harlem, in 1855, in excavating 
for a cellar on Avenue A, between 120th and 121st street, a spot nearly central of the 
old Bogert or Morris Rendell farm, and on tae ancient Otter-spoor. Being in con- 
siderable number, of various sizes, and in all stages of manufacture, it shows that 
here had been the red man's workshop, where, with wondrous patience and skill, he 
chippea out those little implements, of equal use to him in peace and war. They were 
made of a buff-colored flint, resembling the yellow semi-opal of India, but, what is 
remarkable, unlike any stone to be met with on . or about Manhattan Island. Some 
of these arrow-heads, obtained by him at the time, are in the author's cabinet. 



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124 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

found to be aptly significant, generally descriptive of the locality, 
or of some signal event in its Indian legends.* 

Here, lying as it were at our feet, is Muscoota, — The Flat, — 
stretching northward from the elevation we occupy, a fine level 
plain, shut in westerly by bold heights dressed in the primeval 
forest, the substratum of gray gneiss, like artificial grass-grown 
bulwarks, bare and exposed to view along their entire face; its 
eastern limit a tiny creek that glistens in the sunlight from be- 
tween its bushy banks as a thread of limpid silver, and which, 
meeting at flood tide the flow into the ravine through the heights, 
or the "Clove of the Kil," as afterward called, serves to bisect 
the island and to bear the canoes of the natives from the Hellegat 
to the Hudson. Rejoicing in its primitive integrity and beauty, 
no farm lines, no Harlem Lane or Avenue St. Nicholas yet inter- 
sect it, nor even a furrow has upturned its deep, rich, vegetable 
mould, though partially cleared, and tilled by the Indian women 
with the hoe, in their rude way, for raising scanty crops of 
maize, pumpkins, beans, and tobacco. This inviting spot has also 
been appropriated. Its repose must now be broken by the ring 
of woodman's axe, the noise of saw and hammer, for the first 
European settlers have arrived, to rear their isolated dwellings. 
Their story in the Old World has already been told, and will now 
be continued, with its checkered experiences in the New. 

• Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull, of Hartford, the eminent Indian philologist, in a 
letter of February 3, 1880, with which he has had the kindness to favor me, remarks: 

"Nothing disguises an Indian name so effectually as a Dutch pen; and few of 
the names of Northern New Jersey or Southern New York are easily recognized in the 
shape they come to us in the Dutch records or under Dutch corruptions. The Indian 
dialect differed very slightly from that of Massachusetts or Eastern Connecticut, but 
the Dutch spelling transform^ them to an unknown tongue, and it is only by compari- 
son of all the various ways of writing a name, and by a careful study of the locality 
io which it is appropriated, — and probably wrongfully appropriated, — that one can 
i^uess at the original sound, an so, at the meaning." 




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CHAPTER VII. 

1 636- 1 640. 

SETTLEMENTS. 

T T NDER most flattering auspices, and well supplied with 
^^ needed stores and house and farm utensils, including arms 
and ammunition, Henry and Isaac De Forest have at length the 
satisfaction of treading the strange country, so long the object 
of mingled hope and solicitude. Equally cheering was this un- 
expected arrival* to the denizens of New Amsterdam, who for 
some months had seen no new faces from Fatherland ; their isola- 
tion the more keenly felt since the departure together, August 
13th, of the ship King David, Captain David De Vries, and a 
company's ship, the Seven Stars, the first having brought a small 
accession to the settlers.* The merry salvo from the fort, the 
grasp of welcome which greeted the new-comers, only betokened 
the general gladness; while to the old Walloons, who spake but 
broken Dutch, it gave an opportunity, not often enjoyed, for free 
inquiry in their native patois about friends and events in Europe. 
It did not take long to fix upon a location, and fully inform 
themselves of the nature of and best mode of doing the work to 
be entered upon. But buildings and fences were to be erected, 
trees felled, and the land prepared to receive the crop. Having 
come so late in the year, instead of in the spring, the usual time 
for sailing, they needed to be diligent in order to accomplish this 
preparatory work in season for the spring planting. Choosing 
as his future home the rich flats at Muscoota, promising to rival 
in productiveness the fertile meadows around his native Ley den, 
and, as memory ran backward, perchance recalling his father's 
description of the old home in Hainault, the plains, skirted on 

* Tacob Walings Van Winckel, from Hoorn, and Peter Csesar Albertus, an Italian, 
from Venice, were of the number, and, we believe, Claes Cornelisz, who certainly came 
out this year. The first was the ancestor of the Vah Winkle family, of Bergen, N. J., 
the second of those of Alburtis and Burtis. From Claes Cornelisz, the emigrant of 
1636, two well-known families have sprung, viz.: that of Wyckoff, through his son 
Picter Oacsscn Wyckoff, a child when his father came over, and that of Van Arsdale, 
his daughter, Pietertie, born here in 1640, marrying the common ancestor, Simon 
Jansen Van Arsdalen. 



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126 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

the one side by the heights of Avesnes, on the other by the gentle 
Hepre, Henn- De Forest at once obtained from Director \'an 
Twiller the grant of Muscoota, then roughly estimated at one 
hundred morgen, or two hundred acres, and offering no impedi- 
ment to its immediate occupation, as sometimes occurred where 
the Indian title had first to be acquired. Here, as the weather 
favored, De Forest and his assistants began their toilsome work. 

The winter had scarcely closed when their hearts were 
cheered by the arrival of Dr. La Montagne and his family. The 
voyage, as was not uncommon, had been long and tedious, occa- 
sioned by their taking a circuitous course by way of the Canary 
Islands, in order to reach the trade winds. They introduced a 
Httle stranger, Marie Montagne, born at sea off the Island of 
Madeira, January 26th, 1637, and called after its grandmother, 
De Forest.* Montagne was a welcome and valuable addition to 
the colonists. Reputed skilful in his profession, he so soon rose 
in public favor that Governor Kieft, on his arrival, called him 
to a seat in his council, which appointment, if not by positive 
instructions from the directors, met with their approval. 

Winter and spring had not passed in idleness, as is manifest 
from the amount of work which had been accomplished in clear- 
ing land and getting ready for the season of planting. A farm- 
house was being built, in the Dutch rural style, having an ample 
ground floor **forty-two feet by eighteen wide, with two doors." 
The roof was thatched, and, as a protection against the Indians, 
the house was surrounded by a high, close fence of heavy round 
palisades or pickets. The inclosure, which was entered by a 
well-secured gate or gates, was ample for out-buildings, includ- 
ing a house for curing tobacco ;* this article, as before hinted, 
intended to form the principal crop, one to which the soil, "on 
account of its great fertility, was considered well adapted," and 
yielding the best returns. It w^as also '*well suited to prepare 
the land for other agricultural purposes." Fixed in their new 
home, with the requisite means of defense afforded by their 
strong stockade and four guns kept ready for use, and with hum- 
ble trust in a kind Providence, who had hitherto so favored them, 
the De Forests, with their helpers, Tobias and Willem, addressed 
themselves industriously to the work of tilling the virgin soil. 
With no neighbors but the roving Indians, those who had been 
reared amid the activities of a great city, with its busy, crowded 

• This date, with that of Montaigne's coming, rests upon a note in Hoi gate's Am. 
Genealogy, p. 112, the original authority for which I have inquired for in vain, but 
I see no reason to doubt its accuracy, while collateral facts arc in harmony with it. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 127 

marts, must have been strangely impressed by this scene of wild 
solitude and this lone isolation. The dusky savage, whose trail 
lay near them, leading from the forests of Wickquaskeek to New 
Amsterdam, as he passed to and fro on his trading errands, and 
eyed with ill-disguised suspicion this inroad upon his ancient 
hunting-grounds, must doubtless have excited, by his uncouth 
dress and demeanor, his very coyness, a corresponding suspicion 
and dread in the minds of the toilers.* And when weariness 
invited repose, — ^perchance sweet dreams of home and kindred, — 
how oft were these disturbed by the dismal howl of the wolf or the 
terrifying scream of the panther, suddenly breaking the death- 
like stillness of the night! 

However, Jonkheer Van Curler now set about improving his 
fine tract of two hundred acres, called the Otter-spoor, lying next 
to De Forest's plantation ; but, to describe it in terms now famil- 
iar, situated north of the Mill Creek, at io8th Street, and ex- 
tending from Harlem River to near Fifth Avenue. He erected 
a dwelling-house and out-buildings, and procured all things 
necessary for a well-regulated plantation, — domestic animals and 
farming tools, with the no less needful "boat and fixtures" for 
passing to and from New Amsterdam. Van Twiller also built 
upon the larger island, opposite the Otter-spoor, the Indian Ten- 
kenas, now called Ward's Island, and put there some choice Hol- 
land stock, all in charge of Barent Jansen Blom, a stalwart Dane, 
as his overseer or farmer; after which, on July i6th, 1637, the 
director purchased the Indian title to this island, and also the 
lesser one **lying westward," called ^linnahanonck (Blackwell's 
Island), from the sachems, Heyseys and Numers, who took in 
payment "certain parcels of goods." From Barent Blom, whose 
huge proportions had gained him the nickname of "Groot Barent," 
the island w^hereon he lived received the name of Great Barent's 
Island. Years later, when Blom had removed to Brooklyn and 
\'an Twiller been dispossessed by the government, the term groot, 
or great, losing its proper reference to Barent, was applied to 
the island itself, to distinguish it from the smaller one adjacent 

• "The Indians about here," says Capt. David Dc Vries, who had been a great 
deal among the Wickquaskeeks and other tribes living around New Amsterdam, "are 
tolerably stout, have black hair, with a long lock which they let hang on one side of 
the head. The hair is shorn on the top of the head like a cock's comb. Their clothing 
is a coat of beaver skins over the boav, with the fur inside in winter and outside in 
summer; they have also sometimes a bear's skin, or a coat made of the furs of wild 
cats or raccoons. They also wear coats of turkey feathers, which they know how to 
put together; but since our Netherlanders have traded here, they barter their beavers 
for duffels-cloth, which they find more suitable than the beavers, and better for the 
rain. Their pride is to paint their faces hideously with red or black lead, so that 
they look like fiends. Then are they valiant; yea, they say they are Manetto, — the 
devil himself." 



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128 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

(now Randall's Island), which latter from mere proximity was 
called Little Barent's Island!* 

Illusory is the dream of worldly aggrandizement ; how often, 
alas, the fondest hope of the heart only buds to be blighted ! 
Such was a frequent experience of our early colonists. Suddenly 
a gloom black as night overshadowed that lone dwelling on the 
plain ; death had reaped the first harvest. "Henry De Forest died 
on the 26th July, A° 1637." Painfully brief, is the record. Had 
exposure in a new and variable climate proved too much for one 
reared among the comforts and protecting influences of a city ; 
or had the over-zealous toiler suddenly fallen under the burden 
and heat of the day ? Was it due to disease or violence ? Vain are 
all surmises. We only know that, far from his native land, from 
the endeared forms and scenes of other days, saving the presence 
of some he most loved, the first European settler on these Flats met 
his fate! He was borne to his last resting-place, — doubtless at 
New Amsterdam, — with fitting tokens of respect, and the sym- 
pathizing pastor Bogardus, who but six months agone had greeted 
and welcomed him on his arrival, performed the last sad ritual, 
presenting each pall-bearer with a silver spoon as a memento of 
the departed. These tokens were furnished the dominie by direc- 

* Barent Jensen Blom, whose descendants write their names Bloom, was born in 
161 1, at Ockholm, a town of Sleswick, in Denmark. After quitting Van Twiller's 
service he settled in Brooklyn, boufjht, in 1652, a farm near the Wallabout, and there 
lived till he died, June 5, 1665, from a stab wound in the side, given by Albert Com. 
Wantcnaer, and at once fatal. As Albert set up the plea of self-defense, the court of 
Assize, at his trial, October 2, convicted him only of manslaughter. He "was then 
and there burnt in the hand, according to law;" the further penalties, which were 
the loss of his property and a year's imprisonment, being remitted by the governor. 

By his wife, btyntie Pieters, whom he married in 1641, Barent left two sons, Jan, 
born 1644, and Claes, born 1650. His daughter Engeltie, born 1652, married Adam 
Vrooman, of Schenectady, and another daughter named Tutie, born 165^, married 
Lembert Jansen Van Dvck. Jan Barentsen Hlom became a farmer in Flatbusn, married 
Mary, daughter of Simon Hansen, and had issue, Barent, of Flushing (died about 1735, 
having by wife Femmetie, sons Garret, born 1695; John, 1697; Abranam, 1703; George, 
1706, and Isaac, 1709); Simon, of Jamaica (died 1722. having by wife Gertrude, sons 
John, born 1706; Isaac, 1708; Beruardus, 1710; Abraham, 17 13; Jacob, 171 5, and 
George, 1716, of whom Bernardus, of Newtown, blacksmith, 1 73 1-'84, was father of 
Simon and grandfather of Capt. Bernardus Bloom, see Annals of Newtown), and 
George, of Flatbush, who died without children about 1737. Claes Barentse Blom 
married 1685, Elizabeth, daughter of Paulus Dcricksen and widow of Paulus Michielse 
Vandervoort. He remained in his native town, Brooklyn, and was still living in 1737. 
He had several children, of whom was Barent, of Bedford, also Jennetie, who married 
Jacobus Lefferts and Peter Luvster, the first the grandfather of the late Judge Lefferts, 
of Brooklyn. Barent, of Bedford, whose wife was also named Femmetie, died in 1756, 
having children Nicholas, Jacob, Phebe, Elizabeth, Jane, Barbara and Maria. Nicholas 
died at Bedford about 1782, leaving Jacob and Mattie. Consult Bloom wills, Surro- 
rogate's Office, New York. For other facts touching this lineage wc refer, with 
pleasure, to the Bergen (^nealogy, in its new and improved form, a perfect thesaurus 
of our Dutch family histoiy, yet, to our regret, must take issue with it upon the Bloom 
ancestry. 

Frederick Arents Bloem, ancestor of the Bloom family of New York City, distinct 
from the former, was from Swarte Sluis, between Zwolfe and Meppcl, in Overysscl, 
and came over via Amsterdam, in 1654. with and under engagement to Laurens 
Andrisz Van Boskrk, turner and common ancestor of the Van Buskirk family. Bloom, 
also a turner, and hence often called "De Drayer," married at New Amsterdam, in 
1656, Grietie Pieters, from Breda; issue, nine children, four being sons, viz.: Arent, 
born 1657; Pieter, 1661; Johannes, 1671, and Jacob, 1676, of whom at least the first 
and last married and had children. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 129 

lion of Dr. Montagne, and at his own cost. Then, — it was the ap- 
proved custom, — when the assembled burghers had gravely lit 
their pipes and spent some honest regrets, over their wine and beer, 
at the untimely exit of one thus snatched away at the manly age 
of thirty-one years, the scene closed over Henry De Forest. 

As De Forest was childless, his estate fell to the wndow and 
next of kin. Dr. Montagne took charge of the plantation, and 
saw^ the ripening crops properly harvested. He also finished the 
house and barn, till which he boarded at the house of Van Curler. 
An account of his expenses while in charge of the farm affords 
us a bill of fare which might challenge the luxuries of a European 
table. Items *'powder, shot, and balls" suggest not only a care 
for their personal security, but as well the means of supplying 
their larder with savory venison, deer being so plentiful in the 
island as often to stroll within gun-shot of the farm house. Be- 
sides a variety of game, with fish, and "salted eels," pea soup, 
wheat and rye bread, butter, eggs, and poultry, they adopted the 
wholesome native dish called sapaan, a mush made of Indian com. 

The year following, Andries Hudde, an ex-member of Van 
Twiller's council, won the heart and hand of the young widow 
De Forest, and they were married. Preparing to visit Holland 
with his bride, Hudde engaged Hans Hansen, from Bergen in 
Norway, by trade a shipwright, but with some knowledge of 
farming, and who during eleven years* residence had "borne a 
respectable character," to cultivate tobacco, upon shares, on the 
De Forest farm, Hudde pledging to send him six or eight farm 
bborers, with suitable tools, "by the first opportunity of any vessel 
leaving a port of Holland." Lastly, prior to leaving, Hudde made 
good his title by a "groundbrief," or patent, from Director Kieft, 
dated July 20th, 1638, none having been taken out before; in 
fact, no such deeds had yet been issued to any of the settlers. 
Only on June 24th preceding had the governor and council, upon 
a petition from "the free people," resolved to give titles for the 
farms in course of improvement. This conveyance to Hudde, here 
given entire, is the earliest of its kind known relating to Harlem 
lands, if not the very first, in point of date, issued by the govern- 
ment. 

We, the Director and Council of New Netherland, residing on the 
Island of Manhatas and in Fort Amsterdam, under the authority of the 
High and Mighty Lords, the States General of the United Netherlands, 
and the General Incorporated West India Company, at their Chambers at 
Amsterdam; By these presents do publish and declare, that pursuant to 
the Liberties and Exemptions allowed on the 7th day of June, A. D. 1629, 
to Lords Patroons, of a lawful, real and free proprietorship; We have 



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I30 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

granted, transported, ceded, given over and conveyed ; and by these pres- 
ents We do grant, give over and convey, to and for the behoof of Andries 
Hudde, a piece of land containing one hundred morgen, situated on the 
North East end of the Island of Manhatas, behind Curler's land; on 
condition that he and his successors shall acknowledge their High 
Mightiness, the Managers aforesaid, as their Sovereign Lords and Pa- 
troons, and shall render at the end of ten years after the actual settle- 
ment and cultivation of the land, the just tenth part of the products with 
which God may bless the soil, and from this time forth annually for the 
House and Lot, deliver a pair of capons to the Director for the Holidays ; 
constituting and substituting the aforesaid Hudde in our stead and state, 
the real and actual possessor thereof, and at the same time giving to him 
or to his successors full and irrevocable might, authority and special 
license, tanquam actor et procurator in rem suam ac propriam, the afore- 
said land to enter, peaceably to possess, inhabit, cultivate, occupy and use, 
and also therewith and thereof to do, bargain and dispose, in like manner 
as he might do with his own lands honestly and lawfully obtained, without 
they, the grantors, in their said quality, thereto having, reserving, or 
saving in Sie least, any part, action or ownership, other than heretofore 
specified: Now and forever, finally desisting, abstaining, withdrawing: 
and renouncing by these presents; promising, moreover, this their trans- 
port, and what may be done by virtue thereof, firmly, inviolably and 
irrevocably to maintain, fulfil and execute, as in equity they are bound to ; 
in all good faith, without fraud or deceit In witness whereof, these 
presents are confirmed with our usual signature and with our Seal. Done 
in Fort Amsterdam the 20th of July, 1638. Wili^Em Kieft, Dr. 

All their arrangements made, including authority to Do. 
Bogardus to administer the De Forest estate in their absence, 
Hudde and his Gertrude sailed for Holland, we believe in the 
company's ship the Herring, of twenty guns, which had brought 
out Director Kieft. Naturally, after a nine years' absence, Hudde 
longed to see his native city, Amsterdam, and his widowed mother, 
Aeltie Schinckels; his father, Rutger Hudde, was dead. Besides 
the business of his wife's estate, certain sums due him from his 
guardians at Amsterdam and deposited in the Orphan Chamber 
required to be looked after, as well as moneys coming from his 
deceased brother, Claes Hudde, and a legacy at Campen, left him 
by his old aunt Seurbeeck, who had lately died; amounting in 
all to nearly 8,000 fl. ! 

Since Montague took charge of the plantation he had ex- 
pended over a thousand guilders, in paying claims against it, in 
completing the improvements, and for current expenses, as per 
his statement rendered to Dominie Bogardus July 23d, and which 
had been approved and taken to Holland. Wishing a settlement, he 
petitioned the council, September i6th, that Bogardus as adminis- 
trator be required to assume the care of the farm and refund him 
the amount which he had advanced upon account of it. As 
Bogardus was not prepared to do this except by a sale of the 
property, the court at their next meeting thought best and so 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 131 

decreed, that the plantation should be put up at public vendue in 
Fort Amsterdam, October 7th, "for the benefit of the widow," 
and that from the proceeds of the sale Bogardus should pay Mon- 
tagne **such moneys as he had disbursed for the improvement of 
the bouwery." The sale taking place, the farm, with its fixtures, 
was struck oflf to Montague for the sum of 1700 gl. Included were 
portions of the recent crops of tobacco and grain, two milch cows 
and other cattle, two goats, domestic fowls, farming tools, and a 
"wey schuyt" or boat used by the farmers to bring salt hay from 
their meadow. 

But Montague had now to meet a new vexation, for no sooner 
had the farm changed owners than Tobias and Willem, refusing 
to work, applied to the council, October 14th, to be released from 
their engagement, as they were not hired by the defendant, but 
by his uncle." Montague, however, "produces the contracts made 
between the plaintiffs and Gerard De Forest, from which it clearly 
appears that the plaintiffs are bound to serve said De Forest or 
his agent for three sucessive years after their arrival in New 
Xetherland, and the defendant further exhibiting power and au- 
thority from the said De Forest to employ the plaintiffs in his 
service till the expiration of their bounden time ; all this being con- 
sidered, the plaintiffs are condemned to serve out their term with 
La Montague without further objection, he promising to pay them 
the wages which shall be due them at the expiration of the said 
term." The secret of the dissatisfaction with Tobias, and which 
had caused him to vent a little Dutch spleen against his employer, 
would appear in his complaint to others that he had been stinted 
in his allowance of meat at Montague's house. But when put to 
the proof of this also before the court, he confessed to having 
wronged Montague in what he had said, admitting "that he had 
his share of the beef as well as the plaintiff." Thus this trouble 
ended. 

Jonkheer Van Curler, constantly in the public service, and 
now engrossed with the duties of inspector of merchandise under 
the new director, found it expedient. May i8th, 1638, to lease 
the Otter-spoor farm, which he improved at great expense, to 
Claes Cornelissen Swits, for a term of three years, the lessee en- 
gaging to employ a good plowman, and Van Curler an active 
boy to assist him. The rent was to be paid in produce, and the 
land, when vacated, to be left well sowed. But some months 
later the Otter-spoor changed owners, Cornelis Van Tienhoven, 
provincial secretary, becoming its purchaser, "at the request and 
on behalf of Mr. Coenraet Van Keulen, merchant, residing in 



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132 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Amsterdam," for the sum of 2900 gl. The Van Keulens of that 
city were much interested in New Netherland, one of them, Mat- 
thys Van Keulen, being a principal partner director of the West 
India Company in the Amsterdam Chamber. Coenraet, a kins- 
man of Matthys, we presume, with his friend Elias De Raet, also 
a prominent director of the company, and who had befriended 
Kieft in getting the directorship here, invested in lands on Manhat- 
tan Island, and subsequently Kieft became their agent to manage 
this property, including the Otter-spoor after Van Tienhoven's 
charge of it ceased. On January 25, 1639, Van Tienhoven gave a 
new lease to Swits, and with him, as a partner, Jan Claessen AI- 
teras, late planter on Verken, or Blackwell's Island. Two span of 
horses, three cows, farming utensils, and "twelve schepels of 
grain in the ground" were included in the lease, which now was 
to run for six years, the rent payable in live stock and butter and 
"one eighth of all the grain with which God shall bless the field." 

Claes Comelissen Swits' earlier history is little known. Cap- 
tain De Vries, in noting the circumstances of his death, styles 
him a Duytsman, by which term the Hollanders of that day meant, 
a German. But his true nationality is clearly indicated by the ad- 
junct to his name, which when used is commonly written Switz 
or Switzer, and so we may accept the tradition held by his descend- 
ants that he was a Swiss. He and his family had sojourned in 
the Island of Schouwen, and thence came to Amsterdam, boarding- 
with other Germans at Peter De Winter's inn before embarking- 
for this country. He had been here now some five years, being- 
advanced in life, and on a chosen spot at Turtle Bay, on the East 
River, "had built a small house and set up the trade of a wheel- 
wright." With a still vigorous manhood, some education and 
means, and a fair business tact, Claes Rademaaker, or Claes the 
Wheelmaker, as from his occupation he was familiarly called, 
proved "a very useful man," given to enterprises outside of his 
regular calling, assisted probably by his sons Cornelis and Adrian, 
as he was by Alteras at the Otter-spoor. All this made his tragic 
death some years later the more regretted. He was killed by an 
Indian, and, strangely enough, his son Cornelis, from whom the 
present Swits family are descended, met with a similar fate at 
Harlem, as will be further noticed. 

Van Tienhoven had obtained his deed for the Otter-spoor 

* Jacobus Van Curler remained many years in this country. He took an active 
part, in 1657, in the settlement of New Utrecht, where he built one of the first 
houses, and served as town clerk and magristrate. At the age of sixty years he re- 
turned to Holland, sailing from New York, May 29, 1669, in tne ship Duke of York. 

On losing his first wife, Adriana, Van Curler had married, in 1652, a worthy but 
much-injured maiden, Lysbet Van Hoogvelt, whom the false-hearted Van Tienhoven, 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 133 

from Jacobus Van Curler* only the previous May, and having now 
"been fully satisfied and paid" by Van Keulen of Amsterdam, 
he executed a conveyance to the latter for that valuable property, 
August 22d. 1639, subject only to the lease to Swits. From its 
new owner this large section became known in all the subse- 
quent history of the town as Van Keulen's Hook. 

A most valuable accession was now made to the settlers, re- 
sulting from the more liberal measures recently adopted by the 
States General and the West India Company to promote coloni- 
zation to New Netherland. Captain Jochiem Pietersen Kuyter, 
a Danish gentleman, bom in the district of Ditmarsen in Hol- 
stein, and liberally educated, had arisen to position, having held 
a command in the East Indies under commission of King 
Christian IV. He was now in his prime, forty-two years of age, 
and had acquired considerable means. Resolving to come to 
this country, he made his plans known to the directors of the 
company at Amsterdam, who showed him marked attention, not 
only giving him every assurance, but instructing Director Kieft 
to afford him all needed facilities, in order the better to encour- 
age others. Engaging the Fire of Troy, a private armed vessel 
at Hoorn, he shipped "a large cargo of cattle," perhaps of 
the fine breed for which his native Ditmarsen was famous, and 
sailed for New Netherland, accompanied by his friend and coun- 
tryman. Seignior Jonas Bronck. Each was attended by his 
family and a number of farmers or herdsmen, and with them 
came several laborers sent out by Andries Hudde, from which 
person, it is highly probable, Kuyter had received such informa- 
tion respecting the grazing lands upon Manhattan Island as served 
to direct him in his choice of location. Early in July, 1639, the 
ship, with its valuable cargo, reached New Amsterdam, where its 
arrival was hailed as a great public good.t In the joy of his 
honest heart. Captain De Vries, who returned to Manhattan on 
July i6th, but a few days after Kuyter had arrived, wrote in his 
journal, "It were to be wished that one to three hundred such 
families, with laborers, had come, for then this would soon be 
made a prosperous country." 

So warmly commended to the favor of Kieft, Kuyter imme- 

when in Amsterdam, in 1650, had cruelly deceived by a promise of marriage, and 
induced to accompany him to this country, though he had a wife and children living 
here. Exposing him publicly in court, Lysbet found great sympathy, and Tienhoven's 
baseness being proved b>[ testimony sent for to Holland, it came near going hard with 
him, but he escaped punishment only to become a few years later a public swindler, a 
fugitive from justice, and, as was believed, a suicide! • 

t De Vries, in the journal of his voyages, places Kuyter's arrival under June, 
but it is shown by other data that the journal is here at fault as regards the month. 



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134 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

diately obtained from him a grant of that extensive and beautiful 
tract before noticed, called Schorakin. On these rich lands was 
found ample pasturage for his stock, and here Kuyter built his 
thatch-roofed dwelling and out-buildings, enclosing the whole 
with a high palisade fence, with proper gates. In due time 
fruit-trees and various improvements adorned his home. This 
plantation, which embraced about four hundred acres, may now 
be located in general terms as that section of Harlem bordering 
on the Harlem River north of what composed the old village 
lots, and referred to in title deeds, even till a modern date, as 
Jochem Pietersen's Flat; though Kuyter, in the gratitude of his 
pious heart, named it Zengendal, or Vale of Blessing. 

Montagne had chosen for his bouwery, — its air of sweet re- 
pose so in contrast with the turbulent scenes of his early life, — the 
name Vredenval, or Quiet Dale. Alas, he was to realize but little 
of the happiness which he anticipated in its possession and use ! 
Tobias and Willem, his two farmers, having served out their time, 
were now to leave him, the former to occupy a bouwery near 
Papparinamin. A question arising as to some extra pay due 
them, under an agreement made before Montagne came, and 
to which Jacob Stoffelsen was privy, he being at that time 
"werkbaas" over the company's negroes, who usually assisted in 
the heavy work on new bouweries, such as cutting palisades, 
clearing the land, etc., Stoffelsen testified "that in the year 
1636 Henry De Forest promised to pay the said persons twenty 
florins annually for their improvements." Parties came to a set- 
tlement March sth, 1640, when Teunissen and Bont gave a receipt 
in full, acknowledging themselves to have been well treated and 
paid to their satisfaction by Mr. La Montagne during and for their 
three years' service on the farm Vredendal. 

After a year's absence Mr. and Mrs. Hudde returned to New 
Netherland, apparently in the Herring, which arrived here again 
July 7th, 1639, bringing goods and supplies purchased by Hudde 
in Amsterdam, where before sailing he had been oWiged to 
borrow two hundred carolus guilders from Mr. Jonas Bronck, 
to be paid when they should arrive in New Netherland. But 
Hudde now learned of the sale of the farm Vredenval and the 
defeat of his plans as a tobacco-planter. Some questions arose, 
as was natural, and for a full year the legal transfer of the prop- 
erty from Hudde to Montagne was delayed, though the latter 
had made the former a payment upon it of 200 gl. July i8th, 
soon after he arrived from Holland. But the parties finally came 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 135 

to terms July 12th, 1640, and on August 28th ensuing Dr. Mon- 
tagne received his deed.* 

This plantation and those at Zegendal, the Otter-spoor, and 
Great Barent's Island were the only places yet occupied in this 
vicinity, with one exception. When Kuyter set him down at 
Schorakin, his friend Bronck located at Ranachqua, on the 
other side of the Great Kill, directly opposite Kuyter's land. 
Bronck was of a family long distinguished in Sweden, though 
probably himself from Copenhagen, where some of his kindred 
lived. He last resided at Amsterdam, and had there married his 
wife, daughter of Jurlaen Slagboom. His interviews there with 
Hudde and Kuyter upon the subject of New Netherland having 
quickened, if they did not originate, his purpose to emigrate, he at 
once applied his ample means to securing a proper outfit, and with 
his family, farmers, female servants, and cattle, arrived here in the 
Fire of Troy, as before stated. Immediately, with consent of the 
government, he purchased from the lidian sachem Tackamack 
and his associates the large tract of land called by them Ranachqua, 
l>'ing between the Great Kill and the river Ah-qua-hung, now the 
Bronx, conprising over five hundred acres, and since included in 
the Manor of Morrisania. Here Bronck began at once to make 
substantial improvements, including "a stone house, covered with 
tiles, a barn, tobacco house, two barricks," etc. Pieter Andriesen 
and Laurens Duyts also leased portions of his land, July 21st, 1639, 
for three years, for raising tobacco and maize, from the proceeds 
of which they were to reimburse Bronck for their passage money 
in the Fire of Troy, which he had paid. Upon the same "stipula- 
tions,'' Cornelis Jacobsen Stille (later of Harlem) and his brother 
Jan took, August 15th, part of Bronck's land, with a goo.d dwel- 
ling and some stock, for six years. With his house neatly if not 
richly furnished for those times, and his vrouw pronounced "a 
good housekeeper," Bronck was pleasantly situated. 

North of Bronck's land, only separated from it by the kill 
Mannepies (the Indian name of Cromwell's Creek) was the hilly 
tract or district of Kaxkeek, "lying over against the flats of the 
Island of Manhatas, extending in its length along the kill" from 

• Andries Huddc, as before said, was the son of Rutger Hudde, of Amsterdam, 
and was born in 1608. He arrived in New Netherland in 1629, and in 1633, became a 
permanent member of Van Twiller's council; in 1642 was appointed the public sur- 
veyor, and in 1644 was sent as chief commissary to the Delaware, where he subse- 
quently held other offices, and also officiated as voorleser in the church, under the 
ministry of Dominie Lock. Here he lost his wife, she that had been Mrs. De Forest, but 
he married again in 1657. Dismissed at his own request from the public scrviccj he 
left for Maryland, intending to set up a brewerv there, but died at Appoquinimy, 
November 4, 1663. On April 19, 1667, Isaac De Forest, "representing Andnes Hudde, 
deceased," sold his house and lot on the Heere-weg. 



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136 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

"opposite the high hill of the flat land*' till it reached "the source of 
the said kill." On August 3d, 1639, j^st about the time of Bronck's 
purchase, Kaxkeek was also bought for the company, from Tacka- 
mack aforesaid and others. Now a populous district of Westchester, 
in fact forming a part of New York City, then it had yet to welcome 
its first white occupant, and Bronck and his farmers had only for 
neighbors the native tenants of the forest, the prowling beast and 
savage. But the devout Bronck had an arm whereon to lean; a 
Lutheran in faith, he had brought with him Luther's catechism and 
other devotional books, with his most prized folio Danish Bible. 
And as he drew therefrom a name for his own home, Enmaus, 
it carried with it the sweet assurance that even in this secluded 
wilderness his risen Lord would reveal himself, if not visibly, 
as to the two disciples of old, yet with tokens of his presence no 
less comforting because no less real to his eye of faith. 




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CHAPTER VIII. 

1640 — 1645. 

INDIAN TROUBLES. 

TTHRICE happy was the colonist in the friendship of the Indian ; 
for he coveted his furs, to be had for a trifle, but worth at 
New Amsterdam a good price in cash or its equivalent; he ate 
of his maize when his bread failed, and often stood in need of 
his labor or other service. And the advantage was mutual. The 
red man was quick to see that various articles in use among the 
Dutch would be of equal use to him. He admitted the superiority 
of the Holland duffels, — a thick-napped woolen cloth, blue or red, 
— by adopting it for his own wear. No longer prostrating himself 
through fear on the discharge of a musket, he could now handle 
this firearm, and would give a pile of beavers for an old gun and 
some ammunition. But of worse consequence, he acquired a taste 
for the Dutch fire-water, and for a draught of the exhilarating 
beverage would strip the last fur covering from his body ! 

His visit to the bouweries or farms upon peaceful errands, 
usually for something which he needed and to barter a little game 
or peltr>', was no longer a novelty, and the sight of these savages 
in their canoes, daily passing and repassing on the streams and 
rivers, or engaged in their favorite employment of fishing, excited 
no apprehensions. "The farmers," writes Kuyter, "pursue their out- 
door labor without interruption, in the woods as well as in the field, 
and dwell safely, with their wives and children, in their houses, 
free from any fear of the Indians." 

" The drowsy herdsman now reviews his charge, 
Unbars his stalls and sets his flocks at large; 
The ploughboy next comes trudging o'er the plain, 
With merry heart to yoke his team again ; 
He slowly goads along the lounging pair, 
As whistling on he goes for want of care. 
Unconscious of his happier lot below, 
In thought confined he wields his steady plow; 



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138 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

And all the joyful train with sickles bright, 
Now join the harvest fields in gay delight; 
And as the rustic jest goes jocund round, 
The rural hour in guileless mirth is crowned; 
While health does o'er each cheerful visage play, 
Content and joy beguile their hours away." 

Sweet dream of security, it was past ! A mortal enmity was 
brewing between the white and the red man, in the face of 
every interest which should have bound them in friendship. 
Though the resi>onsibility lay not with the colonist, but with the 
authorities, the effects fell heavily on the former. In 1639 Direc- 
tor Kieft was guilty of a most impolitic act, in attempting to 
levy a tax upon the several Indian tribes, sending his wily agent 
Tienhoven to demand their corn, furs, and sewant.* The demand 
was indignantly spumed, and served only to arouse a hostile 
feeling toward the Dutch. Montague's prediction was well made 
when, seeing the folly of his measure, he said, "A bridge has been 
built, over which war will soon stalk through the land." Some 
petty depredations being committed soon after, which were, in part 
falsely, charged upon the Raritan Indians, the hotheaded Kieft 
dispatched a body of soldiers to demand satisfaction. They too 
well executed their mission by a wanton attack on the Indians, 
July i6th, 1640, killing several, and burning their maize. 

The next year, 1641, brought retaliation from the Raritans, 
who, on September ist, swept off the settlers upon Staten Island^ 
while Manhattan Island was already smarting under the first 
stroke of savage vengeance. A Wickquaskeek who from boy- 
hood had harbored a grudge against the Dutch, because at that 
time three of Director Minuit's men had slain his uncle and stolen 
his beavers, could no longer restrain his thirst for revenge. On 
a day in midsummer he entered the house of Claes Swits, at 
Turtle Bay, "on the road over which the Indians from Wickquas- 
keek passed daily." Assuming a friendly air, and being known 
to Swits, for whose son he had worked, he was "well received 
and supplied with food."- Then he wanted to trade some furs 
for duffels ; but while the unsuspecting old man was bending over 
the chest in which his cloth was kept, the savage, with an axe 
that lay near, struck him upon the neck, when "he fell down dead 

• Sewant, also called wampum, was the Indian money, consisting of tubular 
beads made from the conch-shell, perforated lengthwise and fastened with thread 
upon strips of cloth or canvas. For many years it was almost the only money in . 
circulation among the settlers, and for trading with the Indians was preferable to 
coin. Even the contributions at church were made in sewant. The color of the 
beads, whether white or black, and the finish determined its value. For an ex- 
haustive article upon its manufacture, etc., see Munsell's Annals of Albany, vol. ii^ 
pp. 1-8, second edition. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 139 

by the chest." He then stole all the goods and fled into the 
forest. This cruel murder, at their very doors, aroused the 
authorities, and a yacht was sent to Wickquaskeek to demand 
satisfaction from the sachem. He not only refused, but justified 
the act. "He wished twenty Swannekins (t. e,, Dutchmen) had 
been murdered." 

Burning to scourge the savages, but fearing to assume the 
responsibility, Kieft referred it to the citizens, who at his request 
came together and chose twelve of their number to decide upon 
the grave question of making war to avenge the murder of Swits. 
The twelve men, Kuyter being one, reported their conclusions 
on the 24th of August. They counseled delay. A better oppor- 
tunity should be chosen to inflict the blow, for their cattle were 
now pasturing in the woods, and the settlers were living isolated 
from each other, — east, west, north and south. Meanwhile an- 
other demand should be made for the murderer, and repeated, if 
necessary, "twice or three times." Then, his surrender being 
still refused, let war begin "at once." "The attack should be 
made in the harvest, when the Indians were hunting," or deferred 
*'till the maize trade be over, and until an opportunity and God's 
will be made manifest." These reasonable counsels prevailed; 
peace was maintained, and Kuyter and his neighbors pursued 
their farming work unobstructed, though not without more or 
less apprehension. 

Vredendal and the Otter-spoor, in the year which inaugur- 
ated these troubles, had yielded profitable returns for the "great 
expenses" put upon these bouwcries, while Kuyter, after " a 
heavy outlay, much pains, and immense labor" upon his buildings 
and lands at Zegendal, to complete the one and bring the other 
under good cultivation, had also realized a valuable crop of 
tobacco, which being wintered and well cured he was intending 
to ship during the summer of 1641 to Coenraet Van Keulen, at 
Amsterdam, who had already made him advances thereon. But 
his purpose was defeated by the sudden departure of the Oak 
Tree for Virginia, the vessel in which he had designed to make 
his shipment, adding to his disappointment and loss the necessity 
of refunding to his consignee the sum advanced by him. Mon- 
tagne was hardly as fortunate, for while his crop was being 
sweated and cured, his tobacco-house, too slightly built, blew 
down, by which accident the tobacco was injured. He prose- 
cuted John Morris, the carpenter, for damages, which ended in 
a compromise. And so, notwithstanding a malicious report which 
reached Holland, that Montague "daily filled his pockets with 



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I40 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

ducatoons and jacobuses," his pecuniary affairs really began to 
wear a discouraging aspect, his domestic horizon being also 
clouded just at this time by the loss of his wife. 

Meanwhile satisfaction for the murder of Swits had been 
^'several times sought for, but in vain." Indeed, it is reported 
that the savage tribes were combining for a general war upon 
the colonists; and the killing of two other persons at Staten 
Island and Hackensack was proof of the hostile spirit animating 
the savages. All tl^is was very alarming to the inhabitants, 
especially those upon exposed bouweries, who lived in constant 
fear, "and not without reason, as the Indians were daily in their 
houses." 

Persuasion having failed, Kieft now felt justified in using 
force with the savages. He summoned the twelve men, Novem- 
ber 1st, and asked their opinion. "Mr. Jochem" (Kuyter) ad- 
vised "to be patient, and to lull the Indians into security"; and 
most agreed with him. On January 21st, 1642, the twelve men 
gave their assent to an expedition against the Wickquaskeeks, 
but (knowing his cowardice) suggested that the director him- 
self should lead the forces! The latter declined the honor, but 
began warlike preparations. All being ready, and spies sent to 
reconnoitre reporting that the Indians "lay in their village sus- 
pecting nothing," Ensign Hendrick V^an Dyck, with eighty men, 
left Fort Amsterdam early in the month of March for Wickquas- 
keek. Arriving at the Annepperah, or the Saw Mill Creek, at 
Yonkers, Willem Bont, who held a subordinate command, bravely 
passed over with his men and "marched on with the advanced 
troops," expecting the ensign to follow.* But Van Dyck halted 
at the creek for more than an hour before he crossed with his com- 
mand and came up ; but now darkness had set in, Tobias Teunis- 
sen, the guide, lost his way, and the ensign, perplexed and out 
of temper, ordered a return. The result was more happy, prob- 
ably, than if they had met the savages, for the latter, noticing 
by the tracks of the soldiers near their wigwams "that they had 
narowly escaped discovery," dreaded another visit, and sent 
messengers to sue for peace. Kieft accordingly sent delegates, 
including Van Tienhoven, who understood Indian, to meet the 
chiefs of Wickquaskeek in council at the house of Jonas Bronck, 
at Emmaus, and here was made a formal treaty, in which, among 



Willem Fredericks Bont, the same year, removed to Fort Orange, and being 

rting the first church there. Xater he was 



a "free carpenter" took part in constructim 



for several years a magistrate, kept tavern, farmed the excise, and acquired property. 
He married, about 1650, Geertie Nannincks, as her fourth husband; in 1683 both 
were members of Dominie Delius' Church. Whether he left children is not known. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 141 

other things, the sachems engaged to deliver Swits' murderer to 
the Dutch. 

Under this pledge of peace the spring and summer witnessed 
considerable labor on the several plantations on the Flats. At 
the same time Montague, as a member of the council, was much 
occupied with official duties, and Kuyter made his debut into 
public life as a "kermeester," one of those chosen to oversee 
the erection of a church at New Amsterdam, because Kuyter was 
"a devout person of the reformed religion, and had good work- 
men who would quickly prepare the timber." The church was 
begun forthwith, its walls "laid up with quarry stone," and "built 
in the fort, to guard against any surprise by the Indians." 

Illusory indeed was the hope of living in peace with the 
natives, now that the old ties of friendship had been ruptured. It 
so happened that in midwinter following, the Mahicans, who 
lived below Fort Orange, came down and made war upon the 
Tappans and Wickquaskeeks, it was said, to force those tribes^ 
whom they had once subjugated, to render them tribute. Nu- 
merous as were these tribes, they were easily overpowered by the 
Mahicans, who were well armed with guns, many of the men 
being slain, the women and children made captives, and a crowd 
of terror-stricken fugitives forced to take to flight through a 
deep snow to find shelter in the Dutch settlements. Half dead 
with cold and hunger, they were kindly received by the people and 
fed .for two weeks, till, gathering courage, they returned to their 
castles. But soon, another panic seizing them, they again sought 
the protection of the Dutch. Now Kieft, with no commisera- 
tion for these wretched beings, thought it his chance to avenge 
the death of Claes Swits and others. "God hath wholly deliv- 
ered them into our hands," impiously said Van Tienhoven and 
other restless spirits, who, simply echoing the sentiments of Kieft^ 
made a formal request for leave to destroy them. 

Kuyter and other considerate persons opposed this stoutly, 
insisting that it would only recoil upon their own heads, bring 
disaster upon the country, and especially expose the out-planta- 
tions to the rage of a vindictive and cruel foe. Montague, having 
just arrived from Quiet Dale, its stalls of cattle and full garners 
all endangered, urged his objections with unusual warmth. "We 
ought first to consider well," he insisted, "whether we shall be 
able to give protection to those who are living at a distance." But 
this pertinent suggestion was unheeded, evil counsels prevailed, 
and Kieft, set in his mad purpose, rashly issued orders. On the 
night of February 25th, 1643, ^ party of Dutch soldiers sallied 



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142 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

forth from the streets of New Amsterdam and made a savage 
onslaught upon the sleeping Wickquaskeeks, at Curler's Hook, 
forty of whom were massacred "in cold blood/' Another party, 
crossing the Hudson, slaughtered a band which had sought refuge 
at Pavonia. Nor did it stop here, for a day or two after several 
of the friendly Mareckaweeks were basely murdered. 

The enraged savages were not slow to resent such treatment, 
and several tribes joining hands made common cause against the 
Dutch. Issuing from the woods and thickets, they boldly at- 
tacked and slew the farmers, both in their dwellings and in the 
open field, put the firebrand to houses, haystacks, and grain, killed 
or drove away the stock, and carried off women and children into 
a painful captivity. Happy they who had the means of defense 
or timely notice to flee. "The winter passed in confusion and 
terror.'' No outdoor labor could be safely done. Kieft, as 
agent of Van Keulen, had contracted on December 6th for the 
erection of a fine substantial residence on the Otter-spoor, fifty 
hy one hundred feet on the ground, with porticos front and rear, 
and all very complete ; for whose occupancy we cannot tell, unless 
for Van Keulen or some of his family, but certainly not for the 
chicken-hearted director, who kept himself "safely protected in 
the fort, out of which he had never slept for all the years he had 
been there." But this work was probably arrested. 

At length "the season came for driving out the cattle, which 
<:aused many to desire peace; the Indians, on their part, seeing 
that it was time to plant maize, were not less solicitous for a ces- 
sation of hostilities; so, after some negotiation, peace was con- 
cluded." It was ratified April 22d, 1643, though many doubted 
its continuance. But the colonists, and especially Kuyter, had met 
with a sad loss in the recent death of Jonas Bronck. Was it at 
the hands of the Indians? We judge not, as his property was 
spared. On May 6th Kuyter and Dominie Bogardus visited Em- 
maus, and, aided by the widow* and Peter Jonassen Bronck, took 
an inventory of the estate, of which Kuyter and the dominie had 
been apointed guardians. Seignior Bronck, as he was styled, 
must be rated quite above the ordinary colonists, his Danish and 
Latin library, stored with law history, as also divinity, being 
indicative of his tastes and culture as well as of his piety. 

The bouweries of Montagne and Kuyter were also intact. 

• Bronck's widow afterward married Arent Van Curler, of Renssclaerswyck, 
whom she also survived. She died at Schenectady, December 19, i6'r6t as per a 
letter written from Kingston, twelve days after, by her nephew, Wilhclmus Becck- 
man, whom for want ot children she named as one of her heirs. Her will was 
made November 11, 1676; the date of probate being inadvertently given in Pearson's 
•Schenectady Settlers as the date of her death. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 143 

Buildings and stock well intrenched within palisades had escaped 
the general devastation. Montagne had already put twenty-six 
acres in rj^e, barley and peas, when, willing to be relieved of a 
charge so fraught with danger, he leased his bouwery, with the 
"farm-house," kitchen, out-houses, orchard, stock, and all as it 
stood, June 14th, to Bout Franssen, from Naerden, for the term 
of three years. In three months (September 22d), Franssen 
gave it up, for the Indians, having harvested their maize, began 
again their bloody work. Terrible scenes ensued. The settlers, 
compelled to fly, took refuge at Fort Amsterdam, to within sight 
of which the brutal savages tracked their victims. Montagne 
"was driven off his land,'' involving the loss of all he could not 
carr\' away; and scarcely a settler remained on the bouweries of 
Manhattan Island. "Almost every place is abandoned," wrote 
Kuyter and others, of the popular board of Eight Men, in a letter 
of November 3d, 1643, imploring aid from the directors in Hol- 
land. "We wretched people," say they, "with our wives and little 
ones that still survive, must in our destitution find refuge together 
in and around the fort at Manhattas, where we are not safe even 
for an hour, as the Indians daily threaten to overwhelm us. 
Very little can be planted this autumn, and much less in the 
spring; so it must come to pass that those of us who may yet 
save our lives will necessarily perish next year by hunger and 
grief, as also our wives and children, unless our God have pity 
on us." 

But relief from Holland could not be immediate. The ques- 
tion of self-preservation now pressed upon the colonists; to re- 
main inactive was but to die. Their courage rising to the emer- 
gency, it was resolved to muster in every man able to bear arms, 
and to take the field with all their availalDle force against the wily 
and powerful foe. Montagne and Kuyter, however, opposed at 
first to war, had now no alternative but to second the effort to 
conquer a peace. The former, appointed to the chief military 
command, led several expeditions sent out in various directions 
during the succeeding winter and spring, and in which Kuyter 
held the captaincy of a burgher company. These forces scoured 
the Indian country, driving the foe from his rude castles and 
villages with sword and firebrand. 

Thus far Captain Kuyter, by means of a guard of soldiers 
stationed at Zegendal, under Sergeant Ael, had protected his 
house and farmers. But on the night of March 5th, when he 
was absent, the Indians stealthily surrounded his enclosure. The 



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144 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

guard was sleeping in a ce;llar or underground hut;* but two 
young men in Kuyter's employ, apprehensive of danger, were 
patrolling around the farm-house. Near two o'clock in the 
morning these were startled by a blazing arrow, "the flame hav- 
ing the appearance of brimstone,'' which darted through the air 
and fell on the roof of the dwelling. The wind blowing strongly, 
the thatch at once took fire, and soon the house and contents were 
burned to the ground. During and after the conflagration the 
savages made the night hideous by whooping and discharge of 
guns, to the terror of the two maid-servants, while the sergeant, 
with the caution of years, kept within the cellar, refusing to expose 
either himself or his men, though the other persons, and especially 
the young men, in face of a double danger, saved what they could 
from the flames. 

The Wickquaskeeks were set down as the authors of this 
villainy. But this was denied by Ponkes, a Mareckweek, to two 
Dutchman who understood his language, and whom he met but 
two days after the fire. *'It was their way to boast," he said, 
"whenever they committed any mischief." But not one had he 
heard boast of this; besides, "it was well known among the In- 
dians that the Swannekins themselves burned the house, and 
removed through dread of being killed there!" This piece of 
Indian logic, evidently invented by the artful savage to shield 
his tribe from retribution, was too transparent. Kuyter censured 
"the English soldiers" for not assisting. Kieft, on the other hand, 
took occasion to throw the blame on Kuyter, charging him 
with rashly sending away part of his guard just before the fire, 
leaving to protect the property only "four soldiers and five lab- 
orers."t This dispute between Kieft and Ku}i:er betrays a state 
of feeling which afterward led to very serious results. 

Overcome by dread of the savages, neither the planters nor 
their laborers had courage longer to engage in work upon the 
Flats; and thus things continued till at length a brighter day 
dawned upon the colonists. Wearied with "a two years' war," 
the Indians themselves manifested a wish to bury the hatchet. 
The sachems of the adjacent tribes upon Long Island and the 
banks of the Hudson were accordingly invited to a grand council, 
held in Fort Amsterdam, August 30th, 1645, when was happily 

* Underground huts were first made use of by those who at first had no means 
to build farm houses, and in which the^y could live "dry and warm for two, three 
or four years." The method of making them is described by Van Tienhovcn, 
Doc. Hist. N. Y., iv: 31. 

t Sergt. Martin Ael and three English soldiers, Thomas Foster, William Gilford 
and Abraham Newman, with Cornells Van Houten, Jan Hegeman, Pieter Jansen, 
Jacob Lambertsen and Derick Gerritsen and the two dairymaids, made eleven persons 
within the palisades. Three soldiers had left only a few days before the attack. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 145 

concluded, "a solid and durable peace." Some of the powerful 
Mohawks, with their interpreter, Cornelis Van Slyck, also at- 
tended and assisted in the negotiations. Little Ape, chief of the 
Mahicans, spoke in behalf of their tributaries, the Wickquaskeeks, 
pledging them to the observance of the treaty, by the terms of 
which the Indians were "not to come with weapons on Manhattan 
Island, nor in the vicinity of Christian dwellings." The treaty 
was signed, in the presence of many citizens, by several of the 
more distinguished, and by the sachems, among the former being 
La Montagne ; and also by the two interpreters, in which capacity 
the worthy Norman, Claes Carstensen, who later ended his days 
at Harlem, acted for the colonists. 




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CHAPTER IX. 

1645-1650 

LAND PATENTS — KUYTER'S TRIALS. 

pEACE thus assured, the planters •whom the Indians had 
^ driven from the Flats and parts adjacent, again took heart 
and ventured to return to their desolated bouweries.. But, grown 
wiser since their late expulsion, they had come to realize by how 
uncertain a tenure they held their lands, having as yet received 
no patent or groundbrief. By a neglect to secure such patents 
there was imminent risk of losing whatever they invested, as well 
as the land itself; and how soon some new contingency might 
arise, to wrest all from them and their heirs, who could tell? 
Moreover, in so settled a state of the country the legal seizin by 
documentary title was a needed stimulus to exertion, an induce- 
ment to bear the toil, hazard, and hardship involved in a residence 
upon one of these exposed bouweries. The settlers were led to 
expect a groundbrief after having held and improved their lands 
for two years; in most of the cases to be named where such 
patents were received there had evidently been a much longer 
occupancy. But meanwhile some new farms had been begun, 
not as yet noticed, and as will further appear by a brief survey 
of the progress of settlement at this date. 

Sibout Claessen, one of the burghers of New Amsterdam, 
was from Hoorn, on the Zuyder Zee. He was respected, and as 
a builder of practical consequence to the community, insomuch 
that Director Kieft granted him fifty morgen of land "on the 
Island of Manhattas, beginning at the hook at the Hellegat, where 
Verken Island ends." With filial affection for his native place, 
where rested the bones of his father, Claes Sibout, and still lived 
his brother, Hendrick, and other kinsfolk, Claessen called his new 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 147 

possession Hoorn's Hook. It was patented to him June 5th, 
1646.* 

The narrow kill called by the Indians Papparinamin, which, 
winding around the neck of land forming the extreme northerly 
part of Manhattan, connected the Spuyten Duyvel with the Great 
Kill, or Harlem River, gave its name as well to the land lying 
contiguous to it on either side. Papparinamin, as interpreted, 
Place where the stream is shut, was thus confined neither to the 
land nor stream, but to the locality, and was certainly well given, 
as it has ever been the great bar to navigation around Manhattan 
Island. The noted Dr. Adrian Vander Donck, who owned "a 
saw mill, bouwery, and plantation," some distance above on the 
Annepperah, had selected the island on the northerly side of the 
Papparinamin Creek, "containing some thirty or forty morgen, 
wdth a convenient meadow about it," intending, as he himself 
states, "to go and dwell on the said spot, or to make gradual pre- 
parations therefor, by building upon it and tilling it, since both 
his inclination and judgment led him to that place." Having, 
with Kieft's consent, bought the land from the sachem Tackamack 
and other Indians, Vander Donck, with his newly-married wife, 
the daughter of Rev. Francis Doughty, visited Holland, expecting 
on his return to bring over his "mother, sister, brother, servants, 
and other members of his family," to make their home at Pappar- 
inamin. But, oflfending the directors by acting as a representa- 
tive of the commonalty of New Netherland in certain charges 
against Stuyvesant, Vander Donck was restrained for several 
years from again leaving the fatherland, and then returned to his 
possessions only to die a year or two later. 

But the opposite section of Papparinamin, forming the upper 
extremity of Manhattan Island, was not less inviting for its arable 
lands, meadows, and circumambient creeks, and, if we do not 
mistake De Rasieres, was one of the two places he found at the 
the north end, — the other Harlem Flats, — where was "good land," 
ready, with little or no clearing, for tillage. Here another Hol- 
lander, Matthys Jansen Van Keulen, had obtained a grant of 
fifty morgen of land from Director Kieft, probably in advance 

• Jan Acrtscn Van Putten and his two sisters, whose mother, Susannah, had 
recently married this first proprietor of Hoorn's Hook, were children of Aert 
Teunisaen Van Putten, who, in 1643, was massacred (but not his family, as some say) 
by Indians at Pavonia. Jan Aertsen chose the trade of a blacksmith, and settled 
at Esopus, where he joined the church, April 15, 1661, and soon after was made 
an elder. Having been of the party who attacked the Indians there in 1639, this 
was too well remembered, for in the vengeful onslaught made by the savages upon 
that place. Tune 7, 1663, he was killed in his house. Only a few dajrs before this 
Ws wife Cnctie Hendricks and little daughter Annetie had reached their home from 
a visit to Wie by Swolle, in Holland, Grietie's birthplace. The daughter and only 
child, Annetie, bom 1659, afterward married Hendnck Kip, son of Isaac of H., 
by whom she nad sons John, Hendrick, etc See Du Mont. 



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148 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

of Vander Donck. His patent was issued August i8th, 1646, 
and in after years was confirmed to his children, from whom are 
descended two families of Ulster County, — Jansen and Van 
Keuran, the last name corrupted from Keulen.* It does not ap- 
pear that Matthys himself ever occupied this land; at the date 
of the patent he was living at Fort Orange. His hundred acres 
must have reached quite down to the Jansen and Aertsen grant, 
hereafter noticed. The latter, according to the patent, as cer- 
tainly reached northward to "Tobias' Bouwery.*' Tobias Teunis- 
sen, late farmer for Dr. La Montagne, is here referred to, and 
the facts stated warrant the conclusion that Teunissen now occu- 
pied Matthys Jansen's land either under a lease or an agreement 
to purchase. To this sequestered home, beside the Great Kill, 
Tobias had taken a new vrouw, in hope of happier years, though 
the spirit and activity he had shown in the late Indian war made 
his situation not without peril. But, courageous of heart, he did 
not anticipate the fate which awaited him. 

Pieter Jansen, in company with Mr. Huyck Aertsen, then a 
schepen at Brooklyn, had taken up a tract of land lying between 
Tobias' bounds and what is now known as Sherman's Creek, 
and for which a groundbrief was given them March nth, 1647. 
Jansen was a hardy Norwegian of twenty-seven years, had been 
in the employ of Kuyter, and was present on that fearful night 
when his house was burned by the savages. The next summer 
after the patent was secured, Pieter, the Norman, as he was 
usually called, took to his heart and home a young wife, Lysbet 
Jansen, from Amsterdam, and near the same time, by the death 
of Aertsen, was left in sole care of the bouwery, though between 
the widow and the next of kin (for Aertsen left no children) his 
share did not want for claimants. Aertsen was bom at Rossum, 
a village of the Bommellerwoert, an island formed by the Waal 

• Matthys Jansen became a trader on the Hudson, removed to Fort Orange, 
and thence to Esopus, where he died prior to 1663. That year, February 15, the 
deacons loaned 1000 gl. from his estate. His widow, Margaret Hendricks, married 
Thomas Chambers, Lord of the Manor of Fox Hall. Jansen had four children, 
viz., Jan, Matthys. Catharine, married, 1660, Tan Jansen, from Amersfoort, and 
Anneke, who married, 1668, Sergt. Jan Hendricks Buur, alias Pearsen. 

Jan Matthysscn, born at Fort Orange, married, in 1667, Madelaine, daughter of 
Matthew Blanchan. was an elder of the Kingston church, and died between 17 19 
and 1724. He had Matthys, Thomas, Jan, Hendrick, David, Margaret, who married 
Barent Burhans; Magdalene, married Richard Brodhead; Sarah, married Elias Bun- 
schoten; Catharine^ married John Crook, Jr., and Mary, who died early. These 
bore the name of Jansen, in English Johnson. Jan took to the sea, went to England, 
and in 1690 was thought to be dead. From the other sons were the respeirtable 
Jansens of Ulster County, some of whom bore a conspicuous part in the Revolution. 

Matthys Matthyssen was made a captain in 1685, and later served against the 
French on the northern frontier. He married Tietie, daughter of Tierck De Witt, 
and had issue Matthys, Tjerck, Nicholas. Thomas, Gerardus, Hasuelt, Sarah, mar- 
ried Matthew Du Bois; Leah, who, with Hasuelt, removed to New York, and Barbara, 
married Peter Tappan. (See Annals of Newtown, p. 303.) It was these six sons 
of Matthys who, says an old manuscript, "changed their names of Matthyssen to 
Van Keuren," and whence the numerous family so called. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 149 

and Maas; but he had a brother, a burgher at Utrecht, who, on 
having notice of his death, and taking proof thereof December 
30th, 1647, was declared his only heir. For reasons similar to 
those for which other patents within Harlem were afterward held 
to be vacated or void, the validity of this title was subsequently 
called in question, and by a decision of the governor and council 
and a compromise with the successors of Jansen and Aertsen, 
became vested in the freeholders of Harlem. It has additional 
interest as covering the identical tract known in our time as the 
**Dyckman Homestead."* 

These bouweries, forming the outposts of settlement on the 
north end, were evidently laid out by actual survey, whence the 
courses and distances and the uneven quantity, seventy- four 
morgen, one hundred and six rods, in that to Jansen and Aertsen. 
The stretch of alternate heights and hollows, reaching from Sher- 
man's Creek down to the Flats, had not yet a solitary white set- 
tler. Through its forests and thickets red men hunted the deer 
and beaver, and rudely tilled other portions, one of which was 
known as the "Great Maize Land.'' Indeed the Indian title to 
this part of Manhattan Island was not fully extinguished till 1715. 

Coming to the settlements on the Flats, the Otter-spoor farm, 
which Van Tienhoven had **long since conveyed'* to Van Keulen, 
of Amsterdam, and whence, as before said, it took the name Van 
Keulen's Hook, was only made sure to the latter the month 
before the new Indian treaty was ratified, by a patent from Kieft 
to Van Tienhoven, the object and effect of which was to give 
him power to sell, and to perfect the title in Van Keulen, no 
patent having been issued before. With so firm a tenure it is 
remarkable that no evidence appears of any further attempts on 
the part of Van Keulen to improve this valuable tract, nor is his 
ownership again distinctly recognized. While the evidence we 
have bearing upon it is far from satisfactory, our solution is that 
Matthys Jansen Van Keulen, being authorized by the Amsterdam 
merchant, received from Kieft the grant of Papparinamin in 
exchange for Van Keulen's Hook. 

Dr. Montague, with brightened prospects, and about to wed 

• The Jansen and Aertsen Patent, or rather the descriptive part, reads as fol- 
lows: "A piece of land lying between Montagne's hay meadow and Tobias' bouwery, 
stretching irom the north corner of said meadow south-southeast to the hook, two 
hundred and seventv-five rods. It goes* to a spring (fontyn) against the high land, 
and from there to the end of a creek coming out of the North River, northeast by 
north along the high hills an hundred and seventy-five rods, and from there,t to 
the kill which runs around the Island of Manhattans, an hundred and twenty rods 
touth-southeast, scventv rods southeast, and thirtv south-southeast; and along the 
before-named kill to the aforesaid hook, two hundred rods; the same amounting to 
seventy- four morgen, one hundred and six rods." Dated March ii, 1647. 
• i. e.. On the west side. t Being its northern boundary. 



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ISO HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

the widow of Arent Corssen Stam, who two years previous, sail- 
ing for Holland on the public service, had perished at sea, took 
occasion. May 9th, 1647, only two days before his friend Kieft 
closed his directorship, to secure a patent for the farm Vreden- 
dal, to which was now joined what was not included in the 
original grant to Hendrick De Forest, namely, the point or neck 
of land called Rechawanes, extending out to the East River, and 
since known as the Benson or McGown farm. As belonging to 
the oldest title in the township, and one to which an unusual inter- 
est attaches, we feel warranted in giving a translation of the 
patent entire. 

We, William Kieft, Director General, and the Council, residing in 
New Netherland, on behalf of the High and Mighty Lords the States 
General of the United Netherlands, his Highness of Orange, and the 
Honorable Messeurs, the Managers of the Incorporated West India Com- 
pany, do, by these presents, acknowledge and declare, that we on this day, 
the date underwritten, have given and granted unto Sieur Johannes La 
Montagne, counsellor of New Netherland, a piece of land situate on the 
Island of Manhattans, known by a name in the Indian language which 
in the Nether Dutch signifies the Flat Land, containing one hundred 
morgen in the flat, lying between the hills and kill ; and a point named 
Rechawanes, stretching betwixt two kills, till to the East River; (which 
above described land was occupied by Hendrick Forest deceased, and has 
been purchased by the said La Montagne at public auction in the Fort, 
for seventeen hundred guilders;) with express conditions and terms that 
he Johannes La Montagne, or whoever by virtue hereof may accept his 
action, shall acknowledge the Honorable Managers aforesaid as his Lords 
and Patroons, under the sovereignty of their High Mightinesses the Lords 
States General, and obey their Director and Council here in all things, as 
good inhabitants are in duty bound to do; provided further that they 
subject themselves to all such burdens and imposts as are already enacted, 
or may hereafter be enacted by their Honors ; constituting therefore the 
said Sieur La Montagne, or whoever may hereafter obtain his action, 
in our stead in real and actual possession of the aforesaid lot and land, 
giving him by these presents, full power, authority and special order, 
the aforesaid parcel of land to enter upon, cultivate, inhabit and use as he 
would lawfully do with other his patrimonial lands and effects, without 
we the grantors in the quality aforesaid, thereunto having, reserving or 
saving any, even the slightest part, action or control whatever, but to the 
behoof as aforesaid, from all desisting, from now henceforth and forever. 
Promising moreover, this transport firm, inviolable and irrevocable to 
keep, respect and fulfil, all under the penalty provided therefor by law. 
In witness, these presents are by us signed and confirmed with our seal 
in red wax hereto appended. Done in Fort Amsterdam, in New Nether- 
land, the 9th day of May, 1647. 

W11.1.EM Kieft. 

Six days afterward Dr. Montagne*s brother-in-law, Isaac De 
Forest, obtained from the new director, Stuyvesant, the ground- 
brief for a bouwery previously granted him, consisting of fifty 
morgen of surplus land which had been found to lie between the 
Kuyter and Van Keulen tracts. It bordered on the Harlem 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 1 5 1 

River, opposite the mouth of "Bronck's Kill," — ^the passage, still 
called **The Kills," parting Randell's Island from the Westchester 
shore. Upon this fifty-morgen tract the village of New Harlem 
was subsequently laid out and ran its humble career, but "the 
lawn where scattered hamlets .rose" has so changed before the rise 
of modem structures that barely one of its ancient dwellings 
remains.* 

The bouweries mentioned, with Zegendal, or Kuyter's farm, 
were the only ones, so far as known, yet begun within the terri- 
torial limits to which our history refers. Kuyter, though one of 
the most energetic of the settlers, had been strangely baffled in his 
efforts to improve his lands. Yet to his various disappointments 
and losses other trials, and more severe, were to be added. But 
the indomitable spirit of the man, rising superior to misfortune, 
exhibits Kuyter throughout in a character to be admired, and 
in which we cannot but be interested. The ill-feeling which had 
sprung up between him and Kieft, as already alluded to in con- 
nection with the burning of Kuyter's house, grew out of Kieft's 
culpable rashness in bringing on the Indian war. The good 
Dominie Bogardus, sorely grieved by the director's course in 
authorizing the cruel massacre of the Indians, and thus provoking 
the fearful retaliation which had followed, had expressed himself 
freely in regard to these things, "many times in his sermons," 
while also rebuking the prevalent immorality, avarice, and other 
gross indulgences. This pungent preaching so offended the 
director that he forsook the church, absenting himself for more 
than three years, his example also leading off nearly every officer 
of the church and government, not excepting the usually discreet 
counsellor, ^lontagne, who had formerly been an elder. Kuyter 
himself had once felt hard toward the dominie for refusing him 
a favor which Kieft had asked in his behalf; but he was not 
vindictive, and this was a bygone. As a ruling elder, and con- 
trolled by his religion and strong sense of justice, he* did not 
hesitate now to sustain the minister and his utterances, although 
not another member of the consistory stood by him. In conse- 
quence he brought upon his own head the maledictions of the 
director, which were in no wise appeased by Kuyter's official 
action as one of the Eight Men, a body which, representing the 
people, had felt it a duty to address the directors in Holland, 
exposing Kieft's misrule in New Netherland and the ruinous 
condition to which, as a consequence, the colony had been reduced. 
As to the differences between Bogardus and Kieft, these, after 

* See De Forest Family, Appendix A. 



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152 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

a sharp warfare, had ended in a reconciliation. But not so with 
Kieft and Kuyter, whose mutual animosity another year did not 
quench, while Comelis Melyn, also an active member of the 
Eight Men, came in for a share of Kieft^s hot displeasure. These 
two honest men were as thorns in the side of the director. Nor 
could they easily bear either the insults which he had heaped 
upon them, or the heavy losses they had sustained through his 
maladministration; and thus the case stood when Kieft was 
superseded in office by General Petrus Stuyvesant, who arrived 
May nth, 1647. I^ some remarks made on the occasion of 
formally resigning the government to his successor, Kieft thanked 
the people for their fidelity, evidently expecting to be compli- 
mented in return. But on the contrary, Kuyter, Melyn, and one 
or two more had the frankness to speak out and tell him that 
they would not thank him, as they had no reason for doing so! 
The existing quarrel^ brought thus directly to the notice of 
Stuyvesant, now took the form of a complaint preferred by Kieft 
against Kuyter and Melyn, whom he charged with having sent 
"some letters to Holland, to the directors, in the name of the 
Eight Men; among others, one dated 28th October, 1644, con- 
taining nothing but libels and lies." He demanded justice and 
the punishment of the accused. This w-as on June i8th, and 
next day a copy of the complaint, containing the points of objec- 
tion to the obnoxious letter, was handed to the accused by the 
court messenger, with a summons to answer within forty-eight 
hours. Kuyter and Melyn replied at length on the 22d, and, 
in a telling statement, invited an inquiry into the truth of 
what they had written. This defense had little weight with the 
arbitrary Stuyvesant, himself a great stickler for the divine right 
of rulers, and the tables were turned against Kuyter and his 
associate, who, after further preliminaries, were placed under 
arrest, and on July i6th brought before the director and council 
for triaF. It was plainly to be seen that the court held the atti- 
tude of both prosecutor and judge. The charges, in brief, were 
that they had slandered and threatened Director Kieft. The 
prosecution relied mainly on the letter before referred to, written 
to the directors in Holland, and pronounced by Kieft to be "full 
of libels and lies"; of which letter, though it purported to be 
a memorial from the Eight Men, the accused were declared the 
authors, and to which, as was charged, they had fraudulently 
obtained the signatures of their associates. Kuyter, it was further 
alleged, had, at a meeting of the Eight Men, raised his finger 
to Kieft in a threatening manner, and said to him that when he 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 153 

should doff his robe of office then he would have him! Melyn, 
as was charged, in speaking of the orders for destroying the 
Indians in the winter of 1643, ^^d dared to say, "They who gave 
such orders should look well to themselves, lest they come either 
to the gallows or the wheel," — words almost prophetic, consid- 
ering the manner of Kieft's death. Kuyter explained his remark 
as quite different from that imputed to him. He and Alelyn, 
standing to their former answer, in which they had fully and ably 
met the several points of objection to the obnoxious letter,* now 
offered certain memorials, proofs, and witnesses, "in order to 
establish the truth of what was written." But these were either 
rejected or allowed to have no weight, and thus, the evidence 
being imjustly set aside, the case was carried against the accused, 
who were pronounced guilty of high contempt of authority. 
Stuyvesant, in his judgment in Kuyter's case, hinged it on sacred 
and civil law. "He who slanders God, the magistrate, or his 
parents," says Bernard De Muscatel, "must be stoned to death." 
Then he quoted the Scriptures : "Thou shalt not speak evil of the 
ruler of thy people." On July 25th they were sentenced, — Kuy- 
ter to a fine of 150 gl. and three years' banishment from New 
Netherland; Melyn to a heavier fine and longer exile. 

Elated with his success, Kieft soon after took passage for 
Holland in the ship Princess, carrying with him a fortune which 
he had amassed here. In the same ship Dominie Bogardus and 
other-s embarked, while Kuyter and Melyn, "publicly banished the 
country," were "brought on board as exiles, torn away from 
their goods, wives and children," while, as if to mock their mis- 
er>', the bells in the church were made to ring a merry peal. 
The vessel sailed August i6th, 1647, but never reached its des- 
tination. On September 27th, having mistaken their course, 
they were wrecked upon a rock on the coast of Wales. The 
wretched Kieft, with death before his eyes, sighed deeply as he 
said to Kuyter and Melyn, "Friends, I have done you wrong; 
can you forgive me?" All night the ship rocked in the sea, 
and toward morning went to pieces, a large number of persons 
perishing, including Kieft and Bogardus. Kuyter and Melyn 
providentially escaped with their lives, though the latter lost a son. 
"Kuyter remained alone on the after part of the ship, on which 
stood a cannon, which he, observing in the gray of the morning, 
took for a man; but speaking to it and getting no answer, he 
supposed him dead. He was at last thrown on land, together 

* Thi« letter may be found and its character judged of by reference to the 
CoL Hist, of N. Y., i, 109-213. Kicft's points of exception to it are given at p. 203, 
and the able rejoinder of Kuyter and Melyn at p. 205. 



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154 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

with the cannon, to the great amazement of the English, who 
crowded the strand by thousands, and who set up the piece of 
ordnance as a lasting memorial. Melyn, floating back to sea, 
fell in with others who had remained on a part of the wreck on 
a sand-bank which became dry with the ebb. They then took 
some planks and pieces of wood, fastened them together, and 
having made sails of their shirts and other garments, they at 
last reached the mainland of England. As these persons were 
more concerned for their papers than for anything else; they 
caused them to be dragged for, and on the third day Jochem 
Pietersz recovered a box containing a part of them."* 

The resolute Kuyter and Melyn passed over to Holland, and 
appealed to the States General from the sentence rendered by 
Stuyvesant. Upon a hearing of their case, this body granted a 
suspension of the judgment, with permission for them to return 
to New Netherland, and summoned Stuyvesant to appear at the 
Hague, in person or by attorney, either to sustain his decision 
**or to renounce the same." 

Armed with a mandamus and passports from their High 
Mightinesses, and also bearing a letter from his Highness the 
Prince of Orange to Stuyvesant, dated May 19th, 1648, admon- 
ishing him "duly to respect and obey those commands," Kuyter 
and Melyn were now prepared to return to this country and face 
their accusers. But detained for some months longer by other 
engagements, Melyn sailed at the close of the year, leaving Kuy- 
ter behind, probably to manage the case should Stuyvesant at- 
tempt to prosecute it further. Reaching New Amsterdam about 
January ist, 1649, Melyn presented his letters to Stuyvesant, 
who was in great wrath over the mandamus, declaring with much 
bluster his purpose to answer it. Melyn was inclined to push 
his advantage, but joining the citizens in other complaints against 
the director, affairs became rather involved; while Kuyter, re- 
maining abroad for a year longer, more or less, found on his 
return no obstacle interposed to his resuming his property, and, 
contenting himself with his own business, he was reinstated in 
his several offices by Stuyvesant, the breach of friendship between 
them being soon healed. 

