(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The revised version of the New Testament : with an appendix containing the chief textual changed"

3,X?'.2,^. 



3Fr0m tly^ Htbrarg nf 

tly? BItbrarg of 
Prtnrrtnn ©{jwlngtiral S^tmxmvyi 



LECTURES 

ON THE 

REVISED VERSION 



LOXDON : PRINTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE 

AND PARLIAMENT STREET 




ELY LECTURES 

REVISED VERSION OF THE 

NEW TESTAMENT^'^^ 

mill i^O ^O i-i. 



->. 



WITH A 2V APPENDIX 



'^.lOSif 



M. 



CONTAINING THE CHIEF TEXTUAL CHANGES 



I 



BY 



B. H. KENNEDY, D.D. 

CANON OF ELY AND HON. FELLOW OF ST JOHN's COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 




LONDON 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, NEW BURLINGTON STREET 

publishers in ©rbiitarn to Icr IHujfstn \\t ^ue«n 

1882 



All rigJits reserved 



TO THE 

REV. F. H. SCRIVENER, LL.D. 

&c., &c., &c. 

My dear Dr. Scrivener, 

I obtained your kind permission to inscribe 
to you the three Sermons printed in this volume. 
They were preached in Ely Cathedral last July ; the 
first of them having been also preached before the 
University of Cambridge in January 1861. 

I wished to express my high esteem for one who 
has devoted his life to the holy task of purifying the 
text of the Greek Testament. Others have worked 
with honour in the same field at the same time, two 
of whom are gone to their rest, Tregelles and Alford : 
three survive, Tis diendorf/ Westcott Hort. All these, 
except perhaps Tregelles, were placed in conditions 
of life more prosperous than yours seemed to be for 
many years. Happily, your merits have now found 
a fair recompense of reward, by the act of two truly 
noble persons ; and I cordially wish you long life and 



vi DEDICATION. 

health to occupy and enjoy your present sphere of 
duty. 

These sermons I preached during my Ely resi- 
dence, because I felt that British congregations ought 
to hear as much as can be told them concerning the 
need, the conditions, and the execution of the import- 
ant work which has engaged our revising company 
more than eleven years. 

So far as I have observed, Americans seem to have 
understood and acknowledged the need of that work 
more justly than our own countrymen. In America 
only a few scattered voices, in Great Britain more 
than a few, have been found to say in print that no 
work of revision was required, seeing that the Author- 
ised Version is all that can reasonably be desired. 

If any sincere Christian holds this opinion, I 
would say to him, with all respect, * Study the ques- 
tion well, and you must yield to the force of facts ; 
or else surrender your prejudice (for judgment it is 
not) to the verdict of those who have studied that 
question.' My conviction was gained by Biblical 
studies in early life, and avowed in my sermon at 
Cambridge twenty years ago ; but it is not to m}^ 
verdict, though faithful, that I ask the assent of anti- 
revising Christians. That verdict has been confirmed 
by many consentient voices ; by the five clergymen 
(eminent scholars and divines) who published a 
revision of several books of the New Testament, by 
the Southern Convocation of the Anglican Church, 
when it named a committee to shape this work in 



DEDICATION. vii 

1870 ; by the Scotch Kirk and the dissenting com- 
munities of Great Britain, when they gave representa- 
tives to sit in the two revising companies ; by Chris- 
tians in the United States of America, when they 
estabhshed a committee of divines to co-operate with 
the British revisers. Thus it appears that all Eng- 
Hsh-speaking Christian bodies, except the Roman 
CathoHc, have with united voice acknowledged the 
necessity and the duty of revision. 

If these things do not assure anti-revisers that the 
work was wanted, let them read and weigh the paper 
of Dr. Ezra Abbot, the learned American divine, 
which I reprint in my second Appendix. In this able 
summary they will find proof, ample and irresistible, 
that revision was indeed sorely needed ; that the 
means were provided, and the time was ripe ; the 
hour had struck, and the men were ready. 

' I. From your Cambridge Text of 188 1 (supposed 
to be that followed in 161 1), and from Archdeacon 
Palmer's Text of 1 881 (that corrected by the revisers), 
I derive the following facts — roughly stated, I admit, 
but with exactness enough for my purpose. The 
Authorised Text contains about 5,200 readings which 
the revisers, guided by the comparison of available 
authorities (manuscripts, versions, and various docu- 
mentary evidence), have deemed to be erroneous, 
and have therefore altered. Three-fourths of these 
alterations do not in any notable respect modify the 
subject-matter of the sacred writers ; but while we 



viii DEDICATION. 

rejoice in the general agreement of texts as to fact 
and doctrine, we ought all to concur in wishing to 
read as nearly as possible the precise words of the 
several writers. In the exercise of my fallible judg- 
ment, wishing to err on the inclusive side, I have 
printed in my second Appendix nearly 1,300 varieties 
of reading which seemed to be in some degree 
notable. But even of this list it is only a fraction 
that can be said to have signal importance. I do not 
presume to settle that fraction ; for in doing this the 
best scholars and divines would assuredly differ among 
themselves. To their collective deliberation I leave 
any such judgment. 

It may, then, be laid down as an undeniable truth, 
that the Revised Version represents a Greek text 
incomparably more pure and nearer to the original 
than that on which the Authorised Version is 
founded. 

II. The conditions and the execution of our work 
are correlative topics, and as such must be treated 
under one head. I am now assisted by the tract of 
my dear friend Mr. Humphry, which has come into 
my hands since I preached at Ely, entitled ' One 
Word on the Revised Version of the New Testament.' 
I agree with most of what he has written, though, as 
will later appear, not with every word. He justly 
says that the governing principle of our work required 
us ' to make as few changes as possible consistently 
with faithfulness : changes in the nature of para- 



DEDICATION. ix 

phrases or embellishment of style were thus dis- 
couraged.' He entirely confirms my language in the 
third sermon by saying (p. 21), ' Neither I, nor any of 
my colleagues, is able to stand up for the revision as 
the product of absolute wisdom. Each of us, times 
out of number, has been outvoted by a "tyrant 
majority." There is no sentence in our Preface which 
had our more hearty approval than that which con- 
fesses the existence of blemishes, imperfections, fail- 
ures ; though, if each of us had made out a list of 
such blots, no two of the lists, probably, would have 
been found to agree. It cannot be otherwise where 
many minds are discussing the multifarious details of 
a long and difficult work, though the advantages 
arising from their joint counsel greatly outweigh the 
drawbacks.' 

Referring to the passages which he cites (pp. 
12, &c.), I agree with him as to Luke xiv. 10; 
xvi. 9; John i. 25 ; x. 16; Acts viii. 9, 11, 13 ; 2 
Cor. v. 14 ; Phil. iii. 21 ; i Tim. vi. 5. I agree also 
as to Luke xxiii. 15, compared with Matt. v. 21 ; but 
he might have strengthened his case by observing 
that the participle irsTrpar^ixsvos favours the instru- 
mental dative, while the aorist sppsOj] is more favour- 
able to the objective dative. I agree with him as to 
the adoption of the name Hades ; but I heartily wish 
Gehenna also had been placed in the text, and for 
Vssvva rod irvpos, ' the fiery Gehenna.' It is notice- 
able that hell {/wile, the hidden or dark place) corre- 
sponds rather to Hades ; but, on account of our 



X DEDICATION. 

existing associations, was properly refused to it. I 
should feel no regret if the word Jiell were withdrawn 
from our Testament. The parable in St. Luke xvi. 
19, &c., may suffice for those who wish to describe 
' the abode of sin ' as a place of fire ; and the 
metaphorical use of Gehenna would soon become 
familiar. Again, I agree very much with Mr. Hum- 
phry as to the retention of archaisms generally, and 
the removal of some. About ' which ' or ^ who,' when 
personal, I had my doubts ; but I acquiesce in the 
decision of the majority. I agree, too, in the reten- 
tion of those Hebraisms which Mr. Humphry cites ; 
but there are some which I should like to have 
altered, as the * Gehenna of fire,' and ' the spirit of 
holiness ' (Rom. i. 4), by which rendering of the A. V. 
the antithesis Kara aapKa — Kara Trvavfia ayccoavvTjs 
is made too obscure. Our views of the revised 
Lord's Prayer in Matt. vi. are nearly similar. But I 
do not feel the force of his remarks on the petition, 
* Thy will,' &c. I always gave to ' as ' the simple 
meaning ' even as,' and was rather disposed to keep 
the Authorised rendering. About utto tov irovrjpov I 
have been ' in a strait betwixt two.' Once I voted 
for placing ' evil one ' in the margin ; later on, feeling 
the strength of the argument for the masculine, I did 
not vote : and I am afraid I still doubt on which side 
the scale of obligation preponderates. The argument 
for * robbers,' as against ' thieves,' in Matt, xxvii. 38, 
cannot, I think, be resisted. In Matt. xxvi. 22 I de- 
cidedly prefer * is it I, Lord } ' to the other order, but 



