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itized by Google 









by Google 


by Google 

/ THE 










Digitized by LjOOQIC 

KD c^Li V^v^r 

' UBRAR> ' 

Copyright, 1901, 

Printed in the United States of America 

d by Google 

Digitized fc 



Introduction 1-6 

Lessons I to LXXXV 0-825 

Some Practical Idioms 825-880 

Modelos de Cartas Mercantiles 881-887 

Cartas Pamiliares 887-841 

Elements • . 845 

Preliminary Remarks. . • 845 

The Article . . 845-847 

The Noun 847-854 

Gender 847-850 

Formation of the Feminine of Nouns designating Persons 851-852 
Number 852-854 

The Adjective 854-865 

Number 854-355 

Gender 855-856 

Apocopation of Adjectives 856-857 

The Position of the Adjective 857-858 

Comparison of Adjectives 858-862 

Numerals 862-864 

Fractionate 364 

Multiplicatives 365 

The Pronoun 865-883 

The Personal Pronoun 865-369 

Pleonastic Use of Pronouns 869-870 

The Reflexive Pronoun 870-871 

The Possessive Pronoun 872-874 

The Demonstrative Pronoun 874r-875 

The Relative Pronoun 875-877 

The Interrogative Pronoun 877-878 

The Indefinite Pronoun 878-888 

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Thb Vbeb 383-429 

Conjugation of the Auxiliaries hahtr, tener^ aer^ Mtar . 888-385 

Peculiar Uses of these Four Verbs 885-887 

The Regular Verbs 387 

Terminations of Active Conjugation 887-388 

The First Conjugation : Paradigm comprar . . . 389-393 
The Second Conjugation : Paradigm vender . . . 392-395 
The Third Conjugation : Paradigm vivir .... 895-398 

Inflectional Variations 899-402 

Passive Conjugation ....•••• 403-407 
^ Reflexive Conjugation .,.•••. 407-411 

. Impersonal Verbs • , 411-418 

^ Irregular Verbs 418 

Four Stems of Irregular Verbs 413-414 

Irregular Imperatives 415 

Preterits Irregularly Accented 415 

Irregular Future Stems 415 

Regular Irregular Verbs ....... 416 

First Class 416-417 

Second Class 417-418 

Third Class 418 

Fourth Class 419 

Fifth Class 419-420 

Sixth aass 421-422 

Seventh Class 422 

Conjugation of very Irregular Verbs. . . . .422-429 

The Advbkb 429-436 

Peculiar Use of Certain Adverbs 438-435 

Comparison of Adverbs 435-436 

The Preposition 487-439 

The Conjunction 440-441 

The Intebjection 441 

Alphabetical Repbrbncb List of all thb IiuiBeuLAB 

Vebbs 443 

Indbx • • • 455 


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The Alphabet 

The Spanish alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters. 

Ch, II, and rVy though double in form, are single letters, 
and may not be separated. W is found in foreign words 
only, and is pronounced as in English. 

The student should not at first attempt to learn the 
Spanish names of the letters, but merely their sounds, or 
orthographical force. 

This is the alphabet : 















































































LL, 11, iV-ycvy, Z, z, thay'-tah. 

The vowels have but one quality of sound. 

A ordinarily has the sound of a. in land\ as, animal, 
aflo ; but when it is followed by two consonants in the same 
word, or stands at the end of a word and is unaccented, it 
has a slightly broader sound, as a in father ; as, martea^ 


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carta, botica. Care miist be taken to maintain the vocal 
organs in such a position as not to permit the slightest varia- 
tion in similarly placed a^s. 

By when correctly sounded, is the same as in English ; but 
it is frequently given the sound of English v, caused by the 
failure to place the lips closely together during utterance. 
This should be avoided. 

C is hard, like k, when followed by a, o, li, or any conso- 
nant ; as, cahallo^ coronely cura, criatura ; before e and i it 
has the sound of th in think ; as, cera, gracia. A very com- 
mon fault in the pronunciation of soft c (i. e., c before e and 
i) and z obtains extensively outside of Spain, they being 
given the sound of 8 in us. 

When c occurs before the diphthongs wa, ue, or ttt, it has 
the sound of g ; as, ctmndo, cueva, cuidado. 

Ch, a single consonant, which may not be divided, has 
the sound of ch in chess; as, chico, muchucho. In old 
Spanish it had the sound of k in certain words taken from 
Hebrew or Greek, in which case the succeeding vowel was 
marked with the circumflex accent, as archd'ngel, chi'mica ; 
this custom has been abandoned, and such words are now 
written with a c before a, o, and ti, and qu before e and i ; 
as, arcdngely quimica. 

D has two sounds : between two vowels and at the end 
of words, it has the sound of th in that ; as, ido, amad ; but 
care must be had not to give this d the sound of th in thick. 
In all other cases d has the same sound as in English ; as, 
dar, divino, Andres, 

E ordinarily has the sound of e in they ; as, era, pero ; 
but in a closed syllable — that is, one which terminates in a 
consonant— it has the sound of e in rest ; as, eZ, es, sed. An 
exception to this is found in certain words of more than one 
syllable which end in s or z, preceded by an accented 6, as 
ingUs, Andr4s, where the e has the sound of e in they, even 
though it occurs in a closed syllable. 

F has the sound of the English/, is invariable, and is 
now used to replace ph ; as, fildsofo, instead of phildsopho. 

O has two distinct sounds : before a, o, w, or another con- 
sonant, it has the simple, easy sound of ^ in good, get ; as, 

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gato, gota, gusano, grito, grupa ; before e and » it is a gut- 
tural, having no equivalent in English, but most nearly ap- 
proached by the strongly aspirated h, as in such words as 
hot, holy, yet this only approximates the sound ; as, gente, 

H is always silent ; as, hace, Habana ; which are pro- 
nounced exactly as if no /i were present It is supposed to 
be preserved as a sign to indicate the origin of words, yet it 
is even now omitted from many words in which it was for- 
merly used ; as, teatro, Criato, It is always written before 
words beginning with the sounds ue and m, and, with three 
exceptions (iiardnido, uarano, ualita), before ua. 

I is invariable in sound, and is the same as i in machine ; 
as, alii, sino, 

J is always a guttural, and has the same sound as the 
Spanish g before e and i. (See letter G.) 

K is placed in the Spanish alphabet, though it is prop- 
erly not a Spanish letter, since it occurs in foreign words 
only. It has the same sound as in English ; as, kilogramo. 

L is the same as in English ; as, lana, tuna, ala. 

LL is a single letter, and may never be divided. In the 
conservative circles of Spain it has a liquid sound, similar 
to i^ in brilliant, billiard ; as, caballo, brillante ; but just 
as the soft e and z have changed elsewhere, so the II has 
undergone a change and now very generally has the sound 
of y with a slight rough breathing ; as, saltillo, pronounced 

3f and ^are the same as in English ; as, mano, normal. 

St has the sound of ni in the English word opinion; as, 
caH&n, can-ydn\ 

O is invariable in sound, and is like the o in lord — not 
the o of note nor that of top, but a medial between these ; 
as todo, amo. 

P has the sound of p in English. 

Q is now used before ue and ui only, where it has the 
force of A: ; as, queso, quizd ; in all other cases it has been 
replaced by c ; as, cvanto, cuando. 

B between two vowels has the same sound as the Eng- 
lish r save that it is softer. It can be acquired only by 

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close attention ; as, pero. At the beginning or end of a 
word, and when it occurs as the initial letter of the second 
section of a compound word, or when it follows another 
consonant, it must be trilled. This is done by forcing the 
breath through the mouth while the tongue is being vibrated 
against the gums and upper teeth ; as, rio^ amar^ Monterey ^ 
fruto, tree, 

RR is a single letter, and must not be divided. It is 
always trilled, as described above ; as, hierro, perro. 

S has the sound of 8 in my and is invariable ; as, aabio, 
mesa. The Spanish 8 never has the English z or sh sound 
which is so common in such words as houses^ pension. 

T is the same as in English. 

U is invariable in sound and is like the u in rule ; as, 
Zttna, duro; it is silent in the syllables gue^ gut, except 
when it has a dieresis ; as verguenza. It is always silent in 
the syllables que and qui ; as, quesOy quien. 

V has the sound of the English v. (Compare B.) 

X at the close of a syllable has the sound of the x in 
tax ; as, exposicidn. At the beginning of a word or syl- 
lable X has the sound of the Spanish j ; as, OcuiMca. (Com- 
pare letter J.) In old Spanish and among the illiterate to- 
day we find 0?, when it comes before a consonant, often 
replaced by 8; as, estranjero for extranjero. This is not 
authorized by the grammar of the Spanish Academy. 

y, when it stands at the beginning of a word or syllable, 
is a consonant and has the sound of the English y in the 
same position; as, Yucatdn, yegua; it is a vowel when it 
stands alone, and when it takes the place of i at the end of 
words in the combinations at, 6t, oi, ui ; as, verdegay, rey, 
8oy, muy. In old Spanish such words commonly ended 
in i. 

Y was formerly used as a vowel at the beginning of cer- 
tain words, and especially in script ; as, ygleeia, Yrapuato ; 
but in such cases the y has given pla^ to t; as, iglesia^ 

Z has the sound of the Spanish soft c, that is, c before e 
or t; in fact, it is the same letter; and in modem orthog- 
raphy takes the place of soft c before a^ o^u and certain 

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consonants. Like the soft c it has undergone a change of 
sound in many countries and localities.' In correct Castil- 
lian it has the sound of th in thistle ; this is often changed 
to that of 8 in last ; as, corazdn, hizo. Z should never be 
given the sound of the English z^ nor that of the English 8 
in has. 

The student should note that there are no silent letters 
except h in the Spanish language. 

The vowels, the sound of which must always be brought 
out with accuracy and precision, are as follows : 

a, e, i\ o, u, and y (in certain positions). (See letter Y 


Only such syllables are given here as might give rise to 
uncertainty in spelling or pronunciation. 






























































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as in 

You gare. 





There is. 










You see. 



































You are. 





I go. 




, frah'-gwah. 
























as in 

preciats, prai-thi-ah'-eeas. 



yaciUsy vah-tM-ai'-eesa, 



santigt<(lts, san-tS-gwah'-eesa, 





averigfi^ts, ahrvcn-ri-gwai'-eeas. 



huey, lnoai''i. 

Double Letters 

C, e, i, and n are the only letters that may be doubled in 
simple words. It should be remembered that II and rr are 
not double letters, though double in form. 


Accuracy in pronunciation depends much on the method 
followed in the division of words into syllables, and on 
precision of vocal utterance. Let the following rules be 
observed ; 


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J. Nearly all syllables begin with a consonant, and words 
should be so divided, both in speech and writing, as to con- 
form to this rule ; as, 8e'fi(yr^ pa-tio, 

2. Chy lly and rr, as well as all diphthongs and triph- 
thongs, must never be divided in writing. 

3. Special effort should be made to place the stress sharp- 
ly on the accented syllable, and to sever the different syl- 
lables, particularly when a preceding syllable closes, and 
the following one begins with a consonant; as men-te, 

Punctuation and Capitals 

Spanish is not so lavish in its use of either punctuation 
marks or capitals as English. The marks of punctuation 
are the same as in English, with the addition of the inverted 
signs of interrogation and exclamation, which are placed at 
the beginning of interrogatory and exclamatory sentences, 
phrases, and words ; asiEa usted rico f Are you rich ? and 
/ Qu4 noche tan obscura ! What a dark night ! 

Proper nouns begin with capitals, but proper adjectives 
such as el rtiao, the Russian, do not. The names of the 
months and the names of the days of the week begin with 
small letters. 


The following are the rules for accent : 

1. A word which ends with a vowel is accented on the 
syllable next to the last ; as, mano, hand. 

2. A word which ends with a consonant is accented on 
the last syllable ; as, amar^ to love, animal, animal. 

3. When the accent falls elsewhere than as indicated 
above, the syllable so accented must have a graphic (writ- 
ten) accent; as,' alii, there; huerfano, orphan (a departure 
from Rule 1) ; miercoles, Wednesday (a departure from 
Rule 2). 

4. When n or « stands at the end of a word, it is treated 
as a vowel ; and any word terminating in either of these 
letters, and accented on any other than the syllable next to 
the last, must have a graphic accent ; so, germen, germ, 
antes, before, have not a written accent ; while coraz&n, 
heart, and. interes, interest, have. 


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6. When id, io^ ua^ uo^ or ie stands at the end of a word 
of more than one syllable, it is treated as a simple vowel 
for purposes of accent, and falls under Rule 1 ; as, hada^ 
toward, continuOj continuous. Note, however, that this is 
not true of ea, eo, oa, or oe, 

6. A word terminating in ia, io^ ua, uo, or ie, and accent- 
ed on the first vowel, has a graphic accent ; as, dia, day, 
envU), I send. 

7. A written accent is placed on one of the vowels of a 
diphthong or triphthong, to indicate that this vowel is ac- 
cented and not another, on which the accent would natu- 
rally fall ; as, oido, heard, pais, country. 

8. A written accent is used to distinguish from each other 
a few words which, though similar in form, have a different 
meaning ; as, mda, more, from fnaa, but ; tii, thou, from tti^ 
thy ; el, the, from 41, he ; and ei, yes, from si, if. 

9. When an adverb, ending in -mente, is formed from an 
adjective which bears a written accent, this accent must be 
preserved in the adverb ; as, prdctico, practical, prdctica- 
mente, practically. The two words caYdcter and rigimen 
are irregularly accented in the plural, as they become 
canicteres and regimenes. 


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FIRST LESSON— Leocion Primera 

The. El (masc. sing.). 

Of or from the, Del (oontr. from de el). 

To or at the. Al (contr. from k el). 

Haye you t \ Tiene usted f 

Tes, Sir, I have. Si, sefior ; yo tengo. 

The hat. El sombrero. 

HaTe you the hat t 4 Tiene usted el sombrero t 

Toa (sing.). Usted. 

TJsUd^ you, contracted from imeatra mereed, your honor, is the 
usual pronoun of the second person, serving as a term of address in 
direct discourse, though in reality it is a third person and always 
takes the third person of the verb. This is easy to comprehend 
when the original meaning is kept in mind ; as, Usted habla mucho. 
Tour honor speaks much, where the third person of the verb is used 
to agree with honor ; nevertheless the modem idea of this word is 
simply you. It is the commonest modem term of address between 
social equals in both speech and literature. At present it is used 
invariably, except in the following cases: in the family circle, 
among intimate friends, in the address of the master to the menial 
servant, and usually in poetry, where td, for the singular, and vos- 
otro8, for the plural, are used. Tu and vos are also used in address- 
ing the Deity. Vosoiros is the form employed by the public speaker 
in addressing his hearers as a mass, or i{b when he would single out 
and apostrophize one of them. 

Vos was formerly current among all classes of society as a term 
of individual address; this is now limited to persons of exalted 



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Corporations and those of high title are often addressed as iM<a«, 
your lordships, as also in speaking to those of elevated title, as u^ck. 

When one is in doubt as to what form to use in conversation, 
let him adopt usted^ as this is always appropriate and can not give 

In translating ancient history into Spanish vsted must be avoided, 
since it is a comparatively modem word. You in such cases must 
be rendered by tit, voaotroa, voSy vuestra mereed, etc. 

Uated, which will be written in full in the first few lessons of 
this method, is commonly abbreviated thus : F., Vd.y Ud, for the 
singular, and Yds. and Uda. for the plural. 


The bread. 

The cane. 

The soap. 

The sugar. 

The paper. 
Have you the paper f 
Yes, Sir, I have the paper. 
Have you my hat f 
Yes, I have your hat. 


El pan. 


El jab6n. 

El azficar. 

El papeL 
iTiene usted el papelt 
SI, sefior, yo tengo el papeL 
I Tiene usted mi sombrero f 
SI, yo tengo su sombrero de usted. 

Mi (masc. and fem.). 


Su de usted ) su is used with either masculine 
El de usted ) or feminine nouns. 

Have you your canef 
I have my cane. 
Have you my paper! 
I have your paper. 

What hat have yout 

What or Which! 
Which bread have yout 
I have my bread. 
Which cane have yout 

I have your cane. 

4 Tiene usted su bast6nt 

Tengo mi bast6n. 

I Tiene usted mi papelt 

Yo tengo su papel de usted, or el 

papel de usted. 
/ Qui sombrero tiene usted t 

4 Qu6 pan tiene usted t 
Yo tengo mi pan. 
iQu^ bast6n tiene usted t 

^ Tengo el bast6n de usted, or 
Tengo su bast6n de usted. 

C0NVERSACI6N— Conversation 

1. i Tiene usted el sombrero ? Tengo mi sombrero. 2. 
i Tiene usted mi pan ? Tengo el pan de usted. 3. 1 Qu6 pan 

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tiene usied ? Tengo su pan de usted. 4. i Tiene usted su 
jabon ? Si, sefLor, tengo mi jabon. 5. i Qu6 azucar tiene 
usted ? Yo tengo el azucar de Iteted. 6. i Tiene usted el 
papel ? Si, senor^ tengo el papel. 7. i Tiene usted su som- 
brero ? Si, senor, tengo mi sombrero. 


1. Have you the hat ? Yes, Sir, I have the hat 2. Have 
you my hat ? I have your hat. 3. Have you the bread ? I 
have the bread. 4. Have you your bread? I have my 
bread. 5. Have you my cane? I have your cane. 6. 
Which cane have you ? I have your cane. 7. Which soap 
have you? Your soap. Sir. 8. Have you my paper? I 
have your paper. 9. Which sugar have you, Sir ? I have 
my sugar, Sir. 

SECOND LESSON— Leccion Segunda 
Have you the paper t 4 Tiene nsted el papel t 

Have you itt 

|Lo tiene usted t 

I have it. 

Lo tengo. 


Lo, (this pronoun usually goes 

before the verb). 

Have you my hat t 

1 Tiene usted mi sombrero! 

Yes, Sir, I have it. 

SI, seflor, yo lo tengo. 

The cloth. 

El pafio. 

The shoe. 

El zapato. 

The dog. 

El perro. 

The horse. 


The leather. 

El cuero. 

Have you my good cloth f | Tiene usted mi buen pafio f 

Good. Bueno becomes buen before a masculine singular noun. 

Bad. Malo " mal ** " " •• 

Pretty. Bonito. , ■ 

Handsome or fine. Hermoso. ^^ - ^ '^ 

Ugly. . Feo. 

Old. Viejo, anciano. 

Have you the pretty dog f | Tiene usted el perro bonito t 

Koii Sir. No, seHor. 


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I have not it. 

Yo no lo tengo. 




No, (when it comes before a 

verb and is not followed by 

a comma). 

I have not 

Yo no tengo. 

Haye you my old hat t 

iTiene usted mi sombrero viejot 

I have not your old hat 

Yo no tengo su sombrero viejo de 


Which paper have yout 

4 QuS papel tiene usted t 

I have the good paper. 

Yo tengo el buen papel. 

Have you my good soap f 

4 Tiene usted mi buen jab6n t 

I have it not 

No lo tengo. 

Have you the paper hatt 

iTiene usted elsombrero de papel t 



Since the Spanish has no possessive case corresponding to the 
English '«, possession, source, material, etc., are indicated by the 
preposition de and a substantive : Oervantes*s works, las obras de 

This is likewise true of those cases where in English a noun is 
used as an adjective, which the Spanish does not permit : A brick 
house, una casa de ladriUo. 

The leather shoe. 

The gun. 

The iron. 
The iron gun. 

The cotton. 

The cap, hood. 
The cotton cap. 
Have you the leather shoe f 

My old iron gun. 
Your pretty cotton cap. 

El zapato de cuero. 
£1 fusil. 
El hierro. 
El fusil de hierro. 
El algod6n. 
El gorro. 
El gorro de algod6n. 
4 Tiene usted el zapato de cue* 

Mi fusil viejo de hierro. 
Su bonito gorro de algodon de 


El bonito gorro de algod6n de 

1. i Tiene usted su zapato viejo ? No, se&or, no lo tengo. 
2. i Que caballo tiene usted ? Tengo el buen caballo de 
usted. 3. i Tiene usted mi gorro ? No lo tengo. 4. i Tiene 

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usted mi feo gorro de algodon ? No, no lo tengo. 5. i Tiene 
usted el buen pano ? Si, lo tengo. 6. i Qu6 pano tiene 
usted ? Yo tengo su bonito pano de usted. 7. i Tiene usted 
mi buen jabon ? No, senor, yo tengo el mal jabon de usted. 
8. i Tiene usted su buen fusil ? Yo no lo tengo. 9. i Que 
fusil tiene usted ? Yo tengo el viejo fusil de hierro. 10. 
i Tiene usted el bonito zapato de cuero ? No, yo no lo 
tengo. 11. I Tiene usted su caballo viejo ? No, no lo tengo. 
12. i Tiene usted mi perro viejo ? No, senor, no tengo el 
perro viejo de usted ; tengo su buen perro. 

1. Have you my fine horse ? Yes, Sir, I have it. 2. 
Have you my pretty leather shoe ? I have it. 3. Which 
shoe have you? I have my ugly leather shoe. 4. Have 
you your bad cap ? Yes, I have it. 5. Which cap have 
you ? I have the paper cap. 6. Have you my fine cloth ? 
No, Sir, I have it not 7. Have you your old soap ? I have 
it not, Sir. 8. Which soap have you ? I have your old 
soap. 9. Have you my old iron gun ? I have it. 10. Have 
you my cloth cap ? Yes, Sir, I have your pretty cloth cap. 
11. Which leather shoe have you ?^ I have the ugly leather 
shoe. 12. Which horse have you ? I have my fine horse. 

THIRD LESSON— Lecci6n Tercera 

Have you anything t | Tiene usted algo f or alguna cosa. 

I have something. Yo tengo algo. 

Anything, something. Alguna cosa, algo./^ 

I have nothing. Yo no tengo nada. 

I have not anything. Yo nada tengo (or no tengo nin- 

guna cosa). 

Nothing, not anything. Nada. 

Unlike English, the Spanish usually takes two negatives, one 
before and one after the verb. When viada is used alone it precedes 
the verb, otherwise it follows : 

I have nothing. Nada tengo {or no tengo nada). 

The nominative personal pronoun is usually omitted, except 
when necessary for the sake of emphasis or clearness, as the form of 
the verb generally indicates the person. 


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The wine. 
The money. 
The gold.- 
The button. 
The gold button. 
The coffee. 
The cheeHse. 
The candlestick. 
The gold candlestick. 
Have you anything good t 

I have nothing good. 

Are you hungry t 
I am hungry. 

I am not hungry. 

Are you thirsty f 

I am not thirsty. 

Are you sleepy t 

I am sleepy. 

Are you ashamed t 

I am not ashamed. 
What haye you t 
What good thing hare youf 

El vino. 


El oro. 


El bot6n de oro. 


El queso. 

El candelero. 

El candelero de oro. 
iTiene usted algo buenof (or de 

bueno, or alguna cosa buena). 
To no tengo nada de bueno {or 

nada de bueno tengo). 
iTiene usted hambref 
Yo tengo hambre (or tengo ham- 

No tengo hambre. 
iTiene usted sedt 
No tengo sed. 
4 Tiene usted suefio t 
Tengo suefio. 
4 Tiene usted Tergtlenza t 
No tengo yergUenza. 
iQu^ tiene usted f 
4QuS tiene usted de buenof 

When a4jectiyes partake of the nature of nouns, as in the cases 
where the word thii%g is used in English in connection with an 
adjective, the proposition de is frequently used before the adjec- 
♦;ive : 

What bad thing have you f |Qu^ tiene usted malof (or de 

I have nothing bad. No tengo nada malo (or de malo). 


1. I Tiene usted el oro viejo ? No lo tengo. 2. i Qu6 
tiene usted f Tengo el dinero. 3. i Tiene usted mi queso 
anejo?(old). Lo tengo. 4. ^ Tiene usted su feo boton de 
hierro ? No, yo no lo tengo. 5. i Tiene usted mi gorro de 
pafio ? No, no lo tengo. 6. i Que tiene usted feo ? Tengo 
el perro feo. 7. i Que tiene usted bonito ? Tengo el bonito 

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gorro de papel. 8. i Tiene usted suefLo ? No, no tengo 
sueno ; tengo sed. 9. % Tiene listed algo bueno ? Si, senor, 
tengo el buen pan de usted. 

1. Have you my good wine ? I have it. 2. Have you 
anything ? Yes, I have something. 3. Have you the gold 
candlestick ? No, I have it not : I have nothing, Sir. 4. 
Have you anything bad ? Yes, Sir, I have something bad : 
I have bad coffee. 5. What have you ? I have the gold 
candlestick. 6. Have you anything handsome? No, Sir, 
I have something ugly. 7. Have you anything old ? I 
have nothing old; I have something pretty. 8. Are you 
hungry ? Yes, I am hungry. 9. Are you ashamed ? No, 
I am sleepy. 

FOURTH LESSON— Leccion Cuarta 

Have you that book! 
I have that book. 
That horse. 
That money. 
That cloth cap. 
That old dog. 
That pretty paper hat 
Have you the bread of the baker f 
Of the tailor. 
Of the neighbor. 
Have you the cloth of the tailor f 
The tailor's cloth. 
The neighbor's cap. 
My tailor's dog. 
That neighbor's horse. 
Have you my neighbor's cap f 

Have you that tailor's cloth f 
Have you the neighbor's f 
niat of, or the one of, or the '«. 

The neighbor's. 


I Tiene usted ese libro t 
Tengo ese libro. 

Ese caballo. 
Ese dinero. 
Ese gorro de pafio. 
Ese perro viejo. 
Ese bonito sombrero de papel. 
I Tiene usted el pan del panaderof 
Del sastre. 
Del vecino. 

I Tiene usted el pafio del sastre f 
El pafio del sastre. 
El sombrero del vecino. 
El perro de mi sastre. 
El caballo de ese vecino. 
I Tiene usted el gorro de mi ve- 
iTiene usted el pafio de ese sastref 
4 Tiene usted el del vecino t 
El del, or el de. 
El del vecino. 
El de mi sastre. 


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That tailor's* El de ese sastre» 

Tour brother's. £1 de su hermano de usted. 

Brother. Hermano. 

The man. El hombre. 

Have you my bread or the baker's! |Tiene usted mi pan b el del 

Or. 6, ifi before words beginning with 

or ho), 
I have your neighbor's. Yo tengo el de su vecino de usted. 

Have you yours or mine! jTiene usted el suyo 6 el miot 

I have mine ; I have not yours. To tengo el mio, no tengo el de 

Mine, or my own. El mio. • 

Tours. El suyo {or el de usted). 

Mio and 8v/yo are used when the possessive pronoun stands 
alone, referring to some noun already mentioned or understood. 

El suyo is used when usted has been expressed in the first part 
of the phrase ; but el de usted must be used when usted has not 
been expressed. 

Are you warm t | Tiene usted calor t 

I am warm. Tengo calor. 

Are you cold t I Tiene usted f no t 

I am not cold. Yo no tengo frio. 

Are you afraid f 4 Tiene usted miedo t 

I am afraid. Tengo miedo. 

That coal. Ese carb6n. 

My friend. Mi abiigo. 

The man's. El del hombre. 

Calor^ frio^ miedo, and suefU) are nouns, and can be qualified by 
adjectives only, and not by adverbs. 


1. iQue libro tiene usted? Tengo el del vecino. 2. 
i Tiene usted su pan 6 el del panadero ? No tengo el del 
panadero; tengo el mio. 3. iQue cabaUo tiene usted? 
Tengo el del panadero. 4. i Tiene usted el bonito boton de 
oro de mi hermano ? Nolo tengo. 5. i Tiene usted mi gorro 
de pano 6 el del sastre ? No tengo el de usted ; tengo el del 
sastre. 6. i Que cafe tiene usted ? Tengo el del vecino. 7. 

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iTiene usted el dinero de su amigo ? No lo tengo ; yo tengo 
el mio. 8. i Tiene usted f rio 6 calor ? Tengo calor. 

1. Have you that book ? No, Sir, I have it not. 2. Have 
you my cane or that of my fiiend ? I have your friend's. 

8. Have you the neighbor's horse ? No, I have not the 
neighbor's. 4. Have you your dog or the tailor's ? I have 
my own. 5. Which button have you ? I have my cloth 
button. 6. Have you my brother's horse or mine ? I have 
70ur brother's. 7. Have you your dog or that of the man ? 
I have the man's. 8. Are you afraid of that dog ? No, Sir. 

9. Are you sleepy ? I am not sleepy ; I am hungry. 10. 
Have you your, paper or mine ? I have mine. 11. Which 
hat have you ? I have that man's. 12. Which soap have 
you ? I have your brother's old soap. 13. Have you your 
gold button or mine ? I have not yours. 14. Are you 
afraid of that man ? No, Sir, I am not afraid of that man. 
15. Have you that man's good horse ? No, Sir, I have my 

FIFTH LESSON— Leccion Quinta 

The merchant. El comerciante. 

Of the shoemaker. Del zapatero. 

The boy. El muchacho. 

The pencil. El Upiz. 

The chocolate. El chocolate. 

Have you the merchant's cane or 4 Tiene usted el bast6n del comer- 

your own f ciante 6 el de usted I 

I have neither the merchant's Yo no tengo ni el bast6n del co- 
cane nor mine. merciante ni el mio. 
Neither — ^nor. No — ^ni^^ni. 
I have neither the bread nor the Yo no tengo ni el pan ni el 
cheese. queso (or ni el pan ni el queso 

When no is nsed, it stands before the verb ; but when it is not 
used, ni — ni must be placed before the nouns, and then the verb is 
placed last. 

Are you hungry or thirsty I 4 Tiene usted hambre 6 sed t 

I am neither hungry nor thirsty. No tengo ni hambre ni sed. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC ■ 


Are you warm or cold f | Tiene usted calor 6 f rio t 

I am neither warm nor cold. Ni calor ni f rio tengo. 

Have you the iron or the gold 4 Tiene usted el bot6n de hierro 6 

button t el de oro I 
1 have neither the iron nor the Ni el bot6n de hierro ni el de oro 

gold button. tengo. 

Have you yours or mine t | Tiene usted el suyo 6 el mio f 

I have neither yours nor mine. No tengo ni el de usted ni el mio. 

The cork. Bl corcho. 

The corkscrew. El tirabuzto 6 sacacorchos. 

That umbrella. Ese paraguas. 

The Frenchman. £1 franc^. 

Of the carpenter. Del carpintero. 

The wine. El vino. 

The hammer. El martillo. 

What is the matter with youf I ^ , ^. , , ^ 
Wh*thaveyouf fiQu^ tiene usted f 

Nothing is the matter with me, No tengo nada (or nada tengo). 
or I have nothing. 


1. ^ Tiene usted sul4piz 6 el del muchacho? Yo no tengo 
ni el mio ni el del muchacho. 2. i Tiene usted su pano 6 el 
del sastre ? No tengo el del sastre ; yo tengo el mio. 3. 
i Tiene usted el boton de hierro 6 el de oro ? No tengo ni el 
boton de hierro ni el de oro. 4. i Que martillo tiene usted ? 
Tengo el martillo de hierro. 5. i Tiene usted el sombrero 6 
el gorro ? No tengo ni el sombrero ni el gorro. 6. i Tiene 
usted mi gorro de paiio 6 el de mi hermano ? No tengo ni 
el de usted ni el de su hermano. 7. i (^xxkt libro tiene usted ? 
Tengo el de usted. 8. i Tiene usted algo bueno 6 malo ? No 
tengo nada, ni bueno, ni malo. 


1. Have you my shoe or the shoemaker's ? I have nei- 
ther yours nor the shoemaker's. 2. Which pencil have you ? 
I have that of the merchant. 3. Have you the bread or the 
wine ? I have neither the bread nor the wine. 4. Which 
cork have you ? I have my neighbor's. 6. Have you my 
hammer or the carpenter's ? I have neither yours nor the 

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carpenter's. 6. What have you fine ? I have the French- 
man's fine umbrella. 7. Which gun have you ? I have my 
friend's. 8. Have you the book of the Frenchman or thai 
of the merchant ? I have neither the Frenchman's nor the 
merchant's. 9. What is the matter with you ? I am cold 
and hungry. 10. What has the Frenchman ? He has the 
good corkscrew. 

SIXTH LESSON— Leccion Sexta 

The ox. 
The biscuit. 
Of the captain. 
Of the cook. 
Have If 

You have. 
You have not. 
Am I hungry! 
You are hungry. 
You are not hungry. 
Am I afraid ? 
You are afraid. 
You are not afraid. 
You are right. 
I am right. 
You are wrong. 

I am wrong. 
Am I right or wrong! 
You are neither right nor wrong. 

Are you right or wrong! 

I am neither wrong nor right. 

El buey. 
El bizcocho. 
Del capitdn. 
Del cocinero. 
jTengo yo! 

listed tiene. 
listed no tiene. 
iTengo yo hambre! 
[Isted tiene hambre. 
listed no tiene hambre. 
I Tengo yo miedo! 
Usted tiene miedo. 
listed no tiene miedo. 
Usted tiene raz6n. 
Yo tengo raz6n. 
Usted no tiene raz6n. — Usted 

hace mal. 
Yo no tengo raz6n. — ^Yo hago mal. 
I Tengo yo raz6n, 6 no! 
Usted ni tiene raz6n ni deja de 

I Tiene usted razon, 6 no! 
Ni tengo raz6n ni dejo de tenerla. 

I am wrong is rendered in Spanish by I am not right, or I do ill 
— Yo no tengo raz6n, or Yo hago mal. Are you right or wrong! by 
Are you right, or not! 4 Tiene usted raz6n, 6 no! and, You are 
neither right nor wrong, word for word is, You have neither reason 
nor fail to have it — Usted ni tiene raz6n ni deja de tenerla. 

Have I the nail ! 4 Tengo yo el clavo! 

You have it. Usted lo tiene. 


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You have it not 

Have I anything good f 

Tou have nothing good. 

Have I the carpenter's hammer? 

You have it not 
Have you it! 
I have it. 
I have it not. 

The mutton. 

The knife. 
Have you the fine one f 
Have I the ugly one f 

The fine one. 

The ugly one. 
Which one have you t 
Which one have It 

Which, or which one I 
Am I afraid or ashamed f 
You are neither afraid nor 

Have I my knife or yours? 

You have neither yours nor mine. 

Usted no lo tiene. 
iTengo yo algo (de) buenof 
Usted no tiene nada (de) bueno. 
I Tengo yo el martillo del carpin- 

Usted no lo tiene. 
4 Lo tiene usted f 
Lo tengo. 
No lo tengo. 
El camero. 
El cuchillo. 

I Tiene usted el hermoso t 
El hermoso. 

|Cudl tiene usted f 
|Cudl tengoyof 

I Tengo yo miedo 6 vergtlenzaf 
Usted no tiene ni miedo ni ver- 

4 Tengo yo mi cuchillo 6 el de 

usted f 
Usted no tiene ni el suyo ni el mio 

1. 4 Tiene usted vergiienza? No tengo vergiienza. 2. 
i Tiene usted mi carnero 6 el del cocinero ? No tengo ni el 
de usted ni el del cocinero. 3. i Tengo yo hambre 6 sed ? 
I3'sted no tiene ni hambre ni sed. 4. i Tengo yo algo bueno ? 
Usted no tiene nada bueno ? 5. i Tengo yo el pafio de usted 
6 el del sastre ? Usted no tiene ni el mio ni el del sastre. 6. 
i Tfengo yo razon ? Usted tiene razon. 7. i Tengo yo el buen 
cafe 6 el buen azucar ? Usted no tiene ni el buen cafe ni el 
buen azucar. 8. i Que tengo yo bonito ? Usted tiene el perro 
de mi amigo. 9. i Tengo yo el sombrero viejo ? Si, senor, 
usted lo tiene. 10. i Tengo yo el cuero ? Si, usted lo tiene. 

1. Have you my knife ? Which one ? 
Havd I your biscuit ? You have it not 

The fine one. 2. 
3. Am I afraid ? 

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You are not afraid. 4. Which pencil have I ? You have 
that of the Frenchman. 5. Have I your iron gun ? You 
have it. 6. Am I right or wrong ? You are neither right 
nor wi*ong ; you are afraid. 7. What have I ? You have 
nothing. 8. Which corkscrew have I ? You have the old 
one. 9. Have I the shoemaker's leather shoe ? You have 
not the shoemaker's ; you have the captain's. 10. Has the 
carpenter the iron nail ? He has it 

SEVENTH LESSON— Leccion Septima 

Who! iQui^nl 

Who has the pencil f I Quien tiene el l&piz f 

Who has it f I Qui^n lo tiene ? 

Has the boy it ? I Lo tiene el muchacho f 

He has it not. 'k\ no lo tiene. 

Has he it not f I No lo tiene ^1 ? 

He. :6l 

J&Z is the masculine pronoun of the third person singular, and is 
distinguished from eZ, the definite article, by the written accent 
Has he the hat f 

He has it. . 
I have. 
You have. 
He has. 
Have It 
Have you t 
Has he? 
The chicken. 
The chest, the trunk. 
The bag. 
The waistcoat 
The ship. 
The young man. 

Has the young manf 
Has my friend f 
Has that baker f 

The rice. 
The countryman, the peasant 

The servimt 

I Tiene 61 el sombrero I 

]3l lo tiene. 

Yo tengo. 

Usted tiene. 

£l tiene. 

I Tengo yo I 

I Tiene usted f 

I Tiene 61. 

El polio. 

El cof re, el batil. 

El costal or saco. 

El chaleco. 

El barco. 

El joven or mozo. — Mozo means 

also servant, waiter, boy. 
4 Tiene el mozo t 
I Tiene mi amigo ? 
I Tiene ese panadero t 

El arroz. 
El aldeano, el paisano. 

El criado, 


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Is the peasant hungry f 
He is hungry. 
Is your brother warm t 
Is he ashamed ? 
What has he ? 
What has my friend f 
Has he his shoe f 
Yes, Sir, he has his shoe. 

His bird. 

His foot 

His eye. 
Which book has that man f 
He has his own. 

His or his own. 

Has he his or mine f 

He has neither his nor yours. 

Has he his money ? 
Yes, he has his own. 
Has anybody my money f 

No, Sir, nobody has it. 
Somebody, anybody. 
Some one, any one. 
Nobody, not anybody. 
No one, not any one. 

iTiene hambre el aldeanot 

'kl tiene hambre. 

iTiene calor su hermano de ustedf 

4 Tiene ^1 vergilenza? 

4Qu^ tiene el? 

4 Qu^ tiene mi amigot 

4Qu^ tengo yof 

4 Tiene 61 su zapato ? 

SI, sefior, tiene su zapato. 

Su. (Adjective pronoun.) 
Su pdjaro. 
Su pie. 
Su ojo. 
lQu6 libro tiene ese hombref 
£l tiene el suyo {or el suyo pro- 

El suyo, or el suyo propio. (Ab- 
solute possessive pronoun.) 
4 Tiene 61 el suyo 6 el mio I 
£l no tiene ni el suyo ni el de 

4 Tiene 61 su dinerof 
Si, tiene el suyo. 
4 Tiene alguno {or alguien) mi di- 

No, sefior, ninguno lo tiene. 
I Alguien. 

AlgunOf Alguien, Ninguno, and Nctdie are indefinite pronouns 
which usually represent persons. See Elements. 

Has anybody my bird f 
Somebody has it. 

Nobody has it. 

4 Tiene alguno mi pdjaro ? 
Alguno lo tiene. — Alguien lo 

Ninguno lo tiene. — ^Nadie lo tiene. 


1. 4 Tiene el sed 6 hanabre ? No tiene ni sed ni hambre. 
i Tiene mi barco el capitan ? No lo tiene. 3. 4 Tiene hi 


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miedo ? No tiene miedo. 4. i Tiene 61 mi caballo ? No, 
no lo tiene. 5. i Que tiene el amigo de usted ? Tiene su 
buen dinero. 6. i Quien tiene frio ? Nadie tiene frio. 7. 
I Tiene el mozo mi libro? No lo tiene. 8. i Tiene mi para- 
g^as ? No lo tiene. 9. i Tiene el panadero de usted mi 
pajaro 6 el suyo ? No tiene el de usted ; tiene el suyo. 10. 
I Quien tiene miedo ? £1 mucbacho del sastre tiene miedo. 
11. i Tiene mi dinero el aldeano ? No lo tiene. 12. Que 
tiene f eo ? No tiene nada f eo. 13. i Que pano tiene ? Tiene 
el de mi bennano. 

1. Wbo bas my trunk ? The boy bas it. 2. Wbo bas 
my waistcoat ? The young man bas it 3. Wbo bas tbe 
knife ? Which knife ? Mine. Tbe servant bas it 4. Wbo 
bas tbe countryman's rice ? My servant has it. 5. Wbo 
bas my old shoe ? Tbe shoemaker has it 6. Wbo bas it ? 
Tbe young man has it 7. Has any one my gun ? No one 
bas it 8. Has he tbe hammer or the stick ? He has neither 
tbe hammer nor the stick. 9. Wbo has the peasant's bag ? 
Tbe old baker has it 10. What is the matter with him ? 
Nothing. 11. Has your neighbor anything good ? He bas 
nothing good. 12. Has the merchant my cloth or bis ? He 
bas neither yours nor bis. 13. Has your brother bis wine 
or tbe neighbor's ? He bas neither his nor the neighbor's. 
14. Wbo bas my button ? Your good boy bas it 16. Are 
you afraid or ashamed ? I am neither afraid nor ashamed. 
16. Have you my bread or my cheese ? I have neither your 
bread nor your cheese. 17. Has any one my gold button ? 
No one bas it 

EIGHTH LESSON— Leccion Octava 

The sailor. El marinero. 

His tree. Su kvhoX, 

The mirror. El espejo. 

Tour mattress. Su colch6n de usted, or el col- 

chdn de usted. 

The stranger. El extratijero. 

The foreigner. El extranjero or forastero 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


The garden. El jardin. 

My glove. Mi guante. 

This ox. Este buey. 

This hay. Este heno. 

That friend. Ese amigo. 

That man. Aquel hombre. 

This. Este. 

That. Ese, aqueL 

Este refers to the persons or things nearest to the speaker or 
writer ; ese to the persons or things nearest to the person spok^ or 
written to; and aquel is used to point out persons or things distant, 
both from the speaker or writer and from the person spoken or 
written to. It is also employed when speaking of events, etc., long 
passed ; as, In that day, en aquel dia. 

Have you this or that book f 4 Tiene usted est« libro 6 aqu61 1 

I have this one, I have not that Tengo 6ste ; no tengo aqu61. 

This one. fiste. 

That one. Aqu61. 

One in such cases is not translated ; we say only this or that. 

Have I this one or that one f 4 Tengo yo 6ste 6 aqu61 f 

You have this one, you have not Usted tiene 4ste ; no tiene aqu61. 

that one. 
Has the man this hat or that one f 4 Tiene el hombre este sombrero 6 


But. Sino, pero. 

He has not this one, but that one. ]6l no tiene 6ste, sino aqu61. 
He has this one, but not that one. £l tiene &te, pero no tiene aqu61. 

The billet. El biilete. 

The garret. El desvd.n. 

The granary. El granero. 

The donkey. El burro. 

The com (wheat). El grano, el trigo. 

Have you this billet or that one! 4 Tiene usted este biilete 6 aqu61f 
I have not this one, but that one. No tengo 6ste, pero tengo aqu6L 
I have this one, but not that one. Tengo 6ste, pero no tengo aqu^l. 
Has the neighbor this mirror or 4 Tiene el vecino 6ste espejo 6 

that one! aqu61f 

He has this one, but not that £l tiene ^ste. pero no tiene 
one. aquel. 


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Have you the billet that my j Tiene usted el billete que mi her* 

brother has! manotienef 

I have not the billet which your Yo no tengo el billete que su her- 

brother ha& mano de usted tiene. 

Which, that. Que, (Relative pronoun.) 

Have you the horse which I have! 4 Tiene usted el caballo que yo 

tengo f 

I have the horse which you Tengo el caballo que usted tiene. 


I have not that which you have. Yo no tengo el que usted tiene. 

That which, the one who, or El que. 


Have I the glove which you have! 4 Tengo yo el guante que usted 

tiene f 

You have not the one which I Usted no tiene el que yo tengo. 


That which he has. El que 61 tiene. 

The one which you have. El que usted tiene. 

Que^ which, that, as a relative pronoun does not bear the writ- 
ten accent 

Since the stadent is now familiar with the word usted, it will be 
abbreviated hereafter into F. for the singular and Vda, for the 


1. i Tiene el marinero mi espejo ? No lo tiene. 2. i Tiene 
V. el heno de mi jardin 6 el del de V. ? No tengo el de su 
jardin de V. ni el del mio ; sino el del extranjero. 3. l Que 
guante tiene V. ? Yo tengo el del marinero. 4. i Quien 
tiene mi buen billete ? Este bombre lo tiene. 5. i Quien 
tiene mi guante ? Ese criado lo tiene. 6. i Tiene el paisano 
este buey 6 aquel ? No tiene ni este ni aquel ; pero tiene el 
que su muchacho tiene. 7. i Tengo yo el heno de V. 6 el 
de el ? V. no tiene ni el mio ni el de el ; pero tiene el del 
amigo de V. 8. i Tiene el extranjero mi p&jaro 6 el suyo ? 
Tiene el del capita 9. i Tiene el marinero este pajaro 6 
aquel ? No tiene 6ste, sino aquel. 10. i Tengo este cuchillo 
6 aquel ? V. no tiene ni este ni aquel. 11. i Que caballo 
tiene V. ? Tengo el qufe su hermano de V. tiene. 12. i Qu6 
costal tiene el aldeano ? Tiene el que su muchacho tiene. 

Digitized by 



13. I Quien no tiene razon ? Su amigo de V. no tiene razon. 

14. I Tiene el francos el buen bizcocho ? No lo tiene, pero 
su vecino lo tiene. 


1. Which hay has the stranger? He has that of the 
peasant. 2. Have you the hay of my garden or that of 
yours ? I have neither that of your garden nor that of 
mine, but I have that of the stranger. 3. Which gun has 
the sailor ? He has his own. 4. Have you the com of your 
granary or of mine ? I have neither tiiat of your granary 
nor that of mine, but I have that of my merchant. 5. What 
has your servant ? He has the tree of this garden. 6. Has 
this donkey his hay or the horse^s ? He has neither his nor 
that of the horse. 7. Have you this horse^s hay ? I have 
not his hay, but his corn. 8. Have you the tree of this gar- 
den ? I have it not. 9. Has your servant this sack or that 
one ? He has this one, but not that one. 10. Am I right or 
wrong ? You are neither right nor wrong, but your good 
boy is wrong. 11. Have you the chest which I have ? I 
have not that which you have. 12. Has your friend the 
mirror which you have or that which I have ? He has 
neither that which you have nor that which I have, but he 
has his own. 13. Have you my waistcoat or that of the 
tailor ? I have neither yours nor that of the tailor. 14. Is 
your friend afraid or ashamed ? He is neither afraid nor 
ashamed, but he is sleepy. 15. Has the captain the ship 
which you have or that which I have ? He has neither 
that which you have nor that which I have. 16. Has the 
Frenchman anything good or bad ? He has neither any- 
thing good nor bad, but he has something pretty. 

NINTH LESSON— Leccion Novena 


The. Los. 

Of the, from the. Be lo6. 

To the, at the. A los. 


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Nouns ending in an unaccented vowel form their plural by add- 
ing 8 to the singular ; as, book, libro, books, Ubroa, 

With a few exceptions, nouns ending in an accented vowel, or in 
a consonant, or in y, add ea to make the plural ; as, bashaw, hajd, 
bashaws, hajdeSy captain, cctpHd/n^ captains, capitanea^ law, Uy, laws, 

Those ending in z change it to c and add e8\ as, light, luz, 
lights, luces. 

The book. 


The walking stick. 

The ox. 

The judge. 

El libro. The books. Los libros. 

Bueno. Good books. Buenos libros. 

El bast6n. The walking sticks. Los bastones. 

El buey. The oxen. Los bueyes. 

El juez. The judges. Los jueces. 

Los libros. 

Los libros buenos. 

De los libros. 

Los bastones. 

Los bastones buenos. 

Be los bastones. 

Los vecinos. 

Los vecinos buenos. 

Los amigos. 

Los amigos viejos. 

Los perros bonitos. 

Los sombreros feos. 

Los bosques. 

Los f ranceses. 

El ingl6s. 

Los ingleses. 

The books. 

The good books. 

Of the books. 

The canes. 

The good canes. 

Of the canes. 

The neighbors. 

The good neighbors. 

The friends. 

The old friends. 

The pretty dogs. 

The ugly hats. 

The woods (forest). 

The Frenchmen (the French). 

The Englishman. 

The Englishmen (the English). 

Adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns or pro- 
nouns which they qualify, and form their plural like substantives. 

The place, the places. 
The nail, the nails. 
Have you the books! 
I have the books. 
Who has the hats! 
He has the hats. 

El lugar, los lugares. 
El clavo, los clavos. 
I Tiene V. los libros f 
Yo tengo los libros. 
iQui^n tiene los sombreros f 
£l tiene los sombreros. 


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Have I the birds! 

4 Tengo yo los pajaros f 

Yes, Sir. 

SI, sefior. 

Have you my knives! 

jTiene V. mis cuchillos! 

I have not your knives. 

No tengo sus cuchillos de V. 



Mi. Mis. 

Su de V. Sus de V. 


El de V. Los de V. 

Vuestro. Vuestros. 

His or her. 

Su. Sus. 


Nuestro. Nuestros. 


Su. Sus. 

These adjective pronouns, like true adjectives, agree in gender 
and number with the nouns which they qualify, and not with their 

His or her books. 
Our book, our books. 
The work (labor). 
The works. 
Our gloves. 
Which hats! 

Which ones ! 
These books. 
Those books. 
These or those books. 
Have you these or those books! 

These birds or those. 

Have I these or those birds ! 

The eyes. 

The donkeys. 
Which horses have you ! 
Have you the fine horses of your 
good neighbors ! 

Sus libros. 

Nuestro libro, nuestros libros. 
El trabajo. 
Los trabajos. 
Nuestros guantes. 
Pequeflo (sing,), Pequefios(pZt*r.X 
Grande (sing,), Grandes (plttr.), 
I CuAles sombreros ! 

4 Cudles f 
Estos libros. 

Esos libros, aquellos libros. 

Esos, aquellos. 
Estos libros 6 aquellos. 
iTiene V. estos libros 6 aque- 
Estos pdjaros 6 aquellos. 
I Tengo yo estos pdjaros 6 aqu^ 

Los ojos. 
Los burros. 
4 Qu§ caballos tiene V. ! 
I Tiene V. los caballos hermosos 
de sus buenos vecinos ! 

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Have I his small gloTes f 
You have not his small gloves, 
but you have his large hats. 

Has your brother his iron guns f 

He has not his iron guns. 
Which ones has he f 

Of my gardens. 

Of your pretty Horses. 
The Frenchmen's fine umbrellas. 

Of my woods. 
Of your fine trees. 

Have you the Frenchmen's fine 

I have not their umbrellas, but I 
have their fine canes. 

Have you the trees of my gar- 

I have not the trees of your gar- 

Have you my leather shoes t 

I have not your leather shoes, but 
I have your cloth caps. 

The bread, the loaves. 

4 Tengo yo sus guantes pequefios f 

V. no tiene sus guantes peque- 
fios, pero tiene sus sombreros 

4 Tiene el hermano de V. sus fu- 
siles de hierro f 

No tiene sus fusiles de hierro. 

4 Cudles tiene ^1 f 
De mis jardines. 
De sus bonitos caballos de V. 

Los hermosos paraguas de los 
De mis bosques. 
De los hermosos drboles de V. 

4 Tiene V. los hermosos paraguas 
de los franceses f 

Yo no tengo sus paraguas, pero 
tengo sus hermosos bastones. 

4 Tiene V. los irboles de mis jar- 

Yo no tengo los drboles de sus 
jardines de V. 

4 Tiene V. mis zapatos de cue- 

Yo no tengo sus zapatos de cue- 
ro de v., pero tengo sus gorros 
de paHo. 

El pan, los panes. 


1. I Tiene V. mis guantes ? No, no tengo los guantes de 
V. 2. 4 Que libros tengo yo ? V. tiene los bonitos libros de 
sus aminos. 3. i Tiene su vecino los drboles de sus jardines 
de V. ? No tiene los arboles de mis jardines, pero tiene los 
hermosos bosques de V. 4. 4 Que tiene el marinero ? Tiene 
sus hermosos barcos. 5. Tiene el muchacho del frances mis 
buenos paraguas ? No tiene sus buenos paraguas da V., sino 
sus buenos bastones. 6. i Que colchones tiene el marinero ? 
Tiene los buenos colchones de su capitan. 7. 4 Que tiene el 
muchacho de Y. ? Tiene sus bonitos pdjaros. 8. 4 Tiene 61 

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nuestros clavos 6 nuestros martillos ? No tiene ni nuestros 
clavos ni nuestros martillos; pero tiene nuestros buenos 
panes. 9. i Tiene nuestro amigo nuestros hermosos lapices ? 
No tiene nuestros hermosos lapices. 10. i Tiene el amigo de 
V. los pequenos cuchillos de nuestros comerciantes ? No 
tiene los pequenos cuchillos de ellos, sino sus candeleros de 
oro. 11. i Tiene el su libro de V. 6 el del amigo de V. ? No 
tiene ni el mio ni el de mi amigo ; tiene el suyo. 12. i Tiene 
y. el costal que tiene mi criado ? No tengo el costal que 
tiene el criado de V, 

1. Have you the gloves ? Yes, Sir, I have the gloves. 2. 
Have I your pretty books ? You have not my pretty books. 
3. Who has our fine horses ? Nobody has your fine horses, 
but somebody has your fine oxen. 4. Has yoiu* tailor my 
fine gold buttons ? He has not your fine gold buttons, but 
your fine gold candlestick. 6. Who has the tailor^s good 
waistcoats ? Nobody has his waistcoats, but somebody has 
his gold buttons. 6. What has the captain ? He has his 
good sailors. 7. Which servants has the Englishman ? He 
has the servants of the Frenchman. 8. What has the baker ? 
He has our fine donkeys. 9. Which biscuits has the baker ? 
He has the biscuits of his friends. 10. Which sticks has 
your servant? He has the sticks of his good merchants. 
11. Has the man this or that billet ? He has neither this 
nor that. 12. Which wine has he ? He has that of his mer- 
chants. 13. Is th^ peasant cold or warm ? He is neither 
cold nor warm. 

TENTH LESSON— Leccion Decima 

Those of. Los de. 

Have you my books or those of 4 Tiene V. mis libros 6 los del 

the man. hombre f 

I have not your books ; I have No tengo los libros de V. ; tengo 
those of the man. los del hombre. 

The ones which. Los que. 

Have you the books which I have f 4 Tiene V. los libros que tengo f 
I have the ones which you have. Yo tengo los que V. tiene. 


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Has the Englishman the knives 
which you have, or the ones 
that I have! 

He has neither the ones that you 
have nor the ones that I have. 

Which knives has he f 

He has his own. 

Have you mine f 

No, I have not yours. 

4 Tiene el ingles los cuchillos que 
V. tiene, 6 los que yo tengo t 

No tiene ni los que V. tiene, ni 

los que yo tengo. 
4 Que cuchillos tiene 61 f 
Tiene los suyos. 
I Tiene V. los mios f 
No, no tengo los de V. 



Mine. El mlo. 

(El suyo. 
El de V. 
El vuestro. 
El suyo. 
El nuestro. 
El suyo. 

His, hers (his own, her own). 


Theirs (their own). 

Have you yours or mine f 

I have not yours, I have mine. 

These (plwr, of this one). 
Those (plwr, of that one). 
I have neither these nor those. 
Have I these or those f 
You have these; you have not 

Have I the mirrors of the French 

or those of the English f 
You have neither the former nor 
the latter. 

The former. 
The latter. 
Have you my canes or my guns f 

I have the latter, but I have not 

the former. 
Has the man these or those 

He has these, but not those. 


Los mios. 

Los suyos. 

Los de V. 

Los vuestros. 

Los suyos. 

Los nuestros. 

Los suyos. 
4 Tiene V. los suyos 6 los miost 
No tengo los de V.; tengo los 

&80S, aqu^llos. 
Yo no tengo ni 6stos ni aqu611os. 
4 Tengo yo 6stos 6 aqu^llos f 
V. tiene estos ; no tiene aqu611os. 

4 Tengo yo los espejos de los f ran- 

ceses, 6 los de los inglesesf 
v. no tiene ni aqu^llos, ni estos. 

Aqu61 {sing.), Aquellos (plur,), 
]ftste (sing.), ]3stos (plur,), 
4 Tiene V. mis bastones 6 mis fu- 

Yo tengo ^tos, pero no tengo 

4 Tiene el hombre 4stos 6 aquellos 

Tiene 6sos, pero no aquellos. 

Digitized by 



Have you your guns or mine f iTiene V. sus fusiles 6 los mios f . 

I have neither yours nor mine, Yo no tengo ni los de V. ni los 

but those of our good friends. mios, pero los de nuestros bue- 

nos amigos. 


Augmentative and Diminutive nouns, in Spanish, are those 
which by the addition of a certain termination increase or diminish 
the meaning of their primitives. 

Augmentative nouns are formed by adding (m^ ote, azOy or onazo 
to the masculine nouns, and ona^ ota, aza, or onaza to the feminine ; 
suppressing their last letter, should it be a, e, or o ; as, 

A boy. Un muchacho. A girl. Una muchacha. 

A big boy. Un muchach6n. A big girl. Una muchachona. 

6n and ote, ona and ota are indicative of some quality in the 
nouns to which they are attached ; ctzo^ aza^ onazo, onaza, most 
commonly refer only to size. 

The termination azo frequently signifies the blow or injury 
caused by the object to which it is added ; as. 

Whip. Ldtigo. 

A very large whip. Un lAtigo muy grande. 

A stroke with a whip. Un latigazo. 

The termination azo added to the noun to express a blow, or 
Injury, has no change when it is formed from a noun feminine ; as, 

Hand. Mano. 

A large hand. Manaza. 

A blow or stroke with the hand. Manotada. 

The dimimAtive nouns are formed by adding *7o, illo, ttelo for 
the masculine, and ita, iUa, uela for the feminine, to the noun, 
tirhich drops its last letter if it be a, e, or o ; as, 

A boy. Un muchacho. 

A little boy. Un muchachito. 

A girL Una muchacha. 

A little girl. Una muchachita. 

Ito and ita generally express complacency toward the object, 
and excellency in it ; illo and ilia sometimes signify pity, and some- 
times contempt; ttelo and uela were formerly used in the same 
aense as ito and ita. 


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Most nouns ending in 6m,, in, 6n, ehe, ge, que, re, te, ve, affix dto 
dllo, ztislo, or cita, cilia, zuela, and in such cases they do not drop 
the last letter ; as, 

Lion. Le6n. Pretty little lion. Leoncito. 

Man. Hombre. Fine little man. Hombrecito. 

Woman. Mujer. Dear little woman. Mujercita. 

Nouns ending in z change it into e, and add ecito, ecita, etc. ; as, 
Cross. Cruz. Little cross. Crucecita. 

Fish. Pez. Little fish. Pececito, pececillo. 

Nouns ending in co or ca change this syllable into ^ito, quita ; 


Boat. Barco. Little boat. Barquito. 

Barge. Barca. Little barge. Barquita. 

Nouns ending in go or ga drop the o and add uito, uita, etc. ; as, 

Friend. Amigo. Dear little friend. Amiguito. 

Friend. Amiga. Dear little friend. Amiguita. 

Nouns ending in io, ia generally do not take the termination, 
and express the diminutive by a qualifying adjective ; as, The little 
Claudius, El pequefio Claudio, or El niSo Claudio. Sometimes they 
drop the last two vowels and add the regular termination; as, 
Julia, Julita ; indio, indito. When the letter n precedes the said 
last syllables io, ia, it is generally changed into fl ; as, Antonio, 


1. i Tiene V. los caballos de los espanoles 6 los de lews 
ingleses ? Tengo los de los ingleses ; pero no tengo los de 
los espanoles. 2. i Tiene su hermano los bizcoclios de V. 
6 los mios ? No tiene ni los de V. ni los mios. 3. i Tiene su 
amigo mis libros 6 los de el ? No tiene ni los de V. ni los 
de el, pero tiene los del capitan. 4. i Tiene V. los pajaros 
de los marineros ? Yo no tengo sus pajaros, pero si sus her- 
mosos bastones. 5. i Que papel tiene el hombre ? Tiene el 
nuestro. 6. l Tiene su carpintero de V. nuestros martillos 6 
los de nuestros amigos ? No tiene ni los nuestros, ni los de 
nuestros amigos. 7. l Quien tiene los polios del cocinero ? 
Ninguno tiene sus polios ; pero alguien tiene su carnero. 8. 
h Tengo yo el costal de aquel aldeano ? V. no tiene su costal, 
sino su trigo. 9. i Tiene el nuestros libros ? No tiene los 

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nuestros, sino los que tiene su vecino. 10. i Tiene el miedo f 
No tiene miedo, sino vergiienza. 11. i Tiene V. algo bueno 
6 malo ? No tengo nada bueno ni malo ; pero tengo algo 


1. Have you these or those notes ? I have neither these 
nor those. 2. Have you the chests which I have ? I have 
not those which you have, but those which your brother has. 
3. Which horses has your friend ? He has those which I 
have. 4. Have I our donkeys ? You have not ours, but 
those of our neighbors. 6. Have I my shoes or those of the 
shoemakers ? You have not yours, but theirs (those of the 
shoemakers). 6. Have you our bags or those of the stran- 
gers ? I have not yours, but theirs. 7. Has any one the 
ships of the English ? No one has those of the English, but 
some one has those of the French. 8. Who has my old 
gun? The sailor has it 9. Which umbrellas has the 
Frenchman ? He has those which his friend has. 10. Is 
your friend cold or warm ? He is neither cold nor warm. 
11. Which pencils has he f He has those of his old mer- 
chants. 12. Have you not their fine mutton ? No, Sir, I 
have it not 

ELEVENTH LESSON— Leccion Undecima 

The comb. El peine. 

The glass. El vidrio. 

The glass (tumbler). El vaso. 

Have you my smaU combst i**^'*"* ^- "^'^ f"** chiquitoBt 

( (or pemecitos). 
I have them. Yo los tengo. 

Them. ' Los. 

Lo8 is a pronoun when it is the object of a verb, which it imme* 
diately precedes or follows ; otherwise it is an article. 

Has he my fine glasses! 4 Tiene 61 mis hermosos vases t 

He has them. £l los tiene. 

Have I them f 4 Los tengo y o f 

You have them. V. los tiene. 

You have them not. V. no los tiene. 


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Has the man my pretty combs f 

iTiene el hombre mis bonitos 


He has them not. 

No los tiene. 

Has the boy them f 

4 Los tiene el muchacho t 

The men haye them. 

Los hombres los tienen. 

Haye the men them t 

4 Los tienen los hombres f 



They have them. 

BUos los tienen. 

They have not them. 

Ellos no los tienen. 

Who has them! 

^Qui^n los tiene t 

The Germans. 

Los alemanes. 

The Turks. 

Los turcos. 

The Germans have ther 

iios alemanes los tienen. 

The Italians. 

Los italianos. 

The Spaniards. 

Los espafioles. 

Some and cmy, used in an indefinite sense and followed by a 

noun, are usually not translated : 

Have you any wine f 

iTieneV. vino! 

Tengo vino. 

I have some (wine understood). 

Si, tengo. 

Si, sefior. 

No tengo vino. 

I have not any (wine understood). 

No tengo. 

No, sefior. 

Do you wish to send for winef 

4Quiere V. enviar por vinot 

I wish to send for some (wine 

Yo quiero enviar por vino. 


Si, quiero. 
Si, sefior. 

I do not wish to send for any 

No quiero enviar por vino. 

' (wine understood). 

No quiero. 
No, sefior. 

Some, meaning a littUy is < 

expressed and translated by tm 


I have some (a little). 

Yo tengo un poco. 

Some or any wine. 


Some or any bread. 


Some or any tea. 


Some or any buttons. 


Some or any knives. 


Some or any men. 



by Google 



Haye you any wine f 
I have some wine. 

Has this man any cloth f 
He has some cloth. 
Has he any books f 

He has some books. 

Have you any money f 

I have some money. 

Some, a little. 

Some, any. 
Some, one^. 

4 Tiene V. vino f 

^Yo tengo vino, or 
Tengo un poco. 

4 Tiene pa&o este hombref 

Tiene paflo. 

4 Tiene libros f 
J Tiene libros, or 
\ Tiene algunos libros. 

i Tiene V. dinero f 
j Tengo dinero, or 
\ Tengo \m poco de dinero. 

Tin poco. 

IAlguno. (Algtin, before a masc 
sing, noun.) 

Alguno, Algim, and Algunos are used in a limited sense. 

Has he any paper f 

Have you any good paper f 

Have I any f 

Have you any good (paper) f 

No. Not any. None. 

He has not any paper. 

He has not any good paper. 

He has not any. 
1 have none. 

He has not any of the good kind, 

He has none good. 

Have you any paper f 

I have some. 

I have some good. 

I Tiene algun papel f 
4 Tiene V. algdn buen papel f 
4 Tengo algunof 
4 Tiene V. alguno bueno f 
Ninguno. (Ningun, before a 

masc. sing, noun.) 

"&\ no tiene ningtin papel, or 
Ningun papel tiene. 

(See Lesson III.) 
1^1 no tiene ningun buen papel, or 
Ningun buen papel tiene. 
Ninguno tiene, or 
No tiene ninguno. 
Ninguno tengo {pi. ningunoa 


^No tiene ninguno bueno, or 
No tiene ningunos buenos. 
j Ninguno bueno tiene, or 
\ Ningunos buenos tiene. 
4 Tiene V. algiin papel f 
Tengo alguno (or un poco). 
Tengo alguno bueno. 


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Some old wine. Vino a&ejo. 

Some bad cheese. Queso malo. 

When malo {mal before a masculine singular noun) stands before 
a personal noun it refers to 'character ; when after, it describes a 
bodily condition. 

Any excellent coffee. Caf^ excelente. 

The painter. El pintor. 

The picture. El cuadro. 

The picture (likeness). El retrato. 

The painter has some pictures. El pintor tiene algunos cuadros. 


1. I Tiene Y. los hermosos caballcMS de los ingleses ? No 
I06 tengo. 2. i Que cuchillcMS tiene V. ? Tengo rlcMS de sus 
amigos de V. 3. i Que barcos tienen los alemanes ? Los 
alemanes no tienen barcos. 4. i Tiene el capitan los bonitos 
libros de V. ? No los tiene. 5. i Tienen los turcos nues- 
tros hermosos f usiles ? No los tieucn. 6. l Los tiene el ? 
Si ; los tiene. 7. i Tiene el sastre nuestros chalecos 6 los de 
nuestros amigos ? No tiene ni estos ni aquellos. 8. i Tiene 
V. algunos bosques ? Tengo algunos bosques. 9. i Tienen 
dinero sus amigos de V. ? Tienen dinero. 10. i Tiene pano 
el comerciante ? No tiene pano, pero tiene bonitos zapatos. 
11. i Tiene buenos libros el comerciante? Tiene buenos 
libros. 12. i Tienen ellos pdjaros ? No tienen pdjaros, pero 
tienen cuadros. 13. i Tienen los zapateros algunos buenos 
zapatos ? Ellos no tienen buenos zapatos ; pero tienen ex- 
celente cuero. 14. i Tiene el los cuadros de los franceses 6 
los de los italiaiios ? No tiene ni estos ni aquellos. 


1. Have you my fine glasses ? I have them. 2. Who has 
my small combs ? My boys have them. 3. Have you my 
pretty pictures, or those of my brothers ? I have neither 
yours nor your brothers', but my own. 4. Have the cooks 
them ? They have them. 5. Has the Italian them ? He 
has them. 6. Has the German the pretty umbrellas of the 
Spaniards ? He has them. 7. Who has them ? The Turk 
has them. 8. Which dogs have you ? I have those which 





my neighbors have. 9. Have I any mutton ? You have no 
mutton, but you have some cheese. 10. Have I any soap ? 
You have no soap, but you have some coal. 11. Have you 
any good coffee ? I have no good coffee, but some excellent 
wine. 12. Have the French any good gloves ? They have 
some excellent gloves. 13. Who has the good biscuits of 
the bakers ? The sailors of our captains have them. 14. 
What have the Spaniards ? They have some fine donkeys. 
15. Have your friends any coal ? They have some. 16. Has 
the painter any umbrellas ? He has no umbrellas, but he 
has some beautiful pictures. 17. Have the Eiissians (lo8 
ru808) anything good ? They have something good. 18. 
Who has the peasants^ fine chickens? Your cooks have 

TWELFTH LESSON— Leccion Duodecima 

A or an, or one. 

Of a, an, from a, an. 
To a, an, at a, an. 

A man. 

A book. 

A stick (of wood). 

A walking cane. 

Of a boy. 

Of a good sailor. 

A small knife. 

A large cap. 



Have you any books t 
Yes, Sir, I have one. 
Have you a glass t 
I have no glass. 
I have one. 

Have you a good horse t 
I have a good horse. 

IJn (from uno, which drops 
before a masc. noun). 

De un. 

A un. 
IJn hombre. 
Un libro. 
Un palo. 
Un bast6n. 
De un muchacho. 
De un buen marinero. 

SUn cuchillo pequeflo. 
Un cuchillito. 
Un gorro grande. 
Uno. ^ 

Dos. V Nilmeral adjectives. 
Tres. ) 

I Tiene V. algunos libros t 
Si ; tengo uno. 
iTiene V. un vasol 
No tengo vaso. 
Tengo uno. 

I Tiene V. un buen caballot 
Tengo un buen caballo, 

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Haye you any good horses ? | Tiene V. buenos caballos t 

I haye two good ones. Tengo dos buenos. 

Haye you two good horses ? i Tiene V. dos buenos caballos t 
Yes, Sir, I haye two good ones. Si ; tengo dos buenos. 

Four. Guatro. 

Fiye. Ginco. 

Have you five horses t I Tiene V. oinco caballos t 

I have none, Sir. Ninguno tengo, sefior. 

Have you a small lion t | Tiene V. un leoncito t 

I have one. Tengo uno. 

Have you any good shoes t | Tiene V. zapatos buenos t 

I have some good ones. Tengo algunos buenos. 

I have some bad ones. Tengo algunos malos. 

Has your brother a friend t |Tiene algdn amigo su hermano 


He has a good one. Tiene uno bueno. 

Has he one ? I Tiene uno t 

He has one. Tiene uno. 

He has two good ones. Tiene dos buenos. 

He has two of them. Tiene dos. 

Have you five good dogs I | Tiene V. cinco buenos perrost 
I have three good and two bad Tengo tres buenos y dos malos. 


Who has a pretty umbrella t | Qui^n tiene un bonito paraguas t 

My brother has one. Mi hermano tiene uno. 
The hatter. El sombrerero. 


1. i Tiene V. algun caf6 ? No tengo ninguno. 2. j Tengo 
yo algun buen azucar ? V. no tiene ninguno bueno. 3. 
i Tiene algun dinero el americano ? Tiene alguno. 4. i Quien 
tiene algun buen jabon ? El comerciante lo tiene. 5. i Tiene 
algun jabon ? Si ; lo tiene. 6. i Que cuero tiene el zapa- 
tero ? Tiene al^no excelente. 7. i Tengo yo algunos 
zapatos ? V. tiene algunos zapatos. 8. i Tiene el algunos 
buenos bueyes ? No tiene ningunos buenos. 9. i Tiene 
el capitan algunos buenos marineros ? Tiene algunos 
buenos. 10. i Tiene algun pan ? No tiene ninguno. 11. 
I Tiene martillos ? Tiene algunos. 12. l Tienen los pintores 
hermosos jardines ? Tienen algunos hermosos. 13. l Quien' 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


tiene cinco buenos caballos ? Nuestro vecino tiene seis. 
14. I Tienen los aldeanos estos costales 6 aquellos ? No 
tienen ni estos ni aquellos. 


1. Have you any wine ? I have some. 2. Have you any 
good cloth ? I have no good cloth, but I have some good 
paper. 3. Has he any good cheese ? He has not any. 4. 
Have the English any good wine ? They have no good 
wine, but they have some excellent tea. 5. Has the foreigner 
any woods ? He has some. 6. What hay has the horse ? 
He has some good hay. 7. Who has some nails ? The mer^ 
chant has some. 8. Has your friend any pretty knives ? 
He has some pretty ones. 9. Who has some fine donkeys ? 
The Spaniards have some. 10. Who has some good bis- 
cuits ? The baker of our good neighbor has some. 11. 
Who has some excellent iron nails ? The carpenter has 
some. 12. What is the matter with your brother ? Nothing 
is the matter with him. 13. Is he ashamed ? He is not 
ashamed. 14. Who has some fine pictures ? The Italians 
have some. 15. Has the carpenter good or bad nails ? He 
has some good ones. 16. Has the hatter any hats ? He has 
some good French hats. 17. Have you a pencil ? I have 
one. 18. Has your tailor a good coat ? He has a good one. 

19. Have your friends two fine horses ? They have four. 

20. Have I a friend ? You have a good one. 

THIRTEENTH LESSON— Leccion D^cimatercera 

How much 1 


How many 1 


How much bread haye yout 

iCudnto pan tiene Y.t 

How much money 1 

1 Ou^nto dinero ? 

How many knives t 

iCudntos cuchillost 

How many men 1 

iCudntos hombrest 

How many friends t 




But, no more. 

No (verb) sino. 
1 No (verb) masque. 

Digitized by ^OOgle 



I have but one friend. 

I have but one. 

I have but one good gun. 

I have but one good one. 
The book is not mine, but yours. 
You have but one good one. 
How many horses has your 

brother f 
He has but one. 
He has but two good ones. 

Tengo s61o un amigo. 
Tengo uno solamente. 
No tengo mfe que un buen 

Tengo solamente uno bueno. 
El libro no es mio, sino de V. 
V. no tiene m4s que uno bueno. 
|Gu4ntos caballos tiene su hcr- 

mano de V. I 
No tiene m&s que uno. 
£l tiene solamente dos buenos. 

Mas que, more than, is used with ordinary qualifying adjec- 
tives ; mda de, more than, is used with numerals in affirmative sen- 
tences ; and mda que with numerals in negative sentences. 

A good deal, very much. 
Much bread. 
Many men. 
A good deal of good bread. 
Have you much money ? 
I have a good deal. 
Have you much good wine t 
I have a good deaL 
Too much. 
Too many. 
You have too much wine. 
You have too many books. 

Enough money. 
Knives enough. 

le, \ 
ttle, ) 

A liUle, 

A small room. 
A little wine. 

Some friends. 

Of small quantity < 



Muchisimo. Muchisimos (pi.) 

Mucho pan. 

Muchos hombres. 
Muchisimo pan bueno. 
I Tiene V. mucho dinerot 
Tengo muchisimo. 
i Tiene V. mucho vino bueno t 
Tengo muchisimo. 


V. tiene demasiado vino. 
y. tiene demasiados libros. 

Bastante, bastantes. 
Bastante dinero. 
Bastantes cuchillos. 

Poco, pocos. 

Unos pocos, unos cuantos. 
Un poco (after a verb). 
Un poco de (before a noun). 
Un cuarto pequefio. 
Un poco de vino. 

IUnos pocos amigos. 
Uno3 cuantos amigoa. 


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But little. 
Only a little. 

But few. 

Not much. 

Not many. 
Fou have not much money. 
We have few friends. 

We have. 

Have we I 

We have not. 

'S61o un pooo. 

Solamente un poco. 
Muy poco. 

'S61o pocos. 

Solamente unos cuantos. 
Muy pocos. 

^No mucho. 

No muchos. 

V. no tiene mucho dinero. 
Nosotros tenemos pocos amigos. 

Nosotros tenemos. 
I Tenemos nosotros ? 
Nosotros no tenemos. 

The nominative personal pronoun is always omitted save when 
there is good reason to express it for the sake of emphasis or 

Have we any vinegar? 
We have some. 
We have not any. 

They have but little coun^. 

Have you very much money! 

I have but a little. 

You have but a little. 

He has but a little. 

We have but a little. 

Have you enough wine I 

I have only a little, but enough. 





Bread and meat. 
Have you tea and coffee t 

The hatter. 

The joiner. 

Valor, 6nimo. 
I Tenemos vinagre ? 
Si, tenemos, or tenemos un poco. 
No tenemos, or ninguno tene- 
Tienen muy poco valor. 
I Tiene V. muchisimo dinero t 
Solo tengo un poco. 
V. tiene s61o un poco. 
M. tiene solamente un poco. 
S61o tenemos un poco. 
4 Tiene V. bastante vino f 
S61o tengo un poco; pero tengo 





Pan y came. 
4 Tiene V. te y caf6 1 

El sombrerero. 

£1 ensamblador. 


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thirteenth lesson 43 


1. i Tiene V. ocho buenos baules ? Tengo nuev& 2. 
I Cudntos zapatos tiene el zapatero ? Solo cinco. 3. i Tienen 
los espanoles mucho dinero ? Solo tienen poco. 4. i Qu^ 
tiene el americano ? Tiene mucho azucar. 5. i Tiene mucho 
queso ? Muy poco. 6. i Tiene V. muchos hermanos ? No 
tengo raas que uno. 7. £ Tiene mucho queso el italiano ? 
Tiene muchisimo. 8. i Cu4ntos martillos tiene el carpin- 
tero ? No tiene m4s que uno. 9. i Cuantos bueyes tiene el 
alem4n ? Tiene ocho. 10. i Cu4ntos libros tenemos ? Solo 
tenemos tres bonitos. 11. £ Tiene demasiado cafe nuestro 
amigo? Solo tiene un poco; pero, tiene lo bastante. 12. 
I Tiene el cocinero bastante azucar ? No tiene bastante. 13. 
I Tiene mucho pano el comerciante ? Tiene muchisimo. 14. 

I Cuantos jardines tiene ? No tiene sino dos. 

1. How many friends have you ? I have two good 
friends. 2. Has the captain two good ships ? He has but 
two good ones. 3. Have you much bread ? I have very 
much. 4. Has the foreigner much com ? He has a great 
deal. 6. Has the peasant much rice ? He has not any. 6. 
Have we much money ? We have only a little, but enough. 
7. Has our neighbor much hay ? He has enough. 8. Has 
the painter^s boy any pencils ? He has some. 9. Has the 
cook much mutton ? He has only a little mutton, but he has 
much ham. 10. Who has very many biscuits ? Our sailors 
have very many. 11. Have our boys too many books ? 
They have too many. 12. Have they many gloves ? They 
have none. 13. Have you much soap ? I have only a little. 

II Has the painter many gardens ? He has not many. 15. 
Has the captain any fine horses ? He has some fine ones, 
but his brother has none. 16. What chickens has our cook ? 
He has some pretty chickens. 17. Has the joiner much 
work ? He has not a great deal, but enough. 18. Has the 
Turk my small combs? He has them not 19. Has the 
Frenchman this or that umbrella ? He has neither this nor 


by Google 



FOURTEENTH LESSON— Leccion Decimacuarta 

Some, or a few. 

A few books. 

Have you a few books t 

? have a few. 

You have a few. 
He has a few. 

But a few. 

I have but a few. 

You have but a few books. 
He has but a few farthings. 

I have but a few. 
You have but a few. 
He has but a few. 

A farthing. 
A real, 

A dollar. 






Unos pocos. 

.Unos cuantos. 
> Algunos libros, or unos libros. 

iTiene V. algunos libros I 
j Yo tengo algunos. 
( Tengo unos cuantos. 

V. tiene algunos. 

£l tiene algunos. 

S6\o (verb) algunos. 

Solamente algunos. 

S61o unos cuantos. 

Solamente unos cuantos. 

'S61o tengo algunos, or unos cuan- 

Yo tengo solamente algunos. 

No tengo m&i que algunos. 

y . tiene solamente algunos libros. 

£l tiene solamente algunos cuar- 

No tengo m&s que unos pocos. 

y. no tiene mis que algunos. 

M no tiene m&s que unos cuantoa 

Un cuarto. 
Un real. 

!Un peso. 
Un duro. 



The recU has had a great variety of values; but to-day it is 
usually the eighth part of a peso, or a twentieth part of a duro, a 


Have you another horse ? 
I have another. 
No other horse. 
I have no other horse. 
I have no other. 


I Tiene Y. otro caballo? 
Yo tengo otro. 
Ningiin otro caballo. 
No tengo otro caballo. 
No tengo otro. 


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Some other. 
Any other. 
Any others. 

Have you any other horses? 
I have some others. 

I haye no others. 

The arm. 
The heart. 
The foot 
The writing. 
The Yolume. 

No other. 
Neither the one nor the other. 
Neither the ones nor the others. 

What day of the month is it? 

The first. 

The second. 

The third. 

What day of the month is this? 

The eleventh. 



Algdn otro. 
. Algunos otros. 
J I Tiene V. otros caballos ? 
( 4 Tiene V. algunos otros caballos ! 
J Yo tengo otros. 
I Yo tengo algunos otros. 

^Yo no tengo otros. 
No tengo ningunos otros. 
£1 brazo. 
El coraz6n. 
El pie. 
El esorito. 

El tomo, el volumen. 
J No (verb) otro. 
( No (verb) ningtin otro. 

^Ni el uno ni el otro. 
Ni uno ni otro. 
^Ni los unos ni los otros. 
Ni unos ni otros. 
^lQue dia del mes tenemos? 
I Que dIa es hoy ? 
El primero. 
El dos. 

4 L cu&ntos estamos ? 
k once. 

Except the first day of the month, all the other days are ex- 
pressed by a cardinal number preceded by the article. 

Which volume have you ? 4 Qu6 tomo tiene V. ? 
I have the fourth. Tengo el cuarto. 

The first. 
The second. 
The third. 


^E1 primero. ) 
El primer.* ) 
El segundo. 
J El tercero. ( 
I El tercer.' j 


Los primeros. 
Los segundos. 
Los terceros. 

1 Brimero and tercero lose the before a masculine noun. 

Digitized by ^OOQlC 



The fourth. 
The fifth. 
The sixth. 
The seventh. 
The eighth. 

The ninth. 

The tenth. 

The eleventh. 

The twentieth. 

The thirtieth. 
&ave you the first or second 

Which volumes have yout 
I have the first two. 

The twelfth. 

The thirteenth. 

The American. 

The Russian. 


El cuarto. 
El quinto. 
El sexto. 
El siptimo. 
El octavo. 

I El noveno. 
£1 nono. 
El d^imo. 
El und^cimo. 
£1 vig^imo. 
El trig^simo 


Los cuartof. 
Los quintos. 
Los sextos. 
Los s^ptimos. 
Los octavos. 
Los novenos. 
Los nonos. 
Los dicimos. 
Los und^cimos. 
Los vig^imos. 
Los trig^simos. 

4 Tiene V. el primero 6 el segundo 

libro I 
I Qu6 tomos tiene Y.f 
Yo tengo los dos primeros. 
El duod^imo. 
El d^cimoteroero. 

El americano, (pL) los americanos. 
El ruso, {ph) los rusos. 

Proper adjectives such as these begin with small letters in 


1. i Cuantos polios tiene nuestro cocinero ? Tiene seis. 2. 
I Tenemos los caballos de los franceses 6 los de los alemanes ? 
No tenemos ni los tinos ni los otros. 3. i Quien tiene nues- 
tros espejos ? Los italianos los tienen. 4. i Tiene V. muchos 
lapices? Solo tengo unos cuantos. 6. ^ Tienen Yds. algunos 
cuartos ? Tenemos unos pocos. 6. h Que tienen los alemanes ? 
Tienen muchos duros (pesos, dollars). 7. l Tiene V. mucho 
cafe ? Tengo un poco, pero bastante. 8. i Tienen papel los 
rusos? Tienen muy poco papel, pero mucho hierro. 9. 
I No tiene nuestro vecino otro caballo ? No tiene otro. 10. 
I Cuantos pdjaros m4s tiene ? Tiene otros seis. 11. i Tiene 
Y. el segundo tomo ? Lo tengo. 12. i Que tomo tiene su 
amigo de Y. ? Tiene el septimo. 13. i Tienen ellos nuestro 
oro ? No lo tienen. 14. i Tiene Y. otro bastdn ? Tengp 



by Google 


L Have you many knives ? I have a few. 2. Has your 
boy a few farthings ? He has a few. 3. How many reales 
has the Spaniard ? He has not many, he has only five. 4. 
Have the Italians many horses ? They have not many 
horses, but a great many donkeys. 5. Have we the umbrel- 
las of the Spaniards ? We have them not, but the Ameri- 
cans have them. 6. Has your servant many farthings ? He 
has no farthings, but reales enough. 7. Who has very many 
dollars ? The Germans have a great many. 8. Have I no 
other gun ? You have another. 9. Have the shoemakers 
no other shoes ? They have no othera 10. How many arms 
has this man ? He has only one, the other is of cork. 11. 
Has your friend no other biinls ? He has some others. 12. 
Which volume have you ? I have the first. 13. Have we 
the fifth or sixth volume ? We have the fifth, but we have 
not the sixth volume. 14 Who has our dollars ? The Rus- 
sians have them. 15. Have you the nails of the carpenters 
or those of the joiners ? I have neither those of the carpen- 
ters nor those of the joiners, but those of my merchants. 16. 
Have you another walking cane ? I have another. 17. Has 
your boy another hat ? He has another. 

FIFTEENTH LESSON— Leccion Decunaquinta 

Both. Umbos 

I Uno y otro. 

Neither the one nor the other. Ni el uno ni el otro. 

Have you the first or the second |Tiene Y. el primero 6 el segundo 

Yolurae of my dictionary! tomo de mi diccionariot 

I have both. Tengo ambos, or los dos. 

Have you my book or my paper? |Tiene V. mi libro 6 mi papelf 

1 have neither the one nor the Yo no tengo ni el imo ni el otro. 


Has my brother my gloves or his iTlene mi hermano mis guantes 

ownt 61ossuyosl 

Has he my books or those of the |Tiene 61 mis libros 6 los de los 

Spaniards! espafioles? 

He has neither the one nor the £l no tiene ni los unos ni los 

other. otros. 


by Google 



The Scotchman. 
The Irishman. 
The Dutchman. 
The Russian. 

Still, yet. 

Yet, or still more. 
More wine. 

More money. 

A few more buttons. 

Have you any more wine t 
I have some more wine. 
I have some more. 
Has he any more money t 
He has some more. 
Have I any more books? 
You have some more. 

Not any more, no more. 

Much more. 

Many more. 
I have no more bread. 
He has no more money. 
Have you any more wine I 
I have no more. 
We have no more. 
Has he any more vinegar t 
He has no more. 
We have no more books. 
He has no more dogs. 
He has no more. 

Not much more. 

Not many more. 
Have you much more wine t 
I have not much more. 
Have you many more books! 
I have not many more. 

One other book. 

One more book. 

One more good book. 

El escoc^. 
El lirland^s. 
El holand^s. 


Todavla m&s, or aun m£a. 
Mils vino. 

^M&3 dinero. 
Atin algun dinero. 
^Algunos botones mds. 
Todavia algunos botones. 
|Tiene V. todavia mds vinof 
Tengo todavia mds vino. 
Todavia tengo (or atin tengo). 
|Tiene 61 mds dinero? 
Tiene alguno. 
I Tengo mds librosl 
y. tiene algunos mds. 
No (verb) m&s. 
Mucho mds. 
Muchos m&s. 
Yo no tengo m&s pan. 
]3l no tiene mi& dinero. 
I Tiene V. atin m4s vinot 
No tengo mfis. 
No tenemos m4s. 
I Tiene 61 todavia vinagre t 
No tiene mds. 

Nosotros no tenemos mas libro& 
£l no tiene m4s perros. 
No tiene m^ 
No (verb) mucho m&s. 
No (verb) muchos mds. 
I Tiene V. mucho m&s vino I 
Yo no tengo mucho m&s. 
I Tiene V. muchos mds librost 
No tengo muchos mds. 
Otro libro mi&, 
Un libro mk&. 
Un buen libro m&s. 

Digitized by 



Pour more books. Cuatro libros m&s, 

A few more books. Algunos libros m^ 

Have you a few dollars more ? 4 Tiene V. algunos pesos m&s ? 

I have a few more. Tengo algunos m&s. 

Haye I a few farthings more ? i Tengo algunos cuartos m&s t 

You have a few more. V. tiene algunos m&s. 

We have a few more. Tenemos algunos m&s. 

They have a few more. EUos tienen algunos mds. 


1. i Cuantos tomos tiene su diccionario de V. ? Tiene 
dos. 2. I Tiene V. mi pan 6 mi queso ? No tengo ni el uno 
ni el otro. 3. i Tiene el escoces nuestros zapatos 6 nuestros 
gorros f No tiene ni los unos ni los otros. 4. i Que barcos 
tienen ? Los suyos. 5. t Tiene aun mas dinero su amigo 
de V. ? No tiene mas. 6. i Tiene aun mas cuadros el pin- 
tor? No tiene mas cuadros; pero tiene mas lapices. 7. 
i Tienen sus muchachos de V. m4s libros ? No tienen mas. 
8. i Tiene muchos polios mas nuestro cocinero ? No tiene 
muchos mds. 9. i Tiene V. otro libro mds ? Tengo otro 
libro mds. 10. i Tienen los escoceses algunos libros mas ? 
Tienen algunos mas. 11. i Tengo yo un poco mas dinero ? 
V. tiene un poco m4s. 12. i Tiene el bastante azucar ? No 
tiene bastante. 13. i Tiene V. muchos guantes mas? No 
tengo muchos mds. 14. i Tenemos los gorros de pano 6 los 
de algodon ? No tenemos ni sus gorros de pano ni los de 


1. Which volume of his dictionary have you ? I have 
the first 2. Has the foreigner my comb or my knife ? He 
has both. 3. Has the Irishman our horses or our chests ? 
He has both. 4. Have the Dutch our ships or those of the 
Spaniards ? They have neither the one nor the other. 5. 
Has our merchant any more paper ? He has some more. 
6. Have you any more coffee ? We have no more coffee ; 
but we have some more chocolate. 7. Have the sailors any 
more biscuits ? They have not any more. 8. Has the young 
man any more friends ? He has no more. 9. Has the peas- 
ant much more hay ? He has not much more hay ; but he 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



has a great deal more wine. 10. Have we many more mir- 
rors ? We have many more. 11. Has our friend one more 
umbrella? He has no more. 12. Has your carpenter a few 
more nails ? He has no more nails ; but he has a few sticks 
more. 13. Have you a few more shillings ? I have no more 
shillings; but I have a few more dollars. 14. Have you 
any more courage ? I have no more. 15. Have we dollars 
enough ? We have not enough. 16. Have you rice enough ? 
We have not rice enough ; but we have enough sugar. 17. 
Has he another bag ? He has no other. 18. Has the peas- 
ant too much bread ? He has not enough. 19. Have you 
any more bread ? I have no more. 

SIXTEENTH LESSON— Leccion Decimasexta 

Several men. 
Several children. 
Several knives. 
The father. 
The son. 

The child, or babe. 
The cake. 
As much. 
As many. 

As much (noun) as. 
As many (noun) as. 
As much bread as wine. 
As many men as children. 
Have you as much gold as lead ? 
I have as much of this as of that. 

I have as much of the former as 
of the latter. 

I have as much of the one as of 
the other. 

Have you as many shoes as pan- 

I have as many of these as of 

Varies (algunos, or muchos). 

Varies hombres. 

Algunos nifios. 

Algunos cuchillos. 

El padre. 

El hijo. 






Tanto (noim) como. 

Tantos (noun) como. 

Tanto pan como vino. 

Tantos hombres como nifios. 

I Tiene V. tanto oro como plomo I 

Tengo tanto de ^te como de 

Tengo tanto de aqu61 como de 

Tengo tanto del uno como del 

I Tiene V. tantos zapatos como 

pantalones t 
Tengo tantos de ^tos oomo de 



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I have as many of the latter as of Tengo tantos de k^m como de 

the former. aqn^llos. 

Quite (or just) as much. Tanto. 

Quite (or just) as many. Tantos. 

I have quite as much of this as Tengo tanto de ^ste como de 

of that. aqu^l. 

Quite as much of the one as of Tanto del uno como del otro. 

the other. 

Quite as many of those as of Tantos de aqu^llos como de ^stos. 


Quite as many of the one as of Tantos de los unos como de los 

the other. 
An enemy, enemies. 
The finger. 
The eye. 
More (noun) than. 
More bread than wine. 
More knives than forks. 
More of this than of that. 
More of the one than of the other. 
More of these than of those. 
More of the ones than of the 

Un enemigo, enemigos. 
El dedo. 
El ojo. 

M&s (noun) que. 

M4s pan que vino. 
M4s cuchillos que tenedores. 
Mfe de 6ste que de aqu61. 
Mds del uno que del otro. 
Mds de estos que de aqu^llos. 
M4s de los unos que de los otros. 


I have more of your sugar than Tengo mk& del azdoar de V. que 

of mine. del mio. 

He has more of our books than £l tiene m^ de nuestros libros 

of his own. 

Less — Fewer. 

Less (noun) than. 

Fewer (noun) than. 
Fewer or less than I. 
Fewer or less than he. 
Fewer or less than we. 
Fewer or less than you. 
Fewer or less than you. 
Fewer or less than they. 
As much as I. 
As much as he. 
As much as we. 
As much as you. 

que de los suyos. 

vMenos (noim) que. 

Menos que yo. 
Menos que 61. 
Menos que nosotros. 
Menos que vosotros. 
Menos que V. 
Menos que ellos. 
Tanto como yo. 
Tanto como 61. 
Tanto como nosotros. 
Tanto como vosotros. 


zed by Google 


As much as yom Tanto como V. 

As much as they. Tanto como ellos. 

Coat (or garment). Vestido. 

A gun (a piece of artillery). Un cafl6n. 

A tooth. Un diente. 

Have you as much of your wine 4 Tiene V. tanto de su yino como 

as of mine ? del mlo ? 

I haye quite as much of yours as Tengo tanto del de Y. como del 

of mine. mio. 


1. i Quien tiene mis buenos bollcNS ? Algunos los tienen. 
2. i Tiene este hombre un hijo ? Tiene muchos. 3. l Tene- 
mos tanto pan como vino ? Yds. tienen tanto del uno como 
del otro. 4. i Tiene su padre de V. tanto oro como hierro ? 
Tiene mas de este que de aquel. 5. i Tienen sus hijos de V. 
tantos bastones como libros ? Tienen mas de los unos que 
de los otros. 6. i Cuantos dedos tiene ese hombre ? Tiene 
Tarios. 7. l Tiene el turco tanto dinero del de Vds. como del 
suyo. Tiene menos del suyo que del nuestro. 8. i Tiene el 
carpintero tantos palos como clavos ? Tiene tantos de estos 
como de aquellos. 9. i Tiene el comerciante menos bueyes 
que nosotros ? Tiene menos bueyes que nosptros, y el zapa- 
tero tiene menos que el. 10. i Tienen los holandeses tantos 
jardines como nosotros ? Nosotros tenemos menos que ellos. 


1. Have you a horse ? I have several. 2. Have you as 
much coffee as tea ? I have as much of the one as of the 
other? 3. How many children have our friends? They 
have many ; they have ten. 4 Have we as many shoes as 
coats ? We have as many of the one as of the other. 5. 
Has the foreigner as much courage as we ? He has quite as 
much. 6. How many teeth has this man ? He has but one. 
7. Have my children as much courage as yours? Yours 
have more than mine. 8. Have I as many enemies as your 
father ? You have fewer than he. 9. Have we fewer knives 
than the children of our friends? We have fewer than 
they. 10. Have I as many of your books as of mine ? You 


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have fewer of mine than of yours. 11. Has our cook as 
much bread as ham ? He has as much of the one as of the 
other. 12. Have you more biscuits than glasses ? I have 
more of the latter than of the former. 13. Has he as many 
horses as I ? He has not as many horses as you ; but he has 
more pictures. 14. Has your son one more coat ? He has 
several more. 15. Have you as much courage as our neigh- 
bor's son ? I have just as much. 

SEVENTEENTH LESSON— Leccion Decimaseptima 


There are in Spanish three conjugations, which are distinguished 
by the termination of the infinitive, viz. : 

1. The infinitive of the first con- 

jugation ends 

in AR ; as : 


to speak; 


to buy ; 


to cut. 

2. The second ends 

inEE; as: 


to sell ; 


to eat, to dine ; 


to drink. 

3. The third ends 

in IB ; as : 


to receive ; 


to divide ; 


to open. 

All verbs belong to one of these three conjugations. When the 
infinitive is known it is easy to determine the conjugation of any 
verb. Irregular verbs will be marked with an asterisk (*). 


Courage, valor. 
Desire, wish. 
To be wrong. 

Gana, deseo. 

No tener raz6n de, or hacer mal 


by Google 



To work. 

To speak. 
Have you a wish to work f 
I am ashamed to speak. 

To cut 

To cut it. 

To cut them. 

To cut some. 


|Tiene V. gana de trabajar f 
Tengo yergfLeDza de hablar. 




Cortar alguno. 

When an objective personal pronoun is governed by a verb in 
the infinitive, it is placed after the verb, and joined to it, so as to 
form a single word. 

Have you still a desire to buy it I 

Have you time to cut the bread f 

I have time to cut it. 

Has he a mind to cut the trees. 

He has a mind to cut some. 
To buy. 
To break, to tear. 
To take up from the floor. 

To mend. 
To repair. 

To look for, to seek. 
Have you a wish to buy one 

more horse t 
I have a wish to buy one more. 

Have you a wish to buy some 

I have a wish to buy some, but I 

have no money. 
Are you afraid of breaking the 

I am afraid of breaking them. 
Has he time to work f 

Atin, todavia. 
iTiene V. todavia deseo de com- 

iTiene V. tiempo para rebanar 

el pant 
Tengo tiempo para rebanarlo. 
iTlene el gana de cortar IO0 

^rboles I 
Tiene gana de cortar algunos, 
Gomprar. • 

Alzar del suelo. 

I Tiene V. gana de comprar to- 
davia otro caballol 
Tengo gana de comprar otro 

4 Tiene V. gana de comprar 

Tengo gana de comprar algunos, 

pero no tengo dinero. 
4 Tiene V. miedo de romper los 

Tengo miedo de romperlos. 
4 Tiene ^1 tiempo para traba- 
jar f 


zed by Google 


He has time, but no desire to 

Tiene tiempo, pero no tiene gana 

de trabajar. 
£1 tiene tiempo, pero no tiene 

£1 tiene tiempo, pero no tiene 
gana de hacerlo (to do if). 
To avoid the immediate repetition of a verb in the same mode 
or tense, it is common to suppress it, or to make use of the verb 
Tuicer in its stead, as in the foregoing example. 

To be right. Tener raz6n de, or hacer bien en. 

Am I right in buying horses f iTengo 70 raz6n de comprar 


To be wrong. No tener raz6n de, or hacer mal 


v«« -w. »,,^«« :« Kiwi'*.^ ^«o i V. no tiene raz6n de comprar uno. 
You are wrong in buying one. •< ^^ , . *^ 

( V. hace mal en comprar uno. 

A present participle preceded by a preposition must be rendered 
into Spanish by the infinitive preceded by a preposition : in buying, 
en or de comprar. 

You (phtr,), Vds. (for ustedes). (See Less. I.) 


1. I Tiene V. tiempo para trabajar ? Tengo tiempo, pero 
no tengo gana de trabajar. 2. I Tiene V. tiempo para cortar 
queso ? Tengo tiempo para cortar un poco. 3. i Tengo yo 
tiempo para cortar los arboles ? V. lo tiene para cortarlos. 
4. i Tiene V. miedo de hablar ? No tengo miedo ; pero 
tengo vergiienza de hablar. 5. i Tiene V. deseo de hablar ? 
Tengo deseo ; pero no tengo valor para hacerlo. 6. i Tiene 
el hijo de su amigo de V. deseo de comprar otro pdjaro mas ? 
Tiene deseo de comprar otro mas. 7. i Tiene el zapatero 
tiempo para componer nuestros zapatos ? Tiene tiempo ; 
pero no tiene gana de remendarlos. 8. i Que tienen Vds. 
gana de comprar ? Tenemos gana de comprar algo bueno. 
9. i Quien tiene gana de romper nuestros espejos ? Nuestro 
enemigo tiene gana de romperlos. 10. i Tiene V. gana de 
comprar mis hermosos cofres 6 los del f ranees ? Tengo gana 
de comprar los de V. ; pero no los del frances. 11. i Qu6 
espejos tienen gana de romper los enemigos ? Tienen gana 

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de romper los que V. tiene, los que yo tengo, y los que nues- 

tros ninos y nuestros amigos tienen. 12. i Tiene razon el 

italiano en buscar su sombrero de V. ? No tiene razon en 



1. Have you still a desire to buy my friend's horse ? I 
have still a wish to buy it ; but I have no more money. 2. 
Has he a wish to cut some bread ? He has a wish to cut 
some, but he has no knife. 3. Has the tailor time to cut the 
cloth ? He has time to cut it 4. Has your captain time to 
speak ? He has time, but no desire to speak. 5. Is your 
friend right in buying a great ox ? He is wrong in buying 
one. 6. Have you the courage to cut your finger ? I have 
not the courage to cut it. 7. Have you a desire to buy a 
few more horses ? We have a desire to buy a few more, but 
we have no more money. 8. Who has a desire to mend our 
hats ? The hatter has a desire to mend them. 9. Have you 
a wish to break my nail ? I have a wish to pick it up, but 
not to break it 10. Who wishes to buy my beautiful dog ? 
Nobody wishes to buy it 11. Which gloves have you a 
desire to seek ? I have a desire to seek yours, mine, and 
our children's. 12. Am I right in picking up your canes ? 
You are right in picking them up. 13. Has our enemy a 
desire to buy one more ship ? He has a desire to buy sev- 
eral more, but he is afraid to buy them. 

EIGHTEENTH LESSON— Leccion Decimaoctava 

To make. 

To do. 

To be willing, to wish, to 
desire, to will. 

Do you will f 

Are you willing f 

Do you wish f 
I will, I am willing, I wish. ' Yo quiero. 

Will hef is he willing! does he jQuiere ^If 

He wills, he is willing, he wishes, fil quiere. 
We will, we are willing, we wish. Nosotros queremos. 

. i Quiere V. I 4 Quer^is vosotros f 


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V. quiere (plur»), Vds. 

vosotros quereis. 
Ellos quieren. 


You will, you are willing, you 

They will, they are willing, they 

Do you wish to make my fire I 
I am willing to make it. 
I do not wish to make it. 
Does he ¥ash to make it I 
He wishes to make it. 
Does he wish to buy your horse t 

He wishes to buy it. 
To bum. 
To warm. 
To tear. 
The broth. 
My fork. 

The auxiliary verbs do, did, does, doth, ahaU, will, may, might, 
would, shovM, etc., are not translated into Spanish by separate verbs, 
but are rendered by the principal verb, the different mode and tense 
endings expressing the senses conveyed by the English auxiliaries ; 
as. Do you buy I (Buy you f) 4 Compra V, 1 He did buy, J^l com- 

TO BE — SER and estab 

Except in connection with participles, the general use of aer and 
estar may be thus summarized : 

Ser expresses what is essential and inherent, and therefore abso- 
lute and permanent, hence materials, trade, rank, purpose, etc. . 

Estar denotes the accidental, transitory, and the situation, 
state, etc. 

The following examples will illustrate these rules : 

4 Quiere V. hacer mi lumbre f 

Quiero hacerlo. 

No quiero hacerlo. 

4 Quiere 61 hacerlo? 

Quiere hacerlo. 

4 Quiere el comprar su caballo 

de V.f 
£1 quiere comprarlo. 



Desgarrar, despedazar. 

El caldo. 

Mi tenedor. 

This man is good. 

This man is in good health. 

He was wicked during his youth. 

He was sick in his youth. 

Ink is black. 

This ink is pale. 

He is very talL 

He is placed very high. 

His watch is gold. 

Este hombre es bueno. 
Este hombre esta bueno. 
til f u6 malo en su juventud. 
£1 estuvo malo en su juventud. 
La tinta es negra. 
Esta tinta est4 blanca. 
fil es muy alto. 
£1 esta muy alto. 
Su reloj es de ora 


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His watch is broken. Su reloj estd roto. 