* Evcrardus Bogardus, the pastor, counsellor and friend of our De Forests, 
I^ Montagne, Kuyter, Bronck, and their fellow-colonists, who cheered them amia 
their toils and adversities and in dark hours of peril, joined many in marriage, bap- 
tized their offspring, oft performed in their stricken homes the last sad rites of 
sepulture, and frequently acted as guardian of their estates; full justice is yet to be 
done his memory. His advice often sought for in many affairs affecting individuals 
or the community, the amount of important business with which he was intrusted on 
his final departure for Holland evinced the continued respect and coniidence of his 
people. In the record of a useful life, as we apprehend. Dominie Bogardus has left his 
numerous heirs a better inheritance than they will ever realize from his landed pos- 
sessions. See Valentine's Manual for 1863, p. 595; also Corwin's Manual. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 155 

Ku3^er was not in circumstances to restore his ruined plan- 
tation at Schorakin; indeed there was little encouragement for 
any to prosecute labor on the north part of the island, owing to 
the hostile temper of the Indians, who during these several years 
waylaid and murdered a number of the settlers dwelling in 
exposed places. Some still kept up their bouweries; others dis- 
posed of theirs. Pieter Cornelissen Beeck, an old and respected 
citizen of New Amsterdam, had come to own one "on this island 
near Hellgate," adjacent to the Hoorn's Hook patent; while De 
Forest, expending his means in building several fine houses in 
Xew Amsterdam, sold his plantation, November 19th, 1650, to 
the distinguished burgher Wilhelmus Beeckman. But both Beeck 
and Beeckman resided in town,* and there Kuyter had entered 
upon trade, on the Heere Graft, now Broad Street, enjoying a 
respite from the ills which had hitherto beset his pathway, and 
retaining a warm regard for his compatriot Melyn. We have 
dwelt the more fully on Kuyter's case, not only as an interesting 
passage in Harlem's infantile history, but because it shows how 
the old struggle with arbitrary power, which had long convulsed 
European countries, was thus early renewed on this free soil. 
Kuyter was a representative man. Many like him held that the 
people had rights as well as their rulers, and that one of these, 
of vital importance to the colonists, was that of appeal to higher 
courts in fatherland from verdicts rendered here, the denial of 
which right was a cause of much puclic clamor against both Kieft 
and Stuyvesant. Kuyter had proved the fallacy of that assump- 
tion, and had achieved a victory, not for himself alone, but for 
the community, for which he was held in highest respect.t 

* Pieter Comelisz Beeck, whose tragical fate remains to be noticed, was master 
carpenter to the West India Co., in New Netherland, and was born in 1607, at 
Rotterdam. He came out early via Amsterdam, where he had resided, with him 
coming his wife Aeltie Willems and a young daughter, Marritie, who, in 1665, mar- 
ried Pieter Tacobsen Marius, a prominent merchant at New York, who emigrated, in 
1644, from Hoogwoudt, his descendants now writing their name Morris. See Bergen 
Gen. Pieter Beeck had other children born here, viz., William, Deborah, who mar- 
ried, 1667, Warner Wessels; Elizabeth, who married Capt. Silvester Salisbury, Dr. 
Com. Van Dyck and Capt. Geo. Bradshaw; Cornelia, who married, 1672, Jacobus 
De Haert, and Cornelius, who married, 1667, Marritie Claessen, and had sons Peter, 
Nicholas, John, Isaac, William, Henry. From these we presume all the Beecks of 
this stock have sprung. William Beeck, bom 1640, son of Pieter, married Anna, 
daughter of Tielman Van Vleeck (notary public and first sheriff of Bergen), and 
died at Esopus in 1684, leaving issue Peter, Tielman. Aelfie and Deborah, who all 
died childless. The widow, Anna, married, 1686, Capt. Jacob Phoenix, a son of 
whom by this union, Capt. Alex. Phoenix, was father to Hon. Daniel Phcrnix, father 
of the late Rev. Alexander Phoenix, of H. 

t Isaac Adriancc, gone but not forgotten, was in many respects and in the 
best sense another Kuyter. "In his life were exhibited Dutch courage and firmness, 
along with New England enterprise and activity. A true benevolence marked his 
character, and a high sense of justice. He hated robbery and wrong, and set him- 
idf especially against abuses under municipal law. He sought to reform that law 
tnd its administration, and had a powerful influence in doing so. He honored the 
icboolbouse and the church, and was ever ready to aid them; and many a pitblic 
work, now deemed noble and valtiable, owed its origin in part to his sagacity and 



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156 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

labor. Many a young man owed to his kind interest in his welfare the course of 
his after life, and his success in it. Hundreds of shade-trees now adorn the streets 
and avenues of Harlem, planted by him." Fond of such matters, he had gathered 
a mass of information relative to that section, and especially to its land titles, both 
in MSS. and in the storehouse of his retentive memory: and which, with the en- 
lightened liberality that so distinguished him, he permitted the author to make free 
use of for the compilation of this work. Mr. Adriance was born February 13, 1794, 
in the old Sickels house, spoken of elsewhere, was educated at Yale, and devoted 
his life to the law. He died August 26, 1863. He was a lineal descendant of 
Adriaen Reyersz, an early settler at Flatbush, L. I., the son probably of Rcyer 
Elberts, from Utrecht, whose wife by a former husband was mother of Gooscn 
Gerritse Van Schaick, ancestor of the Albanv Van Schaicks. See Pearson. Adriaen 
Reyersz came to this country, as he statea, in 1646. He married July 29, 1659, 
Anna, daughter of Martin Schcnck. a name of celebrity in Holland; was a leading 
man and an elder at Flatbush, and died November 24, 17 10. One of his children, 
Elbert, born 1663, settled in Flushing, married, 1689, Catalina, daughter of Rem 
Vanderbeeck, ancestor of the Remsens, and by her had Rem, Elbert and Anncke: 
these retaining the patronymic (whence Adriance) as their surname. Rem married 
Sarah, daughter of George Brinckerhoff, and died, aged 40 years, in 1730. His sons 
were Elbert, born 17 15; George, 17 16; Abraham, 1720; Isaac, 1722; Jacob, 1727; 
Rem, 1729. George, Abraham and Isaac went to Dutchess County; Isaac married 
Latetia Van Wyck and Ida Schenck, and was father of Rem, Theodore, Isaac, John 
and Caroline, who married Charles Piatt, of Plattsburgh. John came to Harlem after 
the Revolution, married Mary, daughter of John S. Sickels, and died October 23, 
1849, aged 87 years, being the father of Isaac, first named. 




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CHAPTER X. 

1651-1656 

NEW EFFORTS, BUT SAD FAILURES. 

IZ'UYTER'S thoughts now turned wistfully toward his de- 
^^ serted bouwery at Zegendal, which stood in danger of 
forfeiture for non-improvement. He longed to make one more 
attempt to occupy his broad acres, if by the favor of Heaven he 
might retrieve the misfortunes of the dozen checkered years that 
had passed since his eye first rested with delight upon that lovely 
spot. But his unaided means were inadequate to the effort. His 
house and barns must be rebuilt, the soil again brought under 
the plow. The course he took to effect it is explained in the fol- 
lowing instrument : 

This day, the 23d of September, 165 1, a friendly agreement was made 
between Mr. Jochem Pietersen Kuyter, a free merchant, on one side; 
and the Hon. Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General of New Netherland, 
Curacao, and its dependencies, Lucas Rodenburg, Governor of Curacao, 
and Cornells De Potter, free merchant, of the other side, concerning 
a piece of land Ijring on Manhattan Island, and belonging to said Jochem 
Pietersen Kuyter, named Zegendal, or by the Indians called Schorrakin, 
boimded on the south by land of William Beeckman, Lieutenant of the 
Burgher Company at this place, and westward by the bounds of the Hon. 
Johannes La Montagne, so on in a north course to the first rock, and 
on the east to the Great Kill; having to the west toward the North 
River, a meadow of three or four morgen; the aforesaid land containing 
about two hundred morgen, yet not precisely known, but remaining to 
be ascertained with more accuracy ; on the following conditions, viz. : 

That said Kuyter shall cede, transport and convey to the said Stuy- 
vesant, Rodenburg and De Potter the three- fourths parts of said land, 
being one-fourth part for each, while the said Kuyter retains one-fourth 
part for himself, and to his own behoof, upon condition that the said 
Kuyter shall receive from the aforesaid gentleman the sum of One 
Thousand Carolus Guilders, of which sum each of said gentlemen is to 
pay a third part, with the understanding that the said money is to be 
employed at once in the cultivation of the said land; which land is to 
remain undivided, until it is agreed by a majority of those interested, to 
make a partition of the shares. 

During which time said Jochem Pietersen Kuyter is to remain the 
cultivator and superintendent of all the land, to the greatest profit and 
best advantage of all interested, among whom he is to distribute the 



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158 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

profits in equal shares, whether such profits come from grain, stock, or 
otherwise. It being understood, however, that the wife of Jochcm Pie- 
tersen Kuyter may keep for her family some hens and ducks. The said 
Kuyter shall receive for his services as cultivator, one hundred and fifty 
guilders (per annum), that is to say, each of the three co-partners shall 
pay fifty guilders. 

And in order to make a good beginning, with God's assistance, there 
shall be built at the expense of said partners, on the land aforesaid, a 
suitable dwelling house to accommodate the said Kuyter. But this dwell- 
ing hous shall be the property of all the partners in common ; and Kuyter 
shall keep a correct account of all expenses connected therewith, and of 
other expenses, and communicate it to the partners. 

And it is further stipulated that as soon as any distribution of grain is 
made, or that the land shall be divided by the partners aforesaid, the 
said Kuyter shall previously receive his thousand guilders for the transfer 
and cession of said land, and when such division shall take place, it shall 
be done by lot, without allowing any preference to any of the parties. 
Further stipulated that in case of the absence of one of the partners, an- 
other must be put in his place, and secondly that in case the said culti- 
vator should die, another may be placed in his stead, though all the 
partners be not consulted. Further, tliat in case of such decease, the 
widow of the deceased shall succeed in his share, or may transfer it to 
one of the partners. 

And therefore that this contract may have full effect, said Jochem 
Pietersen Kuyter transfers his lands to the partners aforesaid, as if he 
had actually received the stipulated sum ; while they on their part, for 
his security, submit their persons and property, real and personal, present 
and future, to the control of any court of justice. In witness whereof 
it is signed at New Amsterdam. 

JocHiEM Pr, Kuyter- 
P. Stuyvesant. 

L. RODENBURG. 

Corn ELI s De Potter. 
Witness, Nicholas Blank. 

In presence of me, 

Jacob Kip, Clerk. 

But the state of the country was becoming "more and more 
disquieted." Under such circumstances, no wonder that Kuy- 
ter hesitated about proceeding to restore his ruined buildings 
and fences, more especially as he could show no deed for his 
lands, which had either never been executed or had been lost in 
some one of his disasters. This left his boundaries, if not his 
title, in uncertainty. But, applying for a groundbrief and receiv- 
ing a favorable answer (Montague and Van Tienhoven stating 
to the council their knowledge of the original grant by Kieft, 
and its limits), Kuyter was reassured on this point, and led to 
prosecute his work, though with no slight misgivings as to the 
result.* The farmers on the Flats had no heart to make improve- 

♦ "Jochcm Kuyter. by petition, requested a groundbrief for his lands which 
the Hon. Dr. W. Kiett, deceased, gave him in the year 1639, in July, and which 
were pointed out by Mr. Montagne and the Secretary. 

"The Director and the Council answer: The applicant is directed to take a copy 
of his groundbrief from the register book of the groundbriefsL where the Director 
and Council think the same is recorded. If it is not, he shall be preferred before 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 159 

ments which in an evil hour might be laid in ruins by the sav- 
ages, who, on pretext of not having been paid for their lands, 
did not hesitate, as a chance offered, still to attack and murder 
the settlers on the scattered bouweries. Thus it soon after hap- 
pened to Pieter Beeck, before noticed, formerly deacon and now 
one of the selectmen, to which office he and Kuyter had recently 
been appointed. He and three workmen, while engaged at his 
bouwery near Hellgate, May 17th, 1652, were surprised by sav- 
ages and all cruelly murdered. 

Kuyter, Beeckman and others were threatened to hav^ their 
bouweries burned, should no satisfaction be given. Montague 
was otherwise embarrassed. Heavily indebted to the company 
and burdened with a large family, he was dependent upon the 
director or government for a meagre support, and had no means 
to expend on his deserted plantation. Many persons who would 
have undertaken new bouweries were kept from doing so ^through 
dread of the Indians and their threats." The public disquietude 
was greatly enhanced during this year and the next by absurd 
rumors that the Dutch authorities were plotting with the Indians 
to cut off the English residents in and near Manhattan ; reports 
which had well nigh caused a rupture with the New England 
colonies, and so wrought upon some of the neighboring English 
settlers upon Long Island that they left hastily and took refuge 
in Connecticut. As the natural effect of this state of things, no 
new bouweries had thus far "been formed on the Island of Man- 
hattan during Director Stuyvesant's administration," though 
"some had been abandoned." 

Ku>^er in the meantime won for himself a large share of 
the public favor as one foremost in the church, and since he was 
chosen, January 30th, 1652, an efficient member of the board of 
selectmen. After this, on an important occasion, Stuyvesant 
honored him with a request to sit with the council. Indeed it 
excited surprise that one "whom the director formerly, for the 
affair of the selectmen, did publicly banish the country with 
ringing of the bell," should have been reinstated in the same 
office, and also in the eldership. But a new honor was now 
conferred upon him, a seat among the schepens of New Amster- 
dam, on the first institution of that office here in 1653. Usually 
present at their sittings, so valued were his counsels that on 
some special occasions a messenger was sent to Zegendal to 

others, and a new groundbrief of bis lands be executed; in case the petitioner re- 
mains inclined, according to promise, again to improve and cultivate his lands. 
Done in mecdnfi of the Director and Council, the apth January, 1652." Extract 
from Council Minutes. 



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i6o HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

solicit his attendance. But on March 2d, 1654, he met with the 
city council for the last time. The threats of the Indians were 
now to be put in execution. Only a few days after, the savages 
murdered him in his house on his bouwery. Secure in their 
city home, his family were spared his fate.* 

Kuyter's death caused a profound sensation. The com- 
munity had lost a good and useful member, and with unfeigned 
sorrow Stuyvesant announced the sad event to the directors in 
Holland, who responded with expressions of regret at his un- 
timely death. Labor on the bouwery was necessarily interrupted 
for a time. On April 22d following, Kuyter's widow, Leentie 
Martens, empowered two of her friends, Govert Loockermans 
and the notary, Dirck Schelluyne, "to proceed to the liquidating, 
taking and fairly closing to the final account and reliquiae, with 
Director General Petrus Stuyvesant, Hon. Lucas Rodenburg, 
and Mr. Cornelius De Potter, regarding the lands named Zegen- 
dal, belonging to her deceased husband, with the effects, as they 
were farmed and cultivated by her said husband in company 
with the above named gentleman, pursuant to contract dated the 
23d September, 165 1." 

These managed to keep the farm under tillage, while the 
widow, in the persons of other friends, gave bonds for the de- 
livery of the grain which should be raised, in satisfaction of the 
claims of the several partners. For two summers the farm work 
went on, the sowing, reaping and gathering of the ripened harvest ; 
not, however, without much distrust of the wily savages and 
fears for their personal safety. So insecure was it considered 
that the sureties for Mrs. Kuyter required of the other owners 
indemnity bonds "for all losses and interests which should occur 
through fire, robbery, or other unexpected accident, either to the 
lands of the late Kuyter or to the crops." These apprehensions 
of further trouble from the Indians were well grounded. This 
island and its vicinity now of a sudden became the scene of ruth- 
less massacres. 

Very early one morning, September 15th, 1655, sixty-four 

• The Indians were resolved upon expelling the whites from this end of the 
Island, upon the ground that they had not been duly paid for their lands. True, 
the Indians had sold the Island to the company in 1626, and bv virtue of this pur- 
chase the government had made the land grants to the settlers. Of course the 
latter deemed their title good and valid. But it is certain that the Indians did not 
recognize the sale as a surrender of all their rights and privileges on this part of the 
Island. Perhaps, grown wiser in a generation, they saw that the trivial price then 
paid them ($24) was no equivalent for their rich maize land and hunting grounds. 
But they probably claimed to have reserved (as they often did in their sales) the 
right of hunting and planting, because in after years the Harlem people so far 
admitted their pretensions as to make them further compensation. Well had it 
been for the colonists had they earlier given heed to the dissatisfaction of the Indians 
and done something to remove it. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. i6i 

canoes of armed savages landed on the beach at New Amster- 
dam, and before scarcely anyone had risen scattered about the 
town and began to break into the houses for plunder. All was 
alarm and confusion, and to make matters worse, Stuyvesant was 
absent, having departed on an expedition to the Delaware a few 
days before, taking with him most of the garrison. The mem- 
bers of the council finally prevailed with the chiefs and their 
people to withdraw from the city, but at evening they returned, 
and a skirmish took place between them and the Dutch soldiers, 
blood flowing on both sides. The now enraged Indians departed, 
but on that doleful night began a horrible slaughter of the set- 
tlers, full fifty of whom fell within three days, while over an 
hundred, mostly women and children, were carried into captivity. 
Hordes of armed savages, thirsting for blood, swept ov^r 
these Flats, slaying the settlers, plundering and burning their 
houses, and devastating their bouweries. Cornelis Claessen 
Swits, whose father, as we have seen, had been killed by an 
Indian, now owned the farm on the Flats originally granted to 
Isaac De Forest, but which Swits had purchased from Beeckman, 
March loth, 1653, selHng the latter in exchange his plantation 
near Curler's Hook, later known as the **Delancey Farms."* 

• Wilhelmua Beeckman, whose descendants, numerous and highly respectable, 
have usually written their name Beekman, was a son of Hcndrick Beeckman, by 
his wife Mary, daughter of the excellent Wilhelmus Baudartius, annalist and pastor 
at Zutphen, in Geloerland, at which place our Beeckman was born April 28, 1623. 
Holgate (Am. Genealogy) says he was born at Hasselt, in Overyssel, but Beeckman s 
marriage entry in the N. Y. Coll. Chh. Rec, more reliable as indited by himself, 
sajs at Zutphen. Coming out to Manhattan, in 1647, to serve as a clerk for the 
W. I. Comp., the next year he exchanged this for a mercantile life, and the year 
following married a young lady from Amsterdam, Catharine, daughter of Hendrick 
De Boog. Being "an honest and polite man," he was elected schcpcn in 1653, *"^ 
be^n a long and honorable public service. His "ability, piety and experience" 
gained him the position of Vice- Director on the Delaware, which he held from 1658 
to 1663. Then recalled and made sheriff at Esopus, he served as such till the close 
of Governor Lovelace's rule, when he engaged in the brewing business at the Smith's 
Fly, in N. Y. Filling an alderman's seat much of the time till his final retirement, 
in 1606, and having also served as an elder both at Kingston and at New York, he 
died in this city in his 85th year, September 21, 1707. lie had nine children, viz., 
Maria, born 1650, married Nicholas William Stuyvesant. son of the governor; Hcn- 
drick. bom 1652; Gerardus, born 1653; Cornelia, born 1655, married Capt. Isaac Van 
VIeck; Johannes, born 1656, Jacobus, born 1658, died 1679; William, born 1661; 
Martinus, born 1665, and Catharine, born 1668, who married Gerard Duyckinck, as 
per Holgate, p. 75. Of these, Martinus is not again named, unless he that joined 
the military force sent by Leisler to Albany in 1690. William, who united with the 
New York church in 1681, became a Labadist. Johannes, *'a mariner," married, in 
i6»5, Aeltie, daughter of Thomas Popinga, from Groningen, and in 1699, removed to 
Kingston, N. \.; issue William, Thomas, Johannes, Hendrick, Mary, Catharine, 
Rachel. Hendrick, who also settled in Kingston, married, 1681^ Johanna, widow of 
Joris Davidsen and daughter of Capt. Jacob Loper; issue William, Catharine, Hen- 
drick and Cornelia. Gerardus, M. D., of Flatbush and New York, married, October 
25, 1677, Ma^dalena, daughter of Stoflfel Janse Abeel, of Albany. He died October 
10, 1723. His children were William, born January 25, 1679, died young; Christo- 
pher, bom January 4, 1681, married Mary, daughter of Abram Delanoy; Adrian, 
bom August 22, 1682, married Aletta Lispenard and Lucretia De Key; William, 
M. D., bom August 8, 1684, married Catharine, daughter of Peter Delanoy; Jacobus, 
M. D., bom August 7, married Elizabeth, daughter of Johannes De Peyster; Catha- 
rine, bom May 25, 1689, married Charles Le Roux; Gerardus, born June 9, 1693, 
married Anna Maria Van Home and Catharine Prevoost; Cornelia, born May 25, 
1698, married Richard Van Dam; Hendrick, of New York, merchant, born December 
«i, 1701, died, unmarried, September 4, 1643, ^^^ Maria, born January 10, 1704, 



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i62 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Since his good vrouw, Adriana, had lost her father, Cornelis 
Trommels, of Rengerskerk, a quiet hamlet in the Island of 
Schouwen, what changes she had experienced! Left an orphan 
to the care of a guardian at Brouwershaven, she had, after other 
vicissitudes, found a home on these beautiful but solitary plains, 
having since her arrival here inherited some property from an 
aunt in Zeeland. She was now the mother of five children be- 
tween the ages of three and fifteen years. Swits had built him 
a house, and labored hard upon his farm of fifty morgen, in clear- 
ing the land, etc., hoping by patient industry to cancel a debt 
of seven hundred guilders due the West India Company for 
commodities advanced to him. His good friend Tobias Teunis- 
sen was equally busy on the bouwery near Spuyten Duyvel. His 
present wife, whom he had married in 1649, was a daughter of 
Claes Boone, of Amsterdam, at which place her mother, Beatrice 
Hermans, was still living, on the Boomstraat. Jannetie also had 
had her trials, having lost a former husband. Urbane Leursen, 
with whom she had come to New Netherland (we think he per- 
ished in the Princess, on board which he had served), and who 
left her with three children, other three being added after she 
married Tobias, though but one was surviving, namely Teunis, 
now between four and five years of age. 

These two households felt the full force of the Indian raid. 
Being "miserably surpris.ed by the cruel, barbarous savages," 
both Swits and Teunissen were massacred, their goods plundered 
or burned, and their terrified wives and little ones captured and 
hurried away to their haunts in the forest. The crops on the 
bouweries were destroyed, and the cattle cither killed, driven oflP, 
or left to wander in the woods. The same scene was enacted at 
the Kuyter bouwery. The grain, etc., was burned, but, sadder 
still, the widow Kuyter, now the wife of Willem Jansen, from 
Heerde, in Gelderland, also fell a victim to savage fury, though 
the husband by some means escaped.* 

married Jacob Walton. Our distinguished New York ])eekmans have been chiefly 
of this branch. For fuller details consult Holgate's mainly accurate account before 
cited, and also Our Home, which contains a valuable but not faultless article upon 
the Beekman family. 

• Jochiem Pieterscn Kuyter was an ordinary man. His career was one of 
those not so rare in human history, which seems a failure in the light of worldly 
ambition, but when viewed from a higher standpoint, both a success and a triumph. 
Not in his laudable efforts to subdue the wilderness, but by his bold defense of 
popular rights, he conferred invaluable benefits upon his fellow-colonists and those 
succeeding them, and which entitles him to a place on the roll of public benefac- 
tors. Kuvter shoiUd have a memorial in Central Park. It is an interesting query 
whether his descendants do not compose the highly respectable family of Keator, 
seated very early in Marbletown, Ulster County, most patriotic "associators" in 
behali of independence in 1775, though now widely scattered, some having Anglicized 
thei!- name into Cator. These are traced back to Melchert Qaesz Keeter, born at 
Amsterdam, who married, in 1674, widow Susanna Richards, from Oxford, and settled 
in Marbletown. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 163 

The Indians had threatened "to root out the Dutch/' and 
well they kept their word; nor did they spare the English, 
either. All the neighboring settlements were also swept off. 
The lands of Vander Donck, "bordering on our island, and only 
parted from it by a small creek, in some places passable at low 
water,'* had been "divided and settled by his children and associ- 
ates, in various plantations and farms, but which in the massacre, 
were abandoned." The occupants of Jonas Bronck's land met 
with no better fate. Adjoining Bronck's land lay Cornell's 
Neck ; its patentee, Thomas Cornell, an Englishman from Here- 
fordshire, who had served the company as a soldier, "was driven 
off his lands by the barbarous violence of the Indians, who burned 
his house and goods and destroyed his cattle." On Long Island 
side the house and plantation of William Hallett, another English- 
man, opposite Hoorn's Hook, "were laid waste by the Indians." 
Their canoes kept prowling about Hellgate, and on October 13th 
about thirty savages stealthily approached the house of Hallett's 
neighbor, Pieter Andriessen, living at the present Ravenswood, 
and the same who came over with Bronck. He and five other 
persons who chanced that day to be at his house were attacked, 
four of the six wounded, and all captured ; the savages then having 
the effrontery to send two of them to New Amsterdam, with an 
offer to release the others on receiving some gixnSy ammunition, 
etc., which they demanded. 

In a few days the Indians having glutted their revenge, and 
willing to get the captives off their hands, made overtures, which 
resulted in the ransom, during the month of October, of a large 
number, but the families of Teunissen and Swits were not in- 
cluded. Meanwhile Stuyvesant having returned from the "con- 
quest" of the Swedish colony on the Delaware, his soldiers were 
ready for an exterminating war upon the Indians, and which some 
strongly advised. But this was opposed by Montague in the 
council, on the ground of their weakness. "If," he urged with a 
convincing logic, "we have no power to prosecute a war, then it 
becomes necessary that we remain quiet till we shall obtain it, 
and meanwhile not to place too much confidence in the Indians. 
As for the great damage we have suffered from the savages, I 
know of no remedy, because reparation seems not to be had from 
them either by war or peace; and with respect to the captives, 
experience has taught us that they cannot be recovered without 
ransom." This moderate and discreet advice met the approval 
of the director himself, who also expressed his opinion that the first 



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i64 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

attack upon the Dutch was not premeditated, but was provoked 
by a "too hasty rashness on the part of a few hot-headed spirits." 

Parties were sent out to bury the dead and collect the stray 
stock. Such a scene was presented of poor slaughtered remains, 
blackened ruins, and general devastation as appalled the hearts 
even of brave soldiers. Some of the cattle belonging to the mur- 
dered Swits were found in the woods, brought in and cared for. 
And toward the close of November his widow and children, with 
those of Teunissen, were happily restored to their friends at New 
Amsterdam.* The hostile attitude of the Indians and the fear 
"of being again as suddenly surprised" were an effectual bar to 
any present attempt at rebuilding the ruined habitations on the 
Flats. Indeed, such of the settlers as survived were impoverished ; 
"dispossessed of their properties, and not left wherewith to provide 
food and clothing." And though others, having courage and 
means, would venture upon these lands and run the hazard, they 
were now wholly prevented from so doing by an ordinance of the 
director and council, passed January i8th, 1656, which prohibited 
all persons from dwelling in exposed situations, and required the 
farmers upon isolated bouweries to forthwith remove, with their 
families, into the nearest village, where they would abide more 
safely, be able to act in concert in case of danger, and go out in 
armed parties to till their lands and gather their crops. 

Such an ordinance was a necessity. The history of settlement 
on these Flats, up to this record, presented but a series of adver- 
sities, and it was time to arrest these single-handed attempts to 
plant bouweries, costing as they had so many valuable lives. Need 
we recount the gloomy roll of the dead ? — De Forest, the pioneer, 
the respected Van Rossum, the excellent Beeck and Kuyter, the 
industrious and worthy Teunissen and Swits! Governor Roden- 
burg, one of Kuyter's partners, also died about this time. Claessen 
of Hoom's Hook, after his visit to Holland for redress of personal 
grievances charged upon Kieft and Stuyvesant, returned no more 
to his plantation. Willem Bont and Matthys Jansen had gone to 
Fort Orange, as also Dr. Montague, who with exhausted means 

• Tobias Teunissen, with no such culture as shone forth in Kuyter, yet i>ossessed 
measurably those sterling qualities needed to battle manfully with adversities, and 
he deserves honorable mention among those pioneer settlers by whose toihs _ and 
sacrifices the way was paved for the ultimate success of the settlement. His widow 
married Thomas Verdon, of Brooklyn, where both joined the church in 1661. Her 
son, Tcunis Tobias, born in 1651, was living in 1692, on his farm at Gowanus (Deeds. 
Brooklyn, vol. i, 313), but search and inquiry fail to trace him farther. Perhaps his 
descendants compose the Tobias family, found trom an eany date in the states or 
New Jersey and New York. 



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\(^ouwi ^2/w)^-ruj^^ 




^^(JL MJQfy^i^^'fruLZ 








-^,-H-vu^M^^ -^^WSU ^^i^:^ 



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i66 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

and no prospect of any returns from his wasted bouwery, had glad- 
ly accepted the honorable position of vice-director at that place.* 

Bereft of inhabitants and desolated by firebrand and toma- 
hawk; the current rumors of Indian threats which still agitated 
the public mind ; the prohibition against isolated settlements ; and 
the complications arising in regard to the interests and estates of 
the persons slain in the late massacre; were so many barriers in 
the way of any immediate effort to rescue these fertile plains and 
primeval forests from the wilderness of nature. 

• Sibout Claessen, first proprietor of Hoom's Hook, showed strength of character 
by his resolute stand against the assumptions of Stuyvesant. It accords with the 
belief that his parents were Friesans, — most stalwart and strong-minded of Nether- 
landers, — and had removed to Hoorn before his birth; for Sibout was no doubt 
cousin-german to Harck Siboutsen, from Langedyk, on the river Kuinre, in the 
district of Zevenwolden, or Seven Forests. See "Cronkhite Family," Annals of 
Newtown, p. 316. Claessen married, in 1645, Susannah, daughter of Tan Van Schunen- 
burgh and widow of Aert Teunisz Van Putten, before noticed. After returning 
from Holland he lived in New York till his death, in 1680. He left i.ooo guilders, 
wampum value, to the Dutch church, of which he and wife were members, and his 
remaining estate on the decease of his wife to her daughters by Teunissen, viz., 
Wyntie, wife of Simon Barentsen, and Susannah, wife of Keynier Willemsen. 




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CHAPTER XI. 

1656 — 1660. 

NEW HAERLEM FOUNDED; ITS COURT AND CHURCH. 

AN interesting period in our history is that which gave 
"^ origin to the village of Harlem. This inviting section of 
Manhattan was to be peopled and cultivated; but by some new 
and more efficient mode than that already tried, fruitful only in 
unrequited labor, the waste of property, and the loss of precious 
lives. It could only be done by the direct aid of government. The 
farm owners were nearly all dead; their estates insolvent. La 
Montague and Swits, having had large advances from the public 
stores to supply the wants of their families, were deeply indebted 
to the company : Swits in the sum of seven hundred guilders, to 
satisfy which, with "other debts," he left nothing but his ruined 
bouwer>\ Dr. La Montague, as early as 1652, was reputed to be 
owing the company "several thousand guilders." As Vice-Direc- 
tor, his salary of six hundred florins, with an extra allowance for 
board of two hundred florins per annum (increased in 1659 ^^ 
three hundred), proving inadequate to his support, things had 
fnone from bad to worse, and were fast tending to that crisis in his 
affairs which, in 1662, wrung from him the touching admission 
to Stuyvesant, that he had not the means of providing bread for 
his family, and being sixty-eight years of age, was reduced to 
penury and want. 

The Kuyter heirs were in no better case, and "divers persons 
interested in the estate" began to clamor for its settlement. Pro- 
ceedings to this end were begun soon after Mrs. Kuyter's death ; 
when, on a petition from Gov. Stuyvesant, "relative to certain 
share belonging to him," the burgomasters ordered "that an in- 
ventory be taken of the lands, houses, and other effects of the 
deceased Jochem Pietersen Kuyter, and of his widow, she having 
remarried, and being now dead ; so that his Honor, as well as the 
other private creditors, may obtain justice." Next came a claim, 
preferred against one of Mrs. Kuyter's sureties by Cornelis De 



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i68 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Potter, for a balance due him, which was to have been paid in 
grain from the farm ; but the court rejected the demand, upon the 
ground that "the grain had been destroyed in the troubles with the 
Indians/' and De Potter had covenanted not to hold the bail re- 
sponsible for any default arising from such losses. 

Two years passed, when the plans having matured for closing 
up the estate of "Jochem Pietersen Kuyter and Leentie Martens, 
his wife, killed by the Indians,'' their city residence on the Heere 
Graft was put up at public sale by the administrators, January 
1 2th, 1658, and struck off to one of the schepens, Hendrick Jansen 
Vander Vin, later a resident of Harlem, to whom, on Februar\- 
14th, the burgomasters gave a deed. 

As to the Zegendal lands and others adjacent, the Director 
and Council, with a just regard for all the interests involved, both 
of a public and private nature, resolved upon forming a village 
there, by laying out suitable building and farming lots, to be sold 
to settlers at a fixed price per morgen, and to apply the moneys 
so derived for the benefit of the late proprietors, their heirs or 
creditors. The Van Keulen tract, besides the Kuyter lands, was 
to be disposed of, with the Swits bouwery lying between them ; 
and the cleared portion of the latter was fixed upon as the village 
site.* As Stuyvesant owned a fourth part of the Kuyter tract, 

* Cornelis Clacssen Swits, whose history, with that of his father's, as before 
related, challenRcs romance, had 10 children, of whom reached maturity only Claes, 
born 1640; Isaac, born 1642; Jacob, born 1645; Apollonia, born 1648, and Comelis, 
born 165 1. His widow had one or more children by her second husband, Albert 
Leenderts. Apollonia Swits married Jan Thomasz Akcn, and their daughter married 
Vincent Delamontagne. Claes Swits was accidentally killed at Albany in 1663. Cor- 
nelis joined the church at Kingston. Ulster County, in 1678, was afterward an elder, 
and died 1734, >" the town of Rochester, leaving only his widow, Jannetie, daughter 
of Tiercic l)e Witt. 

Isaac Cornelissen Swits, the onlv son, as far as is known, who left aescendants, 
was familiarly called "Kleyn Isaac," or Little Isaac. He settled at Schenectady, 
where his posterity have been among the most respectable residents. By his wife 
Susanna, daughter of Simon Groot, he had eight children, of whom need be named 
only Cornelius, Simon and Jacob; all of whom left descendants. At the sack of 
Schenectady by the French and Indians, February 8, 1690, Isaac, for the second 
time became a captive, he and his eldest son Cornelius, aged about 12 years, being 
taken with other prisoners to Canada; but after five months' captivity Isaac escaped, 
reaching Albany July 9, and was soon followed by his son. Governor Leisler shortly 
after gave Swits a commission as lieutenant of militia. While he was in Canada a 
fort was built in his lot in Schenectady, in lieu of which he was granted 1,000 acres 
along the east side of the Mohawk, for which he also got a deed from the Indians 
August 16, 1707. He survived this only about a month, but this purchase was con- 
firmed to his son Cornelius, as his heir at law, by patent of April 14, i7o8. Cornelius 
in 1702, married Hester Fisher, and lived in Albany. Simon married Gesina Beek 
man, in 1711, and resided in Schenectady. The other brother, Jacob Swits, of 
Schenectady, born 1695, married, 17 19, Helena De vvitt, of Ksospus, by whom he 
had issue: Isaac, born 1720; Andries, 1723; Susanna, 1726; Jannetie, 1727; Abra- 
ham, 1730; Cornelius, 1733, and Maria, 17^7. Abraham, known as Major Swits, at 
eighteen years, distinguished himself for his courage on the day of the Bockendal 
battle, when the Indians killed 12 of the best men of Schenectady. In the Revolu- 
tionary war he held a commission as "First Major of the Regiment of Militia, of 
which Abraham Wemple is Colonel," dated June 20, 1778. Two of his sons bore 
arms in that struggle, viz., Walter and Jacob, the latter afterward Major General 
of the state militia. After the war Major Swits resided in a brick house on the 
north corner of Maiden Lane and State Street. In this house was born his grand- 
son, the late F. N. Clute, of Herkimer, who always spoke with interest of his grand- 
father Swits. Major Swits /lied August 17, 1814, having had thirteen children, nine 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 169 

he reserved his share, probably to avoid unpleasant complications ; 
so that only 150 morgen of this tract were to be laid out into lots. 
These lands being deemed ample for the wants of the proposed 
village for sorne time to come, the Vredendal or Montagne farm 
was not as yet included ; in fact, it was held that "it could not be 
thence conveniently cultivated, being over a kill." 

The government had another important object in view besides 
that of obtaining its dues, or promoting the settlement of this 
district. This was to enhance the safety of the city of New Am- 
sterdam, as would naturally result from planting a strong village, 
with a garrison, on this frontier end of the island. But in carry- 
ing out this design, as already hinted, neither the honest efforts 
of the late owners to comply with the terms of their grants by 
improving their lands, neither their misfortunes and heavy losses, 
were lost sight of. True, these lands had been granted subject to 
the imperative condition that the soil should be brought under til- 
lage. By such means were the resources of the country to be 
developed, its growth promoted. Not to comply with this con- 
dition was ordinarily to forfeit the grant, even though a patent 
had issued ; in which case the government felt warranted, and 
usually did not hesitate, to reclaim the land and give it to others 
as it pleased. But as manifest injustice would result from apply- 
ing the above rule of forfeiture to the specific cases under consid- 
eration, where the unfortunate proprietors had done what they 
could and had failed through no fault of their own, it behooved 
the government, in whatever action it might take touching these 
lands, to have a proper regard for the interests of the said pro- 
prietors, while exercising the usual prerogative of the civil power, 
the right of eminent domain, or that of judging how far private 
interests and convenience must yield to the public necessities ; and, 
under the Dutch rule, it had always been held "that a private farm 
or plantation ought never to be prejudicial to a village." How 
far this measure was agreed to by the parties interested, does not 
appear; but it certainly commended itself as the readiest way to 
make these otherwise useless lands yield them some returns, 
whereby to relieve their indebtedness to the government and 
others. It was this injunction of circumstances that called forth 
the following ordinance : 

The Director-General and Council of New Netherland hereby give 

by his last wife, Margaret, daughter of John Delamont, whom he married November 
22, 1760. Their son Jacob, born November 3, 1762, was father of the late Rev. 
Abraham J. Swits, of Schenectady, and their daughter, Susanna, born June 12, 1766, 
became wife of Nicholas F. Clute, and mother of Mr. Frederick N. Clute aforesaid, 
who m-as bom at Schenectady, March 12, 1797. and died December 15, 1879. See 
Pearson's Schenectady Settlers. 



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170 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

notice, that for the further promotion of agfriculture, for the security of 
this Island and the cattle pasturing thereon, as well as for the further 
relief and expansion of this City Amsterdam,* in New Netherland, they 
have resolved to form a new Village or Settlement at the end of the Island, 
and about the land of Jochem Pietersen, deceased, and those which are 
adjoining it. In order that the lovers of agriculture may be encouraged 
thereto, the proposed new Village aforesaid is favored by the Director- 
General and Council with the following Privileges. 

First : Each of the inhabitants thereof shall receive by lot in full own- 
ership, 18, 20 to 24 morgen of arable Land; 6 to 8 morgen of Meadow; 
and be exempt from Tenths for fifteen years commencing next May ; on 
condition that he pay within the course of three years, in instalments. 
Eight guilders for each morgen of tillable land for the behoof of the 
interested, or their creditors, who are now or formerly were driven from 
the aforesaid Lands, and have suffered great loss thereon. 

Secondly: In order to prevent similar damage from calamities or 
expulsion, the Director-General and Council promise the Inhabitants of 
the aforesaid Village to protect and maintain them with all their power, 
and, when notified and required to assist them with 12 to 15 Soldiers on 
the monthly pay of the Company, the Village providing quarters and 
rations; This whenever the Inhabitants may petition therefor. 

Thirdly: When the aforesaid Village has 20 to 25 Families, the 
Director-General and Council will favor it with an Inferior Court of 
Justice; and for that purpose, a double number is to be nominated out of 
the most discreet and proper persons, for the first time by the Inhabitants, 
and afterward by the Magistrates thereof, and presented annually to 
the Director-General and Council, to elect a single number therefrom. 

Fourthly: The Director-General and Council promise to employ all 
possible means that the Inhabitants of the aforesaid Village, when it has 
the above-mentioned number of Families, will be accommodated with a 
good, pious, orthodox Minister, toward whose maintenance the Director- 
General and Council promise to pay half the Salary, the other half to be 
supplied by the Inhabitants in the best and easiest manner, with the 
advice of the Magistrates of the aforesaid Village, at the most convenient 
time. 

Fifthly: The Director-General and Council will assist the Inhabi- 
tants of the aforesaid Village, whenever it will best suit their convenience, 
to construct, with the Company's Negroes, a good wagon road from this 
place to the village aforesaid, so that people can travel hither and thither 
on horseback and with a wagon. 

Sixthly : In order that the advancement of the aforesaid Village may 
be the sooner and better promoted, the Director-General and Council 
have resolved and determined not to establish, or allow to be established, 
any new villages or settlements, before and until the aforesaid Village be 
brought into existence; certainly not until the aforesaid number of 
Inhabitants is completed. 

Seventhly: For the better and greater promotion of neighborly cor- 
respondence with the English of the North, the Director-General and 
Council will at a more convenient time authorize a Ferry and a suitable 
Scow near the aforesaid Village, in order to convey over Cattle and 
Horses; and will favor the aforesaid Village with a Cattle and Horse 
Market. 

Eighthly: Whoever are inclined to settle themselves there or to take 
up Bouweries by their servants, shall be bound to enter their names at 
once, or within a short time, at the office of the Secretary of the Director- 
General and Council, and to begin immediately with others to place on 

♦ The words in the original are, "tot meerder recreatic en uytspanninge van 
dese Steede Amsterdam," etc. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 171 

the land one able-bodied person; p ro' vided with proper arms, or in default 
thereof, to be deprived of bis right. 

Thus done in the meeting of the Director and Council, held in Fort 
Amsterdam, in New Netherland, on the 4th of March, A** 1658. 

The number of applicants for the land being sufficient to war- 
rant a beginning, ground was broken for the new settlement 
August 14th ensuing; between which date and September lOth 
was completed the preliminary work of surveying and staking 
out the lands and village plots, etc. Hilarity and good cheer 
marked the occasion, for one of those present was Johan Vervee- 
len, not till five years later a resident, but who acted as tapster, 
regaling the company with generous potions of his New Amster- 
dam beer. 

The village was laid out adjoining the Great Kill or Harlem 
River, taking for the principal street what had apparently been 
used before as a road by the ill-fated Swits and others, or at least 
an Indian trail. Touching the river (about 125th Street) just 
north of a small cove, where a ferry to Bronckside, or Morris- 
ania, was soon established, it lay "about east and west," con- 
tinuing beyond the village, on much the same course, till it 
reached the north branch of Montague's Kill. A second street, 
north of the former (distant at the river end fifteen Dutch rods), 
was laid out in the same direction, as far as found necessary. 
Being broader than the other, it was called the "Great Way," 
but since that day has been better known as the Church Lane, 
with its old homesteads and rows of stately elms ; of all which, 
however, there now remains scarce a trace, save upon the maps. 
Between these two streets were located the erven, or house 
lots, lying in two ranges, a central line dividing those facing 
one street from those facing the other, as in modern fashion; 
but the lots were nearly square, and measured about ninety- 
three English feet in depth, with a frontage somewhat less; 
while cross-streets formed these into blocks containing four lots 
each. It should be said that the erven toward the west end 
exceeded considerably the depth stated, owing to the fact that 
the two main streets did not preserve their parallel, the south- 
em, at a point between the second and third cross-streets, sud- 
denly diverging about eight degrees from a direct line. Larger 
plots laid out on the north side of the Great Way, though some 
were subsequently built upon, were designed only as tuynen, 
or gardens, one for each of the erven. They were described as 
five by twenty Dutch rods, or one-sixth of a morgen, but were 
meted out by liberal measure (the case also with the erven), and 



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172 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

being soon extended in the rear and otherwise enlarged, came 
to be reduced to half the original number, and to contain one 
morgcn or two acres.* 

To each erf, or house lot, was laid out upon Jochem Pieter's 
Flat a lot of bouwlant, or farming land. These were simply 
staked off and numbered, the lots running from the river into 
the woods westerly; No. i lying against the rear of the tuynen, 
at the south end of the range, and No. 25 at the north end. 
These lots were laid out for six morgen, but were soon after en- 
larged a little and the number reduced, as we shall see. These 
twenty-five lots were the only farming lands taken up at first. 
In fonn like all those subsequently laid out for the same pur- 
pose, they were made narrow and long, and butted either on the 
river or creeks, — a favorite mode of dividing up land, borrowed 
from Holland, but here having its peculiar advantages. The 
farmers liked this water privilege, as they were long in the habit 
of removing their produce from the field to their barns in the 

* The Church Lane, like a faded picture almost reft of power to recall the 
lovely reality, still lives, with its air of rural repose, in the memories of a few who. 
in their juvenile days trod its grassv paths to the old Dutch church, which stood near 
the Harlem River, on the south side of the Lane, in a corner of the old cemetery 
removed in 1868. Extending from the river, where on its north side stood the Judah 
house, on its south the Benson house, this ancient road, cutting the modern blocks 
diagonally, struck Third Avenue at 121st Street, then crossing where was since the 
Park to S>lvan Place and 120th Street, turned southward just beyond that point 
and joined the original Harlem and New York road, or continuation of the lower 
village street, which in early times extended west to the little Mill Creek (north branch 
of Montague's Kill) and across to Harlem Lane, now nvenue St. Nicholas. 

The church, the second which had occupied that spot, was taken down in 1825. 
a new one being built on the present site, then part of the Church Farm. The old 
vane, bearing the date 1788, when the former house was erected, was taken care of 
and mav still be seen on Judge Ingraham's barn, in Second Avenue. See note on 
The Reitorraed Church. The Benson house, aforesaid, yet in good repair, standing 
cornerwisc to the upper side of 125th Street, late occupied by Mr. J. K. Cowperthwaii, 
but early in this century the home of Lawrence Benson, then 01 Gapt. Bailey, and 
later of Judge Morrell, marks the situation of a much more ancient house, — that of 
the original settler, David Demarest. The Judah house, which stood opposite, on the 
north side of the Lane, was deserted long before it was pulled down in 1867, but had 
been a tasteful structure for the times, and was owned prior to the Revolution by 
Peter R. Livingston. Kept as a tavern just after the war for some years by the 
noted patriot, of whalebone fame, Capt. William Marriner, who also ran the ferry to 
Morrisania, it was also known as the Ferry House. It was bought in 1822 by Mr. 
John Moore, and became his residence. Both the above were originally stone houses, 
of one story, but had been raised to two. Before the present century, the erven, or 
ancient village house lots (on one of which is the Benson house: the church and 
graveyard having occupied two others), had nearly all lost their buildings, and become 

Easture-lots, or been tnrown into the adjoining fields, by closing up the lower street 
efore named, the river end only being kept open; while the tuynen, or one morgen 
lots, on the north side of the Church Lane, being joined two or more in a plot, and 
built upon, had come to form the best part of the village, the homes a century ago of 
the Bussing, Waldron, Livingston, and Myer families, succeeded later by those of 
Sickels, Chesterman, Brady, etc. The Myer house, of stone, one story and very old, 
was removed by Judge Ingraham when 125th street was opened, on which it stood. 
The Brady house, a frame building, erected by John Livingston some years before the 
Revolution, was torn down in 1863. The stately frame house with heavy columns, yet 
standing at Second avenue and 124th street, was built by the late James Chesterman, 
in 1 82 1, on the side of the old stone Waldron house. The old Bussing house occu- 
pying the plot next the Church Farm, was destroyed in the Revolution, and on the 
same spot after the war John S. Sickles built the house still standing on 123d street, 
north side, just west of Second avenue, it having been turned to line with the street. 
This property descended, in i8t)4, from Sickles to his grandson, John S. Adriancc, who 
sold it, June 7th, 1820, to Christopher Reiser. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 173 

village by means of canoes and scows, until suitable roads were 
made. Again, the laborers had less fear of the Indians, when 
working near each other, in a common field (for it was a full half 
century before they built division fences) as, always having 
their guns with them, there was a better chance, if attacked, to 
unite in defending themselves. And tradition adds that they 
used the ingenious precaution of planting each particular crop 
in a continuous row across their several lots, that the workers 
need not be very far apart while engaged in cultivating or har- 
vesting their crops. 

Salt hay was thought indispensable for the cattle; hence a 
small parcel of marsh or meadow, usually about three morgen, 
was set off to each lot of bouwland. That all might be sup- 
plied, these had to be taken wherever found, — on Little Barent's 
and Stony Islands; on the other side of Harlem River; about 
Spu^ten Duyvel, and in the Great Meadow, upon Sherman's 
Creek. The meadows in the Bay of Hellgate were reserved to 
the church, to be used or rented for its benefit, with the bouw- 
land in the village, set apart to the same use. 

With its first advent into life and activity, the infant settle- 
ment received its name, fitly taken from a famous old city of 
North Holland. It was called Xieuw Haerlem; conferred, no 
doubt, by Stuyvesant, who seems always to have exercised that 
right, though usually a formal request coming from the people 
gave it the look of a courtesy paid to their chief ruler. Its selec- 
tion was such as could neither flatter any one settler, nor excite 
the jealousy of others, as none of them were from Haerlem. 
Perhaps the semblance in the two localities first suggested it. 
Xew Haerlem and New Amsterdam, like the two great cities 
after which they were named, lay apart "about three hours' jour- 
ney;" or so thought two observing tourists of that century. 
Old Haerlem, watered on its eastern side by the gentle Sparen, 
and girt about landwise by groves "of shadowy elms," for 
beaut\' and extent unrivaled in Holland, where are few forests, 
might well have dictated a name for a situation so similar. But 
more suggestive was its history. To the Hollander the word 
Haerlem was the synonym for all that was virtuous and heroic. 
During the memorable siege sustained by that fated town, when 
for seven long months the choicest troops in the Spanish army 
were foiled by the intrepidity of its citizens, women vieing with 
the men in bearing arms, was displayed a patriotism worthy the 
loftiest flights of the poetic muse. And though Haerlem fell, 
there went up from the merciless slaughter of its brave but van- 



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174 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

quished people such a piercing cry as palsied the weakened arm 
of the invader, and nerved the patriots to an uncompromising 
resistance, — freedom was virtually achieved for the United Prov- 
inces! Noble Haerlem! illustrious example of courage, endur- 
ance and sacrifice, ever to live thy memory, and tenderly to be 
cherished among the proudest and dearest of Fatherland! 

Thus the name New Haerlem was aptly chosen. Like its 
great exemplar, it might be called upon to withstand the on- 
slaught of a savage and relentless foe. In such dark and tr\'ing 
hour, — and who could tell, after the gloomy experience of past 
years, but it might come, — ^the inspiration of a glorious name was 
something to incite its people to noblest proofs of fortitude and 
heroism. Peril was in the new enterprise, equally with labor and 
hardship; and those entering upon it had clearer apprehensions 
than we can well understand what they might be called to do 
or suffer to maintain and defend their new home.* 

. The beginning was not auspicious. Summer in 1658 brought 
"an unusually distempered atmosphere," and "many persons 
died." Others were prostrated for weeks and months "with 
sickness and debility." Then "flooding rains, which came about 
the time of harvesting," so damaged the fruits and crops as to 
cause "a scarcity of bread." Many feared it would "be impos- 
sible to get in winter forage for the cattle." With so serious a 
check upon labor and enterprise, but slow progress was made at 
New Harlem. 

With a view to urging the work forward, the Director and 
Council, on November 27th, issued a peremptory order in these 
words: "All persons whom it may concern are hereby fore- 
warned and notified, that all those who have obtained lots or 
plantations in the newly-begun village of Haerlem shall take 
possession, or cause possession thereof to be taken, and com- 
mence preparations for fencing and planting the same, within 
the space of six weeks from the date hereof, on pain of having 

• Haerlem, in writing which we now drop a letter for brevity, is derived by- 
Dutch writers from Heer hem (Lord Willem, or William), an early prince of Fries- 
land, in Holland, the reputed founder of Haerlem, from him called the stadt (town) 
of Heer Lem; whence the easy transition into Haerlem, or Haarlem, as the Hol- 
landers now write it. 

Among the oldest of our historic names, significant for reference, and entering 
into the corporate titles of our churches, our railway and navigation companies, etc., 
how preposterous the suggestion that this time-honored designation is become useless, 
and should be ignored! Rather cherish it, together with the more local names within 
Harlem, many of which it has been our good fortune to rescue. Apropos of this — has 
justice been done the worthy pioneers of Harlem, in selecting names for the streets, 
avenues and places? Mount Morris, from its former owners, would surely find a 
more significant name in Mount Benson. And Kortright Avenue, for a like reason, 
more happily apply to Harlem Lane than Avenue St. Nicholas I Since **Ciod*s 
Acre" has been desecrated, and the forefathers' gravestones uprooted as things obso- 
lete and useless, what more proper tribute to their memory than that here suggested? 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 175 

the lots and plantations which are not entered upon within that 
time given and granted to others who may be disposed to im- 
prove them." 

This premonition was not without its effect, but the winter 
setting in early and with severity must have retarded the work. 
However, in place of those who abandoned their lots came other 
settlers, who put up buildings and undertook to cultivate the soil. 
The number of landholders thus augmented, during the ensuing 
spring and summer building after building began to adorn the 
new village, among the earliest to take up a permanent resi- 
dence there being the Slots, Cressons, Tourneur and Montague 
junior, who all bore an active part in its affairs. For the se- 
curity of the settlers, all of whom were required to be well armed, 
the government furnished eight or ten regular soldiers from 
Fort Amsterdam, in the pay of the company, whose presence 
were a necessity in the "newly-begun village," as the Indians 
were yet a source of anxiety, especially to the wives and families 
of the colonists ; the recent murder of a Swedish family at Mespat 
Kills serving to heighten this feeling among their fellow Swedes, 
of whom there were several in the new community at Harlem.* 

This public disquietude arose to an actual panic when, on 
September 23d, the startling news arrived at the Manhattans, 
that a firce and bloody war had broken out between the Esopus 
savages and the settlers there. A general consternation seized 
the inhabitants upon Manhattan Island and in the neighboring 
settlements, many of whom forsaking their bouweries, crops and 
cattle, fled hastily to New Amsterdam. Operations at New 
Harlem were wholly suspended for a time, especially as every 
soldier and public servant had to leave and accompany Stuy- 
vesant on an expedition to Esopus. These soon returned, but 
things continued in a very threatening attitude the whole win- 
ter: and until the renewal of peace with the Wickquaskeeks 
and other tribes about Manhattan, early in the spring, brought 
some quiet to the public mind in this quarter. But the Direc- 
tor-General, on a second visit to Esopus, finding the savages 
there still hostile, resolved to give them their fill of war. He 
sent a message to the secretary. Van Ruyven, that the entire 
country was in danger, and directed him to warn the out set- 

• Eldcrt Engclbcrts, one of the murdered Swedes (see Annals of Newtown, 46, 
si), married, in i6j56, Sarah Walker from Boston; issue Anna Maria, bom the same 
year at Maspcth Kills, and who married, 1680, Clement Elsworth, of New York. He 
and three brothers (sons of Stoffel Elsworth) all left families, whence those of this 
name. Capt. Vcrdinc Elsworth, of Orange County, a descendant of Clement, married 
Dorothy Clalc, in New York, 1759, and took an active part in the old French war. 



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176 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

dements around Manhattan to carefully guard against a sur- 
prise. This having been done, the next day, being March 23d, 
1660, the people at New Harlem were further notified that 
since it was "highly necessary to keep a good watch in the 
newly-settled village," the Council had appointed as its mili- 
tary officers, Jan Pietersen Slot, as sergeant; Daniel Tourneur, 
as corporal, and Jaques Cresson, as "lancepesade." They called 
upon all the inhabitants to obey the commands of Sergeant Slot, 
till other orders should be given by the Director and Council. 
This was the first step taken for the establishment of local au- 
thority at Harlem. Furnished with a supply of powder from 
the public magazine by Derick Looten, the commissar\% the 
inhabitants were prepared for defense. This state of unrest 
lasted for several months, when it was relieved by news that a 
peace had been ratified with the Esopus Indians, and approved 
by the river tribes. 

Meanwhile the settlers, having steadily increased in numbers, 
now deemed themselves entitled to a Court of Justice, agreeably 
with the original conditions under which they had settled here. 
They met therefore and nominated a double number of the best 
qualified persons among them, to bear rule as '^commissaries" 
or magistrates, and submitted their names to the Director and 
Council, who, by the following ordinance, confirmed three of the 
nominees in that office, and defined their duties and powers : 



The Director-General and Council of New Netherland, To all those 
who shall see or hear these Presents read, send greeting and make 
known. That for the welfare of the community, for promoting the growth 
and success of the new Village of Harlem, and for the easier adminis- 
tration of Justice, they have deemed it necessary to erect in the afore- 
said village, an Inferior Court of Justice, which shall consist, provis- 
ionally, of the three undernamed Commissaries, to wit: Jan Pietersen, 
Daniel Tourneur, Pierre Cresson, before whom in the first case shall 
be brought all Questions, Actions and Differences arising in the said 
Village, between Lord and Subject, Master and Servant, Mistress and 
Maid, Neighbor and Neighbor, Buyer and Seller, Lessor and Lessee, 
Landlord and Laborer, and other such like; also all criminal actions, 
consisting of Misdeeds, Threats, Fighting or Wounding, whether moved 
and instituted by the parties or by the senior Commissary, who, until 
further order, shall represent the Sheriff in that place. 

Said Commissaries shall do justice,, to the best of their knowledge, 
between parties appearing before them, and may decree the giving of Bail, 
Acquittal or Condemnation, as the circumstances of the case shall war- 
rant. But any party feeling himself aggrieved, may appeal to the Director- 
General and Council of New Netherland, according to custom here, 
from all judgments exceeding Fifty Guilders, pronounced by said Com- 
missaries. And said Commissaries are hereby specially commissioned 
and authorized to enact proper Ordinances that the arable Lands and 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 177 

Gardens be carefully fenced, kept enclosed, and the broken fences properly 
repaired. 

They hereby command all Inhabitants of the said Village, and those 
who may in future reside there, to respect the aforesaid Commissaries in 
the office to which they are now qualified, and acknowledge them as 
such; and all this until it be otherwise ordained by the Director-General 
and Council aforesaid. Thus done at the meeting of the Director-General 
and Council, held at Fort Amsterdam, in New Netherland, the i6th 
August, 1660. 

The new Board of Commissaries, the duties of schout or 
deputy sheriff devolving upon Jan Pietersen Slot, as senior 
member, gave early attention to the religious needs of the com- 
munity. With neither a church nor a minister, the benefits of 
the sanctuar>' could be enjoyed only by making a toilsome jour- 
ney of eight miles, by land or by water, to Fort Amsterdam. 
Strong in their religious faith and attachments, so natural in a 
people who had but recently emerged from great convulsions in 
the church, and shaken off the old clogs of superstition and 
error, the faithful at Harlem set a high value upon God's word 
and ordinances. It were a mistake to suppose that they did not 
fell keenly the loss of those advantages which they had enjoyed 
in Holland, where not the cities only, but every considerable 
hamlet had its pastor and house of worship. The promise of "a 
pious orthodox minister/' and of aid in sustaining him, was a 
great inducement for them to settle here. As yet they felt them- 
selves unable to do much toward supporting one, but it was 
all-important to secure the preaching of the Gospel within their 
own bounds. Through the commissaries, who had the supervis- 
ion of such matters, and who were all professors of the Reformed 
religion, this urgent need of a minister was made known to Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant, and by him brought to the notice of the Direc- 
tors in Holland, in a letter dated October 6th, 1660. 

But, providentially, one Michiel Zyperus had arrived here 
in the preceding year from the Dutch island of Curacao, in the 
West Indies, where he had labored as a proponent or licentiate. 
Something had caused the vice-director, Beck, in writing to 
Stuyvesant in August of that year, to speak of the dominie in 
terms ambiguous, but not flattering. He said, "Dominie Michiel 
Zyperus goes, with his wife, to your country, by this opportunity, 
in the hope of there securing a call in one place or another. I 
believe it would be a good chance for him, could he depart with 
a good testimonial, and had so comported himself as to deserve 
it!" The "opportunity" was by the ship Sphera Mundi, then 
about to sail, and in which Zyperus and his wife, Anna Duur- 
koop, had engaged passage for New Amsterdam, having in ad- 



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178 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

vance, May i6th, shipped hither "a keg of sugar," consigned 
to H. J. Vander Vin. But the Sphera Mundi not leaving as 
soon as expected, it was not till October 25th that they reached 
New Amsterdam. 

The innuendo of Beck, as it lost its force ere it gained this 
cooler latitude, seems not to have harmed the young dominie. 
At once finding, friends, the secretary. Van Ruyven, and his wife, 
the daughter of Dominie Megapolensis, stood as sponsors for his 
soil Cornelius, at his baptism, December 21st. Having good letters 
to the church at New Amrterdam, with which he united January 
4th, 1660, Dominie Zyperus is not again named till the following 
autumn. Perhaps he was seeking **a call in one place or another." 
As late as October 6th, the date of Stuyvesant's letter, it is evi- 
dent he had not engaged at Harlem, where there was yet no 
church to receive him. But before the letter bespeaking a min- 
ister for this place could have reached Holland, the faithful here 
had joined themselves in church fellowship, and secured Zyperus' 
services ; apparently, late in November. His purchase of a house 
and lot here, with the usual bouwland, etc., shows a purpose of 
remaining. 

Unhappily, but few particulars can be given as to the origin 
of the church, from the paucity of records at this period. Pat- 
terned after the Reformed Church of Holland, it was to be under 
the care of the Consistory at New Amsterdam, having at the 
first no officers from its own membership, except a single deacon, 
to which place Jan La Montague, Jr., was now chosen. Thus 
its organization was quite informal and incomplete. Another 
deacon was added after some years, whence ensued a regular 
succession of these officers, intrusted with the financial and elee- 
mosynary work of the church. Their resources were the Sunday 
collections, fines levied in the town court for the benefit of the 
poor, rent from the church lands, and burial fees, with the usual 
legacy left by testators of from ten to fifty guilders. Thus were 
met the wants of needy members and other worthy poor, as also 
the dominie's salary and sexton hire. And after Zyperus left, 
till they secured a resident pastor, which was a long period, the 
deacons provided a horse and wagon to bring the. dominie and 
return him to his house in the city.* 

We know little of Dominie Zyperus' services here. Obviously 

No proper record of the organization of this church has been found; but of the 
date we may be reasonably assured. Montague's term as deacon (which agreeably to 
usage in the Dutch establishment must have covered two years) expired November 30, 
1662. It began, then, in 1660, the earliest date consistent with the existence of a 
church here, as it was just after the magistracy was instituted; prior to which there 
could have been no church org^anization. The same date is given in Corwin's Mantial. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 179 

he was never installed as pastor over this church ; and as a mere 
licentiate, he could preach and teach, but not administer the 
ordinances. Still more obscure is his previous history. His 
name, in its unlatinized form, was probably the French Cipierre, 
an honored one in Huguenot story; his knowledge of both the 
Dutch and English languages, and, as will appear, his evident 
predilection for episcopacy, seem to warrant the belief that he 
had resided in Holland, but had acquired his theology in an 
English divinity school; the latter opinion strengthened by the 
fact that the records of the Leyden University, and of that city 
and Amsterdam, are silent as to his name. Nor is his former 
service in a Dutch colony any proof that he went thither under 
Holland licensure, since the Church of England was quite ready 
to both license and ordain the Dutch ministers, though Zyperus, 
as is plain, had not been ordained. 

His disability to administer the sacraments, to admit to 
church membership, or perform the marriage rite, constrained 
the flock at Harlem, for these several objects, to resort to Stuy- 
vesant's Bouwery, where Rev. Henry Selyns, pastor of the church 
of Brooklyn, over which he had been installed September 7th, 1660, 
had, at the governor's desire, instituted a Sunday afternoon and 
evening service, in his private chapel, on the site of the present 
St. Mark's Church. Only five miles to enjoy these valued privil- 
eges, and Dominie Selyns an able and attractive preacher, it natur- 
ally resulted that many of those living at Harlem sought and were 
received into membership at the Bouwery, during the four years 
that Selyns officiated, and who were wont to attend there, es- 
pecially to celebrate the Lord's Supper, and present their infants 
for baptism. Most of the marriages among them, from that of 
Sigismund Lucas, October 31st, 1660, were also performed by 
Dominie Selyns. The practice was to first publish the bans in the 
church at Fort Amsterdam ; and this being formally certified to 
the dominie, he tied the nuptial knot. These Harlem marriages 
still stand upon the church register at Brooklyn. A few of the 
Harlem members not enrolled by Dominie Selyns at the Bouwery 
retained a connection with the lower church in the Fort. At one 
or the other place their children's baptisms were performed and 
recorded; save in only two cases, where the parties went to 
Brooklyn for that purpose. 

No mention of a church edifice, or any effort to erect one 
here, occurs till four years later, and it but shows the general 
struggle with poverty, in the origin of the settlement. As in the 
older community at Brooklyn, where they still held public wor- 



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i8o HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

ship in a barn ; so the infant church at New Harlem during this 
time had no better sanctuary tiian a private house, or outbuilding ; 
as happened once again, for a like term of years, at the close 
of the Revolutionary War. 




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CHAPTER XII. 

1661-1662. 

REARRANGEMENT OF I.ANDS : NEW AI^IvOTMENTS. 

TpOBACCO, though still cultivated, had been supplanted as a 
leading crop by others needed for home consumption, 
mainly wheat, maize, rye, buckwheat, peas, flax, etc. But although 
full garners of corn, — which term then stood for all the grains, 
—were rewarding the toil of these husbandmen, as yet they had 
no mill to grind it. This was now the felt need. If, with their 
grist in the canoe, they rowed some miles to Burger Joris' mill 
at the Dutch Kills, being the nearest; this at best could only 
grind three schepels per day, or two and a quarter bushels, on 
the word of Mark Disosway, who had lately run it under a lease ! 
To the distance, the dangers of Hellgate added an objection. 
It had been contemplated to build a tide mill and dam upon Mon- 
tagne's Kill, and many thought the time come to act upon it. 
But needing no demonstration, while backed by those convincing 
Dutch arguments, capacious stomachs and good appetites, yet 
the effort spent itself in fluent talk and foaming beakers; and 
it was not undertaken till done by the energy and capital of a 
distinguished stranger. 

But out of the mill question while yet rife, and the demand 
for additional homes and bouweries to supply the newly-arriv- 
ing colonists, grew another plausible project. The farm Vreden- 
dal, stretching along the stream aforesaid, and still owned by 
Dr. Montagne, had lain for some years unused, except as cattle 
and goats browsed in its deserted clearings and woodlands. The 
Montagne family now proposed to occupy it, as is set forth in 
the following petition to the Director and Council, July 4th, 1661 : 

To the Noble, Great and Worshipful, the Director-General and High 
Council in New Netherland : Represent with due respect, John De La 
Montagne, Junior, Jacob Kip, who married the daughter of La Mon- 
tagne, Senior, and William De La Montagne, for themselves and in behalf 
of the absent heirs, the true proprietors, pursuant to the letters patent, 
of the land lying back of New Harlem, called Vredendal, or commonly, 
Montagne's Land, to your Honors well known; how that they the peti- 



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i82 HISTORY OF HARLKM. 

doners are willing and inclined to take possession of their land, which is 
situated nearly a mile (een quartier vergaens) from New Harlem. And 
whereas from there it cannot be conveniently cultivated, lying beyond a 
kill, whereon in time a water-mill for the use of the said village can, 
and as they are now informed, is actually to be made; and whereas they 
the petitioners, — for whose greater convenience it will not only serve, in 
the cultivation of their lands there, but will be for the better protection 
of the village of New Harlem, as for the benefit of the said mill, and 
also afford a resting place for strangers, whether they have lost their 
way, or be looking for their cattle, or others, — are inclined to form 
there a concentration of six, eight or ten families, to remain under the 
jurisdiction of New Harlem, in a similar manner as this has been granted 
by your Honors to others; they therefore with all respect petition that 
they may be allowed to establish such concentration there, either on the 
point of the flat land, opposite the place where the mill is to be built, 
on the heights near the spring (fonteyn)* or otherwise wherever your 
Honors may deem most proper, within the jurisdiction of New Harlem; 
which, if your Honors are pleased to permit, they promise to settle there 
before the next winter, six, eight or ten families. Praying your Honors' 
favorable consideration of this request, we remain your Honors' servants. 

La Montagne, Junior. 
Jacob Kip, 
WiLLEM De La Montacne. 

To this came the following negative: "The request is dis- 
missed, because it is tending to the great prejudice and retarding 
of the village of Harlem; and is also contrary to the privileges 
granted said village some years ago." Though he does not 
expressly say it, we doubt not the Director, even then, had his 
own purpose in regard to the Montague lands ; to be made mani- 
fest in due time, and that not far distant. 

The decision was highly satisfactory to the people of Harlem, 
for several reasons. A rival settlement so near them, indeed 
within their very limits, was not to be thought of! Not only 
would . it tend to weaken them by drawing away some whom 
they could ill afford to spare, but would naturally attract persons 
who otherwise would come hither to settle. Thus it would 
greatly obstruct and hinder their present growth; and, looking 
to the future, the very lands proposed to be settled, would be 
required for the proper subsistence and development of their 
own village. For three years this had been steadily growing, 
and at the close of 1661 contained over thirty adult male resi- 
dents, mostly heads of families and freeholders. The following 

• Montagne's Spring. — Perennially flowing, as in the virgin days of the settle- 
ment, this spring is still to be found in Central Park. Its source is on a hillside, at a 
point (where the ways mentioned extended into the Park) on the line of losth Street, 
some 200 feet west of Sixth Avenue. But this natural basin is now covered over, the 
water being led by a subterranean conduit to the foot of the hill, where, in a secluded, 
romantic nook in the rocks, it again leaps forth as playfully as of old, when it was 
known among the Dutch inhabitants as the "fonteyn; whence, in following its ancient 
outlet or run, it is soon lost in the modern Harlem Lake. Should it not be called 
Montagne's Spring? 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 



183 



are the names of these pioneers, who first succeeded in planting 
the seeds of civilization and religion in this vicinity. 



Michel Zyperus, French. 

Jan La Montagne, Jr., " 

Daniel Toumeur, " 

Jean Le Roy, " 

Pierre Cresson, " 

Jaques Cresson, " 

Philippe Casier, " 

David Uzille, " 

Jacques Cousseau, " 

Philippe Presto, " 

Francois Le Sueur, 
Simon De Ruine, 
David Du Four, 
Jean Gervoe, 
Jan De Pre, 
Dirck Claessen, 



Walloon. 



Hollander. 



Jan Sneden, Hollander. 

Michiel Janse Muyden, " 

Lubbert Gerritsen, " 

Meyndert Coerten, " 

Aert Pietersen Buys, " 

Sigismundus Lucas, '* 

Jan Pietersen Slot, Dane. 

Nicolaes De Meyer, " 

Jan Laurens Duyts, " 

Jacob Elderts Brouwer, " 

Nelis Matthyssen, Swede. 

Monis Peterson Staeck, " 

Jan Cogu, " 

Adolph Meyer, German. 

Adam Dericksen, " 

Hendrick Karstens, " 



La Montagne, of all these, had been longest in the country, 
namely, twenty-five years ; and Duyts was the only one born here, 
being twenty years of age, and the son of Laurens Duyts, who 
came out with Bronck, the good Kuyter having stood as god- 
father for Jan at his baptism. Karstens, Gerritsen, and Claessen 
had had a dozen or more years' experience in the New World, 
Toumeur and Le Roy nearly ten, but the others less. Casier, 
Uzille, and Meyer, had come to Harlem only the last year. 
Casier and family arrived here from Mannheim in June, 1660, 
having in company Matthew Blanchan, and his son-in-law, An- 
toine Crepel; these two going to Esopus, while Casier, at New 
Amsterdam, engaged, "with his three beside," in timber sawing. 
Here De Meyer and Cousseau were in trade, as had been Mon- 
tagne, and Toumeur was a "sworn butcher." Slot and Matthys- 
sen were carpenters, Muyden a soap-boiler, De Pre a. cooper, 
Claessen a pot-baker, Elderts a brewersman, Lucas a shoemaker, 
Gervoe and Coerten soldiers, Karstens, before a seaman, now 
worked as a mason, and Cogu had a lime-kiln, and soon took 
in Staeck as partner. Most of these also took up land. Pos- 
sibly one or more, who appear a little later, should be added. 
Several had already gone, after a short stay, as Matthys Boon 
and Simon Lane, of whom we know little but their names.* 

• Blanchan and Crepel (now written CrispcU) were originally from Artois, as 
before stated; and the first of some note in his native town of Nouville le-Conte. 
With him came his wife, Madeleine Goore, and (beside Maria, Mrs. Crepel), three 
other children, viz., Madeleine, aged 12 years; Elizabeth, 9, and Matthew, 5, the 
last born at Mannheim. Stuyvesant welcomed them and gave Blanchan a letter to 
Sergt. Ronip, at Esopus, directing him to provide them accommodation. Arrived 
there, and Dominie Blom having also come, it was a solace to the pious Blanchan, for 
all he had suffered, and the loss of propertv in his native place, and at Armentieres 
(Flanders), and elsewhere, to sit down with his wife and son and daughter Crepel, 
at the Lord's Supper, on December 2$, ensuing. Louis Du Bois, married to 
Blanchan's daughter Catherine, probably came out with his brother-in-law, Pierre 



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i84 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

From what has heretofore been said of these colonists, of 
their rough and checkered experiences before quitting the shores 
of Europe, we cannot but regard their future with special inter- 
est, while better facilities will be found to study their individual 
character. Little remains to be said of them in generalities. 
Though the Dutch and French elements were dominant in giving 
tone to the community, the Scandinavians and Germans, few 
in number as seen, were second to none for sterling common- 
sense, while foremost to breast danger and hardship, to wield 
the axe whose ring first startled the slumbering forest, or turn 
the first furrow in the virgin soil. Hardy sons of toil, bred to 
habits of untiring industry, none were more fitted for the task 
of converting the rude wilds into an abode for civilization. 
Frank and outspoken, but of honest aim and dealing, with es- 
sentially the same language, which was closely allied to that of 
the Dutch, toward whom, as • Protestants, they were drawn in 
sympathy, they readily assimilated to the latter: and if less in- 
debted than these to the schoolmaster, being in great part unable 
to read or write, this was in a degree supplied by their native 
good sense and equanimity, which contributed not a little to har- 
monize the diverse elements composing the settlement, and to 
mold them into a well-ordered society. 

" Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield, 

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke; 
How jocund did they drive their team afield, 
How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke! 
'* Let not ambition mock their useful toil, 
Their homely joys and destiny obscure; 
Nor grandeur hear with a disdainful smile, 
The short and simple annals of the poor." 