DEDICATION. xi 

from no ' servile adherence to the Greek.' In Mark 
XV. 37, and Luke xxiii. 46, i^sirvsvas, it is, perhaps, 
vain to plead for the literal 'expired' against the 
'solemn old English phrase, gave up the ghost.' 
Luther renders it in all four Gospels by one word, 
'verschied.' In John i. 15 could not yayovsp have 
been rendered * is come to be ' ? In translating the 
Thea^tetus of Plato I have often used this English for 
ysvsa6ac. Tov9 crco^ofMsvovs in Acts ii. is a very trying 
phrase. What has been chosen in the revision meets 
the sense, though not all one could wish : I forget 
whether * those seeking salvation ' was considered or 
not. We seem to concur as to Acts xxvi. 28, which 
I do not regard as ' difficuh.' But my friend will see 
that in 29 I agree with Webster and Wilkinson in 
taking h oXcyo) koI sv /jusyaXo) with sv^aifiijv av tw 
Bsw, which (as sv oXiyco before modifies the act of 
persuasion, not the quality of ^pccmavov) is mani- 
festly more proper than to carry them on, out of the 
natural order, to ysvsaOai. The correct rendering of 
nautical terms in Acts xxvii. is noticed by Mr. Hum- 
phry, and generally acknowledged even by adverse 
critics. The adoption of ' love ' for ayaTrr) everywhere, 
to the exclusion of the word ' charity,' I have defended 
as certainly right and absolutely necessary ; and I 
suppose that all the revisers, like Mr. Humphry, 
are of this opinion. 

The most important merits of translation are | 
accuracy, neatness, and elegance of style and rhythm. ' 

In accuracy of translation, which, for a book such 



xii DEDICATION, 

as the New Testament, is by far the most valuable 
quality, no scholar can doubt that the Revised Version 
is incomparably superior to the Authorised. A few 
passages there are, upon the interpretation of which 
the revisers differed among themselves, as Rom. ix. 
5 ; I Cor. ii. 13 ; Phil. iii. 16 : a few also on which 
divines outside their body differ from them, as Matt. 
f^/tX^^tf ^i. ig ; Heb. i. I : but these are but slight departures 
"t^yxy^hom. the general voice of approbation. A few speci- 
mens of the two versions, A. and R., compared with 
each other, must suffice to illustrate this part of my 
letter. 

Matt. i. 18. A., ivas espoused ; R., was betrothed. 
19. A., a just man ; R., a righteous man. 22. A., 
now all this ivas done ; R., now all this is come to 
pass. 25. A., a virgin ; R., the virgin, ii. i. A., 
tJiere came wise men from the east to Jerusalem ; R., 
wise men from the east came to Jerusalem. 2. A., 
ive have seen ; R., we saw. 6. A., shall ride ; R., shall 
be shepherd of. 8. A., that I may come and worship 
him also ; R., that I also may come and worship him. 
16. A., children ; R., male children. A. coasts \ R., 
borders. A., diligently inquired \ R., carefully learnt. 
22. A., did reign ; R., was reigning, iii. i. A., came\ 
R., cometh. 4. A., the same John ; R., John him- 
self. 7. A., came) R., coming. A., who hath warned] 
R., who warned. 8. A., meet for repentance ; R., 
worthy of repentance. 12. K., purge his floor \ R., 
cleanse his threshing-floor. 14. A., John forbade 
him] R., John would have hindered him. 16. A., 



DEDICA TION. xiii 

descending like a dove, and ligJiting 7ipon him ; R., 
descending as a dove, and coming upon him. 

As to neatness, I must again be content to quote 
two or three instances out of the crowd which might 
easily be gathered from the books at large. Matt. ii. 
4. A., And zvhen he had gatJiered all the chief priests 
and scribes of the people together, he dema7ided of them 
where Christ shonld be born ; R., And gathering 
together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, 
he inquired of them where the Christ should be born. 
(Compare also v. 7, 9, 11.) iv. 3. A., And when the 
tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of 
God, command that these stones be made bread; R., 
And the tempter came and said unto him, If thou art 
the Son of God, command that these stones become 
bread. 24. A., And his fame went throughout all 
Syria : and they brougJit tcnto him all sick people that 
were taken with divers diseases and torments, and those 
zvhich were possessed witJi devils, and those which were 
lunatic, and those that had the palsy ; and he healed 
them ; R., And the report of him went forth into all 
Syria ; and they brought unto him all that were sick, 
holden with divers diseases and torments, possessed 
with devils, and epileptic, and palsied ; and he healed 
them. [As larger specimens, Rom. v., or Phil, ii., 
may be compared in the two versions.] 

Style and rhythm are in some degree matters of 
opinion, and different minds must often agree to 
differ respecting them. In Matt. v. 26 we have been 
much censured for writing ' the last farthing ' for ' the 



xiv DEDICATION. 

uttermost farthing ' of Auth. V. But without raising 
the disputable question whether uttermost is, without 
Hmitation, a synonym of ' last/ I think it in better 
taste here to use ' last' If I had no silver in my 
purse, I might say, I have used it to the last sixpence ; 
I would not say, ' to the uttermost sixpence.' A severe 
critic of our grammar and style, writing in ' Public 
Opinion,' calls us to account for employing an ellipse 
common to Greek, Latin, and German, as well as to 
\ our own tongue — the use of one singular verb with 
I several subjects. Therefore, as to I Cor. xiii. 13, ' vvv\ h\ 
' /jisvso 7rLCTTL9, sXiTi^, aydiTT), TO. Tpla ravra — nunc autem 
manet spes, fides, caritas, tria hsec — nun aber bleibt 
Glaube, Hoffnung, Liebe, diese drei — but now abideth 
faith, hope, love, these three ' — each version is alike 
erroneous, alike condemnable, in his judgment. But 
perhaps the idiom of four concurring languages, repre- 
sented severally by Paul, Jerome, Luther, and the Re- 
visers of 161 1 and 1 88 1, maybe a quadrilateral strong 
enough to sustain, without succumbing, the assault of 
one modern English grammarian. In Matt. xxii. 
40, our defence would have been more complete if, 
after taking Kpsfiarai for the old reading Kpsfiavrat, 
we had translated in the order of our Greek, 'the 
whole law hangeth,' instead of 'hangeth the whole 
law.' The same critic contrasts, to our apparent 
disadvantage, the two translations, Authorised and 
Revised, of Matt xiii. 37-39. Let me set them side 
by side, as he has done. 



DEDICATION. 



Aiith. 

He answered and said 
unto them, He that soweth 
the good seed is the Son 
of man ; the field is the 
world ; the good seed are 
the children of the king- 
dom ; but the tares are 
the children of the wicked 
one ; the enemy that 
sowed them is the devil ; 
the harvest is the end of 
the world ; and the reap- 
ers are the angels. 



Rev. 

And he answered and 
said, He that soweth the 
good seed is the Son of 
man ; and the field is the 
world ; and the good 
seed, these are the sons 
of the kingdom ; and the 
tares are the sons of the 
evil one ; and the enemy 
that sowed them is the 
devil ; and the harvest is 
the end of the world ; and 
the reapers are angels. 



Here it cannot be denied that the Authorised, by 
neglecting the particles, has gained a buoyancy and 
comeliness of form which the Revisers have sacrificed 
by retaining seven * ands ' instead of one. But what 
the critic does not notice or suggest is this, that their 
choice was made with full deliberation, and clear con- 
sciousness of its rhetorical disadvantage. The older 
translators had, in this somewhat exceptional case, 
thought proper to exhibit a piece of English well 
pared and neatly trimmed. The Revisers thought 
it better to retain the peculiar character of St. 
Matthew's style. A characteristic habit of St. Mark 
is the frequent ' straightway ; ' of St. Luke the 
oft-recurring phrase ' and it came to pass ; ' in St 



xvi DEDICATION. 