Is this ymnQ good f | Es bueno este yino f 

To be, followed bj a present participle, is translated Estar: 

They are playing. Ellos est^ jugando. 

To ibe, literally, to have, is translated by tener in the following 

To be five feet long. Tener cinco pies de largo. 

To be three feet broad, wide. Tener tres pies de ancho. 

To be seven feet deep. Tener siete pies de profundo. 

To be fifty feet in circumference. Tener cincuenta pies de circun- 


To be twenty years old. Tener veinte afios. 

To go. Ir.* 

At the house of. En casa de. 

To the house ol A la casa de, or 6 casa de. 

To be at the man's house. Estar en la casa del hombre. 

To go to the man, or to the man's Ir d casa, or d la casa del hombre. 


To be at his friend's house. Estar en casa de su amigo. 

To go to my father's house. Ir d casa de mi padre. 

At home. En casa. 

To be at home. Estar en casa. 

To go home. Ir 6 casa, or ir 4 la casa. 

At whose house f 4 En casa de qui^n f lEn la casil 

de qui^nf 

To whose house f k casa de qui^n f 4 A la casa de 


To whose house do you wish to go f 1 4 A casa de qui^n quiere V. ir f 

To whom do you wish to got (4 A la casa de qui^n quiere V. irf 

I wish to go to no one's house. ) xr • • ^ ji • 

T . u i. ^ 5-N^ quiero ir 6 casa de ninguno. 

I wish to go to no one. ) ® 

'4 En casa de qui^n estd su her- 

At whose house is your brother f 
With whom is your brother! 

mano de V. t 
4 En la casa de qui^n esti su her- 
mano de V. f 

With whom is he f J * ^^'^ <1^^^ ^^ * 

(4 En la casa de qui^n est&t 
Estd en nuestra casa. 

He is at our house. 
He is with us. 

£1 est4 con nosotros. 
Esti en nuestra oasa. 

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Is he at hornet 
He is not at home. 

Are 70a at home I 

Are you tired I 

I am tired. 
I am not tired. 
Is he in? 
He is. 
We are in. 
They are in. 
To drink. 
Where f 
What do you wish to dot 
What does your brother wish 

to dot 
Is your father at home f 
What will the Germans buy f 

They will buy something good. 

They will buy nothing. 

Do they wish to buy a book f 

They wish to buy one. 

Do you wish to drink anything I 

I do not wish to drink anything. 

Do you wish to look for my son t 

When the direct object of a verb is a person, or a thing personi- 
fied, it is always preceded by the preposition d, which is not to be 
translated into English. 

1 am willing to look for your son. Quiero buscar d su hijo de V. 

1. i Quiere V. romper mis vasos ? No quiero romperlos. 
2. i Quiere ese hombre coi*tarle el dedo a V. ? No quiere 
cortarmelo. 3. i Quiere el sastre componer alguna cosa ? 
Quiere componer algunos chalecos. 4. i Quiere V. hablar ? 
Quiero hablar. 5. i Quien quiere remendar los zapatos de 
nuestroB hijos ? Nosotros queremos remendarlos. 6. i Quiere 

lEst&^l encasaf 

No est4 en casa. 

UEst4V.I 4Est6nVds.l(jj?.) 
llEsUUs vosotrosl 


4 Estd V. cansado I 4 Estdis can- 

Estoy cansado. 

Yo no estoy cansado. 



(Nosotros) estamos. 

EUos estdn. 


4End6ndel iD6ndef 

4 Qu6 quiere V. hacer I 

iQu^ quiere hacer su hermano 

4 Est4 en casa su padre de V . t 

4 Que quieren comprar los ale- 
manes I 

Ellos quieren comprar algo bueno. 

EUos no quieren comprar nada. 

4 Quieren ellos comprar un libro f 

Quieren comprar uno. 

4 Quiere V. beber algo I 

No quiero beber nada. 

4 Quiere V. buscar k mi hijol 

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su padre de V. buscar su paraguas 6 su baston ? Quiere 
buscar ambos. 7. i Quieren Vds. comprar muchos gorros ? 
Queremos comprar solo algunos, pero nuestros niuos quieren 
comprar muchisimos. 8. i Quiere su padre de V. ir a casa 
de su amigo ? No quiere ir a casa de su amigo, pero quiere 
ir k casa de su vecino. 9. i Tengo razon en calentar el caldo 
de V. ? Tiene V. razon en calentarlo. 10. i En casa de quien 
esta el ingles ? Esta en la casa de V. 11. i Esta en casa su 
padre de V. ? No, senor, no esta en casa. 12. i En donde 
esta su hijo de V. ? Esta en casa. 13. i Quiere V. beber 
algo ? Nada quiero beber. 14. i Esta el escoces en casa de 
alguno ? No est4 en casa de nadie ; esta en su casa. 


1. Do you wish to work ? I am willing to work, but I 
am tired. 2. What do you wish to pick up ? I wish to pick 
up this dollar and that shilling. 3. What does the shoe- 
maker wish to mend ? He wishes to mend our old shoes. 
4. What do you wish to do ? We wish to warm our tea and 
our father's coffee. 6. Is your son willing to work ? He is 
not willing to work. 6. What do you wish to buy ? I wish 
to buy some forks. 7. What does he wish to buy ? He 
wishes to buy some ships. 8. Does the sailor wish to drink 
some wine ? He does not wish to drink any, he is not thirsty. 
9. Do you wish to buy a bird ? I wish to buy several. 10. 
Does any one wish to tear your coat ? No one wishes to tear 
it 11. Do you wish to go to my house 1 I do not wish to 
go to yours, but to my brother's. 12. Are you willing to look 
for our hattf or for those of the Dutch ? I do not wish to 
look for either j'ours or those of the Dutch, but I am willing 
to look for mine, und for those of my good friends. 13. Is 
he afraid to tear your coat ? He is not afraid to tear it, but 
to bum it. 14. Is the foreigner at our brother's ? He is not 
at our brother's. 16. With whom is the Italian ? He is 
with nobody ; he is at home. 16. Do you wish to go to any 
one's house ? I wish to go to no one's house. 17. What does 
the German wish to do at home ? He wishes to work, and 
to drink some good wine. 18. Who is tired ? My brother 
is tired. 19. Does the Spaniard wish to buy anything ? He 

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wishes to buy something, but he has no money. 20. Is this 
good paper ? It is very good. 21. Is he wicked ? No, Sir, 
he is not wicked. 

NINETEENTH LESSON— Leccion Decimanovena 

There, thither. 

To go there. 

To be there. 
Do you wish to go there f 
Yes, I wish to go there. 

AllI, or AWL 


Estar alU. 
tQuiere V. ir alldf 
Si, quiero ir alld. 

Alii usually signifies there, resting or situated in that place; 
dUd implies motion there, or toward that place. Alii is also more 
specific ; alld more extensive and indefinite. 

To carry, to bear. 

To send. 

To take, to lead, to conduct. 

To take it there. 

To order sent. 

Him (object of the verb), or it. 

To send him there. 

To take him there. 

Them (object). 
To carry them there. 
To carry some there. 
Do you wish to send him to my 

father I 
I wish to send him there, to him. 
The physician. 
To come. 
Somewhere, anywhere. 
Nowhere, not anywhere. 
Do you wish if} go anywhere I 
I wish to go somewhere. 
I do not wish to go anywhere. 

Llevarlo alld. 
Le, or lo. 
Enviarlo alld. 
Conducirlo alU. 

Los (obj. pers. pronoun). 
Llevarlos alld. 

Llevar alguno, or algunos all4. 
i Quiere V. enviarlo k casa, or k 

la casa de mi padre? 
To quiero enviarlo bX\L 
El medico. 
Alguna parte. 
Ninguna parte. 
4 Quiere V. ir & alguna parte t 
Yo quiero ir a alguna parte. 
No quiero ir 4 ninguna parte. 

The Spanish ordinarily requires two negatives, as is seen in the 
foregoing example. 

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To write. Escribir. 

Eseribir is regular save in the past participle, where it has the 
irregular form, eacrito. 

At what o'clock f 4 A qu^ hora f 

At one o'clock. k la una. 

At two o'clock. k las dos. 

Half. Medio. Media (/em.). 

The quarter. El cuarto. 
One o'clock. La una. 

La is the feminine definite article, the, corresponding to the 
masculine e/, which is already familiar to the student. 

The word o'clock is never translated. In its stead the feminine 
articles la and las, referring to hora and horas, hour and hours, un- 
derstood, are used with the numerals. 

At half-past one. k la una 7 media. 

At a quarter past one. k la una 7 cuarto. 

At a quarter past two. k las dos y cuarto. 

At a quarter to one. i { J» "f» '»«''°f """to. 

^ ( A los tres cuartos para la una. 

At twelve o'clock at night. k las doce de la noche. 

Midnight. Media noche. 

At twelve o'clock. k las doce. 

Midda7. Medio dia. 

The night. La noche. 

In the night. En la noche (de noche). 

Less. Menos. 

At twenty minutes to four, k las cuatro menos veinte minn* 


Note, billet, bill. Billete. 

Qysrer is used to translate the auxiliar7 will only when a willing- 
ness is to be expressed, and not a mere future intention. 


1. I Quiere V. ir a su casa ? Si ; quiero ir. 2. i Quieren 
ir a mi casa los ninos de V. ? No quieren ir. 3. ^ Los quiere 
el llevar a *su casa ? No los quiere llevar fi, su casa. 4. 
i Quiere V. llevar su hijo a mi casa? Si; quiero. 6. 
I Cu4ndo quiere V. llevarlos ? Quiero Uevarlos hoy. 6. 
i Quieren los espanoles ir 4 alguna parte ? No quieren ir 4 

Digitized by VjOOQ LC 


ninguna parte. 7. i Quiere el Uevar estos pdjaros ? Los 
quiere llevar a su casa. 8. i Quiere V. enviar su criado a mi 
casa ? Quiero enviar uno. 9. i Tiene su amigo de V. deseo 
de escribir tanto como yo ? Tiene deseo de escribir tanto. 
10. I Cuantos sombreros mas tiene el sombrerero ? Tiene 
otros seis. 11. i A que hora quiere V. enviar su criado a 
casa del holandes ? A las seis menos cuarto. 12. i Quiere 
su criado de V. llevar mi billete a casa de su padre de V. ? 
Quiere llevarlo all4. 


1. Do you wish to go home ? Yes, I wish to go. 2. 
Where do you wish to go ? I wish to go home. 3. Will 
your servant take my note to your father ? He will take it 
there. 4. Will you come ? I will not come (tr.). 5. Where 
do they wish to go ? They wish to go nowhere. 6. Do you 
wish to take my children to the physician ? I am willing 
to take them there. 7. When will you send your servant 
to the physician ? To-day. 8. Where will you go ? I will 
go to the Scotchman. 9. Will our friend go to any one ? 
He will go to no one. 10. Will you take the physician to 
this man? I will take him there. 11. Has your brother 
time to come to my house ? He has no time to come (tr.) 
there. 12. To whose house does he wish to send them ? To 
his friends'. 13. Will you send one more trunk to our 
friend ? I will send him several more. 14. Do you wish to 
buy as many dogs as horses ? I will buy more of the latter 
than of the former. 16. At what o'clock does your friend 
wish to go there ? He will go there at midnight. 

TWENTIETH LESSON— Leccion Vigesima 

To (meaning in order to or for). Para. 

To see. Ver.* 

Have you any money to buy 4 Tiene V. dinero para comprar 

bread f pan? 

Yes, I have some to buy a little. Si, tengo para comprar un poco. 

Do you wish to go to your brother 4 Quiere V. ir & la casa de su 

in order to see him t hermano para verlo I 

It is necessary to go early to see Es necesario ir temprano para 

him. verlo. 


by Google 



Can you cut me some bread I 
Has your brother a knife to cut 

his bread I 
He has none to cut it 

To sweep. 

To kill. 

To salt. 

To be able. To know. 
Can you I or are you able? 
I can, or I am able. 
I can not, I am not able. 
Can not you I are not you able I 
Can he I is he ablet 
He can, he is able. 
He can not, he is not able. 
Can not he I is not he able I 
We can, we are able. 
You can, you are able. 
They can, they are able. 

To see me. 

To see him. 

To see the man. 

To see the tree. 

To kill him. 

To the, or at the. 

^ Puede V. rebahar pan para mi I 
4 Tiene su hermano de V. un cu- 

chillo para rebanar su pan f 
No tiene para rebanarlo. 



Salar, echar en sal. 

Sal (/em.). 
Poder.* Saber.* 
4 Puede V. I (4 Pod^is vosotros 1) 
Yo puedo. 
No puedo. 
4 No puede V. I 
4 Puede ^H 
£1 puede. 
No puede. 
4 No puede ^1 1 
Nosotros podemos. 
V. puede— (^Z.) Vds. pueden. 
Ellos pueden. 

Me (pers. objc. pron.). 
Le, or lo. 

Verme, or para verme. 

Verio, or para verlo. 

Ver al hombre. 

Ver el Arbol. 

Matarlo, or para matarlo. 

Alr-iplu,) k los. 


To the friend. 
To the man. 
To the captain. 
To the book. 


To the friends. 
To the men. 
To the captains. 
To the books. 

To him, to her. 
To me. 

To speak to me. 
To speak to him or to her. 
To write to him or to her. 
Can you write to me! 


Al amigo. 
Al hombre. 
Al capitdn. 
Al libro. 


k. los amigos. 
L los hombres. 
A los capitaneSr 
A los libros. 

Le (objective). 
Me (objective). 




4 Puede V. escribirmet 

Digitized by 




j Puedo escribirle. 
( Puedo escribir k V. 
Can the man speak to you I 4 Puede el hombre hablar A V. I 

He can speak to me. Puede hablarme. 

Do you wish to write to your (QuiereV. escribir dsuhennanof 
brother f 

Quiero escribirle. 
El canasto. 
El suelo. 

La escoba, (These two words 
j La alfombra. ) are feminism. 
( El tapete. 
Will you send the book to the ^Quiere V. enviar el libro al 

man I hombre I 

I will send it to him. Quiero envi^rselo. 

When will you send it to him I 4 Cu4ndo quiere V. enyi^u^lof 
I will send it to him to-morrow. Quiero envidrselo mafiana. 

I can write to you. 

I wish to write to him. 
The basket. 
The floor. 
The cat. 
The broom. 

The carpet. 

1st person, Me. 
3d " Him. 


To him. 


Le, or lo. 




Ist " Us. Tons. Nos. Nos. 

2d ** You. To you. A V.(4vosotros). Os. 

3d ** Them. To them. Les, or los. Lea. 

Does he wish to speak to you f 4 Quiere ^1 hablar A V. f 

He does not wish to speak to me, £l no quiere hablarme k mi, pero 

but to you. quiere hablar k V. 

Do you wish to write to him I 4 Quiere V. escribirle? 

I do not wish to write to him, but No quiero escribirle k 61, pero 

to his brother. quiero escribir k su hermano. 

When two personal pronouns precede or follow a verb, one as 
the indirect and the other as the direct object, the indirect stands 
first in order. Where there are two pronouns of the third person, 
one referring to a person and the other to a thing, the one referring 
to a person is rendered by ae for sake of euphony ; as, I wish to buy 
him it, Yo quiero comprdrseZo, instead of comprarZeZo. 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



:^1 I 

<«r S" I fe S ^ 


1111 ssi^- 

o o o oS;z:rp 
fl fl k k © ©p*- 

=r - s s ^^ 

». >. 9 S 0) o S 

« w o Ojax: o 



« . . . . 

o o 



. ^S !3 « « S 





O - « 5 ^ 


»> •> P P C? © P 
00' 00 O O ^^ O 


a fl k k «'©>• 

^ ^ k» ►i-iJ -*J ►» 


^H C* 00 OQ CQ CQ 

® S rf 


o o w 
d c5>< 



s > g 




© o > 
S t? 2 

2.2 s !< 


•is s 

«i- s © 5 's* ij 
- g:S^" 1 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



When will you send me the bas- 

I will send it to you to-day. 

|Cu&ndo quiere V. envlarme el 

canastol or 
I Cudndo me quiere V. enviar el 

canasto I 
Yo quiero enviteelo k V. hoy. 
Yo se lo quiero enyiar hoy. 
^ Quiere V. darme pan f 

Are you willing to give me some 

I am willing to give you some (a Yo quiero darle d V. un poco, 

To have to. 
Have you anything to do I 
I have nothing to do. 
To lend. 

Tener ♦ que. 
^ Tiene V. algo que hacer I 
Nada tengo que hacer. 


Different forms of sentences in which pronouns are used as Sub- 
jects, Direct and Indirect Objects : 

Do you lend it f 
I lend it. 

Do you not lend them f 
I do not lend them. 
Does he lend it to me I 
He lends it to you. 
Does he not lend it to me I 
He does not lend it to you. 
Do I lend them to you I or to him I 
or to her f or to them I 

You lend them to me. 

You lend them to him or to her 

or to them. 
Does he not lend it to her f or to 

you I or to them f 

He does not lend it to her or to 
you or to them. 

I Lo or la presta V. f 

Yo lo or la presto. 

I No los or las presta V. I 

Yo no los Of las presto. 

^ Me lo or me la presta dl f 

£l se lo or se la presta 4 V. 

I No me lo or me la presta el I 

£1 no (se) lo or (se) la presta d V, 

t(Se) los or (se) las presto yo 6 

V.f or 4 elf or 4 ellaf or k 

V. me los or me las presta k mi. 
V. (se) los or (se) las presta k 61 

or k ella or k ellos. 
4 No (se) lo or (se) la presta 61 k 

ellal or 4 V. f or 4 Yds. I or 4 

ellos t or dellas I 
fil no (se) lo or (se) la presta k 

ella orkY.ork Yds. or k ellos 

or k ellas. 


1. i Tiene el capitan bastante dinero para comprar un 
barco ? No tiene bastante para comprarlo. 9. ( No tiene sr. 



criado de V. una escoba para barrer el suelo ? Tiene una 
para barrerlo. 3. i Quiere V. matar a sus amigos ? No quiero 
matarlos ; ni aun a mis enemigos. 4. i Me quiere ver su 
hijo de V. para hablarme ? Quiere verle a V. para darle un 
peso. 6. I Cuanto dinero puede V. enviarme ? Le puedo 
enviar veinte reales. 6. i Tiene V. un vaso para beber su 
vino ? Si, senor ; pero no tengo vino ; ho tengo mas que 
te. 7. i Puede nuestro vecino hacer su lumbre ? Puede 
hacerla. 8. i Me quiere hablar el aleman ? Quiere hablarle 
4 V. 9. i Tiene el cocinero mas sal para salar el carnero ? 
Tiene un poco mas. 10.^ i Tiene V. algo que hacer ? Nada 
tengo que hacer. 11. jA quien quiere V. hablar? A los 
italianos j k los f ranceses. 12. i Quiere Y. darle pan a este 
hombre ? Quiero darle un poco. 13. i Quiere V. prestarles 
su colchon a sus vecinos ? No se lo quiero prestar k ellos. 


1. Can the carpenter buy a hammer? He has enough 
money to buy one. 2. Does your father wish to see me ? 
He does not wish to see you. 3. Has the sailor money to 
buy the chocolate ? He has none to buy it. 4. Have you 
salt enough to salt ray ham ? I have enough to salt it 
5. Can you cut me some bread ? I can cut you some. 6. 
Does he wish to kill me ? He does not wish to kill you ; he 
only wishes to see you. 7. Will you send me my carpet? 
I will send it to you. 8. Will you lend me your basket ? 
Yes, Sir. 9. Will you give me that which you have ? Yes, 
Sir. 10. Do you wish to speak to the German ? I wish to 
speak to him. 11. Does he wish to speak to my brother or 
to yours ? He wishes to speak to both. 12. What will you 
give them ? I will give them good cakes. 13. Has he some 
more rice ? He has a great deal more. 14. Who will send 
us biscuits ? The baker will send you {plural) some. 15. 
Do you wish to give them something ? I wish to give them 
some money. 16. Will you lend me your books ? I will 
lend them to you. 17. To whom will you lend your um- 
brellas ? I will lend them to my friends. 


by Google 


TWENTY-FIRST LESSON— Leccion Vigesimaprimera 

"Whom Quien— quienes (pi*). 

To whom A quien— d quienes (pL), 

What Que. 

Subject. Who Quien — quienes. 

Object Whom k quien— & quienes. 

Object What Que. 

Indirect obi. Whom. ) ^-v . 

* ' V Quien— quienes. 

" Whose.) 

" What Que. For persons or things. 

Who wishes to write f % Qui^n quiere escribir f (Sub- 


Whom do you wish to see f 4 A qui^n quiere V. ver f (Direct 


To whom do you wish to speak f %L qui^n quiere V. hablar f (In- 
direct object.) 

What does he wish to write! 4 Qu^ quiere escribir ^1 f (Direct 


01 what do you wish to speak f 4 De qu4 quiere V. hablar f (In- 
direct object) 

Eesponder requires the preposition d after it 

To answer. Responder. 

To answer the man. Responder al hombre. 

To answer the men. Responder & los hombres. 

Whom do you wish to answer f 4 A quien quiere V. responder f 

I wish to answer my brother. Yo quiero responder & mi her 

ma no. 

To answer him. Responderle. 

To answer them. Responderles. 

To answer the note. Responder al billete, or & la es- 


To answer it* Responder & 61. 

To it, to them. A el, i ellos. 

To answer the notes. Responder d los billetes. 

To answer them. Responder d ellos. 

Will you answer my note f | Quiere V. responder d mi billete t 

I will answer it Yo quiero responderle. 

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The play, the theater. 

The ball. 
The storehouse. 
The magazine. 
The warehouse. 
The counting-house. 

The market. 
Do you wish to go to the play f 

Tes, I wish to go (there). 
Is your brother at the play t 

Yes, he is (there). 
He is not there. 
Where is he f 

Is your father in his garden t 

He is there. 

Is he in the storehouse! 

He is there. 
Where is the merchant f 
He is in the warehouse. 
To have to (must). 

What do you have to dot 
I have nothing to do. 
Have you anything to dot 

I have to answer a note. 

I have to speak to your brother. 

What has the man to drink f 

He has wine. 

What have you to eatf 

We hitve h«m« 

El teatro (la comedia, sometimes 


, El almac6a 

El escritorio, el despaoho, cr la 

El mercado, la plaza (/em.). 

4 Quiere V. ir al teatro f or £ la 
comedia f 

Si ; quiero ir. 

lEstd su hermano de V. en el 
teatro f 

Si; estl 

No ; no est& allL 


4 Estd su padre de V. en an jar- 
din f 

Estd en el, or estd alii. 

4 Est& ^1 en el almacen f 


4 D6nde estd el comerciante t 

Estd en el almacen. 

Tener que (implying obliga- 

4 Qu6 tiene V. que hacer f 
j No tengo nada que hacer. 
( Nada tengo que hacer. 

4 Tiene V. algo que hacer f 

Tengo que responder & un bi- 

Tengo que hablar & su hermano 

4 Qu^ tiene que, or para beber el 
hombre f 

Tiene yino. 

4Qu^ tienen Yds. que, wr para 
comer f 

Tenemos jam6n. 


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1. i Quiere V. escribirle al italiano ? Quiero escribirle. 
2. J A quien quiere V. responder ? A mi buen padre. 3. 
i A quien quiere V. escribir ? Quiero escribirle al ruso. 4. 
i Que tiene para beber su padre de V. ? Tiene buen vino. 
5. I No tiene que responderme su padre de V. ? Tiene que 
responderle a V. 6. i Donde esta el comerciante ? Est4 en 
su almacen. 7. i Adonde quiere V. Uevarme ? Quiero lle- 
varlo a mi almacen. 8. i Donde esta el holandes ? Esta en 
su desvan. 9. i Que quiere V. comprar en el mercado ? 
Quiero comprar un canasto y algunos tapetes. 10. i Cuan- 
tos tapetes quiere V. comprar ? Quiero comprar dos. 11. 
i Tienen Vds. muchos fusiles en sus almacenes ? Tenemos 
muchos fusiles, pero tenemos pocos canones {cannon), 12. 
i Cuantos reales le quiere Y. dar al carpintero ? Quiero 
darle cinco. 


1. Will you write to me ? I will write to you. 2. Whom 
will you answer ? My good father. 3. Who will write to 
you ? The Russian. 4. Will they answer them ? They will 
answer them. 5. Can the Spaniards answer us ? They can 
not answer us, but we can answer them. 6. What have you 
to write ? A note. 7. What has the shoemaker to do ? He 
has to mend my shoes. 8. Where will you speak to him ? 
At his house. 9. Have I to answer the note in Spanish ? Yes, 
Sir, in Spanish. 10. Will you answer the merchants' notes ? 
I will answer them. 11. Have you a desire to go to the ball ? 
I have a desire to go (there). 12. When will you take your 
boy to the play? To-morrow. 13. Is your friend at the 
ball ? He is there. 14. Where does your cook wish to go ? 
He wishes to go to the market. 15. Will you come to me in 
order to go to the play ? I will come (tV) to you, but I have 
no wish to go to the play. 16. Will you go to my garden or 
to that of the Scotchman ? I will go neither to yours nor 
to that of the Scotchman ; I wish to go to that of the Italian. 

17. Where will you take them ? I shall take them home. 

18. Is he willing to sweep the floor ? He is willing to do it, 
but he has no time. 1». Do you wish to see our guns ? I 

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will go to your warehouses in order to see them. 20. Where 
will you buy your trunk ? I will buy it at the market. 21. 
Will you give this man a real f I will give him several. 
22. Have you time to write to the merchant ? I wish to 
write to him, but I have no time to-day. 23. Where does 
the Spaniard wish to go ? He wishes to go nowhere. 24. 
Where does the baker wish to go ? He wishes to go to the 

TWENTY-SECOND LESSON— Leccion Vigesimasegunda 















To send for. 


por, mandar por, or en- 


& buscar. 

To go for, to fetch. 


or ir & buscar. 

To fetch, to bring. 


Do you wish to send for 


iQuiere V. enviar por vino! 


I will send for a little. 

Quiero enviar por un poco. 

Will your boy go for some bread f 

4 Quiere ir por pan su muchacho 

He will not. 

I wisli to send for the physician. 

He wishes to send for my 

He wishes to send for them. 
Do you wish to send for glasses! 
I wish to send for some. 
What have you to do! 
I have to go to the market. 
You have to mend your coat. 

What have you to drink f 
I have good wine. 

No quiere, or no, sefior. 
Quiero enviar por el m^ico. 
fil quiere mandar, or enviar pot 

mis hermanos. 
Quiere mandar por ellos. 
I Quiere V. enviar por vasosf 
Quiero enviar por algunos. 
4Qu6 tiene V. que hacerf 
Tengo que ir al mercado. 
V. tiene que remendar su ves- 

4Qu6 tiene V. que beberf 
Tengo buen vino. 

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They have. 
What have the men to do f 

They have to go to the store- 

This afternoon. 

The cook. 

The hearth, the home. 

The study. 
In the afternoon. 
This morning. 
In the morning. 

Now, at present. 
Thou hast. 
Thou art. 

Art thou fatigued f 
I am not fatigued. 
Are the men tired f 

EUos tienen. 

I Que tienen que hacer los hom- 

Tienen que ir al almacen. 

Esta tarde. {Fern.) 

Este. (Masc) Esta. (jPem.) 

El cocinero. 

El hogar. 

El estudio. 

Por la tardo, or en la tarde. 

Esta maSana. (Fern,) 

Por la maSana, or en la mafiana. 


Tu tienes. 

Tti estds, or tu eres. 

I Est^ tu f atigado f 

No estoy fatigado. 

|Estdn cansados los hombresf 

When an adjective qualifies a substantive, it agrees with it in 
gender and number. Adjectives form their plural in the same 
manner as nouns. 

They are not tired. 
Thou wilt (or wishest). 
Thou art able {or canst). 
Art thou willing to make my 

I am willing to make it, but I 

can not. 
Art thou afraid f 
I am not afraid, I am cold. 
Art thou hungry f 
To sell. 
To tell, to say. 
To tell some one, to say to some 

The word. 
Are you willing to tell the servant 

to make the fire? 
J am willing to tell him to make it. 

No estdn cansados. 

Tti quieres. 

Tu puedes. 

4 Quieres hacer mi fuegof 

Quiero hacerlo, pero no puedo. 

4 Tienes miedo? 

No tengo miedo, tengo frio. 

4 Tienes hambref 


Decir k alguno. 

La palabra. (Fern,) 
iQuiere V. decir al criado que 

encienda lumbref 
To quiero decirle que la enciend^ 


by Google 


To make a fire. Encender f uego, or lumbre. 

Thy. Tu. Tus. (Plu,) 

Thine. El tuyo. Los tuyos. (Plu,) 

Thy book, thy books. Tu libro. Tus libros. (Plu,) 

Art thou not tired f 4 No estds tu cansado f 

1. Hijo mio, i quieres ir por bollos ? Si, padre ; quiero 
ir. 2. i En donde esta su dinero de Y. ? Esta en mi despa- 
cho. 3. i En donde esta el perro del hombre ? Esta en un 
rincon del barco. 4. i Tiene V. algo que hacer ? Tengo 
algo que hacer. 6. i A cuantos hombres tiene V. que hablar ? 
Tengo que hablarles 4 cuatro. 6. i Cu4ndo quiere V. ir a 
casa del francos ? Quiero ir k su casa esta noche. 7. i Tiene 
V. que escribir tantos billetes como el ingles ? Tengo que 
escribir menos que el. 8. i Pueden sus ninos de V. con- 
teslanne {answer) mis billetes ? Pueden contestarselo& 9. 
i Que libros quiere vender mi hermano ? Quiere vender los 
tuyos y los suyos. 10. i Que quiere V. decirle al criado ? 
Quiero decirle que encienda la lumbre y barra el almacen. 
11. i Tienes valor para ir al bosque por la noche ? Tengo el 
valor de ir, pero no de nocha 

1. Will you send for some sugar ? I will send for soma 
2. Who is in the garden ? The children of our friends are 
there. 3. Where is he ? He is in his counting-house. 4. 
Will you give me some money to {para) bring some bread ? 
I will give you some to bring some. 6. Where is your cat ? 
It is in the hole. 6. Where has the peasant his com ? He 
has it in his bag. 7. Is your cat in this bag ? It is in it 
8. Who is at the end of the road ? My father is there. 9. 
Can our friend drink as much wine as cofPee ? He can not 
drink as much of the latter as of the former. 10. When 
have you to speak to them ? This evening. 11. At what 
o'clock ? At half-past seven. 12. When will you go to the 
Frenchman ? I will go to him to-night. 3. When will 
you speak to him ? At present. 14. Do not your neigh- 
bors wish to go to the market ? They can not go ; they are 
fatigued. 15. What do you wish to say to the servant ? I 

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wish to tell him to make the fire {que encienda) and to 
sweep (que barra) the warehouse. 16. Whom do you wish 
to see ? I wish to see the Scotchman. 


To go out. 
To remain, to stay. 

When do you wish to go 
I wish to go out now. 
To remain at home. 
To remain here. 
Will you stay here! 
I will stay here. 

The pronouns me, te, 
them a reflexive sense : 
Will your friend remain heref 

He will not stay here. 

The pleasure^ 

The favor. 
To give pleasure. 
To do a favor. 

LESSON — Leccion Vigesimatercera 

Quedar. Quedarse. (Reflexive 
out f 4 Gu4ndo quiere V. salir f 
To quiero salir ahora. 
Quedar, or estar en casa. 

Quedar aqui, or quedarse aqui. 
4 Quiere V. quedarse aquif 
Quiero quedarme aqui. 
and 86 are used with many verbs to give 

I Quiere quedarse aqui su amigo 

de v.! 
No quiere quedarse aqui. 

El placer, or el gusto. 

El favor. 
Dar gusto. 
Hacer un favor. 



Yo voy. 
V. va. 
What are you going to do t 
I am going to read. 
To read. 
The soldier. 

All, every. 

Every day. 
Every mominic. 


Nosotros vamos. 

Vosotros vais. 

Ellos van. 

Ellas van. 

Vds. van. 
4Qu6 va V. & hacer f 
Voy & leer. 

El soldado. 
J Todo. Todos. 
I Toda. Todas. 
Todos los dias. 
Todas las mafianas. 


zed by Google 


Every afternoon. Todas las tardes. 

Every evening, or every night. Todas las noches. 

He is, she is, it is. Es. 

Late (afternoon). Tarde. 

To need, to want i Tener necesidad de. 

I Necesitar. 
I want it. Lo necesito. 

Do you want this knife f 4 Necesita V. este cuchillo f 

I do not want it. No lo necesito. 

I want them. Los necesito. 

I do not want them. No los necesito. 

I do not want anything. No necesito nada. 

Does he need money f 4 Necesita ^1 algdn dinero f 

He does not need any more. No necesita mds. 

What do you need f 4 Qu^ necesita V. f 

To be acquainted with, to know. Conocer. 
To be acquainted with (to know) Conocer d un hombre. 
a man. 


1. I Quiere V. decirle a mi criado que encienda la lumbre ? 
Quiero decirle que la encienda. 2. i Que vas k hacer ? Voy 4 
casa del sombrerero para decirle que componga su sombrero 
de V. ? 3. Quiere 61 venderme sus caballos ? Quiere ven- 
derselos 4 V. 4 i Que hora es ? Son las doce y cuarto. 6. 
i Adonde va V. ahora ? Voy al teatro. 6. i En donde se 
quiere quedar su padre de V. ? Quiere quedarse alii. 7. 4 A 
que hora estd en casa el holandes ? Esta todas las noches 4 
las nueve y cuarto. 8. 4 Cual buey quiere el comprar ? 
Quiere comprar el de su amigo de V. 9. 4 Quiere ese hombre 
beber demasiado vino ? Quiere beber demasiado. 10. 4 Me 
puede V. prestar un cuchillo ? Le puedo prestar 4 V. uno. 

11. 4 Que me quiere V. decir ? Le quiero decir una palabra. 

12. 4 No necesita vino el ingles ? No necesita ninguno ; 

tiene bastante. 


1. Will you do me a favor ? Yes, Sir ; which ? {cvM ?) 
2. What will you tell your father ? I will tell him to sell 
you his horse. 3. Do these men wish to sell their carpets ? 
They do not wish to sell them. 4. Wilt thou go to the tailor 
to tell him to mend {que componga) my coats ? I will go 

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to him. 5. Has he any iron guns to sell ? He has some to 
sell. 6. Is it late ? It is not late. 7. What are you going 
to do ? I am going to read. 8. When will you lend it me ? 
I will lend it you to-morrow. 9. Where have you to go ? 
I have to go to the counting-house. 10. Do you go to the 
Scotchman in the afternoon or in the morning ? I go to him 
in the afternoon and in the morning. 11. Where is your 
brother ? He is at his warehouse. 12. Will you stay here 
or there ? I will stay there. 13. When does our neighbor 
go to the Irishmen ? He goes to them every day. 14. Does 
he wish to buy this or that ox ? He wishes to buy neither 
this nor that. 16. When does he sell his books ? He will 
sell them to-day. 16. Do you wish to know my children ? 
I do wish to know them. 17. Have you wine enough to 
drink? I have only a little, but enough. 18. Can your 
father lend me a book ? He can lend you several. 19. Does 
your brother want money ? He does not want any. 20. Do 
you need these walking canes ? I need them. 21. What do 
I want ? You want nothing. 22. When do you want me ? 
Now. 23. Do you want my servants ? I want them. 24. 
What does the Englishman want ? He wants some glasses. 

TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON— Leccion Vigesimacuarta 

The inflection of regular verbs is effected by adding the various 
terminations to the stem, which is readily obtained by striking off 
the endings ar, er, ir from the infinitive mode. 

See complete table of terminations in the Elements. 

Termvnatio'M of Present Indicative, with Corresponding 
BersoneU Bronotms, 

PRONOUNS. Sing. Sing. Sing. 

Yo 1. O. 1. O. 1. O. 

Td 2. as. 2. es. 2. es. 

£l, ella, usted 8. a. 8. e. 8. e. 

PluraL Plural. Plural. 

Nosotros 1. amos. 1. emos. 1. imos. 

Yofiotros 2. dis. 2. ^is. 2. is. 

EUos, ellas, ustedes 8. an. 8. en, 8. en. 

^ T 

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There are two participles, the present and the past, which are 
usually regular. The terminations are : 


1st conjugation ando. ado. 

2d " iendo. ido. 

8d '* iendo. ido. 


Inflnilive. Pregent Participle. Infinitivo. Farticipio de Freeente. 

To speak. Speaking. Hablar. Hablando. 

I speak, thou speakest, he speaks. Yo hablo, td hablas, ^1 habla, Y. 

We speak, you speak, they speak. Nosotros hablamos, vosotros ha- 

bUus, ellos hablan, Yds. hablan. 


To sell Selling. Vender. Vendiendo. 

I sell, thou sellest, he sells. Yo vendo, td vendes, 41 yende, Y. 

We sell, you sell, they selL Nosotros vendemos, vosotros yen- 

d^is, ellos yenden. Yds. yenden. 


Toreceiye. Reoeiying. Recibir. Recibiendo. 

I receiye, thou receiyest, he re- Yo recibo, td recibes, 41 recibe, 

ceiyes. Y. recibe. 

We receive, you receiye, they re- Nosotros recibimos, yosotros re- 
ceive, cibis, ellos reciben, Yds. reciben. 

To have. Haying. Tener. Teniendo. 

I have, thou hast, he has. Yo tengo, td tienes, 41 tiene. 

We have, you have, they haye. Nosotros tenemos,vosotrosten4iS; 

ellos tienen. 

To ask for. Asking for. Pedir. Pidiendo. 

I ask for, thou askest for, he asks Yo pido, td pides, 41 pide. 


We ask for, you ask for, they ask Nosotros pedimos, yosotaos pedft, 

for. ellos piden. 


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To warm. Warming. Calentar. Calentando. 

I warm, thou warmest, he warms. Yo caliento, tti calientas, §1 ca- 

We warm, you warm, they warm. Nosotros calentomos, vosotros 

calentdis, ellos calientan. 

To make. Making, or \ tt„_^ tt . ■* 

To do. Doing \ ^^'- Haciendo. 

I make, thou makest, he makes. Yo hago, tti haces, 61 haoe. 
We make, you make, they make, i Nosotros hacemos, vosotros ha- 

( c^is, ellos hacen. 

Togo. Going. Ir. Yendo. 

I go, thou goest, he goes. Yo voy, tu vas, 61 va. 

We go, you go, they go. Nosotros vamos, rosotros vais, 

ellos van. 

To mend, or Mending, or \ ^ , _. , , 

To repair. Repairing. \ ^"^^^^^^ Rei^endando. 

I mend, thou mendest, he mends, i ^° remiendo, tti remiendas, 61 re- 

I mienda. 

We mend, you mend, they mend, i^^^*^^^ remendamos, vosotros 

( remenddis, ellos remiendan. 

To be. Being. 

I am, thou art, he is. 
We are, you are, they are. 

Estar. Estando. 

Ser. Siendo. 

Yo estoy, tti estds, 61 estl 
Nosotros estamos, vosotros estdis, 

ellos estim. 
Yo soy, tu eres, 61 es. 
Nosotros somos, vosotros sois, 

ellos son. 

To lead or Leading, or ) Conducir. Conduciendo. 
To conduct. Conducting. ) 

I conduct, thou conductest, he) Yoconduzco, tti conduces, 61 con- 
conducts. ) duce. 

We conduct, you conduct, they j Nosotros conducimos, vosotros 
conduct. \ conducis, ellos conducen. 

To come. Coming. Venir. Viniendo. 

I come, thou comest, he comes. Yo vengo, tti vienes, 61 viene. 
We come, you come, they come. Nosotros venimos, vosotros venis, 

ellos vienen. 


zed by Google 



To see. Seeing. 

I see, thou seest, he sees. 
We see, you see, they see. 

Ver. Viendo. 

Yo veo, tti ves, 61 ve. 
NosotFos yemos, yosotros yeis, 

ellos yen. 

To go out. Going out. Salir. Saliendo. 

I go out, thoii goest out, he goes Yo salgo, tti sales, 61 sale. 


We go out, you go out, they go Nosotros salimos, yosotros salis, 

out. ellos salen. 

To be able. Being able. 
I can, thou canst, he can. 
We can, you can, they can. 

To tell, or Telling, or 
To say. Saying. 

I tell, thou tellest, he tells. 

We tell, you tell, they tell. 

To finish. 
Any one. 
No one. 

To loye. Loying. 

1 loye, thou lovest, he loyes. 
We loye, you loye, they loye. 

Poder. Pudiendo. 

Yo puedo, tti puedes, 61 puede. 
Nosotros podemos, yosotros po- 

deis, ellos pueden. 



To please. 

Yo digo, tti dices, 61 dice. 

1 Nosotros decimos, yosotros deds, 
ellos dicen. 


Alguien. Alguno.} Indefinite pro- 

Nadie. Ninguno.) nouns. 


Amar. Amando. 

Yo amo, tti amas, 61 ama. 
Nosotros amamos, yosotros am&is, 

ellos aman. 


This yerb is used in the third person, singular or plural, the 
thing which pleases or which any one likes is the subject, the per- 
son or thing pleased being the indirect object. 

k mi me gusta. 

I like, I am fond of. 
Thou likest, or it pleases thee. 
He likes, or it pleases him. 
We like, or it pleases us. 

A ti te gusta. 
L 61 le gusta. 
L nosotros nos gusta* 

You like them, or they please you. A V. W gustan. 


zed by Google 



Do you like this man! 

Yes, he pleases me. 

No, I do not like him. 

Are they fond of these children f 

Yes, they are fond of them. 

No, they are not fond of them. 

To open. 
Do you open the note f 
I do not open it. 
Does he open his eyesf 
He opens them. 
Whom do you love f 
I love my father. 

To arrange, to set in order. 
What are you arranging! 
I am arranging my books. 
What is he drinking! 
He is drinking wine. 
Is he fond of wine! 
He is fond of it 
What is the American fond of ! 
He is fond of coffee. 

To answer. 
Do you answer the note ! 
Yes, I answer it 

To know. I know. 

A stick of wood. 

Yet Not yet 
It is not yet seven o'clock. 


More than. 
He buys more than twenty. 

The cook. 

4 Le gusta & V. este hombre ! 

Si, me gusta. 

No ; no me gusta. 

4 Les gustan estos nifios ! 

Si, d ellos les gustan. 

No, d ellos no les gustan. 

Abrir—past participle, abierto. 

iAbreV. elbillete! 

No lo abro. 

lAbre^l losojos! 

Los abre. 

4 A qui^n ama Y. ! 

Amo & mi padre. 


4Qa^ estd Y. arreglando! 

Estoy arreglando mis libros. 

4 Qu4 estd bebiendo el ! 

Est& bebiendo vino. 

4 Le gusta el vino ! 

Le gusta. 

4Qu^ le gusta al americano! 

Le gusta el caf^. 

Contestar. Responder. 

4Contesta Y. el billete! 

Si, lo contesto. 

Saber.* Yo s4 (the remainder 

of the Ind. Pres. is regular). 
Un palo. 

Todavia. Todavia no. 
Todavia no son las siete. 

Mds de or mds que. 
£l compra mds de veinte. 
El cocinero. 

Ordinarily comparison is made by the use of mda que, more than : 
but in a comparison between numbers mda de takes its place, except 
in negative sentences, then mda que must remain : 

He is taller than you. 

I have more than six horses. 

They have no more than one shoe. 

El es mds grande que Y. 
Tengo mas de seis caballos. 
Ellos no tienen mds que un zapato. 

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1. i Le ama 4 V. su hermano ? No me ama. 2. £ A quien 
ama V. ? Amo a mis ninos. 3. } Ve su padre de V. nuestros 
barcos ? No los ye, pero nosotros los vemos. 4. i A quien 
escribe el amigo de V. ? Le escribe a su sastre. 6. % Escri- 
ben Vds. sus ejercicios por la tarde. Los escribimos por la 
manana. 6. i Conoce V. k ese hombre ? No lo conozco. 7. 
I k. quien conoce V. ? No conozco 4 nadie. 8. i Adonde va 
nuestro amigo ? No va a ninguna parte ; se queda en casa. 
9. i Le gustan a V. los pajaros ? Me gustan. 10. i Que tiene 
que hacer su criado de V. ? Tiene que barrer el suelo y 
arreglar mis libros. 11. i Que hora es ahora ? Ta son las 
seis. 12. i Le gusta 4 V. el espanol ? Si, senor ; me gusta. 


1. Do you love your brother ? I love him. 2. Dost thou 
love this ugly man ? I do not love him. 3. Do we like any 
one ? We like no one. 4. Whom does your father want ? 
He wants his servant 6. What do you wish to do with it ? 
I wish to have it, in order to read it 6. Does he receive as 
many exercises as I ? He receives more of them than you. 7. 
Do you give him a bird ? I do give him one. 8. To whom 
do you lend your clothes ? (vestidos), I do not lend them to 
anybody. 9. Do you sell your ship ? I do not sell it 10. 
Does the Englishman finish his tea ? He finishes it 11. Do 
you see my large garden ? I see it 12. Do you drink any- 
thing ? I drink some wine. 13. Do we drink wine ? We 
drink some. 14. Does your friend write ? He writes. 15. 
What dost thou say ? I say nothing. 16. What do you say 
to my servant ? I tell him to sweep (qiie barra) the floor, 
and to go (que vaya) for some bread, cheese and wine. 17. 
What do you tell the tailors ? I tell them to make (que 
hagan) my clothes (vestidos). 18. Where is he going ? He 
is going to the garden. 19. What is your father reading ? 
He is reading a book. 20. Do you read the books which I 
read ? I do not read those which you read, but those which 
your father reads. 21. What is my son fond of ? He is 
fond of money. 


by Google 



TWENTY-FIFTH LESSON— Leccion Vigesimaquinta 

To bring. 
I bring, thou bringest, he brings. 
We bring, you bring, they bring. 

To find. 
The theater. 
The butcher. 
The sheep, the mutton. 
What (meaning that which, the 

thing which). 
Do you find what you look for f 
Do you find what you are look- 
ing for f 
I find what I look for. 
I find what I am looking for. 
He does not find what he is look- 
ing for. 
Do you take him to the play t 
I do take him there. 
To study. 
Instead of. 
Instead of bringing. 
To play. 
I play, thou playest, he plays. 
We play, you play, they play. . 

To listen. 

Instead of listening. 

Instead of playing. 
Do you play instead of studying! 
I study instead of playing. 
This man speaks instead of lis- 

Have you a sore finger t 

I haye a sore finger. 

Has your brother a sore foot f 

He has a sore eye. 
We have sore eyes. 

Yo traigo, tti traes, ^1 trae. 
Nosotros traemos, yosotros trails, 
ellos traen. 

El teatro. 
El camicero. 
El camero. 
Lo que. 

4 Halla V. lo que buscaf 

4 Halla V. lo que estd buscandof 

Hallo lo que busco. 

Hallo lo que estoy buscando. 

£l no halla lo que estil buscando. 

4 Lo lleva V. al teatro t 
Lo Uevo alld. 

En yez de, en lugar de. 
En yez de traer. 

Yo juego, tti juegas, 61 juega. 
Nosotros jugamos, yosotros ju- 
gto, ellos juegan. 

En yez de escuchar. 
En lugar (or en yez) de jugar. 
4 Juega V. en lugar de estudiar f 
Yo estudio en lugar de jugar. 
Este hombre habla en yez de es- 
4Tiene V. el dedo malot 
Tengo un dedo malo. 
4 Tiene su hermano de V. un pie 

Tiene mal de ojos. 
Tenemos los ojos males. 


zed by Google 


The elbow. El codo. 

The arm. - El brazo. 

The back. La espalda. 

The knee. La rodilla. 

Do you read instead of writing f 4 Lee V. en vez de escribir t 

Does your brother read instead 4 Lee su hermano de V . en lugar 

cf speaking! dehablarf 

To learn. Aprender. 

I learn to read. Aprendo & leer. 

He learns to write. m aprende & escribir. 


1. i Qu6 tiene V. que hacer ? Tengo que estudiar. 2. 
i No sale el ? No puede salir ; tiene un pie malo. 3. 2 A 
cu4ntos estamos del mes ? A tres. 4 i Halla el capitan lo 
que busca. ? Halla lo que busca ; pero sus ninos no liallan lo 
que buscan. 5. ^ A quien busca el ingles ? Est4 buscando 
4 su amigo para llevarlo al jardin. 6. i Sale V. en vez de 
quedarse en casa ? Me quedo en casa en vez de salir. 7. 
i Compra V. un paraguas en vez de comprar un libro ? No 
compro ni el uno ni el otro. 8. ^ Le da a V. mas queso que 
pan ? Me da menos de este que de aquel. 9. i Le da V. a 
mi amigo menos cuchillos que guantes ? Le doy mas de 
estos que de aquellos. 10. i Salen los medicos ? Se quedan 
en casa en vez de salir. 11. i Lee V. el libro que yo leo ? 
No leo el que V. lee, sino el que el gran capitan lee. 12. 
i Hace cafe su criado de Y. ? Hace te en vez de hacer caf6. 


1. Do you go to the play this evening ? I do not go to 
the play. 2. Does your father go out ? He does not go 
out 3. When does he write it ? He writes it in the morn- 
ing and in the evening. 4 Does the shoemaker bring our 
shoes ? He does not bring them. 6. Who has a sore arm ? 
I have a sore arm. 6. Who has sore eyes ? The French 
have sore eyes. 7. What day of the month is it to-morrow ? 
To-morrow is the fourth. 8. Whom are you seeking ? I 
am looking for your son. 9. Is anybody looking for my 
brother ? Nobody is looking for him. 10. What are they 

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looking for ? They are looking for their books. 11. Do the 
Spaniards find the umbrellas which they are looking for ? 
They do not find them. 12, What do the butchers find ? 
They find the oxen and sheep that they are looking for. 
13. What is he doing in his room ? He is reading. 14. 
What is the German doing in his room ? He is learning to 
read. 15. Does the Dutchman speak instead of listening ? 
He speaks instead of listening. 16. When does he study ? 
He studies every day. 17. Does our neighbor break his 
canes instead of breaking his glasses ? He breaks neither 
the ones nor the others. 18. What is our cook doing ? He 
is making a fire instead of going to the market. 19. Does he 
give you money instead of giving you bread ? He gives me 
(both) money and bread. 20. What does he give you ? He 
gives me many books instead of giving me money. 

TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON— Leccion Vigesimasexta 

Something, anything. Alguna cosa. 

Are you going to look for any- 4 Va V. d buscar alguna cosa — or 

thing f algo f 

I am going to look for nothing. No voy k buscar nada. 

He goes for something. £l va por alguna cosa. 

Do you learn or are you learning iAprendeV. el francos! 

French I 

I am learning it Si, lo aprendo. 

I do not learn it. No lo aprendo. 

French. El francos. 

English. El ingl6s. 

German. El alemdn. 

Italian. El italiano. 

Spanish. El espafiol. 

Polish. El polaco. 

Russian. El ruso. 

Latin. El latin. 

Greek. El griego. 

Arabian, Arabic. El drabe, el ardbigo. 

Syrian, Syriac. El siriaco. 

lie Pole. El polaco. 

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The Roman. 

El romano. 

The Greek. 

El griego. 

The Arab, the Arabian. 

El drabe. 

The Syrian. 

El siriaco. 

In referring to nationality or 

profession the indefinite article is 


Are you an Englishman f 

4 EsV. ingles! 

No, Sir, I am a German. 

No, se&or, soy alem&n. 

He is a Frenchman. 

Es franco. 

Is he a tailor t 


No, he is a shoemaker. 

No; eszapatero. 

The afternoon. 

La tarde. 

The morning. 

La maffana. 

The day. 


ii or on is usually rendered b] 

r the definite article in alluding to 

parts of the body. 

He has a large forehead. 

£l tiene la frente ancha. 

He has blue eyes. 

Tiene los ojos azules. 

They have white teeth. 

EUos tienen los dientes blancos. 

The forehead. 

La frente. 







Big, large, tall, great. 




Grande usually loses the syllable de when it stands before a 
masculine singular noun. When it applies to greatness of quality 
rather than size, it precedes the noun. In such cases it sometimes 
loses the syllable de before even feminine singular nouns. 

A large knife. 
A large man. 
A great man. 
A Spanish book. 
An English book. 
Spanish money. 
English paper. 

Un cuchillo grande. 
Tin hombre grande. 
Un gran hombre. 
Un libro espaflol. 
Un libro ingles. 
Moneda espafiola. 
Papel ingl6s. 

In ordinary language the attributive adjective follows the noun 
which it qualifies. This includes participial, proper, augmentative, 




diminutive, and usually long adjectives, as well as all past par- 
ticiples : 

Do you read a German book t 
I read an Italian book. 
A beloved son. 

To listen to something. 

To listen to some one. 
Do you listen to that man f 
Yes, I listen to him. 
Do you listen to what he tells you f 
Yes, I listen to it. 
Do you listen to what I tell you t 
Do you listen to me f 

To correct. 

To take off, or away. 

To take away. 

The exercise. 

The theme. 

To take, receive. 

4 Lee V. un libro alemdn f 
Leo un libro italiano. 
Un hijo amado. 
Escuchar alguna cosa, or algo. 
Escuchar k uno, or k alguno. 
4 Escucha Y. & ese hombre f 
Si ; le escucho. 
t Escucha V. lo que le dicet 
Si ; yo lo escucho. 
t Escucha V. lo que le digof 
4 Me escucha V.f 


Quitar, or quitarse. 

Llevarse — Llevar. 

El ejercicio. 

El tema. 


When the possessive pronouns are to be used with reflexive 
verbs, they are replaced by the definite articles d, la, loa, 
and las: 

Do you take your hat off t 

I take it off. 

I take my gloves off. 

Do you take off your shoes! 

I take them off. 

Does your father correct your ex- 
ercises f 

He corrects them. 

Do you take teaf 

Yes, Sir, I take a little. 

Do you drink tea every day f 

I drink a little every day. 

My father drinks coffee. 

He drinks coffee every morn- 

My brother drinks chocolate. 

He drinks chocolate every morn- 

4 Be quita V. el sombrero! 

Me lo quito. 

Me quito los guantes. 

4Se quita Y. los zapatos! 

Me los quito. 

iCorrige los ejercicios de V. su 

Los corrige. 
iToma V. te! 
Si, sefior ; tomo un poco. 
4Toma V. el te todos los dias ! 
Yo tomo un poco todo los dias. 
Mi padre toraa caf6. 
Toma su c&U todas las ma- 

Mi hermano toma chocolate. 
Toma chocolate todas las ma- 



by Google 



1. i Que va V. a buscar ? Voy a buscar vino. 2. i Apren- 
de el aleman su hermano de V.? Lo aprende. 3. i Hablan 
ruso nuestros vecinos ? No hablan puso, pero hablan el 
4rabe. 4. i Eres griego ? No ; soy espanol. 5. i Hablan 
polaco los rusos ? No hablan polaco, sino latin, griego, y 
arabigo. 6. h Que es este hombre ? Es medico. 7. i Que 
hace el hijo de nuestro amigo ? Va al jardin, porque {be- 
cause) no quiere hacer su ejercicio. 8. i Vende su buey el 
padre deV.? Vende los caballos en lugar de vender el 
buey. 9. i Mata bueyes el camicero ? Mata carneros en vez 
de matar bueyes. 10. i Va V. al teatro ? Voy al almacen 
en vez de ir al teatro. 11. i Quien se lleva los vasos ? Su 
criado de V. se los lleva. 12. i Toma V. te todas las mana- 
nas ? Tomo un poco todas las mananas. 13. i Toman te sus 
ninosdeV.? Toman cafe en vez de tomar te. 


1. Do you go for anything? I go for something. 2. 
Does your servant go for some bread ? He goes for some. 
3. Do you take off your gloves in order to give me money ? 
I take them off in order to give you some. 4. Who learns 
English ? The Frenchman learns it. 5. Do you speak Span- 
ish ? No, sir ; I speak Italian. 6. Do you speak Arabic ? 
No, I speak Greek and Latin. 7. Have yoii an Italian hat ? 
No, I have a Spanish hat. 8. Are these men Germans ? No, 
they are Russians. 9. Are these men merchants ? No, they 
are carpenters. 10. Art thou a Spaniard ? I am not a Span- 
iard ? 11. Has the German black eyes ? No, he has blue 
eyes. 12. What dost thou do instead of playing ? I study 
instead of playing. 13. Do the children of our neighbors 
read ? They write instead of reading. 14. Does the son of 
the painter study English ? He studies Greek instead of 
studying English. 15. Does your brother listen to me? 
He speaks instead of listening to you. 16. Do the chil- 
dren of the physician listen to what we tell them ? They 
do not listen to it. 17. Does your father correct my exer- 
cises, or those of my brother ? He corrects neither yours 

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nor your brother's. 18. Do you take off your shoes ? I do 
not take them off. 19. What do these boys take off ? They 
take off their shoes and their hats. 20. Do you give me 
English or German paper ? I give you neither English 
(repeat popeZ) nor German paper ; I give you French paper. 


To wet, to moisten. 
To show. 

I show you my book. 

Ton show them to me. 

Do yon show me your gun f 

I show it to you. 

What do you show the man t 

I show him my fine clothes. 



To smoke (tobacco). 

The gardener. 

The valet. 

The concert 

To think, or to intend. 
Do you intend to go to the ball 

this evening t 
I intend to go. 

To know. 
Do you know f 
I know the verb. 
What does he know f 

To swim. 
Do you know how to swim t 

Mojar, humedeoer. 
j Mostrar,* ensefiar. 
\ Hacer ver. 
Yo muestro (ense&o) mi libro i V. 
y. me los muestra (me los ensefia). 
4 Me muestra (or ense&a) Y. su 

fusil f 
Se lo ensefio i,Y.,or se lo mues- 
tro d V. 
4 Qu6 ensefia {or que muestra) Y. 
al hombref 
j Le muestro Hos vestidos hermo- 
( Yo le ense&o ) sos. 

Tabaco de polvo, rap6. 
El jardinero. 
El criado. 
El concierto. 
Pensar,* or intentar. 
4 Piensa Y. ir al baile esta noche f 

Pienso ir. 

S€ el verbo. 

4 Sabe Y. nadar t 

^ See AUntmr, in the Elements. 


by Google 



Do you know how to write f 
Does he know how to read f 

4 Sabe V. escribir f 
I Sabe leer ^1 1 

In such cases how is not translated, and setter takes the infinitive 
without a preposition. 

Trader, storekeeper. 

To extinguish. 

Do you extinguish the fire f 
I do not extinguish it. 
He extinguishes it. 
Thou extinguishest it. 

To light, to kindle. . 
As— as. 
Do you often go to the ball t 
As often as you. 
As often as I. 
As often as he. 
A^ often as they. 

Do you see my brother often f 


Oftener than. 
I see him oftener than you. 

Not so often. 

Not so often as. 
I do not speak as often as you* 

Not as often as you. 
Not as often as I. 
Not as often as they. 

Into, in. 

Into, mtcming to. 
To go into the garden. 

To go out. 

Mercader, tendero. 


Apagar, extinguir.* (See Ele- 
ments for verbs in guir,) 

4 Apaga V . el f uego f 

No lo apago. 

£l lo apaga. 

Tti lo apagas. 


k menudo, frecuentemente. 

Tan— como. 

4 Va V. frecuentemente al baile f 

Tan frecuentemente como V. 

Tan k menudo como yo. 

Tan i menudo como ^1. 

Tan k menudo como ellos. 

i Ve V. k menudo k mi hermano f 

i Ve V. d mi hermano frecuente- 
mente f 

Mds k menudo. 

Mds k menudo que. 

To lo Yeo mds k menudo que V. 

No tan k menudo. 

No tan k menudo como. 

Yo no hablo tan k menudo como 

No tan k menudo como V. 

No tan k menudo como yo. 

No tan k menudo como ellos. 



Ir al jardin. 

Salir,* or salir f aera, or k fnera. 
(See the verb SdUr^ in the Ele- 


by Google 



1. I Qu6 tabaco quiere el ? Quiere tabaco en polvo. 2. 
% Envia V. su criado a casa del sastre ? Lo envio 4 casa del 
zapatero en vez de enviarlo 4 casa del sastre. 3. i Hallan 
BUS hijos de V. 4 los amigos que buscan ? No los hallan. 4. 
i Piensan sus aminos de V. ir al teatro ? Piensan ir. 5. 
iSaben griego sus hermanos de V.? No lo saben; pero 
piensan estudiarlo. 6. i Es comerciante este caballero ? No 
lo es. 7. i Sabe V. hacer te ? Se hacerlo. 8. i Sabe V. escri- 
bir un billete ? Se escribirlo. 9. i Apaga V. el fuego ? No 
lo apago. 10. i Va V. frecuentemente a casa del "espanol ? 
Voy frecuentemente a su casa. 11. i Van sus ninos de V. 
mas frecuentemente al baile que nosotros ? Van m4s fre- 
cuentemente que Vds. 12. i Cuando los ve V.? Los veo 
todas las mananas a las cinco menos cuarto. 13. i Salimos 
nosotros tan 4 menudo como nuestros vecinos ? Salimos 
mas a menudo que ellos. 


1. What does your father want ? He wants some tobacco. 
2. Do you want tobacco ? I do not want any ; I do not 
smoke. 3. Does he show him his beautiful birds ? He does 
show them to him. 4. Does the gardener go into the gar- 
den ? He goes to the market instead of going into the gar- 
den. 5. When do you intend to go to the concert ? I 
intend to go there this evening. 6. Do you find the man 
whom you are seeking ? I find him. 7. When do they 
intend to go there ? They intend to go there to-morrow. 8. 
Do you intend to buy some ? I do not wish to buy any. 9. 
Does he know Spanish ? He does not know it. 10. Do you 
know English ? I do not know it, but intend to learn it 
11. Does your son know how to make coats ? He does not 
know how to make them; he is no tailor. 12. Do you 
intend to study Arabic? I intend to study Arabic and 
Syriac. 13. Does he listen to you ? He listens to me. 14. 
Do you wish to take some tea ? I wish to take some wine ; 
have you any ? 15. Where is your father going ? He is 
going nowhere; he wishes to remain at home. 16. Dost 

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thou conduct anybody ? I conduct nobody. 17. Does your 
servant lead your child ? He leads him. 18. Where are 
our friends taking their sons ? They are taking them home. 
19. Where does he light the fire ? He lights it in your ware- 
house. 20. Do the Spaniards often come to you? They 
come often to me. 21. Does your servant go to the market 
as often as my cook ? He goes there as often as he. 

TWENTY-EIGHTH LESSON— Leccion Vigesimaoctava 

Do I wish f 
Am I able f Can It 
Am I doing t 
What am I doing t 
What do I say f 
Where am I going! 
To whom do I speak f 
Where do you go f 
Where does he go f 

Do you receive a note every day t 

Yes, I receive one. 

To begin. 

Do I begin to speak Spanish! 
You begin to speak it. 
When do you begin t 
I begin now. 
Do you speak before you listen t 
I listen before I speak. 
Does he go to market before 

To breakfast. 

The breakfast. 
Does he go there before he writes f 
He goes there before breakfast. 

I Quiero yo f 

4 Puedo yo f 

4 Estoy haciendo f 4 Hago yo f 

4 Qu6 estoy haciendo f 4 Qu^ hago f 


4Ad6nde voyt 

4 A qui^nhablof 

4 Ad6nde va V. f 

4Ad6nde va^lf 


4Recibe V. un billete todos los 

Si ; recibo uno. 

Comenzar.* ) (Like alentar.) 

Empezar.* | 


4Comienzo d hablar espa&olf 

Y. comienza k hablarlo. 

4 Ca&ndo empieza V. f 

Empiezo ahora. 

Antes de. 

iHabla V. antes de escucharf 

(Yo) escucho antes de hablar. 

lYa al raercado or & la plaza 

antes de almorzar t 
r Almorzar.* (See A cordar, in the 
i Elements.) 


El desayuno, el almuerzo. 

I^Va ^1 alld antes de escribirt 

Va alii antes del almuerzo. 

Digitized by VjOOQ LC 


To depart, to set out. i Marcharse. 

(Salir* partir. 
When do you intend to depart t | Cudndo piensa V. salir {or mar- 

I intend to depart to-morrow. Pienso salir mafiana. 
Well. Bien. 

Bad, badly. Mai. 

Adverbs usually follow their verbs. They are regularly formed 
by adding mente to adjectives. When these terminate in this is 
changed to a before taking the ending; otherwise no change is 

Final. Final. 

Finally. Finalmente. 

True. Verdadero. 

Truly. Verdaderamente. 

Does he speak well t 4 Habla el bien t 

He speaks badly. Habla mal. 

Do you speak Spanish well t 4 Habla V. bien el espafiol f 

I speak Spanish well. Hablo bien el espafiol. 

Too much. Demasiado. 

The same. Lo mismo. 

Just the same. Cabalmente lo mismo. 

1. i Hablo yo bien ? V. no habla bien. 2. i Hablo yo tan 
bien como V. ? V. no habla tan bien como yo. 3. i Voy yo 4 
su casa de V. 6 viene V. a mi casa ? V. viene a mi casa, y yo 
voy a la casa de V. 4. i Recibe libros su amigo de V.? Re- 
cibe algunos. 5. i Kecibo yo tanto pan como queso ? V. 
recibe mds de este que de aquel. 6. i Cuantos libros mas 
recibe nuestro vecino ? Recibe tres m4s. 7. i Cudndo piensa 
salir el extranjero ? Piensa salir hoy. 8. ^ Le contesta su 
padre de V. 4 su billete ? Me lo contesta. 9. ^ Le escucha su 
hermano de V. antes de hablar? Habla antes de escu- 
charme. 10. i Barre su criado de Y. los almacenes antes de 
ir 4 la plaza ? Ya 4 la plaza antes de barrer los almacenes. 
IL 2 Se quita los zapatos el hijo de Y. antes de quitarse el 
yestido ? No se quita ni los zapatos ni el vestido. 12. | A 
qu6 hora se desayuna el americano ? Se desayuna todos los 
dias 4 las nueve. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


1. Do I read well ? Tou read well. 2. Does he speak 
German well ? He speaks it badly. 3. Am I able to make 
hats ? You are not able to make any ; you are not a hatter. 
4. What am I doing ? You are writing exercises. 5. Do I 
begin to speak ? You begin to speak. 6. Is he at home ? 
Do I know ? 7. Do I read as often as you ? You do 
not read as often as I, but you speak oftener than I. a 
When do you come to me ? Every morning at half-past 
six. 9. Does the Pole drink as much as the Russian ? He 
drinks just as much. 10. What dost thou receive ? I receive 
some money. 11. Do the Poles receive tobacco? They 
receive a little. 12. From whom do your children receive 
books ? They receive some from me and some from their 
friends. 13. Do you receive one more gun ? I receive one 
more. 14 Do you intend to depart this evening ? I intend 
to depart to-morrow. 15. Is he going to the Ehiglish ? He 
is going to them. 16. Do your friends answer you ? They 
answer me. 17. Does your brother begin to learn Italian f 
He begins to learn it 18. Are they able to write it ? They 
are able to write it 19. Do your children read before they 
write ? They write before they read. 20. Do you intend to 
go out before you breakfast ? I intend to breakfast before I 
go out 21. Can I take off my shoes before I take off my 
gloves ? You can not take off your shoes before you take off 
your gloves. 

TWENTY-NINTH LESSON—Leccion Vigesimanovena 

As much — as. Tanto— como. 

As many — as. Tantos— como. 

No less — than. ) _^ 

No fewer-than. po-menos^ue. 


Less — than. ) _ . 

Fewer-than. fMenos-^ue. 

Not so much— as. No~tanto— como. 

Not so many— as. No— tantos— como. 


zed by Google 




More — than. 
I have as much money as you. 
Tou have as many friends as I. 
He has no less bread than ham. 
We have less money than he. 
They have not as many books as 

I have more tea than coffee. 
Tou have more than ten dollars. 
More than five years. 
Less than twenty yeara. 

Much. Very much. 
Tou speak as much as I. 
He does not speak less than you. 
They drink less than we. 
He does not speak as much as 

I read more than you. 
This is the book that I like most. 
He is the man that I least esteem. 

He studies very much. 
The more he studies, the more he 

The less he drinks, the less thirsty 

he is. 
The more he plays, the less he 

The less he plays, the more he 


So much the more — ^than. 
So much the less — ^than. 

Mds— que. 
Tengo tanto dinero como V. 
V. tiene tantos amigos como yo. 
£l no tiene menos pan que jam6n« 
Tenemos menos dinero que ^1. 
No tienen tantos libros como Yds. 

Tengo m&s te que caf ^. 
v. tiene mis de diez pesos. 
Mils de cinco alios. 
Menos de veinte alios. 

Mucho. Muchisimo. 
v. habla tanto como yo. 
£l no habla menos que V. 
Beben menos que nosotros. 
No habla tanto como ellos. 

Leo m&s que V. 

£ste es el libro que mds me gusta. 

£l es el hombre que menos estimo. 

Estudia muchisimo. 
Cuanto m&s estudia, tanto mds 

Cuanto menos bebe, tanto menos 

sed tiene. 
Cuanto mds juega, tanto menos 

Cuanto menos juega, tanto mds 

Tanto mds — que. 
Tanto menos— que. 


The comparative degree is formed by placing mds or menoB 
before the positive; the superlative is formed by adding these 
adverbs preceded by the definite article eZ, la, loa, las. 

Many adjectives have an absolute superlative, which is formed 
by adding itimo to the positive degree, as prttdente, prudent, j^ru- 
dentitimo, very prudent. In making this change, adjectives ending 
in a, e, lose these letters ; those ending in ble, co, go change these 

Digitized by V^OOQLC 



to bily qu, gu. Those terminating in consonants take the superla- 
tive suffix without change. 


High — ^higher— highest. 

Low — lower— lowest. 

Gk)od— better — very good—best. 

G reat — greater— greatest 
Bad — worse — worst 
Little — ^less — least. 
Small — smaller — smallest 
Strong — very strong. 
New — very new. 
Wise — very wise. 
Sacred — very sacred. 
Faithful — very faithf uL 
Honest — very honest 
Healthy— very healthy. 

Alto— superior — supremo. 

Bajo— inferior— infimo. 

Bueno — mejor — bonlsimo — 6pti- 

Grande — mayor— mdximo. 
Malo— peor— p^simo. 

|.Pequefio--menor — ^minima 

Fuerte — ^fortisimo. 
Nuevo— novisimo. 
Sabio — sapientisimo. 
Sagrado — sacratisimo. 
Fiel— fidellsimo. 
Integro— integ^rrimo. 
Salubre — salub^rrimo. 


Well— better — the best. 
Bad — ^worse — ^the worst. 
Little— less — the least. 
Much — more — the most 
This book is small, that is smaller, 
and that is the smallest of all. 

This hat is large, but that is 

Is your hat as large as minef 

Is it larger than yours f 

It is not so large as yours. 

Are our neighbor's children as 

good as ours f 
They are better than ours. 
They are not as good as ours. 

Bien — ^mejor— lo mejor. 

Mai — ^peor — ^lo peor. 

Poco— menos— lo menos. 

Mucho— m4s — lo m^ 

Este libro es pequefio, 6Be es mis 
peque&o, y aqu^l es el m^ pe- 
quefio de todos. 

Todo, todos. 

Este sombrero es grande, pero 
aqu^l es m^ grande. 

4 Es su sombrero de V . tan grande 
como el mio f 

4 Es m&s grande que el de V. t 

No es tan grande como el de V. 

4 Son los nifios de nuestro veoino 
tan buenos como los nuestros f 

Son mejores que los nuestros. 

No son tan buenos como los nues- 

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Un libro may hermoso, or hermo- 

Libros muy hermosos, or hermo- 

Un cuchillo muy bonito. 
May bien. 

Aquel hombre es sapientisimo. 
Este pdjaro es muy hermoso, or 

I De qui6n f (Cuyo, cuya — cuyos, 


i4 De quien es este sombrero f 
4 Ciiyo sombrero es Iste t 
Cuyo agrees in gender and number with the noun which fol- 
lows it. 

A very fine book. 

Very fine books. 

A very pretty knife. 
Very well. 
That man is extremely learned. 
This bird is very handsome. 

Whose t (of whom 1) 
Whose hat is this f 

It is my brother's hat. 
It is the hat of my brother. 
It is my brother's. 
Who has the finest hat f 

That of my father is the finest. 
Do you read as often as 1 1 
I read as often as you. 
Do our children write as much as 

we dot 
They write more than you. 
To whom do you write t 
I write to our friends. 
We read good books. 

LEs el sombrero de mi hermano. 

Es de mi hermano. 

4 Quien tiene el sombrero mds 

hermoso I 
El de mi padre es el mds hermoso. 
4 Lee V. tan k menudo como yo t 
Leo tan k menudo como V. 
(Escriben nuestros nifios tanto 

como nosotros f 
Escriben mds que Vds. 
4 A. qui^n escribe V. f 
Escribo k nuestros amigos. 
Leemos buenos libros. 


1. i De quien es este libro ? Es mio. 2. i Es su hermano 
tan alto como V.? Es tan alto como yo. 3. i Quienes tie- 
nen los mds hermosos guantes ? Los franceses los tienen. 
4. i De quien recibe el los zapatos ? Los recibe de su mejor 
amigo. 5. 2 Es su vino de V. tan bueno como el mio ? Es 
mejor. 6. l Tiene el americano un baston mas hermoso que 
el tuyo ? Tiene uno mas hermoso. 7. ^ Se marcha V. hoy ? 
No me marcho hoy. 8. l Lee el ingles tantos libros bue- 
nos coma malos ? Lee mas de los buenos que de los malos. 

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9. ^Hace el zapatero de V. tantos zapatos como el mio; 
Hace mas que el de V. 10. i Puede V. nadar tan bien como 
mi hijo ? Puedo nadar mejor que el, pero el puede hablar 
espanol mejor que yo. 11. i E^ribo yo tanto como V.? V. 
escribe mas que yo. 12. i Leen Yds. libros ingleses ? Lee- 
mos libros espanoles en yez de leer libros ingleses. 13. 
i Tiene alguien ninos m4s hermosos que V.? Ninguno las 
tiene mas hermosos. 


1. Are you taller than I ? I am taller than you. 2. 
Are the clothes (vestidoa) of the Italians as fine as those 
of the Irish ? They are finer, but not so good. 3. Is your 
iorse good ? It is good, but yours is better, and that of 
the Englishman is the best of all the horses which we 
know. 4. Is your wine as good as mine ? It is better. 5. 
Hast thou a finer garden than that of our physician ? I 
have one finer than his. 6. Is your coat as pretty as mine ? 
It is not so pretty, but better than yours. 7. Which of 
these two children is the better. The one who studies is 
better than the one who plays. 8. Do the merchants sell 
more sugar than coffee ? They sell more of the latter than 
of the former. 9. Does he read as well as you ? He reads 
better than I. 10. Whose gun is the finest ? Yours is very 
fine, but that of the captain is still finer, and ours is the 
finest of all. 11. Does my brother speak French as often as 
you ? He speaks and reads it as often as I. 12. Do we write 
it as often as they ? They write of tener than we. 

THIRTIETH LESSON—Leccion Trigesima 

To believe. Creer. (See verbs in eer, in the 

To put. Poner. (See this verb in the 

To put on. Ponerse. 

To put in. Meterse. (Reflex.) 

Do you put on f 4 Se pone V. f 

I put on. Me pongo. 

I put on my hat Me pongo el sombrero. 

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He puts on his glovee. 

Do you put on your shoes f 

We do pu*. them on. 

Whftt do your brothers put on f 

They put on their clothes. 

Whither do you conduct me f 

I conduct you to my father. 

Do you go out f 

I go out. 

Do we go out f 
When does your father go out f 

As early as you. 
He goes out as early as you. 

Too much. 
Do you speak too much t 
I do not speak enough. 

Later than you. 
I go out later than you. 

Sooner, earlier. 

Se pone los guantes. 
I Se pone V . los zapatos f 
Nos los ponemos. 
iQue se ponen sus hermanos de V.f 
Se ponen los vestidos. 
I Adonde me conduce V. t 
Yo conduzco & V. & casa de mi 
I Salimos t 
I Cu&ndo sale su padre de V. t 
Tan temprano como V. 
£j1 sale tan temprano como V. 
|Habla V. demasiado! 
No hablo bastante. 

MAs tarde que V, 
Salgo mis tarde que V. 
Mds temprano. 
Does your father go there earlier | Va su padre de V. alld mds tem- 

than I f 
He goes there too early. 

Do you speak already! 

Not yet. 

I do not speak yet. 

Not yet, Sir. 

Do you finish your note f 

I do not finish it yet 

Do you breakfast already! 

Who receives the most money f 
The English receive the most. 

prano que yo ? 
Va all& demasiado temprano. 

j Todavia no. 
( Aun no. 
Todavia no hablo. 
Todavia no, sefior. 
I Acaba V. su billetef 

^No lo acabo todavia. 
Atin no lo acabo. 
^l Almuerza V. ya f 
I Ya estd V. almorzando f 
I Qui^n recibe m4s dinero f 
Los ingleses son los que reciben 


by Google 


We read more than they, but the Leemos mas que ellos, pero Ips 
French read the most. franceses son los que leen m&s. 

The letter. La carta. 

That letter. Aquella, or esa carta. 

The letters. Las cartas. 

To eat too much is dangerous. Comer, or el comer demasiado es 

Verbs in the infinitive mode frequently become substantives, 
with or without the article. 

( El hablar demasiado es muy necio. 
To speak too much is foolish. -j ^ ^^^ ^^^j^ hablar demasiado. 

To do good to those that have Hacer {or el hacer) bien & los que 
offended us, is a commendable nos han ofendido es una accion 
action. laudable. 


1. i Se pone su hermano de V. el sombrero antes de po- 
nerse el vestido ? Se pone el vestido antes de ponerse el 
sombrero. 2. l Habla V. ya el espanol ? No lo bablo ; pero 
comienzo a aprenderlo. 3. i Va V. al teatro tan frecuente- 
mente como yo ? Voy tan frecuentemente como V. 4. i A 
que hora va alia el ingles ? Va alia a las once y media. 
5. I Escribo yo demasiado ? V. no escribe demasiado ; pero 
habla demasiado. 6. i Compran demasiado trigo sus amigos 
de V. ? . No compran mas que un poco. 7. i Me lleva V. 
alia ? Le llevo a V. alia. 8. i Es pobre ? No es pobre ; es 
mas rico que V. 9. j Es docto ese hombre ? Es el m4s 
docto de todos los hombres que conozco. 10. i Les da V. 
menos pan que queso a esos hombres ? Les doy menos de 
este que de aquel. 11. i Son ellos tan ricos como los ameri- 
canos ? Son menos ricos que ellos. 12. i Vende V. el p4- 
jaro ? No lo vendo. 


1. Do you put on another coat in order to go to the play ? 
I put on another. 2. Do our children put on their shoes in 
order to go to our friends ? They put them on in order to 
go to them. 3. Does your father go out already ? He does 
not yet go out. 4. Does he go out earlier than you ? I go 
out earlier than he. 5. Do you breakfast early ? We do 

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not breakfast late. 6. Do you not go too early to the con- 
cert ? I go there too late. 7. Is my hat too large ? It is 
neither too large nor too small. 8. Have you bread enough? 
I have only a little, but enough. 9. Is it too late to {para) 
go to your father ? It is not too late to go to him. 10. Does 
the Spaniard buy a horse ? He can not buy one. 11. Do 
you know that man ? I know him. 12. Is my horse as bad 
as the Spaniard's ? It is much worse than anybody's. 13. 
Do you receive as much money as your neighbors ? I re- 
ceive much more than they. 14. Do you read as much as 
the Russians ? We read more than they, but the French 
read the most 16. Are your birds as fine as those of the 
Irish ? They are less fine than theirs, but those of the Span- 
iards are the least fine. 

THIRTY-FIBST LESSON—Leccion Trigesimaprimera 


To loTe, 




To speak. 




To buy, 










To eat, to dine, 

eaten, dined. Comer, 


To drink. 






To receive, 




To divide. 




To part. 




To be. 


1 Estar, 



To have (auxiliary) 

, had. 



I have, thou hast, he has. 

To he, tii has, 61 ha 


We have, you have, 

» they have. 

Nosotros hemos, vosotros hab^is 

ellos han. 


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Tener is a principal verb, meaning to have or to possess ; ?Kiber is 
an auxiliary verb, to have, and is used to aid a principal verb in 
process of inflection : 

I have three horses. Tengo tres caballos. 

He has seen him. £l lo ha visto. 

To have gone. Haber ido. 

To have loved. Haber amado. 

When any form of hetber is used with a past participle imme- 
diately following, such participle is unchangeable : 

The man has loved. 
The woman has loved. 

El hombre ha amado. 
La mujer ha amado. 

But when another past participle is used in addition to the past 
participle of ser or estar, to make a passive voice, the second par- 
ticiple takes the gender and number of the subject : 

The man has been loved. 
The woman has been loved. 
The girls have been loved. 
Have you gone to market f 

I have gone. 

I went. 
I have esteemed them. 
He has esteemed her. 
They have been esteemed. 
The sisters have been admired^ 


Have you gone to the ballf 
Have you ever been at the ballf 

I have never gone. 

Have you already been at the 

I have already been there. 

Where have you been this morn- 

I have been in the garden. 

Where has thy brother b^n f 

El hombre ha sido amado. 

La mujer ha sido amada. 

Las muchachas han sido amadas. 

I Ha ido V. al mercado ! 
Yo he ido. 
Yo f ui. 

Yo los he estimado. 

£l la ha estimado. 

EUos han sido estimados. 

Las hermanas han sido admi- 

Algfuna vez. En algdn tiempo. 

Jamds. Nunca. Nunca jamib. 

I Ha ido v. al baile ! 

I Ha estado V. alguna vez en el 

Jamds he ido. 

1 1 Ha estado V. ya en el teatro t 
j I Ha ido V. ya al teatro ! 

Ya he ido. Ya he estado. 

I Ad6nde ha ido V. esta maflanat 

Yo he estado en el jardin. 
I En diSnde ha estado tu 



zed by Google 


He has been in the warehouse. Ha estado en el almac^n. 

Has he been there as early as I f | Ha estado 41 all& tan temprano 


He has been there earlier than Ha estado alld mds temprano 
you. que V. 

Anywhere. Alguna parte, cualquiera part^ 

Nowhere. Ninguna parte. 

To remain, to stay. Quedarse, estarse. 

Do you go somewhere f I Va V. 4 alguna parte f 

I go nowhere now; I stay at To no Yoy & ninguna parte ahora ; 

home. me quedo en casa. 

Do you remain in the garden f | Se queda V. en el jardin f 

Tes, I remain here. Si, me quedo aqui 


1. I Ha ida V. al baile ? He ido. 2. | Ha estado V. ya 
en el jardin del frances ? Aun no he estado en el. 3. i Cuan- 
do ha ido V. all4 ? He ido esta manana. 4. | He estado yo 
en su despacho, 6 en el de su amigo de V. ? V. no ha estado 
ni en el mio ni en el de mi amigo, sino en el del ingles. 
5. I Piensa ir al mercado el hijo de nuestro jardinero ? 
Piensa ir all4. 6. i Que quiere el comprar alli ? Quiere 
comprar polios, bueyes, trigo, vino y queso. 7. l Ha estado 
V. jam4s en el teatro ? Nunca he estado alli. 8. i Piensa 61 
ir hoy ? Piensa ir mafiana. 9. i Ha ido nuestro vecino al 
teatro tan a menudo como nosotros ? Ha ido mds a menudo 
que nosotros. 10. i Van nuestros amigos demasiado tem- 
prano k sus despachos ? Van alli demasiado tarde. 11. i Va 
V. de noche a alguna parte ? No voy 4 ninguna parte. Me 
quedo en casa. 12. i Ha ido V. a tomar caf6 ? He ido 4 


1. Where have you been ? I have been to the market 
2. Hast thou been there ? I have not been there. 3. Do 
you intend to go there ? I intend to go there. 4. Has your 
brother already been in my large garden ? He has not yet 
been there. 5. Have you already been at the ball ? I have 
not yet been there. 6. Have you been in my warehouses ? 
I have been there. 7. Has the Italian been in our ware- 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 


houses, or in those of the Dutch ? He has neither been in 
ours nor in those of the Dutch, but in those of the Germans. 

8. When has he been there ? He has been there to-day. 

9. Have you already been at my brother^s house ? I have 
already been there. 10. Have our friends ever been at our 
house ? They have never been there. 11. To whom do you 
wish to write a letter ? I wish to write one to my son. 12. 
At what o^clock will he set out ? He will set out at half- 
past six. 13. Have you often been to the concert ? I have 
often been (there). 14. Do they go there as late as we ? 
They go there later than we. 15. What does he do there ? 
He writes. 16. Does not he go out ? He does not go out 
17. When does he come to you ? He comes to me every 
evening. 18. Does your servant go for anything ? 19. He 
goes for some wine. 20. When do you drink tea ? I drink 
some every morning. 

THIRTY-SECOND LESSON— Lecci6n Trig6simaaegunda 

There to be. Haber. 

This is an awkward attempt to render the impersonal use of the 
verb hciber^ which corresponds to the English there is, there toere^ 
there will he. In this sense it is used only in the third person sin- 
gular of all modes and tenses, the indicative present third singular 
being irregular, hay, there is, there are. 

To take place. ^I?!"*" "^"jj*'*™^ 

( Celebrarse. Darse. 

That Eso, aquello. 

This form of the demonstrative, called the neuter, like the so* 
called neuter article lo, is applied to a thought a sentence, phrase, 
something said or done, which is scarcely specific enough to be 
given a gender: 

What is that which you tell me f | Qud es eso que V. me dice t 

I Be celebra el baile esta noohe! 

Does the ball take place this 
evening f 

I Se da el baile esta nochet 
I Hay baile esta noohe t 

It takes place. Se celebra. 

d by Google 

Digitized fc 



it takes place this eyening. 
It does not take place to-day. 

When did the ball take place f 
When has the ball taken place f 

It took place yesterday. 

It has taken place yesterday. 

The day before yesterday. 
How many times (how often) f 
Many times. 
Several times. 


Do you sometimes go to the ball f 
I go sometimes. 

Haye you gone there sometimes f 
I have gone there often. 
Have the men had my trunk f 

They have not had it. 

Have I done wrong in buying 
books f 

You have not done wrong in buy- 
ing some. 

When had I it, (when have I had 

Where had you them t (have you 

Have you had anything? 

I have had nothing. 

The watch, or the clock. 

Se celebra esta noche. 
Se da esta noche, etc. 
No se celebra hoy, no se da hoy. 
No lo hay hoy. 
'4 Oudndo se celebr6 f 
I Cudndo se di6 el baile f 
I Cudndo se ha tenido baile f 
I Gudndo ha habido baile f 
Se di6 ayer. . 
Se celebr6 ayer. 
Se tuvo ayer. 
Anteayer, antier, antes de ayer. 
iCudntes vecesf 
Una vez. 
Dos veces. 
Muchas veces. 
Varias veces, algunas veces. 
Antiguamente, en otro tieinpo. 
En tiempo pasado, en lo pasado. 

Algunas veces. 
4 Va V. algunas veces al baile I 
Voy algunas veces. 

4 Ha ido V. alld aJgunas vecesf 
He ido aI14 k menudo. 
I Han tenido mi baul los hom- 

No lo han tenido. 
I He hecho mal en comprar 

libros f 
v. no ha hecho mal en comprar 

I Cu^ndo lo he tenido f 

I D6nde los ha tenido V. t 

I Ha tenido V. algot 
Nada he tenido. 

El reloj. Belojes, (ph). 

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1. i Ea tenido V. mi guante ? No lo he tenido. 2. i He- 
mes tenido su hermoso fusil ? No lo hemes tenido. 3. 
i Ha tenido algunos polios el criado del capitan ruso ? Ha 
tenido algunos. 4. i Han tenido buen tabaco los polacos ? 
Han tenido un poco. 6. i Ha tenido el holandes razon 6 no ? 
Jamas ha tenido razon, ni ha dejado de tenerla. 6. i Que 
ha tenido el pintor ? Ha tenido cuadros hermosos. 7. i He 
hecho yo bien en escribirle a mi hermano ? V. no ha hecho 
mal en escribirle. 8. j Se ha celebrado el baile ayer ? No 
ha habido baile ayer. 9. i Cuantas veces ha estado V. en el 
teatro? He estado solo una vez. 10. i Va el alii tan a 
menudo como mi jardinero ? Va mas a menudo que el. 
11. i Cuando has estado en el concierto ? He estado alii 
anteayer. 12. i Ha ido V. temprano a la comedia ? Yo he 
ido tarde. 13. i Ha tenido alguno mis cuchillos de plata ? 
Nadie los ha tenido. 


1. Have you had my dog ? I have had it. 2. Have I 
had your knife ? You have had it. 3. Has your brother 
had my iron hammer ? He has had it. 4. Who has had 
my leather shoes ? Your servants have had them. 5. Have 
we had the mattresses of the foreigners ? We have not had 
them. 6. Has the young man had the first volume of my 
dictionary ? He has not had the first, but the second. 7. 
Have you had any sugar ? I have had some. 8. Has the 
Frenchman had good wine ? He has had some, and he still 
has some. 9. Has the son of our gardener had any bread ? 
He has had some. 10. Have the English had as much sugar 
as tea ? They have had as much of the one as of the other. 
11. Have I been wrong in buying a horse ? You have been 
wrong in buying one. 12. Has your servant had my shoes ? 
He has not had them. 13. Have the Germans had many 
friends? They have had many. 14. Has the Turk had 
more paper than com ? He has had less of the latter than 
of the former. 15. Have you had a sore finger? I have 
had a sore eye. 16. Does it take place to-day ? It takes 

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place to-day. 17. At what o'clock did it take place? It 
took place (it has taken place) at eleven o'clock. 18. Do you 
go sometimes to the theater? I go sometimes. 19. Has 
your brother ever gone to the ball ? He has never gone. 
20. Dost thou go sometimes into the garden ? I go some- 
times. 21. Does your old cook often go to the market ? He 
goes there often. 

THIRTY-THIRD LESSON— Leccion Trigesimatercera 

The perfect tense is formed from the indicative present of Kaiber 
with the past participle of some principal verb. 

The action of the verb in the perfect tense is viewed at its close, 
and usually as coming up to, and concluded in, the present time, 
without reference to its beginning or duration : 

I have studied grammar. He estudiado la gramdtica. 

However, it is sometimes used with reference to a state or action 
which did not come up to the present time, but, like the Engli^ 
preterit, was completed in some past period of time : 

I studied my lesson yesterday. He estudiado mi lecci6n a/yer. 

To make, to do. Made, done. Hacer. Hecho. 

What have you done f I Qui ha hecho V. f 

I have done nothing. J ^o he hecho nada. 

\ Nada he hecho. 

Has that shoemaker made my | Ha hecho mis zapatos aquel za- 

shoesf paterof 

He has made them. Los ha hecho. 

Have you put on your shoes! | Se ha puesto V. los zapatosf 

I have put them on. Me los he puesto, (from poner). 

To take off. Taken off. Quitarse. Quitado. 

Have you taken off your gloves! |Se ha quitado V. los guantesf 

I have taken them off. Me los he quitado. 

To tell, to say. Told, said. Decir.* Dicho. (See Elements.) 

I have told it you. Se lo he dicho £ V. 

The proverb. El refr&n. El proverbio. 

Has he told veu that! UHa dicho II eso k V f 

||Le ha dicho esto & Y.t 

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He has told me that. 
Have 1 told you thatf 
You have told me that. 
To drink. Drunk, 
To see. Seen. 

To read. Bead. 
To be acquainted with. Been 

acquainted with. 
Which men have you seenf 
I have seen those. 
Which books have you read f 
I have read those which you lent 

Have you been acquainted with 

these men! 
I have not been acquainted with 

Have you seen any sailors t 

I have seen some. 
I have not seen any. 

To call. Called. 

To throw. 

To throw away. 
Who calls me f 
Your father calls you. 
Have you called the boysf 
I have not called them. 
Do you waste your money! 
I do not waste it. 
Who throws away his books f 
Have you thrown away anything f 
I have thrown away my gloves. 

To be sick. 

Are you sickt 


Me ha dicho esc. 

4 He dicho yo eso & V. t 

v. me ha dicho eso. 

Beber. Bebido. 

Ver. Visto. 

Leer. Leido. 

Conocer. Conocido. 

I Qu6 hombres ha visto Y . t 

He visto & aqu^llos. 

I Qu6 libros ha leido Y. t 

He leido los que Y. me ha prea- 

I Ha conocido Y. & estos hombres t 

No los he conocido. 

|Ha visto Y. & algonos marine- 

He visto & algunos. 
k ningonos he visto. 

Llamar. Llamado. 

Tirar. Arrojar. 

Desperdiciar. Botar. 
|Qui6n me llama f 
Su padre de Y. lo llama. 
4 Ha llamado Y. & los muchachos f 
No los he llamado. 
iDesperdicia Y. su dinerof 
No, no lo desperdicio. 
I Qui^n tira sus libros f 
jHatirado v. algof 
He tirado mis guantes. 

Estar malo, enfermo. 

lEst&Y. malot 

Si, lo estoy. 


1. I Qu6 lias hecho ? No lie hecho nada. 2. | Qu6 ban 
hecho los ninos de V. ? Han desgarrado sus yestidos. 8. 4 Se 


by Google 


han puesto nuestros vecinos los zapatos y los sombreros ? No 
se han puesto ni los unos ni los otros. 4. i Que le ha dicho a 
V. su hermano ? No me ha dicho nada. 5. i Es V. hermano 
de ese joven ? Si, senor. 6. i Ha ido 4 la plaza el cocinero 
de V. ? No ha ido. 7. l Ha escrito V. sus ejercicios ? Los 
he escrito. 8. ^ A cuales hombres ha hablado su amigo de 
V. ? Les ha hablado a estos y a aqu611os. 9. i Le han ha- 
blado a V. alguna vez los ingleses ? Me han hablado a me- 
nudo. 10. i Que muchachos ha conocido su hermano de V. ? 
Ha conocido a los de nuestro comerciante. 11. Ha visto V. 
a mis bermanos ? No los he visto. 12. i Tiras tu su libro \ 
No lo tiro ; lo necesito para estudiar el espanol. 


1. Have you anything to do ? I have nothing to do. 2. 
What have I done ? You have torn my books. 3. Has the 
tailor already made your coat,? He has not yet made it. 
4 Have our neighbors ever made books ? They made some 
formerly. 5. Has your brother put his shoes on ? He has 
put them on. 6. What has the physician taken away ? He 
has* taken away nothing. 7. When did the ball take place ? 
It took place the day before yesterday. 8. Did I tell you 
that ? You did not tell it to me. 9. Have they told it to the 
French ? They have told it to them. 10. Are you willing 
to tell your friends that ? I am willing to tell it to them. 
11. Are your friends as rich as they say ? They are so. 12. 
Has our neighbor money enough to buy some coal ? I do 
not know. 13. Are you as tired as your brother ? I am 
more so than he. 14. When did they write them ? They 
wrote (have written) them yesterday. 15. Which exercises 
has your little brother written ? He has written his own. 
16. How many times have you spoken to the captain ? I 
have spoken to him several times. 17. Have you spoken to 
the Russians ? I have spoken to them. 18. Which proverbs 
has he told you ? He has told me these proverbs. 19. Which 
books have your children read ? They have read those which 
you have lent them. 20. Have you been acquainted with 
these men ? I have been acquainted with them. 

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THIRTY-FOURTH LESSON— Leccion Trigesimacuarta 

To light, (kindle,) lighted. 

To extinguish, extinguished. 

To open, opened. 

To set out. Set out. 

To go out. Gone out. 
To come. Come. 

Has your father set out t 
Have your friends set out f 

They have not set out. 
When did your brothers go out! ' 
When have your brothers gone 

They went out at ten o'clock. 
They have gone out at ten o'clock. 
Have the men come to your 

father f 

Encender,* encendido. 

j Extinguir, extinguido. 

I Apagar, apagado. 
Abrir,* abierto. 
Partir. Partido. 

Salir. Salido. 
Marcharse. Marchado. 
Salir — Salido. Irse — Ido. 
Venir. Venido. 
(|Se ha ido su padre de V.t 

I I Se ha marchado su padre de Y. t 
I Se han ido (marchado) sus ami- 

gos de V. f 
No se han ido, (marchado). 

iCudndo se han ido (marchado) 
los hermanos de V. f 

They have come to him. 
have you 

Ellos se han ido (marchado) & las 

I Han venido los hombres k casa 
de su padre de V. f 
j Si, han venido. Han venido aqul. 
I Han venido k casa. 
extin- I Que f uegos han apagado Yds. t 

Which fires 

guished f 
Which storehouses have you | Qu6 almacenes han abierto Yds. t 

opened f 
Have you conducted them to the | Los ha conducido Y. al alma- 

Los he conducido alia. 
I Qui libros ha tomado Y. f 
|Cu&ntos billetes han recibido 
j Hemos recibido s61o uno. 
f No hemos recibido sine una 
Upon, over. Sobre. 

En is also employed to translate on when the context preyents 
the likelihood of ambiguity : 

On the floor. En el suelo. 

storehouse f 
I have conducted them there. 
Which books have you taken f 
How many notes have you re- 
ceived f 

We have received but one. 


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Upon the bench. 
The bench. 
Within, inside. 

Below, beneath. 
Under the bench. 
Where is my hat f 
It is upon the bench. 
Are my gloves on the bench f 
They are under it 
To wash. 

To mend, or to get mended. 

Got mended. Ordered mended. 

To get the dress, suit, or clothes 

To have it mended. 
To get them mended. 

Sobre el banco. 

El banco. 
Debajo de. 

Debajo del banco. 
D6nde est4 mi sombrero f 
Est& sobre el banco. 
|Est6n mis guantes sobre el banco! 
Estdn debajo de 41. 


Mandar remendar, componer. 
Hacer remendar, reparar. 
Mandado remendar. 
Hecho remendar. 
Hacer remendar el vestido. 
Mandar remendar cl vestido. 
Hacerlo remendar, or reparar. . 
Hacerlos remendar, or reparar. 
Are you getting a garment made f j 4 Se manda V. hacer un vestido f 

Do you order a garment f 
I am getting one made. 

I have had one made. 

1 4 Se mandd V. hacer un vestido ? 
Mando bacerme uno. 

^Me he mandado hacer uno. 
Me he hecho hacer uno. 
Enjugar. Enjugado. 
I Ha visto V. mis libros f 
Yo los he visto. 
UCudndo ha visto V. k mi her* 

To wipe, to dry. Wiped, dried. 

Have you seen my books f 

I have seen them. 

When did you see my brother f 

When have you seen my brother! ( mano f 

I saw him the day before yes- To lo he visto anteayer. 

Where did you see him f 4 En d6nde lo ha visto V. f 

I saw him at the theater. To lo he visto en el teatro. 

L I Cu4iido han venido los muchachos franceses 4 casa 
de su hermano de V. ? Han venido ayer. 2. | Ha llevado 
un billete el criado ? Lo ba llevado. 3. i Que almacenes 
han abierto ellos? Han abierto los que V. ha visto. 4. 
4 Est&n mis zapatos en el banoo ? Estan debajo. 5. 4 No ha 

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tenido V. miedo de quemar mis papeles ? No he tenido 
miedo de quemarlos. 6. i Ha becho V. barrer su despacbo ? 
Todavia no lo he hecho barrer, pero pienso hacerlo barrer 
hoy. 7. i Ha visto V. ya a un sirio ? Ya he visto a uno. 
8. ^ Le ha prestado a V. el americano algun dinero ? Me ha 
prestado un poco. 9. ^ Se ha celebrado el concierto ? Se ha 
celebrado. 10. i Ha hecho V. jamas componer su vestido ? 
Lo he hecho componer algunas veces. 11. i En donde los ha 
buscado V. ? Los he buscado sobre la cama y los he hallado 
debajo. 12. i Ha hallado V. mis pantalones debajo de la 
cama ? Los he hallado sobre ella. 


1. Where have your brothers gone ? They have gone to 
the theater. 2. Has any one come to us ? The good Ger- 
mans have come to us. 3. Which books has the servant 
taken ? lie has taken those which you do not read. 4. 
Which fires have the men extinguished ? They have ex- 
tinguished those which you have seen. 5. Where is my 
coat ? It is upon the bench. 6. Have you already eaten to- 
day ? I have not yet eaten. 7. Have you sent your little 
boy to market ? I have. 8. Has he answered you ? He 
has not yet answered me. 9. Have you ever written to the 
physician ? I have never written to him. 10. How many 
times have your friends written to you ? They have written 
to me more than twenty times. 11. Where have you seen 
a Russian ? At the theater. 12. How much have you given 
him ? I have given him fourteen dollars. 13. When didst 
thou give me some ? I gave thee some this morning. 
14. Has the Italian ever lent you money ? He has never 
lent me any. 15. At what o'clock did you come ? I came 
at half-past five. 16. At what o'clock has the ball taken 
place ? It has taken place at midnight. 17. Do you know 
the Frenchman whom I know ? I do not know the one 
whom you know, but I know another. 18. Hast thou had 
thy hat or thy shoe mended ? 19. I have neither had the one 
nor the other mended. 19. Have you looked for my gloves \ 
I have looked for them. 20. Have you found my panta- 
loons under the bed ? I have found them upon it 





THIRTY-FIFTH LESSON— Leccion Trigesimaquinta 

To promise. Promised. 

To learn. Learned. 

Do you promise me to come f 
I promise you to do it. 
What have you promised the 

I have promised him nothing. J 
Have you ever learned Spanish f 

I learned it formerly. J 

I have learned it formerly. | 

To wear out. ' 
To refuse, deny. 
To spell. 
So. Thus. 
So that. 
So so. 

In this manner. J 

How has your brother written his 

exercise f 
He has written it well. 

To dry. 

To put out to dry. 

Do you put out your coat to dry ♦-! 

I put it out to dry. 
The coat. 
How old! 

How old are youf 
I am twelve years old. 

How old is your brother! 

Prometer. Prometido. 
Aprender. Aprendido. 
I Me promete V. venir f 
Se lo prometo d V. 
iQu^ ha prometido Y. al hom- 

Yo no le he prometido nada. 
Nada le he prometido. 
I Ha aprendido Y. alguna vez el 

espafiol f 
Yo lo he aprendido en otro tiem- 


Rehusar. Negar.* 
Deletrear, escribir. 
I G6mo f 

De suerte que. 
Asi asi. 
De este modo. De esta manera. 
I C6mo ha escrito su ejercicio su 

hermano de V. f 
Lo ha escrito bien. 

Poner k secar. Hacer secar. 
I Pone Y. k secar su casaca f 
|Hace Y. secar su casaca f 
La pongo d secar, (or la hago secar). 
La casaca, (fern,), 
Qu6 edad f | Cudntos aflos f 
I Qui edad tiene Y. f 
i Cudntos aflos tiene Y. f 
Tengo doce aflos. 
iCudntos aflos tiene su hermano 

I Qui edad tiene su hermano deY.f 

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He is thirteen years old. 

He is almost fourteen years old. 

About, nearly. 

I am about fifteen years old. 
He is nearly eighteen years old. 

He is something like thirty. 

Hardly, scarcely. 
I am not quite sixteen years old. 

Art thou older than thy brother f ' 

I am younger than he. 

Old, (in years). 

There is, there are. 
There has been. 
There have been. 

Tiene trece alios. 

Tiene casi catorce aflos. 
Cerca de, poco m^ 6 menoSi 

Tengo como quince alios. 
Tiene diez y ocho alios poco m&s 

6 menos. 
£l tiene como unos treinta 


Todavla no tengo diez y seis 

iEres mayor que tu hermanof 
(Eres de m^ edad que tu her- 

mano f 
Soy menor. 

Soy de menos edad que 41. 
Soy m^ joven que 41. 
Tengo menos aQos^ue 41. 

J Vie jo, anciano. 
Avanzado en alios, or edad. 

IHa habido, (past part). 
How many reaiUs are there in one j | Cudntos reales hay en un dure f 

1 1 Cudntos reales tiene un duro f 
Un peso. 

Entender.* Comprender. 
Oir.* Sentir.* 
Aguardar, esperar. 