By the large influx of settlers, who with scarcely an excep- 
tion gave their attention to farming, either as proprietors or 

Billiou, also from Artois, in the ship St. Jan Baptist, which arrived here August 6, 
1661 — reasons, Du Bois and wife were not present at the communion season referred 
to, but with letters joined the church there not until October i, 1661, having a child 
baptized nine days after. Blanchan. Du Bois and Crepel all got land in Hurley, near 
Kingston, and received gfroundbriefs April 2$, 1663. Du Bois died at Kingston in 
1690, and his widow married Jean Cottin, named page 71. On May 18, 1679, Blanchan, 
Jr., married Margaret Van Schoonhoven, and succeeded to his father's farm in 
Hurley, left beside four daughters, a son, Nicholas, whence all of the name in Ulster 
County descend. His sister, Madeleine, born in England, married Jan Matthvsz, 
ancestor of the Jansen family, as before noticed. His other sister, Elizabeth Blan- 
chan, married Pieter Cornelisz Low, of Kingston, whose progeny have been numerous 
and widespread. Cornelius I/3w, of New Jersey, born 1670, was eldest son of Pieter, 
and father of Cornelius, father of Isaac and Nicholas Low, leading merchants of 
New York in their day. The first was President of the Chamber of Commerce, but 
when Independence was declared forsook the "Liberty Bo^s" and adhered to the 
Royal cause; while his brother Nicholas continued an active patriot, and was a 
member of the Convention of New York for adopting the Constitution of the United 
States. See Steven's Chamber of Commerce. Honored names in various sections of 
our country have been and still are those of Blanchan, Du Bois, Crispell, Jansen 
and Low. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 185 

tenants, the original allotments of land had all been taken up, 
causing the demand, before noticed, for additional erven and 
bouwlots. It was a want now equally felt by other villages, and 
as a first step toward meeting it the government resolved to in- 
form itself as to what lands were available (tracts lying unim- 
proved, and not needed as pasturage or woodland), that these 
might be distributed to settlers and brought under tillage. With 
this in view the Director and Council issued a general order, of 
which the people of Harlem received a copy, as follows: 

All Inhabitants of New Netherland, and especially those of the Vil- 
lage of New Harlem, with all others who have or claim any Lands 
thereabouts, are ordered and commanded that within the space of three 
months from the date hereof, or at least before the first of January next, 
they shall have all the cultivated and uncultivated Lands which they 
claim, surveyed by the sworn Surveyor, and set off and designated by 
proper marks ; and on the exhibition of the Return of Survey thereof, 
apply for and obtain a regular Patent as proof of property, on pain of 
being deprived of their right; To the end that the Director-General and 
G>uncil may dispose, as they deem proper, of the remaining Lands, which, 
after the survey, may happen to fall outside of the Patents, for the 
accommodation of others. All are hereby warned against loss and after 
complaints. Thus done, in Fort Amsterdam, in New Netherland, the 
15th of September, 1661. 

This order moved the community to give immediate attention 
to the whole subject of their lands, it being necessar}^ for each 
inhabitant to consider and decide what quantity he further 
needed and could pay for. The idea largely prevailed, and very 
naturally, that the ordinance for planting the village secured to 
all able to purchase and improve that quantity, as high as 24 
morgen and bouwland. The magistrates and freeholders having 
canvassed the matter and laid it before Gov. Stuyvesant, he gave 
his assent to the following measures, looking to a further dis- 
tribution of land, and in connection therewith, to some conveni- 
ent changes in the old lots. Discarding the former ground- 
briefs. Van Keulen's Hook and Montague's Flat were to be laid 
off into lots and distributed among the freeholders. It was 
agreed that John La Montague should hold the Point, as having 
belonged to his father, and take his full allotment there, by 
throwing up his lot No. i, on Jochem Pieters; and as a special 
immunity should enjoy the Point free from any future demands 
in the way of town tax. He was to conform to the town regula- 
tion against building upon the bouwlots, and was not to build or 
live upon the Point till the town saw fit to allow it. Jan Pieters 
Slot and Simon De Ruine, owning two lots apiece on Jochem 
Pieters, also consented to give up one each, lying toward the 



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i86 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

further end ; instead of which Slot was to draw nine morgen to- 
gether on Van Keulen's Hook, and De Ruine to draw a lot, three 
morgen, on said tract, and enough more on Montagne's Flat to 
make good his quantity. Moreover, both were to retain their 
two erven. 

All this being arranged, the lots on Jochem Pieters,* now 
numbering but twenty-two, were staked out anew, and to each lot 
(before six morgen) was added 400 Dutch rods, or two-thirds of a 
morgen; a remnant of three and one-third, left of No. i, being 
taken to enlarge the gardens. The owner next adjoining to No. 
I, Daniel Tourneur, to whom fell part of that lot with part of 
No. 2, now became No. i ; a similar change occurring to the next 
owner, and so on. 

Van Keulen's Hook, the large plain directly south of the 
village, and lying mostly in woods, was laid off into lots, narrow 
and long, and these, for convenience of ingress and ultimate 
improvement, were, excepting the first three, butted on the 
main street, from which they ran south to the river and Mill 
Creek; being each twielve Dutch rods in breadth, and contain- 
ing three morgen, or about six acres. Twenty-two lots were laid 
out, as on Jochem Pieters, and numbered from the river west- 
ward. Nos. I to 3, instead of reaching up, as did the others, to 
the village street, ended at the marsh or meadows, some acres in 
extent, which lay intervening, and through which a creek, forked 
and winding, overflowed its banks or lapsed to its muddy 
channel with the tidal flood and ebb. The upland between 
streets and meadows was reserved for the common use of the 
village, and to allow free access to the creek-side and small cove 
at its outlet, which was the usual landing-place for the villagers 
and others, as it afforded a safe mooring for canoes and skiffs. 

The Van Keulen Hook lots were drawn in the beginning of 
1662, the original owners being as follows : 

No. I. David Du Four. 

2. Jan Cogu. 

3. Lubbert Gerritsen. 

4. Michel Zyperus. 

5. Daniel Tourneur. 

6. Sigismund Lucas. 

7. Jan Pietersen Slot. 

8. " 
9. 

10. Philippe Casier. 

11. Jean Gervoe. 

Jochem Pieter's Flat, with the history of the several lots, showing the origin 
of the titles in this section, is treated of in Appendix E. 

t See the subsequent history of the Van Keulen Hook lots in Appendix F. 



<0. 12. 


Simon De Ruine. 


*' 13. 


Adam Dericksen. 


" 14. 


Jaques Cresson. 


" 15- 


Nicolaes De Meyer. 


" 16. 


David Uzille. 


" 17. 


Dirck Claessen. 


" 18. 


Jan Sneden. 


" 19. 


Jan De Pre. 


" 20. 


Pierre Cresson. 


" 21. 


Jacques Cousseau. 


" 22. 


Jean Le Roy.t 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 187 

An episode of these land operations here claims a notice, — 
the first "Harlem Land Case," not reported, we believe, either 
in Wheaton or Wendell! Sigismundus Lucas, as his autograph 
is, working long and lustily on his cobbler's bench, had gotten 
him **a house, barn and plantation at New Harlem." But 
early in January, 1662, he agreed to sell out to Nicholas De 
Meyer, then a Harlem freeholder, for 400 gl. in sewant. Going 
home from New Amsterdam, where the bargain had been made. 
Cobbler Lucas considered the many stitches that property had 
cost him, sorely repented his act, and tried to back out, on the 
gromid that De Meyer had given him till morning to decide if 
he would sell. De Meyer began to smell leather, and forthwith 
took written statements from two witnesses to the bargain, and 
also that of Evert Duyckinck, whom Lucas had told of hav- 
ing sold his farm to De Meyer, but did not think "the costs 
would run so high." Coming in court at Harlem, January 
13th, De Meyer claimed the property, showing his papers, and 
offering also the testimony of Meyndert Coerten, who had heard 
defendant admit the sale. Lucas, who was present, demurred, 
pleading that the sale was not peremptory; that Coerten, having 
hired land of De Meyer, was an interested witness, and that the 
affidavits were not sworn to. The last objection was sustained, 
and the case was adjourned, to give plaintiff time to remedy this 
defect. This was done the next day before the Heer Tonne- 
man, schout of New Amsterdam. On the l6th the town court 
again examined the papers and heard the pleas of both parties; 
then ordered Lucas to give up the farm on receiving the price, 
and to pay the costs of suit. But in vain did De Meyer send 
once, twice, thrice, to tender the money and demand the de- 
liver}^ of the premises; the resolute cobbler, maintaining his 
ends, only waxed firmer in his refusal, so that on a further com- 
plaint, February 2d, the court authorized De Meyer to take pos- 
session. Now Lucas, still showing his bristles, appealed to the 
Director and Council, praying "to be relieved of the sale to De 
Meyer, and the sentence of the court at Harlem, in whose juris- 
diction said houses and lands are situated, as he loses by that 
sale more than half of their value." He was directed to give 
De Meyer a copy of the petition, and notify him when to appear 
and answer. On February i6th both parties presented them- 
selves, when the Director and Council, after reviewing the case, 
confirmed the action of the local court, and held Lucas to his 
bargain. The poor shoemaker had held on to the last, but must 



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i88 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

now yield up his all (indeed his awl was now everything to 
him!), and in disgust he soon left the town.* 

It may be added that, two years later, or January 29th, 1664, 
De Meyer obtained a patent from Gov. Stuyvesant for his sev- 
eral lands in Harlem, then including twelve morgen upon Mon- 
tagne's Flat; which tract, as proposed, had been divided up 
among the people of Harlem, and to the particular historj' of 
which we now return. 

John La Montague, after the project to form a new settle- 
ment on the farm Vredendal had failed, continued at Harlem, 
one of the most useful and honored of its inhabitants. The 
Director and Council, November 3d, 1661, appointed him 
schepen, with Slot and Tourneur as associates; and when Slot 
retired a year later, he succeeded as schout, which office he re- 
tained till the Dutch rule ended. He was the first Town Clerk, 
so far as appears from the earliest protocol or register, but 
which commences only with January 13, 1662, leaving the pre- 
ceding sixteen months a blank; an unfortunate vacuum at the 
introduction of the town history, though partially filled by other 
records. But from this date Montague's minutes (save another 
hiatus of fifteen months) are quite complete for ten years, up to 
his death. 

However thwarted were the Montagues in their plans respect- 
ing Vredendal, they yielded gracefully to the alternative which 
secured to John La Montague, the doctor's eldest son, that part 
of the property called the Point, of which his father was the 
original grantee, but surrendered the Flat to the government, 
to be parceled out to such of the people of Harlem as still 
wanted more land, and upon terms which, though not stated, 
probably did not differ from those of the previous allotments, 

* SiRismund Lucas, on quitting Harlem, bought him a house in Pearl Street. He 
was sued in the Court of Burgomasters, January 15, 1664, for a pair of shoes left to 
be mended "during the Indian troubles" of the previous year. They were "stuffed 
into the straw bed," for safe keeping, as he had "neither kit nor chest in which to 
lock them." The case was dismissed upon Simon making oath "that he knew not 
what became of them." He now threw aside his cobbler tools to become a carman, 
and on the Dutch rcoccupation, 1673, good loyal Dutchman, he worked gratis at the 
city defenses, only taking pay for horse and cart.' But the English succeeding, the 
sheriff wished Simon to cart down a cable," by order of Governor Andros; but now 
in other mood re refused, saying "he would not cart for the Governor, nor nobody 
else." Hereupon the Mayor's Court, December 22, 1674, "Ordered that he shall cart 
noe more until ve Court think meete to admit him thereto." He and wife made a 
joint will "Sunoay evening about eight o'clock," September 17, ^673, which he sur- 
vived four years at least, but both were dead when the will was proved in court, 
April 26, 1681. The Court, October 11 ensuing, authorized his effects to be "sold 
at an outcry for payment of debts. He left by his first wife, Engeltie Jans, a 
daughter, Maria, who married Andre Lauran, of the French Church, and by his 
second wife, Gertrude Bulderen, a son, who wrote his name Johannes Simensz, also 
a cordwainer, later a carman, in New York, and admitted a freeman July 19, 1726. 
He married, 1692, Phebe, daughter of Capt. Titus Syrachs dc Vries, of Flatbush. 
Her brothers bore the name of Titus (see Annals of Newtown), one of whom, Syrach 
Titus removed to Bensalem, Bucks County, Pa., died 1761, and left descendants 
there. Hazard's Reg., 7: 30. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 189 

but without doubt looking to a liquidation of the large debt due 
from Dr. Montagne to the company. While John La Montague 
was to remain the possessor of the Point, which was rated at six- 
teen morgen, it was open to his brother William (we think then 
engaged to succeed Zyperus as schoolmaster, and hence usually 
styled by his brother "Meester Willem"), if he should become a 
freeholder, in same manner as others, by the purchase of the 
usual allotment, to draw with them his proportionate share of 
the Flat, enough to give him likewise sixteen morgen. It was 
clearly a compromise regarding Vredendal, arranged, as it could 
only be, with the sanction and by order of the Director and Coun- 
cil ; and the correspondence which at this time these were having 
with Dr. Montagne respecting his long-standing indebtedness to 
the company, and for which they strongly censured him, shows 
that their action as aforesaid was a stem necessity.* 

The question of the disposal of the Flat was intimately con- 
nected with another of vital interest to the community. The 
three years allowed them in which to pay for their lands had 
nearly expired, and with not a few it became a difficult prob- 
lem how they should provide the 8 gl. per morgen which 
the government must have. In this dilemma the schepens repre- 
sented to the Director and Council, March 9th, 1662, what 
embarrassment several of the inhabitants must experience if 
compelled at once to pay the purchase money for their lands, 
eight guilders per morgen, and praying to be relieved of this 
payment; in lieu of which they proposed that the term of fifteen 
years' exemption from tithes should be shortened to ten years. 

To this the Director and Council would not assent, but in 
their answer "insist upon the conditions on which the village 
of Harlem has been laid out." But they added: "No person is 
obliged to accept more land than it is convenient for him to pav 
for/' 

It was plainly owing to the difficulty of raising this morgen- 
money, or morgen-gelt, as called (a term also denoting any tax 
assessed according to the morgen), that a number of persons quit 
the town during this year, to try their fortunes elsewhere; as 
well landholders as others designing to become such. Of these 
were Coerten, De Pre, Du Four, Gervoe and Le Sueur.t Du 

* See a letter from Montagne upon this subject, with touching allusion to his 
needj circumstances and frugality of living. Appendix D. 

t Meyndcrt Coerten, from Arnhem, came out as a soldier of the West Indian Com- 
pany. He married in 1660 a ^rl of Picard parentage, Maria, daughter of Pierre, 
Pia, and visited Holland, returning the next year in the ship with Muyden, who prob- 
ably drew him to Harlem. Here he leased land of De Meyer, and kept stock. In his 
brief residence he won respect, and the court honored his abilities in naming him with 



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igo HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Four sold out his allotment to Jacob Eldertsen, a sturdy Dane 
from Lubeck, and late a brewersman, who resold it, June ist, 
1662, to Jean Le Roy, for 350 gl. But these few withdrawals 
only making place for others, it was soon apparent that all the 
land now to be distributed would be eagerly taken. The follow- 
ing list was made out by Montagne, at a meeting of the resident 
proprietors, called to ascertain how much land they wanted : 



List of Lands at N. Harlem, according to 


each one's 


request, 14th 


March, 1662. 








Jan Pietersen Slot, 


24 morgen. 




Daniel Tourneur, 


24 


a 




Michel Zyperus, 


18 


it 




Lubbert Gerritsen, 


24 


" 




Adam Dericksen, 


6 


" 




David Du Four, 


10 


a 




Simon De Ruine, 


12 


" 




Jan Cogu and ^ 




^^ 




Monis Peterson, J 


10 






Jean Gervbe, 


10 


it 




Hendrick Karstens, 


6 


ti 




Widow of Jan Sneden, 


4 


tt 




Philip easier. 


24 


u 




Jan De Pre, absent. 








Jaques Cresson, 


12 


a 




Simon Lucas, 


10 


'* 




Peter Cresson, 


8 


** 





These bids were made with obvious reference to the offers in 
the ordinance of 1658, as the quantities indicate. But to meet 
these demands, as was apparent, must exhaust the allotments 
proposed to be made on Montague's Flat, to the exclusion of 
some of the ablest proprietors, living in the city and not now 
present, as De Meyer, Cousseau, Claessen, and Muyden. In such 
case the government could only use its discretion in revising the 
list. It decided that sixteen morgen must at present be the 
maximum of a single allotment. Slot was therefore dropped ; 
others raised to said number of morgen, except asking for less. 
But of course we cannot know all the reasons which weighed in 
making up the list. 

Upon such circumstances was the Flat now laid out into 
parcels of from four to six morgen each, by an actual survey; 
running in narrow strips from the little creek due west to the 

Dominie Zyperus, February 16, 1662, to settle a financial dispute between Cogu and 
Tourneur. Coertcn soon went to Flushing, and thence to New Utrecht, where he 
arose to position ans served as an elder. He was high sheriff under Leisler, and 
one of his council; but his devotion to that party cost him a long imprisonment. In 
1698 he represented Kings County in the General Assembly. He died on his farm, 
Bruynsburg, about 1706, in a good old age. For his children, sec the Bergen Gen., 
ist edition; not in 2d edition, as later evidence changed the opinion that he was of 
the Van V'oorhees family. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 191 

hills, originally some twelve lots, and numbered from south to 
north. As near as can be told, the first owners were Nicholas 
De Meyer, Lubbert Gerritsen, William De La Montagne, Simon 
De Ruine, Derick Claessen, Do. Zyperus, Jean Le Roy, Jacques 
Cousseau, and Daniel Toumeur. De Meyer, as owning two 
allotments, obtained two lots on the Flat; and so of Cousseau. 
Montagne had lot No. 4, being six and a half morgen, he having 
met the required conditions by purchasing, April 7th, 1662, from 
Jan De Pre,* who had advertised to sell the same at auction, his 
"house, house-lot (erf), garden, and land,'* — the land being No. 
7 Jochem Pieters. Lot 19, Van Keulen's Hook, also made part 
of this allotment. But after a temporary residence, Montagne 
sold out to his brother, John, and returned to Albany, whence he 
removed to Esopus, married, and was long the parish clerk. Had 
we no other evidence of this alienation of Montague's Flat, the 
bare fact that while Dr. Montagne and his sons were yet living 
these lands are found divided up, and in the possession of several 
other of the Harlem people, nearly all holding under special 
patents from the Governors Stuyvesant, Nicolls and Lovelace, 
is evidence prima facie that the title had passed from the original 
owners; a conclusion which none may now gainsay, without 
ignoring the official acts of the government in the issuing of these 
patents.t 

The spirit of land speculation, infecting few places as it has 
Harlem, is in no wise peculiar to our century. In the days under 
review, and mainly for the cause we have stated, many transfers 
of land took place, the buyers the more thrifty class, with usually 
a keen eye to a bargain. Very informal was the legal act of 
transfer. The earliest deeds, most simple and brief, seem es- 
pecially defective in describing the property. But this informa- 
tion was supplied by the original surveys and allotment lists on 
file with the town clerk, while no complex chain of title embar- 
rassed the question either of location or propriety. That of 

* Jan de Prc^ bom at Commines in 1635 — a Fleming, but of Walloon or French 
descent, judging irom his surname — was a cooper, and before coming to Harlem lived 
tereral years as a "small burgher" in New Amsterdam, where he married, in 1655, 
a Scotch lassie, Margaret, daughter of John Cromartie. His present wife was 
Jannetie, daughter of Simon de Ruine, married in 1659. De Pre finally went to New 
Utrecht, and thence to Staten Island. By his first wife he had Andries, born 1656 
(but one child, called a daughter, is referred to in his marriage settlement of Decem- 
ber 31, 1659), and by his second wife, Jannetie, born 1662, Francina, 1665, Maria. 
1667, John, 1671, Simon, 1676. Jannetie married Cornelius Banta, of Hackensack, 
where her uncles, the Dcmarests, resided. She died and Banta married her cousin, 
Magdalena Demarest. Banta was a son of Epke Jacobs Banta, farmer from Har- 
lingen, common ancester of the prolific family bearing that name, and who, with his 
wife and five children, emigrated in the ship with Simon de Ruine. How often the 
acquaintance thus formed proved a link uniting the fortunes of the children! 

t See further remarks upon Montagne's Flat under the year 1673, and in Appen- 
dix G. 



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192 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

boundary came up occasionally. Payment was made, not by bank 
check, but either in sewant, in beaver skins, in cattle, grain, or 
tobacco; and property Was often sold subject, because not prev- 
iously paid, to the morgen-gelt (before explained), the meet-gelt, 
or survey money, the cost of g^oundbrief, and, in sales by vendue, 
the stuyver-gelt, or auctioneer's fees. A curious sample is the 
deed to Montague, before mentioned, the earliest save one to be 
found of date subsequent to the planting of the village. It was 
drawn up by Do. Zyperus, as the clerk was an interested party, 
being brother of the grantee, and otherwise involved in the trans- 
action of which this purchase was a part. The morgen money 
being unpaid, the consideration named was only for the improve- 
ments and improved value of the land. As the scribe forgets to 
tell us where the contract was signed and sealed, and where on 
this mundane sphere the land was situated, we judge he was 
not an experienced clerk. In the Dominie's neat Dutch penman- 
ship it still stands in the protocol. 

On this date, the 7th of April A°. 1662, have agreed and bargained, 
Jan De Pre, on the one side, and Wilhelm Montagnie on the other, in 
relation to, and over the sale of his allotment bought of Simon Lane,* 
on the following conditions. Jan De Pre acknowledges! to have sold his 
house and house lot, land and garden, all that is fast by earth and nail, 
to Wilhelm Montagnie, for one Cow and Fifteen Guilders in sewant, the 
which he acknowledges to have received. The purchaser shall be held 
to pay the morgen money and the survey money. This all so done, and 
have with our hands subscribed. Dated as above. 
Witness, Jan De Pre. 

M. Zyperus. Willem De La Montagne. 

A^ 1662. 

In executing a deed, a bill of sale, lease, or other contract, cus- 
tom required the parties to appear with two witnesses before the 
town secretary, who, after hearing their statement, wrote out 
the instrument in his register, receiving for such service a fee of 
thirty stivers. When signed by all the parties, this remained 
as the original ; but if desired, an attested copy was furnished by 
the secretary for an additional fee of twenty stivers. Wills, in 
the making of which the wife commonly joined with her hus- 
band (thus it was mutually fair and mutually binding) were 
executed in a similar way. A will in the usual form gave to 
"the longest liver'' the use of the property for life or till a re- 

• As first written it read "his lot No. 7," but Zyperus erased "No. 7," and 
inserted instead "j^ecocht van Symen Leen," i. e., bought of Simon Lane. It was to 
save misapprehension, as Lane had held and was registered for No. 8, though chang- 
ing with the rest when Tan Montagne vacated No. i, he now held No. 7; and further 
the allotment carried with it No. 19, Van Keulen's Hook, just drawn by De Pre. Hence 
"No. 7" fell short of the proper description; yet without this number we could 
hardly identify the lot conveyed. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 193 

marriage, after which it went equally to the children or other 
heirs. Sometimes in default of heirs it fell to the deacons for 
the benefit of the church or poor. 

The grant of the commons west of the village for grazing 
purposes, of which we soon find the inhabitants in the peaceable 
enjoyment, must have dated from the very origin of the settle- 
ment; for while such grant unfortunately does not remain of 
record, it logically follows from the necessities of the case, the 
keeping and increase of cattle promising the facilities for doing 
it, and to which the settlers were directly encouraged in the 
ordinance of 1658, by the promise of "a cattle and horse fair.*' 
The extent of the first grant for the range of their cattle was 
probably left indefinite, to be determined by the future needs of 
the place, but it seems at least to have embraced the entire flats 
to the westward. The kine of the village, now much increased, 
were liable, if not carefully looked after, and with no fences to 
hinder them, to stray off and become lost in the woods and 
swamps. So, to save the time of many, it was resolved to em- 
ploy a common herder, who should collect the cows after milk- 
ing in the morning, drive them with the oxen out to pasture, and 
watch over them till brought in again toward evening. Hence 
was made the following : 

Agreement with the Cow Herder. 
I, David Du Four do acknowledge to have taken the cows to herd, 
belonging to the Town of New Harlem, at my own expense, and also 
from each house one pair of oxen ; for the sum of three hundred guilders 
in sewant, and one-half pound of butter for every cow ; provided I pay 
for the cattle that may be lost through my neglect. The time shall com- 
mence on the 23d of April, and end a fortnight after All-Saints' Day, at 
the option of the Inhabitants. It is also stipulated that the butter shall 
be paid in May, and the further payment as the Herder shall perform 
his work. Also the Herder grants power of parate exccutic. The above 
obligation we on both sides engage to hold to and fulfil. In N. Haerlem, 
20th April, Anno 1662. 

Davit Du Four, . 

I P [mark of Jan P. Slot], 

D. TOURNEUR, 

Daniel Toumeur and Lubbert Ger- M. J. Muvden, 

ritsen promise to collect and J. La Montagne, Junior, 

pay the Herder money at the ap- * mark of Lubbert Gerrits, 

pointed time. Dated as above. Meyndert Coerten, 

D. TouRNEUR. Philippe Casier, 

* H H. Karstens, 

Simon -|- De Ruine, 

^ E mark of Jacx}b Elderts, 
MoY Pier CimssoN. 

Du Four, the Amsterdam drayman, better at driving a team 
than stupid cows, was soon disgusted with his new occupation. 



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194 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

and turned it over to Jean Gervoe, the soldier. But now the 
cattle were not well looked after, as was alleged; in fact, some 
of the oxen, when needed for the yoke, were missing. As things 
went, it was necessary to engage another herder, and on April 
29th Jan Cogu and Monis Peterson, who were partners in a 
lime-kiln, etc., undertook the herding for 350 gl., being 50 gl. 
more than Du Four was to have. The collectors, Tourneur and 
Gerritsen, sued Du Four to recover the difference, and the town 
court decided he must pay it, the defendant only making the 
flimsy plea that he "was led by artful talk*' to undertake the 
herding.* 

Meanwhile occurred the first case of mortality brought to 
our notice in the little community, and soon another. The per- 
sons were Jan Sneden and his wife, who died in quick suc- 
cession early in the year. Descended of an Amsterdam family, 
as before stated, Sneden came to Harlem in 1660, where he oc- 
cupied Monis Peterson's house and bouwery, but soon secured 
an allotment of his own, being No. 14 Jochem Pieters, with the 
erf and garden belonging to it. The Snedens were probably in- 
terred in the ground used later for the negroes, and lying at the 
rear of the Judah plot, as interments were made there many 
years before "the old graveyard,'' removed a do^en years since, 
was taken for that use. The magistrates proceeded to settle 
Sneden's estate, as he was indebted to Isaac De Forest and 
others. His property was sold at vendue on three separate 
days, beginning March 25th. First the house and lands, with 
the grain on the latter sown by Sneden the previous fall, were, 
pursuant to notice, set up, and struck off at 135 gl. to Jaques 
Cousseau, who bid 25 gl. over his highest competitor, Tourneur. 
Jan La Montagne bid 100 gl., perhaps for his brother, who had 
not then purchased. At the two subsequent sales the household 
articles were disposed of, bringing 189 gl. But a mere pittance, 
42 gl., was left to the orphans, Carsten and Grietie, over whom, 
on April 28th, Philip Casier and Lubbert Gerritsen were ap- 
pointed guardians, with directions "to act according to law." 
Grietie soon chose another protector, being married, August 13th 

* Jena Gervoe, who apparently came out under an engagement as a soldier, had 
done such duty for several years at Harlem, but was free when not required to bear 
his musket, to till the land which he had taken up, or engage in other honest labor. 
But on leaving, in 1662^ he sold his allotment, being, Nos. 13, Jochem Pieters, and 11, 
Van Keulen's Hook, with house and lot and meadows, to Philip Casier. He served 
as adelborst, cadet or corporal, under Lieut. Stilwell, in the Esopus war, for which, on 
his petition, January 10, 1664, he was allowed extra pajr. He married in 1659, but 
his only child mentioned was Hillegond, at whose baptism, March 5, 1664, Jaques 
Tuynier (Cresson) stood as godfather. When the English took the country, Gervoe 
probably left with the Dutch forces. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 195 

following, to Jean Guenon, of Flushing, from which union have 
sprung the now widely scattered Genung family.* 

On November 16 new magistrates were appointed by the 
Director and Council, from a double number nominated by the 
old board. The new board consisted of Jan La Montague, 
Philip Casier and Derick Claessen. One of their first acts was 
to provide for the more careful placing of houses and fences; 
which some seem to have disregarded, to the damage of particu- 
lar and general interests. It was to check this abuse, and also to 
prevent any houses being put up outside the proper limits, that 
the magistrates, November 25th, passed the following: 

"The Hon. Heere Schepens find it good to appoint and 
authorize Jan P. Slot, former schepen, as Rooy-meester (sur- 
veyor of buildings), for the improvement and sightliness of the 
village; and the builders shall every one be charged, after this 
time, to set no fences nor houses in the absence of the Hon. Heer 
Rooy-meester.*' 

Upon November 30th, Montague's term as deacon having ex- 
pired, Daniel Toumeur was chosen in his place, and also as 
brandt-meester, or fire-warden. Simon De Ruine and Monis 
Peterson were appointed keur-meesters van de heyningen, or in- 
spectors of fences, in place of Hendrick Karstens and Adam 
Dericksen; and a fine of three guilders was ordered against the 
owners every time their fences should be found defective. The 
court also directed "the fences at the north side of the village 
to be set within fourteen days, under a penalty of two pounds 
Flemish" for each failure, — equivalent to 12 gl. A placard to 
that effect was posted up. This was called for by the great 
damage done the past summer to the crops of peas and buck- 
wheat upon the land of Jochem Pieters, from the cattle 
getting in; and which the schout. Slot, had taken no means to 
remedy, though the fence-masters and others had gone to him 
with loud complaints. The new officers going to view the 
fences, December i8th, found that Michiel Muyden, Hendrick J. 
Vander Vin, Daniel Tourneur and Jean Le Roy had not complied 

* Carsten Janscn Snedcn, still at Harlem, entered Daniel Tourneur's service 
January 15, 1668, for a year, and at its expiration was to have 300 guilders and "a 
pair 01 shoes and stockinp^s." His uncle. Claes Sneden, lived in New York, where his 
children by his wife Mana were baptized, between 1663 and 1667. He or Carsten was 
no doubt the ancestor of the Snedcns of Rockland County. 

Jean Guenon died at Flushing, L. I., in 17 14. His will, made when he was in 
perfect health, date November 24, 1703; that of his widow, Margaret, February 21, 
1 72 1 -2. At the latter date their sons, John, born 1669, and Jeremiah, bom 1671, 
were living; as also their daughters, Hannah, wife of Toseph Hedger, and Susannah, 
wife of Louereer. John and Jeremiah Genung shared their father's farm in Flushing; 
their descendants arc now to be found in many parts, especially of the State of New 
York. 



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196 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

with the placard. They were all complained of December 27111, 
by the new schout, who demanded the fines, viz.: from Muy- 
den 24 gl. for his two lots, and 12 gl. each of the others. Tour- 
neur pleaded sickness and other excuses, but the court exacted 
the fine from him and from Le Roy, with costs of suit. Muyden 
and Vander Vin, after being thrice in default, were also sentenced, 
January 25th, 1663, with order to pay inside of eight days. 

It showed admirable pluck on the part of the magistracy to 
thus deal with persons of the first standing; for Vander Vin 
and Muyden were both great burghers of New Amsterdam, and 
the first an ex-schepen. On several occasions, by invitation, 
Muyden had occupied the bench at Harlem, as "an extraordi- 
nary schepen," his intelligence and fitness for the office leading 
to a regular appointment soon after to fill a vacancy. He had 
visited Holland in 1661, bringing out on his return a number 
of hardy Norwegian workmen, and was now prosecuting the 
business of soap-making. And thus closed 1662, with its vari- 
ous measures of public utility and impartial dispensing of jus- 
tice, alike necessary to protect and promote the common inter- 
ests of the villagers.* 

• Francois le Sueur, who left the town early in 1663, was the ancestor of the 
families of Leseur and Lozier, now mostly seated in New York City and Bergen 
County, N. T. Francois first lived in Flatbush after coming to Manhattan, and in 
1659 married Jannetie, daughter of Hillebrand Pietersen, of Amsterdam; in which 
year Tannctie's brother, Pieter Hillebrands, was captured by Indians at Esopus, but 
this did not deter her from removing there with her husband. Before going from 
Harlem he sold some of his effects, and his wife bought "a little bed," etc., at Sneden's 
sale. Le Sueur's sister, Jeanne, went with ihcm to Esopus, and there married Cornelia 
Viervant, with whom she returned to Harlem. Le Sueur was living in 1670, but on 
November 30, 1671, his widow bound out her son, Hillebrand, eight years old. He 
was engaged by the deacons, in 1673, to ring the bell at five guilders a year. Afterward 
the widow married Antoine Tilba, and by him had children also. Those by Le Sueur, 
all but the first, bom at Esopus, were Jannetie, born 1660, who married Jan Postmael 
(or Post) and Thomas Innis; Hillebrand, born i66;}, John and Jacob, born 1665, and 
Nicholas, born 1668. Hillebrand married, 1688, Elsie, daughter of Jurian Tappen, but 
soon died, leaving apparently but one child, Jannetie, born 1689, who married William 
Elting. Hillebrand s widow married Abraham Delamatcr, previously of Harlem. 
John, of Kingston, married Rachel Smedes, in 1686, was an elder of the church, and 
quite distinguished. He had Jannetie, born 1687, John, born 1689, Catherine, born 
1692, etc., of whom the first married Abraham Low. Nicholas, whose branch of the 
family write their name Lozier, married at New York, May 8, 1691, Tryntie, daughter 
of Peter Slot. He afterward left Kingston and settled near Hackensack, where he 
married, in January, 1709, Antie, daughter of Dcrick Banta. His children were, Hille- 
brand, born 1695; Peter, born 1697; John, born 1699; Mary, born 1701; Antie 
bom 1703; Lucas, born 1705; Jacobus, born 1707; Benjamin, born 1708; Tryntie' 
born 17 to; Hester, born 171 1; Rachel, born 1714; Jacob, born 1719; Abraham, born 
1721; Leah, born 1723, and Margaret, born 1726. These intermarried with the 
Demarests and others, but we must here leave them. In Ulster County the French 
pronunciation of this name was, for a time, tolerably preserved in the form Lashier 
but is now extinct there, though the blood runs in the Post family and others. 



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CHAPTER XIII. 

1663-1665. 

STIRRING EVENTS : END OF THE DUTCH RULE. 

T T happened that Pieter Jansen Slot, son of the ex-schepen, was 
^ to wed a fair damsel of Ahasimus, by name Marritie Van 
Winckel. The young roysters of the village hearing, on Friday, 
February 2d, 1663, that the bans had that day been registered, 
were jubilant over the news, and set to work, — it was an ancient 
rustic custom of fatherland, — to honor the happy Pieter by 
planting a "May-tree'' before his door. Now, some workmen 
in the employ of Mr. Muyden and others, in for ruder sport, 
not only raised "a horrible noise in the village by shouting, blow- 
ing horns, etc., while others were asleep," but proceeded to 
deck the May-tree with ragged stockings; at which, when dis- 
covered by Pieter, he was very wroth, taking it as "a mockery 
and insult/' He at once cut the tree down, but the young 
men brought another to take its place ; when, as it lay before the 
house, along came Muyden's men and hewed it in pieces. Not 
to be baffled, the young folk the same night procured and raised 
a third tree, which, however, shared the same fate. 

On Sunday morning, February 4th, Jan Pietersen, at whose 
house Pieter was staying and all this happened, made his com- 
plaint to Montague, the schout; the masters also informing him 
that their men were plotting other mischief, but they had no 
power to prevent it. The schout, now going thither, ordered 
the rioters to disperse; but they only defied him, and even 
threatened him with their guns and axes. Only more enraged, 
they gave the Sabbath to cutting down and burning the palisades 
around Jaques Cresson's bam. Next morning Jacob Elderts, 
who had lately bought a lot on Van Keulen's Hook, was engaged 
bringing thatch from Bronck's meadow. Before he had spoken 
"a single word," they caught and beat him, also wounding him 
on the head. In vain "Meester Willem," who witnessed the as- 
sault, commanded them to desist. Perhaps it was to pay off El- 



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198 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

derts for the death of their countryman, Bruyn Barents, a cooper, 
five years before; perhaps not. The two were then working in 
a brewery at Brooklyn, and Bruyn made at Elderts with a knife, 
when the latter, in self-defense, knocked him down with a sledge. 
Bruyn lingered six months, and died February 12th, 1658. As 
the case stood, Jacob was arrested, but let off by the court with 
a fine of 100 gl. for the wounding. But be this the explanation 
or not, the schout seeing the rioters heeded not his authority, 
and apprehending further trouble, hastened, the same day, to 
inform the Director, who, with the Council, referred the matter 
to the Attorney-General, "to take further information about it." 

Here ended, or is lost sight of, this almost tragedy ; the pub- 
lic attention at Harlem being absorbed by the death, in quick 
succession, of two worthy inhabitants, Adam Dericksen and 
Philip Casier. Dericksen was from Cologne, owned an allot- 
ment of land and had served as inspector of fences with Hen- 
drick Karstens in 1661-2. In the first of these years he married 
Magdalena, daughter of Lambert Van Telckhuys. Left with 
an infant Grietie, his widow, a few months later, became the 
wife of Monis Peterson. In the death of Casier the community 
lost one of its sterling men, a skilful farmer, and valued for his 
experience and judgment. His place in the magistracy was filled, 
April 23d, by the appointment of Michiel J. Muyden.* 

The old question touching the payment for their lands now 
came up in a somewhat different shape, and with better success. 
The following memorial, explaining it, was drawn up by Heer 

* Philippe Casier, had he lived, must have proven a most useful inhabitant. His 
adventurous voyage from France to the West Indies, back to Holland, thence up the 
Rhine, and finally to this country, with his eight in family, are events in his life 
already noticed. Another child, Sarah, was added in 1662. when Casier had become a 
resident and landholder at Harlem. He and wife, Marie Taine, united with the church 
October 2, of that year, and on November 16, he was made a magistrate. But near the 
close of the ensuing winter, 1663, death arrested his usefulness. He had but just 
sold, January 11, 1663, a lot on van Keulen's Hook to Jacob Eldertsen, also called 
Brouwer (Brewer), from his former occupation. Selling her lands to Joost Van Obli- 
nus, the widow bought a house in the Markvelt-steegie, in New York, and lived there 
for some years, with her sons, Jean and Jaques, who were bakers. In 1671 she married 
Tean le Roy, of Harlem, and afterward went with him to Staten Island. Her daughter, 
Hester, born at Sluis, in Flanders, married, in 1677, Tean Belleville, who was living 
in 1703. They had sons, Jean, born 167;^; Philip, born 1679, etc. See Martino. 
The' younger daughter, Sarah Casier, married, 1680, Jacques Guion, merchant, from 
St. Martin, France, she being much his junior. His will, made May 3, 1680, was 
proved December 1, 1694, ana his widow admitted executrix. Guion visited Europe 
in 1678. He owned 200 acres of land on Staten Island, granted him October 13, 1664, 
on which some of the descendants still reside. Philip Casier's two sons, in 1673, 
were members of Capt. Steenwvck's troop; but Jacques appears to have soon died 
unmarried. Jean accompanied his mother to Staten Island, in 1676, obtaining that 
year a grant of 80 acres of land on Long Neck. He married, in 1680, Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Damen, of Brooklyn. In 1701 he and his brother-in-law, Jean Belle- 
ville, owning an adjoining farm, with other neighbors like themselves, born French 
subjects (Casier had his birth in the French island of Martinique), sent their names 
to England, and were naturalized by act of Parliament. Casier made his will Decem- 
ber 26j 1709, which was proved the next month, January 24, 1710. Susannah, a sec- 
ond wife, survived him. His children then living were Philip and Peter, who shared 
his farm, and daughters Sophia and Elizabeth. Has not this name become Casey? 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 199 

Vander Vin; the clerk, Montagne, having now no personal in- 
terest in this matter apparently : 

To the Noble, Great and Honorable, the Director-General and Council 

in New Netherland: 

The undersigned, owners and occupants of the lands within the 
village and jurisdiction of New Harlem, respectfully represent, that to 
their great surprise and solicitude, they have been informed that the eight 
guilders which your Honors required said proprietors to pay for each 
morgen of land taken by them, should be paid in beavers, or their value ; 
whereas this was not the understanding of your petitioners who, in regard 
to the announcement made by your Honors, on the 4th of March, 1658, 
as to the privilege with which this village was to be favored, did not 
otherwise conceive respecting the price set upon said land, but that pay- 
ment thereof was to be made in sewant currency, according to the 
customary usage. Had they understood differently, they would never 
have agreed, nor could have been persuaded, to burden themselves with 
so hard an undertaking as that of bringing those lands under cultivation, 
besides paying thus heavily for them; and even yet the petitioners, 
instead of finding themselves eased in their labors, have great difficulty 
in making these lands fit for tillage, so they are now wholly discouraged, 
as they did not apprehend that they should encounter the present diffi- 
culty. Wherefore, addressing themselves to your Honors, they pray that 
your Honors may be pleased to declare, by a favorable answer on the 
margin, that the petitioners may pay the eight guilders per morgen, in 
sewant, in the usual course between man and man.* 

Jan Pietersen, his mark IP Dirck Ci*aessen. 

Hendr. J. Vandr. Vin D. Tourneur. 

Jean Le Roy, his mark + Moy Pier Cresson. 

Moenis Peterson, his mark N. D'Meyer. 

Jan Lourens, his mark N Simon De Ruine, his mark + 

COUSSEAU. M. MUYDEN. 

Hendrick Karstens, his mark H Jaques Cresson. 

As the effect of their former decision upon this subject had 
been to force some worthy persons to sell out their improve- 
ments and quit the town, the Director and Council now conceded 
more than the petition asked for. The answer was as follows : 

This 19th March, 1663. The foregoing petition being presented and 
read, and besides this, the proposals of the schepens of the village of 
New Harlem, made in the name of the inhabitants of that village hiv- 
ing been heard and considered; the Director-General and Council, after 
some debate pro and con, have resolved to relieve the inhabitants from 
the payment of the eight guilders per morgen, which they agreed to 
and were held to pay, by the terms upon which the lands were dis- 

* Beaver and other furs, with sewant (see note p. iS3f together formed the com- 
mon currency among the settlers. Beaver was convenient for large payments, especial- 
ly for remittances to Holland, as was sewant for small payments and for making 
change, and this was the currency mainly used in all ordinary trading. But beaver, 
which was as gold, always commanding its fixed price, had become so scarce as often 
not to be had for the payment of a debt, without going a long distance for it, even to 
Fort Orange or the Delaware River; while sewant was plenty, and its value fluctuating. 
Therefore this distinction; a guilder beaver, that is, a guilder payable in beaver, was 
counted 40 cents, at the standard value of the guilder, but a guilder sewant was worth 
only one-third of the former, or 13 1-3 cents, and depreciated still more. Hence a wide 
difference how the bargain was, whether to pay the stipulated number of guilders in 
beaver or in .sewant. 



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200 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

tributed; Provided, that the said inhabitants, in lieu of an exemption 
from tithes for fifteen years, shall enjoy the same but eight years; so 
that they shall be obliged to satisfy the tithes promptly in the year 1666, 
which said tithes, from 1666 to 1672, both years inclusive, shall, in place 
of the eight guilders per morgen, be for the benefit of the parties (or 
their creditors), who were formerly expelled from said lands. 

Thus was put to rest, to the great relief of the inhabitants, a 
question which had been a long-standing source of anxiety with 
them; and the history of which is important, first, as showing 
on what terms the lands were finally held, and second, to what 
labor and trouble the settlers were put, in felling the forests and 
subduing the soil, to make themselves a home; a struggle truly, 
with their scanty means. But they had come to a point when 
their courage, energy and faith in God were to be put to a more 
severe test.* 

Astounding news reached the villagers of an Indian onslaught 
and massacre at Esopus, on June 7th, in which some of their 
friends and kinsfolk were suflferers, and witnessed by Jacob El- 
derts, who had lately gone thither. The schout, Montague, in 
the flush of nuptial greetings on his union with Maria Vermeille, 
a lady from his native place, was shocked to hear that his sister. 
Van Imbroch, and her little Lysbet were in captivity with the 
savages. Harlem was all alarm. The town people assembled 
June 1 2th, by orders from below, and with the advice of the magis- 
trates, Montague, Claessen, Tourneur and Muyden, and clear- 
headed Slot, asked to sit with them as extraordinary schepen, 
proceeded to take the necessary steps for inclosing the village 
with a line of stockades, and putting it in a complete state of 
defense. Ten persons were designated to cut palisades, and four 
others to draw them to the village: while Tounieur and Jaques 

* David Uzille, the Huguenot, married to Maria, daughter of Philip Casier, had 
now left the town, and, as did the Casiers afterward, probably went to Staten Island, 
because his son, Peter Uzille, was living there April 6, 1686, when he married Cornelia 
Damen, of the Wallabout, a sister of Mrs. Jean Casier. Peter went thence to Bush- 
wick, near his brother-in-law, Michael Parmentier, but both ultimately removed to 
Poughkeepsie, Duchess County, where Uzille was living in 1714. His sister, Maria- 
Magdalen Uzille, born at Harlem in 1662, married, I believe, Jonas Le Roy, of Esopus. 
Peter Uzille's children were, John, born 1688, of whom no family; Sophia, born 1691, 
married, 17 12, Storm llratt, of Albany; Cornelia, born 1693, married, 1714, John 
Becker; Helena, bom 1696, married, 1716, William Hooghteeling ; Elizabeth, born 1701; 
Peter, born 1703, and David, born 1708. David, living at Albany, had by wife, Engeltie 
Vrooman, the following children, viz.: Peter, born 17^3; Cornelia, born 1734; Ger- 
trude, born 1736;, and Adam, born 1738. Peter Uzille- born 1703, married Anna 
Ackerson, 1724, and settled at Schoharie. In his will, made on a sick-bed, February 9, 
1747, he provided that if his wife should have a son, he was to take half his farm; 
otherwise to go to his daughters, after his wife's death. To these, viz., Cornelia, 
Elizabeth, Engeltie, Maria. Annetie, Janneke, and Catherine, the pious father gives 
this touching counsed: "My loving children, this is the last I shall recommend to you; 
divide my estate peaceably amongst you all, according to the intent and meaning of 
my last will and testament, and look upon the poor and help them, love your neighbor, 
and keep the peace amongst you and with all men, honor your mother and your king, 
and fear (K)d and keep his commandments." Some of these daughters married Vroo- 
mans. This name took the form of Zielle and Seely. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 201 

Cresson were deputed to procure a supply of arms and ammuni 
tion promised from the Manhattans. At the same time the dozen 
or more soldiers stationed here, together with the settlers (exclu- 
sive of the presiding magistrates), forty persons in all, were 
formed into military companies, which, after some time spent 
in changing and rearranging the ranks, were duly organized. 
For officers the eldest and most capable persons were selected. 
In the first company, Pierre Cresson, in the ripe manhood of fifty- 
odd years, and still very active, was assigned the chief and respon- 
sible command of corporal; with Isaac V^ermeille, aged sixty- 
two, as his lancepesade, and Glaude Le Maistre, turned of fifty 
years, and Lubbert Gerritsen, about forty, as adelborsts or cadets. 
Of the second company Willem Jensen was made lancepesade, 
and the cadets were Jan De Weever (the weaver) and Arent Sny- 
der (or the tailor), by the last probably meant Arent Harmans 
Bussing. Of the third company, Simon De Ruine, "the Wal- 
loon/' was chosen corporal ; Nelis Matthyssen, lancepesade, and 
Pieter Jansen Slot and Barent Acker, cadets.* 

Two days after the munitions of war were received from Heer 
\'an Ruyven, the government officer, to wit: 3 steen stucken 
(cannon from which stones were fired) ; 5 snaphaanen, or fire- 
locks; 3 musquets, or matchlocks; 36 flints (called viersteenen 
or firestones) ; 50 pounds of cannon powder ; 10 pounds of fine 
powder and 15 bars of lead for running bullets. At once the 
small arms were distributed to such as needed them. On the 
i6th six more matchlocks were obtained, together with a bundle 
of match for touching off the matchlocks and cannon. The 
former were placed in the hands of those still unsupplied. The 
persons to whom the small arms were given, one to each, were 

♦ The privates were as follows : 

1st Company. Ambrosius De Weerham, 

Abram Vermeille, Jacob Droogscheerder, 

Jean Le Roy, Arent J. Moesman, 

Joost Van Oblinus, Jai| Noorman, 

Aert Pietersen Buys, Ane Noorman. 
Johannes Piet'n Buys, 3d Company. 

T^n^Te^fnufen"' ^^^^^^^ P^^erson, 

Jan leunissen, t^„ r'^,^, 

Liovert iNoorman, 
2d Company. Hans Deen. 

Jan Schoenmaker, Derick Dh Vries, 

Hans Littou, Adolph Meyer, 

Abram Littou, Cornells Aertse Buys, 

Michiel Littou, Jean Casier. 



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202 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Daniel Toumeur, Jan La Montagne, Michiel J. Muyden, Jaques 
Cresson and Jan P. Slot, supplied with firelocks ; and Isaac Ver- 
meille, Abram Vermeille, Pierre Cresson, Jean Le Roy, Glaude 
Le Maistre and Aert P. Buys, with musquets. Mr. Muyden 
also took musquets for two of his workmen. The "steen stucken" 
were properly mounted. Thus prepared to repel an attack, the 
villagers awaited the course of events, keeping up a strict watch. 

New Harlem now became, in fact, a garrisoned outpost to 
New Amsterdam, and a barrier against Indian raids ; with Stuy- 
vesant, a cherished object, as before seen, in his anxiety to 
protect the metropolis. In view of the danger the director and 
council invited delegates from all the villages to a conference at 
New Amsterdam on July 6th. Harlem found it safest to keep 
every man at his post, but answered by letter, promising to detail 
a force of eight soldiers "whenever the necessity might require 
it." Troops being needed soon after for an expedition to Esopus, 
to subdue the Indians and give relief to the settlers there, a 
part of the regular force at Harlem departed upon that service, 
accompanied by others who went in response to the urgent call 
for volunteers which was made through all the villages about 
New Amsterdam. 

The savages at Esopus were soon made to flee before the 
advance of the resolute Dutch soldiers; but armed parties still 
kept the warpath, threatening vengeance on the whites and 
whoever should aid them. It happened during the month of 
July that the now friendly Wickquaskeeks, apprehending a hos- 
tile visit from such, left their usual haunts and removed for 
safety over into the woods near Harlem. The sudden appear- 
ance of so large a body of Indians, including some eighty war- 
riors, in the vicinity of the village, caused much excitement 
there, till the sachem Sauwenarack, with his ^brother, came 
to the magistrates and gave the reason of their visit. They 
brought the pleasing intelligence that the sister of Mr. Mon- 
tagne had been released from captivity through the interven- 
tion of the friendly Mohawks, and conveyed to her home; but 
they also gave this piece of disagreeable news, that the Indians 
of the Wappinger tribe had warned them that the Esopus Indians 
were intending, within five or six days, to descend the river, forty 
of fifty strong, in order to surprise and murder them, the Wick- 
quaskeeks, and afso destroy New Harlem and other settlements 
about Manhattan. Their message delivered, the chiefs hastened 
"of their own accord" to New Amsterdam, and repeated it to 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 203 

the director-general, with the offer of their services, in the com- 
mon peril to which all were exposed. 

No little anxiety was felt at Harlem for a time, but the 
talked-of visit was not made, and the movements of the Wick- 
quaskeeks came to excite no apprehension. The sachem and his 
people, — a thing they once would have scorned to ask of the 
white man, — sought permission to fish near the village, which was 
granted on condition that they should never approach that place 
with their weapons ; and for the purpose of ready identification, 
in their intercourse with the settlers, they were given copies of 
the official seal of the West India Company, "printed in wax 
upon small billets," to be shown upon occasion. Still the magis- 
trates relaxed none of their vigilance. Another thirty pounds 
of powder, obtained of the commissary, was distributed, Septem- 
ber 2d, to the following persons, a pound to each : 

Alonis Peterson, Jean Le Roy, 

Simon De Ruine, Jan Cogu, 

Hendrick Karstens, Michiel Littou, 

Jan Jansen Slot, Joh. Pietersen Buys, 

Jan Teunissen, Glaude Le Maistre, 

Jan Schoenmaker, Lubbert Gerritsen, 

Arent Snyder, Jean Frenchman, 

Nelis Matthyssen, Jan La Montague, 

Adolph Meyer, Jan Pietersen Slot, 

Aert Pietersen Buys, Govert Noorman, 

Comelis Aertsen Buys, Jacob Droogscheerder, 

Hans Deen, Jan Noorman, 

Barent Acker, Daniel Tourneur, 

Pierre Cresson, Pieter Jansen Slot, 

Jaques Cresson, Mr. Willem.* 

The public apprehensions were gradually removed by a 
series of victories over the Esopus Indians, which forced them to 
submit. But the people of the province were ill at ease. Dele- 
gates from the villages, met to consider their common dangers, 
signed, November 2d, an urgent appeal to the West India Com- 
pany, praying for protection both against the Indians and the 

• Jan Schoenmaker and Arent Snyder may have been Dyckman and Bussing; but 
we have no sufficient prcof. By "Mr. Willcm," and "Willem Jansen," Jan La Mon- 
tignef who makes the record, no doubt means his brother. Fourteen of those enrolled 
Jane 12 arc not in the above list, vir., Isaac Vermeille, Jean Vermeille, Jean Casier, 
Arent Moesman, Hans and Abram Littou, Ambrose de Weerham, Jan de Weever, 
Thomas Ottosen, Dirck de Vries, Arie Noorman, Roelof Noorman, and Jacob Noorman. 
Gow> we presume, with the forces to Esopus; Moesman certainly had, and he, Casier, 
and Isaac Vermeille arc the only ones known to have returned to Harlem. 



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204 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

neighboring New England colonies, which latter were now pre- 
paring to end a long diplomatic warfare with the Dutch author- 
ities touching their boundaries, by boldly asserting a claim to 
the whole of New Netherland. 

Notwithstanding the ruffled state of public affairs, there was 
a growing activity at Harlem, as may be judged from the valua- 
ble accession to the number of inhabitants which the current 
year (1663) had brought. With most of these, already incident- 
ally mentioned in the transactions of the year, we have been made 
acquainted in former pages. Glaude Le Maistre (or Delamater) 
had removed here, after living about ten years at Flatbush, where 
he owned a farm and two village lots, which he sold July 31st, 
1662. He bought two allotments of land at Harlem from 
Daniel Tourneur, who had purchased them of Jacques Cousseau, 
and subsequently got a patent for them. Johannes Verveelen, 
previously for several years an innkeeper in New Amsterdam, 
had come to resume his old business, and to enter immediately 
upon public life. 

But the new arrivals were mostly direct from fatherland. 
The Vermeille or Vermilye family, six in number, had reached 
Manhattan early in 1663, via the Delaware River; the family of 
Oblinus arriving during the ensuing spring, after a quick pas- 
sage, and coming direct to Harlem ; as did Johannes Buys 
(though by another vessel, the Rosetree, which left Amsterdam 
March 15th, 1663), joining his brother, who had preceded hini 
hither some two years.* The younger Oblinus at once entered 

* Isaac \*erinilye had, as companions on the voyage, Jacquc Cossart, Nicholas du 
Puis, Gideon Mcrlett, Jean Ic Conseille, Louis Lacquema, Jacob Kolver, and Jan 
Bookhoolts, as also Arnout du Toict, these now written Cashow, Depcw, Marlett, 
Consclyea, Lakeman or Lockman, Culver, Buckhout, etc.), all having lived at Ley den, 
we presume, as we know had Buckhout, Culver and X'ermilye; and probably all Wal- 
loons except Buckhout. Vermilye, with his wife and daughter, Maria (later Mrs. 
Montanyc), and all his fellow-passengers above named, save Culver and Buckhout. 
joined the church at New Amsterdam, April i, 1663, no doubt by letter. The wives 
of Cossart, Du Uuis, and Lacqueman also united. Vermilye came directly to Harlem. 
Buckhout became "'koecherdcr van de gemente desen stede." The rest made an appli- 
cation, March 19, 1661, for land and seed grain, and victuals for six months, showing 
their necessities. Buckhout later owned a farm at Mespat, and left two sons, Capt. 
Matthias, who sailed a coaster, and Peter, a farmer; and whence come the family of 
this name. Du Toict was from Lillie, and probablv related to David du Toict, of 
Leyden, son-in-law of Gerard dc Forest. By his wife, Madeleine Arnauds, he had a 
son, Abraham, born 1648, lessee of Pierre Cresson's meadows at Harlem, in 1668; who 
married Jannetie, daughter of Jerome Boquet (Bokee), and had a family. He went to 
New Utrecht and bought a farm, served during the second Dutch rule as a soldier, 
under Capt. Knyf, in New York, afterward lived at Bedford, but with his wife joinetl 
the Bergen church, Tuly 21, 1681. Lakeman brought a wife, Anna du Sauchoy, and 
children by a second wife, Maria Walters. Two of the children that came over with 
him were Abraham and Peter, who afterward got grants upon Staten Island, but 
Peter Lakeman removed to New York in 1698, when he married widow Jannetie 
Stavast. Marlett brought his wife and sons, Joshua, born 1647; Paul, bom 1654; 
Tohn, born 1656, and Abraham, born 1658, and settled on Staten Island. The name 
has now left the Island, but is found in other sections of New York and New Jersey. 
Cossart brought his wife, Lydia Williams, and 2 children of 18 months and 5 years. 
They had also Jacob, bom 1668; David, 1671; Anthony, 1673. J^cob married, 1695, 
Anna Maria, daughter of Joh. Caspars Springsteen. He and Anthony, who married, 
1696, Elizabeth, daughter of Jan Tymensen Valentine, of Schencctadv, were resi- 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 205 

the employ of Delamater, but before the year closed his father 
became a proprietor by the purchase of the allotment of Philip 
Casier, deceased. Of Oblinus' companions on board the Spotted 
Cow, Demarest went to Staten Island, Journee and Bogert to 
Brooklyn, and the Bastiaensen brothers to Stuyvesant*s Bouv/ery, 
though they all soon after came to Harlem. The Bastiaensens, 
it may be observed, were the ancestors of the entire Kortright 
or Courtright family, in the States of Xew York and New Jersey, 
and also, through other branches, of the families of Ryer and 
Michiel (now Mekeel and McKeel, — a Dutch metamorphosed 
into a Hibernian name!) of Westchester and other counties of 
our State, and that of Low, in Somerset County, New Jersey, 
but distinct from the Lows of Ulster County, named in a pre- 
ceding note. Arent Jansen Moesman, — first met with at Am- 
sterdam in 1662, acting as purveyor to the passengers about to 
leave, ^larch nth, in the merchant ship Golden Eagle, for 
Xew Amstel on the Delaware, and in which he also took pas- 
way to Harlem, as before seen, now returned from the Esopus 
war, with the credit and profits of some special service rendered. 
He became the purchaser of a bouwery upon Jochem Pieters and 
Van Keulen's Hook, the history of which derives interest^ from 
its subsequent owners, Delavall, Carteret, and others. Indeed 
the village was fast filling up, and already showed a disposition 
to exceed the limits of the protecting palisades. At a court held 
on December 4th, Derick Claessen, who after quitting the town 
had again returned, applied for **the house lot lying without the 
gate"; and Johannes Vermilye also made a similar application. 
Many, with the returning sense of security, were laying plans 
for the future. 

dents of Brooklyn; their posterity bearing the name Cashow or Carshow. Jacob 
Cosart, bom at Brooklyn, 1701, a son 01 Anthony, died at Bound Brook, N. J., 
April 19, 1772. David Cosart, married, 1696, Styntie, born 1677, daughter of Joris 
Tansen Van Hoorn, and had, with other children born in New York City, sons George, 
Jacob, David, John, Francis. He died between 1736 and 1740, in Somerset County, 
X. J., leaving farms there to his sons George, David and Francis. Conselyea married 
Phebe Schut, and lived in Bushwick, where his old farm house till late remained. 
He had sons^ John, born 1679; Peter, 1688; and a daughter, Margaret, who married 
Toh- Van Tilburg and Claes Bogert. Culver, whose wife was Sarah, daughter of 
Peter Hasbrouck, died soon after the birth of his daughter Sarah, and the next year. 
1664, his widow married Jacob Jansen Blaeck, from Amsterdam, by whom she had 
other children. The daughter, Sarah Culver, born 1663, married Peter Losee, of 
Bosh wick: her sister, Gertie Culver, born 1657, married Cornelis Jansen Zeeuw, and 
their brother, Jacob Culver, (born 1659, at Leyden, died, 1694, in New York), married, 
1^684, Jannetie, daughter of Job. Caspars Springsteen, of Brooklyn. Their daughter, 
Sarah, bornj 1686, married David L. Ackerman, of Hackensack; their daughter, 
Mana, married Joost Springstee, of Newtown, and their son, Johannes Culver, born 
'689, married Sarah, daughter of James Way, and Mary, daughter of John Cancel, 
KTved as elder at Newtown, and there died, June 12, 1760, leaving several sons. 
Depew, who was from Artois, was sworn as "beer and weigh-house porter," at New 
York, June 19, 1665. Here he died in 1691, leaving issue by his wife, Katalina 
Kenard, Jean, bom 1656; Moses, 1657; Aaron, 1664; Susannah, 1669, and Nicholas, 
1670. From these spring the numerous Depew families of Ulster and Orange Counties 
and the Mmisink Flats. 



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2o6 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

By a recent choice of magistrates, confirmed November 17th, 
the new board consisted of Jan La Montagne, "who for certain 
reasons," say the Council, "shall yet be continued for one year" ; 
besides Daniel Toumeur, Johannes Verveelen, and Jan Pietersen 
Slot. The religious interests of the village were suffering, and 
called for their first care. Do. Zyperus had recently taken his 
leave, probably early in 1663, when his wife transferred her church 
connection from New Amsterdam to Brooklyn. Chosen at dif- 
ferent times as an arbiter between parties in litigation. Do. 
Zyperus had made himself useful outside of his office or special 
sphere of duty, and had acquired the respect of the community. 
Disposing of his lands to Sergeant Juriaen Hanel, of Bergen, he 
removed with his family to Virginia, where he afterward preached 
many years, in North River Precinct, now Kingston Parish, in 
Mathews County; having conformed to the Church of England.* 

The experiment had evidently proven the inability of the 
congregation to support a minister, and since the departure of 
Zyperus, not without much effort had the Sabbath services been 
sustained. Hence, at the meeting referred to, on December 4th, 
1663, one of the magistrates, Mr. Verveelen, was "chosen by a 
popular vote to inquire for a voorleser," or, in other words, a 
parish clerk. This office, though akin to that of precentor or chor- 
ister in the Romish cathedral service and in the Scotch kirk, was 
in its range of duties quite peculiar to the Reformed Dutch 
Church. Its incumbent, acting either in place of or as an assist- 
ant to the dominie, must needs be a person not only of suitable 
gifts and culture, but of exemplary life and approved piety. 
Standing before the pulpit, he read the Scriptures at the opening* 
of public worship, whence came his title, voorleser, or forereader. 
He led the congregation in singing David's Psalms in metre, 
lining off the verses one by one, as they proceeded, with melodies 

* Do. Zyperus' wife was the daughter of Claes Duurkoop; her brother, Jan 
Duurkoop, and sister, Jannetie, wife of Hendrick Tansen Been, were living at Brook- 
lyn in 1662, whence, probably on their account, Mrs. Zyperus took her church letter, 
March 2$, 1663. With the departure of herself and husband soon after disappeared 
also her kindred above named. While here Do. Z. had two children baptized, viz., 
Cornelius, December 21, 1659, and Hillcgond, August 14, 1661; the last named for 
Mrs. Cornelis Van Ruvven. He is noticed as rector of Kingston Parish in a list of 
the Virginia clergfy, dated June 30, 1680. But this is verified by his old vestry 
book, now in the custody of the Episcopal Theological Seminarjj near Alexandria, 
extracts from which were kindly furnished me by the late principal. Rev. William 
Sparrow, D.D., since deceased, and containing all additional that I know of Zyperus in 
Virginia. The record begins only with November 15, 1679, but the last mention of 
him, as follows, is suggestive: 

"The 27th of June, 1687. The day abovesaid Mr. Mychaell Zyperus, Minister, 
did promise to give fitt and convenient Glasses for ye Window at ye Gable End of 
ye New ChappelT to be built for ye North River precinct. In witness whereof he hath 
hereunto sett his hand. M. ZypBkus." 

Interesting thus to take leave of him actively at work rearing the walls of Zion, 
in that field which he had chosen, and where he probably ended his labors. I strongly 
suspect that Do. Zyperus* descendants compose the respectable family of Syphcr, of 
Pennsylvania, whose early Michaels — a fact, with others made known to mc by Mr. 
J. R. Syphcr, of Philadelphia — seem to favor it. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 207 

long drawn out, but stately and solemn.* In the absence of a 
preacher his duties were augmented. He then read a sermon 
from the works of some orthodox Dutch divine, and in a word 
conducted the entire service so far as belonged to a layman to do. 
He visited and administered comfort to the sick, and those nigh 
to death, and, when desired, performed the burial service. He in- 
structed the children in the Heidelberg catechism, filled the office 
of schoolmaster, and in addition kept the records and accounts 
of the church and town. In fact, except the administration of 
holy ordinances, he performed all the functions of pastor, besides 
those of chorister, schoolmaster, and secretary. To these were 
usually added the duties of vendue-master, or public auctioneer. 
Jan La Montague, already acting as secretary, being conferred 
with and found willing to assume the full office of voorleser, the 
schepens, after advising with Governor Stuyvesant, prepared the 
following interesting petition, which was presented through Mr. 
Verveelen : 

To the Noble, Very Worshipful, their Honors and the Director-General 

and Council of New Netherland: 

Gentlemen: Your Noble Worships' petitioners, residents of New 
Harlem, show with due reverence and submission, that by their saving 
faith, obtained through hearing the gospel preached and taught, they, too, 
find themselves for the sake of their salvation compelled, conscientiously, 
to promote, with increased diligence and zeal, whatever your Noble 
Worships* petitioner and Commissaries of this village have determined 
upon and undertaken for the maintaining of public worship and the 
outward means of grace, to the magnifying of God's Name, the obser- 
vance of his day of holy rest, and the upbuilding of the body of Jesus 
Christ But having seen from Sabbath day to Sabbath day the small 
and insignificant success of the public gatherings, and believing confi- 
dently that everything relating to public worship may be brought in 
better train and all be more properly ordered by the services of a sala- 
ried voorleser and schoolmaster, to read God's word and edifying ser- 
mons, keep school, catechise and visit the sick, your Noble Worships' 

• Imagine our devout fathers thus gravely singing, in the following words, their 
favorite 23d Psalm: 

1. M/n Godt voed my als myn Herder gepresen; 
Dies sal ik geenes dings behoeftik wesen. 

In't grocne gras sceliestik hy my weydet: 
En aen dat soet water hy my geleydet: 
Hy verquickt myn ziel, die seer is verslegen; 
Dm sjms naems wil leyt hy my in syn wcgcn. 

2. Alwaer't schoon dat ick in't dal des doots ginge, 
Kn dat my des doots schaduwe omvinge, 

Ik vreese niet, gy zyt by my gestadi^. 
En gy troost my met uwen staf genadigh. 
Gy maeckt ryk met goede seer velerhanden 
Myn tafel voor d'oogen myner vyanden. 

3. Gy salst myn hooft met rickend'oly goedigb, 
En schenkt my den beker vol overToedigh. 

Gy suit doen oat uwe gunst, O Heer krachti^h, 
Myn leven langh by my stecdsvlyft eendrachtig: 
Soo dat ick hoop eeuwighlick vast te woonen 
In Godes Huys, 't welk niet is om verschoonen. 



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2o8 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

petitioners, appointed to attend to the public welfare and advantage of 
the said village, thought it proper, very timely and only their duty, to 
speak to the community about this matter, that they persuade Jean De 
La Montagne, a resident of the said place, to undertake such services 
provisionally for the least possible salary, and then present themselves 
before your Noble Worships as patrons of the church of Jesus Christ 
with this humble and Christian petition, that your Noble Worships may 
please to consent both to the office and person before named, for the 
benefit of God's church and not less necessary teaching of the children. 
But perceiving their present inability and incapacity to give in the afore- 
said case a full and proper salary, and not having been able to collect 
for his support more than 24 schepels of grain,* they respectfully request 
your Noble Worships, that in their usual noble discretion your Noble 
Worships contribute something toward a decent salary and the greater 
encouragement of your Noble Worships' very humble petitioners and 
God's subjects. 

Your Noble Worships' most dutiful petitioners and humble subjects, 
Done New Harlem, { 
Dec. 25, 1663. J 

d. tourneur. 

Johannes Verveelen. 

I P mark of Jan Pietersen. 

To this the following reply was given, January loth, 1664: 

Received and read the foregoing request of the Commissaries of New 
Harlem, and therewith heard the verbal statement of Sieur Johannes Ver- 
veelen, at present commissary there, that it is highly necessary that a 
person be appointed there as voorleser and schoolmaster; therefore the 
Director-General and Council accept and appoint thereto the proposed 
person Johannes La Montagne, Junior; and in order that he may attend 
to these offices with greater diligence, to him shall be paid annually on 
account of the Company the sum of fifty guilders, according to the state 
of the treasury. 

Thereafter the church had a regular succession of voorlesers, 
to perform the varied and responsible duties before specified ; 
except when partially relieved by the visits of the city ministers, 
who officiated here by occasional appointment, or under engage- 
ments made with them from time to time, as will further appear. 

New arrivals in the village were still occurring. One was 
that of a French refugee heretofore mentioned, and who is first 
alluded to in the minutes of January 23d, 1664, thus: "Robert 
Le Maire requested an" . . . the record left unfinished; 
but probably explained by the fact that he soon obtained an erf 
from the town. A few of the larger landholders, as Slot and 
De Meyer, now took occasion to obtain patents or groundbriefs 
for their lands, though the two named and that of Hanel, dated 
May i6th ensuing, are the only patents found, issued by Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant, for the allotments under the ordinance of 
1658. This accords with what the inhabitants afterward told 

• The schcpel, a Dutch measure, was commonly rated in this country at three 
English pecks. Wooley's Journal, p. 34. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 209 

Governor Nicolls, namely, that most of them "never had a 
groundbrief." An event of interest to the villagers was the 
surrender by the widow of Comelis Claessen Swits, to the 
Director and Council (pursuant to an offer which she made to 
them February 7th, 1654, and by them accepted), of all her 
claim to the farm occupied by her late husband, but "purchased 
and cultivated by her," in lieu of the debt due from Swits to the 
West India Company. The title thus reverted to the govern- 
ment, and the lands on which was the village plot were thereby 
relieved of any mediate claim which could possibly be set up 
under the old patent of 1647.* 

* This petition and answer arc of sufficient interest to be jrivcn entire. 
To the Noble. Right Honorable, the Director-General and Cotmcil in New Nethcr- 
land: Shows with all humility, Ariaentie Cornelis, late widow of Comelis Claessen 
Swits, now married to Albert Leenderts; how that the supplicant with her now 
deceased husband, and their children, occupied for several ^ears and actually built 
upon, a parcel of land whereon has since been laid out the village of Haerlem; upon 
which farm, after much labor there expended, she, with her said deceased husband, 
was, in September, 165^, miserably surprised by the cruel barbarous savages, who at 
once murdered her husband, plundered or burnt all their goods, and carried her off 
with her six children captives. Prom whose cruel bands, by the aid of her good 
friends, being delivered, with her six naked children, she remained bereft of all that 
she possessed, her husband and all means of subsistence, except only the aforesaid 
farm, on which she hoped, sooner or later, by the assistance of others, to be able to 
maintain herself in an honest manner; but m this she was disappointed, as well by 
the continued troubles, and the want of means, as by the orders issued against having 
anr isolated habitations, and so was compelled for a time to abandon that farm. 
When, at last, it was resolved b)r the Director and Council to lay out the village of 
Haerlem, and the supplicant was inclined, with her present husband, Albert Leenderts, 
to a^n occupy the said farm, this could not be done, because her cleared land had 
been distributed amonjg: others, and the only offer then made her, was, to draw lots 
with the rest; to which she could not a^ee, as it was to her great prejudice, and 
thus was her whole farm, bought and cultivated bv her, given to others, and the sup- 
plicant deprived of the means by which, with God's help, she could have maintained 
herself, instead of which she is now, with her children, reduced to poverty. The land 
being so distributed by the Director-General and Council, it was provided that those 
interested, who had been driven off their land, should be paid by the actual possessors, 
ten guilders (sic) per morgen, but it was afterwards granted that in lieu of ten guild- 
ers per morgen the said occupants should, s years (sic) earlier than had been before 
determined, pay tithes of the produce, in behalf of those interested, but this cannot be 
collected but slowly. Our humble petition, therefore, is, that it may please your 
Honors either to return again the said parcel of land to the supplicant, or that its 
value, that for which it was before sold, may be reimbursed to her, — or otherwise 
(as the supplicant's deceased husband remainea indebted to the Hon. Company about 
seven hundred guilders, for commodities, for whose liquidation with that of other 
debts, he left her nothing besides the said land), that your honors may be pleased to 
accept that farm, or what shall be paid for it by its actual possessors, in place of the 
aforesaid debt, and then to favor her with a receipt for it in full — which proposal the 
supplicant humbly requests your Honors may be pleased to seriously consider, with 
her present situation, and may through compassion let her enjoy a favorable answer, 
which doing she will remain 

Your Honors' obedient 

her 

Ama«ntis X C0RN81.18. 

mark. 

This petieion being read, and the supplicant's poor condition considered, the fol- 
lowing order is thereupon made: 

Although the debt incurred by the supplicant's deceased husband, should long since 
■nee have oeen paid, and ou^ht now to be paid without any further delay, yet, con* 
■dering the scanty means which were left to the supplicant by the barbarians, as is 
explained more at large in her petition, and furthermore, her present situation; there- 
fore resolved that we accept in payment of what her deceased husband, Cornelis Claes- 
sen Swits, remained indebted to the Company, whatever shall in time be collected from 
her land as mentioned in her petition, giying her by this a receipt in full, so that 
neither she nor her posterity shall ever be troubled about it in future, provided that 
she deliver to the Noole Company her deed, transfer, etc., which she may have for the 
aforesaid land. Done in Fort Amsterdam, in New Netherland, the 7 Feb., 1664. 



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2IO HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

The opening spring brought its share of work for the farm- 
ers. A shelter was needed for the young calves turned out 
to feed on Barent's Island, and at a meeting held March 13th it 
was agreed to build on April ist. They also resolved to fence 
the gardens. Some of the inhabitants, in want of servants and 
laborers, seized the opportunity to buy a number of negro slaves, 
sold at auction in Fort Amsterdam, May 29th, by order of the 
Director and Council. They had arrived on the 24th instant, 
in the company's ship Sparrow, from Chicago. At that sale 
were eager bidders, Johannes Verveelen, Daniel Toumeur, 
Nicholas De Meyer, Jacques Cousseau, Isaac De Forest, and 
even Jacob Leisler, himself, in 1678, enslaved by the Turks, and 
years later the champion of liberty ! Verveelen bought a negro * 
at 445 fl., De Meyer one at 460 fl., and Tourneur another at 
465 fl. These were probably the first slaves owned at New 
Harlem, and, strange as it may seem, the recollections of the 
living run back to the time when negro slavery still existed here. 

Of much advantage to the whole neighborhood was the 
new saw mill constructed soon after by Jan Van Bommel, a 
thrifty citizen of New Amsterdam, on the run of water emptying: 
into the East River near the foot of 74th Street, and known ever 
after as the Saw Kill, which stream the people of Harlem claimed 
as their southern limit. The right to run this mill, granted May 
26th, expired in three years, when it was discontinued; but its 
site became a noted landmark in connection with the Harlem 
Patent line. 