Matthew the superabundant number of connective 
particles, h\ and KaL The Revisers, as faithful 
portrait-painters, were minded to retain all these 
peculiar features. Pedantry there was none in this 
decision ; nor ought such a word ever to have been 
applied to a body of men so variously trained in 
different schools and colleges, all of mature age, and 
most of them long employed in the highest work of 
English culture. I cannot, however, deny that in the 
passage last cited there is something to be said in 
favour of the Authorised Version. It is this : — In the 
Revised English ^ and ' is a heavier particle than Se 
which it represents ; and, as it begins each clause, 
while hz is always post-positive, the heaviness of the 
Revised Version is further increased by this circum- 
stance. For these reasons it is very possible that, if a 
larger company of Revisers were, as a court of 
appeal, to review our work on a definite number of 
disputed points (this being one), a majority might 
rev^erse our decision, and vote in this particular case 
to omit the particles. I have spoken of their omission 
here by the older translators as an exceptional 
instance. Comparison of ch. viii. in A. V. will con- 
firm this opinion. Out of thirty-four of its verses, 
twenty-three begin with * and,' which occurs forty-three 
times besides ; R. V., maintaining its own principle, 
begins twenty-nine of the verses with ' and,' and has 
' and ' forty times additionally. 

Having been thus led to speak of a review of our 
work as an imaginary circumstance, and being so far 



DEDICATION. x\ 

advanced in years that I cannot expect to see the ^ 
issue of this momentous enterprise, I venture to ask 
those who are the proper persons to consider and de- 
cide, whether, after the interval of a year, within which 
time criticism at home and abroad may have said its 
last word, the Revising Company might not usefully 
be invited to meet again, and, while they review their 
reviewers, to review themselves by such light as would 
have been gained. To what steps such a review 
might lead, I do not presume, as a single member, to 
suggest. * Viderint alii.' Surely a heavy respon- 
sibility would rest somewhere, I cannot say where, if 
the present great opportunity should be frittered 
away, instead of being improved to the utmost ; if 
Bibles and liturgies containing proved corruptions 
and errors in important passages were long left to 
circulate among Christian people, as representing the 
pure Word of God. To many minds this would seem 
to be a shame and a scandal. 

III. You and I, dear Dr. Scrivener, have sat 
together eleven years, often voting, like other Re- 
visers, on opposite sides, but without impairing, as I 
hope and believe, our mutual regard and esteem. 
My view of Rom. ix. 5 (to which I must now add Tit. 
ii. 13) has not, as I know, your approval and support. 
My reasons for it are set forth in Appendix I. to these 
sermons, and need not be recited here. But, as my 
friend Mr. Humphry speaks with avowed pleasure of 
the new rendering adopted in Titus, I am compelled 

a 



fe 



xviii DEDICATION. 

unwillingly to say that I do not share his satisfaction ; 
for I feel morally certain that St. Paul's mind would 
have been expressed had ' our Saviour ' been written 
(as in A. V.) instead of Saviour alone, or if, to avoid all 
doubt, it had been placed at the close of the sentence, 
' the great God and Jesus Christ our Saviour.' In an- 
other place (p. 15) Mr. Humphry justly deprecates 'a 
servile adherence to the order of the Greek ; ' I do 
the same here. I would give to ^corrjpo^ a capital S : 
and as to the absence of the article rov, after having 
rendered 'Ajlov Tlvsyfjuaros in Matt. i. 20, and "Ayiov 
UvsvfjLa in Luke ii., ' t/ie Holy Ghost,' besides other 
places in which we have supplied a definite article, 
there was no occasion to avoid a like freedom here. 
Therefore, if on doctrinal grounds I thought it im- 
portant to argue that St. Paul does not give to our 
Saviour the predicate Sso^, I should refuse to ac- 
knowledge either passage, Rom. or Tit., as valid 
proof against me. But I have no such interest. I 
accept with reverent assent the decrees of Nicsea 
and Constantinople, and the definitions of the later 
creed, ' Ouicunque vult,' as logically just deductions 
from the teaching of Holy Scripture, thus adhering 
to the sixth Article of my Church as well as to the 
first and eighth. Therefore my orthodoxy cannot be 
impugned by authority. It may be impugned un- 
authoritatively by those who have persuaded them- 
selves that the writers of Holy Scripture v^ere not 
only guarded by the Holy Spirit from all noxious 
error, but also guided into all truth in heaven and 



DEDICATION. xix 

earth. I do not share this opinion. St. Paul calls 
Qe6t7)s-^ mystery (i Tim. iii. i6) ; he calls Christ Him- 
self the mystery of God (Col. i. 27 ; ii. 2) ; he speaks of 
Christ Jesus (Phil, ii ) as hv /mopcfif} Ssov v7rdp')((ov, and 
(equivalently) as o)v taa Sso) : he says (Col. ii. 9) that 
in Christ dwells all the fulness of OeoTrjs in bodily 
form : but when to the Christian Jews of Rome (Rom. 
i. 3, 4) he describes Him solemnly as the subject of 
his gospel, how does he speak of Him } As Son, 
' born of the seed of David according to the flesh, 
but according to His divine spirit {Kara TrvsvfMa 
dyLcoavvrjs) defined to be the Son of God.' As Paul in 
these great places, and in so many others, has re- 
frained from predicating Christ as dsos, I do not 
think he did so in two dubious places, confessedly 
capable of being otherwise explained. Even St. 
John, who has in his opening chapter Oso9 r/v 6 
A6yo9, and perhaps even /jLovojsvrj^ 6s6s, in allusion 
to Christ, does not repeat the same elsewhere. 
Hence I do not think that any apostle, John, or 
Peter, or Paul, was so taught the full fjuvanqpiov 
Oeorriros as that they were prepared to formulate the 
decrees of Nicsea and Constantinople, which appeared 
after 300 years and more, or the Trinitarian exegesis, 
which was completed after 600 years and more. But 
they, with the other evangelists, guided by the Holy 
Spirit, furnished the materials from which those 
doctrines were developed. What then } Are we 
better off than they by virtue of our Trinitarian logic. ^ 
In point of practice, not a whit. They knew all that 



XX BEDICATION. 

was needed to make them love Christ as human and 
divine, to worship him as divine. Can we practically 
do more ? They knew that they had received the 
Divine Spirit, and they could pray for the continuance 
of His gifts, individually and in communion. Can 
we practically do more ? Happy we if we practically 
do as much. And, after all, what are our dogmas 
iTzpi dsoTrfTos, concerning the divine ' modus exis- 
tendi ' } If we examine them with care, we shall find 
them, mainly, logical negations, however important 
and valuable for repelling error. We see God hi 
icroTTTpov h alvl^fiarL. If we believe in Him, hope in 
Him, love Him, as shown to us in Christ Jesus crcofia- 
TiKa)9, the TOTS will come in His good time, when we 
shall see Him irpocrwirov irpos irpoacdirov. Meanwhile 
the Nicene Creed, the creed ' Ouicunque vult,' the 
Anglican and other Articles, are, on this subject, 
i/c fxspovs. Till then ' we know in part, and we pro- 
phesy in part : but when that which is perfect is come, 
that which is in part shall be done away.' 'Although' 
(says Hooker) * to know God be life, and joy to make 
mention of His name, yet our soundest knowledge is 
to know that we know Him not as indeed He is, 
neither can know Him : and our safest eloquence 
concerning Him is our silence, when we confess, 
without confession, that His glory is inexplicable. His 
greatness above our capacity and reach. He is above, 
and we upon earth ; therefore it behoveth our words 
to be wary and few.' 



DEDICA TION. xxi 

If you find my letter too discursive, ascribe this 
fault to my loyal zeal for the success of a great work 
in which I have had but a small share, while your 
part in it has been large and important. 
I am, my dear Dr. Scrivener, 

Yours most sincerely, 

B. H. KENNEDY. 



CONTENTS. 



SERMON I. 



■AGK 



The Interpretation of the Bible i 

SERMON 11. 
The Revised Text . . . . . 30 

SERMON III. 
The Revised Version 52 

APPENDICES. 

Appendix 1 75 

Appendix II -91 

Appendix III. : Select Textual Correction . . .101 

Postscript . . . . • . • • • -155 
Note i^i 



SERMON I. 

THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE.^ 

I Corinthians ii. 15. 
The spiritual man jiidgeth all things. 