^4 Me comprende V. f 
4 Me entiende V. f 
j Le comprendo k V. 
I Le entiendo d V. 
I Ha entendido V. al hombref 
Le he comprendido. 
I hear you, but I do not under- Oigo d V. hablar, pero no le com- 
stand you. prendo. 

dollar f 
A dollar. 
To understand. 
To hear. 

To wait fo^, to expect. 
To lose. 

Do you understand met 

I do understand you. 

Have you understood the man f 
I have understood him. 


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The noise. 

The wind. 
The noise (roaring) of the wind. 
Do you hear the roaring of the 

I do hear it. ^ 

To bark. 
The barking. 
Have you heard the barking of 

the dogs f 
I have heard it. 

Some one. Somebody. 
Do you wait for somebody f 
Do you expect some one f 
Do you expect something f 
Do you wait for my brother! 
I am waiting for him. 
Do you expect some friends f 
I do expect some here. 
How much has your brother lost! 

He has lost nearly one dollar. 
I have lost more than he. 
To remain. 

The nobleman, gentleman. 


Gentle, tame. 
Where has the nobleman re 

mained f 
He has remained at home. 
Have you remained with him f 
With me. 
The poor man, the pauper. 

El ruido. 

El viento. 
El bramido del yiento. 
lOye V. el bramido del viento f 

Si, lo oigo. 
Si, lo siento. 

El ladrido. 
4 Ha oldo V. los ladridos de los 

Los he oido. 

Alguien. Alguno. 

I Aguarda V. k alguien f 

I Espera V. d alguien f 

lEspera V. algof 

I Aguarda V. d mi hermanof 

Yo le estoy aguardando. 

4 Espera V. d algunos amigosf 

To aguardo k algunos aqui. 
4 Oudnto ha perdido su hermano 

Ha perdido cerca de un duro. 
Yo he perdido mds que el. 
Quedarse (reflex.). 

I El hidalgo. 
El gentilhombre. 
El noble. 

Hidalgos. Gentilhombres. No- 

|D6nde se ha quedado el hi- 
dalgo f 
Se ha quedado en casa. 
|Se ha quedado V. con 61 f 

El pobre. 


by Google 



1. i Le he prometido yo k V. alguna cosa ? V. no me ha 
prometido nada. 2. i Cuanto ha recibido el ? No ha recibido 
mas que un peso. 3. i Me quiere V. prestar su casaca ? Se 
la quiero prestar a V. ; pero esta usada. 4. i Deletrea el 
bien ? Deletrea bien. 5. i Como hablan los amigos de V. ? 
No hablan mal. 6. i Que edad tiene V.? Tengo apenas diez 
y ocho anos. 7. i Ha leido mi libro ? Todavia no lo he 
leido. 8. i Comprendemos a los ingleses ? No los com- 
prendemos. 9. i Que oye V. ? Oigo los ladridos de los 
perros. 10. i Se ban quedado en el baile los amigos de V. ? 
Se quedaron alii. 11. i Espera V. a alguno ? No espero a 
nadie. 12. i Espera V . 4 su padre esta noche ? Lo espero. 


1. Do you promise me to come to the ball ? I promise 
you. 2. Have you received it ? Not yet. 3. How much 
money have you given to my son ? I have given him 
thirty shillings. 4. What money have you ? I have dol- 
lars, shillings, and farthings. 5. How many sixpences are 
there in a shilling ? There are two. And how many are 
there in a dollar ? Eight 6. Will you lend them to my 
brother? I will lend them to him. 7. Does your little 
brother already know how to spell ? He knows. 8. How 
have your children written their exercises ? They have 
written them badly. 9. Do you know Spanish ? I know 
it. 10. Does your son speak Italian ? He speaks it well. 
11. How hast thou learned English ? I have learned it in 
this manner. 12. Where did you buy your clothes ? I 
bought them in the store. 13. How old are you ? I am 
hardly eighteen years old. 14. How old is your brother? 
He is twenty years old. 16. Am I younger than you ? I 
do not know. 16. Is your father as old as mine ? He is 
older than yours. 17. Has your friend finished his books ? 
He has almost finished them. 18. Do you understand what 
we are telling you ? We understand it. 19. Do you hear 
any noise ? I hear nothing. Have you heard the roaring 

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of the wind ? I have heard it. 20. Has your father lost as 
much money as I ? He has lost more than you. 

THIKTY-SIXTH LESSON— Leccion Trigesimasexta 

Golpear. Golpeado. 
To beat. Beaten. . Apalear. Apaleado. 

Pegar, pegado. 
To bite. Bitten. Morder.* Mordido. 

Why! 4Porqu6f 

Wliy do you beat the dogf % For qu^ golpea V. el perrof 

Because. Porque. 

I beat it, because it has bitten me. Lo golpeo porque me ha mordido. 

To owe. Owed. Deber. Debido. 

How much do you owe me f % Cudnto me debe V. f 

I owe you fifty dollars. Yo le debo k V. cincuenta pesos, 

or duros. 
How much does this man owe % Cuimto le debe d Y. este hom- 

youf href 

He owes me six reaiea. Me debe seis reales. 

Do our neighbors owe as much |Deben nuestros yecinos tanto 

as we? como nosotros f 

We owe more than they. Debemos mds que ellos. 

How much dost thou owe f 4 Cudnto debes tii f 

Two hundred dollars. Doscientos pesos. 

Five hundred dollars. Quinientos pesos. 

One thousand dollars. Mil pesos. 

A hundred. One hundred. Ciento. 

Ciento, hundred, loses the last syllable when followed by a noun : 
A hundred men or a hundred women, cien hombrea 6 den mt*;6- 
rea. Doscientos, trewimtos, etc., retain the last syllable, and agree 
in gender with nouns which they qualify. 

To be to, to have to (must). \ Haber de 

Tener que and haber de both indicate obligation. Terser que is, 
however, stronger than h^er de, as the former always implies obli- 
gation, while the latter often conveys mere futurity. 
Where do you have to go this jAdonde ha de ir V. esta ma- 
morning f fianaf 
I am to go to the warehouse. He de ir al almac^n. 

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Must your brother come here to- 

Soon. Shortly. 

He is to come here soon. 
To return, returned. 

At what o'clock do you return 
from market f 

I return at twelve o'clock. 

Does the servant return early 
from the warehouse f 

He returns at six o'clock in the 

I Ha de venir hoy aqui su her* 

mano de V.f 
Pronto. Luego, prontamente. 
fil ha de venir aqui pronto. 

Volver.* Vuelto. 
4 A qu6 hora vuelve V. del mer- 

Vuelvo k las doce. 
4 Vuelve el criado temprano del 

almac^n f 
Vuelve k las seis de 1 « mafiana. 

At nine o'clock in the morning. 
At five o'clock in the evening. 
At eleven o'clock at night. 
How long! 


k las nueve de la mafiana. 
k las cinco de la tarde. 
k las once de la noche. 
iCudnto tiempot 
j Durante. 
) Mientras. 

How long has he remained here f | Cudnto tiempo se ha quedado 


A minute. 

An hour. 

A day. 

A month. 

A year. 

The summer. 

The winter. 

During the summer. 

For one month. 

To live. 

To dwell. 

To reside. 
Where do you live f 
I live on Eleventh Street, number 

one hundred twenty-two. 
Where did your brother live f 
Where has your brother lived f 


Un minuto. 

Una hora, (/em.). 

Un dia. 

Un mes. 

Un aSo. 

El verano. 

El inviemo. 

Durante el verano. 

Por un mes. 



I En d6nde vive V. f 
Vivo en la calle Once, ntimero 
ciento veintidds. 
En d6nde ha vivido su hermano 

He lived on Rivoli Street — he has Ha vivido en la calle de Rivoli; 
lived on Rivoli Street — ^num- ntimero cuarenta y nueve. 
ber forty-nine. 


by Google 


Dost thou liye at thy brother's (Viyes ttiencasadetuhermanof 

house f 
I do not live at his house, but at No yivo en la casa de mi herma- 
my father's. no, pero tIto en casa de mi 

Does your friend still live where | Vive todavia su amigo de V. en 

I have lived f donde yo he vividof 

He lives no longer where you Ya no vive en donde V. ha vivi- 

lived. do. 

Did you remain long with my ^Ha quedado V. largo tiempo en 

father! casa de mi padre f 

I remained with him an hour. Me qued6 una hora en su casa. 
Long. Long time. Largo. Largo or mucho tiempo. 

The number. El ntimero. 

Other. Others. Otro. Otros. 

Do you see the men whom I see! |Ve V. k los hombres k quienes 

veo yof 
I do not see those whom you see, No veo k los que V, ve, pero veo 
but I see others. k otros. 


1. I Por que alza V. ese clave del suelo ? Lo alzo del suelo 
porque lo necesito. 2. ^ Le ensena el criado a V. el suelo que 
barre ? No me ensena el que barre ahora, sino el que ha 
barrido ayer. 3. i Ve V. al marinero que est4 en el barco ? 
No yeo al que esta en el barco, sino al que est4 en la plaza. 
4. I Bemienda el zapatero los zapatos que V. le ha enviado ? 
No los i*emienda, porque est4n usados. 6. i Cuanto tiempo 
piensa V. quedarse en el baile ? Pienso quedarme alii algu- 
nos minutos. 6. i Piensa V. quedarse largo tiempo con 
nosotros ? Pienso quedarme con Vds. dui*ante todo el ve- 
rano. 7. i Cuanto le debe 4 V. el ingles ? Me debe mas que 
V. 8. I Cuanto le deben a V. ? Me deben doscientos duros. 
9. i Por qu6 le da V. dinero al comerciante ? Le doy di- 
nero porque me ha yendido algo. 10. i Cuando ban de 
ir al teatro nuestros hi jos ? Han de ir esta noche. 11. 
I Cuando ha de yolyer de casa del pintor su hijo de V. ? 
Ha de yolyer de casa del pintor 4 las cinco de la tarde. 
12. I Donde yiye su padre de V. ? Viye en la casa de su 


by Google 



1. Why do you not drink ? I do not drink because I am 
not thirsty. 2. Why does your brother study ? He studies, 
because he wishes to learn Spanish. 3. Why do you love 
that man ? I love him because he is good. 4. Why do you 
bring me wine ? I bring you some because you are thirsty. 
6. Do you read the books which my father has given you ? 
I read them. 6. Do you understand them ? I understand 
them fairly well {haatante bien^ or asi asH), 7. Has your 
servant returned from market ? He has not yet returned. 
8. How long did your brothers remain in town ? (la ciudad). 
They remained there (en ella) during the winter. 9. How 
much do you owe your tailor ? I owe him eighty dollars. 
10. Do I owe you anything? You owe me nothing. 11. 
Do I owe you as much as my brother ? You owe me more 
than he. 12. How much do we owe you ? You owe me 
three hundred dollars. 13. Is your friend to come here to- 
day ? He is to come here. 14. When are you to go to the 
physician ? I am to go to him at ten o'clock at night 15. 
Where do you live ? I live on Rivoli Street, numbel* forty- 
seven. 16. Dost thou live at thy brother's house ? I live at 
his house. 17. Does your friend live on John Street ? No, 

THIRTY-SEVENTH LESSON— Leccion Trig^simaseptima 

How long f— i.e., for how much 4 Cudnto tiempo f 


How long f— i. e., until when f % Hasta cudndo f 

How long!— i. e., until what hour f | Hasta qu^ hora f 

Till. Until. Hasta. 

Till twelve o'clock, till mid-day. Hasta medio dia, or las doce del 


Till the day after to-morrow. Hasta pasado maffana. 

Until morning. Hasta la maflana. 

Then. Entonces. 

Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, El domingo, el lunes, el martes, 

Wednesday, Thursday, Fri- el mi^rcoles, el jueves, el vier- 

day, Saturday. nes, el s4bado. 


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The names of the days of the week, months, and seasons of the 
year are of the masculine gender, except la primavera, the sprmg, 
which i§ feminine. The names of the seasons and of the days of 
the week usually take the definite article. 

Till my return. Hasta la vuelta. 

Till my brother's return. Hasta la vuelta de mi hermano. 

Till four o'clock in the morning. Hasta las cuatro de la maflana. 
Till midnight, (twelve o'clock at Hasta media noche, or las doce 

night). de la noche. 

The return. La vuelta, (/em.). 

How long did you remain at my % Hasta qu^ hora se ha quedado 

father's house f V. en casa de mi padre f 

I remained at his house till eleven Me he quedado hasta las once de 

o'clock at night. la noche. 

Se is used reflexively with verbs in such general senses as <me^ 
thet/f people, cmy one, some one, and often as a passive : 

It is said, they say, people say. Se dice, dicen. 
The house is being built. Se edifica la casa. 

One, in such cases, may also be 
One can not always tell. 
Have they brought my shoes f 
They have brought them. 
They hava not brought them. 
What hais been saidf what have { 

they said f ( 

They have said nothing. i 

What has been done f or 
What have they done f 

They have done nothing. 

To be willing, to wish. 
Been willing, wished. 

Have they been willing to mend 
my clothes f 

They have not been willing to 

mend it. 
To be able, (can), been able,(could). 

translated by wno : 
Uno no puede decir siempro. 
4 Han traido mis zapatosf 
Los han traido. 
No los han traido. 
iQu6 se ha dichof 
i Qu^ han dicho f 
Nada se ha dicho. 
Nada han dicho. 
% Qu^ se ha hecho f 
iQu^ han hecho f 
Nada se ha hecho. 
Nada han hecho. 
I Han querido remendar ml res- 

I Han querido componer mi ves- 

No han querido remendarlo, or 

Poder.* Podido, 


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Have they been able to find thej^Se ban podido ballar los librost 

books f 
They could not find them. 

Can they find them nowf 

(4 Han podido hallar los librosf 
No ban podido hallarlos. 

^4Se pueden ballar ahorai 
(Pueden hallarlos ahoraf 
j No se pueden hallar. 

I No pueden hallarlos. 

One can not find them. 

They can not find them. 

Can you read t— i. e., do you know 4 Sabe V. leer f 

how to read f 
I can not read, (I am not able). 
Can one do what he wishes! 

They do what they can, but not 

what they wish. 
One does what he can, but not' 

what he wishes. 

What is said newf 
Nothing new is said. 

Wine is sold here. 

Spanish is spoken here. 

Something new. 

Anything new. 

Nothing new. 

Not anything new. 


My new clothes. 

My new friend. 
To brush, brushed. 

This handsome man. 

Those fine trees. 
Do they believe that f 
They do not believe it 
Do they speak of thatf 
They do speak of it. 
They do not speak of it. 

Father and son. 

French and Italian. 

To no s6 leer. 

4 Puede hacer uno lo que quiere f 

'Hacen lo que pueden, pero no lo 

que quieren. 
Se hace lo que se puede, pero no 

lo que se quiere. 
Uno hace lo que puede, pero no 

lo que quiere. 
iQuS se dice de nuevof 
No se dice nada nuevo, or de nne* 

Aqui se vende vino. 
Aqui se habla espafloL 

lAlgo (de) nuevo. 

I Nada (de) nuevo. 

Mi vestido nuevo. 
Mi amigo nuevo. 
Acepillar. Acepillada 
Este hombre hermoso. 
Aquellos drboles hermosos. 
4Se cree esof 4 Creen esof 
No se cree eso. No lo oreen. 
iSe habla de esof 
Sf, se habla de ello. 
No se habla de ello. 

Padre S hijo. 
Franc^ ^ italiana 

F(and) changes into i before nouns beginning with % or hu 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

teirty-seventh lesson 123 


1. i Hasta cu&ndo he trabajado yo ? V. ha trabajado 
hasta las cuatro de la manana. 2. i Tiene el medico que 
trabajar todavla largo tiempo ? Tiene que trabajar hasta 
manana. 3. i Hablo Y. mucho tiempo ? Hable hasta el dia 
siguiente. 4. i Cuanto tiempo tiene V. todavia que vivir 
en su casa ? Hasta el martes. 5. i Que hace Y. durante la 
manana ? Leo. 6. i Quiere V. esperar aqui ? i Cuanto tiem- 
po he de esperar ? 7. i Ha podido V. leer mi billete ? He po- 
dido leerlo. 8. i Que ha querido hacer el comerciante ? No 
ha querido hacer nada. 9. i For que no ha podido remendar 
los zapatos el zapatero ? Porque no ha tenido tiempo. 10. 
i Por que le ha pegado V. al perro ? Porque me ha mor- 
dido. 11. i Se ha dicho algo nuevo ? No se ha dicho nada 
nuevo. 12. i Le gustan k V. sus nuevos amigos ? Me gustan. 


1. How long have you been writing ? I have been writ- 
ing until midnight 2. How long hast thou been working ? 
I have been working till now. 3. Am I to remain here 
long ? You are to remain here till Sunday. 4. Have you 
still long to speak ? I have still an hour to speak ? 5. Have 
you still long to live at the Frenchman's house ? I have 
still long to live at his house. 6. Does your friend still live 
with you ? He lives with me no longer. 7. Have you re- 
mained in the garden till now ? I have remained there till 
now. 8. What do you do in the afternoon ? I work. 9. 
What hast thou done this evening ? I have brushed your 
clothes, and have gone to the theater. 10. Didst thou re- 
main long at the theater ? I remained there but a few min- 
utes. 11. Have you waited for me long ? I have waited 
for you two hours. 12. Have they brought my fine clothes ? 
They have not brought them yet 13. Have they swept 
my floor and brushed my clothes ? Yes, Sir. 14. Has your 
little brother been spelling ? He has not been willing to 
spelL 15. Has the shoemaker been able to mend my shoes ? 
He has not been able to mend them. 16. Why has not the 
tailor mended my coat ? Because he has no good thread. 

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17. What have they wished to say ? They have not wished 
to say anything. 18. Do they speak of the man that has 
been killed ? They do not speak of him. 19. What have 
they brought ? They have brought your new coat. 20. Is 
Spanish spoken here ? Yes, Sir, Spanish, French, and Ital- 
ian are spoken here. 

THIRTY-EIGHTH LESSON— Leccion Trigesimaoctava 

How far! 

Up to, as far as, until. 
As far as my brother's. 
As far as here, hither. 
As far as there, thither. 
As far as London. 
As far as Paris. 
Above, or up stairs. 
Below, or down stairs. 
As far as above. 
As far as below. 
On this side. 
On that side. 
On this side of the road. 
On that side of the road. 

4 Hasta d6nde f 
Hasta la casa de mi hermana 
Hasta aqui. 

Hasta alii. HasUalld. 
Hasta Londres. 
Hasta Pads. 
Hasta arriba. 
Hasta abajo. 
De este lado, por este lado. 
De aquel lado, por aquel lada 
De (por) este lado del camino. 
De (por) aquel lado del camino. 
La Alemania. 
La America. 
La Espafla. 
La Holanda. 

Thb definite article is used before the names of the four parts 
of the globe ; before the names of empires, kingdoms, countries, and 
provinces ; before the seasons of the year and the days of the week. 
It is omitted before the names of kingdoms, countries, provinces, 
etc., when these are preceded by a preposition, except in a few < 
(See Elements.) 


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To go to Spain, 
to come, to return from France. -J 

Do you intend to go to Spain f 
Yes, Sir, I intend to go (there) in 

the spring. 
Does he return from France! 
No, Sir, he returns from Germany. 
To go on one side. 
To go through the middle. 
The middle. Half. 
The well. 
The cask, barrel. 
The castle. 
To travel. 
Do you go to Paris! 
Yes, I go there. 
Has he gone to England ! 

Yes, he has gone there. -j 

To steal. 
To steal something from some 

Ir k EspaOa. 
Venir de Francia. 
Volver de Francia. 
I Piensa V. ir d Espafia! 
Si, sefior ; pienso ir en la prima- 

4 Vuelve 41 de Francia! 
No, sefior, vuelve de Alemania. 
Ir por un lado. 
Ir por el medio. 

El medio. La mitad. 
El pozo. 

El barril, el tonel. 
El Castillo. 
Viajar, caminar. 
^VaV.d Paris! 
Si, voy alld. 

I Ha ido 41 k Inglaterra! 
Si, ha ido alU. 
Ha ido d Inglaterra. 

Robar. Hurtar. 
Bobar algo (alguna cosa) k alguno 
d uno. 

Although in English the preposition from follows such verbs as 
buy, beg, steal, etc., in giving the source, in Spanish they take the 
usual preposition a before persons : 

I buy a horse from the shoe- 

Have they stolen your hat from 

They have stolen it from me. 

Has the man stolen the books 
from thee! 

He has stolen them from me. 

What have they stolen from you ! 

How do you spell this word ! or 
how is this word written ! 

It is written thus. 
The word. 

Compro un caballo al zapatero. 

I Le han robado d V. el sombrero ! 

Me lo han robado. 

I Te ha robado los libros el hom- 

Me los ha robado. 
i Que le han robado d V. ! 
iComo deletrea V. esta palabra! 
i Como se deletrea esta palabra! 
(Como se escribe esta palabra! 
Se escribe asi, de esta manera. 
La palabra. 


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To dye, to color, dyed, colored. \ 
To dye black. 
To dye red. 

To dye greeil. 

To dye blue. 

To dye yellow. 

My blue coat. 

His new watch. 

His round hat. 

This white^hat. 
Do you dye your coat blue f 
I dye it green. 
What color will you dye your 

I will dye it blue. 

The dyer. 

To get dyed, got dyed, - 

What color have you had your 

hat dyed f 
I have got it dyed white. 
The stocking, the stockings. 
The spring. 

Tefiir.* Tefiido. 

Tefiir de negro. 
Tefiir de Colorado, or de encar- 

Tefiir de verde, 

Tefiir de azul. 

Tefiir de amarlllo. 

Mi vestido azul. 

Su reloj nuevo. 

Su sombrero redondo. 

Este sombrero bianco. 
4 Tifie V. su vestido de azul f 
Lo tifio de verde. 
I De qu6 color quiere V. tefiir su 

vestido f 
Lo quiero tefiir de azul. 

El tintorero. 
Hacer tefiir, hecho tefiir. 
Mandar tefiir, mandado tefiir. 
I De qu6 color ha hecho V. tefiir 

su sombrero f 
Lo he hecho tefiir de bianco, 
Colorado, rojo, encarnado, 
Moreno, pardo, caf^, 
Pardo, gris, 

La media, las medias. 
La primavera. 


1. i Ha ido el hasta Italia ? Ha ido hasta America. 2. 
i Le ban robado sus buenos vestidos a V. ? Me los ban ro- 
bado. 3. i Hasta donde quiere ir su hermano de V. ? Quiere 
ir hasta el fin de ese camino. 4. i For que ha despedazado 
sus libros el muchachito de V. ? Porque no quiere estudiar. 

5. i Cuanto ha perdido V. ? He perdido todo mi dinero. 

6. i De que color hace V. tenir su hilo ? Lo hago tenir de 
verde. 7. l Tiene V. un sombrero bianco ? Tengo un som- 
brero negro. 8. i No va V. a Italia ? Voy alia. 9. i Ha 

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ido ya su hermano de V. a Espana ? Todavia no ha ido. 
10. i Ha acabado V. todos sus ejercicios ? Los he acabado 
todos. 11. i Donde esta el almacen de V. ? Elsta del otro 
lado del cammo. 12. l En donde ha estado V. esta manana ? 
He estado en el castillo. 


1. How far have you traveled ? I have traveled as far as 
Germany. 2. How far has this poor man come ? He has 
come as far as here. 3. Has he come as far as your house ? 
He has come as far as my father's. 4. Dost thou steal any- 
thing? I steal nothing. 6. What have they stolen from 
me? They have stolen all the good books from you. 6. 
Have you gone as far as there ? I have not gone as far as 
there. 7. How far are we going ? We are going as far as 
the theater. 8. Has your little boy torn up all his books ? 
He has torn up all of them. 9. Do you know where my 
father is ? I do not know. 10. Do you dye anything ? I 
dye my hat 11. What color do you dye it ? I dye it black. 
12. What color dost thou get thy thread stockings dyed ? 
I get them dyed red. 13. What color have your friends had 
their coats dyed ? They have had them dyed green. 14. 
What hat has the nobleman ? He has two hats ; a white 
one and a black one. 16. Has your dyer already dyed your 
cloth ? He has dyed it. 16. Do you travel sometimes ? I 
travel often. 17. Where do you intend to go to this sum- 
mer ? I intend to go to Paris. 18. Have your friends a 
desire to go to Holland ? They have a depire to go there. 
19. When do they intend to depart ? They intend to depart 
the day after to-morrow. 20. Is the garden of your friend 
on this or that side of the wood ? It is on that side. 

THIRTY-NINTH LESSON—Leccion Trigesimanovena 

To be necessarr, must. i ^^ menester. 

I Ser necesario. 
Is it necessary f 4 Es menester f | Es necesario I 

It is necessary. Es menester. Es necesario. 

Digitized by 




Is it necessary to go to the market t 
It is not necessary to go there. 

What must be done to learn 

Spanish f 
It is necessary to study a great 

What ought I to do! 
You must remain still. 
Where must he go ? 
He must go home. 

We must. 
What must we do f 
We must write the letter. 
You must write your exercises. 

There is need. 

To need. 

What must you have t J 

I must have some money. •) 

Must you have a shilling f or do J 
you need a shilling f ( 

Have you what you want 1 J 

I have what I want. 

He has what he wants. 

They have what they need. 
To be worth. 

How much may that horse be 
worth f 

He may be worth a hundred dol- 

How much have you, or do you 

We can not have much. 

To be better, (worth more). 

Am I as good as my brother! J 
You are better than he. 

4 Es menester ir al mercado t 
No es menester, or necesario ii 

4 Que es menester, or necesario 

hacer para aprender el espafiolt 
Es menester estudiar muchisimo. 

4 Qu6 debo hacer t 
V. debe quedarse quieto. 
Adonde debe ir 41t 
Debe ir 6 su casa. 

4 Que debemos hacer t 
Debemos escribir la carta. 
Yds. deben escribir sus ejercicioa 

Ha menester. 

4 Qu^ ha menester Y. t 
4 Qu6 necesita V. f 
He menester algdn dinero. 
Necesito algtin dinero. 
4 Ha menester V. un chelint 
4 Necesita Y. un chelin 1 
jTiene Y. lo que ha menester! 
^Tiene Y. lo que necesita! 
Tengo lo que he menester. 
£l tiene lo que ha menester. 
Tienen lo que necesitan. 

(Gudnto puede valer ese caballo! 

Puede valer cien pesos. 

4 Cu&nto tienen Yds. ! 

No podemos tener mucho. 

Yaler mds, (ser mejor). 
4 Yalgo tanto como mi hermano! 
I Soy tan bueno com6 mi hermano! 
Y. vale mis que ^L 
Y. es mejor que 61. 


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( No Talgo tauto como V. 
1 No soy tan bueno oomo V. 
J Volver.* Devolver.* 
( Restituir. 

j i Le vuelve 61 6 V. el libro t 
1 4 Le restituye 61 6 V. el libro t 
J ]6l me lo devuelve. 
I fil me lo restituye. 
Has he given you back your ULe ha vuelto 4 V. los guantesf 

I am not as good as you. 

To give back. 
To restore. 

Does he restore you your book f 

He restores it to me. 

He has given them back. 

Has your brother already com- 
menced his exercises! 
He has not yet commenced them. 

The present, (gift). 

Have you received a present! 

I have received several. 
Have you received the books ! 
I have received them. 

From whom ! 
Prom whom have you received 

presents ! 
From my friends. 


Where from ! 
Where do you come from ! 
I come from the garden. 
Where has he come from ! 
He has come from the theater. 
Where have they come from ! 

( 4 Le ha restituido 6 V. losguantes! 
J fil me los ha vuelto. 
( "tA me los ha restituido. 
4 Ha empezado ya sus ejeroicios 

el hermano de V. ! 
No los ha empezado todavia. ' 
f El don. 
El regalo. 
El presente. 
4 Ha recibido V. un regalo, (un 

He recibido algunos. 
4 Ha recibido V. los libros ! 
Yo los he recibido. 

4 De qui6n ! 
jDe qui6n ha recibido V. pre- 

sentes ! 
De mis araigos. 


% De d6nde viene V. ! 

Vengo del jardin. 

4 De d6nde ha venido 61! 

Ha venido del teatro. 

^De d6nde han venido ellos! 

CwU, which, is more specific than que, and suggests that the 
questioner has in mind which of a certain number or of certain 

From which ! 

< iDecuAl! 

( 4 De los cudles ! 


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From which f 4 De qu6 f 

The same. El mismo^los mismos. 

From which garden do you come? 4 De qu6 jardin viene V. f 

From mine. Del mio. 

From which f 4 De ciiiil f 

From the same where you go. Del mismo ad6nde V. va. 

The same one. El mismo. 

The same ones. Los mismos. 

1. I Debo ir por vino ? V. debe ir por vino. 2. i Que 
debo hacer ? V. debe comprar un buen libro. 3. i Para que 
debo ir a la plaza ? V. debe ir para comprar carnero y vino. 
4. Tiene su padre de V. lo que ha menester ? Tiene lo que 
ha menester. 5. i Cu4ndo se los ban devuelto a V. ? Ayer. 
6. Viene V. del jardin ? No vengo del jardin sino del alma- 
cen. 7. i De que jardin viene el ? Viene del jardin de 
nuestro antiguo amigo. 8. i Valen los cabal los de V. tanto 
como los de los ingleses ? No valen tanto. 9. ^ Es V. tan 
bueno como su hermano ? El es mejor que yo. 10. i Por 
que no vale su sombrero de V. tanto como el mio ? Por- 
que no es tan hermoso como el de V. 11. i Han comenzado 
sus ejercicios los hermanos de V. ? Los ban comenzado. 
12. i Adonde he de ir ? V. puede ir a Francia. 


1. Is it necessary to go to the market ? It is not neces- 
sary to go thither. 2. What must you buy ? I must buy 
some mutton. 3. Must I go for the carpenter ? You must 
go for him. 4. What must be done to learn Russian ? It is 
necessary to study a great deal. 5. Is it necessary to study 
a great deal to learn German ? It is necessary to study a 
great deal. 6. What are we to do ? You must work. 7. 
Must you work much in order to learn Arabic ? I must 
work much to learn it 8. Must I send for anything ? Thou 
must send for some wine. 9. What must I do ? You must 
write an exercise. 10. What do you want, Sir? I want 
some cloth. 11. How much are these stockings worth ? 
They are worth two shillings. 12. Is that all you want? 
That is alL 13. What do you want? I want money and 

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clothes. 14. Have you now what you want ? I have what 
I want. 15. Have the neighbor's boys given you back your 
hooks ? They have given them back to me. 16. Have you 
received any presents ? I have received some. 17. What 
presents have you received ? I have received fine presents. 
18. Where does the Irishman come from ? He comes from 
the garden. 19. Does he come from the garden from which 
you come ? He does not come from the same. 20. How 
much may that horse be worth ? It may be worth five hun- 
dred dollars. 21. Is this book worth as much as that ? It is 
worth more. 22, Which doga has your servant beaten ? 
He has beaten those that have made much noise. 

FORTIETH LESSON— Leccion Cuadragesima 

The imperfect indicative is used when the action or state de- 
scribed by the verb is in time past, and this is continued, habitual, 
progressive, attempted, etc. The preterit refers to past state or 
action as simply having been, or taken place, once for all, without 
reference to continuance, habit, repetition, etc. When the time 
through which this action or state continues is specified, the preterit 
must be used. 

The imperfect carries with it the idea found in was, were, used 
to, tried to, according to the context ; the preterit is best rendered by 
the simple English preterit or past tense, as ufrote, said, loved, where 
no auxiliaries are used, or by the use of did with principal verb. 

For the formation of these two tenses, see the table in the Ele- 

To have. 


I had or was having, etc. 
I had or did have, etc. 


To have, (auxiliary). 


I had. 




Tenia, tenlas, tenia; teniamos, 

tenlais, tenian. 
Tuve, tuviste, tuvo; tuvimos, 

tuvisteis, tuvieron. 
Habia, habias, habia ; habiamos, 

habiais, hablan. 
Hube, hubiste, hubo; hubimos, 

hubisteis, hubi^ron, 
S^r and Estar. 


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I was. 


To make. 


To be able, (can). 


Last night. 
Did you go to the ball last night ? 
Yes, Sir, I went with your son 

and my brother. 
Did you stay until the end of the 

No, Sir, we left the room as your 

brother was coming in. 
Had you anything to do this 

I had some letters to write, but I 

had no paper. 
Could you not ask for some ? 
1 was going to ask for some just 

when you called me. 

Era, eras, era ; 6ramos, erais, eran. 

Estaba, estabas, estaba ; estiba- 
mos, estabais, estaban. 

Fui, fuiste, fu6; fuimos, fuis- 
teis, fueron. 

Estuve, estuviste, estuTO ; estu- 
vimos, estuvisteis, estuvieron. 
Hacia, hacias, hacla; haciamos, 

haciais, hacian. 
Hice, hiciste, hizo; hicimos, hicis- 

teis, hicieron. 
Podia, podias, podia; podiamos, 

podiais, podian. 
Pude, pudiste, pudo; pudimos, 

pudisteis, pudieron. 
Anoche. Ayer noche. 
4 Fu6 V. al baile anoche. 
Si, sefior, fui con su hijo de V. y 

mi hermano. 
(Se quedaron Yds. hasta el fin 

del baile ? 
No, sefior, dejamos la sala cuan- 

do entraba su hermano de V. 
^ Tenia V. algo que hacer esta 

mafiana ? 
Tenia que escribir algunas cartas, 

pero no tenia papel. 
% No podia V. pedir alguno f 
Se lo iba 6 pedir 6 V. asi que me 


The. Of the. 

To the. 
The woman. 
Of the woman. 
To the woman. 
The mother. 
To the sister. 



La. De la. 

La mujer. 
De la mujer. 
A la mujer. 
La mad re. 
k la hermana. 

The women. 
Of the women. 
To the women. 
Of the mothers. 
To the sisters. 


Las. De las. 


Las mujeres. 

De las mujeres. 

A las mujeres. 

De las madres. 

A las hermanas. 

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She. They. 
Has she ? 
She has. 
She has not. 
Have they f 
They have. 
They have not. 

Ella. Ellas. 
jTiene ellaf 
Ella tiene. 
Ella no tiene. 
(Tienen ellasf 
Ellas tienen. 
Ellas no tienen. 

There are two kinds of Possessive Pronouns— conjunctive and 
absolute. They are as follows : 


Mi, mis. 
Tu, tus. 

vSu, sus. 

Nuestro-a, nuestros-as. 
Vuestro-a, vuestros-as. 


Mio-a, mios-as. 
Tuyo-a, tuyos-as. 

Suyo-a, suyos-as. 

Nuestro-a, nuestros-as. 
Vuestro-a, vuestros-as. 


His, her, its, 
their, your. 

The conjunctive adjective pronouns are used before the nouns 
which they qualify, and the absolute either after or alone. They 
agree in gender and number with the object possessed, and not 
with the antecedent, as is the case in English. 

In polite conversation the following are used. 

Su, or el — de V., or de Vds. 


Sus, or los — de V., or de Vds. 
Su, or la— de V., or de Vds. 
.Sus, or las— de V., or de Vds. 
Ellos vendieron su acci6n. 
Ella vendi6 sus casas. 

They sold their share, (in stocks). 

She sold her houses. 

The father and his son, or his El padre y su hijo, 6 su hija. 

The mother and her son, or her La madre y su hijo, 6 su hija. 

The child and its brother, or its El niflo y su hermano, 6 her- 

sister. mana. 


My pen. My pens. Mi plum a. 

My spoon. My spoons. Mi cuchara. 
His or her nut. His or her nuts. Su nuez. 
Our hand. Our hands. Nuestra mano. 


Mis plumas. 
Mis cucharas. 
Sus nueces. 
Nuestras manos. 

Digitized by 




Your window. Your windows. - 


Vuestraventana. Vuestras yen tanas. 
La, or su ventana de V., or de Vds. 
Las, or sus yentanas de V., or de 
I Vds. 
Their door. Their doors. Su puerta. Sus puertas. 

When the use of the simple 8U would cause ambiguity, the pleo- 
nastic form is added : as, 8U libro, his book, her book, your book, their 
book ; but to avoid doubt in those cases where the context is not 
sufficient to accomplish this, the preposition and another pronoun 
must be added : as, his book, su libro de 61 ; her book, au libro de 
ella ; your book, si« lihro de F. ; their book, m libro de elloe, or elUks. 

His father. 
Their books. 

Your brother. 

The virtuous woman. 
The virtuous women. 

Su padre de ^1. El padre de 6L 
Los libros de ellos, or de ellas. 

^Su hermano de V. 
El hermano de V. 
La mujer virtuosa. 
Las mujeres virtuosas. 

The feminine of adjectives is generally formed by changing final 
to a, or by adding a to a few consonant terminations. 

The amiable boy. El muchacho amable. 

Is she amiable t 4 Es ella amable f 

The two sisters are very amiable. Las dos hermanas son muy ama- 

America. Americano-a. 
Las americanas son hermosas, vir- 
tuosas y bien educadas. 

America. American. 
The American women are hand- 
some, virtuous, and well edu- 
Ireland. Irishman. Irishwoman. 
The female servants in this city 
are almost all Irish women. 

This young lady. 

These young ladies. 

That young lady. 

Those young ladies. 
The hand, the hands. 

The right hand. 

The left hand. 

I have a sore hand. 

Irlanda. Irland6s. Irlandesa. 
Las criadas en esta ciudad son casi 
todas irlandesas. 

Esta sefiorita. 

Estas sefioritas. 

Esa or aquella seQorita. 

Esas or aquellas sefioritas. 
La mano, las manos. 

La mano derecha. 

La mano izquierda. 

Ten|fo mala \^ m»no, 

Digitized by V^OOQ LC 



The tooth, (molar). 

The tooth, (front). 

Have you a toothache! 

I have a headache. 

I have a very severe headache. 

I have a pain in my side. 

His feet are sore. 
The face. 
The mouth. 
The cheek. 
The tongue, the language. 
The door. 
The window. 
The street. 
The town. 
The stuff. 
The old woman. 
Common names ending in a 

La muela. 
El diente. 
4 Tiene V. dolor de mnelas I 
J Tengo dolor de cabeza. 
( Me duele la cabeza. 
Tengo jaqueca. 

^ Tengo un dolor en el costado. 
Me duele el costado. 
Tiene los pies malos. 
La cara. 
La mejilla. 
La lengua. 
La puerta. 
La ventana. 
La calle. 
La ciudad. 
La tela. 
La vieja. 
are usually feminine. 


A, an. 

Of a, from a. 

To a. 
An industrious girl. 
A happy young lady. 
An active young woman. 


De una. 

k una. 
Una muchacha industriosa. 
Una sefiorita feliz. 
Una joven activa. 

The gender of common nouns of only one termination may be 
learned from the article which accompanies. 

A holy female martyr. 
Have you my pen f 
No, madam, I have it not. 
Which bottle have you broken f 

Which door have you opened f i 
have you 

Which windows 

opened t 
Which windows 


Una santa mdrtir. 
4 Tiene V. mi pluma? 
No, sefiora, yo no la tengo. 
4 Qu^ botella ha quebrado V. f 
I Que puerta ha abiertp V. t 
4 Que puerta habeis abierto t 
(Cudles ventanas ha abierto V. f 

have been | Cadles ventanas han sido abier- 


by Google 


Which letters have yoa written ? 4 Cudles cartas han escrito Yds. t 
Which letters had been written t i Cuales cartas hablan sido escri- 

These. Estas. 

Those. Esas, aquellas. 

Have 70a this, .or that pen t (Tiene V. esta, 6 esa or aquella 

I have neither this, nor that No tengo ^sta, ni ^sa, ni aquella. 

Do you see that woman t 4 Ve V. d esa mujer I 

I see her. Yo la Teo. 

HaTe you seen my sisters t 4 Ha visto V. i mis hermanas f 

No, madam, I have not seen No, sefiora, no las he visto. 

Do you speak to my sisters f 4 Habla V. 6 mis hermanas f 

I speak to them. Yo les hablo. 

Some good water. i ^'«"°» ««"* ""T 

( Un poco de agua buena. 

A napkin. A towel. Una servilleta. Una toalla. 

To celebrate. To feast. Celebrar. Festejar. 


1. 4 Donde ^e hallan los hermanos de Y. ? Estan en Parid. 

2. 4 Tiene mi galon de oro su hermana de V. ? No lo tiene. 

3. 4 Ve V. algunas veces a mi madre ? La veo muy 4 menu- 
do. 4. 4 Por que se queja V. ? Me quejo porque me duele 
la mano izquierda. 5. 4 Ha comprado algunas casas el her- 
mano de Y. ? Ha comprado algunas casas. 6. 4 Est4 escri- 
biendo su hermana de V. ? No, senora ; no esta escribiendo. 
7. 4 Que botella ha quebrado su hermanita de V. ? Quebro 
la que mi madre compro ayer. 8. 4 Se ha lastimado su 
madre de V. ? No se ha lastimado. 9. 4 Se ha cortado Y. el 
dedo ? No, senora ; me he cortado la mano. 10. 4 Puede V. 
escribir con esta pluma ? Puedo escribir con ella. 11. 4 Que 
yentanas ha abierto su hermana de V. ? Ha abierto las del 
cuarto que da k la calle. 12. 4 Bailaron las amigas de V. ? 
Bailaron mucho. 


1. How are your brothers ? They have been very well 
during th^se last days (iiltimos dias), 2. ''Among you 

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country people there are many fools, are there not ? " {no es 
<i8i)y asked a philosopher lately (el otro dia) of a peasant. 
The latter answered, " Sir, they are to be found in all sta- 
tions," (estado), " Fools sometimes tell the truth," said the 
philosopher. 3. Has your mother anything? She has a 
gold fork. 4. When did you see your sister ? I saw her a 
fortnight ago, {h<xce quince dias), 5. What fork have you ? 
I have my iron fork. 6. Have your sisters had my pens ? 
They have not had them, but I believe that their children 
have had them. 7. Is your sister as old as my mother? 
She is not as old, but she is taller. 8. Has he not bought 
some silk stockings ? He has bought some. 9. Why does 
not the daughter of your neighbor go out ? She does not 
go out because she has sore feet. 10. Does the wife (la ea- 
posa) of our shoemaker go out already ? No, madam, she 
does not go out yet, for she is still very ill. 11. Have you 
eaten of my soup or of my mother^s ? I have eaten neither 
of yours nor your mother^s, but of that of my good sister. 
12. Have you a sore eye ? I have not a sore eye, but I have 
a toothache. 13. Will you have this or that ? I will have 
neither. 14. Do you wish to have my mother's good black 
silk or my sister's ? I wish to have neither your mother's 
nor your sister's, but that which you have. 16. Many a one 
thinks himself learned who is not so, and many men surpass 
(exceden) women in vanity. 16. Has your brother a sore 
hand ? No, but he has a pain in his side. 17. Do you open 
the window ? I open it because it is too warm. 18. Have 
you been at the ball of my old acquaintance ? (conocido). I 
have been there. 19. Is this young lady a Turk ? No, she 
is a Greek. 20. Does she speak French ? She speaks it. 

FORTY-FIRST LESSON— Leccion Cuadragesimaprimera 

To eat, eaten. (.Comer, comido. 

To dine, dined, ) 

The dinner. La comida. 

The breakfast El almuerzo, el desayuno. 

To take sapper, to sup. Cenar. 

The sapper. Lacena. 


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After me. 
After him. 
After you. 
After my brother. 

Despues de mi. 

Despues de ^1. 

Despues de V. Despues de Vds. 

Despues de mi hermano. 

Despuia de is used with substantives and verbs in the infinitive ; 
deapuis que with verbs in the subjunctive mode. 

After having spoken. 

After carving the boiled meat. 

After having sold his house. 

After having been there. 
I broke your knife after cutting 

the roasted meat. 
To break, broken. 
I have dined earlier than you. 
You have supped late. 

To pay. 
To pay a man for a horse. 
To pay the tailor for the coat 
Do you pay the shoemaker for 

the shoes f 
I pay him for them. 
Does he pay you for the knives f 
He pays me for them. 

To ask for. 
To ask a man for money. 
I ask my father for some money. 
Do you ask me for your hat f 
I do ask you for it. 

I have paid the tailor. 
You have paid him. 
Have you paid the shoemaker f 
I have paid him. 
Do you pay what you owe! 
Yes, I pay what I owe. 
Have you paid for your books! 
I have paid for them. 
Have you asked for breakfast f 
J have asked for it. 

Despues de haber hablado. 

Despues de trinchar el cocido. 

Despues de haber vendido su 

Despu^ de haber estado alld. 

Yo quebre el cuchillo de V. des- 
pues de trinchar el asado. 
Romper, roto. 

He comido mds temprano que V. 

y. ha cenado tarde. 

Pagar un caballo k un hombre. 

Pagar el vestido al sastre. 

4 Paga y. los zapatos al zapaterot 

Yo se los pago. 
i Paga ^1 los cuchillos d y. f 
1^1 me los paga. 
Pedir dinero 6 un hombre. 
Yo pido dinero 6 mi padre. 
4 Me pide y. su sombrero! 
Yo se lo pido i Y. 

He pagado al sastre. 

y. le ha pagado. 
iHa pagado y. al zapaterol 
Le he pagado. 
i Paga y. lo que debe ! 
Si, pago lo que debo. 
i Ha pagado y. sus libros ! 
Los he pagado. 
i Ha pedido y. el almuerzot 
Lo he pedido. 


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How much have you paid for 4 L cudnto los ha pagado V. f 

1 have paid two dollars for them. Los he pagado 6 dos pesos. 

Do you ask for something! 

I ask for bread. 

To inquire, to ask about or for. 

To seek. 

Do you ask for somebody! 
Yes, Sir, I ask for your brother. 

Do you look for anything! 
I come to seek the letters. 

About whom do you inquire ! 

ihey inquire after your brother. 

She inquires of you. 

To try, to attempt. 
Will you try to do that! 
I have tried to do it. 

Tou must try to do it better. 

To hoH. 

To seize. 
Do you hold my stick ! 
I hold it. 

UPideV. algo! 
1 4 Quiere V. algo ! 

Pido pan. 

Preguntar. Bnscar. 


14 Pregunta V. por alguno ! 
4 Busca V. k alguien ! 

Si, sefior, pregunto por su her- 
mano de V. 

4 Busca V. alguna cosa ! 

Vengo 6 buscar las cartas. 

'4 Acerca de quien quiere V. pre- 

4 Por qui^n pregunta V. ! 

Ellos preguntan por su hermano 

Ella le pregunta 6 V. 
Probar,* procurar. 

4 Quiere V. procurar hacer eso ! 

He probado & hacerlo. 

^V. debe procurar hacerlo mejor. 
Debeis procurar hacerlo mejor. 
4 Tiene V. mi bast6n ! 
Yo lo tengo. 

When inquiry is made as to some action which is to take place 
at once, the Spanish requires the present tense, while in English the 
future is commonly used : 

Will yqu hold my cane ! 
Will you sell me a bed ! 

Are you looking for anything ! 

Por whom are you looking ! 
I look for a brother of mine. 

The uncle. 

The cousin. 

4 Tiene V. mi bast6n ! 
4 Me vende V. una cama f 

^4 Busca V. algo ! 
4 Est4 V. buscando algo ! 
4 k quien busca V. ! 
Yo busco & un hermano mio. 
El tio. 
El primo. 

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The relation. 
The parents, (father and mother). 
A brother of mine. 
A cousin of yours. 
A relation of his, of hers. 
A friend of ours. 
A neighbor of theirs. 

El pariente. 

Los padres. 
Un hermano mio. 
Un primo de V., or suyo. 
Un pariente suyo, or de 61, de ella. 
Un amigo nuestro. 
Un vecino suyo, or de ellos, ellas. 

The possessive pronouns follow the nouns which they qualify 
when used as yocatiyes : 
Dost thou come from the garden, 4 Vienes del jardin, hijo mio t 

my son t 
My dear friends, you have come Queridos amigos mlos, Yds. han 


Does he try to see me t 
He tries to see you. 
Whom does he try to see I 

Tenido tarde. 

^4Procura61 vermef 
4 Se esfuerza 61 6 verme t 
^Procura ver k V. 
Se esfuerza 6 ver k V. 
^4 k qui^n procura ver t 
4 L qui6n se esfuerza k ver t 

He tries to see an uncle of his. 

As it should be. 
As I ought. 
As he ought 
As you ought. 
To do his duty. 
You write properly. 

^ Procura ver k un tio suyo. 
Se esfuerza k ver k un tio suyo. 
Como se debe ser. 
Como debo. 
Como 61 debe. 
Como Y. debe. 
Cumplir con su obligaci6n. 
Y. escribe como debe. 
These men do their duty prop- Estos hombres cumplen con so 

erly. obligaci6n como deben. 

Have you done your task as you 4 Han hecho Yds. su tarea como 

ought f deben f 

We have done it properly. La hemos hecho como debemos. 

The duty. The task. El deber. La tarea. 


1. i Ha pagado los libros su tio de Y. ? Los ha pagadb. 
2. i Ha pagado sus zapatos el primo de Y. ? Todavia no los 
ha pagado. 3. i Ha roto mis lapices su hijo de V. ? Los 
rompio despues de haber escrito sus cartas. 4. i A cudles 
mercaderes pide V. guantes ? Se los pido 4 los que viven en 

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la calle de Guillermo, {Williamy 5. i A quien hemes pa- 

gado el pan ? Lo hemos pagado 4 nuestrcMS panaderos. 

6. i Pieusa V. ir a Francia este verano ? Si ; pienso ir. 7. 

i En qu6 casa come Y. ? Como en casa de un amigo mio. 

8. i Adonde va V. ? Voy 4 casa de un pariente mio para 

almorzar con el. 9. i Ha procurado V. ver 4 mi padre ? He 

procurado verlo. 10. l Por qui^n pregunta V. ? Pregunto 

por el sastre. 11. i Que pide su hermanito de V. ? Pide un 

pedacito de pan. 


1. Have you paid for the gun ? I have paid for it. 2. 
Hast thou paid the merchant for the horse? I have not 
yet paid him for it 3. D<)es my brother pay you what he 
owes you ? He pays it to me. 4. Has your uncle paid the 
butcher for the mutton ? He has paid him for it 5. Have 
you paid the merchant for the wine after drinking it ? I 
have paid for it after drinking it 6. How have my chil- 
dren done their task ? They have done it well. 7. Do you 
do your duty ? I do what I can. 8. Do you ask me for any- 
thing ? I ask you for a dollar. 9. What do you ask the 
baker for? I ask him for some bread. 10. Does he ask 
thee for the book ? He does ask me for it 11. Whom have 
you asked for some sugar ? I have asked the merchant for 
some. 12. How old art thou ? I am not quite ten years 
old. 13. Dost thou already learn Spanish ? I do already 
learn it 14. Is your father at home ? No, he has gone out, 
but my brother is at home. 15. Where has your father 
gone ? He has gone to England. 16. How long does your 
brother remain at home? Till twelve o'clock. 17. Have 
you already dined ? Not yet 18. At what o'clock do you 
dine ? I dine at six o'clock. 19. With whom did you dine 
yesterday? I dined with a relation of mine. 20. Where 
does your uncle dine to-day ? He dines with us. 

FORTY-SECOND LESSON— Leccion Cuadrag6sima- 

Who, what, that. Que, (relative pronoun). 

The one who. El que. 

Those who. Los que, las que. 
10 ^ 

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To perceive. 
Do you perceive the man who is j 
coming f { 

I perceive the one who is coming.^ 
Do you perceive the men who are 

going into the warehouse ? 
I perceive those who are going 
into it. 

To enter, to go in. 
How is the weather t j 

What kind of weather is it f ( 
It is fine weather. 
What was the weather yester- 
It was bad weather yesterday. 

It was very warm. 

It was very cold. 

Dark, obscure. 

Dusky, gloomy, sad. 

Clear, light. 
Is it dark in your warehouse f 

Is it dark in his garret f 
It is very dark there. 

Wet, damp. 

Are the streets wetf 
They are not very dry. 
Is the weather damp f 
It is not damp. 
Is it the dry season f 
The weather is too dry. 

The moonlight. 

The moonshine. 
It is moonlight. 
We have too much sun. 

To taste. 
Have you tasted that winef 
I have tasted it. 
How do you like it f 
I like it welL 

Percibir, divisar, columbrar. 
4 Percibe V. al hombre que viene t 
^Divisa V. al hombre que viene t 
Diviso (columbro) al que viene. 
4 Divisa V. k los hombres que van 

6 entrar en el almac^n f 
Diviso k los que van 4 entrar 

en ^1. 

4 Qu6 tiempo hace t 
4 Que tiempo tenemos f 
Haqe hermoso tiempo. 
4 Que tiempo hizo ayer f 

Hizo mal tiempo ayer. 

Hizo mucho calor. 

Hizo mucho f rlo. 

Obscuro, tenebroso. 

L6brego, triste. 

Clare, despejado. 
4 Es or esti obscuro su almac^n 

de v.! 
4 Es or estd obscuro su desv4n t 
Est4 muy obscuro alii. 

Mojado, htimedo. 

4 Estdn mojadas las calles t 
No estdn muy secas. 
4 Estd hiimedo el tiempo t 
No estd hdmedo. 
4 Es seco el tiempo f 
El tiempo estd demasiado seoa 

La luz de la luna. 

El claro de la luna. 
Hay luna, hace luna. 
Demasiado sol tenemos. 
Gustar, probar. 
4 Ha probado V. aquel vino I 
Lo he gustado. 
4 Qui le parece d V. f 
Me gusta mucho. 


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Do you like cider f 
No, I like wine. 

4 Le gusta d V. la sidra f 
No ; me gusta el yino. 
j El disclpulo. 
( El alumno. 
El maestro. 

Aprender de memoria. 
Do your pupils like to learn by ^Les gusta 4 sus discipulos de 
heart f V. aprender de memoria f 

^, , . ,., , . fEl aprender de memoria no les 

They do not like learning by ^„e|.„ 
hearL gusca. 

! No les gusta aprender de memoria. 
Have you learned your exercises 4 Han aprendido Yds. sus ejer- 

The pupil. 

The master, teacher. 
To learn by heart. 

by heart f 
We have learned them. 
Once a day. 
Three times a month. 
So much a year. 
So much a head. 
So much a soldier. 
Six times a year. 
Early in the morning. 
We go out early in the morning. 
When did your father go out f 
To be content 

cicios de memoria f 
Los hemos aprendido. 
Una vez al dia. 
Tres veces al mes, por mes. 
Tan to al aRo. 
Tanto por cabeza. 
Tanto por soldado. 
Seis veces al alio. 
Por la maRana temprano. 
Salimos por la mafiana temprano. 
4 Gudndo sali6 su padre de V. f 
Estar contento. 

Are you content with your new 4 Estd Y. contento con su vestido 

coat t nuevo f 

I am content with it. Estoy satisfecho de ^1. 

jS( with an accent is yea or indeed ; without an accent it is if. 

I intend to pay you if I receive 

Do you intend to buy paper f 
I intend to buy some, if they pay 

me what they owe me. 


v., si 

Pienso (intento) pagar d 

recibo dinero. 
4 Piensa V. comprar papel f 
Intento comprar alguno si me 

pagan lo que me deben. 


1. 4 Oolumbra V. 4 los nifios del soldado ? Los columbro. 
2. i Ves a los ninos que estudian ? No veo a los que es- 
tudian, sino & los que juegan. 3. i Que les gusta 4 los sol- 

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dados ? Les gusta el vino. 4. i Cu&ntas veces al ano va su 
primo de V. al baile f Va dos veces al ano. 5. i Le gusta & 
Y. el ave ? Me gusta el ave, pero no el pescado. 6. i Ha 
podido V. leer el biUete que le he escrito ? He podido leerlo. 
7. i For que no entiende V. & ese hombre ? Porque habla 
demasiado mal. 8. i Tiene su padre de V. intenci6n de com- 
prar este caballo ? Tiene intenci6n de comprarlo, si recibe 
dinero. 9. i Hizo buen tiempo ayer ? Ayer hizo mu j mal 
tiempo. 10. I Fue V. al jardin ayer ? No f ui 11. i Ha pro- 
bado y. ese vino ? Lo he probado. 12. i Est& V. contento 
de 61 f No estoy contento de el. 


1. Do you perceive the man who is coming ? I do not 
perceive him. 2. Does your brother perceive the man who 
has lent him money ? He does not perceive the one who 
has lent him, but tiie one to whom he has lent some. 3. 
Dost thou perceive anything ? I perceive nothing. 4. Do 
you like a large hat ? I do not like a large hat, but a large 
umbrella. 6. Does your brother like cider? {9idra), He 
likes it 6. Do these children like to study ? They like to 
study and to play. 7. How often do your children drink a 
day ? They drink several times a day. 8. How often in a 
month do you go ? I go but once a month. 9. Does your 
cook often go to the market f He goes thither every morn- 
ing. 10. What do you like ? I like a piece of bread and a 
glass of wine. 11. How many exercises do they write a 
day ? They write only two, but they write them properly. 
12. Do you understand the man who is speaking to you? 
I do not understand him. 13. Why do you not learn it ? 
I have no time to learn it 14. Does your friend intend 
going to England ? He intends going thither, if they pay 
him what they owe him. 15. How is the weather to^y ? 
It is very fine weather. 16. Is it warm ? It is very warm. 
17. Is it not cold ? It is not cold. 18. Do you intend going 
there to-morrow ? I intend going there if the weather is 
fine. 19. Why can not your brother work in his ware- 
house ? He can not work there, because it is too dark. 20. 
Is the weather dry 1 It is very dry. 

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FORTY-THIRD LESSON— Leccion Cuadragesimatercer^ 


The passive voice is very simple. It is formed by the use of 
ser and eata/r as auxiliaries with principal verbs, the agent being 
preceded by de or por. The student should recall what has been 
said as to the reflexive use of se with verbs to give a passive con« 

I am loved. 

Thou conductest. 
Thou art conducted. 

He praises. 
He is praised. 

You punish. 
You are punished. 

They blame. 
They are blamed. 

Yo soy amada 

Tii conduces. 
Tti estds conduoido. 

till alaba. 
£1 es alabado. 

V. castiga. 
V. estd castigado. 

EUos vituperan. 
Ellos son vituperados. 

Eatar is generally used with present participles in a passive con- 
struction, save where the verb is descriptive of a mental or emo- 
tional act or condition, in which case aer is employed. 

To praise. 

To punish. 

To blame. 

By, through. 

Skillful, diligent, clever. 
Assiduous, industrious, studious. 

Tl»e idler. 

To reward. 

To esteem. 

To despise. 

To hate. 

iThe winter. 

The summer. 

The spring. 

The autumn. 

Alabar, elogiar. 


Vituperar, culpar. 

Malo. (Mai, before a maso. noun). 
HAbil, diligente, diestro. 
Asiduo, industrioso, estudioso. 
Ocioso, perezoso, holgaz&n. 
El haragdn. 

Recompensar, premiar. 

Estimar, apreciar. 

Despreciar, menospreciar. 


El inviemo. 

El verano. 

La primavera. 

El otofio. 


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It is bad to travel in the winter. 
To walk, to go. 
To drive, to ride in a carriage. 

To ride, (on horseback). 

To go on foot. 
Do you like to ride f 
I like to drive. 

Can one live well in Paris t 

One can live well in Paris. 
Dear, (expensive). 

Is it expensive to live in London t. 

The storm. 

The fog. 
Is it windy f Does 


It is windy. The wind blows. 
It is not windy. 
It is very windy. 

Es malo viajar en el inviemo. 


Ir en coche. 

Ir (andar, pasear) 4 caballo. 

Montar 4 caballo. 


Ir 4 pie. 

i Le gusta 4 V. andar 4 cabaUo t 

Me gusta ir en coche. 
U Se vive bien en Paris t 
( 4 Lo pasa uno bien en Paris f 

Se vive bien en Paris. 
Caro, costoso. 

'(Es caro (costoso) el vivir en 

4 Cuesta mucho vivir en Londres f 

Trueno. Truenos. 
j La tormenta. La tempestad. 
\ La borrasca. 

La niebla. 
wind j 4 Hace viento f 

1 4 Corre viento, (hace aire) t 
j Hace viento. 
( Ck>rre viento, (hace aire). 
( No hace viento. 

Does it thunder f 

Is it foggy f 

Is it stormy f 
It is not stormy. 

I No corre viento, (no hace aire). 

^Hace mucho viento. 
Corre mucho viento, (hace aire). 
Is it thunder- J 4 Hay truenos f 4 Truena f 
( 4 Estd tronando f 
4 Hace niebla f 4 Hay niebla t 

^4 Estd tempestuoso el tiempo t 

Does the sun shine f 
It thunders very much. 


As soon as. 
As soon as I have eaten I drink. 

Hay tempestad f 

^No hay tempestad. 
No est& tempestuoso. 
4 Luce el sol f 4 Hay sol f 
Truena muchisimo. 

Luego que. Asi que. 
Asi que haya comido, bebo. 

What do you do in the afternoon f 4 Qu^ hace V. por la tarde f 


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To sleep. Dormir.* 

Does your father sleep still f 4 Duerme todavia su padre de V. f 

He still sleeps. Duerme todavia, atin daerme. 

Without. Sin. 

Without money. Sin dinero. 

Without speaking. Sin hablar. 

Without «ying anything. ] ^j- Slrt^abra. 

At last. Al fin, finalmente. 

To arrive. Llegar. 

Has he arrived at last f 4 Ha Uegado al cabo f 

He has not yet arrived. Todavia no ha llegado. 

Is he coming at last t 4 Viene al fin f 

He is coming. £l viene. 
Are you loved by your father and 4 Es V. amado de sus padres t 

mother t 

I am loved by my parents. Soy amado de mis padres. 


1. i De quien es Y. amado ? Soy amado de mi tio. 2. 
4 Es amado de sus maestros nuestro amigo ? Es amado y 
alabado por ellos, porque es estudioso y bueno; pero su 
hermano es despreciado por los suyos, porque es perezoso 
y malo. 3. 4 Es V. castigado algunas veces ? No lo soy 
nunca ; soy amado por mis buenos maestros. 4. 4 Que es 
necesario hacer para ser recompensado ? Es necesario ser 
habil y estudiar mucho. 5. 4 Por que son amados estos 
ninoB ? Son amados porque son buenos. 6. 4 Salio V. a 
caballo anteayer ? He salido 4 caballo hoy. 7 4 Es bueno 
viajar en la primavera ? Es bueno viajar en la prima vera 
y en el otono ; pero es malo viajar en el verano y en el in- 
viemo. 8. 4 Es caro vivir en Paris ? Se vive bien, y no es 
caro. 9. 4 Hubo tempestad ayer ? Hizo un tiempo muy 
tempestuoso. 10. 4 Va V. 4 la plaza esta manana ? Voy, si 
el tiempo no est4 tempestuoso. 11. 4 De que ha hablado su 
hermano de Y. ? Ha hablado de sus libros, de sus caballos, y 
de sus perros. 12. 4 Puede V. trabajar sin hablar ? Puedo 
toibajar sin hacerlo ; pero no puedo aprender el espanol 

Digitized Dy 'LjOOQiC 



1. Are you loved ? I am loved. 2. By whom are we 
loved ? You are loved by your friends. 3. By whom are 
we blamed ? We are bhuned by our enemies. 4. Why are 
we blamed by them ? Because they do not love us. 6. i Is 
thy master heard by his pupils ? He is heard by them. 6. 
Are we praised or blamed ? We are neither praised nor 
blamed. 7. Is he sometimes punished ? He is every morn- 
ing and every afternoon. 8. Who is praised and rewarded ? 
Skillful children are praised, esteemed, and rewarded, but 
the ignorant are blamed, despised, and pimished. 9. What 
must one do. in order to be loved ? One must be good and 
assiduous. 10. Is your brother as studious as mine ? He is 
as studious as yours, but your brother is better than mine. 
11. Does your brother ride on horseback as often as you ? He 
rides on horseback oftener than I. 12. Do you like travel- 
ing in the winter ? I do not like traveling in the winter ; I 
like traveling in the spring and in autumn. 13. Have you 
sometimes traveled in the winter ? I have often traveled 
in the winter and in the summer. 14. Have you been in 
London ? I have been there. 15. Do you like traveling in 
France? I like traveling there, because one finds good 
people (gentes htiMas) there. 16. Do the English like to 
travel in Spain ? They like to travel there ; but they find 
the roads too bad. 17. Is it windy ? It is very windy, la 
Do you intend to go to France this year ? I intend to go 
there if the weather is not too bad. 19. What sort of 
weather is it ? It thunders. 20. Does the sun shine ? The 
sun does not shine ; it is foggy . 

FORTY-FOURTH LESSON— Lecci6n Cuadragesima- 


Objectiye pronouns of the first and second persons have a reflex- 
ive meaning when they refer to the same subject : Me veo enga- 
fiado, I behold myself deceived. 


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Since pronouns of the third person, including usted and ustedes, 
would refer to a different person if the forms le, lo, la, los, and Icls 
were used, each gender employs u to express a reflexive action on 
the subject : £l se pierde en la obscuridad, He loses himself in the 

Every pronominal subject may be intensified by adding to it, in 
the proper gender and number, the adjective midmo : Ella misma 
lo ha hecho. She herself did it. 


I — (myself). 
He— {himself). 


One — (one's self). 
We— (ourselves). 

You — (yourself). 
You, ye— (yourselves). 

Masc. They — (themselves). 
Pem. They— (themselves). 
Do you bum yourself! 
I do not bum myself. 
You do not bum yourself. 
I see myself. 
He sees himself. 
We see ourselves. 
They see themselves. 
He always praises himself. 

Do you wish to warm yourself! 

I do wish to warm myself. 

To divert 

To amuse one's self. 

In what do you amuse yourself ! 
I amuse myself by reading. 
He diverts himself by playing. 

(Yo) me— (4 mi mismo). 

(Td) te— (4 ti mismo). 

(£l) se — (d si mismo). 

(Ella) se — (d si misma). 
K (£l) se— (4 si mismo). 
( (Ella) se— (4 si misma). 

Uno se — alguno se — (4 si mismo). 

(Nosotros) nos — (4 nosotros mis- 

V. se— 4 si mismo. 

Vds. se — (vosotros os) — (4 si mis- 
mos) — (d vosotros mismos). 

EUos se— (d si mismos). 

Ellas se— (d si mismas). 

4 Se quema V. ! 

No me quemo. 

v. no se quema. 

Me veo. 

£l se ve. 

Nosotros nos vemos. 

EUos se ven, ellas se ven. 

£l se alaba siempre d si misma 

^4 Quiere V. calentarse ! 
4 Se quiere V. calentar ! 
Me quiero calentar. 
Bntretenerse.* * 

4 A or en qu6 se divierte V. ! 
Yo me recreo leyendo, or en leer! 
Se entretiene en jugar, jugando. 

^ Conjugated like Umt. 


by Google 



Each one. 
Each man amuses himself as he 

Each one amuses himself in the 
best way he can. 
The taste. 

Each man has his taste. 

Each of you. 
The world. 

Everybody speaks of it. 

Every one is liable to error. , 

To mistake. 
You are mistaken. 
He is mistaken. 

To deceive, to cheat. 
He has cheated me. 

Cada, todo. 

Cada uno. 

Cada hombre se divierte como le 

Cada uno se divierte del mejor 

jnodo que puede. 
El gusto. 

^Cada imo tiene su gusto. 
Cada hombre tiene su gusto. 
Cada uno de Yds. 
El mundo. 
Cada uno or todo el mundo habla 

de ello. 
Todos hablan de ello. 
Cada uno comete errores. 
Todos estamos sujetos k errar. 
Y. se equivoca. 
'k\ se equivoca. 

Engafiar. Hacer droga. 
£l me ha engafiado. 

He has cheated me of a hundred ]£!1 me ha hecho droga cien pesos, 
dollars. * 

You cut (did cut) your finger. 
I cut my nails. 

A hair. 
To pull out. 
He pulls out his hair. 
He cuts his hair. 
To go away. 
Are you going away f 
I am going away. 
He is going away. 

To be sleepy. 

Are you sleepy f 
I am sleepy. 

To soil. 

To stain. 

To fear, to dread. 

Y. se cort6 el dedo. 
Yo me corto las ufias. 
Un cabello. 
Arrancar, arrancarse. 
]£!1 se arranca el cabello. 
£l se corta el cabello. 
Irse, marcharse. 
4 Se va Y. f 4 Se marcha Y. f 
Me voy. Me marcho. 
£1 se va. Se marcha. 
Tener suefio. 
Tener gana de dormir. 
Quererse dormir. 
4 Tiene Y. suefio f 
Tengo suefio. 

Ensuciar, ensuciarse. 
Manchar, mancharse. 
Temer, recelar, 

Digitized by 



I dread, thou dreadest, he dreads, Temo, temes, teme, tememos, te- 

we dread, you dread, they m^is, temen. 


He is afraid of soiling his finger. 1^1 teme ensuciarse eldedo. 

Do you dread to go out f 4 Teme V. salir I 

I do dread to go out. Temo salir. 

He is afraid to go out. 1^1 tiene miedo de salir. 
The wood, (fuel). La lefia. 


1. i Se pueden ver en este espejo grande los amigos de 
V. ? Se pueden ver en h\, 2. i Tiene V. un dedo malo ? 
Tengo iin dedo y un pie malos. 3. i Se calientan sus vecinos 
de V. ? Se calientan, porque tienen f no. 4. i Que hace ese 
hombre ? Se arranca el cabello. 5. i En que se divierte su 
primo de V. ? Se divierte en leer buenos libros, y en escribir 
k sus amigos. 6. Cada hombre tiene su gusto, i cudl es el 
de V. ? El mio es estudiar, leer un buen libro, ir al teatro, 
al concierto, al baile, y montar a caballo. 7. i Que le dice 4 
V. su vecino ? Me dice que V. quiere comprar un caballo ; 
pero yo se que se equivoca ; porque V. no tiene dinero para 
comprarlo. 8. i Que se dice en la plaza ? Se dice que se ha 
batido el enemigo. 9. i Se van sus amigos de V. ? Se van. 

10. i Que dicen nuestros vecinos ? Se van sin decir nada. 

11. i Por que no come V. ? No como cuando no tengo ham- 
bre. 12. i Ha comido algo anoche su hermano de V. ? Ha 
comido un pedazo de came de vaca, un pedacito de gallina, 
y un pedazo de pan. 


1. Do you see yourself in that small looking-glass ? I 
see myself in it 2. Why do not you cut your bread ? I do 
not cut it, because I fear to cut my finger. 3. Why does not 
that man warm himself ? Because he is not cold. 4. Do 
you cut your hair ? I do cut my hair. 6. In what do you 
amuse yourself ? I amuse myself in the best way I can. 
6. In what do you amuse yourself when you have nothing 
to do at home ? I go to the play and to the concert 7. 
Why does not your coUsin brush his coat ? He does not 
brush it, because he is afraid of soiling his fingers. 8. Why 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


have you bought that book ? I have bought it, because I 
want it to learn Spanish, and because every one speaks of it. 

9. When are you going away ? We are going away to-day. 

10. Does your friend feel sleepy ? He does not feel sleepy, 
but he is cold. 11. Are you thirsty ? I am not thirsty, but 
very hungry. 12. Is your servant sleepy. He is sleepy. 
13. Is he hungry ? He is hungry. 14. Are your children 
hungry ? They are hungry, but they have nothing to eat 
15. Have they anything to drink ? They have nothing to 
drink. 16. Why does the Hussian not drink ? He does not 
drink when he is not' thirsty. 17. Did not he drink ? He 
drank also. 

FORTY-FIFTH LESSON— Leccion Cuadragteimaquinta 


Have you cut yourself f 4 Se ha cortado Y. t 

I have cut myself. Yo me he cortado. 

Hast thou cut thyself f 4 Te has cortado f 

I have not cut myself. No me he cortado. 

Has your brother cut himself f (Se ha cortado su hermano de 


He has cut himself. Se ha cortado. 

Have we cut ourselves f Nos hemos cortado. 

You have not cut yourselves. Yds. no se han cortado. 

Have these men cut themselves t (Se han cortado estos hombresf 

They have not cut themselves. (To se han cortado. 

To take a walk, to promenade. Pasearse. 

To go for a walk. Ir k pasear, salir 4 pasear. 

To go for a drive. Pasearse en coche. 

The coach. El coche. 

Do you take a walk t (SepaseaY.t 

I take a walk. Me paseo. 

He takes a walk. 1^1 se pasea. 

To take a child for a walk. Hacer pasear 6 un nifio, or UeTar 

un nifio k pasear. 

Do you take your children walk- 4 Haoe Y. pasear 6 sua nifiotf 


I take them walking every mom- Los hago pasear todas las mall»* 



by Google 



To go to bed, to retire. 
To lie down. 
To get up. To rise. 
Do you rise early t 
I rise at sunrise. 
I go to bed at sunset 
The sunset. 
The sunrise. 

Irse 4 la tiama. 

4 Se levitnta V. temprano t 
Me levanto al salir el soL 
Me acuesto al ponerse el sol. 
La puesta el soL 
Salir el sol. Rayar el alba. 
At what time did you go to bed t i it qu6 hora se acost6 V. f 
At three o'clock in the morning. A las tres de la mafiana. 

To rejoice. Alegtarse. Begocijarse de. 

The happiness. La dicha, la felicidad. 

I rejoice at your happiness. Me alegro de la dicha de V. 

At what does your uncle rejoice t i De qud se alegra el sefior tio de 


I hare rejoiced. 
They have rejoiced. 
We have made a mistake. 
To injure. 
The evil The pain. The harm. 

Haye you hurt that man t 

I have hurt that man. 
Does that hurt you t 

To me he al^grado. 
EUos se han alegrado. 
Nos hemos equivocado. 
Hacer raal, or daiio. 
£1 mal. El dolor. El dailo. 

(4 Ha hecho V. mal (daflo) d ese 
hombre f 
4 Ha lastimado V. & ese hombre S 
j He hecho mal (dafio) & ese hombre. 
) To he lastimado 4 ese hombre. 


Le hace mal (dafio) 4 V. eso f 
Le lastiraa eso a V. f 

That hurts me. Eso me hace mal, (dafio). 

To do good. Hacer bien. 

Have I ever done you any harm f 4 Jamfo le he hecho algtin mal k 


On the contrary. Al contrario. 

Xo; on the contrary, you have No; al contrario, V. me ha hechq 

done me good. bien. 

Have I hurt yout J* H® ^^^^ ^«^^ mal d V.t 

I4 Le he lastimado d Y. f 

Ton have not hurt me. i ^- °^ °*® ^* ^^^^ ^^ 

( y. no me ha lastimado. 
What does the servant do with 4 Qu6 hace el criado con la e» 

his broom t coba f 

He sweeps the floor with it Barre el suelo con elhw 


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A knife was given him to cut his 
bread, and he cut his finger. 

To flatter. 

To flatter one's self. i 

He flatters himself that he knows j 
Spanish. ( 

Nothing but -j 

He has nothing but enemies. \ 

He has turned soldier. 
Have you turned a merchant f 
I have turned (become) a lawyer. 
What has become of your brother f 

What has become of him f 
I do not know what has become 
of him. 

To enlist To enrolL 
He has enlisted. 
I can not pay you, for I have no 

He can not give you any bread, 
for he has none. 
To believe. 
Do you believe that man f 
I do not believe him. 

Que, (conjunction). 
Se le ha dado un cuchillo pam 

rebanar el pan, y ^1 se cort6 el 

Le dieron un cuchillo, etc 
Alabar or lisonjear. 
Alabarse d si misrao. 
Lisonjearse, preciarse. 
Se precia de saber el espafioL 
Se alaba de saber el espafloL 
Sino. No (verb) sino. 
No (verb) mis que. 
£l no tiene sino enemigos. 
£l no tiene mds que enemigos. 
]^1 se ha hecho soldado. 
4 Se ha hecho V. comerciante t 
Me he hecho abogado. 
4 Que se ha hecho de su hermano 

4 Que se ha hecho de ^1 f 
No s6 lo que se ha hecho de ^L 

Alistarse. Hacerse soldado. 
Se ha alistado. 
No le puedo pagar 4 V. porque 

no tengo dinero. 
6l no puede dar pan 4 V. porque 
no tiene. 
4 Cree V. & ese hombre t 
No le creo. 

Creer usually takes d after it when followed by persons, but it 
takes en in this case : 

To believe in (3od. 

I believe in God. 
To utter a falsehood. To lie. 
I lie, thou liest, he lies. 
We lie, you lie, they lie. 

Creer en Dios. 

Creo en Dios. 
Decir una falsedad. Mentir.* 
Miento, mientes, miente. 
Mentimos, mentis, mienten. 

The teller of falsehoods, the liar. £1 embustero, el mentiroso. 


by Google 



1. I Has sido alabado algunas veces ? He sido alabado 4 
menudo. 2. ^ Se hizo soldado su vecino de V. ? No se hizo 
soldado. 3. i Que hizo el sastre con el pano que V. le dio ? 
Ha hecho vestidos para los ninos de V. y los mios. 4. i Es 
su hermano de V. quien ha hecho mal 4 mi hijo ? No, senor ; 
no es mi hermano, porque jamas hizo mal a nadie. 5. 2 Se 
ha lastimado Y. ? No me he lastimado. 6. ^ Se ha cortado 
V. el cabello ? No me lo he cortado yo mismo ; me lo he 
hecho cortar. 7. i A que hora se acosto V. ayer ? Ayer me 
acoste a las once y cuarto. 8. i Que hace su hijo de V. 
cuando se levanta ? Estudia y luego almuerza. 9. i Va V. 
4 menudo 4 pasear ? Me voy 4 pasear cuando no tengo nada 
que hacer en casa. 10. i De que se alegro V. ? Me alegr6 
de ver 4 mis buenos amigos. 11. i Se lisonjea V. de saber el 
espanol ? Me lisonjeo de saberlo ; porque puedo leerlo, ha- 
blarlo y escribirlo. 12. l Por que escucha V. 4 ese hombre ? 
Lo escucho, pero no lo creo ; porque se que es un embustero. 


1. Why has that child been praised? He has been 
praised because he has studied well. 2. Has this child been 
rewarded ? He has been rewarded because he has worked 
well ? 3. What has become of your cousin ? He has en- 
listed. 4. What has become of his children ? His children 
have become men. 6. What has become of my book ? I do 
not know what has become of it. 6. Have you torn it ? I 
have not torn it 7. What has the joiner done with his 
wood ? He has made a bench of it 8. Has that man hurt 
you ? No, Sir, he has not hurt me. 9. What must one do 
in order to be loved ? One must do good to those that have 
done us harm. 10. Have I hurt you ? You have not hurt 
me, but your boys have. 11. What have they done to you ? 
T^iey have beaten me. 12. Have you drunk that wine ? I 
have drunk it 13. How did you like it ? I liked it very 
much. 14. Is he still ill ? (malo). He is better. I rejoice 
to hear that he is no longer ill, for I love him. 15. What 
has this child done ? He has cut his foot 16. Do you go 


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to bed early ? I go to bed late, for I can not sleep when I 
go to bed early. 17. At what o'clock do your children go 
to bed ? They go to bed at sunset. 18. Do they rise early f 
They rise at sunrise. 19. Does your son rise late ? He rises 
early, for he never goes to bed laie. 20. Didst thou rise this 
morning as early as I ? I rose earlier than you, for I rose 
before sunrise. 

FORTY-SIXTH LESSON— Lecci6n Cuadrag^simasezta 







4 Relampagaea t 


Llueye may reoio. 

El rel&mpago. 

El qaitasoL 
Relampagaea macho. 
4 Nieya f 4 Estd neyando f 
Nieya macho. 
Graniza mucho. 
No haj sol, no hace soL 
No parece el sol. 
No laoe el sol, no brilla el soL 
Me da el sol en los ojos. 
Tronar,* traena. 
Ludr, resplandeoer. 


El pais. 
]fel se ha hecho machos amigos en 

ese pais. 
£1 pas6 tres dias en el oampo. 

To rain. It rains. 

To snow. It snows. 

To haiL It hails. 

To lighten. It lightens. 

Does it lighten t 

It lightens. 

It rains yery hard. 

The lightning. 

The parasol. 
It lightens mach. 
Does it snow f 
It snows mach. 
It hails much. 

The sun does not shine. 

The sun is in m j eyes. 
To thunder, it thunders. 
To shine, to glitter. 
To shut. 
The country. 
The country (flelcQ. 
He has made many friends in 

that country. 
He spent three days in the coun- 

Po^a is one country as distinguished from another ; ecumjpo ia the 
country as distinguished from the town or city. 


by Google 



Of which. 

Of whom, 




De qaien. Del cuaL De la cual, (sing,), 

De quienes. , De Iob cuales. De las cuales, (plw,). 

I see the man of whom you speak. Veo al hombre de quien V. habla. 
I have bought the horse of which He comprado el caballo de que (or 
you spoke to me. del oual) V. me habl6. 


1 see the man whose brother has 

returned from Chicago. 
Whom have you seen! 
I have seen the merchant whose 
warehouse you have taken. 
That which. 
That of which. 

That, or the one of which. 


Cuyo, (miMc). 
Guya, (/em.). 


Cuyos, {moM.), 
Cuyas, (/«m.). 

Those, or the ones of which. 

I have that of which I have need. 
I have what I want. 
He has what he wants. 

Have you the book of which you 

have need? 
I have that of which I have need. 

To apply. 
. To meet. 
I have met with the men to whom 
jou have applied. 


Veo al hombre cuyo hermano ha 

vuelto de Chicago. 
4 A qui^n ha visto V. f 
He visto al comerciante cuyo al- 

mac^n ha tomado V. 
Lo que, aquello que. 
Aquello de que. 
A quel de quien, (ma«e. sing*), 
Aquella de quien, (/em. sing,), 
Aquel del cual, {nutsc, sing,), 
^ Aquella de la cual, (/em. sing^, 
' Aquellos de quienes, (ma«e. plwr^, 
Aquellas de quienes, (/em. plur,), 
Aquellos de los cuales, (m<ue. 

Aquellas de las cuales, (/em. 

( Tengo lo que he menester, or ne- 
) cesito. 
Tiene lo que ha menester, or ne- 

4 Tiene V. el libro que necesitaf 

Tengo el que he menester, (nece- 

si to). 
Recurrir, acudir, dirigirse. 
Encontrar, encontrarse. 
Me he encontrado con los hom- 

bres & quienes, or d los cuales 

V. ha aondido. 


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Of which men do you speak f 4 De cudlee hombres habla V. t 

I speak of those whose children Hablo de aqu^Uos cuyos nifios 

have been studious and obe- han sido estudiosos 7 obedien- 

dient. tes. 

Obedient, disobedient. Obediente, desobediente. 

So that. Asi, de suerte que. 

I have lost my money ; so I can He perdido mi dinero, y asi no le 

not pay you. puedo pagar k V. 

I am ill ; so I can not go out. Estoy malo, asi no puedo salir. 


1. I Va V. al baile esta noche ? Tengo los pies malos, 
de suerte que no puedo ir. 2. i Ha comprado V. el caballo 
de que me hablo ? No tengo dinero, de manera que no 
pude comprarlo. 3. i Ha visto su tio de V. los libros de que 
V. le hablo ? ifcl los ha visto. 4. i Ha visto V. al mucha- 
chito cuyo padre se ha hecho abogado ? Lo he visto. 5. 
i Ha recibido V. el dinero que V. ha necesitado ? Lo he 
recibido. 6. iHan hablado Vds. a los comerciantes cuyo 
almacen hemos tornado ? Les hemos hablado. 7. i Tienen 
sus ninos de V. lo que necesitan ? Tienen lo que necesitan. 
8. i De que ninos ha hablado V. ? He hablado de aquellos 
cuyos padres son instruidos. 9. i De que pescado ha comido 
el ? Ha comido del que no le gusta a V. 10. i No tiene V. 
necesldad de los libros^ que estoy leyendo ? No tengo ne- 
cesidad de ellos. 11. i A qu6 ninos se deben dar libros ? Es 
menester darios a los que son buenos y obedientes. 12. 
i Nevo ayer ? Nevo, granizo y relampagueo. 


1. Have you at last learned Spanish ? I was ill, so that 
I could not learn it 2. Did you understand that German ? 
I do not know German, so that I could not understand 
him. 3. Have you seen the fine gun of which I spoke to 
you ? I have seen it 4. To whom have you been speaking 
in the theater ? I have been speaking to the man whose 
brother has killed my fine dog. 6. Whom do you see now ? 
I see the man whose servant has broken my looking-glass. 
6. Hast thou brushed the coat of which I spoke to thee ? I 


zed by Google 


have not yet brushed it. 7. Has your brother the books 
which he is wanting ? He has them. 8. Have you spoken 
to the physician whose son has studied German ? I have 
spoken to him. 9. Have you read the books which we have 
lent you ? We have read them. 10. Of which man do you 
speak ? I speak of the one whose brother has turned sol- 
dier. 11. Which paper has your cousin ? He has that of 
which he has need. 12. Which books do you want ? I want 
those of which you have spoken to me. 13. To whom have 
you given some money ? I have given some to^hose who 
have been skillful. 14. Do you give anything to the chil- 
dren who are idle ? I give them nothing. 15. Did it rain ? 
It rained. 16. Did you go out ? I never go out when it is 
bad weather. 17. Whom have you met this morning? I 
have met the man by whom I am esteemed. 

FORTY-SEVENTH LESSON—Leccion Cuadragesima- 


The future indicative of regular verbs is formed by adding the 
following endings to the infinitive : 


1. 4. 1. emos. 

2. ds. 2. eis. 
8. 6. 3. dn. 

To speak — I shall or will speak. Hablar—yo hablar^. 

To sell — I shall or will sell. Vender— yo vender^. 

To receive — I shall or will re- Recibir — yo recibirS. 


Thou Shalt or wilt speak. Td hablards. 

He shall or will speak. tX hablard. 

Tou shall or will speak. V. hablard. 

We shall or will speak. Nosotros hablaremos. 

You (second person) shall or will Vosotros hablar^is. 


They shall or will speak. EUos (ellas) hablar&ii. 

You shall or will speak. Yds. hablaku. 


zed by Google 



To love — I shall or will love. 
To foresee — I shall or will fore- 

To restdre — I shall or will restore. 

To have — I shall or will have. 

To have-^I shall or will have. 

To be — ^I shall or will be. 

To be— I shall or will be. 

To go — I shall or wiU go. 

To come — I shall or will come. 

To know — I shall or will knoii^. 

To be worth — ^I shall or will be 

To be able — I shall or will be 

To do— I shall or will do. 

To be willing — I shall or will be 

To go out — I shall or will go out 

To owe — I shall or will owe. 

To give — I shall or will give. 

To see — I shall or will see. 

To be necessary — ^it will or shall j 
be necessary. ( 

To rain — it will rain. 

To send — ^I shall or will send. 

To sit down — ^I shall or will sit 

Shall or will he have money f 

He will have some. 

Will you soon have finished writ- 

I shall have finished soon. 

He will have finished his exercise 

When will you write your exer- 
cises f 

I shall write them soon. 

My brother will write his exer- 
cise to-morrow. 

Amar— amar^, 
Prever— prever^, 

Bestituir— restituir^, 
Tener— -tendr^, 
Haber — habr^, 
Ser— ser^, 
Estar— estar^, 
Ir— ir^. 

Venir— vendr^, 
Saber — sabr^, 
Valer— valdr^, 

Poder — ^podr^, 

Hacer— har^, 
Querer— querr^ 

iiSf an. 

Salir— saldr^, 

Deber— deber^, 

Dar — dar^, 

Ver— ver^, 

Ser roenester— serd menester. 

Ser necesario — ser& necesario. 

Llover — ^lloverd. 

Enviar — enviar6. 

Sentarse — ^me sentarS. 


Tendrd alguno. 

4 Acabard V. de escribir pronto t 

Pronto acabar^. 

Pronto acabard ^l su ejercicio. 

^Cudndo esoribiri V. sua ejer- 

cicios f 
To los escribir6 pronto. 
Mi hermano esoribird su ejereioio 



by Google 



Next Monday. El lanes que Tiene, (or pr6zimo 

or que entra). 
Last Monday. El lunes pasado. 

Next month. El mes que yiene, {or que entra). 

When will your cousin go to the a Cudndo ir& al concierto su primo 

concert f deV.f 

He will go next Tuesday. Ir& el martes que yiene. 

Will you go anywhere f a Irdn Vds. k alguna parte t 

We shall go nowhere. No iremos k ninguna parte. 

Will he send me the book f 4 Me enviard el libro f 

He will send it to you if he has Se lo enyiard k Y. si lo ha acaba- 

finished with it. do. 

Will you be at home this after- 
noon f 
I shaU be (there). 
Will your father be at hornet 
He will be (there). 
Will your cousins be there f 
They will be (there). 
Will he send me the books f 
He will send them to you. 
Will he send some paper to my 4 Enviard 

office f oficiof 

He will send some. Enviard alguno. 

Will you be able to pay your ^FodrdV. pagardsu zapaterof 

shoemaker f 
I have lost my money, so that I He perdido mi dinero, asi no 

shall not be able to pay him. podrS pagarle. 

My friend has lost his pocket- Mi amigo ha perdido su cartera, 

book, so that he will not be y por consiguiente no podrd 

able to pay for his shoes. pagar sus zapatos. 

Will you hold anything! A TendrA V. alguna cosa f 

I shall hold your umbrella. Tendr^ su paraguas de V. 

Will it be necessary to go to the ^Serd necesario ir al mercadot 

market f 
It will be necessary to go to- SerA necesario ir mafiana por la 

morrow morning. mafiana. 

Although venir means to come,' and ir to go, it must be noted 
that ir describes motion from another point to the place where the 
speaker is viewed from the other standpoint, as may be seen from 
these examples: 

A EstarA V. en casa esta tarde t 

Si, sefior ; or yo estar6. 

4 EstarA en casa el padre de V. t 

Si, sefior ; or si, estard. 

4 Estardn alii sus primes de V. t 

EUos estardn. 

4 Me enviard 61 los libros f 

Se los enviard k V. 

61 algiin papel k mi 


by Google 


Come here, John. Ven acA, Juan, 

I am coming at once. Ya voy, 

and vemr represents the motion viewed from the standpoint of tbe 
one who is approached. 

To lean. Apoyarse. 

To employ. Bmplear. 

To try. Probar.* 

To run. Correr. 

To expire. Bxpirar. 


1. J Cu4ndo tendra dinero su primo de V. ? Tendra \xL 
poco el mes que entra. 2. l Quien tendra buenos amigos ? 
Los ingleses los tendran. 3. i Estar4 su padre de V. en casa 
esta noche ? Estara en casa. 4. i Saldra V. ? Saldre, si no 
llueve. 6. i Amara V. a mis hijos ? Si son buenos y traba- 
jadores, los amare ; pero si son perezosos y malos los despre- 
ciare y los castigare. 6. i Ha hecho el sastre mi casaca ? No 
la ha hecho todavia, pero la hara en poco tiempo. 7. i Ven- 
drds k mi casa ? Vendre. 8. l Irdn sus primos de V. al bail© 
el jueves que viene ? Iran. 9. i Enviaran sus hermanos de 
V. los libros que les he prestado ? Se los enviardn 4 V. 
10. i Cuando me los enviaran ? Se los enviardn 4 V. el 
mes que viene. 11. i Podra el americano pagar sus zapa- 
tos ? Ha perdido su cartera, de suerte que no podra pagar- 
los. 12. I Sera necesario ir manana a la plaza ? Sera me- 
nester ir alia ; porque necesitamos carne, pan y vino. 


1. Will you have any books ? I shall have some. 2. 
How much money will you have ? I shall have thirty-five 
dollars. 3. Will you be there ? I shall also be there. 4, 
Will your uncle go out to-day ? He will go out, if it is fine 
weather. 6. Will you pay your shoemak^? I shall pay 
him, if I receive my money. 6. Am I right in speaking 
thus? You are not wrong. 7. Have our friends finished 
reading ? They will soon have finished. 8. When will you 
write your exercises ? I shall write them when I shall have 

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time. 9. When will your brother write his ? He will write 
them next Saturday. 10. When have you seen my uncle ? 
I saw him last Sunday. 11. When will you send me the 
money which you owe me ? I shall send it you soon. 12. 
Will you be able to pay me what you owe me ? I shall not 
be able to pay it to you, for I have lost all my money. 13. 
Will it be necessary to send for the physician ! Nobody is 
ill ; so it will not be necessary to send for him. 14. Will 
you see your father to-day? I shall see him. 16. Will 
your friend go ? He will go, if you go. 

FORTY-EIGHTH LESSON— Leccion Cuadragesima- 

To belong to. 

Does that horse belong to your 
father f 

It does belong to him. 

To suit i 

Does that cloth suit your brother! 

It suits him. 

Does it suit you to do thatf 

It suits me to do it. 

To succeed, to get. 
Do you succeed in learning Span- 
I succeed in it. 
£ succeed in learning it. 

To succeed. 

Do you succeed in doing thatf \ 

I succeed in it. \ 

To forget. 
To clean. 
The inkstand. 

Pertenecer d. 
4 Pertenece ese caballo d su padre 

4 Es ese caballo de su padre de V. f 
Si; le pertenece ki\, 
Acomodar, ajustar. 
Convenir,* (like venir). 
4 Conviene este paQo al hermano 

de V.I 
Le conviene. 

4 Le conviene d V. hacer esof 
Me conviene hacerlo. 

Conseguir, lograr. 
4 Consigue V. aprender el espafiol t 

Lo consigo. 

Yo consigo aprenderlo. 

Tener buen 6xito. Salir bien. 


^Tiene V. buen 6xito en hacer esof 

i Le sale d V. bien hacer eso f 

Tengo buen ^xito en hacerlo. 

Me sale bien hacerlo. 



El tintero. 

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Immediately, directly. 
This instant, instantly. 
I shall do it immediately. 

Is there f \ 

Are there f i 

There is not j 

There are not. " 

Will there be f 
There will be. 
Was or were there — ^has there 

There was or were—there has 

There are men who will not study. 

Are there to be many people at 

the ballf 
There are to be a great many 
people there. 

On credit. 
To sell on credit 

The credit. 
Beady money. 
To buy for cash. 

To sell for cash. 

To pay down. 
Will you buy for cashf 
Does it suit you to sell me on 

credit f 
To f aU, to fit 
To sit, to sit well upon, hence to 

Do these clothes fit met •! 

They fit you. \ 

That hat does not fit your brother. 

Inmediatamente, luego. 
Al instante, de repente. 
Presentemente, ahora, luega 
Yo lo har6 inmediatamente. 


No hay. 



4 Habia, hubo f 4 Ha habido t 

Habia, hubo, ha habido. 

Hay hombres que no quieren es- 

4 Ha de haber mucha gente en el 

Ha de haber mucha gente. 

Al fiado. 

Vender al fiado. 

El cr^ito. 

Dinero contante. 

Gomprar contante, or al con- 

Vender al contante, or al con^ 

Pagar dinero contante. 
4 Quiere V. comprar al contado f 
4 Le conviene 6 V. venderme al 

fiado, or dcr^tof 

4 Me cae bien este Testidof 
4 Me sienta bien este vestido t 
Le cae bien d V. 
Le sienta 6 V. bien. 
Ese sombrero no le sienta bien i 
su hermano de V. 


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To keep. Guardar. 

You will or would do better to. V. hard mejor, or haria mejor. 

I shall or should do better to. To har6 mejor, or haria mejor. 

He will or would do better to. £l hard mejor, or haria mejor. 

Instead of keeping your horse, £n vez de guardar su caballo, Y. 

you would do better to sell it hard mejor en venderlo. 

Instead of selling his hat, he £u vez de vender su sombrero 

would do better to keep it. hard mejor en quedarse con el. 

Will you keep the ho«et ^*^""^"t,V *''^°V ,, . 

J 4 Se quedard V. con el caballo I 

I shall keep it Lo guardar^. Me quedar^ con ^1. 

You must not keep my money. Y. no debe guardar mi dinero. 
How «e you! UComo le va i ^t 

1 4 Como lo pasa Y. t 
I am very well. 'Me va bien. 

There are several ways of saying, How are youf as, / C76mo estd 
V.f i C&mo le vad V.f 4 CSmo lopaaa V, f 

It is I who. Yo soy quien. 

It is you who. Y. es quien. Yds. son quienes. 

It is they who. Ellos son quienes. 

Is that your son t 4 Es ese el hijo de Y. t 

Is that your child t 4 Es de Y. ese nifio t 


1. I LepertenecedY.este dinero? Mepertenece. 2. |Le 
ha dicho Y. 4 su hermano que lo estoy esperando aqui ? He 
olyidado decirselo. 3. i Ha traido su tio de Y. las carteras 
que me ha prometido ? Ha olvidado traerselas. 4. ^Lecon- 
riene a Y. ir 4 la plaza ? No me conviene ir alii. 5. i Que 
quiere Y., caballero ? Estoy pregfuntando por su senor padre 
de Y. 6. i D6nde compro Y. estos hermosos cuchillos ? Los 
oompre en casa del comerciante cuyo almacen vi6 Y. ayer. 

7. I Ha logrado V. escribir un ejercicio ! Lo he logrado. 

8. I Consiguen aprender el ingles sus ninos de Y. ? Lo con- 
siguen. 9. | Hay alguna persona en el almacen ? No hay 
ninguna. 10. i Has limpiado mi haul ? He procurado ha- 
cerlo, pero no lo he conseguido. 11. i Cu4nto tiempo intenta 
Y. guardarlos ? Intento guardarlos hasta el sabado que viene. 
12. I Ha encendido Y. el fuego ? Todavia no ; pero lo hare 

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dentro de poco. 13. | Hace pedazos su libro el nino de V. ? 
Lo despedaza ; pero hace mal en hacerlo asi. 


1. To whom does that horse belong ? It belongs to the 
English captain whose son .has written a note to you. 2. 
Whose horses are those ! They are ours. 3. Is it your 
baker, or that of our friend, who has sold you bread on 
credit ? It is ours. 4. Have you brought me the book 
which you promised me ? I have forgotten it 6. Have 
you already written to your friend ? I have not yet had 
time to write to him. 6. I have some other ; but it is dearer 
than this. 7. Will you show it me ? I will show it you. 
8. Whose shoes are these ? They belong to the nobleman 
whom you have seen this morning in my warehouse. 9. 
Did you go on foot to Germany ? It does not suit me to go 
on foot, so that I went thither in a coach. (Lesson XLIV.) 
10. What do you say ? I tell you that he has gone out 
(Lesson XXXVI.) 11. Does this merchant sell on credit ? 
He does not sell on credit. 12. Do you often buy for cash f 
Not as often as you. 13. Has that man tried to speak to 
your father ? He has tried to speak to him, but he has not 
succeeded. 14. Have you tried to clean my inkstand ? I 
have tried, but I have not succeeded. 15. Are there any 
men in your warehouse ? There are some there. 16. Will 
there be many people at your ball ! There will be many 
there. 17. Do you intend to buy an umbrella ? I intend to 
buy one, if the merchant will sell it me on credit (Lesson 
XXXIX). 18. Have you returned the books to my brother ? 
I have not yet returned them to him. 19. Have you 
cleaned my knife ? I have not had time yet, but I shall 
do it this instant 20. Why have you not worked f I have 
not yet been able. 

FORTY-NINTH LESSON— Leccion Cuadrag&simanovena 

To go away. Irse,* marcharse. 

When will you go away t a Cudndo se ird, or se marchard V. f 

I will go soon. Pronto roe ire, or me marchar^. 

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By and by, shortly. 

He will go away soon, by and by. 
We shall go away to-morrow. 

They will go to-morrow. 
Thou wilt go immediately. 

To become. 
To happen. 

What will happen to you if you 
lose your money t 

I do not know what will happen 

to me. 
What will become of him f 
What will become of us t 
I do not know what will become 

of them. 

The turn. 
My turn. 

In my turn. 

In his turn. 

In my brother's turn. 

Each in his turn. 

To take a turn, a walk. 
He has gone to take a walk. 

To walk round the garden. 

Back of. Behind. 
To run. 
A blow, a knock. 

j Luego. 

( Dentro de poco. 
£l se iri, or se marchard luego. 
Nos iremos, or nos marcharemos 

Se ir&n, or se marchardn mafiana. 
Te ir^, or te marchards inmedia- 

Llegar k ser. 
Suceder, hacerse de. 
% Qu6 se hard de V . si pierde su 

dinero I 
4 Que le sucederi & V. si pierde 

su dinero f 
Yo no s^ lo que se hard de mi. 
Yo no s6 lo que serd de ml. 
i Qu4 serd de el f 
4 Qu^ serd de nosotros f 
Yo no s4 lo que se hard de ellos. 
Yo no se lo que serd de ellos. 
El turno. 
Mi turno. 
A mi turno. 
Cudndo d mi me toque, (from to- 

k su turno. 
Cuando d 61 le toque. 
I Al turno de mi hermano. 
I Cuando le toque d mi hermano. 
Cada uno d su turno. 
Cuando d cada uno le toque. 
Dar una vuelta, or un paseo. 
Ir d pasear. 
Ha ido d dar una vuelta, or un 

j Dar una vuelta en el jardln. 
( Dar un paseo en el jardln. 
Detrds de. Atrds. 
Un golpe. Un porrazo. 


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A stab. 

A clapping of the hands, a slap. 

Have you given that man a blow t 

Yes : I have given him one. 

A blow with a stick. 

A kick, (with the foot). 

A blow with the fist. 

A stab of a knife. 

A gun-shot. 

A pistol-shot. 

A glance of the eye. 

A clap of thunder. 

To give a cut with a knife. 

To cane a man. 

To give a man a kick. 

To give a man a blow with the fist. 

To pull, to draw out. 

To shoot, to fire. 

To fire a gun. 

To fire a pistol. 

I have fired at that bird. J 

I have fired twice. 

I have fired three times. 

I have fired several times. 

How many times have you fired t 

How many times have you fired 
at that bird f 

I have fired at it several times. 

I have heard a shot. 

I have heard the report of a 

We have heard a clap of thunder. 
The fist. 

To glance at some one, or some- 

I have glanced at that book. 

Has that man gone away f 
He has gone away. 

Una puQalada, una herida. 
Una palmada. Una bof etada. 
4 Ha dado V. un golpe d ese horn* 

Si ; yo le he dado uno. 
Un puntapi6. 

Un puQetazo, una puCada. 
Una cuchillada. 
Un tiro, un cafionazo. 
Un pistoletazo. 
Una ojeada, una mirada. 
Un trueno. 
Dar una cuchillada. 
Apalear d un hombre. 
Dar un puntapi4 d un hombre. 
Dar un pufietazo d un hombre. 
Tirar, sacar. 
Disparar, hacer f uego. 
Disparar un fusil. 
Disparar una pistola. 
He disparado un tiro d ese pdjaroi 
He tirade un tiro d ese pdjaro. 
He tirade dos tiros. 
He tirade tres tiros. 
He tirade varies tiros. 
i Cudntas veces ha tirade V. t 
^Cudntas veces ha tirade V. d ese 

pdjaro t 
Le he tirade varios tiros. 
He oldo un tiro. 
He eido un pistoletazo. 

Hemes eido un trueno. 
El pufio. 

Echar una ojeada, or mirada £ 
alguno, or alguna cosa. 

He echado una ojeada, or una mi- 
rada d ese libro. 

^Se ha marchade ese hombre f 

Se ha marchade. 


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Have your brothers gone away f 4 Se han ido sus hermanos de V. t 

They have gone away. Se han ido, or marchado. 

They have not gone away. No se han ido, or marchado. 

Have they gone away t 4 Se han marchado ellos t 

They were not wiUing to go away.i ^^ ^"^^^*° maroharse. 

( No quisieron marcharse. 