While the inhabitants were thus busied with their own 
domestic affairs, the general interests of the country were in 
greatest peril; the government, assailed by enemies within and 
without, was rapidly approaching its fall. The seizure of the 
Dutch possessions on the Connecticut River, the successful re- 
volt of the English towns upon Long Island, and in Westchester, 
and their alliance with New England, too plainly told the in- 
potency of the powers at New Amsterdarh to resist any further 
aggressions which enemies might choose to make. Added to 
these were the yet existing Indian troubles. Alarmed for the 
safety of the state, Stuyvesant, before slow to recognize the 
principle of popular representation, at last was constrained to 
yield, and call a general assembly of delegates from the several 
Dutch towns, chosen by the people, and which met at New Am- 
sterdam on April loth; Harlem sending two of her most active 
men, Daniel Tourneur and Johannes Verveelen. But with an 
humbling sense of their weakness or want of resources, they did 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 211 

little more than to send an urgent appeal to the States General 
of Holland for aid in defending their homes and firesides. How- 
ever, a new treaty being concluded on the i6th of May with the 
Indian tribes on the Hudson, the harrowing fears from that 
quarter were quieted; and the families at Harlem found relief 
in the fact that the neighboring chief, Sauwenarack, head sachem 
of the Wickquaskeeks, renewed his pledge of friendship by sign- 
ing the treaty. 

Some months of mingled hope and fear now lulled both 
government and people into a false security, when an English 
fleet, under Colonel Richard Nicolls, suddenly appeared before 
New Amsterdam, and made a short and easy conquest of the 
province. The fort was surrendered on September 8th to the 
invaders, who named the city, as also the province, New York. 
Surprised into a change of rulers, the staid old settlers at New 
Harlem accepted the condition with a mixed sentiment. Tired 
of the late administration, some welcomed a change which in 
any respect could hardly prove for the worse, btu a majority, 
with the attachments of native or adopted citizens, would have 
preferred the old government with all its faults. Nor could the 
wise and conciliatory course taken by the new governor, Nicolls, 
at once allay the feeling of indignation which found expression 
among the Harlem people, or repair the injury inflicted on the 
whole colony by a nation professedly at peace with the mother 
country. 

The withdrawal of the Dutch soldiers from Harlem, — most 
of these at the surrender returning to Holland, — and the abrupt 
departure of others, gave an air of desertion to the village. But 
new residents soon took their places, prominent among whom 
was Resolved Waldron, late deputy schout of New Amsterdam, 
an efficient oflftcer, to whom Stuyvesant had been much attached. 
Now finding his vocation gone, he retired with his family to 
Harlem, to spend his remaining years, but not to be released 
from public service. 

Among the persons leaving was Juriaen Hanel, who ten 
years before first came to this country as a soldier of the com- 
pany, and, raised to be a sergeant, had been rewarded for faithful 
service by an increase of pay. He was a native of Poland, and a 
man of no little consequence at Harlem, to which place he had 
removed from Bergen only within a few months, having, as 
before said, purchased Do. Zyperus' lands, but which before 
leaving he sold to Johannes Verveelen. Jan La Montague was 
much disaffected by the change of government, and while his 



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212 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

father and brother, William, both living at Albany, accepted the 
issue and took the oath of allegiance, he, with the tie of a native- 
bom Hollander, which neither of the former could boast, made 
haste to dispose of his property, with a view no doubt to quitting 
the town or country, as many were doing. On October 22d, 
1664, he sold to the partners Jan Myndertsen and Johannes 
Smedes, his "piece of land, and meadow belonging thereunto, 
called by the name of Montagne's Point, paled in betwixt two 
creeks, according as the bill of sale doth mention," for 800 gl., 
wampum, to be paid by instalments.* 

Another inhabitant, Arent Moesman, respected in the church 
and community, though he took the oath of fidelity to the English, 
prepared, with his brother Jacob, to visit fatherland. Conveying 
his property lying in this town to Captain Thomas De Lavall, an 
Englishman who had lately arrived here with Governor NicoUs, 
he bought instead a house and lot in Broadway, offered for sale 
by Meynderts before named, after contracting for Montagne's 
Point. For this he gave a deed, or power of sale, to Dirck 
Vandercliff, taking from him a mortgage on the premises for 
700 gl. Thus secured, Moesman, December loth, 1664, ob- 
tained a pass for Holland in the ship Unity, Captain Jan Bergen. 
Michiel Muyden, the late proprietor, after holding a prominent 
standing in the town and contributing no little to its welfare, 
had sold his two erven, and indeed his whole allotment, to Jacques 
Cresson in 1663. He too returned to Holland, and, like a true 
Dutchman, warmly advocated the forcible recovery of New Neth- 
erland from the English. Subsequently his city residence in the 
Winckel Street, left in care of Jacob Kip, was confiscated. 

These removals, causing painful breaks in families, as in the 
case of Verveelen, whose eldest daughter, Anna, went to Hol- 
land with her husband, Derick Looten, late military commissary, 
were the least disastrous consequences, as affecting New Harlem, 
of the political change which had happened the country. Months 
were required to restore order and check abuses which had sud- 
denly sprung up to disturb the peace of the community. Yet 
these disquieting circumstances were not allowed to hinder sev- 
eral genial gatherings at the hymenal altar during the winter 

• Mevndcrts and Smedes were in business together in New York. The former 
is noticed at pp. 93, 102; the latter at p. 90. Mynderts married. i66o» Belitie 
Plettenborg, by whom he had several daughters besides Mrs. Barent Waldron. 

Smedes is called Smith in the contract with Montagne, a render oi his name 
into English, which never prevailed, at least with the earlier generations of his de- 
scendants. He married, January 3, 1665, Lysbeth, daughter of Michiel Verschuur, 
and on February 3, 1676, Machtelt, daughter of Jan Willems Van Isselsteyn. He had 
sons, born in New York, Johannes, Benjamin and Abraham, the last by his second 
wife. I believe he removed to Ulster County, but the name has spread to mafiy 
localities. 



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^^^ r.^ 



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214 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

and spring of 1665. The old schepen, Jan Slot, ended his wid- 
owerhood by choosing another wife, and provident Pierre Cres- 
son, whose son, Jaques, had married since coming to Harlem, 
found a worthy companion for his daughter, Christina, in a 
young man from St. Lo, in Normandy, named Letelier, now a 
magistrate at Bush wick.* 

• Jean Letelier was one of the "fourteen Frenchmen" by whom Bushwick was 
settled, in 1660, and was one of its first schepens, March 25, 166 1. He always signed 
his name simply *'Letelier/' the usual mode among the French gentry. ^ In 1662 he 

¥ive three guilders toward the ransom of Teunis Cray's son Jacob, in captivity with the 
urks. Removing to New Utrecht, he there died bcptember 4, 1671. In his will (to 
which Abraham au Toict is a witness) he speaks of his children, but does not name 
them. His widow marri^ Jacob Gerrits De Haes, by whom she had issue, Jacob, bom 
1678; John, bom 1680, etc Letelier was usually called by the Dutch Tifje (Tilya), 
and whence perhaps the family of Tillou or Tilyou, whose ancestor, Pierre (see N. Y. 
Gen. and Biog. Kec, 1876, p. 144), if the son of Jean, took the name of his god- 
father Cresson. 



^ 



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CHAPTER XIV. 

1665-1666. 

RELUCTANT YIELDING TO ENGLISH RULE. 

T JPON the late surrender of the country by the Dutch it was 
conceded that "all inferior civil officers and magistrates 
shall continue as they now are, if they please, till the customary 
time of new elections." But "the customary times" arriving, no 
new election took place at Harlem; while the old officers, either 
from indifference, or from doubts as to their power to act with- 
out the schout, who positively declined, utterly failed in their 
duties. Sundry violations of law and order naturally followed 
upon this suspension of authority, and at the bottom of which 
was that ever prolific cause of evil, — rum! Who the offenders, 
or what the offenses, is not further specified than in the follow- 
ing missive, addressed "To the Schout and present Magistrates 
of Harlem:" 

A Warrant to the Magistrates of Harlem for the Prohibition of the 
sale of strong liquors to Indians. 

Whereas, I am informed of several abuses that are done and com- 
mitted by the Indians, occasioned much through the liberty some persons 
take of selling Strong Liquors unto them; These are to require you that 
you take special care that none of your Town presume to sell any sort of 
Strong Xriquors or Strong Beer unto any Indian, and if you shall find 
any person offending therein, that you seize upon such Liquor and bring 
such person before me, to make answers for the offense. Given under 
my hand, at Fort James, in New York, this i8th of March, 1664 [1665 
N. S.]. Richard Nicolls. 

These infractions of law were largely due to the disaffection 
of Jan La Montague, to which reference has been made. For 
some cause failing in the sale of his Point, he remained here, 
but threw up his office as schout, refusing to arrest and prosecute 
offenders, by which means lawbreakers went unrebuked, and 
the course of justice was obstructed. A state of things so ab- 
horrent to the law-abiding Waldron and others could not long 



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2i6 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

be endured ; and the result was another order, more explicit than 
the previous one, and in this form. 

To the Magistrates of Harlem: 

Whereas, complaint hath been made to me that the Schout of Harlem 
doth not execute his office, and that several disorders are committed and 
the Inhabitants hindered of their accustomed rights ; I do therefore order, 
that the Magistrates now in being do act, as formerly; and in case the 
Schout will not execute his office, that the Magistrates do Justice in his 
place, for the good of the Town, and to decide all matters that doth or 
shall happen there, not exceeding the value of One Hundred Guilders 
in Wampum; and this to continue till further order. Given under my 
hand at Fort James, in New York, this 20th of April, 1665. 

Richard Nicou,s. 

In the reconstruction of the city government after the Eng- 
lish form, which now took place, the want of a better adminis- 
tration of authority at Harlem operated as a reason for bringing 
that district within the jurisdiction and control of the city. 
Hence, Gov. Nicolls' proclamation of June 12th, 1665, consti- 
tuting the new municipal government, declared "that the inhab- 
itants of New York, New Harlem, with all other His Majesty's 
subjects, inhabitants upon this island, are, and shall be forever 
accounted nominated and established, as one body politic and 
corporate, under the government of a Mayor, Aldermen and 
Sheriff." In these was vested "full power and authority to rule 
and govern, as well all the Inhabitants of this corporation, as 
any Strangers, according to the general laws of this Government, 
and such peculiar laws as are or shall be thought convenient and 
necessary for the good and welfare of this, His Majesty's corpor- 
ation; as also to appoint such under officers as they shall judge 
necessary for the orderly execution of justice." One of the 
aldermen therein appointed was Mr. Thomas De La vail, whose 
relations to Harlem were to form an important chapter in its 
history. 

One of the first acts of the new Common Council was to 
adopt the following, June 15th. "Resolved, to send for the 
Court at Harlem, and the constable, Resolved Waldron, by 
letter, to come hither by Saturday next." What was brewings 
was hardly hinted at in the polite billet thereupon addressed: 
"To the Honorable, the Court of New Harlem." It ran in these 
words : 

Honorable and Affectionate Friends: 

Thse serve only that your Honors hold yourselves ready to appear 
here in this city, on Saturday next, being 17th June, old style, with 
Resolved Waldron, and to receive all such orders as shall be communi- 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 217 

cated. Whereunto confiding, we commend your Honors, after cordial 
salutation, unto God's protection, and remain 

Your aflFectionate friends, 
The Mayor, Aldermen and Sheriff of the City op New York. 
By order of the same, Johannes Nevius, Secretary. 

Done, N. York, the 15th June, 1665. 

Punctually those sent for appeared, and the record reads 
thus: "Resolved Waldron entering is notified that he is elected 
Constable of New Harlem, which accepting, he hath taken the 
proper oath; and the Magistrates who accompanied him are 
informed that they are discharged from their office. The afore- 
said Constable is authorized to select three or four persons, who 
shall have power to decide any differences or dispute to the 
extent of Five Pounds Sterling, in Sewant, and no higher; and 
the party who shall not be satisfied with the decision of those 
elected as aforesaid, shall be bound to pay him, the Constable, 
the sum of Six Stivers, and further to bear the costs of proceed- 
ings before this bench of Justice."* 

Waldron, clothed with these unusual powers, called Daniel 
Toumeur, and who else we know not, to the magistracy. Johan- 
nes Vermilye was given the place of gerechtsboode, or court mes- 

* Jan Pietcrscn Slot, the old magistrate, had just before left the town with his 
family. Himself from Holstein, as before noticed, bis sons Pieter and Tan were 
bom at Amsterdam. Pieter sold his property at Harlem, gotten from his father, to 
Resolved Waldron, and removed to Bergen, where he owned 25 morgen of land, 
bought May 14, 1657, and where, on April i, 1665, he joined the church with his 
wife, who was the daughter of Jacob Walinp Van Winckel, of that place, deceased. 
His father sold his lands at Harlem, named in his patent of January 4, 1664, to 
Johannes Verveelen, and on April 20, 1665, bought other property at the Bouwery, 
from Governor Stuyycsant. But he again sold out here, February 12, 1669, having, 
on August 14 preceding, sold to Ca^t. Delavall for £10 a parcel of meadow on "the 
nnorth side of Barent's Island," which he held by p-ound-brief from Stuyvesant. In 
1686 he and wife resided in Wall street; in 1703, in the South Ward. His children 
were by his first wife, Aeltie Jans; his second, Claertie Dominicus, he married while 
at Harlem. 

Jan Jansen Slot married, 1673, Judith, daughter of Stoffel Elsworth, took a house 
in the Smith's Ply, and that year joined Capt. Steenwyck's new troop of horse. A 
warm partisan of Leisler, in 1689, he was made an ensign. He is named, October 7, 
1695, as selling his city property. His children, so far as known, were Heyltie, born 
1672, who married Capt. Zebulon Carter; Johannes, born 1674; Stoffel, born, 1677; 
Annetie, bom 1681, married David Demarest 3d, and Jonathan Hart; Hendrick» bom 
1684, and Judith, bom 1687, who married John Van Horn. 

Pieter Jansen Slot sold out at Pemberboah, on Bergen Neck, January 30, 1671, 
and on March 23 ensuing, bought a place in New York, to which he removed; but in 
1673 his house, with others, was taken down to enlarge the grounds about the fort, 
in 1677 Slot hired a farm at Esopus, to which place he had gone to follow his trade 
as builder. Returning in 1683, he and wife, to Bergen, witli letters to the church 
there, they were soon back to New York, living for years on property which they 
owned "at Crommesshe, near Stuyvesant's Bouwery." Selling this, April 10, 1688, 
Peter died soon after. In 1692 his widow, still of New York, married John Demarest, 
Esq., of Hackensack. Pieter's choldren were John, born 1665; Jacobus, bom 1669, 
both at Bergen; Tryntie, born 1671, married Adam Van Norden and Cornelius Banta: 
and Tonas, bom 1681, at Esopus, and who married, 1713, Jannetie Ostrum, of 
Poughkeepffle. where he was living in 1738. John Slot, born 1665, was residing in 
New York in 1703, with his wife, Jannetie Andries, and children. Jacobus Shot settled 
at Hackensack, married Mary, daughter of John Demarest, aforesaid, and was father 
of Petrus, bom 1696; John^ 1699; Eve, 1701; Leah, 1706; Jonathan, 1712; Sarah, 
J715; Tryntie, 1718; Benjamin, 1721. These have many descendants in Bergen. 
Rockland and Orange counties, including the Sloats, of the Ramapo Valley. 



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2i8 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

senger ; and Tourneur, the now deacon and magistrate, was soon 
after, by the appointment of the governor, made "under sheriff" 
at New Harlem, and "president of the court there." Thus was 
abolished the Court of Schout and Schepens. 

Entering zealously upon their duties, the very first act of 
the new magistrates had nearly gotten them into trouble. While 
Nicholas De Meyer was busied with his merchandise at New 
York, — having latdy taken out, March 31st, "a certificate of 
denization, with liberty to traffic to Fort Albany," — his farm 
tenant at Harlem, Aert Pieterz Buys, took occasion to abscond, 
being in arrears for rent, and in debt to the town. By authority 
of the Mayor's Court, De Meyer, June 19th, proceeded to "at- 
tach all his goods." This the new magistrates opposed, assert- 
ing their own claim as paramount. De Meyer at once appealed 
to the Mayor's Court, which set the matter right by declaring the 
attachment valid, and citing Waldron and his colleagues "to show 
cause, on the next day, why they claim to be preferred, in the 
disposal of said property, before the prosecutor of the attach- 
ment." The silence of the record makes it evident that the 
magistrates declined to press their claim. 

But, abating none of his vigilance, the zealous Waldron soon 
found more work at hand. A quilt had been stolen from Jan 
Dircksen, usually called, from his former occupation, *'Jan the 
Soldier." Waldron searched in all the houses without finding it 
He then called the townsfolk together in the square, and remind- 
ing them that no stranger had been in the village, declared that 
some one of them must have taken the quilt. Hereupon it oc- 
curred to Pierre Cresson that Jan Teunissen, the brother-in-law 
of Dircksen, had told him, one day before the quilt was missed, 
that Jan the Soldier had only an empty chest in the house. Sus- 
picion at once fastened upon Teunissen ; and the more readily 
as during the previous winter Verveelen's negro had been caught 
by his master taking a schepel of grain from his bam toward 
Teunissen's house, and had laid it upon Teunissen; albeit, the 
integrity of the negro, as will be seen by and by, was not above 
suspicion. Waldron therefore asked Teunissen "how he knew 
that there was nothing in Jan the soldier's chest." Getting a 
curt answer, Waldron retorted, "You may as well be guilty of 
stealing the quilt, as of Sieur Verveelen's corn!" This roused 
Teunissen to defend his injured reputation, and forthwith he 
summoned Waldron before the Mayor's Court, to answer for 
having "accused him of being a thief." 

But when the case came up, August 22d, Waldron rehearsed 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 219 

with such effect all the suspicious circumstances, backed up by 
written testimony, as to completely turn the tables against Teu- 
nissen, who was not only made to pay for defendant's lost time, 
with the costs of suit, but was sharply reprimanded in these 
terms: **And if further complaints of your improper conduct 
come before the court, you shall be punished as the merits of 
the case may require, for an example to others!" 

This case perhaps was clearer to the court than the record 
makes it, but it should be viewed in the light of certain collateral 
facts. The conflicting views and feelings which had divided 
society at Harlenvinto the English and anti-English parties, had 
brought various individuals and families into most unfriendly 
and even hostile relations. It plainly crops out both in the na- 
ture and increased amount of the business which occupied the 
two courts. This ill-will, added to the spirit of lawlessness before 
noticed, while it lent eagle eyes to suspicion, disposed the courts 
to be strict; their decisions, especially when based upon circum- 
stantial evidence, to which in those early times undue weight 
was often attached, were very liable to be partial, if not to wholly 
ignore such mitigating or rebutting circumstances as might even 
warrant an acquittal. Then Waldron, his official training akin 
to that of a modern detective, intent only on finding the evidence 
leading to conviction, and with ideas of the rigid Stuyvesant 
stripe, whose severity often met a rebuke from superiors in Hol- 
land, was prone as magistrate to administer justice sternly, and 
law to the letter. Add to this Teunissen's uniform good stand- 
ing, and there is room to question whether he was fairly treated. 
The same may apply to the case of another person, most respect- 
ably connected, who the same year was accused of theft, declared 
guilty, and forbidden a residence in the town.* 

• Jan Teunissen, better appreciated by a later court held December 14, 1666, was 
appointed, with Lubbcrt Gerritsen and Jeremias Jansen Hagenaer, to arbitrate in a 
difference between Nelis Matthyssen and Cornells Jansen, concerning timber; and 
again at another court, October 24, 1667, when the high sheriff Manning presided, was 
named, with Valentine Claessen as referee in re Johannes Buys vs. Jan Du^s and 
Lubbert Gerritsen. He was rarely referred to while living at Harlem, otherwise than 
as Tan Teunissen, but from his birthplace, Tilburg, as before noticed, he ultimately 
look the name Van Tilburg. Jan Teunissen married at New Amsterdam, 1655, 
Tryntic Pieters Cronenberg, an orphan, though 23 years of age, who had been sent 
out that year at the charge of the city of Amsterdam. They settled at Fort Orange, 
Teunissen getting a house and lot; but for selling liquor to Indians he fell under 
severe penalties. He thence went to the Delaware to follow his trade as carpenter, 
found times hard, and applied to be a soldier. Returning, in 1659, he worked some 
time on Long Island, and then came to Harlem. Engaging in farming, he bought 
Dirck Claessen's place, but was unable to keep it, though he took it up again in 1668, 
on a lease from Tourncur, then the owner. The next year he hired one of Archer's 
farms at Fordham, but finally removed to New York. Here his wife joined the 
church in 1674, and he the year after. In their will, made January 24, 1686, they 
name their children, Peter. Barcnt, Johannes, Jacob, Isaac and Abraham, who are to 
share equally their real and personal estate. Teunissen outlived Tryntie, married again 
in 1601, and in 1703 had his third wife. 

Peter Van Tilburg, born 1658, at Albany, became a bolter in New York, married. 



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220 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Soon after this, Montagne, the Vermilyes, and some others^ 
fell into a sore wrangle with Tourneur, and all because Tour- 
neur's dog had bitten one of Montagne's hogs. It went so far 
that Tourneur cited Montagne and two others before Waldron's 
court, September 28th, when each of the three was fined a poimd 
flemish, "for the benefit of the poor." They appealed, but the 
Mayor's Court sustained the sentence. The natural effect was 
to still more sour the parties. Montagne, cherishing the pur- 
pose to sell out and leave (arrangements for which he completed 
only just before his death), now disposed of his village property 
and bouw-land, recently his brother's, with the crop he had just 
sown thereon, to David Demarest, late of Staten Island, who 
became a resident of the town, where he at once took a promi- 
nent position. 

One of the three individuals fined as aforesaid was Monis 
Peterson, who was also complained of at the same session of the 
town court for an assault upon Jacques, *'the herdsman of saiW 
village," with whom he had a dispute about his oxen. For this 
he was fined 100 gl. The burly Swede not only refused to pay 
the fine, but threatened the constable to serve him as he had 
Jacques! This, even from the belligerent Monis, was insuffer- 
able; Waldron arraigned the offender before the Mayor's Court, 
which, approving the former sentence, directed Staeck to be 
kept in custody till he gave security for his good behavior. But 
enough. These cases, which illustrate the times, and possess 
interest as showing the then procedure, are but samples of the 
many which engaged the courts, and supplied topics for the 
village coteries, during the latter half of 1665. 

But the signal event of that year, in the town's history, 
awakens more agreeable reflections, and deserves a particular 
notice. Do. Selyns had received into his spiritual fold at the 
Bouwery, up to his leaving for Holland, July 23d, 1664, seven- 
teen of the Harlem residents of both sexes, whose names, after 

1685, Lysbcth. daughter of Frans Van Hooghten, and had children (with three named 
Frans who died in infancy), Johannes, bom 1686; Abraham, 1694; Frans, 1699; 
Catherine, 1700; Petrus, 1703. The Negro Plot of 1712 was begun by a slave of 
Mr. Van Tilburg's, who, at midnight, April 6, set his master's outbuildings on fire, 
when the citizens running thither, the negroes killed several. Peter died at Newark. 
N. J., in 1734, aged 76 years. Barent Van Tilburg, born at Flatbush, married, 1686, 
Marritie, daughter of Aclam Brower, and widow of Jacob Pietersen. He had children, 
Geesie, born 1601, and Jan, 1697, and was a widower in i793. living in New York. 

Johannes Van Tilburg was born at New Utrecht. He and his brother, Isaac, served 
rcisler as soldiers in 1690. He married, 1686, Anna Maria Van Giesen, and, 1690, 
Margaret, daughter of John Conselyea, who survived him, and married Claes Bogcrt, 
1703. Children, Teunis, bom 1693; Peter, 1694; John, 1702, and Catherine, 1703, 
who married Cornelius Turk, Jr. Jacob Van Tilburg, born at Harlem, married, 1688, 
Grietie, daughter of Abraham Kermer, and widow of Hendrick de Boog; was a 
mariner, ana had children, Metje, bom 1692; Catherine, 1698; Abraham, 1700. His 
widow married Derick Benson, of New York. Isaac Van Tilburg, bom 1670, at Ford- 
ham, married, 1693, Aeltie, daughter of Hendrick Barens Smith, of Bushwick. He 
survived but four years; his widow, in 1698, married Pierre Chaigneux, of New York. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 221 

he left, were transferred to the register of the church at Fort 
Amsterdam, to which several of them had previously belonged. 
Other communicants living at Harlem (Vermeille, Waldron and 
Slot, and their wives) still held their original connection with 
that church. This seems indicative of two facts, — the yet im- 
perfect organization of the church at Harlem, and its dependence, 
by mutual agreement, upon the city pastors and consistory.* 

The ensuing winter the congregation, though not strong in 
numbers, undertook to build a house of worship. A pleasant 
little episode growing out of it was "a feast' given to General 
Stuyvesant by the three magistrates Tourneur, Montague, and 
Verveelen, but probably acting as well in their specialties of 
deacon, voorleser, and innkeeper. It came off January 23d, 
1665, costing the deacons' fund 21 gl. i st., and so was plainly 
identified with the building movement, as to which, and probably 
other matters affecting their interests, they naturally sought 
counsel of their honored guest before he should leave on his 
intended voyage to Holland,-^he whose advice they had hitherto 
so greatly leaned upon and valued, both as their governor and 
an old elder and father in Israel. In order to provide the ways 
and means it was resolved to lay out additional tuynen, or gar- 
dens, suitable also for building lots, to be sold to actual free- 
holders, or residents, at 25 gl. each,*' for the benefit of the town." 
This was at once carried into effect. The gardens, twenty in 
number, and containing about half an acre each, lay at the west 
end of the village plot, and ran north and south from street to 
street. To distinguisrh them from the others they were called 
the Buyten Tuynen, or Out Gardens, as they lay outside the 
palisade. Dirck Claessen bought No. i, next to the town plot; 
Daniel Tourneur, No. 2 ; Claude Le Maistre, No. 3, and Nicholas 

• The church members referred to were the following: 
Tan La Montagne, Jr., and Maria Vermeille, his wife. 
Daniel Tourneur and Tacquline Parisis, his wife. 

iohanes Verveelen ana Anna Taersvelt, his wife, 
oost Van Oblinus, Sr., and Martina Westin, his wife, 
oost Van Oblinus, Jr., and Maria Sammis, his wife. 
Qaude le Maistre and Hester du Bois, his wife. 
Pierre Crcsson and Rachel Cloos, his wife. 

{aques Cresson and Maria Renard, his wife, 
ean le Roy. 
saac Vermeille and Jacomina Jacobs, his wife. 
Resolved Waldron and Tanneke Nagel, his wife. 
Pieter Jansen Slot and Marritie Van Winckel, his wife. 

Of former residents or landholders here the following had been church members; 
De Meyer, though a non-resident, being still a proprietor: 
Nicholas ae Meyer and Lydia Van Dyck, his wife. 
Hendrick F. Vander Vin and Wyntie, his wife. 
Jacques Cousseau and Madeline au Tullicre, his wife. 
Philip Casier and Marie Taine, his wife. 
Willem de la Montagne. 
Anna Verveelen. 
Arent Jansen Moesman. 
Jnriaen Hand. 



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222 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

De Meyer, No. 4. Captain Delavall engaged the next four num- 
bers, but the rest went off slowly. For the history of the church 
erection, at best obscure, yet its every detail interesting, we are 
largely indebted to Montagne's accounts as treasurer, showing 
what the deacons expended for materials, labor, etc.* Doubtless, 
as is usual in new settlements, the people undertook the incipient 
labor of preparing the timber, etc., as a voluntary offering. This 
work, of which no record remains, had evidently been completed 
and the building enclosed and ready for seats at the date of the 
***feast" aforesaid, as the deacons' accounts indicate. 

The church was built on the north side of the Great Way 
(since the Church Lane), on a vacant lot between the east end 
of the old gardens and the river, seemingly reserved for this 
purpose. The work, suspended during the farming season, was 
resumed on the approach of winter by the mechanics Jan Gulick 
and Nelis Matthyssen, in order to make the house more comfort- 
able before cold weather should set in. And some special, genial 
occasion it must have been, most likely a dedicatory service, 

* The Deacon's accounts covering the time the church was building are sufficiently 
curious to be given entire. The charges are in florins and stivers. 
The Worthy Deaconry, Credit: 

1665, 23 Jan. By feast given Stuyvesant by D. Tourneur, J. Verveelen 

and J. Montagne f, 21 : 19 

•* a book by J. Montagne 

" 26 *' '* 5 planks for benches at the Church 7 : 10 

** " " " labor making the benches 8 : o 

" '/i lb. nails for ditto 12 

" to Wesscls for bringing the Dominie 7 : o 

" to the Sexton ( Koster) 6 : o 

*• ditto I : o 

" 6: o 

" 20 Dec. " nails for the house on the Church lot 15 : o 

" nails for the Church 49 : 2 

'* wa^cs for labor at the Church 36 : 13 

" a piece of gold to the Preacher 50 : o 

" nails for the church 16: $ 

" wages for labor at the Church to Jan Gulcke and Nelis. . 24 : o 

1666, 27 Jan. " ditto to ditto 40 : o 

*' 3 Feb. " to the Sexton 6 : o 

*' 25 Mar. ** ditto 6 : o 

" 25 Apl. " nails for the Church 17 : ig 

" planks for the Church 90 : o 

** Hendrick Karstens for raising up the Church and making 

the foundation (standcr) 30 : o 

" ditto for plastering the same 6 : o 

" 1 Dec. '* to the Sexton 18 • o 

1667, 30 Jan. ** at allotment of the seats 4 ': o 

" Jan Teunissen for a plank for the Church i : lo 

" 7 Mar. " to the Sexton 6 : o 

** Nelis far making the table 3 : © 

" 1 lb. nails 3: o 

" 3 planks for the table and benches 4:10 

27 " *' Bart the mason 40 • o 

" Sept. " to the Sexton 6 : o 

*' 2 schepels rye to sow upon the Church lot 9 : o 

1668, Jan. •* to the Sexton 6 : o 

" a town book 4 | o 

" Matvs for taking away the Dominie * 19 

** to the masons and lime by Verveelen 19: © 

/. 369 : 18 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 223 

which in midwinter brought the dominie, and drew forth the 
generous acknowledgment of twenty dollars in gold ! Do. Samuel 
Megapolensis had now taken Selyns' charge, his father being 
senior pastor at New York, and Samuel Drisius his colleague. 
To one of these, doubtless, Harlem was indebted then, as at 
stated times thereafter, for ministerial visits and services, — ^always 
notable occasions, and welcome interruptions to the ordinary 
routine of the voorleser. 

Better for the peace of the village had Madam Gossip never 
made her debut there; but, alas! the unfriendly prejudices which 
had crept into the community gave a tempting opportunity to 
employ her insinuating but venomed tongue to the injury of a 
worthy church member ; for "slander loves a shining mark." To 
speak plainly, three Dutch matrons, Sarah Teunis, Tryntie Peiters, 
and Mayke Oblinus, with no fear of law or husbands before their 
eyes, had "falsely accused of theft" a French woman, and neigh- 
bor, none other than the wife of Jacques Cresson. The first two 
being the wives of Jan the soldier and Jan Teunissen ; may be it 
was a retort upon the Cressons, for the affair of the stolen quilt. 
Upon the injured lady's complaint. Mayor Delavall, March 27th, 
1666, directed, the under sheriff and constable at Harlem to inter- 
rogate the fair transgressors, "regarding the matter at issue," 
and advise him by the hand of Mrs. Cresson. So much for her 
advantage did the investigation prove, that the Mayor required 
the trio to make a public confession before the court at New 
Harlem, and also sign a writing to that effect, that they knew 
notliing of her whom they had defamed, "except what is honor- 
able and virtuous." But mark the inevitable costs of justice in 
these neat little bills which the clerk at Harlem presented to the 
amiable litigant. 

Marie Renard, Dr. 

To an extra court f. 25 : o 

" seven citations 4 : 4 

" a copy of examination 2 : o 

" a copy of the appeal (nuUatie) 2 : o 

" a copy of the account 12 

f. 33 : 16 

To after signing i : 3 

" signing the certificate i : 3 

" copy of the certificate 2 : 6 

" notice of extra court 3 : o 

" copy of the appeal 3 : o 

f. II : o 



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224 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Marie, thus injured in her good fame and purse, was of 
Huguenot parentage and of unquestioned piety, her husband 
also being one of the "real Reformed of France." Once having 
"some remarkable experiences, of a light shining upon her, while 
she was reading in the New Testament about the sufferings of 
the Lord Jesus," it greatly startled her, yet "left such a joy and 
testimony in her heart as she could not describe." Constrained, 
as she was, to speak to others about "this glory," her brother-in- 
law, Nichols De La Plain, rashly told her, "You must not go 
to church any more; you are wise enough." These words, the 
tempter's prompting to spiritual pride, impressed and gjieved 
her, " for not to go to church, and to leave the Lord's Supper, 
she could not in her heart consent." So, seeking higher counsel, 
she remained steadfast in her religion, whose support she so much 
needed in the peculiar trials which fell to her lot* 

* This lady died at Philadelphia, October i, 1710. (See N. Cresson's letters, p. 




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CHAPTER XV. 

t 
1666-1667. 

THE NICOLLS PATENT; THE COURT, MILL, CHURCH. 

l-TARLEM was now a well-ordered rural hamlet, owning some 
eighty head of neat cattle. These, from April till Novem- 
ber, were to be seen grazing on the commons west of the village, 
usually in care of a herder, hired by those who kept stock, on 
terms such as were at first made with Du Four and Peterson.* 
For the same reason the young horses, cattle, and swine, after 
being branded or marked, with the initials of the owner's name, 
or otherwise, were turned out to feed in the common woods, free 
as the native deer, till necessary to look them up and install them 
from autumn rains and winter snows. The growing need of en- 
larged commonage, and of having the limits thereof fixed, natu- 
rally brought up the subject of applying for a general patent, 
which should confirm the community in these and their other 
rights and privileges, and also secure to them the large outlays 
made in building their houses, as well as what it had cost them 
to clear, fertilize, and fence their lands. Governor Nicolls, on 

* Mans Staeck was from Abo, in Finland, and was best known as Monis Peter- 
son, bearing a prenomen common among the Swedes. Being at New Amsterdam when 
the order issued for laying out the village of Harlem, he took part in that enterprise 
by securing a house and bouwery, but whifh he first rented and then disposed of, 
entering into a three years' partnership, January 17, 1662, with Jan Cogu, a fellow 
Swede, but better educated, from whom Peterson received the half of his allotment of 
land, with house, bam, etc., for 125 guilders, giving Cogu in exchange a half interest 
in a lime kiln, with a canoe valued at 15 guilders, and a balance in cash. With farm 
and lime kiln and the herding to attend to, they also engaged, August 22, 1662, to 
work Tourneur's land, "already under the plough;" but Cogu died near the time 
the partnership expired, which was on February 1, 1665. Peterseon held minor 
offiffices in town, and here married, in 1663, as before noticed. Unlettered, but by 
nature ^fted, much reliance was placed upon his judgment; yet strong drink often 
made him abusive and violent, and this tailing marred his whole life. The heavy 
penalties put upon him in 1665 may have led nim to quit Harlem, and he soon re- 
moved to Klizabethtown, N. J., taking his lumber thither in a canoe, aided by Gillis 
Boudewyns; and there Monis took the oath of allegiance, February 19, 1666. By a 
previous appointment by the court as a referee to fix the damages in a case of tres- 
pass, he reported at Harlem, July 3, ensuing. Within ten years he went to the 
Swedish colony at Upland, Pcnn., and got land at Calkoen Hook, where he was yet 
living in 1603. Too often mastered bv nis bad habit, once for scolding a magistrate, 
he was fined 1,000 guilders, but the fine was remitted at the request of the injured 
partv, upon Monis asking pardon for his abuse, and pleading that he said it "in his 
<lriitk." His native frankness and good sense disarmed resentment, and despite his 
weakness won respect. His sons, Peter, Matthew and Israel, are understood to have 
been the ancestors of the Stuck family. 



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226 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

knowing their case, sent to Cortilleau, the surveyor, who had 
first laid out the village, "a warrant directing a line to be drawn 
for the range of cattle." It read : 

Whereas, you have formerly received order to draw a line from the 
River near the Town of Harlem, upon this Island, one mile into the 
woods, somewhat in relation as it stands from this place, some particu- 
lar point of the compass; These are to authorize you to draw the said 
line from the River against the middle of the said Town, one mile directly 
into the woods, for the greatest conveniency of range of cattle belong- 
ing to the said Town, not considering so exactly how it lies from hence, 
whether southerly, or westerly, or otherwise. For so doing, this shall 
be your warrant. Given under my hand, at Fort James, in New York, 
the 20th day of March, 1665-6. 

Richard Nicolls. 
To Mr. Jaques Cortilleau. 

The lines being run out pursuant to this order, and a return 
of the survey made to the governor, he thereupon gave written 
directions for drafting a patent, in which he specified three things 
to be observed, namely: 

"There is one condition, which is, that that town is to be 
forever thereafter called by the name of Lancaster." 

"To build one or more boats fit for a ferry." 

"There is also liberty of going further west into the woods 
with their horses and cattle, for range, as they shall have occa- 
sion." 

In due time the patent was received, and read as follows:* 

RICHARD NICOLLS, Espr., Governor under His Royal Highness 
James, Duke of York, &c., of all his territories in America; To all to 
whom these Presents shall come, sendeth Greeting. Whereas there is a 
certain Town or Village, commonly called and Imown by the name of 
New Harlem, situate and being on the east part of this Island, now in 
the tenure or occupation of several freeholders and inhabitants, who 
have been at considerable charge in building, as well as manuring, plant- 
ing and fencing the Town and lands thereunto belonging; Now for 
a confirmation unto the said freeholders and inhabitants, in their en- 
joyment and possession of their particular lots and estates in the said 
Town, as also for an encouragement to them in the further improve- 
ment of the said lands, Know ye that, by virtue of the commission and 
authority unto me given by His Royal Highness the Duke of York, I 
have thought fit to ratify, confirm and grant, and by these Presents do 
ratify, confirm and grant unto the said freeholders and inhabitants, their 
heirs, successors and assigns, and to each and every of them, their par- 
ticular lots and estates in the said Town, or any part thereof. And I do 
likewise confirm and grant unto the freeholders and inhabitants in gen- 
eral, their heirs, successors and assigns, the privileges of a Town, but 

* "A patent granted unto the Freeholders and Inhabitants of Harlem, alias 
Lancaster, upon the Island of Manhattan." 

Such is the title or heading given to the patent as recorded in the Secretary of 
State's office, Albany, in the original book of patents, I4ber i, page 57, but 
stands disconnected from and forms no part of the instrument, although so appear* 
ing in the copies printed by Mr. Adriance. In the date the day is left blank. By a 
careful collation with the original records, we are enabled to present exact copies of 
the several Harlem patents; only conforming to modern orthography. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 227 

immediately depending on this City, as being within the liberties thereof; 
Moreover, for the better ascertaining of the limits of the lands to the 
said Town belonging, the extent of their bounds shall be as followeth, 
viz., That from the west side of the fence of the said Town, a line be 
run due West four hundred English poles, without variation of the 
compass. At the end whereof another line being drawn to run North and 
South, with the variation, that is to say, North to the very end of a cer- 
tain piece of meadow ground commonly called the Round Meadow, near 
or adjoining to Hudson's River, and South to the Saw Mills over against 
Hog Island, commonly called Perkins Island;* It shall be the West 
bounds of their lands. And all the lands lying and being within the 
said line, so drawn North and South as aforesaid, eastward to the Town 
and Harlem River, as also to the North and East Rivers, shall belong to 
the Town; Together with all the soils, creeks, quarries, woods, meadows, 
pastures, marshes, waters, fishings, hunting and fowling, And all other 
profits, commodities, emoluments and hereditaments to the said lands 
and premises within the said line belonging, or in anywise appertain- 
ing, with their and every of their appurtenances; To have and to hold 
all and singular the said lands, hereditaments and premises, with their 
and every of their appurtenances, and of every part and parcel thereof, 
to the said freeholders and inhabitants, their heirs, successors and assigns, 
to the proper use and behoof of the said freeholders and inhabitants, 
their heirs, successors and assigns forever. It is likewise further con- 
firmed and granted, that the inhabitants of said Town shall have liberty, 
for the conveniency of more range of their horses and cattle, to go 
farther west into the woods, beyond the aforesaid bounds, as they shall 
have occasion, the lands lying within being intended for plowing, home 
pastures and meadow grounds only; And no person shall be permitted 
to build any manner of house or houses within two miles of the afore- 
said limits or bounds of the said Town, without the consent of the in- 
habitants thereof. And the freeholders and inhabitants of the said Town 
are to observe and keep the terms and conditions hereafter expressed; 
that is to say: That from and after the date of these Presents the 
said Town shall no longer be called New Harlem, but shall be known 
and called by the name of Lancaster; and in all deeds, bargains and 
sales, records or writings, shall be so deemed, observed and written. 
Moreover the said Town lying very commodious for a Ferry to and 
from the Main, which may redound to their particular benefit as well 
as to a general good, the freeholders and inhabitants shall be obliged, 
at their charge, to build or provide one or more boats for that pur- 
pose, fit for the transportation of men, horses and cattle, for which 
there will be such a certain allowance given as shall be adjudged reason- 
able. And the freeholders and inhabitants, their heirs, successors and 
assigns, are likewise to render and pay all such acknowledgments and 
duties as already are, or hereafter shall be, constituted and ordained by 
His Ro3ral Highness the Duke of York, and his heirs, or such Governor 
and Governors as shall from time to time be appointed and set over 
them. Given under my hand and seal, at Fort James, in New York, on 
Manhatans Island, the day of May, in the eighteenth year of the 

reign of our sovereign lord Charles the Second, by the grace of God 
King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, 
&c, and in the year of our Lord God, 1666. 

Richard Nicolls. 

It is putting it in mild terms to say that this patent was not 
approved by the Harlem people, whose wishes, as is obvious, 

♦ From vcrkciij the Dutch word for hog, and so called because the neighboring 
•ettlers allowed their hogs to run there. Now Blackwell's Island. 



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228 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

were little regarded in preparing it. The change in the name 
of the town, with the governor a pet idea, and tried elsewhere 
but not always successfully, was a most offensive feature, and 
was never adopted.* The bench of justice or local court, and, 
in general, such rights as they had enjoyed in common with th^ 
other villages, were indeed comprehended under "the privileges 
of a town," but as it made all, without limitation, "depending 
on this city,'' — ^this condition might impose untold burdens. In 
the vital matter of taxation, it left them quite at the mercy, of the 
Duke, his heirs and governors, and not to the safer operation of 
the laws. Nor did it fully cover their landed interests, as it 
omitted to name the meadows appertaining to their farms, but 
separated by the Harlem River. These were grave objections 
to the patent in its present form, and though it remained of 
record, and was not "recalled" as were some others, the inhabi- 
tants only abided the time when they could secure a better, ob- 
viating these defects. 

Two positve characters, such as Tourneur and Waldron, the 
one under sheriff and president of the court, the other constable, 
could hardly be expected always to work in harmony, and so 
it happened that the former took a grudge against the latter for 
something said or done. Now, Waldron, being requested by 
the inhabitants, went officially to see Tourneur, who was at his 
bouwery, "to speak to him about the fences," when the latter, 
losing temper, caught up a stick, and saying to Waldron, "Now, 
nobody is looking, I'll pay you !" fell to beating him. Waldron 
entered a complaint to the Mayor's Court, May ist, demanding 
to be sustained in his official acts, or relieved from his office. 
Tourneur being cited, appeared on the 8th, the next court day. 
On hearing his version of the story the case seemed to wear a 
different look, and was dismissed, with a charge "that both par- 
ties for the future live together in good friendship," he who 
should first offend to pay a penalty of 50 gl. Tourneur was bet- 
ter satisfied than Waldron, who immediately asked the Court to 
give him his discharge as constable, which they did. Of Wald- 
ron's official acts but one remains to be mentioned, — the contract 
with Nelis Matthyssen to cut and remove the timber from the 
town lot, and to keep the fences in repair. This work he com- 
pleted early in 1668. 

On May isth, Johannes Verveelen was confirmed as Wald- 
ron's successor, from a nomination (of two persons) made by the 

* Lancaster, as a name applying to Harlem, is not once found on its records; 
nor has it been met with as so used in any other record or document of that period, 
saving the instance above noticed. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 229 

inhabitants, per order; and in presence of the Court he took the 
oath of fidelity. This was followed, June 12th, by an appoint- 
ment of four persons as overseers, from a double nomination by 
the people; those elected being Joost Van Oblinus, Isaac Ver- 
milye, Glaude Delamater and Nelis Matthyssen; while Jan La 
Montague was again made secretary, in which office he had not 
acted since 1664. The letter communicating the result contained 
the following instructions: 

**The which persons are hereby authorized, together with the 
under sheriff and constable, — or three of them, whereof the 
under sheriff or his deputy shall always make one, — in all 
questions and suits that between man and man in their village 
may happen and be brought before them, without respect of 
persons, to do justice and to determine absolutely, to the sum 
of Two Hundred Guilders in Sewant, following the laws here 
in this land established; and all the Inhabitants of the Village 
of New Harlem are by these ordered and charged to respect the 
before-named persons in all that belongs to them as their over- 
seers. Done at New York, the 12th of June, 1666." 

On June 19th the members elect presenting themselves in 
the Mayor's Court, were tendered and took the following oath: 

Whereas you, Daniel Toumeur, as Under Sheriff, and you, Joost 
Oblinus, Isaac Vermilye, Glaude Delamater and Nelis Matthyssen, by 
the Honorable Mayor's Court are chosen as Overseers of the Village of 
New Harlem, for the term of one succeeding year, beginning upon this 
date; you Men swear in the presence of Almighty God, that you will, to 
your best knowledge and with a good conscience, maintain the laws of 
this government without respect of persons, in all suits that shall be 
brought before you, to the sum of Two Hundred Guilders; You Men, 
so far as able, will execute the laws for the benefit of your town and the 
inhabitants of the same. So truly help you Almighty God. 

Thus was constituted the first local court at Harlem, in which 
(save at the first choice of schepens, under the Dutch) the peo- 
ple enjoyed the right of nominating their magistrates.* 

• Nelis Matthyssen was from Stockholm. His name (the prenomen usually ab- 
breyiated in the Dutch records, though sometimes written in full, Comelis) was, in 
proper Swedish, Nils Mattson; but he had a countryman and contemporary of this 
name who lived on the Delaware, for whom he is not to be taken. He and Barentie 
Dircks were married at New Amsterdam in 1 66 1. At Harlem he was well esteemed, 
his good common-sense going far to supply a lack of early advantages. Bv occupa- 
tion a carpenter and timber-hewer, he was the first tenant of the land since known as 
the "Church Farm," from which he cut and cleared the primeval forest trees. On 
his lease expiring, in 1668, he left the town and bought a small place at Hellgate 
Neck, Newtown, being also an applicant, in 1673, for Patrey's Hook, "lying between 
Col. Morris and the Two Brothers." He sold out at Hellgate to Thomas Lawrence, 
and obtained a grant of sixty acres at Turtle Bay in 1776. This he sold to Joh. 
Pietersen — date not given — and perhaps went to Hackensack (as did his family) after 
1681, when he is last named in New York. He had children, Matthys, Hendrick, 
Anna, Maria, Catherine, Sarah and Rachel. Sarah married Jacob Matthews, and 
Maria married Samuel Hendricksen, both of Hackensack. Matthys Cornelissen, bom 
1665, at Harlem, married Tryntie Hendricks, 1692, and died at Hackensack 1743-8, 
his descendants retaining the name Cornelison, and of whom, we believe, was the 
late Rev. John Cornelison, bom 1769, at Nyack, N. Y., died, 1828, at Bergen, N. J. 



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230 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

A first business of the new board was to provide for the 
completion of the Church. Work upon it had been continued 
by the two carpenters, off and on, during the past winter, but it 
was not finished, and money was wanted. Little had been paid 
in for the out-gardens sold, and some of these gardens were yet 
undisposed of.* At the motion of Tourneur, the magistrates, 
on June 27th, resolved that as it was necessary to finish the 
church, a tax for that purpose should be laid upon the lands, "by 
the morgen from each lot," but "for the present to borrow it 
from the poor money with the approval of the ministers and the 
deacons." Accordingly lumber was procured, and Hendrick 
Karstens was employed to raise up and underpin the building 
with a proper foundation, and also to plaster it, that the next 
winter should find it more comfortable for the worshipers than 
had the last. 

This object secured, the overseers found other business, — to 
stay the damage being done by cattle foddered on the cultivated 
lands, and hogs daily rooting in the vegetable gardens, causing 
"manifold complaints." As a remedy, they issued an order, July 
25th, prohibiting all persons letting their hogs run at large with- 
out being yoked; and providing that for every hog without a 
yoke found within the fenced lands, the owner should pay, besides 
the damages sustained, "six guilders for each hog for the first 
offense ; two pounds of powder for the second, and for the third 
offense forfeit the hog or hogs." A like penalty was declared 
against keeping cattle or calves within the general fencing. 

On September 2d, being Sunday, the quiet of the village was 
disturbed, by Jan Teunissen and Philip Presto bringing in a 
canoe load of hay from Daniel Tourneur's meadow. The next 
day they and Tourneur also were arraigned by the town court, 
for working on the Sabbath. Teunissen admitted the charge, 
but said that Tourneur had ordered it done. Tourneur refused 
to appear, but said that he had given them no orders to fetch it 
on Sunday. The Court thereupon directed the constable to take 
the hay and canoe in charge, till they were redeemed. Tourneur 

* The Buyten Tu^nen, or Out-Gardens, were in some instances given by the first 
purchasers to their children, at their marriage, to build on, and begin wedded life. 
At a later date four of these small plots were occupied bv Joost Van Oblinus as his 
homestead, then by his son, Peter, who added a fifth garden, and who owned a farm 
on Van Keulen's Hook to which these adjoined. His nephew and successor, Petrus 
Waldron, buying up the remaining ones (two excepted), the whole descended to his 
son, John P. Waldron, forming the north part of his farm where it came to the Church 
Lane. The two westerly gardens, Nos. lo, 20, were retained in the Bussing family, 
whose ancestors received tnem from his father-in-law, Glaude Delamater, the original 
purchaser. They finally came to a daughter of Aaron Bussing, Mrs. Catherine Storm» 
forming the small piece attached to the north end of her farm, on which was her resi- 
dence, the old family mansion, till late seen standing cornerwise to 119th street, at 
the north side, between Third and Fourth avenues. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 231 

gave bail for Presto, and proceeded to appeal from this action 
to the Mayor's Court. 

But once up for public criticism, Tourneur, whose late affair 
with Waldron, yet fresh in the people's mouths, was no help to 
him, had now to meet and contend with another damaging report. 
An act of his youth, long past and buried, suddenly sprang forth 
to assail his character. Elizabeth Rossignol,* the wife of Marc 
Du Cauchoy, under strong provocation as appears, abused Tour- 
neur roundly with her tongue, calling him "a villain of villains," 
and tauntingly added, that he durst not call her to account for 
it either! Tourneur complained to the magistrates September 
27th, Elizabeth being present, and prayed that she be put to 
the proof. The defendant said that she held the plaintiff for a 
villain, while he did not restrain his children from giving her 
a vile name in his presence; and furthermore, that the plaintiff 
in France had intentionally taken the life of a man with a sword. 
Tourneur declaring that he knew not that his children had railed 
at her, prayed that the defendant should prove that he had killed 
a man, or taken his life. Thereupon, Glaude Delamater and 
Barentien Matthyssen testified, at the request of Elizabeth, that 
they heard Tourneur say, at the house of Nelis Matthyssen, that 
"his sword was the cause that he durst not go to France." Tour- 
neur explaining, said, that attending a funeral in the city of 
Amiens, the Papists fell upon the Reformed, and some of them 
being slain he was obliged to leave. He asked that the defendant 
be interrogated, whether she had known the plaintiff in France. 
The defendant said that she had not known him in France, but 
that the affair was well known to those who had known him 
there. The Court having heard both sides, referred the parties 
to the Honorable Mayor's Court. But Tourneur, at the next 
meeting of the magistrates, still pressed his suit, praying that 
the defendant be imprisoned till she prove her words, and held 
to bail for the costs. Elizabeth was equally urgent that Tour- 
neur should give bail for the costs, and reiterated that he had 
given the death to Tilie Meer. But the magistrates again referred 
the parties to the higher court, so there the persistent Tourneur 
went. 

His two suits came to trial October 9th. In the "hay case," 
the Court upheld the magistrates in seizing his hay, etc., on the 
ground that Tourneur was accountable for the acts of his ser- 
vants, and disregarding his plea that his orders were to bring 

• In the record she is called Lysbcth Nachte^aal, a mere change of her French 
name into Dutch; and Nachtegaal finding its English equivalent in Nightingale. 



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232 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

the hay early on Monday morning. They fined him 25 gl., but 
put the costs on the magistrates; instructing them, since Tour- 
neur was president of their board, to apply to the higher court, 
"in case plaintiff shall forget himself hereafter, while holding 
said position.'^ In the matter of Elizabeth Rossignol, the de- 
fendant frankly admitted all she had said, and offered to prove 
it, *'if the Hon. Court please to grant her a delay to obtain 
the proof thereof from France. But the court declining such 
an investigation, and keeping itself to the charge of slander, con- 
demned the defendant to acknowledge her fault in open court at 
Harlem, and pay the costs. This checked, but did not wholly 
stop, this malicious story, which even after Tourneur's death 
was circulated by Du Sauchoy, as the widow alleged, "to the 
great damage of herself and children." 

Capt. Thomas De Lavall was an English gentleman, his 
surname derived from Normandy, but the family of great an- 
tiquity at Eeaton-Delavall, in Northumberland, where it held 
large possessions. Members of it were active partisans of King 
Charles., by whom Sir Ralph Delavall was knighted in 1660, and 
made surveyor of the port of Seaton-Sluice ; while others in the 
collateral branches were as noted for their commercial spirit and 
wealth. Circumstances connect Capt. Delavall with this family, 
whose tastes, pursuits, and loyalty he so largely shared, but 
further it is quite well ascertained that he was son of Thomas, 
a son of Sir Ralph Delavall. The official favor he enjoyed was 
the fruit of meritorious service for his king and country, before 
his arrival here in the suite of Gov. Nicolls. During the late 
war in Flanders he was Deputy Treasurer of the port of Dun- 
kirk, and handling public funds exceeding an hundred thousand 
pounds, so well discharged his trust, that he was assigned to a 
similar one at New York, and had entered upon its duties directly 
after his arrival. 

Capt. Delavall, now owning lands at Harlem, including lot 
No. 22 on Van Keulen's Hook, which extended down to Mon- 
tague's Kill, designed to build a grist-mill upon this lot and 
stream, with a substantial stone dwelling-house near it, in case 
he could secure the co-operation of the Harlem people, and the 
patronage of the surrounding districts; though the latter much 
depended upon the opening of a proper highway between the 
Bouwery and Harlem, to give the inhabitants easy access to the 
mill with their grain. It would further insure the success of 
the undertaking, to draw travel as much as possible toward Har- 
lem, by establishing a ferry there, and to divert it from Spujrten 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 233 

Duyvel, by closing up the passageway then used as a fording- 
place for horses and cattle to and from the main. Mr. Delavall 
now having authority as mayor of the city, resolved to undertake 
these enterprises, which with his usual sagacity he judged would 
prove a good investment for him, while also conducing to the 
public convenience. He therefore made the following proposi- 
tions to the authorities of Harlem: 

On this date, 3d January, A**. 1667, the Honorable Heer Delavall* 
proposed and requested that the magistrates of this town do consider 
the following points : 

1st That they make one-half of the road from here to the Manhatans 
or New York ; and that Spuyten Duyvel be stopped up. 

2d. That like care be taken for a suitable Ordinary (i. e. tavern), 
for the convenience of persons coming and going, as also of the village; 
and he promises the nails and the making of the scow, provided the ferry- 
man be holden to repay him for the same when required. 

3d. That it may be firmly settlea, that the inhabitants of the town 
will make the dam, because other towns promise to make a dam, if so 
be that he pleased to build the mill near them. 

4th. Requests leave to erect a stone house at the rear of his land 
near the mill, and to fortify it as a refuge for the village in time of need. 

5th. Requests leave to run a fence straight from the fence now stand- 
ing to the stone bridge, upon Van Keulen*s Hook, and to use the land 
and meadow so mclosed. 

6th. Requests that the inhabitants of the town shall set off (fence) 
the meadow at Little Barent*s Island, in case they wish to keep the 
same, as said Island belongs to him; or otherwise, not to put the town 
to inconvenience, he will present them the Island, if they will free the 
meadows. 

7th. Whereas the Broncks Land has been sold for two thousand 
guilders in beavers; and as he thought that it should more properly fall 
to the town, — offers, for that price, to let the town have it. 

Upon all which, after consideration given, to notify and inform him. 

On this matter being talked over among the magistrates, 
Johannes Verveelen agreed to J:ake the ferry and ordinary for 
six years. He was then formally sworn to provide proper enter- 
tamment for travelers, as victuals and drink, lodgings, etc., and 
further, not to tap liquor to the Indians who should resort to 
the village. On his request for an addition of six feet to his 
house lot, next the street, "as he was crampel for room, and 
must make convenience for his ordinary," the Court granted 
him "six feet into the street, to extend right out at the south 
side; that is, the Hne stretching as the street now runs, nearly 
east and west." 

The next day the inhabitants were called together to act 
upon Mr. Delavall's proposals, and with the following result: 

• The word Hcer, though properly translated Lord, often, as in this instance, had 
sbnply the sense of Mr. as used at that early day; this latter term being then applie<< 
with discrimination, and only as denoting great respect. (See Annals of Newtown', 
p. 38. note). 



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234 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

On the 4th of January; Advice of the Inhabitants of the town upon 
the propositions of the Honorable Heer Delavall: 

I St Point. Offer, together with their neighbors, to stop up Spuyten 
Duyvel, as it was formerly; are also resolved to make a road so far as 
practicable. 

2d. Have provided for this, and settled Johannes Verveelen as ferry- 
man and keeper of the Ordinary for six years. 

3d. Agree to make the dam for the mill, provided they may enjoy its 
benefits according to custom. 

4th. Agree that a house be built for the bouwery, to set near the mill* 
or where it is most convenient for him. 

5th. Agree that the mill use the land and meadow lying from the 
fence now standing to the stone bridge on Van Keulen's Hook. 

6th. Require further opportunity to consider how this point shall be 
settled. 

7th. They are parties: Hon. Heer Delavall, Nicholas De Meyer, 
Johannes Verveelen, Daniel Tourneur, Glaude Delamater, Lubbert Ger- 
ritsen, Joost Van Oblinus, David Demarest, Valentine Claessen and 
Derick Claessen. 

Bronck's Land, referred to under the seventh point, and em- 
bracing some five hundred acres, opposite Harlem on the West- 
chester side, had passed from Bronck's heirs, through several 
hands, to Samuel Edsall. The answer to the seventh point 
appears to mean that the "parties" named were the ones most 
interested, as they were those whose salt meadows lay on that 
side of the river. With a view to buying the Bronck tract, some 
of these persons met the next day, and "constituted and author- 
ized Daniel Tourneur, Nicholas De Meyer, and Johannes Ver- 
veelen, in their name to agree respecting the payment and redemp- 
tion of the land called Bronck's Land; to do and execute as 
would they themselves if present, promising to maintain firm 
and inviolate whatever these their attorneys may do in the 
premises."* 

As to Little Barent's Island, the case stood thus : Stuyvesant 

• Dirck Claessen, son of Claes Jacobsen and Pietcrtie Heertgers, was bom at 
Lceuwarden, in Fricsland; emigrating, I believe, with his wife and widowed mother, 
in 1653. He was a potter, several of whom came out that vear. In 1657, when he 
became a small burgher, he bought a house and lot in New Amsterdam, and set up a 
pottery, known afterward as "Pot-baker Comer, situated near the outlet of the Fresh 
Water into the East River, and next to Henry Braiser." Leasing this property, 
August 10. 1662, for three years, he came to Harlem to manage his bouwery here, 
and that fall was chosen magistrate. On November 5, 1663, he sold his bouwery to 
an Teunissen, but was obliged to take it back under a mortgage of that date, and 
-inally sold it to Daniel Tourneur, February i, 1667. He now resumed his pottery 
in New York, where he died in 1686. He married Wyntie Roelofs, Annetie Dircks, 
widow, and Metje Elberts. By the first he had Claesie, born 1654, who married 
John Kay and Gustavus Adolphus Home; Jannetie, born 1656, married Cornelis 
Dyckman, and Geertie, born 1662, married Barent Christiaens. By his second wife 
he had a daughter, Gisberta, to whom, and his stepson, John Everts (son of said 
wife Annetie by Evert Jansen), he deeded his pottery property, September 10, 1680. 
Who Gisberta married, if at all, has not been observed. When a miss of sweet fifteen, 
one Wm. Phillips visited her, but on a Sunday morning, October 26, 1679, being 
caught acting rather free to suit the father, he indignantly drove Philips out of the 
house, nearly cutting his nose off with a knife. Ray was from Berkslure, England, 
had served here as a soldier in the English garrison, but became a pipemaker. His 
descendants have been of first respectability in this State. His daughter, Wyntie, 
married Hendrick Meyer, and daughter Catherine married Derick Potter. 



J! 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 235 

had granted the meadows lying around it to some of the Harlem 
people, and had allowed all of them to use the island for pastur- 
ing their young stock. Later this and Great Barent's Island, 
as being the property of the West India Company (Van Twiller's 
title to the latter island under his Indian purchase having been 
disallowed by the company and annulled by the Director and 
Council, July ist, 1652), fell to the English by the general act 
of confiscation of October loth, 1665 ; and were soon after sold 
to Capt. Delavall, though his patent did not issue till February 
3d, 1668, when he was about to visit Europe. Upon DelavalKs 
offer of the lesser island to the inhabitants of Harlem no imme- 
diate action was taken, and on May 3d, ensuing, Daniel Tour- 
neur, in Delavall's behalf, urged that Jacques Cresson, who had 
meadow on the south side of that island, might be removed there- 
from, by having other meadow given him instead; and that the 
Heer Delavall's meadow should be fenced in by the town-folks 
who had calves pastured there. Delavall's meadow, gotten with 
the land of Simon De Ruine, lay in common with Cresson's, and 
Cresson was willing to give up his part, provided he could have 
•'the meadow west of the hills, along Montague's Kill, at the 
north side of the Kill," and if "the persons using Barent's Island 
would help him a day in making fence." But this was not 
agreed to, and no step being taken to "free the meadows," Dela- 
vall afterward purchased them, excepting Cresson*s, which he 
never owned. 

Nor was the attempt to buy Bronck's Land more successful ; 
even Delavall did not take it, and that valuable tract was con- 
veyed by Edsall, June 4th, 1668, to "Col. Lewis Morris, of the 
Island of Barbadoes, merchant," whose brother, Capt. Richard 
Morris, under a mutual contract of August loth, 1670, came to 
reside on the plantation. His death within two years led to a 
visit from Col. Morris in 1673. But being dispossessed that year 
by the Dutch, he did not make it his permanent residence till 
after he had secured a large addition to it by royal grant; the 
whole of which estate, embracing 1920 acres, upon his death, 
February 14th, 1691, fell to his nephew, Lewis Morris, son of 
Richard, and in 1697 was erected into the Manor of Morrisania. 

After much labor the mill-dam was finished (crossing the 
creek a little west of the present Third Avenue), and near its 
northern end Delavall built his mill; employing as his miller 
Hage Bruynsen, a Swede, but for twenty odd years a resident 
in this country.* The land adjoining his own, of which Delavall 

• Hage Bruynsen was born at Wcish, in Smallant, and may have been the son 



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236 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

had the use for mill purposes, took the name of the "Mill Camp." 
John La Montague thought the time favorable for removing 
to his farm, or at least for asking permission of the town to do 
so; and on his application the inhabitants, January 4th, 1667, 
voted him "authority to build and live upon his Point." But 
Delavairs plan to build a substantial house and fortify it was 
frustrated by an urgent call soon after to go to England, and 
whither he went the next year, leaving his property at Harlem 
in care of Daniel Tourneur, as his agent. 

But the village plot was expanding and undergoing material 
changes. On their petition several of the inhabitants were 
allowed to extend their erven or house-lots, by taking in portions 
of the streets. For this they were charged from 10 to 15 gl. 
Two new erven were also laid out on the north side of the "Great 
Way," and since forming the Judah place. The one adjoining 
the river was sold to Johannes Vermilye, and that lying next 
to it, to Robert Le Maire, each for 25 gl. The vacant land to 
the south of the village, north of lots i, 2, 3, Van Keulen*s Hook, 
and reserved to the town uses, was also encroached upon ; and a 
triangular piece in the northwest corner, opposite the erven of 
Karstens and Cresson (taking its form from the course of the 
creek), was sold at the above price to Jan Gerritsen De Vries, 
who built upon and fenced it.* 

The work upon the church having been prosecuted at inter- 
vals, as opportunity and the finances warranted, the building 
was so far completed by January 30th, 1667, that an allotment 
of the seats then took place. With the finishing of his work by 
"Bart the mason;" and "the table" which Nelis Matthyssen had 
been employed to make in its place, the modest structure was 
now assigned to its double use as a church and school-house; 
having a convenient loft or second story, from which, — O primi- 

of Bruyn Barents, named on page 198. Hage entered the service of Burger Joris, a 
blacksmith at the Smith's Fly — he who owned a grist mill at Dutch Kills. Seven 
years later, 165^, Hage bought a house and lot in Smith's Fly, was enrolled in the 
city burgher corps, and also married Annecke Jans, from Holstein, by whom he had 
a son, Bru^n, born 1654. In 1661 he married Egbcrtie Dircks, sister to Nelis Mat- 
thyssen's wife, and by her had a son, Hermanus, born 1662. His term as miller at 
Harlem was cut short by his death, in 1668. His city property was sold, in 1670, to 
Jacob Hellikcr. Hage's widow married Hendrick Bosch, sword cutler, the Bush an- 
cestor, who afterward owned land near Harlem. Bruyn Hage spent his youth with 
his uncle, Dirck Jansen, was taught his trade by his stepfather, and became a "master 
blacksmith." He married, in 168 1, Gecsie, daughter of Frederick Schureman, moved 
to Esopus, bought land in 1683, but died the next year. Two years later, his widow 
returned with a church letter to New York, where her daughter, Annetic, born 1683, 
married, 1699, Robert Jacobsen, from Rotterdam. 

• This was he later known as Capt. Jan Gerritsen Van Dalsen, ancestor of the 
Dolsens, of Orange County. The family was from Dalfsen. or Dalsen, a villige near 
Zwolle, in Overyssel, but Jan, by chance born in Frieslana, was distinguished as de 
Vries, the Friesan or Frieslander ; the child's pet name having dung to him up to 
manhood. The Dutch were much addicted to this mode of disignation, and to the 
use of nicknames of all sorts. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 237 

tive economy! — income was sometimes derived by renting ic. 
But, unpretentious as it was, it suited none the less for the 
acceptable worship of Him who "dwelleth not in temples made 
with hands." There was on the church lot (kerk lot) an older 
house belonging to the town (noticed in 1665), and probably 
was rented with the latter. 

The question had come up of some change in the burial-place, 
so as to have it extend out from the rear of the kerk-erf, across 
the back ends of the Le Maire and Vermilye lots to the river; 
and the inhabitants being Consulted, the following vote was 
passed on January 5th, when the action was taken for the enlarge- 
ment of the house-lots: "The worthy court, with the approval 
of most of the inhabitants, have ordered, that the grave-yard 
(kerkhof) now shall be behind the erven of Jean Le Roy and 
Johannes Vermilye." 

The only person to object was Le Roy, who, holding the lot 
here referred to, as agent for Le Maire, and on which was a small 
tenement that had belonged to the late Jan Cogu, but had 
been bought and placed there, — came in court, January 25th, 
and requested that the deacons, Daniel Tourneur and Johannes 
Verveelen, would be pleased to move his house for him, or that 
the erf might remain his. But in place of this, Tourneur offered 
to give him timber sufficient for making a house as large as 
Cogu's, and Verveelen promised to add 30 gl. ; with which Le 
Roy declared himself satisfied. On May ist, ensuing, Le Roy 
sold the lot, "as at present fenced in, excepting the street," to 
Jan Terbosch, whose wife was sister of Vermilye, the adjoining 
owner.* On June 14th, ensuing, the town, by agreement with 
Tourneur, resolved to further enlarge the church-yard (kerk-erf) 
at the rear, by extending it westerly into his erf or house-lot, 
"four rods in length, and five in breadth." This left a passage 
from Toumeur*s erf to his lot No. i, Jochem Pieters. As a 
consideration they granted Tourneur "the meadows lying along 
Montagne's Kill, west of the hills, from the rocky point till to 
the end of the creek on the north side of the said Kill." The 
hills were Mount Morris, etc. ; and the meadows, which lay op- 
posite Toumeur's land on Montague's Flat (since of David Wood, 

• Terbosch and Lc Maire, as also the Ackcrman and Storm ancestors, emigrated 
in the same ship in 1662. (See pp. 93, 96). Terbosch married Rachel, daughter of 
Isaac Vermilye, June 10, 1663. They had issue, Johannes, born 1665; Catherine, 
bom 1668; Isaac, bom 1660; Maria, bom 1672; Sarah, born 1674; Johanna, bom 
1675, and Jacobus, bom 1077. Terbosch died soon after, and his widow married 
Dirck Wessels, May 25, 1679. This family removed up the Hudson. Johannes married 
at Kingston in 1688. Among the descendants, in Duchess County and elsewhere, 
this name, like many others, has suffered some change in the mode of spelling it, as 
Tcrbos and Terbush. 



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238 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

the Bussings, and others), were those known later as the Bussing 
Meadows, in part conveyed, as claimed, to Samson Benson, prior 
to 1800, and added to his farm. 

On the same date, June 14th, 1667, '^Jslu Montague was 
permitted to have, in case of exchange, the church-lot's meadows, 
lying in the bend of the Hellegat; provided he leave instead a 
piece of meadow, lying south of the Great Meadow, belonging 
to Number i." The Great Meadow was that upon the north 
side of Sherman's Creek; No. i referred to the lot on Jochem 
Pieters' Flat which Montague gave up to the town in 1661. With 
that nice economy before observed the deacons, the ensuing fall, 
sowed upon the church lot (kerk lot) "two schepels of rye."* 

• The land thus early designated the Kerck lot was that since known as the 
Church Farm, a part of which is occupied by the present Reformed Church. It lay 
at the west end of the old gardens, several of which came to be included in it. 
The Kerck erf, which was distinct from the former, lay at the east end of the old 
gardens, and was then occupied bv the church edifice, being the easterly half of the 
plot afterward of the Myers, and which Samuel Myer sold to Alexander Phcenix, 
March 37, 1806, but later known as the Eliphalet Williams plot The Kerck bof was 
the more ancient burying place, lying in the rear of the Tudah plot, and still remem- 
bered as the "Negro Burying Ground." The last contained about a q]uarter of an acre, 
as conveyed by John De Wit and Catherine, his wife, to John B. Coles, April 7, 1794. 




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CHAPTER XVI. 

1 667- 1 669. 

NEW NICOLLS PATENT; THE FERRY; RUPTURE WITH ARCHER, ETC. 

TPHE chief event of 1667 was the solving of the knotty ques- 
tion of their patent. The subject was again thrust upon 
the freeholders, early in the year, by an order from the governor, 
directing them to take out confirmations of their Dutch ground- 
briefs, under his hand and seal. But how comply with this order, 
when very few of them had groundbriefs ? On the other hand, 
the general patent granted by Governor Nicolls the preceding 
year was so deficient, that it seemed to some of little more value 
than so much blank parchment. Out of this dilemma appeared 
no opening, but in the way of another application to the governor 
for a general patent which should include all their lands and 
meadows; and this had the additional advantage, that it would 
give an opportunity to supply what else was wanting in the former 
patent. To this proposal the following persons gave their assent, 
at a meeting held on March 15th : 

Daniel Toumeur, Jean Le Roy, 

Nicholas De Meyer, Valentine Claessen, 

Resolved Waldron, Jaques Cresson, 

Lubbert Gerritsen, Pierre Cresson, 

Johannes Verveelen, Hendrick Karstens, 

Joost Van Oblinus, Jan La Montague, Jr. 
David Demarest, 

A suitable petition was also prepared, and Waldron and Ger- 
ritsen were chosen to pf esent it, and manage the business It read : 

To His Excellency, Col. Richard Nicolls, Deputy Governor: 

The inhabitants of the Town of New Harlem, your Excellenc/s 
petitioners, would most respectfully represent, that they are informed 
that a placard has been issued, that each Inhabitant must get his ground- 
brief renewed within fourteen days, expiring April ist of this year; and 
whereas the most of your Excellency's petitioners even till now have no 
groundbriefs, they therefore pray that your Excellency may please to 



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240 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

grant them a general groundbrief or patent, in accordance with the last 
survey made by your Excellency's land surveyor, Mr. Hubbard,* or other- 
wise, as your Excellency and wise Council shall find good and proper; 
as also that therein may be included the meadows which are lying at 
the other side, and belonging to their land. 

Your Excellency; ^yhereas through ignorance of your Excellenc/s 
placards, some faults might be committed by your Excellenc/s petition- 
ers, they pray that his Honor, the Sheriff, may be charged to send a 
copy of every proclamation affecting your Excellency's petitioners, so 
that they may not transgress your Excellency's orders. Herein we await 
your favorable answer; and meanwhile shall pray God for your Ex- 
cellency's welfare. Dated New Harlem, 15th March, 1667. 

That this matter which vitally affected their landed rights, 
should be determined and settled, was also demanded by the 
rapidly increasing value of the soil and the growing importance 
of the settlement. It now had some considerable dairies. Fift>'- 
eight cows, besides other cattle, daily went forth from the village 
in care of the new herder, Knoet Mourisse Van Hoesem, who 
entered upon this service April 15th, and was to continue "till 
All-Saints' Day, either fourteen days earlier or later, as the winter 
might set in, or the pasture fail."t 

The estabhshment of the ferry gave a new spur and energy 
to the village, by the increase of travel this way. Verveelen 
having fitted up his "ordinary," and provided boats for trans- 
portation, of which his lusty negro Matthys was put in charge, 
found a congenial employment and plenty to do to wait upon 
such as frequented his tavern for entertainment or wanted to 
be ferried across to or from the Bronckside, or bring over their 
droves of cattle. On his application, January 25th, the town 
court had previously fixed the following rates of ferriage, but 
subject to the approval of the Mayor's Court: 

For one person, 4 stivers, silver money; for two, three, or 
four, each 3 stivers, silver money ; for one beast, i shilling ; and 
for more than one, each 10 stivers, silver. 

At the corner of the lower street and third crossway, Ver- 

• Capt. James Hubbard, of Gravesend, who was a surveyor. We may infer 
that he had been employed to re-survey for the new patent. 

t List of the Cattle that went with the Herder, April 15, 1667: 

Mr. Dclavall 2 oxen, 6 cows. 