I. If we regard man as a free moral agent, 
and religion as the method ordained by God to 
restore him to his Makers image, lost by sin, 
it is evident that in every religious transaction 
there are two factors operating, the divine and 
the human. The mutual and the joint opera- 
tion of these factors we cannot measure, because 
the divine nature and its workings lie beyond 
the reach of human definition. We know only 
what is revealed to us of them in the Word of 
God, and what we are allowed to see of their 
results in the li^^es and characters of men. The 
highest phase of this truth — the sun, as it were, 

^ Parts I. and II. of this Sermon were preached before the ^^ 

University of Cambridge in January 1862. Parts I. and III. ^J^^^Vhi 
were preached in Ely Cathedral in July 1881, 

B 



2 SERMON L 

from which all its exhibitions radiate — is the 
great doctrine of the Incarnation, very God and 
very man united in one Christ. The man Christ 
Jesus was thereby constituted the one Mediator 
between God and man. The possibiHty of 
man's reunion with God was objectively de- 
clared, and the means of reahsing it subjec- 
tively w^ere brought within man's reach. In all 
these means the concurrence of the divine and 
human factors is again supposed. If we are 
saved by grace on the part of God, it is through 
faith on our own part. If the Spirit beareth 
witness, it is with our spirits. If we work out 
our own salvation, it is while God worketh in 
us both to will and to do. If we pray, it is 
because prayer is the voice of faith, appointed 
to receive the answering grace of God. And 
the Sacraments were ordained by Christ, partly 
indeed to knit His servants together by common 
pledges of Christian brotherhood, but partly, 
too, as solemn acts, wherein divine grace and 
human faith should meet and co-operate with 
mysterious power and effect. 

When we review the various heresies^ which 
from time to time have divided the Christian 

^ The term ' heresy ' is used in its ancient Scriptural sense 
as a sect or form of doctrine. 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE. 3 

Church, and those which yet divide it, we per- 
ceive that most of them arise from the exag- 
geration of one of these elements of relio^ious 
truth and action, to the consequent depreciation 
of the other element. 

Thus, in regard to the first and cardinal 
doctrine — the nature of our blessed Saviour — 
the Ebionite heresy, since called Socinian, 
utterly denied His divine nature ; while the 
Arian and semi-Arian heresies disparaged it 
in various degrees. On the other hand, the 
Doketic heresy annihilated our Lord's human 
nature ; and the Apollinarian, Monophysite, 
and Monotheletic heresies, severally, muti- 
lated that human nature in some function. It 
stands to reason, that all erroneous teaching in 
regard to the nature of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ becomes, in its place and propor- 
tion, erroneous teaching in regard to that work 
of human redemption which was wrought in- 
deed, objectively as to each of us, by Him 
alone, but wrought by Him as very God and 
very man, united in one Christ. 

If we next look to the work of individual 
salvation, in which the divine and the human 
concur and co-operate, it will again appear, on 
the face of history, that error has arisen, gene- 

B 2 



4 SERMON I. 

rally, from the exaggeration of the one element 
to the disparagement of the other. Thus 
Pelaglus overrated man's natural powers as a 
moral agent, and so detracted from the convert- 
ing and regenerating grace of the Holy Spirit. 
On the other side the element of human free- 
dom has been Ignored by Calvlnlstic excess ; 
and though it were Improper to say that divine 
prescience and power have been overrated, we 
may say it has been forgotten that the finite mind 
has no measure for qualities infinitely residing 
in God, and no faculty of comprehending, what 
nevertheless It should believe, their harmonious 
coexistence and perfect reconciliation In Him. 

The same kind of error meets us again in 
the opinions which have been held concerning 
the Sacraments. The Romanist, on the one 
hand, infers grace from the outward work alone, 
to the neglect of human faith : the Zwinglian, 
on the other, treats them as mere acts of 
human obedience, having no promise of special 
grace. 

What then, it will naturally be asked, is our 
test of truth in these questions, and what our 
rule of duty? Surely It Is our wisdom to believe 
that each of these doctrines is a great and holy 
mystery, which we can see only In part, and 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE. 5 

concerning which we can prophesy only in part, 
while we are yet clothed with this body of decay 
and death. Surely it is our duty to accept fully, 
and fully, as far as we are enabled, to act upon, 
both those elements which Holy Scripture 
shows to us as coexisting and co-operating- ; and 
not to beat our wings against the cage, wasting 
our moral and intellectual strength in contro- 
versies, of which we ' find no end, in wandering 
mazes lost' Such controversies, alas ! are often 
worse than unpractical ; they have proved, and 
in some cases still prove, to be * logomachies, of 
which Cometh envy, strife, railings, evil surmis- 
ings.' Let us escape from them by use of the 
clue which our Church has 'wisely and kindly 
given in her 1 7th Article, ' receiving God's pro- 
mised in such wise as they be generally set 
forth to us in Holy Scripture, and, in our 
doings, following that will of God which we 
have expressly declared unto us in the Word of 
God; 

There are two other important and mutually 
related questions of religion, in which again we 
have to recognise the presence of the divine 
and human factors, without venturing to deter- 
mine the precise mode and degree in which 
they severally operate. These questions are 



6 SERMON I. 

the inspiration and the interpretation of the 
Holy Scriptures. 

Divine inspiration is a property, expressly 
ascribed by St. Paul to the writings of the Old 
Testament, and justly inferred of those of the 
New, from our Saviour's promises, and from 
the character of the writers. Attempt has often 
been made, and still is made, to define the 
manner and extent of this inspiration. No such 
attempt has been established as a norm in the 
Church, and we verily believe that, as else- 
where, so here, the nature of the case precludes 
accurate definition. The nearest approach to a 
rule will probably be that which shall most dis- 
tinctly recognise the constant presence of the 
Holy Spirit with the sacred writers, without 
denying the free development of their human 
faculties in the work of authorship. ' It seemed 
good to the Holy Ghost and to us,' said the 
apostles in their first council ; thus claiming the 
sanction of the Holy Ghost for the collective 
decision of their inspired minds, and yet ex- 
pressing their individual judgment as persons 
who had exercised free thought and discussion.^ 

^ The notion of ^ verbal ' inspiration, not yet abandoned 
universally, is too palpably absurd to require serious refutation. 
If the authors were thus prompted, what of the countless tran- 
scribers and translators, whose varying copies are received as 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE. 7 

The broad principles of Biblical interpreta- 
tion are analogous to those of inspiration. The 
Bible is to be interpreted by the employment 
of the human faculties under divine assistance 
and direction. We place no limit to the use 
of man's learning, acuteness, and industry, as 
means to an end, in determining the text of the 
Bible, and in ascertaining its sense, gramma- 
tically, logically, historically ; but after all — con- 
fronting the charge of mysticism, which we 
expect from the worshippers of human reason 
— we say that spiritual things can be fully 
explained by the Spirit alone ; and that, con- 
sequently, none but spiritual men are qualified 
to form an accurate judgment of the great truths 
of salvation. 

Let us turn our attention now to the very 
important passage in which my text occurs. 

In his First Epistle to the Corinthians, St. 
Paul, after reproving the Christians of Corinth 
for their sectarian divisions, reminds them that 
he himself had preached to them the plain vital 
doctrine of Christ and Him crucified, a stum- 
bllngblock to the Jews, who desired a sign — that 

Holy Writ ? Of every Bible it niay be said, ' Herein is divine 
truth, but alloyed with human error, which we must strive to 
clear away by all the means given to us for the welfare of our 

souls.' 



8 SERMON I. 

Is, a striking manifestation of power ; and fool- 
ishness to the Greeks, who loved philosophic 
speculation. At Corinth St. Paul had chiefly 
to dread the Greek error. He therefore goes 
on to say that, In setting forth the doctrine of 
Christ and Him crucified, he had purposely 
abstained from the rhetorical display of mere 
human learning, that he might more distinctly 
exhibit the power of the Holy Spirit. Yet (he 
says) I preach a true wisdom, hidden from the 
ereat ones of this world, but revealed to Chris- 
tians by the Spirit of God ; for ' the Spirit 
searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of 
God.' 

The passage, which all but follows, extend- 
ing from the 12th verse of the second to the 
4th verse of the third chapter, I will now ven- 
ture to read, with that amount of paraphrase, 
and those variations from the Authorised Ver- 
sion, which are required to exhibit the view I 
have been led to take of its meaning. 