1. I Cu4ndo se ir4 ese hombre ? Se ira ahora. 2. i For 
que se ha ido tan pronto su padre de Y. ? Ha prometido a 
su amigo estar en su casa a las nueve menos cuarto ; asi 
se fue temprano para cumplir con lo que ha prometido. 3. 
i Cu&ndo se iran los ninos de V. ? Se iran asi que acaben 
(mUjjunctive) sus ejercicios. 4. i Que sera de nosotros si se 
marchan nuestros amigos ? No se lo que sera de nosotros si 
ellos se marchan. 5. i Debo ir al teatro ? No debe V. ir, 
porque hace muy mal tiempo. 6. i For que da su criado de 
Y. una cuchillada a ese hombre ? Le da una cuchillada por- 
que el hombre le ha dado un punetazo. 7. I No escucha el 
lo que Y. le dice ? Si no escucha le doy azotes. 8. i Cuantas 
veces le tiro Y. a ese pajaro ? Le he tirado dos veces. 9. 
I Tiene Y. gana de disparar un tiro k ese p4jaro f Tengo 
deseo de tirarle un tiro. 10. i Cuando hizo fuego el capi- 
t4n ? Hizo fuego cuando sus soldados lo hicieron. 11. i Ha 
echado Y. una mirada a ese hombre ? Le ech6 una mirada. 
12. i Ha dado Y. un paseo esta manana ? He dado una vuelta 
en el jardin. , 


1. Are you going away already ? I am not going yet. 
2. When will your friends go away ? They will go away 
next month. 3. When shall we go away ? We shall go 
away to-morrow. 4. When will your children go away ? 
They will go as soon as they have finished (kayan acabado) 
their exercises. 5. What will become of your son if he does 
not study ? If he does not study he will learn nothing. 6. 
What has become of your son ? I do not know what has 
become of him. 7. What has become of your relations ? 
They have gone away. 8. Why do not you go to my 

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brother ? It does not suit me to go to him, for I can not 
yet pay him what I owe him. 9. Which of these two pupils 
begins to speak ? The one who is studious begins to speak. 

10. Why do not these children work ? Their master has 
given them blows with his fist, so that they will not work. 

11. Have you fired a gun at that man ? I have fired a pistol 
at him. 12. Why have you fired a pistol at him ? Because 
he has given me a stab with his knife. 13. Did you kill that 
bird at the first shot ? I killed it at the fourth. 14. How 
many times have our enemies fired at us ? They have fired 
at us several times. 15. Why do not you fire at those birds ? 
I can not ; for I have a sore finger. 16. How many birds have 
you shot at ? I have shot at all that I have seen, but I have 
killed none, because my gun is good for nothing. 17. Have 
you drunk some of that wine ? I have drunk a little, and it 
has done me good. 18. Is it my brother's turn ? When his 
turn comes (J>e toqtte) 1 shall tell him, for each has his turn. 
19. Where has your uncle gone to ? He has gone to take a 
walk. 20. Who follows us ? Our dog runs behind us. 

FIFTIETH LESSON— Leccion Quincuagesima 
To hear of. 

Oir hablar de, tener noticias de, 
saber de. 

I Ha oido V. hablar de su her- 

I Ha sabido V . de su hermano f 

I Ha tenido V. noticias del her- 
mano t 

He oido hablar de 61. 

He sabido de €i. 

He tenido noticias de eL 


I Hace mucho que V. ha almor- 

4 Hace mucho tiempo desde que 
V. almorz6f 

How long is it since you break- iCuAnto hace que V, ha almor- 
fastedt zadof 

Have you heard of your brother t 

I heard of him. 


Is it long since you have break- 


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It is not long since I have break- 

It is a great while since. 
It is a short while since. 

' No hace macho que 70 he almor- 

No hace mucho tiempo que yo he 

Mucho tiempo hace, or ha. 
Poco tiempo hace, or ha. 

How long is it since you heard of 4 Cudnto hace que V. ha tenido 

your brother I 
It is a year since I heard of him. 

It is only a year since. 

It is more than a year since. 

More than. 

More than nine. 

More than twenty times. 

noticias de su hermano f 
Hace un afio que no he sabido 

No hace mds que un afio. 
Hace mds de un afio. 
Mds de, (with numbers). 
Mds de nueve. 
Mds de veinte veces. 

It is hardly six months since. Hace apenas seis meses. 

A few hours ago. 
Half an hour ago. 
A fortnight. 

Have you been long in Spain f 

Hace pocas horas. 

Hace media hora. 

Quince dlas (dos semanas). 

% Ha estado V. mucho tiempo en 

4 Hace mucho tiempo que V. estd 

en Espafiaf 
Hace tres afios que i\ estd en 


He has been in Madrid three 

I have been living here these two Hace dos afios que yivo aqul. 


Aqui, here, corresponds to alU^ there, in that both imply resting 
in a place ; aed, here, corresponds to alld^ there, since it is motion 
toward here, hence hither, as alia is thither. 

Come here. Venga V. para ac6. 

Go there. Vaya V. alU. 

The word tiempo is often unexpressed. 

How long have you had that hat f ^Cudnto hace que tiene V. ese 

sombrero I 
I have had it five years. Hace cinco afios que lo tengo. 

How long has he been here! i * ^^^^"^ ^^\ ^^^ ^^ «s^ ^^^ » 

1 4 Desde cudndo estd aqui f 

It makes three days Hace tres dlas. 

Since the third of this month. Desde el tres de este mes. 


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It is a month. 

Since the first of the month. 
I have seen him more than twenty 

Just, (relating to time). 
To have just. 

I have just seen your brother. 
He has just done writing. 
The men have just arrived. 

He has but just come. 

To do the best 

I shall do my best 
He will do his best 

I do my best. 
To spend (money). 

Hace un mes. 

Desde el primero de este i 

Lo he visto m4s de veinte yeoes. 

En este momento, ahora roism<\ 
al momento, al punto, al ins- 
tante, poco ha, poco hace. 

Acabar de. 

To express what has just taken place the verb acaha/r de (to finish^ 
is used. 

Acabo de ver d su hermano de V. 
Acaba de escribir. 
Los hombres acaban de Uegar. 
j Ahora mismo llega 41. 
( 'k\ acaba de Uegar ahora. 

IHacer uno lo mejor que puede. 
Hacer todo su poder. 
Empetiarse en. 

Yo hare lo mejor que pueda.^ 
'k\ hard lo mejor que pueda.^ 
J Yo hago lo mejor que puedo. 
( Me empeflo. 
Gastar (dinero). 

How much have you spent to-day f 4 Cudn to ha gastado Y. hoy f 
He has an income of fifty dollars Tiene cincuenta pesos de renta al 

a month. 
Have the horses been found f 
They have been found. 
The men have been seen. 
Our children have been praised 

and rewarded, because they 

have been good and studious. 
By whom have 

warded t 


^Se han hallado los caballosf 

Se han hallado. 

Los hombres han sido vistos. 

Nuestros nitios han sido alabadot 
y recompensados, porque han 
sido buenos y estudiosos. 
they been re- 4 For qui^n han sido recompensa- 
dos t 

By whom have we been blamed f A For qui^n hemos sido vitupeia- 

To pass. Pasar. 

Before. Antes, ante, delante, por. 

Antes refers to time ; delante, por, and ante refer to place, in th^ 
presence of. Delante is commonest in this sense. Aniee usually 

* > These are present subjunctives. 


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takes que after it when used with yerbs, except the infinitlTe, and 
de with substantiyes and the infinitiye. 

Before ten o'clock. 

To pass before some one. 

To pass before a place. 
A place. 
I haye passed before the theatei . 

Antes de las diez. 

Pasar delante de alguno, or da 

Pasar delante de, or por un lugar. 

Un lugar. 
He pasado delante de, or por el 
He has passed before me. Ha pasado delante de mt 

Por has the idea of by. If it means before or in front of, it is 
when the thought of motion is present ; as, Ir por or por delante 
de Ulb etuas, to go by, in front of, or before the houses. 
To spend time in something. Pasar (eraplear or gastar) el tiem* 

po en alguna cosa. 
In what do you spend your timef 4 En qu^ pasa V. su tiempof 
I spend my time in studying. Empleo mi tiempo en estudiar. 

In what has he spent his time? 4 En qu6 ha empleado su tiempof 
What shall we spend our time in? En qu4 pasaremos nuestro tiem- 
To lose, to miss, to fail. Perder, omitir, faltar, descuidar. 

The merchant has failed to bring El comerciante ha faltado & traer 

the money. el dinero. 

You haye missed your turn, V. ha perdido su tumo. 

You haye failed to come to me V. ha faltado & (V. se ha descui^ 
this morning. dado de)^yenir 4 mi casa esta 

Ser bueno para algo, (para alguna 

Seryir de algo. 
No ser bueno para nada, (para 

ninguna cosa). 
No seryir de nada, (or para nada). 
4 Para quS (de qu^) sirye eso f 
j Eso no es bueno para nada. 
j Eso de nada sirye. 
Un brib6n. 
Is the gun which you haye bought i Es bueno el fusil que V. ha com- 

a good one ? prado ? 

It is worth nothing, (good for j No es bueno para nada. 
nothing). > 1 No sirye de, or para nada. 

Id T 

Digitized Dy 'LjOOQIC 

To be good for something. 

To be good for nothing. 

Of what use is that? 
It is good for nothing. 
A rascal. 


To throw away. Tirar, arrojar, desechar. 

Haye you thrown away anything f 4 Ha tirado V. algo, (alguna cosa) f 

I have not thrown away anything. Nada he tirado. 

The store, the shop. La tienda. 

Storekeeper, shopkeeper. Tendero, mercader. 


1. I No ha oido Y. hablar del hombre que ha muerto a 
un soldado ? No he oido hablar de el. 2. i Hace mucho 
tiempo que se ha sabido de el ? No hace mucho tiempo que 
se ha sabido de el. 3. i Ha estado mucho tiempo en Londres 
su hermano de Y. ? Hace diez anos que esta alli. 4. i Cu4nto 
hace que Y. aprende el espanol ? Hace solo dos meses que lo 
aprendo. 5. i Cuanto hace que comio ese nino ? Hace al^- 
nos minutos que comio. 6. i Cu4ntas yeces ha visto Y. al 
rey ? Lo he yisto mas de diez yeces cuando estuye en Ma- 
drid. 7. 4 Se han hallado los caballos ? Los han hallado. 
8. i Aguarda Y. 4 alguien ? Aguardo 4 mi primo, el capi- 
tan. 9. i Esperas tii alguna cosa ? Espero mis libros. 10. 
i Pasa este hombre su tiempo en trabajar ? Es un bribon ; 
pasa su tiempo en jugac 7 beber. 11. i Me puede Y. pagar 
lo que me debe ? No puedo pag4rselo, porque el comerciante 
ha dejado de traerme el dinero. 12. i Le ha traido 4 Y. el 
mercader los guantes que Y. compro en su tienda ? Ha de- 
jado de traermelos. 


1. Haye you heard of any one ? I haye not heard of any 
one, for I haye not gone out this morning. 2. Of whom has 
your cousin heard ? He has heard of his friend who has 
gone to America. 3. Haye you been long in Paris ? These 
three years. 4. How long is it since you supped ? It is half 
an hour. 6. Is it long since you heard of the soldier who 
gaye your friend a cut with the knife ? It is more than a 
year since I heard of him. 6. Is it long since you saw the 
young man who learned German with the teacher with 
whom we learned it ? I haye not seen him for nearly a 
year. 7. How long has your friend been in Spain? He 
has been there one month. 8. When did you meet my 

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brother? I met him a fortnight ago. 9. Where are my 
gloves ? They have thrown them away. 10. Have the 
horses been found ? They have been found. 11. Have 
you been seen by anybody ? I have been seen by nobody. 
12. What does this young man wait for ? He waits for 
money. 13. Art thou waiting for anything ? I am wait- 
ing for my book. 14. Has not he passed before the castle i 
He has passed by there, but I have not seen him. 15. In 
what does your brother spend his time ? He spends his time 
in reading and playing. 16. In what do your children spend 
their time ? They spend their time in learning. 17. Why 
have you breakfasted without me ? You failed to come at 
nine o'clock, so that we have breakfasted without you. 18. 
Do you know those men ? I do not know them ; but I be- 
lieve that they are rascals, for they spend their time in play- 
ing. 19. Who is the man who has just spoken to you ? He 
is a merchant 20. What has the shoemaker just brought ? 
He has brought the shoes which he has made for us. 

FIFTY-FIRST LESSON— Leccion Quincuagesimaprimera 

To be distant. Distar. 

Far. Lejos, distante, remoto. 

IiCudnto dista? 
i CuAn lejos f % CuAnto hay f 
i Hay mucho f 
How far is it from here to Paris? \, Cudnto hay de aqui k Paris! 
Is it far from here to Paris f ^ Estd Paris lejos de aqui f 

It is far. Estd lejos. 

It is not far. No est& lejos. 

How many miles is it! UCuAntas millas distal 

( i Cudntas millas hay f 
It is twenty miles. Veinte millas. 

A mile. Una milla. 

It is almost two hundred miles De aqui k Paris hay casi doscien- 

from here to Paris. tas millas. 

It is nearly a hundred miles from Hay cerca de cien millas de Berlin 
Berlin to Vienna. 4 Viena. 


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From Venice. 
From London. 
I am from Paris. 

What countryman are youf 

The Castilian. 

He is a Castilian. 

The king. 

The philosopher. 

The preceptor, the tutor. 

The professor. 

The landlord, the innkeeper. 

Are you a Biscayan? 
Whence do you comef 
I come from Bilbao. , 

To flee. 

I run away, thou runnest away, 
he runs away, you run away. 

We run away, you run away, they 
run away, you run away. 

Why do you fly f 

I fly because I am afraid. 
To assure. 

I assure you that he has arrived. 

To hear, (to have knowledge of). 
Have you heard nothing new f 
I have heard nothing new. 
Happiness, fortune. 

Unhappiness, misfortune. 

De Venecia. 
De Londres. 
Yo soy de Paris. Soy hijo de 

iDe quS pais es V.f ^De que 

El castellano. 
£l es castellano. 
El fil6sof o. 

El preceptor, el ayo, el maestra 
El profesor, el catedr4tico. 

^Posadero, mesonero, hosteleio, 
hn^sped, casero, patr6n. 
4Es V. vizcainof 
4 De d6nde viene V. f 
Vengo de Bilbao. 
j Huir,* huirse,* (see verbs in uvri 
{ Elements), escaparse, f ngarse. 
Yo huyo, tti huyes, ^1 huye, V. 

Nosotros huimos, vosotros hois, 

ellos huyen, Vds. huyen. 
4 Por que huye V. f 
Yo huyo porque tengo miedo. 

Yo le aseguro & V. que 61 ha lle- 

Oir,* saber.* (See Elements.) 
% No sabe V. nada de nuevo f 
Yo no he sabido nada de nuevo. 
Felicidad, dicha, fortuna, gracia. 

^Infelicidad, desdicha, desgracia, 

A great misfortune has happened. Ha sucedido una gran desgracia. 
He has met with a great misfor- Le ha sucedido un grande infor- 
tune. tunio. 

J 4 Qu6 le ha sucedido 4 V. f 
( 4 Qu6 OS ha acontecido k vosotroe f 
Nothing has happened to me. No me ha sucedido nada. 

What has happened to youf 


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I hare met your brother. 

The poor man. 
I hare cat his finger. 
You hare twisted the man's neck. 

To pity. 
Do you pity that man ? 

I pity him with all my heart 

With all my heart. 

To complain. 
Do you complain ? 
I do not complain. 
Do you complain of my friend f 
Indeed I do complain of him. 
I do not complain of him. 

To dare. 

To spoil, to damage. 

To serve, to wait upon. 
Dost thou wait upon f (serve). 
I serve. 
He waits upon, or he serves. 

Has he been in your service ? 
Has he served you f 

How long has he been in your 

The service. 
To offer. 
Do you offer! 
I offer. 

Thou offerest 
He offers. 

To confide, to trust to intrust 

Me he encontrado con el hermano 

El pobre hombre. 

Yo le he cortado un dedo. 

y. le ha torcido el ouello al hom- 
j Compadecer, compadecerse de. 

j Tener l^tima. 

4Se compadece Y. de ese hom- 

Le compadezco con todo mi co- 

Con todo mi coraz6n, 

Quejarse de. 

iSe queja V.f 

No me quejo. 

iSe queja Y. de mi amigof 

De veras me quejo de ^1. 

No me quejo de ^1. 

Osar, atreverse, arriesgarse. 

Echar k perder, inutilizar. * 


^Sirves tu? 

Yo sirvo, estoy sirviendo. 

£l sirve, ^1 estd sirviendo. 

i Ha estado ^1 en el servicio de Y. t 

4 Ha servido 4 Y. f 

4 Ha estado sirviendo 4 Y. ? 

iCudnto tiempo ha servido 61 k 

iCudnto tiempo ha estado sir- 
viendo i Y. f 

El servicio. 

Ofrecer.* (Elements.) 

iOfreceY.f jOfrec^is vosotros! 

Yo ofrezco. 

Tii ofreces. 

t\ ofrece. 

Confiar A, (de, en). 

Fiarse de, (en). 

Gontar con. 


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Do you trust me with your money? 4 Me con^a V. su dinero f 

I trust you with it. Yo se lo confio &, V. 

I have intrusted that man with a Yo he confiado un secreto & ese 


The secret. 

To keepi anything secret. 
I have kept it secret. 
To take care of something. 


El secreto. 
j Guardar secreto. 
j Tener secreta alguna cosa. 
j Lo he guardado secreto. 
j Lo he tenido secreto. 

^Cuidar de alguna cosa. 
Tener cuidado de. 

Do you take care of your clothes f i Cuida V. de su yestido f 

Si ; cuido de ^1. 
i Quiere V. cuidar mi caballo f 

Yes, I take care of them. 

Will you take care of my horse? 

^Quiere V. cuidar de mi ca- 
SI ; cuidar^ de 61. ^ 

Dejar. * 

^MaJgastar, disipar, desperdiciar, 
He has squandered all his wealth. t\ ha disipado todo su caudaL 

Yes, I shall take care of it. 
To leave. 

To squander, to dissipate. 

To hinder, to prevent. 
To keep from. 

You hinder me from sleeping. 

What have you bought to-day f 

I have bought two handker- 

Have you bought an3rthing to- 

Most lovely, charming. 

That hat fits you admirably. 

That coat fits him very well 

Estorbar, no dejar. 
^y. no me dejb dormir. 
Me impide dormir. 
j 4 Qu4 ha comprado V. hoy ? 
I % Qu6 compras ha hecho V. hoy ? 
He comprado dos pafluelos. 

4 Ha comprado V. hoy alguna 

i Ha hecho V. hoy algunas com- 
j Preciosisimo, amabilisimo. 
I Encantador. 
Ese sombrero le sienta 4 V. muy 

Esa casaca le sienta perfecta- 

Esa casaca le va como pintada. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


It is charming. J^^ hechicero, encanUdor, deli- 

( cioso. 
To arrive, to reach (a place). Llegar. 


1. i Tendremos baile esta noche ? Si ; lo tendremos. 2. 
I En que se divierte el primo de V. ? Se diyierte en tocar el 
violin. 3. i Me ofrece V. alguna cosa ? Le ofrezco a V. un 
hermoso fusil. 4. i Ofreces tu hermoso perrito a estos ninos ? 
Se lo ofrezco 4 ellos, porque los amo con todo mi corazon. 5. 
i Ha dejado V. caer alguna cosa ? No he dejado caer fiada ; 
pero mi primo ha dejado caer alp^ dinero. 6. i Te acercas 
al fuego ? Me acerco porque tengo frio. 7. h Quien tiene 
f rio ? El muchachito cuyo padre le ha prestado 4 V. un ca- 
ballo tiene frio. 8. j Se acuerdan de sus amigos antiguos sus 
padres de V. ? Si ; se acuerdan de ellos. 9. j Gusta de jugar 
su hermano de V. ? Le gusta m4s estudiar que jugar. 10. 
i Le gusta 4 V. m4s la miel que el azucar ? No me gusta ni 
la una ni el otro. 11. i Pueden entender 4 V. sus discipu- 
los ? Me entienden cuando hablo despacio ; porque para ser 
entendido es necesario que hable despacio. 12. i Habla alto 
el maestro de V. ? Habla alto y despacio. 


1. How far is it from Paris to London ? It is nearly two 
hundred miles from Paris to London. 2. Is it farther from 
Paris to Blois than from Orleans to Paris ? It is farther 
from Orleans to Paris than from Paris to Blois. 3. Do you 
intend to go to Paris soon ? I intend to go there soon. 4. 
Is it long since you were there ? It is nearly a year since I 
was there. 5. Of what country are you ? I am a Spaniard 
and my friend is an Italian. 6. Where did you dine yester- 
day ? I dined at the innkeeper's. 7. Have you seen him ? 
I have seen him. 8. Why does that man run away ? He 
runs away because he is ah*aid. 9. Do you fear my cousin ? 
I do not fear him, for he has never done harm to anybody. 
10. Of whom has your brother heard ? He has heard of a 
man to whom a misfortune has happened. 11. What have 
you done with my book ? I assure you that I have not seen 

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it 12. Will you wait till he returns ? (llegue), I can not 
wait, for I have a good deal to do. 13. What has hap- 
pened to you ? A great misfortune has happened to me. 
14. Why do you pity that man ? I pity him hecause you 
have hroken his neck. 15. Does that man serve you well ? 
He serves me well, hut he spends too much. 16. How long 
has it been since he left your service ? It was hut two months 
since. 17. Do you offer me anything ? I have nothing to 
offer you. 18. Have the Parisians offered you anything ? 
They have offered me wine, bread, and good beef. 19. Do 
you thist this man with anything ? I do not trust him with 
anything. 20. Will you trust my father with your money ? 
I will trust him with it 

FIFTY-SECOND LESSON— Leccion Quincuagesima- 

Will the people come soon f 
Soon, — very soon. 

A Yiolin. 
To play the violin. 
To play the piano. 
What instrument do you playf 
To touch, play. 
Near me. 
Where do you live f 
I live near the castle. 
What are you doing near the fire ? 

To dance. 

To fall. 

To drop, to let fall. 
Has he dropped anything? 
He has not dropped anything. 
To retain, to hold back. 
To approach, to draw near. 
Do you approach the fire ? 
I do approach it. 

iVendrd la gente pronto f 
Lnego, presto, pronto, muy pron- 

Un violin. 
Tocar el violin. 
Tocar el piano. 
4Qu6 instrumento toca V.f 
Cerca de, junto L 
Cerca de mi, junto & mL 
4 En d6nde vive V. f 
Vivo junto al castillo. 
iQu6 estd V. haciendo junto al 
f uego f 
Danzar, bailar. 
Dejar caer. 
4 Ha dejado 6\ caer algof 
No ha dejado caer nada. 
Retener,* (conj. like Tener). 
Acercarse d, aproximarse L 
iSe acerca V. al faegof 
Me acerco 4 4L 


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To i^proach, to hare access toj 

one. I 

fie is a man difficult of access. 
I go away (withdraw) from the 


To withdraw from. J 

To retire from. | 

I go awaj from it. 
Why does that man go away from 

the fire? 
He goes away from it because he 

is not cold. 

To remember. J 

Do you remember that f •) 

I remember it 

Does your brother remember 

Do you remember that man ? ). 

Do you remember that f 

I remember it. 

What do you remember f 

I remember nothing. 

To sit down. 

Are you seated f 
I am sitting down. 
Thou art sitting down. 
He is sitting down. 
I shall sit down. 
He sits near the fire. 
He is sitting near the fire. 
To like better, to prefer. 

Do you like staying here better 
than going out! 


Tener comunicaci6n con. 

£s un hombre de dificil acceso* 

Me quito del fuego. 

Quitarse de, apartarse de, reti- 

rarse de, irse de. 
Me quito de ^1. 
4 Por quS se retira ese hombre del 

Se retira porque no tiene frio. 


Acordarse de.* 

4 Se acuerda V. de esof 

^Os acorddis de esof 

Me acuerdo de ello. 

4 Se acuerda de eso el hermano de 

4 Os acordiis de ese hombre ? 
4Se acuerda V. de ese hombre f 
4Se acuerda Y. de eso? 
Si, me acuerdo. 
Me acuerdo de eso. 
4 De qu4 os acord&is? 
4De qu^ se acuerda V.f 
Nada recuerdo. 

4Est&V.sentado? 4Sesientay.f 
Me siento, or estoy sentado. 
Td te sientas, or est&s sentado. 
]6l se sienta, or est& sentado. 
Yo me sentar^. 
]6l se sienta cerca del fuego. 
£l est^ sentado junto k la lumbre. 
Gustar mds de, preferir. 
4Gasta Y. m&s de estar aqui que 

4Preftere Y. quedar aqui & salirf 
4Quiere Y. mds bien estar aqui 

que salirf 


by Google 



I like staying here better than 
going out. 


He likes to do both. 
As much as. 

The calf. 
Quick, fast. 

Slow, slowly. 


Does your master speak loud? 
He speaks loud. 

In order to learn Spanish, one 
must speak loud. 

Quicker, faster. 

Not so quick, less quick. 

As quickly as you. 
He eats more quickly than I. 
Do you learn as fast as 1 ? 

I learn faster than you. 

I do not understand you, because 

you speak too fast. 
To sell cheap. 
To sell dear. 
Does he sell cheap? 
He does not sell dear. 
He has sold to me very dear. 

This man sells everything so dear 

that one can not buy anything 

from him. 
You speak so fast that I can not 

understand you. 
I have bought it of him. 
So much, so many. 
I have written so many notes, 

that I can not write any more. 

Me gusta mds estar aqui que 

Ambos, los dos or las dos, el uno 

y el otro, la una y la otra. 
A el le gusta hacer ambos. 

^Tanto oomo. 
Lo mismo que. 
La temera. 
Becerro, temero. 
Presto, pronto, ligero. 

^Despacio, lento, lentamente. 
Poco & poco. 
Alto, en Yoz alta, recio. 
I Habla alto el maestro de Y. ? 
Habla alto. 
Para aprender el espaflol, es me- 

nester hablar alto. 
M&s presto, mds ligero. 
No tan presto, menos pronto. 
Tan pronto como V. 
]6l come mds presto que yo. 
^Aprende Y. tan pronto como 

Aprendo mAs pronto que Y. 
No entiendo k Y. porque habla 

tan de prisa. 

Yender barato. 
Yender caro. 
4 Yende 61 barato ? 
No vende caro. 
Me ha yendido muy caro. 

Este hombre lo vende todo tan 

caro que no se le puede com- 

prar nada. 
Y. habla tan ligero que no puedo 

Se lo he comprado k 61. 
Tanto, tanta, tantos, tantas. 
He escrito tantas esquelas que no 

puedo escribir m^ 


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Note. Esquela. 

Do you fear to go out f i Teme V. salir f 

I fear to go out. Temo salir. 

1. i Hay mucha distancia de aqui a Viena ? Hay casi 
dos cientas cincuenta millas de aqui a Viena. 2. i Que dis- 
tancia hay de Paris a Berlin ? Hay cerca de ciento y treinta 
millas de Paris a Berlin. 3. i Es V. gaditano ? No ; soy ma- 
drileno. 4. i Ha pasado el rey por aqui ? No ha pasado por 
aqui, sine por delante del teatro. 5. l Por que huye V. ? 
Huyo porque tengo miedo. 6. 4 Por que no han hecho sus 
ejercicios sus discipulos de V. ? Aseguro a V. que los han 
hecho, y V. se equivoca si cree que no lo han hecho. 7. i Ha 
tenido mis cuchillos su hi jo de V. ? Me asegura que no los 
ha tenido. 8. i No ha oido V. nada de nuevo ? No he oido 
nada. 9. i Que es lo que mi amigo le ofrece a V. ? Me 
ofrece un libro. 10. i Ya le ha retenido 61 a V. algo ? 
Nunca le he confiado ninguna cosa, y asi nunca me ha 
retenido nada. 11. l Que secreto le ha confiado a V. mi 
hi jo ? No puedo confiar a V. el secreto que me ha con- 
fiado, porque me ha encargado que lo tenga secreto. 12. 
i Vende su vestido el amigo de V. ? No lo vende, porque 
le va como pintado. 


1. Do you play the violin ? I do not play the violin, but 
the piano. 2. What o'clock is it now ? It is almost eleven, 
and the people will soon come. 3. Are there to be (deberd 
haber) a great many people at our ball ? There are to be 
a great many. 4. In what do you spend your time in this 
country f I spend my time in playing on the piano and in 
reading. 5. Do you amuse yourselves ? I assure you that 
we amuse ourselves very often. 6. Has anybody pitied you ? 
Nobody has pitied me, because I have not been ill. 7. To 
whom have you offered your fine horses ? I have offered 
them to the English captain. 8. Has anybody hindered you 
from writing? (qiie V, escriha). Nobody has hindered me 
from writing, but I have hindered somebody from hurting 
your cousin. 9. Is it cold to-day ? It is very cold. 10. Why 


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does your friend go away from the fire ? He goes away from 
it because he is afraid of burning himself. 11. Are you cold 
or warm ? I am neither cold nor warm. 12. Why do your 
children approach the fire ? They approach it because they 
are cold. 13. Do you remember anything ? I remember 
nothing. 14. What does your uncle remember? He re- 
members what you have promised him. 16. Why do you 
draw back from the fire ? I have been sitting near the fire 
for an hour and a half, so that I am no longer cold. 16. 
May one approach your uncle?. One may approach him, 
for he receives everybody. 17. Do you sit down near the 
fire ? I do not sit down near the fire, for I am afraid of 
being too warm. 18. Do you recollect these words ? I do 
not recollect them. 19. Have I remembered my exercise ? 
You have remembered it 20. Have you recalled your ex- 
ercises ? I have recalled them, for I have learned them by 
heart, and my brothers have remembered theirs, because 
they have learned them by heart. 

FIFTY-THIRD LESSON— Lecci6n Quincuagesimatercera 

By the side of. > Al lado de, or por el lado de. 

I have passed by the side of you. Yo he pasado por el lado de V. 
Have you passed by the side of 4 Ha pasado V . por el lado de mi 

my brother? hermano? 

I have passed by his side. He pasado por su lado. 

To pass near a place. Pasar ceroa de un lugar. 

I have passed by the theater. Yo he pasado cerca del teatro. 

1 have passed by the castle. He pasado cerca del or junto al 

You hare passed before my ware- V. ha pasado por, or delante de, 
house. or por delante de mi almac^n. 

To dare. Osar, atreverse. 

I dare not go thither. ^ Yo no oso ir allA. 

) No me atrero & ir alU. 
He dares not do it. £l no se atreve & hacerlo. 

I did not dare to tell him so. Yo no me atrevi 4 declrsela 

To make use of, to use. Servirse de, usar. 

Do you use my horse ? 4 Se sirve V. de mi caballo f 

I do use it Me sirvo de 61. 


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Does your father use it ? 

He uses it. 

Hare you used my shotgun? 

I have used it 

They hare used your books. 

They have used them. 

To instruct, instructing. 
I instruct, thou instructest, ho 
instructs, you instruct ; we in- 
struct, you instruct, they in- 

To teach. 
He teaches me arithmetic. 
I teach you Spanish. 
I have taught him Spanish. 
To teach some one to do some- 
He teaches me to read. 
I teaoh him to write. 
A teacher of Spanish. 
A Spanish teacher, (one who is a 
To shave. 
To get shaved. 
To dress. 
To undress. 

Have you dressed yourself? 

I have not yet dressed my- 
Have you dressed the child? 
I have dressed it. 

To undo. 
To get rid ol 

4 Se sirve de 61 su padre de V. ? 
J Se sirve de 61. 

% Ha usado V. (or se ha servido V.) 
de mi escopeta? 

^He usado de ella. 
Me he servido de ella. 
EUos han usado de (se han ser- 
vido de) los libros de V. 
^Los han usado. 
Se han servido de ellos. 

Instniir,* instruyendo. 
Yo instruyo, td instruyes, 61 ins-, 
truye, V. instruye; nosotros ins- 
truimos, vosotros instruis, Vds. 
instruyen, ellos instruyen. 
£l me ense&a la aritmetica. 
Le ensefio & Y. el espa&oL 
Le he enseflado el espaflol. 
Ensefiar a alguno k hacer alguna 

£l me ensefla 4 leer. 
Le ensefio d escribir. 
Un maestro de espafEoL 
Un maestro espafEol. 

Afeitar, rasurar. 

Afeitarse, hacerse afeitar. 

Vestir,* vestirse. 

Desnudar, desnudarse. 
jiSeha vestido V.?. 
( 4 Os hab6is vestido ? 
Todavia no me he vestido. 

4 Ha vestido V. al nifio? 
Lo he vestido. 

^Deshacer.* (Conjugated like ha- 
Deshacerse de, zafarse, librarse 


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Are you getting rid of your dam- 
aged sugar? 

I am getting nd of it. J 

Did you get rid of your old ship? 

I did get rid of it 

To part with. 
The design, the intention. 
I intend to go thither. 
Do you intend to part with your 

I have already parted with them J 

He has parted with his shotgun. 
Have you parted with, discharged, 

your servant ? 
Yes, I have parted with, dis- 
charged, him. 
To awake. 
I generally awake at six o'clock 

in the morning. 
My servant generally wakes me 
at six o'clock in the morn- 
A slight noise awakes me. 
A dream has waked me. 
I do not make a noise, in order 
not to wake him. 
A dream. 
To come down. 
To dismount. 
To behave. 
I conduct myself well. 
How does he conduct himself? 

He behaves ill toward that man. 
06 behaves ill toward me. 

4 Se deshace V. de su azucar ave- 

i Va V. saliendo del azucar ave- 

riado ? 
Me deshago de 61. 
Voy saliendo de 6L 
iSe deshizo Y. de su fragata 

Me deshice de ella. 
Deshacerse de, enagenar, vender. 
El designio, la intenci6n. 
Tengo intencion de ir alii. 
% Tiene Y. intenci6n de vender sus 

Ya me he deshecho de ellos. 
Ya los he vendido. 
M, ha vendido su escopeta. 
i Ha despedido Y. 4 su criadof 

Si, lo he despedido. 

Despertar, despertarse. 

Me despierto generalmente 4 las 
seis de la maflana. 

Mi criado me despierta general- 
mente 4 las seis de la maSiana. 

Un ligero ruido me despierta. 

Un sueflo me ha dispertado. 

No hago ruido, para no disper- 

Un sueflo, un ensuefio. 
Generalmente, ordinariamente. 


Apearse, desmontar. 

Portarse, comportarse. 
Me comporto bien. 
I C6mo se porta 61 ? 

A, con, para con, hacia. 
£l se porta mal con aquel hombn, 
£1 se porta mal conmigo. 


by Google 


To merit, to be worth while. Merecer.* Valer la pena de. 

Is it worth while to do that ? i Vale la pena hacer eso f 

Is it worth while to write to him ? 4 Yale la pena escribirle ? 


1. i Esperan Vd& Ilegar temprano 4 Pans ? Esperamos 
llegar 4 las ocho y cuarto, porque nuestro padre nos espera 
esta tarde. 2. l For qu6 ha cambiado V. el coche de que me 
ha hablado? Lo he cambiado por un caballo arabe. 3. i No 
se diyierte Y. aqul ? Se engana Y. cuando dice que no me 
divierto aqui ; porque aseguro 4 Y. que hallo mucho placer en 
hablar con Y. ; pero me voy, porque me esperan en el baile 
de un pariente. 4. i Qu6 ser4 de V. si se mete siempre con 
los soldados ? No se lo que ser4 de mi ; pero le aseguro a Y. 
que no me haran ningun dano ; porque no hacen dano 4 
nadie. 5. i Cu4nto tiempo ha tenido Y. esta casaca ? Hace 
mucho tiempo que la tengo. 6. i Habla Y. siempre en cas- 
tellano ? Hace tanto tiempo que no lo hablo que casi del 
todo lo he olvidado. 7. i Ha dado Y. algun dinero 4 su 
hijo ? Le he dado m4s de lo que el gastara. 8. 4 Por que 
se alegran los espanoles ? Se alegran porque se lisonjean de 
que tienen muchos buenos amigos. 9. 4 Se marcha su tio de 
Y. con nosotros? Se marcha con nosotros si quiere. 10. 
4 Por que han ahorcado 4 aquel hombre ? Lo han ahorcado 
porque ha dado muerte 4 alguien. 11. i Quiere V. colgar mi 
sombrero en el 4rbol ? Lo colgare. 12. 4 Por que es Y. tan 
difuso sobre este asunto ? Porque es menester hablar sobre 
todas las cosas. Si es necesario escuchar y responder 4 V. 
cuando se habla sobre esa materia, colgare mi sombrero en 
el clavo, me tendere en el suelo, y le escuchare y responder^ 
tan bien como pueda. Y. har4 bien. 


1. Have your books been found ? They have been found. 
2. Are your brother's stockings under the bed ? They are 
upon it 3. Have you passed by anybody ? I passed by be- 
side you, and you did not see me. 4. Will you pass by the 
castle ? I shall pass by there. 5. Has not he been afraid of 
soiling his fingers ? He has not been afraid of soiling them, 

Digitized by 



because his fingers are never clean. 6. May my brothers 
use your books ? They may use them. t. Has your father 
used my horse ? He has used it 8. Have you told your 
brother to come down ? (que haje). I did not dare to tell 
him. 9. Have you shaved to-day ? I have shaved. 10. On 
what days do you shave in the evening ? When I do not 
dine at home. 11. At what o'clock do you dress in the morn- 
ing ? I dress as soon as I have breakfasted, and I breakfast 
every day at eight o'clock, or at a quarter past eight 12. 
Dost thou go to the theater every evening ? I do not go every 
evening, for it is better to study than to go to the theater. 
13. At what o'clock does the child get up ? He gets up as 
soon as he is awakened. 14. Why have you risen so early ? 
My children have made such a noise that they wakened me. 
15. How did my child behave ? He behaved very well. 16. 
Is it worth while to dismount from my horse in order to buy 
a cake ? It is not worth while, for it is not long since yon 
ate. 17. Is it better to go to the theater than to study ? It is 
better to do the latter than the former. 18. Is it better to go 
to France than to Germany ? It is not worth while to go te 
France or to Germany when one has no wish to travel. 19. 
Has your merchant succeeded at last in getting rid of his 
damaged sugar? He has succeeded in getting rid of it 
20. Who taught your brother arithmetic ? A Spanish 
teacher taught it to him. 

FIFTY-FOURTH LBSSON— Lecci6n Quincuag6sima- 

To hope, to expect Bsperar. 

To await, to wait for. Aguardar. 

I hope. Yo espero. 

Thou hopest T<i esperas. 

He hopes. tl espera. 

Ton hope. V. espera, vosotros esperiis. 

We hope. Nosotros esperamos. 

Do you expect to find him theref lEspera V. hallarlo all4t 
I do expect it Espero hallarlo. 

To change^ to exchange. Cambiar, trocar,* permutar. 


zed by Google 



To change one thing for another. 
I change my hat for his. 

To mix, mingle. 

I mingle with the men. 
He mingles with the soldiers. 
To recognize. 
Do you recognize that manf 
It is so long since I saw him, that 
I do not recollect him. 

I have more bread than I can eat. 
That man has more money than 

he can spend. 
There is more wine than is neces- 
Ton haye more money than you 

We have more shoes than we 

That man has fewer friends than 
he imagines. 
To fancy. 
To think. 

To earn, to gain, to get. 
Has your father already started t 

He is ready to depart 
To prepare. 
To prepare one's self. 

To keep one's self ready. J 

To spill. 
To spread. 
To expatiate, to lay stress upon. 
That man is always expatiating 
upon that subject 
The subject 

Gambiar una cosa por (con) otra. 
Gambio mi sombrero por el suyo. 
I Mezclar, mezdarse, entremeterse, 
I meterse. 

Me meto entre los hombres. 
Se mezda entre los soldados. 
Entre. En medio de. 
4 Reconoce Y. 6 ese hombre f 
Haoe tanto tiempo que lo vi, que 

no lo reconozco, (no me acuerdo 

de ^1). 
Tengo m^ pan que puedo comer. 
Ese hombre tiene mds dinero del 

que puede gastar. 
Hay m&s vino del necesario, (del 

que se necesita.) 
V. tiene m^ dinero del que nece- 
sita, (del que ha menester). 
Tenemos m&s zapatos que hemos 

menester, (necesitamos). 
Ese hombre tiene menos amigos 

que piensa. 
Imaginar, imaginarse. 
4 Ha salido ya el padre de V. f 

Est4 pronto (listo) para salir. 
Pronto, presto, listo. 
Estar preparado, estar dispuesto 
4, (para). 
Esparcir, divulgar. 
Espaciarse, difundirse. 
Ese hombre siempre se difunde 
sobre esa materia. 

El sujeto, la materia. 


zed by Google 


To stretch one's self upon the j Tirarse sobre el suelo. 
floor. I Tenderse.* 

To hang. Colgar de, (en). 

The wall. La pared. 

I hang my coat on the walL To cuelgo mi casaca en la pared. 

He hangs his hat upon the tree. £l cuelga su sombrero en el 4rboL 
We hang our shoes upon the nails. Colgamos nuestros zapatos en los 

Who has hanged the basket on 4 Qui^n ha colgado la canasta en 

the tree t el drbol t 

The thief has been Jumged, El ladr6n ha sido aJioreadOy (col- 

The thief, robber. El ladr6n. 

The robber, the highwayman. i ^ ^^^^^l^^'^; 

(El salteador de camino. 


1. ^Esta mi vestido sobre la cama? Est4 debajo. 2. 
I Por qu6 no ha limpiado V. mi baiil ? Tenia miedo de en- 
suciarme los dedos. 3. i Se sirve V. de los libros que le he 
prestado ? Me sirvo de ellos. 4. i Por que no se ha atre- 
vido V. 4 decirselo ? Porque no he querido despertarle. 6. 
i Se ha afeitado su hennano de V. ? No se ha afeitado, pero 
se ha hecho afeitar. 6. i Cuantas veces al dia se af eita el 
padre de V. ? No se afeita mas que una vez al dia ; pero mi 
tio se afeita dos veces al dia. 7. i Se viste el vecino de V. 
antes de almorzar ? Almuerza antes de vestirse. 8. i Ha 
dormido V. bien ? No he dormido bien ; porque V. ha hecho 
demasiado ruido. 9. i Como se ha portado mi hermano con 
V. ? Se ha portado muy bien conmigo ; porque se porta 
bien con todo el mundo. 10. i Vale la pena apearme del 
caballo para darle algo k aquel pobre ? Si ; porque parece 
que lo necesita ; pero V. le puede dar alguna cosa sin apearse 
de su caballo. 11. i Se ha deshecho V. de aquel hombre al 
fin ? Me he deshecho de el. 12. i Hace mucho tiempo que 
V. se ha levantado ? Hace hora y media que me levants. 

1. Do you hope to receive a note to-day ? I hope to re- 
ceive ongd. 2. Does your friend hope to receive anything ? 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


He hopes to receive something, for he has worked well. 3. 
Do you expect to find him at home ? We expect to find 
him. 4. Do you wish to exchange your book for mine ? 1 
can not, for I want it to study Spanish. 5. When will the 
concert take place ? It will take place the day after to- 
morrow. 6. Have you promised to go ? I have promised. 
7. Have you changed your hat in order to go to the English 
captain ? I have changed my hat» but I have not changed 
my coat or my shoes. 8. Why do you mix among these 
men ? I mix among them in order to know what they sa.^ 
of me. 9. Have you recognized your father ? It was l>o 
long since I saw him, that I did not recognize him. 10. 
How long has your brother had that gun ? He has had it a 
great while. 11. Do you know why that man does not eat ? 
I believe he is not hungry, for he has more bread than he 
can eat 12. Am I to sell my gun in order to buy a new 
hat ? You need not sell it, for you have more money than 
you want 13. Are you ready to depart with me ? I am. 
14. Is this young man ready to go out ? Not yet, but he 
will soon be ready. 15. What have you done with my coat ? 
I have hung it on the wall. 16. Has the thief who stole 
your gun been hanged ? He has been punished, but he has 
not been hanged. 

FIFTY-FIFTH LESSON— Leccion Quincuagesimaquinta 

Mr., Sir, master, lord, Lord, gen- Sefior, sefiores, (plu.), Don. 

tleman, husband. 
Mrs., madam, lady, mistress, wife. Seflora, sefloras, {plu), DoHa. 
Young sir, young master, (often Sefiorito, sefloritos. 

used in jest). 
Miss, young lady. Sefiorita, sefioritas. 

Sefior and Sefk)ra are commonly used with the surname, or full 
name. Don and Dofla are used either with the Christian name, or 
in connection with Sefior and Seflora, as a mark of especial respect: 
Sefior Q&mez, Seflora Maria de SdneTiez, Don Pedro, Dofla Con- 
suelo, Sefior -Don Jwm Martinez, Seflora Dofla Maria de Cdr- 


by Google 



These titles are often used with names in the third person as a 

token of respect. 

How is your father! 

To doubt. 

To question, to inquire. 

To dispute, to discuss. 
Do you doubt thatt 
I do doubt it. 
I do not doubt it. 
I make no question, haye no doubt 

of it. 
What do you doubt t 
I doubt what that man has told 

The doubt. 

Without doubt, no doubt. 

To agree to a thing. 

Do you i^ee to thatt 

I agree to it. 
How much have you paid for that 

I have paid three dollars for it. 
I haye bought this horse for fifty 

The price. 
Haye you agreed about the price t 
We have agreed about it. 
About what haye you agreed! 
About the price. 

To feel, feeling. 
I feel, thou f eelest, he feels. 
We feel, you feel, they f eeL 

To consent. 

I consent to go thither. 

To wear, (to wear garments). 
What garments does he weart 
He wears beautiful garments. 
The garment. 

4 C6mo est4 su sefior padre de Y.t 


Guestionar, preguntar. 

Disputar, controyertir.* 
iDuda V. deesot 
Lo dudo. 
No lo dudo. 
No lo dudo. 


To dudo de lo que ese hombre me 
ha dicho. 
La duda. 
Sin duda. 

Conyenir en, (con or &), (Conju- 
gated like yenir. See Elements.) 

4 Conyiene V. en eso t 

Conyengo en ello. 

iGu&nto ha pagado V. por ese 
sombrero t 

He pagado tres pesos por 61. 

He comprado este caballo por cin- 
cuenta pesos. 
El precio. 

4 Han conyenido Yds. en el precio f 

Hemos conyenido. 

4 En qu6 han conyenido Yds. f 

En el precio. 

Sentir,* sintiendo. ^-^ 

Yo siento, tti sientes, ^^siente. 

Sentimos, sentis, dentin. 

Consentir en. (Conjugated like 
sentir.) ^ 

Consiento en irj^ 

No obsl^mte, con todo. 

Usar, llevar, traer,* portar. 

4 Qu6 yestidos usa t 

£l lleya yestidos hermo606« 
Bl yestida 


zed by Google 



Against my custom. i 

As customary. -! 

My partner. 

To observe, to note, to attend to.-! 

Do you take notice of that t 
I take notice of it. 
Did you observe thatt 
Did you notice what he didf 
I did notice it 

To get, to procure. 
I can not procure any money. 

He can not procure anything to 

After having read my lesson, I 

wrote it. 
After having cut myself, 1 broke 

my penknife. 

After reading the letter. 

To ridicule, make fun of. 
To laugh. 
He laughs at everybody. 

He criticises everybody. 
Do you laugh at that man t 

I do not laugh at him. -j 

To stop, to stay. \ 

Have yon stayed long at Berlin t 

I stayed there only three days. 

Contra mi costumbre. 

Contra mi modo. 

Como de costumbre. 

Segun el uso. 

Mi socio, mi compafiero. 

Percibir,* observar, reparar. 

Notar algo, (alguna cosa). 

I Repara V. esto t | Observ&is eso t 

Lo reparo, lo observe. 

4 Percibi6 V. eso t 

4Bepar6 V. lo que 61 hizof 

\jo repar^. 

Conseguir,* procurar, lograr. 

No puedo conseguir ningtin di- 

£l no puede procurarse el sus- 

£l no puede ganar la vida. 
El cortaplumas, la navaja. 
Despu6s que hube leido mi lec- 

ci6n, la escribi. 
Despu^s que me hube cortado 

quebr6 mi cortaplumas. 
Despu^s que lei la carta. 
Despu6s que hube leido la carta. 
Despu^s de haber leido la carta. 
Despu^s de leer la carta. 
Mofarse, burlarse. 
£l se rie de todo el mundo, (de 

£l critica d todo el mundo. 
4 Se rf e V. (se burla V.) de aqueJ 

No me rfo de 61. 
No hago burla de 61. 
4 Se ha detenido V. mucho tiempo 

en Berlin t 
Me detuve s61o tres dias. 


zed by Google 


To sojourn, to stay. Residir, morar. 

Where does your brother stay at 4 En donde reside ahora su her- 
present t mano de V. t 

At present, actually. Al presente, actuahnente, ahora. 

The residence, stay, abode. La residencia, el domicilio. 

Paris is a fine place to live in. Paris es una ciudad muy her- 

mosa para vivir. 
After reading. Despu^s de leer. 

After cutting myself. Despu6s de haberme oortado. 

Despu^ de haberse V. vestido. 
Despu^s que V. se vistid. 
Despu^ de vestirse. 
Despu^ que 61 se hubo vestido. 

After dressing yourself. 

After dressing himsell 
The sick person, the patient El enfermo, el paciente. 

Fairly well. J Bastante bien, medianamente. 


It is rather late. Es muy tarde. 

It is rather far. Estd algo lejos. 


1. i Como est4 el eDfermo de V. ? Se halla un poco me- 
jor hoy que ayer. 2. i Cuanto tiempo hace que su primo de 
V. aprende el espanol ? Lo ha estudiado solo tres mese& 
3. i Le gusta a V. hablar con mi tio ? Me gusta mucho ha- 
blar con el ; pero no me gusta que se burle de mi. 4. i Duda 
V. de lo que este hombre le ha dicho ? No lo dudo ; porque 
es hombre de bien. 5. i Ha comprado por ultimo su tio de 
V. el jardin ? No lo ha comprado, porque no ha podido 
convenir en el precio. 6. i Consiente el en pagarle 4 V. el 
precio del barco ? Consiente en pagarmelo. 7. l Por qu6 se 
lamentan estos pobres ? Se lamentan porque no pueden pro- 
curar cosa alguna que comer. 8. i Ha sabido V. de su ami- 
go que estd en Alemania ? Le he escrito ya muchas yeces ; 
no obstante no me ha respondido todavia. 9. i Por que ha 
tirado V. su cortaplumas ? Lo he tirado despues de haberme 
cortado. 10. i Cuando almorzaron Vds. ? Almorzamos des- 
pues de habemos afeitado. 11. i Que hizo V. esta manana ? 
Sail de la ciudad muy de manana a ver como estaba el cam- 
po. 12. i Se levanto V. temprano ? Me levante al rayar el 


by Google 



1. How is your father ? He is only fairly well. 2. How 
art thou ? I am tolerably well. 3. How long has your 
cousin been learning Spanish ? He has been learning it 
only three months. 4. Is it long since you heard of my 
uncle ? It is hardly a fortnight since I heard of him. 5. 
How long did your cousin stay at Paris ? He stayed there 
only a month. 6. Why does he laugh at you ? He laughs 
at me because I speak badly. 7. Do you doubt what I am 
telling you ? I do not doubt it 8. Have you at last bought 
the horse which you wished {gueria) to buy last month ? 
I have not bought it, for I have not been able to procure the 
money. 9. Have you at last agreed about the price of that 
picture ? We have agreed as to it. 10. Have you agreed 
with your partner ? I have agreed with him. 11. Does he 
consent to pay you the price of the ship ? He consents to 
pay it to me. 12. Have you seen your old friend again ? I 
have seen him again. 13. Did you recognize him ? I could 
hardly recognize him, for, contrary to his custom, he was 
wearing a large hat. 14. How is he ? He is very well. 15. 
Has your fathft- already written to you ? Not yet ; but I 
expect to receive a note from him to-day. 16. Of what do 
you complain ? I complain of not being able to procure 
some money. 17. Is your uncle well ? He is better than he 
usually is. 18. What have you done with the books which 
the English captain has lent you ? I have returned them to 
him after reading them. 19. When did your brother go to 
the ball ? He went (thither) after dressing himself. 20. 
Why have you punished your boy ? I have punished him 
because he has broken my finest glass. 

FIFTY-SIXTH LESSON— Leccion Quincuagesimasexta 

To go to the village. Ir k la aldea. 

To be in the village. Estar en la aldea. 

To go to the exchange. Ir k la lonja. 

To be at Ute exchange. Estar en la lonja. 


by Google 



The parlor. 

The kitchen. 

The cellar. 

The church. 

The schooL 

The play. 

The opera. 

To go hunting. 

To hunt. 

To fish. 
The whole day. All the day. 

The whole morning. 

The whole night. 
The whole night, all night 

The whole week. 

The whole society. 

All at once. 

El 86tano. 
La iglesia. 
La escuela. 
La comedia. 
Ix k caza, ir & la caza, ir 6, oazac 
Todo el dia. 
Toda la mafiana. 
Toda la noche. 
Toda la noche. 
Toda la semana. 
Toda la sociedad. 
De una yez, k la vez. 
De repente, stibitamente. 

Suddenly, of a sudden. 
The following are the modes of salutation : 
Good morning. Buenos dias. 

Good afternoon. Buenas tardes. 

Good evening. buenas noches. 

Good night. ) 

They are always used in the plural, and are employed as in 

What books have 1 1 

You have yours and hers. 

Has she not hers and mine t 

She has hers, but not yours. 

You have yours. 

I have yours. 

She has hers and his. 

He has his and hers. 

I have his. 

I have hers. 

I have theirs. 

iQu^ librostengot 
V. tiene los suyos y los de ella. 
4 No tiene ella los suyos y los mios t 
Tiene los suyos, pero no los de V. 
V. tiene los suyos, (las suyas). 
Tengo los de V., (las de V.). 
Ella tiene los suyos y los de €i, 
£l tiene los suyos y los de ella. 
Tengo la suya, (la de 41). 
Tengo la suya, (la de ella). 
Tengo la suya, (la de ellos, or la 

de ellas). 
What do you wish to send to your | Qu6 quiere V. enviar k su sefiora 

auntt tiat 

I wish to send her a tart. Quiero enviarle una empanada^ 


zed by Google 



Do you wish to send her some jQuiere V. enviarle tambi^n al- 

f ruit also t guna f rata t 

Yes, I will send her some. Sf, quiero enviarle alguna. 

Have you sent the books to my 4 Ha enviado V. los libros 6, mis 

sisters t 
I have sent them to them. 
This week. 
This year. 

Last week. . 

Next week. 

Every woman. 
Every time. 
Every week. 

Your mother. 
Your sister. 
Your sisters. 
A person. 
The earache. 
The heartache. 
The ache. 
The tart. 
The peach. 
The strawberry. 
The cherry. 
, The gazette. 
The newspaper. 
The merchandise. 
The aunt. 
The female cousin. 
The niece. 
The maid-servant. 
The female relation. 
The female neighbor. 
The female cook. 
The brother-in-law. 
The sister-in-law. 

Se los he enviado. 
Esta semana. 
Este afio. 

ILa semana pasada, la semana 
pr6xima pasada. 
j La semana pr6zima. 
( La semana que entra. 
Todas las mujeres. 
Cada vezy todas las veces. 
Gada semana, todas las sema- 

Su madre de V. 
La hermana de V. 
Las hermanas de V. 
Una persona. 
Dolor de oido. 
Mai de coraz6n. 
El dolor. 
La empanada. 
El durazno. 
La cereza. 
La gaceta. 
El peri6dico. 

La mercaderfa, las mercaderiaa. 
La tia. 
La prima. 
La sobrina. 
La criada. 
La parienta. 
La vecina. 
La cocinera. 
El cufiado. 
La cufiada. 

The following nouns express their gender by different termina- 


by Google 




An abbot. Un abad. An abbess. Una abadesa. 

An actor. Un actor. An actress. Una actriz. 

An ambassador. Unembajador. An ambassadress. Una embajado- 

ra, or emba- 
A baroness. Una baronesa. 

A canoness. Una canonesa. 

A female singer. Una cantora, or 

A countess. Una condesa. 

A female dancer. Una bailarina. 

Un bar6n. 
Un can6nigo. 
Un cantor. 

Un conde. 
Un bailarin. 
Un dios. 
Un di&cono. 
Un duque. 
Un elector. 

A baron. 
A canon. 
A singer. 

A count. 
A dancer. 
A god. 
A deacon. 
A duke. 
An elector. 

An emperor. 

A hero. 

A poet. 

A priest. 

A prince. 

A prior. 

A prophet. 

A king. 

Sir, (addressing). | Seflor. 

Gentleman. fCaballero. 

A goddess. 
A deaconess. 
A duchess. 
An electress. 

Un emperador. An empress. 
Un heroe. A heroine. 

Un poeta. 
Un sacerdote. 
Un prfncipe. 
Un prior. 
Un profeta. 
Un rey. 

A poetess. 
A priestess. 
A princess. 
A prioress. 
A prophetess. 
A queen. 


Una diosa. 

Una diaconisa. 

Una duquesa. 

Una electriz, or 


Una heroina. 

Una poetisa. 


Una princesa. 

Una priora. 

Una profetisa. 

Una reina. 

In some cases there are different words for each gender. 

















To hire, to let. 

Haye you already hired a room t 

Mother. Madre. 

Godmother. Madrina. 

Stepmother. Madrastra. 
Daughter-in-law. Nuera. 
Woman. Mujer. 

Mare. Yegua. 

Ewe. Oveja. 

Cow. Vaca. 

Alquilar, arrendar.* 
Dar, or tomar en alquiler, or 

4 Ha alquilado V. ya un cuartot 
I (or aposento, or una c^mara). 


zed by Google 



To admit, grant 
To confess. 
Do you grant that! 
I grant it 

Do you confess your fault f 
I confess it 

I confess it to be a fault 
To confess, to avow, to own, 

As, or so much, as, or so many. 
She has so many candles that she 

can not use them all. 

To catch a cold. 

, to< 

To make sick. 

If you eat so much it will make 

you sick. 
Does it suit you to lend your 

shotgun t 
It does not suit me to lend it. 
Where did you catch that coldt 
I caught a cold on going from the 

To haye a cold. 

The cold. 

The cough. 

I have a cold. 

Tou haye a cough. 

The brain. 

The chest. 

Admitir, conceder. 

Confesar* una cosa. 

4 Concede V., or admite V. eso t 

Lo concede, lo admito. 

iConfiesa V. su faltat 

La confieso. 

Gonfieso que es una falta. 

Confesar, declarar, protestar, re- 

Tanto — tanta. Tantos — tantas. 
Ella tiene tantas velas que no 

puede usarlas todas. 
Resfriarse, acatarrarse. 
Coger un resfriado. 
Poner malo. 
Hacer mal, daSo. 
Si V. come tanto, le pondrd malo, 

{or le hard daflo). 
I Le conviene k V. prestar su esco- 

No me conviene prestarla. 
4 En d6nde cogi6 V. ese resfriado. 
Me resf rie al salir de la 6pera. 

Tener catarro. 

El catarro, el resfriado. 

La tos. 

Tengo catarro. 

V. tiene tos. 

El cerebro. 

El pecho. 

1. i Ha hecho ya la sopa la cocinera de V. ? La ha he- 
cho, puesto que estd en la mesa. 2. i Va muy & menudo 
k la iglesia su madre de V. ? Va todas las mananas y todas 
las tardes. 3. | Que aprendes en la escuela ? Aprendo 4 
leer, eecribir y hablar. 4. i Saben hablar el aleman sus her- 
manas de V. ? Todavia no saben hablarlo, pero hace mucho 
que lo estudian. 5. ^ Le gustan a Y . los duraznos ? Me gus- 
tan mucho. 6. i Tiene algunas f resas su prima de V. ? Tiene 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


tantas que no puede comeraelas todas. 7. | En donde S6 
resfriaron ellas ? Se resfriaron anoche al salir de la opera 

8. i Donde estuvo V. anoche ? Estuve en casa de mi cunado. 

9. i Hay en la gaceta alg^una cosa nueva ? To no he leido 
ninguna cosa nueva. 10. i Ha alquilado V. ya un cuario ? 
He alquilado uno. 11. i Que dice su tio de V. de aquella 
esquela ? Dice que esta muy bien escrita ; pero confiesa que 
ha hecho mal en enviarsela al capitan. 12. i Que tiene V. ? 
Tengo un terrible dolor de cabeza, y un resfriado. 

1. Where is your cousin ? He is in the kitchen. 2. Has 
your sister gone to school ? She has gone there. 3. Dost 
thou go to school to-day ? I go there. 4. What dost thou 
learn at school ? I learn to read, write, and speak (there). 
6. Where is your aunt ? She has gone to the play with my 
little sister. 6. Has your father gone hunting ? He has 
not been able to go hunting, for he has a cold. 7. Is your 
father still in the country ? Tes, madam, he is still there. 
8. How long did you stay with my mother ? I stayed with 
her the whole evening. 9. Are these girls as good (did- 
creto) as their brothers ? They are better than they. 10. 
What has your niece brought you ? She has brought us 
good cherries, good strawberries and good peaches. 11. 
Have you eaten many cherries this year ? I have eaten 
many. 12. Did you give any to your little sister ? I gave 
her so many that she can not eat them all. 13. Were there 
any pears Qa pera) last year ? There were not many. 14. 
Why do not your sisters go to the play ? They can not go 
there because they have a cold, and that makes them very 
ill. 15. Did you sleep well last night ? I did not sleep well, 
for my children made too much noise in my room. 16. Have 
you read the gazette to-day ? I have read it 17. Is there 
anything new in it ? I have not read anything new in it 
18. What does my aunt say ? She says that she wishes to 
see you. 19. 1 admire (admirar) that family, (ta familta,) 
fcnr the father is the king and the mother is the queen of it. 
The children and the servants are the subjects {el 9ujeto) of 
the state, {el estado). The tutors of the children are Uie min- 

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isters, {el minietro^ who share with the king and queen the 
care {el cuidado) of the government, {el gcHnemo), 20. For 
whom has your father hired a room ? He has hired one for 
his son, who has just arrived from France. 

FIFTY-SEVENTH LESSON— Leccion Quincuag6sima- 


As has been said, the present participle is formed by dropping 
the infinitive ending, and adding a/ndo to yerbs of the first conjuga- 
tion, and iendo to those of the second and third conjugations. 

1. To speak, hablar. Speaking, hablando. 

2. To sell, vender. Selling, vendiendo. 
8. To receive, recibir. Receiving, recibiendo. 

Verbs ending in eer and uir^ (including those in gUir^ but not 
those in guir,) change the % into y : 

To read, leer. Beading, leyendo. 

To instruct, instruir. Instructing, instruyendo. 
ArgUir. Arguyendo. 

In general, the present participle is used as in English, the verb 
estor, to be, being employed to ma^e the progressive form. As was 
stated, this participle is not often used after prepositions, but gives 
place to the infinitive. 

Temporal adverbs are frequently omitted in Spanish, where they 
are used in English with the present participle : 
He eats while walking. £l come andando. 

The man eaU while running i f *^^™^^ ^^°^« ^f .^^ corriendo. 

I £1 hombre come al ir comendo. 
I write while reading. Yo escribe mientras leo. 

He questions while speaking. £l pregunta mientras (or cuando) 

esUl hablando. 
' V. habla al tiempo de responder- 

V. habla mientras (cuando) me 
The cravat. La corbata. 

The carriage. El coche, el carruaje. 

The house. La casan 

Toa speak while answering me. 


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The letter, epistle. 
The letter (of the alphabet). 
The table. 
The family. 
The promise. 
The leg. 
The sore throat. 
The throat. 

I have a sore throat 

The meat. 

Salt meat. 

Fresh meat. 
^ Raw meat. 

Fresh beef. 

Cold water. 

The food, victuals. 

The dish, mess. 

Salt meats. 

The traveler. 
To march, to walk, to step. 

La carta. 

La letra. 

La mesa. 


La promesa. 

La piema. 

El mal de garganta. 

La garganta. 
j Yo tengo mal de garganta. 
( Yo tengo la garganta mala. 

La came. 

Came salada. 


Came cruda. 



El alimento, la comida. 

El plato, las viandas. 

Came en escabeche. 

Viajero, viajante. 

Andar,* caminar, dar an paso. 

To walk, to promenade, to saunter, to take a walk, is pasear or 
pasearse', but the ordinary word for walk is anda/r. This Terb 
describes the motion of the clock or watch : 

The clock or watch rans. 

I have walked a good deal to- 

I have been walking in the gar- 
den with my mother. 

To take a step. 

To take a step (meaning to take 

To go on a journey. 

To make a speech. 

A piece of business. 

An affair. 
To transact business. 
To do business. 

El reloj anda. 

Hoy he andado muchisima 

fie estado paseando con mi madre 

en el jardin. 
Dar un paso. 
Tomar sus medidas. 
Valerse de medios. 
' Ir & un viaje. 
Salir k un viaje. 
Hacer un viaje. 
Hacer un discurso. 

LUn negocio, un asunto. 

Negociar, hacer negodos. 
Llevar or traer negocios. 


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To meddle. 
What are you meddling with f 

Meterse, entremeterse, ingerirse. 
j I En que se mete V. f 
j I En qu^ OS meteis f 
I am meddling with my own busi- Yo me meto en mis propios nego- 

ness. cios. 

That man always meddles with Ese hombre se mete siempre en 
other people's business. los negocios agenos, (de otros). 

I do not meddle with other peo- Yo no me entremeto en los nego- 
cios agenos. 
Otros, otras gentes. 
Se ocupa en pintar. 

pie's business. 

Others, other people. 

fie employs himself in painting. 

The art of painting. 

The art. 
To employ one's self. 
To concern, import, to concern 
one, to have importance to. 
To look. 
I do not like to meddle with things 

that do not concern me. 
That concerns nobody. 

To attract. 
Loadstone attracts iron. 

Her singing attracts me. h 

To charm. 
To enchant. 
I am charmed with it. 

Se ocupa en la pintura. 

Trabaja de pintor. 

El arte de la pintura. 

La pintura. 

La qulmica. 

El arte. 

ExtraQo, asombroso, maravilloso. 

Emplearse, ocuparse, 

Concernir,* importar, interesar, 

No me gusta meterme en cosas que 

no me tocan, {or importan). 
Eso no toca (interesa) & ninguno. 

El imdn atrae al hierro. 
j Su canto me atrae. 
{ El canto de ella me atrae. 

[-Hechizar, encantar, embelesar. 

Estoy encantado de (or con) ello. 
La hermosura. 
La bondad. 

Nouns ending in ady dad, or tad, expressing properties or quali- 
ties, are feminine ; as also are those terminating in cibn, sidn. 
The harmony. La harmonia. 

The voice. La voz. 

The power. El poder. 

To repeat. Repetir.* 

The repetition. La repetici6n. 

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The commencement, beginning. El principio, or comienzo. 

The wisdom. La sabiduria. 

Study. El estudio. 

The lord, master. El sefior. 

A good memory. Una buena memoria. 

A memorandum. i ^P'^^*®^ "^^ 

( Itaz6n, apuntamiento. 

The nightingale. El ruiseflor. 

All (the) beginnings are difficult Todos los principios son dilSciles. 

The bird. El ave. 

The soul. El alma. 

Feminine nouns which begin with an accented a or ^ take mas- 
culine article in singular for the sake of euphony. 
To create. Crear. 

Creation. La creaci6n. 

The Creator. El Criador. 

The benefit. El beneficio. 

The fear of the Lord. El temor de Dios. 

Heaven. El cielo. 

The earth. La tierra. 

Solitude. La soledad. 

The lesson. La lecci6n. 

The goodness. La bondad. 

Flour, meal. Harina. 

The mill. El molino. 

Many Spanish nouns may be readily formed from similar Eng* 
lish nouns by changing the tion of the latter to dbn for the Spanish, 
eiion into ccibny saion to sidfif and simply transferring those that end 
in sion : 

The conversation. La conyersaci6n. 

The action. La acci6n. 

The possession. La po6esi6n. 

The provision. La provisi6n. 

1. I Qu6 tienen Yds. que comer ? Tenemos buena sopa, 
came fresca y salada. 2. i Ya quiere V. comer ? Si, pueato 
que tengo mucha hambre. 3. ^ Viajan Yds. & pie 6 en coche t 
Viajamos en coche. 4. i Camin6 V. mucho & pie en su ulti- 
mo viaje ? Me gust^ mucho caminar ad; pero 4 mi tio le 

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gusta ir en coche. 5. i Qu^ dijo el ? PronuEcio un gran dis- 
curso sobre la bondad de Dios, despues de dtcir : ** La repeti- 
cion es la madre de los estudios, y una buena memoria es 
un gran don de Dios." 6. i Tienen estos ruisenores mas po- 
der sobre Y. que las bellezas de la pintura 6 la voz de la 
tiema madre de V. ? Confieso que la armonia del canto 
de estos pajaros tiene m4s poder sobre mi que las palabraB 
de mis mas queridos amigos. 7. i En que se divierte su tio 
de V. en su soledad ? Se ocupa en la pintura y la quimica. 
8. i Por que se mezcla su tio en los negocios de V. ? No se 
mezcla generalmente en los negocios de otras personas ; pero 
se interesa en los mios porque me quiere mucho. 9. | Quien 
corrige los ejercicios de V. ? Mi maestro los corrige. 10. 
i Canta la hermana de V. raientras baila ? Canta mientras 
trabaja ; pero no puede trabajar mientras baila. 11. i Va V. 
todas las mananas al campo ? No voy todas las mananas, 
sino doB veces 4 la semana. 

1. Will you dine with us to-day ? With much pleasure. 
2, Do you like milk food ? I like it better than all other 
food. 3. Do you travel alone ? (solo). No, madam, I travel 
with my uncle. 4. What do you intend to spend your time 
in this summer ? I intend to take a short journey. 5. 
What have you been doing at school to-day ? We have 
been listening to our professor. 6. After saying, " Repeti- 
tion is the mother of studies, and a good memory is a great 
benefit of Gk>d,'^ he said« "' G-od is the creator of heaven and 
earth; the fear of the Lord is the beginning of all wis- 
dom." 7. What does your niece amuse herself with in her 
solitude ? She reads a great deal, and writes letters to her 
mother. 8. Has your teacher made you repeat your lesson 
to-day ? He has made me repeat it 9. Did you know it ? 
I knew it pretty well. 10. I do not generally meddle with 
things that do not concern me, but I love you so much that 
I concern myself much (que yo me inter eao) about what 
you are doing. 11. Does any one trouble his head about 
you? No one troubles his head about me, for I am not 
worth the trouble. 12. How many things does your master 

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do at the same time ? (d to vez). He does four things at the 
same time. 13. How so ? {c6m6). He reads and corrects my 
exercises, speaks to me and questions me all at once. 14. 
Has your mother left? She has not left yet 15. When 
will she set out ? She will set out to-morrow evening. 16. 
Where have you spent the morning ? I have spent it in the 
country. 17. Why has not your niece called upon me ? She 
is very ill, and has spent the whole day in her room. 

FIFTY-EIGHTH LESSON— Leccion Quincuagesima- 


The future perfect relates to some known future action, event, 
or state, which will have taken place before or at the time of some 
other action, event, or state ; and is composed of the verb hahw 
and some past participle : 

I shall have loved. 
Thou wilt have loved. 
He, or she will have loved. 
You will have loved. 
We shall have loved. 
You will have loved. 
They will have loved. 
You will have loved. 
I shall have come. 
Thou wilt have come. 
He will have come. 
She will have come. 
You will have come. 
We shall have come. 
You will have come. 
They will have come. 
You will have come. 
I shall have been praised. 
Thou wilt have been praised. 
He will have been praised. 
She will have been praised. 
You will have been praised. 

Yo habr^ amado. 
Td habrds amado. 
£l, or ella habrd amado. 
y. habrd amado. 
Nosotros habremos amado. 
Vosotros habr^is amado. 
Ellos or ellas habr&n amado. 
Yds. habrdn amada 
Yo habre venido. 
Td habrds venido. 
£il habrd venido. 
Ella habrd venido. 
V. habrd venido. 
Nosotros habremos venido. 
Vosotros habr^is venido. 
Ellos or ellas habrdn venida 
Vds. habrdn venido. 
Yo habr^ sido alabado. 
Tii habrds sido alabado. 
£l habrd sido alabado. 
Ella habrd sido alabada. 
v. habrd sido alabado. 

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We shall have been praised. 
Toa will have been praised. 
They will have been praised. 
You will have been praised. 

To remain over, to have left over, 

to be superfluous. 
When I have paid for the horse, 

there will remain to me only 

ten dollars. 
How much money have you 

I have Ave dollars left 
I have only one dollar left. 
How much has your brother leftf 

He has one dollar left. 

How much has your sister left f 

She has only a few pence left. 

How much have your brothers 

They have a hundred dollars 

When they have paid the tailor, 
they will have a hundred dol- 
lars left. 

Nosotros {or nosotras) habremos 
sido alabados, (alabadas). 

Vosotros (or vosotras) habr^is sido 
alabados, (alabadas). 

EUos (ellas) habrin sido alabados, 

Yds. habrdn sido alabados, (ala- 

Quedar, sobrar, restar. 

Cuando yo haya pagado el (w 
por el) caballo, s61o me queda- 
rdn diez pesos. 

iCu&nto dinero le queda & Y. f 

Me quedan cinco pesos. 
Me queda s61o un peso. 
iCudnto le resta (or queda) al 

hermano de Y. t 
Le queda un peso. 
4 Cudnto le queda d la hermana 

Le quedan solo unos centavos. 
iCudnto ha quedado & sus her- 

manos de Y. t 
Les han quedado cien pesos. 

Cuando ellos hayan pagado al 
sastre, les quedar^n cien pesos. 

The conjunctions when^ as soon aa, after^ etc., usually take the 
present subjunctive, or the future indicative, or the perfect sab- 

When I am at my aunt's, will you 4 Ird Y. & verme, cuando yo est^ 

come to see me f 

After you have done writing, 

will you take a turn with me f 

You will play, when you 
finished your exercise. 


en casa de mi tia f 
^Gustard Y. dar un paseo (una 

vuelta) conmigo despu^ que 

haya acabado de escribirf 
Y. jugar4 cuando haya acabado 

8u ejercicio. 


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«r, . .,,' J . 1^ fiQufi hard V. despu^ que haya 

What will you do when you have J comidot 

^^^^^ ' 1 4 Qu^ har& V. despu^ de comer I 

When I have spoken to your Cuando yo haya hablado al her- 
brother, I shall know what I mano de V. sabr^ lo que he de 
have to do. haoer. 


How is the weather f 
It is fine weather. 

It is bad weather. 

It is hot, it is very hot. 

It is cold, it is very cold. 

The wind blows hard. 

It is a long time since I saw 

It is becoming late. 
The night is falling. 
He causes an investigation to be 

She counterfeits the idiot, (or 

feigns to be an idiot). 
He acts as a broker. 
Not to mind a person, (or thing). 

To ridicule any one. 

To boast of. 

Out of doors. 

To enter, to go in, to come in. 

Will you go into my room f 

I shall come in. 
To fill. 

To fill a bottle with wine. 
Do you fill that bottle with wa- 
I fill my purse with money. 

The pocket. 

i Qu6 tiempo hace f 
I Hace buen tiempo. 
I Hace hermoso tiempo. 

Hace mal tiempo. 

Hace calor, hace mucho calor. 

Hace frfo, hace mucho frio. 

Hace mucho viento. 

Hace mucho tiempo que lo vi. 

Se hace tarde. 

Se hace noche, anochece. 

£l hace hacer una informaoi6n. 

Ella hace la boba, Gft tonta). 

Hace de corredor. 

No haoer caso de una persona^ 

(or cosa). 
Hacer chacota (or burla) de al- 

Hacer alarde. 
Fuera, afuera. 
Entrar, ir adentro. 
4 Quiere V. entrar en mi cuarto^ 

or aposento f 
Yo entrar& 

Llenar de vino una botella. 
^Llena Y. de agua esta botella f 

Yo lleno de dinero mi bolsa. 
i La bolsa, el bolsillo. 
I lia faltriquera. 


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Haye you come quite aJone t 

No, I have brought all my men 

along with me. 

To bring. 
He has brought all his men with 

Have you brought your brother 

with yout 
I have brought him with me. 
Have you told the groom to bring 

me the horse f 

The groom. 

Are you bringing me my books f 
I am bringing them to you. 
To take, to carry. 
Will you take that dog to the 

I shall take it there. 
Are you carrying that gun to my 

I carry it to him. 

The cane, the stick. 
The stable. 
To come down, to go down. 
To go down into the well. 

To go, or come down the hill. i 

To go down the river. 
To alight from one's horse, or dis- j 
mount. j 

To alight, to get out. 
To go up, to mount, to as- 
To go up the mountain. 
To get into the coach. 
To get on board a ship. 
To desire, to beg, to request, to 

4 Ha venido Y. absolutamente 

No, yo he traido toda mi gente 

(todos mis hombres) conmigo. 
£l ha traido toda su gente con- 

4 Ha traido V. consigo k su her- 

Yo lo he traido conmigo. 
4 Ha dicho Y. al mozo de caballos 

(caballerizo) que traiga mi ca- 

El mozo de caballos. 
El caballerizo. 
I Me trae Y. mis librosf 
Yo se los traigo k Y. 

4 Llevar& Y. ese perro & la caballe- 

Yo lo llevar^ alld. 
4 Lleva Y. esa escopeta 4 mi pa- 
Yo se la Uevo. 
La cafia, el palo, el bast6n. 
El establo, la caballeriza. 
Bajar d, descender.* 
Bajar al pozo. 
Bajar el cerro. 
Descender del cerro. 
Bajar el rio. 
Apearse del caballo. 
Apearse, bajar, salir de. 
Subir, montar, ascender.* 

Subir el monte. 

Entrar (subir) en el coche. 


Desear, suplicar, pedir,* rogar.* 


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Will you ask jour brother to come 4 (juiere Y. suplicar 6 su hermano 
downf quebajef 

Verbs signifying to beg, to request, to eommcmd, etc., govern the 
subjunctive mode. 

The beard. La barba. 

The river. El rio. 

The stream, torreni La corriente, el torrente. 


1. i Darenaos una vuelta hoy ? No daremos un paseo hoy ; 
porque hay mucho lodo en las calles. 2. i Quiere V. entrar 
en aquel cuarto ? No entrar^ alH, porque hay humo. 3. 
I Cuanto dinero les queda 4 tus hermanos ? Solo les quedan 
tres pesos. 4. i Cuando ir4n a Francia los hermanos de V. ? 
Irdn all4 asi que sepan el frances. 5. i Cuanto dinero ha 
ganado Y. ? He ganado solo un poco ; pero mi primo ha 
ganado mucho. 6. i Qui6n cuidard de mi criado ? £1 posa- 
dero. 7. i Ha bebido V. vino franc^ alguna vez ? Nunca 
lo he bebido. 8. i Ha lastimado Y. & mi cunado ? No lo he 
lastimado ; pero el me ha cortado el dedo. 9. | Le ha dicho 
el 4 su caballerizo que me lo traiga ? El le ha dicho que 
se lo lleve a Y. 10. i Cuando bajo aquel hombre al pozo t 
Bajo esta manana. 11. i Quiere Y. decirle que baje ? Se 
lo dire ; pero no esta vestido todavia. 12. i £s mejor andar 
en coche que ir a bordo de un barco ? No vale nada andar 
en coche, 6 ir 4 bordo de un barco cuando uno no tiene deseo 
de viajar. 


1. Will your parents go into the country to-morrow ? 
They will not go, for it is too dusty. 2. Shall we go ia ? 
We will go in if you like. 3. Will you not come in ? 4. 
Will not you sit down ? I will sit down upon that large 
chair. 5. Will you tell me what has become of your 
brother? I will tell you. 6. Hast thou spent all thy 
money ? I have not spent all. 7. How much hast thou 
left ? I have not much left. 8. Have you money enough 
left to pay your tailor ? I have enough left to pay hina ; 
but if I pay him I shall have but little left. 9. When will 

Digitized Dy VjOOQ IC 


you go to Italy ? I shall go as soon as (luego que) I have 
(haya) learned Italian. 10. How mucli money shall we have 
left when we have (hayamos) paid for our h<»ses ? When 
we have (hayamos) paid for them we shall have only a 
hundred dollars left 11. Do you gain anything by (en) 
that business ? I do not gain much by it, (en H,) but my 
brother gains a good deal by it 12. Why does not that 
man work ? He is a scamp, for he does nothing but eat all 
the day long. 13. With what have you filled that bottle ? 
I have filled it with wine. 14. Does your servant take care 
of your horses ? He does take care of them. 15. Is it long 
since you ate French bread ? It is almost three years since 
I ate any. 16. With what has he cut your finger ? With 
the knife which you have lent him. 17. Have they cut off 
that man's leg ? They have cut it off. 18. Are you pleased 
with your servant ? I am much pleased with him, for he is 
fit for anything, (para ^oclo). 19. Has your brother returned 
at last from England ? He has returned, and has brought 
you a fine horse. 

FIFTY-NINTH LESSON— Leccion Quincuag&ima- 


The imperfect tense is one of the most regular forms of the 
Spanish verb, and, as has been said, it is used to describe what is 
past, as progressire, oontinuous, habitual, attempted, etc. 

When I was at Cadiz I often Cuando jo estaba en Cddiz, iba 4 

went to see mj friends. menudo & rer & mis amigos. 

When you were in Madrid you Cuando V. estaba en Madrid, iba 

often went to the Prado. frecuentemente al Prado. 

Cesar was a great man. C^sar era un gran hombre. 

Our ancestors went hunting every Nuestros abuelos cazaban todos 

day. los dfas. 

The Romans oultivated the arts Los romanos oultivaban las artet 

and sciences, and rewarded y las ciencias, y premiaban el 

merit. m^rito. 

Were you taking a walkf 4 Estaba V. pasedndosef 

I was not taking a walk. No me paseaba. 


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Were jou in Toledo when the 

king was there f 
I was there when he was there. 

Where were jou when I was in 

Havana f 
Did JOU work while he was work- 
I studied while he was working. 
A little fish.. 
Some game. 
When I lived at my father's I 
rose earlier than I do now. 

When I was sick I kept in bed 
all daj. 

A thing. 
The same thing. 
The same man. 
The man himself. 

It is all the same. J 

Such a man. 
Such men. 
Such a woman. 
Such things. 
Such men merit esteem. 

Mr. So and So, such a one. 

^EstabaV. en Toledo cuando el 

re J se hallaba i^ f 
To estaba alii cuando ^1 se halla- 
ba alU. 
4 En d6nde estaba V. cuando yo 

estaba en la Habanaf 
4 Trabajaba Y. mientras €i traba- 

Estudiaba mientras ^1 trabajaba. 
Un poco de pescado. 
Cuando jo vivia en casa de mi 

padre, me levantaba m^ tem- 

prano que ahora. 
Cuando jo estaba enfermo, estaba 

en cama todo el dia. 
Lamisma oosa. 
El mismo hombre. 
El hombre mismo. 
Es lo mismo. 
Es iguaL 

Tal hombre. 
Tales hombres. 
Tal mujer. 
Tales cosas. 
Tales hombres merecen estima* 

Sefior Fulano de tal, Don Fulano, 

Don Mengano, (Zutano). 

These phrases are employed when it is desired to allude to one 
whose name is not called. 

The church is outside the town. La iglesia esti f uera de la ciu- 

I fhall wait for you just outside Agaardar^ k V. fuera de las puer* 
the town gate. tas de la ciudad. 

The city gate. La puerta de la ciudad. 

Seldom. Raramente, rara vez, rara 

The life. 



by Google 


To gain one's livelihood. Ganar su vida. 
I gain my livelihood bj working. Gano mi vida tfabajando. 
Bj what means does that man 4 De qu6 manera gana ese hombre 

make a living! su vidaf 

To proceed, to go on, j Proceder, proseguir. 

To continue. ( Continoar. 

He continues his discourse. £l contintia su discurso. 

A good appetite. Un buen apetito. 

Narrative, story, tale. Narraci6n, cuento. 

The edge, the border, bank. J Margen, orilla, borde. 

The shore. J Costa, ribera, playa. 

The edge of the brook. La margen del arroyo. 

The bank of the river. La orilla del rio. 

On the seashore. En la playa del mar. 

People, folks. La gente, las gentes. 

They are good folks. Ellas son buenas gentes. 

They are wicked people. Ellos son gentes malvadas. 


1. i Cu4ndo estuvo V. en Espana ? Estaba alii mientras 
V. estaba en Italia. 2. | Estaba V. en Berlin cuando el rey 
estuvo alii ? Si, yo estaba alii cuando el estuvo. 3. ^ A que 
hora almorzaba V. cuando estaba en Francia ? Almorzaba 
siempre & las ocho de la manana. 4. i Y. se acuerda de los 
antiguos romanos ? i Qu6 puede decir de ellos ? Que en 
mucho eran buenos e ilustrados, puesto que cultivaban las 
artes y las ciencias, y recompensaban el merito. 5. i Qu6 
hacian Vds. cuando vivian en el campo ? Cuando viviamos 
alii ibamos a pescar muy a menudo. 6. i Hay mucba fruta 
este ano ? No se ; pero el verano pasado babia mucha fruta 
cuando yo estaba en el campo. 7. i Ganan estos senores la 
vida trabajando ? La ganan sin hacer nada, puesto que 
son demasiado perezosos para trabajar. 8. i Como ha ganado 
8u amigo de V. aquel dinero ? Lo ha pfanado trabajando. 
9. I Como ganaba V. la vida cuando estaba en Inglaterra ? 
La ganaba escribiendo. 10. i Ganaba su primo de V. la vida 
escribiendo ? La ganaba trabajando. 11. h Ha visto V. 
al^runa vez & tal persona ? No, nunca. 12. i Ya ha visto 
V. nuesira iglesia ? Todavia no la he visto. 


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1. Were you esteemed when you were in Dresden? I 
was not hated. 2. Who were loved and who were hated ? 
Those that were good, diligent, and obedient were loved, and 
those who were naughty, idle, and disobedient were punished. 
3. Where was your father when you were in Vienna ? He 
was in England. 4. On what did our ancestors live ? They 
lived on fish and game, for they went hunting and fishing 
every day. 5. Did you sometimes go to the Champs-Elysees 
when you were at Paris ? I went there often. 6. Did you 
not go out walking ? I went out walking sometimes. 7. 
Did you sometimes stay in bed when you lived at your 
nucleus ? When I was ill I remained in bed all day. 8. Ho^r 
do you earn a living ? I get my livelihood by working. 9. 
By what means did your friend earn that money ? He 
earned it by working. 10. Have you ever seen such a per- 
son ? I have never seen such a one. 11. Do you kno^r 
where our church is located ? If you wish to see it I shall 
go with you to show it to you. 12. Why will not you go 
hunting any more ? I hunted yesterday the whole daiy, and 
I killed nothing but an ugly bird, so that I shall not go 
hunting any more. 13. For whom are you looking ? I am 
looking for my little brother. He is seated under the large 
tree under which we were sitting yesterday. 14. You have 
learned your lesson ; why has not your sister learned hers f 
She has taken a walk with my mother ; so she could not 
learn it, but she will learn it to-morrow. 

SIXTIETH LESSON— Leccion Sexagesima 

A plate. Un plato. 

Sister. Hermana. 

A son-in-law. Un jemo. 

A step-son. Un hijastro. 

A daughter-in-law. Una nuera. 

A step-daughter. Una hijastra. 

The father-in-law. El suegro, padre poUtioo. 

The mother-in-law. La suegra, madre politica. 

To improve in one*s studies. Adelantar en los estudios. 

To forget. Olvidar. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




I forgot, was forgetting, etc. 

Olvidaba. Olviddbamos. 

Olyidabas. Olyidabais. 

OMdaba. Olvidaban. 


I forgot, did forget, etc 
When we went to school we 
often forgot our books. 

When we received some monej 

we employed it in purchasing 

good books. 
Has jour sister succeeded in 

mending your cravat f 
She has succeeded in doing it. 
Has the woman returned from 

the market f 
She has not yet returned. 
Did the women agree to that f 

They agreed to it. 

Where has your sister gonef 

She went to the church. 

Cuando fbamos k la escuela, ol- 
vid4bamos 6 menudo nuestros 
Cuando recibiamos dinero, lo em- 
pledbamos en comprar buenos 
4Logr6 componer la corbata de 

y. su hermana f 
Si, lo logr6. 
4 Ha vuelto de la plaza la mujerf 

Todavia no ha vuelto. 

4 Han convenido en eso las mu- 

jeres f 
Convinieron en ello. 
4 Ad6nde fu6 su hermana de Y. f 
Fu^ & la iglesia. 

There are three forms of the imperfect subjunctive mode. The 
first of these, sometimes called the conditional mode, and here re- 
garded as the first imperfect subjunctive, is formed by adding the 
following terminations to the infinitive mode of all conjugations of 
regular verbs : 


1. la. 1. iamos. 

2. ias. 2. iais. 
8. ia. 8. ian. 

In the case of irregular verbs, these endings are added to the 
•tem of the future indicative. 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 


The second imperfect subjunctive is made by adding the fol- 
lowing endings to the preterit stem : 




1. aia. 

1. dramos. 

2. aras. 

2. arais. 

8. ara. 

8. aran. 




1. era. 

1. frames. 

S. eras. 

2. ends. 

8. era. 

8. eran. 

The third imperfect subjunctive consists of the following te^ 
minations added to the Preterit stem : 


1. ase. 1. dsemos. 

2. ases. 2. aseis. 

3. ase. 3. asen. 


1. ese. 1. 4semo6. 

2. eses. 2. eseis. 
8. ese. 8. esen. 


i should have, thou wouldst have, Tendria, tendrias, tendria. 

he w she would have. 
We should have, you would have, Tendriamos, tendriais, tendiiaa 

they would have. 

I might or should have, thou Tuviera, tuvieras, tuviera. 

mightest or wouldst have, he 

might or would have. 
We might or should have, you Tuvi^ramos, tuvierais, tuvieian* 

might or would have, they 

might or would have. 


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I might or should have, thou Tuviese, tuvieses, tuviese. 

mightest or wouldst have, he 

might or would have. 
We might or should have, you Tuvi^semoB, tavieseis, tuviesen. 

might or would have, they 

might or would have. 

The first imperfect subjunctive is chiefly used in conditional 
sentences, of which it forms the conclusion, while the clause with 
«i, if, states the condition, and in doing this employs eitlier one of 
the other forms : 

If he had money, he would pay Si 61 tuviera (tuviese) dinero me 
me. lo pagaria. 

The conclusion of the sentence containing the first subjunctive 
is sometimes placed first : 

My friend would salute me, if he Mi amigo me saludaria si mo 
saw me. viera. 

The forms in (Mray era, and ase, ese are interchangeable. 
Sometimes the condition which would be expressed in either of 
these forms is merely implied : 

I should not believe it by any Yo no lo creeria de raodo alguno, 

The first form is used to express a desire or modest wish : 

I should like to see her. Desearia verla. 

It is, however, more common to use the form in ara, era^ for this 
purpose : 

I should like to examine your Quisiera examinar sus muestras 
samples. de V. 

The first form is also used to indicate an approximate or uncer- 
tain statement : 

It was (would be) about six o'clock Serian las seis de la tarde. 
in the afternoon. 

Finally, it is used to express possibility or fitness : 
Oould that be possible! iSeria posible esof 

Ought I indeed to do it f iDeberia de hacerlo yof 


by Google 




The past perfect subjunctive is a compound of the three forms 
of the imperfect subjunctive of haber, and the past participle of 
some other verb : 

I might, should, or would have 

Thou mightest, should st, or 

wouldst have bought. 
He or you might, should, or would 

have come. 
If I had received ray money, I 

should have bought new books. 

If he had possessed a pen, he 
would have recalled the word. 

If you had risen early, you would 

not have caught a cold. 
If they had gotten rid of their 

old horse, they would have pro- 
cured a better one. 
If he had washed his hands, he 

would have dried them. 
If I had known that, I should 

have behaved differently. 
If thou hadst taken notice of that, 

thou wouldst not have been 


As has been said, the conclusion, with the first form of the im- 
perfect subjunctive, is often placed first : 

Would you learn Spanish if I |Aprenderia V. el espaflol, si yo 

learned it f lo aprendiera, Oo aprendiese) t 

I should learn it if you learned Yo lo aprenderia si V. lo apren- 

it. diera, (lo aprendiese). 

Would yoH have learned German, % Habria V. aprendido el alemdn, 

if I had learned it! si yo lo hubiera (hubiese) 

aprendido f 

I should have learned it if you Yo lo habria aprendido, si V. lo 

had learned it hubiera (hubiese) aprendido. 

Yo habria, hubiera, or hubiese 

Tu habrias, hubieras, or hubieses 

il or V. habria, hubiera, or hu- 
biese venido. 
Si hubiera (hubiese) recibido mi 

dinero, habria comprado nuevos 

Si 61 hubiera (hubiese) tenido una 

pluma, se habria acordado de 

la palabra. 
Si V. se hubiera levantado tern- 

prano, no se habria resfriado. 
Si se hubiesen deshecho de su 

caballo viejo, habrian comprado 

otro mejor. 
Si 41 se hubiera lavado las manos, 

las habria enjugado. 
Si hubiese sabido eso, me habria 

portado diferentemente. 
Si hubieras (hubieses) notado eso, 

no te habrias equivocado. 


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Would you go to Spain if I went % Ida V. k Espafla, si yo f uera 

there with youf (fuese) con V. t 

I should go, if you went with me. Yo iria, si V. fuera conmigo. 
Would you have gone to Prance 4 Habria ido V. k Prancia, si yo 

if I had gone with youf le hubiera (hubiese) acompa- 

Would you go out if I remained 4 Saldrla V. si yo me quedara 

at home f (quedase) en casa f 

I should remain at home if you Me quedarfa en casa si V. saliera, 

went out. (saliese). 

Would you have written a letter 4 Habria escrito V. una carta si 

if I had written a note? yo hubiera (hubiese) escrito un 

billete f 

1. I Dejaban algunas veces sus libros de Vds. en la es- 
cuela ? De vez en cuando lo haciamos. 2. i Olvidamos al- 
guna cosa ? Vds. no olvidaron nada. 3. i Enipleaban Vds. 
el dinero en comprar libros ? No ; lo empleabamos soco- 
rriendo a los pobres. 4. i Ha vuelto de la iglesia su madre de 
V. ? Todavia no ha vuelto. 5. i Quienes son esos ? Son 
unos, extran jeros que desean hablarle a V. 6. i Donde estan 
nuestras primas ? Estan alii en la puerta. 7. i Tiene las 
manos f rias su hermana de V. ? No, pero tiene los pies f rios. 
8. 4 Tendria V. dinero si su padre estuviera aqui ? Yo lo 
tendria si el estuviese aqui. 9. 4 Habria sido alabada mi her- 
mana si ella no hubiera sido habil ? Ciertamente ella no 
habria sido alabada si no hubiera sido muy habil, y si no 
hubiera trabajado desde por la manana hasta la noche. 10. 
4 Habria escrito V. 4 su hermana si yo hubiera ido a Paris ? 
Yo le habria escrito, y le habria enviado algiin regalo, si 
V. hubiese ido alia. 11. Uno de los ayudas de cdmara de 
Luis XIV. suplicaba a este Principe, al tiempo que se 
acostaba, que recomendara al senor primer presidente un 
pleito que el tenia contra su suegro, y le decia urgiendole : 
** I Ah I senor, Vuestra Majestad no tiene que decir m4s que 
una palabra." " Bien," dijo Luis XIV, ** no es esto lo que 
me embaraza : pero dime : si tu estuvieras en el lugar de tu 
suegro, y tu suegro en el tuyo, 4 te alegrarias tu de qu6 yo 
dijera esa palabra ? " 


by Google 



1. Did you forget anything when you went to school t 
We often forgot our books. 2. Did your mother pray for 
any one when she went to church ? She prayed for her 
children. 3. When you received your money, what did you 
do with it ? We spent it in buying some good books. 4. 
Did you always pay in cash when you bought of that mer- 
chant ? We always paid in cash, for we never buy on credit 

5. Where has your aunt gone ? She has gone to church. 

6. Who is there ? It is I, {yo soy), 7. Where is my book ? 
There it is. 8. Where is your sister ? There she is. 9. 
Where are you, John ? (Juan), Here I am. 10. Why do 
you sit near the fire ? My hands and feet are cold ; that is 
the reason why I sit near the fire. 11. Is anything the mat- 
ter with you ? My head pains me. 12. Has your sister a 
good appetite ? She has a very good appetite ; that is the 
reason why she eats so much. 13. Why has not your daugh- 
ter written her exercises ? She has taken a walk with her 
companion, (fern.) ; that is the reason why she has not writ- 
ten them ; but she promises to write them to-morrow, if you 
do not scold her. 14. Would you have praised my little 
brother if he had been good ? If he had been good I should 
certainly not only have praised, but also esteemed, honored, 
(honrar), and rewarded him. 16. Would not my brother 
have been punished if he had written his exercises ? He 
would not have been punished if he had written them. 16. 
Would you give me something if I were very good ? If you 
were very good, and if you worked well, I should give you 
a fine book. 17. Would you have spoken to my mother if 
you had seen her ? I should have spoken to her, and asked 
her (rogar) to send you a handsome gold watch, if I had 
seen her. 18. If the men should come, it would be necessary 
to give them something to drink. 19. I should like to know 
why you went out walking without me ? I have heard, my 
dear sister, that you are angry with me, (eatar enfacUzdo\ 
because I went out walking^ without you. I assure you that 
if I had known that you were not ill I should have come fop 
you ; but I inquired at your physician's about your health, 


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and he told me that you had been in bed {eatar en cama) 
the last eight days, (por ocho diaa), 20, A French oflBcer, 
having arrived at the court (corte) of Vienna, the Empress 
Theresa (Terem) asked (preguntar) him, if he believed that 
the Princess of N., whom he had seen the day before, was 
really the handsomest wo^an in the (del) world, as had 
been said. ** Madam," replied (repUcar) the officer, "I 
thought so yesterday." 

SIXTY-FIRST LESSON— Leccion Sexagesimaprimera 

What has become of your auntf 

X do not know what has become 

of her. 

To die, to lose life. 
I die, thou diest, he or she dies. 
Shall or will you die? 
I shall die. 
That man died this morning, and 

his wife died this afternoon. 
This man is dead. 
The wine sells well. 
Wine will sell well next year. 

That door shuts easily. 

That window does not open easily. 

That picture is seen from a dis- 
Far off, from afar. 
That can not be comprehended. 
To conceive, to comprehend. 

It is clear. 
According to circumstances. 
According to. 
The circumstance. 
That is according to circum- 

It depends. 

4 Qu6 se ha hecho de su seflora tla 

No s^ lo qu^ se ha hecho de ella. 

Morir.* Morirse. Perder la vida. 

Muero, mueres, muere. 

4 Morird (or se morirA) V. f 

Morir^. Me morir4. 

Ese horabre muri6 esta maflana, 

y su mujer muri6 esta tarde. 
Este hombre estd (or ha) muerto. 
El vino se vende bien. 
El vino se venderd bien el aflo 

pr6ximo, (or el aflo que viene). 
Esa puerta se cierra f&eilmente. 
Esa ventana no se abre f&eiU 

Ese cuadro (esa pintura) se ve d< 

De lejos. Desde lejos. 
Eso no se comprende. 
Concebir.* CompreMder. 
Es claro. Eso es claro. 
Segtin las circunstancias. 
Segtin. Conforme L 
La circunstancia. 

Conforme a 
Depende de 


«as circunstancias 


by Google 







Are you rich! 
I am. 

Are the women handsome! 
They are ; they are rich and hand- 

To be angry with somebody. J 

To be angry at something. 

What are you angry about f J 

Are you sorry to have done it! 
I am sorry for it. 

Civil. Polite. 


Happy. Lucky. 

Unhappy. Unlucky. 

Is it useful to write a great 

It is useful. 

Is it well (right) to take the prop- j 
erty of others f ( 

Another's property. 
It is bad, (wrong). 
It is not well, (wrong). 
Well, right. 
Bad, wrong. 

Of what use is that. \ 

That is of no use. \ 

What is this? 

I do not know what it is. 





4Es V. rioo! 
Si. Soy rico. Si, lo soy. 
4 Son hermosas las mujeresf 
Si, son, (si, lo son); son ricas y 

Estar enfadado con alguno. 
Enfadarse con alguno. Enojarse. 
Enfadarse de algo. 
4 De ou6 se enf ada V. f 
4Qu6leenfada& v.? 
(Siente Y. haberlo hechof 
Lo siento. 

Civil. Cortfe. Politico. 
Incivil. Descort^s. Impolitiea 
Dichoso. Feliz. 
Desdichado. Infeliz. Desgra- 

(Es litil esoribir muchisimof 


(Es justo tomar lo agenof 

(Es bien tomar lo que es de otrof 

Lo ageno. 

Es malo. Es injusto. 

No es bien. Es malo. 

Bien. Justo. 

Malo. Injusto. 

(De qu6 sirveesof 

4 Para qu§ sirve esot 

De nada sirve eso. 

Para nada sirve. 

4Qu6 es esto? 

No s6 lo qu6 et. 


by Google 


What is your name f 

My name is Charles. 
What do yon call this in Spanish? 
How do you say this in Spanish ? 

What is that called! 

George the Third. 

Charles the Seventh. 

After the Christian name of i 
without the article are used up to 
nals are usually employed 

Louis the Fourteenth. 
Henry the Fourth. 
Charles the Fifth spoke several 
European languages fluently. 
Europe. European. 

Rather than. 

Rather than squander my money 

I shall keep it. 
To keep, (to remain with). 
I shall rather pay him than go 

I shall rather bum the coat than 

wear it. 
He has arrived sooner than I. 
A half-worn coat. 

To do things imperfectly. 


4 Cu&l es su nombre de V. f 

4 Cual (c6mo) es la gracia de V. f 

Me Uamo Carlos. 

4 Como se llama esto en espafiol ? 

4 Como se dice esto en espafiol ? 

4 Como se llama eso? 

Jorge Tercero. 

Carlos Septimo. 

I sovereign, the ordinal numbers 
the tenth, after which the cardi- 

Luis Catorce. 

Enrique Cuarto. 

Carlos Quinto hablaba corriente- 

raente varias lenguas curopc^is. 
Europa. Europeo. 
Mds bien. Antes. Mejor que. 
Mds bien que. Antes que. 
Antes que (mds bien que) disipar 

mi dinero me qiiedare con 61. 
Quedarse con. Guardar. 
Mds bien quiero pugarle que ir 

Mds bien quiero quemar la casaca 

que usarla, (pon^rmela). 
Ha Uegado mds pronto que yo. 
Una casaca medio usada. 
Hacer las cosas imperfectamente. 
Hacer las cosas k medias. 


1. I Qu6 se ha hecho de su tia de V. ? No s6 que se ha 
hecho de eUa. 2. | Se vendia bien el vino el a£Lo pasado ? 
No se vendia muy bien ; pero se vender^ mejor el ano que 
viene. 3. Si V. quiere ir con nosotros al campo verd el Cas- 
tillo de mi padre. Es V. muy fino, caballero ; pero ya he 
viato ese Castillo. 4. ^ Se levantara V. teinprano mafiana ? 
EsU) depender& de las circunstancias. Si me acuesto tern* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


prano hoy, me levantare temprano entonces. 5. i Comer& 
V. manana con nosotros ? Si V. hace preparar el plato que 
me gusta comere con V. 6. iDiviso V. de lejos a aquel 
hombre ? No habia necesidad de divisarlo de lejos, porque 
pase 4 orillas del no. 7. | De donde tomo V. ese libro ? Lo 
tome del cuarto de la amiga de V. 8. i Por que se queja 
Carlos de su hermana ? Porque ella le ha cogido las plu- 
mas. 9. I De quienes son estos buenos libros ? Les perte- 
necen a Guillermo y Juan. 10. | Es V. de Francia ? No, 
caballero, soy de Alemania. 11. i Sentiria V. que su senora 
madre Uegara hoy ? No lo sentiria ; pero lo sentiria si vi- 
niese sin avisarme. 12. ^ Donde estaba V. cuando ella se 
f ue ? Estaba en mi cuarto ; pero lo siento mucho, porque 
deseaba verla. 