Daniel Tourneur 2 * 8 | 

Nclis Matthyssen ^^ 3 ^, 

David Demarest 2 ^^ 4 ^^ 

Lubbert Gerritsen 2 ^^ 5 ^^ 

Valentine Claessen 2 ^^ 3 ,^ 

Johannes Verveelen 2 ^^ 5 ^, 

Toost Van Oblinus 2 ^^ 4 ^^ 

Johannes Pietersz Buys 2 ^^ 7 ^^ 

Resolved Waldron 2 ^^ 7 ^^ 

Tan Teunisz v: Tilburg 2 3 ^^ 

Isaac Vcrmilye ,^ ' ,^ 

Jan La Montagne 2 2 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 241 

veelen's tavern hung out its sign-board, its site now on the north 
line of 123d Street, 300 feet west of First Avenue. Well patron- 
ized, too, by the lovers of good cheer and goed bier, this is shown 
by the frequency with which he supplied his vault with goed 
bier and kleyn bier, Spanish wine and rum; but it would occur 
sometimes that a cask found its way into the cellar, on which 
no excise had been paid or charged. This had happened before. 
On October 5th, 1666, Daniel Verveelen sent his father at Har- 
lem two half vats of good beer. Allard Anthony, sheriff, hearing 
of it, visited Harlem the next day, and found the beer at Ver- 
veelen's house, the excise neither paid nor entered with the col- 
lector. Verveelen told Anthony he did not known him. An- 
thony complaind to the Mayor's Court. Verveelen plead ignor- 
ance, and was found not guilty in regard to the beer. He excused 
his remark made to Anthony, by saying that he did not know 
him as schout, but well as sheriff! For this quibble the court 
fined him 20 gl. sewant, and costs. In the present case the vigil- 
ant Tourneur discovered something wrong, and accused Ver- 
veelen of smuggling. Vain were denials or explanations; the 
sheriff's deputy at once took proceedings as follows: 

Most Honorable Heeren, Overseers of this Town: 

Whereas Johannes Verveelen, ordinary-keeper in this town, did on 
tnc 6th February wickedly smuggle one-half vat of good beer; on the 
i8th April, one vat of good beer and one anker of rum; on the 27th 
of April, one-half vat of good beer; on the 8th May, one-half vat of 
good beer; on the 27th May, one-half vat of good beer and one anker 
of rum; all which is contrary to the existing placards on the subject 
of smuggling, and by the high magistracy approved. Therefore the 
plaintiff, ex-officio the preserver of the peace, demands that the defendant 
be condemned in the penalty of twenty-one hundred guilders, according 
to the placards, together with the costs of prosecution. The 14th June, 
1667, in N. Harlem. Yours, Honorable Heeren, 

Daniei* Tourneur, 

Deputy Sheriff. 

The court ordered this placed in the hands of the defendant, 
who was given till the 17th to answer it. But two days after 
it was amicably arranged, Tourneur so far abating his demand 
as to accept Verveelen's note for 125 gl. in sewant, in settlement 
of "the beer transaction." 

Verveelen seems to have gotten the idea that the costs he had 
incurred as ferryman and innkeeper entitled him to some exemp- 
tion from the payment of excise; because the following lease 
which he presently secured gave him such exemption for a year 
and silenced all cavil regarding his rights: 



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242 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

At the request of Johannes Verveelen of Harlem, We the Mayor and 
Aldermen of New York, have sold the Ferry there as followeth: 

It is agreed he shall have the Ferry for five years, provided he keep 
a convenient house and lodging for passengers at Harlem, and he shall 
have a small piece of land on Bronck-side, about an acre, and a place to 
build a house on, which he must clear, and not spoil the meadow, which 
shall be laid out by the Town, which must be a morgen of land; — and 
at the end of five years it is to be farmed out, and during the five years 
he shall pay nothing for it, and in case it shall be let to another, the 
house shall be valued as it stands, and he must be paid for it; provided 
he may have the preference of the hiring of it at the time expired. 
Here followeth what he shall ask for every man passenger or horse or 
cattle. For every passenger, two pence silver, or six pence wampum. 
For every ox or cow that shall be brought into his ferry boat, eight 
pence of twenty-four stivers; and cattle under a year old, six pence or 
eighteen stivers wampum. All cattle that are swum over pay but half 
price. He is to take for diet, every man for his meal, eight pence, or 
twenty-four stivers wampum; every man for his lodging, two pence a 
man, or six stivers in wampum; every man for his horse shall pay four 
pence or twenty- four stivers ; and cattle under a year old, six pence or 
the grass be in fence. All men going or coming with a packet from our 
Governor of New York or coming from the Governor of Connecticut, 
shall be ferried free. Also in regard the said Verveelen must be at the 
charge of building a house on each side of the Ferry, the Governor hath 
freed him from paying any excise for what wine or beer he shall retail 
in his house for one year after the date hereof. Dated at New York, 
this 3d day of July, 1667. • 

Thos De Lavall, Mayor. 

Beer was the common beverage. At vendues, or in making 
contracts or settlements, its presence was deemed indispensable 
to the proper transaction of the business. The magistrates when 
occupying the bench always had beer brought in, running up 
a score with the tapster at the public charge. Nor did the ordin- 
ation of elders and deacons, or funeral solemnities, form an 
exception. At such times wine and other liquors, with pipes 
and tobacco, were also freely distributed. Families commonly 
laid in their beer by the quarter and half vat, or barrel. Such 
the social habits and customs prevailing among our ancestors, 
all oblivious as to the evils of the indulgence. Surely time has 
wrought a good departure from former usage. Much of the 
beer consumed here was brewed by Johannes Vermilye, while 
the breweries of Daniel Verveelen, Isaac De Forest, and Jacob 
Kip, at New York, were also patronized.* 

• The Excise Accounts from January 16, to July 22, 1667, charge the following 
persons, the number of times here noted, with excise on beer, obtained usually by 
the half or quarter vat: Tourneur and Vermilye always for kleyn bier (small beer), 
the rest mostly for goed bier ((i. e., strong beer); Hans Lourcns, once for one ton 
of strong beer. The farm bands were good consumers. We omit Verveelcn's invoices. 

Daniel Toumeun Isaac Vermilye, David Demarest, each 6 charges; Jan La 
Montagne, Lubbcrt Gcrritsen, Joh. Pietcrscn Buys, each 4; Nelis Matthysen, Jean 
Leroy, and "the Indian," each 3; Jan Teunisz Van Tilburg, Jan Lourens Duyts. 
Hans Lourens, Resolved Waldron, Claes Carstens Norman, each 2, and a single charge 
against John Archer, Claude Delamater, Hendrick Karstens, Mark Disosway, Johannes 
Pelszer, Jaques Cresson, Arent Harmans Bussing, Valentine Claessen, Jan Van Guide, 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 243 

Events soon demonstrated the wisdom of the steps taken for 
securing a general patent. The heirs of the late Matthys Jansen, 
of Esopus, had obtained from Governor NicoUs, May 23d, 1667, 
a confirmation of the Papparinamin grant at Spuyten Duyvel. 
And the summer brought bodings of trouble with John Archer, 
of Westchester, touching the meadows on that side of the river, 
opposite Papparinamin, belonging to several inhabitants of Har- 
lem ; and on their complaint the following order was issued : 

A Warrant to the Constable of Westchester, about some Meadow Ground 

claimed by Harlem : 

Whereas, I am informed that the Inhabitants of Harlem have, for 
divers years, mowed their hay in the Meadows on the other side of Harlem 
River, where John Archer of your town pretends an interest, by virtue of 
a patent granted for the Yonker's Land to Hugh O'Neale and Mary his 
wife; These are to require you to warn the said John Archer, that he 
forbear cutting hay in those Meadows this present season, and likewise 
that he do not presume to molest those of Harlem, until I shall be fully 
satisfied of the Titles on both parts, and give my judgment thereupon, 
to whom of right these Meadows do belong. Given under my hand at 
Fort James, in New York, this i6th day of August, 1667. 

R. NiCOLLS. 

Shortly after this threatened encroachment by the avaricious 
Archer, which, however, did not end here, the Harlem freeholders 
received their town patent, drawn in the following ample terms :* 

Richard Nicolls, Esq., Governor-General under His Royal High- 
ness James Duke of York and Albany, &c., of all his Territories in 
America; To all to whom these Presents shall come, sendeth Greet- 
ing- Whereas there is a certain Town or Village upon this Island Man- 
hatans, commonly called and known by the name of New Harlem, situ- 
ate, lying and being on the East part of the Island, now in the tenure 
or occupation of several of the freeholders and inhabitants, who, being 
seated there by authority, have improved a considerable proportion of 
the lands thereunto belonging, and also settled a competent number of 
families thereupon, capable to make a Township; Now, for a confirmation 
to the said freeholders and inhabitants in their possession and enjoyment 
of the premises, as also for an encouragement to them in their further 

and Michiel Bastiacnsen. It is well that entries such as follows, which occur often 
in the public accounts, belong to the past: 

June 15, 1667, To 4% pints Rum, and 15 cans measured Beer, 

used at the agreement with Verveelen /. 20. 

Feb. 18, 1678, To one anker Good Beer, dispensed when Do. 

Nieuwenhuysen was here to ordain the deacon./. 7 : 10 

Sept. 9, 1688, To Rum at his funeral f. 7 

The last one is among the charges "for the burial of a stranger who died at 
Cornells Jansen's." Jan Tibout (voorleser) is allowed f. 12, "for an address to his 
credit." 

* Recorded in original book of Patents, Sec. of State's Office, Albany, in Liber 
4, p. 60. The date is there given as 1666, but a palpable error; since October 11, in 
the 19th year of Charles II., was 1667, and, moreover, the date is correctly recited in 
several later documents including Dongan's Patent. From a scrutiny of the record 
it would appear that the date was omitted when the patent was recorded, and care- 
lessly entered afterward. The names of the three patentees are also written Ver- 
veelen, Turner, Oblene; but we count these in with other clerical blunders, and cor- 
rect them from their own autographs. 



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244 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

improvement of the said lands; Know ye, That by virtue of the com- 
mission and authority unto me given by His Royal Highness, I have 
given, ratified, confirmed and granted, and by these Presents do give, 
ratify, confirm and grant unto Thomas Delavall, Esq., John Ver\'eelen, 
Daniel Toumeur, Joost Oblinus and Resolved Waldron, as Patentees 
for and on the behalf of themselves and their associates the freeholders 
and inhabitants of the said Town, their heirs, successors and assigns. 
All that tract, together with the several parcels of land which already 
have or hereafter shall be purchased or procured for and on the behalf 
of the said Town within the bounds and limits hereafter set forth and 
expressed, viz. : That is to say, from the West side of the fence of the said 
Town line being run due West four hundred English poles, without 
variation of the compass, and at the end thereof another line being drawn 
across the Island North and South, with the variation. That is to say. 
North from the end of a certain piece of meadow ground commonly 
called the Round Meadow,* near or adjoining unto Hudson's or North 
River, and South to the place where formerly stood the Saw Mill, over 
against Verkens or Hog Island in the Sound or East River, shall be the 
Western bounds of their lands; And all the lands lying and being within 
the said line to draw North and South as aforesaid Eastward to the end 
of the Town and Harlem River, or any part of the said River on which 
this Island doth abut, and likewise on the North and East Rivers within 
the limits aforementioned described, doth and shall belong to the said 
Town, As also four lots of meadow ground upon the Main, marked with 
Number i, 2, 3, 4, lying over against the Spring,t where a passage hath 
been used to ford over from this Island to the Main, and from thence 
hither, With a small island, commonly called Stoney Island, lying to the 
East of the Town and Harlem River, going through Bronck's Kill by the 
Little and Great Bame's Islands, upon which there are also four other lots 
of meadow ground, marked with No. i, 2, 3, 4, Together with all the soils, 
creeks, quarries, woods, meadows, pastures, marshes, waters, lakes, fish- 
ing, hawking, hunting and fowling, and all other profits, commodities, 
emoluments and hereditaments to the said lands and premises within the 
said bounds and limits set forth belonging or in anywise appertaining. 
And also freedom of commerce for range and feed of cattle and horses 
further West into the woods upon this Island as well without as within 
their bounds and limits. To have and to hold all and singular the 
said lands, island, commonage, hereditaments and premises, with their 
and every of their appurtenances, and of every part or parcel thereof, 
unto the said Patentees and their associates, their heirs, successors and 
assigns, to the proper use and behoof of the said Patentees and their 
associates, their heirs, successors and assigns forever. And I do hereby 
likewise ratify, confirm and grant unto the said Patentees and their as- 
sociates, their heirs, successors and assigns, all the rights and privileges 

* Mocrtje Davids' Vly, or Mother Davids' Meadow, was the name by which this 
meadow was known ten years later; the word Vly (now usually written Fly, which 

fives its Enfflish sound) being a contraction of valley, the Dutch term for meadow. 
t was the identical meadow named in Kuyter's grant, and lay just within the bay or 
clove at Manhattanville: and it was to distinguish it from another Round Meadow 
(that at Sherman's Creek, called in the original allotments the Great Meadow) that it 
received the name Moertje Davids' Meadow. This name was singularly derived from 
the larger meadows so called lyinp upon the opposite side of the Hudson, in Bergen 
(bounty, and annexed to "Moertje David's Plantation." Often referred to in the 
history of the town, our Mocrtje Davids' Fly has notoriety as a landmark, not only in 
connection with the Harlem patent line, but with the Battle of Harlem Plains. The 
perversion to Murdanies, Mordanis, etc., (see N. Y. Cal. of Land Papers, 16. and 
Winfield's Land Titles, 129), has obviously come by clipping the first word, And mistak- 
ing the V (often formed as u, in old writings) for an n. 

t The Spring; that is, Spuyten Duyvel. (See pa^e 115). Verken Island, before 
noticed, was soon after called Manning's Island, from its ownw, Capt. John Manning, 
and later Blackwell's Island. Stony Island has hardly yet yielded to the modem 
name of Port Morris. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 245 

belonging to a Town within this Government; with this proviso or excep- 
tion. That in all matters of debt or trespass of or above the value of 
Five Pounds they shall have relation to and dependence upon the Courts 
of this City as the other Towns have upon the several Courts of Sessions 
to which they do belong; Moreover the place of their present habita- 
tion shall continue and retain the name of New Harlem, by which 
name and style it shall be distinguished and known in all bargains and 
sales, deeds, writings and records, And no person whatsoever shall be 
suffered or permitted to erect any manner of house or building upon 
this Island, within two miles of the limits and bounds aforementioned, 
without the consent and approbation of the major part of the inhabi- 
tants of the said Town. And whereas the said town lies very commo- 
dious for a Ferry, to pass to and from the Main, which may redound 
to the particular benefit of the inhabitants as well as to a general good, 
the freeholders and inhabitants of the said Town shall, in considera- 
tion of the benefits and privileges herein granted, as also for what ad- 
vantage they may receive thereby, be enjoined and obliged at their 
own proper costs and charge to build or provide one or more boats, fit 
for the transportation of men, horses and cattle, for which there shall be 
a certain allowance given by each particular person as shall be ordered 
and adjudged fit and reasonable. They, the said Patentees, and their as- 
sociates, their heirs, successors and assigns, rendering and paying such 
duties and acknowledgments as now are or hereafter shall be constituted 
and established by the laws of this Government, under the obedience of 
His Rojral Highness, his heirs and successors. Given under my hand 
and seal, at Fort James, in New York, on the Island Manhatans, the 
nth day October, in the 19th year of His Majesty's reign, Annoq. Domini, 
1667. 

Richard Nicoli^s. 

While the proceedings relating to the patent were pending, 
much ill-feeling had found vent at certain "orders of the new 
government." One of the most outspoken was Jan Nagel, fate 
soldier in the Dutch service who, on being notified of the order 
by the constable, Verveelen, returned him the following answer, 
wherein his sentiments are not disguised: 

April y€ 12, 1667. 

I take this opportunity to send you word that I will see you to-mor* 
row to comply with yc orders of y« new government, as such a course 
seems now necessary, and leaving no other alternative; but not without 
very strongly protesting against y« injustice which has long been heaped 
upon us. Not finding satisfaction in ye confiscation of very valuable 
property, they are now compelling us to submit to an illegal and tyran- 
nical foreign government. If God has designed in his providence that y« 
Dutch people should become victims to yc treachery and rapacity of yc 
English, then all they can do is to submit. 

Jan Nacel. 

But, on May 3d, Verveelen complains to the magistrates that 
Nagel "has not obeyed his order." Nagel replies, saying "he 
has conveyed the order, but they would not go." On motion of 
the under-sheriff, Toumeur, that the defendant "be bound over 
to the Mayor's Court as a rebel, on the charge of having refused 



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246 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

to obey the order of the constable/' the Overseers so referred 
the case. Others were also implicated, for on September 6th, 
Nelis Matthyssen, ex-magistrate, taking by invitation a seat on 
the bench, Tourneur (not in love with Nelis, whose wife had 
appeared against him in the manslaughter case) stoutly pro- 
tested, charging Nelis with being a rebel ; but the court rejected 
the charge. So it rested till another sitting on October 24th, 
when affairs had become so grave that Capt. John Manning, the 
High Sheriff, presided, and before whom Jan Nagel and Hans 
Lourens, in the same category, were also cited to appear. Mat- 
thyssen had summoned Tourneur to prove "that he is a rebel." 
Tourneur now "proves it by the order of the Mayor's Court, that 
the plaintiff should not continue as one of the bench." Nelis 
being cast, and put to an amende of 6 gl. and costs of suit, with 
becoming nonchalance promised 25 gl. to the poor. The two 
other cases were then taken up, when Nagel was fined 60 gl., 
and Lourens 40 gl., each with costs. 

Captain Delavall had become by far the largest landed pro- 
prietor in the town, and hence was entitled to be named as first 
patentee. He now owned (not to specify further) several of the 
uppermost lots on Jochem Pieters' Flat, besides those of Simon 
De Ruine and the late Jan Cogu, in the same tract. On March 
14th, 1668, Tourneur, as agent for Delavall, who was arranging 
his business preparatory to going to England, leased these several 
lots, with the De Ruine house and garden in the village, for a 
term of four years, to a respectable settler named Wouter Ger- 
ritsen, whose emigration in 1659 has been already noticed.* 

* Simon de Ruine, otherwise called de Waal, i. c., the Walloon, wa« originally 
from Landrecy, in Hainault, as before noticed. Having sold his lands in Harlem, in 
1666, he bought a few acres in Flushing, near Jean Genung. and is named on the 
rate list of 167?;, Doc. Hist. N. Y., ii. 461 On April 27, 1678, the Sicur Dubuisson 
drew up his will; a copy is here given. It was proved June 13, 1678. Simon was 
sick, and perhaps in extremis, as he did not put his hand to the will, and thus its 
date may oe that of his death. As he always made his mark, and his name takes 
many forms in cotempnorary records, we follow Dubuisson as probably correct. The 
following forms prevail: Drune, Dreune, Druwen. John Montagne varies it thus 
in a dozen times: Durwyn, Druwecn. Simon had, with other children, Jacomina. 
bom near lyandrecy, who married John Demarest; Jannetie, born at Amsterdam, who 
married Jolyi De Pre; and Maria, bom at Harlem, who married Samuel Demarest. 

A Jourd buy ayme avril 1678, faict en prcnsence de Jean Guenon ct de Mar- 
guerite sa femme. et Jean des Conseiller, et de Jean Baptiste de Poictier, Sieur 
Dubuisson, et du libre consentement de Simon de Ruine, le Oualon, se croiant malade, 
a recongnu pour Ic repos de sa consicnse, par un libre et st. jugement, a tesmoignc 
ettre sa volonte ainsy guy seulmt qu apres les despt paiez desclare et a les clare 
Madlaine sa femme beritier des les bien et en disposer sa vie durante, sans toutey 
fois le pouvir vendre gra ny engager en quelque facon, que le soit tant meublc et 
inmcublc demeurant au mesme point qu il sont. C etait et conduct a rcste dans la 
maisonmaison du diet Simon de Ruine, dit Ic Oualon, en presence des tesmoin cy 
dessre nonme 1 on desclare ne savoir siner faute de quoy mestre on leur marque. 

de Jean nm Guenon 

marque nn Jean des Conseiller. 
fait par moy 

Jean Baptiste de Poictier, Sieur Dubuisson. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 247 

In the meantime other old groundbriefs of Governor Kieft's 
time were being hunted up by heirs or successors of the grantees 
for official confirmation. That to Pieter Jansen and Huyck Aert- 
sen for land at Sherman's Creek was now claimed in partnership 
by Joost Kockuyt, of Bushwick, who had married Jansen's widow, 
and Thomas Lamberts, of Brooklyn, Aertsen's successor. These 
parties sold the groundbrief to Archer, of Westchester, for 600 
guilders. But when presented to Governor Nicolls he refused 
to confirm it, both because he considered it as forfeited by the 
neglect of the owners to improve the land, and "in regard it might 
be injurious to the Town of Harlem." 

The old Hoorn's Hook patent, granted to Sibout Claessen, 
was also oflFered for sale to Daniel Tourneur, who, consulting 
his own interests rather than those of the town, agreed to buy it. 
This being known, caused great dissatisfaction, and gave rise 
to the following petition: 

To His Excellency Gov. Richard Nicolls: 

The Magistrates of the Town of New Harlem, with all becoming 
respect and submission, do represent; That your Excellency's petitioners 
have been informed that some persons have bought the lands commonly 
called Hoorn's Hook; which conflicts with the privileges wherewith this 
Town was laid out, and is to the great prejudice of the town, the more 
so. as the said privileges have been confirmed by your Excellency, and 
the lands are situated within our jurisdiction. Your Excellenc/s peti- 
tioners do not desire the same for nothing, but offer to pay what they 
have been sold for.* Hoping your Excellency will give the preference 
to your petitioners of having the same, with the redemption thereof, by 
pa3ring what they have been sold for; for they await your Excellency's 
favorable answer. In the meantime they will not cease to pray God to 
grant your Excellency enduring health and salvation. Amen. New Har- 
lem, 15th March, 1668. 

In the name of your Excellency's faithful subjects, 

J. La Montagne, Junior, 

Secretary. 

This paper had scarcely gone on its errand when another 
excitement arose in the village. The 22d of the same month, 
Jeaen Baignoux, a worthy French refugee, and subsequent owner 
of a farm on Hoorn's Hook, having occasion to cross the river 
to Morns', forty pounds of tobacco, with a nootast and other 

• In margin; "To wit, Seven or eight hundred sticks of firewood." 

t Nootas, a bag made of Indian hemp, in which the natives carried their sewant, 
tobacco, etc., and measured their corn. They came into common use with the settlers, 
and arc often named in inventories and vendue lists. The court minutes of July 
12, 1663, contain the following: 

*Xubbert Gerritsen and Marie Taine declare, bv request of Nelis Matthyssen, that 
thcv heard Madalena Lodewycks say, at said Msulalena's house, that Barentien Dircks 
had stolen the pork of Jacob Brouwer, which was in a nootas by the oven door. 
The court condemn defendant to pay, for the needs of the poor, 6 guilders and the 
cost of suit." She was wife of Simon de Ruinc. 

(See Wooley's Journal, p. 52, and N. Y. Col. Doc. I, 281). 



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248 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

articles, all valued at 76 florins, were stolen out of his canoe 
while it lay at the landing-place. He charged the theft upon 
Matthys, the ferry negro, who was arrested, but released on his 
master, Verveelen, becoming his bail. The case, more serious 
for that Matthys was de facto a public servant, demanded, as 
thought, an extra court, which was held April 2d, when beside 
the usual magistrates, his honor, High Sheriff Manning, was 
present. Pierre Grandpre, another refugee, with Knoet Mourisse, 
had occasion to go over together just after Baignoux, and de- 
scribed the strange actions of the negro, who "with a sword in 
one hand and fire in the other,'' forbade their landing. They also 
saw that Matthys had a nootas, but could not say whose it was. 
The testimony left little doubt of his guilt, but the court though 
best to postpone the case for further evidence ; Verveelen promis- 
ing Capt. Manning to make good Baignoux' loss should the 
latter be able to clearly fix the theft upon the negro. No more 
appears. 

But new trouble awaited the ferryman. It was found no 
such easy matter to close up the passage at Spuyten Duyvel, long 
"used to ford over from this Island to the Main." Fences were 
rudely thrown down, and the grazing kine strayed across at will. 
Further, it became known that John Barker, of Westchester, had 
presumptuously, and to the great damage and loss of the ferry 
at Harlem, taken over a great number of horses and cattle, toll 
free. Verveelen and the magistrates hastened to make com- 
plaint. The Mayor's Court gave both sides a hearing on June 
2d, when some neglect on the part of the ferryman appearing, 
it was "Ordered that said Barker shall pay the ferry money for 
all horses and cattle conveyed by him over the Spuyten Duyvel 
whilst the ferry has been at Harlem, which money the petition- 
ers shall employ to repair the fences at Spuyten Duyvel ; and the 
ferryman is in like manner expressly ordered and charged to 
finish the house and pen, on the opposite side of the ferry at 
Harlem, at the earliest opportunity; under such penalty as the 
Hon. Court shall impose." Verveelen made out a bill for £5 
sterling against Barker, but recovered it only by an attachment, 
issued September 5th, by the Town Court. 

A series of troubles now began between the inhabitants and 
John Archer, respecting their lands and meadows near Spuyten 
Duyvel. This noted person is first introduced to us as "Jan 
Arcer, alias Neuswys, from Amsterdam." His affix, literally 
rendered nosewise, when coupled with his more familiar nick- 
name, "koop-al," or "buy-all," suggested, — that Archer was a 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 249 

shrewd fellow and had an eye to business! One alias, indeed, 
he got from his father, who, in 1658, is called "J^^^ Aarsen, from 
Xieuwhoff, commonly called Jan Koopal," the son in 1662 
being styled "J^" Arcer, alias Koopal, the younger." He had 
been in Westchester a dozen years or more, and in its affairs 
borne an active part. It was an English community, and he, 
taking to wife in 1659 an English girl from Cambridge, his name 
thus came to take the English form of Archer, which has des- 
cended to a numerous posterity.* By his assiduity acquiring a 
large tract of land bteween the Harlem River and the Bronx, 
he had **at his own charge and with good success begun a town- 
ship ; in a convenient place for the relief of strangers, — it being 
the road for passengers to go to and fro from the main, — as 
well as for mutual intercourse with the neighboring colony." 
Archer began by leasing his land in parcels of 20 to 24 acres, 
to such persons as would undertake to clear and cultivate it (and 
with each a house and lot in the village), all upon easy terms; 
so that in the years 1668 and 1669 a good number of the Harlem 
people were led to go there. The '*new plantation" was given 
the name of Fordham.t 

Already, as we have seen, there was a dispute between Archer 
and the Harlem people about the line parting his lands from their 
meadows upon that side. It so happened that four of Archer's 
cattle trespassed on the meadows. They were seizeed by order 
of the Harlem magistrates, who entered a complaint against 
Archer to the new governor, Lovelace. Both parties appeared 
before his Excellency in Council, at a special session held Novem- 
ber 6th, and were heard at length; the Harlem people having 
deputed Toumeur, Verveelen, Waldron, and the constable, 
Aoelofsen, to answer for them. 

Two charges were preferred against Archer: 

* The Archers, we may hence conclude, are not of English, but of Holland de- 
scent, although the contrary is assumed in the History of Westchester County. The 
ancestor was born at NieuwhofT, his son at Amsterdam, and the latter has left us his 
autograph, invariably written Jan Arcer, as only a Hollander would write it. This 
seems pretty conclusive. 

t The annexed list of leases executed by Archer at Harlem shows who took up 

farms in Fordham. Nearly all subsec^uently left and got land of their own elsewhere. 

The leases with stars affixed are not signed in the record. 

Feb. 12, 1669, Kier Wolters and |„ ^ o ^-ro 

Pieter Roelofsen, fTerm 7 years from Sept. 29. 1668. 

'* " Marc du Sauchoy ** 4 " •• April i, 1669. 

May I, " Jan Pietersen Buys* " 5 " •• Aug. 31, 1668. 

" " Cornelis A. Viervant '* 5 " " " 

" " Tan Teunisz v. Tilburg " 5 " ** " 

Jan Hendrick Boch* " 5 " '* '• 

" " Hendrick Kiersen " 5 " *' " 

" '* Louwerens Ackcrman ** 5 " ** " 

" " Michicl Bastiaensen '* 5 " " " 

Decs, " Kier Wolters. " s " '* 

*' ** Marc du Sauchoy " S " " " 



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250 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

"ist. That upon pretence of a certain purchase, he isty^ 
claim to a parcel of land upon this Island, near Spu)rten Duyvel, 
which is within the limits and bounds of their patent, and of 
right belongeth to their Town." 

"2d. That having seated himself very near unto some lots 
of meadow ground upon the Main, belonging unto their Town, 
he is a daily trespasser upon them with his cattle, and that the 
said ground, lying in length alongst the Creek or Kill, cannot 
without very great charge be fenced in." 

Upon the first point Archer replied that he owned the land 
in question, on this Island, by virtue of a groundbrief granted 
by the Dutch governor Kieft, which he had purchased from 
Thomas Lamberts and Joost Kockuyt for 600 guilders. But the 
court decided, that owing to "the long time since the first ground- 
brief was given, and no settlement since/* the title had "lapsed" ; 
or, in other words, was "of no validity, it beeing forfeited by 
several acts of the government." Further, because "it might be 
injurious to the Town of Harlem," Governor Nicolls had refused 
to confirm it. It was therefore "adjudged that the land in con- 
troversy doth belong to the Town of Harlem, by virtue of their 
patent." But it was recommended, "in regard the owners thereof 
have sustained loss upon the said land," to find means to pay 
them so much as the first agreement for the sale thereof." 

Upon the second count. Archer "denies any claim to the lots 
upon the Main, Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, with which he is charged; but 
hath purchased land near adjoining, that was the Yonker Vander 
Donck*s." Thereupon, "it was ordered that the defendant do 
bring in the patent for the Yonker's land in fifteen days* time, 
with what right he hath to the land where he hath built ; at which 
time some persons shall be appointed to view the meadow belong- 
ing to Harlem, upon the Main, and to make report how it may 
be preserved from the defendant's trespassing on it. Which per- 
sons shall also be ordered to view the passage at Spu>i:en Duyvel, 
how it may be made convenient for travelers and drift of cattle ; 
the ferry at Harlem being found incommodious, and not answer- 
ing the ends formerly proposed." The latter announcement fore- 
shadowed a change which was to plant a lifelong thorn in Archer's 
side. 

On November 15th, Archer attempted "to make out his title." 
But the court remained of the opinion, that he had "not clearly 
made it out, he having no bill of sale, nor bonds setting forth 
his purchase.** They gave him till February 14th to "clear his 
title,** — and meanwhile he was to give "no disturbance to his 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 251 

neighbors.*' An order was then issued for the release of his 
cattle. The receipt to the magistrates for the "four attached 
cattle," dated December 13th, and signed "Jan Arcer," shows 
compliance with the order. 

No answer has been found to the application respecting 
Hoorn's Hook; the decision upon the Jansen and Aertsen patent 
seems to have answered it. Certainly Harlem held the land, and 
the upshot of the matter was that Tourneur asked the freeholders 
to grant him this fifty morgen "as a recompense for his services 
to the town," or to indorse the purchase which he had made. 
But when it came up for action, November 20th, some were in 
favor, others opposed, or said they would have no more to do 
with it, and so it dropped. Howbeit, Tourneur had already 
secured, June 15th, a valuable grant from Governor Nicolls of 
eighty-one acres on the other side of Harlem River, between 
Archer's and Bronck's land, and watered by the gentle Man- 
nepies, now Cromwell's Creek; which property, by the marriage 
of his daughter Esther, became vested in the De Voe ancestor, 
afterward owner of the adjoining tract known as De Voe's Point. 

On September 17th, the magistrates Tourneur and the sen- 
ior Vermilye had been summoned to DelavalFs mill to appraise 
the effects of the miller, Hage Bruynsen, just deceased; and ere 
the year closed, death claimed another settler, Hendrick Karstens, 
late a nominee for the office of overseer. The village had been 
the scene of unusual activity through the working season now 
closing. The first vessel of size put upon the stocks here, of 
which any notice is taken, was a sloop built this year, under a 
contract, by Jan Gerritsen De Vries, for Capt. Thomas Bradley, 
who before this had sailed a market yacht between New York 
and "Stafford." On November 27th, the parties discharged each 
other of their contract, Bradley giving De Vries a bond for the 
balance due him, 122 gl. in sewant, to which Verveelen and Wil- 
liam Sandford were witnesses. As indicative of growth in the 
village, the magistrates, on December 17th, 1668, granted Johan- 
nes Pelzer "a little house-lot, lying south of the house-lot of 
Claude Le Maistre."* 

* Hendrick Karstens was born in 1610, in Oldenbourg, Westphalia, but directly 
after that event, his father, Karsten Hendricks, removed to Amsterdam. The family 
were Lutherans. Hendrick took to sea, but finally married, in 1644, Femmetic Coen- 
ractsi, from Groningen. Soon after the birth of a daughter, whom they called 
Wybrccht, thev left Amsterdam for New Netherland. Karstens took up land at 
Harlem, but also workied as a mason. Unschooled, but industrious and worthy, he 
bore his humble part in the building up of the town, holding, at times, several minor 
offices. In 1667 ne visited the Delaware. The year after his death, his widow married 
Lubbert Gerritsen. Karsten's children were, Wybrecht, born 1646, at Amsterdam, who 
married Hermanus Van Borsum; Coenraet, bom 1648, in this country; and Tan, 
bom 1650. The name Boch, assumed by the two sons, was probably derived from 



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252 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

The following year, 1669, witnessed several important meas- 
ures for the improvement of the town. On February 22d, Gov- 
ernor Lovelace and his Council, with "others of the bench at 
New York," held a court at Harlem to consider two or three 
matters affecting the town and neighborhood. First and princi- 
pal was that of laying out a wagon road btween New York and 
Harlem, "which hath heretofore been ordered and appointed, but 
never as yet was prosecuted to effect,'* though "very necessary 
for mutual commerce with one another." The following action 
was taken: 

"It is this day ordered that a convenient wagon way be made 
between the city of New York and this place, to which end four 
commissioners shall be appointed, who are to view and consider 
of the most convenient passage to be made. 

"That these four commissioners meet to view the said way 
on Thursday next, being the 25th of this instant month; and 
after having concluded upon it, that immediately they fall upon 
laying out the way, according to their former agreement there- 
upon ; that is to say, the neighbors of the Bowery and parts 
adjacent to clear the way to be fit for the passage of wagons, 
from New York to the Saw Kill ; and the Town of Harlem, from 
thence to their town. That this way be laid out and cleared, 
according to the intent of this order, by the first of May next. 

"That the appointed Commissioners, upon their conclusion 
of the best way, do immediately give the Governor an account 
of their agreement, who thereupon will give order for the putting 
the same in execution. 

"That the Commissioners of either party have hereby liberty 
to make inspection on the sufficiency or defect of each other, 
to the intent that there prove no failing in either of them."* 

The two commissioners appointed for the Harlem district 
were Daniel Tourneur and Resolved Waldron. 

This court "also ordered that all horses and cattle belonging 
to New York and New Harlem, which shall be turned into the 

Bourg, used familiarly for Oldenbourg, their father's birthplace. After some years 
they both removed from the town, but whither is not certain; possibly to Kinderhook. 
(Consult Munseirs Albany Hist. Coll., iv. 106). 

• Harlem Lane, as we have reason to believe, was at first an Indian trail. Such 
forest paths, conveniently marked out by savage instinct, were often adopted by the 
white settlers as the best routes for highways. In traveling from New Amsterdam to 
Spuytcn Duyvel, at McGowan's Pass was the natural descent to the plain, the path 
striking its northern end, where it would as naturally fork to the left and right, for 
the equal convenience of the pedestrian passing through the "Clove of the Kill** to 
the North River, or along the base of the height to and up Break Neck Hill. It is 
not possible to tell when this path over the Flats became a road, but the indications 
are that it was very early, many years before it was formally laid out as siich, 
which was done pursuant to an Act of Assembly of June 19, 1709- (See Hoffman, ii, 
249). 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. ,253 

woods upon this island, shall have a mark of distinction upon 
them ; That is to say, those belonging to New York, the Bowery, 
and parts adjacent, are to have a brand mark with N. Y. upon 
them, and those of New Harlem with N. H. And that there 
be a person appointed and sworn in each place to mark such 
horses and cattle as really do belong to the inhabitants, and none 
others." 

The question of the transfer of the ferry from Harlem to 
Spuyten Duyvel had been for some time mooted. Proceedings 
in regard to it were opened by the following communication from 
Governor Lovelace to the Mayor and Aldermen of the city, dated 
February 27th, 1669. 

"Whereas Johannes Verveelen, of New Harlem, hath pre 
ferred a petition uftto me, in regard the ferry at Harlem is to be 
removed, and that the passage at Spuyten Duyvel is to be fitted 
and kept for passengers going to and from this Island to the 
Main, as also for a drift for cattle and horses, that he may be 
admitted to keep the said passage; the Petitioner alleging, that 
having a promise from the late Governor, my predecessor, as 
also a confirmation from the Mayor and Aldermen of this city, 
that he should enjoy the benefit of the ferry at Harlem for five 
years, conditionally that he should provide boats and other neces- 
sar>^ accommodation for strangers, which accordingly he hath per- 
formed, but there is not as yet above two years of the time ex- 
pired ; I have thought fit to refer the whole case of the Petitioner 
to the Mayor and Aldermen of this city, who are to return back 
to me their judgment and resolution therein. Whereupon I 
shall give order for the laying out of a piece of land near Spuyten 
Duyvel fit for the accommodation of the person that shall be 
appointed to keep the ferry and passage there, as also for the 
relief of passengers and strangers." 

The Mayor and Aldermen, by resolution, March 2d, con- 
curred in a change of the ferry from Harlem "to the wading 
place," and recommended that Verveelen be settled there for 
the remaining three years, provided he "deliver up annually an 
account of the income of said ferry." Hereupon the Governor, 
June 2d, granted Verveelen a warrant which after informing "all 
officers or other persons whom it may concern," of the purpose 
to remove the ferry from New Harlem to Spuyten Duyvel, "a 
nearer and more convenient passage to and from this Island and 
the Main," and that Johannes Verveelen was found "the fittest 
person to be employed therein that will undertake it, both in 



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254 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

regard to the change he hath been already at, and his experience 
that way" ; proceeds thus 

* 'These are to authorize and empower him, the said Johannes 
Verveelen, to repair to the said place at Spuyten Dujrvel, and to 
cause a fence to be made for keeping all manner of cattle from 
going or coming to or from the said passage without leave or 
paying therefor, and at his best conveniency to lay out a place 
upon that piece of land called Papparinamin on the Main side, 
near unto the said passage, for habitation and accommoda- 
tion of travelers, for the which he shall have a patent and articles 
of confirmation. And for so doing this shall be his warrant." 

^'Instructions for ye Ferryman at Spuyten DuyveF' were 
drawn up July 15th, and incorporated in the following curious 
lease : 

Articles of Agreement Indented, consented unto and concluded 
upon, the 15th day of July, in the 21st year of his Majesty's reign, 
Annoqe Domini, 1669, Between the R' HonWc Francis Lovelace, Esqr, 
Governor Gen^ under His Royal Highness, James Duke of York and Al- 
bany, &c., of all his Territories in America, on the one part; and Johannes 
Verveelen, of New Harlem, on the Island Manhatans, Fermnan, on the_ 
other part, for and concerning the settling of a Ferry at the place com-' 
monly called Spuyten Duyvel, between this Island Manhatans and the new 
village called Fordham, as followeth, viz., that is to say: 

Imprimis, It is agreed, concluded upon and mutually consented unto, 
by and between the parties to these present, That the said Johannes 
Verveelen as Ferryman shall erect and provide a good and sufficient 
dwelling-house upon the Island or Neck of Land known by the name of 
Papparinamin, where he shall be furnished with three or four good beds 
for the entertainment of strangers, as also with provisions at all seasons, 
for them, their horses and cattle, together with stabling and stalling. 

That the Ferryman have a sufficient and able boat for the transporta- 
tion of passengers, horses and cattle, upon all occasions. 

That the said Ferryman cause the Pass upon the said Island near unto 
Spuyten Duyvil, to be sufficiently fenced in, with a gate to be kept locked, 
that no person may pass in or out without his permission. 

That the Ferryman do bear one-third part of the charge of making 
the bridge over the meadow ground to the Town of Fordham, who are 
to be at the remainder of the charge themselves. 

That the said Ferryman do give his due attendance at the said Ferry, 
either himself in person, or by one sufficiently deputed by him, so that 
nobody be interrupted in their passage to and fro, about their occasions, 
at seasonable hours. Except in case of emergency, where the public af- 
fairs are concerned, when the said Ferryman is to be ready at all seasons 
that he shall be called upon. 

And in case of neglect of the Ferryman's duty, upon complaint of the 
party wronged to the Court of Mayor and Aldermen of this City, the 
said Ferryman shall incur such a Penalty as the Court shall adjudge, 
according to the merits of the case. 

In consideration of what is herein required to be done and performed 
by the said Johannes Verveelen as Ferryman, he, the said Johannes Ver- 
veelen, shall, for the well execution of his office, have and receive as fol- 
loweth, viz.. 

That the whole Island or Neck of Land called Papparinamin, whether 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 



255 



encompassed with water or meadow ground, shall be allotted to the said 
Ferryman, together with the piece of meadow ground adjoining to it, 
lately laid out by Jacques Cortilyou, Surveyor, towards the accommodation 
of strangers, and the defraying of his charges. 

That the said Island or Neck of Land and meadow ground, together 
with the housing, or whatever else he shall erect or build thereupon, 
together with the Ferry, and the benefits, privileges and profits there- 
unto belonging, shall be and remain to the proper use and behoof of the 
said Johannes Verveelen and his assigns, for and during the term and 
space of eleven years, to commence from and after the ist day of Novem- 
ber, 1669. 

That for the first year, he, the said Johannes Verveelen, be Constable 
of the new Town of Fordham, which said Town or Village is to have 
its dependence upon the Mayor's Court of this City, in like manner as 
the Town of New Harlem hath ; They having liberty to try all small 
causes under five pounds amongst themselves, as is allowed in other Town 
Courts. 

That after the expiration of the said term and time of eleven years, 
he, the said Johannes Verveelen, if he so long shall live, and desire the 
same, shall have the first proffer to continue Ferryman; or in case of his 
decease, his nearest relation or assign shall have preference before an- 
other, in being admitted to take the said Ferry to farm. But if it shall 
happen that another person shall be invested in the employment, the 
person so invested shall pay unto him the said Johannes Verveelen or 
his assigns, and make such satisfaction for his buildings, boats and other 
accommodations remaining thereupon, as shall be adjudged by two in- 
diflferent persons to be chosen between both parties. 

That at the expiration of the term of eleven years, the said Johannes 
Verveelen or his assignee who shall exercise the employment of Ferry- 
man, shall be obliged to have the house tenantable, with a sufficient 
boat, and the fences and gates kept in repair, as they ought to be con- 
tinued all the time, so that no discouragement be given to passengers, 
nor the Ferry through any neglect be discontinued. 

That the Ferryman shall take and receive of all passengers, whether 
alone or whether on horseback, drift of horses or cattle, for lodging, 
diet, feeding, passage, or ferrying, according to the rates in a Table to 
that end directed and set forth.* 



*Ye Ferryman His Rates. 

For Lodging any person, 8 pence per night, in case they 

have a bed with sheets, and without sheets, 2 Pence in 

silver. 

For transportation of any person, I Penny silver. 

For transportation of a man and horse, 7 Pence in silver. 

For a single horse, 6 Pence. 

For a turn with his boat, for 2 horses, 10 Pence, and for 

any more, 4 Pence apiece ; and if they be driven over, 

half as much. 

For single cattle, as much as a horse. 

For a boat loading of cattle, as he hath for horses. 

For droves of cattle to be driven over, and opening ye 

g^tes, 2 Pence p. piece. 

For feeding cattle, 3 Pence in silver. 

For feeding a hor^e one day or night with hay or grasse, 

5 Pence. 



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256 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Provided always that all persons employed by special warrant from 
the Governor, or any Magistrate upon the public account, shall be ex- 
empted from paying either ferriage or passage for themselves or horses, 
as also such person or persons as shall at any time be summoned to 
appear at Arms, upon any emergency or extraordinary occasion, who are 
likewise to be free. 

Moreover if the Governor shall at any time within the term aforesaid 
think it convenient that a Fair shall be kept either in the City or any 
other part of the Island, It is also agreed upon, that all droves of cattle 
and horses passing over the said Ferry shall be free from payment, either 
in going thither or returning back, which privilege shall continue dur- 
ing the time of keeping the Fair, as also a day before and a day after its 
expiration. 

And lastly, the said Johannes Verveelen, or whosoever on his behalf 
shall keep the Ferry aforesaid, shall pay yearly and every year as a Quit 
Rent to His Royal Highness, the sum of Ten Shillings. 

In Testimony hereof the Parties to these present Articles Indented 
have interchangeably put to their hands and Seals the day and year first 
above written. Francis Lovelace, 

Johannes Verveelen. 

Verveelen was soon settled at Papparinamin, where, as 
ferrymaster, he kept the key of Manhattan Island. Being con- 
stable of Fordham, here he held court after William Betts, sen., 
and Kier Wolters, had been appointed by the governor, December 
24th, 1669, as "Overseers and Assistants." The next year he 
superintended the "making a bridge over the marsh between Pap- 
parinamin and Fordham.'* He was the ferryman here for many 
years, under renewals of his lease, and by the favor of succes- 
sive governors; but he and Archer were ever at swords' points 
on the subject of Papparinamin, the latter claiming it to the day 
of his death as successor to Vander Donck, and "by virtue of his 
purchase and patent." 

Other events of 1669 remain to be noticed.* The mill-dam, 
"lately impaired by a breach of water," needed prompt atten- 
tion, but as Capt. Delavall was then abroad, Governor Lovelace 

• Tan Laurens Duyts, who left the town this year, was the son of Laurens Duyts, 
nicknamed great shoe, a Dane, born in Holstein, in 1610. (See pp. 135, 183). The 
father was banished by Stuyvcsant — an easy thing for him to do, and seldom wisely- 
done, but Duyts* case would seem to have been an exception. He died at Bergen, 
January 14, 1668, leaving two sons, Jan and Hans. Kuyter stood as godfather for 
both at their baptism. Hans was born in 1644, and lived at Harlem in 1667. His 
daughter, Catherine, born 1674, married, 1688, Joost Paulding, from Cassant, Hol- 
land, who went to Westchester, and was the ancestor of John Paulding, one of 
Andre's captors; also of Gen. William Paulding, formerly mayor of New York. 

Jan Duyts bore a good name at Harlem, and did not deserve the taunt uttered 
one day by Jeanne de Ruine, in presence of Monis Petersen. You schelm, loop by 
you vaar been. "You villain, run to your father Dane." Monis testified that Jan 
said nothing to provoke it. He was then twenty years old, and the same year, Novem- 
ber 22, 1662, bought of Lubbert Gerritsen the* house and bouwery formwly of Mat- 
thys Boon, engaging to pay for it 300 guilders. He sold out the next year, and Re- 
solved Waldron soon after eot this property. In 1667 Duyts was working for Ger- 
ritsen aforesaid, and married that year; but on January 8, 1669, he leased a farm 
at Dutch Kills from John Parcell, and lived there, when he married a second time, in 
1673. His wives were Jannetie Jcurians, from Bois Ic Due, and Neeltie Ahriaens, from 
Breda; the last married, 1670, Hendrick Van Dyck, of New Utrecht. Duyts left 
some property to his two children, Laurens and Annetie. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 257 

was informed of the accident, June 8th, and ordered John Askew 
and Peter Van Nest, of Flatlands, to go to Harlem, forthwith, 
with their workmen, and "use the best skill and endeavor in 
repairing the dam," and "what else is requisite about the mill." 
Capt. Delavall returned toward the close of the year, to his 
estates and his honors, and in full favor with the Duke of York; 
having been acquitted of certain charges on account of which 
he had gone to England. 

Tourneur's negro now absconded; inevitable contingency of 
a state of bondage, — African slavery even then existing in all the 
colonies. So to Westchester went the following warrant, 
directing the constable to pursue the runaway with "hue and cry." 

Whereas, there is lately a Negro Servant run away from his Master's 
service, and supposed to be gone your way toward New England. These 
are to require all persons within this government and to desire all others, 
if tlie said Negro can be found within your liberties or precincts, that 
you forthwith seize upon and secure him, and cause him to be safely 
conveyed to this place, or to his Master, Daniel Toumeur, at Harlem, 
upon this Island. The Negro is big and tall, about 25 or 26 years old, 
and went away from his Master four or five days since. Given under 
my hand at Fort James, in New York, this 28th day of June, 1669. 

Francis Lovelace. 

The Indians still laid claim to portions of the Harlem lands, — 

perhaps reserved rights, — one of the tracts being their old and 

favorite haunt, Rechewanis, or Montague's Point. The chief 

claimant was Rechewack, the old sachem and proprietor of 

Wickquaskeek, who, as far back as 1639, had been a party to the 

sale of Ranachqua and Kaxkeek. Though he and his tribe had 

lately been "beaten off by the Maquas," or Mohawks, who were 

at war with them, and forced to retreat over the Hudson to the 

deep cloves and forests of Tappan, their enemies, as they affirmed, 

made war only on their persons and goods, but not on their lands, 

so that their title still held. Montagne proceeded to satisfy the 

old Wickquaskeek and his chiefs, and thereby to secure the 

Indian title, — in those times a desideratum. Obtaining a release 

of the Point, he has left us the following record of it; 

Ay 20 Augusty oude steyl hebben de onderges : Willden myn Jan La 
Montagne verkocht de punt genaampt Rechewanis, bepaalt tussen twee 
killen en bergen, en achter een fonteyn die aen Montangen Vlachte 
scheyt; met de Valeyen van de bochte van't Hellegat tot Konaande 



Kongh. 

Verkoopers van de Punt. ■ 



Rechkewackan 1 

Achwaaroewes I 

Sacharoch j 

Pasachkeeginc i- Tappan. 

Niepenohau | 

Kouhamweu | 

Kottareu J 



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258 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

[Translation.'l 
On this date, 20th August, old style, the underwritten Indians have 
sold to me, Jan La Montagne, the Point named Rechwanis, bounded be- 
tween two creeks, and hills, and behind, a stream* which runs to Mon- 
tagne's Flat; with the meadows from the bend of the Hellegat to Ko- 
naande Kongh. 

Sfpointi names as above. } Tappan. 

Upon the heel of this came another claim. On April 9th, 
1670, when certain chiefs met Governor Lovelace to make sale 
of Staten Island, "some of the Indians present laid claim to the 
land by Harlem." But this was answered by producing the 
Indian deed of 1626, for the whole island, and they were told, 
"the record shows it was bought and paid for forty-four years 
ago." But in nowise satisfied, the sachems still held to their pre- 
tensions, which later were more successful. The deed to Mon- 
tagne is especially interesting, as tending to show the identity 
of the Wickquaskeeks with the Manhattans, so called, a name 
meaning simply the Islanders. 

A notable transaction was Nicholas De Meyer's sale, Sep- 
tember 25th, 1669, of the two farms embraced in his patent, to 
the brothers Cornelis and Laurens Jansen; the first of whom 
was the ancestor of the Kortright family, or that branch after- 
ward known for its large landed possessions, of which this pur- 
chase formed the nucleust The town now proceeded to inclose 
a portion of the commons lying about "the hills" (Mount Morris, 
etc.) as a calf pasture, probably on being interdicted the further 
use of Little Barent's Island for that purpose by Capt. Delavall, 
whose proposition respecting the Island they had declined. The 
following regulations were passed November 25th, 1669: 

Ordinance made concerning the Common Calf Pasture lying north of 
the village. 

It is first ordered that no one of the inhabitants shall be allowed to 
pasture therein any beasts except calves, upon the forfeit of three guild- 

• The Dutch word fontcyn, though usually rendered spring, here means as well 
the brook issuing from a spring, I believe that spoken of on page 182. This brook or 
run became a recognized boundary, and is several times referred to in connection with 
this and the adjoining property, and always, in the original, called the fonteyn. 

t Jan Bastiaensen, the father of Cornells and Laurens Jansen, came to this 
country, as we have seen, in 1663, from the County of I^eerdam, or the Prince's Land, 
in South Holland, accompanied by his brother, Michael Bastiaensen, who afterward 
lived in Harlem, and whose family will be noticed elsewhere. Jan may have been the 
"Kortryck" who owned a bouwery on Staten Island, in 1674. (N. Y. Col. Mss., 
xxiii. 403). He seems to have spent part of his time at Harlem, but is last men- 
tioned here January 8^ 1677, when he is witness to a power of attorney, given by his 
old Schoonrcwoerd fnend, with whom he came out, fan Louwe Bogert, to Hendrick 
Tansen Baker, to collect money due Bogert on Brooklyn property sold to Thos. Lam- 
berts, etc. His children were Cornelis, bom 1645, and noticed on a future page; 
Hendrick, bom 1648; Laurens, born 165 1, also noticed hereafter, and Belitie, bom 
1659, who was, as were the others, "uit Holland," and who married, in 1678, Jacob 
Jansen Decker, of Esopus, whither her brother, Hendrick, had gone to live. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 259 

ers for each beast, and for a flock of sheep three guilders. Moreover, 
every one leaving the gate open shall forfeit three guilders ; also for every 
beast found in said pasture shall three guilders be forfeited; provided 
that the owner of the beast or beasts may seek his remedy upon those 
who shall have opened, or left open, the gate or fence. It is also ordered 
that each one shall duly make his part of the bridges in both meadows 
within the common calf pasture between this and the last of March next 
ensuing, upon penalty of five and twenty guilders. 

Hcndrick Tanscn Van Bcest, as he at first styled himself ^ but later in life, from 
his father's birthplace, called Hendrick Janscn Van Kortnght, bought land near 
Stujrvesant's Bouwery, February la, 1669, but did not long hold it. He and his 
brother, Lraurens, going to Esopus, both married there; Hendrick, on December 14, 
1672, to Catherine Hansen, "bom in New York,'* and Laurens on or about the same 
date to Mary, daughter of Albert Heymans Roosa. Probably Hendrick's wife was 
the daughter of Hans Weber, "master at arms," who died in 1649, and whose widow 
marritd Matthys Capito, removed to Esopus, and was killed by the Indians in 1663. 
Hendrick's first child being "bom at Harlem," in 1674, we presume he was then 
living here; but, as before said, he settled in Ulster County, buying land at Mom- 
backus, town of Rochester, where he raised a large family, who bore the name of 
Kortright, or Cortright, and whose descendants have become numerous and widely 
scattered. Hendrick lost his wife in 1740, and he died in 1741, aged 93. His 
children, so far as shown, were John, born 1674, who married Maria, daughter of 
Wm. Van Vredenburgh, of New York; Hendrick, born 1677, who married, 1700, Mary 
De Witt, and, in 1704, Catherine Crom, widow of Arie Van Etten; Cornelius, born 
1680, who married, 1701, Christina Rosecrans; Geertie, born 1682; Arie, born 1684; 
Antie, born 1686, married Jacob Decker; Lawrence, born 1688, who married, 1715, 
Sarah Ten Eyck; Jacob, born 1692; Peter, born 1696, married Marritie Van Garden, 
and Catherine, born 1699. John, Cornelius, Lawrence and Peter Kortright subscribed, 
1717, for the minister at Rochester, and were leading men there. Peter died in 
1744. Cornelius removed to Marbletown. John and Maria had issue, Hendrick, Wil- 
liam, Adrian, etc, two at least of these straying down into Orange County, where 
William had a family, and, in 1740, was justice of the peace. His brother, Hendrick, 
bom 1704, married, 1730, Grietie Van Bunschoten, left Rochester and settled in 
Minisink. Being very sick, he made his will, December 3, 1753, providing for his 
widow, but naming no children, and giving his homestead and Great and Little Mini- 
nnk Islands to his "cousin" (nephew), Hendrick W. Cortwright. son of William, de- 
ceased. His will was proved June 26, 1760. This Hendrick, 'tis said, has many de- 
scendants within the old town of Minisink. Friendly intercourse was kept up for 
many years between the Kortrights of Harlem and those of Ulster County. 

Jaques Cresson, who in a ten years' residence had proved 
himself a worthy inhabitant, made his will before the secretary, 
October ist, preceding, his wife joining with him, and Tourneur 
and Waldron being witnesses. The survivor was to use the 
property, and "bring up the children reputably, and in the fear 
of the Lord." Soon after this, Cresson was made constable, but 
subsequently resolving to remove in the spring to New York, 
where his brothers-in-law, Nicholas De La Plaine and Nicholas 
Du Puis (Depew) were living, he sold his house, bouwery, etc., 
December 4th, 1669, to Meynard Journee, of Bradford, Brook- 
lyn, for 1600 gl., sewant. Du Puis, whose wife was Mrs. Cres- 
son's sister, was present, with David Demarest. 

The day following Montague was sent for to the house and 
sick-bed of Jean Le Roy, who wished to make his will ; Oblinus, 
Isaac Vermilye, and Constable Roelofsen being desired to wit- 
ness it. He had been bereft of his wife, Louise De Lancaster, 
and his only child, Stephen, baptized at Brooklyn, on April 3d, 
1661. Bestowing 50 gl. upon the poor, he named Daniel Tour- 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 261 

neur, senior, as his sole heir and testamenteur. But Le Roy 
recovered, to marry again, and to see his kinsman, Tourneur, 
buried. Jean was probably related to Marc Le Roy, who stood 
as godfather for young Daniel Tourneur, at his baptism at 
Leyden.* 

♦ Peter Roelofsen was from Utrecht, as was his first wife, Willcmtie Jans, married 
in this country in 1653. He, with others, started the town of New Utrecht, in 1657, 

Kut up a house, etc., but after three years sold out, and moved to Flanders. In 1664 
e married a second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Jan Pater, she having been born in 
Brazil. Pieter served two terms as constaole at Harlem; tilled one of Archer's farms, 
and, in 1671, some of Delavall's land. In 1672 he went to Mespat Kills, and there 
bought a farm. He and wife sustained a good name here, as certified by the magis- 
trates after bis death, which happened in 1679. They made their will in New York, 
March 20, 167S, Jochem Beeckman and Dirck Jansen, burghers, being present. A funny 
incident is related of the widow and Dr. John Greenleaf, of Newtown. The latter, 
by way of a j'oke, offered to waive his bill for services, for a kiss. The widow took 
bim up, the kiss was duly given, and they shook hands over it. Afterward the doctor 
was so ungallant as to sue for payment. But the magistrate, holding the settlement 
binding, found for the amiable defendant. She subsequently married Peter Buckhout. 
(Sec p. 204). Roelfsen had issue b^ his first wife, Roelof and Maria, and by his 
second, Johannes, Jacobus, Hendrickie, Abraham and Susannah. The sons retained 
the patronymic Peterson for a time, but finally adopted the name of Bass. 




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CHAPTER XVII, 

1 670- 1 672. 

VILLAGE life; HARLEM TWO CENTURIES AGO. 

T5USY yeoman, drawn into such intimacy at home and in 
the field, — from the very proximity of their dwellings and 
narrow bouwlots, and their modes of tillage in common, — their 
was more than a monotonous round of dull rural life.* Hence 
the variety of transactions and incidents which crowd the years 
next ensuing, none remarkably signal or startling, but affording 
nevertheless a curious study touching the ways and customs pre- 
vailing among them. A new generation has grown up, taxing 
the energies of provident sires to give them land, homes, and 
outfits. The seniors admonished by advancing years that they 
must pass away, full oft the parish clerk is called in to draw up a 
last will and testament. Yet following the pioneer work of 
organization, these are years of maturing and progress. Multi- 
plying interests naturally bring new duties and burdens to both 
town officers and the community, and to which they seldom prove 
unequal. It was to engross much of their united effort, wisdom, 
and vigilance to support the institutions and maintain the whole- 
some regulations they had introduced, as well as to guard and 
utilize the long stretch of territory comprehended in their patent. 
It greatly enhanced these responsibilities when Fordham was 
added to their jurisdicition. 

The stock, allowed to run at large iu the woodlands, was 
very liable, especially if unmarked, to be embezzled by persons 
not over-scrupulous. The case of George Tippett, near Spuyten 

• Plan of the village in 1670, on page 260. Explanations: 

Plots a to V embrace the original erven or house lots, to which 5 erven, (w, x, y, 
aa, bb), and 3 half erven (z, cc, dd), had since been added. For some cause v was 
also rated as a half erf. On this stands the only remaining house of the old dorp 
or village proper, being that occupied by Mr. Cowperthwait. The old Ferry House, 
pulled down in 1867, stood on plot x. 

A. Site of Reformed Church and Harlem Library. 

B. *' Chesterman House. 

C " Congregational Church. 

D. " i"*^K^ Ingraham House. 

E. " Denck Benson's House, removed before 1766. 

F. ** Lewis Morris Coach House, built about 1724. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 263 

Duyvel, had recently been reported to the Governor. By his 
Excellency's order of February loth, 1670, the constabk and 
overseers of Harlem met with the court at Fordham, on the last 
day of that month, to inquire whether certain unmarked hogs 
which Tippett had slaughtered, belonged to him ; the same being 
"claimed by John Archer, on the behalf of His Royal Highness," 
under the Governor's warrant. Tippett had once been reproved 
by the Governor for "the unlawful mark he hath, of cutting the 
ears of cattle so close that any other marks may be cut off by 
it" ; but the evidence now given at Fordham by Elizabeth Heddy, 
Benjamin Palmer, and Jan Hendricks, established the weighty 
fact that Tippett had owned a litter of pigs, "the which were 
gray red, spotted and white." Archer protested, and, coming 
to Harlem March 3d, took the testimony of the magistrates and 
Daniel Tourneur as to what Tippett and his witnesses had ad- 
mitted and said. Nothing seems to have come of it; but, 
two days after, the Mayor's Court issued new instructions, "that 
no horses or cattle be fed in the commons of this Island but 
those that are branded with the Town's mark." They ordered 
a record to be kept of the color and marks of the creatures, and 
of the owners' names ; and that two days in the week should be 
designated for branding, etc. The fees were to be 3 gl. sewant 
for a horse, and 2 gl. for an ox, steer, or heifer. Resolved 
Waldron and Daniel Tourneur were appointed branders "foi 
the town of New Harlem and adjacent farms," to act from May 
1st ensuing, when the above rules were to go into effect. 

The removal of Kier Wolters to Fordham early in the win- 
ter caused a vacancy in the board of overseers, to fill which 
Joost Van Oblinus was appointed on January 25th. Wolters 
was present with Archer at Harlem March 3d, aiding him in 
the Tippett affair; but he died shortly after, having been much 
respected for character and abilities, notwithstanding Tippett 
had said "he acknowledged him for no magistrate."* Jan Ger- 

• Kicr Wolters, the ancestor of the Kicrsen and Kiers family, arrived here in 
1657. as before noticed, from the Dutch county of Drenthe; coming via Amsterdam, 
to New Amstel on the Delaware, where he was reputed to be one of their ablest and 
best farmers. Two vears later, flattering offers being made him, he came to New 
Amsterdam, and had the charge of Governor Stuyvesant's bouwery. He took De 
Mcver's farm at Harlem, in the fall of 1667, I believe, at 500 guilders rent per annum, 
and half the increase of the stock; and worked it for two seasons. Losing his wife. 
Jannetic Jans, he married, early in 1668, Lysbet, daughter of David Ackerman, re- 
moving the next year to Fordham, and there died, in 1670, as above stated. While at 
Harlem he was twice chosen an overseer. His children, so far as known, were Walter, 
Hendrick. Jan and Grietie, all bom in Drenthe; Jannetie, bom in New York, and 
Tjerck, of whom we only know that he joined the church at New York in 1674. Jan- 
netie married, in 1672, Claes Tansen Van Hevningen, and Grietie married, in 1680, 
Willem Peerscn, of New York. Hendrick Kiersen was bom in 1648, at Giest, in 
Drenthe, and, in 1673. married Metje Michiels, daughter of Michiel Bastiaensen. He 
finally settled in Fordham; his children being Kier, born 1674; Michiel, born 1676; 
Jannetic, bom 1680; Sarah, born 1683; Peter, born 1684; Maria, born 1687; 



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264 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

ritsen De Vries obtained from the overseers on March 2d a 
formal grant of the house lot set off to him some years before 
at the south side of the village, on condition of his "paying 
as other such small house lots (erfjes), and also tlie same servi- 
tudes.*' He is charged for it in the town book, under 1667, 
25 gl. De Vries had sold this lot, with its house and improve- 
ments, to Resolved Waldron, to whom he conveyed it the next 
day, March 3d. Here Waldron took up his residence. 

Glaude Delamater and Hester Du Bois, his wife, joined in 
making their will, April 15th, though he survived a dozen years, 
and she forty. It shows the then form of such instruments* 

In the year of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 1670, the 15th 
April, appeared before me Jan La Montagne, Junior, admitted Secre- 
tary of this Town by the Honorable Mayor's Court, residing within the 
jurisdiction of New Haerlem, Glaude le Maistre and Hester du Bois, 
husband and wife, of sound memory and understanding as externally 
appears; and of mind to make a disposition of their temporal estate. 
First, on resting in the Lord, they commit their souls into the hands of 
the Most High God, and their bodies to decent burial, and fifty guilders 
in sewant to the poor in this place. Secondly, they annul all testa- 
ments and codicils that before this were made, and declare this mutual 
testament to be their final will. One of them having deceased, the sur- 
vivor is to continue in full possession till again married, when the mar- 
rying party shall place into the hands of two guardians thereto ap- 
pointed by the Court, a full account of all; remaining in possession until 
the children arrive at age, or are married with the consent of father or 
mother: on condition of placing in the hands of the guardians a mort- 
gage upon the real estate, so the same be not alienated. Excluding or 
renouncing herewith all Orphan Courts, or laws which may conflict with 
these provisions. In presence of David des Mareest, Joost van Oblinus and 
Marcus du Sauchoy, as witnesses hereto requested, and who besides the 
testators, have subscribed these presents. Dated as above. 

Glaude le Maistre. 
David des Marest, D. B. 

J. van Oblinus, This is the mark of 

Marc du Sauchoy. Hester du Bois. 

With my knowledge, 

J. Lamontagne, Junior, Sec'y, 

Resolved Waldron and Johannes Verveelen, on the same date 
as above, made a partition of their meadows at Sherman's Creek 
and Spuyten Duyvel which they had gotten with the lots bought 
of Jan Duyts and Juriaen Hanel. 

Jaques Cresson, the constable, in view of removing to New 
York after the first of May, appeared in court April 21st, and 
gave an account of the fines due from several parties for defec- 
tive fences. Those of Wouter Gerritsen, lessee of Delavall's 
land, amounted to 43 gl. 10 st. Much vexed at this heavy loss, 

Rachel, born 1603; Hendrick, born 1696. Descendants have been called Kiers 
and, we believe, Keese. Jan Kicrsen, who remained at Harlem, will be named in 
treating of the Patentees. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 265 

Wouter's wife had scolded the magistrates, and called Waldron 
an uytsuyper, a drunkard. Arraigned for it by Waldron and 
Tourneur at the same court, the afflicted Mary still persisted 
that the magistrates were killing her, but owned she was hasty 
in abusing them. She was fined for her rashness 6 gl. for the 
poor, and costs of suit. 

The month of May brought a demand from Capt. Matthias 
Nicolls, colonial secretary, for the first payment on the town 
patent, his entire bill for which was 332 gl. To meet this call 
an assessment was authorized and made out, at the rate of 2 ft. 
7 St. for each erf, or house lot, and 12 st. for each morgen {2 
acres) of land, the assessed lands embracing only Jochem Pieters' 
Flat and Van Keulen's Hook. The following is the list, and 
which is interesting as an exhibit of all the landholders within 
the town at that date, and the number of erven, farming lots, 
and morgen held by each. From reliable data we have added 
the numbers of the lots, and shown in which tract they lay. 
This, to those in any way interested in locating the original plots, 
will give the table greater value, as the title to these lots may 
in most cases be traced down to a modern date. 

On May 4th Isaac Vermilye sold his house and house lot 
on Van Keulen's Hook (part of lot No. 5, and not reckoned 
among the erven), with the fruit thereon, — the buyer. Evert 
Dircksen, agreeing to pay 600 gl. ; but the bargain was not closed, 
and Vermilye remained in possesion till his death in 1676. 

On May 19th, the magistrates, pursuant to directions from 
the Mayor, appointed David Demarest and Arent Evertsen 
Keteltas curators over the estate of Kier Wolters, late of Ford- 
ham, deceased. To these, on a subsequent recommendation of 
the Mayor, was added. May 23d, *'Michiel Bastiaensen, residing 
at Fordham," who was "reasonably conversant with the estate 
of the deceased."* 

• Michiel Bastiaensen, of whose history up to his emigration, in 1663, we have be- 
fore spoken, had, so far as known, five children, viz.: Rcyer, born 1653; Metje, 
bom 165s, who married Hendrick Kiersen; Annetie, born 1658, who married John 
Odcll (ancestor of the Fordham Odells) ; Bastiaen, born 1662, and Aefie, bom 1665, 
in New York, who married Jacques Tourneur. Keyer Michielsen, named in some 
curious proceedings, under 1674, married, in 1686, Jacomina, daughter of Jan Tibout, 
and settled in the town of Fordham. He took part in building the church there, in 
1706, and a stone bearing his initials may now be seen in the carriage bouse wall of 
Mr. Moses De Voe, who took it from the foundation of the old church, which stood 
open Mr. De Voe's farm. Reyer died in 173^5, aged 80 years, having had eight chil- 
dren, to wit: Michiel, Reyer, Hendrick, Teunis, Hannah, who married Leonard Vin- 
cent; Mary, who married Benjamin Haviland; Sarah, who married Joseph Haviland, 
and Jane, who married Benjamin Corsa. The sons of his son Michiel (being Reyer 
and Michael) retained the name of Michaels, but other of Reyer's sons took the 
patronymic Rcyers. Hence have descended the two families of Westchester County, 
and other sections of this State, named Ryer, and Michael, or as also written, McKeel 
or Mekeel. The name Reyer is said to come from ridder, a knight. 

Bastiaen Michielsen, always so styled in the town books, though in the church 
records usually called Bastiaen Kortright, remained in Harlem, where he married, in 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 267 

On the same date (the 19th) the court-room witnessed an 
unusual scene. Pierre Cresson three years before had leased his 
farm to Glaude Delamater, and things had not gone smoothly 
between them. In a sharp dispute about one of the oxen, which, 
as appeared, had died through Delamater*s neglect, the latter 
called Cresson "a villain for driving away his wife.'' Mrs. Cres- 
son was spending a season at Esopus. Coming into court with 
his complaint, where Delamater was sitting as one of the magis- 
trates, the usually amiable and prudent Pierre, overcome by 
anger, told Glaude that "he ought to slap his face." Delamater 
pretended forgetfulness, but remembered that plaintiff had called 
him names too. The court regarding both parties at fault, fined 
each 12 gl. and costs. Unhappily this did not end the quarrel 
between the Walloon and Picard. 

The removal of Verveelen to Papparinamin having left the 
village without an ordinary keeper, Cornelis Jansen Kortright, 
who was well liked in the town, and afterward enjoyed various 
public trusts, was admitted June 2d to keep the ordinary, on 
the usual conditions, — to make suitable provision for the enter- 
tainment of travelers, and not "to sell any liquor to the Indians." 
He thereupon accepted the oath. At the same meeting a small 
erf lying opposite to Kortright and Delamater, on the south 
side of the street, was voted to Jean Demarest, who was already 
in possession, having two years previous married a daughter 
of Simon the Walloon. Also, on the same day (June 2d), 
Resolved Waldron made over to Jan Nagel, soon to become his 
son-in-law, part of the De Vries house lot, with No. 16 Jochem 
Pieters and its meadows, bought of Pieter Slot. If the object 

168^ Jolante, daughter of La Montagnc, deceased. On September 19, 1701, be 
bought, from Peter Van Oblienis, a tract of land at Sherman's Creek, laid out to 
Obhenis. in 169^1, as lot No. 20. This became the well-known Kortright farm, 
which continued in the family till 1786. It was originally ten morgen, or twenty acres, 
and is so rated on the town books for the next half century; but this was exclusive 
(for meadows were never taxed) of the adjoining marsh, or the morasse creupelbos, 
of the original description. And then, be it remembered, the allotments of 1691 
generally overran the estimate, and this lot lying isolated was not likely to be an ex- 
ception. This brought it up to 45 acres, 27 perches. Here Bastiaen Michielsen built 
ud lived till verjr aged; at least, his name in the tax list runs down to i753* He 
also owned two pieces of meadow at Kingsbridge, bought of the town by Joh. Ver- 
milyc, April i, 1693, and on the same date transferred to Bastiaen, to whom the 
town gave a deed January 4, 1700. Bastiaen Michielsen Kortright had issue, as far 
ai appears, Michael, born 1697; Johannes, born 1702; Aefie, who married John Dc- 
voor, and Rachel, who married Isaac Delamontagne. Johannes Bastiacns, as he is 
properly styled in certain deeds, but calling himself (after his father's patronymic) 
Johannes Michelson Kortright," married Aeltie, daughter of John Vermilye, 2d. 
He was a weaver, but stkcceeded to the farm at Sherman's Creek, which, in a mortgage 
pvcn Januarv 9, 1768, he describes as No. 20, and 10 morgen, and by the original 
bottndaries of 1691. Within a year after, he removed to New York, and having lost 
nis wife, appears to have died about 1775. His son, John Courtright, as he wrote 
W§ name, married in 1774, his cousin, Aefie, or Effie, daughter of John Devoor, of 
Hoom's Hook, and was last of the family to own the ancestral farm, of which he made 
mIc, May 24, 1786, to Cornelius Harsen, who conveyed it, January 3, 1804, to Tacobus 
Dyckman, whence it came to his son, the late Isaac Dyckman. It was included in the 
tract of 128 acres (being part of said Isaac's estate) called the Fort (^orge Tract, 
which was parcelled into lots, and disposed of by public sale, October 14, 1868. 



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268 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

of this was not well known, it came out August 27th ensuing, 
when two happy pair, to wit, Nagel and Rebecca Waldron, her 
sister Aeltie and Johannes Vermilye, appeared at the Stadt Huys, 
in New York, and "entered their bans of matrimony before his 
Honor the Mayor of this city, to be proclaimed at the usual time 
and place/' This was the more genteel way of doing it. The 
bans being entered on the same Wednesday in the register of 
the church in the Fort, was followed by the three publications 
which usage required. The registration before the Mayor was 
a new thing here, perhaps due to a vacancy in the pastorate. 
The elder Megapolensis had just died, his son gone to Holland, 
and Drisius apparently absent; so Do. Polhemus, of Flatbush, 
now supplying New York, probably married these parties. 

No settlement as recommended by the Governor had yet 
been made with the claimants of the Jansen and Aertsen Patent 
at Sherman's Creek, awarded to the people of Harlem as within 
their general patent, though steps thereto had been taken a year 
before (May 2d, 1669), when De Meyer, Waldron and Oblinus 
were empowered to arrange it. Archer of course declined to 
take the worthless groundbrief, and the holders were now Paulus 
Richard, of New York, and Thomas Lamberts, of Brooklyn; 
the first having bought the interest of Pieter Jansen from his 
successor Kockuyt. The subject was again brought up by the 
following from the Governor, an order which was held by the 
Harlem people as in effect wiping out the old groundbriefs. 

An Order for the Payment of the sum of Three Hundred Guilders 
Sewant, to Paulus Richard and Thomas Lamberts. 