' Now we apostles of Christ received not 
that inspiration which men of the world re- 
ceive, making them subtle disputants, eloquent 
speakers, and fine writers, but the Inspiration 
which Is from God ; that we may know the 
blessings bestowed upon us by the grace of 



THE INTERPRETATIOh OF THE BIBLE. 9 

God. And these things we speak In words not 
taught of human wisdom, but taught of divine 
inspiration, explaining spiritual things to spiritual 
men. For the natural (that is, the merely intel- 
lectual) man receiveth not the things of the 
Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him : 
neither can he know them, because they are to 
be judged in a spiritual manner. But the 
spiritual man Is able to form a judgment on all 
these points, while the natural man has no 
power to judge him. For who, as Isaiah says, 
knoweth the mind or spirit of the Lord, so that 
he shall instruct Him ? And we who are true 
Christians have that mind or spirit of the Lord 
Christ. So that no natural man can correct us. 
And yet, brethren, I could not speak to you as 
to spiritual men, but I had to speak to you as 
carnal men, as infant Christians. I fed you 
with milk, not with meat, for hitherto ye could 
not bear it. Nor can ye now : for ye are yet 
carnal. For whereas there is among you jealousy 
and strife, are ye not carnal, and walking in the 
steps of unrenewed man ? ' 

St. Paul, in short, says that the power 
which the Spirit gives to a Christian is some- 
thing different from mere human power : that 
it makes him able to understand, and, if a 



lo SERMON I. 

preacher, to explain spiritual things : but that 
his hearers cannot understand him unless they 
too are spiritual : and, in so far as they are still 
carnal, they must be reared and trained in ele- 
mentary doctrines like infants, till the mind of 
Christ be developed within them. 

By the psychic or natural man St. Paul 
means the unconverted possessor of mere 
human learning and science, having specially 
in view the Greek philosopher. He does not 
intend to say that the Christian can acquire no 
useful knowledge from an infidel (for indeed we 
may learn Hebrew from the Jew or Arabic 
from the Mahometan) ; but he implies that the 
infidel, to whom the faith and hope and love of 
the Christian are known only by name, can 
form no just notion of the Christian character, 
and contribute nothing to its instruction, edifica- 
tion, and completion. In respect to Biblical 
/ interpretation, the infidel may, perchance, assist 
i us to explain the letter, but he can throw no 
I light on the spirit, of the Bible. 

Again, we find Christians themselves cited 
by the apostle in this place under three several 
heads or classes. First, we have spiritual men 
who, like St. Paul and his fellow-labourers, 
speak and explain spiritual things : next, we 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE. ii 

have spiritual men to whom such things are 
explained, and who are competent to form a 
right judgment thereof: and lastly, we have 
Infant Christians, babes In Christ, whom the 
apostle could not address as spiritual, but as 
carnal ; yet Christians still, and included among 
those whom, in his preface, St. Paul had termed 
'the Church of God, called to be saints.' 

Now (to speak^ of the last class in the first 
place) does not the language of St. Paul In 
dealing with such men teach the same doctrine 
which we learn from our Lord's parables of the 
tares, the net, and the vine : the same which 
we deduce also from the presence of a traitor 
among His disciples : namely, that those who 
have been received into the Church, though 
they be carnal, are not on that account to be 
dealt with as heathens, but to be corrected, 
strengthened, and restored. If so it may be, by 
wise and kind discipline ? We should further 
observe, that all professing Christians are in 
charity to be considered and dealt with as 
spiritual men, except so far as they give by 
their walk and conduct unquestionable evidence 
of being carnal. St. Paul does not speak to 
these Corinthians as being carnal and not spiri- 
tual, without stating his grounds for so speak- 



12 SERMON 1. 

ing : ' There is jealousy and strife among you.' 
Never, never let us lay a snare for the con- 
science of a Christian brother by requiring of 
him any other test of spirituality than that of 
Christian conduct, which our Saviour has sanc- 
tioned : * By their fruits ye shall know them.' 
When plain proof of carnality is absent, let us 
hope all things of their spiritual state, judging 
not, that we be not judged. 

For let us not extend too widely the mean- 
ing and application of our text. A Roman 
Pope, Boniface VIII., had the hardihood to 
claim for the Roman See supreme jurisdiction 
in all causes, civil as well as ecclesiastical, by 
virtue of the maxim that ' the spiritual man 
judgeth all things.' His successor In our days 
may perhaps have founded upon the same 
maxim the right of promulgating a new dogma 
of Christian faith without the sanction of a 
General Council.^ We mention such extrava- 
gances only to show to what extent the Bible 
has been, and may be, misinterpreted by erring 



^ The allusion here is to the dogma of the ' Immaculate Con- 
ception of the Virgin,' sanctioned by Pope Pius IX. This claim 
he subsequently carried to its fatal extreme, by obtaining, in 
1869, the sanction of what he was pleased to call a General 
Council, to the doctrine (till then repudiated by all but the 
Jesuits) of Papal Infallibility. 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE. 13 

men. Here the term ' all things/ whether it 
have the Greek article or not, evidently implies 
all those thino^s, mentioned above, which God 
has freely given to them that love Him. These 
are the things explained by the spiritual 
preacher ; these are the things of which the 
spiritual hearer can form a judgment; not the 
mind and the heart of a Christian brother : for 
God alone knoweth the hearts of men. With 
respect to those spiritual men, whose office it is 
in these times to follow St. Paul and the other 
apostles in explaining spiritual things to the 
spiritual, earnestly must we desire, earnestly 
should we pray, that they may be spiritual 
indeed, preserved by the Holy Spirit from all 
error and evil, guided into all truth, and enabled 
to preach the word with power. Yet we are 
not entitled to rank the very best among them 
— they certainly would not rank themselves — 
with a Paul, an Apollos, and a Cephas ; even as 
a Paul, an Apollos, and a Cephas would not 
rank themselves with Christ. We dare not 
class the words of any fallible men at any time 
since the apostolic age — be the speakers ever 
so good and wise and learned and weighty — 
with the inspired oracles of God. When such 
men speak, let us hear with reverent attention, 



14 SERMON I. 

but, If doubt arise, we must search the Scrip- 
tures, as did the Berseans, to see whether these 
things be so. We must search the Scriptures 
with dlHgent and thoughtful study, yet with 
deep humihty and with constant prayer. For 
in this work the divine and human must go 
together. The spiritual man alone is competent 
to form a correct judgment of spiritual things. 
By the sanctified soul the saving truths of the 
Gospel will be more distinctly and fully seen 
' than by the larger learning of the merely 
intellectual student. Yet the admission of this 
/ principle, rightly viewed, has no tendency to 
I discourage or disparage the value of human 
[ learning and talent and industry In the study of 
' the Bible. For the truly spiritual man Is an 
humble, a zealous, a conscientious man ; and In 
; each character he will neglect no means which 
' God has placed within his reach of acquainting 
I both himself and others with the truth as It Is 
in Jesus. 

As regards the textual constitution, the 
grammatical and logical explanation, of the New 
Testament, we must admit that new results are 
from time to time achieved by Improved learn- 
ing and enlarged research. And, as lovers of 
truth (for, If not such, we are very unworthy 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE. 15 

servants of Him who is the truth as well as the 
life), we ought to lament that these results were 
so long restricted to the use of the professed 
divine, instead of being made, as soon as pos- 
sible, the common property of Christians. Do 
we not still see the spurious verse of St. John's 
first episde (t John v. 7) cited as genuine, by 
writers of slender learning, it is true, but for 
that very reason, perhaps, the more popular in 
an age of shallow reading ? Is not St. Paul's 
evidence still quoted in terms which he did not 
use : ' God was manifest in the flesh ' ? And 
are not the great divine truths themselves liable 
to be injured by this abuse, when the student 
discovers that texts which he has been wont to 
hear cited as normal are not Biblical texts at 
all ? Yet superficial or bigoted minds may still 
claim the right of quoting these texts, as long 
as the Church sets them before her children as 
genuine portions of the sacred volume. 