1. What has become of your uncle? I shall tell you 
what has become of him 2. Why do you not sit down ? If 
you will stay with me I shall sit down ; but if you go, I shall 
go along with you. 3. Will you tell me what has become 
of your sister ? I shall tell you what has become of her. 4. 
Is she dead ? She is not dead. 5. Are your parents still 
alive ? They are dead. 6. Why do you open the door ? 
Do you not see how it smokes here ? 7. Did you often go 
fishing when you were in that country ? We often went 
fishing and hunting. 8. When did you see my father's 
castle ? I saw it when I was traveling last year. 9. Can 
not everything be expressed in your language ? Everything 
can be expressed, but not as in yours. 10. Will you love my 
children ? If they are good, I shall love them. 11. Have 
you already read the letter which you received this morn- 
ing ? I have not yet opened it. 12. Is it useful to speak 
much ? That is according to circumstances ; if one wishes 
to learn a foreign (extranjero) language it is useful to speak 
a great deal. 13. Is it useful to write everything that one 
says ? That is useless. 14. What is your name ? My name 
is William. 15. Who is right ? They are both wrong. 16. 
How do you say that in Spanish ? You say it thus. 17. Of 
what country is that lady ? She is from France, la Are 

Digitized by 'LjOOQ IC 



you angry with any one ? I am angry with Louisa, who 
went to tiie opera without saying a word to me about it 
19. Charles V., who spoke fluently several European lan- 
guages, used to say, {soler decir,) that we should speak (que 
86 debia hahlar) Spanish with the gods, Italian with our 
friend, (fern,), French with our friend, (maac,), German with 
soldiers, English with geese, (gansoa,) Hungarian (hungaro) 
with horses, and Bohemian (bohemio) with the devil, (el 

SIXTY-SECOND LESSON— Leccion SezagMmasegunda 

As to, as for, concerning. 
As tome. 

As to that, I do not know what 
to say. 

I do not know what to do. 

I do not know where to go. 

He does not know what to an- 

We do not know what to buy. 
To die of a disease. 

She died of the smallpox. 

The smallpox. 

The fever. 

The intermittent fever. 

The apoplexy. 
He had a cold fit. 
He has an ague. 
His fever has returned. 

He has been stricken with apo- 

To strike. 

I am sure of that. 
I am sure that she has arrived. 

I am sure of it 

En cuanto 6. 
I En cuanto i mi. 
I Por lo que d ml me toca. 
En cuanto d eso, no s^ qu6 decir. 

No se qu6 (cosa) hacer. 

No s6 ad6nde ir. 

til no sabe qu6 (cosa) responder. 

No sabemos qu4 (cosa) comprar. 
Morir (morirse) de una enferme- 

Ella muri6 de las yiruelas. 
Las viruelas. 
Calentura. Fiebre. 
La terciana. 
La apoplejSa. 
£l tuYO un ataque de ftebre. 
£l tiene calentura. 
Le ha vuelto la fiebre. 
"M ha tenido un ataque de apo- 

Le ha dado una apoplejia. 
Herir. Golpear. Dar. 
Estoy seguro de eso, (de ello). 
Estoy seguro de que ella ha 

Estoy seguro de ello. 


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Something has happened. 
What has happened f 
To shed. 
To pour out. 
A tear. 
To shed tears. 
To pour out a drink. 
I pour out a drink for that man. 
With tears in his, her, our, my eyes. 
Sweet. Mild. 
Sour. Acid. 
Some sweet wine. 
A mild aspect. 
Atnild zephyr. 
A soft sleep. 
Nothing makes life more agree- 
able than the society of, and 
intercourse with our friends. 
To repair to. 
To repair to the army, to one's 

An army. 
A regiment. 
I repaired to that place. 
He repaired there. 
To cry. To scream. To shriek. 
To help. 
The help. 

I help him to do that 
I help you to write. 
I shall help you to work. 
To cry for help. 

To inquire after some one. . 

Will you have the goodness to^ 
pass me that plate ? 

Will you pass me that plate, if ^ 
you please! \ 

Algo ha sucedido. 
4 Qu6 ha sucedido f 

Una Idgrima. 
Derramar l&grimas. 
Echar un trago. 
Echo un trago & ese hombre. 
Con Idgrimas en los ojos. 
Dulce. Apacible. 
Agrio. Acido. 
Vino dulce. 

Un semblante apacible. 
Un dulce cefiro. 
Un dulce suefio. 
Nada hace la vida m^ agradable 
que la compafiia y el trato de 
nuestros amigos. 
Ir a alguna parte. Volver 4. 
Ir al ej^rcito, volverse k su regi- 

Un ej^rcito. 
Un regimiento. 
Ful k ese lugar. 
ti fu^ alld. 
Gritar. Dar gritos. Chillar. 
Ayudar. Socorrer. 
El socorro. La ayuda. La asis- 

Le ayudo d hacer eso. 
Le ayudo d V. d escribir. 
Le ayudar^ d V. d trabajar. 
Pedir socorro i voces. 
Informarse de alguno. 
Preguntar por, 
(Tiene V. la bondad de pasarme 

ese plato? 
4 Me hace V . el favor de pasar ese 

plato f 
(Gusta v. de pasarme ese plato f 
4 Se servird V. pasarme ese plato t 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



If >ou please. Si V. gusta. 

As you please. At your pleasure, j Como V. guste. Como le guste 

As you like. 

To knock at the door. 

To trust some one. 

To distrust one. 
Do you trust that man f 
I do trust him. 
He trusts me. 
We must not trust everybody. 

Everybody, (every one). 
Everybody, (all the world). 

To laugh at something. 

I laugh at that. 

We will laugh at it 

To laugh in a person's face. 

We laughed in his face. 
To laugh at, to deride 

Llamar & la puerta. Tocar L 

IConfiarse k (de) alguno. 
Tener confianza en alguno. 
Fiarse de alguno. 
Desconfiar de. 
4 Be fia V. de ese hombre f 
Me fio de 61. 
til se fia de mi. 

No nos debemos fiar de todo el 
Cada uno. 
Todo el mundo 
Reirse de algo. 
Me rio de eso. 
Nos reiremos de ello. 
j Reirse de uno en sus barbas. 
( Reirse de uno en sus bigotes. 
Nos reimos en su cara. 
Reirse de uno. Burlarse de 

Did you kugh at usf 

We did not laugh at you. 

A book full of errors. 

To afford. 

some Keirse de uno, 
jlSe rieron Vds. de nosotros? 
j|Se han reido Vds. de nosotros? 
J No nos reimos de Vds. 
( No nos heinos reido de Vds. 
Un libro lleno de errores. 

^ Tener medios (proporci6n) de. 

[ jTiene V. medios de comprar ese 
Can you afford to buy that horse f -{ caballo f 

[ % Puede V. comprar ese caballo f 
No tengo medios. No puedo. 
Tengo proporci6n. Puedo. 
iQui^nestd ahi? 
Yo. Soy yo. Yo soy. 
No soy. No soy yo. 
Es^L ^les. 
No es 61. £l no 66. 

I can not afford it. 
I can afford it. 

Who is there? 

It is I. 

It is not I. 

It is he. 

It is not he. 


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When a verb has two pronouns for its subject, it is put in the 
plural, and takes the first person rather than the second, and the 
second rather than the third ; as, You and I shall do it. V.yyolo 
Karemo9\ You and he will write the letters, Vosotroa y £1 eaeribirHs 

You and I shall go into the V. y yo iremos al campo. 

v. y ^1 se quedardn en casa. 
You and he will stay at home. - Vosotros y ^1 os quedar^is en 

You will go to the country, and I V. ird al campo, y yo yolver^ & la 
shall return to city. ciudad. 

A lady. Una sefiora. 

What were you doing when your i Qu^ hacia V. cuando su ayo 

tutor was here f estaba aqui f 

I was doing nothing. No hacia nada. 

I said nothing. No decia nada. 


1. I C6mo est^ su hermano de V. ? Mi hermano ya no 
viva Hace tres meses que murio. 2. i Que se ha hecho de 
la mujer que yo vi en la casa de su senora madre de V. ? 
Murio esta manana de apoplejia. 3. | Ha ayudado V. a 
su padre a escribir sus cartas f Yo le he ayudado. 4. i Tendra 
Y. la bondad de prestarme aquel plato ? Con mucho*gusto. 
5. i Quiere V. que yo le pase el pan a su hermana ? V. le 
dara mucho ^usto a ella si se lo pasa. 6. l Quien llama a la 
puerta ? Es un extran jero. 7. i Ya ha enganado ese mal- 
vado d alguien ? Ha enganado 4 algunos comerciantes que 
le ban fiado. 8. i Tiene el hermano de V. medios para com- 
prar una casa grande? No los tiene. 9. jRecibio V. mi 
carta ? La recibi ayer con mucho ^sto. 10. 4 Eres tu, 
Carlos, quien ha manchado mi libro ? No f ui yo ; f u6 su 
hermanita de V. quien lo ha manchado. 11. i Aprendera V. 
el espanol ? Mi hermano y yo lo aprenderemos. 12. i Que 
le ha dicho a V. mi hermano ? Me ha dicho que 61 seria el 
hombre mas feliz del mundo si supiera la lengua espanola, 
una de las m4s utiles de todas las lenguas para los americanos 
en la'actualidad. 


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1. Of what illness did your sister die ? She died of fever. 
2. How is your friend's mother ? She is not well ; she had 
an attack of a^e the day before yesterday, and this morning 
the fever has returned. 3. Do your pupils learn their exer- 
cises by heart ? They would rather tear them up than learn 
them by heart 4. Why does the mother of our old servant 
shed tears ? What has happened to her ? She sheds tears 
because the old clergymen, (eclesidstico), her friend, who was 
so very good to her, (qtte la favorecia tanto), died a few 
days ago. 5. Of what illness did he die ? He was stricken 
with apoplexy. 6. Have you inquired about the merchant 
who sells so cheap ? I have asked about him, but nobody 
could tell me what has become of him. 7. How does your 
sister like those apples ? (la manzana). She likes them 
very much, but she says that they are a little too sweet. 8. 
Shidl I pass you this fish ? Thanks, if you will do me the 
favor to pass it 9. What dost thou ask me for ? Will you 
be kind enough to (tenga V. la hondad) give me a little bit 
(un pedacito) of that mutton ? 10. Why do you not eat ? 
I do not know what to eat 11. What has happened to you ? 
Nothing has happened to me. 12. Must I sell to that man 
on credit ? You can (poder) sell to him, but not on credit ; 
you must not trust him, for he will not pay you. 13. Do 
those merchants trust you ? They trust me and I trust 
them. 14. Why do those people laugh at us ? They laugh 
at us because we speak badly ; we ought to correct our mis- 
takes, (faltaa), 15. Can you afford to buy a horse and a 
carriage ? I can afford it 16. Have you already received 
Caledron^s and Moratin's works ? I have received those of 
Moratin ; as to those of Calderon, I hope to receive them 
next week. 17. Are they the ladies about whom you have 
spoken to me ? They are. 18. Shall we go to the country to- 
morrow ? I shall go to the country, and you will remain in 
town. 19. What did you say when your tutor was scold- 
ing you ? I said nothing because I had nothing to say, 
for I had not done my task, and he was in the right to 
scold me. 


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SIXTY-THIRD LESSON— Leccion Sexagesimatercera 


Between, among, amid. 

To make some one's acquaint- 

To become acquainted with some- 

I have made his or her acquaint- 

I have become acquainted with 
him or her. 

To be acquainted with. 

Are you acquainted with himf 

I itnow him, (her). 

The acquaintance. 

He is an acquaintance of mine. 

She is my acquaintance. 

He is not a friend, he is but an 
To enjoy. 

Do you have good health t 
To be well. 
She is well. 
To imagine. 

Entablar (hacer) conocimiento 

con alguno. 
Tener trato con alguno. 

He entablado conocimiento con 
61, or con ella. 

He hecho amistad con 61, or con 

Conocer. (See verbs in eer.) 

4 Loconoce V. f 4 La conoce Y. t 

Yo lo (la) conozco. 

El conocido. La conocida. 

Es un conocido mio. 

Es conocida mia. 

No es amigo, solo es conocido mio. 

4 Goza Y. de buena salud f 
Estar bueno. 
Ella est^ buena. 
Imaginar. Imaginarse. 

Conocer has the sense of to become acquainted with ; saber means 
to know, to have knowledge of : 

Conozco k ese caballero. 
S6 que es hombre de bien. 

^Parecerse & uno. Parecer. 
Asemejarse k uno. 
Ese hombre se parece k mi her- 

I know that gentleman. 

I know that he is a good man. 

To resemble some one. 

To look like some one. 

That man resembles my brother. 

We resemble each other. 

They do not resemble each other. 

The two brothers love each other. 

Nos parecemos el uno al otro. 
No se parecen el uno al otro. 
Los do6 hermanos se aman trno i 
Are you pleased with each other f 4 Estdn Yds. satisfechoe el one del 

otrof (or uno de otro). 
We are. Si. Estamos. 


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As, or as well as. 

The appearance, the coantenanoe. 

To show a disposition to. 

That man whom you see shows a 
desire to approach us. 

To look pleased with some one. 

To look cross at some one. 

When I go to see that man, in- 
stead of receiving me with 
pleasure, he looks displeased. 

A good-looking man. 

A bad-looking man. 

To go to see some one. 
To pay some one a visit 
To frequent a place. 

To associate with some one. 
To look like, to appear. 
How does he look? 
He looks gay (sad, contented). 

Foa appear very welL 
You look like a doctor. 
It is all over with me. 

It is all over. 

A place. 
I know a good place in which to 

To experience, to undergo. \ 

I have passed through a great] 
many misfortunes. 1 

Como. Asi oomo. Tan bien — 

La apariencia. El semblante. 
Cara, rostro. 

IManlfestar una intenci6n de. 
Parecer deseoso de. 

Ese hombre que V. ve parece de- 
seoso de acercarse k uosotros. 

Mostrar (hacer) buena cara. 

Mostrar (hacer) mala cara. 

Cuando voy & ver i, ese hombre, 
en vez de recibirme con gusto, 
me muestra (me pone) mala 

Un hombre de buen parecer, (de 
buena traza). 

Un hombre de mal parecer, (de 
mala traza). 

Ir & ver d alguno. 

Hacer una visita k alguno. 

Precuentar un paraje. Con- 
currir k, 

Frecuentar k uno. 

Tener semblante. Parecer. 

4 Qu^ semblante tiene f 

Tiene semblante alegre, (triste^ 

y. tiene muy buen semblante. 
1 V. parece medico. 
I v. tiene traza de medico. 

Acab6se todo (para ml) para con^ 


Un lugar. Un paraje. Un sitio. 

Conozco un buen sitio para nadar. 

Experimentar. Padecer. 
Pasar por. 

He padecido muchos infortunios. 
He pasado por muchas desgra- 


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To suffer. 
Dost thou suffer! 
I do suffer. 
He suffers. 
To feel a pain in one's head or< 
foot. I 

I felt a pain in my eye. -j 

To neglect. 
To yield. 
We must yield to necessity. 

To spring forward. i 

The cat springs upon the rat. 
To leap on horseback. \ 

To lose one's wits. 

That man has lost his wits, and 
he does not know what to do. 

Obstinately, by all means, j 

That man wishes by all means to 
lend me money. 

To follow. 
I follow, thou followest, he fol- 

To pursue. 

To preserve, to save. 

Sufrir. Padecer. 

4 Sufres (padeces) ttif 

Padezco. Sufro. 

ttl sufre. til padece. 

Tener dolor de cabeza. 

Padecer de la cabeza (del pie). 

He padecido de los ojos. 

He tenido mal de ojos. 

Descuidar de. ' 

Ceder. Bendirse. Sujetarse. 

Se debe ceder k la necesidad. 

Saltar. Abalanzarse 4. 

Echarse sobre. 

El gato se abalanza k la rata. 

Saltar sobre un caballo. 

Perder la cabeza. 

f rsele d uno la cabeza. 

Ese hombre ha perdido la cabeza, 

(el juicio,) y no sabe qu4 hacer. 
k ese hombre se le ha ido la 

cabeza, y no sabe que hacer. 
Por fuerza. Positiyamente. 
k toda fuerza. Absolutamente. 
Ese hombre quiere absolutamente 

(por fuerza) prestarme dinero. 
Sigo. Sigues. Sigue. 

Preservar. Ahorrar. 


1. Si V. continua asociandose con esas gfentes le saldr& 
mal, puestoque tienen muchos enemigos. 2. i Ve V. a aquellos 
hombres que parecen estar deseosos de aproximarse 4 nos- 
otros ? Los veo ; pero no los temo, porque no hacen mal 4 
nadie. 3. i Quiere V. esperarrae f uera de la puerta de la ciu- 
dad ? Le agxiardare a V. alii ; pero le suplico que no lo olvide. 
4. I Por que no vino V. a comer ? He estado impedido, pero 
Vds. han podido comer sin mi. 5. A un cierto hombre le 

Digitized Dy 'LjOOQ LC 


gustaba el vino, pero hallo en el dos malas cualidades ; por- 
que decia: "Si le mezclo agua," lo echo a perder y si no 
se la mezclo, el me echa a perder a mi. 6. i Como esta su 
tia de V. ? Esta muy bien ; casi nunca se enf erma. 7. | Es 
bueno reirse asi de todo el mundo ? Si me rio de la casaca de 
V. no me rio de todo el mundo. 8. i Por que no bebe V. ? 
No se que beber, porque me gusta beber el vino bueno, y el 
de V. parece vinagre. 9. i Ha conocido V. durante mucho 
tiempo a mi padre ? Poco tiempo ha que lo conozco, porque 
solo llegu6 4 conocerlo la semana pasada. 10. i Por que 
parece V. tan triste ? Me han sucedido muchas desgracias. 
Des^u^s de haber perdido todo mi dinero, he sido apaleado 
por unos hombres de muy mal parecer, y para mi mayor 
desgracia, me dicen que mi buen tio, 4 quien amo tanto, ha 
tenido un ataque de apoplejia. 


1. Why do you associate with those people ? I associate 
with them because they are useful to me. 2. Do you know 
a good place in which to swim ? I know one. Where is it ? 
On that side of the river, behind the wood, near the high- 
way, {el camino real), 3. When shall we go to swim ? 
This afternoon, if you like. 4. Why does your cousin ask 
me for money and books ? Because he is imprudent ; of 
me, (d mi,) his most intimate friend, he asks nothing. 5. 
How long Qtasta qu4 hora) did you wait for me? We 
waited for you till a quarter past seven ; and, as you did not 
come, we dined without you. 6. How does your uncle look ? 
He looks very gay, for he is much pleased with his children. 
7. Do you like your sister ? I like her very much ; and, as 
she is very good-natured (e8 muy carifloaa) with me I am so 
to her ; but how do you like yours ? We love each other, be- 
cause we are pleased with each other. 8. Do your sisters 
resemble each other ? They do not resemble each other ; for 
the elder (mayor) is idle and naughty, and the younger 
{la menor) good-natured with everybody. 9. Is that man 
angry with you ? I think he is angry with me because I do 
not go to see him ; but I do not like to go to his house, for 
when I go to bim, instead of receiving me with pleasure, he 

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looks displeased. 10. He is the best man in the world ; but 
one must know him in order to appreciate him. 11. There 
is a great difference {la diferencia) between you and him ; 
you appear to be pleased with all those who come to see you, 
and he looks cross at them. 12. Does your son resemble any 
one ? He resembles no one. 13. If you wish to have some 
wine I shall go down (Jbajar) into the cellar to fetch you 
some. You are too polite, Sir ; I shall drink no more to-day. 

14. Whenever I had not written my exercises he wrote them 
for me, and when he had not written his I did them for him. 

15. Why does your father send for the physician ? He is 
ill, and as the physician does not come he sends for him. 

SIXTY-FOURTH LESSON— Leccion Sexag^simacuarta 

How, how miteh, and how many, in exclamatory sentences, are 

translated by cuan and que, before adjectives, and cuanto, or cuantot 

before nouns. 

(iCuib)! iQu^I 

nCutoto! iCuAntos! 

rr««, «.v^ ^/v« «*« f S\ CuAn bueno es V. I 

How good, you are I -{ \r, , . ^ ,,.. .»» 

\l Cudnta bondad tiene V. 1 

How foolish he is I i Gu&a necio es I 

How foolish she is ! i Gudn necia es elia ! 

' I CvL&n rico es ese hombre I 
How rich that man is I - i Cu&ntas riquezas tiene ese hom- 

How handsome that woman is ! i Cn&n hermosa es esa seQora I 

Deber atenciones. 
Tener obligaciones. 
Estar obligado & uno. 
' Le debo (le tengo) muchas aten- 
Le estoy muy obligado. 
How many people ! i Cudnta gente ! 

How happy you are ! { Cu&n dichoso es V. I 

To thank, to be obliged, to be un- j Agradecer, dar gracias. 

der obligation. ( Estimdrselo & uno. 

To thank seme one for something. Agradeo6rseIo & una 
I thank you for the trouble you Le agradezco & V. el trabajo que 
have taken for me. se ha tornado por mi 


To be under obligations to some 

I am under many obligations to 


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Is there anything more grand f 
Is there anything more cruel t 
Is there anything more wicked t 

Can anything be more handsome f 

How large t Of what size t 
How high t Of what height f 
How deep f Of what depth t 

4Qu6 cosa hay m&s grandet 

4 Qu6 cosa hay mds cruel t 

4 Qu6 cosa peor hay t (mds mala 

4Qu6 cosa mds hermosa puede 

haber t 
4 De qu^ tamafio t 
4 De qu^ alto t 4 De qu^ altura t 
^De qu6 profundidadt 

The yerb tener is used in giving age or dimensions. 

Of what height is her house f 

It is nearly fifty feet high. 

Our house is thirty feet wide. 

That riyer is twenty feet deep. 

The size. 
Of what size is that man t 

How was that child dressed f 
He was dressed in green. 
The man with the blue coat 
The woman with the red gown. 

The truth. 
It is true (Jit,^ it is a truth) that 
his house is burnt. 

It is true. 

It is not (true). 

Is it not t (true). 


I shall perhaps go there. 

To share. To divide. 
Whose horse is this f 
It is mine. It belongs to me. 
Whose horses are these t 
They are mine. They belong to me* 

' 4 Gu&nto tiene de alto (de altura) 

lacasa de ellaf 
4 QuS altura tiene la casa de ella t 
Tiene cerca de cincuenta pies de 

alto, (de altura). 
Nuestra casa tiene treinta pies de 

ancho, (de anchura). 
Ese Ho tiene yeinte pies de pro- 

f undo, (de prof undidad). 
El tamafio. Eitalle. Laestatura. 
4 Qu4 tamafio tiene ese hombre t 
4 De qu6 tamafio es ese hombre t 
4 G6mo estaba yestido ese niflo t 
Estaba yestido de yerde. 
El hombre de la casaca azul. 
La mujer del yestido encamado. 

La yerdad. 
Es yerdad que su casa se ha que- 


Es yerdad. 
No es yerdad. 
4 No es yerdad t 
Quizd. Quiz&s. Acaso. 
Por yentura. Tal yez. 
Quizd ir6 alU. 

Partir. Dividir. Participar. 
I De qui6n es ese caballo t 
Es mio. 

^De qui^n son estos caballost 
Son mios. 


by Google 



not, \,no es verdad) ?" Milton asked an Italian. "Not so 
many as when you were there," answered the Italian. IL 
Is it true that your uncle has arrived ? I assure you that he 
bas arrived. 12. Will you dine with us ? I can not dine 
with you, for I have just eaten. 13. Have they succeeded 
in extinguishing the fire ? They have at last succeeded in 
it ; hut it is said that several houses were humt 14. What 
bas happened ? A great misfortune has happened. 15. 
What is the day before Monday called ? The day before 
Monday is Sunday. 

SIXTY-FIFTH LESSON— Leccion Sexagesimaquinta 

To propose, purpose. 

J Proponer.* Proponerse.* 
( Hacer cuenta de. 

^Me propongo hacer un viaje. 

I purpose going on a journey. ^ „ 

( Hago cuenta de hacer un viaje. 

He intends joining a hunting Intenta juntarse k una partida 


A game at chess. 

A game at billiards. 
A game at cards. 

To succeed. 

Do you succeed in doing thatt 
I do succeed in it. 

To endeavor. 
I endeavor to do it 
I endeavor to succeed in it. 
Endeavor to do better. 

Since, considering 
Since you are happy, 
complain t 

de caza. 

Una partida de ajedrez. 

Una partida de billar. 
I Una mesa de bilhtr. 

Un juego de cartas. 

Una partida de naipes. 
jGonseguir.* Alcanzar. 
(Lograr. Salir bien. 

4 Logra V. hacer eso f 

Si, logro hacerlo. 

Bsf orzarse.* Procurar. Intentar. 

Procure hacerlo. 

Procure lograrlo. 

Esfuerce V. hacer mejor. 

Taque. Pues que. Puestoque. 

hy do you Ya que es V. dichoso, | por qu6 

se queja f 

To be thoroughly acquainted Conocer una cosa 4 fondo. 
with a thing. 

To make one's self thoroughly 
acquainted with a thing. 

That man understands that busi- 
ness perfectly. 

Enterarse & fondo en (de) una 

Ese hombre conoce 6 fondo ese 

asunto, (ese negocio). 

Digitized by V^OOQ LC 



Since or from. 
From that time. 
From my childhood. 
From morning until night. 

From the beginning to the end. 

From here to there. 
I have had that book for two 

To blow, to blow out. 
To reduce. 
To produce. 
To translate. 
To introduce. 
To destroy. 
To construct. 
To reduce the price. 
To translate from Spanish into 

I introduce him to you. -j 

Desde ese tiempo. 
Desde mi nifiez, (infancia). 
Desde por la mafiana hasta la 

Desde el principle hasta el fin. 

Desde aqui hasta alii. 
Ta yan dos aflos que tengo ese 

Soplar. Apagar. 

Reducir (bajar) el precio. 
Traducir del espaflol al ingles. 

Le introduzco en su casa de V. 
Yo se lo^presento k V. 

See verbs in udr. 

' See verbs in uir. 

Self, selves. 







( Mismos. Mismas. 
Yo mismo. Yo misma. 
Til mismo. Td misma. 
1^1 mismo. Si mismo. 
Ella misma. Si misma. 
Nosotros mismos. Nosotras mis- 
V. mismo. V. misma. 
Si mismo. SI misma. 
Yds. mismos. Vds. mismas. 
Si mismos. Si mismas. 
Vosotros mismos. Vosotras mis- 

One's self. Si mismo. 

He himself has told it me. ^\ mismo me lo ha dicho. 

He has told it me, (to myself, not £l me lo ha dicho d mi mismo. 

to another person). 
One does not like to flatter him- No gusta uno de lisonjearse d 
sell si mismo. 


by Google 


Even. Not even. Aun. Ni aun. 

He has not even money enough No tiene bastante dinero aun 

to buy some bread. para comprar pan. 

We must love everybody, even Debemos amar k todo el mundo, 
our enemies. aun 4 nuestros enemigos. 

J Otra vez. 
Again, (anew). "j De nuevo. Volver4 

{Habla otra vez. Habla segunda 
Vuelve ik hablar. 
To fall. Caer. Bajar. 

The price of the merchandise falls. Baja el precio de las mercaderias. 
To deduct. Deducir. Rebajar. 

Poner alguna cosa i, mucho pre- 
Not having overcharged you, I No habiendole puesto 4 V. muj 
can not deduct anything. subido el precio (muy alto el 

precio) no puedo rebajar nada. 
A yard. Una vara. • 

A mile. Una milla. 

A league. Una legua. 

To produce, (to yield, to profit). \ l^'^''''^ ^*^- ^«^^«'- 

JTener. Ganar. 

How much does that employment ^Cudnto le produce d'V« al alio 

yield you a year! eseempleot 

An employment. Un empleo. 

To make one's escape. Escaparse. Huir. 

To run away, flee. Huir. Escaparse. 

' Apretar los talones. 

To take to one's heels. . Poner los pies en polvor09% 

Tomar las de Villadiego. 

To desert. Desertar. 

The thief has run away. El ladr6n se ha escapade. 

By no means. De ningdn modo. 

Not at all. i ^^ ^®^ '^^* ^ ningfin modo* 

( Nada de eso. 

1. V. me lisonjea. No; le aseguro 4 V. que 70 estaria 
muy satisf echo si todos mis discipulos trabajaran tan bien 

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como V. 2. i Tendre yo el j^usto de ver 4 V. manana ? Si 
Y. qiiiere, yo vendre. 3. V. tendria alguna compasion de 
los pobres, y no seria tan sordo 4 sus ruegos, si hubiera 
eatado en la misma miseria alguna vez. 4. | No han podido 
salvar ninguna cosa sus hermanos de V. ? Estuvieron muy 
af ortunados en salvar 4 las personas que estaban en la casa, 
X)ero de las cosas que estaban alii, no han podido salvar nin- 
guna. 6. i Cuanto vale ese pano ? Se lo vendo 4 V. 4 tres 
duros la vara. 6. i Tendr4 V. la bondad de ensenarme algu- 
nas piezas de pano ingles ? Con mucho gusto se lo muestro. 

7. I Qu6 le manda 4 V. hacer su maestro de espanol ? Me 
bace leer una leccion, despues me hace traducir ejercicios 
ingleses al espanol de la leccion que me ha puesto {set) 4 
leer; y desde el principio hasta el fin de la leccion me habla 
en espanol, y me obliga 4 responderle en la misma lengua. 

8. I Ensena tambien el alem4n su maestro de V. ? Si, lo 
ensena. 9. | Cuantos ejercicios traduce V. al dia ? Si los 
ejercicios no son dificiles traduzco de tres 4 cuatro cada 
dia ; y cuando lo son, traduzco solamente uno. 10. i Cu4nto 
le da ese empleo 4 su padre de Y. ? Le da mas de cuatro 
mil pesos. 11. i Por que se rien algunas personas cuando 
hablo ? Son gentes impoiiticas. 12. i Por que se queja su 
senorita hermana de Y. ? No se por qu6, pues logra tanto 
cuanto quiere, y es feliz, y aun m4s feliz que nosotros. Tal 
vez se queja porque no est4 perfectamente ippuesta de ese 
negocio. E^ puede ser. 

1. Well, {y hien,) does your sister make any progress ? 
She would make some, if she were as assiduous as you. 2. 
Why do not you go out to-day ? I should go out if it were 
fine weather. 3. Will you have occasion (ocasidn) to go to 
town this evening ? I do not know, but I should go now 
if I had an opportunity. 4. Man would not experience so 
much misery in his career, (la carrera.) and he would not 
be so unhappy, if he were not so blind, (ciego), 5. Why has 
not your sister written her exercises ? She would have writ- 
ten them if she had not been prevented. 6. Do you already 
know what has happened ? I have not heard anything. The 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


house of our neighbor has been burnt down. 7. Who haii 
told you that? Our neighbor himself has told me it 8. 
Why are you without a light? The wind blew it out as 
you came in. 9. Has not the price of cloth fallen ? It has 
not fallen; the price of all goods has fallen, except that 
of cloth. 10. In learning a foreign language, is it useful 
to translate? It is useful to translate when you almost 
know the language you are studying ; but while you do not 
yet know anything it is entirely useless. IL Have you paid 
a visit to my aunt ? I went to see her two months ago, and 
as she looked displeased, I have not gone again since that 
time. 12. How do you like that soup ? I think it is very 
bad ; but since I have lost my appetite, {el apetito^ I do not 
like anything. 13. If you did as I do you would speak well. 
You must study a little every day, and you will soon be 
no longer afraid to speak. 14. Why does your sister com- 
plain? I do not know; since she succeeds in everything, 
and is happy, even happier than you and I. 

SIXTY-SIXTH LESSON— Leccion Sexagesimasexta 

Kind, sort, (species). G^nero. Especie. Glase. 

What kind of fruit is that t 4 Qu6 especie de fruta es esa t 

A stone, (of a fmit). Hueso, (de fruta). 

A stone of a peach, an apricot^ a Un haeso de melocot6n, albari- 

plam. * coqne, ciruela. 

Stoned fruit. Fruta de hueso. 

One must break the stone to get Es necesario romper el hueso i>ara 

at the kernel. conseguir la almendra. 

A kemeL Una pepita. Una almendra 

An almond. Una almendra. 

Kemeled fruit. Fruta de pepita. 

To gather. Ck)ger. 

I gather, I was gathering, I shall Cojo. Cogfa. Ck>ger6. 

To gather fruit Coger fruta. 

To serve the soup. Servir la sopa. 

To bring in the dessert Servir el postre. 

The fruit La fruta. 

An apricot. Un albaricoque. 

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A peach. 
A plum. 
An anecdote. 
Roast meat. 

The last. 

Last week. 
To cease, to leave off. 
I leave off reading. 
She leaves off speaking. 

To avoid. 

To escape. 
To escape a misfortune. 
He ran away to avoid death. 
To deprive one's self, to do with- 

Can you do without bread f 

I can do without it. 

There are many things which we 
must do without. 

To execute a commission. I 

To discharge a commission. 1 

I have executed your commis- 

Have you executed my commis- 

I have executed it 

To do one's duty. 

To discharge, to do, or to fulfill 
one's duty. 

That man always does his duty. 

That man always fulfills his duty. 

To rely, to depend upon some- 

He depends upon it. 

I rely upon it. 

Yow may rely upon him. 

Un melocot6n, un duraeno. 
Una ciruela. 
Una an^cdota. 
El asado. 

iEl liltimo. La tiltima. 
Pasado. Pasada. 
La semana pasada, (tiltima). 
Cesar. Parar. Dejar de. 
Ceso de leer. 
Ella cesa de hablar. 

Evitar una desgracia. 
Se huy6 para evitar la muerttt 
Privarse de. Pasar sin. 

!4 Puede y. pasarlo sin pan t 
4 Puede V. privarse de pan f 
IPuedo pasarlo sin 61. 
Me puedo privar de el. 
Hay muchas cosas sin las cuales 
se puede pasar. 
f Cumplir con un encargo. 

Ejecutar una comisi6n. 
[ Hacer una comisi6n. 
He cumplido con su encargo 

4 Ha cumplido V. con mi encargo f 

He cumplido con 61, (ella). 
Cumplir con su obligaci6n, (de- 

Hacer su deber. 
Ese hombre cumple siempre con 

su obligaci6n. 
Contar con. Confiar en. 

1^1 con^a en eso. 
Cuento con eso. 

V. puede contar con 61, (confiar 
en el). 


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To suffice, to be sufficient. Bastar. Ser bastante, (suficiente). 

Is that bread sufficient for you f 4 Le basta 4 V. ese pan t 

It is sufficient for me. Si. Me basta. 

Will that money be sufficient for 4 Ser4 suficiente ese dinero para 

that man t 
It will be sufficient for him. 

To add. 

To build. 

To embark, to go on board* 


To set sail. 

To set sail for. 
To set sail for America. 

To sail. 
Under full sail. 
To set under full sail. 

ese hombre t 
Serd. suficiente para 6L 

J Afiadir. Acrecentar.* 

) Aumentar. 
Edificar. Fabricar. 

^Embarcar. Embarcarse. 
Ir d bordd. 
Una vela. 

Hacer vela. Hacerse 6 la Tela. 
Hacer vela para. 

Hacerse 4 la vela para la America 

A velas llenas. A velas tendidas. 
Andar k buena vela. 
He embarked on the sixteenth of Se embarc6 el diez y seis del mes 

last month. 

He sailed on the thirteenth in- 

The instant, the present month. 

The fourth or fifth instant. 

The letter is dated the sixth in- 

That is to say, (i. e.). 

Et csBtera, (etc., &c.). 

My pen is better than yours. 

I write better than you. 

Se hizo k la vela el trece del 

El corriente. 

El cuatro 6 cinco del corriente. 
La carta lleva fecha del seis del 

Es decir. A saber. Es d saber. 
Et cetera, (etc., &a.). 
Mi pluma es raejor que la de V. 
Escribo mejor que V. 

Dinner (or supper) is on the table. La coraida (6 la cena) estA en la 

Shall I help you some soup f j Le servire k V. un poco de sopa f 

Do me the favor to give me a Hdgame V. el favor de darme un 
little. poco. 

) Servir. Servirse. 
( Poner en la mesa. 

To serve, to attend. 

1. Si V. hubiera estudiado sus lecciones mejor, no tendria 
miedo de bablar ; porque para hablar bien es menester que 

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86 sepa, y es muy natural que el que no sabe bien lo que ha 
aprendido, sea corto. 2. Vengo 4 darle 4 V. los buenos dias. 
Y. es muy bondadoso. 3. Necesito quinientos duros, y suplico 
d V. que me los preste. Se los devolvere a V. luego que haya 
recibido mi dinero. 4. i Comer4 V. de este carnero ? Doy a 
V. las gracias, pero me gusta mas el polio. 5. i Le ofrezco a 
Y. un traguito de vino ? Agradezco 4 Y. que me lo de. 6. 
I Le gusta 4 Y. la fruta ? Me gusta la fruta, pero no tengo 
m4s apetito. 7. | Puede Y. pasarse sin jabon ? En cuanto 
al jabon, puedo pasarme sin el ; pero es menester que tenga 
una toalla para enjugarme las manos. 8. | Por que no ban 
procurado sus hermanos de Y. mejor caballo ? Si ellos se 
hubieran desbecbo de su caballo viejo, habrian procurado 
uno mejor. 9. | Ha ejecutado su hermano de Y. el encargo 
que le di ? Lo ha ejecutado. 10. Buenos dias, hijos mios, 
I han hecho Yds. sus tareas ? Y. sabe muy bien que las 
hacemos siempre, puesto que seria necesario que estu- 
vi^mos enfermos para no hacerlas. 11. i Procurardn Yds. 
no hacer faltas ? Procuraremos no hacer ninguna. 12. i Me 
promete Y. hablar 4 su hermano ? Se lo prometo 4 Y., y 
puede contar conmigo. 

1. 1 should like to know why I can not speak as well as you ? 
I shall tell you ; you would speak quite as well as I, if you 
were not so bashful, {corto). 2. Would you do me a favor ? 
Tell me what you wish ; for I should do anything (ciialquier 
cosa) to oblige you, (servirleX 3. Will you ask your brother 
whether (8t) he is satisfied with the money which I have 
sent him ? As to my brother, he is satisfied with it, but I 
am not ; for having suffered shipwreck (naufragar), I am in 
want of the money which you owe me. 4. Have they served 
the soup? They served it some minutes ago. 5. Shall I 
help you to some of this roast meat ? I shall trouble you for 
a little. 6. Have they already brought in the dessert ? They 
have brought it in. 6. What kind of fruit is that ? It is 
stoned fruit. 7. Will you wash your hands ? I should like 
to wash them, but I have no towel with which to wipe them. 
8. Will you do me the favor to give me a little water ? Here 

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is some. 9. Why did that man run away ? Because he had 
no other means of escaping the punishment (castigo) which 
he deserved, (merecer). 10. Has your father arrived already f 
Not yet, but we hope that he will arrive this very day, (hoy 
misMo), 11. Have you executed my commission ? I have 
executed it 12. Will you ask the merchant whether {st) he 
will sell me the horse at the price that I offered him ? I am 
sure that he would be satisfied, if you would add a few 
dollars more. 13. What lesson do you give us to-day ? I 
give you the sixty-sixth lesson, and the exercise belonging 
to it 14. When did your brother embark for America ? He 
sailed on the 30th of last month. Will you work better 
(mejor) in the next lesson than you have done for this ? I 
shall work better. 


To be a judge of. 

Are you a judge of cloth f 
I am a judge of it. 
To draw. 

To trace, (to counterdraw). 

To draw a landscape. 
To draw after life. 

The drawing. 

The drawer. 


To manage 

How do you manage to make a 

fire without tongs f 
I do it thus. 

You go about it the wrong way. 
I go about it the right way. 
How does your brother manage 

to do that t 
Skillfully. Handily. 
P^xterousl^. Cleverly. 

LESSON— Leccion Sexagesima- 

j Conocedor de. 

( Entender de. Poder juzgar de. 

4 Entiende Y. de pafios t 

Si. Entiendo. 

Dibujar. Bosquejar. 
j Dibujar con yeso. Trazar. 
) Delinear. Calcar. 

Dibujar un paisaje. 

Dibujar al natural. 

El dibujo. 

El dibujador. El dibujante. 

La naturaleza. 

^Manejar. Hacer para. 
Procurar. Lograr. 
4C6mo hace Y. para enoendei 

lumbre sin tenazast 
Lo hago de esta manera. 
Y. lo hace mal, (al rev^s). 
Lo hago bien. 

^De qu6 modo procura su her* 
mano de Y. hacer eso t 
(Diestramente. MaflosamentQ, 
) H4bilmei^t«, 


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Unhandily. Badly. 

To forbid. 
I forbid you to do that. 
To lower, to cast down. 
To cast down one's eye. 

The curtain. 

The curtain rises — falls. 
The stocks have fallen. 

The day falls. 
Night comes on. 
It grows dark. 
It grows late. 

To stoop. 

To smell. 

To feel. 
It smells of garlic. 
To feel some one's pulse. 
To consent to a thing. 
I consent to it. 
To hide, to conceal. 

The mind. 


In fact. 

The effect 

It is true, (a truth), 
A true man. 

To think much of, (to esteem). 
To esteem. 

I do not think much of that man. 

I esteem him much. 

The case. 
The flower, the bloom, the blos- 

I Desmafladamente. Toscamente. 
JTorpemente. Malamente. 

Le prohibo k V. hacer eso. 


Bajar los ojos. 

La cortina. El tel6n. 
( La cortina se levanta, (baja). 
( El tel6n se levanta, (se baja). 

Los fondos pdblicos han ba- 

(El dla cae. El sol se pone. 
Anochece. Se hace noche. 

Se hace tarde. 
j Encorvarse. Inclinarse. 
( Bajarse. 



Huele d ajo. 

Tomar el pulso de alguno. 


Consiento en ello. 

Esconder. Ocultar. 

El entendimiento. La mente. 

En verdad. A la verdad. 

En efecto. 

El efecto. 


Es verdad. 

Un hombre sincere, 
j Hacer gran {or mucho) easo de. 
{ Hacer estimaci6n. 

Estimar k. Apreciar. 

To no hago gran caso de ese 

No tengo en mucho k ese hombre. 

Le estimo mucho. 

El caso. 

La flor. 


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On a level with, even with. 
That house is on a level with the 

To blossom, (to flourish). 

To grow. i 

To grow tall. ' 

That child grows so fast that we 

can even see it. 
The rain has made the com grow. 
Corn. Maize. 
A cover. 
A shelter. 

A cottage. A hut. 

To shelter one's self from some- 

To take shelter from something. 

Let them shelter themselves from 
the rain, the wind. 

Let us enter that cottage to shelter 
ourselves from the storm, (the 

Everywhere. All over. 

All over (throughout) the town. - 

A shade. 
Under the shade. 
Sit down under the shade of that 

To pretend. h 

That man pretends to sleep. ^ 

That young lady pretends to know 

They pretend to come near us. 

From morning. 

From the break of day. 

From this time f orwu^. 

A nivel de. k flor de. 
Esa casa est& 6 flor de agua. 

Echar flores. Florecer. 

Crecer. (See verbs in eerj Ele- 

Ese nifio crece tan rdpidamente 
que podemos verlo. 

La Uuvia ha hecho crecer el grano. 


Un albergue. Una posada. 

Una guarida. Un abrigo. 

Una cabafia. tJna ohoza, 

Jacal, (in Meocicp), 

Ponerse al abrigo (& cubierto) de 
alguna cosa. Abrigarse. 

P6nganse al abrigo (& cubierto) 
de la lluvia, del viento. 

Entremos en esa choza para gua- 
recemos de la tempestad. 

For todo. Por toda. 
Por todos. Por todas. 
Por todas partes. 
Por toda la ciudad. 
Por todo el pueblo. 

Una sombra. 

A la sombra. 
Si^ntese V. & la sombra de ese 

Aparentar. Fingirse. 
Hacerse. Hacer que, or come que. 
Ese hombre se finge dormido. 
Se hace (se finge) dormida 
Esa seflorita hace que sabe el 

Fingen acercarse 4 nosotros. 

Desde la mafiana. 

Desde el amanecer. 

Desde hoy en adelante. 


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As soon as. Luego que. As! que. 

As soon as I see him I shall speak As! que lo yea (mbj,) le hablare. 

to him. 

From the cradle. From a child. Desde la cuna. Desde la nifiez. 

For fear of. i ^^' miedo de. For temor de. 

] For no. 

To catch a cold. Resfriarse. 

I shall not go out for fear of Kosaldr^por temor deresfriarme. 

catching a cold. 

He does not wish to go to town, 1^1 no quiere ir 4 la ciudad por 

for fear of meeting one of his temor de encontrarse con uno 

creditors. de sus acreedores. 

He does not wish to open his purse, No quiere abrir su bolsa por miedo 

for fear of losing his money. de perder su dinero. 

To copy. To transcribe. Copiar. Transcribir. 

To decline. Declinar. 

To make a clean copy. Sacar en limpio. Copiar. 

A substantive. An adjectire. Un substantive. Un adjetiva 

A pronoun. A verb. Ui| pronombre. Un verbo. 

A preposition. Una preposici6n. 

A grammar. A dictionary. Una gramdtica. Un diccionario. 


1. I Quiere V. comprarme algunas varas de paiio ? Si Y. 
me da el dinero, se lo comprare. V. me hard un favor. 2. 
i Como hace V. para tener mercaderias sin dinero ? Compro 
a credito. 3. i Almorzaremos hoy en el jardin ? Hace tan 
buen tiempo hoy, que debemos aprovecharlo. 4. i Por qu6 
se ag^cha V. ? Me agacho para levantar mi panuelo. 5. 
I De quien tienen miedo sus hermanas de V. ? Tienen miedo 
de su aya, que les regano ayer porque no habian hecho sus 
tareas. 6. i Como esta su Idjo de V. ? Esta muy bueno ; V. 
no podrd conocerlo, porque ha crecido mucho en poco tiempo. 
7. Se levanta el viento; ya hay truenos ; i los oye V. ? Los 
oigo, pero la tempestad estd muy lejos todavia. 8. | Adonde 
iremos ahora ? | Qu6 camino tomaremos ? El mas corto 
8er& el mejor. 9. i Quien es aquel que esta sentado debajo 
del 4rbol ? No lo conozco. Parece que quiere estar solo, 
puesto que cuando nos acercamos 4 61 finge estar dormido. 
10. I Est& lejos la tempestad ? No tan lejos como 4 V. le 


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parece ; vea V. como relampaguea. 11. i Es lejos de aqui a 
Madrid ? No es tan lejos como de aqui a Paris ; pero el ca- 
mino es malo y peligroso. 12. i A que hora sale la luna esta 
noche ? i Quien sabe ? Voy a preguntarle al maestro ; el 
debe poder decimoslo, puesto que es astronomo. 


1. Are you a judge of cloth ? I am a judge of it 2. 
What must I take for to-morrow^s lesson ? Tou will make 
a clean copy of your exercise, write three others, and study 
the next lesson, (aiguiente). 3. But how does your brother 
manage to study without a dictionary ? He manages it very 
awkwardly ; he reads, and looks for the words in his friend^s 
dictionary. 4. Why does your sister cast down her eyes ? 
She casts them down because she is ashamed of not having 
done her task. 5. How do you like that coffee ? I like it 
very much. 6. Why do your sisters hide themselves ? They 
would not hide themselves if they did not fear to be seen. 
7. Have you already seen my son ? I have* not seen him 
yet : how is he ? 8. Why does that man give nothing to 
the poor ? He is too avaricious, (aiyaro) ; he does not wish 
to open his purse, for fear of losing his money. 9. What 
sort of weather is it ? It is very warm ; it is a long time 
since We had any rain ; I believe we shall have a storm, 
{una tempestad). 10. What a shower I (qu4 aguacero). If 
we go into some place, we shall be sheltered from the storm^ 
Let us go into that cottage then, (pues) ; we shall be shel- 
tered there from the wind and the rain. 11. We have too 
much sun, and I am still very tired ; let us sit down under 
the shade of that tree. 12. That gentleman is like your sis- 
ter ; he understands French very well, but when I begin to 
speak to him, he pretends not to understand me. 

SIXTY-EIGHTH LESSON— Lecci6n Sexagesimaoctava 

This tense is formed with the imperfect of the auxiliary iMb^^ 
and the past participle of a principal verb. 

Jt desenbe^ a past action, state, or event as preceding bovm oth^r 


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past action, state, or event ; as, 1 had already finished my task 
when you came in — Ya habia acabado mi tarea, cuando V. entr6. 

I had dined when he arrived. Yo habia comido cuando el lleg6. 

You had lost your purse when I V. habia perdido su bolsa cuando 

found mine. hall6 la mia. 

Had you finished your exercise 4 Habia acabado Y. su ejercicio 

when I came inf cuando yo entr^f 

No, Sir, I had not finished it. No, sefior ; no lo habia acabado. 

We had dined when it struck Habiamos comido cuando dieron 

twelve. las doce. 

I had read your letter when I Yo habia leido la carta de V. 

wrote mine. cuando escribi la mia. 


This tense is composed of the preterit of haher and a past par- 
ticiple, and is used to describe the same order of actions, states, or 
events as the past perfect, but only in connection with certain con- 
junctions : 

As soon as JLuegoque. Asi que. 

( Al momento que. 
After. Despu^s que. 

When. Cuando. 

No sooner, scarcely. Apenas. 

It also usually expresses what is quickly completed, and in this 
respect partakes of the nature of the true preterit : 
As soon as I had finished my work Luego que hube acabado mi 

I carried it to him. trabajo se lo lleve k ^1. 

As soon as I had dressed myself Asi que me hube vestido sali. 

I went out. 
When I had dined it struck Asi que hube comido dieron las 

twelve. doce. 

I had soon finished eating. Pronto hube acabado de comer. 

1. I Que hiciste despues de levantarte esta manana ? 
Cuando hube leido la carta del conde polaco sali para ver el 
teatro del Principe que todavia no habia visto. 2. i En donde 
han estado Vds. desde que los vi ? Nos quedamos en la 
orilla del mar hasta que lleg^o el barco que nos trajo k 
Francia. 3. Cuentenos Y. lo que le sucedio el otro dia. Con 

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muoho ^sto, pero bajo la condicion de que Yds. me escuchen 
sin interruiitipirme. 4. Estando en el teatro vi representar 
" La Pintura Parlante " y " La Mujer Llorosa.'' No divir- 
tiendome mucho esta ultima comedia, fui al concierto, en 
donde la miisica me dio una f uerte jaqueca. Dej6 entonces 
el concierto maldiciendolo, y me fui en derechura 4 la casa 
de los Icxsos, para ver 4 mi primo. 5. ^ Y que le sucedio 
alii ? Entrando en el hospital de mi primo, quede penetrado 
de horror al ver 4 al^^unos locos que se acercaron 4 mi 
saltando y auUando. 6. i Que hizo Y. entonces ? Ya que- 
damos en que Yds. no me interrumpirian ; y 6sta es la 
se^^unda vez que lo han hecho. Por eso no voy 4 acabar el 
cuento ; se quedar4 parasiempre envuelto en mi lengua. 7. 
Pero amigo, Y. debe saber que en esto hace mal. Nadie 
debe quejarse tan pronto. Y. ha de saber que entre los 
hombres del mundo hay un modo de portarse muy diferente 
del que Y. ha manifestado. 8. I Ay de mi I i Perd6nenme 
Yds., caballeros I i Que facilmente me enojo I Sin embargo, 
reconozco mi flaqueza, y les pido perdon. 

1. What did you do when you had finished your letter f 
I went to my brother, who took (JUevar) me to the theater, 
where I had the pleasure of finding one of my friends whom 
I had not seen for ten years. 2. What did your father do 
when he had breakfasted ? He shaved himself and went 
out 3. When do you set out ? I do not set out till to- 
morrow ; for before I leave I shall once more see my good 
friends. 4. Where did your imcle go after he had warmed 
himself ? He went nowhere. 6. At what time did he get 
up ? He got up at sunrise. 6. What is it that distresses 
you ? I am distressed by that accident 7. When did your 
relation die ? He died last month. 8. What sort of weather 
was it when you were on the way to Yienna ? It was very 
bad weather, for it was stormy, and snowed and rained very 
heavily, (d cdntaros). 9. A peasant who observed that old 
men used spectacles to read, went to an optician {dpiieo) 
and asked for a pair. He then took a book, and having 
opened it, said the spectacles were not good. The optician 

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then put another pair of the best that he could find in his shop 
(Jia tienda) upon the peasant's nose ; but he being still unable 
to read, the merchant said to him : " My friend, perhaps you 
can not read at all ? " " If I could, {jd yo supiera leer),^^ 
said the peasant, " I should not want your spectacles." 10. 
Henry IV. met one day in his palace (palacio) a man whom 
he did not know, and asked him to whom he belonged. " I 
belong to myself," replied this man. ** My friend," said the 
king, "you have a stupid master." 11. On entering the 
hospital (hospital) of my cousin I was struck with horror 
(estar penetrado de horror) at seeing several madmen, (el 
loco,) who came up to me, jumping (saltar) and howling 
(aullar). What did you do then ? I did the same; and 
they burst into laughter (echar d reir) as they were re- 

SIXTY-NINTH LESSON— Leccion Sexagesimanovena. 

First, at first, at the beginning. 

Thirdly, etc 

Is your mother at homef 

She is. 

I am going to her house. 

A cause. 

A reason. 

A motiye. 
A subject, cause. 


A cause of complaint. 

She has reason to be sad. 

Grief, sorrow, sadness. 

Is that woman ready to go out f 

She is. 


j Primero. Al principio. 

I Desde luego. 

J Primeramente. Primero. 

( En primer lugar. 

j Segundamente. Segundo. 

( En segundo lugar. 

^Terceramente. Tercero. 
En tercer lugar, etc. 
4 Est& en casa su madre de V. f 
Si, estd. Si, seflor, (sefiora). 
Voy & casa de ella. (Voy & su 

Una causa. 
Una raz6n. 
Un motive. 
Un motive. 
Listo, pronto, dispuesto. 
Un motive de queja. 
Ella tiene motive de estar triste. 
Pesar. Pesadumbre. Tristeza, 
4 Estd esa mujer lista para salir f 
Si, estd. 


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Notwithstanding, in spite of. 

In spite of him, her, them. 
To manage. 

No obstante. Sin embargo. X 

pesar de. 
k pesar de ^1, de ella, de ellos. 

^Con8egair. Lograr. 

Do you manage to finish your ^Consigue V. acabar su trabajo 

work every Saturday night f todos los s&bados por la noche f 

Try to do that, to oblige me. Procure V. hacer eso para ser- 


Para with the infinitive mode, and poA'a que with some tense of 
the subjunctive, expresses aim or design : 

I shall do everything to oblige 

To look upon, into. 
The window looks into the street 
The window looks out upon the 

The back door looks into the gar- 

To drown. 
To drown a dog. 

To be drowned, to be drowning. ' 
To drown one's self, to get 

To leap through the window. 
To throw out of the window. 
I am drowning. 

To fasten. 
They fastened him to a tree. 
The cattle. 
To keep warm. 
To keep cool. 
To keep clean. 
To keep on one's guard against j 
some one. I 

Keep on your guard against that 

To take care (to beware) of some- 
body or something. 

Lo har^ todo para servir & V. 

Gaer L Dar &. Mirar i. 
La ventana cae 4 la calle. 
La ventana mira al rlo. 

La puerta trasera da al jardin. 

Anegar. Ahogar. 
Ahogar un perro en el agua. 


Saltar por la ventana. 
Echar por la ventana. 
Me ahogo. Me estoy ahoganda 

Atar. Amarrar. 
Lo amarraron (ataron) 4 un irboL 


Mantenerse caliente. 

Mantenerse fresco. 

Mantenerse limpio, (aseado). 
Guardarse de alguno, (de uno). 
Estar sobre aviso con respecto 4. 
Guirdese V. de ese hombre. 

Guardarse de. Tener ouidado 
de (con) alguno, (con algooa 


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If you do not take care of that Si V. no se guarda de ese caballo 

horse it will kick you. le dar& ooces. 

A kick, (of a horse or ox). Una coz. 

Take care that you do not fall. Tenga V. cuidado de no caerse. 

Care. Cuidado. 
CiiidadOf though a substantive, is often used in the sense of take 
care, be careful : 

Take care, little one. 
A thought. 
An idea. 

A sally of wit. 

To be struck by a thought. 
A thought strikes me. 

That never passed my mind. 

Cuidado, chiquito. 
Un pensamiento. 
Una idea. 

' Un dicho agudo. Un chiste. 
Una agudeza. Un arranque. 
Una viveza. Un repente. 
Darlegolpe duno un.pensamiento. 
I Haoerle f uerza & uno una idea. 
Me da golpe un pensamiento. 
' Eso nunca me pas6 por el pensa- 
Eso jamas me entr6 en el pensa- 
He took it into his head lately to tJltimamente se le puso en la 

rob me. cabeza robarme. 

What is in your head f (4 Qu6 le pasa & V. por la cabeza f 

A penny for your thoughts. UQu6 tiene V. en la cabeza. 

In my place. En mi lugar. 

All things ought to be put in their Todas las cosas se deben poner en 


Around, round. 
We sailed around England. 

They went about the town to look 
at the curiosities. 

To go around the house. 

To go about the house. 

To cost. 
How much does that cost you f 
It costs me three dollars and a half. 
That table costs him twenty dol- 

su lugar. 
Navegamos alrededor de Ingla- 

Fueron por toda la ciudad para 

examinar las curiosidades. 

^Ir alrededor de la casa. 
Dar la vuelta de la casa. 
^Ir por toda la casa. 
Andar toda la casa. 

4 Cu4nto le cuesta 4 V. eso f 
Me cuesta tres pesos y medio. 
Bsa mesa le cuesta veinte peecMk 


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Alone, by one's self. 

I was alone. 
One woman only. 
One God. 
God alone can do that. 
The very thought of it is criminaL 
A single reading is not sufficient 
to satisfy a mind that has a 
true taste. 

To kill by shooting. 

He has blown out his brains. 

He served for a long time, ac- 
quired honors, and died con- 

He arrived poor, grew rich in a 
short time, and lost all in a 
still shorter time. 

(Solo. Sola. 

( For si solo. For si sola. 

To estaba solo, (sola). 

Una sola mujer. 

Un solo Dios. 

S61o Dios puede hacer eso. 

El mero pensamiento es culpable. 

Una sola lectura no basta para 
satisfacer d un ingenio que 
tiene un gusto ezacto. 

Matar k tiros. 

Se ha levantado la tapa de los 

Se ha tirado un tiro (mortal). 
Sirvi6 largo tiempo, adquiri6 

honores, y muri6 satisfecho, 

Lleg6 aqui pobre, se hizo rico 

(enriqueci6) en poco tiempo, y 

perdi6 cuanto tenia en menos 

tiempo todavia. 

1. i En donde se ahogo su amigo de V. ? Se ahogo en el 
rio que esta detras de la casa. 2. l No tiene V. miedo de 
ahogarse ? No, senor, porque yo se nadar. 3. i Quien le 
ensefi6 a Y. a nadar ? El verano pasado tome algunas lec- 
ciones en la escuela de natacion. 4. Esta es mi tarea : '* Los 
que habian contribuido mas 4 su elevacion al trono de sus 
abuelos fueron los que habian trabajado con mas paciencia. 
Luego que Cesar bubo pasado el Bubic6n no tuvo m4s tiempo 
para deliberar ; debio veneer 6 monr ignominiosamente. 5. 
V. tiene sed siempre que ve un meson. Si entramos, bebere 
ik la salud de V. 6. i Cu4ndo me pagard V. lo que me debe ? 
Cuando tenga dinero ; es imitil pedirmelo hoy, porque V. 
sabe muy bien que no se puede recibir nada de uno que no 
tiene nada. 7. | No se parece mi casaca 4 la de V. ? No se 
le parece, porque la mia es corta, y la de V. es demasiado 
larga ; la mia es negra y la de V. es verde. 8. Si uno quiere 
aprender el comercio, ha de traficar ; solo de esta manera 


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puede un muchacho hacerse litil en los negocios. 9. i Que 
es ]o que se dice de la patria ? Que la gloria y la prosperidad 
de la patria son nuestra propia gloria y prosperidad. 10. 
Defender la patria es defender nuestra familia, y sostener 
los intereses de la patria es sostener nuestros bienes. 11. 
Prestad 4 la patria los servicios que reclame de vosotros, y 
recibireis de ella un rico galardon. 


1. What is the matter with you ? Why do you look so 
melancholy ? (parecer), I should not look so melancholy 
if I had no reason to be sad. I heard just now that one of 
my best friends has shot himself with a pistol, and that one 
of my wife's best friends has drowned herself. 2. Yesterday, 
at four o'clock in the morning, she arose without saying 
a word to any one, leaped out of the window which opens 
upon (looks upon) the garden, and threw herself into the 
river, where she was drowned. 3. Where will you bathe ? 
In the river. 4. When had you finished your task ? I had 
finished it when you entered. 5. As soon as Caesar (Cisar) 
had crossed {xxisar) the Rubicon, he could no longer de- 
liberate, {deliberar) : he was obliged to conquer (veneer) or 
die. 6. Do you perceive that house ? I perceive it ; what 
house is it ? It is an inn, (mesdn) ; if you like we shall go 
into it to take a glass of wine, for I am very thirsty. 7. 
When do you think you will have money ? I think I shall 
have some next year. 8. Why do you laugh at me ? I do 
not laugh at you, but at your coat. 9. Why do you associate 
with that man ? I should not associate with him if he had 
not rendered me great services. 10. Why do you work so 
much ? I work in order to be some day useful to my 
country. 11. Would you copy your exercises if I copied 
mine ? I should copy them if you copied yours. 12. Would 
she have set out if I had set out ? I can not tell you what 
she would have done if you had set out 


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Amemos y practiquemos siempre 
la virtud, y seremos f elices tanto 
en esta vida como en la otra. 

Practicar. Ejercer. Hacer. 
Yeamos cxxil de nosotros puede 

tirar mejor. 

Hacerse comprender, (entender). 
Tener costnmbre. Soler.* 
Acostumbrar. Acostumbrarse. 
Acostumbrarse k alguna cosa. 

A los nifios se les debe acostum- 
brar temprano al trabajo. 

Estar acostumbrado d una cosa. 

Estoy acostumbrado k ello. 

No puedo expresarme en espafiol, 
porque no tengo costumbre de 

y. habla propiamente. 


Charlar, platicar. 

Tin charlante. Un hablador. 

Un platic6n. Parlante. 

No hago m&s que hablar. 

Permitir. Conceder. 

El permiso (la licencia). 

Le perm i to d V. que vaya all&. 

Haga Y. bien k los pobres, tenga 
compasi6n de los infortunados, 
y Dios cuidard de lo dem&s. 


Tener compasi6n de alguno. 



El resto. Lo demds. 
The present subjunctive may not be used after w, if, as in Eng- 
lish, but either the indicative present or future, or one of the imper- 
fect subjunctives must be employed ; 

Let us always love and practice 
virtue, and we shall be happy, 
both in this life and in the 
To practice. 
Let us see which of us. can shoot 
To express. 
To express one*s self. 
To make one's self understood. 
To have the habit. 
To accustom. 
To accustom one's self to some- 
Children must be early made ac- 
customed to labor. 
To be accustomed to a thing. 
I am accustomed to it. 
I can not express myself in Span- 
ish, because I am not in the 
habit of speaking. 
You speak properly. 
To converse. 
To chatter, to prate. 

A prattler, a chatterer. i 

I practice speaking. 

To permit, to allow. 

The permission. 
I permit you to go there. 
Do good to the poor, have compas- 
sion on the unfortunate, and 
God will take care of the rest. 

To have compassion on some one.-] 

The rest. 


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If he comes, tell him I am in the Si viene, digale V. que estoy en el 

garden. jardin. 

Ask the merchant whether he can Inl6rmese Y. del mercader si 

let me hare the horse at the puede dejarme (venderme) el 

price which I have offered him. caballo por el precio que le 

he ofrecido. 

There one laughs and weeps by All! uno rie y Uora por turnos. 

If they knew what you have Si supieran lo que V. ha hecho, 

The country where diamonds are £1 pais (la tierra) en donde se 

found. hallan los diam antes. 

What is conceived well is ex- Lo que se concibe bien se ex- 
pressed clearly. presa con claridad. 

We do not like to see those to No nos gusta ver A aquellos d quie- 

whom we owe so much. nes debemos tanto. 

It is from a king (Agesilaus) that De un rey (Agesilao) es de quien 

we have that excellent maxim — tenemos esa gran maxima — 

*'That a man is great only in so " Que uno es grande s61o en 

far as he is just." cuanto es justo." 

1. No tenga V. miedo de sus acreedores ; este V. seguro 
de que no le haran dano. Esperaran si V. no les puede pa- 
gar todavia. 2. No he olvidado que yo soy deudor de V., 
puesto que pienso en ello todos los dias ; nunca lo negare. 
3. i Que quiere V. hacer con mi baston ? Quiero ensenar- 
selo a mi padre. 4. Si V. no quiere que lea hoy, i que he de 
hacer ? Dibuje V. este paisaje, y cuando lo haya dibujado, 
con jugue estos verbos y expliquemelos. 5. Ya que deseamos 
ser felices hagamos bien a los pobres, y tengamos compasion 
de los infortunados ; obedezcamos a nuestros maestros, y no 
les demos jamds ninguna pena ; amemos 4 nuestro projimo 
como 4 nosotros mismos, y no aborrezcamos a los que nos 
hayan ofendido; en una palabra, desempenemos nuestras 
obligaciones, y Dios cuidai4 de los demas. 6. I Que quieto 
esta ese muchacho, hijo de V., caballero I Si, es muy buen 
muchacho cuando duerme. Mire V. que est4 dormido ahora. 
7. i Se divirtio V. mucho cuando estuvo en Alemania el otono 
pasadp ? No niucho, porque estaba muy ocupado. a Toda,- 


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Asombrar. Pasmar. Sorprender. 
j Asombrarse. Estar asombrado. 
j Admirarse. Maravillarse. 
Estar asombrado de alguna cosa 

(de algo). 
Estoy sorprendido de ello, (de eso). 
Aconteci6 una cosa eztraordinaria 

que sorprendio 4 todos. 
Acontecer. Saceder. 
Han acontecido muchas cosas qae 
le sorprender^n d V. 

To astonish, to surprise. 
To be astonished, to wonder. 
To be surprised at something. 

I am surprised at it. 

An extraordinary thing happened 

which surprised everybody. 

To take place. 

Many things have come to pass 

which will surprise you. 
Many days will pass before that Pasardn muchos dias antes que 

will take place. suceda (acontezca) eso. 

A man came in who asked me Entr6 un hombre que me pre- 
how I was. gunt6 c6mo estaba, (c6mo lo 

J Pues. Entonces. Aal, 
J Por consiguiente. 
j Por consiguiente. Asi pues. 
J Por tanto. 
El otro dia. 

tJltimamente. Poco ha. 
j Dentro de poco tiempo. 
\ Dentro de poco. 
Dentro de. En. 
He will arrive in a week, (when a J fil UegarA dentro de una semana 

week is elapsed). { De aqui k ocho dias. 

It took him a week to make this J Hizo este viaje en una semana. 

journey, (he made it in a week). | Gasto ocho dias en su viaje. 
He will have finished his studies Habrd acabado sus estudios den« 

in three months. tro de tres meses. 

He finished his studies in a year. Acab6 sus estudios en un alio. 
He has applied himself particu- Se ha dedicado particulamente i 
larly to geometry. la geometria. 

To apply one's self. Dedicarse. Aplicarse. 

Mr. Lewis Martinez wrote me Me escribi6 el otro dia el Seflor 
lately that his sisters would be Don Luis Martinez que sus her- 

Then, thus, consequently. 


The other day. 

In a short time. 

here in a short time, and re- 
quested me to tell you so. You 
will then be able to see them, 
and give them the books which 

manasestarian aqui dentro de 
poco tiempo, y me rog6 se lo 
dijera d V. Entonces podrd V. 
verlas y darles los libros que ha 

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you haTe bought. They think comprado. Ellas piensan que 
that you will make them a V. se los presentar^ comoun 
present of them. Theii* brother regalo. Su hermano me ha 
has assured me that they esteem asegurado que estiman 4 Y., sin 
you, without knowing you per- conocerlo personalmente. 

To be or to become tired. Aburrirse. Fastidiarse. Cansarse, 
How could I become tired in your 4 Como podria aburrirme en la 

company f compafiia de V. f 

He gets tired everywhere. tX se fastidia en todas partes. 

Agreeable, (pleasing). Agradable. Gustoso. Placentero, 

To be welcome. Ser bien venido. Agasajar. 

'En todas partes le agasajan & Y. 
Es Y. bien venido (recibido) en 
todas partes. 

You are welcome everywhere. 

1. V. dice que es la una 7 media, y en mi reloj son sola- 
mente las doce 7 media 2. Pronto daran las dos. Perdo- 
neme Y. ; todavia no ha dado la una. Le aseguro a V. que es 
la una 7 veinticinco minutos, porque mi reloj anda muy 
bien. 3. | Compr6 V. su reloj en Paris ? Yo no lo compre ; 
mi tio me lo regalo. 4. i Pide alguno la mano de esa seiio- 
rita ? £1 caballero que pide su mano es un noble de la vecin- 
dad. I Es rico ? No ; es im pobre que no tiene ni un peso. 
5. i De que se admira Y. ? Me admiro de hallarle a Y. 
todayia en cama. 6. i Han dado ya las doce ? Si, senora, ya 
son las doce y media. 7. | Es tan tarde ? | Es posible ? E^ 
no es tarde ; todavia es temprano. 8. i Ya bien el reloj de 
V. ? No, Senorita, adelanta un cuarto de hora. 9. Y el 
mlo atrasa media hora. Quiza se ha parado. En efecto 
tiene V. razon. 10. i Le dio Y. cuerda ? Le di cuerda, y sin 
embargo no anda. 11. i Oye Y. ? Esta dando la una. En- 
tonces V07 a arreglar mi reloj e irme k casa. 12. H4game 
V. el favor de quedarse un poco mas. No puedo, porque 
comemos & la una en punto. 

1. Will you drink a cup of tea ? No, thank 70U ; I do not 
like tea. 2. Do 70U not get tired here ? How could I get 

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tired in this agreeable society ? As to me I always wish 
amusement. If you did as I do you would not wish amuse- 
ment, for I listen to all those who tell me anything. 3. In 
this manner I learn a thousand agreeable things, and I have 
no time to get tired ; but you do nothing of that kind, {de e«o); 
that is the reason why you wish amusement. 4. I should 
do everything like {como) you, if I had no reason to be sad. 
6. Have you seen Mr. Lambert ? I have seen him ; he told 
me that his sisters would be here in a short time, and desired 
{me rogd se lo dijera d V,) me to tell you so. 6. When they 
have (hayan) arrived, you may give them the gold rings 
which you have bought; they flatter themselves that you 
will make them a present of them, for they love you without 
knowing you personally. 7. Has my sister written to you 
already ? She has written to me ; I am going to answer her. 8. 
Shall I tell her that you are here ? Tell her ; but do not tell 
her that I am waiting for her impatiently, (con impaciencia). 
9. Why have you not brought your sister along with you ? 
Which one ? The one you always bring, the youngest. She 
did not wish to go out, because she has the toothache. 10. I 
am very sorry for it, for she is a very good girl. How old is 
she ? She is nearly fifteen years old. She is very tall (cUto) 
for her age, (edcui). IL How old are you ? I am tWenty- 
two. Is it possible I I thought you were not yet twenty, 
{no llegdba V, d loa veinte), 

SEVENTY-SECOND LESSON.— Leccion Septuagesima- 

To cease. Cesar. Parar. Desistir. Dejar de. 

To dare. Osar. Atreverse. 

To be able. Poder. 

' Gontinuamente me pide V. dinero. 
You continually ask me for money.- Siempre me andaV. pidiendo di- 

. nero. 

rElla no oesa de quejarse. 
She does not cease complaining. \ Ella siempre se estd quejando. 

I Ella no para en sus quejas. 
I do not dare to ask you for it. No me atrevo k pedf rselo 4 V, 
I can not go there. No puedo ir alUk 

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They found a document in the 
handwriting of Lucinda her- 
self, in which she stated and 
declared that she could never 
be the wife of Don Fernando, 
but of Cardenio, since eyen then 
she was his wife. 

Moreoyer, besides. \ 

Besides what I have just said. 
There is no means of finding money 

To push. 
Along the road. 

All the year round. 
To enable. 

To be able. 

To the right. On the right side. 
On the right hand. 
On the left. On the left side. 
On the left hand. 

Could you not tell me what is the 
nearest way to the city f 

Go to the foot of the street, and 
when you are there, turn to the 

And then! 

You will then enter a broad street 
which will bring you to a great 
square, where you will see a 
blind alley. 

Hallaron un papel escrito de la 
misma letra de Lucinda, en que 
decia y declaraba que ella no 
podia ser nunca esposa de Don 
Fernando, sino de Cardenio, de 
quien ya lo era. 

— D, Quixote^ Cap. X8. 

IAdemds de. A m^ de esto, (eso), 
Por otra parte. 

Adem&s de lo que acabo de deeir. 
No hay medio de hallar dinero 

IEmpujar. Impeler. 
Importuhar. Molestar. 
rk lo largo (por lo largo) del cami« 

.Todo el largo del camino. 

I Por todo el aBo. 
Todo el aflo completo. 
I Poner en situaci6n de. Habilitar, 
I Poder. Poner en estado de. 
[Sercapaz. Poder, 
I Tener f acultad. 
k la derecha. Al lado dereoho. 
k mano derecha, 
k la izquierda. Al lado izquierdo. 
k mano izquierda. k mano si- 

4 No podria V. decirme cuAl es el 
camino mds corto para ir k la 
ciudad f 
Vaya V. por la calle abajo, y cuan- 
do llegue al fin, d^ yuelta sobre 
la derecha. 
1 4 Y qu6 mfe f 
1 1 Y qu^ har6 entoncesf 
Entonces entrara V. en una calle 
ancha que le llevar^ k una 
grande plaza, en donde verd V. 
an callejdn sin salida. 


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You must leave the blind alley 
on your left, and pass under the 
arch that is near it. 

Then you must ask again. 


The alley. 

The shore, (the bank). 

To get married, (to enter into 

To marry somebody. 
To marry, (to give in marriage). 
My cousin, after having given his 

sister in marriage, married Miss 

Is your cousin married f 
No, he is still a bachelor. 

Embarrassed, puzzled, at a loss. 

An embarrassment, a puzzle. < 
Ton embarrass me, (puzzle me). 

The marriage. 
He asked my sister in marriage. 

The measure. 
I shall take other measures. 
The fault 

It is not my fault. \ 

Do not lay it to my charge. 

To lay to one's charge. "j 

Who can help it f 
Whose fault is it f 
I can not help it. 

The delay. i 

He does it without delay. 

Dejar& V. el callej6n ^ la izquier- 

da, y pasar4 debajo del arco 

que estd junto d ^1. 
Entonces tendr4 Y. que infor- 

marse de nuevo. 
El callej6n. 
La orilla, (costa, ribera, playa^ 

Gasarse. Contraer matrimonio. 

Gasarse con algimo, (alguna). 

Gasar. Dar en matrimonio. 

Despues de haber oasado &sa heF- 
mana, mi primo se cas6 con la 
Sefiorita Alvarez. 

4 Estd casado su primo de V. f 

No ; todavia es soltero. 


Perplejo. Embroliado. Confun- 
dido. Perdido. 

Una perplejidad. 

Un erabroUo. Una confusi6n. 

V. me conf unde (me deja perple- 
jo, or me embroila). 

El casamiento. 

£l pidi6 la mano de mi hermana. 

La medida. 

Tomar^ otras medidas. 

Gulpa. Falta. 

No es culpa mia. No es mi falta 

No tengo la culpa. 

No me lo or la impute Y. 6 mL 

Imputar k uno. 

Echar la culpa &, 

iQui^n lo puede remediarf 

4Qui^n tiene la culpa f 

No puedo remediarlo. 

La tardanza. La dilaci6n. 

La detenoi6n. La demora. 

Lo hace sin tardanza. 

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I mast go, (must be ofE). 

Gk> away I Begone I 
To jest. 

The jest, joke. 

Yon are jesting. 
He can not take a jest. 

To beg some one's pardon. 
To pardon. 

I beg your pardon. 

The pardon. 

To advance. 
The watch goes too fast, (gains). 

To retard. 
The watch goes too slow, (loses). 

My watch has stopped. 

To stop. 
Where did we stop! 
We left off at the fortieth lesson, 
page one hundred and thirty- 

To wind up a watch. 
To regulate a watch. 
Your watch is twenty minutes too 
fast, and mine a quarter of an 
hour too slow. 

It has not struck twelve yet j 
It will soon strike twelve. 


Has it already struck twelve t 
On condition, provided. 

He will lend you money, provided 
you will henceforth be more 
economical than you have been 


Tengo que irme. 

Es menester que me vaya, 

I Vdyase V. ! \ Mdrchese V. I 

Burlarse. Chancearse. 

La burla. La chanza. 

V. se burla. V. se chancea. 
£l no entiende de burlas. 
Pedir perd6n k alguno. 
Pedir el perd6n de alguno. 

Pido perd6n k V. 
Pido el perd6n de V. 
Perd6neme V. Con perd6n de V. 

El perd6n. 

El reloj adelanta. 

El reloj atrasa. 
Se par6 mi reloj. 
Mi reloj se ha parado. 

Pararse. Parar. 
4D6nde hemos parado t 
Nos paramos en la lecci6n cuaren- 
ta,pdglna ciento treinta y seis. 

Dar cuerda k un reloj. 
Arreglar un reloj. 
El reloj de V. adelanta veinte 

minutos y el mio atrasa un 

cuarto de hora. 
Todavla no ban dado las doce. 
Las doce est^ al dar. 
Las doce van k dar. 
Pronto dar4n las doce. 
I Han dado ya las doce t 
Con tal que. Con condici6n 

fil le prestard & V. dinero con tal 

que en adelante sea V. m&s 

econ6mico de lo que ha sido 



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Hereafter, for the future, hence- j En adelante. De aqui en adelante. 
forth. ( En lo venidero. En lo f uturo. 

The future. Lo f uturo. Lo venidero. Bl 

(Econ6mioo. Frugal. Parco. 
BoonomicaL "JModerado. 

Hitherto. Hasta ahora. 

To follow advice, (counsel). Seguir el consejo de alguno. 

^ou look so melancholy. V. parece tan melanc61ico. 

Adi68. Vaya V. con Dios. 
Quede V. con Dios. 
Espero tener el gusto de volverle 

k ver k V. 
Espero volverle 4 ver 4 V. pronto. 

Adieu, farewell. 

God be with you, good-by. 

I hope to see you again soon. 


1. I k qu6 hora se levanta V. por la mafiana ? En el 
verano, cuando ordinariamente estoy muy ocupado, me 
levanto 4 las sets y media, y almuerzo k las siete. 2. i Tiene 
V. una larga familia ? No ; tengo dos bijos y una hija. Los 
hijos, que ya son grandes, van al colegio, y no los veo por 
aqui sino los s4bados y los domingos. 3. i Qu6 negocio 
trae ese anoiano que viene 4 nuestra aldea de yez en cuan- 
do ? Es vendedor de libros. Su modo de obrar es ir de casa 
en casa, llamando k la puerta, mandando una tarjeta sucia 
k las senoras, y, despu6s de efectuar la entrada, cansarlas 
mucbisimo, procurando venderles algunos de sus libros. 
4. T, I que sucede ? i Algunas se los compran ? Sin duda ; 
porque asi ganan la vida esos hombres. 5. Algunas senoras 
se los compran porque son ignorantes, otras por librarse de 
los vendedores, y algunas por la compasi6n que les tienen. 
6. I Qu6 vida tan infeliz I i Por que dice V. eso ? 4 Le parece 
tan dificil ir por las casas vendiendo libros ? i No es mucbo 
peor ir por las casas sin vender, y k pesar de esto tener que 
sufrir todo cuanto pueda sucederles? 7. | Es verdad que en 
el mundo no hay contento ? Se dice que es asi. Por donde 
quiera se encuentran personas que nunca desean lo que 
Dios les ba proporcionado, y viven siempre en busca de 
otro modo de ganar la subsistencia: 8. Pero puede aer 

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que este espiritu sea lo que mueve el mundo ; sin el nadie 
se esforzaria por mejorar su condicion. 


1. What time is it ? It is half -past one. 2. How rapidly 
time passes in your company I Tou pay me a compliment 
which I do not know how to answer. 3. What has that 
woman intrusted to you ? She has intrusted me with a 
secret ahout a count who is in great difficulty on account of 
the (d causa) marriage of one of his daughters. 4. Tou say 
you have no friends among your schoolfellows, (el con- 
discipulo) ; but is it not your fault ? You have spoken ill 
of them, and they have not offended you. 5. Believe me, 
he who has no friends deserves (merece) to have none. 6. 
Charles, have you taken the clothes to Coimt Narissi? 
Yes, sir ; I have taken them to him. 7. What did he say ? 
He said nothing but that he had a great mind to give me 
a box on the ear, (Jbofetadas) because I had not brought 
them sooner. 8. What did you answer him ? Sir, said I, I 
do not understand that joke ; pay me what you owe me ; and 
if you do not do so instantly, I shall take other measures. 
Scarcely had I said that, when he put his hand to his sword, 
(d 8U eapada) and I ran away. 9. What is the matter with 
you, my dear friend ? why do you look so melancholy ? 
Nothing is the matter with me (nada tengo), 10. Are you 
in any trouble ? (estd V, apurado), I have nothing, and 
even less than nothing, for I have not a penny, and I owe a 
great deal to my creditors ; am I not very unhappy ? 11. 
When a man is well and has friends, he is not unhappy. 
12. Dare I ask you a favor ? What do you wish ? Have 
the goodness to lend me fifty dollars. I am willing to lend 
you this money with all my heart ; but on condition that 
you renounce gambling, (abandone el juego), and be more 
economical than you have been hitherto. I see now that 
you are my friend, and I esteem you too much not to follow 
your advice. 


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SEVENTY-THIRD LESSON— Leccion Septuagesima- 

J Durar. 
To last, to wear well. ^ ^^^^ j^^^^ ^^^^^^ (mucho). 

How long has that coat lasted iCuilnto tiempo le ha durado & 
yout v. esacasacat 

To my liking. k mi gusto. 

Nobody can do anything to his Nadie puede hacer cosa algana 
liking. que le guste, (que le agrade). 

A boarding-house. Gasa de hu6spedes. Posada. 

A boarding-school. Pupilaje. 

' Hospedarse (tomar posada) con 
To board with any one, or any- alguno. 
where. Vivir con alguno. 

. Estar en posada con alguno. 
To exclaim. Exclamar. 

To make uneasy. Inquietar. Molestar. Desasosegar. 

To become or grow unewy. j Inquietarse. Molestarse. 

( Desasosegarse. Incomodarse. 
To be uneasy. Estar inquieto, (ansioso, cuida- 

doso, desasosegado, inc6modo). 
Why do you fret, (are you uneasy)! | Por qu6 se inquieta V. f 
I do not fret, (am not uneasy). No me inquieto. 
That news makes me uneasy. Esa noticia m« inquieta. 

I am uneasy at not receiying any Me inquieta el no recibir noticias. 

The uneasiness, trouble. ILainquietud. La incomodidad. 

( El desasosiego. 
Quiet. Tranquilo. Sosegado. Quieto. 

To quiet. i Tranquilizar. Sosegar. 

I Aquietar. Apaciguar. 
(Compose yourself. Tranquilicese V. Sosi^guese Y. 

To alter, to change. Alterar. Gambiar. Mudar. 

That man has altered a great deal Ese hombre se ha mudado mucho 

since I saw him. desde que lo vi. 

To use instead of, to serve for, to Servir de. Usar coma 
be in place of. 

T «-* ^^ ««« «« . o*i«L- t Mi escopeta me sirve de bast6n. 

I use my gun as a stick. ^ ^^ . '^ . , ^ , 

( Uso mi escopeta como baston. 

This hole serves him as a house. Este hueco le sirve de casa. 

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To avail. 
What avails it to you to cry f 

It avails me nothing. 

Opposite, in front of. 

Opposite that house. 

Opposite the garden. 

Opposite to me. 
He lives opposite the castle. 
I live opposite the king's library. 

To sieze, to take hold of. 
To take possession of. 
To witness, to show. 

Servir de. Aprovechar de. 
jDe qu6 le sirve k V. llorart 

Qu4 le aprovecha k V. llorart 
De nada me sirve. 
Enfrente. Frente L 
Enf rente de esa casa. 
Enfrente del jardln. 
Frente k mi. 

Vive enfrente del Castillo. 
Vivo enfrente de (frente 4) la bi- 

blioteca real. 
Asir. Agarrar. 
Apoderarse de. 

Atestiguar. Testificar. Manifes- 
To give evidence against some J Ser testigo contra alguno. 
one. ( Salir testigo contra alguno. 

The witness. El testigo. 

He has shown a great deal of Me manifest6 mucha amistad. 
friendship to me. 

j Hacerse ridicule. Ridiculizarse. 
I Volverse ridiculo. 
Nacer. (See Appendix.) 

To ridicule. 
To become ridiculous. 
To make one's self ridiculous. 

To be bom. 
Where were you bomt 
I was bom in this country. 
Where was your sister bom t 

She was bom in the United States 

of America. 
Where were your brothers bora f 

They were bom in Spain. 
The boarder. 
The pouch. 
A pillow. 
Down, (feathers). 

I En d6nde naci6 V. t 

Naci en este pais. 

I En d6nde naci6 su hermana de 

Naci6 en los Estados Unidos de 

4 En d6nde nacieron los hermanos 

Nacieron en Espafla. 
El hu6sped. El pensionista. 
El morral. La bolsa de cazadores. 
Una funda. 

1. Senor, me atrevere a preguntarle k V. en donde vive 
ttl Conde de B. Vive junto al castillo del otro lado del no. 

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2. i Me podria V. decir qu6 camino debo iomar para ir all& t 
Siga V. la orilla, y llegara k una pequena calle a la derecha» 
que le conduoira en derechura a su casa. 3. Es una bermosa 
casa ; V. la ballara fdcilmente. Muolias gracias, caballero. 
4. i Vive aqui el Conde de N. ? Si, senop ; siryase V. pasar 
adelante. 5. i Esta en casa el senor conde ? Deseo tener el 
bonor de bablarle. 6. Si, senor, su senoria est& en casa ; i k 
quien tendre yo el bonor de anunciar ? Yo soy de Barce- 
lona, y me llamo Don Fermin ; el me conoce bien. 7. i Cual 
es el camino mas corto de aqui al arsenal ? Vaya V. por esta 
calle abajo, y cuando llegue al cabo, de vuelta k la izquierda 
y pase por la encrucijada. 8. Luego entrard V. en una calle 
bastante estrecba, que le llevara a una grande plaza, en donde 
vera V. un callejon. 9. i Por el cual debo pasar ? No, por- 
que no bay salida. 10. Debe V. dejarlo k la derecba, y pasar 
debajo del arco que est4 jimto k kL i Y luego ? Y luego 
debe V. inf ormarse. 11. Le doy k V. mucbas gracias. No 
bay de qu6. 12. i Puede V. traducir una carta inglesa al 
espanol ? Si, puedo. 13. i Quien le enseno 4 V. t Mi maes- 
tro de espafLol. 


1. Why does your motber fret ? Sbe frets at receiving 
no news from ber son, wbo is with the army. 2. She need 
not be uneasy about him, for whenever be gets into a diffi- 
culty he knows how to get out of it again. 3. Last summer 
when we were bunting together, (Juntos) night came upon 
us (se cerrd la noche) at about ten leagues from our 
country-seat, (quinta). 4. Well, (pues,) where did you pass 
the night ? I was very uneasy at first, but your brother was 
not in the least so ; on the contrary, he quieted me, so that 
I lost my imeasiness. We at last found a peasants hut 
where we passed the night. 5. Here I bad an opportunity 
to see how clever your brother is. A few benches and a 
truss of straw (un haz de paja) served him to make a com- 
fortable bed ; be used a bottle as a candlestick, our pouches 
served us as pillows. 6. When we awoke in the morning, 
• we were as fresh and well as if we had slept on down 
and silk. 7. A candidate (un candidato) petitioned (pedir) 

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the King of Prussia (Prtma) for a position, {un empleo). 
This prince asked him where he was born. " I was bom in 
Berlin/* answered he. 8. *' Begone I ^' said the monarch, 
(el monarcay) "all the men of Berlin are good for noth- 
ing." '*I beg your majesty's {majestad) pardon," replied 
the candidate, " there are some good ones, and I know two." 

9. " Who are those two ? " asked the king. " The first," re- 
plied the candidate, " is your majesty, and I am the second." 

10. The king could not help laughing (no pudo menos qtie 
reir) at this answer, and granted (conceder) the request, (la 

SEVENTY-FOURTH LESSON— Leccion Septuagfedma- 

To lose sight of. Perder de vista. 

The sight. La yista. 

I wear spectacles because my sight Llevo anteojos porque tengo la 

is bad, (1 have bad sight). Tista mala. 

I am near-sighted. Tengo la vista corta. 

The ship is so far off that we shall El buque estd tan lejos que pronto 

soon lose sight of it. lo perderemos de vista. 

As it is long since I was in Eng- Como hace mucho tiempo desde 

land, I have lost sight of your queestuveenlnglaterra,heper- 

brother. dido de vista 4 suhermanodeV. 

To owe, ought. Deber. 

You ought to do that. V. deberia hacer eso. 

You ought not to speak thus to V. no deberia habUr asl A rm pa* 

his father. dre de 4L 

He ought to have managed the £l podria haber hecho la cosa 

thing better than he has done. mejor de lo que la ha hecho. 

To desire. Desear. 

Muy buenos dias tenga Y. 

Deseo & V. felices dias. 
Buenos dias. 

I bid you a good morning. 
I wish you a good morning. 

To play, (diversion). ^ Jugar. 

To play the flute. Tocar la flanta. 

A fall. Una caida. 

To have a fall. Dar una caida. 

A stay, a sojounu Eesidencia* Moradm 

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To make a stay. Estar de asiento. Morar. Besidir. 

Does your brother intend to make ^Piensa su hermano de V. estar 

a long stay in the town! largo tiempo de asiento en la 

ciudad t 

He does not intend to make a No piensa estar de asiento en ella. 

long stay in it. 

-, i. • i. J (Proponerse. Pensar. Intentar. 

To purpose, to mtend. im • i. 't 

'^ *^ \ Tener mtenci6n. 

I purpose going on that journey, Pienso hacer ese yiaje. 
I intend to join a hunting party. Intento juntarme k una partida 

de caza. 
-„ . . (Sospechar. Recelar. 

To suspect, to guess. -JAdMnar. Suponer. 

I guess what he has done. Adivino lo que ha hecho 61. 

He does not suspect what is go- Nosospechaloqueyadsucederle. 
ing to happen to him. 
Of whom do you think f | En quiln piensa V. f 

Of what do you think t 4 En qu6 piensa V. f 

On purpose. k prop6sito. 

I beg your pardon,! did not doit Pido perd6n k V., no lo hice & 

on purpose. prop6sito. 

To be still, to hold one's tongue. Callarse. Callarse la boca. 
Do you keep still tongue f 4 Se calla V. f 

I hold my tongue. Me callo. 

He holds his tongue. 1^1 se calla. 

After spe^kiptg half an hour, he Despues de haber hablado per 
h^ld hi» tongue. media hora, se call6. 


1. Habiendo entrado un ladron en una posada, se robo tres 
capas. Al salir se encontro con uno de los pensionistas que 
tenia una hermosa capa bordada. Viendo tantas capas. pre- 
gunto al hombre donde las babia tornado. El ladron respon- 
dio con mucho sosiego que eran de tres caballeros de casa 
que se las habian dado para que las limpiase. '' Entonces 
lirapie V. tambien la mia, pues lo ha menester," dijo el pen- 
sionista; "pero," anadio, "V. tendrd que devolv6rmela & 
las tres." "No faltare, senor," respondio el ladron, llev&n- 
dose las cuatro capas, que todavia no ban aparecido. 2. 
Yds. est4n cantando, caballeros, pero este no es tiempo de 

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cantar; deberian callarse, y escuchar lo que se les dice. 
3. Estamos perplejos. i De que estdn Yds. perplejos ? Voy 
4 decirselo a V. : se trata de saber como pasaremos nuestro 
tiempo gustosamente. 4. Jue^en Yds. una mesa de biliar 
6 un juego al ajedrez. 5. Teniamos intenoion de unimos k 
una partida de caza ; i viene V. con nosotros ? 6. No puedo, 
porque no he acabado mi tarea ; y si descuido hacerla, mi 
maestro me regaSLara. 7. Cada uno a su gusto ; si a V. le 
gusta mas estarse en casa que ir a cazar, no se lo impedire- 
mos. 8. I Va con nosotros el senor B. ? Puede ser. 9. No 
me gustaria ir con 61, porque es un gran hablador. 10. i Qu6 
tiene V. ? Parece estar enfadado. Tengo motivo de estar 
enfadado, porque no bay ningun modo de Obtener dinero 
ahora. 11. i Ha ido V. k ver al senor A. ? Fui k su casa ; 
pero no hay ningun medio de pedirle algo prestado. 12. To 
sospechaba que no me prestaria nada, y esa es la razon por 
la cual no queria pedirselo ; y si V. no nie hubiera dicho 
que lo hiciera, yo no me habria expuesto a ser desairado. 

1. I supposed that you would be thirsty, and that your 
sister would be hungry ; that is the reason why I brought 
you here. 2. I am sorry, however, not to see your mother. 
Why do you not drink your coffee ? If I were not sleepy I 
should drink it Sometimes you are sleepy, at others (otras) 
cold, sometimes warm, and at times you seem to be afflicted 
with all the ills of the flesh. 3. I believe that you think 
too much of the misfortune which has happened to your 
friend, (/em). If I did not think about it, who would think 
about it? 4. Of whom does your brother think? He 
thinks of me, for we always think of each other (uno de 
otro) wlien we are not together, (juntos). 5. The Biscayans 
are excellent swimmers, (nadadores). 6. The two chess- 
players were very skillful. 7. Do you know any flutist, 
(flautista), or any violinist, (violinista) ? I know a very 
good flutist, but I do not know any violinist. 8. Why do 
you ask ? Because I intend to have a musical entertain- 
ment. 9. Do you sometimes make music ? Very often ; for 
I like it very much. 10. What instrument do you play ? I 

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play the violin and my sister plays the piano. My brother, 
who plays the bass (el contrabajo) accompanies (acompaflar) 
us, and Miss Stolz sometimes applauds {aplavdir) us. IL 
Does she not also play some (musical) instrument? She 
plays the harp, {el arpa), but she is too proud (orgulloao) 
to practice music with us. 12. A very poor town went to 
considerable expense (hizo gastos considerables) in feasts 
and illuminations (fiestas 6 ilumituiciones) on the occasion 
when the prince pa^ed through, (cuando pasd su principe), 
13. He himself seemed astonished at it. '* It has only done," 
said a courtier, (cortesano), " what was due to your majesty." 
>* That is true," replied another, " but all that it has done was 

SEVENTY-FIFTH LESSON— Leccion Septuagesimaquinta 


I (figuratively). 

He comes toward me. 

He behaved very well toward me. 

The behavior of others is but an 
echo of our own. If we behave 
well toward them, they will also 
behave well toward us ; but if 
we use them ill, we must not 
expect any better from them. 

To treat well. 
To ill-treat. 

As you have always used me well, 
I shall not use you ill. 
To delay (to tarry). 
Do not let it be long before you 

I shall not be long in returning. 

To long to or for. 


Con. Para con. 

Viene hacia mi. 

Se port6 muy bien conmigo. 

La conducta de los otros no es 
m&s que el eco de la nnestra. 
Si nos portamos bien con ellos, 
se portardn igualmentebien oon 
nosotros ; pero si no los trata- 
mos bien, no debemos esperar 
que nos traten mejor. 

Tratar bien. 

Tratar mal. 

Otro. Otros. 

Gomo V. siempre me ha tratado 
bien, no le tratar^ mal. 

Tardar. Tardarse. Detenerae. 

No tarde V, en volver. 

No tardar^ en volver. 
Esperar con ansias. 
Estar ansioso. 
Desear con vehemenoia. 
Tener gran gana. 
Tener muchas ganaa de. 


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I long to see my brother. Estoy ansioso de ver d mi herma- 

We long for dinner, because we Tenemos mucfaas ganas de co- 
are very hungry. mer, porque tenemos mucha 

fEstar uno con desahogo. 
To be at one's ease. -j Estar k sus anchas. 

[Estar bien. 

TobecomforUble. J Ester c6modamento. 

I Pasarlo bien. 

To be uncomfortable. < Estar inc6inod«mente. 
( Pasarlo mal 
I am very much at my ease in Estoy muy & mis anchuras eu es- 

this chair. ta silla. 

What can that be t I Qu4 puede ser eso t 

That man is well off, for he has Ese hombre lo pasa bien, pues^to 

plenty of money. que tiene mucho dinero. 

That man gets along badly, for Ese hombre lo pasa mal, porque 

he is poor. es pobre. 

To make one's self comfortable. Hacer uno lo que le acomoda. 
Make yourself comfortable. Haga V. lo que le acomode. 

To inconvenience one's self. I incomodarse, molestarse. 

To trouble one s self. ) 

Do not put yourself out. No se incomode V., no se moles- 

Can you, without putting your- | Puede V., sin incomodarse, pres- 
self to inconvenience, lend me tarme su escopeta f 
your gun. 

To make entreaties. Solicitar, hacer instancias, hacer 

diligencias, instar. 
To insist i ^®^^' encarecidamente. 

( Pedir con instancia. 
I employed every kind of entreaty Me vali de toda especie de supli- 
to bring him to do it. cas para empeflarlo d que lo 

To solicit, to press, to sue, to en- Solicitar, instar, suplicar, rogar. 

Here and there. Aqui y alH, acd y alld, acd y acu- 

Now and then. De cuando en cuando. 

Every now and then. De vez en cuando. 


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So-so ; fairly, tolerably. 
I hare written my composition 
tolerably well. 

To impart 

Have you informed your father 
of that! 

I have informed bim of it. 

To postpone, to put ofiE. 

Let us put that off untU to-mor- 

In vain, in spite of. 

With all my looking about me, 
I saw neither man nor house : 
not the least sign of settle- 

A dwelling, habitation. 

In Tain I speak, for you do not 
listen to me. 

In spite of doing my best, I can 
not do anything to his liking. 

Yon may say what you please, no- 
body will believe you. 

Even though they earn so much 
money, they will never be 

We search in vain, for what we 
have lost we can not find. 

To salute. 

To wish a good morning. 
I have the honor to bid you adieu. 

Present my compliments to him, 

to her. 
Remember me to him, to her. 
Do me the favor to present my 

compliments to your sister. 

Tal cnal, as! as!. 

He hecho mi compo6ici6n tal 

Dar parte. 
I Ha informado V. de eso & sn 

padre t 
I Ha dado V. parte de eso ^ su 

padre t 
Le he informado de ello. 
Posponer.* Diferir.* 
Difiramos eso hasta mafiana. 

En vano. Por m£s que. 

Por m&s que volvla los ojos k 

todas partes, no veia ni casas, 

ni hombres : ni la m&s insigni- 

ficante seflal de habitaci6n. 
Una habitaci6n. 
En vano hablo, pues Yds. no me 

Por m^ que haga, no puedo hacer 

nada 4 su gusto. 
Por m&s que Y.'diga nadie lo 

Por m&s dinero que ganen, jam&s 

ser&n ricos. 

En vano buscamos, pues lo que 

hemos perdido no lo hallare- 


Darle k uno los buenos dias. 
Tengo el honor de despedirme 

Encomiendeme Y. & H, & ella. 
Digale Y. muchas cosas de mi 

Hdgame Y. el favor de enoomen- 

darme k su hermana. 


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Bemember me (present my com- Dele V. memorias 7 ezpresiones 

pliments) to him, to her. finisimas mias. 

At your service. Para servir k V, 

1. iElstuvo satisfecho de la composicion su maestro de 
V. ? No lo estuvo. En vano bago todo lo que puedo ; no 
puedo hacer nada a su gusto. 2. i Como se ha portado mi 
hijo con V. ? Se porto bien conmigo, porque siempre se 
porta bien con todo el mundo. Su padre le decia a menudo : 
'' La conducta de otros no es sino el eco de la nuestra.'' 3. 
i Que dijo su hermana ? Decia que esperaba con ansia la 
comida, porque tenia mucha hambra 4. i Esta V. comoda- 
mente en su posada ? Estoy bien comodo alli. 5. Tengo 
el honor de darle a V. los buenos dias. i Como esta V. 'i 
Muy bien, gracias ; para servir a V. i Y como estan todos 
en su casa ? Bastante bien, i a Dios gracias ! Mi hermana 
estuvo un poco indispueata, pero esta mejor; me encargo 
que le presentase a V. sus mas finas expresiones. Mc alegro 
de saber que esta mejor. 6. No le detendre a V. en sus 
ocupaciones ; yo s6 que el tiempo de un comerciante es pre- 
cioso. To no tengo nada de urgente que hacer aliora. Mi 
correo estd ya despachado. Yo no me detendre aqui por 
mas tiempo. Al pasar por aqui solo quise informarme de 
la salud de V. 7. La perdida de tiempo es irreparable. Todo 
el oro del mundo no puede pagar un solo minuto. Es pues 
de la mayor importancia emplear bien el tiempo que consiste 
solamente en minutos, de los cuales se debe hacer un buen 
uso. 8. Para ser felices olvidemos lo pasado, no nos acougo- 
jemos acerca de lo futuro, y gocemos de lo presente. 

1. Have you written your Spanish composition ? I have 
written it. 2. Can you, without putting yourself to incon- 
venience, lend me five hundred dollars? As you have 
always treated me well, I shall use you in the same manner, 
(modo). 3. I am willing to lend you the money you want, 
but on condition that you return it to me next week. 4. 
May I see your brothers ? You will see them to-morrow. 

Digitized by 



As they have just arrived from a long journey they need 
sleep, as they are very tired. 5. Have you informed your 
brottier what I told you ? As he was very tired and sleepy, 
I have put oflF telling him till to-morrow. 6. As for you, 
you are health itself ; you can not look better. I have no 
time to be ill : my business would not permit it. Please to 
sit down ; here is a chair. 7. It is very fine weather to-day. 
If you will allow me, I shall have the pleasure of seeing 
you again this afternoon, and if you have time we shall take 
a walk together. With the greatest pleasure. 8. We have 
but the present; the past is no longer anything, and the 
future is uncertain, (incierto), 9. If most men knew how 
to content themselves (contentarae) with what they have, 
they would be happy; but their greediness (codicid) very 
often makes them unhappy. 10. I was very much dejected 
{triate) when my cousin came to me. " What is the matter 
with you ? " he asked. ** Oh, woe is me, my dear cousin," 
replied I, " in losing that money I have lost everything." 
"Do not be disturbed," said he, "for I have found your 

SEVENTY-SIXTH LESSON— Leccion Septuagesima- 

m^ «.««« \ Querer decir. Hacer ^nimo. 

lo mean. ■{ rr, , _ 

I Signincar. 

What do you. mean f i Qu6 quiere V. decir f 

What does that man mean t % Qu6 quiere decir ese hombre t 

I do not know what he means. No s^ lo que quiere decir. 

« , . , S Ser singular. 

To be particular. ^ Tener rarezas. 

I do not like to deal with that No me gusta tratar (tener nego- 
man, for he is too particular. cios) con ese hombre, porque cs 

muy singular. 
Inquietarse. Enfadarse. Apa* 

To grow impatient. 
To fret. 

Do not fret about that. 

Impacientarse. Consumirse. 
^No se impaciente V. de eso. 

To sit up. To watch. Velar. 

I have sat up all night. He velado toda la noohe. 

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To advise. 
The dress. The costume. 
Elegant dress. 
To dress. 
That man always dresses welL 

A trick. 
He played me a trick. 
Take care, that man will play 
you a trick. 

Besides, (more). 
Besides the three books which 
you have given me, I wish three 

Three are lacking. 
Three too many. 
To lack. 
To reach. 
My reach. 
Within my reach. 

Out of my reach. 

These things are not within the 

reach of everybody. 
Within gun-shot. 
A gun-shot, (meaning distance). 
Two gun-shots. 

How many shots have you fired t 

I wonder why that man makes 
such a noise. 
So long as. 

As long as you behave well, peo- 
ple will love you. 

To carry ofif. 