Whereas there hath been a difference long depending between the 
Town of Harlem on the one part, and Paulus Richard and Thomas 
Lamberts on the other, concerning a parcel of Land upon this Island, 
near Spuyten Duyvel, the which was heretofore adjudged to belong to 
the Town of Harlem, yet with this reservation, that in regard the first 
owners had sustained loss thereupon, payment should be made for the 
same, of so much as the first purchase money was; and it appearing 
that one hundred and fifty guilders sewant was paid for one-half of the 
first purchase: It is this day ordered, that the sum of three hundred 
guilders sewant shall be paid to Paulus Richard and Thomas Lamberts, 
or their assigns, in lieu of all claims or pretenses whotsoever, they or 
either of them have to the said Land; and the Inhabitants of the Town 
of Harlem are from henceforth to have and enjoy the same, they pajring 
the said sum of three hundred guilders as aforesaid, on or before the 
29th day of September next. Always provided that this shall be no 
precedent for any other pretense to lands within the Patent of the said 
Town of Harlem, by virtue of such old claims or groundbriefs. Given 
under my hand at Fort James, in New York, this 22d day of June, 167a 

Francis Lovelace. 

The matter was arranged thus: Richard bought out Lam- 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 269 

berts' share, and took a bond from the Harlem folks for the 
full amount of 300 guilders. 

On August 4th ensuing, Lubbert Gerritsen, who the last 
year had married the widow of Hendrick Karstens, sold Kar- 
stens' erf and out-garden to Joost Van Oblinus for 400 gl., to 
be paid to Coenraet and Jan Hendricks, sons of Karstens, when 
of lawful age. These afterward took the name of Boch. 

A little later (October 23d) Lubbert Gerritsen executed a 
power of attorney to his brother-in-law, Philip Weckman (Wake- 
man), of Leyden, to enable him to collect from the orphan mas- 
ters or others in that city a legacy of 800 gl. left to his wife, 
Femmetie Coenraets, by her mother's sister, Tryntie Gerrits, who 
had died at Leyden, October 7th, 1669. It is probable that this 
was sent to Holland by Nicholas De Meyer, who went thither 
the next spring, having several such collections to make for 
persons at Esopus. 

Jan La Montagne, who had recently lost his father,* now 
resigned the duties of voorleser and schoolmaster, but retained 
the secretaryship. To fill the vacant position, the town officers 
engaged Hendrick Jansen Vander Vin, the former freeholder, 
for the term of three years, "at f. 400 yearly in sewant, or in 
grain at sewant price,'' and also a dwelling house, with 60 loads 
of firewood, which latter the following persons agreed to cut 
and deliver, annually, viz.: Resolved Waldron, Glaude Dela- 
mater, and Joost Van Oblinus, each 12 loads ; David Demarest, 
Pieter Roelofsen, Jan Nagel, and Lubbert Gerritsen, each 6 
loads. This contract was entered into October 23d. The change 
was amicably made as regarded Montagne, who agreed to pay 
the new voorleser yearly 10 fiorins 7 stivers. To aid in making 
up the salary, the town lot, garden, and meadow were, on the 
same date, leased for a term of six years to Francois Martino, a 
newly-arrived French refugee, who was to pay an annual rent 
of 120 gl. in sewant, or grain at sewant price. The land had 
just been cleared of timber by Nelis Matthyssen, and was new ; 
so Waldron, Delamater, Tourneur, Roelofsen, L. Gerritsen, W. 
Gerritsen, Demarest, and Oblinus, together agreed to give the 
lessee 53 loads of manure, "once for all." For reasons best 
known to himself, Martino soon turned over his lease to Jean 
Le Roy, and settled on Staten Island, where many of his des- 
cendants may still be found.t 

* See Montanye Family; Appendix B. 

t Francois Martino and his friend, Jean BeUeville, joined the church at New 
York. July ^8. 1670, being the first mention of them. The latter was from St. Martin, 
near Cz Rocbelle — perhaps Martino was — this early association and their later in- 



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270 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

The ill-feeling between Cresson and Delamater again showed 
itself when the term of three years, during which the latter had 
worked Cresson's farm, was closing. The court had ordered 
payment for the lost ox, but one of the farm tools was found 
broken. On September ist Pierre in open court demanded his 
tools of Delamater, who was seated on the bench with his brother 
magistrates. Glaude answered that the broken tool was at the 
smith's, being mended. The court, hearing what passed between 
tb'^. parties, referred them to their agreement of September 5th, 
1667, but put the court charges upon Cresson. Shortly after 
Glaude sent Pierre word by the constable to come and examine 
his tools. Cresson would do no such thing but again went to 
the court room, October 6th, and repeated his demand for the 
tools. Delamater now promised to send them by his son; but 
the court, to vindicate its injured dignity, directed Pierre to 
fetch the tools himself from the defendant's house, and fined him 
12 gl. and costs of suit. 

Vexed at what he conceived to be a harsh judgment, 
Cresson, at the sitting of the court December ist, entered, and 
asked if he must satisfy the sentence given against him. He 
was answered "Yes." Now passion got the better of him, and 
he denounced the magistrates as "unjust judges," adding, with 
other abusive words, that "instead of judges they were devils!" 
On this the court ordered the constable to take Cresson into 
custody and convey him a prisoner to the High Sheriff at New 
York, to be duly proceeded against. 

Cresson was soon released, but, now bent upon leaving the 
town, had his wife at Esopus apply for a building lot in that 
village, and this she asked for and obtained April 15th, 167 1. 

Marcus Du Sauchoy brought a charge against John Archer, 
December ist, 1670, of some very bad usage, and cited Dirck 

timacy seeming to favor it. Whether Belleville was he who was called le Chaudron- 
nier, or, by the English, the Tinker, as the first signifies, I am not able to determine, 
but Jan Tinckcr was enrolled in the night watch at Harlem, November 7, i673i .and 
went to Staten Island, where he held property, as did Belleville. (Sec note on Casier). 
Martino had 96 acres of land on Staten Island, laid out to him April 24, 1676, near 
the "Iron Mountain.'* To this Governor Dongan added 35 acres^ m 1685. He mar- 
ried Hester Dominccs, widow of Walraven Lutin, or Lutine; issue, Stephen, bom 
1679, and a daughter, who married Vincent Fontaine. Martino, in 1683, was foremost 
among the French and Walloon residents in sustaining the French worship. His will, 
made October i, 1706, and proved August j5, 1707, gave his estate, on the death of his 
widow, to his two god sons, Stephen Martino (son of Stephen, deceased) and Vincwit 
Fontaine, Jr. (See Clute's Annals of Staten Island). It is to be regretted that the 
new and interesting work last cited contains so little relating to the original settlers 
upon that beautiful island; materials for their history are not entirely wanting. For 
some of these pioneers, see our Index under Disosway, Journeay, Sec, Casier, Uzille, 
Cresson and Bush; also Lakeman, Marlett and Guion. Many facts might also be 

gleaned respecting Jacques Baudoine, William Britton, Jean Crosseron or Crochcron: 
is son-in-law, Jacques Poillon: (^rrit Crousen, or Cruser; Jacques La Resilier, 
now Larzelere; Arend Prall, and Francois du Puis, or Depuy, the ancestors of families 
still upon the Island. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 271 

Everts to tell what he knew about it. The latter testified that, 
about four weeks before, Archer threw Du Sauchoy's furniture 
out of the house, but deponent knew not for what cause. The 
matter here rested for future action. 

A case came up December 14th which involved a principle 
of town law concerning the woodlands. Laurens Colevelt, mar- 
ried to a niece of Resolved Waldron was neither a landowner 
nor resident, yet had been burning coals upon Waldron's lands 
on Van Keulen's Hook, to supply his forge. In so doing, by 
accident, as he said, he burnt some of Le Roy's palisades. The 
latter arrested his coals, when Colevelt called an extra court in 
order to recover them, pretending to nearly 400 gl. damages for 
the want of them. But the court (Delamater taking Waldron's 
place) held that no one, not an inhabitant or proprietor, had any 
right to cut wood within this jurisdiction, much less within the 
fencing. Colevelt was condemned to make good Le Roy's loss, 
and pay costs of court ; being let off on these easy terms, and his 
coals released. 

On January 5th, 167 1, the Town Court ordered a pound 
built, at the common charge, to be seven rails high, and imposed 
for each hog impounded a fine of i gl. 10 St., and for every 
homed beast 3 gl., the damage, if any had been done by the 
creature, to be made good. 

The subject of the town debts also came up as follows : 

Exhibited by Resolved Waldron, as payable by the Lands of the Town : 

To Mr. John Sharp f. 92 : o 

** Abraham la Noy 68 : o 

" Daniel Tourneur 73 : 16 

" Johannes jVermilje 24 : o 

" Resolved Waldron 41 : 4 

" Joost van Oblinus 6 : 15 

" Meyndert Maljaart* 3 : o 

" Pierre Cresson 2 : 10 

" Glaude le Maistre 6:15 

** David des Mareset 2 : o 

** Jean le Roy 4 : 10 

" NicoUs, for Patent 137 : o 

" Paulus Richard, for the land at Spuyten Duyvel 300 : o 

" Johannes Verveelen 87 : 13 

• Mcynard Joumce, or, as now written, Joumcay, is the person here intended. 
This metamorphose arose from the similar import of the Dutch word maaljen, and the 
French joumec, as adopted by the Dutch. With these, the latter word, wrested 
from its tisual meaning (a day of battle, or simply, a battle), had come to denote a 
coat of mail, which, in Dutch, was maaljen. The two terms being used ^nonymously 
by his Dutch neighbors, Journee was often called Malyar, as pronounced, but which 
Montagne wrote as in the text. The English records sometimes have it Malliar 
Jonmee — a tautological blunder. His given name. Meynard, became, in Dutch, Meyn- 
dert Incidental notices of Journee, both before and after his emigration, will be 
foond on other pages. On his arrival here, he settled with Bogert, in Brooklvn, where 
be united with the church, April 9, 1664, on certificate from Mannheim, ana on June 
2, ensuing, married Elizabeth du Mont, a young lady bom at Middelburg. She was 
probably sister to Margaret du Mont, wife of Pierre Noue, who, as we have seen. 



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272 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

The last item involved a careful auditing of accounts for six 
years past, in which those of the town, with Montagne as their 
collector, those of Verveelen as tapster, — mainly his indebted- 
ness to the excise, and his scores for liquors furnished the mag- 
istrates, — as also the particular transactions between Montagne 
and Verveelen, were much mixed up. Curious as these details 
are, we must exclude them. The balances being struck, tlie town 
found Montagne its debtor for 208 gl., and itself indebted to 
Verveelen 87 gl. 13 st. Hereupon Montagne drew up the fol- 
lowing, which Verveelen signed: 

On this date, 15th Feb'y, I, Johannes Verveelen, acknowledged to have 
settled with Montagne for his accounts, and for the accounts of the Tow^n, 
so that there is due nie from the Town, by balance of accounts, seven and 
eighty guilders, thirteen stivers. Dated as above. 

Johannes Verveelen. 

To discharge these several debts an assessment was author- 
ized to be made upon the lands and erven : on each erf, f . 10 : 
18:12; and on each morgen, f. 2:16:14. 

O cruel Cupid! ever seizing the favored opportunity to 
scatter his fatal darts where met the young and unwary to 
cheerily while the social hour, to crack walnuts and rustic jokes, 
or yet seeking a prouder conquest among those not strangers 
to his shafts ; his triumphs the past winter are thus summed up : 

Persons whose bans of matrimony are entered by consent of the 
Worshipful Mayor of this City, New York, and according to custom, 
published in the church. 

Feb. i8th, 1671, William Waldron, born at Amsterdam, with Engeltie 
Stoutenburgh, of New York. Present, Resolved Waldron and Peter 
Stoutenburgh. 

March 5th. Martin Hardewyn with Madeleine du Sauchoy, both living 
at Fordham. Present, the bride's mother, Elizabeth Nachtegaal, and 
Jacques Cousseau ; with a note from the bride's father. Marc du Sauchoy, 
that he beared consent to the same. 

April 7th. Jean le Roy, living at New Haerlem, widower of Louise 
de Lancaster, with Marie Taine, widow of Philip Casier, living at New 
York. 

came out in the same vessel with Journee, and it is quite as apparent that Margaret 
was sister to Wallerand du Mont, of Esopus. She who became Mrs. Joumiee was 
most likely the person that accompanied Noue and his wife in their voyage, and is 
called his "sister." Journee held honorable places in the town government at Harlem, 
resigning that of magistrate when he removed to Statcn Island, toward the close of 
1676, having sold his house and bouwery, March 7, preceding, to Jan Nagel and Jan 
Delamater, for 2700 guilders. His meadow, on Sherman's Creek, has till late years 
borne the name of Meyndert's Fly. On March 26, 1677, he bought 80 acres of land 
on Staten Island, from Francis Chartier. Journee had lived there but a year when he 
died, January 30, 1678. Some months after his widow married "BoswcU dc Lisle, 
alias Francois; the Court of Sessions held at Gravesend June 19, 1678, appointing 
Paulus Richard, with Obadiah Holmes, of Staten Island, as trustees for the children, 
to "take care that the estate of said children be not embezzled." There were several 
daughters, but the only son, apparently, was John Joumeay, who married, in 1703, 
Elizabeth Deyo. But we have made no effort to trace his descendants, who have be- 
come numerous, while some have been prominent on the island, to which, however, 
the name is by no means restricted. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 273 

April 29th. Adolph Meyer, young man, bom at Ulsen, in Westphalia, 
with Maria Verveelen, bom at Amsterdam.* 

Johannes Pelszer sues Johannes Verveelen March 2d, 1671, 
for a claim of 24 gl., the balance of 90 gl. 12 St., his former 
indebtedness, of which Koopal (Archer) had paid him 66 gl. 
12 St. He also complained that Verveelen had accused him 
of being **the cause that the defendant's house had come to be 
burnt." Verveelen answered that the plaintiff had said that he, 
defendant, kept two account books. He maintained that his 
arrest was unlawful, since he was a resident, and plaintiff could 
have levied on his goods ; he claimed 6 gl. for the ten days' arrest. 
The court having heard all they had to say, allowed Pelzer the 
24 gl., and Verveelen to pay the costs. On the same date the 
old Indian interpreter, Claes Carstensen, a Norwegian, who had 
lived some thirty years in the country and several in this town, 
was granted a small house lot, to use during his lifetime, but 
without the right of succession. Carstensen had seen better 
days. 

"Whereas the carriage road between this City and New Haerlem is 
impassable ; and this Worshipful Court considermg it necessary that a 
carriage road be maintained between this City and the above-named vil- 
lage: It is therefore ordered and directed by the W. Court that the 
magistrates of New Haerlem and the overseers of the highways beyond 
the Fresh Water shall lay out together the most suitable work, and that 
then, on the first day of the next coming month of May, the said road 
shall be made fit for use, by the inhabitants of the village of Haerlem, 
and the householders, both on this and the other side of the Fresh Water, 
each for his limits, and that on such penalty as shall be fixed by said 
magistrates and overseers." 

The above order was passed by the Mayor's Court, April 
1 8th, 1 67 1, and Jan Jansen Langestraat, Dirck Siecken (alias 
Dey), and Jan Cornelisz De Ryck, were then appointed as over- 
seers "on this and the other side of the Fresh Water." 

Cornelius and Laurens Jansen, having for a year worked 
the farm bought in partnership of Mr. De Meyer, agreed to 
part. Laurens was about to lease the farm of Lubbert Gerritsen ; 
the parties met for the purpose, October 24th, 1670, and the con- 

* Maria Meyer, mother of a large and worthy proffcny, identified as she was 
with Harlem, from her early childhood for a period of eighty-five years, and, as 
daughter of the patentee, Johannes Verveelen, directly concerned in the principal 
distribution of the common land — she becomes a historic character. After a married 
life of forty years and thirty-seven of widowhood, and having survived all the Dongan 
patentees, except possibly Barent Waldron, death overtook her at the advanced age of 
92 years, in 1748. It afforded the author an agreeable surprise, while engaged some 
thirty years ago in the preparation of a work kindred to the present one, to discover 
that he was a descendant of this locally noted woman, and also of the redoubtable 
Spuyten Duyvel ferrymaster; and subsequently to find that a lineal chain, of eight 
intervening links, allied him to good old Hans Verveelen and Catrina Oliviers, of 
Cologne. (See Annals of Newtown, pp. 277, 305, 317). 



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274 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

tract was partly drawn, when they failed to agree. Cornells 
having taken the De Meyer farm, Laurens on May 5th ensuing 
(1671) gave him a lease of his part for four years, to date from 
September 25th, 1670, at the yearly rent of 400 gl. in grain. 
Their father, Jan Bastiaense, and Bastiaen Elyessen, the father- 
in-law of Cornelis, were present and subscribed this agreement. 
Laurens went to Esopus and married, and is not found at Harlem 
for several years. 

On May i8th, 1671, Jan Lou we Van Schoonrewoerd, of 
Bedford, L. I., later known as Jan Louwe Bogert, bargained 
with Jan La Montague for his "piece of land named in the 
Dutch language Montagne's Punt, or by the Indians Rechco- 
wanis," for the sum of 3,000 gl. He reserved "the crop of grain, 
the hop plants, apple and pear trees, and twelve cherry trees." 
Full possession was to be given on receipt of the first payment, 
due May ist, 1672. Some account will be given of the numer- 
our and respectable family descendants of Bogert. 

On Septemebr 6th Meynard Joumee sold to Dirck Storm 
his property at Bedford, Brooklyn, consisting of houses, land, 
meadow, etc., for 1,400 gl. in wheat, peas, or rye, at the price 
of sewant. Jan Louwe Van Schoonrewoerd witnesses this 
deed.* 

On the same day, said Jan Louwe and his wife, Cornelia 
Everts, residing at Bedford, aforesaid, made their will at Harlem, 
as they expected to remove here. They "give to the poor of 
New Harlem the sum of ten guilders as a memorial." Sf)eak of 
children, but name none. Make Johannes Pietersen Verbrugge 
and Teunis Gysberts Bogert executors. The witnesses are Cor- 
nelis Jansen and Johan Daniels, late under sheriff at New Castle, 

* Dirck Storm, as already noticed, arrived here in 1662, with his wife, Maria 
Pieters, and three young children. lie had in all, at least, sons, Gregoris, Peter and 
David, and daughter, Maria, who married Caspar Springsteen. In 1669 he succeeded 
Carel de Beauvois, deceased, as secretary at Brooklyn; afterward served some years 
as town clerk at Flatbush, was made Clerk of the Sessions for Orange Cotmty, in 
1691, and held that office till 1:703. In 1697 he and family were living at Philips Manor, 
Westchester County, where his descendants became numerous and noted. His son, 
Gregoris Storm, married, at New Utrecht, Engeltie, daughter of Thomas Van Dyck, 
and had sons, Derick. born 1695: Thomas, born 1697, etc. After Gregoris, or Goris, 
as commonly called, died, his widow married Jacques Tourneur, of Harlem. Her son, 
Thomas Storm, becoming a widower, married the daughter of Adolph Meyer, of Har- 
lem, and widow of Johannes Sickels, ist. Thomas remained on Philips Manor, hold- 
ing a farm under Col. Frederick Philips, but he made three several purchases of land 
in Rombout Precinct, Dutchess County, on which he settled his sons Gcrrit, Goris, 
Abraham and John. His son Isaac took his place at Philips Manor. Other sons, 
Thomas, his eldest, and Jacob, were dead when he made his will, June, a8, 1763. It 
was proved January 15, 1770. Abraham Storm married, October 5, 1759, Catherine, 
daughter of Aaron Bussing^ of Harlem. An active whig in the Revolution, he was 
"made prisoner by the British troops," and his family saw him no more. On March 
22^ 1784, his widow released to Gerrit, Goris and Isaac Storm the lands of said 
Abraham, in Rombout Precinct, and, returning to Harlem, obtained, by deed of August 
18, 1784, from her father's executor, John Sickels, the farm of 31 acres on Van 
Keulen's Hook, which she sold, eleven years later, to James Roosevelt. She died 
August 16, 1803, leaving no children. The descendants of Dirck Storm take prominence 
for numbers and worth. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 275 

Delaware, under Beeckman, and who had before "held this posi- 
tion under Mr. Montagne." The testator sig^s Jan Lu Van 
Sooderwoer. 

Mayor Delavall held this court at Harlem on September 8th, 
167 1, at which were considered: 

1. Complaint of David Demarest against John Archer, for 
mawing grass in his meadow at Spuyten Duyvel, being No. i 
on the Westchester side. 

2. Complaint of Martin Hardewyn, of Fordham, against 
Archer, for breaking down his fences. 

3. Complaint of Marcus Du Sauchoy, of Fordham, against 
Archer, for throwing his furniture out of doors. 

4. Complaint of Johannes Verveelen against Archer. 

The first case was referred to the magistrates of Harlem 
and Fordham, the others to the arbitration of Daniel Tourneur 
and Jan La Montague. 

The "Inhabitants of the Town of Fordham" also preferred 
a charge against Archer, "that the defendant, several times, hath 
been the occasion of great troubles betwixt the inhabitants of 
the said Town, he taking upon himself to rule and govern over 
them by rigor and force; and do humbly desire relief and the 
protection of this Court." 

"Upon the hearing of both parties, the court ordered the 
defendant, John Archer, to behave himself, for the future, civilly 
and quietly against the inhabitants of the said Town, as he will 
answer to the contrary at his peril." 

"And it is further ordered, that all small differences, which 
for the future shall happen to fall out at Fordham aforesaid, 
shall be decided at Harlem by the magistrates of Fordham, with 
the assistance of two of the magistrates of Harlem aforesaid, 
except those of Fordham will be at the charge to satisfy the magis- 
trates of Harlem for coming up to their Town of Fordham." 

On October nth, 1671, John Archer executed at Harlem 
sundry new leases for farms at Fordham, viz. : to Hendrick Kier- 
sen, Aert Pietersen Buys, and Cornelis Viervant; making the 
rent payable to Cornelis Steenwyck, of New York, to whom 
Archer, on September loth, 1669, had given a mortgage on his 
lands for 1,100 gl. in wampum. Another mortgage to Steen- 
wyck in 1676, for 2,400 gl. sewant, ultimately gave him the full 
title and possession of the Manor of Fordham, which passed 
under his will and by certain deeds to the Dutch Church at 
New York.* 

• In getting possession, the church met with great opposition from the town of 



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276 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

On October 23d the voorleser's salary, 400 gl., became due, 
and to pay it a tax was authorized, "calculated 2-3 on the lands, 
and 1-3 on the Erven; amounting for each morgen to f. i :i2:6, 
and for each erf, f. 6:7." But, notes Montague in the margin, 
"It came to nothing." The reason is found in the strong aver- 
sion of the people to being taxed for religious purposes, especially 
the French and Walloons, who, cruelly tithed and amerced in 
their native lands to support the old church, had a mortal dread 
of this compulsory giving. Then, again, the present tax for 
exceeded any former call for this object. Montague's allowance 
as voorleser was not over 150 gl. per annum, one third of which, 
derived from the Company, failed ^fter the first year. But what- 
ever he got from the people was by voluntary gift. Hence the 
present opposition to an assessment, and this proving effectual, 
led to a return to the former method of free-will offerings, — a 
plan continued for several years, though, unfortunately, the 
earlier lists of contributors are missing. 

Two days later, a meeting was held at Cornelis Jansen's to 
adjust certain fines which had also caused no little excitement. 
It happened, July 7th preceding, that two of Jansen's horses 
were found upon the bouwland without a herder and driven to 
the pound, with one owned by "Mr. Aldrich," one of Waldon's, 
and one of Adolph Meyer's. The next day another of Waldron's 
horses, and one of Meyer's, and the next day still, being Sunday, 
a pair of oxen of David Demarest's, one of Delavall's hogs, and 
two of Pieter Roelofsen's. Again on the 24th were put in pound 
three hogs belonging to Waldron and Nagel, besides a yoke of 
oxen owned by Jean Le Roy, and found cropping the herbage 
"in the garden." 

This enforcement of the law made some squirming, as the 
fines were put at 6 gl. for each horse, ox, etc., amounting in all 
to f. 74:8. But the matter was finally ararnged, over sundry 
pots of Tapster Jansen's beer, for which his bill against the town 
was as follows: 

Westchester. This led, in 1688, to a forcible entrv by the officers and friends of the 
former. Elijah Barton, dwelling "near Harlem River, within the bounds of West- 
chester, at the house that formerly Aert Pietersen lived in," was, with his father 
Roger Barton, engaged "to keep possession for and in behalf of the town of West- 
chester," when, on July 16, in the afternoon, "there came a great company of men with 
Nicholas Bavard of New York," demanding admittance. This being refused, Reyer 
Michiels ana Teunis De Key, at Bayard's word, broke open the dooT. and the Bartons 
were ousted and roughly handled. With Bayard were also Nicholas Stuyvesant, Johan- 
nes Kipp, Isaac Van Vleeck, Michiel Bastiaens, his wife, and sons Bastiaen and Rcycr 
Michiels, Hendrick Kiersen and Jacques Tourneur. Also "in the exploit" was Hannah 
(or Anna) Odell, wife of John Odell. Hendrick Verveelen and Jacob Valentine were 
there, too. The Westchester authorities issued a warrant July 20, to "take the bodies 
of the said Reyer Michiels, with the said compljjcetors." But the church maintained its 
hold, and the lands were ultimately sold off in parcels between the years 1755 and 
1760. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 277 

CoRNEUS Jansen, Credit 
Drank at the settlement of the fines, the 25th Oct 1671, at two 

bouts f . 34 : 

Also for Mr. Arent, engaged at writing, 2 vans beer* i : 12 

Further, after the settlement was conducted, also drank 5 vans 

beer and i muts rumt 4 : 10 

f . 40 : 2 
John Archer, to escape the interference of the Harlem magis- 
trates, obtained from Governor Lovelace, November 13th, 1671, 
an ample patent for his domain, upon which "the new dorp or 
village is erected known by the name of Fordham." It was to 
enjoy "equal privileges and immunities with any town, enfran- 
chised township, or manor within this government." Released 
from all dependence upon, or subjection to the rule, order, or 
direction of any other riding, township, place, or jurisdiction; 
thereafter it was to "be ruled, ordered, and directed, in all matters 
as to government, by the Governor and his Council, and the 
General Court of Assizes only." It now took the style of the 
"Manor of Fordham." But not long after, "upon complaint of 
some disorders which were made at the town of Fordham, in 
the Corporation of this City, by reason they lie too far distant 
from any constable or overseers," his Honor the Mayor, on 
February 13th, 1672, appointed Johannes Verveelen as constable 
and clerk, and Jan Pieters Buys and John Heddy as overseers 
of the said town, to serve during his mayoralty. 

Valentine Claessen, founder of the Valentine family at 
Valentine's Hall, having sold his property in Harlem to Mr. 
Delavall, resolved upon a sea- voyage, and on December iith^ 
1671, procured the governor's pass "to transport himself hence 
in the ketch Zebulon, whereof John Follett is commander, for 
the Isle of Providence, Curacao, and Jamaica, in the West Indies ; 
and to return again as his occasions should present, etc."** 

• Arcnt Evertsen Keteltas, here referred to, was, like his father, "Mr. Evert 
Picterscn Kctcltas," a voorlcscr and schoolmaster. (Sec note on page 96). In 166^ 
Arent is called molenaar, that is miller. He was here before Vander Vin was engaged 
as voorlcscr, maybe serving temporarily in that office. But he soon left, and on Octo- 
ber 6, 1670, Tourneur took his place as curator of Kier Wolters* estate. Arcnt's wife. 
Susannah de Boog, was sister to Mrs. Wilhelmus Beeckman. They were daughters of 
Hcndrick de Booff, of Amsterdam, whose wife was a sister of Mrs. Jonas Bronck. 
The Keteltas family descend from Evert Picterscn Keteltas. 

t A vaan was two quarts, and a mutsje one gill. 

•• The Valentine family, of Westchester, from which most of this name in New 
York City have sprung[, has been quite misapprehended, as regards its common ancestor, 
who was not "Benjamin Valentine, a dragoon in the French military service, Canada," 
as per Bolton, ii, 544; but Valentine Claessen aforesaid, who, as a soldier, gained his 
laurels under Stuyvesant, not in Canada, but in an expedition to Esopus, in 1660. 
His sons took and retained the patronjrmic Valentine. He was from Saxenlant, in 
Transylvania; married, in 1662, Marritie Jacobs, from Beest, and before settling in 
Westcnester county, lived some years in Harlem, where his vrouw found people from 
her native place, the Kortriffhts and Buys brothers. Valentine Claessen is named as 
late as 1688. His children, Jacob, born 1663, living 1690; Matthys, bom 1665; John, 



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278 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

On December i8th, certain Indians, some of them appar- 
ently the same that signed Montagne's deed for Rechawanes, 
conveyed to Daniel Toumeur, of New Harlem, all their lands 
"lying upon the Main, next to the land of John Archer, beginning 
at the Bay on the south side of Crab Island, and so running 
alongst the Creek parting the Main and Manhattan Island, to 
Bronxland, and thence extending east and west so far as the 
land of the said John Archer." This was the same land as that 
granted Tourneur June isth, 1668, but which the Indians after- 
ward claimed, and therefore this purchase was authoried by the 
Governor, who added "a small tract behind it towards Broncks 
his river, the which doth properly belong to no person," and 
confirmed the whole to Tourneur, March 8th, 1672. Governor 
Dongan, as we shall see, afterward entrenched this grant, other- 
wise disposing of that part since known as De Voe's Point. 

On December 29th, 1671, Daniel Tourneur, ruling magis- 
trate, and his wife, Jacqueline Parisis, both in health, made their 
will, and give 10 gl. each for the poor of New Harlem. The sur- 
vivor to manage and use the estate till death or remarriage ; then 
the children to share it equally. Witnesses, David Demarest and 
Glaude Delamater. 

On January 7th, 1672, Pieter Van Oblinus, a boy of 9 or 
10 years, driving through the village with his fathers* horse and 
sleigh, ran over David Demarest's child, Daniel, 5 or 6 years old, 
who was playing with other children, about the door of Comelis 
Jansen's tavern. He died the next morning, and the magistrates 
then assembled to inquire into the circumstances. It was shown, 
by the statements of Cornelis Jansen, Arent Harmans Bussing, 
and Conrad Hendricks Boch, to have been accidental. Joost 
Van Oblinus declared "that he did not know of the accident till 
informed of it by others, and that he was heartily sorry." 

On February ist, David Demarest, ruling magistrate, and his 
wife, Marie Sohier, in health, but "reflecting on the frailty of 
human life," made their will, giving, "each of them, 25 gl. to 
the poor of New Harlem, as a remembrance." The survivor to 
enjoy the estate until remarriage, and then "even though the 
laws of the land provide that one child shall inherit more thar» 
the other," their will is that "all their lawful children, mutually 

born 1671; Mary, born 1674, arc all of which wc find notice. Matthys, living 1710, 
probably died before May 3, 1724, when a division of land was made by John and Mat- 
thias Valentine, of Lower Yonkers, his sons, if we are not much mistaken. Tohn was 
bom in 1691. Matthias was born in 1693 — not '98, as his children's asres show — and 
died in 1781, being the "first proprietor of Valentine's Hill, Yonkers," as says Mr. 
Bolton; in whose work upon Westchester County, but more fully in the later History 
of the Valentine Family, may be found the several branches of the family tree, of 
which we have given the trunk. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 279 

begotten, shall inherit equal legatary portions/* Witnesses, Dan- 
iel Toumeur and Glaude Delamater. 

On February 8th, the Town leased two parcels of meadow ; 
the first, not located, being taken by Lubbert Gerritsen, Jan Nagel, 
and Johannes Vermelje, for six years from May ist, 1671, at 31 
gl. a year. The other, "a piece of meadow at the North River" 
(called a little later Moertje Davids' Fly), was taken for the 
same term by David Demarest, at the yearly rent of 24 gl. 

The same day, Jan La Montague secured the signatures of 
the magistrates to the following deed for his Point, written in 
October preceding, but its execution for some cause delayed. It 
included also the meadows granted him some years before, in 
exchange for some others at Sherman's Creek. The effect of 
this deed was to release whatever claim the town might have 
acquired from Governor Nicolls' Patent, and to place the property 
on a common footing with the other improved lands, so that 
from this date it became taxable for town charges, and at the 
same time invested with the right to a share of the common lands 
held by the freeholders in joint tenancy, whenever a division of 
said lands should be made. Hence the value of this deed to 
Montague, and to Bogert, who was to succeed him in that estate. 

We, Hon. Magistrates, with the vote and resolution of the Inhabitants 
of this Town, have granted forever and as hereditary, to Jan de La 
Montagne, a piece of land, with the meadows thereto annexed, named 
Montagne's Point, formerly possessed by his late father, lying within 
our Town's jurisdiction, bounded on the north side by a creek called 
Montagne's Kill; extending from the East River unto a little fresh water 
creek running between Montagne's Flat and aforesaid Point; on the 
south side bounded by a creek and a meadow and by hills, to the afore- 
said little fresh water creek where the King's Majesty his highway goes 
over; with the Meadows lying in the Bend of Hellgate, which Mon- 
tagne beforenamed has had in exchange for the Town Lot's meadows; 
with such rights and privileges as are granted us by patent and still re- 
main to grant; provided he submit to such laws and servitudes as with 
us are common and may be imposed, without that we or our Inhabitants, 
now or in future days, shall have any claim thereupon, but as his other 
patrimonial property may enter upon and use or sell, as he may resolve 
and shall choose, saving the lord s right. For further security, and that 
our deed shall have greater force and legal authority, we the Magistrates 
and constables the same subscribe, this 8th February, Anno 1672, in New 
Haerlem. 

d. tourneur. 

Resalvert Waldron. 

Johannes Vermelje. 

David des Marest. 

PiEter Roelefsen, Constable* 

• The frequent use alreadjr made of this deed, has led us to give an amended 
translation of it from the oribinal Dutch text of Montagne; and we also annex a 
verbatim copy of said original. 

Wy, E. Magistraten, met toestemminge en goetvinden van de inwoonderen deser 



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28o HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

To all familiar with our modern Manhattan, with its fine 
avenues, its railways, and ample means of through transit, the 
following action of the Mayor's Court of February 13th, 1672, 
must at least prove amusing. It was in the Mayoralty of Mr. 
Delavall. 

The Court do empower Mr. Cornelis van Ruyven and Mr. Isaac Bedlo, 
aldermen, to cause the former orders for making a good wagon path be- 
twixt this city and the Town of Ilaerlem to be put into strict execution. 

The record proceeds to say that "it is still found unfinished," 
although recommended by the Governor, "at divers times," and 
enjoined by the Court upon the Overseers both of Harlem and 
the Suburbs. "For which reason many complaints have been 
lodged, yea, that people wishing lately to travel over that road 
on horseback have been in danger of losing their lives, by the 
negligent keeping of the said road." This had moved the Gov- 
ernor again not only to earnestly recommend but to require its 
immediate completion, "forthwith, without any delay." The 
two aldermen commissioned to take charge of it were instructed, 
as often as they saw fit, to summon "the Overseers, as well of 
Harlem as of the outside people dwelling hereabouts," to tell 
them "how very ill it has been taken that the previous orders 
regarding the aforesaid road have not been better observed," and 
"to devise means, not only to finish said road, but to keep it 
constantly in good repair." 

durpe, hebben vcrgunt, eeuwich en crfFelyck, acn Jan de La Montoene. een stuck landt, 
met dc valcyen daar anex, genaamt Montang^is punt, certyt door syn vadcr si. 
jrepossedccrt, gelegen binnen onsc onser durps jurisdictie, bepaalt aen dc noort syde 
net een yil genaamt Montaro Kil, streckende van de cost revier tot aen een verse 
killekken streckende tussen Montangis Vlackte en voornm punt. Aen de zuyt ryde 
bepaalt met een kil en een valey en met bergen, tot aen de voornm verse killeken daar 
zyn Konm Majism zyn hooge wech overgaat, met de valeyen gelegen in de bocht vant 
Hellegat die Montagne voornm gereuylt heeft heest tegens durps lodts valeven; met 
soodanige gerechticheeden en privilegen als ons by patent is vergunt, en noch staat tc 
ycrgunnen, mits hem onderwerpende sodanige wettcn en servituten als ons int gemeen 
is en sal op^cleyt worden, sonder dat wy ofte ons ingesetenen, nu oft ten eeuwi^en 
dagen, daar lets op sullen te pretenderen hebben, maar gelyck syne andere oatrimomale 
goederen sal aenvaarden en gebrucken, of verkoopen, so als hy sal goetvinaen en wiUe 
kueren, behoudens den herr zyn recht. Tot meerder verseckeringe en op onscr gront- 
brief meerder kracht en echt sal resorteren hebben, wy magistraten en konstapel de 
selve onderteeckent, Ay 8 Feb'y Anno 1672, in Nieu Haarlem. 

D. TOURNIUR. 
ReSALVSRT VSRMELJB. 
TOHANNSS DSSMARRST. 
PiBTSR ROELRPSBN, CoftStapU. 



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CHAPTER XVIII. 

1672-1673. 

THE DORP, OR VILLAGE; INCIDENTS AND INSIGHTS. 

^ I ^HE Town Court was busied April 23, 1672, with an investi- 
gation sought by David Demarest as to an assault made 
upon him the day before by Glaude Delamater. The townsfolk 
being at work, "making tight the fences of the Calf Pasture," 
Demarest fell into conversation with Ralph Doxey, Mr. Dela- 
vairs man; after which, going to Delamater, he charged him as 
the cause of Heer Delavall being at variance with the town ; add- 
ing, that before he, Delamater, became intimate with him, Delavall 
let his cows go with the herdsman. Delamater retorted that **he 
lied like a buffoon and a bugger," and seizing Demarest by the 
coat kicked him. Instinctively the latter caught up a stone and 
threw it, hitting Delamater on the breast ! Here further violence 
was stayed. As Demarest was a magistrate, the board had to 
refer the case to the Mayor's Court, and with that view took the 
evidence of Jean le Roy, Adolph Meyer, Glilis Boudewynsen, 
and Lubbert Gerritsen. Joost Van Oblinus became bail for 
Demarest's appearance. 

Jean De La Montague's last official act as secretary was to 
record this affair of the Calf Pasture, and beneath the entry his 
successor, Vander Vin, writes: "Here ends the register and 
protocol of the deceased J. De La Montague, kept at the village 
of N. Harlem." And years after, when growing infirmities fore- 
shadowed his own departure, he added in a tremulous hand, 
"since the ^aid Jan De La Montague died in the year 1672." 
Stuyvesant, the old friend of his father and family, had but just 
preceded him to the grave. He made his will May 13, 1672, 
of which we have only the date, but which must have given his 
consort the full control of the estate. Two years later the 
widow closed the sale of the farm to Bogert, by a warranty 
deed, dated March 30th, 1674, acknowledging the receipt of the 
3,000 gl., and conveying for herself and heirs ; having power to 



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282 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

do so, as is evident, either under the will, or by the recognized 
rules of law, since she acted with the knowledge and official 
sanction of the public secretary, and one of the magistrates. 
Later still — that is, on November 14, 1679 — she conveyed for 
300 gl to Mrs. Bogert, "authorized by her husband," to take 
the deed, the parcel called the Hop Garden at the rear of the 
farm, or "lying behind the land of John Louwe, over against 
the hill." Montagne left no other real estate here; that owned 
subsequently by his son, Abraham Montagne (the only son that 
remained at Harlem), being derived through his mother, who 
bought a village residence, which fell to Abraham at her death 
in 1689. True the latter afterward indulged the idea that he 
was entitled to a share of the common land, in virtue of his 
father's freehold, but the town held that such right had passed 
to Bogert. 

The church at Harlem lost in Montagne a good and useful 
servant. It applied soon after for an elder to represent it in 
the Consistory at New York, under whose charge it had been 
up to this time. This was acceded to, and by an agreement made 
Wednesday, June 19, 1672, the Harlem church were to nomi- 
nate to the Consistory a double number of suitable persons as 
elders and deacons (the first institution of the former office here), 
out of which that body would choose one to serve with them. 
Then after each annual election made in this indirect mode — 
an exception to that usual in the Dutch churches — the pastor 
at New York was to preach at Harlem, and install the new offi- 
cres. The deacon was to serve two years, so that there should 
always be two in office ; but in regard to the eldership the usage 
of the church was not followed, as but one elder appears, for 
many years later. The communicants would still partake of the 
Lord's Supper at the Fort, and all seeking membership were to 
be received there as before. It was also agreed to pay **three 
hundred guilders to the preachers of New York," namely. Do. 
Drisius and his newly inducted colleague. Do. Nieuwenhuysen, 
"for services at this village." 

In this manner the church obtained its representative elder 
and deacon, the latter being Joost Van Oblinus, with whom 
Daniel Tourneur, acting deacon, was to serve the first year. 
The elder's name is not given. For the installation services, 
"the preacher" received f. 24, and f. 6 were paid Teunis Cray 
for "fare," bringing and returning the dominie, we presume. 
On July 26th Resolved Waldron paid over to Deacon Oblinus, 
as treasurer, the balance of sewant in the deacon's chest, f. 2:15. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 283 

The new cash-book is thus prefaced : "Daniel Tourneur, Johan- 
nes Verveelen, and John de La Montagne, in their accounts, are 
remaining indebted to the deaconry, f. 21 :I9." So it seems that 
on revising Montagne's accounts, this sum expended in 1665 
for the dinner to Stuyvesant, and charged to the deacon's fund, 
was disallowed. The collections from this time average about 
two florins, or eighty cents, per Sabbath, as shown by the record 
kept by Vander Vin, under whose lead, as voorleser, the Sunday 
services were continued with much regularity. Also, as appears, 
they religiously observed the Voorbereyding, — that is, the Pre- 
paration for the Lord's Supper, — on the Friday before its quar- 
terly celebration, in March, June, etc.; as also Kersdag, or 
Christmas ; Palm Sunday ; Paasche, Passover or Easter ; Hemel- 
vaarts-dag. Ascension Day, and Pinxter, or Whitsuntide. Aller- 
heyligen, or All Saints' Day, November ist, was excluded from 
the church days, but was often named as the date when a con- 
tract or term of service should begin or end. 

With the farmers, Allerheyligen usually closed the grazing 
season. Then they began to prepare for winter. The cattle 
were taken from pasture, and the stock running in the commons 
hunted up and housed. The young swine often ran out all 
winter, but were liable to be missing when sought for. Indeed 
certain persons about Spuyten Duyvel did not scruple to em- 
bezzle them. It was an old trick with Tippett, who, with others, 
had been at it again the last winter. Arraigned and convicted 
at the Assizes, October 3, 1672, "Jan Hendricks, called Captain" 
(otherwise Boch), for his "ingenuous confession," was excused; 
but fines and stripes were imposed on Thomas Hunt, Jr., and 
George Tippett, and fines only on John Heddy and William 
Smith. 

An event which cast a gloom over the community at Har- 
lem was the death of Capt. Richard Morris and his wife, leaving 
a tender babe to the care and sympathy of strangers. Full of 
hope they came hither from Barbadoes, where they had been 
married (she as Sarah Pool) on August 17, 1669. Captain 
Matthias Nicolls thus condoles with the brother. Colonel Lewis 
Morris, of Barbadoes, in a letter written him from New York, 
October 29, 1672: "I cannot but reflect upon the transitory 
condition of poor mortals, when I frequently call to mind in 
how little time (iod hath been pleased to break a family, in taking 
away the heads thereof; first a virtuous young woman in the 
prime of life, and then a man full of strength and vigor, inured 
to hardships; while there is remaining only one poor blossom, 



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284 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

of whom yet there may be great hope, with your kind friendship, 
for it is a lovely healthy child, and was well at Harlem, where 
it is at nurse, and I went to see it yesterday. I was also at the 
plantation on the other side," etc. The "poor blossom," an 
infant of a year old, afterward became the distinguished judge, 
Lewis Morris, proprietor of the manor of Morrisania, and ances- 
tor of the Morris family. 

An effort was now made to put a stop to the controversies 
"about some meadow in difference, beneath the Town of Ford- 
ham," being lots Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, held by the people of Harlem. 
Though nothing appears to have come of it, the following order 
upon the subject is interesting: 

Whereas the Meadow Ground or Valley by the Creek beneath the 
town of Fordham at Spuyten Duyvel is claimed by some of the inhabit- 
ants of New Harlem, but is at so great distance from them and lying 
un fenced, and so near the Town of Fordham that those of Harlem can 
receive little or no benefit thereby, as the inhabitants of Fordham cannot 
avoid being daily trespassers there, if the propriety there shall still 
continue to Harlem; To prevent all further cavils and contests upon 
that subject, as also for an encouragement to that ney Plantation, as 
well as in compensation to those of Harlem for their interest which they 
shall quit at Spuyten Duyvel ; I do hereby promise and engage that some 
convenient piece of meadow being found out at or near Bronx Land, in my 
disposal, I shall grant and confirm the same unto the persons concerned ; 
provided the said grant do not greatly prejudice the rest of Bronx Land 
when it shall be settled; and I do refer this matter to Daniel Toumeur 
and David des Marest, with John Archer, to make inquiry hereunto, and 
make report thereof unto me with all convenient expedition. Given, etc., 
this oth day of November, 1672. 

Francis Lovelace. 

A nomination for town officers having been made November 
2d, and the position of secretary, vacant since the death of 
Montagne, given to Vander Vin, he was confirmed December 3d 
in that office for which he was peculiarly fitted, as a scholar and 
good penman. On December 6th, Pierre Cresson and Meyhdert 
Journee were chosen fence-masters. Another quarrel between 
Daniel Tourneur and Resolved Waldron, now retiring magis- 
trates, was brought to a friendly issue December 12th. As in a 
similar rupture between them six years before, it ran so high 
that Tourneur struck Waldron. The latter made complaint to 
the Mayor's Court, on the day Vander Vin and the new magis- 
trates were sworn in. The defendant being absent, the case was 
referred to the new board, with a request to use their best en- 
deavors to reconcile the belligerents. In this they succeeded ; 
the parites, binding themselves to drop all their differences of 
whatever kind as "from henceforth dead and of naught," agreed 
"to live hereafter in all charity, friendship, and peace,'' while the 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 285 

first one to raise a question should forfeit 50 gl. for the poor. 

The i6th of the same December the deacons, Tourneur and 
Oblinus, with consent of magistrates and community, let out at 
pubic auction "the loft over the church or school-house." Mrs. 
Maria Vermilye (Montagne's widow), as highest bidder, took 
it for a year at 20 gl., to be paid the deacons. On giving up 
the farm to Bogert, she removed to the village and soon bought 
a house and lot, undoubtedly that adjoining the river, and before 
owned by her brother, Johannes Vermilye. 

The road to Harlem was at length finished, or made usable ; 
and a monthly mail between New York and Boston was officially 
announced, to set out for the first on January i, 1673. Now 
the novelty of the mounted postman reining up at the tavern, 
with his dangling "portmantles," crammed with ^'letters and 
small portable goods," but tarrying only so long as necessary 
to deliver his mail and refresh himself and horse, added another 
to the sights and incidents which filled up the unwritten columns 
of village news. 

Vander Vin being installed in his duties as secretary. Re- 
solve Waldron, on January 16, 1673, "with the advice of the 
constable and magistrates," delivered to him the valuable title 
papers of the town; and on March 6th he obtained from Sieur 
Jacob Kip, brother-in-law of Montagne, the old protocol and 
other records kept by the latter. The papers handed over by 
Waldron were as follows: 

No. I. Patent of the town N. Haerlem, in the English. 

'* 2. Patent of the said town, in Dutch. 

" 3. Two confirmations of the same, in English. 

" 4. Patent in Dutch. 

" 5. Ordinance of the Mayor's Court. 

" 6. Extract from the Mayor's Court. 

" 7. Procuratie ad lites. 

" 8. Groundbrief of Spuyten Duyvel. 

The mention of "patents in Dutch," in the above list, is 
likely to mislead. In questions affecting their landed rights and 
jurisdiction, the ordinance of 1658, under which Harlem was 
settled, is so often appealed to as to make it quite apparent that 
the inhabitants during the Dutch rule knew no other official 
grant or enactment upon which these rights and privileges were 
made to depend. The profound silence of the records as to any 
other general grant or patent to Harlem from Governor Stuy- 
vesant, and the omission to recite it, as was usual, in the English 
confirmatory patents, must be taken as proof that none was ever 
issued. And the references in the above list are plainly not to 



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286 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

such, but only to the translations of the two English patents, into 
Dutch, which were made for the use of the inhabitants who did 
not read English. Thus a bill of Nicholas Bayard for services, 
in '*the differences of the town with Fordham and Tourneur," 
contains a charge "for the translation of a groundbrief" (from 
Dutch into English, probably No. 8 in the foregoing list, being 
the Jansen and Aertsen Patent which Harlem now owned), and 
then comes the item, "For the translation of the town's patent, 
f. 20." 

The new and old magistrates in joint meeting, January 16, 
1673, enacted: 

It is, with the common consent, resolved and established, that from 
now forward the house lots (erven) which the several residents of this 
village possess, shall pay the charges, such as are already imposed, or 
may still be imposed, for the reduction of the debts and expenditures of 
this town; unless some alteration therein shall happen, owing to the 
various hindrances to it that are liable to come : being owned as follows : 

Resolved Waldron 2 erven. 

Daniel Tourneur 2 " 

Glaude le Maistre 2 " 

Joost van Oblinus 3 " 

Cornelis Jansen 2 " 

Pierre Cresson 

Lubbert Gerritsen 

Adolph Meyer 

Robert Hollis 

Jan le Roy 

Mr. Delavall 

Johannes Verveelen 

Meyndert Joumee 

David Demarest 

Widow Montagne 

Jan Nagel Vi " 

Together 24% erven. 

This list is believed to embrace (see Map, page 292), the 
erven proper, marked a to jr {v excepted) ; the small house lots 
granted Jean Demarest and Pelszer not appearing as yet among 
the erven. 

By the death of Montagne the town accounts were left in 
some disorder. These needed careful revision, as there were 
various town debts which must be paid. It was concluded, in 
this connection, to write to Pieter Roelofsen, at Mespat Kills, — 
and which was accordingly done, — asking him to be present on 
the 20th, or, at farthest, the 21st instant, to give an account of ihs 
receipts and disbursements while serving here as constable. The 
business of January i6th ended with making up the rate list 
for 300 gl., to paid the ministers, as had been agreed upon. Mey- 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 287 

nard Joumee being sick, January 25th, made his will, naming 
his wife Elizabeth Du Mont; alludes to "children." Appoints 
Sieur Demarest and Oblinus overseers of his estate. 

After a second summons Pieter Roelofsen attended on Feb- 
ruary 4th, and gave a statement of his accounts while constable 
in 1 67 1 and 1672, and by which it appeared that he had col- 
lected from sundry persons named the sum of 76 fl. 10 st. in 
wheat, sewant, and firewood, and paid the same to Mr. John 
Sharp toward the liquidation of his claim of 92 fl., the balance 
being more than cancelled by a load of wood, 20 fl., delivered to 
Sharp by Resolved Waldron.* The subject being resumed the 
following day, the 5th, it was resolved, with the advice of Mr. 
Delavall, to revise all the town accounts from the year 1664, ^^^ 
all creditors and debtors were notified to make up and hand in 
their statements on the 6th of March, to be examined by the old 
and present magistrates. The next day, at the request of the 
voorleser (Vander Vin), the constable was directed to collect 
his salary as per list of "free-will contributors." 

Upon the investigation which took place, March 6th, it "was 
found that the accounts of J. de La Montague and J. Verveelen, 
upon their books concerning the town, were balanced on the 
15th of February, 1671, and that there is due Verveelen from 
the town 87 gl. 10 St., and that Montague is charged with 208 
gl. for his particular, or as having been collector; so that the 
town have no further interest in their transactions but to let 
them rest, and from now forward to make up new accounts of 
the town's debts, and to find the means to discharge and pay the 
same." Then the debts follow: 

A\ 1673, the 6th March. List of the Creditors of the town of N. 
Haerlem, as a part were given in the 5th January, 1671, and now are 
found, to wit: 

John Sharp according to account f. 92 : o 

Abraham La Noy or Fredr. Gysbertsen 68 : o 

Daniel Toumeur y^ : 16 

Johannes Vermilje 24 : o 

Resolved Waldron 41 : 4 

Joost van Oblinus 6 : 15 

Meyndert Journee 3 : o 

Peter Cresson 4 : o 

Comelis Jansen 2 : 10 

Glaude le Maistre 6 : 10 

David des Marest 2 : o 

Jean le Roy 4 : 10 

Capt Nicolls for the patent ^j2 : o 

Johannes Verveelen 87 : 10 

* John Sharp was a "Public Notary," at New York; his appointment dating De- 
cember I, 1665. This charge was probably for legal services. 



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288 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Paulus Richard for the land at Spuyten Duyvel f. 300 : o 

For two years' interest @ 6 pr. ct 36 : o 

Metje Wessels 26 : o 

For the preacher when the confirming of elder and 

deacons happened 24 : o 

For fare to Theunis Crey 6 : o 

To victuals and drink 35 : 10 



Total 1175 : 5 

Also due Warner Wessels 8 : 8 

and Cornelis Jansen 36 : o 

The above exhibits the original amounts in full, upon which 
partial payments had been made by some of the inhabitants who 
were to have credit for the same in the town rate now to be 
levied. Sharp's bill had been paid, as before seen, and a con- 
siderable sum on the patent.* Jaques Cresson, formerly con- 
stable, reported the receipt of 66 fl. 10 st. in wheat and sewant, 
from the following persons (upon the assessment ordered May 
I, 1670), and to have paid it on the patent, viz.: 

Johannes Verveelen f. 9 : o 

Joost van Oblinus 12 : o 

Jaques Cresson 7 : 15 

Resolved Waldron 13 : 14 

David Demarest 6 : o 

Peter Cresson 7 : 15 

Jean le Roy 7 : 15 

Isaac Vermeille 2 : 11 

A". 1673, the 6th March; List of the Lands and Erven of the Town 
N. Haerlem, to contribute to and discharge the aforesaid debts, whereof 
1-3 must come from the Erven, and 2-3 parts from the Lands ; and amount 
for each erf to 16 gl. 6 st. and for each morgen of land to 3 gl. 14 st. 

Thomas Delavall 4 erven ; 48 morgen ; 242 gl. 16 st 

Nos. 3, 12, 19, 20, 21, 22 Jochem Pieters. 

Nos. 12, 13, 16, 22 Van Keulen*s Hook. 
Glaude le Maistre 2 erven ; 15 morgen ; 88 gl. 2 st. 

Nos. 14, 15 J. P. No. 21 V. K. H. 
Cornelis Jansen 2 erven ; 18 morgen ; 99 gl. 4 st. 

Nos. 2, 18 J. P. Nos. 6, 15 V. K. H. 
Jean le Roy i erf ; 9 morgen ; 49 gl. 12 st. 

No. II J. P. No. I V. K. H. 
Daniel Tourneur 2 erven ; 21 morgen; no gl. 6 st. 

Nos. I, 17 J. P. Nos. 17, 18, 19 |V. K. H. 
Lubbert Gerritsen i erf; 12 morgen ; 60 gl. 14 st 

Nos. 4, 9 J. P. 

• Capt. Nichols transferred his bill for writing the patent to Reynier Willcmscn, 
baker, to whom the town officers, April 5, 1676, gave a note in these terms: 

*^We Constable and Magistrates of the town of New Haerlem, acknowledge to be 
truly and honestly indebted, in the name of the common inhabitants of this town, to 
and for the behoof of Reynier Willemsen, in the sum of 332 guilders, upon the 
Patent, on account of Capt. Matthias Nicholls, deducting what may be found to have 
been paid thereon; which aforesaid sum of 332 guilders we promise to pay in the first 
ensuing January, 1677, without default, under bond pursuant to the laws." 

The amount yet due on the above February 19, 1677, was 253 guilders, on which 
sums were paid from time to time till 1683, when Constable Vermilyc made the final 
payment of 15 guilders. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 289 

Johannes Verveelen 2 erven ; 15 morgen ; 88 gl. 2 st 

No. 10 J. P. Nos. 7, 8, 5^4, ^9 V. K. H. 
David des Marest i erf ; 8 morgen ; 45 gl. 18 st. 

No. 7 J. P. 2-3 of No. 5, V. K. H. 
Joost van Oblinus 3 erven ; 12 morgen ; 93 gl. 6 st 

No. 13 J. P. Nos. 10, II V. K. H. 
Pierre Cresson i erf ; 9 morgen ; 49 gl. 12 st. 

No. 5 J. P. No. 20 V. K. H. 
Resolved Waldron 2 erven ; 15 morgen ; 88 gl. 2 st. 

No. 8 J. P. Nos. 2, 3, 1/^4, ^9 v. K H. 
Jan Nagel ^ erf ; 6 morgen ; 30 gl. 7 st. 

No. 16 J. P. 
Isaac Vermeille i morgen ; 3 gl. 14 st. 

1-3 6f No. 5 V. K. H. 
Meynard Joumee i erf ; 9 morgen ; 49 gl. 12 st. 

No. 6 J. P. No. 14 V. K. H. 
Jean La Montagne 18 morgen ; 66 gl. 12 st. 

The Point* 

Johannes Vermelje i erf ; 16 gl. 6 st 

Robert Hollis i erf ; 16 gl. 6 st 

Total 245^ erven ; 216 morgen ; 1198 gl. 11 st 

The following important document throws light upon the 
history of Montagne's Flat: 

Upon this day, 8th March, 1673, appeared before me, Hendrick J. 
Vandervin, Secretary, admitted by the Hon. Mayor's Court at New York, 
residing at the village N. Haerlem; the undersigned inhabitants of N. 
Haerlem, as also owners and possessors of the land called Montagne's Flat, 
lying under this Town's jurisdiction; who together promised to inclose 
the aforesaid piece of land in a common fence, and to use, until the 
building, planting, or dwelling on, or as every of them shall think 
proper to do with his part; and if it happen that they in common or 
either separately should be troubled by any one, who would bring the 
ownership and possession in question, and would offer them jointly or 
cither singly, any molestation concerning it, on account of the owner- 
ship of the aforesaid land; therefore the undersigned covenant, jointly 
or each separately, to defend them there-against, and to maintain one 
another in their rights (which they have in the same;) protesting 
against such as to all costs, damages, or losses which, by any interference, 
they jointly, or either in particular, may be put to. In witness of the 
sincerity of these above standing conditions, this has been written, and 
subscribed with our own hands. Thus done and passed at N. Haerlem, 
on the date as above. 

David des Marest, 
Gi^AUDE LE Maistre, 
Daniel Tourneur, 

CORNELIS JanSEN, 

Resoi^ved Wai^dron, 

This mark made 

LouRENS + Jansen, 

by himself. 
Jan Dyckman. 
In presence of me 

Hendr. J. Vandr. Vin, Secretary. 

* Montagne was to deliver this property to Bogert free and tmincmnbered, hence 
this was properly charged to him. 



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290 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Though not so much as hinted from what quarter trouble 
was apprehended, circumstances plainly point to the old Mon- 
tague patent or groundbrief. Montague's Point, as we have 
seen, had just received a new owner, Jan Louwe Bogert. On 
January i6, 1673, the constable and magistrates, with a view 
of fixing a limit to Bogert's lands, held under the bill of sale 
from Montague, had passed a resolution to estimate said lands 
at 18 morgen, which allowed 2 morgen for the Hop Garden. 
The deed, which only awaited the final payment, was soon to 
be given by Mrs. Montague, and Bogert was already "in pos- 
session.'' It was, doubtless, in anticpation of some intereference 
on the part of their new neighbor, or the Montague's, or both, 
which now led the owners to fence in the Flat, and to join in a 
covenant to protect themselves against any rival claimants.* 

Indeed it appears that, in common with other-s who had 
built up claims upon the old defunct groundbriefs, some of the 
Montague family indulged a hope of getting their groundbrief 
confirmed, with the view of claiming portions of the Flat. In 
this, as is apparent, neither of the sons of Dr. La Montague took 
any part. The compromise with John La Montague, in 1661, 
which secured him the Point (for which the town gave him a 
deed in 1672), was to him and his children an estoppel to any- 
further claim upon the Vredendal lands, and there is no intima- 
tion that he or they ever made any such claim. With his brother, 
William, the same was no doubt true, since his assent to the dis- 
posal of the Flat appears in that he not only drew and sold some 
of that land, but subsequently withheld his name from a petition 
to Governor Fletcher for a confirmation of the old groundbrief. 
Without question, the Flat came within the agreement of 1663, 

• op huyden 8 Marty 1673: Comparccrde voor my Ucndr. J: Vandr. Yin, 
Secrets: bv de E. ffr. acbtbr. Mayor Court tot N: Yorcke geadmittcert : Ten Durpc 
N. Durpe N. Haerlem rcsidercn: de ondergesn. ingesetenen van N: Haerlem, alsmcdc 
eygenaers enr. possesseuren van bet lont genacmt Montagnes Vlackte gelegcn ondcr 
deses durps jurisdictie, de welcke verclaerden gesametlk. bet voorsn. stuck lant, in 
gemeene heyningh te besluyten enr. te gcbrucken, tot den bouw, planten, of wooning; 
of soo ider van haer voor syn gedeelt sal geraden duncken, enr. oft gebeurde, dat sy 
int gemeen of ider int bysonder, mogbten werden getroubleert, door imant, die den 
eygendom enr. possessie wilde in twynel trecken, enr. haerln. gesamentlk. of ider int 
bysonder, eenign molest (dien aengaende), wilde doen, wegens den eygendom vant 
voorsn.lant : Soo verbindcn sy ondergesn. gesamentlk., of ider int bysdnder, bacr dacr 
tegen te bescbcrmen ende malcanderen in hare gerechtigbeyt (die sylidn. op bet sclvc 
syn hebbende), te mainteneren: protesterenn. tegene soodanige van alle costen, schaden 
enr. interesscn, die baerln. gesamentlk. or ider int bysonder, door eenigb molest moghte 
werden aengedaen: Oirconde der wareheydt vant beene voorsn. staet, bebben die doen 
schryven cnde met eygen handen onderts: Aldus gedaen enr. gepasseert tot N: Haer- 
lem, dato ut supra. 

David des Marest, Resalvcrt Waldron, 

Glaude le Maistre, dit merke by 

Daniel Tourneur, Lourens X Jansen, 

Cornclies Yansen, selffs gestelt. 

Jan Dyckman, 
In kennisse van my 

Hendr. J: Vandr. Vin, Secrets: 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 291 

between Stuyvesant and Council and the inhabitants of Harlem, 
that the tithes, or tenths of the produce of their cultivated lands 
for the years 1666 to 1672, both inclusive, should be applied for 
the benefit of the original grantees who held the groundbriefs, 
their heirs or creditors. This agreement, by which the tenths 
were substituted for the 8 gl. per morgen, was alike binding on 
the government and the landholders, and was limited in its effects 
to the term of years named. If carried out in good faith, there 
must terminate the demands both of the said original grantees 
and their creditors. It seemed to favor the then owners, for 
the amount of tithes to be paid must depend upon what the land 
should be made to yield; but had the Dutch rule continued no 
doubt the government would have held these owners strictly to 
this condition, and the proceeds from Montague's Flat would 
have been applied toward cancelling the debt due from Dr. Mon- 
tagne to the West India Company. It might be argued that these 
payments being limited to seven years, had the Flat for that time 
been under tillage it would have taken a husbandry then and 
there unknown, to have made the tenths pay Dr. Montague's debt, 
which as early as 1662 amounted, by his own figuring, to 1130 gl., 
but by that of the public bookkeeper to not less than 1,936 gl. ; and 
that the tithes being insufficient to satisfy this claim, the balance 
would still be against Montague! 

But the change of government, in 1664, was alike fatal to 
this provision for the payment of the tenths, and to the old 
groundbriefs on which it was predicated ; the English, as we have 
seen, refusing to confirm the latter within the Harlem patent, 
and holding them to be null and void, while it also ignored the 
system of tithes which had worked badly for the country, and 
**did much hinder the populating of it." Montague's Flat having 
lain as commons, unfenced and untilled, had indeed yielded 
nothing but pasturage, nothing for the payment of tithes. There- 
fore the owners (with whom must be named Captain Delavall, 
who had a small lot there, of 4 morgen 320 rods, bought of 
Simon de Ruine), being released from their obligation to render 
the tithes, while the Montague heirs were still liable to some 
demand from the government, which assumed to collect all other 
debts due the West India Company (even to small charges on 
their books for unpaid passage money), these heirs were easily 
led to look upon the agreement under which they had given up 
the Flat as thereby vitiated, and to fall back upon their old 
groundbrief as entitled to confirmation. Could they have suc- 
ceeded it would have been a nice operation for them, as the lands 



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292 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

had risen in value, and lots on the Flat now brought 44 guilders 
per morgen. But to the credit of the English rulers, they did 
not attempt so unfair a proceeding as to enforce the claim against 
the Montague heirs, while at the same time relieving the land- 
holders of their obligation to pay the tithes. A majority, and 
no doubt all, of the eight proprietors of the Flat had documentary 
titles, five at least, as heretofore noticed, holding particular patents 
from the government, and Demarest deriving through the Mon- 
tagues themselves. The aggregate of their lands, contained in 
nine lots, amounted to 54 morgen, as afterward rated and taxed ; 
to which being added another lot which lay there vacated or 
untaxed till 1725, made 60 morgen, as reckoned, in the entire 
Flat. This came by a generous allowance to the morgen, the 
Flat being correctly estimated, in the Montague groundbrief, at 
100 morgen. Here was the real bone of contention. The Mon- 
tagues regarded as of right theirs the excess over the quantity 
the eight owners were entitled to. But the inhabitants took 
another view, and in which the government concurred, namely, 
that so much of the Flat as was undisposed of belonged to the 
common lands of the town, as granted and confirmed to them 
by NicoUs and Lovelace. The government adhering to the policy 
laid down by Stuyvesant regarding the old groundbriefs, saw no 
reason to make the Montague groundbrief an exception. It 
respected the act of the Dutch government, which allowed the 
tenths to offset the Montagne debt, but also held the heirs to 
their act in the surrender of the Flat. Hence it could never be 
prevailed upon to confirm the old groundbrief.* 

Pierre Cresson and Rachel Cloos, his wife, "both being sound 
of body," made their joint will, March 15, 1673; Cornelis Jansen 
and Jan Nagel witnesses. How sensible and wise thus, in 
health, to calmly weigh the fact of their mortality, and deliberately 
set their house in order. Leaving fifty guilders to "the church 
at New York," they say, "whereas their daughter Susannah has 
enjoyed as a marriage portion the value of two hundred guilders, 
so the testators will that at the decease of the longest liver each 
of their other children then living shall draw the like 200 guilders, 

• A petition was addressed to Governor Fletcher, in 1695, in the name of John 
I^uwe Bogert, William Montagne, his sister Mrs. Jacob Kip, and nephew Johannes 
Van Inborgh, who claimed to be seized, and by descent as well as mean assurance in 
the law, owners of the patent granted by Governor Kieft to Dr. Montagne; and pravcd 
for a confirmation of said patent, as they were now willing to divide the same, feut 
William Montagne, then of Ulster county, did not si^ this petition; neither did 
Abraham Montagne, of Harlem (son of John), which is remarkable, considering the 
claim to be the Montagne lands set up in our day, under a title purporting to be de- 
rived from him. The petition being referred to the Attorney General for his opinion 
received no further notice. A better knowledge of this old exploded claim than that 
afforded by the family traditions, might, in the case above alluded to, have saved a 
protracted and fruitless litigation. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 293 

and our youngest son Elie, if he is under the age of sixteen years, 
also a new suit of clothes becoming to his person, from head to 
foot." 

Gabriel Carbosie, the miller, and his wife Brieta Wolferts, 
"both sound of body," also made their will, on April i8th ensu- 
ing, and which was witnessed by Jan Louwe Van Schoonrewoerd 
and Cornelis Jansen. They gave six guilders "to the poor of 
the Lutheran congregation at New York." Each by former 
marriages had had children, but none had come from their own 
as yet. 

On March 30th, "being Sunday and Pass," the quiet and 
good order of the village was broken by a most shameful affray, 
the more scandalous considering the standing of some of the 
parties. About four o'clock- in the afternoon, young Samuel 
Demarest falling in with Daniel Tourneur, Jr., began to tease 
him by asking why he had prated so much in Coenraet Ten Eyck's 
shop in New York, that Glaude Delamater's son should fight 
(plockhairen) with him, and added that he, Tourneur, was a 
blaffert, a bully. Tourneur answered angrily, "Youngster, hold 
your mouth, or I'll give you some knocks." The other said he 
would not; on which Daniel made good his therat, with a blow 
or two. Now ran up Samuel's elder brother Jean, and then 
David, to take his part, and there was a free use of fists, stones, 
and sticks, which Mr. Gipsen (Gibbs), who saw the melee, tried 
in vain to stop, telling the Demarests, "Three against one is not 
fair." The fathers of the combatants now reached the scene of 
action, and with Tourneur came his prospective son-in-law, Dyck- 
man, "with his drawn knife in his hand," and who clinched and 
got "the young David Demarest under," exclaiming, "This shall 
cost you your life." At the same time Joris Jansen Van Hoorn 
caught hold of Jean Demarest, and struck him several times in 
the face with his fist ; while the elder Tourneur, who had turned 
upon the father, drew his knife and tried to stab him, but David, 
using only a stick, gave his assailant a stunning blow on the 
head, "so that he fell down." Gillis Boudewyns saw the whole 
affray form the beginning, and with Pierre Cresson testified to 
this stabbing ; for by this time many of the villagers beside those 
named were drawn to the spot by the uproar, as Isaac Vermille, 
Jean Delamater, Le Roy,* Vander Vin, and Nagel, with Pieter 

• Simeon Cornier had bought Le Roy's house and lands, February 24, 1672, but 
it was not till May 2, 1674, ***** ^* ^°>'? acknowledging payment, gave a deed and 
possession. Cornier and wife, Nicole Petit (also called Petitmangin and Piemainte), 
loined the church at New Amsterdam, October 2, 1662, having just arrived from 
Mannheim, via Holland, as has been noticed. Entering the military service, and pro- 
moted to a corporalcy, he was given his choice, at the English conquest, either to re- 



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294 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Claessen, Thomas Etherington, and Elias Bailey, who happened 
to be at the village. A stop was now put to the fight, but young 
Tourneur, still excited, said, **Wait, wait! this is not the last 
time." The elder Tourneur has the benefit of a doubt, as Jean 
Delamater, the innocent cause of the tumult, declared "that he 
had not seen that Daniel Tourneur stabbed David Demarest." 

High Sheriff Allard Anthony, on being notified of this flag- 
rant breach of the peace, held a court at Harlem, the next day, 
and took the testimony of several witnesses; but a hiatus in the 
minutes of the Mayor's Court probably deprives us of the sequel 
of this affair, in which, however, no lives were lost, and but 
slight personal injury sustained. Tourneur was about as usual, 
April 5th, when he leased to Jan Dircksen, or **Jan the Soldier," 
as before called, "a certain piece of woodland, lying at Menepas 
Kill," with meadow on "the kill of boor Aert and Jan de Paep," 
for the term of three years, the lessee to build his own dwelling- 
house, and leave three morgen of land cleared and fenced ; to all 
which Jan Dyckman and Ralph Doxey are witnesses. 

Society was not very polished in those days, and was still 
wedded to the old ideas about personal prowess, — ^pluck and 
muscle, never mind what called them forth, were things to boast 
of and applaud. The younger combatants might glory in this 
general knock-down, and little fear the approbrium; but for the 
two elderly ones holding high positions, Demarest a magistrate, 
and Tourneur a deacon, sober retrospection no doubt brought 
shame and regret. But we must discriminate between Tourneur, 
rash, even dastardly, and Demarest, more temperate in his Picard 
impulses, and probably acting in self-defence only. The latter, 
a few weeks later (August 23d) was re-elected to the magistracy ; 
but then Tourneur, a man, mauger his faults, of generous instincts 
and of great energy, and to whose tact and abilities the town owed 
much of its success, had just closed an active life and been laid 
to rest. He is last noticed May 12th, when he subscribed as 
witness to an engagement of Thomas Selligh, late in his emloy, 

turn to Europe with the Dutch forces or to remain here. As he chose the latter, the 
Rovernment remitted his passage money, which was yet unpaid. He went to Stalen 
Island and engaged in farming, his old calling in France. He received, at Harlem, 
the marks of respect due to his character and abilities. On the Dutch reoccupation, 
in 1673, trouble being feared from the English, Cornier was fitly chosen as a corporal 
in the Night Watch, and two years later, during the Indian troubles, held the like 
command. He also served as aeacon; but selling his lands, July 26, 1675, to Paul 
Richard, he removed to New York, a few months later. In 1686 he married, as a 
second wife, Tryntie Walings V'an Winckel, widow of Cornelis Jacobsen Stillc, who 
had lived at Harlem, ancestor of the Somerindyke and VVoertendyke families. (See 
p. 151, and N. Y. G. & B. Record, 1876, p. ^9). The day he bought it Richard sold 
Cornicr's property to David Demarest, Jr. We know not when Cornier died, nor that 
he left children, but take for his descendants Capt. Peter Come, of New York, mer- 
chant, and commander of a privateer in the old French war, who still lived in the 
city during the Revolution. (Sec Dyckman family). 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 295 

to work a year for Wallerand du Mont, of Esopus. Tourneur's 
death made the first break in the company of Nicolls Patentees. 
It probably followed close upon Dyckman's espousal (June 15th) 
to his daughter Madeleine. We notice that Dyckman's old 
friend. Arena Harmans Bussing, with whom he had left his 
native Bentheim, had just before married Susanna le Maistre, 
Claude's daughter, both brides having been born at Flatbush, 
soon after their parents emigrated.* 

This chapter of incidents may fitly close with a glance at the 
village of New Harlem as it was in the autumn of i673.t How 
quaint an aspect has the Dutch settlement as e*en now its plain 
wooden tenements, embowered in foliage whose variegated hues 
already tell the declining year, rise modestly to view. Their 
humble eaves, keeping line with the street, lift themselves but 
one low story, yet the extraordinary slope of the thatched roof 
gives space to the loft above, so useful for many domestic pur- 
fKDses. Aside the house, quite too near for entire safety, stands 
the ample and well-stored "schuer" or bam, in its squatty eaves 
and lofty ridge the very counterpart of the dwelling, but by a 
noticeable contrast turning its gable with huge gaping doors to 
the highway. In the spaces between buildings and homesteads 
flourish rows of choice imported fruit trees, apple, pear, peach, 
cherry, and quince, and the no less prized garden and ornamental 
shrubs, the Dutch currant, gooseberry, and evergreen box, dwarf 
and arborescent. Tidiness reigns, at least about the dwelling, 
and within reach of the busy housewife's mop and broom; but 
all betoken 's a plainness and frugality, in wide contrast with the 

* Wallarand du Mont (Dumont), whose descandants are still found in Ulster 
County, came to this country in 1657, from Coomen, in Flanders; served as "cadet in 
the honorable Company of the Hecr Director General," and married at Esopus, January 
13, 1664, Margaret Hendricks, widow of Jan Aertsen, who had been slain by the 
Indians. (See Van Putten). Du Mont's sister Margaret was wife of Pierre Noue, a 
Walloon, who emigrated with Demarest and company in 1673. (See Journee). How 
will our revered friend and early pastor make Pierre the son of EHas Neau, the 
catechi^t, of New York, who was born at Soubiz in Saintonge, in 1662? (History of 
Elizabeth, p. 267). Du Mont died at Esopus, in 1783, having had sons, Wallarand, John 
Baptist and Peter; and daughters, Margaret, wife of William Loveridge; Jannctie, 
HTfe of Michael Van Vechten, and Francina, wife of Frederick Clute. Clutc went to 
Schenectady. (See Pearson's Schenectady Settlers). Peter Dumont, with his brethren, 
Loveridge and Van Vechten, settled on the Raritan N. J. Dumont and Van V^echten 
became justices of the peace. The latter was born in 1664, being son of Derick 
Teunisaen, who was born in 1634, at Vechten, in the diocese of Utrecht, and when 
four years of age came with his father. Teunis Dericksen, to Albany. William Love- 
ridge was from the parish of Wool, in Dorsetshire, England, and died at Perth Amboy, 
in 1703, leaving: sons William, Wallerand and John. He was brother to Samuel 
Loveridge, of New York, shipwright, who was born in Albermarle County, Va., and 
married at Esopus, in 1688, Hannah, daughter of George Meals. Their father, William 
Loveridge, a hatter, came out to Connecticxrt as early as 1659, removed to Virginia, 
thence to Albany, and died at Catskill, about 1683. He had daughters. Temperance, 
who married Capt. Isaac Melyn, of New York, and Sarah, mho married John Ward, 
of Ulster county. Hence the belief expressed in the Hisotry of Elizabeth that Samuel 
Loveridge was a son of Rev. William Leverich, though with seeming reason, is plainly 
not warranted. 

t Consult the plan of the village at page 292. 