1 1. An eminent writer of the day very justly 
cautions his readers against the idle or fallacious 
use of Scriptural language. One such instance 
I have given in the misapplication of the words 
of my text by Pope Boniface. But indeed of 
such misapplications the name is legion. What 
text is oftener cited and preached upon than the 



i6 SERMON I. 

words ' Search the Scriptures ' ? yet the logic 
of the context requires us to read, ' Ye search 
the Scriptures : ' and we fear the translators 
were dazzled by the apparent value of the im- 
perative sense as a weapon against Romanism. 
' Comparing spiritual things with spiritual ' 
were the words prefixed to the Sermons on 
Scripture coincidences by one whose memory 
we all revere and love. My view of the con- 
text has obliged me to render the Greek other- 
wise : ' explaining spiritual things to spiritual 
men : ' as in the ist verse of the twelfth chapter 
the context again Induces me to read ' spiritual 
persons ' rather than ' spiritual things.' The 
value of Professor Blunt's sermons was alto- 
gether independent of his text : but his high 
sanction seemed to be given to an erroneous 
translation. Far more momentous was the 
error of the great Augustine, when, being igno- 
rant of Greek, and following the Latin Vulgate, 
he argued the Imputation of Adam's sin to his 
descendants from a mistranslation of the 12th 
verse of the fifth chapter of Romans ; rendering 
' in whom all sinned ' Instead of * inasmuch as 
all sinned.' — Take another instance. The very 
words of St. Paul In this Epistle to the Corin- 
thians, — ' we preach Christ crucified,' and again, 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE. 17 

* I determined not to know any thing among 
you, save Jesus Christ, and Him crucified,' — in 
how many sermons have they been made a 
groundwork for the doctrine of the Atonement, 
as the great cardinal work of Christ ! Yet these 
texts afford no basis either for that doctrine 
itself, or for its claim to supreme importance in 
Christ's redeeming work. St. Paul means to 
aver that he has preached the truth as it is in 
Jesus fully and honestly, not hiding or sophis 
ticating it to flatter human prejudice. Had his 
galnsayers been Sadducees, he would perhaps 
have said, 'We preach Christ, and Him risen 
from the dead.' As they are proud Pharisaic 
Jews, and proud intellectual Greeks, he says, we 
preach Christ, and Him crucified, however 
offensive to some, and foolish to others, this 
doctrine of a crucified King and Saviour may 
appear. The great lesson which St. Paul so 
teaches these proud men is — that of self-humilia- 
tion in face of the true power and wisdom of 
God : even as in his second chapter to the 
Philippians the lesson he teaches is that of self- 
sacrifice, in view of the great example of Christ. 
' Let this mind, this unselfish sympathetic mind, 
be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus, who, 
subsisting in the form of God, deemed not the 

C 



1 8 SERMON I. 

being like God a miser's treasure, a thing not to 
be parted with ; but put off His dignity by 
taking a servant's form, being born in human 
semblance : and when He was so found as a 
man in outward guise, He humbled Himself yet 
further, and became submissive even unto 
death, and that death the shameful and bitter 
death of the cross/ 

If we turn to the Epistle to the Romans, 
chap. viii. '^'i^, 34, we shall see (I venture to 
think) that the clauses rendered in our version 
' It is God that justifieth,' ' it is Christ that 
died,' should have the interrogative form, ' Will 
God that justifieth ' (accuse them) ? ' will Christ 
that died ' (condemn them) ? 

Proceeding to Phil. iii. 16, I cannot but 
believe that this verse ought to be taken as a 
preamble to the 17th : ' Nevertheless, seeing we 
have thus far attained (in our lessons of Chris- 
tian duty) — to walk by the same rule — be ye 
with one consent imitators of me,' &c. 

It must be admitted that some translations 
in our English Bible have a purely ecclesias- 
tical character ; that is, they have been accom- 
modated to some doctrine which hearers and 
readers in later times would recognise, but 
which was certainly not recognised by those to 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE 19 

whom the words were first spoken. Such are 
the passages Matt. i. 18, Luke i. 35, where the 
phrase ' Pneuma hagion ' (holy Spirit) Is ren- 
dered ' the Holy Ghost.' Whether this render- 
ing, In the absence of the article, Is ungramma- 
tical or not, I shall not pretend to determine. 
Middleton condemns it. But we must surely 
allow it to be unhlstorical. The doctrine of the 
Holy Trinity, and of the Holy Ghost as the 
Third Person in the Godhead, was not known 
to Joseph and Mary, who are severally addressed 
by the angel In these passages. By 'holy 
Spirit ' they would naturally understand ' a 
divine Inspiration or influence,' that ' power of 
the Highest ' by which the angel virtually Inter- 
prets the phrase in the passage of Luke. * Holy 
Spirit of God' might with advantage replace 
the words ' Holy Ghost.' 

In Rom. Ix. 3-5 we read In our Bibles 
the following words : ' For I could wish that 
myself were accursed from Christ for my 
brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh : 
who are Israelites ; to whom pertaineth the 
adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and 
the giving of the law, and the service of God, 
and the promises ; whose are the fathers, and 
of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, 

c 2 



20 SERMON L 

who Is over all, God blessed for ever.' If this 
version be correct, then we have here the only 
place In which St. Paul has said of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, In express predication, that ' He 
is God,' and with the strong addition and 
ascription, 'over all, blessed forever.' It seems 
quite Incredible that the apostle would choose, 
for such a momentous isolated declaration, a 
place like this, where he Is consoling the Jews 
by an enumeration of the special privileges 
which belonged to them as Jews, the last of 
these being that from among them should arise 
the Christ, the Messiah. For to suppose that 
the final words describe this Christ as God 
would then necessarily imply that the Jews ex- 
pected their Messiah to be ' God over all, blessed 
for ever ; ' an expectation which they certainly 
did not entertain, for it would seem to them 
then (as it seems now) at variance with their 
fundamental doctrine : ' Hear, O Israel ; the 
Lord your God Is one God.' And the modifi- 
cation of this doctrine in the Christian Creed 
Paul would surely not introduce here without 
some previous preparation, without some fuller 
explanation. This rendering we must therefore 
regard as one of an ecclesiastical character, 
adopted with too much eagerness, in order to 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE. 21 

obtain for an important doctrine of the Creed 
another positive sanction. I entertain httle 
doubt that the words ' Christ came ' should be 
followed by a full stop ; the next clause, an 
ascription of glory, being rendered, ' He who is 
over all is God, blessed for ever. Amen.' 

Biblical criticism, my brethren, is among the 
most sacred duties of the Christian scholar : a 
duty to be discharged frankly and faithfully, as 
under the eye of God. Faithless criticism may 
be learned, may be sagacious, may often be 
overruled by God to expose falsehood or to 
suggest and illustrate truth ; but as it is without 
the divine element, it sees and knows nothing 
of divine things. The blind cannot lead the 
blind. Faithless criticism is of the earth, earthy : 
it seems to flourish and flaunt for a while, but its 
fashion soon passeth away. The cold and per- 
verse rationalism of Semler and his school, the 
ingenious dreams of Strauss and the Hegelians 
— where are they now ? They are gone like 
the chaff which the wind scattereth : and the 
truth as it is in Jesus is a glad sound once more 
in the fatherland of Luther and Melancthon. 

The spiritual man judgeth all things. 
Brethren of the laity, it is your privilege and 
your duty to study in the Bible, to hear from 



22 SERMON L 

the pulpit, the blessings bestowed upon you by 
the grace of God. Be spiritual men. So shall 
ye be able to judge spiritually what ye read and 
hear, taking heed how ye read and how ye hear. 
Brethren of the clergy, and ye who are looking 
forward to the sacred office, it is, or it may be, 
your high privilege and duty to explain spiritual 
things. Be spiritual men. So alone will ye be 
able to divide rightly the word of truth, and to 
minister grace unto your hearers. 

Be spiritual men. But how ? In part by 
humbly believing and remembering that the 
answer to this question is a mystery. ' The 
wind bloweth where it listeth, and ye hear the 
sound thereof, but ye cannot tell whence it 
Cometh, or whither it goeth : even so is every 
man that is born of the Spirit.' In part by 
neglecting none of the means of grace prepared 
for Christians in the Church of Christ — prayer, 
worship, and the communion of the bpdy and 
blood of Christ. In part by being willing — 
willing in heart, willing in body, soul, and mind 
— to do the will of the Father, and to work out 
your own salvation with fear and trembling, yea, 
with the deepest humility, because it is God that 
worketh in you both to will and to do of His 
good pleasure. In part also by remembering 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE, 23 

that Spiritual grace is not given at once in its 
full proportion ; that, to be maintained, it must 
be improved ; that we must not stand still, if 
we would not go backward ; that the Christian 
life, as described in the Epistle for this day's 
service, is a race for the prize of an imperish- 
able crown, and they who run it must be tem- 
perate in all things. Most of all must those 
be tem.perate whose high and hard and most 
responsible function it is to explain spiritual 
things, lest that by any means, when they have 
preached unto others, they themselves should 
be cast away. 

May the Holy Spirit breathe upon our dis- 
tracted Church, and create in it spiritual minis- 
ters and spiritual congregations, that carnal 
jealousies and strifes may die away, and all 
things belonging to the Spirit may live and 
grow amongst us : that each Christian may be 
one with Christ, and all Christians one in 
Christ; and that Christ Himself, our incarnate 
Mediator, our crucified Redeemer, our risen 
Head, our glorified and reigning King, may 
be all in all, to the glory of God the Father ! 
Amen.^] 

^ This concludes the sermon as preached before the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge in January 1861. 