A mouthful. 
To overwhelm. To heap. To 


El vestido. El traje. El uso. 

Traje elegante. Vestido de moda. 


Ese hombre se viste siempre bien. 

Engafio. Chasco. Burla. 

Me di6 un chasco. 

Guidado, ese hombre le dard k Y. 
un chasco. 

Ademds de. 

Adem&s de los tres libros que V. 
me ha dado, quiero otros tres, 
(quiero tres mds). 


Faltan tres. 

Sobran tres. 


Alcanzar. Alcanzxr & entender. 

Mi alcance. 

A mi alcance. 

Fuera de mi alcance. 

No alcanzo k ello. 

No alcanzo d entenderlo. 

^odo el mundo no alcanza k en- 
tender estas cosas. 
j A tiro de escopeta. 
I A tiro de bala. 

A dos tiros de escopeta. 

II Cudntos tiros ha disparado V. t 
I Cudntos escopetazos ha tiradoV. t 
jCuantas veces hizo V. fuegot 
Extraflo mucho que haga tanto 

ruido ese hombre. 
Mientras. En tanto que. 
Le amaidn & V. mientras se porte 
J Llevarse. Quitar. 
) Quitar del medio. 
Un bocado. Un pedacito. 
Colmar. Llenar. Abrumar. 


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To overwhelm with joy. i ^^t"*'' ^/ ^'''^' 

\ Colmar de gozo. 

Generous. Generoso. 

Charitable. Beneficent. Caritativo. Benefice. 

You have heaped benefits upon V. me ha colmado de beneficioa 


Sincere. Sincere, 

Sincerely Sinceramente. 

An advantage. Una ventaja. 

The disadvantage. The preju- La desventaja. El perjuicio. 


I shall never say anything to your Nunca dir6 nada en perjuicio de 

disadvantage. V. 

To surrender. Rendirse.* Entregar. 

The enemies have surrendered. Los enemigos sc lian rendido. 

To prefer. Preferir.* 

1 prefer the useful to the agree- Prefiero lo t^til k lo agradable. 


Adjectives used substantively are preceded by the neuter pro- 
noun lo, (See Elements.) 

To behold, look. Mirar. 

Look at those beautiful flowers, Miren Yds. {or mirad) esas her* 

with their colors so fresh and mosasflores^consuscolorestan 

bright. frescos y vivos, {or brillantes). 

The color. El color. 

The lily. El lirio. 

The violet. La violeta. 

The forget-me-not La trinitaria. 

The rose. La rosa. 

An emblem. Un emblema. 

Words ending in ema are usually masculine. 

Fresh verdure is salutary to our El verdor fresco es agradable k 
eyes. la vista. 

1. i Que quiere decir eso, caballero ? Eso quiere decir 
que no me gusta tratar con V., porque es V. demasiado 
sin^ar. 2. Me admiro de que su hermano de V. no haya 
hecho su tarea. Era demasiado dificil. Ha velado toda la 
noche, y no ha podido hacerla, porque estaba f uera de su 

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alcance. 3. Su hermano hace lo mismo. Sin embargo son 
muy buenas gentes ; no solamente son ricos y amables, sino 
tambienson generosos y caritativos. Me quieren sincera- 
mente, asi yo les quiero tambien, y por consiguiente nunca 
dire cosa alguna en perjuicio suyo. 4. i Se rindieron los 
enemigos ? No se rindieron porque no prefirieron la vida 4 
la muerte. 5. i Por que esta V. tan triste ? V. no sabe lo 
que me incomoda, querida amiga mia. Digamelo V., pues 
le aseguro que participo de sus penas tan bien como de sus 
placeres. 6. Estoy segura de que V. me compadece, pero 
no puedo decirle ahora lo que me desazona. Sin embargo, 
se lo dire cuando se presente la ocasion. Hableraos de otra 
cosa. 7. Bepartamos lo que tenemos, y quedemos amigas 
inseparables, mientras vivamos. Ser4 V. siempre bien 
yenida en mi casa, y espero igualmente serlo en la suya. 8. 
Seremos felices cuando estemos satisf echas con lo que tenga- 
mos, y si desempenamos nuestras obligaciones como debemos, 
Dios cuidara de lo demds. 9. El bianco lirio tiene el color 
de la inocehcia ; la violeta indica la dulzura ; Yds. lo pueden 
ver en los ojos de Luisa. 10. Otra palabra mas, querido 
amigo mio. i Qu6 manda V. ? Yo olvidaba decirle a V. 
que me encomendara a su senora madre. 

1. Why have you played a trick on that man ? Because 
he always finds fault with everything he sees. 2. As soon as 
Mr. Flausen sees me, he begins to speak English, in order to 
perfect himself, (per/eccionarse,) and overwhelms me with 
politeness, {corteaiaSy) so that I often do not know what to 
answer. 3. I should like {querer) them still more, if they 
did not act with so much ceremony ; but every one has his 
faults, and mine is to criticise the customs of others. 4. 
They had neither bread, nor meat, nor water, nor arms, nor 
money; nevertheless, they determined to die rather than 
surrender. 5. What do you think of the man who spoke to 
us yesterday at the concert ? He is a man of much talent, 
(jtalento^ and not at all given to regard his own merits, (y 
nada presumido). 6. It is said that contentment surpasses 
{valer mds) riches; let us then always be contented. 7. If 

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I saw you happy, I should be equally so, and we should be 
more contented than the greatest princes, who are not 
always satisfied. 8. The past being no longer anything, let 
us not be uneasy about the future, and let us enjoy the pres- 
ent. 9. Look at those beautiful flowers, ladies ; how fresh 
and bright they are 1 None knows how they grow, yet they 
are more beautiful than any similar creation of man. 10. 
The forget-me-not has the color of heaven, our future dwell- 
ing, and the rose, the queen of flowers, is the emblem of 
beauty and joy. 11. How beautiful is the fresh verdure I 
It is refreshing to the eyes, and has the color of hope {espe- 
ranza,) our most faithful friend (femenine) who never de- 
serts {abandonar) us, not even in the hour of death. 12. Do 
me the favor to tell your mother that I regret {sentir) not 
being at home when she recently honored me with a visit 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH LESSON— Leccion Septuag6sima- 

A silk gown. 

A kitchen table. 

A mahogany table. 

A brick house. 

A stone house. 

A windmill. 

A coffee-mill. 

A sugar-mill. 

A velvet bonnet. 

A silver tankard. 

A water-mill. 

A steam-mill. 


A two-wheeled wagon. 

A four-wheeled carriage. 

A one-story house. 

A two-story house. 

A one-horse wagon. 

A four-horse carriage. 


Un t^nico (traje, vestido) de seda. 

Una mesa de oocina. 

Una mesa de caoba. 

Una casa de ladrillo. 

Una casa de piedra. 

Un molino de viento. 

Un moliniUo de caf^ 

Un trapiche. Ingenio de azdcac 

Un gorro de terciopelo. 

Un jarro de plata. 

Un molino de agua. 

Un molino de vapor. 

Armas de fuego. 

Un carro de dos ruedas. 

Un coche de ouatro ruedas. 

Una casa de un piso. 

Una casa de dos pisos. 

Un carro tirade por un caballo. 

Un carruaje tirado por cnatro 



by Google 



To exaggerate. 
That man exaggerates all that he 
says and does. 

An inch. 

On a smaU scale. 

On a large scale. 

Thereabouts, nearly. 

Alternately, turn by turn. 

To endeavor, to strive. 

To give one's self up to grief, 

To melt. 

To melt in tears. 

To raise, to cause. 

To raise difficulties. 
To cause quarrels. 
To cause suspicions. 
The behavior of that man raised 
suspicions in my mind. 
To shake. 
Shake that tree, and the fruit 
will fall. 

A cover : (plate, knife, fork, spoon, 
napkin, and bread). 

A table with four covers. 
A writing-table. A desk. 

A dining-room. 
A bedroom. 

A repeater. 
An oil-bottle. 
A mustard-pot. 
A pitcher. 
A fowling-piece. 
A fishing-line. 

A fishing-rod. 
Demand, exact 

Exagerar. Ponderar. 
Ese hombre exagera cuanto dice 
y hace. 

Una pulgada. 
En pequefio. Por menor. 
En grande. Por mayor. 
Cerca de. Poco mds 6 menos. 
Altemativamente. Por turnos. 
Esforzarse. Empefiarse. 

1Abandonarse(entregarse)al dolor. 
Dejarse veneer del dolor. 
Derretir.* Derretirse. 
Derretirse en lAgrimas. 
J Excitar. Incitar. Mover. 
I Levantar. 
Excitar dificultades. 
Mover pendencias. 
Excitar sospechas. 
La conducta de ese hombre me 
incito k sospecharlo. 
Sacuda V. ese 4rbol, y la fruta 

(plato, cuchillo, te- 

■ Un cubierto, \ nedor, cuchara, 

servilleta y pan). 

Una mesa de cuatro cubiertos. 

Una mesa para escribir. Un 

Un comedor. 
j Un dormitorio. Una alcoba. 
( Un aposento para dormir. 
Un reloj de repetici6n. 
Una botella para aceite. 
Una mostacera. 
Un jarro. Un pichel. 
Una escopeta de cazador. 
Una cuerda para oafia de pes- 

Una cafia de pescar. 


by Google 


What do you demand of me t 4 Qu6 exige V. de mi f 

I exact nothing of you. No exijo nada de V. 

A teapot. Una tetera. 



Proper nouns ending in a, (My or es are the same in both lan- 
guages. But it must be observed, that nouns having a double con- 
sonant, drop one of them ; that nouns that have th^ suppress the h ; 
that ph is changed into /; y into i; the diphthongs cb, cb, into e ; eh 
into qu before e or i, and into c before a, 0, u ; and that names 
beginning with S followed by a consonant, generally take E be- 
fore it: 

Caligula. Caligula. 

Dolabella. Dolabela. 

Cleopatra. Cleopatra. 

Diana. Diana. 

Julia. Julia. 

^neas. Eneas. 

Pythagoras. Pitagoras. 

Ulysses. Ulises. 

Socrates. S6crates. 

Philadelphia. Filadelfia. 

Acheron. Aquer6n. 

Achilles. Aquiles. 

Achates. Acates. 

Sparta. Esparta. 

Names ending in generally add an n : 

Cicero. Cicer6n. 

Plato. Plat6n. 

Scipio. Escipi6n. 

Names ending in us change that termination into : 

Cyrus. Ciro. 

Camillus. Camilo. 

Orpheus. Orfeo. 

Most of those ending in al or is are the same in both lan- 

Juvenal. Juvenal. 

Sesostris, Sesostris. 


zed by Google 


Names which in English end in a/ndevy change that termination 
into androi 

Alexander. Alejandro. 

Lysander. Lisandro. 

The English names of kingdoms, proYinces, and towns, ending 
in a, are the same in Spanish ; and those of towns ending in hurgj 
add frequently o : 



Asia. Asia. 

Fribnrg. Friburgo. 

Hamburg. Hamburgo. 

Dainties. Golosinas. Manjares delicados. 

[El es amigo de golosinas. 

He is fond of dainties. 

k 41 le gustan mucho las golo- 


In broad daylight. De dia claro. 



L i Qu6 ha comprado ella ? Ha comprado un tunico de 
seda, un gorro de terciopelo, y un velo de encaje. 2. i Pide 
V. una botella para vino ? No, yo pido una botella de vino, 
pero no pido una botella para vino. 3. i Qu6 me quiere ese 
hombre ? El no exige nada ; pero aceptara lo que V. le de, 
porque necesita de todo. 4. V. hace mal en tener tan mala 
opinion de el, porque le ha servido de padre a V. 5. No se 
abandone V. 4 tanto dolor, si no, me har4 V. deshacerme en 
Idgrimas. 6. i Ha visto V. a su sobrina ? Si ; ella es una 
muy buena muchacha, que escribe bien el espanol y lo habla 
aun mejor ; por consiguiente es amada y honrada de todos. 
7. Algunas veces se acuesta cuando es de dia claro, y finge 
que est4 malo ; pero cuando nos sentamos k la mesa, gene- 
ralmente est4 mejor. 8. i Por que habla V. siempre ingl6s 
y jam4s espanol ? Porque soy demasiado timido. V. se 
burla : i, es jam4s corto un ingles ? 

1. Has your sister been out to-day ? She has been out to 
buy sevwal things. 2. What have you done with my silver 
tankard ? It is on the kitchen table (together) with the oil- 

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bottle, the milk-pot, the pitcher, the mustard-pot, and the 
coffee-mill. If you would have the goodness to give me the 
key of the wine-cellar, {la bodega,) I should go for a bottle 
of Spanish wine. 3. I tell you that I am not fond of him, 
for his behavior raises suspicions in my mind. He exagger- 
ates all that he says and does. 4. He has cheated me in 
a small and large way, and whenever he calls he asks for 
something. In this manner he has alternately asked me for 
all I have ; my fowling-piece, my fishing-line, my repeater, 
and my golden candlesticks. 5. Democritus and Heraclitus 
were philosophers of a very different character; the first 
laughed at the follies ijta locura) of men, and the other wept 
over them. 6. They were both right, for the follies of men 
deserved to be laughed at (ae debe reir) and wept over. 7. 
And her brother, what is he doing ? Do not speak of him ; 
he is a naughty boy, who always writes badly, and speaks 
Spanish still worse ; he is therefore {asi) respected by nobody. 
He IS very fond of dainties, but he does not like books. 8. 
He is to study medicine, (la medicina,) but he has not the 
slightest liking for it, {afici&n), 9. He is almost always 
talking of his dogs, which he loves passionately, (apasio' 
nadamente). 10. My dear father and mother dined yesterday 
with some friends at the palace of the King of Spain. 11. 
Have you any money ? No, Sir. Then I have nothing for 
you to eat 

SEVENTY-EIGHTH LESSON— Lecci6n Septuag6sima- 




First Conjugation. Second and Third Conjugcttions, 


1. e. 1. emos. 1. a. 1. amos. 

2. es. 2. eis. 2. as. 2. ais. 

8. e. 8. en. 8. a. 8. an. . 

To have (principal). Tener. 

May have, let have, etc Tenga, tengas, tenga, tengamoa, 

tengiis, tengan. 

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To have (auxiliary; Haber. 

May have, let have, etc. Haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, ha- 

y&is, hayan. 
To be. Ser. 

May be, let be, etc Sea, seas, sea, seamos, sedis, sean. 

To be. Estar. 

May be, let be, etc Est^ est^, est6, estemos, est^is, 

To be able. Poder. 

May be able, let be able, (can). Pueda, puedas, pueda, podamos, 

poddis, puedan. 

The present subjunctiye has the following uses in principal and 
independent sentences : ' 

To supply the imperatiye, affirmatively, in the first and third 
persons, and negatively in all persons : 

Let me be. Sea yo. 

Let me do. Haga yo. 

Do not do. No haga V. 

To express a suggestion, an exhortation, or a gentle command : 
Let the earth punish thee. Castiguete la tierra. 

Long live the queen. Viva la reina. 

To indicate indifference, indefiniteness : 
Come what may. Venga lo que venga. 

Go wherever they will. Donde quiera que vayan. 

With verbs denoting an ardent wish : 
God grant that it may not happen Plegue k Dios no suceda asi. 

The present subjunctive is employed in dependent sentences which 
follow the conjunction que, that, when the principal clause denies, 
doubts, or questions what is contained in the dependent clause : 
T doubt whether he said it. Dudo que lo haya hecho. 

When the related verb of the principal clause denotes hope, ex- 
pectation, fear : 
I fear that he has not arrived. Temo que no haya llegado. 

After verbs expressing a command, direction, caution, wish, de- 
sire, entreaty, preference, concession, permission : 

I regret that I was not able to Siento que no haya podido sal- 
save lum« varlo, 


by Google 



Antes que. 

Granted that. 


A menos que. 

In case that. 

To the 


A fin de que. 



As far as. 



As soon as. 


Bien que. 


When, as. 



As if. 

Como si, cual si. 

Would that. 


Como quiera que. 

In order that. 



Provided that. 

Con tal que. 




Supposing that. 

After the following conjunctions in sentences expressive of pos- 
sibility, uncertainty, and an indefinite future : 

Dado que. 
En caso de que. 

Hasta donde. 
Luego que. 
No sea que. 
Para que. 
Por . . . que. 
Siempre que. 
Supuesto que. 

Other illustrations of the subjunctive are appended below. 

What do you wish him to do f 4 Qu6 quiere V. que haga 61 f 

It will be necessary for him to Serdnecesarioque^lhayaacabado 
have finished his exercise be- su ejercicio antes de las dos. 
fore two o'clock. 

It will be sufficient for you toj Bastard que V. sepa eso. 
know that. ( Serd suficiente que V. lo sepa. 

It is enough for him to have writ- Basta que 61 haya escrito dos car- 
ten two letters. tas. 

I rejoice that you spoke thus. Me alegro mucho de que V. haya 

hablado asi. 

He will give you paper, without 6I le dara d V. papel, sin que V. 
your asking for it. se lo pida. 

Let me know when he writes. Aviseme V. cuando 61 le escriba. 

It is necessary that you be here Es necesario que V. est6 aqui 
at an early hour. temprano. 

You must do that. Es menester que Y. haga eso. 

It is necessary that one have Es necesario que uno tenga di- 

I must go to market. 

Es menester que yo vaya 6 la 

Es menester que se vaya. 
Es justo que sea castigada 

He must go away. 

It is just that he be punished. 

It is sufficient for you to know Basta que Y. lo sepa. 

It is time for you to speak. Es tiempo de que Y. hable, 

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We must sell our goods immedi- Es menester que vendamos in- 

ately. mediatamente nuestras meroa- 


What must I say f i Qu^ es menester que yo digaf 

It is important that this should . Importa que eso se haga. 

be done. 

It is proper that we should set out. Conviene que partamos. 

It is desirable that you go to the Es de desear que V. se vaya al 

country. campo. 

It is necessary that we finish to- Es necesario que acabemos hoy. 


It is sufficient that you are satis- Basta que Yds. est^n satisfechos. 


I am sorry that she is ill. Siento que est^ mala. 

I am charmed that you are here. Estoy encantado de que V. est^ 


I am glad that he has received Me alegro de que 41 haya recibido 

his money. su dinero. 

She is angry that you are my Est6 enojada de que Y. sea mi 

friend. amigo. 

I am surprised that you are not Estoy sorprendido de que V. no 

more attentive. sea mds ateuto. 

I am extremely glad that your Me alegro en extreme de que 

sister has recovered. su hermana de V. est6 restable- 


Your father is distressed that you Su padre de Y. estd afligido de 

miss your lessons. que Y. pierda sus lecciones. 

I am surprised that you have not Estoy sorprendido de que Y. no 

done your task. haya hecho su tarea. 


L Un joven principe, de edad de siete afLos, era admirado 
de todo el mundo 4 causa de su ingenio. Estando una vez 
en la sociedad de un oficial anciano, observo este, hablando 
del joven principe, que cuando los ninos descubrian tanto 
ingenio en sus tdemos afLos, generalmente se volvian estu- 
pidos, cuando Uegaban & la edad madura. **Si 6ste es el 
caso,** dijo el joven principe, que le habia oido, " vos debeis 
haber sido muy notable por vuestro ingenio, cuando erais 
nino.'' 2. Un ingles, en su primer viaje 4 Francia, encontrd 

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en las calles de Gales a un nino chiquito que hablaba la len- 
gua francesa con fluidez y elegancia. '' I Santo cielo I " ex- 
clamo el, '' i es posible que aun los ninos chiquitos hablen 
aqui la lengua francesa con pureza?" 3. Solicitemos la 
amistad de los buenos, y evitemos la sociedad de los malva- 
dos ; porque la mala compania corrompe las bueaas costum- 
bres. 4. i Que tiempo hace hoy ? Nieva continuamente, 
como nevo ayer, y segun todas las apariencias, nevard tam- 
bien manana. 5. Que nieve ; yo me alegraria de que nevara 
todavia mas, porque estoy siempre muy bien, cuando hace 
mucho frio. 6. Y yo me hallo siempre muy bien, cuando 
no hace frio ni calor. 7. Hace mucho viento hoy, y haria- 
mos mejor, quedandonos en casa. 8. Haga el tiempo que 
haga, yo debo salir ; porque prometi estar con mi hermana a 
las once y cuarto, y debo cumplir con mi palabra. 

1. Will you relate (cowfar) something to me ? What do 
you wish me to relate to you ? 2. A little anecdote, if you 
like. A little boy one day at table (d la mesa) asked for 
some meat. His father said that it was not polite to ask for 
any, and that he should wait until some were given him, 
{que le dieran). 3. The poor boy, seeing every one eat, and 
that nothing was given to him, said to his father: "My 
dear father, give me a little salt, if you please." "What 
wilt thou do with it ? " asked the father. " I wish to eat 
it with the meat which you will give me," replied (repli- 
car) the child. 4. Everybody admired the little boy's wit ; 
and the father, perceiving that his son had nothing, gave 
him meat without his asking for it, (sin que la pidiera). 
5. Who was that little boy that asked for meat at table ? 
He was the son of one of my friends. 6. Why did he ask 
for some meat ? He asked for some because he had a good 
appetite. 7. Why did not his father give him some immedi- 
ately ? Because he had forgotten it. 8. Was the little boy 
wrong in asking for some ? He was wrong, for he ought to 
have waited. 9. Why did he ask his father for some salt ? 
He asked for some salt, that his father might perceive that 
be had no meat, and that he might give him some. 10. Do 

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you wish me to relate you another anecdote ? You will 
greatly favor me. Some one who was buying some goods 
of a shopkeeper, said to him : " You ask too much ; you 
ought not to sell as dear to me as to another, because I am a 
friend." The merchant replied : " Sir, we must gain some- 
thing by {con) our friends, for our enemies will never come 
to the shop. " 

SEVENTY-NINTH LESSON— Leccion Septuagesima- 



The student ought to bear in mind what has been said already 
as to the use of the imperfect subjunctive. 

Are you willing to stay here until 
I can go out with you f 

I shall go out before he comes 

If yon had what you have not, 
you would be rich. 

I send you my book, that you 
may read it. 

Unless you accompany her, she 
will not go out. 

Though your children are idle, 
they learn a little. 

If a man had ever so little ac- 
quaintance with another, he 
would be bound to take a part 
in the dispute, and venture his 
person as much as if he had 
himself been angry. 

Though she be small and ugly, 
she is nevertheless amiable. 

I should not have her for a wife, 
though she be rich and have a 
great deal of wit, because she 
is not good hearted. 

Provided you are my friend, I am 

4 Quiere V . estarse aqui hasta que 

yo pueda salir con V. t 
Saldr^ antes que ^1 vuelva. 

Si V. tuviera lo que no tiene, 

seria rico. 
Le envio d V. rai libro para que 

(d fin de que) lo lea. 
A menos que V. la acompafle, no 

Aunque los nifios de V. scan pere- 

zosos, aprenden un poco. 
For poca amistad que un hombre 

tuviera con otro, seiia necesario 

que entrara en la disputa, y 

que arriesgara su persona tanto 

como si 61 mismo se hubiera 

(hubiese) encolerizado. 
Aunque sea chica, y fea, no deja 

de ser am able. 
No querria tomarla por mi esposa 

aunque sea rica, y tenga mucho 

talento, porque no tiene buen 

Con tal que V. sea mi amigo, 

estoy contento. 


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Whether jou are in the right or Sea que V. tenga 6 no tenga ra- 
in the wronp:. z6n. 

Although the monkey be dressed Aunque se vista de seda la mona, 
in silk, he is still a monkey. mona se queda. 

Iriarte, Pdbula XXVIL 

But before it reaches that stage, Pero antes que se Uegue & ese t6r- 
it is necessary to travel through- mino es menester andar por el 
out the world. mundo. 

D, Quijote, cap. xxi, pt L 

But be that as it may, I shall 
mend it in the first place where 
I find a blacksmith, in such a 
manner as not to be surpassed, 
nor even approached, by that 
which the god of smiths forged 
and finished for the god of war. 

Pero sea lo que f uere, yo la adere- 
zar^ en el primer lugar donde 
haya herrero, y de suerte que 
no le haga ventaja, ni aun le 
llegue la qufe hizo y forj6 el dios 
de las herrerlas para el dios de 
las batallas. 

Ditto, ditto. 

I wish not to divide spoils, but to To no quiero repartir despojos, 
ask and beseech some friend to sino pedir y suplicar i. algun 
give me a draught of wine, and amigo, que me d^ un trago de 
to wipe away this sweat. vino y me enjugue este sudor. 

Ditto, cap. liii. pt ii. 

Some conjunctions govern the indicative, when the sentence 
affirms positively that the thing in question is, has been, or will be; 
and the subjunctive, when the sense of the phrase indicates uncer- 
tainty, condition, stipulation^ contingency, futurity, or wish : 



So, in such a manner. 
So as to. 
So that. 



Si no. 
De (de tal) forma que. 
De (de tal) manera que. 
De (de tal) modo que. 
De (de tal) suerte que. 
v. se porta de manera que 
am ado de todo el mundo. 

Ton behave in such a manner 
that you are loved by every- 

Behave in such a manner that P6rtese V. de tal manera que 
you may be loved, amado, (se haga amar). 

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If he lent them money, they also Si el les prest6 dinero, ellos tam- 

lent it to him. bien se lo prestaron d ^1. 

If he should lend them money, Si ^1 les prestaradinero, ellos tarn- 

they would also lend it to him. bien se lo prest-arSan. 

Do it in such a way as to leave Hdgalo V. de modo que ^1 quede 

him satisfied. satisfecho. 

But for me, he would not have Si no f uera por mi, 61 no lo habria 

known it. sabido. 

If he had gained (had he gained) Si 61 hubiera ganado el pleito 

the suit, he would have lost a habria perdido un amigo y asi 

friend, and therefore he had no tenia raz6n de quejarse. 

no reason to be sorry. 

Although I had been there often, Aunque yo habia estado alii k me- 

I had never seen her. nudo, nunca la habia visto. 

Although I had been there often, Aunque yo hubiera estado alll 6 

I never should have seen her. menudo, nunca la habria visto. 

A comma. Una coma. 

A pause, a stop. Una pausa. 

To breathe. Respirar. 

Necessary, precise. * Precise. 

LECTURA— Reading 
La Puntuaci6n 

Cuando leemos es preciso hacer algunas pausas, a fin de 
respirar y de dar a las palabras y frases que se leen el valor 
que les corresponde. 

Lo mismo sucede cuando hablamos ; pues k nadie se le 
ocurre decir todas las palabras 4 un mismo tiempo, sino que 
las pronuncia claramente de modo que todos las entiendan, 
y hace las pausas necesarias para respirar. 

Estas pausas se marcan en los libros impresos y en los 
escritos, con diversos signos que todos los discipulos deben 
conocer, y son los siguientes : 

, La coma, que senala la pausa m4s corta que se hace a1 
leer. Como si di jeramos : uno, 

; El punto y coma, que indica una paiisa un poco m4s 
larga. El tiempo necesario para decir r&pidamente, tino, 

: Los dos puntos, que marcan una pausa m&s prolongada, 
ContemoB ligero, t^no, do^, *re«. 

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. El piinto final que se coloca al fin de cada oracion. La 
pausa es mucho mayor y la voz descansa por completo. 

? La interrogacion, se usa cuando se dirige una preg^inta 
como : i Adonde vas, Diego ? 

! La admiracion sirve para senalar toda impresion de sor- 
presa, de dolor 6 de admiracion. Por ejemplo: **iHolaI 
Mateo, que grata sorpresa I " " i Oh, hi jo mio I \ Cuan 
grandes y admirables son las obras de Dios 1 " 

1. M. de Turenne would never buy anything from trades- 
men on credit, (tenderos,) for fear, hie said, they might lose a 
great part of it, if he happened to be killed. 2. All the work- 
men (meneatral) who were employed about his house had 
orders to bring in their bills (ctienta) bef (»re he set out for the 
campaign ; and they were regularly paid. 3. You can not 
finish your work to-night, unless I help you. I shall explain 
every difficulty, that you may not be disheartened (desani- 
mar) in your undertaking, (empresa). 4. A wise and pru- 
dent man lives with economy when young, in order that 
he may enjoy the fruit of his labor when he is old. 6. Will 
you lend me that money ? I will not lend it you unless 
you promise to return it to me as soon as you can. 6. 
Are your sisters happy ? Although they are very rich, they 
are not happy, as they have not learned how to be contented. 
7. Behold how amiable that lady is ; so for all she has no 
fortune, I do not love her the less. 8. Will your mother 
call upon me ? She will call on you provided you will 
promise to take her to the concert 9. Give me that pen- 
knife. I am willing to give it to you provided you will not 
make a bad use of it. 10. Where were you during the en- 
gagement ? I was in bed in order to have my wounds dressed 
(curar), 11. God forbid (no quiera el cielo, with the sub- 
junctive) that I should blame your conduct, but your busi- 
ness will never be done properly unless you do it yourself. 
12. Why did you tell me that my father had arrived, though 
you knew the contrary ? You are so hasty, (violentOy) that 
no matter how little you are contradicted (contrddecir) you 
fiy into a passion (encolerizarae) in an instant 13. Have 

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you finished your task ? Not quite ; if I had had time, and 
if I had not been so uneasy about the arrival (llegada) of 
my father, I should have finished it. He who wishes to 
teach an art, must know it thoroughly, (d fondo) ; he must 
give none but clear and well-digested notions (reglas) of it ; 
he must instil (infundir) them one by one into the minds 
of his pupils, and above all, he must not overburden {adbre- 
caryar) their memory with useless or unimportant rules. 
14. My dear friend, lend me a dollar. Here are two instead 
of one. 15. Why does not your sister speak ? She would 
speak if she were not always so absent-minded, (distraidd), 

EIGHTIETH LESSON— Leccion Octogesima 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE— (7o«^w««rf 

However, howsoever. Por. Por mAs. 

Pbr, or por mds, before a noun or an adjective, governs the sub- 

However good you may be. Por bueno que V. sea. 

Howsoever rich they may be. ' Por mds ricos que scan. 

Por — que. Por mds— que. 

Whatever, whatsoever. 

Whatsoever courage you may 
have, he has more than you. 

Cualquiera. Gualesquiera, (plur.). 
Todo lo que. Sea el que, (la que). 
.Sea cual fuere. Sea cual sea. 
Por valor que V. tenga, el tiene 

mds que V. 
Sea cual fuere el valor de V., 61 
tiene mds. 
No matter what mistakes you Gualesquiera faltas que V. haga, 
may make, 1 shall take care to tendr^ cuidado de corregirlas. 
correct them. 
Whatsoever may be the efforts Por mds esfuerzos que V. haga, 
which you make, you never can nunca podr^ salir con bien. 
Whatsoever you may do for my Todo cuanto V. haga por mi 

father, he will reward you for it. padre, se lo recompensarA. 
I complain of nothing whatsoever. No me quejo de nada, (or de cosa 

alguna, or de nada que valga 
la pena). 


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The following indefinite pronouns require the subjunotiye: 

Whoever, whosoever. i Q^^ienquiera. 

( Cualquiera. 

Nobody, no one. J^adie. 

\ NiDguno. 
Nothing. Nada. 

Of whatever person you may De quienquiera que Y. hable, 

speak, avoid slandering him. evite. calumniarle. 

I know nobody who is as good as No conozco k nadie (& ninguno) 

you. que sea tan bueno como Y. 

I have seen nothing that could be No he visto nada que pudiera 
blamed in his conduct. tacharse en su conducta. 


Will your worship allow me to iQuiei-e viiestra merced darme 
confer a little with you f liceucia que departa un poco 

con 61 f 

D, Quijote, cap.'xxi. pt i. 

In these cross-paths, though your En estas encrucijadas, aunque se 

worship conquer, and achieve venzan y acaben las mas peli- 

the most perilous exploits, there grosas aventuras, no hay quien 

is nobody present to witness las vea, ni sepa. 

them. Ditto, ditto. 

There will be no want there of Alii no faltara quien ponga por 
some one to write the history escrito las hazafias de vuestra 
of your worahip's exploits. merced. Ditto, ditto, 

Andrew must wait for my return, Es forzoso que Andres tenga pa- 
as you, madam, say. ciencia hasta mi vuelta, como 

vos, seflora. decis. 

Ditto, cap. xxxi. pt. i. 

I request thee again, not to tell Te vuelvo d cncargar que & nadie 
it to anybody. lo descubras. 

Moratin—El /S<, Act I. 

But I positively wish it not to be Peroquiero absolutamente que no 
known, till it be done. se sepa hasta que est6 hecha 

Ditto, ditto. 


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Is it possible that a Christian ora- 4 Es posible que tenga aliento para 
tor can hare the boldness to proferir semejante proposioi6n 
proffer such an opinion f un orador cristiano f 

P. Isla^Fr, Gerundio. 

In order that the ignorant maj A fin de que los ignomntes no lot 
not confound them with the confundan con los verdaderos 
truly learned. sabios. 

Cadalso — Eruditoa d la ViolettL 

May Jupiter preserve you from j JApiter os guarde de todo mal I. 
all evil 1 Ditto, ditto. 

Although the critics about whom 
I discourse, abuse me, I still am 
bound to draw their likeness in 
another fable. 

Aunque renieguen de mi 
Los crlticos de que trato, 
En otra fdbula aqui 
Tengo de hacer su retrato. 

Jriar^c— Fibula XXIII. 

If the statutes of knight-errantry Si las ordenanzas de la andante 
were lost, they would be found caballeria se perdiesen, se ha- 
in your worship's heart. Harlan en el pecho de vuestra 

merced. D. Quijote, cap. xviL 

If I could speak as freely as usual, 
I might perhaps give such rea- 
sons as would convince your 
worship that you are mistaken 
in what you say. 

It is not seemly that we should 
rejoice over the successes (of 
life) nor grieve over its fail- 


The treasure, the treasury. 
To profit by, to take advantage of. 
To dare, to venture. 
To create. 
To merit. 
To hide. 

To take out, to draw forth. 
To venerate. 

Si yo pudiera hablar tanto como 
solia, quizd diera tales razones 
que vuestra merced viera que 
se engafiaba en lo que dice. 

Ditto, ditto. 

No conviene que nos alegremos 
con los buenos sucesos, 6 not 
angustiemos con los malos. 

Fr, Luis de Le6n, 

La providencia. 

El tesoro. 









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La Peoyidencia 

Dios ha creado todo lo que existe en la tierra para bien 
del hombre, y nosotros, al aprovechamos de esos tesoros, 
debemos alabar y dar gracias 4 la Diyina Providencia por 
su inmensa bondad y sabiduria. 

Tu debes, querido discipulo, adorar y reverenciar al Dios 
Todopoderoso, que saco de la nada el cielo, la tierra, el hom- 
bre y cuanto existe en el mundo. 

El Senor podria destruirlo todo en un momento, asi como 
lo hizo ; pero conserva la luz, el mundo, los animales y las 
plantas para que el hombre viva, y por sus buenas acciones 
merezca la felicidad eterna en el cielo. 

Asi, pues, debemos amar 4 Dios como al padre mas 
amante; obedecerlo como al juez mas sabio, y venerarlo 
como al senor y dueno de todo lo que existe. 

Es imposible que seamos tan ingratos y tan ciegos, que 
nos olvidemos del amor y obediencia que se debe a nuestro 
Dios. El es perfecto, y su justicia infalible ; castiga a los 
que se ban atrevido a violar sus preceptos. Asi tambien 
premia en esta vida y en el cielo a los que ban obrado bien. 

Amigo mio, no creas que ninguna de tus acciones 6 pen- 
samientos puedan ocultarse 4 Dios. Aunque hubieras come- 
tido una falta en la soledad y del modo m4s reservado, Dios, 
que est4 en todas partes ; Dios, que lo ve todo y todo lo oye, 
siempre lo sabria. 

1. You must have patience, though you have no desire to 
have it, for I also must wait till I receive my money. 2. I 
do not believe that you have already received it ; but I fear 
that your other creditors may already have received it 3. 
Do not believe, madam, that I have had your fan, {abanico). 
Who tells you that I believe it ? 4. I could wish you were 
more industrious and more attentive when I speak to you. 5. 
If I were not your friend, and if you were not mine, I should 
not speak thus to you. 6. Do not think that I am angry 
with him, because his father has offended me. 7. What do 

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you think of our king ? I say he is a great man, but I add, 
that though kings be ever so powerful (poderoao) they die 
as certainly as the meanest of their subjects. 8. Whoever 
the enemy may be whose malice (malicia) you dread, you 
ought to rely upon your innocence ; but the laws (las leyes) 
condemn (condenar) all criminals (criminal) whatever they 
may be. 9. Whatever the reasons be which you may allege, 
they will not excuse your action, since it is blamable in 
itself. 10. Whatever you may say, your sisters will be pun- 
ished, if they deserve it, and do not endeavor to amend, 
(enmendar). 11. What news is there of our great army ? 
It is said to be lying between the Weser (V^ser) and the 
Ehine, (Rhin), 

EIGHTY-FIRST LESSON— Leccion Octogesimaprimera 
First Conjugation, 


1. are. 1. dremos. 

2. ares. 2. areis. 
8. are. 3. aren. 8. iere. 

To have. 

1. Tuviere. 

2. Tuvieres. 
8. Tuviere. 

Second and Third Conjugations. 


1. iere. 1. ieremos. 

2. ieres. 2. iereis. 

3. leren. 






The future subjunctive, which is seldom used, is employed in 
sentences introduced by «t, if ; cuando, when ; mientras, while ; or 
by a relative pronoun, or an adverb, in referring to a future con- 
tingency : 

Vendr^, si tuviere tiempo. 

No te digo que vivas, ni que 
mueras; vive, si pudieres, y 
muere, si no pudieres mds. 


I shall come, if I have time. 

I do not tell thee to live, or to 
die : live, if thou canst ; die, if 
thou canst not do better. 


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We have resolved to do in his be- 
half all that may lie in our 

Order what you please, renew to 
our good friend my sincere at- 
tachment, and say from me all 
that you will to all those who 
may remember me. 

Just a little, ever so little. 

Will you do me the favor to give 

me a piece of bread? 
Do you wish a great deal t 
No ; just a little. 

To turn to account. 
To make the best of. 

That man does not know how to 
make the most of his talents. 

That man turns his money to ac- 
count in trade. 

How do you employ your money f 

I employ it in public securities. 

To boast, to brag. 

I do not like that man, because 
he boasts too much. 

Notwithstanding that. ' 
For all that, although. ' 
That man is a little bit of a rogue, 
but notwithstanding he passes 
for an honest man. 
Although that man is sick, yet he 
works a great deal 

Tenemos ya determinado que se 
haga en su obsequio todo lo que 
alcanzaren nuesttas fuerzas. 

. Solia, lib. iii. cap. xi. 

Manda lo que gustares, renueva 
k nuestro buen amigo mi fino 
afecto, y k cuantos se acorda- 
ren de mi, dir&s de mi parte 
todo lo que quisieres. 

Isla — Cartas, 

S61o un poco. No mds que un 

Un poquito. Un poquitito. 

S61o un poquito. 

4 Quiere Y. hacerme el favor de 
darme un poco de pan f 

4 Quiere V. muchot 

No ; solo un poquito. 

Hacer valer. Hacer para ganar. 

Aprovecharse de. 

Sacar ventaja de. Servirse de. 

Ese hombre no sabe aprovecharse 
de sus talentos. 

Ese hombre saca ventaja de sa 
dinero en el comercio. 

4 Qu6 hace Y. para ganar con su 
dinero I 

Lo pongo en los fondos ptiblicos. 

Jactarse. Yanagloriarse. 

Preciarse. Alabarse. 

Fanfarronear. Ser jactanciosa 

No me gusta ese hombre, porque 
se jacta mucho, (es muy jactan- 

No obstante. Sin embargo. 

Con todo. Aunque. 

Ese hombre no deja de ser un pi- 
carillo, con todo pasa por hom- 
bre de bien. 

Aunque aquel hombre est^ enfer- 
mo, no deja de trabajar maoh<K 




I received your letter on the 

The top. J 

The bottom. J 

From top to bottom. 
The oldest brother. 
The oldest sister. 
He is the oldest. 

To appear, to seem. -I 

To keep, to maintain. 

Mj keeping costs me twelye hun- 
dred dollars a year. 

To drive in, to sink. 

To converse. J 

A conversation. 

To spare. -j 

Spare your money. 

To get tired. 
To be tired. 

To handle. 

To lean against. -) 

Lean against the wall. 

To aim at, to take aim. J 
Short, low. J 

To stop short. J 

Virtue is excellent. 
Vice is odious. 

Recibi la carta de V. el cinco. 

Lo alto. El remate. 

La cima, (cumbre, punta). 

Lo bajo. El suelo. 

El fondo. El pie. 

De arriba abajo. 

El hermano mayor. 

La hermana mayor. 

£l es el mayor. 

Parecer. Tener apariencia de. 

Pareciendo. Parecido. 

Tener.* Mantener.* Conservar. 

Mi manutenci6n me cuesta mil 
doscientos pesos al aflo. 

Mis gastos montan k mil y dos- 
cientos pesos al afio. 

Clavar. Hundir. Encajar. Meter. 


Tratar. Hablar. 

Una conversaci6n. 

Ahorrar. Economizar. 

Guardar. Conservar. 

Guide V. de su dinero. 

Cansarse de. Fatigarse de. 

Fastidiarse de. Enfadarse de. 

Estar cansado, (fatigado, fasti- 
diad, enfadado de). 

Manosear. Manejar. Tratar. 

Apoyarse. Descansar. 

Reclinarse. Recostarse. 

Reclinese (ap6yese) V. contra la 

Apuntar. Asestar. Enoarar. 

Tirar al bianco. 

Corto. Breve. Bajo. 

Pequefio. Chico. 

Parai'se. Detenerse. 

Cortarse. Perderse. 

La virtud es excelente. 

El vicio es aborrecible. 

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The definite article is used in Spanish, but rarely in English, 
when it designates an object, a substance, or a thought, in a uni- 
versal, very general, or absolute sense, for the singular, or all the 
individuals of a class, for the plural : 

Men are mortal. 

Gold is precious. 

Flour is sold at six dollars 

Beef costs sixpence a pound. 

Los hombres son mortales. 
El oro es precioso. 
La harina se vende k seis pesos 

el barril. 
La carne cuesta k seis peniques 
la libra. 
The horror of vice, and the love El horror del vicio, y el amor de 
of virtue, are the delights of la virtud, son las delicias del 
the wise man. sabio. 

The definite article stands before the names of a few countries, 
provinces, cities. They are chiefly : 

Japan. Brazil. Peru. El Japon. El Brasil. El Perd. 

Canada. Paraguay. El Canada. El Paraguay. 

Florida. Havana. La Florida. La Habana. 

Cairo. Havre. El Cairo. El Havre. 

It is common, however, to use the article with the names of many 
countries in poetical and oratorical style, or when an adjective is 
used with them : 

La America independietite. 

La Espafia cat61ica. 

When prepositions precede the names of countries, provinces, 
and cities, the article is not commonly used. 

The articles are repeated before each substantive when a par- 
ticular emphasis is placed on them ; otherwise they may be omitted. 
Thessaly produces wine, oranges, Tesalia produce vino, naran jas, li- 

lemons, olives, and all kinds of mones, olivas, y toda especie de 

fruits. frutas. 

He ate the bread, meat, apples, Comio el pan, la carne, las man- 

and cakes ; he drank the wine, zanas, y los bollos ; y bebi6 el 

beer, and cider. vino, la cerveza, y la sidra. 

Beauty, amiability, and wit, are La hermosura, el carifio, y el in- 

valuable endowments, 
heightened by modesty. 


To lurk, to lie in wait for. 
To plow, to till. 

genio, son prendas apreciables 
cuando estan acompailadas de 
la modestia. 




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To coo. 


To howl. 


To crow, to cackle. 


To creak, to squeak. 


To moan, to groan. 


To croak, to caw. 


To grunt. 


To bark. 


To low, to bellow. 


To swim. 


To chirp, to peep, (as a chicken). 


To bray. 


To whistle. 


To roar. 


To trill. 


To buzz, to hum. 


The setting, or clucking (hen). 

La olueca. 


La Voz y la Acci6n de los Animales 

Los perros ladran, y guardan la casa de sus amos. Aullan 
cuando estan tristes 6 sufren. Los bueyes mugen, tiran de 
los carros y aran la tierra. Los toros braman, y son aninciales 
bravos y fuertes. Los caballos relinchan, y son fieles a su 
dueno. Las ovejas balan, y pacen la hierba de los campos. 
Los gatos maullan, y se comen a los ratones. Las gallinas 
cacarean cuando ban puesto un huevo. Los pollitos plan, y 
la clueca los abriga bajo sus alas. Los patos nadau admira- 
blemente. Los gallos cantan al amanecer, y pelean con 
valor. Los gansos graznan, y sus plum as sirven para escri- 
bir. Las palomas arrullan, y son muy limpias. Los asnos 
rebuznan ; son fuertes y sufridos para el trabajo. Los puer- 
cos gruiien, son sucios y se baiian en el lodo. Las abejas 
zumban, y fabrican la cera y la miel. El leon ruge, y es 
el rey de los animales. Los lobos aullan, y atacan los re- 
banos de ovejas. Las serpientes silban, y hay muchas cuya 
picadura es venenosa. Las zorras corren mucho y acechan a 
las gallinas. Los lopos hablan lo que se les enseiia, y no 
8aben lo que dicen. Las cigarras y los monos cbillan, y 

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atormentan los oidos. Las tortolas gimen, y cuidan mucho 
a sus hijitos. 

Las avecillas del cielo trinan ; anuncian la madrugada k 
los hombres con sus alegres cantos. 

1. Where will you go next year ? I shall go to England, 
for it is a fine country, where, on my return from France, I 
intend to spend the summer. 2. What country do these 
people inhabit ? (Jkdfntar), They inhabit the south {aur) of 
Europe ; their native countries are called Italy, Spain, and 
Portugal, and they themselves are Italians, Spaniards, or Por- 
tuguese ; but the people called Russians, Swedes, and Poles, 
inhabit the north (norte) of Europe ; and the names of their 
countries are Russia, Sweden, and Poland, (Polonia), 3. 
Has your brother eaten anything this morning ? He has 
eaten a great deal ; though he said he had no appetite, yet 
for all that he ate of all the meat, bread, and vegetables, 
(legumbresX and drank of all the wine, beer, and cider. 4. 
Do you like grapes ? (uvaa), I not only like grapes, but also 
plums, almonds, nuts, and all sorts of fruit. 5. The fear of 
death and the love of life being natural to men, they ought to 
shun vice, (el vicio,) and adhere to (adherirse) virtue. 

EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON— Leccion Octogesima- 

Dar motivo, (causa, ocasion de 
[substantive] para). (With a 
verb in the infinitive or sub- 

To give occteion. 

To leave it to one. 

Dar pie para. (With a verb in 
the infinitive or subjunctive.) 
' Referirse a.* Deferirse* al dic- 

Dejar ^, (the person). 
Dejar & la decisi6n, (al dicta- 
Ponerlo en manos,(al arbitriode). 
I leave it to you. Lo dejo d lo que V. diga, (haga). 

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A good bargain. 

To stick, or abide by a thing. 

I abide by the offer you have 
made me. 

I do not doubt that you are my 

To suffer, to bear. 

rhey were exposed to the whole 
fire of the place. 

To examine one artfully, or to 
draw a secret from one. 

I examined him artfully, and by 
that means I have made myself 
acquainted with all his affairs. 

To bear, or to put up with. 

You will be obliged to put up 

with all his wishes. 


A thick cloud. 

A thick beard. 

He has a full beard. 

A burst. 
A burst of laughter. 
To burst out laughing. 

To burst. 

IBuen contrato, (pacto). 
Buena compra, (venta). 
Una ganga. Una buena suerte. 
Una chiripa. 

^Atenerse L* Mantenerse en.* 
Pasar por. Egtar por.* 
Me atengo k la proposici6n que 

V. me ha hecho. 
Paso por la proposici6n que V. 

me ha hecho. 
No dudo que V. sea mi amigo. 

Sufrir. Aguantar. Experimen- 

Sostener.* Padecer.* 
Resistir. Arrostrar. 
' Ellos estaban expuestos k todo el 

f uego de la plaza. 
Sufrieron todo el fuego de la 

Examinar con mafia. 
Hacer cantar k alguno. 
Sacarle un secreto. 
. Hacerle desembuchar. 
Yo le he examinado con mafia, y 
de este mode me he hecho 
duefio de todos sus negocios. 
Pasar. Sobrellevar. Sufrir. 
Dejar que. Aguantar. 
No hacer caso de. 
V. se verA obligado k sufrir por 

cuanto 61 quiera. 
Espeso. Denso. Grueso. 
Una nube espesa. 
Una barba poblada, (espesa). 
Tiene la barba muy espesa. 
Un revent6n. 
Una carcajada. 
Caerse de risa. 

^Reventar. Estallar. Brotar. 
Romper. Quebrar. Prorrumpir. 


by Google 


To burst out laughing. 

Splendor, brightness. 

To make a great show. 

To Hght. 

The cinnamon. 
The dose. 
The root. 
The rhubarb. 
The sap. 
The sulphate. 

The bone, the stone (of fruit). 
The seed. 

The herb, the plant, the grass. 
The rind, hull, husk. 
The pulp. 
The kernel. 

An almond, an almond-like ker- 
The germ, the bud. 
To adhere, to cling to. 
To mature, to ripen. 
Fleshy, meatj. 
Vegetal, vegetable. 
To suffer one*s self to be beaten. 

To let or to suffer one*s self to fall. 
To suffer one's self to be insulted. 
To suffer one's self to die. 
To let one's self be struck. 

To send back, to return. 

To extol, to praise up. 

Reir & carcajadas. Soltar el tra- 

po (fam.). 
Esplendor. Resplandor. Brillo. 
Lustre. Brillantez. Claridad. 
Pompa. Magnificencia. 
'Hacer ostentaci6n. 
Hacer un gran papel. 
Alumbrar. Iluminar. 
Dar luz. Encender. 
La canela. 
La dosis. 
La ralz. 
El ruibarbo. 
La savia. 
El sulfate. 
El hueso. 
La semilla. 
La hierba. 
La cdscara. 
La pulpa. 
La pepita. 
La almendra. 

El germen. 






Dejarse aporrear, (golpear, mal* 

tratar, sacudir). 
Dejarse caer. 
Dejarse insultar. 
Dejarse morir. 
Dejarse apalear. 

Remitir (enviar) otra vez. 
Hacer volver. 
Engrandecer. Alabar. 
Magnificar. Ensalzar. Aplaudir. 
Engrandecer. Exftltar. 


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To boast, to praise one's self. 

Go thither. 

Let us go. 

Go thou. 

Go (thou) thither. 

Go (thou) away. 

Let him go thither. 

Let them go thither. 

Go away, begone. 

Let us go, let us be going. 
Give me. 
Give it to me. 

Give it to him. 

Let us set out. 

Let us breakfast. 
To finish. 
The starling. 
We can now almost carry on a 
conversation in Spanish. 

This phrase does not seem to us 

We should be ungrateful if we 
permitted such an opportunity 
to pass without expressing our 
liveliest gratitude to you. 

In all cases, at all events. 

Jactarse. Yanagloriarse. 
Alabarse. Exaltarse. Preciarse, 
Echar plantas. 
Vaya V. ahi, (or alU). 
Id vosotros ahf, (or all4). 
V^ til alld, (or ahi). 

Vdyase 61 all4. 
Que se vaya 61 all&. 
Vdyanse ellos all&. 
Que se vayan ellos alld. 
Vete. Marchate. 
VAyase V. M^rchese V. 
Vamonos. March^monos. 
Quit^mouos de aqui. 
Deme V. Benme Vds. Dadme. 
j D6melo (demela) V. 
\ Dddmelo. Bddmela vosotros. 
I D6selo (d^sela) V. 
I Dddselo, (or la). 
j Salgamos. Marchemos. 
I Partamos. Vdmonos. 

Acabar. Terminar. Oonduir. 
El estomino. 
Ahora podemos mantener casi 

toda una conversaci6n en es- 

Esta f rase no nos parece correc- 

Serlamos ingratos si dejdramos 

pasar tal oportunidad de mani- 

festar d V. nuestro mds vivo 

En todo caso. 
En todo evento, (suceso). 
En todas ocasiones. 
. Suceda lo que suceda. 


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The native. 

^E1 nativo. El natural. 

'EA originario de. El hijo de. 
The insarmountable difficulty. La dificultad insuperable. 

La Vegetaci6n — ^Vbgetation 

Cast todo el suelo est4 cubierto de una capa de tierra Ua- 
mada vegetal^ porque hace crecer las plantas 6 vegetales. La 
mayor parte de las plantas estdn adheridas a la tierra por me- 
dio de raices, que beben el jugo 6 substancia de ella transfor- 
mandola en savia. La savia hace nacer las flores j las hojas 
cuando pasa de la raiz al tronco y sus ramas, produciendo en 
seguida las flores y despues los frutos que sirven de alimento 
al hombre una vez que ban madurado por la accion del sol. 

El hueao 6 aemilla que contienen las frutas y que se 
planta en la tierra, hace reproducir los drboles y las plantas 
de la misma clase. Las plantas cuyo tronco se endurece y 
de las cuales se saca la madera se Uaman arboles, y aquellas 
cuyo tallo es tierno y siempre verde se Uaman hierbas. 

La mayor parte de las frutas tiene una cascara que 
cubre una pulpa 6 substancia carnosa que contiene uno 6 
muchos granos llamados huesos 6 pepitas. La pulpa es una 
substancia cuyas pequenas cavidades 6 cilulaa contienen un 
jugo dulce 6 dcido. Los huesos y pepitas estdn formados de 
una cascara que encienti una almendra en la cual se encuen- 
tra el germen de la planta. 

1. Will you take a cup of coffee ? Thank you, I do not 
take cofPee. 2. Let us take a walk. With much pleasure ; 
but where shall we go ? 3. How do you like that wine ? I 
like it very much ; but I have drunk enough of it 4. What 
is the matter with you ? I do not know ; but my head is 
giddy, (estoy aturdido) ; I think I am fainting, {pienso que 
me desmayo), 5. How long have you been in Spain ? A 
few days. Eeally ? You doubt it, perhaps, because I speak 
Spanish ; I knew it before coming to Spain. 6. Do you not 
think of the future ? Now allow me to speak also. All you 
have just said seems reasonable ; but it is not my fault, if 

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I have lost my reputation ; it is that of my wife : she has 
sold my finest clothes, my rings, (anillos), and my gold 
^ watch. 7. How long have you been studying Spanish ? I 
do not remember the days, weeks, and months which I 
have devoted to it ; but I can truly say that I have passed 
the eighty-second lesson. 

EIGHTY-THIRD LESSON— Leccion Octogesimatercera. 

The half. La mitad. 

«,! ., . , ( La t«rcera parte, (/em.). 

The third part. ] El tercio, ia.o.) 

The fourth part. La cuarta parte. Un cuarto. 

You think you have returned me V. piensa que me lo ha devuelto 

all ; a great deal is wanting. todo ; pero falta muchisimo. 

The younger is not as good as the El menor no es con mucho tan 

elder by far. bueno como el mayor. 

He talks at random like a crazy £l habia a tontas y & locas como 
man. un hombre sin juicio. 

To resort to violence. Venir a las manos. 

A fact. Un hecho. 

It is a fact. Es un hecho. 

Else. Or else. 
To make fun of. 

I 6. Deotrasuerte. Deotromodo 
I'De otra manera. Si no. 

Burlarse de. Chancearse con. 
. Reirse de. Hacer burla. 
Hacer chacota dp. 
To contradict, to give one the lie. Desmentir.* Contradecir.* 
If he said so, I should give him Si 61 dijera eso, yo le desmentiria. 

the lie. 
His actions belie his words. Sus acciones contradicen sus pa^ 

To scratch. Arafiar. Basgufiar. 

To escape. Escapar. Escaparse. Salir libre. 

1 fell from the top of the tree to Cai de la cima del drbol hasta ei 
the bottom, but I did not hurt pie ; pero no me lastim^ mucho. 
myself much. 
I escaped with a scratch. Escap^ con un araflo, (rasgufio). 

The thief was caught, but he will EL ladr6n f u4 tornado, pero saldrd 
escape with a few months' im- libre (escapard) con algunos 
prisonment. meses de prisi6n. 


by Google 



By dint of. 
You will cry your eyes out. 

I obtained of him that favor by 

dint of entreaty. 

That excepted. 
That fault excepted, he is a good 


To vie with each other. 

Those men are trying to rival 
each other. 

Glean linen. 

The more as. 

The less as. 

I am the more discontented with 

his conduct as he is under many 

obligations to me. 
I am the less pleased with his 

conduct, as I had more right to 

his friendship. 

I wish that. 

I wish that house was mine. 

To muse, to think. 
I thought a long time on that af- 

To be naked. 
To hare the head uncovered. 

k f uerza de. 
k f uerza de llorar, perderd V. los 

Se le secardn a V. los ojos. 
Gonsegui de el ese favor & f uerza 

de siiplicas. 
Excepto (salvo, menos) eso. 
Quitada esa falta, es buen hom- 

k competencia. k porfia. 
k cual mds. k cual mejor. 
Esos hombres trabajan k compe- 
Est4n procurando excederse uno 

k otro. 

Ropa limpia. 

Tanto mds cuanto. 

Tanto mds cuanto m&s. 

Tanto menos cuanto. 

Tanto menos cuanto menos, 

or mds. 
Estoy tanto m^ descontento de 

su conducta, cuanto el me debe 

muchas obligaciones. 
Estoy tanto menos satisfecho de 

su conducta, cuanto m&s de- 

recho tenia 4 su amistad. 
Quiero (deseo) que. 
Querria (quisiera) que esa casa 

f uese mia. 
Deseara (desearia) que esa casa 

fuese mia. 
Meditar, reflexionar, pensar (en). 
Reflexion^ largo tiempo en este 

Estar desnudo, (desnuda). 
Estar (andar) en cneros. 
Tener la cabeza desnuda. 
Estar descubierto. 
Tener la cabeza al aire. 


by Google 



To hare the feet uncovered. 

To be barefooted. 

To be bareheaded. 

To ride barebacked. 

To be on the eve of, to almost^ 

I almost lost my money. 

I thought to have lost my life. 

He was at the door of death. 

At, on, or upon your heels. 

The enemy is at our heels. 

To strike, (speaking of lightning). 

The lightning has struck. 

The lightning struck the ship. 

While my brother was on the open 
sea, a violent storm rose unex- 
pectedly ; the lightning struck 
the ship, which it set on fire, 
and the whole crew jumped 
into the sea to save themselves 
by swimming. 

He did not know what to do. 

I have not heard of him yet 
An angel. 

A masterpiece. 

Tener los pies desnudos. 

Estar descalzo. 

Estar (andar) descalzo de pie y 

Tener los pies desnudos. 

Estar (andar) descalzo. 

Estar (andar) con los pies des- 
nudos (descalzos). 

Estar (andar) desnudo de pies. 

Tener la cabeza desnuda, (descu- 

Estar (andar) con la cabeza al aire. 

Montar (andar) k caballo en pelo. 

Estar para. 

Estar 4 pique de, {k punto de). 

Falter poco para. Por poco. 

Estuve para perder mi dinero. 

Pense haber perdido la vida. 

Estuvo para morir, {or 4 punto 
de muerte). 

Penso morir. 

A los (sus) talones. 

Al alcance, (or k los alcances). 

El enemigo nos sigue los alcances. 

Caer (estallar, dar, romper) sobre, 
or en. 

Ha caido un rayo. 

Un rayo cay6 sobre (en) el barco. 

Mientras mi hermano estaba en 
alta mar, se ]evant6 de repente 
una tempestad, cay6 un rayo 
sobre el barco, le puso fuego, 
y toda la tripulaci6n se ech6 al 
mar, para saivarse 4 nado, (na- 

£l no sabia qu^ hacer, {or qu6 
partido tomar). 

Todavia no he sabido de 61. 

Un 4ngel. 

Una obra maestra. 

Una obra de primera clase. 





The medicine. 
The wheat 
The barley. 
The rye. 
The chick-pea. 
The bean. 
The tuber. 
The potato. 
The turnip. 
The pear. 
The apple. 
The cherry. 
The peach. 
The plum, the prune. 
The grape. 

The cocoanut, the cocoanut tree. 
The date. 
The pine-apple. 
The fig. 

The banana, the plantain. 
The vegetables, the leguminous 

The onion. 
The radish. 
The lettuce. 
The cabbage. 
The carrot 
The cane. 
The beet. 
The beet-root 
The bark. 
The laurel. 
Voluminous, thick. 


Form, shape. 

The expression. 

The look. 

Obras maestras. 

El medicamento. 

El trigo. 

La cebada. 

El centeno. 

El garbanzo. 

El fr^jol, el frijol. 

El ti|b6rculo. 

La papa (American usage). 



La manzana. 


El durazno. 

La ciruela. 


El coco. 

El d&til. 


El higo. 

El pUtano. 

Las legumbres. 

La ceboUa. 

El r&bano. 

La lechuga. 

La col. 

La zanahoria. 



La remolacha. 


El laurel. 


Purgative, purgante. 


Talle, figura, forma. 

La expresion. 
El aspecto. El semblante. 
El aire. El adem&n. 
La cara. La mirada. La Tista. 


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Contentment ( Contento Contentamiento. 

I Gusto. Placer. 
Respect. JRespeto. Respecto. 

^ ' J Miramiento. Acatamiento. 

Admiration. Admiraci6n. 

Grace, charm. i^"^^ ^"<^**>' 

J Donaire. 

Delightfully. Deliciosamente. 

p, ... j Hechiceramente. 

( Encantadoramente. 

Thin, (slender). Delgado. Flaco. Descarnado. 

Extraordinarily well. Extraordinariamente bien. 

His or her look inspires respect Su presencia inspira respeto y ad- 

and admiration. miraci6n. 

La Veoetaci6n — Gontinuacidn 

Algunas de las plantas se emplean ya como alimento ya 
como medicamentos p'eciosos. 

Las que sirveu de un alimento m4s litil al hombre son las 
que tienen granos substanciosos como el trigo, la cebada, el 
centeuo, el maiz, los garbanzos y los frejoles, 6 los tubercu- 
los voluminosos como la papa, el nabo, etc., 6 las frutas car- 
nosas como las peras, manzanas, cerezas, duraznos, ciruelas, 
uvas, la fruta del arbol del pan, los cocos, los datiles, las 
pinas, los higos, los platanos y las hojas y raices que llama^ 
mos legumbres, como las cebollas, los rabanos, las lechugas, 
las coles y zanahorias. 

El azucar se extrae de una especie de cana llamada cafla 
de azucar y tambien de la planta conocida con el nombre 
de betarraga 6 remolacha ; un hermoso arbusto que se cul- 
tiva en muchas partes de la America nos da en sus granos 
lo que llamamos cafe, y la corteza de una especie de laurel 
nos proporciona la canela. Se saca el te de un arbusto de 
la China y el chocolate se hace del fruto 6 grano del cacao. 
Un medicamento purgativo se saca de la raiz del rutbarbo : 
la quina nos la proporciona la corteza del 4rbol de ese nom- 
bre, y de ella se extrae k la vez la quinina, que es la parte 
m4s activa de la primera y con la cual se compone lo que S9 

Digitized by V^OOQ LC 


llama sulfato de quinina. Una pequena dosis de este sulfato 
produce el mismo ef ecto que una mucho mayor de quina. 


1. Will you be my g^est ? I thank you ; but a friend of 
mine has invited me to dinner. He has ordered (hacer pre- 
parar) my favorite dish. 2. What is it ? It is a dish of 
milk. 8. As for me, I do not like milk : there is nothing 
like a piece of good roast beef or veal. 4. What has become 
of your younger brother ? He suffered shipwreck (naufra- 
gar) in going to America. 5. You must give me an account 
of that Very willingly. Being on the open sea, a great 
storm arose. The lightning struck the ship and set it on 
fire. The crew jumped into the sea to save themselves by 
swimming. My brother knew not what to do, having never 
learned to swim. He reflected in vain; but he found no 
means to save his life. He was smitten with fear when he 
saw that the fire was gaining on all sides. No longer hesi- 
tating, he jumped into the sea. 6. Well, what became of 
him ? I do not know, not having heard from him yet 7. 
But who told you all that ? My nephew, who was there, 
and who was saved. 8. Speaking of your nephew, where 
is he at present ? He is in Italy. 9. Is it long since you 
heard from him ? I received a letter from him to-day. 10. 
What does he write you ? He writes me that he is going 
to marry a young woman who will bring him a hundred 
thousand dollars. 11. Is she handsome ? Handsome as an 
angel ; she is a masterpiece of nature. Her physiognomy is 
mild and full of expression ; her eyes are the finest in the 
(del) world, and her mouth is charming. 

EIGHTY-FOURTH LESS0N--Lecci6n Ootog^simacuarta 

To read again. Volver 4 leer. 

To (verb) again. Volver &, 

When will you read this book ^Cudndo volverd V. i leer este 

again! librof 

I shall read it again to-morrow. Lo volver^ 4 leer mafiana. 


by Google 



To solve. To disentangle. 
To find out. 

To untangle the hair. 
To solve difficulties. 

I have not been able to find out 
the sense of that phrase. 

A quarrel. 

To have a difference, a quarrel, 
with some one. 

To take care. 

To shun. To beware of. 

I shall take care not to do it. 
Be careful not to lend that man 

He takes care not to answer the 
question which I asked him. 
To ask a question. 
To deduce. 

To fast. 
To be fasting. 
To give notice. 
To let anybody know. 

To warn. 
Give notice to that man of his 
brother's return. 


The size. 

The whale. 

The warrior. 

The laborer, the farmer. 

The mouse. 

Desenredar. Desenmaraflar. 

Adivinar. Hallar. 
Desenmarafiar el cabello. 
Desenredar (explicar, aclarar) las 

No he podido hallar (entender) el 

sentido de esa frase. 
Una desavenencia, (diferencia, 

rifia, quimera). 
Un pleito. 
Una contienda, (disputa, pen- 

Tener un pleito (una contienda) 

con alguien. 
Cuidar de. Cuidarse de. 
Tener cuidado de. 
Guardarse de. Precaverse de. 
Recatarse de. Evitar. 
Me guard ar^ bien de hacerlo. 
Cuidese V. de no prestar dinero 4 

ese hombre. 
it\ tiene cuidado de no responder 

4 la pregiinta que le he hecho. 
Hacer u na pregunta. Preguntar. 

Estar en ayunas. 
Avisar. Noticiar. Informar. 
Hacer saber £ alguno, (alguna 
Precautelar. Precaucionar. 
Informe (avise) V. d ese hombre 
de la vuelta de su hermano, 
(que su hermano ha vuelto). 
La sobriedad. 
El tamafio. 
La ballena. 
El guerrero. 
El labrador. 
El rat6n. 


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The rat 

The sheep, the mutton. 
The skin. 
To crawl. 

Matutinal, belonging to the morn- 
To clear up. To elucidate. 
The weather is clearing up. 

To refresh. 

Refresh yourself, and return to 
me immediately. 
To whiten. To bleach. 
To blacken. 

To turn pale. To grow pale. 

La rata. 
El camero. 
La piel. 

Matutino. Matinal. 

Aclarar. Despejar. Poner enclaro. 
El tiempo se aclara. 

^Refre8car. Refrescarse. 
Descansar. Reposar. 
Repose V., (ref r^quese), y vuelva 

acd inmediatamente. 
Blanquear. Emblanquecer. 

j Ponerse pdlido^ 


To grow old. 
To grow young. 

To blush. To redden. 

To make merry. 

To make one's self merry. 

He makes merry at my expense. 

To feign. To dissemble. 

To pretend. 
He knows the art of dissembling. 

To procrastinate. 
To go slow about. 
I do not like to transact business 
with that man, for he always 
goes very slow about it. 
A prool 
This is a proof. 

To stray, to get lost, to lose one's 
9elf , to lose one's way. 

Perder (mudar) el color. 

^Envejecer. Envejecerse. 
Avejentarse. Aviejarse. 
Rejuvenecer. Remozar. 
Abochomarse. Correrse. 
Sonrosearse. Sonrojarse. 
Tener vergdenza, (rubor). 
Alegrar k, Alegrarse de. 
Divertir k, Divertirse 4, (con). 

^ Alegrarse. Divertirse. 
Ponerse (estar) alegre. 
!^l se divierte 4 mi costa. 
j Fingir. Aparentar. 
( Disimular. Encubrir. 
£l sabe el arte de fingir, (disimu- 
j Diferir. Dilatar. 
( Dejar de un dia para otro. 
No me gusta tener negocios con 
ese hombre, porque siempre los 
despacha con pies de ploma 
Una prueba. 
£sta es una prueba. 
Descaminarse. Descarriarse. 
Extraviarse. Perderse. 
Perder el camino. 


by Google 


Por. De medio i medio. 
De parte k parte. 
Through. ^, - De un lado d otro. De trav^s. 

Al trav^s. Por medio. 
Por en medio. Por entre. 
The cannon ball went through La bala del cafl6n pas<S de un lado 
the wall. k otro de la muralla. 

Le atraves^ el cuerpo con mi 

Le envas6 mi espada en el cuerpa 

I ran him through the body. 

Los Animales 

Hay animales de distiutaa especies : los hay que caminan 
6 se aiTastran sobre la tierra que vuelan en el espacio y que 
nadan en las aguas. Hay animales de todos tamanos, desde 
la inmensa ballena hasta los animalitos visibles unicamente 
con microscopio y que pueden vivir 4 mil lares en una sola 
gota de agua. El microscopio los hace aparecer cientos y 
hasta miles de veces mayores de lo que son en realidad. 

£1 perro es un animal domestico y el fiel amigo y guardian 
del hombre ; el caballo participa de los trabajos del guerrero 
y del labrador, y el gato limpia el hogar de ratones y ratas. 

El asno y la llama son animales en extremo laboriosos y 
su paciencia y sobriedad aumentan todavia mas su utilidad. 

El gallo despierta al hombre con su canto matinal invi- 
tdndolo al trabajo y 4 la vigilancia. 

El buey, el camero y la vaca alimentan con su carne al 
hombre, dandole ademas la vaca su leche. La piel de todos 
estos animales sirve para hacer cueros y suelas para zapatos 
y con la de la cabra se fabrican algunos vestidos ; la leche 
de este animal y la de la burra son muy saludables. 


1. The Emperor Charles the Fifth being one day out 
hunting lost his way in the forrest. Coming to a house he 
entered it to refresh himself. There were in it four men, 
who pretended to be asleep. One of them arose, and 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


approaching the emperor told him that he had dreamed he 
would take his watch ; and he took it. Then another rose 
and said he had dreamed that his overcoat,(so6refoc?o) fitted 
him wonderfully ; and he took it The third took his purse. 
At last the fourth came up, and said he hoped he would not 
take it ill if he searched him, and in doing so perceived 
around the emperor's neck a small gold chain to which a 
whistle was attached, of which he wished to rob him. But 
the emperor said : ** My good friend, before depriving me of 
this trinket, I must teach you its virtue.'' Saying this, he 
blew the whistle. His attendants, who were seeking him, 
hastened to the house, and were astonished to behold his 
Majesty in such a state. But the emperor, seeing himself 
out of danger, said : '' These men have dreamed all that they 
wished. I desire in my turn also to dream." And after 
having mused a few seconds, he said : " I have dreamed that 
all four of you deserve to be hanged." No sooner was this 
spoken than it was carried out immediately in front of the 
house. 2. A certain king was one day making his entrance 
into a town at two o'clock in the afternoon. At that hour 
the senate dispatched a committee of deputies to compliment 
him. The one who was to speak began thus : ^'Alexander 
the Great, the great Alexander," and stopped short The 
king, who was very hungry, said : **Ah 1 my friend, Alex- 
ander the Great had dined, and I am still fasting." Having 
said this, he proceeded to the hall of government, where a 
magnificent dinner had been prepared for him. 3. A good 
old man, who was very ill, sent for his wife, who was still 
very young, and said to her : ** My dear, you see that my 
last hour is approaching, and that I am compelled to leave 
you. If, therefore, you wish me to die in peace you must do 
me a favor. You are still young, and will, without doubt, 
marry again ; knowing this, I request of you not to wed Mr. 
M. ; for I confess that I have always been very jealous of 
him, and am so still. I should therefore die in despair if 
you did not promise me this." The wife answered : ** My 
dear husband, I entreat you not to let this hinder you from 
dying in peace ; for I assure you that, if even I wished to wed 
him I could not do so, being already promised to another^^^ 

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EIGHTY-FIFTH LESSON— Leccion Octogesimaquinta 

To double. Duplicate. 
The double. 
That merchant asks twice as 

much as he ought. 
The gander, the goose. 
The bacon. 
The pigeon. 
The hog, the wild-boar. 
To proportion, to furnish. 
To accustom, to accustom one's 


Frugivorous, herbivorous. 
To renew. 
To stun. 

Wild, giddy. 

Open, frank. ReaL \ 

I told him yes. 
I told him no. 
To squeeze. 

To lay up, to put by. \ 

Put your money by. 

As soon as I have read my book, 

I put it by. 
I do not care much about going 

to the play to-night. 
To satisfy one's self. 
I have been eating for an hour, 

and I can not satisfy my hunger. 
To be satisfied. 

To quench one's thirst. -J 

( have been drinking for a half 
hour, but I can not quench my 

To be thirsty. 

Doblar. Duplicar. 

Elduplo. Eldoble. 

Ese comerciante pide dos veoef 

m4s de lo que debe. 
El ganso. 
El tocino. 
El pich6n. 
El puerco. 


Aturdir. Atolondrar. Atontar. 
i Atronado. Alocado. 
' Desatinado. Atolondrado. 
I Franco. Ingenue. Sincera 
I Verdadero. Real. 
Le dije que si. 
Le dije que no. 
I Juntar. Cerrar.* 
I Apretar. Quardar. 
Guarde V. su dinero. 
Luego que hube leido mi libro lo 

No me da cuidado ir, 6 no, d In 

corned ia esta noche. 
Hartar. Satisfacer.* 
He estado comiendo una hora, y 

no puedo satisfacer mi harabre. 
Estar satisfecho, (harto). 
Refrescarse. Refrigerarse. 
Apagar la sed. 
Hace media hora que estoy be- 

biendo y no puedo apagar mi 

Tener sed. Estar sediento. 


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^ , , . , . , J De ambas partes. 

On both sides, on every side. |por ambos lados. Por todos lados. 
6n all sides. For todos lados. For todas partes. 

Fermit me, madam, to introduce SeSora, permitarae V. que le pre- 

to you Mr. G., an old friend of sente el seflor G.,antiguo amigo 

my family. de mi familia. 

I am delighted to become ac- Tengo mucho gusto en conocer d 

quainted with you. V. 

I shall do all in my power to de- Har^ cuanto est^ de mi parte para 

serve your good opinion. merecer la buena opini6n de V. 

We are very happy to see you at Nos consideramos muy felices en 

our house. ver 4 V. en nuestra casa. 

It is the prerogative of great men Es prerogativa de los grandes 

to conquer envy ; merit gives it hombres conquistar la envidia ; 

birth, and merit destroys it. el m^rito la bace nacer, y el 

m^rito la destruye. 

Los Animales — Continuaciim 

Abora volveremos 4 hablar sobre los animales. En el 
estudio de ellos podemos acostumbrarnos al uso de muchas 
palabras utiles. 

Del puerco se saca el tocino y una came que se conserva 
bien cuando esta salada. El cordero proporciona sebo para 
velas y lana para telas, su came es muy substanciosa ; tam- 
bien los pichones, los polios, los patos y los gansos nos pro- 
porcionan heimosas plumas y una carne delicada. 

Entre los animales, hay unos carnivoros y otros frugi- 
voros ; los primeros se Uaman asi porque se alimentan de la 
carne de otros animales y los segundos porque se sustentan 
de vegetales, como hierbas, frutas y legumbres. El bombre 
es carnivoro y frugivoro k la vez, puesto que su alimento se 
compone de frutas y vegetales como tambi6n de la carne de 
los animales que arriba he nombrado y de otros varios. 


1. A certain man had two sons, one of whom liked to 
sleep very late in the morning, while the other was very in- 
dustrious, and always arose very early, Jb^ ]ii»tter went out 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


one day very early and found a purse well filled with money. 
He ran to his brother to inform him of his good fortune, and 
said to him : '' See, Louis, what is obtained by rising early. '^ 
"Indeed," answered his brother, "if the person to whom 
it belongs had not risen earlier than I, he would not have 
lost it" 2. A lazy young fellow on being asked what made 
him lie in bed so long, replied : " I am occupied with listening 
to counsel every morning. Industry advises me to get up ; 
sloth counsels me to lie still ; and so they give me twenty 
reasons pro and con^ {en pro y en contra). It is my part to 
hear what is said on both sides ; and by the time the case is 
over dinner is ready." 3. Cornelia, the illustrious mother of 
the Gracchi, (Zos Chraco8\ after the death of her husband, 
who left her with twelve children, dedicated herself to the 
care of her family, with a wisdom and prudence that won 
for (adquirir *) her universal esteem. Only three out of the 
twelve lived to years of maturity ; one daughter, Sempronia, 
whom she married to the second Scipio Af ricanus ; and two 
sons, Tiberius and Caius, whom she brought up with so 
much care, that, though they were generally acknowledged 
to have been born with the most happy dispositions, it was 
considered that they were still more indebted to the training 
which she had bestowed upon them in the time of their 
childhood and youth. 

EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON— Leccion Octogesimasexta 


To do everything gracefully. Tener gracia para todo. 

To bury or put aside an affair. Echar tierra & alguna cosa. 

To be wet to the skin. Estar mojado hasta los huesos. 

To obtain a thing without pain or Consegoir una cosa d pie quedo. 


To sustain one's opinion stead- Sostener su opini6n i pie firme. 


To bribe. Untar las manos. 

To be loaded with honorable Tener muchas campanUlns. 


The principal town of s district. Cabeza de partido. 


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To get into favor, (to please). 
To hit apon a thing, (to find it out). 
To lose one's livelihood. 
To be crestfallen or dispirited. 
To defend a thing with all one's 

might or force. 
To waste one's time in searching 

for bargains. 
To be roving and wandering 

To be at cross purposes or to deal j 

in ifs and ands. j 

To walk blindly. 
To walk on all-fours. 
To conform to the times. 
To be tossed from pillar to post. 
To go with a design to deceive 

To live very economically. 
Not to say that his mouth is his 

To be the talk of the town. 
Not to dare to say no. 

Mum's the word. 

To act out of reason. 

In one's way, going along. 

To come off victorious in an en- 
gagement or dispute. 

To be in high office or to be in an 
exalted station. 

That is another kind of speech. 

To be stranger to fear. 

A sinecure. 

Not to be able to bring one to 

At all events. 

There is nothing more than what 
you see. 

Sight unseen or without examina- 

Caer en gracia. 

Caer en ello. 

Quedar en la calle. 

Andar {or it) de capa caida. 

Defender una cosa 4 capa y e» 

Andar k caza de gangas. 

Andar de Ceca en Meca. 

Andar en dimes y diretes. 

Andar en dares y tomares. 

Andar 4 ciegas. 

Andar £ gatas. 

Andar con el tiempo, {or al usoX 

Andar de Herodes 4 Pilatos. 

Andar con segundas, {or con ma 

las intenciones). 
Andar pie con bola. 
No decir esta boca es mia. 

Andar de boca en boca. 

No tener boca para decir no, tt 

Punto en boca. 
Ir f uera de camino. 
De camino. 
Quedar el campo por uno. 

Estar en el candelero. 

Ese es otro cantar. 

No conocer la cara al miedo. 

Came sin hueso. 

No poder hacer carrera con al« 

En todo caso. 
No hay m4s cera que la que ardai 

k ojos cerrados. 


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To cure one excess with another. 

To hit the mark. 

To talk incessantly. 

To give cause for laughing. 

To make one cry. 

To clothe one. To feed one. 

To give trouble or to grieve. 

To trust. 

To encourage an undertaking. 

To publish, to print or to bring to 

To shut the door upon one. 

To give for nothing. 

To put off with words and excuses. 

To stretch. To consent. 

To share with or to inform. 

To give security or to find bail. 

To wage war, to torment or to vex. 

To wish good day. 

To congratulate on one's birth- 

To surrender. 

To shake hands. 

To manage one's affairs in an able 

To set sail. 

It gives me no concern. 

To leave a word or orders. 

To leave in writing. 

To excel or to surpass. 

To delay or to procrastinate. 

To leave something unsaid. 

Make yourself easy. 

I understand what you tell me. 

To be ready to set out. 

To be on the alert. 

To be in good humor or to be in 

bad spirits. 
To stand sentry. 

Sacar un clavo con otro clavo. 

Dar en el clavo. 

Hablar por los codos. 

Dar que reir. 

Dar que llorar. 

Dar de vestir. Dar de comer. 

Dar que sentir. 

Dar al fiado, {or 4 credito). 

Dar calor (dnimo or alma) k un£ 

Dar 4 la estampa or dar k luz. 

Dar con la puerta en la cara. 

Dar de balde. 

Dar con la entretenida. 

Dar de si. Dar el si. 

Dar parte. 

Dar fianza. Dar fiador. 

Dar guerra, 

Dar los buenos dias. 

Darle k uno los dias. 

Darse por vencido. 
Darse las manos. 
Darse maQa. 

Darse k la vela. 

No se me da nada. 

Dejar dicho, (mandado). 

Dejar escrito. 

Dejar atrds. 

Dejar para mafiana. 

Dejarse alguna cosa en el tintera 

Descuide V. 

No le de k V. cuidado. 

Estoy en lo que V. me dice. 

Estar para {or por) salir. 

Estar alerta. 

Estar de buen humor, {or de mal 

Estar de centinela. 


by Google 



To be in haste, in a hurry. 
To have a sound understanding. 
To be idle. 
To be in difficulties. 
To be careful of everything. 
To be at hand. 
To be kept in constraint. 
To be in want of money. 
To be merry or to be in good hu- 
To speak through the eyes. 
To speak by heart. 
To act as a notary. 
To endeavor to arrive. 
To make any one lose his temper. 
To pay attention to. 
To play the part of. 
To intend or to mean. 
To kill two birds at a throw. 

To keep one's bed or to be ill. 

To pretend not to see. 

To affect to be deaf. 

To take charge of. 

To pretend to be ignorant or in- 

To praise one exceedingly. 

To have no concern in a thing. 

To go on softly. Walk carefully. 

To become moderate or to restrain 
one's self. 

Who is there f Who goes there f 

To reprimand severely. 


To discover any one's designs. 

To rain hard or to rain bucketfuls. 

To be at outs. 

To be one's chief support. 

To be bom to wretchedness. 

To be bom to good luck. 

Estar de prisa. 

Estar en su juicio. 

Estar mano sobre mano. 

Estar apurado. 

Estar en todo. 

Estar d la mano. 

Estar k raya. 

Faltarle k uno el dinero. 

Estar de fiesta. Estar para fiesta 

Hablar con los ojos. 

Hablar de memoria. 

Hacer de escribano. 

Hacer por Uegar. 

Hacer 4 uno perder los estribos. 

Hacer caso de. 

Hacer papel. 

Hacer intenci<5n. 

Hacer de un camino (una via) dos 

Hacer cam a. 
Hacer la vista gorda. 
Hacer oidos de mercader. 
Hacerse cargo de. 
Hacerse chiquito, (inocente). 

Hacerse lenguas de alguno. 
No ir nada en una cosa. 
Ir con tiento. 
Irse d la mano. 

(Qui^n vaf (Qui^n va alii I 

^Qui^n vivef 
Dar un jab6n. 
Jaque y mate. 
Conocer el juego. 
Llover &. cdntaros. 
Andar k (de) malas. 
Ser sus pies y sus manos. 
Nacer de cabeza. 
Nacer de pies. 


zed by Google 



To affect business. 

To have an absolute power over 

To act without cause or motiye, 
or without rhyme or reason. 
' To put to the sword. 

To become surety. 

To take anything in the worst 

To make futile or silly allega- 

To try to ruin or destroy a per- 
son or thing. 

Not to know what one is about. 

For ever and ever. 

To have equal numbers. 

To feel one*s way. 

To understand thoroughly. 

To be hand and glove. 

Better late than never. 

To bear up under the frowns of 

Death rather than dishonor. 

A thing well begun is half fin- 

Arms and literature render fam- 
ilies illustrious. 

There is a time for everything. 

He who has faults of his own 

ought not reflect upon another 

for having the same. 
Gifts pave the way. 
Tell me thy company and I shall 

tell thee thy character. 
Trust in God, for your own merit 

avails but little. 
He who undertakes many things 

at once seldom succeeds in 


Fingir negocios. 

Tener el palo y el mando. 

Obrar sin qu6 ni para qu4 

Pasar a cuchillo. 
Quedar por alguno. 
Tomar por donde quema. 

Dar razones de pie de bancc. 

Tirar como 4 real de enemigo. 

No saber lo que se pesca. 
Por los siglos de los siglos. 
Estar tantos 4 tantos. 
Andar tentando. 
Estar k lo tiltimo. 
Ser ufia y carne. 
Mds vale tarde que nunca. 
Estar al yunque. 

Comer arena antes que hacer vi- 

Barba bien reroojada, medio ra- 

Almete y bonete hacen cosas de 

Cada cosa en su tiempo y nabos 

en adviento. 
Collate y callemos, que sendas 

nos debemos. 

Dddivas quebrantan pe&as. 
Dime con quien andas y direte 

quien eres. 
Fortuna te d6 Dios, hijo, que el 

saber poco te basta. 
Galgo que muchas liebres levanta, 

ninguna mata. 


by Google 



It k la guerra, ni casar, no se ha 

de aconsejar. 
Las Haves en la cinta, y el gato 

en la cocina. 
A quien madruga Dios le ayuda. 
Necios 7 porfiados hacen ricos a ' 

los letrados, (abogados). 
Ni ojo en la carta, ni mano en el 


Al bnen pagador no le duelen 

Quien con lobos anda 4 aullar se 

Saca lo tuyo al mercado, y unos 

dirdn que es negro, y otros que 

es bianco. 
Tanto vales, cuanto tienes. 

A wolf in a lamb's skin. Ufias de gato, y hdbito de beato. 

Wind and good luck are seldom Viento y ventura poco dura, 

Never advise to go to war, or to 

the marriage altar. 
To affect great diligence, and 

neglect one's duty. 
God helps him who helps himself. 
Fools and obstinate people make 

lawyers rich. 
Neither look into another's letter, 

nor put your hand into another 

man's safe. 
A good paymaster needs no pawn. 

Evil communication corrupts 
good manners. 

Make your affairs public, and 
every one will judge of them 
according to his own fancy. 

You are worth as much as you 


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Sefior Don Ignacio Guevaea, 
Calle del Seminario, Ntimero 412, 

Madrid, Espafia. Nueya Tore, Enero 1 de 1901. 

MuT SeSTor Mto : 

Deseando establecer una correspondencia segura con una per- 
sona de probidad en esa ciudad para los varios encargos y comi- 
siones que pueden ocurrirme en los asuntos de mi comercio, 6 infor- 
mado de las circunstancias y cualidades que concurren en V., me 
tomo la libertad de suplicarle se sirva aceptar el encargo de corres- 
ponsal mio y de participarine su resolucion para mi gobierno. 

La buena reputaci6n de que gozan V. y su casa en 6sta me induce 
igualmente & ofrecerle mis servicios para cuanto fuere de su agrado ; 
y ora acepte V. mi proposicion 6 no, apreciar^ mucho se sirva hon- 
rarme con sus mandates. 

De v. afmo. y atento S. S., Jos£ GXrdenas. 

Sr. Dn. Jos£ CjLrdenas, 

Broadway, Ndmero 20, 

Nueva York, E. U. A. Madrid, Febrero 9 de 1901. 
\iUY SeSor Mfo: 

El honor de ser corresponsal de una persona del cr^dito de V. no 
oueiie dejar de aceptarse con la mayor satisfacci6n. Yo desde lue- 
gu lo acepto, ddndole las mds expresivas gracias por esta prueba de 
conflanza con que me distingue V., y ofreciendo servirle con la 
puntualidad y honradcz que me son propias. 

Espero probarle & V. la sinceridad de mis sentimientos luego 
que se sirva emplearme segun propone ; y me aprovechar^ igual- 
mente de sus ofertas, d que estoy muy reconocido. 
Quedo de V. afmo. y atento S. S., Q. B. S. M.,» 

Ignacio Guevara. 

' Q. B. 8. ][.-^ue beta sua manos, who kisses your hands -is a politi 
form greatly employed in the past, but now falling into disuse. 

881 ^ 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 




Sr. Dn. Ignacio Guevara, 

Madrid, Espafia. Nueya Tobk, Abril 7 de 1901. 
MuT SeKob Mfo : 

En esta fecha j de conformidad con las 6rdenes de V. he em- 
baroado por su cuenta y riesgo 4 bordo de la fragata espafiola '* La 
Esperanza," su capitdn Don Pr6spero Ligero, con destino d Cddiz, 
7 4 la orden y con8ignaci6n del Seflor Luis Ochoa, los efectos que 
constan en la factura y conociq^iento que incluyo en ^sta. 

Espero que sean del gusto de Y., asi por su calidad, como por su 
precio, y que Ueguen bien acondicionados, pues se han enfardado 
con mucho esmero. 

De v. afmo. y atento S. S., Jos< GIbdenas. 


Factura de los efectos que por cuenta y riesgo del SeRor Don 
Ignacio Guevara, del comercio de Madrid, y con la marca y el nti- 
mero del margen, tengo embarcados 4 bordo de la fragata espaQola 
** La Esperanza," capit&n Don Pr^spero Ligero, con destino d G&diz, 
para entregar d la orden de Don Luis Ochoa : 4 saber : 








1 k 10— Diez cajas de. 

11 27 Diez y siete fardos de 
28 39 Doce barriles de vino 

de Jerez 

40 46 Seis huacales de loza 


Comisi6n 4 — por 

S. E. ti 0.> Total. . . . 

NuEVA YoEK, Abril 7 de 1901. 

> 8. E. ti 0.— Salvo error ti omiiidn, " errorB and amissions exetpMU^ 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Digo yo (Don Pr68pero Ligero) capitdn que soy de la fragata 

nombrada " La Esperanza," de porte de toneladas, que al pre- 

sente estd surta, auclada, enjuta y bien acondiciouada en este puerto 
de Nueya York para con la buena ventura, seguir este presente 
viaje al puerto de Gddiz, que conozco haber recibido de Don Jos6 
CArdenas, (aqui la enumeracidn de loa articuloa embarcadoa) todos 
enjutos y bien acondicionados y marcados con la marca del margen ; 
con los cuales me obligo, lleydndome Dios en buen salvamento con 
el dicho mi barco, al dicho puerto, de acudir por vos y en vuestro 

nombre & Don Luis Ochoa pagandom e de flete d raz6n de por 

con por ciento de capa y sus averias acostumbradas, d 

estilo de comercio. Y para cumplir y guardar todo lo dicho y ex- 
puesto, obligo mi persona y bienes, juntamente con el dicho mi 
barco, sus fletes, aparejos, y lo mejor parado de 61. En fe de lo cual 
OS doy tres conocimientos de un mismo tenor, firmados de mi nom- 
bre por mi, 6 por mi contramaestre, 6 segundo, el uno cumplido, 
los otros no valgan. 

NuEVA York, Abril 7 de 1901. Pb6spebo Lioebo. 

Sr. Dn. Jos£ CXbdenas, 

Nueva York. Madbid, Julio 8 de 1901. 

MuT SeSob mIo : 

Don Luis Ochoa, mi corresponsal en C4diz, me avisa con fecha 

de haber Uegado d aquel puerto procedente del de Nueva York, 

la fragata " La Esperanza," su capitdn Dn. Pr6spero Ligero, 6 igual- 
mente haber recibido de 6ste, bien acondicionados, todos los efectos 
que constan en la factura y conocimiento, que V. me reniitio con 
su muy wipreciable de Abril 7 pr6ximo pasado. 

Incluyo en ^sta una letra de cambio, valor de d. ocho dias 

vista, & cargo de los Seflores de ese comercio, que se servird V. 

cobrar y abonar A mi cuenta. 

Doy d V. las mds expresivas gracias por la eficacia y cuidado con 
que se sirve desempefiar mis encargos y me repito. 

De V. afmo. y atento S. S., Ignacio Guevaba. 

Madbid, Julio 8 de 1901. Por $ . 

A ocho dias vista se servirdn Yds. mandar pagar por esta mi 
primera de cambio (no habi^ndolo hecho va por la segunda, ni ter 

Digitized by V^OOQ LC 


cers de esta misma fecha y valor) k la orden de Don Jos6 G&rdenas 

la cantidad de , valor recibido de dicho seflor, que anotaran 

Yds. en cuenta segiin aviso {or sin otro aviso). 

Afmo. 7 atento S. S., Ionacio Ouevara. 

P&guese k la orden de Don , Madrid, Agosto 2 de 1901. 

$150. ' FiLADELFiA, Enero 10 de 1901. 

Pagar^ k veinte dfas, contados desde la fecha, k Don Guzmdn de 
Alfarache 6 4 su orden, la cantidad de ciento y cincuenta pesos, valor 
recibido de dicho seflor en dinero efectivo (6 en g^neros) k toda mi 
satisfacci6n. Pedro Cabello. 


Vale por quinientos pesos fuertes, que yo, el abajo fimiado, Pedro 
P^rez, vecino y del comercio de esta, me oblige k pagar el dia 21 del 
pr6ximo mes de Febrero k la orden de Dn. Pedro HernAndez, y en 
el domicilio de Don Rafael Mangual, del mismo comercio ; cuya can- 
tidad precede de varios generos que en este dia me ha vendido y yo 
confieso haber recibido k mi entera satisfacci6n. — Habana, Enero 22 
de 1901. 

$500.00. Pedro P^bbz. 

Sr. Dn. N. N. ) 

Jl—t- 1 Manila, Marzo 4 de 1901. 

MuY SeSor Mfo: 

En virtu d de la presente, se servird V. entregar {or pagar) al da- 
dor Don Juan Cancela, la cantidad de doscientos y cincuenta pesos 
fuertes, ($250), valor recibido del mismo, que anotard V. en cuenta, 
sin otro aviso, (or segun aviso), de su muy atento S. S. 

D. M. 

Sr. Dn. N. N. \ 

A 1 Manila, Marzo 4 de 1901. 

Minr SsSroB Mfo: 

Con esta fecha he librado k cargo de V. y por mi cuenta, una 
ietra por valor de doscientos y cincuenta pesos fuertes, ($250), pag»- 

Digitized by VjOOQ LC 


deros a Don Juan Cancela. Espero le haga Y. el honor acostum- 
brado, y me la cargue en cuenta, pues yo so la dejo abonada. 
Quedo de V. afmo. y atento S. S., 

D. M. 


Sn Dn. ( 

k I Ponce, P. R., Abril 15 de 1901. 

MuY SbSob mIo y amigo: 

Dn. R. M., dador de la presente, pasa a esa d asuntos propios, (con 
el objeto de recuperar su salud). Es una persona de todo mi apre- 
cio, y como tal se lo recomiendo a V. a quien agradecere como propios 
cuantos favores se sirviere hacerle ; quedando yo obligado a la recl- 
proca siempre que V. tenga la bondad de proporcionarme la ocasion. 
Puede suceder que dicho seilor, mi recomendado, haya menester 
algtin dinero, en cuyo case se servird Y. franquearle hasta la canti- 
dad de mil quinientos pesos ($1500), constituyendome yo responsable 
k abonar a Y. la que le entregare, y de la cual tomard Y. recibo por 
duplicado, a cuya vista le abonare la que fuere. — Para evitar contin- 
gencias va su firma k continuacion de la mia. 

Estando seguro de que Y. tendrd particular satisfacci6n en hacer 
%.. conocimiento de una persona de tan apreciables cualidades y que 
el mismo le estimulard 4 desempeSar perfectamente mi encargo, 
reitero 4 Y. mi afecto y quedo como siempre k sus ordenes, 

como su atento S. S., 

M. Y. C— R. M. 

Sr. Dn. Fbancisco Canales. 

San Juan, P. R., Enero 19 de 1901. 
MuY SeSob nuesteo: 

Permitanos Y. que nos tomemos la libertad de anunciarle que 
acabamos de establecer en este puerto una casa de comercio bajo la 
razon social de Guerrero y Uribe. 

Nuestro caudal y la experiencia de los_ negocios, que hemos ad- 
quirido durante el tiempo que hemos trabajado en el escritorio de 
Ids Seftores Ruiz y Compafila, (que nos han permitido valernos de 
su nombre), nos ponen en estado de desempefiar los negocios que se 
nos encarguen, k satisfacci6n de las personas que se digncn honrar- 
nos con su confianza. 

De Y. afmos. y atentos S. S., 

Ouebbebo y Ubibe. 
Firma de B. Enrique Guerrero— 5. Enrique Guerrero. 

♦* " Fausto T. Uribe— JV»w«^o T, Uribe. 


by Google 



Sefiores Nayabro t Pebea. 
MuT SeSobes nubstbos: 

k bordo de la f ragata espaflola, Isabela, capit&n Francisco Chaves, 

que hace viaje d hemos registrado por nuestra cuenta los efec- 

tos que constan en la factura y conocimiento adjunto. La f ragata 
es nueva y velera) el capitdn muy experimentado y se hard k la vela 
pasado maflana. — Estas noticias serdn suficientes para que Yds. pue- 
dan proceder d asegurarla, lo cual les suplicamos hagan con un vein- 
ticinco por oiento de aumento por ganancias imaginarias. 
Nos repetimos de Yds. af mos. y atentos S. S., 



Enero 18. 

Marzo 9. 

Junio 28. 

Los Sres. G^mez y Men^ndez en su cuenta co- 
rriente con B. Navarro ^ Hijos. 


Importede la fac- 
tura remitida 
por el Pcpe... 

guro del Arrth 

Pagado por su 
cuenta 4 D. E. 

Enero 5. 

Abril 17. 

Febrero 11. 

Producto liqui- 
do del azticar 
recibido por 
La Eapercm- 

Valor de su le- 
4 cargo de N. 

Alcance 4 su fa- 
vor que pasad 
cuenta nueva 

S. E. ti 0. (Salvo error ti omisi6n) 
N. Y., Enero 1 de 1901, 

B. Navabbo t Hugs. 


Don Lazarillo de Tormes debe & 

Pedro de Urdemalas. 
Por dos casacas de pafio, superfine, una azul y otra negra; $ 

Por la hechura y avfos de dos chalecos. 

Por id. id. dos pantalones 

Por la compostura de un sobretodo 

Babcelona, Junio 16 de 1901. 

Total f 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



He recibido de Don Leopoldo Peugnet la cantidad de ciento cua- 
renta y nueve pesos, tres reales y medio por saldo de todas cuentas 
hasta la fecba. 

NuEVA York, Febrero 8 de 1901. 

$149.43i. Peancisco Est^yez. 


Becibi de Don Fulano Droguete sesenta pesos i cuenta de mayor 

Jauja, Septiembre 30 de 1900. 

$60.00. Pascual Bobo. 

Carta de Don Oregorio Mayans al Dr, Don Aasensio Sales, sobre 


MuT SeSTor mIo y amioo: 

En el trato familiar solemos bablar con libertad y con aquella 
confianza que merecen los amigos ; pero por escrito suele ser peli- 
groso explicarse con la misma claridad ; porque permanece la me- 
moria de lo que se escribe ; y aunque el amigo sea fiel, tal yez no lo 
es el que bereda sus cartas, y con el tierapo paran 6stas en donde 
menos se piensa. Por eso es mjiy prudente la duda de V. sobre el 
modo con que uno debe portarse por escrito. 

Hemos de distinguir el que pregunta del que responde. Aqu^l 
tiene mayor libertad ; porque puede callar sin nota ; 6 hacer la pre- 
gunta con arte, del modo menos ofensivo, y mds cauteloso. Si lo 
que se ha de preguntar tiene conexion con la ofensa, y leido no puede 
dejar de causarla ; hemos de distinguir las preguntas & que no nos 
obliga la necesidad de las yoluntarias. Las primeras son inex- 
cusables, y asi deben hacerse del modo mds cauto ; esto es menos 
circunstanciado, respecto de la inteligencia de otros, con quien no 
se trata. Las segundas deben evitarse cuanto sea posible. Hecha 
la pregunta, se ha de considerar, si conviene responder, 6 no. Si 
es necesario, 6, si conviene responder, se puede hacer con pala- 
bras alusivas d la pregunta, callando la persona, 6 el negocio de que 
se trata, y respondiendo en suposici6n del hecho ; si bien ^ste & yeces 
es tal, que ^l mismo seflala la persona, y el hecho, por mucho que se 
quiera ocultar: como se ve en las cartas de Cicer6n d. Atico. Si es 
peligroso responder absolutamente, debe callarse ; y en casos de trai- 

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cidn, entregarse la pregunta k quien convenga por no hacerse c6m- 
plice, ni atln disimulador en el delito de lesa majestad. 

Cuando Don Jose Antonio de Quiros salio de la prisi6n de la In- 
qui8ici6n, y me escribi6, pedia la caridad que yo le respondiese, y lo 
hice de modo que habi^ndolo aprisionado de nuevo, se alabaron 
mucho mis respuestas, pnes dije k aquel insigne Tar6n lo que le 
convenla, pensando lo que le podia suceder. Callar era contra la 
amistad, que siempre le babla yo profesado, y le debia ; hablar pedia 
mucha prudencia. 

Estoy Icyendo, y apuntando los ires i&ltimos libros de Dion Casio, 
que publico en Roma en el afio 1724, NicoUs Carminio Falc6n, ha- 
biendolos sacado de la Libreria Vatioana. 

listed me mande ; y nuestro Seflor guarde 4 usted muchos aflos 
como deseo. Olivia 4 6 de Junio de 1750. 
B. L. M. de usted, 

Su mds seguro servidor y amigo, 

Don Greoorio MatXns y Sicab. 

Al Dr. Don Aaaenaio Sales. 

Carta de Don Antonio SolU d Don Antonio Camero, sobre asuntos 

SeSob t amigo Mf o : 

Vamos al negocio, que es muy tarde para no decir lo que ae viene 
k la pluma. La carta que vino en mi pliego se dio con la adver- 
tencia que V. previno, en cuanto k su seguridad. 

Las vitelas ban hecho ruido. S<Slo me ban dicho que el San 
Vicente viene gordo, y serk menester enflaquecerlo de manera que 
parezca algo m^ penitente ; y que tenga los brazos levantados en 
acci6n de predicar el juicio final. V. vaya teniendo cuidado con 
que ya se piden goUerias^ como si fueran vitelas ; y se ban de pagar 
como las miniaturas ; ponga V. uno y otro en el libro de las par- 
tidas que se dcben, por lo que pudiere suceder. 

Espero, en respuesta del correo que viene, la censura de V. y del 
seflor marques sobre lo que ha parecido mi libro en esas regiones del 
norte, que por acd continuan sus aplausos ; aunque se habrdn ven- 
dido unos cieuto cincuenta tomos, pues en todo influye la falta de 
dinero y en Madrid hay pocos hombres que tengan dos reales de k 
ocho juntos. 

He pagado enteramente a D. N., porque me tenia con cuidado el 
maestro de obras. A V. se dcbc la de la Nucva Espaila y tengo por 
evidente que no se habria impreso si no fuera por el socorro de V. ; 

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porque la ajuda de costa todavia se estd. en el aire. Y asl puede V. 
llamar suya la historia y las demds razones. A esta acci6n que ha 
hecho tanto ruido, de haber acompafiado al divinisimo nuestro rey, 
escribf estos dos sonetos, porque su majestad se acord6 de mi an- 
tigua vena. V. verd en ellos el trabajo que me ban costado, por el 
que le costard el leerlos. A D. Martin tenemos ya con titulo de su 
majestad, en que le nombra corrector general de los libros de estos 
reinos ; y estd en dnimo de ser tan conocido como Murcia de la 
Liana. Tiene cincuenta doblones de salario, y lo que produjeren 
las erratas. Pone desde luego d las 6rdenes de V. esta dignidad, 
habiendo conseguido el ser persona de muchos envidiosos. 

Sirvase V. ponerme d los pies de mi sefiora Dofia N., y qu^dese lo 
demds para otra ocasi6n. Ouarde Dios d V. muchos afios. Ma- 
drid, etc. Don Antonio de SoLfs. 