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296 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

elegance of modern living. The daily life of the villagers, — ^but 
let us first note the occupants of the principal dwellings ere we 
cross the threshold, to explore the humble sphere of their domes- 
tic economy. 

Here at the river end, where, about the tavern, smith-shop, 
church, and ferry, gather the stir and business activity of the 
village, is the comfortable home of the French refugee and newly- 
appointed schepen, David Demarest. His house and bam occupy 
a lot "abutting on three streets from which it is fenced," and 
extended "toward the strand, as far as he can," by virtue of a 
town grant of January 5, 1667. It contains a double-erf, or 
two erven, the upper, facing the Great Way, being that gotten 
from Montague (and where now the oldest house and relic of the 
village stands), the other once Dominie Z}^erus'. This last 
looks out' to the south upon the square or green about the land- 
ing-place. Demarest's neighbor, over the cross-street, is Glaude 
Delamater, recent magistrate, testy but kind-hearted; his double- 
erf joining that of Cornelius Jansen, late constable, a young but 
rising man in the town, and at whose friendly inn, — where swing- 
ing signboard and feeding-troughs mark it merely as the village 
hostel, but to Kortright, Bogert, and others, the veritable coun- 
terpart of Mynheer's inn at Schoonrewoer, — ^the passing traveler 
stops for refreshment, or the wiseacres of the dorp resort to 
swallow the latest bit of news or scandal in a bumper of Kort- 
right's beer. Opposite the tavern, past the second crossway, lives 
the Picard, good Pierre Cresson, from his occupation called by 
his Dutch neighbors, de tuynier, or the gardener , whose erf 
joins at its rear or north side to that of Daniel Tourneur, but 
just deceased, and westerly to that late of Hendrick Karstens, 
but now of the worthy Joost Van Oblinus, schepen. Over the 
third cross-street are the two erven of Johan Verveelen, where 
his son-in-law, Adolph Meyer, now lives, and next him the 
"garden" and erf (strictly a double-erf), which had passed from 
Mr. Muyden to Jaques Cresson, and from him to Meynard 
Journee, present occupant, also called Maaljer, his surname 
Belgicized. Being sickly, Journee had just resigned his office 
of fence-master, which was given, February 6th, to Laurens 
Jansen, the Low ancestor. Journee's grounds extend to those 
of Captain Delavall, a small strip between them, "laid out for a 
street" (the fourth crossway), having been added to Cresson 's 
lot while his, by a grant of May 3,1667. In one of DelavaU's 
houses, once the home of Simon the Walloon, had recently lived, 
till he removed to the city, Wouter Gerritsen, Delavall's princi- 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 297 

pal farmer, and the old neighbor of Gillis Mandeville, in the 
Veleuwe, — the other of Delavall's houses had been occupied by 
Pieter Roelofsen, twice constable here. Beyond this point we 
soon reach the Buyten Tuynen, or Out-Gardens, the two farther 
ones soon to be the home of Arent Harmens Bussing, lately 
married and just appointed one of the schepens. 

But from the quiet west end, retracing our steps, on the south 
side of the street, we come to the dwelling of the venerable Isaac 
Vermeille. Seated upon the end of lot 5, Van Keulen's Hook, 
"over against the garden of Jaques Cresson," as it was till of late ; 
his erf, which extends back to a strip of flag marsh stretching across 
the lot, is well stocked with fruit trees, the pride of the Huguenot 
settlers, and in which culture they excelled. On either side of 
Vermeille lie vacant lots, but that on the west. No. 6, soon to be 
built upon and occupied by its owner, Laurens Jansen, aforesaid. 
Lot No. 4, on the east side of Vermeille, and which Adolph Meyer 
had gotten with his wife from her father, Verveelen, was at this 
end fit only for pasturage, being marshy; but a plot here was 
bought from Meyer November 2, 1673, by his friend Jan Dyck- 
man, who for the many years before he moved to Spuyten Duyvel 
occupied a house built upon two of Tourneur's out-gardens, 
received by his wife Madeleine. Adjoining lot No. 4, and 
opposite to Oblinus, lives the most influential man in the town. 
Resolved Waldron, at present the shout, or sheriif, and next to 
him, easterly, his son-in-law Jan Nagel. Going still toward the 
river, to the two small erven opposite Comelis Jansen and Dela- 
mater (granted Jean Demarest and Johannes Pelszer, but seem- 
ingly never improved by them), on the comer of the Pelszer lot, 
where the road runs down by the green to the creek, stands, or 
later stood, the village smithy, whereWilliamHaldron, an English- 
man, plied his hammer and bellows, waking the neighbors at 
early dawn with the music of his anvil, as did, within the same 
century, his successor in the smithshop, Zacharias Sickels, whose 
descendants are yet among us.* 

• Zacharias Sickels, the common ancestor and father of Zacharias aforesaid, was 
from Viennc, in Austria. Finding his way to Holland, he went out to Curacao, and 
served in the military rank of adelborst or cadet. When Stuyvesant returned from a 
visit to that island, in 1655, Sickels came with him, being soon after attached to the 
garrison at Fort Orange. In 1658 he was a tapster. He remained at Albany after the 
surrender, in 1664, and worked as a carpenter, having married Anna, daughter of 
Lambert Van Valkcnburgh, by whom he had sons, Robert, Lambert, Zacharias and 
Thomas, and daughters^ Anna, Elizabeth, Maria, Margaret and Leah. Anna married 
Abraham Isaacs, and Elizabeth married William Peelen. In 1670 to '72, and 1681 to 
'83, Sickels was town herder, and had 18 guilders a head for the season. He next 
hdd the responsible place of rattle watch, so called from the rattle, used to give 
warning, in making his nightly rounds. He was also town cryer, to call the people 
together on needed occasions; and porter, or keeper of the city gates, to close and lock 
them at flight and to open them in tne morning. His sons Robert and Lambert removing 
to New York, he, with his other sons, etc., followed them in 1693, his vacated office 
being given to his son-in-law Isaacs. In 1698 he was admitted a freeman of New 



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298 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

But for an inside view of the domestic life and home com- 
forts of these villagers, let us visit the worthy and well-to-do 
Lubbert Gerritsen, late one of the magistrates, living near the 
west end. We enter. No carpet hides the well-scrubbed floor, 
and in vain we glance around the room for many articles which 
in our day imperious fashion, and even comfort, demand. The 
furniture goes but little beyond the practical and useful. A 
gilded mirror indeed adorns the whitewashed wall. The two 
beds have pillows and striped curtains. Two chests very con- 
venient contain the clothing, one of the wife, the other of the 
daughter, fair Eva, who five years later married the Bussing- 
ancestor. On one side is a small octagon table; and here a 
brass candlestick and a warming-pan. Upon hooks on the wall 
hang a musket and firelock. No stove is there ; but in the ample 
fireplace the wood crackles and blazes cheerfully above the huge 
backlog and around the two iron dinner pots hung to the trammel 
by hooks and chain. On the table or shelves, and in the pantry, 
we notice exactly i pewter bowl, 2 small pewter platters, 4 pew- 

Vork, and in 1702 was living in the East Ward. Robert, his son, married. i586, 
Geertie, daughter of Abel Reodenhaus, and moved to Bergen County, N. T., where he 
died in 1729; Lambert, born 1666, married, 1690, Maria Jansen, from Albany, settled 
at Bedford, Brooklyn, and died 1722; and Thomas married. 1702, Jannetie, daughter 
of Jan Hendricks Brevoort, and remained in New York. All these left descendants. 
(See Winficld*s Land Titles, the Bergen Gen., and N. V. G. & B. Rec., 1876, 60). 

Zacharias Sickels, blacksmith, and referred to in the text, was born in 1670. at 
Albany, and after coming to Harlem, married, August 23, 1693, Mary, daughter of the 
aforesaid Brevoort. On February 20, 1705, he bought of his father-in-law, who had 
then left Harlem, the lands he still held there. (See Brevoort). Of these, Sickels 
sold, April 9, 1705, a meadow, once Pierre Cres^on's. and lying at the head of Sher- 
man's Creek, and northerly of the Kortright farm, to Jan Kiersen (with whose lands 
it was sold to James Carroll, in 1763), and on January 23^ 1706, he sold to Samson 
Benson, No. 1 New Lots, with "a garden" (originally two erven of Cresson and 
Tourneur), lying next west of the churchyard. He drew land in 171 2, in 1st and 2nd 
Divisions, having sold his 3rd and 4th to Jan Kiersen, but obtaining in exchange 
Kiersen's lot in ist Division. (See Appendix J). For these drawn lands he received 
a patentee deed, December 24, 17 12. Later, he sold his ist Division to Joh. Meyer. 
He married, July 19, i^t?, a second wife, Wyntie Dyckman, widow of Toh. Kortright. 
Being sick, he sold his property, January 15, 1729, to his step-son, Nicholas Kort- 
right. This consisted of lot No. s, Jochem Picters, a lot on Montagne's Flat, rated 
at 6 morgcn or 12 acres (but in reality 20 acres), and No. 12, in 2d Division, 18 
acres; in all, as rated, 43 acres. Zacharias Sickels died January 20, 1729, aged 59 
years. He had issue, Tohannes, Jacobus, Zacharias, Hendrick, Gerardus, William, 
Cornelius and Robert. Johannes, the eldest, was born in 1694, married. May 2, 1718, 
Annecke, daughter of Adolph Meyer, and settled in Westchester County, on a farm 
of 100 acres, bought in 1720 and' 1722. He died in June, 1729; his widow married 
Thomas Storm.^ His children, as far as known, were Zacharias, Johannes and Maria, 
who married Gerrit Storm, of Philipsburgh. Of these, Zacharias became a merchant 
in New York, married, 1744, Catherine Heyer, and was the father of John Sickels. 

grocer, who had five children, viz: John, lawyer; AUctta, who married John Ten- 
rook; Catherine, married Com. Isaac Chauncey; Maria, married James Heard, and 
Ann, who married Nathaniel Griswold. 

Tohannes Sickels, born 1720, son of Joh. and Anneke. married his cousin Margaret, 
daughter of Adolph Meyer, 2d, of Harlem, where Sickels settled, inheriting, in 1748. 
84 acres from the Meyer estate. This embraced Nos. 2, 3. Jochem Pieters, No. 10, 2d 
Division, and No. 14, 4th Division. To this was attached the north garden (sold ten 
years later to John Livingston), derived originally by his great-grandfather N'erveclen 
from Jan Slot. (See App. E). He died in 1784, leaving one son, John S. Sickels, and 
a daughter, Mary, wife of Samson Benson. John S. Sickels married, September 29, 
1763, Maria, daughter of Aaron Bussing, and died June 4, 1804; his only child sur- 
viving infancy being Mary, born April 9, 1764. who married John Adriance, father of 
John S. and Isaac Adriance, Latitia. wife of Wm. B. Kenyon, and Margaret, wife of 
ames Kenyon. Many write this name Sickles. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. , 299 

ter trenchers, 6 pewter spoons, a pewter cup with a lid, and an- 
other without, 2 white earthen jars, a copper cake pan, a small 
copper pot, a small brass kettle, 2 water pails, and 2 churns for 
butter-making. There is still place for 2 siths,* 2 sikles, and 2 
augurs. 

We ascend to the **loft.'' Here are 4 milk pans, 2 iron 
hand-basins, 2 tubs, a lye-barrel, a cask filled with buckwheat, 
2 ploughshares, a plough-chain and rope, a coulter, a yoke with 
a hook, 2 old sickles, an adze, and a sail mast, perhaps belonging 
to the "canoe at the strand." 

Invited out to the barn : here is the garnered harvest, stores 
of rye, peas, and buckwheat in the sheaf, and 10 or 12 bundles 
of unswingled flax; also a fan, harrow, and 2 iron forks. On 
the premises, fat and sleek in their sheds and stalls, are the live- 
stock : 2 yoke of oxen, 2 cows, one black, the other red ; i steer, 
and 2 calves. Four young hogs are running upon Little Barent's 
Island. Other farming implements are at hand: 2 ox-yokes, 
2 iron plough-rings, a wood-axe, 3 iron wedges, 2 hand-saws, 
and a draw-saw, 2 iron-bound buckets, and an iron lamp. Ah! 
here stands the ox-cart, and here are 2 new cart-wheels. The 
plough is missing; left where Lubbert's last ploughing was done, 
out on one of the bouwlots, of which he has the Nos. 4 and 9 
on Jochem Pieters, with salt meadow, and out-garden No. 11 
beside. Busy bees still hum about, sucking sweets from the fall 
flowers, with which to store the seven hives in the garden, and 
hens as busily scratch and cluck about the barnyard. Not an 
item of Lubbert's eflfects has escaped our notice; all as enjoyed 
by him at the time of his decease soon after, — affording us a 
reliable index to the average style of living observed here at that 
period. 

And a grand political event had but just transpired in the 
highest degree pleasing to the Harlem community, because 
promising to its simple Belgian character and customs a happy 
perpetuity, while it restored, fresh and intact, the waning memor- 
ies of dear Fatherland. This was the recapture of New York 
by the Dutch. 

t See a description of the Sith and its use, under the year 1687. 



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CHAPTER XIX. 

1673-1674. 

REOCCUPATION BY THE DUTCH. 

^^npHIS day, loth August, 1673, New Style, have the Hol- 
land and Zeeland fleets captured the Fort at N. York, 
in the name of their High Mightinesses, the Lords States General 
of the United Netherlands and his Highness the Lord Prince of 
Orange; and the Fort is re-named Willem Hendrick, and the 
City obtained the name New Orange." 

In these words did the secretary Vander Vin record in his 
protocol an event which, suddenly reducing the colony again to 
the obedience of Holland, at once startled and overjoyed the 
Dutch community at Harlem. The mother countries were at 
war, and this one of the fruits. They were therefore prepared 
for the following official letter: 

To the Inhabitants of the Town of N : Haerlem. 

You will, by authority of the High Commanders and Council of War 
residing in the fort Willem Hendrick, appoint two persons from your 
village as deputies, and with the same send your constable's staff and 
town ensign, on the day after to-morrow, being Monday, in order then 
to talk with us; whereon depending, we remain, after greetings, your 
friendsj 

The ScHOUT, Burgomasters and Schepens 
of the City of N. Orange. 

By order of the same 

N. Bayard, Secretary, 
N. Orange, 19th August, 
1673, New Style. 

To this the following reply was sent by the hands of the 
delegates : 

To the Noble, Honorable Lords, the Schout, Burgomasters and Schepens, 

at the City of New Orange. 

We, Inhabitants at the village N. Haerlem, pursuant to your Honors* 
writing of the 19th instant, by authority of the High Commanders and 
the Council of War, residing in fort Willem Hendrick, send by these 
the constable's staff (having no ensign), besides two deputies from us, to 
receive such orders as your Honors shall find to pertain to the welfare 
and benefit of this town; whereupon we shall rely, praying God to pre- 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 301 

serve your Honors in a prosperous, just, and enduring government; in 
the meanwhile remaining your Honors' dutiful, willing subjects, the In- 
habitants of the town N. Haerlem, August 21st, 1673, New Style. 

By order of the same, 

H. J. Vander Vin, Secretary, 

The delegates returned bearing the following letter: 

To the Inhabitants of the town of New Haerlem. 

You are by these, by authority of the Noble Burgomasters and Schepens 
of this City of New Orange, ordered, for your town's folks and the de- 
pendent neighborhood, on the morrow to assemble, and by a general vote 
to nominate eight from the same as magistrates (all such being also of 
the Reformed Christian Religion), out of which said nomination we then 
shall elect four as magistrates for your town ; whereon we relying, remain 
your friends. 

The Burgomasters and Schepens 

of the City of New Orange, 22d August, 1673. 
By order of the same, 

N. Bayard, Secretary. 

The town folks met pursuant to this order and nominated 
David Des Marest, Joost Van Oblinus, Lubbert Gerritsen, Cor- 
nells Jansen, Resolved Waldron, Adolph Meyer, Arent Har- 
mans (Bussing), and Jan Nagel, all good friends of fatherland, 
as magistrates, and Hendrick J. Vander Vin as secretary, from 
whom were appointed to the former office, Waldron, Des Marest, 
Oblinus, and Bussing, Waldron being named as schout; and as 
secretary, Vander Vin. These took an oath of fidelity "to their 
High Mightinesses the Lords States General of the United 
Netherlands and his Highness the Lord Prince of Orange.'' 

By order of the Burgomasters and Schepens, the new board 
called the other inhabitants together on August 25th, and ad- 
ministered to them the following oath of allegiance: 

"We promise and swear, in presence of Almighty God, unto 
their High Mightinesses the Lords States General of the United 
Netherlands, and his Highness the Lord Prince of Orange, and 
their Governor already placed here, or hereafter to be appointed, 
to be beholden and faithful, and in all circumstances to behave us 
as trusty and obedient subjects are bound to do. So truly help us, 
God Almighty." 

The roll of names is as follows, being classified by Vander 
Vin, thus: 

1st Over 16 and under 60 years. 

Lubbert Gerritsen, 

Cornelis Jansen, 

Meyndert Journee, 

Adolph Meyer, 

Simeon Cornier, 

Jan Laurens v : Schoonrewoert, 



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Englishmen. 



Young Men (i. e, unmarried). 



302 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Jean des Marest, 
Jan Dyckman, 
Daniel Tourneur, 
Jan Nagel, 
Samuel Pell, 
Robert Mollis,* 
John Smith, 
Jan le Maistre, 
David des Marest, Jr., 
Samuel des Marest, 
Jaco el Roey, 
Evert Alrichs, 
Jochem Engelbert, 
Coenraet Hendricks, 
Cornelis Theunisz, 
Gabriel Carbosie, Miller. 

2d. Impotent, above 60 years. 

Glaude le Maistre, 
Pierre Cresson, 
Jean le Roy, 
Claes Carstensen, 
Isaac Vermeille. 

The Dutch rule was now re-established ; after two days came 
the Sabbath, when the people at worship expressed their grati- 
tude in a practical way, by an extra large contribution of 4 florins. 
To this, the next Sunday, Vander Yin added, as a special gift, 
a schepel of wheat, equal to 6 gl. 

The ready response to every demand of the new rulers also 
told the general satisfaction. Called upon to furnish "800 pieces 
of great palisades, 14 feet long, i foot thick and under,'' for the 
city defences, the inhabitants met August 28th, and apportioned 
this heavy work pro rata, 10 posts to an erf, and ij/^ to each 
morgen. An admirable spirit was also shown by the young men 
who owned no bouwland, four of whom, — to wit, Coenraet Hen- 
dricks, Engelbert, Bussing, and Dyckman, — ^volunteered 20 sticks 
each, and the loyal Jan Xagel and Jean Demarest each 25. Le 
Roy, Hollis, Pell, and Smith, severally pledged 20 each, and 
Widow Montague the same, to be cut by her hired man, Evert 
Alrichs. Carbosie would spare time from the mill to furnish 16. 
The younger sons of Demarest, with his servant Jaco el Roey, 
oflFered together to cut 26, Jan le Maistre 12, and Oblinus' man, 

* Robert HolHs, says Governor Nicholls, "came over with me into these parts, 
in his Majesty's service, a soldier under niy command." He got a license August 15, 
1665, to marry widow Mary Page. On July 18, 1667, he secured a patent for 26 
acres of land in Brooklyn, having Jan Martyn on the north and Jan Damen on the 
south, "with his housing and accommodation thereupon," which he had bought early 
that year from Jean Mesurolle. He obtained at that time the sole right to tap strong 
drink in that town. In 1672 he bought an erf at Harlem, where he was made a cor- 
poral in the Night Watch, December 6, 1675, but must have left soon after, being 
last named at the settlement, January 17, 1676, between the town and William Palmer, 
for whom Hollis had stood security. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 3^3 

Cornelis Theunisz, 7. They agreed to draw all these to a suit- 
able place at the strand.* 

A new life and vigor seemed infused into the village; the 
overseers being especially occupied. Pursuant to orders from 
the Council of War, they had, on the 23d inst., visited the planta- 
tion of Captain Richard Morris, and appointed Jean Demarest 
and Arent Harmans to take charge of it till further orders. The 
affairs of Captain Delavall now demanded their care. His 
estates, which were scattered in different parts of the province, 
and valued by him at about £5,000, had been attached by the 
Dutch commanders. A ketch building at Harlem, by Samuel 
Pell, ship carpenter, and of which Delavall was half owner, was 
to that extent included. John Smith, late in employ of Delavall, 
was instructed to take good care of his other property at Harlem 
till further notice. 

Sundry claims against Delavall now came up ; one by Pierre 
Cresson for what Delavall, in 1670, had agreed to pay to rebuild 
and keep up the fence between their gardens ; another for repairs 
the last year at the mill on **the flume and door to the race," Car- 
bosie still having charge. Meanwhile Smith, Delavall's man, 
intrusted with his cattle and goods, having suddenly absconded, 
the High Commanders on September 9th directed Resolved 
Waldron to take the property in keeping, and which trust he 
accepted. This was officially made known to the people of 
Harlem on the nth, and accompanied by directions that the ferry 
folks should set no strangers, *'that is Christians, or negroes, or 
cattle," over the river, either at Harlem or Spuyten Duyvel, unless 
they could show a pass. These directions were afterward re- 
peated. 

On September 25th the magistrates appointed Barent Wald- 
ron, the Court Messenger, who, on being sworn into office, was 
furnished with a commission, setting forth in general his duties, 
and warning all persons not to interfere with him in the proper 
discharge thereof. At the Court held next day, Carbosie, the 
miller, complained of Jan Louwe Van Schoonrewoerd, for threat- 
ening to shoot his hogs, which had troubled him by running 

* Jochem Engdbcrt Van Naraen, from Hcusden, came out in the ship Hope, 
which sailed from Amsterdam, April 8, 1662. He lived four and a half years with 
Burger Joris, and then entered tnc service of \'crveelen, at Harlem, March 5, 1668, 
but complaining of ill-usuage, was released Hy the Court, September 10 ensuing. He 
bore a good name while with Burger, and seems to have sustained it afterward at 
Esopus. where he married, November 3, 1676, Elizabeth^ daughter of Evert Pels, 
by whom he had a family of children, viz. : Deliantie, Evert, Engelbert, Johannes, 
Anna. Deliantie married Barent Marteling, in 1702. Anna married Isaac Marteling. 
(Sec Clute's Staten Island). 

Evert Alrichs, five years later, is found at Upland, on the Delaware, having mar- 
ried Elizabeth, widow of Hans Walter. 



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304 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

over the mill-dam. Louwe was told to repair his fences if he 
would not suffer from others' hogs or cattle, and Carbosie was 
ordered to make good his railing about the mill-dam, so that no 
cattle could run over. 

The following day Joost Van Oblinus made complaint that 
having sent Adrian Sammis, his wife's brother, living with him, 
to pasture the cattle "upon the point over against Simeon's land," 
he had been beaten off by Glaude le Maistre with a stick.* Le 
Maistre said that he chased the cattle from his own fence, and 
not from that of the point, and admitted to have struck Adrian, 
but not with a stick. Poor Adrian, who could not speak for 
himself, being "deaf, dumb, and paralytic," had two good wit- 
nesses, Esther Tourneur and Cornelia Waldron. Esther being 
called in, said that Adrian coming along the fencing with the 
cattle, she saw that Glaude had beaten him with a stick. Cor- 
nelia testrfied the same, and that Glaude ran after them. The 
Court condemned Le Maistre "in an amend of 6 gl., to the be- 
hoof of the church here, with the costs hereby accruing." He 
was also directed to "draw in his fence by the point of his 
meadow forthwith, within the time of two months, without longer 
delay." 

On the same date (September 27th) the magistrates, with the 
advice of Cornelis Jansen and Jan Dyckman, passed the follow- 
ing curious regulation, respecting the lands in common fence: 

"Is resolved and found good to establish that in the coming 
year, 1674, the tilled land on Jochem Pieters shall be exempt 
from any afterplanting of buckwheat, pumpkins, turnips, or any 
summer fruits, that the cattle of this village (after the crop is 
off the field) may pasture thereon; and the land Van Keulen's 
Hook shall in the same year, 1674, be sown and planted with 
summer fruits ; and in the year 1675, on the contrary, Van Keu- 
len's Hook from summer fruits shall remain unplanted and un- 
sown, and Jochem Pieters again be sown as above; running so 
from year to year, alternately, the one to be sown by summer 
fruits and the other left unsown, for reasons as above." 

The Dutch Commanders had now sailed for Holland leaving 

• The point here referred to was undoubtedly that since known as Bussings 
Point. Simeon Cornier had agreed to buy lot No. ii, Jochem Pieters, but the reference 
is plainly not to him, nor to this land. We conclude it was the lot on Jochem Pieters, 
given up in 1661 by Simon (also called Simeon) dc Ruine, and was No. 25 (after- 
ward No. 22, one of Delavall's, whose title was just now uncertain), and that "Simeon's • 
land," best known by its orifnnal owner's name, thus formed the north line of 
Jochem Pieters; and "over against" (that is, opposite to it, some space intervening) 
was said point early called Gloudie's Point, from Delamater, whose meadows lay 
there. Later, No. 22 formed the northermost of the so-called "Six Lots," embraced 
in the large Myer tract. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 305 

the administration of affairs in the hands of Governor Anthony 
Colve, who on October ist issued the following: 

Provisional Instructions to the Schout and Magistrates of the Town of 
New Haerlem. 

1. The Schout and Magistrates each in their sphere shall have a care 
that the Reformed Christian Religion shall be maintained conformably 
to the Synod of Dordrecht held in the years 1618 and 1619, without 
suffering it, through any other persuasion thereto opposed, to be in any 
wise altered. 

2. The Schout, so far as possible, shall be present and preside at all 
meetings. But when he acts for himself as a party, or respecting the 
right of his Lords Patroons, or in behalf of justice, on such an occasion, 
he shall stand up and vacate the bench, and at that time neither advise 
nor vote ; but the oldest Schepen shall preside in his place. 

3- All cases of government, of the security and peace of the inhabi- 
tants, also of justice betwixt man and man, shall be determined by the 
Magistrates of the aforesaid Town by definitive sentences to the amount of 
sixty guilders in beavers, or less. But in all cases exceeding this sum, 
every one shall be free to appeal to the Hon. Governor General and Council 
here. 

4. In case of diversity of voices, the minority must yield to the major- 
ity, yet permitting those of the contrary opinion to record and sign their 
protest; but in no wise to publish such outside the meeting, on pain of 
arbitrary correction. 

5. Whenever in the Court any cases shall occur, in which any Magis- 
trate shall be concerned as a party, in such case the Magistrate shall rise 
up and leave his seat, as before is directed in the case of the Schout. 

6. All the inhabitants of the aforesaid Town shall be citable before the 
said Schout and Schepens, who shall hold their sessions and courts as often 
as the same shall be necessary. 

7. All criminal offences may be referred to the Governor General and 
Council, saving that the Schout shall be obligated the criminal offenders 
to apprehend, to arrest and to detain, and as prisoners, under proper 
security, to deliver over to the High Magistracy, together with good and 
true information of the offences committed; at the expense of the of- 
fenders or the prosecutor. 

8. Minor offences, such as quarrels, injuries, slanders, threats, fist 
blows, and such like, are left to the adjudication and decision of the Magis- 
trates of each particular town. 

9. The Schout and Schepens shall be authorized, for the peace and 
tranquillity of the inhabitants in their district, to make any orders for 
the regulating of highways, setting off lands and gardens, and whatever 
like things as relate to farm lands; also for the observance of the Sab- 
bath, respecting the building of churches, of schools, and similar public 
works; also against fighting and striking and such like minor offences; 
provided the same do not conflict with, but are conformable unto the 
laws of our Fatherland and the statutes of the province; and to this end 
all orders of importance, before they are promulgated, shall be presented 
to the High Magistracy for their approval. 

ID. Said Schout and Schepens shall be held closely to observe and 
execute all the placards and ordinances which shall be enacted and pub- 
lished by the High Magistracy, and not to permit anything to be done 
contrary thereto; further to proceed against the transgressors according 
to the tenor of the same; and to execute promptly such orders as the 
Governor General from time to time shall send to them. 

II. The Schout and Schepens shall also be bound to acknowledge 
their High Mightinesses the Lords States General of the United Nether- 



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3o6 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

lands, and his Serene Highness, the Lord Prince of Orange, as their Sov- 
ereign Rulers, and to maintain their high jurisdiction, right, and dominion 
in this land. 

12. The choice of all minor officers and assistants to the said Schout 
and Schepens (alone excepting the Secretary's office) shall be made and 
confirmed by themselves. 

13. The Schout shall personally, or by his substitutes, put in execution 
all the sentences of the Schepens, without releasing anybody, except with 
the advice of the Court; also take good care that the places under his 
control shall be purged from all rascality, gambling, baudy-houses, and 
such like immoralities. 

14. The Schout shall enjoy the half of all civil fines accruing during 
his term of office, together with a third part of the allowance coming to 
the respective towns from criminal cases; wherefore he shall receive no 
presents, directly or indirectly, forbidden by the laws. 

15. At the time of election, the Schout and Schepens shall nominate a 
double number of the best qualified, honest, intelligent, and most wealthy 
inhabitants, and only those who are of the Reformed Christian Religion, 
or at least well disposed thereto, as Schepens, and to be presented to 
his Honor the Governor, from whom by him the election shall be made, 
with the continuation of some of the old, in case his Honor shall deem 
it necessary. Done at the fort Willem Hendrick the First of October 
A\ 1673. 

By order of the Honbl. Governor General 

and Council of New Netherland, 

N. Bayard^ Secretary. 

On Wednesday, October 4th, Governor Colve visited Harlem 
and held a council there. Some of the people of Fordham, pre- 
senting themselves, complained "of the ill-government of their 
landlord, John Archer," and asked the privilege of nominating 
their own magistrates. Archer being summoned, also appeared ; 
and on hearing the complaint, he voluntarily yielded up the gov- 
ernment there, retaining only the right to his houses and lands ; 
whereupon the Court granted the people their request, and on 
the following day, pursuant to previous notice, all the inhabi- 
tants of that place appeared at Harlem, and took the oath of 
allegiance at the hand of Governor Colve, and before the Heer 
Cornelis Steenwyck, Burgomaster Egidius Luyck, and Secretary 
Bayard ; Resolved Waldron and David Demarest being also pres- 
ent. Within a few days Johannes Verveelen, Michiel Bastiaen- 
sen, and Valentine Claessen, were elected magistrates at Fordham, 
the first being also made secretary. 

The Harlem town court met October 6th with reference to 
the affairs of Captain Delavall, who had departed with Governor 
Lovelace for England in the ship of the Dutch commander 
Benckes. A statement being drawn up, he was found indebted 
to the town as follows: 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 307 

For his part of Preacher's salary, as per list of Jan. i6th 

preceding f. 66 : 16 

" his share of the general expenses of the town, as per 

list of Mar. 6th 1 . 242 : 16 

" the 4 gardens sold him off the Clover Pasture 100 : o 

" wages for labor in making his fences 84 : o 

493 : 12 

The cutting and cartage of 140 palisades, for the city, was 
also to be added. His assets, in real estate, were found to be, 
"On Jochem Pieters, in 9 lots, 54 morgen ; on Keulen's Hook, in 
2 lots, 6 morgen; together, 11 lots, 60 morgen. In the village, 
two houses and erven. And meadows for hay in proportion." 

The following petition, having reference to Delavall, was 
drawn up on the 19th of October: 

To the Noble, Right Honorable Lord, the Governor of New Netherland. 

Respectfully make known the Schout and Rulers of the Town New 
Haerlem, in the name and on behalf of their common Inhabitants, your 
Excellency's subjects, how that they the petitioners are entitled to a 
considerable sum of money from Capt. Thomas Delavall, on account of 
burdens and charges which by this town some years hither are borne upon 
the lands, houses, and house lots (erven), of the Inhabitants, being 
shown by the assessments and accounts thereof kept from time to time ; 
and the aforesaid Thomas Delavall having possessed extraordinary par- 
cels of land, as also houses and house lots, for his quota has done, 
contributed, or paid not one stiver to the discharging of the town's 
debts, to the great grievance of the community. 'Tis now such, that at 
this village lies ^ small strip of land, between the two common streets, 
reaching west to common land named the Clover Pasture, having apper- 
tained to the above-mentioned Delavall, who upon some of the same 
ground (die op de gront desselffs), is now remaining indebted to this 
tow^n one hundred guilders; So it is that they the petitioners, in quality 
as above, humbly request your Excellency to be pleased to grant and 
confer upon them, the petitioners, as property, in recompense for the said 
arrears, the said small strip of land, so that the inhabitants aforesaid may 
use it for a Calf Pasture (as the calves have little driving out), the which 
to nobody's prejudice in particular is tending, but which may serve for the 
common convenience and the inheritance (oirbor) of this town and its 
Inhabitants: hereupon awaiting your Excellency's favorable answer, re- 
main meanwhile and at all times your Excellency's right willing servants, 
etc. N. Haerlem, 19th Octobr., A". 1673. 

Resalvert Wai^dron, 
David des Marest, 
JoosT van Obi^inus, 
Arent Hermensen. 

Answer. The Petitioners are allowed to use the small Clover Pasture 
requested, provisionally, till such time as order shall be taken about the 
affairs of Capt Delavall. In the mean time the Petitioners to bring in 
their proper claim to the curators to be chosen thereto. Done in Fort 
Willem Hendrick, on the date 23d October, A\ 1673. 

By order of the Governor General of N. Netherland 
and the Hon. Council, 

N. Bayard, Secretary, 



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3o8 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

On the 1st of November, Vander Vin's three years' service 
having ended, he was engaged for another year as clerk and 
voorleser, on the same conditions as of the 23d of October, 1670, 
to wit : 400 guilders, dwelling house, and fuel. It was also stipu- 
lated that the people should keep the house and the garden fence 
in repair. The salary was to be paid half-yearly in grain at 
market value, and "according to the old list of the free-will con- 
tributors," namely: 

The Free-will Contributors to the Voorleser's office for this ensuing 
year: 

Resolved Waldron f . 30 : o 

Glaude le Maistre 

Jean le Maistre 4 : o 

Joost van Oblinus 25 : o 

Daniel Tourneur 30 : o 

Adolph Meyer 30 : o 

David des Marest 15 : o 

Arent Hermens 8 : o 

Pierre Cresson 4 : o 

Lubbert Gerritsen 20 : o 

Cornelis Jansen 20 : o 

Jan Nagel 15 :o 

Jean le Roy 6 : o 

Jan Dyckman 8 : o 

Meynard Joumee 16 : o 

The Widow of Jan La Montagne 

Jan Louwerens van Schoonrewoert 

Simeon Cornier 

Jean le Roy, rent of the Town^s allotment •. . 120 : o 

Rent of the meadows, beginning ist May, 1671, of 
which are to pay each year: 

David des Mareset f. 24 : o 

Jan Nagel , 10 : 7 

Lubbert Gerritsen 10 : 7 

Johannes Vermelje 10 : 7 55 : i 

Glaude le Maistre's annual contribution had been 25 guilders, 
but, for reasons which will hereafter appear, he declined to renew 
his subscription. The three others wanting the amount were 
new subscribers of the previous year. The items of rent for the 
town lands being added brought the figures up to 406 gl. i st. 

Some of the neighboring English, exasperated at the recap- 
ture of the country by the Dutch, now began to make trouble;* 
as will appear from the following minutes of proceedings at 
Harlem : 

A*. 1673, the 7th November, Tuesday. 

Present, Schout, Magistrates and all the Inhabitants of this village col- 
lected. 
Whereas by daily reports we arc informed that some wicked and 
insolent persons, of the English nation, their riotings make about these 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 309 

countries, threatening to give one and another some molestation and 
trouble by robbing and burning; before which threats those of us who 
live outside will not prove secure. But as much that is feasible to be 
done rests upon our care, through heed and keeping watch upon such as 
may be disposed to do the same some hurt and damage, owing to their 
ability to escape away to a great distance; So it is that we, Schout, 
Magistrates, and the whole community, being assembled, have found 
good and deemed necessary to watch by turns during the nights; and 
that it may take place more orderly, we have thought it necessary to 
appoint a suitable person as Captain, to command as many as go on watch, 
to whom we promise obedience and submission in all that which he 
shall therein command, upon forfeiture of the fines also hereby ordered; 
and by a majority of votes is thereunto chosen and confirmed the person 
Comelis Jansen, as Captain. And moreover the community are divided 
into four companies or corporalships, in order, by turns with their fellow 
soldiers, to keep the night watch, and to go the rounds as needful, and 
each his arms to keep ready, provided with powder and lead as required. 
Whoever neglects the watch without lawful reason, or those whose arms 
are not ready, wanting necessary powder and lead, or the command of 
the Captain, or his Corporal oppose, shall forfeit each time three guilders, 
for the use of the whole company. Thus done at N. Haerlem, the 7th 
November, 1673. 

List of the Corporalships. 

1. Jan Nagel, Corporal, 
Joost van Oblinus, 
Jan Helmont, 

Jean le Maistre, 
Jean le Roy, 
Robert HolHs. 

2. Simeon Cornier, Corporal, 
Lubbert Gerritsen, 
Samuel Pell, 

Jacque el Roe, 
Barent Waldron, 
Samuel des Marest. 

3. Jan Dyckman, Corporal, 
Arent Hermens, 

David des Marest, Jr., 
Jan Tincker, 
Conradus Hendricksen, 
Comelis Theunissen. 

4. Adolph Meyer, Corporal, 
Laurens Matthyssen 
David des Marest, 
Daniel Tourneur, 
Jochem Engelbert, 
Meyndert Journee. 

The gratitude of the Dutch inhabitants at the restoration of 
the country to Holland, now found expression throughout the 
colony in the observance, not of a day merely, but of a series of 
public thanksgivings. The following letter and proclamation 
from the new governor explains it: 



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3IO HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Honest, Beloved, Faithful, the Schout and Magistrates of the village 

Haerlem. 
Honest, Beloved, Faithful, 

These serve to accompany the inclosed proclamation of a general day 
of thanksgiving, fasting, and prayer, which you are required to publish 
at the usual time and place, and to take care that it be observed after the 
tenor thereof; let also the inclosed be seasonably sent on to the village of 
Fordham. Whereon relying, I remain, after greetings, your friend, 

A. CoLvi;. 

Fort Willem Hendrick, 

20th November, 1673. 

Proclamation* 
Honest, Beloved, Faithful, 

Considering the manifold blessings and benefits wherewith the only 
good and merciful God has favored this province and its inhabitants, of 
which by no means the least is their fortunate restoration under their 
former lawful and natural rulers, and that which is above all to be prized, 
the continuance of the reformed worship, which also, like all other blessings 
and benefits to us, not only imposes a debt of gratitude, but also, in 
truth, humility and repentance for our manifold and weighty sins, so 
that the Almighty God may continue His blessings, and this land and 
people be freed from His righteous judgments and well-deserved punish- 
ment; Therefore it is that we have judged it highly necessary by these 
to ordain and proclaim a general day for thanks, fasting, and prayer, 
which everywhere within this province shall be observed every first Wed- 
nesday in each month, beginning on Wednesday, the 6th December next 
coming, and so following on each first Wednesday in the month. And 
that all may be the better practised and observed, so by these interdicted 
and forbidden, on the aforesaid thank, fast, and prayer day, all labor, and 
play of tennis-court, ball-tossing, fishing, hunting, gaming, sailing, dice- 
playing, excessive drinking, and all tapping of liquors by innkeepers; the 
whole upon penalty of arbitrary correction. For the observance of the 
same, the Magistrates, Officers, and Justices of this province to whom these 
shall be sent, are required and charged strictly to provide that the trans- 
gressors be proceeded against as they should be ; and to make known this 
our proclamation by timely publication where such is necessary. Herewith 
committing you to the protection of the Most High; Honest, Beloved, 
Faithful, 

Your affectionate friend, A. Colve. 

Fort Willem Hendrick, 

15th November, 1673. 

In fitting mood was the community at Harlem to receive 
this message, for on that self-same day, November 21st, one 
much esteemed in the town, Lubbert Gerritsen, late an overseer, 
departed this life.* The town was also full of the alarms which 

• This interesting document is newly translanted from the Dutch, the old transla- 
tion printed in N. Y. Col. Doc. ii., 658, being faulty . 

• Lubbert Gerritsen, having lived at Gravesend, L. I., till after his youngest child 
was born, appears at Harlem in 1661, when he bought the house and land of Matthys 
Boon, who then left the town. He was chosen adelborst in 1663, and held several 
town offices afterward, serving as overseer the year before he died. His property has 
been shown, as in his inventory taken November 27, 1673. His children, all bom in 
this county, and by his first wife, Grietien Dircks, were, Lvsbeth, born 1651, who 
married Dirck Evertson Fluyt and toris Burger, both of New York; Gcrrit and Dirck, 
twins, born 1653: Gerrit, born 1055, and Eva, born 1657, who married Arent Har- 
mans Bussing. Lubbert's second marriage with the widow Femmetic Coenraets has 
been noticed. Their contracts, respectively providing for their former children, arc 



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• HISTORY OF HARLEM. 311 

had dictated the institution of the night watch, and excited over 
the arrest at Spuyten Duyvel of one Francois Beado, aged about 
2j years, a native of London, for being concerned, as was be- 
lieved, in a conspiracy against the Dutch. From Verveelen's, 
where during his detention he had tried to induce one James 
Pinnet, of Fordham, "to assist him to kill the ferryman and other 
people, saying they were but Dutch," he was taken and lodged 
in the fort at New Orange. At his examination before the 
Governor and Council, November 28th, Pinnet and George Tip- 
pett gave evidence against him. The following deposition was 
also taken: 

"William Smith, aged about 46 years, inhabitant of Ford- 
ham, declareth upon oath that Francois Beado, now in prison, 
about six weeks ago came to the deponent at Fordham and 
inquired what neighbors he had; then saying further that he 
had a commission from the * * * on this side, Canada, to burn, 
take, kill, and ruin all the Dutch ; because he and his father, and 
cousin, had lost by them about 800 pounds, which he was resolved 
to get again ; and when this deponent questioned his commission, 
the copy of which he did read to the deponent, he, the said Beado, 
replied that if he had no other, his sword and his half-pike 
(which he had in his hand) was his commission, the Dutch being 
his enemies, — and the second day after the said Beado came again 
to the deponent, and said he was beset by three rogues, but that 
he had two friends in the woods with whom he was resolved to 
meet them; inquiring further what woman Michiel Bastiaensen, 
his wife was, saying that he would burn Mr. Verveelen's and the 
said Michiel's house, but he was afraid that the said woman 
would betray him, she having seen his half-pike; and desired 
further that this deponent would warn Mr. Gibbs, who quartered 
at MichieFs house, of his intention." 

Beado also confessed "without torture," and being found 
guilty of disturbing and breaking the peace, was sentenced to 
be publicly bound to a stake and branded on the back with a 
red-hot iron, and then banished from the province, for a term 
of twenty-five years, which sentence was put in execution on 
December 20th. 

The intense excitement which these things created in the 
community at Harlem was heightened by the fears generally 

dated June 28, and their niarna|re bans July 7, 1660. Lubbert chose as guardians of 
his children's inheritance, Jan Gcrritsen de Varies, from Workum, and Adrian Dirck- 
•en Coen, from Maasen, in Utrecht. Judging from their patronymics, these may 
have been, one his brother, the other his first wife's brother. Dirck and Gerrit Lub- 
bertsen are not again named here; the last no doubt the "Gerrit Lubbertsen, from 
New York,'* who married Alida Everts, at Albany, in 1684. Pearson's Alb. Settlers. 



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312 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

entertained that an attempt would be made by the English gov- 
ernment to recover possession of the province. The following 
letter received from Governor Colve has reference to this: 

To the Schout, Magistrates, and Inhabitants of the Towns of New Haerlem 

and Fordham. 
Good Friends, 

On last Tuesday week I had some conference in the town of Midwout 
with the Magistrates and chief officers of all the Dutch towns situated 
on Long Island, concerning the present condition of the country, and 
had wished indeed that time and the season of the year had permitted 
me to visit you the same as the rest; but time not allowing this, I have 
therefore deemed it necessary hereby to incite you to your duty, and 
with many of the other good inhabitants to fulfil your oath and honor, 
whereof I entertain not the least doubt, being herein partly assured by 
the Schouts of your respective towns. Therefore nothing remains but 
to recommend you to keep a wakeful eye on all designs which may be 
concocted against this province or yourselves in particular, and always to 
be ready to transport your families and movables hither, on certain informa- 
tion of the enemy's approach, or on special command from me ; and that 
such may be executed in good order, Schout Resolved Waldron is hereby 
appointed chief officer of the militia of the towns of Haerlem and Ford- 
ham, with order to communicate these presents to the inhabitants of 
said towns, who, for the preservation of better order in each town, are 
hereby required to choose a Sergeant, and not to fail to give me informa- 
tion of all that occurs. Whereupon relying, I remain, 

Your friend, A. CoLVE. 

Fort Willem Hendrick, 
27th Xber, 1673. 

This coupling of Harlem and the adjacent parts of West- 
chester in one jurisdiction, seen thus early to be expedient, was 
fully consummated just two centuries later, in 1873. 

The panic at Harlem was almost as great as if the enemy 
were already at their doors. Influenced by rumors of their 
approach, many left for the city or other places, and the Sabbath 
congregations were reduced to a mere handful. The Secretary, 
Vander Vin, on January 21, 1674, makes this entry in the dea- 
con's accounts: "Owing to the daily reports of the coming of 
the English, the inhabitants being fled with their families and 
movable goods, little was collected and found at the date of 
January 21st.'* But this excitement soon spent itself and sub- 
sided, things became more settled, the fast-days were regularly 
observed, and the Sunday services better sustained. 

About this time complaint was made against Hendrick 
Kiersen and Reyer Michielsen, of Fordham, for shooting a hog 
belonging to Jean le Maistre. These two, according to their 
statement, came over to this Island, on Monday, January 29th, 
to look for a hog which had strayed. In their hunt they shot a 
deer, and soon after that Kiersen, espying, as he thought, the 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 



313 



missing hog, told Reyer to shoot it, which he did. As they could 
carry but one with them, they took the dear, and left the hog 
for another time. Reyer went for it two days after, when some- 
one seeing it was curious enough to examine the head, and found 
upon the ear the mark of young Lodewyck Ackerman, from whom 
Le Maistre had gotten the hog. Reyer passed an examination 
before the magistrates at Harlem on February ist, and the case 
was referred to the Burgomasters, — Cornelis Jansen, who was 
cousin to the accused, becoming his bail. The Burgomasters, 
February 3d, sent the case back to the magistrates for further 
inquiry. This was made on the 5th, the testimony being sent 
to the Burgomasters, and from them to the Governor and Coun- 
cil, by whom the case was again referred back to the local court 
at Harlem, to be there decided, "unless they find it to be crim- 
inal." As a curiosity, we give the minute of the examination on 
February 5th: 
On 5th February, Monday. 

Present, the Ileeren, Resolved Waldron, Schout. 

David des Marest, ] 
Joosf van Obunus, -Magistrates. 
Arent Hermensen, J 
Interrogatories to be put to Reyer Michielsen and Hendrick 
Kiersen, both living at Fordham, about the shooting of a hog 
upon this Island, belonging to Jean Le Alaistre, &c. 

Answer. 

1st. Reyer Michielsen. 

2d. Hendrick Kiersen. 

1st. In the Prince's Land, about 
Schoonrewoert. 

2d. At Giest, in the Land of Drent. 

1st. About 20 years. 

2d. About 25 years. 

1st. No one has given orders. 

2d. Thought not that he was doing 
wrong to fetch his own hog. 

1st. Well knew that such was the 
order under the English rule, but 
knew not that it continued under 
the Dutch. 

2d. As above. 

1st. Knew not that it was another 
person's hog, but his brother-in- 
law, Hendrick Kiersen, said that 
it was his. 

2d. Thought that it was his own 
hog. 

1st. Knew well that it was not my 
hog, but my brother-in-law still 
knew not better than 'twas his 
own. 

2d. Knew not better than 'twas his 
own hog. 



Question. 

1. What is your name? 

2. Where were you born? 



3. How old are you? 

4. Who has given you orders 
shoot hogs upon this Island? 



to 



5. You knew well that you might 
hunt no hogs upon this Island 
without the knowledge of the 
magistrates of N. Haerlem? 

6. AVhy do you shoot other people's 
hogs? 



7. When you had shot the hog, did 
you not well know that it was not 
yours ? 



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314 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

8. Why did you not take it away at ist. Because that he, having shot a 
the first? deer, thereupon for that time had 

enough to carry. 
2d. That they had to carry a deer. 

9. Why did you skin the hog? ist. Because I saw that in the night 

it would freeze, and then the hair 
would not come off. 
2d. Because that he thought it to l)e 
his, and therewith might do as he 
saw fit. 

10. Why did you carry it in sacks? ist. Because he thought that they 

could carry it better in sacks. 
2d. Because it was to be better car- 
ried in sacks"; but has not been 
near there. 

11. Why sought you to conceal it ist. Denied that; and said he had 
when you perceived our folks? had no thought to hide the sacks. 

12. Why did you not fetch the hog ist. Because the kill was frozen, 
the next day? and the canoe could not get off. 

2d. That he was busy with thresh- 
ing, and also gave it no thought, 
as it was a lean hog. 

The result was that proceedings were dropped, the evidence 
not clearly showing a criminal intent; but at the desire of the 
magistrates, the Governor and Council, on April i8th, issued a 
stringent order in regard to the offence of shooting hogs in the 
common woods of this Island, without consent of the Harlem 
or City authorities. 

The attention of the government was also drawn to the 
matter of securing the horses of the late governor, Lovelace, and 
of Captain Delavall and others, "now running in the woods upon 
Manhattan Island," and the magistrates of Harlem were notified 
to employ the whole community on the second day of the com- 
ing Whitsuntide, "to collect and drive into their village all the 
horses" belonging to the aforesaid persons, and other of the late 
English officials. This order was given by the Governor April 
27th. 

Little more of interest transpired in the "dorp" for some 
months succeeding, except a few transfers of property, from 
which may be had an idea of the value of Harlem lands at that 
period. On May 2d Jean le Roy executed a deed to Simeon 
Cornier for his farm, consisting of a house, barn, and erf, a lot 
on Jochem Pieters, and one on Van Keulen's Hook, with 
meadows; for which Cornier had a bill of sale, dated February 
24, 1672, the price paid being 1,400 gl. At a public sale, July 
5th, of the estate of the late Lubbert Gerritsen, a lot of tillable 
land, No. 9, Jochem Pieters, with the crops thereon, and the 
meadows thereto belonging, and the erf with house and barn. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 31S 

were struck off to his stepson, Conrad Hendricksen, for 875 fl. 
His lot No. 4, Jochem Pieters, with its meadows, and a garden 
(No. 11), for a building plot, "west of the village and north 
of the street," and "between Cornelis Jansen and Joost Van 
Oblinus," was sold to David Demarest, Sr., for 925 fl. 

But now came news of a peace in Europe, welcome enough 
in itself, but which cost the Dutch inhabitants a tearful regret 
when they learned that, by stipulation, the colony was to be again 
given up to the English. The news was officially communicated 
in a letter of July 3d, from Secretary Bayard, inclosing the Gov- 
ernor's proclamation of peace, dated June 30th, and postponing 
the fast-day for eight days, and changing it into a day of thanks- 
giving. It directed that on July nth, in the forenoon, religious 
service should be held, and the proclamation of peace published. 

Several months passed before an English government suc- 
ceeded to the Dutch, and the interval was marked by a little 
shrewd preparation for it. This caused considerable litigation 
in the town court ; several parties sued the Tourneurs, to recover 
for work done for Delavall, by direction of the elder Tourneur, 
while acting as his agent, and in connection with which suits 
the old story of Tourneur's having killed a man in France was 
again revived by the Disosways, and as the widow said, "to the 
great damage of herself and children.*' These demands for 
pa>Tnent were generally sustained, though it appeared that the 
late Tourneur had declared to Martin Hardewyn, "I will no 
more pay the debts of Delavall, but I will give you an order 
upon him to pay you." 

It is pleasing to note the regularity with which both civil 
and church affairs proceeded, amid all these disturbing causes. 
The new nomination for magistrates was made on September 
24th, and the choice and confirmation by the Burgomaster's 
court, October 4th. Waldron was continued as shout, and 
Oblinus as schepen, the new schepens being Adolph Meyer and 
Jan Dyckman. On October 29th, Dominie Nieuwenhuysen came 
up and installed as new deacon Simeon Cornier, to serve with 
Joost Van Oblinus, then holding the office. He was attended by 
the Heer Van Cortlandt, one of the city elders, and the accounts 
of the church from July 26, 1672, were taken up, audited, and 
pronounced correct.* During that period there had been col- 

• Olof Stevens Van Courtlandt, the common ancestor of the Van Cortlandt family 
in this country, was a wealthy brewer, ocupyine a residence in Stone street, adjoining 
his "malthouse;" and here he died April 4, 1684. His son Jacobus, a prominent mer- 
chant, bought of Jacques Tourneur, September 28, 1705, about two acres of ^It 
meadow on the Harlem side of the Spuyten Duyvel, which remaining in the family 
168 years before it was sold, became very valuable. In a communication to "Mir. 



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3i6 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

lected on the Sabbath, fast-days, and Fridays, for preparation 
for the communion (as also on Christmas, when services were 
held and the largest collection realized), the sum of 184 florins, 
9 stivers, and 8 pennings, from which 71 florins had been ex- 
pended in alms, etc., leaving a balance of 113 fl. 9 st. 8 p. in the 
deacon's chest. Thereupon Secretary Vander Vin closes the 
account with the following formal entry: 

"On the date, 29th October, 1674, these accounts collected, 
and agreeing with the above donations, are found to be correct, 
with the assistance of the Heer Olof Stevens Van Cortlandt, 
Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ in the city of New Orange, 
and the same are also closed." 

Dominie Nieuwenhuysen had already had a useful ministry ; 
since he came, about twenty of the Harlem people had been 
received to church membership, mostly young men and women. 
The last accessions were Adolph Meyer, Cornelis Jansen, Conrad 
Hendricksen, and Jean le Maistre, on March ist preceding; and 
the next were received December 13th following, namely, Barent 
Waldron, his sister Ruth, afterward Mrs. Jean le Maistre, and 
Eva Lubberts, afterward married to Arent Harmans Bussing. 

Impatient to see the English rule re-established, a few rest- 
less spirits in Westchester, who had already given the Dutch 
much annoyance, now began to bluster about the country venting 
their spleen on the Hollanders, and vaunting their loyalty to the 
king. Of these was Thomas Hunt, Jr., who having at first 
refused to take the oath of allegiance, and been ordered to leave 
the province, was, at his father's request, allowed to remain on 
accepting the oath and giving security for its observance. On 
Monday, November 5th, Hunt and five or six others came riding 
toward the village. Accosting Pierre Cresson, who was engaged 
fixing his fence, with a "Howd'ye do," to which he replied, "So 
and so," they passed on, falling in with a flock of geese, which 
they began to chase, heeding not Pierre's remonstrance to "let 
the geese alone." At several houses in the village they stopped, 
demanding in an insolent manner feed for their horses, and bread 
and beer for themselves. Mrs. Toumeur told them she had 
nothing to give, but said, "There is water; if you are thirsty, 
drink it." Her daughter, Madeleine (Mrs. Dyckman), pertly 
added, "If we had them we should not give them to you." 
Finding Jan Nagel at his house, they called out, "Here, give us 
oats for our horses ; or else peas or wheat." Nagel, not the one 

Samuel E. Lyon, of New York, May 2, 1873, J"st previous to said sale, wc had the 
pleasure of restoring the knowledge of the ola title, which had become lost, to the 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 317 

to be intimidated, answered, "I have no oats ; biit peas and wheat 
are strange food for horses !" Said Hunt, "I must and will have 
some, nevertheless." Nagel repeated that he had none for him; 
whereupon Hunt asked "Does not Waldron live here?'* Nagel 
signified that he did. "He does not," replied Hunt, "you know 
very well where he lives." And, so saying, they rode on. 
Waldron was not at home; but his wife, Tanneke Nagel, like 
her namesake, showed a proper courage. "Give us oats for our 
horses," demanded Hunt; to which Mrs. Waldron replied, "I 
have none." "Then give us peas or wheat," said he. "There 
are none threshed, and I cannot get any," was the answer. With 
his usual oath. Hunt said, "I will have some, threshed or un- 
threshed"; then adding, "Or give us wine or rum; have you 
nothing for the king's soldier's?" "I know no king's soldiers," 
said the matron. "I am a soldier of the king, by the blood of 
God," said Hunt, striking his breast, "and I shall and will have 
it! Is not your husband the Constable?" he further demanded. 
"Xo," said the spirited Tanneke, "but my husband is the Schout 
of this town." Venting curses upon Waldron, Hunt turned and 
left with his companions. 

Waldron entered a complaint to Governor Colve, and by 
his order the magistrates on the 7th held a court of inquiry upon 
the matter. But Hunt just escaped merited punishment, owing 
to an important event which happened only three days after, and 
of which the careful Vander Vin makes the following minute: 

"1674, the loth November, New, or 31st October, Old Style, 
was the fort Willem Hendrick again to the English governor 
yielded up, and the governor, A. Colve, with his people, there- 
from departed; the fort again named Fort James, and the city, 
New York." 




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CHAPTER XX. 

1674-1677. 

english rule restored; refugees; captain carteret; indian 
war; land grants; spuyten duyvel occupied. 

CIR EDMUND ANDROS, the new governor referred to. 
^ was accompanied, besides his own retinue of officers and 
soldiers, by several families of French refugees who had fled to 
England from the Palatinate, lately invaded and laid waste by 
the ruthless armies of Louis XIV. under Marshal Turenne. 
Among these refugees were Nicholas de Vaux (whence our De 
Vouw, and De Voe), Isaac See, Isaac See, Junior, and Jean le 
Comte, all of whom were related. These, with Gerard Magister, 
evidently of the same band, came directly to Harlem on account, 
as it would seem, of old Mannheim acquaintances, Demarest and 
others. Some brought their household goods, but as choicer 
treasures, the Holy Scriptures in French, the French Psalm Book, 
and the then highly prized Book of Martyrs. De Vaux, Le 
Comte, and their wives, united with the church on the first oppor- 
tunity, the 13th of December. 

Andros restored the English form of government. The 
Mayor's Court again resumed its jurisdiction, and by its order 
the town, on December 7th, nominated a double number of per- 
sons from which to fill the places of constable and overseers. 
The next day the Court acted upon the nominations. Schout 
Waldron gave place to David des Marest as constable; Comelis 
Jansen took his seat as an overseer, and with him, the old 
schepens, Oblinus, Meyer, and Dyckman. They were not sworn 
in till January 19th. 

Several of the Dutch settlers about Spuyten Duyvel, proba- 
bly distrusting the English and feeling unsafe, removed down 
into the village. Michiel Bastiaesen and his son-in-law, Hen- 
drick Kiersen, hired from the widow Tourneur and her son 
Daniel, January i, 1675, their farm upon Jochem Pieters and 
Van Keulen's Hook, with house, barn, orchard, and meadows. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 319 

stock and farming tools, for three years from May ist ensuing.' 
The Tourneurs apparently intended an early removal to their 
farm on Montagne's Flat, which was to be Daniel's inheritance. 
They were still annoyed by that injurious report, the more 
keenly felt, now that the object of it lived only in their affffec- 
uons. But the widow, bent on putting a stop to it, had on 
December 22d made a complaint to the Mayor's Court, that 
Elizabeth Nightingale "had greatly defamed her husband de- 
ceased." Thereupon "the Court ordered that, it being formerly 
determined, the defendant shall, either at Harlem or in this 
court, make an acknowledgment and pay all costs." Lysbet had 
to comply, but preferred a journey to the city to facing exultant 
adversaries whom she would meet at the town court. Her ap- 
pearance, January 19th, the day the magistrates were sworn in, 
is thus noticed : "The Def* brought into y*^ Court her suplicatory 
peticon, in w*^** was her acknowledgm* for her wrong and injury 
to y^ Plt^ husband; w*^^ y^ Court accepted off, conditionally she 
behaved her selfe well, and pay all costs."* 

• Marc du Sauchoy, ancestor of the Disoswav family, has place in our introductory 
sketches of the French refugees, etc. As we follow these homeless refugees from ex- 
citing scenes in the Old World, when, no longer the suffering victims of despotism, 
wc can only contemplate them amid peaceful walks and engaged in commonplace pur- 
suits, we cannot but mark with interest the happy effects of the change in their am- 
bitious and laborious efforts to provide a home and living for themselves and families — 
the admirable versatility, especially in the choice of new callings, with which they 
adapted themselves to circumstances every way extraordinary. Our Disosway, late 
wool-carder, on his first visit to this country, found employment in cleaning up some 
land at Flatbush for Cornelis Van Ruyven. Well pleased with the island, and being 
Dresent, June 17, 1655, when his countryman, Pierre Terracon, bought a farm at 
Mcspat, Disosway went there on his return in 1657, and leasing Burner Joris' mill, at 
Dutch Kills, the former wood-cutter now became a miller. This proving a failure, but 
fay no fault of his, gave it up for a plantation, and turned to farming in the town of 
Brooklyn, to which place he and wife, April 10, 166 1, transferred their church connec- 
tion from New Amsterdam. Selling his farm a year later to Pierre Prae, from Dieppe, 
who had refuged at Leydcn when Disosway was there. Marc appears at Harlem, 
January 3, 1664, as prosecutor of a claim against Claude le Maistre for 95^ guilders, 
and soon after removed here and hired lands of Jean le Roy. How long was toe lease 
wc know not, but it had expired March 15, 1667, date of their settlement. Archer 
now induced him to take a farm in Fordham, where he continued to live a number 
of years. 

The quarrel with the Tourneurs, grown bitter as many in feudal story, was shown 
in the mutual disposition to vex one another. The charge of homicide, reiterated so 
persistently, was met by recriminations even worse, till the local ma^strates became 
weary of it. Wisely, the Mayor's Court cooled Dame Disosway's itching to push 
her adversary to the wall by making good her charge; and but for the rejection ot her 
offer to send to France for proof, we might know more of the affair in question. The 
settlement of some old accounts between the parties, March 4, 1674. in presence of 
the magistrates, was another step toward cessation of hostilities. Still trvshet, but 
four days after, made another charge in the Mavor*s Court against the widow Tour- 
neur, but it was dismissed as '"a vexatious suit, with costs to the plaintiff; and no 
more is heard of this quarrel. 

Disosway must have had means, to pay 80 guilders for **a, Book of Martyrs and 
others," from the estate of Jean Ic Comte, as he did Julv 2, 1675. He bought lots 
Nos. 8, 9, on Hoorn's Hook, from Jan Delamater, NovemSer 29, 1670, but presentlv 
sold them. On June 7, 1683, he and wife took letters from the Dutch to the French 
church, newly formed under Rev. Pierre Daille. He soon moved to Staten Island, 
where 225 acres of land near Daniel's Neck were laid out to him April §, 1684, and 
for which he got a patent July 16.1685. In 1689 Staten Island partook of the I^eisler 
excitement. Disosway informed the government that many of his neighbors had left 
their houses and taken to the woods, "for fear of the Paoists.*' He was still living, 
October i, 1706. His children, as far as known^ were Madeleine, born 1657, who 
married Martin Hardewyn (as the Dutch wrote it, but perhaps Ardenne); Marcus, 



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320 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

On January ii, 1675, the community renewed their engage- 
ment with Vander Vin, for two years' service as parish clerk 
and schoolmaster, running from October 23d preceding. The 
terms were as before, to wit, 400 gl. per mannum, with fuel, etc. 
The following persons promised, of their free-will, to give the 
sums set opposite to their names: 

Resolved Waldron f. 30 

Joost van Oblinus " 38 

Cornells Jansen " 25 

Jan Dyckman " 10 

Adolph Meyer " 14 

Jan Louwe van Schoonrewoert " 30 

Daniel Tourneur " 30 

Meynard Journee " 16 

Jan Nagel " 18 

Maria Montagne " 10 

Jean le Maistre " 10 

Arent Hermens " 8 

Conradus Hendricks " 8 

Lourens Jansen " 8 

Barent Waldron " 6 

Pierre Cresson " 4 

David des Marest, Jr " 4 

Isaac iVermeille " 3 

Total f. 272 

Glaude le Maistre and David des Marest, Sen., declined to 
subscribe; but the remaining deficiency was to be made up by 
rent from Jean le Roy for the use of the town lot, being 120 gl. 

Few events worth naming marked the close of the winter, 
1675. The town court was much occupied with petty cases. 
On February 4th it was resolved to remind Jan Bos (Terbosch) 
to pay 25 gl., due ''since the year 1667," for an erf charged to 
him (that bought of Robert le Maire), or to enforce payment 
in the Mayor's Court. On February 6th, the Jansens, Cornelis 
and Lourens, completed a division of the lands bought of De 
Meyer;* Cornelis taking the farm (two lots) on Montague's 

bom 1659; Jeanne, born 1662, married Conrad Hendricks Boch, of Harlem; Jean, 
born 1665, and Maria, born 1669. Marcus joined the Dutch churchy New York, No- 
vember 30, 1676, but later took a letter to the French church. Succeeding to his 
father's lands, he petitioned, November 27, 1708, for two vacant tracts next to him, 
stating that he "hath been an inhabitant of Staten Island, and hath followed husbandry 



upwards of thirty years i>ast, and hath nine children, four whereof are sons, brought 
up to husbandry along with him." This was no doubt granted, as by his will, made 
December 23, 1713, and proved January 27, 1714, he gives each child a farm, ranging: 
from 88 to 95 acres. But three sons were then living, viz.: Job, who married Sarah 
Deny; Israel, who married Gertrude Van Deventer, and Gabriel. His daughters 



were, Elizabeth, wife of Peter Barberic; Susannah^ wife of Daniel Hendricks; Mary, 
wife of Thomas Eyres; Dianah, wife of Hendnck Brees, and Sarah, unmarried. 
Part of the original Disosway farm, with the old stone house upon it, is still owned 
and occupied by some of the descendants. 

* Nicholas de Meyer, originally from the city of Hamburgh, was one of the most 
enterprising and successful merchants of his day, often visiting Europe in the prose- 
cution of his business. Few men enjoyed so much of the public confidence. He was 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 321 

Flat, lots No. 18 Jochem Pieters and 15 Van Keulen's Hook, 
and the outgardens; and Lourens, No. 2 Jochem Pieters and 
No. 6 Van Keulen's Hook, with the two erven, and also the 
orchard occupying two north gardens, later forming the John P. 
Waldron homestead. Lourens' part being of most value, as it 
included the buildings, he agrees to give his brother 6qp gl. 
This property, as thus divided, composed the beginnings, respec- 
tively, of the Kortright and Low estates. 

Among the newly-arrived French refugees before noticed 
was Jean le Comte, with his wife Mary Laurens and one child. 
For want of a dwelling, they were allowed by the constable, 
Demarest, to put their household effects in his barn. The father 
was now prostrated by a sickness which no efforts of the "chirur- 
geons" employed could help, and he died May 24th. His per- 
sonal estate, per inventory taken July 2d, amounted, less ex- 
penses, to 606 gl., of which the widow set apart 300 for her little 
son Moses, who afterward married Glaude le Maistre's daughter, 
and settled at Esopus, leaving descendants called De Graaf, 
which was the Dutch for Le Comte or Lecount. 

There had recently arrived at Harlem "a person of quality," 
as he i.« styled. Captain James Carteret, descended remotely from 
the famous Lords de Carteret of the Cotentin in Normandy, and 
directly allied to the De Carterets, Lords of St. Ouen, in the 
island of Jersey, noticed in our opening chapter, and at which 
place various members of the family were now enjoying prom- 
inent civic positions.* The captain's father. Sir George De 



seycrml times an Alderman^of New York, and once Mayor. He was chosen a member 

r* o, ,. . ^ ..... .. ^ ' ' " Ch 19, 169I, 

we conclude 
irom nis son wuiiams estate. He married, in i6s5» t»ydia, daughter of the Fiskael, 
Hendrick Van Dyck, and, in 1689, Sarah Kellenaer, widow of Rev. John 



of Governor Slouffhter's Council, but when the Gocernor arrived, March 19, 1691, 
Mr. De Meyer had j •••"-- - - . — 

illiai 

Dy„, _._, ... .„„ , _. 

Wcekstein, of Esopus. His children were, Johannes, born 1656; Wilhclmus, bom 
1657; Anna Catrina, born 1661; Deborah, born 1664: Elizabeth, born 1666, and 
Henricus, born 1668. Johannes died before 1689. without issue. (Johannes De 
Meyer, so called, of New York, who left a will dated September 13, 1725, was a 
Meyer, not a De Meyer). Anna Catrina De Meyer married, 1680, Tan Willems 
Necring, from Bordeaux, and went to New Castle, Del.j Deborah married, in 1684, 
Thomas Crundall, in 1691, Capt. Thomas Lyndon, and, in 1697, William Anderson — 
all Englishmen: . Elizabeth married, in 1687, Philip Schuyler, ot New York, merchant, 
afterward of Kingston. Henricus De Meyer, of New York, merchant, married, 1689, 
Agnes, daughter of Jacob De Key. He boujg^ht his late father's mansion, near the 
Stadt Huys, July 20, 1691, but died in 1692; in i6p6 his widow married William Jane- 
way, Esq. Henricus De Meyer left issue, Ludia, born 1691, and Hericus, born 1692. 
The latter died in 1739, leaving a daughter, Agnes, wife of Edward Nicoll, and of 
whom my friend, Mr. Joseph O. Brown, is a descendant. Wilhelmus De Meyer, called 
in the will of Nicholas tne eldest son, married, 1678, Catherine Bayard, sister of 
Col. Nicholas Ba>ard. He settled in Kingston, Ulster Couunty, where he inherited 
property from his father; was made deacon in 1681, and elder in 1692. He was 
much in public life, became lieutenant-colonel of militia, and died in 1710, his wife 
surviving. His will, dated January 10, 1705, proved January 8, 171 1, divides his 
property "as well in this province as in Europe," among his children therein named 
being Lydia^ born 1681; Nicholas, born 1683; Annecke, bom 1685; Catrina, born 
2689, and Deborah, born 1693. Lydia married Andries Douw. Nicholas De Meyer 
married Elsie Schoonmaker, and died on his farm, near Esopus Creek, in 1766, having 
sons, William, Jeremiah and Benjamin, and a daughter, Catherine, who married 
Christopher Kiersted. 

• Amice de Carteret and Charles de Carteret, Esquires, were Jurats of the 



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322 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Carteret, Baronet, had been governor of that island as early as 
1626, was knighted twenty years later, and now held a seat in 
the Honorable Privy Council of England, being also "Vice- 
Chamberlain of His Majesty's household"; which eminence he 
had gained by marked devotion to Kings Charles I. and H. 
Capt., James Carteret, being the second son, was bred to the sea. 
took command of a merchantman in the India trade prior to the 
Restoration, and subsequently of a British man-of-war. He was 
captain-general of the forces which in 1666 attempted the recov- 
ery of St. Kitts from the French, and later had command of 
marines in the Duke of York's ship. In 1671, on being made 
a landgrave of Carolina, of which colony Sir George was part 
owner, he embarked directly for America to visit his new domains, 
but bearing also certain instructions and powers from the Lords 
Proprietors of New Jersey, advisory, if not supervisory (as more 
than his own words plainly show), touching the affairs of that 
province, over which his younger kinsman. Governor Philip Car- 
teret, had for several years presided. On coming to New Jersey 
Captain Carteret found the people full of complaints against their 
governor for alleged violations of their rights, and matters grow- 
ing worse soon led to an open revolt, and a pressing call upon 
the senior Carteret to interfere, — which the latter felt himself jus- 
tified in doing. For the details of this short but manly struggle 
of the people to rid themselves of a supercilious and incompetent 
ruler, wjth the sympathy and under the lead of the generous- 
hearted captain, reference may be had to the annals of that State.* 
Meanwhile our Carteret, in 1673, married Frances, daughter of 

island; Mr. Nicholas dc Carteret. Sergeant of Justice, in Greuville Parish, and Edward 
de Carteret, Knight (uncle of Capt. James), was first Gentlemen Usher in Ordinary 
to the King, and Usher of the "Verge Noire Bailly;" as per an old parchment of July 
29, 1678, in my possession. 

• Capt. Carteret, in a letter dated Elizabeth Town, New Jersey, June 14, 1672, 
and addressed to Governor Lovelace and Council, in reply to one of theirs, charges 
Capt. Philip Carteret with having "for several years past threatened and forbidden 
our people, upon pain of death, not to exercise themselves in military affairs or dis- 
cipline," besides %ther gross miscarriages:" by which he had "unjustly dissatisfied 
and impoverished the King's subjects in this Province." As to differences between 
himself and said Philip Carteret, he has no doubt "but they will in time be healed or 
cured bv the Honorable Lords Proprietors, unto whom they are already presented and 
referred." But he deems "a true understanding," to still quote his words, "unnecessary 
to be declared to unconcerned persons, seeing that I am not under obligation to render 
the same to any but to his Majesty, and my superiors, the Lords Proprietors, by whose 
orders and instructions I act. i shall, in an orderly^ meek, and peaceful way, en- 
deavor to suppress such as do most falsely, without either show or color, repute me 
a disturber of the country. These have very lately published me. by their writs, a 
rebel and mutineer ,who am proprietor of my father's interest in this Province. And 
if God spare life, I will give his Royal ?Iighness an account of them by the first 
occasion, and after, second it myself by a verbal declaration, how I am used in his 
territories, as also who they be that have appeared like enemies to king and country." 
This frank and spirited letter, which does the writer no discredit, may be found, with 
the one which called it forth, in vol. 4, General Entries, Secretary of State's Office, 
Albany. But advices from England put an end to Capt. Carteret's authority; the 
king, by letter, dated December 9, 1072, directing Capt. John Berry, Dep. Gov. of 
N. J.' to enforce obedience to the laws and government established in that colony by 
authority of Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 323 

Captain Thomas Delavall; soon after which, submitting to a 
decision of the king and the Lords Proprietors in favor of Gov- 
ernor Philip, and to the wishes of his father, he left New Jersey, 
and in July following, attended by his wife, sailed for Carolina. 
Unluckily the vessel was taken by the Dutch fleet on its way to 
the capture of New York, but the Carterets wishing to gain their 
destination, were set ashore in Virginia. Captain Delavall mean- 
while, his estates confiscated by the victorious enemy, had returned 
to England and engaged in merchandise in London. But on 
the eve of the new governor Andros' departure for New York, 
to reclaim it from the Dutch, Delavall procured the Duke of 
York's order for the restitution of all his estate in this colony, 
with the evident purpose of sending it by Andros. The order, 
however, was not placed on record here till January 23, 1675, 
which was near the date of Carteret's reappearance, empowered 
to take charge of his father-in-law's property at Harlem ; whence 
we infer that it was recorded and promulgated only when Carteret 
arrived from Carolina. 