24 ■ SERMON I. 

III. My brethren, the words which I have 
so far addressed to you are my own words, 
though read from a printed volume. The 
sermon to which they belong was preached by 
me in the University pulpit at Cambridge, on 
January 27, 1861, more than twenty years ago. 
At that time I little guessed that a revision 
would be undertaken in my lifetime, and that 
I myself should be called to take part in the 
execution of such a work. Yet that work has 
been undertaken, has been completed in the 
course of eleven years and a half, and the new 
version so revised has now for many weeks 
been before the eyes of the Scripture-reading 
public of Great Britain and America. It is 
at this moment, and for a long time yet it may 
continue to be, subject to a storm of criticism, 
of which we must wait to see the consistency, 
the scope, and the reasons, before we can attempt 
to organise a defence, and to obtain a fair hearing 
before the tribunals of sound learning, upright 
intelligence, and enlightened wisdom. 

Meanwhile it is well that English congrega- 
tions should learn as much as can be told them 
from the pulpit about this important volume : 
why it was wanted, what it does to meet that 
want, and in what respects it is adapted to pro- 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE. 2$ 

mote true religion ; and its faults (for what 
human work is faultless ?) should be noted with 
a view to correction. As the volume is printed 
and published in several sizes, and at varied 
prices, it is fairly within the reach of all readers 
except the very poorest ; and I may venture to 
hope that most of those who hear me will soon 
become acquainted with it, and by studying its 
clear and careful preface will learn all they 
ought to know respecting its origin, its design, 
and the general rules by which the revisers 
have been guided in the performance of their 
work. 

As one of the revisers, I stand in a delicate 
position when I venture to add anything to 
what is said by our collective voice In that pre- 
face. But our excellent chairman, the Bishop 
of Gloucester and Bristol, has spoken more 
fully on the subject from his place in Convoca- 
tion. I have read what he there said, which 
of course forms part of the stock of public 
information. It Is well known that our whole 
company consisted of some twenty-five or 
twenty-six members, resident In various parts 
of Great Britain, engaged in various public 
duties, and not all of them, always able to 
attend the meetings In the Jerusalem Chamber, 



26 SERMON L 

which were held on forty days of every year. 
The average attendance might be about seven- 
teen members, but I speak without certain 
knowledge, and from mere conjecture. The 
members unable to attend were at liberty 
to communicate their opinions in writing on 
any passages which specially interested them, 
and such communications always received very 
careful attention. A committee of American 
divines was in session at New York for the 
purpose of regular communication with us. 
Their notes were sent across the Atlantic, 
printed, circulated, read, and carefully discussed 
in our meetings. Our whole work was gone 
over twice with thorough deliberation ; all differ- 
ences of opinion were settled by the votes of 
the members present, and in the second revi- 
sion a majority of two-thirds was required to 
overrule the Authorised Version if any member 
thought proper to demand that advantage. It 
is important for you to observe that the mar- 
ginal renderings introduced by the conjunction 
or always represent the opinion of a minority 
present, though such a margin was not neces- 
sarily granted, and the minority, when very 
small, rarely asked for it. 

Personally speaking (and I am sure every 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE. 27 

reviser would say the same thing) I do not feel 
myself at liberty, as a loyal comrade, to say 
where I voted with the majority, where with 
the minority ; that is, I cannot loyally call in 
question the decisions of the company. But I 
am in a peculiar position on account of this 
sermon, in the course of which I expressed 
opinions on a certain number of passages in the 
Authorised Version. Some of those opinions 
are recognised as just by the changes made in 
revision ; others appear in the margin ; one or 
two have gained no recognition. But all these 
opinions, deliberately formed and expressed 
twenty years ago, I have not changed. I hold 
them still. A short time before the close of 
our labours I called the attention of the com- 
pany to this sermon, desiring to know whether, 
in publicly maintaining opinions publicly ex- 
pressed long ago, without any reference to a 
revised version, I should be In any respect vio- 
lating my loyal duty as a reviser. No formal 
answer could be given to this question, but not 
a voice was raised in contradiction to the lan- 
guage of the chairman, which intimated that no 
such imputation could attach to me for so acting. 
It is not my purpose to bring forward any of 
those passages now, saving only that one which 



28 SERMON I. 

grows out of the text, viz. i Cor. i. 13, ' Inter- 
preting or explaining spiritual things to spiritual 
men.' This rendering stands in our margin. 
I would have wished it in the text, because I 
think that the two following verses imperiously 
call for it — in fact, prove and enforce its truth. 
This, I say, is the only instance in which I shall 
express a dissentient private judgment to-day. 
I do so because it cannot be well helped, be- 
cause it is in print already, and because I feel 
myself licensed to express this opinion without 
infringement of loyal duty. 

In my next discourse I hope to bring to 
your notice the manner in which the revisers 
have done the work entrusted to them — the re- 
constitution, that is, of the Authorised Version. 
This will lead us to consider two points : first, 
our corrections of that Greek text which the 
companies of 161 1 followed in translating; 
secondly, our corrections of the Authorised 
Version itself, adopted as either essential or 
desirable. 

But while I invite you to hear what I have 
to say upon the right interpretation of those 
Holy Scriptures which are profitable for in- 
struction in righteousness, and able, if rightly 
used, to make us wise unto salvation, I must 



THE INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE, 29 

not part from you at this time without recalling 
our blessed Lord's warning words, ' Take heed 
how ye hear.' Bear in mind the maxim of St. 
Paul in my text : ' The spiritual man judgeth all 
things.' You cannot judge aright without being 
spiritual men. You cannot be spiritual men 
without the grace of God's Holy Spirit. That 
grace you cannot hope to obtain without using 
the means appointed to that end, among which 
are the study of God's Word, even of the truth 
as it is in Jesus, and the practice of private 
as well as public prayer. Search the Scriptures, 
then ; pray earnestly : pray especially for me, 
that I may be empowered to speak to you as a 
spiritual teacher ; pray for yourselves, that you 
may be enabled to judge my words as spiritual 
hearers. 



30 



SERMON 11. 

THE REVISED TEXT. 

St. John's Gospel xix. 22. 
Pilate answered^ What I have written I have written. 

I. You know, my Christian friends, what 
Pilate had written, and for what purpose he 
wrote. Most of you can travel back in thought 
to that 'place of a skull' near the city of Jeru- 
salem, where about eighteen centuries and a 
half ago there was standing a wooden cross, 
to which were nailed the hands — upon which 
was stretched the tortured body — from which 
drooped the still bleeding brow — of Him whom 
the Roman centurion on guard pronounced to 
be surely the Son of God : of Him, in remem- 
brance of whose sacrifice for your sake many of 
you here present have received in faith with 
thanksgiving those consecrated elements of 
bread and wine, which His priests administer 
with solemn prayer that the body of Jesus Christ 



THE REVISED TEXT. 31 

given for you, and the blood of Jesus Christ shed 
for you, may preserve your bodies and souls unto 
everlasting life. 

Pilate had written an inscription to be placed 
upon that ever-memorable cross, to be seen 
above the bleeding head of that tortured body. 

Varied as are the Gospel narratives of the 
deed wrought on that great Good Friday (and 
in this variety we see the proof of their veracity), 
they are all agreed in commemorating this in- 
scription. One Evangelist indeed commemo- 
rates it more fully than the other three : his 
Gospel was written long after theirs ; but he 
had been an eye-witness of the scene. For he 
it was who had leaned on his Master's bosom 
at the Last Supper : he had stood beside the 
cross of Jesus : he was the disciple whom Jesus 
loved, to whom Jesus entrusted His mother : 
he was the apostle of love, the preacher of 
Ephesus, the aged exile of Patmos, St. John, 
the son of Zebedee. 

St. Matthew writes : 

'And they set up over His head His 
accusation written, This is Jesus the 
King of the Jews.' 