Carta del Padre JoU Francisco de Isla d su hermana Dofia Fran- 
cisca de Isla y Lozada 

ViLLAGABcfA, d 24 de Julio de 1758. 


Has dado en la mania, de algunas semanas d esta piirte, de que 
te pierdo el respeto, sin que yo acierte d concebir c6mo se puede 
perder lo que jamds se ha tenido. Pero tii eres una pequefia dia- 
blesa, y sabes mds que Merlin, por lo que te estimare me com uniques 
este secreto, que puede importar para mds de dos ocasiones. Hallar 
una cosa antes de perderse es habilidad que d cada paso la usan los 
ladrones ; pero perderse lo que jamds se posey6, no lo habia tenido 
por posible, hasta que tti me aseguras que es cosa evidente. Al fin, 
si te he perdido el respeto, fijar6 cedulones en las esquinas de los 
correos, (porque has de saber que los correos tienen esquinas), para 
que cualquiera persona que haya hallado un respeto que se perdio, 
acuda d ti, d quien pertenece, que se le pagard el hallazgo, y por lo quo 
toca d mi, doy palabra de guardar tan bien el primero que te tenga, 
que no s61o no se pueda perder, pero que ninguno me le pueda en- 
contrar. No sabia que estuviese por prior de ese convento de S. 
Agustin el Mro. Ocampo. Es de los hombres sabios, religiosos, 
honrados y atentos que he conocido. Dice bien ; tratele mucho en 
Pamplona, y siempre le he profesado singular estimaci6n. La he 
hecho muy grande de la memoria con que roe honra, y de la amistad 
que me conscrva. Te estimar^ mucho, asi d ti, como d Nicolds, que 
le corresponddis en vuestro nombre y en el mio con el mds fino 
aprecio, tratdndole con toda confianza, y sirvi^ndole en cuanto se le 

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ofrezca. Si antes de ahora habiera sabido su destine, antes de ahora 
OS habria hecho esta recomendacion ; porque tengo singular com- 
placencia en que los hombres particulares scan particiilarraente dis- 
tinguidos. Si todos fueran como el Rmo. Ocampo, no habria quejas, 
porque no habria gerundios. Dile cuanto quisieres de mi parte, en 
la inteligencia de que en nada te excederds. Ahora vete d pasear, 
que yo voy k escribir otras cartas. 

Sefiora, B. T. P. (con un cardo) el mds atento capellan de TL 
Ella. Yo. 

Carta de Luscinda a Cardenio 
SeSTob : 

La palabra que Don Fernando os did de hablar & vuestro padre 
para que hablase al raio, la ha cumplido mucho mis en su gusto 
que en vuestro provecho. Sabed, seilor, que 61 me ha pedido pot 
esposa, J mi padre, llevado de la ventaja que el piensa que Don 
Fernando os hace, ha venido en lo que quiere con tantas veras, que 
de aqui i dos dias se ha de hacer el desposorio, tan secreto y tan 4 
solas que s61o han de ser testigos los cielos y alguna gente de casa. 
Cual yo quedo, imaginadlo : si os cumple venir, vedlo, y si os quiero 
bien 6 no el suceso deste negocio os lo dard a entender. A Dios 
plege que 6sta llegue a vuestras manos antes que la mia se vea en 
condici6n de juntarse con la de quien tan mal sabe guardar'la fe 
que promote. Luscinda. 

(Don Quijote, cap, XX VIL) 

Carta de Don Carlos d Dofkt Frandsca 
Bien mIo: 

Si no consigo hablar con usted, har6 lo posible para que llegue 4 
sus manos esta carta. Apenas me separe de usted, encontr^ en la 
posada al que yo llaraaba mi enemigo ; y al verle, no s6 como no 
expire de dolor. Me mand6 que saliera inmediatamente de la ciudad, 
y fue precise obedecerle. Yo me llamo Don Carlos, no Don F6lix. 

Don Diego es mi tio. Viva usted dichosa y olvide para siempre 

4 su infeliz amigo. Carlos de Ukbina. 

(Moratin^El Si de las Niftas, Act III, ac. xii,) 


M. V (el Sr., la Sra., or la Srta. A.) agradecerd mucho que el 

Seflor N. (la Sefiora or Seflorita B.) le (la) favorezca, (honre), con su 
compafLia el lunes 8 del corriente despues de las 7 de la tarde, 
Calle de Troya, Febrero 3 de 1901. 


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Sr. D. N MiiECOLES, 10 de Febrero de 1901. 


Esta noche vendrdn k ^sta muy de Y. algunas personas que deseo 
la pasen con satisfaccion ; para esto cuento con V. cuya presencia 
espero para hacer brillante la compaflia. Adi6s, basta la vista. 

Amigo y servidor de V. — M. V. 

M. Y. salnda afectuosa y respetuosamente al Sr. , y le que- 

dar4 muy agradecido si se sinriera pasar en su compaflia la nocbe 
del jueyes pr6ximo despu^s de las 7. 

LuMBS, Febrero — de 1901. 

M. V B. L. M. al Sefior (B. L. P. i la Sra. or Sta. N.) y 

aoepta oon gusto su inyitaci6n, por la que le da muchas gracias. 

M. V B. L. M. al Sr. y siente no poder gozar de su 

amable compaflia la noche sefialada, por hallarse comprometido de 

M. Y. saluda amigable y respetuosamente al Sr. y acepta 

con gusto su convite para la noche de . 

Jaeves 6 . 


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1. There are in Spanish nine parts of speech ; namely, the noun, 
adjectiire, pronoun, verb, participle, adverb, preposition, conjunc- 
tion, and interjection. 

2. The first five of these parts of speech are capable of various 
degrees of inflection; that is, certain changes take place in tlioir 
structure and termination to express number, gender, case, person, 
mode, or tense. The rest are invariable. 

8. Although, strictly speaking, cases are wanting in Spanish, save 
in the personal pronouns, their technical names are sometimes used 
for exactness and conciseness of statement. The following table 
will explain : 


Eng. equivalent. 


Eng. signs. 

N. Nominative. 

Nom. or subject. 

G. Genitive. 



'», «-. of. 

D. Dative. 

Indirect objective. 


to, at. 

I. A. Impers. Accusative. 

Direct objective. 

P. A. Person. Accusative. 

Direct objective. 


P. Prepositional 

The use of these cases will be illustrated in treating of the differ- 
ent parts of speech. 


4. There are two articles — the definite, el, the, and the indefi- 
nite, on, a, on. They agree with the noun which they qualify in 
gender, numj>er, and case, and are thus inflected : 

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G. Del, 


% of the. 

De los, 

de las. 




to, at the. 


4 las. 

to, at the. 

A. El, 







nna, a, a/n, one. 

Unos, nnas, a few, some, 

G. De nn 
D. 1 nn. 

, de nna, of a, a/th, one. 

4 nna, to, at a, a/n, 

De nnos, de nnas, of some, cer- 

k nnos, 4 nnas, to, at some, 


nna, a, an. 

Unos, nnas, a few, some, 

5. Del,, of the, and al, to the, are contracted from de el and 4 
el, respectively. 

6. In modern Spanish the uncontracted forms are used only 
when el belongs to a quoted epithet, title, or heading : 

Un capitulo de " El Bscdndalo." A chapter from " The EscAndalo." 

7. El is now universally employed before feminine nouns in the 
singular beginning with an accented a, ha : 

El alma, the soul. EI ave, the bird. 

El dguila, the eagle. El hambre, the hunger. 

It is not so used in the plural : 

Las almas, the souls. Las dguilas, the eagles. 

Las aves, the birds. Las hambres, the famines. 

8. The indefinite article is often used in the same way : 
Un ave, for una ave. Un dguila, for una aguila. 

This, however, is a questionable usage, 

9. While, properly speaking, the indefinite article has no plural, 
the forms nnos and nnas are used to express the partitive sense 
of a substantive : 

£l tiene unos caballos muy altos. He has some very tall horses. 

10. So also nnos and nnas are employed in the indefinite sense 

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of 8ome^ a few, when the noun, has no attribute, but this makes a 
weaker construction than unos cnantos or algunos : 
Un caballero con unos libros. A gentleman with (some) books. 
Vi d algunos ingleses. I saw some Englishmen. 


11. The quaH-n^xxiQX article, lo, the, is used with adjectives, 
adverbs, and pronouns to express substantive ideas : 
Lo bueno, the good, that which Lo mejor, the heat, that which ia 

is good. beet, 

Lo mio, mifie, tJiat which is mine. Lo suyo, his, that which is his. 
Hare lo posible para efectuarlo. I shall do my best to accomplish 

Dicho lo cual se retir6. Which being said, he withdrew. 

13. Lo is also used as a pronoun, but this will be discussed 
later. (See Pronouns.) 


13. There are two genders : masculine and feminine ; and all 
substantives, even those which designate inanimate objects, sub- 
stances, and abstract ideas, are of one of these genders. 

14. In general, those Spanish common nouns which end in are 
masculine, and those which end in a are feminine. 

15. The gender of a word is to be determined either by its 
meaning or by its ending. 

16. Those nouns which by their meaning are masculine may be 
thus classified : 

a. All nouns, of whatever ending, denoting males, or designat- 
ing the titles, professions, or pursuits which are commonly asso- 
ciated with males : 

El rey, the king. El sastre, the tailor. 

El cura, the curate {priest). El buey, the ox, 

b. The gender of the names of countries, cities, provinces, and 
towns ending in 0, a, follows the general rule given above (Sec- 
tion 14) ; that is, those terminating in being masculine, those in 
a feminine ; if, however, they end in a consonant, they are mostly 
masculine : 

El Carpio, Logo, Madrid, Burgos, Brasil; la Andalucia, 


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c. Masculines in o may be poeticallj used in the feminine, when 
la cindad, iAe eity^ is understood : 

La ilustre Toledo. Illustrious Toledo ; 

except in such cases as those where the article is inseparable from 

the noun : 

Bernardo del Carpio. Bernard of the Carpio. 

d. The names of most rivers, no matter what may be the ending. 

e. Those parts of speech which are invariable, when used sub- 
stantively : 

El si, the consent (yea). El pro y el contra, the pro and 

El pagar^, the promieeory note, the eon, 

/. The names of most fruit trees and their wood, the fruit usu- 
ally being feminine : 

El manzano, the apple-tree. La manzana, the apple. 

El naranjo, the orange-tree, Una naranja, an orange. 

The following are exceptions : 

lok ^\mQt9L, the palm-tree, Un d4til, a <2a^6. 

La higuera, the fig-tree, Un higo, a fi>g, 

Una breva, a freah fig. 

El limonero, the lemon-tree, Un lim6n, a lemon. 

El membrillero, tJie quince-tree. El membrillo, the quince. 

El albaricoquero, the aprieot-tree. El albaricoque, the apricot. 

El ft*ato is the fruit on the tree, or in a figurative sense ; la 
fmta is the fruit after it is gathered, as when it is exposed for 
sale, or is brought on the table ; but la rama, the hough, branch, 
is used of the branch or bottgh before it is removed from the tree ; 
while el ramo denotes the branch after removal, or in a figurative 

17. The following classes of nouns are feminine by their meaning: 
a. Those, of whatever ending, which denote females, or desig- 
nate dignities, titles, offices, professions, and pursuits associated with 
women : 

La reina, tJ^ queen. La costurera, the aeamstrese. 

La emperatriz, the empress. La doncella, t?^ maid, lady's 


With the exception of duello, master or mistress, and ftngel, 
angel, applicable to either sex ; though in some senses the feminine 


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dnella, mutress, is employed, as when a woman says, Soy dnefia 
de mi misma, lam mistress of myself, 
b. All the letters of the alphabet, 

18. Masculines by ending are : 

a. All common nouns that end in 0, no matter what their sig- 
nification may be : 

El peso, the weight. El reino, the kingdom. 

Except la mano, ths hand, and la reo, the (female) culprit. 

b. Certain nouns, ending in a, designating males : 

El carlista, the Carlist, El periodista, /Ae publisher of a 

e. Also foreign words ending in an accented 4 : 
El sofd, the sofa. El mand, the manna. 

d. Certain nouns in a and ema from Greek and Latin neuters* 
or such as follow their analogy : 

El olima, the climate. El problema, the problem. 

El idioma^ ths langtuige. El sistema, th^ system. 

El tema means the text, theme; la tema, the contention, the 

19. Nouns are feminine by their termination : 

a. Which end in a, excluding those already explained to be mas' 

b. Which end in dad, tad, i6ii, ie, tud, and nmbre : 

La verdad, the truth. La especie, the hind, species. 

La libertad, liberty. La virtud, virtue. 

La atenci6n, attention. La lumbre, the fire. 

20. There are, in addition, many nouns which do not uniformly 
show the gender. These must be learned by association with the 
article which corresponds with them, and which serves to indicate 
their gender : 

El 4rbol, the tree. La c&rcel, thejadl, 

21. Masculine nouns ending in a may assume the feminine article 
when applied to females : 

Un belga, a Belgian, becomes una belga ; nn artlsta, an ar- 
tist, becomes nna artlsta. 

22. A few feminines in a now generally take the masculine 
article when they denote males : 

La guia, the guide, becomes el gliia. 


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23. Several nouns designating persons, and not ending in a, haTO 
a common form for both genders : 

£1 or la hereje, the heretic. El or la joven, the youth, young 

man, or woman, 

24. Manj nouns which were feminine in Old Spanish, and are 
still considered as such in a poetic or elevated style, or in certain 
traditional phrases, are now masculine in ordinary prose : 

£1 mar, t/ie sea, Alta mar, high sea, 

25. Margen, margin^ is masculine or feminine without change 
of meaning. 

26. Art«, arty is always feminine in the plural, and predomi- 
nantly so in the singular, though it is often masculine in the sin- 
gular : 

Las bellas artes, the fine arts. El arte dram&tico, the dramatie 


27. The following nouns, denoting inanimate objects, have a 
different meaning with a difference of gender : 

£1 cometa, the comet. La cometa, ths kite. 

El crisma, the holy oil. La orisma, the head, (colloquial). 

£1 c61era, the- cholera. La c61era, {the) rage, 

Una canal, a canals an artificial La canal, th^ natural wa^er-way^ 

water-way, chawnel, 

Un oorte, a cut, edge, Una corte, residence of a ^saver" 

El capital, the capital (funds). La capital, the capital city. 
El moral, the mulberry-tree (Mo- La moral, (the) ethics, morals, 

rus nigra), 
£1 f rente, the frorU rcmk, (mili- La f rente, /Ae forehead, 

tary), the face of a bastion. 
El parte, ths telegraphic dis- la, ^ssi^, the pa/rt, portion, 

El pendiente, apendaml, earring, Una pendiente, a slope, declivity, 
Un pez, (generic), a fish. La pez, the tar, the pitch, 

28. Compound nouns usually take the gender of the second 
member when that is singular, but if it is plural the whole word is 
masculine, be the second term what it may : 

El ferrocarril, the railroad. El cortaplumas, the pen-knife. 

La guardarropa, iTie wardrobe. El portamonedas, t?ie ports-man^ 

TranTia, tramway, is masculine. 


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29. Those nouns which are capable of variation to express gender 
are changed from the masculine to the feminine : 

a. By substituting a for final o : 
El amo, the nMster. Una ama, a mistress (of the 

El muchacho, t?^ hoy. La muchacha, tJie girl. 

The following words are to be excepted : 
£1 diablo, tJie devil. La diablesa, ths she-devil. 

El didcono, tJie deacon. La diaconisa, the deaconess. 

h. By adding a to the masculine finals d, 1, n, r, 8, and z : 
MhvL^^pedfths guest, tTiebocwder, La hu^speda, the female guest, 

El espafiol, the Spaniard, La espafiola, the Spafiish woman. 

El alem^, the German, La alemana, the Gei^an woman. 

El sefior, the lord, gentleman. La sefiora, the lady^ mistress. 
El ingles, the Englishman, La inglesa, the Englishwomaft. 

£1 andaluz, the Andalucian, La andaluza, the Andalucian 


c. A few nouns in dor and tor substitute triz : 

El actor, the actor. La actriz, the actress, 

d. A few nouns suffix sa br esa to the masculine : 

El conde, the count. La condesa, tJie countess, 

£1 bar6n, the baron. La baronesa, the baroness. 

e. The following change the final vowel to isa : 

El poeta, tJie poet. La poetisa, the poetess. 

El prof ota, ths prophet. La prof etisa, the prophetess. 

£1 sacerdote, the priest. La sacerdotisa, the priestess. 

f. A few nouns in modem Spanish change final e to a : 
£1 sastre, the tailor. La sastra, the tailoress. 

Except, however, el h^roe, t?ie hero, la heroina, ths Tieroine, 

g. There is a growing tendency to change final e to a in the 
case of many nouns which terminate in ante, ente, iente (yente), 
though many writers and speakers continue to use the final e for 
both genders: 


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El protestante, the Protestant La protestante-a, the Protestant 

(man). (woman). 

'Ei presidente, the president. La preisidente-a, the president 


80. A few common nouns form their feminine irregularly : 
Don, Jfr. (with Christian names). Dofia, Mrs, (with Christian 

El principe, the prince. La princesa, the princess. 

El rey, the king. La reina, the queen. 

El gallo, the cock. La gallina, the hen, 

81. A few proper nouns have irregular feminines : 
Carlos, Charles, Carlota, Charlotte, 
Enrique, Henry, Enriqueta, Henrietta, 
F^Hx, Felix, Pelisa, Felicia, 
Jos^, Joseph, Josefa, Josepha, 
Miguel, Micha>el, Micaela, Michaela, 
Pedro, Peter, Petra, Petra, 
Pablo, Paul, Paula, Paula, 

82. The following common nouns have distinct forms for the 
masculine and feminine gender : 

El hombre, the man. La mujer, t7^ woma/n. 

El padre, the father. La madre, the mother. 

El marido (el esposo), the hue- La esposa, the wife, 


El yemo, the son^n-law. La nuera, tJie daughter-inrlaw. 

El toro, the hull. La vaca, the cow. 

El caballo, the horse. La yegua, the mare. 

El macho, the male (of animals). La hembra, the female, 

88. There are two numbers, singular and plural : 
El perro, the dog, Los perros. the dogs. 

La casa, the house. Las casas, the 7u)uses, 

84. The following nouns form their plural by adding g: 
a. All nouns ending in unaccented vowels, except j : 
El hijo, i?^ son, Los hijos, tJie sons, 

Bl amigo, the friend, Im amigos, tJie friend9> 

Digitized by 



h. Nouns terminating in an accented e : 
El pie, the foot, Los pies, the feet. 

'EilotkU^ the coffee, the coffee-house, Los caf6s, the coffees, the coffee- 


Excepting the letter e of the alphabet, which becomes lag ees 
in the plural 

80. The following nouns take es in the plural : 

a. Those ending in consonants, final z always becoming e before 
taking es. (See letter z in Introduction to the Method.) 

El animal, the animal. Los animales, t?^ animals. 

La producci6n, the production. Las producciones, the produc- 
Bl juez, the judge, Los jueces, the judges, 

b. Kouns terminating in j : 

La ley, the law. Las leyes, the la/ios, 

c. Nouns terminating in accented vowels, except e accented : 
El alfoli, the granary, Los alf olies, the granaries. 

Except : 
El papd, thepapa^ (the father). Los pap4s, the papas. 
La mam^ the mama. Las mam^s, the mamas. 

El 8of&, the sofa, Los sof^ the sofas. 

El maravedi, the maravedi,^ a Los maravedis, marfivedises, and 

small Spanish coin, formerly maravedies. 

El land6, the UmdcM, Los land6s, the landds. 

It should be observed that the letters of the alphabet and many 
monosyllables come under this rule : 

La &, la 6, la ti, tJie a, tJie 0, tJie u. Las aes, las oes, las ues, tJie a*s, 

the 0% the u^s, 

86. Some nouns are invariable : 

a. Those ending in es and is unaccented, in words of more than 
one syllable : 

La crisis, the crisis. Las crisis, the crises. 

El martes, Tuesday, Los martes, Tuesdays, 

b. Patronymics, in g and z : 

FemAndez, {a family name). Los Fernandez, the Femdndez, 

1 A tnarav4di was about a sixth of an American cent. 

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37. Compound words, if not already plural in form, usually suffix 
the proper plural sign to their last member only : 
El ferrocarril, the railroad, Los ferrocarriles, the railroads. 

£1 tranvla, the tramway, Los tranvias, the tramways, 

£1 eortaplomas, the pen-hnife, having already a plural termi- 
nation, does not change. 

88. Certain masculine plurals, apparently contrary to their ob- 
vious meaning, include persons of both sexes : 

Los principes, the princes, or the prince a/nd the princess, 

Los padres, the parents, or the father amd mother, 

Los seiiores, the gentlemen, or the gentleman aiid his lady, 

89. Since the only inflectional ending which Spanish nouns pos* 
sess is the plural sign, it is useless to give any tables of inflection. 
Prepositional inflection can only be learned by the study of many 
examples. These are to be found in the Method. 


40. Adjectives are masculine or feminine, singular or plural : 
Un hombre rico, a rich man, Una mujer bonita, a pretty 

Lo caballos viejos, the old horses. Las peras chicas, the smcUl pears, 

41. In addition to the masculine and feminine, there is an abso- 
lute form of the adjective with lo, sometimes, though incorrectly, 
called a neuter : 

Lo bueno, the good, that which is good, 

42. Adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns which 
they qualify : 

Una casa alta, a high house, Los muchachos vivos, the lively 

48. When the adjective is used with lo, and is followed by que, 
thai, with the verb to he, or its equivalents, it varies to suit the 
gender and number of the noun of which it is the attributive. In 
such cases the Spanish adjective must be rendered by a substantive : 
Lo baratos que son estos som- The cheapness of these hats, (the 

breros. cheap that are these hats). 

Lo antigua que es la iglesia. The antiquity of the church. 

44. Adjectives form their plural by adding s to unaccented vowel- 
finals, and es to consonant and accented vowel-finals, changing x to 
e before es : 

Digitized by V^OOQLC 



Ma9c, Fern, 

Bueno, buena, 

Ingles, inglesa, 


Mck8c. Fein» 

buenos, buenas, good, 
ingleses, inglesas, English, 
infelioes, miserahle. 


45. There are several classes of adjectives which vary their end- 
ing for gender : 

a. Common adjectives ending in o, an, ol, on, or, oz, change 
to, or add a : "• 

El hombre alto, the taU man. La mujer alta, ths tcUl woman, 
£1 muchacho comil6n, the glut' La muchacha comilona, the glut- 
tonotts boy. tonous girl, 

h. All proper adjectives, except those ending in a, e, and accented 
i, form the feminine by adding a: 

El libro espaflol, the Spcmiah La graroatica espafiola, /^e /^pon- 

hook. iah grammar. 

El americano, tJ^e American La americana, the American 

(man). woma/n, 

e. Diminutives in ete and augmentatives in ote change the final 
e to a: 

El grandote, tJie biggish boy or La grandota, the biggish girl or 
m>an. woman, 

d. Diminutives in in add a : 

Chiquitin, a wee one, (masc.). Chiquitina, a wee one, (fem.). 

e. A few adjectives ending in tor change to triz, or merely add a : 
F*ierza motora or motriz. Motive power, 

46. Many adjectives have only one termination for the masculine 
and feminine ; namely, common adjectives ending in a, e, !, al, el, 
11, nl, en. In, un, ar, az, ez, iz, oz, eg, Ista, and comparatives in 
or and ior : 

El, la belga, th^ Belgian, (male or Piel, faithful, (masc. or fem.). 

female). tJtil, useful, (masc. or fem.). 

Grande, large, (masc. or fem.). Azul, blue, (masc. or fem.). 

Baladl, vile. (maso. or fem.). Joven, young, (masc. or fem.). 

Digitized by VjOOQ LC 


Personal,^rMma/,(roasc.orfem.). Soez, hdse, low, (maso. or fern.). 

Buin, mean, (masc. or fera.). Socialista, sodalietic, (maso. or 
GomtiD, common, (masc. or fem.). fern.). 

Familiar, familiar^ (masc. or Cortes, courteous, (masc. or fern.). 

fem.). Mejor, better, (masc. or fem.). 

Sagaz, sagacious, (masc. or fem.). Inferior, inferior, (masc. or fem.). 

47. All adjectives may be employed as subetantiires.* In such 
cases they are subject to the rules goreming nouns : 

El prudente, tJie wise man. El espafiol, the Spaniard. 

La americana, ths American Las fieles, the faithful women, 

48. Occasionally nouns are used as adjectives to qualify other 

La tierra virgen, t?^ virgin soil. La madre patria, the mother coun- 


49. Eight adjectives are capable of apocopation— that is, they 
lose their final o when they immediately precede a masculine noun 
in the singular. They are : 

Bueno, good. Teroero, third. 

Malo, bad. Una, one. 

Postrero, latter, last. Alguno, some, cmy. 

Primero, first, Ninguno, none. 

a. In colloquial language the a in the feminine termination is 
sometimes dropped before the singular, when it begins with a and ha : 
Un alma, a soul. Algdn ave, a/ny (some) bird. 

b. Uno, one, when combined with other numerals, is contracted 
before nouns : 

Noventa y un hombres, ninety- Cuarenta y un soldados, /or/y-on« 
one men. soldiers. 

50. Grande, great, in the sense of eminence loses de when it 
stands before a singular noun which begins with a consonant sound : 
Un gran dia, a great day. El gran general, the great general. 

a. Sometimes, for intensity or emphasis, the full form grande 
is used, even before singular nouns beginning with consonants, 
though there is a tendency to abandon this usage : 
Tan grande daflo, so great Jiarm. El grande duque, tTie grand duke. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


h. When g^rande has reference to size or extent or primftcy, it 
usually follows the noun which it qualifies : 
Un lago grande, a large lake. El premio grande, the first (great) 


51. Coalqiiiera, whatever, often loses the final a immediately 
before a noun. 

Cualquier libro, whatever book, any hook whatever, 

52. Ciento, a hundred, oiie hundred, drops to when immediately 
preceding its noun, but not if some other number intervenes : 
Gien bastones, a hundred walk" Ciento y ocho caballos, a hundred 

ing-stieks, and eight horses, 

58. Santo, saint, loses to when it stands before the names of the 
saints or sacred personages : 
San Pedro, Saint Peter. San Jos^, Saint Joseph, 

Excepting : 
Santo Tom4s, Saint Thomas. Santo Domingo, Saint Dominie, 
Santo Toribio, S(nnt Toribius, Santo Job, Saint Job ; 
but santo, haly, is never contracted. 

54 The attribute adjective, in ordinary language, usually follows 
the noun which it qualifies ; but this may be varied for the sake of 
rhetorical effect : 

La lengua espafiola, tlie Spanish Un negocio importante, an im- 
langttage, portant business, 

55. As there will be considerable uncertainty in the mind of the 
student, it should be observed that the following classes of adjectives 
usually follow the nouns which they qualify, except when placed 
otherwise for rhetorical effect : 

a. Participles and participial adjectives in ado, ido, ante, en to, 
iente, yente. 

h. Proper adjectives or those derived from political or teientific 

e. Adjectives ending in al, dor, tor. 

d. Augmentative and diminutive adjectives. 

e. When two or more adjectives qualify the same subject, espe* 
dally when such adjectives are in the singular. 

/. And in general, all long adjectives, unless there be good reason 
to place them before their nouns. Dlustrations : 


zed by Google 


Las cosechas abundantes, the Una mujer paciente, a patient 

abundant Tiarveata, womam,. 

El idioma griego, the Greek Icm- El partido unionista, ths Union- 

guage, ist party. 

La estaci6n central, the central El muchacho pregunt6n, the in- 

station, quiaitive hoy. 
Las tropas segunda, sexta y oc- 

tava, the second, sixth, and 

eighth troops. 

56. A few very common adjectives usually precede their nouns : 
Mucha inteligencia, much intelli- Demasiado dinero, much money. 


57. Some adjectives have different meanings according to their 
position with relation to their nouns : 

tin gran cabal! o, a great horse. Un caballo grande, a large horse, 
Una buena noche, a good night. Noche buena, Christmas eve. 


58. There are three degrees of comparison : Positive, Compara- 
tive, and Superlative. 


59. Comparison is effected by the use of m&s, m^re, or menos, 
less, with the positive, to form the comparative : 

Blanco, mds bianco. White, whiter. 

60. Almost all parts of speech may be placed in relations of com- 
parison by using certain adverbs and adjectives as correlatives. 
These are : 

Tan como, oa (so) — as. Tanto— como, oa (so) much — as 
Tanto— cnauto, as (so) much — (so). 

as (so). Mfis^que (de), m>ore — tha/n. 

Menos— que (de), less-— than, Cuanto m6fr— tanto mils, th€ 

fewer — ^than. m,ore — the more, 

Cuanto menos— tanto menos, 

ths less — ths less. 

Illustrations : 

Tan puro como un dngel. As pure as an angel. 

Tanto pan como came. As much bread as meat. 

Es rods rico que Alejandro, He is richer than Alexander. 

Digitized by VjOOQ LC 


M4s de cien caballos. More than a hundred horses. 

Menos nieve que hielo. Less snow than ice. 

Menos de veinte libras. Less than twenty pounds. 

Cuanto m4s trabaja tanto m&& The more he works, the more he 

pierde. loses. 
Cuanto menos dinero gana tanto The less money he gains, the less 

menos ahorra. he saves. 

61. In poetry cnal is sometimes substituted for como in the 
phrase tan — eomo, in which case tan is usually suppressed, and 
the noun which follows loses its article : 

Manso cual cordero. Meek as a lamb. 

62. Relations of comparison may be made negative by the use of 
no, not\ 8in, without; tampoco, nor — either, before the verb: 

No es menos rico que noble. He is not less rich than noble. 

Sin decir 61 una sola palabra. Without his saying a single word. 

Tampoco vive mejor que V. Nor does he live better than you. 

63. The formula de lo qne, them what, replaces the comparative 
adverb que, when the second member of the comparison contains a 

Es m^ sano de lo que parece. It is more wholesome than it ap- 

64. De takes the place of que in the formula mk& qne, before 
numerals, if the sentence is affirmative ; but if the sentence is nega- 
tive, que is preserved : 

Tiene m&s de ocho sombreros. He has more than eight hats. 
No me di6 m&s que tres plumas. He gave me no more than three 


65. M4s and menOB may be qualified by the following adverbs : 

Un poco, a little, Poco, scarcely. 

Mucho, much, Harto, or bastante, considerably^ 

Aun, even, yet. Todavia, yet, still, 
Mudhlsimo, very much. 

Illustrations : 

Un poco mds grande. A little larger. 

Poco mds largo. Scarcely any longer. 

Aun mds admirable. Still more admirable. 

Muchisimo menos dinero. Very much less money. 


zed by Google 


66. Four ad jectiyes frequently employ organic comparatires : 
Mejor, hetter. Peor, worse, 

Mayor, greater, larger, older, Menor, less, smaller, yownger, 


67. There are two superlatives : the relative and absolute, 

68. The superlative relative is formed by the use of the definite 
article, and the adverb m48 with the positive of adjectives: 

Blanco ; el, la, or lo, mds bianco. White ; the whitest. 

Or by the use of the definite article with an organic comparative : 

Bueno, mejor, el, la, or lo mejor. Good, better, the best. 

Malo, peor, el, la, or lo peor. Bad, worse, the worst 

Grande, mayor, el, la, or lo mayor. Large, larger, the largest. 

Pequeno, >menor, el, la, or lo Little, less, the least 
Chico, ) menor. 

69. In addition to the superlative relaiive there is a superlative 
absolute which is variously formed. 

70. By associating with the positive of adjectives the adverbs 
mny, bien, very\ harto» bastante, considerably, quite; gnma- 
mente, exceedingly ; exeesiyameiite, excessively : 

Muy fiel, very faithful, Sumamente bondadoso, extremely 


71. By adding the termination Isimo to the adjective to form 
the superlative degree in conformity with the following rules : 

a. Rejecting the final vowel or diphthong before adding the ter- 
mination : 

Grande, grandisimo, large, very Frio, f riisimo, cold, very cold, 

(., Substituting for the final consonants c, g, and z, respectively 
qn, go, and c : 
Blanco, blanquisimo, white, very Largo, larguSsimo, long, very 

white, long, 

Feiiz, felicisimo, happy, very 


c. Change the final ble to bil : 
Noble, nobilisimo, noble, very Adorable, adorabillsimo, adof 
noble, able, very adorable. 




d. By restoring the variable diphthongs ie, ne to their primitive 
simple vowels, e, o : 

Diestro, destrisimo, dexterous, Bueno, bonisimo, good, very good, 

very dexterous. 
Oierto, certisimo, certain, very Nuevo, novisimo, new, very new ; 

excepting viejo, vieji simo, old, very old. 

e. By attaching isimo to the unchanged positive, if the adjec- 
tive ends in any consonant except z : 

Hdbil, habilisimo, capable, very Literal, literalisimo, literal, very 
capable. literal. 

72. A few superlatives absolute are irregularly constructed : 

Amigo,^ amicisimo. Friendly, very friendly. 

Antiguo, antiqulsiroo. Ancient, very ancient. 

Benefice, beneflcentisimo. Beneficent, very beneficent. 

Ben^velo, benevolentfsima Benevolent, very benevolent. 

Cruel, crudelisimo. Cruel, very cruel. 

Piel, fidelisimo. Faithful, very faithful. 

Prfgido, tfrigidisimo. Cold, very cold. 

Magnifico, magnifioentisimo. Magnificent, very magnificent. 

•o'^A Ipiatisimo. Pious, very pious. 

Sabio, sapientisimo. Wise, very wise. 

bacro, I sacratisimo. Sacred, very sacred. 

Sagrado, f ^ 

78. Certain adjectives have a superlative absolute in ^rrimo : 
Aspero,^ asp^rrimo, rough, very Salubre, salub^rrimo, healthful^ 

rough. very healthful. 

fntegro, integ6rrimo, upright, C61ebre, celeberrimo, celebrated, 

very upright. very celebrated. 

Misero, mis^rrimo, miserable, Libre, liberrimo, free, very free. 
very miserable. Pobre,* paup6rrimo, poor, very 

74. Four adjectives have, in addition to their regular forms, very 
irregular superlatives aibsolute : 

> Amigo, ispero, trio, plo, piadoio, pobre have also regular forms 
for the superlative abtolute ; amiguisimo, asparisimo, friiiimo, piado- 
•Uimo, pobrisimo. 


by Google 


Bueno, 6ptimo, goody very good, Malo, p6simo, had, very had, 
Grande, mdximo, great , very PequeHo, ) minimo, email, ver$ 
great, Chico, ) email, 

75. While the superlative abeolute is usually translated by very, 
with an adjective, it is sometimes used merely to intensify the ad- 
Un caso singularisimo. Just one case. 



76. The cardinal numbers are as follows : 


uno-a, (contract un). 


veinte y nueve, etc. 




treinta, (treinta y uno. 































ciento, (contract cien)« 




ciento y uno-a. 




ciento y dos. 




ciento y tres, etc. 










diez y seis, or dieciseis. 




diez y siete, or diecisiete. 




diez y ocho, or dieciocho. 




diez y nueve, or diecinueve. 








veinte y uno-a, or veintiuno- 



a, (contract veintiiin). 


mil, (mil y uno, etc,y 


veinte y dos, or veintid6s. 


diez mil. 


veinte y tres, of veintitres. 


cien mil. 


veinte y cuatro, or veinticua- 


doscientos-as mil. 



quinientos-as mil. 


veinte y cinco, or veinticinco. 


un mill6n, or un 


veinte y seis, or veintiseis. 



veinte y siete, or veintisiete. 


dos millones. 


veinte y ocho, or veintiocho. 


by Google 


77. The cardinals are inyariable in form except uno-a, cientos- 
AS, and inill6ii-es, and their compounds. 

78. Giento and mil may not be used with on ; mill6ii may be 
ased with an when it is a substantiye ; in that case inill6ii is fol- 
lowed by de : 

Cien hombres, a hundred men. Mil soldados, a thousand aoU 
Un mill6n de expresiones, a mil- diers, 
lion (of) expressions, 

79. Ciento and mil may become substantives by changing to 
centenar and miliar : 

Centenares de estrellas, hundreds Millares de libros, thousands of 
of stars. books, 

80. In counting upward from one thousand^ mil must always 
introduce the number : 

Mil ochocientos. Eighteen hundred. 


81. The ordinals, both simple and compound, vary like adjec- 
tives in 0, to agree in gender and number with their nouns. They 
are as follows : 


primero-a, (contract pri- 


. d^imonoveno. 









tercero-a, (contract tercer). 
























noveno-a, or nono-a. 














trig^simoprimo, etc 


























zed by Google 










do8 mil^simo-a. 




diez mil^simo-a. 




cien mil^simo a. 




doscientos mil^si- 



mo- a. 




quinientos mil^si- 











82. Fractionals may be expressed by the use of the ordinals with 
the noun parte, pa/rty or by the employment of certain fractional 
nouns, of which this is the list : 

i la mitad (un medio). 


un diez y siete avo. 

li uno y medio, una y media. 


un diez y ocho avo. 

i un tercio. 


un diez y nueve avo. 

f dos teroios. 


un veintavo (v^inte avo). 

\ un ouarto. 


un veintitin avo, etc. 

f tres cuartos. 


tres veintavos. 

i un quinto. 


un treintavo. 


un ouarentavo. 

\ un sexto. 


un cincuentavo. 

( cinco sextos. 


un sesentavo. 

\ un s^ptimo. 


un setentavo. 

\ un octavo a/nd oohaYo. 


un ochentavo. 

J un noveno. 


un noventavo. 

A un d^cimo. 


tres noventavos. 

iV wn onzavo, (or once avo). 


un centavo and cent^imow 

tHt un dozavo (doce avo). 


un milfeirao. 

tV un trezavo (trece avo). 


trescientos veinticinco, nove- 

T^f un catorzavo (catoroe avo). 

cientps setenta y doe avos. 

iV un quinzavo (quince avo). 

1^ un diez y seis avo (dieciseis avo). 

Illustrations : 

Un tercio, or la teroera parte. 
Un vig^simo, or la vig^sima parte. 

One third, or the third part. 
One twentieth, or the twentieth 


zed by Google 



88. The multiplicatives, answering to, How ma/ny fold f are : 
Simple, simple, Doble, double. 

Triple, triple. El duplo, twofold. 

El triple, threefold. El cuadruplo, fourfold. 

El quintuple, fivefold. El sextuple, sixfold. 

El septuple, sevenfold. El centuple, a himdred^fold, 

84. Next to the yerb, the personal pronoun is more fully in- 
flected than any other part of speech, as will be seen by the follow- 
ing table : 

SiNGULAB. Plural. 


N. yo, 




G. demi, 

of me, of myself , 

de nosotros-as. 

of us, of our- 

D. me — i mi 

, to me, to myself. 

to us, to our- 

A. me— Ami 

, me, myself. 

nes— d nosotros-as, 

us, ourselves. 

P. mi, 

me, myself. 


us, ourselves. 





N. vesotros-as, 


6. de ti. 

of thee, of thyself 

D. te— d ti. 

to thee, to thyself. 

G. de vesotros-as. 

of you. 

A. te— d ti, 

thee, thyself 


P. ti, 

thee, thyself 

D. OS — d vesotros-as 

, to you, 

N. ves. 


to yourselves. 

G. de ves, 

of you, of yourself 

A. OS— d vesotros-as 


D. OS— d ves, 

to you, to yourself. 


A. OS— d ves. 

you, yourself. 

P. vesotros-as, 


P. ves. 

you, yourself. 




N. 61, v.. 

he, it, you. 

ellos, Vds., 

they, you. 

G. de61,V., 

of him, of it. 

de ellos, Vds., 

of tJiem, 



D. le— d 61, v., to him, to it, 

les— d ellos, Vds., 

to them. 



A. le, lo— d 61, v., him^ it, you. 

los, les— d ellos, Vds., them, you. 

P. a v., 

him, it, you. 

ellos, Vds., 

them, you. 


Digitized Dy^OOgie 



Singular. Plural. 


N. eUa, v., 

she, it, you. 

eUas, Vds., 

they, you. 

G. de ella, V., 

of her, it, you. 

de ellas, Vds., 

of them, you. 


to her, it, you. 

les— d ellas, Vds., 

to them, you. 

A. la^-&ella,V., 

her, it, you. 

las— 4 ellas, Vds., 

them, you. 

P. ella, v., 

her, it, you. 

ellas, Vds., 

tJiem, you. 


N. Ello, lo, 

it, that, 80, 

G. Deello, 

of it. 

D. lello, 

to it. 


A. Lo, 

it, that, so. 

P. Ello, 



G. De si, of himself, of herself, 
of itself, 

D. Se — d. si, to himself, to herself, 
to itself, 

A. Se — & si, himself, herself, it- 

P. Si, himself, herself, it- 


De si, of themselves, of each 

Se — 4 si, to themselves, to each 

Se — & si, themselves, each other. 


themselves, each other. 

85. Since the terminations of Spanish verbs usually indicate the 
person, the subject or nominative pronouns are suppressed, except 
when needed to prevent ambiguity, or to express emphasis : 
Hablo el espaflol. I speak Spanish. 

Vendemos las casas. We sell the houses. 

86. When expressed, the nominative pronouns yo, I; nosotros- 
as, we ; ellos-as, they, are used as in English, and should cause no 

87. The old form nos, we, is used by sovereigns, prelates, or 
magistrates in a representative sense, and survives in certain devo- 
tional phrases : 

Nos los soberanos. We the sovereign rulers. 

Venga 4 nos el tu reino. Thy kingdom come to us. 

88. The pronouns that occasion the greatest difficulty are those 
of the second person or of the third person used as a second, in 

Digitized by VjOOQ LC 


forms of address. They are : tfi, tos, Tosotros-as, and usted-es, 
and certain titles which are seldom used at present, as, Yueeelencia, 
yaecencia, sefiorU, nsla. 

a. T6, thoUy used in sacred and hortative styles, in poetry, as a 
term of address between husband and wife, parents and children, 
near relatives, between persons who are engaged to be married, be- 
tween intimate friends, by the master or mistress in addressing 
domestics, and, by people generally, in speaking to animals or in- 
animate objects. 

h, Tosotros-as, you, must be used as the plural of t6 in the 
cases mentioned above when the persons or objects are plural. It 
is used generally by public speakers in addressing their audiences. 

c, Tos, you^ is little used ; but if employed, it is now limited to 
one person, male or female, although, like the English you, it is 
joined with the plural of verbs, and is found in certain translations 
from other languages, in modem literature, to represent an ancient 
style, in the family circle, to show great respect on the part of chil- 
dren to parents, and in prayer as a term of invocation, interchange- 
ably with td. 

d, Usted-es, now abbreviated T., Td., and Ud., for the singu- 
lar, Tds. and Uds., for the plural, from the obsolete rnestra 
merced, mestras mercedes, your grace, your graces, is the con- 
ventional you of ordinary intercourse. It takes the verb of the 
third person in Spanish, though translated into English by the 
second person. 

e, The official titles of address, used with the third person of the 
verb, are : 

Vuestra (or su) majestad (V. M.), Vuestra (or su) alteza, (V. A.), 

your majesty, your highness, 

Vuecelencia, or vuecencia (V. E.), Usia (V. S.), your honor, 
your excellency. 

Illustrations : 

Til eres buen muchacho. Thou art a good boy. 

No nos traigas (tii) en tentaci6n. Bring us not into temptation. 

Vos que sois nuestro padre. Thou who art our father. 

V. (usted) es franc^. You (your honor is) are a French- 


Acudo k vuecencia puesto que es I come to your excellency since 
embajador espafloL you are the Spanish ambassa- 



by Google 


89. The position of the nominative pronoun is usually before the 
verb ; but it is often placed after the verb for the sake of emphasis, 
vigor, or elegance, and almost invariably so in interrogative sen- 

No f u^ el verdaderamente el des- Indeed he was not the discoverer 

oubridor de America. of America. 

Nunca viene ^1 a hablarne. He never comes to speak to me. 

4 D6nde estd el ahora t Where is he now t 

90. Me, te, se, nos, os, le, lo, los, la, las, leg are governed by 
verbs, which they usually precede, excepting verbs used affirma- 
tively in the imperative mode, or in the subjunctive used impera- 
tively, present participles, and verbs in the infinitive; but these 
pronouns never follow prepositions : 

Ijo fiOXLozDO, I know him, Digale que venga, tdl him to 


91. These pronouns, when used with present participles, impera- 
tives (conjugated affirmatively), and infinitives usually follow, and 
are appended to, the verb as one word : 

Oigame V., Jiear me, Estoy estudiandolo, / am study- 

Voy 4 hablarle, I am going to ing it, 
speak to him, 

92. When an imperative or a hortative subjunctive— that is, a 
subjunctive employed to give orders, commands, or exhortations — 
is conjugated negatively, these pronouns must precede the verb : 
No lo des. Do not (thou) give it to him. 

93. If an infinitive depends on a finite verb, or another infini- 
tive, the pronoun may precede the verb or be attached to either 
infinitive : 

No quiso prestdrmelo, or no me He did not wish to lend it to me. 
lo quiso prestar. 

94 When the present participle^ is used with estar, to he\ ir, to 
go ; yenir, to come ; andar, to go {to walk)y the objective pronoun 
usually precedes these verbs, though it may follow : 

Lo estamos haciendo todos los We are doing it every day. 

95. The final d of the second person plural of the ImperatiTe 
mode, and the final g of the first person plural of the subjonctiTe^ 

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ftre dropped when the reflexive pronouns nos and OB are attached 

to them : 

V&monos, (for yaydmosnos). Let ns go. 

Amaos, (from amados). Love (ye) one another. 

96. The following pronouns only may be used with prepositions : 
ml, ti, Bf, nosotroB-as, vosotros-as, nsted-es, 61, ella, ello, 

97. When mi, ti, si follow the preposition con, with, they be- 
come conmigo, contigo, consigo, which are unchangeable. 

98. Lo, la, loB, las are used in the indefinite sense of one, some, 
one^a, cmy, such, and with negatives, none, when standing in the 
predicate with the impersonal verb hay, there is, there are : 

Tr&igame V. una pluma si la hay Bring me a pen if there is one 
por aqui. about here. 

99. Lo, taken as the accusative of ello, often represents a 
phrase or an idea to which gender can not be attributed : 

4 Entiende V. lo que dice t Do you understand what he sayst 

No lo entiendo. I do not understand it. 

100. Lo, in the predicate, with the verb to be, referring to a pre- 
ceding substantive, means one, stich ; if it refers to an adjective, it 
is equivalent to so : 

4 Es caballero t Si, lo es. Is he a gentleman t Tes, he is. 

Si ella estd mala, no lo estoy yo. If she is sick, I am not (so). 


101. Both the conjunctive pronouns (me, te. Be, nos, os, le, 
lo, los, la, las, les) and the disjunctive pronouns (ml, ti, si), also 
all nominative forms with prepositions, such as 61, ella, Tosotros, 
nsted, may be associated with the same verb to emphasize or am- 
plify the sentence. , 

102. The natural order is to place the conjunctive pronoun next 
to the verb, either before or after, and then to place the disjunctive 
pronoun after the conjunctive if the conjunctive follows the verb, 
and before the conjunctive if it precedes the verb, though this is 
not invariable : 

Eso no le conviene i V. This does not suit you. 

Eso nunca os dir^ 4 vosotros. This I shall never say to you. 

HAblele V. i 61. Speak to him. 

No le hable V. & 61. Do not speak to him. 


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103. A substantive may take the place of the disjunctive pro- 
noun, thus preserving the pleonastic construction : 

L los alemanes les gusta beber The Germans like to drink beer. 

Pluma no la tengo. Pen I have none. 


104. Pronouns of the first and second persons have their reflex- 
ive meaning in oblique cases, when they refer to the same person a^ 
the subject : 

Me hallo malo. I am sick. 

Te equivocas. Thou art mistaken. 

Nos decimos. We say to ourselves. 

Os maltrat^s. You ill-treat yourselves. 

105. Pronouns of the third person refer, in oblique cases, to dif- 
ferent persons or things from the subject ; hence each gender em- 
ploys the pronoun se, to express action which is reflexive on the 
subject : 

V. se lastima. You wound yourself. 

V. le lastima. You wound him, (another). 

Los hieren. They hurt them. 

Se hieren. They hurt themselves. 

V. se engafia. You deceive yourself. 

V. la engafia. You deceive her. 

106. When se represents an impersonal subject it is to be trans- 
lated by one^ tJiey, we^ you,peopley it is: 

Se dice. It is said, they say, people say. 

Se ve. It is seen, it is clear, evident. 

107. The reflexive verb quite frequently replaces the passive voice : 
Aqui se habla espaflol. Spanish is spoken here. 

Se vende fruta. Fruit is sold. 

108. Many verbs are reflexive in Spanish which are not so in 
English ; consequently se is often used in Spanish where it can not 
be translated in English : 

Se marcha hoy mismo. He goes this very day. 

109. Se replaces the possessive adjective with a determinative 
object : 

Se corta la mano. He cuts his hand. 

Se ponen los sombreros. They put on their hats. 

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110. When a verb governs two conjunctive pronouns, the dative 
or indirect objective pronoun precedes the accusative or direct, ex- 
cept the reflexive 86, which always stands first : 

Me lo manda. He sends it to me. 

Te los trae. He brings them to thee. 

Se me olvida. I forget (it forgets itself to me). 

111. When the conjunctive datives, le, les, meet the accusatives 
beginning with 1, they become se, as indicated by the following 
table : 

le le and les le become se le. 

le la " 


" se la. 

le lo " 

les lo 

" se lo. 

leles ** 

les les 

' se les. 

lelos " 

les los 

' se los. 

lelas " 

les las ' 

* se las. 

Se lo digo. 

I say it to him. 

Se lo doy i V. 

I give it to you, 

112. The nominatives of pronouns may be intensified by adding 
the adjective mismo-a, mismos-as, 8elf, selves : 

Yo mismo, tti misma, I myself, thou thyself, (fern,), 

"kl mismo, V. mismo. He himself, you yourself. 

113. Mismo or propio, «e//, may be used with the personal pro- 
noun in oblique cases, but always in connection with the disjunctive 
or prepositional pronouns : 

V. se condena k si mismo. You condemn yourself. 

Nos queremos k nosotros propios. We are fond of ourselves. 

114. Mismo may be used with nouns to give them the reflexive 
meaning of the third person : 

El muchacho mismo. The boy himself. 

115. After certain adverbs mismo is invariable as to form, and 
is intensive, meaning this very^ that very ; sometimes its force can 
be best rendered by the tone of the voice : 

Hoy mismo. To-day, this very day. 

En el tiempo mismo. In the very time. 

116. Mismo-a, as an adjective, with an article, means the $ame, 
and generally precedes the noun : 

Jja misma tarde. The same afternoon. 


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117. The possessive pronouns, inflected like adjectiyes terminat- 
ing in o, agree in gender and number with the object possessed, and 
not with the possessor. 

118. The possessive pronouns may be classed as conjunctive and 
absolute: those preceding nouns being called conjunctive; those 
which follow nouns or which stand alone are termed absolute. The 
conjunctives drop their final syllable, thus losing their gender dis- 
tinction, except the first and second persons plural. The following 
table shows the variations : 









Mcksc,- Fern, 
mios, mias, my. 





t«yo. tuy«..j;^ 






suyos, suyas,. 



















McLse. Fern, 
nuestro, nuestra, our, ours, 
vuestro, vuestra, your, yours. 

nuestros, nuestras, owr, onrs, 
vuestros, vuestras, your, yours, 

119. The conjunctive forms of the possessive pronouns precede 
the nouns which they qualify, when emphasis is not intended : 
Mi caballo, mis caballos. My horse, my horses. 

Mi casa, mis casas. My house, my houses. 

Nuestro hermano, nuestros her- Our brother, our brothers, 


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120. As sn, 8Q8, his^ her, its, their, your, one's, are equivocal, 
the personal pronoun preceded by the preposition de (genitive) may 
be added to the noun to prevent ambiguity, or to give emphasis : 

Su sombrero de V. Your hat. 

Su sombrero de ^1. His hat. 

Su pluma de ella. Her pen. 

121. Sn, sns, in such cases as the above, may be replaced by the 
definite article : 

La silla de V. Your chair. 

La ciudad de ella. Her city. 

El amigo de 61. His friend. 

132. When T. is used as a term of address, your must be ren- 
dered by sn, sns, his {honor, understood) : 

Su corbata, su corbata de V., la Your cravat, 
corbata de V. 

123. The possessive pronoun may be strengthened by adding 
propio-a, own : 

Mi propio ba8t6n. My own walking-stick. 

El suyo propio. His own. 

124. For the sake of intensity, the uncontracted forms of the 
possessive pronouns are used after nouns with the definite article, 
and without the definite article in the case of vocatives : 

La religion tuya. Thy religion. 

" I Dios mio I " exdam^ yo. " My God I " I cried. 

125. If, however, a past participle used as an adjective or an or- 
dinary adjective accompanies the vocative, either the conjunctive 
or absolute form may be used : 

Querido amigo mio or mi querido My dear friend, 

126. When possessive pronouns are used in a general or inde- 
terminate sense, corresponding to the English a, an, some of mine, 
the absolute form is employed : 

Un hermano mio. A brother of mine. 

Un sombrero suyo. A hat of his. 

Unos paisanos de V. Some countrymen of yours. 

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127. The possessive adjective gives way to the indirect personal 
pronoun and the definite article with the noun, in referring to the 
parts of the body or to articles of dress : 

Me machaqne el pie. I mashed my foot 

I Le dude d V. la muela f Does your tooth ache f 

128. When the person or thing possessed is not expressed, the 
possessive pronoun is used with the article, both agreeing with the 
object possessed : 

Mi esposa y la tuya. My wife and thine. 

129. The possessive pronoun loses the article when it stands in 
the predicate with the verb to he : 

Este cuademo es mio. This copy-book is mine. 

180. The demonstrative pronouns agree in gender and number 
with the nouns which they qualify, with the exception of the neuter 
forms, which are invariable : 



Masc. Fern. Neut. 



este, esta, esto, 

(by me). 



(by me). 

ese, esa, eso, 

(by you). 



(by you). 

aquel, aquella, aquello, 


aquellos, aquellas. 




181. Add to these the unusual forms : 

This other, these other. 
That other, those other. 
That other, those other. 

This, that. 

2!stotro-a, estotros-as. 
Esotro-a, esotros-as. 

Aquel otro, aquella otra. 
Aquellos otros, aquellas otras. 
Aqueste, aquese (old forms). 

182. The natural position of the demonstratives, este, ese, aqnel, 
is before the nouns which they qualify ; but in lively and intensive 
language they may follow nouns, which are preceded, in such cases, 
by the definite article : 

Este diccionario. This dictionary, 

^se zapator Tt^ftt^ sho^t 


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Aqueilas casas. Those houses. 

El asunto aquel. That subject. 

Las alfombras estas. These carpets. 

133. Este designates what is near to the speaker, corresponding 
to the adverb aqni, here ; ese, that which is near the person spoken 
to, where he is, or about wliich he is speaking, corresponding to the 
adverb ahi, there ; aquel, that which is remote from both the speaker 
and the person addressed, or from what they are discussing, and cor- 
responding to the adverb alii, there, yonder, 

Este pais, este estado. This country, this state, (where I 

Ese boton, esa corbata. That button, that cravat, (which 

you have on). 
Aquel rio, aquel lago. That river, that lake, (distant 

from both). 

134. Speaking historically, present time is denoted by este; 
moderately past time, say, within a lifetime, by ese ; and an event 
long past is designated by aqnel : 

Esta epoca. This epoch, these days. 

Ese suceso. That event (within my memory). 

Aquel tiempo. That time (say, of Columbus). 

135. l^ste and aqu61 denote latter and former, respectively : 
Despues de acabar aqu61 empez6 After finishing the former, he 

k leer este. began to read the latter. 

136. The so-called neuter forms esto, eso, aqnello, this thing, 
that thing, refer to sentences, statements, or thoughts, they being 
too indefinite to be ascribed gender : 

Eso no es nada. That is nothing. 

Esto es todo lo que tengo que decir. This is all that 1 have to say. 

187. iSste, 68e, and aqn^l are used as substantives or pronouns 
in the sense of this, this one, he; that one, he, in which cases they 
receive the graphic accent:^ 

Entonces dijo aquel. Then said he. 

^ste es un buen amigo mio. He is a good friend of mine. 


188. The relative pronouns are as follows : 

Qnien, qnienes, who-, qne, (invariable,) who, which, that. 
El eual, la cual ; los cnales, las cnales, j ^^ which 
El que, la que ; los qne, las que, f ' ' 


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Lo coal, which (thing) ; lo qne, that which, what, 

Cn JO, en ja ; on jos, en jas, who^e, of which, which, 

Aquel qne, or el qne, he who, \the one who, the one which 

Aqnella qne, or la que, she who, \ or that, 

Aqnellos qne, or log qne, Uhoae who, or those which, the ones 

Aqnellas qne, or las qne, ) who or whicK 

Qnien, he who, the one who ; qnienes, t?ioee who, the ones who, 

Aqnello qne, thcU (thing, saying or matter) which. 

139. Qnien may now be used of persons only. It gives place to 
que, when the antecedent is a word of either gender or number; 
but in compound sentences, each member of which makes complete 
sense in itself, either qnien, el enal (or their variations), or qne 
may be used : 

El general que vino. The general who came. 

La semana pasada encontr^ k una Last week I met a young lady 

sefiorita ; quien (la cual, que) who gave me this book. 

me di6 este libro. 

140. Qnien must always be preceded by a preposition when used 
as the object of a verb ; and with prepositions is subject to the same 
rules, and is capable of the same use, as nouns : 

El hombre £ quien Y. conoce. The man whom you know. 

141. Qne may be used with reference to persons or things in the 
nominative or accusative cases only ; in other cases, that is, when 
used with prepositions, it refers to things. It is invariable in form, 
and its inflection is indicated by prepositions : 

La muchacha que estudia. The girl who studies. 

El reloj que aada. The clock that runs. 

La ciudad tn que vivo. The city in which I live. 

Las plumas con que escribo. The pens with which I write. 

142. Qnien and que, as accusatives, should never be omitted, as 
the corresponding words often are in English : 

La casa que vi. The house (that) I saw. 

Un caballero k quien conozco. The man (whom) I know. 

143. El enal and el que (and their variations), since they are 
substitutes for quien and qne, relate to persons or things, and are 
preferred, when an inflected relative is desirable, to avoid ambiguity, 
or for the sake of variety : 

Compr^ una casa nueva en la cual I bought a new house, in (the) 
vivo ahora. which I now live. 

Digitized by V^OOQ LC 


Se^mos k la madre de Enrique, We followed the mother of Hen- 
el cual residia en un cuarto ry, who (himself) lived on the 
bajo. ground floor. 

144. The so-called neater lo cnal, whieh^ refers to an idea, a 
statement, or a preceding sentence : 

Le dije que debiera ir al medico, I told him that he ought to go to 
lo cual no quiso hacer. the doctor, (the) which he did 

not wish to do. 
Hecho lo cual, se escap6. Which being done, he escaped. 

145. Lo que, that which^ whcU^ relates to an idea, but not to a 

Segdn lo que entiendo, no desea According to what I understand, 

volver. he does not wish to return. 

Todo lo que haga, serd bueno. All that he may do, will be good. 

146. Cnyo-a, onyos-as, whose, of which, which, relates to persons 
and things, and agree with the object possessed : 

El comerciante cuyo vino V. com- The merchant whose wine you 
pr6 vende barato. bought sells cheap. 

147. £1 que (and its variation) is used in the sense of he who, 
she who, the one who ; they who, those who, the ones who, when it 
relates to pei'sons ; and in the sense of tTie one which or that, those 
which or that, the ones which or that : 

El que corre. He who runs. 

V. f ue el que me lo di6 . You were the one who gave it to 

No es ella la que amaban. She is not the one whom they 


148. Qnien is often used as both antecedent and relative : 
Quien ora, trabaja. He who prays, works. 
Como quien dijera. As who should say. 


149. The interrogative pronouns, chiefly distinguishable from the 
relatives, by the use of the written accent, are employed in direct 
and indirect questions. They are as follows : 

<)ai6ii, quitoM, who\ Qn6 (invariable), what% 

€ayo-a, cayos-as, \whose% ^^^^' «ii41e«, which, what f 
De qai^iiy de qnitoeB, ( 


by Google 


150. Qiii6n is declined like any noun, and used with reference 
to persons only : 

i Quien es f Who is he f 

4 Quienes son aqnellos f Who are those men f 

151. De qni^n and cnjo express whose, used interrogatively : 
(Cuya es esta plumaf (cuya Whose pen is this f 

pluma es 6sta f or 4 de qui^n es 
esta pluma f 

152. Qn6, what, cn61, which or what, declined like nouns, are 
used as substantives, qn6 being more general and en61 more spe- 
cific, though not so direct : 

4 Que dice f 4 Qu6 son f What does he say f What are 

4 De que se trata f Of what does it treat f 

4 CuAl es su nombre de V. f What is your name f 

4 Cu41 de sus caballos prefiere V. f Which of your horses do you 

prefer f 

153. Qn6 is used in exclamatory phrases in the sense of what ! 
whcU a I When used before an adjective alone it means how : 

( Que bueno es vivir bi^n ! What a good thing it is to live 

t Qu^ dia tAU hermoso I What a beautf ul day ! 

I Que glorioso es ! How glorious it is ! 


154. The indefinite pronouns are : 

Algnien, some one, somebody, any Ambos-as, both, 

one, anybody, Cada, ecuih, every, 

Algo, alguna cosa, anything, Fnlano-a, so and so, such a one, 

something, Nada, nothing, not anything. 

Entrambos-as, both, between 'Singnno-A^ no one, nobody, none, 

ttvo, no, 

Gierto-a, a certain —, Qaienqniera, qaienesqniera, 

Mismo-a, the same, very. wj^ver, any one whatever, 

Nadie, no one, nobody. Tal, tales, siich, such a. 

Otro-a, otJher, another. Todo-a, todos-as, aU, every, any^ 

Cnalqniera, cnalesqniera, any, thing, 

whatever, any you please, YarioB-as, several, a good numy, 


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Algrnno-a, algrnnos-fts, some one, Uno-a, nnos-os, one, some, each 
somebody, any one, anybody, other, one another, 
some, cmy, a few, 

155. Algrnien, mvariable in form, is used of persons in the sin- 
gular only, and may not be followed by the preposition de : 
Alguien toca. Some one is knocking. 

156. Algano-a, algnnos-as, a substantive and an adjective, re- 
lates to persons or things. It may be followed by de. When al< 
guno would come before a masculine singular noun, it drops the 

Alguno de ellos me llam6. Some one of them called me. 

Algtin dia. Some day. 

Algunos extranjeros. Some strangers. 

Lo deje con algunas. I left it with some women. 

157. Algnnos-as, and nnos cnantos, nnas onantas, render the 
English emphatic some, a few : 

Tengo unos cuantos or algunos I have a few costly vests, 
chalecos costosos 

158. Algo, alguna eosa, are used interchangeably, algo being 
invariable in form : 

4 Halla V. algo or alguna cosa f Do you find anything f 

159. Algo is employed as an adverb in the sense of somewhat, 
rather : 

Estd algo malo. He is somewhat sick. 

160. Ambos-as, used with reference to persons or things, is 
either an adjective or a substantive : 

Viajaban am bos en coche. Both traveled in a carriage. 

a. Ambos-as frequently gives way to los dos, las dos, the tuoo : 
Las dos andaban cantando. Both (fern,) weiit singing. 

b. Both, in the distributive sense of each, is translated by nno-a 
J otro-a, unos-as j otros-as : 

Despn^s de leer mucho sobre la After reading much about arith- 
aritm^tica y la geografia, es- metic and geography, he wrote 
cribia sobre una y otia. on both. 

c. Ambos-as occasionally gives way to entrambos-as : 


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1((1. Cftda is inTariable in form, is used in the singular only, and 
stands before the substantive : 
Gada alio, cada mes. Each year, each month. 

a. Cada is used with the plural substantive only when the sub- 
stantive follows a numeral : 
Cada seis meses. Every six months. 

h. Cada is used distributively with uno-a or cnal : 

Cada uno tiene su gusto. Every one has his own taste. 

Cada cual escoge lo suyo. Each one selects his own. 

162. Cierto-a, eiertos-as, is followed by the noun without the 
indefinite article : 

Cierto general A certain general. 

Ciertas condiciones. Certain conditions. 

108. Cierto-a, ciertos-aa, as a regular adjective, meaning eer- 
tain in the sense of sure, always follows the noun or stands alone in 
the predicate : 

Esta noticia es cierta. This news is certain. 

164 Fulano-a is used to express an evasion. When it stands 
alone it usually takes the form of fnlane de tal, 9<yand so, aueh a 
one. If it is desirable to refer to more than one such indefinite 
person, mengano and zutano are associated with Ailano : 
Ayer supe de f ulano de tal. I heard yesterday of so and so. 

165. Mismo-a, mismos-aa, is sometimes an adjective and some- 
times a substantive. 

a. When mismo stands before a noun and follows the definite 
article, it means th>e sanie. If used with the demonstrative or pos- 
sessive pronoun, it has the sense of very, and t?ie same if used with 
the indefinite article : 

El mismo aflo ; la misma tarde. The same year ; the same after- 
Este mismo suceso. This very event. 

Un mismo pais. The same country. 

166. Nada stands before the verb without a negative, and after 
the verb with the negative no, not. In this, as in most cases, Span- 
ish requires two negatives : 

Nada temo j^r no temo naA* . I fear nothing. 


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167. Ningrnna cosa (and their variations) constantly take the 
place of nada : 

Nada poseo, no poseo ningana I possess nothing, I do not pos- 
cosa, ninguna cosa poseo, no sess anything, 
poseo cosa algnna. 

168. Nada may be followed by de and a substantive to signify 
nothing of: 

No tiene nada de barl6n. He is nothing of a scoffer. 

169. Nadie, invariable in form, is the negative of algnien, and 
is subject to the same laws. It is used of persons only, and may 
not be followed by de. When it follows the verb, it requires an- 
other negative ; not otherwise : 

Que nadie entre. Let no one enter. 

No hall6 k nadie. I found no one. 

170. Ningnno-a, ningnnos-as, is the negative of algnno, is 
used as an adjective and substantive, relates to persons or things, 
and, like algnno, it may be followed by de. It loses its final o be- 
fore masculine singular nouns : 

Ningdn cafl6n ; ninguna de las No cannon; not one of the women, 

171. When ningnno stands after the verb it requires another 
negative ; but not so if it stands before the verb : 

Ninguno de ellos me gusta. None (not one) of them pleases 

No tengo ningiin sombrero. I have no hat. 

172. Otro-a, otros-as, an adjective or a substantive, refers to 
persons or things, being used without the indefinite article in the 
sense of another, and with the definite article to specify a particular 
person or thing : 

Otro 4rbol, otra mesa. Another tree, another table. 

Otro soldado, otro francos. Another soldier, another French. 

El otro discipulo. The other pupil. 

178. Propio-a, propios-as, subject to the same rules as mismo, 
is used to strengthen the meaning of personal and possessive prO" 
nouns : 

V. propio. You yourself. 

Esta toalla es suya propia. This towel is her own. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


174. QaieBqaiera, qnieBesquiera, composed of the rektiYi 
qiileii, qnieneSy and qniera, the subjunctiye of the yerfo qaerer, 
designates persons only, and that in an absolute sense : 
Quienquiera que fuese. Whoever he might be. 

175. Quien, followed by the subjonctive, frequently has a mean- 
ing similar to qaienqaiera, in the sense of <my one who : 

Lo of rezco k quien desee recibirlo. I offer it to any one who may be 

willing to receive it. 

176. Gnalqniera, cnalesqniera, is both an adjective and a sub- 
stantive, referring to persons or things : 

Cualquier hombre. Any man. 

Cualquiera de los relojes. Whichever of the docks. 

177. Cnalqniera with qn6 and the subjunctive always means 
whichever^ whatever : 

Tome y. cualquiera que le guste. Take whatever one you may like. 

178. Tal, tales, refers to persons or things : 

Tal persona, tal sujeto. Such a person, such a fellow. 

179. Todo-a, todos-as, is used as a substantive, an adjective, or 
an indefinite pronoun. 

a. As a substantive it refers to persons or things, and varies for 
gender and number : 

Todo se dej6. All was left. 

Todos estan en casa. All are at home. 

h. When used as an adjective todo is usually followed by some 
determinative word : 

Todo el aflo, todo el camino. All day, all the way. 

Todo americano. Every American. 

Todos los alemanes. All the Germans. 

c. Todo is used as an indefinite pronoun in the sense of enal- 
quiera eosa, cmything whatever : 

V. me hallard dispuesto para Tou will find me ready for any- 
todo. thing. 

180. Uno-a, nnos-as, is used as an adjective, a substantive, or 
an indefinite pronoun : 

Uno puede ver que es la verdad. One can see that it is the truth. 
Son unos extranjeros. They are (some) strangers. 

De una oca8i6n 4 otra. From one occasion to another. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



181. Tarios-as, is a substantive or adjective : 
Varias personas. Several persons. 

He visto k varios. I have seen several. 


182. Before considering the conjugation of verbs in general, it is 
well to take up the four auxiliary verbs, haber, to have ; ger, to he ; 
estar, to he ; and tener,* to have. 

Irregular conjugations are indicated by heavy type. 

183. The auxiliaries are thus conjugated : 

To have. To he, 

Haber. Tener. Ser. Estar. 


Having, Being, 

Habiendo. Teniendo. Siendo. Estando. 










I have. 


1 am. 

1. He. 

2. Hag. 





8. Ha. 




1. Hemos. 




2. Hab^is. 




a Han. 




I had. 


I was. 

1. Habia. 




2. Habias. 




8. Habia. 




1. Habiamos. 




2. Habiais. 




8. Habian. 




1 The verb tener, to have^ to possess^ is not an auxiliary in the English 
aense of the word ; but it is so oonsidered by Spanish grammarians, an4 
therefore it is here presented in the Ibt of the auxiliaries. 


zed by Google 





1. Hnbe. 

2. Hnbiste. 
8. Hubo. 

1. Hubimos. 

2. Hnbisteis. 

3. Habieron. 











/ 8haM hav^. 

1. Habr^. 

2. Habras. 
8. Habrl 

1. Habremos. 

2. Habreis. 
8. Habran. 













I shall be, 







2. Ham tJwu, 
2. Have ye. 

Ten tti. 

S6. Be (thou). 
Sed. Be {ye). 

Estd. Be (thouy 
Estad. Be (yeX 


1. Haya. 

2. Hayas. 
8. Haya. 

1. Hayamos. 

2. Haydis. 
8. Hayan. 

I moAf have. 














I may he. 






I should Juive. 
Habria. Tendria. 

2. Habrias. 

8. Habria. 

1. Habriamos. 

2. Habriais. 

9. Habrian. 







Sena. Estaria. 

Serias. Estarias. 

Seria. Estaria. 

Seriamos. Estariamoe. 

Seriais. Estariais. 

Serian. EsUrian, 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



IMPERFECT (first form) 
I might have. I might he. 

1. Hubiera. Tuviera. Fnera. EstuTiera. 

2k Hnbieras. Tnyieras. Fneras. Estayieras. 

8. Hnbiera. Tnyiera. Faera. Estnyiera. 

1. Hnbi^ramos. Tnyi^ramos. Fn^ramos. Estnyi6ramo8. 

2. Hnbierais. Tnyierais. Fnerais. Estnyierais. 
8. Hnbieran. Tnyieran. Fueran. Estuyieran. 

IMPERFECT {second form) 
I might Aov«. / migM he. 

1. Hnbiese. Tnyiese. Fuese. Estnyiese. 

2. Hubieses. Tayieses. Fneses. Estnvieses. 
8. Hnbiese. Tnyiese. Fnese. Estnyiese. 

1. Hnbi^semos. 

2. Hnbieseis. 
8. Hnbiesen. 










I should have, 

1. Hnbiere. Tnyiere. 

2. Hnbieres. Tnyieres. 
8. Hnbiere. Tnyiere. 


1 should he. 
Fnere. Estnyiere. 

Fneres. Estnyieres. 

Fnere. Estnyiere. 

1. Hnbieremos. 

2. Hnbiereis. 
8. Hnbieren. 










184. Haber is little used as a principal verb. The EDglish ac- 
tive verb to ha/ve is rendered by tener, to possess^ to have, iiaber 
being employed as an auxiliary : 

He tenido una pluma. I have had a pen. 

Tengo un libro. I have a book. 

185. Haber does duty as a principal verb in two cases. 

a. To express an obligation, Iiaber is used with the preposition 
de or the conjunction qne : 

He de ir. 

Hubo que gastar mucho dinero. 

I have to go. 

It was necessary to spend much 
h, Haber is employed as an impersonal verb in the sense of 
there to he, in which case only the third person singular is used for 
both numbers. It is thus conjugated : 


Haber, thert-^to he, Habiendo, there heing, Habido, there been. 

Digitized by V^OOQ LC 


Indicative Mode. 


haj» there is, there are, 


habia, there woe, there were, 


habo, there vhu, there were, 


habri, there will he. 

Subjunctive Mods. 


haya, there may he, 

IMPERFECT (firet form). 
hubiera, thsre might be, 

IMPERFECT (second form). 
hnbiese, thsre might he, 


hubiere, there should he. 

habria, there unnUd be. 

The compound tenses are formed by the use of the simple tenses 
with habido, the past participle. 

The imperative is supplied by the subjunctive mode. 

Illustrations : 
4 Hay cartas f Are there any letters (epistles) f 

No hubo ningunas. There were none (no letters). 

A survival of haber is seen in the particle he of the exclama- 
tory phrase { he aqni ! behold ! 

186. The past participle with haber is not variable : 
He tenido. I have had. 
Hemes sido. We have been. 

187. Both ger and estar mean to be, expressing an essential or 
conditional, permanent or transitory state of existence. There is a 
distinction in their use, however, which is according to the follow- 
ing rules : 

a. Ser expresses what is essetitial and inherent, permanent and 
absolute : 

]6l es franc^, griego. He is a Frenchman, a Qreek. 

La casa es de madera. Th6 house is of wood. 

Soy hombre, mujer. I am a man, a woman. 

Soy feliz. I am happy (of a happy di^>osi- 


b, Estar denotes what is accidental, transitory, or designates a 
situation or a state : 

Bstoy en Madrid. I am in Madrid. 

La ventana est& abierta. The window is open. 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 


La taza no estd Uena. The cup is not full. 

Son buenos ; estdn buenos. They are good ; they are well. 

£s contento ; estd contento. He is of a contented disposition ; 

he is content. 

188. Ser is used to form the passive voice, and estar to unit« 
with the present participle to make the progressive form of the 
active voice : 

Este libro ha sido traducido del This book has been translated 

castellano. from the Spanish. 

BUa estd leyendo. She is reading. 



189. The conjugation of all regular verbs in the active voice 
follows three models, which are classified according to the ending 
of the infinitive. These are the endings : 

Infinitives in ar characterize the First Conjugation : comprar, 
to buy. 

Infinitives in er characterize the Second Conjugation : vender, 
to sell. 

Infinitives in Ir characterize the Third Conjugation : Yivir, 
to live, 

190. All verbs — regular, irregular, impersonal, and defective — 
belong to the conjugation indicated by the termination of their in- 
finitive, no matter how much their infiection may differ in other 
respects from the models of regular verbs. 

191. The terminations of the regular verb are applied to the 
8temt which can always be ascertained by striking off the infinitive 
ending : 

Comprar: stem, eompr; render: stem, vend; Tivir: stem, 

193. The terminations of regular verbs of the three conjugations 
are as follows : 




1. {Conj\). 

2. (Conj\), 

8. (Conj\). 

1. -ar. 



2. Hjr. 



8. -ir. 




by Google 



1. 2. 8. 

-o, -o, -o. 

-aa, -es, -es. 

-a, -e, -e. 

-amos, -emos, -imos. 

-iiis, -^is, -is. 

-an, -en, -en. 


1. 2. 8. 

-aba, -ia, -ia. 

-abas, -las, -ias. 

-aba, -ia^ -ia. 

-dbarnos, -iamos, -iamos. 

-abais, -iais, -iais. 

-aban, -ian, -ian. 


1. 2. 8. 

-^, -i, -i. 

-aste, -iste, -iste. 

-6, -16, -16. 

-amos, -imos, -imos. 

-astels, -isteis, -isteis. 

-aron, -ieron, -ieron. 









































-i rials. 





1 2. 8. 

^ -a, -a. 

^es, -as, -as. 

-e, -a, -a. 

-emos, -amos, -amos. 

-6is, -dis, -&is. 

-en, -an, -an. 

IMPERFECT {first form), 
1. 2. 8. 

-ara, -iera, -iera. 

-aras, -ieras, -ieras. 

-ara, -iera, -iera. 

-dramos, -16ramos, -i6ramo& 

-arais, -ierals, -ierais. 

-aran, -ieran, -ieran. 
IMPERFECT (second form), 
1. 2. 3. 

-ase, -iese, -iese. 

-ases, -ieses, -ieses. 

-ase, -iese, -iese. 

-asemos, -i6semos, -iesemos 

-aseis, -leseis, -ieseis. 

-asen, -iesen, -iesen. 


1. 2. 8. 

-are, -iere, -iere. 

-ares, -ieres, -ieres. 

-are, -iere, -iere. 

-iremos, -i6remos, -i6remoi 

-arels, -iereis, -lereis. 

-aren, -ieren, -ieren. 


1. 2. 8. 

-a, -e, -e« 

-ad, -ed, -id. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



198. The paradigm comprar, to buy. 
Simple Tenses 


Comprar, to buy, Comprando, buying. 


Comprado, bought. 


1. Compro, I buy, 

2. Compras, thou buyest. 

3. Compra, 7^ buys. 

1. Compramos, we buy, 

2, Comprdis, you buy, 
8. Compran, they buy. 




1. Compre, I may 

2, Compres, thou mayest 
8. Compre, he may 


1. Compraba, / was 

2. Comprabas, t?iou wast 
8. Compraba, hs was 

1. Comprdbamos, we were 

2. Comprabais, yot$ were 
8. Compraban, t?uy were 



1. Compremos, we may ' 

2. Ck>mpr6i8, you may . buy, 
8. Compren, they may 

Imperfect (first form), 


1. Comprara, I might 

2. Compraras, thou might 

8. Comprara, he might 




1. Comprdramos, we might ' 

2. Comprarais, you might 

^^' 3. Compraran, tJiey might 


Imperfect {second form). 


1. Compr6, 1 bought, 

2. Compraste, thou boughtest, 
8. Compr6, he bought. 

1. Comprase, I might 

2, Comprases, thou might- 

8. Comprase, he might 


1. Compramos, we bought, 

2. Comprasteis, you bought, 

3. Compraron, they bought. 

1. Compr^mos, we might 

2. Compraseis, you might 

3. Comprasen, t?iey might 


Digitized by 





1. Comprar6, / ahdU 

2. Comprards, thou wilt 
8. Comprard, he will 

1. Cbmpraremos, we shall 

2. Ck)mprar6is, you will 

3. Comprarin, they will 


1. Compraria, I should 

2. Gompranas, thou 

8. Compraria, he should . 


1. Comprare, I should 
buy. 2. Compr&res, thou sJumldst 
3. Comprare, ?ie should 


1. Oomprdremos, we should 
. buy, 2. Comprareis, you should 
3. Ck)mpraren, they should 



1. CompraiiAmoSy we sh^ould 

2. Comprariais, you should 
8. Comprarian, they should 



• buy. 


2. Cbmpra, buy (thou). 2. Comprad, buy (je). 

Compound Tenses 


Raber comprado. to have bought, Habiendo comprado, having 



Perfect. Perfect, 


1. Haya comprado, I 

bought. 2. Hayas comprado, 

thou mayest 
8. Haya comprado, he 



1. He comprado, 77(at;6 

2. Has comprado, thou 

% Ha comprado, he 

. bought, 

1. Hemos comprado, we 

2. Hab^is comprado, 

8. Han comprado, they . 

1. Hayamos comprado, 
have we 

bought. 2. Haydis comprado, 
3. Hayan comprado. 



zed by Google 



Past Pbepect. 

Past Pbepect (^r«/ /orm). 


1. Habia comprado, / 

1. Hubiera comprado, J 




2. Habias comprado, 
thou hadet 

2. Hubieras comprado, 
^^'^^- thoumightest 


8, Habia comprado, he 

3. Hubiera comprado. 



hs might 


1. Habiamos comprado, 

1. Hubi^ramos com- 


prado, we 


9. Habiais comprado, 

had 2. Hubierais comprado. 



bought, you 


8. Habian comprado. 

8. Hubieran comprado, 




Pketebit Peepec 

r. Past Peefect {second form). 


1. Hube comprado, I 

1. Hubiese comprado, / 






2. Hubiste comprado, 

bouaht ^' Hubieses comprado, 
thou mightest 

8. Hubo comprado, he 

3. Hubiese comprado. 


he might 


1. Hubimos comprado. 

1. Hubi^mos compra- 


do, we 


2. Hubisteis comprado. 

had 2. Hubieseis comprado, 



bought. you 


8. Hubieron comprado. 

8. Hubiesen comprado. 




FuTUEB Prefect 

Futueb Pbepect 

1. Habr6 comprado, / 

1. Hubiere comprado, I 



2. Habr^ comprado. 

have 2. Hubieres comprado. 




thou wilt 

bought, thou shouldst 

8. Habr& comprado, he 

3. Hubiere comprado. 


he ehould 


zed by Google 


1. Habreraos coraprado, 


2. Habr^is comprado, 

8. Habrdn comprado, 


1. Hubi^remos compra- ' 

BhM ^^» ^' 


2. Hubiereis comprado, 

bought. „ „y»!* 

8. Hnbieren comprado, 


Perfect Conditional 
singular. plural. 

1. Habria comprado, I\ 1. Habriamos compra- 
ehould do, we 

2. Habrias comprado, have 2. Habriais comprado, 
thou ahouldst bought. you 

3. Habrian comprado, 

8. Habrfa comprado, he 



194. The paradigm Tender, to sell. 

Simple Tenses 


Vender, to sell, Vendiendo, selling, Vendido, sold. 


1. Vendo, I sell. 

2. Vendes, thou sellest, 
8. Vende, he sells. 

1. Vendemos, we sell, 

2. Vend^is, ye sell. 
8. Venden, thsy sell. 


1. Vendia, 1 was 

2. Yendias, thou wast 
8. Yendia, lie wets 



1. Yenda, I may I 

2. Yendas, thou m^yest \ sell. 
8. Yenda, he may \ 


1. Yendamos, we may ] 

2. Yenddis, you may I selU 
8. Yendan, they mo/y J 


Imperfect (first form). 

1. Yendiera, I might 
selling, 2. Yendieras, thou might' 
8. Yendiera, he might 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 





1. Vendiamos, we were 

2. Vendiais, you were 
8. Vendian, they were 


1. Vendi, J«dW. 

2. Vendiste, thou eoldest, 
8. yeDdi6, he sold. 

1. Vendimos, we sold. 

2. Vendisteis, you sold. 
8. Vendieron, t?iey sold, 


1. Vendi^ramos, we might 
selling, ^* Vendierais, you might 
3. Vendieran, they might 


Imperfect {second form). 


1. Vendiese, /m^A/ 

2. Vendieses, thou mightest 
8. Vendiese, he might 



1. Vendiesemos, we might ] 

2. Vendieseis, you might I sell 
8. Vendiesen, they might J 



1. Vender^, IshaU 

2. Vender&s, thou wUt 
8. Vender^ he wUl 

1. Vendiere, I should 
seU, 2. Vendieres, th^u ehouldat 

3. Vendiere, he should 

1. Venderemos, we shaU ' 

2. Yender^iBf you ufill 
8. Venderdn, they wiU 


1. Vendi^remos, we should 
seU, ^* Vendiereis, you should 
3. Vendieren, they should 


1. Venderia, I should 

2. Venderias, thou 

8. Venderia, he would I 






1. Venderiainos, we should 1 

2. Venderiais, you would \ « 
8. Venderian, they would J 


2. Vende, seU (thou). 2. Vended, sell (ye). 

Compou/nd Tenses 
Perfect Infinitive. Perfect Participle. 

Haber yendido, to have sold. Habiendo yendido, having sold. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




He vendido, I have 
Has vendido, thou hast 
Ha vendido, he has 

Hemos vendido, we ] have 
Habeis vendido, you \ aoldy 
Han vendido, they \ etc. 

Past Perfect. 

Habia vendido, I had 
Habias vendido, thou 

Habia vendido, 7i€ had 



1. Haya vendido, I may 
sold, 2. Hayas vendido, thou huvt 
mayest sold. 

3. Haya vendido, he may . 


1. Hayamos vendido, we ] may 

2. Hayais vendido, you I have 

3. Hayan vendido, they J sold, 

Past Perfect {second form). 


1. Hubiera vendido, I 
sold, might 

etc. 2. Hubieras vendido, thou ^ 
mightest 1*^"' 

8. Hubiera vendido, he 
might y 


Habiamos vendido, we ] had 1. Hubi^raraos vendido, 
Habiais vendido, you L sold, 
Habian vendido, they I etc. 


2. Hubierais vendido, yoM 
8. Hubieran vendido, 


Past Perfect {second form), 


1. Hubiese vendido, / " 
sold, might 

etc. 2. Hubieses vendido, 
thou mightest 

3. Hubiese yendido, hie 



Hubimos vendido, we \ had 1. Hubi^mos vendido, 
Hubisteis vendido, you I sold, toe 

Hubieron vendido, they J etc. 2. Hubieseis vendido, you 

8. Hubiesen yendido, 


Hube vendido, I had 
Hubiste vendido, thou 

Hubo vendido, he had . 





zed by Google 









Habr6 yendido, I shall 
Habrds vendido, ihou 

Habrd vendido, he 


1. Hubiere vendido, I 
have should 
sold, 2. Hubieres vendido, 
etc, thoushouldst 

8. Hubiere vendido, he 
should J 




Habremos vendido, we 1 ahdll 1. Hubi^remos vendido, 


Habr^is vendido, you have we 



Habr&n vendido, they sold, 2. Hubiereis vendido, 


etc, you 

8. Hubieren vendido. 






Habda vendido, Js/i(m2(/ 
Habrias vendido, thou 

1. Habriamos vendido, 
have we 
sold, 2. Habriais vendido, yoM 


' ROld 


Habria vendido, he 

etc, 8. Habrian vendido, 





195. The paradigm yiyir, to live. 

Simple Tenses 


Vivir, to live, Viviendo, living, Vivido, lived. 






thou livest. 


he lives. 


we live. 


you live. 


they live. 




I may live. 


thou may est live. 


he may live. 


we may live. 


you may live. 


they may live. 

Digitized by VjOOQM 





Imperfect (first form). 


I was living. 

Viviera, I might live. 


thou wast living. 

Vivieras, thou mightest live. 


he was living. 

Viviera, he might live. 


we were living. 

Vivi^ramos, we might live. 


you were living. 

Vivierais, you might live. 


they were living. 

Vivieran, they might live. 


Imperfect {second form). 



Viviese, I might live. 


thou livedst. 

Vivieses, thou mightest livt 


The lived. 

Viviese, he might live. 


we lived. 

Vivi^semos, we might live. 


you lived. 

Vivieseis, you might live. 


they lived. 

Viviesen, tJiey might live. 






1. Vivirf, 

I shall live. 

1. Viviere, 1 should live. 

2. Vivirds, 

thou wUt live. 

2. Vivieres, thou shouldst live. 

8. Vivird, 

he wiU live. 

8. Viviere, he should live. 

1. Viviremos, we shodl live, 

2. Vivir^is, you toill live. 
8. Vivirdn, they will live. 


1. Vivi^remos, we should live. 

2. Viviereis, you should live. 
8. Vivieren, they should live. 



1. Viviria, I should live. 

2. Vivirias, thou wouldat live. 
8. Viviria, he would live. 


1. Viviriamos, we should live, 

2. Viviriais, you would live, 
8. Vivirian, thsy would live 

Singular. Plural. 

2. Vive, live (thou). 2. Vivid, live (ye). 

Compownd Tenses 
Perfect iNPnoTiVE. Perfect Participle. 

Haber vivido, to have lived, Habiendo vivido, having lived. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Perfect. Pbefbct. 


Haya vivido, I mwy 
. livtdy etc, Hayas vivido, thou have 

may eat livedo etc, 

Haya vivido, Tie ma/y . 


Hemos vivido, we 
Hab^is vivido, ymt 
Han vivido, they 

He vivido, I have 
Has vivido, thou hast 
Ha vivido, he hae 


Hayaraos vivido, we 

Haydis vivido, you 
lived, etc. ^^^^^ ^^^.^^^ ^^^^ 

lived, etc. 

Past Perfect. Past Perfect (first form), 


Hubiera vivido, / 

\hved,etc. JTf'^ .„ ^^ ^ 

Hubieras vivido, thou have 

mighteet \ lived, etc, 

Hubiera vivido, he 



Habia vivido, I had 
Habias vivido, thou 

Habia vivido, hs had . 

Habiamos vivido, we 
Habiais vivido, you 
Habian vivido, they 


HabiSramos vivido, 

Uvea, e c, Hubi^rais vivido, you 
Hubieran vivido, they 

lived, etc 

Preterit Perfect. 

Hube vivido, I had 
Hubiste vivido, thou 

Hubo vivido, he had . 

Past Perfect (second form), 

Hubiese vivido, I 

[lived, etc. ^*^^^ 

Hubieses vivido, thou 


Hubiese vivido, he 


Hubimos vivido, we 
Hubisteis vivido, you 
Hubieron vivido, th>ey 



Hubi^mos vivido, 

lived, etc. Hubieseis vivido, yow 
Hubiesen vivido, tJiey 

lived, etc 

lived, etc 


zed by Google 




Future Perfect. 

Habr6 vivido, I shall "I Hubiere vivido, I 

Habr&s yivido, thou I have should 

wilt I livedo etc. Hubieres vivido, thoit 

Habrd vivido, /iemZZJ ahouldat 

Hubiere vivido, he 

lived, etc 

Habremos vivido, we ' 
Habr^is vivido, you 
Habr&n vivido, they 


shall Hubi^remos vivido, ] ^i^j^j^ 

^^*^* ^' [have 

lived, etc, .Hubiereis vivido, ytm ,.^ . 

Hubieren vivido, they J ' 

1. Habrias vivido, I 

2. Habrfas vivido, 

th^u shovldst 
8. Habria vivido, he 

Perfect Conditional 

SINGULAR. plural. 

1. Habriamos vivido, 
ham 2. Habriais vivido, 

' lived, etc, you 

8. Habrian vivido, 

lived, etc. 

196. The imperative mode contains only the second person, sin* 
gular and plural. The other persons must be supplied from the 
subjunctive present ; and when it is desired to conjugate an impera- 
tive negatively, the subjunctive present takes its place everywhere, 
since the imperative mode may not be used with a negative ; and in 
such cases the objective pronouns precede the verbs : 

Compra (tti) algod6n. 
Compre V. un buen caballo. 

Entra, hijo mio. 
Ko entres, hija mla. 
No lo crea V. 

Buy (thou) some cotton. 

Buy (let your honor buy) a good 

Come in, my son. 
Do not (thou) enter, my daughter. 
Do not believe it. 

197. The compound tenses of all the Spanish verbs are formed 
by means of the auxiliary haber and the past participle of the verb 
to be conjugated, as has been seen in the foregoing paradigms : 

Le he hablado ya. 

I have already spoken to him. 


by Google 


198. In process of inflection all verbs en^ig^^^ir car^^^r, and 
zar change the letters c, g* ^^^ z into ^nTg^roEiidrc wheneTer they 
occur before the vowel e — that is, in th^* first person singular of the 
preterit and throughout the present subjunctive. 

a. ABBANCAB, topaU out, to wrest. 
Preterit, arranqn^, I wrested. 

Subj. Pres., arranqne, arranqnes, arranqne, arranqnemos, arran- 
qneis, arranqnen, I may pull out, etc, 

b. MADBUOAB, to rise early. 
Preterit, madrugn^, I rose early, 

Subj. Pres., madrugne, madrugnes, madrugne, madrugnemos, 
madrugn^is, madrugnen, I may rise early, etc. 

e. AMENAZAB, to threaten. 

Preterit, amenae6, 1 threaiened, 

Subj. Pres., amenace, amenaces, amenace, amenacemos, amena- 
e^is, amenaeen, I may threaten, etc. 

199. Verbs ending in guar have a dieresis over the n in the fame 
position — that is, when the n occurs before e : 

AYEBIGUAB, to ascertain. 
Preterit, averigtt^, I ascertained. 

Subj. Pres., averigtte, averigttes, averigtte, averigttemos, averi- 
gtteis, averigtten, / may ascertain, etc. 
Imperative, averigua, ascertam (thou). 

200. Verbs in cer and eir, preceded by a consonant, change e to 
z when, in the course of inflection, it encounters a or o— that is, 
in the flrst person singular of the indicative present and through- 
out the subjunctive present 

a. TENCEB, to vanquish. 

Indicative Pres., venzo, I vanquish, 

Subj. Pres., yenza, venzas, venza, venzamos, venzdis, venzan, / 
may vanquish^ etc. 

h. UNCIB, to yoke. 

Indicative Pres., unzo, 1 yoke. 

Subj. Pres., unza, unzas, unza, unzamos, unzdis, unzan, I may 
yoke, etc. 

201. Verbs terminating in cer and eir, preceded by a vowel, in- 
aort % before c when the latter meets a or o : 


by Google 


a. NAGEB, to he horn, 

Ind. Pres., naxeo, (other forms of the present regular), 

Subj. Pres., nazca, nazcas, nazca, nazcamos, nazedis, nazcan. 

h. CABECEB, not to have, to he without, 

Ind. Pres., carezco. 

Subj. Pres., carezca, oarezcas, carezca, oarezcamos, oarezcdis, 


e, CONOGEB, to know, to hecome acquainted ufith, 

Ind. Pres., conozco, I know, am acquainted with, 

Subj. Pres., conozca, conozcas, conozca, conozcamos, oonozciis, 

conozcan, I may know, he acquainted with, 

d, LUGIB, to shine, to display, 
Ind. Pres., luzco. 

Subj. Pres., luzca, luzcas, luzca, luzeamos, luzdUs, luzean. 

e, The exceptions to this rule, which are as follows, will be ex- 
plained in another section : *f 

Haeer, to do, to make, Gocer, to hoil, to cook, 

Escocer, to smart, Meeer, to shake, 

f, TAGEB, to lie {as one dead), 

Ind. Pres., . jusgo 


' yazca yazcas yazca yazoamos yazcftis yazcan. 
Subj. Pres., yazga yazgas yazga yazgamos yazgftis yazgan. 

yagra yagas yaga yagamos yagftis yagan. 
Imp. yace, or yaz . yaced. 

yacia ; yaci, yaciera, yaciese, yaciere ; yacere, -ia. 

202. When the radical g, of verbs in ger and gir, would come 
before a or o, it changes into J : 

a, ESGOGEB, to select, to choose. 

Ind. Pres., escojo, I choose, 

Subj. Pres., escoja, escojas, escoja, escojamos, escoj&is, escojan, 
I may select, etc, 

h, AFLIGIB, to afflict, 

Ind. Pres., aflijo, 7ei(^«e/. 

Subj. Pres., afl^a, afl^as, afl^a, afl^amos, afl^iis, afl^an, I may 
afflict, etc, 

208. When verbs ending in gair and qiiir (only one), encounter 
a or o in process of inflection, they drop the n, it being unnecessary: 

Digitized by VjOOQ LC 

yaces yace yacemos yac^is yacen. 


a. DISTINGUIR, to distinguish, 
Ind. Pres., distingo, I distinguiah, 

Siibj. Pres., distinga, distingas, distinga, distingamos. disting^s, 
distingan, I may distinguiahy etc, 

b, DELINQUIB, to tranagreaa, 
Ind. Pres., delinco, / tranagreaa, 

Subj. Pres., delinca, delincas, delinca, delincamos, delinc^s, de- 
lincan, / may tra/nagreaa, etc, 

204. Verbs whose stem-ending contains either of the ligatured 
consonants eh, 11, fi, drop the i of the diphthongs ie, io, when they 
meet in the conjugation — namely, in the present participle, the pre- 
terit third person, singular and plural, in the two forms of the im- 
perfect subjunctive, and in the future subjunctive : 

' a, MULLIB^ to heat up, 
Pres. Part., mullendo, beating up. 

Preterit, mull6, mulleron, he beat up, they beat up (past). 
Subj. Imp., mullera, etc.j mullese, etc, I might heat up, etc. 
Subj. Fut., mullere, etc, I ahould heat up, etc, 
b, TASER, to play, (as upon an instrument). 
Pres. Part., tafiendo. 
Preterit, tafl6, tafleron. 
Subj. Imp., tefiera, etc, tafiese, etc, 
Subj. Put., taflere, etc 
c PLASIR, to lament. 
Pres. Part., plafiendo. 
Ind. Pret., plafi6, pi aileron. 
Subj. Imp., plaflera, etc, plafiese, etc 
d. HENGHIB, to fill up, (irregular). 
Pres. Part., hinchendo, hinchiendo. 
Preterit, hinch6, hinchi6, hincheron, hinchieron. 
Subj. Imp., hinchiera, hinchera, etc, hinchese, hinchiese, etc 
Subj. Fut., hinchere, hinchiere, etc 

205. Verbs in uir, including those in tiir, insert y instead of 1, 
as will be seen in the following paradigms : 

a. CONSTRUIB, to conatruct. Pres. Part., construyendo. 
Ind. Pres., construyo, -yes, -ye, construimos, -is, construyen. 
Subj. Pres., construya, -yas, -ya, -yaraos, -ydis, -yan. 

Impv., -ye, construid. 

Ind. Pret., construf, -iste, -y6, -imos, -isteis, -yeron. 
Imp. Subj. (firat form), construyera, -yeras, -yera, -y^ramos, 
-yerais, -yeran. 


by Google 


Imp. Subj. {second form), construyese, -yeses, -yese, -y^mos, 
-yeseis, -yesen. 

Subj. Fut., coDstruyere, -yeres, -yere, -y^remos, -yereis, -yeren. 

b. Verbs ending in gttir lose the dieresis when, in the course of 
inflection, the n precedes a consonant y : 

ABOUIB, to argtte, Pres. Part, arguyendo. 

Ind. Pres., arguyo, -yes, -ye, argClimos, -is, arguyen. 

Subj. Pres., arguya, -yas, -ya, arguyamos, -ydis, arguyan. 

Impv., -ye, argfUd. 

Ind. Pret, argtii, -iste, arguy6, argUimos, -isteis, arguyeron. 

Imp. Subj. (first form), arguyehi, -yeras, -yera, -y^ramos, -yerais, 

Imp. Subj. (second form), arguyese, -yeses, -yese, -y^semos, -yeseis, 

Subj. Fut., arguyere, -yeres, -yere, -y^remos, -yereis, -yeren. 

c. Verbs in eer, such as leer, to read, ereer, to believe, are simi. 
lar to the above, in that they substitute y for i when, in the course 
of coiijugation, it meets e or o— that is, in the indicative preterit, 
third. person, singular and plural; in the two forms of the imper- 
fect subjunctive, in the future subjunctive, and in the present par- 
ticiple : 

LEER, to read. Pres. Part., leyendot 

Ind. Pret, ley6, leyeron. 

Subj. Imp. (first form), leyera, leyeras, leyera, ley^ramos, leyerais, 

Subj. Imp. (second form), leyese, leyeses, leyese, ley^mos, leye- 
seis, leyesen. 

Subj. Fut, leyere, leyeres, leyere, leyeremos, leyereis, leyeren. 

206. Since the Spanish verb employs few auxiliaries, such as those 
used in English in the emphatic and progressive forms, it is com- 
monly necessary to reduce the verb to its simple form before putting 
it into Spanish : 


I buy. 

I do buy. Compr^^lJS'dC; 

lambnvin^. ^ M I did buy. 

I am buying. 

207. The progressive form may be expressed by the use of estar, 
to be; ir, to go; hallarse or encontrarse, to find one*s self, to be; 
qaedar, to remain ; andar, to go, to walk ; segnir, to continue, to 
go on ; verse, to see one^s self: 


by Google 



Estoj comprt»fido, I am buying. V. estd comprando, you are bny- 
Voy vendiendo, I am. selling. ing. 

Me hall^ comprando, I was buy- Quedo viviendo, he went on Hy- 
ing, (I found myself buying). ing, continued to live. 
£st& yiyiendo, he is living. 

208. The verb ser, to be, is never used as an auxiliary to con* 
struct the progressive form of an active verb. This function is 
always performed by estar, to be, 

309. Ser, to be, as has been said, is used to build up the pas- 
sive voice, it being joined to the past participle of the verb to 
be inflected, whatever be its conjugation, and whether regular or 
Soy amado de Margarita. I am loved by Margaret 


210. The paradigm ser amado, to be loved. 

Simple Tenses 


^ ( amado-a, L , , , «. , < amado-a, ) . 

S«r^,r^ *^ ^^^- Siendo^^^^^3.^j6ei7i^ loved. 


Present. Present, 


1. Soy amado-a, 1 1. Sea amado-a, 

2. Eres amado-a, I ^ ^'^ ^^^^* 2. Seas amado-a, 

3. Es amado-a, J 8. Sea amado-a, 


1. Somos amado-as. 1. Seamos amados-as. 

2. Sols amados-as. 2. Se&is amados-as. 
8. Son amados-as. 8. Sean amados-as. 

Imperfect. Imperfect (first form), 


1. Era amado-a, 1 j^ 1. Fuera amado-a, 1 j ^ . ^^ ^^ 

2. Eras amado-a, ^^^^^^ 2. Fnerasami«io-a, j^^^^^ 
8. Era amado-a, J 3. Fuera amado-a, J 


1. l^ramos amados-as. 1. Fa^ramos amados-as 

2. Erais amados-as. 2. Fnerals amados-as. \ 
a Eran amados-as. 8. Faeran amados-as* 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 

I m^y be 
loved, etc. 




1. Fai amado-a, 

2. Fniste amado-a, 

3. Fa6 amado-a, 

Imperfect (second form), 


1. Fuese amado-a, 

2. Fueses amado-a, 
'*'*^' ^^- 3. Fuese amado-a. 


I might he 

1. Faimo6 amado6-as. 

2. Fnisteis amados-as. 

3. Fneron amados-as. 


1. Sere amado-a, 1 

2. Ser^ amado-a, 

3. Ser4 amado-a, 

/ ehaU be 
lovedy etc. 


1. Fn^semos amados-as. 

2. Fneseis amados-as. 

3. Fnesen amados-as. 


1. Faere amado-a, 
2. ' Fueres amado-a, 
3. Fuere amado-a, 

I should be 

1. Seremos amados-as. 

2. Ser6is amados-as. 
8. Ser4n amados-as. 


1. Seria amado-a, 

2. Serias amado-a, 

3. Seria amado-a. 


1. Fa^remos amado8-A8. 

2. Faereis amados-as. 

3. Faeren amados-as. 



1. Serfamos amasdos-as. 

2. Serials amasdos-as. 

3. Serian amasdos-as. 

/ should be 

Singular. Plural. 

6. S6 amado-a, be (thou) loved, 2. Sed amados-as, be (je) loved. 

Com^mmd Tenses 
Perfect Infinitive. Perfect Participle. 

) amados-as. 

to have 

4abersidoJ*'"*^^-»» . bun Habiendo f amado-a, 


sido \ amados-as, 






1. He sido amado-a, 

2. Has sido amado-a, 

3. Ha sido amado-a. 

I?Mve been 
loved, etc 






1. HemoB sido amados-as. 

2. Hab^is sido amados-as. 
8. Han sido amados-as. 

Past Perfect 

1. Habia sido amado-a, 

2. Habias sido amado-a, 
8. Habia sido amado-a. 

I h4jd been 


1. Habiamos sido amados-as. 

2. Habiais sido amados-as. 
8. Hablan sido amados-as. 

Preterit Perfect 


!• Hnbe sido amado-a, 
2. Hnbiste sido amado-a, 
8. Hubo sido amado-a, 

/ had been 


1. Hnbimos sido amados-as. 

2. Hnbisteis sido amados-as. 
8. Hnbieron sido amados-as. 

Future Perfect 

1. Habr^ sido amado-a, 

2. Habras sido amado-a, 
8. Habr4 sido amado-a. 

been loved 


1. Habremos sido amados-as. 

2. Habr6is sido amados-as. 
8. Habrdn sido amado-a. 



1. Habria sido amado-a, 

2. Habrias sido amado-a, 
8. Habria sido amado-a, 

I should have 
been loved. 


zed by Google 

loved, ete» 

I might have 
been loved. 