Taking part in the public affairs of the town, Captain Car- 
teret found himself courted for his abilities, and his influence with 
the ruling powers, Governor Andros being his kinsman. Con- 
sequently, when the inhabitants resolved to ask that governor to 
confirm their patent, Carteret was deputed with others as the 
bearer of their petition, which was couched in the following 
words, and for the governor's information was accompanied by 
**the Great Patent in English," and "the Confirmation in English," 
both being referred to in the petition. 

To his Excellency the Governor General, at New York. 

We the Constable, Overseers and common Inhabitants at the village 
of New Haerlem, declare to have constituted and empowered, as by 
these we do constitute and empower, the Hon. Capt. James Cartaret, 
David des Marest, constable, Joost van Oblinus, overseer, and Resolved 
Waldron, for and in behalf of this town's jurisdiction and privileges, to 
request and obtain from his Excellency, the Governor of this province, 
the maintenance and confirmation of their Patent granted by the late 
Governor Richard Nicolls, dated the nth October A*. 1667, and con- 
firmed by his Excellency, Governor Francis Lovelace, on the date 22d 
June A'. 1670; promising for good, durable and of value, to hold and to 
ratify whatever by the aforesaid, our committee, in the premises, shall 
be done and executed concerning it, whether the case require greater 
or special burden, whereupon we shall fully rely and hold our peace; 
therefore humbly pray your Excellency to be pleased to maintain and 
protect our liberties and privileges, according to the agoresaid Patents, 
against every one who may design or think to trouble the same; Where- 
for we shall remain your Excellency's good and obedient subjects, etc., 
the Constable, Overseers and common Inhabitants at the village of N. 
Haerlem. Done N. Haerlem, i6th June, 1675. By order of the same, 

Hendr. J. Vandr. Vin, Secretary, 



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324 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

William Palmer, ship carpenter, was now engaged building 
a "ketch" at Harlem, and with his family occupied a house as 
tenant of Captain Carteret. Etienne Rochelle,* employed by 
Carteret, went thither on Sunday, July 4th, to pick cherries. He 
was in one of the trees which stood beside Palmer's house, with 
Nicholas de Vaux, whom he had asked to assist him in picking, 
when Palmer came out and roughly bade them get down. 
Stephen refused, "saying that he had orders from his master to 
pick cherries." Then Palmer jerked Stephen by the foot, plied 
him with oyster-shells, and finally took a stick to him, when the 
latter was forced to leave the tree. Running to tell the constable, 
and then Waldron, neither of whom were found at home, he was 
overtaken by Palmer, who had followed him, crying "Papist, 
Papist !" and who first struck him with his stick, then seized him 
by the throat and tried to choke him ; but Stephen breaking away 
fled into the house of Meynard Joumee. Palmer then turned 
upon William Noird, Carteret's bookkeeper, who had come to 
Stephen's aid, and giving him a blow with his stick he also thought 
best to retreat. Palmer now spit out his spleen before the house 
of Journee, shaking his stick and uttering threats against the 
persons within, while Noird, finding Demarest the constable, got 
an order from him to restrain Palmer from picking the cherries, 
and delivered it to Palmer's wife. Many of the villagers, brought 
out of their houses by the uproar, as Cornelis Jansen, Jan Hen- 
dricks Kyckuyt (or Brevoort), Jean le Maistre, Jan Nagel and 
his wife, and Mrs. Cornier, saw the affray, and the assaults made 
on Carteret's people. Palmer returning to his house and finding 
himself served with an injunction from the constable, boiled with 
rage, and going over to Noird's toward evening, found Daniel 
Toumeur there engaged in slaughtering a sheep, for which pur- 
pose Noird had sent for him. Palmer asked William by whose 
directions he had procured the constable's order forbidding him 
to pick cherries. "By my master's," said Noird, "and if I had 
no orders I should have done it, knowing well how to answer for 
it." On which Palmer retorted, "Had I been at home as well 

* Gcneau, or Gano. (See Notes pp. 107, 120.) He bought proper^ in New 
Amsterdam, April 29, 1662; again July 15, 1670, a house and lot in Broadway; and 
his wife, Lydia Metcreu, anotner, on the Bever Graft, April 22, 1672. In 1676, he 
was granted 80 acres of land on Staten Island, "near the commons." Geneau was a 
Huguenot. "Fligrht or the relinguishment of the Protestant religion was the only 
means of preserving his life. One of his neighbors had been martyred; he was de- 
termined on as the victim for the next day, information of which he received in 
the dead of the night. He therefore chartered a vessel, removed his family on 
board, and in the morning was out of sight of the harbor.'* From his son, Francis, 
whom he brought with him, come all of the name, so far as known. The above ex- 
tract is from the Memoirs written by his descendant. Rev. John Gano, chaplain in the 
American army in the Revolution, and afterward a pastor m New York, who died at 
Frankfort, Ky., in his 78th year, August 10, 1804. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 325 

as my wife, I would have quickly paid you off, and made you 
find your legs, and possibly the constable the same, though it 
was Sunday ; .yes, even though your master had been present." 

This breach of the peace was duly reported to the Governor, 
and an investigation ordered, which took place two days after, 
Xoird taking a copy of the testimony; but we hear no more of 
it, for news of graver import now filled the minds of the com- 
munity. 

On that self-same Sunday, about three o'clock in the morn- 
ing. Governor Andros was aroused from his slumbers to hear 
the startling intelligence that the Indians had taken up arms at 
Xarragansett, in New England, and murdered some of the set- 
tlers ; at the head of this rising being the shrewd and powerful 
chief of the Wampanoags, from whom the bloody conflict which 
ensued took the name of **King Philip's War." The same eve- 
ning the Governor sailed with a military force for Connecticut 
River, but soon returned on finding he was not needed there. 

The possibility that the Indians in this province, from sym- 
pathy for their brethren at the east, might be induced either to 
join them or take up the hatchet against our own inhabitants 
here, led the Governor and Council to the precaution of inviting 
some of the chiefs to an interview to renew the bond of friend- 
ship; seeing no reason for breaking with these tribes "upon 
account of the war between our neighbors and their Indians." 
But it was enjoined upon the several towns to maintain a strict 
watch. And to allay or prevent excitement at Harlem, a mes- 
sage from the Mayor was published in the village, August 9th, 
charging all there at their peril not to beat the drum nor to hold 
any meetings, neither to ferry any stranger across the river, 
without the knowledge and sanction of the constable. This had 
reference to the practice long in vogue in the town before they 
had a bell, of beating the drum to call the people together, upon 
all occasions.* 

Verveelen at Spuyten Duyvel was required to exercise all his 
vigilance. It happened that Jan Hendricksen, alias Kyckuyt, 
^'inhabitant here," having been sent by the constable of Harlem 

• The venerable bell still in use at the Reformed Church, 3d avenue and i^ist 
street, is the first within the bounds of Harlem of which we have knowledge. "It 
was cast in Holland expressly for this church. Among other metals, it contains twenty 
dollars' worth of gold and twenty dollars' worth of silver:" at least, so says a com- 
munication made by "Knickerbocker" to the Harlem Traveler, in January, 1863. The 
writer probably knew whereof he affirmed, but it would be grati^ing could we trace 
this statement to its source. The bell, only relic of the old stone church erected in 
1686, has the following inscription: 

AMSTERDAM. Anno 1734, ME FECIT. 



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326 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

to Fordham, with a warrant that came from New York, arrived 
at Verveelen's door just after sunset. Presently there was a 
knock at the door, and a messenger from Fordham came in, who 
said, "Verveelen, I am sent to warn you to come to the watch." 
Verveelen replied that he could attend to no watch other than 
to pass people over the ferry, and that there was a person then 
in the house with a warrant, and who must be ferried over again. 
But as the other insisted, and argued the risk of refusing, '*Let 
them call me before his Honor the Governor," said the resolute 
ferryman, " and I will answer them there." The messenger left, 
but at midnight there came three or four persons before the 
ferry-house making a great clamor, and trying to force the door, 
calling upon Verveelen to come to the watch. No heed being 
paid to them, they finally went away in great rage. It was then 
suspected, as it afterward turned out, that no such order had been 
sent; and this ruse to decoy the ferryman from his post of duty 
while they executed some mischief which they were brewing, had 
succeeded but for Verveelen's firmness. At this time a most 
unfriendly feeling existed between Verveelen and Archer. The 
latter had cut the hay on Verveelen's meadows; the Mayor's 
Court, to which Verveelen complained August 17th, appointed 
arbitraters, who decided **that the meadow in controversy be- 
longed to the plaintiff." Nevertheless Archer carried off about 
four loads of hay, to recover which Verveelen petitioned the 
Governor and Court of Assize. And during the next winter, 
''about the month of January," Archer and his confederates went 
to Verveelen's, and "by force and arms" took out of his house 
"a quantity of wheat, and divers merchandises and household 
goods," to the value, as Verveelen alleged, of 980 gl., and to 
recover which he afterward sued Archer in the Mayor's Court. 
But we will not anticipate. 

Mid-autumn, 1675, brought new alarms. In vain had the 
Governor a few weeks before issued a proclamation to assure 
the people of "the falsity of the late reports of Indians' ill in- 
tents." King Philip's Indians were said to be advancing west- 
ward in order to destroy Hartford and other places this way as 
far as Greenwich. This done, what could stay their onward 
march to New Ygrk? The Governor, to prevent any co-opera- 
tion on the part of our Indians, immediately directed that their 
canoes on the shores of the Sound should be laid up where they 
could not be used, and ordered the Wickquaskeeks at Ann's 
Hook, now Pelham Neck, — then one of their summer haunts, 
and where to our day are many Indian graves, — "to remove 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 327 

within a fortnight to their usual winter quarters within Hellgate 
upon this island." 

This winter retreat was either the woodlands between Har- 
lem Plains and Kingsbridge, at that date still claimed by these 
Indians as hunting grounds, or Rechawanes and adjoining lands 
on the Bay of Hellgate, as the words "within Hellgate" would 
strictly mean, and which, by the immense shell-beds found there 
formerly, is proved to have been a favorite Indian resort. That 
this was the locality referred to, seems indeed to follow from the 
fact that the Indians, removing in obedience to the above order, 
attempted to pass up the Harlem River, but were stopped at the 
village by Constable Demarest. They said they were "going to 
VVickquaskeek," but could show no pass. Demarest thereupon 
detained them, and dispatched a letter to the Governor, to which 
came the following answer: 

Mr. Constable, 

I have just now seen, by yours of this day sent express by Wm. 
Palmer, of your having stopt 10 or 12 Indian canoes, with women, chil- 
dren, com and baggage, coming as they say from ^Westchester, and 
going to Wickers-creek, but not any Pass mentioned : So that you have 
done very well in stopping the said Indians and giving notice thereof. 
These are now to order all the said Indians to stay in your Town, and 
that you send some of the chiefest of them to me early to-morrow, and 
one of your Overseers for further orders; and that it may be better 
effected, you are to order them some convenient house or barn to be in, 
and draw up their canoes until the return of them you shall send: and 
that you double your watch 

Your loving friend, 

E. Andros. 
N, York, Octobr. the 21st, 1675. 

A long and restless night, we dare say, was that to some 
timid souls, with these Indians, friendly but always distrusted, 
perhaps prowling about their streets and their very doors, despite 
the utmost vigilance of the watchman ; but the morning came 
without harm to any, and the unwelcome visitors soon departed. 

All the settlements, indeed, were in astate of feverish anxiety, 
and taking measures for defence. The people of Fordham 
erected fortifications, and "Archer, proprietor of the Town," 
called upon all the neighbors round to come *'into his town" 
and assist. But four families seated on the Yonker's Land near 
Spu\ten Duyvel, including those of John Heddy, William Beets, 
and his son-in-law, George Tippett, "being removed from Mr. 
Archer, his town above a mile, and being strong enough, or 
thought so, to resist this heathenish war, having a good and 
strong blockhouse," objected "to leave their houses and goods, 
to please the humors of said Mr. Archer," and therefore at their 



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328 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

request were excused by the Governor from going to Fordham. 
On October i6th, Andros had ordered all the towns to keep 
"double and strict watches," and to the Harlem people on the 
2ist, as seen, had reiterated the caution, "Double your watch." 
This was complied with, so far as was practicable at that busy 
season, when much of the fall work was yet to be done, but with 
the setting in of winter the Night Watch was formally organized 
as follows ; the Governor, at the town's charge, furnishing pow- 
der, "for the Indian war": 

On the 6th December, A". 1675, Monday. 

Present: Their Honors, Jan Dyckman, Constable. 
Joost van Oblinus. 
Resolved Waldron. 
Meynard Journee. 

The following are, according as they rank, appointed upon the Night 
Watch, organized by order of his Excellency the Governor-General, and 
divided into four Corporalships, each consisting of seven persons, to wit: 



I. 

1. Adolph Meyer, Corporal. 

2. Meynard Journee. 

3. David des Marest. 

4. Daniel Toumeur. 

5. Nicholas de Vaux. 

6. Isaac Kip. 

7. Jan Hendricks Boch. 

n. 

1. Jan Nagel, Corporal. 

2. Joost van Oblinus. 

3. Jan Hendricks Kyckuyt. 

4. Jan le Maistre. 

5. Johannes Vermel je. 

6. Jean le Roy. 

7. Isaac le Maistre. 



III. 

1. Simeon Cornier, Corporal. 

2. Cornelis Jansen. 

3. Samuel des Marest. 

4. Laurens Jansen. 

5. William Palmer. 

6. Jaco el Roe.* 

7. Gerard Magister. 

IV. 

1. Robert Hollis, Corporal. 

2. Resolved Waldron. 

3. Arent Hermensen. 

4. Coenrad Hendricks Boch. 

5. David des Marest, Jun. 

6. Cornelis Theunisz. 

7. Isaac See, Jun. 



1st. The whole or half corporalships, whose turn it is to watch, shall, 
in the evening, at the hour of eight, upon beat of the drum, be in full 
number at the watch-house, shall place their sentinels, and take the neces- 
sary rounds ; and shall not retire before the beating of the morning reveille ; 
upon a forfeiture, fixed or to be fixed, of 3 guilders. 

2d. Whoever neglects the watch without a lawful cause, or making 
the same known to his corporal beforehand, shall each time forfeit 6 
guilders. 

• Jacques Ivaroe was bom in 1657. From his name, and affiliation with the French 
refugees, we conclude he was himself French, though Vandcr Vin, usually careful, 
writes his surname, the first two or three times, el Roey or el Roeyl, and finally 
adopts the form of el Roe. As he must have had warrant for this, probably Jacques 
was of mixed blood, Spanish and Walloon. He is always called by Vander Vin, Toco, 
a juvenile form of his name used by the Walloons. In 1677 Jacques joined the 
church in New York, but the next year accompanied the Demarests to Hackensack. 
Here he married Wybrecht, daughter of Hendrick Teunisr Helling. She was five years 
younger than he, and bore him sons, Peter, Hendrick, Samuel, Abraham, Johannes 
and as many daughters. On the decline of the French Church of Kinkachemeck, which 
he must have helped to form, he took a letter to the Dutch Church of Hackensack, April 
5, 1696. We think this family, under the name Laroe, has become widely extended, at 
least in the States of New \ork and New Jersey. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 329 

3d. Each watchman coming to the watch shall be provided with suit- 
able side and hand arms ; also with sufficient powder and lead, upon forfeit 
of 3 guilders. 

4th. The watch shall be kept quietly, without much calling or noise, 
upon penalty of 3 guilders. 

The Indian excitement continued through the winter and 
spring, 1676. Suspicions were entertained that the Wickquas- 
keeks (or Wickers-creeks, as now commonly called) intended to 
join ''the North Indians.'* But some eighteen of these, with 
their sachems and "Claes ye Indian," visited the Governor, Jan- 
uary 7th, bringing a present of venison and deer-skins, and re- 
newed their pledge of friendship. The Governor assured them 
of his continued good-will and desire to protect them, but said 
that as they had now gone out of his reach he could not "mind 
them as before.'' Then, to quote the record of the interview, 
**the Governor in return would give them coates, but they desired 
drink, which is ordered for them." 

Upon this hint the Indians asked leave to return to their 
old maize lands on Manhattan Island ; whereupon the Governor 
and Council, on February 6th, passed the following: 

'^Resolved, That the Wickers-creek Indians, if they desire it, 
be admitted with their wives and children, to plant upon this 
Island, but nowhere else, if they remove; and that it be upon 
the north point of the Island near Spuyten Duyvel." 

Still the settlers at Harlem were on the alert. On March 2d 
the Night Watch was reorganized, each corporal's squad being 
composed of five instead of six. The corporals were now: ist, 
Lourens Jansen; 2d, Arent Hermansen Bussing; 3d, Adolph 
Meyer, and 4th, Jan Nagel. For various reasons the following 
names disappear from the roll, to wit: Journee, Tourneur, Kip, 
Le Roy, Cornier, C. Jansen, Palmer, Hollis, and See; and the 
following new ones appear : Barent Waldron, Michiel Bastiaen- 
sen, Reyer Michielsen, Hendrick Kierson, Frederick de Vaux. 

The last of these persons, born in the Walloon country, 
had lately left the Lower Palatinate, with many other French, 
on account of the troubles there; De Vaux coming via England 
to join his brother Nicholas in this country. He was now a 
widower, but a little later married a daughter of Daniel Tour- 
neur deceased, from which union sprang the respectable De Voe 
family in the lower sections of Westchester County, first seated at 
De Voe's Point, near which Frederick obtained by his wife a 
fine property.* 

* Frederick de Vaux's passport, brought with him from Mannheim, is still pre- 
•erved- We are indebted for a copy in German to one of his descendants, Col. Thomas 
F. De Voe, of New York. Here follows a translation. 



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330 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

. On April 8th the Council "ordered that all boats and ves- 
sels that pass through Hellgate do take a permit from the Cus- 
tom House, by reason of the Indian troubles, which permit (unless 
for merchandise) to be given gratis and with all dispatch." 

But now fear of the Indians gradually subsided ; the Wick- 
quaskeeks proving their friendship sincere, had their canoes 
restored to them. The close of the war at the eastward conse- 
quent upon the death of King Philip, who with many of his 
warriors was slain, August 12th, in the great swamp fight near 
Mount Hope, was a principal means of allaying apprehension. 
The ordinary domestic interests were not neglected amid 
all this public disquietude, and the extra drafts upon the time 
and energies of the inhabitants. Planting and harvesting allowed 
of no interruption. A common fence inclosed their cultivated 
lands on Pochem Pieters Flat, and on \^an Keulen's Hook, and 
no partition fences were yet set up ; the lots being merely staked 
off that everyone could know and make use of his own. Strict 
rules were required to maintain these common fences ; so import- 
ant since the entire planting of the community was at the mercy 
of any one member through whose neglect to keep up his part 
cattle might get in and destroy; and none so offending but had 
to meet the public frown, it not a lawsuit to recover losses. 
When new fence-masters were appointed, April 24, 1675, — Cor- 
nelis Jansen and Conrad Hendricks, to succeed Arent Hemiens 
and David Demarest, Jr., — it was resolved that each inhabitant 
should forthwith repair his part of the common fencing, and that 
by the spring of 1676 these fences should be generally renewed 
and made at least five and one-half feet high, English measure; 
and anyone failing it should be done by the town at his expense. 
Again, November 22d, because of daily and manifold complaints 
of damage done by horses and cattle running upon the sowed 
lands, an ordinance was passed and posted up requiring the 
fences still unrepaired to be attended to within fourteen days 
punctually, under penalty of 25 guilders for every case of neglect ; 

•*Wc, Director, Sheriff, Burgomaster and Council of the Electoral Paltz City 
Mannheim, hereby make known and publish, that the bearer of this, Frederick dc 
Vaux, late a Burgher of this city, for his own business is intending to travel in Holland, 
and from thence further to England; in which behalf every one is requested to Irt 
the said Frederick de Vaux pass free, safe, and unmolested, at all places, and also to 
show him all good will and consideration; we engaging to do the same for every dty, 
according to merit. In witness hereof, we have attached our usual Seal. Done at 
Mannheim, this 23d February, old style, Anno one thousand six hundred and seventy- 
five," 



-J SEAL, y 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 33i 

and also repeating the former order, that by the first of March 
ensuing all the common fences should be built anew, with posts 
and six rails, five and one-half feet high, English measure, upon 
the same penalty; and further, no one should let his calves, or 
other beasts, run within the sowed land without a herder, as 
any such being found trespassing upon another man's grain 
would subject its owner to a fine of 12 gl. 

The yeomen were already much straitened in the breadth of 
their acres. In other words, the need of more arable land to 
meet the growing wants of the old residents and the newly- 
arrived families was becoming urgent. The town had reached 
a point in its history when the limited amount of improved land 
was mostly absorbed by the older and well-to-do settlers, who, 
aiming to enlarge rather than to reduce their area, held their 
lands at a high price. It was not easy to purchase any, except 
perchance an estate was to be closed up, or it happened that 
parties were leaving town, as was the case this year with Journee 
and Le Roy, who removed to Staten Island; whither also went 
the Sees, father and son, unable to suit themselves with land here.* 

With the immability of Dutchmen, and moreover as a matter 
of policy, the present freeholders. had been slow to move in a 
further division of the common lands, which hight tend to lessen 
the value of the improved farms. Their aim was, if possible, 
to retain the control of these lands, and hence the anxiety to 
secure new confirmations of their patent from the successive gov- 
ernors. But the late petition to Andros for his confirmation, 
interfered with doubtless by the Indian troubles, had effected 
nothing; while, on the other hand, the governor was beset with 
applications for land upon ^Manhattan Island, and which he 
resolved to satisfy by dividing up various tracts of woodland 
among such applicants as were most worthy, and would under- 
take to clear and improve their grants. At this the Harlem 
freeholders took alarm, especially as they understood that these 
grants were to extend to the unappropriated lands within their 
own patent. No time was lost, therefore, in preparing a second 
memorial to Governor Andros in these terms: 

* The See family, whose name in early records takes the several forms of Cie, 
du Gcj Sieck, Zy, and Sie, consisted, so far as appears, of the heads, Isaac See and 
Wife Esther, their son, Isaac, Jr., and daughter, Maria, wife of Nicholas de Vaux. 
The wife of Isaac, Jr., was also named Maria. The Sees obtained two farms, 194 
acres, on Karle's Neck, Staten Island, by patent of September 29, 1677. But after 
living there some years, they removed to Philips Manor, Westchester County, the 
father and son appearing as church members at Sleepy Hollow, or Tarrytown, in 1697. 
Then the name was usually written Sie. Isaac and Maria had sons, Peter, bom in 
Europe; Jacob, bom 167^; Simon, born 1670, etc. The family is still numbered among 
the most respectable residents there, and from its branches have come several well- 
known clergymen. 



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332 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

To his Excellency the Governor General at New York. 

The Constable, Magistrates and Inhabitants of the Town of New 
Haerlem respectfully represent that your petitioners have understood 
and been informed by their Constable and Joost van Oblinus that your 
Excellency's purpose is to distribute the lands lying within their town's 
jurisdiction, for bouweries and plantations; wherefore they the petition- 
ers and undersigned request that each may be allowed a part of the 
same to build upon and plant, etc. Remaining meanwhile your Excel- 
lency's most willing subjects. New Haerlem, Wednesday, 30th August, 
1676. 

CoNRADus Hendricks, Gerard Magister, 

Jan Hendricks, David des Marest, Jun., 

Jan Nagel, J ago el Roe, 

Arent Hermensen, Samuel des Marest, 

Jan le Maistre, Adolph Meyer, 

Cornelis Jansen, Frederick de Vaux, 

Laurens Jansen, Isaac le Maistre. 

Pierre Cresson, Glaude le Maistre. 

Nicholas de Vaux, Abraham le Maistre, 

Hendrick J. Vander Vin, B arent Waldron, 

David des Marest, Francois Breteau. 

Andros favored this application, but as none of the magis- 
trates had signed it, he referred it to them to make out and pre- 
sent him a list of those to whom such grants might properly be 
made. This they prepared, omitting the petitioners Cresson, 
Vander Vin, David des Marest, Jr., El Roe, the Le Maistres, and 
Breteau ; and designating instead Jan Dyckman, Resolved Wald- 
ron, Joost and Pieter Van Oblinus, Jan Louwe Bogert, and Jean 
Baignoux, — ^but the last-named, who was a tenant of Mr. Ver- 
veelen, was erased from the list, Andros making him a special 
grant upon Hoorn'sHook. The list was headed: "Persons for 
land in Harlem bounds, given in by y* Constable and overseers 
as fitt persons, y^ 4th of 7^^^ 1676."* 

Pending the new grants, the town employed Robert Ryder, 
government surveyor, to run out the lot lines on Van Keulen's 
Hook, in order to assign each owner his proper quantity, or at 
least to equalize them, as these lots had never been accurately 
surveyed, and nearly all were known to much exceed the pre- 
scribed three morgen or six acres. The survey, finished before 
the close of 1676, put most of the owners who had inclosed and 

* Francois Breteau, as he signs his name, was sometimes styled "Frenchman.** 
Vander Vin wrote his name Bartou, showing how pronounced. If he, as we suspect, 
was the same with Francois Beado, mentioned on page 348, he was born in London 
in 1646. About the date of this petition for land, Breteau was in the employ of 
Glaude le Maistre; but no land being granted him, he procured soon after 12 acres 
at Flushing. He petitioned, September 28, 1680, for more land, giving as a reason 
that he had nine children to support. He was still living there, with his wife Mary, 
in 1698, having sons John and Francis. These two married and had families; John 
had sons, John, born 1709, who removed to Vermont, and Francis, born 171 1, who 
settled at Hempstead, Long Island, in which localities, respectively, their descendants 
are still found. (See N. V. G. & B. Rec, and Bartow Cencalogry, by Rev. Evelyn 
Bartow). 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 333 

built upon the north ends of these lots to the necessity of shift- 
ing their fences.** 

William Waldron, eldest son of Resolved, had learned the 
cooper's trade, and established himself in New York, where he 
married the daughter of the wealthy Stoutenburgh, city treas- 
urer, and now enjoyed the position of inspector of pipe-staves. 
He and his partner, Jan Pietersen, undertaking to cut timber 
for use in their business, in the common woods upon Hoom's 
Hook, the town officers stopped them, upon the ground that 
they were non-residents. The coopers made their plaint to the 
Mayor's Court, November 14th, against the "Constable of Har- 
lem and several other Inhabitants, for discharging them from 
cutting of wood upon this Island, just against Hellgate, not 
being within fence." To the surprise of the defendants the case 
went against them; this decision being rendered: 

It is Ordered, That the said William Waldron and John Petersen may 
cut timber upon this Island, within one mile of any plantation fence; and 
the timber already cut they to carry away; and the town to pay the 
charges. 

The approaching winter promised but little leisure. The 
inhabitants had been called upon to cut and draw to the water 
side S,ooo stockades twelve feet long and four inches thick, to 
be used in making "a harbor before the City of New York.*' 
They met October 3d, formed themselves into four corporalships, 
and apportioned the work ; choosing as corporals Laurens Jansen, 
Arent Bussing, Adolph Meyer, and Jan Nagel. Another call 
was from Vander Vin, the clerk, whose house had become unfit 
to live in. At his request it was resolved at a meeting in October 
to remove him for the winter into the school-house (or church), 
after it should be repaired and adapted to the purposes of a 
dwelling by putting in a bedroom (bedstede), chimney, and 
mantel, and making the door and windows tight. It was further 
decided "to repair (vermaeken) the old house the following 
spring." In repairing the school-house, the elder Demarest was 
employed upon the work in "the loft," and also put a lock upon 
the door, and glazed the windows, while Floris Gerritsen, mason. 



•* The Out-Gardens, "lying at the west side of the village" (sec pp. 246, 256. 
292), were also "laid out bv numbers," February 5, 1677. On January 5, 1667, record 
was made that Toumeur had gotten No. i from Oaessen in exchange for No. 11, 
and 3 from Delamater for 19. and 4 from De Meyer for 10, "called Tan Cogu's 

Srdcn." Later he got 5, 6, from Delavall, who let Vervcelen have 7, 8. Lubbcrt 
rrritsen exchanged No. 16 for 11; but Demarest buying 11, gave it back to the 
town, being allowed to "survey" 16 instead. The present owners were: Daniel 
Toumeur, Nos. i to 6; Johannes Vervcelen, 7, 8; Cornclis Jansen. 9, 10; The Dorp, 
II : Joost Van Oblinus, 12, 13, 14; Thomas Delavall, 15; David Demarest, 16, 17, 
18; Claude Delamater, 19, 20. 



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334 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

did the plastering. Gerard Magister at the same time made three 
new "sitting benches, in the church." 

But David Demarest, Jr., offended, maybe, because he haa 
been dropped from the Hst of those recommended to have land 
given them, declared to Daniel Tourneur that he would not con- 
tribute toward the repairs upon the town-house. Tourneur bade 
him consider that in such case he could have no privilege in the 
town. Demarest angrily replied, "What have you to say, since 
you have been magistrate a day or two? Hold your peace; I 
will not give to it; you do your best." The town court took 
the matter up December 7th. Tourneur demanded that it should 
maintain its right and authority, in which view agreeing, it or- 
dered the defendant to pay 12 gl. to the deacons and the court 
charges. 

The elder Demarest and Glaude Delamater, giving reasons 
which will appear, had for some time ceased to contribute to 
Vander Vin's support, the first being two years in arrears and 
the latter three. The matter was referred to the Mayor's Court, 
which, on November 7th, pasesd an order that "the Clerk of the 
Parish be continued in his place, and have his pay what is behind, 
and for the future as formerly." 

The two refractory persons paying no heed to this order, 
were now waited upon, December 19th, by the constable. Re- 
solved Waldron, and Adolph Meyer, magistrate, to demand from 
them the payment of their dues. Demarest refused, but added, 
"If the Heer Governor order that I pay it, I shall do it." Said 
Delamater, "If you will have it, you must fetch it out of my 
house, for I will not give it." Again, after ten days, the same 
persons, taking another magistrate (Tourneur) with them, re- 
peated the demand. Demarest, still stout in his refusal, answered, 
"I will not pay before the Court of Sessions decide that I must." 
Delamater's answer now was, "I must first see the town accounts 
for six years ; would you otherwise have it, you must take it out 
of my house." On February 5th the same officers, with another 
magistrate, Jan Louwe Bogert, went to Demarest's house, but 
he was not at home. They then called upon Delamater, but 
with no success. "I shall not pay," said Glaude, at this third 
interview ; "you must take it out of my house, and then I will 
appeal to the High Council." 

The baffled officers hesitated to distrain upon their goods for 
the debt; but after another month's delay again applied for 
power to do so to the Mayor's Court, which on March 6th, 
1677, issued the following ample order: 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 335 

From the City of New York to the Town of Harlem. 

The Court order, that Hendrick Jansen Vander jVin, the Clerk of the 
said Town, be continued in his place according to former order, and 
have his pay, what is behind and for the future as formerly by the In- 
habitants; and if they or any of them refuse to pay what is due from 
them for the time past, and for the time to come, then the Constable is 
hereby ordered to levy the same by distress and sale of the goods, for 
satisfaction of what is or shall hereafter become, due to the said Clerk. 

On April 3d citations were issued to Demarest and Dela- 
mater to appear before the town court on the 5th instant. Glaude 
appeared. The constable as plaintiff, demanded that the order 
of March 6th should be enforced. The defendant stated that 
they of the French congregation, in the time of Governor Francis 
Lovelace, having received a preacher, the aforesaid governor had 
said that "the French of the Town of New Harlem should be 
free as to contributing to the Dutch voorleser."* He demanded 

* Rev. Pierre Daille is said to have been the first "pastor" of the French Church 
in New York. But according to the reference in the text, a "preacher" had preceded 
him by ten years of more, whose name, however, is unknown to us. The statement is 
of interest as showing that the refugees at New York and Harlem joined to introduce 
and sustain the French service as early as 1674. A better organization followed on 
the arrival of Mr. Daille, of whom Domine Selyns, in a letter of October 21, 1683, 
thus speaks: Dominie Peter Daille, late professor at Saumur, has become my co- 
laborer, and conducts the French worship. He is full of fire, godliness, and learning. 
Banished on account of his religion, he maintains the cause of Jesus Christ with un- 
tiring zeal." With others of his family, Mr. Daille first took refuge in Holland; but 
must have been some months in this colony at the date of Selvns' letter, as he organ- 
ized a church at New Paltz, January 22, 1683. (Du Bois Reunion, p. 8; and compare 
Doc Hist, of N. Y., iii. 472, 1167.) The date of the organization at New York may be 
nearly indicated by letters taken from the Dutch church in order to unite with the 
French, the earliest of these noticed being those of our Marc Disosway and wife, 
which are dated June 7, 168^. Mr. Daille extended his labors to neighboring French 
communities, and probably aided in organizing the church of Kinkachemeck, near Hack- 
oisack, of which the Demarests were chief promoters. He evidendtly revived that upon 
Staten Island, where the church established as early as 1664, by Demarest and others, 
had declined, till there was "neither church nor minister," as the French residents told 
the Labadist travellers in 1679. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes added to his 
flock many French families, who came by way of London, South Carolina and St. 
Kitts. Though disapproving Leisler's course, Mr. Daillc's sympathies were so stirred 
at his impending fate, that he circulated for sigrnatures, at Harlem and elsewhere, a 
petition for his pardon, but for this humane act was called to account by the General 
Assembly. Rev. Pierre Peiret, before a minister in France, but expelled for the cause 
of religion, arriving, with other refugees, at New York from London, November 19, 
1687, soon after formed a second church, and became its pastor. He was deemed very 
learned, in 1692 the two French churches united, agreeing to give an equal support 
to both pastors; Mr. Peiret to perform service in the city, and Mr. Daille in the 
country, as he had loved to do. The latter, in 1696, accepted a call to Boston, return- 
ing the next year to marry a second wife, and occassionally thereafter coming to New 
York, as in 1703, when he sold a house and lot in Broadway, and a^in three years be- 
fore nis deatl^ which was probably his last visit to his old flock. This devoted minister, 
long remembered by the Harlem French for his eloquence and excellence, closed his 
earthly labors May 21, 1715, in his 67th year. Mr. Peiret continued to serve the 
church in New York with general approbation, to the time of his death, September i, 
1704, having attained his ooth year. He was buried the next day "in the common 
cemetery of this city." The consistory and people agreed to pay his widow an extra 
year's salary. He was succeeded by Kev. James Laborie, late Indian missionary at 
Oxford, Mass. For some years the church had worshipped in a plain structure near 
the Fort; that is, on the south side of Marketfield street, also called Petticoat lane, 
which had become in a sense the French quarter. Only the year before Mr. Peiret's 
death thev bought a lot in Pine street, and were engaged in building the unique stone 
church which stood till 1834, and witnessed the labors of Peiret's successors down to 
thelate Dr. Verren. Trinity churchyard contains Mr. Pieret's tombstone, with an in- 
scription in both Latin and French, the first, as follows, copied some years ago with 
difficulty, it being almost illegible: 

Hie jacet Rcvcrd, Dom. Petrus Perretrus, V. D. Mr. qui ex Gallia religionis causa 
cxpulsns, verbum Dei in hujus civitatis Ecclesia Gallicana per annis 17 cum generali 
appropatione praedicavit quique. Cum vitam prsdicationibus suis conformem duxeri 



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336 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

that this might be deemed sufficient, and that the court should 
carry out the order they had from the Mayor's Court so as they 
were advised to. But the court would not allow this plea, and 
directed execution for the amount of the debt and costs. Forth- 
with the magistrates (except Arent Hermensen, Delamater's son- 
in-law) proceeded in a body to the defendant's house to levy upon 
his goods. Finding nothing suitable at hand, the constable told 
him that on Wednesday evening (April nth) he would take one 
of his cows out of his stable and sell her at public vendue, to 
satisfy the debt. Delamater replied scornfully, "You may as 
well take her* now; why have you to wait so long?" 

On April nth the court ordered another citation to be 
served on Demarest, who had not appeared, and meanwhile to 
delay the execution against Delamater. Demarest, in no very 
amiable mood, appeared before the court on the 14th. The con- 
stable inquired why he had neglected to obey the order of the 
Mayor's Court after being so many times notified. Demarest 
said that he was not cited to answer before the Mayor's Court, 
and that the Heer Governor had told him that he was not bound 
to pay. He said further, that the Mayor's Court was wrongly 
informed of the case; adding that the constable, Jan Louwe, 
and Daniel Tourneur, were parties in this prosecution, and the 
secretary the instigator. Yet, as he intends to remove out of 
this town, he will pay, or cause it to be paid, but not if he should 
not leave. "You people," said he, meaning all the magistrates, 
"are my enemies, and seek but to drive me into costs." The court 
seems to have let this ebullition of feeling pass unnoticed. The 
contest was ended as to Demarest, who having promised, kept his 
word. Delamater, however, held out, and the magistrates hesitating 
to use extreme measures, the case thus rested for several years. 

Demarest was now engrossed with a scheme of some magni- 
tude, — the purchase from the Indians of a large tract of land on 
the Hackensack River, with the "declared purpose of making a 
settlement of 30 or 40 families, to be transported from Europe." 
He and his son, David, contracted with Paulus Richard, of New 
York, merchant, apparently on the same date, March 12th, 1677, 
to sell him their property in Harlem, but only the deed from 
David, Jr., has been found, given April 12th, pursuant to the 
articles of sale previously executed. On June 8th ensuing, 
Demarest affected his Indian purchase of 2,000 acres, to which 
he prepared to remove with his entire family, including Jacque 

usque, ad 6omum setatis suae annum tandem in manus Domini spiritum humiliter 
deposuit I mens. Sept. Ann. Dom. 1704. 



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HISTORY OP HARLEM. 337 

el Roe, on the ist of May, 1678, until which date the two Davids 
had reserved the use of tfieir respecti\e dwellings, the father then 
occupying his "new house."* 

The 19th of February, this year, was given to making pro- 
vision for the town debts and the discharge of other public busi- 
ness. Quoting from the record: 

At a meeting held Monday, 19th February, 1676-7. Present: Their 
Honors, Resolved Waldron, constable ; Tan Louwe van Schoonrewoerdt, 
Adolph Meyer, Arent Hermens, Daniel Tourneur ; with the advice of Joost 
van Oblinus, old magistrate, and Jan Dyckman, late constable. 

It is resolved and found good to reckon up the debts, for which the 
town is now in arrears, and must pay; and to make an assessment upon 
the lands and house-lots (erven) lying within this town, to discharge the 
said debts ; and there is found to be due to — 



Reynier Willems, balance f. 253 

Paulus Richard, balance 21 

Jan Louwe 5 

Joost van Oblinus 26 

Hendr. J. Vandr. Vin 31 

Glaude le Maistre, 2 schepels wheat 12 

Resolved Waldron, J^ vat of beer 15 

Jan Dyckman, board money to Surveyor 8 

Frederick Gysberts 57 

Nicolaes Bayard 24 

For extraordinary expenses 46 



o 

15 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

10 

o 

15 



Total f. 500 : o 

An assessment made on the lands and house-lots, to pay and discharge 
the forgoing 500 guilders; whereof one- third was put upon the house- 

* Richard had an old claim of 1600 gulidcrs against Demarcst, senior, and the 
lats Tourneur. How it originated we know not. unless from what follows. Demarest 
having bought Montagne's larm, failed to meet the second payment (but had paid Jacob 
Vis, on Montagne's order, 180 guilders sewant); when Montague sued him, Oct. 6, 
1666, and citing the articles of sale, demanded back the farm. Demarest said his de- 
fault was caused by^ Allard Anthony having stopped the payment — that yesterday, 
Daniel Tourneur, acting for said Anthony's brother-in-law, had arrested 300 guilders 
for claims against Montagne. The court ordered the land to be given up, but on an 
appeal to the Mayor's Court, October 9. it reversed the decision, holding "that the 
sale of the land in question shall stand tast" But Demarest must pay his second in- 
stalment (less the x8o guilders) within fourteen days. The amount due could hardly 
have exceeded 800 guilders, but Richard (we only presume that this was the occasion) 
advanced Demarest and Tourneur together 1600, and the town officers became their 
surety. This appears from the following letter (suggesting that Toumeur's loan was 
for the town's use), indorsed by Richard, "Obligation to pay from Daniel Tourneur 
and David Demarest." 

Ao. 167% the 23d Feb., N. Harlem. 
Honored friend Celitie Richard: 

Whereas we have duly received yours of the 19th, so these serve for answer; As 
your husband has agreed; with Daniel Tourneur and David Demarest, that he will 
wait yet one year, by their paying interest upon the sixteen hundred guilders, so it is 
that we by these accept it, and shall take measures the next year for the payment, as 
this year we have some other burdens. Farewell. 

D. Tourneur, 

David dcs Marest, 

Pieter Roelefsen, Constable, 

Resalvcrt Waldron. 

This was cancelled March 12, 1677, upon the elder Demarest selling out to Richard, 
and the letter returned, with the following on the back: 

"Acknowledged paid, etc, being from date for standing obligation. Done, New 
York, the lath Marcn, 167 6-7. Paulus Richard." 



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338 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

lots and two-thirds on the lands, and upon each house-lot comes 8 guilders 
and on each morgen 2 guilders, to wit : 

Glaude le Maistre* 2 erven. 15 morgen. f. 46 

Laurens Jansen 2 " 9 " 34 

Cornelis Jansen 9 " ^^ 

on the Flat 2 " 4 

David des Marest, Jr i " 9 " 26 

Daniel Tourneur VA " 18 " 48 

Jan Dyckman yi " 4 

Conrad Hendricks i " 6 " 20 

Johannes Verveelen 2 " 9 " 34 

Adolph Meyer i " 6 " 20 

David des Marest i " 14 ]* 36 

Joost van Oblinus 3 " 12 " 48 

Nicholas de Vaux i " 9 " 26 

Resolved Waldron 2 " 15 " 46 

Jan Nagel 5^ " 12 ^ ^ 

Johannes Vermelje i " 2 

Jan le Maistre i " 3 " ^4 

Jan Louwe 16 " 32 

Isaac Kip i " 8 

Arent Hermens ^A " 4 

Pieter Cresson % " 2 

f. 500 

The foregoing sums must be paid, at furthest, by the last of March 
next ensuing, punctually, without any delay, or exception, in good mer- 
chantable grain, upon penalty, etc. 

Most of the inhabitants were present at this meeting of Feb- 
ruary 19, 1677. Some action was expected in regard to the 
shifting of the fences on Van Keulen's Hook," but nothing was 
resolved upon. Weightier matters claimed attention. No little 
concern was felt at the silence of Governor Andros in regard to 
his promise to distribute more land among them, and at reports 
of the large grants he was intending to make in their immediate 
vicinity, and even within their limits. It was therefore resolved to 
send another committee to his Excellency, requesting him to 

Richard took this property, obviously, in payment of this claim; or at least the 
claim was part of the consideration paid by Richard for said property. He got his 
deed from David, junior, April 12, 1677, ana the same djiy rcconvcyed what it covered 
(house and lot, barn, lot ii, Jochem Pictcrs; lot 1, Van Keulen's Hook and meadows) 
to Joost Van Oblinus, for 2400 guilders in sewant. He disposed of the property late 
of David, senior, in the course of the year, as follows: On July i, the houses and 
lots, barn, and 7 Jochem Pieters, to Oblinus, for 4000 guilders, in erain, and 3 Out- 
gardens, Nos. 16, 17, 18, to Arent Harmans, for 700 guilders; on November 17, the 
half of No. 5, V. K. Hook, to Laurens Tansen. for ^joo guilders, and lot No. 4. Mon- 
Ugne's Flat (since in the Nutter farm) to Cornelis Jansen, lor 400 guilders. All 
these to pay in grain or tobacco. Two north gardens, described in the senior Demar- 
est's patent, 1671, as "betwixt Glaude le Maitrc and the Poor's Garden," meaning the 
Church Farm, were added to the latter. On November 27. 1691, Paul Richard gives a 
receipt, having "settled in full with Joost Obline's wife, tor two farms (twee Sowry) 
lying in the town of New Harlem." Richard (sec p. 53) was twice alderman. He mar- 
ried, 1664, widow Celitie Vanderwal, from Christianstadt. A daughter, Hester (Mrs. 
Le Fort), was mysteriously murdered October 19, 1699. Their son Stephen, bom 
1670, had ten children, one being Paul Richard, faiayor of New York from 1735 to 
1739- 

* "N. B. Glaude le Maistre has not more than 9 morgen of land, so that in the 
foregoing is put by mistake 6 morgen too much." Note in the original. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 339 

grant the lands lying within their purisdiction only to the actual 
residents, according to their petition of August 30th preceding, 
'*and further to be maintained in the rights of their patent." 

Captain James Carteret was named first on this committee. 
Apparently he had just returned from a voyage to England. 
He had taken from Vander Vin, April 5, 1676, a statement of 
Captain Delavall's indebtedness to the town, being 242 gl i6st. 
Between the dates of May 9th and December 5th ensuing, no 
mention of him here has been found, and he now held deeds of 
lease and release, dated London, August 7th and 8th, 1676, from 
his father-in-law, for the mill property, the Moesman farm, and 
Little Barent's Island ; in which instruments Delavall is described 
as *1ate of New York in America, and now of London, mer- 
chant," and Carteret also as ''of London." Delavall had been 
prompted to this gift, as he says, **in consideration of the natural 
love and affection which the said Thomas Delavall beareth to the 
said James Carteret and Francis his wife, the daughter of the 
said Thomas Delavall, and for divers other good causes." With 
his usual caution, Delavall signed the lease only, reserving his 
signature to the deed till he should return himself to America. 
Perhaps Delavall was afraid the captain's creditors might get it. 
A little episode may suffice here. 

On his first coming to Harlem, about the ist of April, 1675, 
"having occasion for a horse to employ," Carteret sent his man 
Wilier to borrow one of William Sturt. But it happened that 
the horse took sick and died **within three or four days after his 
return." Sturt declared that the animal "was overridden and 
much misused," and when more than a year had passed sued 
the captain for damages. But Wilier having left, the captain 
was placed at a disadvantage in the matter of witnesses when 
the trial came on, December 5, 1676. "Daniel Tourneur, sworn, 
saith that he saw the horse in question at Harlem, and that the 
man told him that the horse failed him at Freshwater, and that 
he was forced to lead him forewards and backwards between 
York and Harlem." Sturt demanded £12 for the horse, and £5 
"for want of said horse and expenses in his sickness." The jury 
and court found for the plaintiff. But Carteret objected to the 
price put upon the steed ; and this point was referred to arbitra- 
tors, who reduced the valuation to £8; whereupon the court, 
March 20, 1677, "order a horse of that value to be delivered 
before next court day, or judgnlent to be entered against Carteret 
to that* amount and costs of suit." Carteret was delinquent, and 
on April 3d execution issued ; but the next year came round and 



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340 HISTORY OP HARLEM. 

it was not yet satisfied, when Sturt, getting the court to reaffirm 
its former judgment, left soon after to become town clerk at 
Pemaquid. But to return. 

Besides Carteret, the committee to wait upon the governor 
consisted of Adolph Meyer and Daniel Toumeur from the magis- 
tracy, and Jan Dyckman and Laurens Jansen from the commun- 
ity. The committee reported on February 24th that at their 
interview with Andros, he said he had understood from David 
Demarest that the people of New Harlem had not needed nor 
desired any land. But that now he would send the surveyor, 
within eight days or thereabouts, and "they of New Harlem might 
themselves lay out the land as was convenient, because he had 
no knowledge of this place." 

It is hard to say what designs Andros may have had regard- 
ing the Harlem lands, or whether he ever seriously intended to 
override the Harlem patent. There is some reason to believe 
that he did. But if so, he came to think better of it; and while 
he did not formally confirm their patent, he recognized it by 
allowing the Harlem people to dispose of their common lands in 
their own way. Nothing could have suited them better, and 
the concession was important as tending to settle their rights. 
They had to congratulate themselves on their own vigilance and 
efforts, and especially to thank Captain Carteret, whose name 
with six others was now added to those who were to draw land. 

Ryder finally came, and spent fourteen days in making the 
surveys. He had been occupied during the intervening time in 
laying out several farms along the East River, in a range 
extending from Kip's Bay to Hoom's Hook; forming, within 
the recollection of many, the charming rural seats of Winthrop, 
Hoffman, Buchanan, Pearsall, the Beekmans, Jones, Riker, and 
Lawrence, the Delafields, and Schermerhorn. Beginning at Kip's 
Bay, the grants were 30 acres to Gabriel Carbosie, 60 to David 
du Four and son, 60 to Rev. Jacobus Fabricius, 30 to Comelis 
Matthyssen, 60 to John Bassett, 38^ to George Elphinstone, 32^4 
to Jacob Young, and 30 to Jean Baignoux. The last three fell 
partly within the Harlem patent.* That to Elphinstone, which 
lapped upon the southern end of this patent (at 74th Street, 
including within its limits the Saw Kill) ; and that next, granted 
to Young, and "bounded to the northeast by the commons or a 
certain run of water," — were surveyed on April 25th. Baig- 
noux's farm was run out adjoining to Young, on July 20th. The 

• Sec Notes on these Titles from Carbosie to Bassett, in the N. Y. Corp. Mannual 
for 1869, pp. 881-887; also Abstracts of Farm Titles, by H. Croswcll Tuitlc. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 34i 

grants were "to be confirmed by patent when begun to be im- 
proved." The first patent was issued to Young, May i, 1677, 
the other two not till September 29th following, and they were 
subject severally to a quit-rent or annual render to the govern- 
ment of "half a bushel of good winter wheat." In the interim, 
30 acres on the North River side, upon the hills next below 
Moertje Davids' Fly, and running into "the Commons of Har- 
lem," were granted and set off July 9th to Hendrick Bosch, a 
sword-cutler, and originally from Leyden. Elphinstone had 
erected a leather mill and other buildings upon his tract, with 
the assistance of a copartner, Abraham Shotwell, late of New 
Jersey, to whom (probably in view of what followed) the patent 
was made out. On October 30th Elphinstone sold all his inter- 
est in the farm, houses, and mill, to Shotwell, who in payment 
gave his obligation, in the form of a mortgage, for i52:ios.* 
With genuine sagacity, the people of Harlem resolved to 
secure the two extremities of their patent from further encroach- 
ment. Under their direction, Ryder first laid out five lots at 
Spujten Duyvel, upon the old Matthys Jansen patent, — "begin- 
ning by Johannes Verveelen," who, as ferryman, occupied the 
upper end of that patent : and ranging down the Harlem River 
to "the hills and the meadows," or the northern line of the Jan- 
sen and Aertsen patent, which touched the river at what is now 
2iith Street. These lots were "given out by lot." We annex 
the numbers, owners, and acres of those — 

At Spuyten Duyvel. 

No. I. Johannes Vermelje 18 acres. 

" 2. Jan Nagel 14 ** 

" 3. Conrad Hendricks Boch 14 " 

" 4. Jan Dyckman 14 " 

" 5. " " 14 " 

The unappropriated meadows behind these lots on the 
Spuyten Duyvel Creek (with the exception hereafter noticed) 
were given to Dyckman and Nagel, who at once purchased Ver- 
milye and Boch's lots. 

Upon Hoorn's Hook ten lots were laid off, these running 
in from the East River northwest, and ranging from Jean 
Baignoux's line upward to the bend since called Gracie's Point; 
the last lot in the range containing 12 acres, but all the others 
8 acres each. These were allotted as follows: 

* For more relating to this and the adjacent farms, sec App. II. 



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No. 


I. 


« 


2. 


it 


3- 


ti 


4. 


u 


5. 


tt 


6. 


ti 


7. 


" 


8. 


" 


9. 


" 


10. 



342 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Upon Hoorn's Hook. 

Adalph Meyer, 

Laurens Jansen, 

Johannes Verveelen, 

Jan le Maistre, 

Maria Vermel je, 

Jan Louw v. Schroonrewoert, 

Daniel Tourneur, 

Barent Waldron, 

Jan Hendricks Boch, 

Pieter van Oblinus.* 

Another ten lots, each eight acres, were laid off upon Jochem 
Pieters' Flat, in continuation of "the old lots/' Running east 
and west, they began "at the land of Captain Carteret," ranging 
northward to what has since been called Bussing's, but then 
Gloudie's Point, so named from Le Maistre, who owned meadow 
there. These, often distinguished as the "New Lots,'* were 
drawn by the following persons : 

On Jochem Picters' Flat. 

No. I. Jan Hendricks Brevoort, 

" 2. Glaude le Maistre, 

" 3. Frederick de Vaux, 

" 4. Resolved Waldron, 

" 5. Arent Herme^s, 

" 6. Cornelis Jansen, 

" 7. Gerard M agister, 

" 8. Joose van Oblinus, 

" 9. Capt. James Carteret, 

" 10, Pieter Jansen Bogert. 

We observe in these allotments a preconcerted design to 
occupy what remained of the three old groundbriefs given to 
Matthys Jansen, Claessen, and Kuyter : a shrewd stroke of policy, 
truly, but which we are not to interpret into a distrust of the 
equity of their claim to those lands, of which they had been 
legally put in possession by the deliberate action of the constituted 
authorities. 

Ryder dates his certificates of the above surveys on August 
6th. They were recorded August 17th. While here surveying, 
he boarded with Resolved Waldron, the town paying for it, and 
also for six gallons of rum drank during the progress of the work. 
The surveyor's bill, including the survey of Van Keulen's Hook, 
amounted to 429 gl. 

A parcel of meadow land lying on the Spuyten Duyvel, to 
the westward of the first lot there granted, had been the object 

* For the after history of these lots, which were mainly included in the Waldron 
farm, see App. H. 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 343 

of some contention, but was finally disposed of, by a vote of the 
magistrates, August loth, as follows: 

"Whereas, a dispute has arisen among the inhabitants of this 
town respecting a certain parcel of meadow lying on the Spuy- 
ten Duyvel, which each of them claims to have, and the said 
meadow is too small to be divided amongst them all ; and because 
some have no meadow annexed to their land, to wit, Arent Her- 
mens, Johannes Vermelje, and Gerard Magister, We the Court, 
pursuant to the order of his Honor the Governor-General given 
to the Land Surveyor, also give directions to said Surveyor to 
measure out and give the said meadow to the aforesaid persons/* 

It was then further resolved, that "a piece of meadow lying 
at the north point of this Island, and Moertje Davids' Vly, shall 
remain to the town's lot/' 

More wrath seems to have been stirred up at this action of 
the magistrates in giving away the meadows, than at the larger 
grants made by Andros impinging on their patent, though this 
caused, from first to last, a deal of excitement. Adolph Meyer, 
now a magistrate, but opposed to the grant, had the temerity to 
take an active part with the dissatisfied people in getting up a 
remonstrance. Andros took this as a grave offence, and issued 
his warrant, August 14th, for Meyer's arrest, charging him with 
having "occasioned disturbance by siding with the commonalty 
and petitioning in a factious manner." He was admitted to bail, 
on condition of appearing before the Governor and Council when 
required, to answer what should be alleged against him, "and 
in the meantime to be of the good behavior." At the next elec- 
tion his townsmen renominated Meyer for magistrate, and he 
was even confirmed in the office. But when brought to the notice 
of the Mayor, Van Cortlandt, he removed Meyer Novemebr 3d, 
because he was "under recognizance for his good behavior" ; and 
ordered a new nomination, which resulted in putting Laurens 
Jansen in the vacancy. 

Scarcely was the survey at Spuyten Duyvel made, when 
Dyckman and Nagel bought out Vermelje and Boch, and thereby 
became the owners of the whole five lots, containing 74 acres 
of upland, with the meadows granted them as before stated being 
about eight acres ; the beginning of the fine estates subsequently 
held there by the Nagel and Dyckman families. With no inten- 
tion of yet quitting their old homes in the village, they agreed 
with Michiel Bastiaensen annd his son-in-law, Kiersen, to take 
these lands upon lease for a term of twelve years. We have 
thought the contract, here translated from the Dutch, worthy to 



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344 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

be preserved, as it relates to the first successful effort to make 
improvements in that section of Manhattan Island, on which as 
yet there was not another white man's hearthstone north of Har- 
lem village. 

On this date, 26th October, A*. 1677, appeared before me, Hendrick 
J. Vander Vin, by the Honorable Mayor's Court admitted Secretary, 
residing at the Town of New Harlem, and the after-named witnesses ; 
the honest Jan Nagel and Jan Dyckman, on the one side, and Michiel 
Bastiaensen with Hendrick Kiersen, on the other; the which agree to 
contract with the others and are agreed in the following manner. Jan 
Nagel and Jan Dyckman have conjointly leased, and by these do lease to 
the before-named Michiel Bastiaensen and Hendrick Kiersen in com- 
pany, certain the lessors' lands, contained in five lots, marked No. i, 2, 
3, 4, 5, with the meadows thereto belonging, all lying upon this Island 
Manhatans, at Spuyten Duyvel, and under this town's jurisdiction, as 
appears by the surveys thereof existing, the which the lessees take and 
accept on lease upon condition as follows, to wit: The lessees shall oc- 
cupy and use the aforesaid lands and meadows for the time of twelve 
consecutive years, to count from now on, expiring in the year 1689 after 
the crops and fruits are off the land, and the lease of the houses shall 
end at May in the year 1690; in particular, the lessees shall possess and 
use the aforesaid lands and meadows the first seven years free, by paying 
as an acknowledgement, each one hen, every year; the three following 
years shall the lessees pay each a hundred and fifty guilders per year ; 
the last two years to pay each two hundred guilders in the year; the 
lessees shall have authority to build and erect houses, barns or stables, 
after their own satisfaction and contentment, for their accommodation ; 
on condition that the same, at the end of the lease, with the fences 
which then shall be upon the lands and meadows, be delivered over all 
in good repair; the lessors promise to furnish the lessees — in order upon 
the aforesaid lands, wherever the lessees decide, to place an orchard — 
with fifty fruit trees, both apple and pear, and all the trees which they 
the lessees shall come to set out and raise shall at the end of the lease, 
except the fifty trees aforesaid, be divided half and half; the lessees 
holding their option as to their circumstances, to be permitted to remove 
or give up this present lease at their pleasure, with the same to the 
lessors, upon mentioning it one year before ; the lessors promise 
the lessees freedom in the real possession of the aforesaid lands 
and dependencies, without any charges standing thereon, reserving the 
lord his right; all the before-written conditions, the appearers de- 
clare to be their contract and accord, promising the same on both sides 
to conform to and fulfil, each in his regard, without craft or cunning, 
under obligation as according to laws. Thus done and passed at New 
Haerlem in presence of Joost van Oblinus and Conradus Hendricx, as 
witnesses hereto requested and solicited, who beside the appearers and 
me secretary, have undersigned these, on the date as above. 
IVitness, Jan Nagel. 

J. VAN Obunus, Jan Dyckman. 

Conradus Hendricks. This mark* of 

Michiel Bastiaensen 
by himself made. 

Hendrick Kiers. 
With my knowledge, 

Hendr. J. Vandr. Vin, Secretary. 
Subsequently Dyckman and Nagel became the joint owners 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 345 

of the adjacent tract, known as the Jansen and Aertsen Patent, 
but in our day as the Dyckman Homestead ; as also of that part 
of the Papparinamin Patent which had been occupied by Ver- 
veelen.* 

The ensuing winter found nearly all of the inhabitants 
busily employed in the woodlands cutting 5,000 palisades "for 
the use of the city," pursuant to an order from the Governor, 
of November 27, 1677. They were to be ''under 4 inches thick 
and 12 to 13 feet long, to be delivered at the waterside in a con- 
venient place to be taken away." The inhabitants on November 
29th were divided into four corporalships, "as was done for- 
merly"; the corporals being Laurens Jansen, Arent Bussing, 
Adolph Meyer, and Jan Dyckman. The labor was probably 
turned to advantage in the clearing of some of the newly-drawn 
lands. All those who had shared in the late land drafts took part 

* The Papparinamin, or Matthys Jansen Patent, in the view of the Harlem people, 
was in the same category with that of Jansen and Aertsen, and other of Kieft's grants 
which have lapsed for want of the required improvement; and hence they claimed it 
under their general patent as pert of their common land, notwithstanding Governor 
Nicoll's confirmation to Matthys Jansen's heirs. Verveelen, on or after removing to 
Spuyten Duyvel, had inclosed some sixteen acres off the north end of the patent; and 
the grants of 1677 engrossing the remainder, the Jansen heirs had nothing left them. 

These held to their claim, however, and many years later, when Verveelen had 
vacated, made an attempt to recover. On August 2, 1700^ John Matthysen, eldest 
son of Matthys Jansen, late of Ulster County, deceased, in behalf of himself and 
others, the co-heirs of the said Jansen (see Index, Van Keuren), petitioned the 
General Assembly for relief, representing "that by reason of the uncertainty of some 
bounds in said patent contained, he was wholly dispossessed of his father's inheri- 
tance, and there/ore humbly prayed that the bounds of the said land might be settled, 
and the said patent confirmed unto the co-heirs of the said Matthys Jansen." Leave 
being granted, a bill for that object was introduced the next day, passed on the 8th, 
and sent to Grovernor Bellomont for his signature. 

After leciting the original grant by Kieft to Matthys Jansen, August 18, 1646, of 
"one hundred acres," at Papparinamin on Manhattan Island, its confirmation by 
Nicolls, May 23, 1667, and the petition of Jan Matthyssen, this bill provided "that 
the limits and bounds of the said Patent be, and are hereby forever declared to be, at 
a place called Papparinamin, which said Papi>arinamin is upon the island of New 
York, joining to the river upon which the bridge called Kind's Bridge is built, ac- 
cording as the Indian name Papparinamin did anciently signify." It also declared 
"that all and singular the estate, right, title, and interest contained in the said pat- 
ents, shall be, and hereby are, confirmed and ratified unto the said John Matthyssen 
and other of the said co-heirs of the said Matthys Jansen, his and their heirs and as- 
signs in equal proportions and divisions, any law, usuage, or custom to the contrary 
hereof in anyways nothwithstanding " 

But the governor withheld his signature, and the bill failed to become a law. 
Matthyssen petitioned the Assembly again, October 26; it "was read, and referred for 
further consideration," but not again taken up. The Harlem folk had meanwhile, by 
their deputy, Peter Van Oblienis, taken counsel and put in their plea before the gov- 
ernor, and doubtless with effect. His Excellencly informed the Assembly, November 
2, that he had declined to meddle with certain bills presented for his approval, because 
as matters of property they should be referred to the Courts of Judicature, soon to be 
established. But no further proceedings in the case have been found. The Dyckmans 
soon took possession under their grant of 1701 from the town, of which we shall 
hereafter speak. 

There was really no injustice done to the Jansen heirs, for the land had lain 
neglected and unclaimed by them, now more than thirty years since the confirmation 
by Nicolls. This groundbrief stood in no wise different from others which had been 
declared void, except said confirmation, which was probably an oversight. As it had 
never been sold, there was no such reason for compensation as there was in the case of 
the Jansen and Aertsen patent; and to have admitted its validity at that late day 
would have been a bad precedent, and one which the holders of other vacant ground- 
briefs would have been only too ready to take advantage of. 

The parcel which Verveelen had had the use of passed from Jacob Dyckman to 
his son Jacob, and formed part of the 30 acres sold February 11, 1773, to Caleb Hyatt. 



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346 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

in this work, save Constable Nagel, Johannes Verveelen, ferry- 
man, and Captain Carteret; Maria Vermilye, represented by her 
husband, Isaac Kip. In addition were enrolled David Demarest, 
David Demarest, Jr., Michiel Bastiaensen, Reyer Michielsen, 
Pierre Cresson, Abraham Delamater, Jan Kiersen, Hendrick 
Kiersen, Nicholas de Vaux, Francois Breteau, Jan Jansen (P. 
Bogert's man), and Jan Petit (Baignoux) "and his mate." 




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CHAPTER XXI. 

1677- 1682. 

THE FRENCH l,EAVING ; NEW TOWN-HOUSE; LAND QUESTIONS; 
LABADISTS; CAPT. CARTERET; SALE OF MOERTJE DAVmS FLY. 

A SUIT of Nicholas de Vaux versus Pierre Cresson, for 
"^^ some time pending in the local court, was decided No- 
vember 15, 1677. Defendant having sold plaintiff his house 
and lands, October 27, 1676, the bill of sale was cancelled on 
April 23d ensuing, when De Vaux gave Cresson a parcel of 
fence rails, and was promised in return the use of enough laid 
to sow a schepel of flaxseed, Cresson to receive of the flax every 
fourth sheaf. Jean Baptiste de Poictier, Sieur Dubuisson, was 
present and heard the bargain. But before De Vaux was ready 
to put in his seed Jan Hendricks Brevoort leased and planted 
Cresson's land on Jochem Pieters, leaving to De Vaux only a 
small corner, where it was sandy and unfit for his purpose. De 
Vaux then demanded of Cresson the use of his lot on Van Keu- 
len's Hook;but the latter objecting, De Vaux on September 
6th appealed to the magistrates. On a hearing it was agreed to 
"hold the case in advice till the coming of Jean Baptiste Bison." 
On the date first named it again came up, when Cresson pre- 
sented Debuisson's written declaration. The Court now de- 
cided that Cresson "restore to the plaintiff the 250 rails which 
he has wrongfully taken from him; and as the plaintiff has 
failed to perform his part of the contract, that he be condemned 
in the costs hereby incurred." De Vaux removed soon after to 
New Jersey, and with his wife, Marie See, joined the church 
at Bergen, April 5, 1679. His descendants, under the name of 
De Vouw, or De Voe, were long to be found at Hackensack and 
Tarrytown.* 

• Nicholas de Vaux had a daughter, Esther, born at Harlem, who. in 1698, married 
Ulderrick Brower, of Hackensack, whither De Vaux had removed, and where, in 
1706, he married a second wife, Mar^ret Tans, widow of Jacques Button. He died 
prior to 1717, when his widow married Hendrick Cammega, whose first wife was 
Anna M. Verveclen. De Vaux had other daughters, Susanna, born 1680, who married 
Thomas Brickers and Jacobus Van Gelder; Mary, who married Jacob Buys, of Bergen, 
sold Rachel, who married Abraham Martelingh; also, by his second wife, another 



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348 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

The French refugees were gradually leaving, drawn princi- 
pally to Bergen County, N. J., Staten Island, and up the Hud- 
son, where they found other French families, and land more 
abundant, and to be had at a trifling cost. Gerard Magister 
was of the number that left. He had lately drawn one of the 
New Lots, and at the same time, by deed of August 9, 1677, 
bought from Joost Van Oblinus, for 400 gl. in grain, the erf, 
house, and barn lately owned by and yet in the occupancy of 
David Demarest, Jr. On December 26th ensuing, he and his 
wife, Madeleine TAdmiral, made a joint will before the secre- 
tary, Magistrate Tourneur, and Frederick de Vaux, after the 
form usual with the French refugees. All this looked to a fixed 
residence ; but within, two years Magister left the town. He 
sold his lot Xo. 7, March 22, 1679, to Jan Delamater, but no 
sale of his dwelling-house is to be found.** 

Again came up the matter of the town finances, and promi- 
nently that of the vorleser's salary. The record of February 
7, 1678, runs: "Is proposed and resolved that the accounts of 
this Town, as well the debts as credits, revised on the date of 
19th February, 1677, shall with the first opportunity be taken 
up and disposed of; and the Secretary is authorized henceforth 
to keep a separate register thereof.'* From the register so begun 
and yet preserved have been culled many interesting items relat- 
ing to the settlers. 

On the same date we also read: 

Is further resolved and concluded that the magistrates shall go agout 
among the common inhabitants and see how much each is willing to 
contribute yearly to the maintenance and salary of the Voorleser, be- 
ginning the 23d October of the previous year, 1677, and following. The 
Voorleser must have yearly for salary, according to the agreement entered 
into the 23d October, 1670, the sum of 400 guilders ; the magistrates remain 
held to furnish the money. 

daughter, Ksthcr, born 171 1, his first, so named, Mrs. Brewer, having just died. His 
son, Abraham do Vaux, or dc Vouw, joined the Ilackensack church in 1694, but re- 
moved to Tarrytown, to which place his mother's kinfolks, the Sec family, had gone. 
find where he and wife Mary appear as churchmembers. I believe he had sons Nicholas 
and Johannes. He served as deacon in 1708, and as elder in 1724; offices afterward 
held by said Johannes de Vouw. 

*• Jean le Roy had owned this domicile as early as 1670, and apparently it was 
the north garden No. 2, next Tourneur; on which account I suppose Xe Roy was led 
to get it. This garden was in Simon Dc Ruinc's allotment, bought in 1666, by Capt. 
Delaval ; and when Le Roy sold Delavall his lands bought of Presto, he probably 
took this garden in part payment, and built on it. Le Roy sold out entire in 1674. 
The owners after him were Cornier, Richard, Demarest, Jr., Richard again, and 
Oblinus. The latter agreed to sell Magister the hous^, barn and houselot, for 400 
guilders, to run on interest, if he could not meet the payment. The rate lists indicate 
that Oblinus took it back. His sons John and Hendnck evidently held this garden 
No. 2, then an erf, in 1706 and 1708, and John alone in 171 2; though Marcus Tiebaut 
at this date had some interest in it, and was in possession in 17 13. I think he had 
bargained for it, but died before the sale was closed; and that then. 17 14, his stepson, 
John Lewis bought it. This is probably its history, but, resting in part on other proof 
than deeds of transfer, it cannot be given with absolute assurance. (See note on John 
Lewis for more about this lot, which later formed a part of the William Brady plot). 



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HISTORY OF HARLEM. 349 

List of Ae Free-will Contributions for the support and salary of the 
Voorleser of this Town, etc., and the following are to contribute yearly : 

Jan Nagel f. i8 

Daniel Tourneur " 15 

Joost van Oblinus " 40 

Jan Dyckman " 12 

Laurens Jansen " 10 

Resalvert Waldron " 30 

Conradus Hendricks " 10 

Jan Hendricks " 6 

Maria Vermelje " 8 

Johannes Vermelje " 10 

Glaude le Maistre " 12 

Michiel Bastiaensen " 6 

Hendrick Kiers " 6 

Arent Hermens " 8 

Jan Hendricks van Brevoort " 10 

Jan le Maistre " 6 

Adolph Meyer " 14 

Comelis Jansen • " 12 

Gerard Magister " 6 

Jan Louw " 20 

Jan le Maistre ^ 
Arent Hermens J 

rent of the land "65 

Jan Nagel, rent of the meadow " 18 

f.342 

Upon the 4th April, "The Constable was authorized and 
empowered to collect and receive the debts which to this town 
must be paid, according to the assessment of the 19th February, 
1677, as from Jan Louwe, David Des Marest, Glaude le Maistre, 
and others." 

Demarest settled up in full with the town on April 26th, 
his son David had done so on the 23d, and soon after this the 
whole family, with Jacques Laroe, removed to their new home 
on the Herring River, now the Hackensack. All the adults, being 
eight persons, united "by certificates" (in part from the French 
church), with the church at Bergen, on October 7th succeeding.* 

• Demarest's "two miles square" purchase from Mendawasey and other Tappan 
chiefs was commonly called "The French Patent." From what is now New Bridge, 
on the Hackensack, two miles above Hackensack village, it reached up the river to a 
little beyond Old Bridge; and from the river eastward to the "North River Mountains," 
or present line of the Northern Railroad. On the part lying above the Old Bridge, 
upon the bank of the Hackensack, in a charming situation, Demarest built his dwelling 
and a grist mill, with a dam across the stream. He called his home Essa, perhaps 
from the old family seat in Picardy, Oise Mont, or Oise, which the Latin authors called 
CEsia or ^sia. Afterward buying lands on the west side of the river, he put up there 
a saw mill, and also a more capacious grist mill. This last was called the Great Mill, 
and its older neighbor opposite, the Little MiH^ Demarest's plan of forming a French 
colony on his tract, failed; though he drew to him several families, as those of Daniel 
du Voor, Jean Durie, Jacques Laroe and Nicholas de Vaux, and they together organ- 
ized what was called ^'The French Church of Kinkachemeck," and built a house of 
worship in Demarest's land near the dwelling, upon a knoll just below the Old Bridge, 
where still remains "The French Buryinff Ground." In midsummer, 1693, David 
Demarest, the patriarch, died and his remams, with those of his wife, who died first, 
no doubt rest in the old burying ground aforesaid. His last will, made August 26. 



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350 HISTORY OF HARLEM. 

Again on the 8th of May resolutions were passed as follows : 

Whereas it is found that the yoorleser, from the contributions, for 
this current year since the 23d October past, with the rent of the town's 
lot and meadow reckoned in, will not draw for his salary more than 342 
guilders, instead of 400 which he must have yearly; the said Voorleser 
has, to the constable and magistrates assented, that (because of other 
burdens) he shall have for this current year till 23d October first com- 
ing, no more than the said 342 guilders; and the constable and magis- 
trates shall then make a new and reliable assessment for the full sum of 
400 guilders yearly as salary, according to the first accord of 23d October, 
1670. The whole aforewritten provision is by the Voorleser agreed to, 
declaring therewith to be content. 

Is also taken into consideration about the rebuilding of the town's 
house for the Voorleser; it is found good to take the same in hand by 
the first opportunity, as the most necessary work to be done by the 
Inhabitants, and they having leisure to properly hew and make ready 
the timber for the same; thereupon called in Gerard Magister, a wheel- 
wright, to contract with him for the carpenter work, according to a plan 
to him submitted. Demands 200 guilders ; whereupon it was not ordered, 
but the magistrates said that they would think upon it and inform him 
when they should be able to have him do it ; thereupon separated. 

Circumstances led to a change of plan. Mrs. Montagne had 
ended her widowhood, but within a short three years had lost 
her second husband, Mr. Isaac Kip ; the magistrates being called 
upon July 25, 1678, to inventory the household goods **which 

1689, gave his estate equally to his three sons. David junior had meanwhile died, and 
his widow married John Durie. On August 13, 1603, some days after the death of 
David, the elder, a division was made, in presence 01 Kev. Pierre Pciret, by Tohn and 
Samuel Demarest, and by John Durie for the children of David, junior; the home- 
stead and Little Mill falling to John, the lands and mills west of the river to Samuel, 
and heirs of David. After losing its chief patron, the French church declined; Rev. 
Pierre Daille, Peiret's colleague who usually preached here, removing to Boston, his 
visits ceased, and the Demarests and others took letters to the Dutch church at Hack- 
ensack. Demarest's cherished creations, the church, the mills, have alike disappeared; 
only a few piles, the remains of the mill-dam, show their heads at very low water. 

John Demarest was born, 1645, on the Island of Walcheren, Zecland; married, 
1668, Jacomina, daughter of Simon De Kuine, a«ain in 1692, Marritie Van NVinckel, 
widow of Peter Slot, and, in 1702, Magdalena Laurens, widow of Jean Tullier. In 
1680, he was of the committee of safety which commissioned Governor Leis