1. Haya sido araado-a, 

2. Hayas sido amado-a. 
8. Haya sido araado-a, 


1. Hayamos sido amados-as. 

2. Hay6is sido amados-as. 
8. Hayan sido amados-as. 

Past Pkbpbct {second form) 


1. Hnbiera sido amado-a, 

2. Hnbieras sido amado-a, 
8. Habiera sido amado-a, 


1. Hnbi^ramos sido amados-as. 

2. Hnbierais sido amados-as. 

3. Hnbieran sido amados-as. 

Past Perfect {second form) 


1. Hnbiese sido amado-a, 1 . , . , 

2. Hnbieses sido amado-a, I ^^^^'^^ '^?' 
8. Hnbiese sido amado-a, J *^ ^*^- 


1. Habiesemos sido amados-as. 

2. Habieseis sido amados-as. 
8. Habieseu sido amados-as. 

Future Perfect 

1. Hnbiere sido amado-a, 1 . , . ^ 

2. Hnbieres sido amado-a, ^^»^^' ^^J* 

3. Hnbiere sido amado-a, J ^"^ ^^' 


1. Hnbi^remos sido amados-as. 

2. Hnbiereis sido amados-as. 
8. Habieren sido amados-as. 


zed by Google 




1. Habriamos sido amados-as. 

2. Habriais sido amados-as. 
8. Habrian sido amados-as. 

211. A reflexive verb is one whose action reflects or reacts upon 
the subject in the form of an accusative or objective pronoun : 

V. se engafia. Ton deceive yourself. 

212. A transitive verb becomes intransitive by taking the re- 
flexive form : 

^\ no sabe lo que se hace. He does not know what is doing. 

Se cerr6 la puerta. The door closed. 

218. The paradigm layarse, to wash one*8 self. 
Simple Tenses 
Inpinitivb. Peesknt Participlb. 

Lavarse, to wash one*s self, Lav^ndose, washing one^s self 




1. Me lavo, 

2. Te kvas, 
8. Se lava, 

1. Nos lavamos. 

2. Oslav^is. 
8. Se lavan. 

/ wash my- 
self etc. 


1. Me lave, 

2. Te laves, 
8. Se lave, 

I may wash 
myself etc. 


1. Melavaba, 

2. Te lavabas, 
8. Se lavaba. 

/ was wcuhing 
myself etc. 


1. Nos lavemos. 

2. Os lav^is. 

3. Se laven. 

Imperfect {first form), 


1. Me lavara, 

2. Te lavaras, 
8. Se lavara. 

/ might wash 
myself etc. 

1. Nos lav^bamos. 

2. Os lavabais. 
8. Selavaban. 


1. Nos lavdramos. 

2. Os lavarais. 
8. Se lavaran. 


zed by Google 




1. Me lay^, 

2. Te lavaste, 
8. Se laY6, 

I washed my- 
self, eic 

Imperfect {second form), 


1. Me layase, 

2. Te la vases, 
8. Se lavase, 

I might ufCLsh 
myself , etc. 

1. Nos lavamos. 

2. Oslayasteis. 
8. Se lavaron. 


1. Me layar^, 

2. Te layards, 
8. Se lavard, 

myself^ etc. 


1. Nos lav&semos. 

2. Dslayaseis. 
8. Se layasen. 


1. Me layare, 

2. Te lavares, 
8. Se layare, 

I might loash 
myself, etc. 

1. Nos layaremos. 

2. Os layar^is. 
8. Se layardn. 


1. Me layaria, ' 

2. Telayarfas, 
8. Se layaria, 


1. Nos lavamos. 

2. Os layareis. 
8. Se layaren. 



1. Nos layariamoa 

2. Os layarfais. 
8. Selayarian. 

I shoiM wash 
myself, etc. 

Singular. Plural. 

2. L&yate, wash (thou) thyself, 2. Layaos, wash (ye) yourseives. 

Compound Tenses 
Perfect Infinitive. Perfect Infinitivb. 

Haberae lavado, to have washed Habi^ndose lavado, having 
one*s self, washed one*s self, 

1. Me he lavado, 

2. Te has lavado, 
8. Se ha lavado, 

/ h(we washed 
myself, etc 


zed by Google 



1. Nos hemos lavado. 

2. Os habeis lavado. 

3. Se ban lavado. 

Past Pebfbct 

1. Me habia lavado, 

2. Te habias lavado, 
8. Se habia lavado, 

I h€kd washed 
myself^ etc 


1. Nos habiamos lavado. 

2. Os habiais lavado. 
8. Se habian lavado. 

Preterit Perfect 

1. Me hnbe lavado, 

2. Te hnbiste lavado, 
8. Se hnbo lavado, 

myself J etc. 


1. Nos hubimos lavado. 

2. Os hubisteis lavado. 
8. Se habieron lavado. 

Future Perfect 

1. Me habi^ lavado, 

2. Te habrds lavado, 
8. Se habr& lavado, 

lahaU have washed 
myself, etc. 


1. Nos habremos lavado. 

2. Os habreis lavado. 
8. Se habr^n lavado. 




1. Me haya lavado, \ ^ _ , , 

a. Te hafas lavado. K'*** ??«* «""*«' 

«. Seh»y»l»v«do, J «y««/.«* 


by Google 

/ might have washed 
myself, etc 



1. No0 hayani08 lavado. 

2. Os hay 61 s lavado. 
8. Se hayan lavado. 

Past Peefbct {first form) 


1. Me hubiera lavado, 

2. Te hnbieras lavado, 
8. Se hubiera lavado, 


1. Nos hnbieramos lavado. 

2. Os hnbierais lavado. 
8. Se hubieran lavado. 

Past Perfect (second form) 


1. Me hablese lavado. 

2. Te hubieses lavado, 
8. Se hnbiese lavado, 


1. Nos hnbiesemos lavado. 

2. Os habieseis lavado. 
8. Se hnbiesen lavado. 

Future Perfect 

1. Me hnbiere lavado, 

2. Te hnbieres lavado, 
8. Se hnbiere lavado, 


1. Nos hnbi^remos lavado. 

2. Os hubiereis lavado. 
8. Se hnbieren lavado. 

I might heme washed 
myself etc. 

I should have wcuihed 
myself, etc. 

I should have washed 



1. Me habrfa lavado, 

2. Te habrias lavado, 
8. Se habria lavado, 


1. Nos habrfamos lavado. 

2. Os habrfais lavado. 
2. Se habrian lavado. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


214. A reflexive verb may be conjugated negatively by the use 
of no, no, taking care to place it before the objective pronoun : 

EUos no se lavan, or no se ban They do not wash themselves, or 
lavado. have not washed themselves. 


215. Impersonal verbs are used in the third person singular only ; 
their subject can not be expressed when it applies to an operation 
of Nature, corresponding to the English it\ otherwise, if intensity 
be desired or emphasis required, the neuter ello, it, that, may be 
employed : 

Llueve, it rains, it is raining. Nieva, it snows, it is snowing. 

216. The most common impersonal verbs are : 
Amanecer, to grow light. Nevar, to snow, 
Anochecer, to grow dark, Belampaguear, to lighten, 
Diluviar, to pour in torrents, Tronar, to thunder, 
Granizar, to hail, Bastar, to suffice, to he enough, 
Ilelar, to freeze, Convenir, to suit, to be proper, 
Lloviznar, to drizzle, Parecer, to seem, to appear, 
Llover, to rain, 

217. The conjugation of impersonal verbs is determined by the 
ending of their infinitive. 

218. Paradigm neyar, to snow, 


Nieva, it snows, Nleve, it may snow, let it snow, 

Nevaba, it was snowing, Nevara, it might snow. 

Nev6, it snowed, Nevase, it might snow. 

Nevar&, it will snow, Nevare, it should snow, 


NevarIa, it would snow. 

Compound Tenses 

Ha nevado, it has 
Habia nevado, it had 
Hnbo nevado, it had 
Habr4 nevado, it will have 



by Google 


Haya neyado, it may ] 

Hubiera neyado, it might I ^^ 
Hubiese nevado, it might [ snowed. 
Hnbiere neyado, it should j 

Habrfa nevado, it toould have enowed, 

219. Paradigm llOYer, Uoyiendo, Ilovido; to raiUf raining 


Llaeve, it rains. Llneva, it may rain, let it rain, 

Lloyla,'i^ was raining, Lloviera, it might rain, 

Lloyi6, it rained, Lloviese, it might rain, 

Lloverd, it wiU rain, Lloviere, it should rain, 

Lloyerla, it unndd rain. 
The compound forms ar^ constructed by the union of the third 
person singular of the various modes and tenses of haber and the 
past participle lloYido. 

220. Some verbs which are impersonal maj be given a personal 
meaning and may take a personal inflection : 

Madrugaremos mafiana por la We shall rise by daybreak to- 
mafiana. morrow morning (the day will 

be breaking when we arise to- 
morrow morning). 

221. Bastar, to suffice ; eoBvenir, to suit ; parecer, to seem^ are 
used in the plural also : 

No bastan exousas. Excuses are not enough. 

Las objeciones me parecen estti- The objections appear to me to 

pidas. be stupid. 

No me convienen tales reglas. Such rules do not suit me. 

222. A few verbs are used only in the third persons, singular and 
plural. They may be deemed defective verbs : 

Acontece, acaece. It happens. 

228. The verb haeer, to do, to make, is used in an impersonal 
sense in referring to the weather or temperature : 
Hace mal tiempo. It is bad weather. 

Hace calor, haoe frfo. It is warn)} it is cold. 


zed by Google 


Hace muoho tiempo que no lo I have not seen him for a long 
yeo. time. 

224. Instead of the English expressions it is /, it is tJiou, it is he, 
the nominative pronoun with the first person of the verbis employed 
in Spanish : 

Yo soy, td eres, ^1 es. It is I, it is thou, it is he. 


225. An irregular verb is one which varies in any respect from 
the inflection of the paradigms coniprar, Tender, Yivir. Of 
these there are about eight hundred and fifty; but most of them 
deviate only slightly, and such departures are according to certain 
general rules, and are made for the sake of harmony of sound. 

226. Irregular verbs are conjugated on four stems — the original 
(infinitive), the present, preterit, and future : 

I. The Original (Inpinitivb) III. Peeteeit Stem. 

Stem. Pres. Pfui;. (sometimes). 

Inf. Ind. Pret. 

Pres. Part, (sometimes), Subj. Imp. (first form). 

Past Part. Subj. Imp. (second form), 

Ind. Imp. Subj. Fut. 
Impv. Sing, (second person) 

Imp. Plur. (second person). 

II. Peesent Stem. IV. Futuee Stem. 
. Ind. Pres. Ind. Fut. 

Subj. Pres. Conditional. 

Impv. Sing, (second person) 

227. If these four stems of even the most irregular verb are 
known, it is comparatively easy to build up the forms of the en- 
tire conjugation : 

a, TENEB, to have, to possess, to hold, 

Oeioinal Stem. Peesent Stem. 

ten- teng- 

Inf., tener. Ind. Pres., tengo. 

Pres. Part., teniendo. Subj. Pres., tenga. 

Past Part., tenido. 
Ind. Imp., tenia. 
Imp. Sing., ten. 
Imp. Plur., tened. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Preterit Stem. 


Ind. Pret., tnYO. 
Subj. Imp. {first form\ tnviera. 
Subj. Pret. {second form), tuviese. 
Subj. Fut., tuviere. 

h. DEGIB, to say, to tell. 

Original Stem. 
Inf., decir. 

Pres. Part., diciendo (irregular). 
Past Part., dicho (irregular). 
Ind. Imp., decia. 
Imp. Plur., decid. 

Preterit Stem. 

Ind. Pret., d^e. 
Subj. Imp. {first form), dijera. 
Subj. Imp. {second form), dijese. 
Subj. Fut., dijere. 

c. CABER, to hold, to contain, , 

Original Stem. 
Inf., caber. 

Pres. Part., cabiendo. 
Past Part., cabido. 
Ind. Imp., cabia. 
Imp. Sing., cabe. 
Imp. Plur., cabed. 

Preterit Stem. 
Ind. Pret, cape. 
Subj. Imp. (first form), cnpiera. 
Subj. Imp. (second form), cnpiese. 
Subj. Fut., cnpiere. 

FuTuiqc Stem. 

Ind. Fut., tendr^ 
Cond., tendria. 

Present Stem. 
Ind. Pres., digo. 
Subj. Pres., diga. 
Imp. Sing., di. 

Future Stem. 
Ind. Fut., dir^. 
Cond., dirfa. 

Present Stem. 


Ind. Pres., quepo. 

Subj. Pres., qnepa. 

Future Stem. 


Ind. Fut., cabre. 

Cond., cabrfa. 

228. Eight verbs have an abbreviated form in the imperativt 
second person singular : 


by Google 



iNPiNinvB. Impbeativb. 
Decir, to my, Di, aay (thou). 
Hacer. to make. Haz, make. 
It, to go, Y^, go, 

Foner, to place, Fon^ place. 

Salir, to go out, 
Tener, to have, 
Valer, to he 

Venir, to come. 

Ten, havG, 
Val, and vale, be 

Yen, come. 

229. Six verbs make an indicative present, first person singular, 
which terminates irregularly ; that is, otherwise than in o : 

iNFiNirrvB. Ind. Prbs. Infinitive. Ind. Pees. 

Dar, to give, Doy, I give, Ir, to go, Voy, I go, 

Haber, toAaw. He, /Aove. Ser, /o ftc. Soy, Jaw. 

Sstar, to he, Estoy, lam. Saber, to know, Se, I know, 

230. Fourteen verbs have indicative preterits, first and third i)er- 
sons singular, which are not accented on the last syllable : 

Infinitivb. Indicative Preter 

Andar, to go, to walk, Andnve, anduro, / walked, he 

Caber, to contain. Cape, cnpo, / contained, he con- 

Decir, to say, to tell, ^^^9 dijo, I told, he told, 

-ducir (used in compound verbs -di^e, dnjo. 

Estar, to he. 

Estnye, esturo, I was, he was. 

Haber, to have. 

Hnbe, hnbo, I had, he had. 

flice, hizo, / m^e, he made. 

Poder, to he able. 

Pude, pudo, 


, / was able, he was 

Poner, to put. 

Pnse, puso, 

I put, he put. 

Querer, to wish. 


, I unshed, he unshed. 

Saber, to know. 

Snpe, snpo. 

I knew, he knew. 

Tener, to have. 

Tnve, tuYo, 

I had, he had. 

Traer, to bring. 

Tnje, trajo, Ibrought, he brought. 

Venir, to come. 

Vine, vino, / came, he came. 

281. Ten verbs have irregular 

future stems : 

Infinitive. Ind. Future. 


Ind. Future. 

Caber. Cabr6. 



Decir. Dir^. 



Haber. Habr6. 



Hacer. Har6. 



Poder. Podr6. 



Querer. Querr^. 



Digitized by 




233. Besides the truly irregular verbs, which will be given later, 
there are seven classes of verbs which may be said to be regularly 
irregular, since their irregularities proceed according to certain gen- 
eral rules, that have grown out of a desire to secure euphony. 


233. Those verbs that change the vowel e, which occurs before 
the termination, into ie throughout the indicative and subjunctive 
present, when it receives the accent, and in the imperative singular 
(one person only) : 

a. AGERTAB, to hit the mark. 

Indicative Present 

1. Acierto. 

1. Acertamos. 

2. Aciertas. 

2. Acertdis. 

8. Acierta. 

3. Aciertan. 


2. Acierta. 

2. Acertad. 

Subjunctive Present 

1. Acierte. 

1. Acertemos. 

2. Aciertes. 

2. Acert^is. 

3. Acierte. 

3. Acierten. 

h. The following verbs, and their compounds, are conjugated like 

the verb acertar : 

Acrecentar. To increase. 

Concertar. To agree. 

Adestrar. To render skillful. 

Confesar. To confess. 

Alentar. To breathe. 

Decentar. To taste for the 

Apacentar. To feed. 

first time. 

Apretar. To squeeze. 

Derrengar. To break the back. 

Arrendar. To hire. 

Despemar. To cut off the legs 

Asentar. To place. 

Despertar. To awake. 

Aserrar. To saw. 

Desterrar. To banish. 

Aterrar. To throw down. 

Empedrar. To pave. 

Atestar. To stufE. 

Empezar. To begin. 

Atravesar. To cross. 

Bncerrar. To lock up. 

Aventar. To winnow. 

Bncomendar. To recommend. 

Calentar. To warm. 

Enterrar. To bury. 

Cegar. To blind. 

Escarmentar. To take warning. 

Cerrar. To shut. 

Fregar. To rub. 

Comenzar. To commence. 

Goberaar. To govenu 

Digitized by ^OOgie 




To freeze. 


To water. 


To shoe. 


To burst 


To' winter. 


To cut down. 


To mention. 


To sow. 


To take a colla- 


To set. 



To quiet 


To deny. 


To bury. 

y Nevar. 

To snow. 


To tremble. 


To think. 


To tempt 


To break. 


To rake. 


To recommend. 


To stumble. 


284. Those verbs of the first conjugation which change the stem 
▼owel o into ne throughout the indicatiye and subjunctive present, 
when it receives the accent, and in the singular of the imperative : 

a, ACOSTAB, to go to bed, to put some one to bed. 

Indicative Present 

1. Acnesto, I put or go to bed. 1. Acostamos. 

2. Acnestas. 2. Acost&is. 
8. Acnesta. 3. Acnestan. 

2. Acnesta. 2. Acostad. 

SuBJUNcnvB Present 

1. Acneste. 1. Acostemos. 

2. Acnestes. 2. Acost^is. 
8. Acneste. 3. Acnesten. 

b. The following verbs, and their compounds, are inflected like 












To agree. 
To divine. 
To breakfast 
To grind. 
To hoe. 
To bet 
To approve. 
To waste. 
To thunder. 
To shame. 












To strain. 
To hang. 
To verify. 
To console. 
To count 
To cost. 
To behead. 
To demonstrate. 
To surpass. 
To discourage. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 




To desolate. 


To renew. 


To skin. 


To reprove. 


. To be impudent. 


To compensate. 


To dirty. 


To breathe. 


To string. 


To roU. 


To miet. 


To entreat 


To engross. 


To solder. 


To force. 


To loose. 


To rest 


To sound. 


To tread. 


To dream. 


To show. 


To toast 


To people. 


To barter. 


To prove. ^Tronar. 

To thunder. 


To remind. " 


To fly. 


To lie down. 


To overturn. 


To belch. 


235. Those verbs of the second conjugation which change the 
stem vowel o into ne throughout the indicative and subjunctive 
present, when it receives the accent, and in the imperative singular: 

a. MOTEB, to move, 

X Indicative Present 

1. Muevb. 1. Movemos. 

2. Mneves. 2. Mov^is. 
8. Mneve. 8. Maeven. 

2. Mneve. 2. Moved. 

SuBJUNcrrvB Present 

1. Mueva. 1. Movamos. 

2. Mnevas. 2. Mov&is. 
8. Mueva. 8. Mnevan. 

6. The following verbs, and their compounds, are conjugated 
like mover * 


To absolve. 


To bite. 


To dissolve. 


To twist again. 


To grieve. 


To solve. 


To rain. 


To twist 


To grind. 


To turn. 

Digitized DyVaOOQle 




286. Verbs of the second conjugation which change the stem 
vowel a into ie throughout the indicative and subjunctive present, 
when it receives the accent, and in the imperative singular : 

«». iTENDEB, to attend. 

Indicative Present 
1. Atiendo. 

2. Atiendes. 
8. Atiende. 





2. Atiende. 

Subjunctive Present 

1. Atienda. 

2. Atiendas. 

3. Atienda. 

2. Atended. 

1. Atendamos. 

2. Atend&is. 

3. Atiendan. 

h. The following verbs, and their compounds, are conjugated like 
atender : 









To ascend. 
To sift. 

To condescend. 
To contend. 
To defend. 
To neglect. 
To descend. 
To kindle. 









To understand. 
To extend. 
To stink. 
To split. 
To lose. 
To stretch out. 
To transcend. 
To pour out. 


237. Those verbs of the third conjugation that change the e 
which immediately precetles the termination into ie in the indica- 
tive and subjunctive present, when it receives the accent, and in the 
imperative singular ; and change e into i whenever in the course of 
inflection it stands before a diphthong in the termination — that is, 
in the present participle, the indicative preterit, third persons, singu- 
lar and plural, and throughout the first and second forms of the im- 
perfect subjunctive, and in the future subjunctive. These verbs also 
change e to i in the first and second persons plural of the present 
subjunctive : 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




Indicativb Peksbnt 

1. Siento. 

1. Sentimoa 

2. Sientes. 

2. Sentis. 

8. Siente. 

8. Si^ten. 


2. Siente. 

2. Scntid. 

Subjunctive Present 

1. Sienta. 

1. Sintamos. 

2. Sietas. 

2. Sintiis. 

3. Sienta. 

8. Sientan. 

Indicative Preterit 

8. Sinti6. 

8. Sintieron. 

Subjunctive Imperfect {first form) 

1. Sintiera. 1. Sinti^ramos. 

2. Sintieras. 2. Sintierais. 
8. Sintiera. 8. Sintieran. 

Subjunctive Imperfect {second form) 

1. Sintiese. 1. Sinti^semos. 

2. Sintieses. 2. Sintieseis. 
8. Sintiese. 8. Sintiesen. 

Subjunctive Future 

1. Sintiere. 

1. Sinti^remos. 

2. Sintieres. 

2. Sintiereis. 

8. Sintiere. 

8. Sintieren. 

h» The following verbs, and their compounds, are conjugated li 

sentir : 

Adherir. To adhere. 


To digest 

Advertir. To advert 


To wound. 

Arrepentirse. To repent. 

To boil 

Asentir. To assent. 


To ingraft 

Conferir. To confer. 


To invert 

Consentir. To consent. 


To pervert 

Controvertir. To controvert. 


To prefer. 

Convertir. To convert 


To refer. 

Deferir. To defer. 


To require. 

Diferir. To differ. 


by Google 



388. Verbs that change the e which immediately precedes the 
ending into i in the indicative present, with the exception of the 
first and second persons plural, and throughout the subjunctive 
present, in the indicative preterit, third persons, singular and plural, 
in the imperative singular, and in the subjunctive imperfect, first 
and second terminations, in the future subjunctive, and in the 
present participle : 

o. PEDIB, to aek for, to petition. 

Indicativb Present 

1. Hdo. 

1. Pedimos. 

2. Fides. 

2. Pedis. 

a Pide. 

8. Piden. 

Indicative Preterit 

8. Pidi6. 8. Pidieron. 

3. Pide. 2. Pedid. 

Subjunctive Present 

1. PIda. 1. Pidamos. 

2. Pidas. 2. Piddis. 
8. Pida. 3. Pidan. 

Subjunctive Imperfect (first form) 

1. Pidiera. 1. Pidi^ramos. 

2. Pidieras. 2. Pidierais. 
8. Pidiera. 3. Pidieran. 

Subjunctive Imperfect {second form) 

1. Pidiese. 1. Pidi^semos. 

2. Pidieses. 2. Pidieseis. 
8. Pidiese. 8. Pidiesen. 

Subjunctive Future 

1. Pidiere. 1. Pidi^remoe. 

2. Pidieres. 2. Pidiereis. 
8. Pidiere. 8. Pidieren. 

h. The following .verbs, and their compounds, are conjugated like 


by Google 




To benumli. 


To groan. 


To belt. 


To measure. 


To collect. 


To rule. 


To contend. 


To render. 


To conceive. 


To quarreL 


To constrain. 

' Seguir. 

To repeat. 


To melt. 

To follow. 


To dissolve. 


To serve. 

^ Embestir. 

To elect. 


To dye. 

To attack. 


To dress. 


239. A few verbs which end in dr and whose irregularities fot 
low the paradigm : 

a. GONDUGIB, to conduct. 

Ind. Pres., conduzco, conduces, etc, {The rest is regular.) 

Ind. Pret., conduje, conjudiste, condujo, condujimos, condujis- 

teis, condujeron. 

Subj. Pres., conduzca, etc. {So throughout:) 

Subj. Imp. {first form), condujera, etc. {So throughout) 

Subj. Imp. {second form)^ condujese, etc. {So throughout.) 

Subj. Put., condujere, etc. {So thro^ighout.) 

h. The following verbs are conjugated like condacir : 

Aducir, to adduce. Producir, to produce. 

Deducir, to deduce. Reducir, to reduce. 

Introducir, to introduce. Traducir, to translate. 

240. There are many verbs whose irregularities may not be 
classified, but may be considered as peculiar to each verb. These 
must be learned individually. In the following list only those 
forms are given which vary from the three regular paradigms com- 
prar, Tender, and vivir. 

241. ADQUIRIR, to acquire. 

Ind. Pres., adquiero, adquieres, adquiere, adquirimos, adquiris, 

Impv., adquiere, adquirid. 

Subj. Pres., adquiera, adquieras, adquiera, adquiramos, adquirdis, 

242. ANDAR, to go, to walk. 

Ind. Pret., andaye, anduTiste, andnyo, andayimos, andayistei^ 


by Google 


Subj. Imp. (first form), andnylera, andnyieras, andnyiera, an- 
dayi^ramos, andayierais, andayieran. 

Subj. Imp. (second form), anduyiese, andayieses, andnyiese, 
andnyi^semos, andnyieseis, andayiesen. 

Subj. Put., andnyiere, anduyieres, anduyiere, anduyi^remos, 
-anduyiereis, andnyieren. 

243. ASIR, to seize, 

Ind. Pres., asgo, ases, ase, asimos, asis, asen. 

Subj. Pres., asga. asgas, asga, asgamos, asgdis, asg^n. 

244. BENDEGIB,' to hUss, Past Par., bendecido and bendito. 
Ind. Pres., bendig^o, bendices, bendice, bendecimos, bendecis, 


Ind. Pret., bendlje, bendijiste, bendijo, bendijimos, bendi- 
Jisteis, bendijeron. 

Subj. Pres., bendlg^a, bendigas, bendig^a, bendigamos, bendi- 
g6ls, bendigan. 

Subj. Imp. (first form), bendijera, bendijeras, bendijera, ben- 
dij^ramos, bendijerais, bendijeran. 

Subj. Imp. (second form), bendijese, bendijeses, bendijese, 
bendij^semos, bendijesels, bendijesen. 

Subj. Fut., bendijere, bendijeres, benijere, bendij^remos, 
bendijereis, bendijeren. 

245. CABEB, to hold, to contain, 

Ind. Pres., quepo, cabes, cabe, cabemos, cab^is, caben. 

Ind. Pret, cape, cnpiste, cnpo, capimos, cnpisteis, enpieron, 

Ind. Fut., cabr^, cabr6s, cabr&, cabremos, cabr^is, cabr6n. 

Subj. Pres., qnepa, qnepas, qnepa, qnepamos, quepais, qnepan. 

Cond., cabria, cabrias, cabria, cabriamos, cabriais, cabrian. 

Subj. Imp. (first form), cnpiera, capieras, cnpiera, cnpi^ramos, 
enpierais, capieran. 

Subj. Imp. (second form), cnpiese, cnpieses, cnpiese, cnpi^semos, 
cnpieseis, cnpiesen. 

Subj. Fut., enpiere, enpieres, cnpiere, cnpi^remos, cnpiereis, 

246. COGEB, to cook, to boil 

Ind. Pres., cnezo, cneces, cnece, cocemos, coc^is, cnecen. 

Impv., cnece, coced. 

Subj. Pres., cneza, cnezas, cneza, cozamos, coz^is, cnezan. 

> LikcwiRe all the compounds of deoir, except antedeoir, the past par- 
ticiple of which is antedieho. 


by Google 


247. DAB, /o^'ve. 

Ind. Pres., doy. das, da, damos, dais, dan. 

Ind. Pret, df , diste, did, dimos, disteis, dleron. 

Subj. Imp. {first form), diera, dieras, diera, di^ramos, dieraii^ 

Subj. Imp. (weond form), diese, dieses, diese, ditemos, dieseu, 

Subj. Fut., diere, dieres, diere, di^remos, diereis, dieren. 

248. DEOIB, to say, to tell. Pres. Part, diciendo ; Past Par., 

Ind. Pres., digo, dices, dice, decimos, decis, dicen. 

Ind. Pret., dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron, 

Impy., di, decid. 

Subj. Pres., dig^ digas, diga, digamos, dlg&is, digan. 

Cond., dirfa, dirf as, diria, diriamos, dirf ais, dirlan. 

Subj. Imp. (first form), dijera, dijeras, dijera, dij^ramos, d^e- 
rais, dijeran. 

Subj. Imp. (second form), dijese, dijeses, dijese, dy^mos, d^e- 
seis, dijesen. 

Sub. Fut., dijere, dijeres, dijere, dij^remos, dijereis, d^jeren. 

249. DOBMIB,! to sleep. Past. Part., dnrmiendo. 

Ind. Pres., dnermo, daermes, daerme, dormimos, dormis; d«er- 

Ind. Pret, dormi, dormiate, darmi6, dormimos, dormisteis, dir- 

Impy., daerme, dormid. 

Subj. Pres., daerma, daermas, daerma, dnrmamos, dum^ 

Subj. Imp. (first form), dnrmiera, dnrmieras, darmiera, d«r- 
mi^ramos, darmierais, darmieran. 

Subj. Imp. (second form), darmiese, darmieses, darmiese, dir- 
mi^semos, dnrmieseis, dnrmiesen. 

Subj. Fut, dnrmiere, dnrmieres, dormiere, darml^remoe, dv- 
miereis, dnrmieren. 

260. EBGUIB, to erect, to hold upright, Pres. Part, irgnienda 

Ind. Pres., yergo, yergnes, yergne, erguimos, erguis, yergaea. 

Ind. Pret, ergui, erguiste, irgui6, erguimos, erguisteis, irguieroa 

Impy., yergae, erguid. 

Subj. Pres., yerga, yergas, yerga, irgamos, irgiiig, yergaa« 

* Xorir, to die, is conjugated like dormir. 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 


Subj. Imp. (first form), irguiera, irguieras, irguiera, irguieramos, 
irguierais, irguieran. 

Subj. Imp. (second form), irgniese, irguieses, irguiese, Irgui^se- 
mos, irguieseis, Irguiesen. 

Snbj. Fut., irguiere, irgukres, irguiere, Irguieremos, irguiereis, 

251. EBBAB, to err. 

Ind. Pres., yerro, yerras, yerra, erramos, errdis, yerran. 

Impv., yerra, errad. 

Subj. Pres., yerre, yerres, yerre, erremos, err^is, yerren. 

252. HAGEB, to do, to make. Past. Part., heeho. 
Ind. Pres., hago, haces, hace, hacemos, hac^is, hacen. 

Ind. Pret, hiee, hieiste, hlzo, hicimos, hicistels, hieieron. 

Ind. Fut., har^, harfts, harft, haremos, har^is, har6ii, 

Impy., haz, haced. 

Subj. Pres., haga, hagas, haga, hagamos, haggis, hagan. 

Subj. Imp. (first form), hieiera, hieieras, hiciera, hici^ramos, 
hicierais, hicieran. 

Subj. Imp. (second form), hioiese, hieieses, hiclese, hiei^mos, 
Meieseis, hiciesen. 

Subj. Fut., hieiere, hieieres, hiciere, hici^remos, hieiereis, hi- 

258. IB, to go. Pres, Part, yendo. 

Ind. Pres., yoy, ras, ra, Tamos, yais, ran. 

Ind. Imp., iba, ibas, iba, Ibamos, ibais, iban* 

Ind. Pret, ftii, ftiiste, fti6, ftiimos, ftiisteis, fneron. 

Impv., T^, id. 

Subj. Pres., yaya, yayas, yaya, yayamos, yay&is, yayan. 

Subj. Imp. (first form), ftiera, fneras, ftiera, fte^ramos, fae- 
rais, ftieran. 

Subj. Imp. (second form), ftiese, ftieses, ftiese, fki^semes, tn^ 
sets, ftiesen. 

Subj. Fut, ftiere, fneres, ftiere, fti^remos, Iteerels, ftieren. 

254. JUGAB, to i>/ay. 

Ind. Pres., juego, juegas, juega, jugamos, jugslis, juegan. 

Ind. Pret, jugn^, jugaste, jug6, jugamos, jugasteis, jngaron, 

Impy., juega, jugad. 

Subj. Fres., juegne, juegnes, juegue, jugnemos, Jugu^U, Juegnea 

256. GIB, to hsar, Pres. Part., oyendo. 

Ind. Pres., oigo, oyes, oye, oimos, ois, oyen. 

Ind. Pret, of, oiste, oy6, oimos, oisteis, oyeron. 


by Google 


Impy., oye, oid. 

Subj. Pres., oig^a, oig^as, oiga, oigamos, oigdis, oig^an. 

Stlbj. Imp. (first form)^ oyera, oyeras, oyera, oyeramos, oyerais, 

Subj. Imp. (second farm), oyese, oyeses, oyese, oy^mos, ojeseis, 

Subj. Fat., oyere, oyeres, ojere, oy^remos, oyereis, oyeien. 

256. OLEB, to smeU. 

Ind. Pres., hnelo, haeles, haele, olemos, ol^is, hnelen. 

Impy., haele, oled. 

Subj. Pres., kaela, hnelas, hnela, olamos, oUis, kaelan. 

257. PODEB, to be able. Pres. Part, pndiendo. 

Ind. Pres., paedo, paedes, pnede, podemos, pod^is, paeden. 

Ind. Pret., pade, padiste, pado, pndimos, pudisteis, pudieron. 

Ind. Fut., podre, podr&s, podr&, podremos, podr^is, podrin. 

Subj. Pres., paeda, paedas, paeda, podamos, poddis, pnedan. 

Subj. Imp. (first form)y pndiera, pudieras, pndiera, pudieramos, 
padierais, pndieran. 

Subj. Imp. (second form), padiese, pndieses, padiese, pudi^semos, 
padieseis, pudiesen. 

Subj. Fut, padiere, padieres, pndiere, padi^mos, pndiereis, 

258. PONEB, to put, to place. Past. Part., pnesto. 
Ind. Pres., pong^o, pones, pone, ponemos, pon^is, ponen. 
Ind. Pret., pose, pasiste, paso, pagimos, pasisteis, pusieron. 
Ind. Fut., pondr6, pondrius, pondrii, pondremos, pondr6i8» 


Impy., pon, poned. 

Subj. Pres., pong^a, pongas, pong^ pongamos, pongdis, pongan. 

Cond., pondria, pondrias, pondria, pondriantos, pondrfalSy 

Subj. Imp. (first form), pngiera, pngieras, pnsiera, pasi^ramoe, 
pnsierais, pasieran. 

Subj. Imp. (second form), pnsiese, pnsieses, pngiese, pngitemos, 
pngieseis, pogiesen. 

Subj. Fut., pasiere, pnsieres, pngiere, pasi^remos, pnsiereisi 

259. QUEBEB, to wish. 

Ind. Pres., qulero, quieres, quiere, queremos, quer^is, quieren. 
Ind. Pret., quise, quigiste, quigo, quigimog, qutgigteig^ qui* 


by Google 


Ind. Put., querr^, qiierrds, querrd, querremos, querr^is, querr^n. 

Subj. Pres., quiera, quieras, quiera, queramos, querdis, quieran. 

Oond., queriia, querrias, querria, queriiamos, querriais, que- 

Subj. Imp. (first form), quisiera, quisieras, quisiera, quisiera- 
mo6, quisierais, quisieran. 

Subj. Imp. {second form), quisiese, quisieses, quisiese, quisi^se- 
mos, quisieseis, quisiesen. 

Subj. Put., quisiere, quisieres, quisiere, quisieremos, quisiereis, 

260. BEIB, to laugh. Pres. Part., riendo. 
Ind. Pres., rio, ries, rie, reimos, reis, rien. 

Ind. Pret, rel, reiste, ri6, reimos, reisteis, rieron. 

Impv., rie, reid. 

Subj. Pres., ria, rias, ria, riamos, ridis, rian. 

Subj. Pres. {first form), riera, rieras, riera, ri^ramos, rierais, 

Subj. Pres. {second form), riese, rieses, riese, riesemos, rieseis, 

Subj. Put., riere, rieres, riere, ri^remos, riereis, rieren. 

261. SABER, to Jcnow. 

Ind. Pres., s€, sabes, sabe, sabemos, sabeis, saben. 

Ind. Pret, sape, supiste, sapo, sapimos, snpisteis, snpieron. 

Ind. Put., sabr6, sabrds, sabrd, sabremos, sabr^is, sabrdn. 

Subj. Pres., sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepdis, sepan. 

Gond., sabria, sabiias, sabria, sabiiamos, sabriais, sabrian. 

Subj. Imp. {first form), sapiera, sapieras, sapiera, sapi^ramos, 
snpierais, sapieran. 

Subj. Imp. {second form), snpiese, sapieses, snpiese, snpi^semos, 
gnpieseis, sapiesen. 

Subj. Put., snpiere, sapieres, sapiere, snpieremos, snpiereis, 

262. SALIB, to go out. 

Ind. Pres., salgo, sales, sale, salimos, sails, salen. 

Ind. Put., saldr^, saldr^, saldrd, saldremos, saldr^is, saldrdn. 

Impy., sal, salid. 

Subj. Pres., salg^a, saigas, saiga, salgamos, salgdis, salg^n. 

Cond., saldria, saldrias, saldria, saldriamos, saldriais, saldrian. 

268. TBAEB,! to bring. Pres. Part., trayendo. 

> Caer like traer in the indicative and subjunctive present, like leet 


by Google 


Ind. Pres,, traigo, traes, trae, traemos, trails, traen. 

Ind. Pret., tnje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, tn^eron. 

Subj. Pres., traig^ traig^as, traig^a, traig^mos, tra^&is, trafgan. 

Subj. Imp. (first form), trajera, trajeras, tr^jera, traj^ramos, tra- 
Jerais, tnjeran. 

Subj. Imp. {second form\ trajese, trajeses, trajese, tn^^semos, 
trijeseis, trajesen. 

Subj. Fut., trajere, trijeres, trajere, traj^remos, tri^reia, tra- 

264 YALEB, to he worth. 

Ind. Pres., valgo, Tales, yale, valemos, ral^is, Talen. 

Ind. Fat, yaldrS, raldr^ yaldr^ yaldremos, yaldr^is, y&ldhUu 

Subj. Pres., yalga, yalgas, yalga, yaJgamos, yalg&is, yalgan. 

Cond., yaldria, yaldrfas, yaldrfa, yaldiiamos, yaldrfais, yaldrian. 

265. YENIB, to come. Pres. Part., yiniendo. 

Ind. Pres., yengo, yienes, yiene, yenimos, yenis, yienen. 

Ind. Pret., yine, yiniste, yfno, yinimos, yinisteis, yinieron. 

Ind. Fut., yendrS, yendr&s, yendrd, yendremos, yendr^is, yendr&n. 

Impy., Ten, yenid. 

Subj. Pres., yenga, yengas, yenga, yengamos, yeng&is, yengan. 

Gond., yendria, yendrias, yendria, yendriamos, yendrlais, yen- 

Subj. Imp. {first form), yiniera, yinieras, yiniera, yini^ramos, 
yinierais, yinieran. 

Subj. Imp. {second form), yiniese, yinieses, yiniese, yini^semos, 
yinieseis, yiniesen. 

Subj. Fut., yiniere, yinieres, yiniere, yini^remos, yiniereis, yi- 

266. YEB, to see. Past Part, risto. 
Ind. Pres., veo, yes, ye, yemos, yeis, ven. 

Ind. Imp., yela, yeias, yeia, yeiamos, yeiais, yeian. 
Subj. Pres., yea, yeas, yea, yeamos, yedis, yean. 


267. Defectiye yerbs are those which are wanting in most of 
their forms. 

a. Plaeer,^ to please ; placiendo, placido, plecising, pUoMd, is 
now used ordinarily in certain ejaculations only : 
( Plegue k Dios que se salye 1 God grant that he may be sayed I 

> The compoands of plaoer are conjugated like yerbs in eer and oir. 
(Section 201.) 


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The following forms are the only ones in use : 

Ind. Pres., place. 

Sub. Pres., plazca. 

Impy., plegrae. 

Imp., placfa. 

Ind. Pret., i^ngo. 

Imp. Subj. {first form\ plnguiera. 

Imp. Subj. {second form), plagaiese. 

Subj. Fut., plugniere, 

Ind. Fut., placerd. 

Cond., placerla. 

h, Roer, to gnaw, has the following forms : 

Ind. Pres., roo, roigo, and royo ; roes, roe, etc. 

Subj. Pres., roa, roiga, and roya ; roas, roigas, and royas, etc. 

c, Concemir, to concern, has both participles and the follow- 
ing forms : 

Ind. Pres., condeme, conciemen., 

Subj. Pres., oonciema, concieman. 

Ind. Imp., concernia, concemlan. 

Ind. Pret., concemi6, conoemieron. 

Subj. Imp. {first form), concerniera, concemieran. 

Subj. Imp. {second form), concerniese^ concerniesen. 

Subj. Fut., concemiere, concemieren. 

Ind. Fut., concerneri, etc, ; all little used, 

d, Soler, to he accustomed to, has the following forms in com- 
mon use : 

Ind. Pres., snelo, saeles, snele, solemos, sol6is, snelen. 
Ind. Imp., solia, solias, solfa, soliamos, soliais, solSan. 


268. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. 

269. They admit of no inflection, and are invariable in form. 

270. Adverbs are classified according to their form and meaning. 

271. As to form, an adverb is either simple or compound, 

272. Simple adverbs are of two kinds : original ot primitive and 

278. An original or primitive adverb is a single word, without 
an affix: 
Bien, mal, luego. Well, badly, presently, then. 

274 Derivative adverbs are formed from adjectives by affixing 

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to them the termination -mente (corresponding to the English ly) 
in accordance with the following rules : 

a. Common adjectives, ending in o, change this rowel to the 
feminine form a and attach the affix : 
Verdadero, rerdaderamente. True, truly. 

Cierto, ciertamente. Certain, certainly. 

h. If the adjective does not vary for gender, the affix is attached 
directly and without alteration : 

Frecuente, frecuentemente. Frequent, frequently. 

Fdcil, fdcilmente. Easy, easily. 

275. The affix -mente does not in any way change the accent or 
general structure of the adjective : 

Prdctico, pr^ticamente. Practical, practically, 

t^til, titilmente. Useful, usefully. 

276. When two or more adverbs in -mente follow one another, 
the affix is attached to the last adjective only ; but the adjective or 
adjectives (now become adverbs) which go before, and which have 
the force of adverbs, always take the feminine form, if the adjec- 
tives out of which they grow are capable of variation for gender : 
Honesta y cariflosamente. Honestly and affectionately. 

277. Adverbs in -mente^ which usually express manner, may in 
this sense be changed into adverbial phrases by the use of the ad- 
jective and either of the nouns manera or mode, way^ manner : 
Tiemamente, de una manera Tenderly, or in a tender way. 


278. Adverbial phrases may be constructed by the use of the de- 
finite article with the feminine of adjectives derived from the names 
of countries, some such words being understood as manera, man- 
ner, or nsanza, vsage : 

A la americana. In the American style. 

279. So also may an adverbial phrase be constructed by the use of 
al estilo de and a proper noun, or al estilo de and an adjective : 
Al estilo de Mexico. After the manner of Mexico. 

Al estilo francos. In the French style. 

280. A few derivative adverbs have the affix 8 : 

Antes, formerly, raiher, IjCJos, far, far away, 

Despu^ afterwards, after, Mientras, while, 

Entonces, then, Quiz&s, quiz4, perhaps. 


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281. A compound adverb is one which is composed of two or 
more words, such as substantives, adjectives, or adverbs with prepo- 
sitions, or adverbs with adverbs, etc, 

a. With an article : 

k la moda, in the fashion, 
k la verdad, truly, 
Al contado, for cash, 
Al punto, immediately, 
Al reves, contrariwise. 
En el acto, instantly, 

I, Without the article, and in the singular : 
k caballo, on horseback, De pronto, 

k menudo, often, De seguro, 

k pie, on foot, De vista. 

Con todo, notwithsta/nding. En fin, 

De buena gana, willingly. 

En lo sucesivo. Thenceforth, in the 

Por lo m&s, at most, 
Por lo menos, at least, 
Por lo pronto, for the present. 

De dia, 
De golpe, 
De molde, 
De noche, 
De nuevo, 
De paso, 
De prisa. 

by day. 

by night, 

lightly, briefly, 



by sight. 

En resumen, in short. 
En seguida, at once, 
Por cierto, certainly, 
Por mayor, at wholesale. 
Por menor, at retail, 
Por supuesto, of course. 
Sin novedad, as usual, without 
anything new. 

c. Without the article, and in the plural : 

k ciegas, blindly, k secas, 

k costas, at one^s oum ex- k solas, 

pense, A voces, 

k gatas, on all-fours, 

k obscuras, in the dark. 

pla/inly, plain. 


De rodillas, on one^s knees. 
De veras, truly. 

k ojos cerrados, blitidly, 

282. Classified according to their meam,ing, adverbs are con- 
sidered as : 

a. Temporal. 





k menudo, 





last night. 




the da/y before yes- 




Raras veces 

, seldom. 

Anteanoohe, the night before last. 














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h. Adverbs of location : 
Adelante, atras. 
L derecha, k izquierda. 
Aqui, alii, acd, alia. 
Arriba, abajo, encima, debajo. 
Cerca, lejos, dentro, fuera. 

e. Adverbs of manner : 
Asi, como, alto, bajo, bien, maL 
Mejor, peor. 

d. Quantitative adverbs : 
Mucho, muy, poco, menos, mas. 
Por lo mas, por lo menos. 
Demasiado, bastante, harto. 

Algo, como, apenas. 

Forward, backward. 
On the right, on the left. 
Here, there, hither, thither. 
Up, down, above, below. 
Near, far, within, without 

So, as, aloud, low, well, badlj. 
Better, worse. 

Much, very, little, less, more. 
At most, at least. 
Too, too much, enough, suffi- 
Somewhat, rather, about, scarce- 

e. Affirmative and negative adverbs : 

Si, eso si, justo, claro. 

Por supuesto, por cierto. 

Ciertamente, verdaderamente. 

Sin duda. 

No, eso no, nada, tampoco. 

Ni yo tampoco. 

Nunca, jamas, nunca jamds. 

Yes, indeed so, straitly, dearlj. 

Of course, certainly. 

Certainly, truly. 


No, not that, not at all, no, nor. 

Nor I either. 

Never, never (intensive). 

/. Adverbs expressive of doubt or possibility : 

Acaso, tal vez or quizds, apenas. Perchance, perhaps, scarcely. 

Probablemente, diflcilmente. Probably, difficulty. 

283. The Spanish language contains many adverbial phrases, 
such as the following : 

A mds no poder, with all one^s En alguna parte, somewhere, 

might En cualquiera parte, cmy where. 

A mis tardar, at the latest. En ninguna parte, I n^^;^- 

Cuando menos, at least. En parte alguna, | 

Ouanto antes, cm soon as possible. Hoy dia, \at the present day, 

De cuando en cuando, \now and Hoy en dia, ) nowadays, 

De vez en cuando, ) then, Paso d paso, step by step, slowly, 

J>^ hito en hito, through and Poco & poco, little by litHe, 


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284. Adverbial phrases may be constructed by the combination 
of con, with, and an appropriate noun, to take the place of adverbs 
in -mente. 

Honestamente, oi con honestidad. Honestly, or with honesty. 


285. Certain adverbs may be employed after nouns in a sense 
similar to the English use of prepositions, to express t*p, dotim, out, 
in, before, after, etc. : 

Escalera arriba, upetmrt. Mar afuera, sea/ward. 

Esoalera abajo, doumatcvirs, Camino adelante, orma/rd, 

286. Aqni, ahf, and allt are used with verbs indicating rest, or 
location, in the same relation to each other as the demonstratives 
este, ese, and aqnel. (See Section 133.) With verbs of motion 
they assume the forms acd, ahl, alld. : 

Aqui estdn, acd vieneu. Here they are, here they come. 

Ahi estAn, ahi van. There they are, there they go. 

Alll est^, alld iban. There they are yonder, they were 

going there. 

287. For aqui, hereahoute, meaning in the location of the speaker, 
and por ahi, thereabouts, in a location more remote from the speaker, 
are used in an indefinite sense, as when one does not wish to declare 
where a person or thing is : 

4 D6nde estA Carlos f Where is Charles f 

Est4 por ahi. He is around there somewhere. 

288. Donde, where, becomes more specific by connecting it with 
the prepositions fi, to ; en, in ; de, from ; and por, through, and is 
used either as an interrogative or a relative. When used as an in- 
terrogative adverb it must always bear the graphic accent : 

4 D6nde vive V. f Where do you live f 

4 Adonde lo Uevan f Where are they carrying him f 

4 De d6nde han venido Vds. f Where have you come from f 

t Por d6nde camina V. f By which road do you travel f 

La casa en donde reside. The house where he resides. 

El estado por donde pasa el rio. The state through which the river 


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289. Since and ago may not be expressed by temporal adyerbs, 
but by the third person singular of hacer and haber, in certain 

Hace cinco afios, cinco aflos ha. Five years ago. 
Haco mucho tiempo, mucho tiem- A long time ago. 
po ha. 

290. Mismo may be placed after adverbs of time and location to 
make them more pointed : 

Hoy mismo, aqui mismo. This very day, this very place. 

291. Mny, very, very much, as has already been said, qualifies 
adjectives, adverbs, and adverbial phrases in the positive degree : 

Muy fiel, muy grande. Very faithful, very large. 

Muy odiado, muy gozosamente. Very much hated, very joyfully. 

Muy k la moda. Very much in fashion. 

292. In the same way, mncho, much, and mnchf slmo, very much, 
qualify adjectives, adverbs, and adverbial phrases in the compara- 
tive degree : 

Mucho mds sabio. Much wiser. 

Mucho mejor, mucho peor. Much better, much worse. 

293. Mny, very, may never stand alone without an adjective or 
an adverb, but in such cases must be replaced by mneho, with the 
same meaning : 

I Es bueno t d, mucho. Is it good t yes, very. 

294. Si, with the graphic accent, means yes, and without it it 
means if. When it means yea, it may be strengthened by the addi- 
tion of tal or qne, or by the repetition of the verb : 


Si, que la com- Doyouunder- 

prendo. stand it t 

. Lo comprendo, si. . 

295. After verbs of thinking, declaring, believing, hearing, and 
suspecting, si and no are preceded by qne, and are to be translated 
yea or ao, and not : 

Oreo que si, que no. I think so, I think not 

296. Negation is effected by no, not, standing before the verb, or 
with the nominative pronoun, the verb being understood; by ni. 

Digitized Dy 'LjOOQ LC 

4L0 comprende V. t 

I do. 

Indeed I do. 
Yes, I do. 


neither, nor, bynnnca or Jamfis, or nnnea Jam&s (emphatic), never ; 
Bada, nothing, not anything. As has been said (Section 165), the 
Spanish language usually requires two negatives, one before and one 
after the verb ; but if Jam&s, nada, or nnnea stands before the yerb, 
another negative is not needed : 

No veo, 4 no veo yo t I do not see, do I not see I 

No poseo nada, nada poseo. I possess nothing. 

Nunca la he castigado. I have never punished her. 

Lo har^ nunca jamds. I shall never do it (emphatic). 

297. Tampoco, nor-^either, no, at the beginning of a sentence 
may be employed without a negative, or may be used with no at the 
close of a negative sentence : 

Ni ellos tampoco. Nor they either. 

Tampoco me gustan. Nor do they please me. 

298. Ta, which means now, already, when used without a nega- 
tive, becomes no longer, not any longer, with a negative : 

Ya vienen, ya lo hizo. They are coming now, he has al- 

ready done it. 

299. Again may be translated into Spanish by the use of the 
verb volrer, followed by the preposition & : 

Yuelve & leer este libro. He is reading this book again. 

300. Jnst, in the phrase to Juive just, is rendered by the verbal 
phrase acabar de, acabar meaning to finish: 

Acabo de entrar. I have just entered. 


301. Adverbs have the three degrees of comparison, positive, 
comparative, and superlative, without variation for gender or num- 


Cerca, near. Mds cerca, nearer. Lo m&s cerca, the 


Lejos, far. M^ lejos, farther. Lo m^ lejos, the 


Fielmente, faithfully. M^ fielmente, more Lo m^ fielmente, the 
faithfully. most faithfully. 

Digitized by 




Mucho, much. 
Pooo, little. 
Bien, well. 
Mai, badly. 


M^ more. 
Menos, less. 
Mejor, better. 
Peor, worse. 

I. Four adyerbs have an organic comparison : ' 

supeblatiye supeblatitb 

Relative. Absolute. 

Lo m&s, the Mnchisimo, yery 

most much. 

Lo menos, the Poquisimo, yery 

least. little. 
Lo mejor, the 


Lo peor, the Malisimo, yery 

worst, badly. 

303 The superlative absolute may be constructed by the employ- 
ment of mny, bien, very; bastante, harto, quite, etiffidently; sa- 
mamente, exceedingly, etc. 
Muy lejos, bien claro. Very far, very clearly. 

804. Comparison is effected by the use of the adverbs : 

a. Of equality: tan-^-como, as; no— menos— que, no<— fcw>— 

fil lo sabe tan bien como V. He knows it as well as you. 

M no espera con menos ansiedad He does not wait with less anxiety 
que su amigo. than his friend. 

b. Tanto como, or tanto enanto, as much cm, and no — menos 
qne, not — leas tha/n : 

Ejerce tanto como, or tanto cuan- He exercises as much as his 
to su hermano. brother. 

c. Superiority is expressed by mils— qne, more them ; mejor que, 
letter than : 

Yiaja m^ lejos que el sastre. He travels farther than the tailor. 

4 Es verdad que no entiendo me- Is it true that I do not under- 
jor que V. t stand better than you I 

d. Inferiority is expressed by menos — qne, less-^tTum ; no— tan 
—como, no—eo—'aa, no— tanto como, or no— tanto enanto, peor 

No escribe tan oorrientemente He does not write as rapidly as 

como el maestro. his teacher. 

No me da tanto cuanto pueda He does not give me as much as 

comer. I can eat. 


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805. Prepositions are simple 
they immediately precede their 
with other words : 

806. The simple prepositions 
A, to. 
Ante, before, 
Bajo, %mder. 
Con, with. 
Contra, against, 
I>*. of, from, 
Desde, from, sinee. 
Durante, during. 
En, in, at, on, 
Entre, between, among, 
Excepto, except, 
Hacia, toward, 

807. The complex prepositions 
Acercade, a,bout, concern- 

or complex in form, according as 
object, or are used in combination 

are : 
Mediante, through, by means of, 
Menos, except, but. 
Para, for, to, in order to, 
Por, for, by, through. 

Salvo, save, excepting, 
Segiin, according to. 
Sin, without, 

Sobre, on, upon, about, con* 

Tras, after, 

Atrds, after. 

Adem&s de, 
Alrededor de, 
Antes de, 
Cerca de, 
Debajo de, 
Delante de, 
Dentro de, 
Despu^s de, 
Detrds de, 
Encima de, 
Fuera de, 
Lejos de, 
Conforme d, 
Contrario d, 
Frente d. 

Junto &, 
Bespecto &, 
Juntamente con, 
En cuanto a, 
Para con, 

near, about, 
on, over, 
outside^ beyond, 
far, from, 
according to. 
contrary to, 
opposite, in 

front of. 
near, close by. 
with respect to, 
together with, 
unth respect to, 
toward, to. 


A causa de, 

A excepcion de, 

A fuerza de, 
A la vista de, 
Al cabo de, 

Al lado de, 
Al traves de, 
A pesar de, 
A razon de, 
De parte de, 
En frente de, 
En lugar de. 
En medio de, 
En vez de. 
En virtud de, 
En vista de, 
Mds ali^ de, 
Por causa de, 
Por el lado de, 
Por raz6n de. 
Sin embargo de, 

on account of. 
with the excep' 

tion of. 
by dint of. 
within sight of, 
at the expiration 

by the side of, 
across, through, 
in spite of, 
at the rate of, 
on the part of, 
instead of, 
in the midst of, 
instead of, 
by virtue of, 
in view of, 
on accoufU of, 
on the side of, 
by reason of. 


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808. X, to, is used with verbs of motion ; en, in, at, on, with 
verbs indicating rest in a place ; de, from, out of, sometimes hy, to 
denote origin, source, ownership, material, etc. : 

Voy 4 Madrid. I am going to Madrid. 

Estdn en Inglaterra. They are in England. 

En el suelo. On the floor. 

Vuelvo de Espafia. I return from Spain. 

Es de madera. It is of wood. 

809. A has the further use : 

a. Of a dative relation in the sense of to : 
A la casa, al hombre. To the house, to the man. 

h. Of a sign of a personal accusative, to make the object of a 
verb more specific : 
No temo al enemigo. I do not fear the enemy. 

e. Of a connective between certain verbs and their infinitives : 
Fu6 k verlo. He went to see him. 

d. Of the English (U in such cases as the following : 

A la puerta, k la mesa. At the door, at the table. 

e. Of at in expressing time, price, rate, distance : 

A las seis, d mediodia. At six o'clock, at mid-day. 

A dos chelines la vara. At two shillings a yard. 

k una milla. At the distance of a mile. 

/. Of the distributive hy : 

Poco d poco. One by one. 

310. Ante, before, signifies in the presence of an authority : 
Ante el juez. Before the judge. 

311. Delante de indicates situation in front of in an informal 

Delante de la mesa. Before the table. 

312. Antes de indicates priority of time, order, rank : 
Antes de las cuatro. Before four o'clock. 

Un rey es antes de un prmcipe. A king is before a prince. 

818. Tras, after, indicates what immediately follows; detris 
de signifies what is behind, as to place, situation, or order, being 
the opposite of delante de ; despn^s de, after, is descriptive of 
time or order, and is the opposite of antes de : 


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Tras el andaba su hi jo. After hira walked his son. 

Detr^ de un drbol. Behind a tree. 

Despu^s de tres dias se march6. After three days he went away. 

814. Bajo, heloWf beneath, underneath, indicates a situation just 
under ; debajo de, under, denotes material situation : 
Bajo el mar. Beneath the sea. 

Debajo de la cama. Under the bed. 

S15. Sobre and encima de, on, upon, of location, have this dif- 
ference : sobre means on in the common sense, while encima indi- 
cates what is higher than we are, or over, above : 
Sobre la mesa. On the table. 

Encima de la casa. On the housetop. 

316. Con, vrith, indicates accompaniment or instrument : 
Lleg6 con su padre. He arrived with his father. 
Lo mat6 con una espada. He killed him with a sword. 

317. Desde, from, denotes the starting point, and is used either 
of time or place : 

Desde el principle. From the beginning. 

Desde ayer. Since yesterday. 

318. Hacia, toward, indicates material or temporal direction : 
Corri6 hacia el muelle. He ran toward the quay. 
Hacia la maflana. Toward morning. 

Hacia el fin del siglo. Toward the end of the century. 

319. Hasta, as far cts, to, up to, till, until, even, is indicative of 
place, time, degree : 

Hasta el puerto. Up to the port. 

Hasta Barcelona. As far as Barcelona. 

Hasta la vista. Until we meet (until the view). 

Hasta que pueda. As far as I can. 

320. Para means for in the sense of destination, end, purpose : 
Esta carta es para su padre de V. This letter is for your father. 
Este palo no sirve para bast6n. This stick will not answer for a 


321. Per means for, in behalf of, for the sake of, by, through, 
along, on account of*, 

Lo digo por mi padre. I say it for my father (in behalf 

Paso por la calle. I go through the street. 


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822. There are very few simple conjunctions, though adverbf 
and prepositions may be utilized as conjunctions, with or without 

828. The true conjunctions are : 
Pero, mas, sino, hut Que, thai, 

Ni, nor. Si, if, whether, 

6 (ti before another o-sound), or, T (^ before an i-sound), and. 

824. Pero, mas, and sino signify hut, pero and mas being 
found at the beginning of a sentence 'or paragraph, and in adversa- 
tiye sentences ; while sino occurs only in an adversative sentence, 
the first clause of which contains a negation that is contrasted with 
an affirmation in the second : 

Pero el conde rehusa declararlo. But the count refuses to declare 

£l mantiene que es la verdad, He maintains that it is the truth, 

mas I qu6 me importa 4 mi f but what does it matter to me f 

No tiene padre ni madre sino tres He has neither father nor mother, 

hermanos. but three brothers. 

826. The conjunction y, a/nd, takes the form e when the word 
which follows it begins with i or hi : 

Algod6n ^ hilo. Cotton and thread. 

Fuerte 6 invencible. Strong and invincible. 

826. The conjunction 6, or, becomes 6 before words beginning 
with or ho : 

£stos ti otros, raujer ti hombre. These or others, woman or man. 

827. The following are the common conjunctions, formed with 
qne and certain adverbs or prepositions : 

A. fin de que, in order that Como quiera que, however, 

Amenosque,) unless, CJon que, so, therefore, m 
A no ser que, ) * thsn. 

Antes que, before. Con motive que, so thcU, 

Asi que, so that, so. Con tal que, provided thoL 

Aunque, j although, Cuanto mis que, the more since, 

Bien que, f ' Dado que, in case that, 

Caso que, in case that. Dado caso que, supposing that. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



De manera que, 
De modo que, 
De suerte que, 
Desde que, 
Despu^s que, 
En tanto que, 

En vez de que, 
Entre tanto que, 
Excepto que, 
Hasta que, 
Luego que, 
Mientras que. 
No obstante que, 

80 that, 

whiUf in cos 

instead of, 
as soon as, 


Para que, 
Por — que, 

Por mas que, 
Por menos que, ( 
Por poco que, ( 
Pues que, ) 
Puesto que, j 
Sea que, 
Siempre que. 
Sin que, 
Supuesto que, 
Tanto que, 
Ya que. 

in order that, 
because^ in or- 
der that, 
however much, 

however little, 


whether y while, 




so that, 



those which are expressive of 

Ola! or jhola! {recognition or 
discovery)^ ah\ oh\ 
Puf ! (aversion), ugh I 
Uf ! (weariness), oh I 
Ca ! and \ quia ! (expressive of 
indignant negation or doubt), 
Cdspital zounds \ 
Chit6n ! hist ! hush I 
Ojald ! would that I Oh that ! 

829. There are certain idle or profane terms which are very com- 
mon among all the Spanish classes, but which need not be included 
in a work of this kind. 

880. The principles of syntax are amply stated and illustrated 
in the Method. To it the student is directed for further elucida- 
tion of the rules laid down in the Elements. 

828. The true interjections are 
strong emotion : 

! Oh ! ah ! o7i ! a^ ! \ 

2 Ay ! oh ! alas ! ah ! 
\ Ha ! (exultation), ha\ ehl \ 

I He ! (shock, start), eh ! I 

] Ea ! (encoura>gement), come ! \ 

\ Ea I (impatience), come now ! 
\ Huy ! (pain, shock), oh ! dear \ 
me\ I 



by Google 







like taurtctr. 

201, ft. 


like aeostar. 



" aMTtwty 



" acostar, 



". carecer^ 

201, ft. 


** acoBtaVj 



** movw^ 

235, a. 


" carecer. 

201, ft. 


" acostarf 

234, a. 


" pedir, 



" tener. 


** a^certavy 



« traer, 



" aeertar, 



** acostar, 

234, a. 


" aeertar, 

282. o. 


201, ft, 






232, a. 


198, ft 



** aco8tar, 

234, a. 


" carreer, 

201, ft. 


" aco«/ar, 

234, a. 


" aeostar. 






** ocod^ar. 



" acosta/rf 

234, a. 


" carec«r. 

201, ft. 


** acosta/Ty 

234, a. 


" eareeer, 

201, ft. 


234, a. 


" carreer, 

201, ft. 


" acerta/r, 

232, a. 


" mover. 



" carcccr, 

201, ft. 




" aeertar. 

232, o. 


" carreer, 

201, ft. 


** ocer^or, 

232, a. 


" dectr. 



« scn^tV, 

287, o. 


'' poner. 



** ca/recer. 

201, ft. 


« iw, 



" car«<jer, 

201, ft. 


" ac«r<(ir, 



" darmir, 



" careeer. 

201, ft. 




" aco«/ar, 



•• eandudr, 239, a. 


" aeertar. 



" A8n<*r, 

287, a. 




Digitized DyVjOOglC 





like acostouTy 

284, a. 



" oMTta/r, 

282, a. 



" acosta/r^ 

284, a. 



205, &. 



" ^VTy 

288, a. 



" acerta/r^ 

282, a. 



" 9mtir, 

287, a. 



" atmder. 

286, a. 



« acertar. 

282, a. 



" mdir. 

287, a. 



" acertar, 

232, a. 






" aeoatary 

284, a. 



" acoatar. 

234, a. 



'* acoatar. 

284, o. 



" ocer^or, 

282, a. 



** taller. 

204, &. 



286, a. 



« /ener, 




" acertcbr. 

282, a. 



" i>edt>, 

288, a. 



** ac«r<ar, 

282, a. 



" aeertar, 

282, a. 



" <ra6r, 




" acertar, 

282, a. 



" c<m«^r«ir, 205, a. 



" acostar. 

284, a. 



. " aeertar, 

232, a. 



" carecer, 

201, h. 



** ventV, 




" oeer/or, 

282, a. 



" aco«/ar, 

284, a. 


" aco«/ar, 

284, a. 







like qtierer. 



" careceTf 

201, ft. 



" aeertar. 

232, a. 



" pZofWr, 

204, c. 



« fWttZKr, 

204, a. 


C Section 

see traer, 263. 
like (iceriar, 232, a. 
** eareeert 201, ft. 

201, ft. 
** acertar, 232, a. 
" pedir, 288, a. 
" atender, 236, a. 
" aeertar, 232, a. 
" acertar, 232, a. 
" con8trutr,206, a, 
" earecer, 201, ft. 
" acostar, 234, a. 

** CLCOstar, 234, a. 
202, ft; 238, a. 
♦* acoatar, 284, a. 
" pedtry 238, a. 
" aeertar, 232, a. 
" carecer, 201, ft. 
" earecevy 201, ft. 
'' pedir, 238, a. 
'* placer, 267, a. 
" planir, 204, e. 
" poner, 258. 
" ctcostar, 234, a. 
*' pedir, 238, a, 

267, c. 
" aeertar, 232, a. 
" con«/rtnr,205, a. 
** acoatar, 284, a. 
« atender, 236, a. 
" mover, 235, a. 

239, a. 
'' pedir, 238, a. 
** aeerta/r, 282, a. 
" eonatruir,206,a. 
" mover, 285, a. 

201, «. 
'' aentir, 287, a. 


zed by Google 




















VUktacostar, 234,a. 

'^ aeostar, 284,a. 

*' 6OfM^rufr,205, a. 

«i>ed*r, 288,0. 

205, a. 
" aeostar^ 284, a. 
" o/efuJar, 286, a. 
« /ener, 182. 

200, a; 285,a. 
'* aeostar, 234, a. 
" dedr, 24a 
" /roer, 263. 
« Aocer, 252. 
« ixwer, 258. 
** venir, 265. 
" eonstruiry20S,a, 
" «cn<»>, 287, o. 
" eareeer, 201, &. 
" venw", 266. 
" sentir, 287, a. 
202, ft; 238, o. 
" roer, 267, ft. 
" aeostar, 284, a. 
« corccer, 201, ft. 
« Zaer, 205, c. 














like traer, 
" CMjer/or, 

" eoftfeer, 
" condueir, 
" aiendevy 
** coreeer, 

" mover, 

" <ieerta/r, 
** coreeer. 

282, a. 

248. *i 
201, ft. 
239, a. 
286, a. 
201, ft. 
288, a. 

284. a. 

285, a. 
284, a. 
282, a. 
201, ft. 


































like aeostair, 234, a, 

" acertar, 282, a. 

*' poner, 25a 

" acertar, 282,0* 

<' acertar, 282, a. 

*" pedir, 288, o. 

" aeostar, 284, o. 
" cofw^rutV, 205,0. 

" eareeer, 201, ft. 

" occr/or, 282, o* 

'' aeostar, 284, o. 

'' aeostar, 284,0. 

« eareeer, 201, ft. 

" «en^tr, 287, o. 

'* aeertar, 282, o. 

*' aeostar, 224, a. 

" corecer, 201, ft. 

" aeertar, 282, o. 

*' aeostar, 234, o. 

'* ondor, 242. 

" eareeer, 201, ft. 

« aeertar, 232, o. 

'* aeostar, 224, a. 

« aeertar, 282, o. 

" oc«r<or, 232,0. 

« o«r, 243. 

" occrtor, 282,0. 

'' atender, 286, o. 

" aeertar, 282, o. 

" o<j«rtor, 282,0. 

" traer, 268. 

" aeertar, 282, o. 

" ven*r, 265. 

" aeertar, 282, o. 

" corecer, 201, 6. 

" eareeer, 201, ft. 

" muUir, 204,0. 

" corecar, 201, ft. 

<< o^encler, 286,o. 

"j)«d»r, 288,0. 

" aeostar, 284^0* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





deseoli&r like acoatar^ 

234, a. 


like aeoatar, 

234, a. 


»* pedir. 

238, a. 


** earecer, 



" poner, 



" earecer, 

201, 6. 


" acertaTy 

232, a. 


" acertary 

232, a. 


" conocer^ 

201, c. 


" earecer, 



" aentir. 

237, a. 


" Jiacer, 



" acostar, 

234, a. 


" aceriar, 

232, a. 


" acoatar, 

234, a. 


" acertar. 

232, a. 


" vmiVf 



" a^certar. 

232, a. 


" acostoTy 

234, a. 

deihombreoerie '' carecer, 

201, 6. 


" cuioatary 

234, a. 


" earecer. 

201, 6. 


" carecer. 

201, 6. 


" poner, 



" dar. 



" acertar. 

232, o. 


" decir, 



" mr. 



" acertar, 

232, a. 


" acertar, 

232, a. 

201, 6. 


" Zwctr, 

201, ei. 


" carecevy 



" a>coatar. 

234, a. 


" carecer, 

201, i. 


« i?«e?*>. 

238, o. 


" acertar^ 

232, a. 


" acertar, 

232, a. 


" carecer. 

201, &. 


" ocertor. 

232, a. 


" carecer. 

201, &. 


« «ew^*r. 

237, a. 


" acertar. 

232, a. 

" earecer. 



" acoatar, 

234, a. 


" mullir, 

204, a. 


** careccr, 




232, a. 

" carec«r, 



" nevar, 



" carecer, 

201, 6. 

" earecer. 


" acoatart 

234, a. 


" oir. 



" carecer, 

201, &. 


" acoatar. 

234, a. 


" carecer, 

201, &. 


" acoatar, 

234, a. 

201, b. 


" acoatar, 

234, a. 

** atendery 

236, a. 


** corw/rm>,205,a. 


" acertar, 

232, a. 


" acoatar. 

234, a. 


" carecer. 

201, b. 


" acoatar. 

234, a. 


" carecer. 

201, 6. 


" earecer. 

201, 6. 


" careeer. 

201, b. 


*» ^ei*r. 

238, o. 


" mover, 

235, a. 


" acertar. 

232, a. 


" aew/tV, 

237, a. 


" earecer. 

201, 6. 


" carecer, 



" oeer/or. 

232, a. 


" carcccr, 

201, b. 


" acertar. 

232, a. 


" acertar. 

232, a. 


" acertar, 

232, a. 


" careeer. 

201, 6. 


" Aocer, 


Digitized by V^OOQ IC 






like aeertaty 

232, a. 

edudr like condwetr, 


" aco8tary 

284, a. 




" U&r, 

205, c. 


** eareeer, 


" acertoTy 

232, a. 


" eareeer. 


" pedir. 

288, a. 


" ea/reeer. 


" acerta/Ty 

232, a. 

" eareeer. 


" con«/rw»V, 205, a. 


" eareeer. 


** mover. 



" 8mt%r, 


" aco8tar, 

234, o. 

" eareeer. 


" coiw^rwir, 206, a. 

" eareeer. 


" careeer, 



" eareeer, 


" aeertar, 

232, o. 


" eareeer, 


" carecer. 



** eareeer. 

desvergoxiBarM " acostar, 

234, o. 


" eareeer. 


" wiover, 

236, o. 


" aeertar. 


** /e7»«r, 



" 8ent%r, 


" /roer. 



" aeertar. 


" 7?M>vcr, 

236, o. 


" aeertar. 


•* aeertar. 

232, o. 

" eareeer. 


« i?ei»r, 

238, o. 


" aeertar. 


" coTw/rtur, 205,0. 


" eareeer. 


« «cn/i>, 



'" eareeer. 


" con«^rwir,205, a. 


" corec«r, 


" a/eweier, 

236, o. 


" coreccr. 


" aentir, 

237, o. 

ampoltronaaaraa" eareeer. 


** vem'r, 



** aeostar. 


" acoatar. 



** eareeer. 


" «cn/*r. 

237, o. 


" cor«j«r, 


" cona^rwiV,205, a. 


" eareeer. 


" mover. 

236, o. 


" eareeer. 


" acosfar. 


" eareeer. 


** aeertar, 

232, o. 

" corccer, 


" nocer, 


" corecer. 




" corccer, 


" a/erwicr, 

236, o. 

" eareeer. 


" <ra«r, 



« o/emfor. 


" cow«/rwtn205,a. 


" aeertar. 


" sentir. 

237, o. 


" aeertar. 

** mower, 

235, o. 


" aeostar. 



" eareeer, 

; 241. 






237, o. 







232, o. 

237, o. 

232, o. 

























zed by Google 





•Boomtndftr like aeertar, 

282, a. 

201, ft. 


" (tcostavy 

234, a. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 


" acoatoTf 

234, a. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 


" acostar^ 

234, a. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 


** eareeer. 

201, ft. 


" earecer. 

201, ft. 


" acostar, 

234, a. 


" earecer. 

201, ft. 


284, a. 


** acostar. 

234, a. 

" earecer, 

201, ft. 


** earecer. 

201, ft. 

** car«<jcr, 

201, ft. 


** earecer. 

201, ft. 

" acertar. 

232, a. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 


" (tcertar, 

232, a. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 

" carreer, 

201, ft. 


" a4i08tar. 

234, a. 


" ecwecer. 

201, ft. 

" earecer, 

201, ft. 

" earecer^ 

201, ft. 


" acertar, 

232, a. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 


" earecer. 

201, ft. 


" ca/recer^ 

201, ft. 


" acoatar. 

234, a. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 

" earecer. 

201, ft. 


** aeo8/ar, 

234, a. 


" earecer. 

201, ft. 


" earecer. 

201, ft. 


" a^ender. 

236, a. 


" re*>, 



" earecer. 

201, ft. 


" acostar, 

234, a. 


" earecer. 

201, ft. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 


" acettar. 

232, a. 


" mwKir, 

204, a. 


" earecer. 

201, ft. 


" coreeer, 

201, ft. 

" earecer. 

201, ft. 


" acertar, 

232, a. 


" earecer. 

201, ft. 


" acertar, 

232, a. 


" acostar. 

234, a. 


" acertar. 

232, a. 


" iec*r. 


** earecer, 

201, ft. 

" j)ed*r, 

238, a. 


« Zwcir, 

201, d 


" ?wcir. 



" earecer. 

201, ft. 

antramorir ' 

" dormir, 



** earecer, 

201, ft. 


" otr. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 

" earecer, 

201, ft. 


" earecer. 

201, ft. 


" acertar, 

232, a. 


" acertar. 

232, a. 


" poner. 



" acer/ar, 

232, a. 


" ^ewer. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 


« ver, 



" earecer, 

201, ft. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 


" earecer. 

201, ft. 


" earecer, 

201, ft. 


" earecer. 

201, 6. 

1 Except that the past participle is irregular, antramuarto. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 






like eorecer, 

201, &. 


like oeeHor, 



" careeer. 

201, J. 


** reir, 



" ea/recer^ 



" amtir. 

287, a. 



^ " carecer. 

201, J. 


like plaftir, 

204, c 


** mover ^ 

235, a. 


" careeeTf 



" careeeTf 



" pedir. 



" valer. 



" aeertar, 

232, o. 




'' con«^ruir,205, a. 




" plafUr, 

204, c. 


« mulHr, 

204, a. 


" phfltr. 


** eareeer. 



" carecer. 



" (ie€rt(ir. 

232, a. 


" careeer^ 



". carec«r, 



" careceTy 




" coccr, 





" a(k>«^ar, 

234, a. 


like aeertaTy 

232, o. 


" acostoTy 

234, a. 




" carreer, 



" atender, 





" aeertary 



" con«/rtiir,206,a. 





" ocer^or, 

232, a. 


" atender, 



" care<jer, 



" pedir, 



" pedir. 

238, a. 


" acertar, 



« con«/rttir, 205, a. 


" carecefy 



" pedir. 

238, a. 


" pedir. 



'' poner. 



" (teertcw, 



" a^aneier, 

236, a. 


" aeniir, 



" iraer, 



" acostar, 




238, a. 


" acoBtaVy 



" <jon«/rufr,205,a. 



•• ca/receTy 



like oorecer, 



" ca/recery 




" corecer, 



like con«<ru*r,205, a. 


" acertar. 

232, a. 


" pediry 



** corecer, 



'' POMTy 



" con«<rM*r,205,a. 


" aeostar. 



" acosta^y 

234, a. 


" ocer/or, 



" careceVf 



" con«<rw*r,205,ci. 


" acoaiar, 

234, a. 




Digitized DyV^OO^ 








like conducir, 239, a. 


like (zcoataTf 

234, a. 


" pedir, 

238, a. 


" acertar, 

233, «, 


" ctcertar, 

232, a. 


" tener, 



" eon8truir,205,a. 


" veneer. 

200, a. 


" pedir, 

238, a. 


« pedir, 

2^8, («. 


" aeertar, 

232, a: 


" aeertar, 

232, (L 


" adquirir, 241. 


" aeertar, 

232, a. 




" sentir, 

237, a. 


" con8trmr,206,a. 


" carecer. 

201, b. 


*' con8trmr,205,a. 


" aeertar, 

232, a. 


" decir, 



" aeostar. 

234, a. 


" poner, 



" carecer, 

201, <!;. 


" venir. 



" mover. 

235, a. 


" coTkiwcir, 239, a. 


" mover. 

235, a. 


" acerta/r. 

232, a. 


" dormir. 



" «6n<ir. 

287, a. 


" aeostar. 

234, a. 


" aentir. 

287, a. 


235, fl. 




" con8truir,20r), a. 



204, a. 


like acerta/r, 

232, a. 


" jpZa^iV, 

204, c. 






201, a. 


like care<jer, 

201, ft. 


like aeertar. 

232, a. 


205, c. 


" carecer, 

201, b. 


" ^ocer. 




" carecer^ 

201, ft. 




like carecer, 



" c<WM<ruir,205,a. | 


" carecer^ 

201, 6. 


" cow«^rwtr,205, a. 



« ^ewer. 





" carecer, 








like hendedr, 

238, a. 





" querer. 




" aco»ta/r, 

234, a. 





" /ro^r. 



" carecer. 

201, A 

* Except that the past participle is irregular, muerto* 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 






like corecer, 



like <;on«<rtt»r,d05, ck 


" eareeer, 

201, ft. 


" her. 



238, a. 


** venir. 



" acertSr, 

232, a. 

pndilr. p. p. 

oiAy itt,, podrido. 


" atender, 

236, a. 


** cc^eeer, 

201, ft. 


" carecer. 

201, ft. 


like acertcw, 



" acertar, 
203, a 

232, a. 
238, a. 




" ca/recer. 

201, ft. 



« amtir. 

237, a. 


like traer. 



** ca/recer^ 

201, ft. 


" ?Mcer, 



267, a. 


" ccwecer, 

201, ft. 


204, c. 

" eareeer. 

201, ft. 


** carecer. 

201, ft. 


" acertar. 



" acertar, 

232, a. 


^^ aeertctr. 



" acostciry 

234, a. 


« bendecir 





" earecer, 

201, ft. 


" cc^eeery 

201, ft. 


" muUir, 





" traer, 



« leer, 

205, c. 


** acertar. 



"* poner. 



" acertar, 



" conocer, 

201, c. 


" pedir. 



« <i«ctV, 



" con8truir,20^a. 





" cocer, 



« pe(?tr. 

238, o. 


** acoatar. 



« hicir, 

201, <?. 


202, h 



" dormir, 



" acertar. 



'' poner, 



** poner. 



" wn^r, 

237, a. 


« conduetr,2S9,a. 





" c<woc«r. 

201, c. 

" carecer. 



" con«/rMir,206,a. 


" voter. 



" acoatar. 

234, o. 


** venir. 



201, ft. 


** tw, 



** wntV, 



" aeostar, 

234. a. 


" acoatar. 



" conducir, 239, o. 


** acoatar. 



" pe^tr, 

238, o. 


** carecer. 

201, ft. 


" mover. 

235, a. 


** car«««r. 

201. ft. 


" jponer. 



*' ar/7fl»r, 

205. ft. 


203, a 

238, o. 


*• mover. 


Digitized Dy VjOOQ IC 






like coru2t«cir, 289, a. 


like pedir, 

238, a. 


203, & 



** aeertar, 

232, a. 

** ctcertar. 

232, a. 


" pedir. 

238, a. 


" pedir, 

238, a. 


" aeertar. 

282, a. 


** carecer. 

201, ft. 


" acoatar. 

234, o. 


** eon8tru%r,205,a. 





198, c 

234, a. 


" acoatar. 


" acertar, 

232, a. 


" conducir,2S9,a, 


" reir, 


repndrir, reg. exc. p. p., repodrido. 


" planir, 

204, c. 


like aeertar. 

232, a. 


" aeertar. 

232, a. 


" qmrer. 



" ocer^ar, 

232, a. 


" pedir. 

288, a. 


202, ft; 

238, a. 


** «a6er. 



" acoatar. 

234, a. 


" aalir. 



" jp/amV, 

204, c. 


" aeertar. 

282, a. 


" Aocer, 



" aeertar. 

282, a. 


" Jienchir, 



" «en^ir. 

287, a. 


« i>c(iir. 

238, a 


" mover. 



** aeertar, 

232, a. 


204, a; 



" «en<ir, 

237, o. 


" acoatar. 



204, a 

234, a. 

" carecer. 



" c(m8truir,206, a. 


" aeertar. 

232, o. 


" carecer, 

201, ft. 

" carecer. 

201, 6. 




" con«<rwir,205,a. 


" eo/recer, 



" aeertar. 

282, o. 

" carecer, 



204, c 



« /mciV, 

201, <?. 


" carecer, 

201, 6. 


" aeertar. 

232, a.^ 


** aeertar. 



« «cn/tr, 

237, a. 


" terur. 



" acoatar. 

234, a. 


" aeertar. 

232, o. 


" mover, 

236, a. 


204, c 

; 288, o. 


" nkwer, 

235, a. 


204, c 

; 241. 


" mover. 

235, a. 


" carecer. 



« mwZZ^r, 

204, a. 


201, c 

235, a. 


" nacer. 

201, a. 


" acoatar. 



« een^tr, 

237, a. 


" traer. 



** aeertar. 

282, a. 


« con«^u»r,206,a. 


** ocoetor. 

284, a. 


" coatar. 

284, o. 


204. c 

; 288, a. 


" traer. 



** nocer, 

201, a. 


« carecer. 



•* ca/recer^ 





Digitized by V^OOQ IC 




teyentar like acertoTf 

232, a. 



" vcr, 




" cc^ecer, 

201, &. 



" atender, 

236, a. 



" aentir. 

237, a. 



" acoatar, 

234, a. 



198, a; 

234, a. 



" movevy 

235, a. 


" earecer, 

201, b. 



" acoatar. 

234, a. 



267, a. 




234, a. 












like acertary 

232, a. 


" mullir. 

204, a. 



" acertar. 

232, a. 



" mullir, 

204, a. 



« ?iaeer, 




" ctcertoTj 

232, o. 



203, a 

238, a. 



« acer/dr, 

232, a. 



" aeertar. 

232, a. 



" acertar. 

232, a. 



237, a. 






" acertar. 

232, a. 



" «en^ir, 

237, a. 



" ac6r^ar, 

232, a. 

" carecer, 

201, &. 

" a^efwicr, 

236, a. 



" a^crwZcr, 

236, a. 



" ^ncr, 




** «aZtV, 



** acertar, 

232, a. 



" acoatar, 




" rentV, 



" cKJcr^or, 

232, a. 



" a/e»<ier, 

236, a. 


like aentir, 237, a. 
" reir, 260. 
" acoatar, 234, a, 
" acoatar, 234, a. 
267, d. 
'' acoata/r, 234, a. 
" mover, 335, a. 

204, a; 234, a. 
" mover, , 235, a. 
" acoatar, 234, o. 
" reir, 260. 
" acoatar, 234, a. 
'' acoatar, 234, a. 
** acertar, 282, a. 
'' acertar, 232, a. 
" tener, 182. 
" acertar, 232, a. 
" acertar, 232, a. 
'* atender, 236, a. 

203, a; 238, a. 
" c(matruir,206,a, 
** iraer, 263. 
" atender, 236, a. 
" venir, 265. 
" aerUtr, 237, a. 
''pedir, 288, a. 
*' poner, 258. 
" venir, 265. 
""poner, 258. 
" conatruir,205,a, 


like earecer, 201, h. 


" acertar, 282,a. 

<* atender, 286, a. 


** acertar, 282,a. 

204,6; 288,0. 

201, c; 285,0. 

" ocotftor, 284,0. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





like condueir, 289, a. 





▼alar • 



" atender. 

236, a. 




" acerta/r. 

232, a. 


like acertar, 



*" poner, 





" atender, 

236, a. 


** earecer, 



** acosta/r^ 



*< atmder. 

236, o. 


** aeo«^ar, 

234, a. 


« aentir, 



" cujeWor, 

232, a. 


" acostar^ 

284, o. 


« Zf«(5»r, 

201, (i. 


198, o, 

284, o. 





** mover. 



" aco«tor, 

234, a. 






198, a; 

234, a. 


« a^cnder. 

236, a. 




" acoatar^ 

234, a. 


like |?on«r, 



" ocertor, 

232, a. 


198, a 

234, a. 



" aeoBtcvr, 



" occr^ar. 

232, o. 


like mulUr^ 



" wt*ZZir, 



" pedir, 

238, o. 


" hacer. 



" fMiUir^ 



by Google 


by Google 


A ; un, una, 88, 186,' 846. 
Abbreviation of tuted, 10, 96, 867. 
About ; oeroa de, como, 114. 
Above ; arriba, 124, 487. 


AojBonvBs: Aorbembht, 27, 864. 
ADJB0TIVK8 : Apooopation, 866. 
ADJBonvBB : Comparison, 06, 96, 868- 

Adjeotivbs : Position, 86, 867, 868. 
Adverbs : Comparison, 06, 486, 486. 
Adverbs : Complete List, 431, 482. 
Adverbs : Position, 98. 
After; despuds, despuds de, despu^s 

que, 188, 487, 488. 
Afternoon ; tarde, 78. 
Afterward ; despu^s, 146. 
Again ; otra ves, de nuevo, volver &, 

Ago ; 170. 

A good deal ; muohfsimo, 41, 484. 
A great deal ; mudifsimo, 41, 484. 
AU ; todo, 76, 882. 
Almost ; casi, 114. 
Alone ; solo, 266. 
Already ; ja, 99. 
Always ; siempre, 189, 481. 
Amid ; entre, 280, 487. 
Among ; entre, 280, 487. 
An ; un, una, 88, 186, 846. 
And ; y (changing to i before i <iit A0« 

Another ; otro, 44, 881. 
Any; algAn, alguno, cualquiera, 86, 

Any : not translated, 86. 
Anybody ; alguno, alguien, 22, 879. 
Any one ; alguno, alguien, 22, 879. 
Any other ; algtkn otro, 46. 
Anything ; alguna oosa, algo, 18, 879. 

Articlb: Diouension of Dupiiiira» 

Abtiolb : Declension of Indefinitb, 

Article: Definite: General Uses, 

Article: Indefinite: When Omit- 
ted, 86. 

As ; oomo, tan, 90, 182, 868. 

As— as ; tan— como, 90, 868. 

As far as ; hasta, 124. 

As for ; en cuanto &, 226. 

At last ; al fin, al cabo, finalmente, 147. 

As many ; tantos, 60, 486. 

As many as ; tantos como, 60, 486. 

As much ; tanto, 60, 486. 

As much as ; tanto como, 60, 486. 

As soon as ; luego que, asf que, 146, 

As to ; en cuanto &, 226. 

As well as ; tan bien ocnno, 281. 

At home ; en casa, 68. 

Back of ; detr6s de, 167, 488. 

Bad ; nuU, malo, 11, 98, 862. 

Badly ; mal, malamente, 98. 

Because ; i>orque, 117, 441. 

Before ; antes, antes de, antes que, de- 

lante, delante de, por, 92, 172, 438. 
Behind ; atr&s, detr&s, detr&s de, 167, 

Below ; bajo, abajo, debajo, debajo de, 

111, 489. 
Beneath ; bajo, debajo de. 111, 489. 
Besides ; adem6s, adem&s de, 907. 
Between ; entre, 280, 487. 
Both ; ambos, uno y otro, los dos, 47, 

But (in the sense of only) ; tiiio, no 

m68 que or de, 40. 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 



But ; Bino, pero, 24, 440. 

But little ; 861o un pooo, 4S. 

By ; por, junto &, 145, 489. 

By and by ; luego, 167. 

^ no means; de nlng<in modo, S40. 

By one's self ; solo, por sf solo, 8M. 

Capital Lkttbbs, 7. 


Ck>ncerning ; en cuanto 4, SS6. 

Conjunctions, 440, 441. 

Conjunctions ooyntNiNO thb 8ub- 

JUNOTiyi Mods, 203. 
Owtt more specific than qrU^ 129, 878. 

Days of the week, 120. 


DeterminatiTe 2o, 857. 
Diphthongs, 6. 

DnuBCT Objbctivb Pronouns, 07, 809. 
Distant ; lejos, 176. 
Double Lkttrrs, 6. 
During ; durante, mientras, 118. 

Each ; cada, todo, 160, 880. 
Each one ; cada uno, 160, 880. 
Early ; temprano, 09, 481. 
Enough : bastante, 41, 482. 
Even ; aun, 240. 
Evening ; noche, 106. 
Every ; todo, cada, 75, 882. 
Ezoulmatort Phbasbs, 284. 

Fairly well; bastante bien, tal coal, 

Far ; lejos, distante, 175, 482. 
Fast ; ligero, 182. 

Few ; unos pooos, unos ouantos, 41. 
Fewer ; menos, 61, 869. 
Fewer than ; menos que or de, 51, 859. 
Final ; final, 98. 
Finally ; flnalmente, 98. 
For ; por, para, 118, 489. 
Former ; aqu61, aqu611os, 81, 875. 
Formerly ; anteriormente, 105. 
Fraotxonaus, 864. 

From ; de, 9, 489. 

From the ; del, de la, de los, de las, 9. 
Future Perfect Tense, 206. 
Future Tense, 160, 160, 412. 

Gender op Nouns indicated bt Dib- 

BiKiLAR Forms, 198, 862. 
Good ; bueno, 11, 862. 

Half ; medio, mitad, 62. 

Hardly ; apenas, 114. 

Have ; haber, tener, 9, 101, 102, 888-^87. 

He ; 61, 21, 66, 366. 

Her ; le, la, su, su or el, la, lo, los or 

las de ella, suyo, 28, 66, 872. 
Here ; aquf, ac&, 76, 171, 488. 
Him ; le, lo, 61, 66, 866. 
His ; su, or el, la, lo, los or las de 61, 

suyo, 22, 28, 872. 
His own ; suyo propio, 22, 873. 
Hither ; ac&, 171, 488. 
Hour of the day, 62. 
How ? i c6mo ? 118. 
How f ar ? i cu&nta distancia ? i hasta 

d6nde ? 124, 175. 
How long ? i cu&nto tiempo f 118. 
How many ? i cu&ntos ? 40. 
How much ? i cu&nto ? 40. 
How : not translated, 90. 
How often ? i cu&ntas voces ? 105. 
How old? iqu6edadricu&nt08afi089 



Idiomatic Expressions, 825-880. 
Idioms formed with Hacery 208. 
If ; si, 148, 440. 


Imperfect Subjunctive, 215-M7. 
Imperfect Tense, 181, 211. 
Impersonal use of Se, 121, 870. 
Impersonal Verbs, 156, 247, 411, 412. 
In ; en, &, 70, 487. 

Indirect Objective Pronouns, 67, 860. 
Infinitives used as SuBSTANrrfSS, 

Inquiry after health, 165. 
Inside ; dentro, interior, 111, 487. 
In spite of ; & pesar de, 264. 

Digitized by 




Instead of ; en vez de, en lugar de, 84, 

In this manner ; de este modo, 118. 
Into ; en, &, 90, 488. 

Just the same ; cabahnente lo mismo, 


Last night ; anoche, 183. 

Late ; tarde, 76, 481. 

Lately ; tUtimamente, 964. 

Latter ; 68te, dstos, 81, 876. 

Less ; menos, 61, 868. 

Less than ; menos que or de, 61, 868, 

Little (a) ; mi pooo, 86. 
Little by little ; poco & pooo, 122. 
Long time ; largo tiempo, 119. 
Loud ; alto, 182. 

Many ; muchos, 41, 484. 
Many times ; muchas veces, 106. i 

Masoulimb Artiolb with Fbmiminb I 
Nouns, 204, 846. I 

Me ; me, mf , 64, 866. 
Midday ; mediodfa, 62. ' 

Midnight ; media noche, 62. | 

Mine ; mfo, 16, 872. j 

MoDBUS OF Lbttbrs, 881-841. 
More ; m&s, 41, 486, 436. i 

Moreover ; adem&s, adem&s de, 267. 
More than ; mds que or de, 41, 486. 
Morning ; mafiana, 78. 
Much ; mucho, 41, 484. 


Must ; haber de, tener que, deber de, 

My; mi, mlo, 10, 28, 878. 


Near ; cerca, cerca de, junto &, 180, 482. 
Nearly ; oerca de, como, 114. 
Neither ; ni, 17, 440. 
Neither— nor ; ni— ni, 17, 81. 
Night, noche, 106. 
No ; no, ninguno, 11, 86, 881, 482. 
Nobody : ninguno, nadie, 22, 881. 
None ; ninguno, nadie, nada, 86, 881. 
No one ; ninguno, nadie, 22, 881. 

No other ; ningtin otro, 44. 

Nor ; ni, 17, 440. 

Not ; no, 12, 482. 

Not any ; ninguno, 86, 881. 

Not anybody ; ninguno, nadie, 817, 881. 

Not any one ; ninguno, nadie, 881. 

Not anything ; nada, ninguna cosa, 18, 

Not at all ; de ningfin modo, 240. 
Not even ; ni aun, 240. 
Nothing ; ninguna cosa, nada, 18, 881. 
Not many; no muchos, 42. 
Not much ; no mucho, 42. 
Notwithstanding; sin embargo, no 

obstante, 264. 
Not yet ; today fa no, aun no, 81, 00. 
Nouns : Auomentativb, 82, 88. 
Nouns : Ddunutivb, 82, 88. 
Nouns: Formation of thb Plural, 

Nouns : Gender, 847. 
Nouns terminating in ion^ 204. 
Now ; ahora, ya, 78, 481. 
NuMBRAL AojBCTiVBS, 88, 80, 42, 862^ 



O'clock ; hora, 62. 

Of ; de, 4, 0, 84. 

Often ; 6, menudo, frecuentemente, 00, 

Oftener ; m&s & menudo, 00. 
Of the ; del, de la, de lo, de los, de 

Omission of Nominatiyb Pbrsonal 

Pronouns, 18, 42. 
On ; en, sobre, 437. 
Once ; una vez, 105. 
One ; uno, 88, 185, 846, 862, 882. 
One's ; not translated, 180. 
Only ; s6lo, solamente, 40. 
On purpose ; 6. prop6sito, 276. 
On that side ; de or por aquel lado, 124 
On the contrary ; al contrario, 168. 
On this side ; de or por este ladp, 124. 
Or ; 6, <i, 16, 440. 
ORDiNAiiS, 46, 868, 864. 
Other ; otro, 44, 881. 
Ought ; deber, 128. 
Our ; nuestro, 28, 872. 
Ours ; nuestro, el nuestro, 81, 872. 
Over ; sobre, encima de, 110, 487. 

Digitized by 






Pabtxoiplbs, 78. 


Passiyk Voics, 145, 408. 

Past Participles, 101. 

Past Perfect Subjunctive, 818. 

Past Perfect Tense, 260. 

Perfect Tense, 107. 

Perhaps ; quiz&, acaso, tal yes, 285. 

Personal Objective Cask prioedbd 

BY (f , 59, 488. 
Position of Negatives, 17. 
Possessive Case, 12. 
Possessive Pronouns, 183, 184, 872-874. 
Possessive Pronouns replaced bt 

Tte Definite Article, 87, 874. 
Present Participles, 201. 
Preterit Tense, 215. 
Pronouns: Emphatic Forms ending 

IN «el/ AND ie2ve«, 280, 871. 
Proper Adjectives, 85, 86. 
Proper Nouns of Latin or Greek 

Origin, 288, 289. 

Quarter ; cuarto, 62. 
Quick ; pronto, presto, Ugero, 182. 
Quite as manj ; tantos, 61. 
Quite as much ; tanto, 61. 

Rather ; mto bien, antes, mejor que, 

Rather than ; mto bien que, antes que, 

Ready ; pronto, listo, 189. 
Reflexive Pronouns, 75, 149, 870, 


Reflexive Verbs, 148, 407. 
Reflexive Verbs: Perfect Tense, 

Relative Pronouns, 57, 60, 876-877. 

Salutations, 190. 
Same ; mismo, 98, 180, 880. 
Scarcely ; apenas, 114. 
Several ; varies, algunos, 60, 888. 
Several times ; varias veces, 105. 
She ; ella, 66, 866. 
Shortly; pronto, presto, 118. 

Since ; ya que, desde, pues que, poesto 

que, 70, 238, 441. 
Sir ; sefior, caballero, 9. 
Slow ; despacio, lento, 182. 
Slowly ; despacio, lentamente, 188. 
So ; tan, tanto, asf, 118, 188, 488. 
Some ; algAn, alguno, unos, unoscuan- 

Somebody ; alguno, alguien, 28, 879. 
Some : not translated, 85. 
Some one ; alguno, alguien, 82, 879. 
Something ; alguna cosa, algo, 18, 880, 

So much the less than ; tanto meoos 

que, 95. 
So much the more than ; tanto m&i 

que, 95. 
Soon ; temprano, pronto, 99, 118. 
So so ; asf asf , 118. 
So that ; de modo que, de suerte que. 

Still ; todavf a, aun, 48, 54. 
Still more ; todavfa w aun m&s, 4a 
Subjunctive Mode : Future, 803, 804. 
Subjunctive Mode : Present, 891, 896, 

296, 299-301. 
Such ; tal, 212. 

Than ; que, 41, 51. 

That ; ese, aquel, que, 16, 86, 154, 874- 

That of ; el or la de, 16. 
That one ; aqu61, 24, 876. 
That one that w which : el que, 26, 878, 

That which ; el que, la que, 26, 876, 877. 
The ; el, la, lo, los, las, 9, 86, 68, 188, 

Thee; te, ti, 365. 
Their ; su, sus, el, la, lo, los or las de 

ellos or ellas, suyo, 28, 872. 
Theirs ; suyo, el suyo, 81, 878. 
Them ; los, las, 34, 365. 
Then ; entonces, pues, 180, 481. 
The ones that or which ; los or las dfli; 

28, 876, 377. 
There : abf, alU, all&, 61, 488. 
Therefore ; por tanto, por eso, 864. 
There to be ; haber, 104, 164, 886. 
These ; estos, 28, 874, 875. 

Digitized by 




They; ellos, ellas, 85, 866. 

Thine ; tuyo, el tuyo, 74, 87S. 

Thing ; cosa, 212, 

This ; este, 22, 874, 375. 

This one ; 6ste, 24, 876. 

Thither ; aU&, 61, 438. 

Those ; esos, aquellos, loa or las de, 28, 

Thou ; tti, 9, 66, 865. 
Through ; por, por entre, 146, 489. 
Thus ; asf, 118, 482. 
Thy; tu, tuyo, 74, 872. 
TiU; hasta, 120. 
To ; &, para, 9, 68, 488. 
To be ; ser, estar, 67, 69, 79. 
To be able ; poder, 64, 80. 
To be afraid ; tener miedo, 16. 
To be ashamed ; tener vergttenza, 14. 
To be cold ; tener f rio, 16. 
To be hot ; tener calor, 16. 
To be hungry ; tener hambre, 14. 
To be necessary ; ser menester, ser ne- 

cesario, 127. 
To be right ; tener raz6n, 19. 
To be sleepy ; tener suefio, 14. 
To be thirsty ; tener sed, 14. 
To be willing ; querer, 56. 
To be wrong ; no tener raz6n, hacer 

mal, 19. 
To-day; hoy, hoy dla, 61, 481. 
To do ; hacer, 56, 79. 
Togo; ir, 58, 75. 
To have just ; acabar de, 172. 
To have made ; mandar hacer. 111. 
To have to; haber de, tener que, 67, 

117, 885. 
To her ; le, & ella, 64, 866. 
To him ; le, & 61, 64, 865. 
To know; saber, conocer, 64, 89, 108, 

To like ; gustar, 80. 
To make ; hacer, 65, 79. 
To me ; me, & mf , 64. 866. 
To*morrow; mafiana, 61, 431. 
Too many ; demasiados, 41, 432. 
Too much ; demasiado, 41, 482. 
To please ; gustar, 80. 
To take place ; celebrarse, 104. 
To tell the age, 114. 
To the ; al, & la, 6. lo, & los, 6. las, 9. 
Toward ; hacia, &, para con, 136, 437. 

To will ; querer, 67. 

To wish ; querer, 66. 

Triphthongs, 6. 

True ; verdadero, 98. 

Truly ; verdaderamente, 98, 482. 

Twice ; dos veces, 106. 

Under ; debajo, debajo de, 111, 489. 
UntU ; hasta, 120. 
Until when ? i hasta cu&ndo ? 120. 
Upon ; sobre, encima, en, 110, 487. 
Us; nos or nosotros preceded by a 
preposition, 866. 

Verbs: Conjugation, 77, 78, 887. 
Very ; muy, 97, 486. 


We ; nosotros, 42, 66, 866. 

Well ; bien, 93. 

What? »qu6? icu&l?10,87a 

What ; que, el que, el cual, lo que, 

What time ? i qu6 hora ? 62. 
Whence ; de d6nde, 129, 483. 
Where ; donde, en donde, 59, 438. 
Which ? i qu6 ? i cu&l ? 28, 877, 878. 
Which ; que, el que, el cual, lo que, 25, 

28, 875, 877. 
Which ones ? i cu&les ? 28, 877, 878. 
Who ; quien, que, 21, 875-877. 
Who ? i qui6n ? 21, 877, 878. 
Whom ; que, quien, or el cual preceded 

by any preposition, 376, 877. 
Whose ; de quien, cuyo, 68, 877. 
Why ? I por qu6 ? 117. 
With ; con, 116, 489. 
Within ; dentro, 111, 437. 
With me ; conmigo, 115. 

Yes ; si, 9, 432. 

Yesterday ; ayer, 106, 481. 

You ; usted, vosotros, os, le, la, lo, 9, 

55, 66, 365. 
Your ; su, el, la, lo, los or las de usted, 

vuestro, 10, 28, 372. 
Yours ; su, suyo, el suyo, vuestro, el 

vue8tro,.de usted, 16, 81, 872. 

igitized by VjO' 


by Google 


by Google 


by Google 


g.iti?ed,by OOCPQIC