St. Mark : 

* And the superscription of the accusation 



32 SERMON II. 

was written over, The King of the 
Jews.' 
In St. Luke we read : 

'And the soldiers also mocked Him, 
coming to Him, offering Him vinegar, 
and saying, If Thou be the King of the 
Jews, save Thyself. And there was also 
a superscription over Him : This Is 
the King of the Jews.' 
St. John's account is : 

' And Pilate wrote a title also, and put It 
on the cross. And there was written, 
Jesus of Nazareth the King of the 
Jews. This title therefore read many 
of the Jews ; for the place where Jesus 
was crucified was near to the city : and 
It was written In Hebrew, and In Latin, 
and in Greek. The chief priests of the 
Jews therefore said to Pilate, Write 
not The King of the Jews ; but that 
he said, I am King of the Jews. 
Pilate answered. What I have written 
I have written.' 
Why have I called to your minds this in- 
scription to-day ? Not In order to dwell now 
on the divine work then finished, with its mighty 
causes and consequences. Not to draw moral 



THE REVISED TEXT. 33 

warnings from the sin of the wicked Jews, or 
from that of Pilate, In whose conduct and words 
we may surely trace Indignation against the 
men who had forced his hand, indignation 
against himself for consenting to so heinous a 
crime as the murder of One in whom he found 
no fault. Of these thincrs I have treated In 
other sermons which the volume, now placed 
on the shelves of yonder library, contains. 

I cite this Inscription as well suited to 
Introduce the subject on which I pledged 
myself to preach this morning. If permitted. I 
mean the text from which our New Testament 
has been translated Into so many languages be- 
sides our own. 

Pilate's inscription was couched in three 
languages — Hebrew. Latin, and Greek. He- 
brew, I need hardly say, is the language of 
the Jews, that in which the books of the Old 
Testament are written. When our Saviour 
was on earth, the vulgar speech of the Jewish 
people had fallen off from the old and classical 
Hebrew to become a corrupt dialect, known 
as Syro-Chaldalc or Aramaic, which bore to 
the language of Moses and David the same 
sort of relation that the modern Hindustani 

D 



34 SERMON II. 

and Bengali bear to the older language of 
Hindustan, called Sanscrit. 

Pilate's inscription was therefore written in 
Hebrew, that is, in the common dialect of the 
Jewish populace, that it might be read by them. 
Probably he knew little of it himself beyond 
a smattering of the most usual Aramaic words. 
His conversations with eminent Jews would be 
held in a language known to both parties — I 
mean the Greek. 

The Latin language, that of Rome, was 
the language of the governor, of his staff, 
and many among his soldiers. It was the 
official language of Roman government, and 
would not be omitted by Pilate. But the Jews, 
I fancy, would have none of it, or as little as 
could be helped. 

There remains the third language used in 
this inscription, the Greek. This, the finest 
and most flexible speech the world has ever 
known, was propagated throughout the whole 
East then known to Europeans, from the Dar- 
danelles to the Persian Gulf, by means of the 
wonderful conquests of Alexander the Great, 
330 years before the Christian era. In the 
kingdoms of Egypt and Syria, which were 
founded by the successors of Alexander, and 



THE REVISED TEXT. 35 

flourished for a few centuries, Greek was the 
language of the conquerors, and became to a 
great extent the language of their subjects. 
This result the eminently literary and com- 
mercial spirit' of Greek populations contributed 
powerfully to achieve. The Jews indeed were 
what the Books of Maccabees show them ; 
what they remained under the Romans ; what 
they remained through the Middle Ages ; what 
they remain to this day — a peculiar people, fond 
of their own language, their own religion, their 
own rites and customs. But Greeks, with the 
Greek tongue, Greek dress, Greek commerce, 
Greek habits and influences, were around them 
everywhere, in Alexandria, Antloch, Damascus, 
Tyre, and Sidon. Greeks were among them 
in Palestine, especially In Jerusalem itself, and 
in trading seaports like Joppa and C^sarea. 
The Hebrew Scriptures themselves had been 
translated Into Greek by Jews who had mi- 
grated to Egypt, and, becoming familiar with 
the Greek tongue, were employed by Ptolemy 
Phlladelphus to execute this work. A fabulous 
tale respecting the manner of its execution 
by seventy-two translators working separately 
caused this translation to be generally known as 
the Septuagint Version. Such Jews as returned 

D 2 



36 SERMON 11. 

to Palestine, especially to Jerusalem itself, 
speaking Greek and living in Greek fashion, 
were called Hellenists. In the Acts they are 
called ' they that fear God.' By such Hel- 
lenistic Jews were written in Greek those 
Apocryphal books which our Church, by her 
6th Article, allows to be read for example of 
life and instruction of manners, but does not 
receive as a rule of faith. 

Thus you see that it was quite necessary 
for Pilate to write the inscription in Greek. 
In these days French is often called the pass- 
port language of the world. But much more 
than French now was Greek in our Saviour's 
lifetime on earth such a passport language. It 
was spoken by all educated persons east cf 
Italy, and we may almost say that it was taught 
to all well-educated persons in Italy itself, and 
even in the western states subject to Rome. 
We do not doubt that Pilate knew and spoke 
it well ; for so prudent an emperor as Tibe- 
rius would not have sent to the government 
of a difficult frontier province like Judaea a 
man who was not highly cultivated as well as 
very able. 

And all well-educated Jews, we doubt not, 
knew Greek; they could not help doing so, 



THE REVISED TEXT. yj 

surrounded as they were by so many to whom 
it was a current speech. 

Whether our blessed Lord, in His daily in- 
tercourse with the population of Galilee, used 
Greek or Aramaic, is a much-disputed question, 
which cannot, I fear, be settled beyond doubt. 
There seems to be great a p7^iori probability, 
and in the Gospels themselves there are several 
well-known indications pointing to the fact, 
that He familiarly spoke in the Chaldaic He- 
brew dialect. But one of our revising com- 
pany. Professor Roberts, has written a learned 
book in favour of the other hypothesis, that 
Greek was the language used by Jesus. 

All Jews who sought to become learned 
men studied Hebrew literature and law under 
the guidance of some emment Rabbi. Such 
was the training of Saul, afterwards Paul, who 
sat at the feet of Gamaliel. As to the disciples 
of our blessed Lord, called by Him from the 
humbler walks of life, we must ascribe their 
culture as well as the grace they received to His 
teaching. His society and example, and the in- 
fluence of that Holy Spirit which furnished 
them with the intellectual as well as the moral 
powers essential to their usefulness in the 
apostolic office. The choice of Greek under 



38 SERMON IT. 

that influence for the vehicle of their preaching, 
their epistles, their historic narratives, is a fact 
due to the prevalence of that language, as well 
as to its special excellence. But the Greek of 
the New Testament is not the subtle, refined, 
many-stringed instrument of speech, to which 
the great thinkers of Athens, historians,, philo- 
sophers, orators, dramatists, attuned the won- 
drous music of their thought. Its style, espe- 
cially the style of the four Gospels, is much 
simpler and homelier, so to say, than that of a 
Plato, a Demosthenes, or even of a Xenophon. 
The grandeur of these sacred books is not to be 
found in the region of high-wrought human 
language, but in that of divine truth taught to 
mankind in simple words. New Testament 
Greek is called Hellenistic — like that of the 
Septuagint translation and the Apocryphal 
books. 

It is, indeed, a very ancient and by no means 
improbable tradition that St. Matthew's Gospel 
was originally written in Aramaic Hebrew, and 
afterwards translated into Greek either by him- 
self or by another hand. This question is of 
litde concern to our present subject ; for as the 
Hebrew document (if there was such) is lost, 
and the Greek alone remains to us, scholars 



THE REVISED TEXT. 39 

have to deal with It as Greek, like all the other 
books of the New Testament. 

The criticism of N. T. Greek is therefore a 
peculiar work, different in some degree from 
that of the writings called classical. It requires 
special reading and acquirement, which are 
among the studies of young divines in training 
to become teachers of religious truth to congre- 
gations or to pupils. 

II. Prominent — perhaps foremost — among 
the subjects which the young divine has to study 
with minute care, is the constitution of the 
Greek text of the New Testament. Can any- 
thing be of more momentous importance to 
Christian people than that they should read the 
words of our divine Saviour, with the story of 
His life and actions on earth, as the four Evan- 
gelists recorded them, without omission of any- 
thing genuine, without intrusion of anything 
spurious, without departure from the very forms 
of language in which they wrote ? Is it not of 
like importance that we should read the Acts of 
our Lord's Apostles exactly as St. Luke has 
depicted them ? that we should learn the doc- 
trine of some — Paul, Peter, James, John, and 
Jude — in the precise words they used when 
writing their epistles to Christian churches, or 



40 SERMON II. 

to Christian people generally ? or can we have 
a chance of interpreting aright the darkly 
foretold future of the book of Revelation, 
unless we know the precise terms in which its 
prophetic author wrote ? 

Thus we see forced upon us the very deli- 
cate and disputable question of the genuine text 
of the New Testament. With this question all 
students, all translators, all revisers, of that 
sacred volume are at once brought face to face. 
Deal with it they must ; and they ought to pray 
earnestly and strive faithfully that they may be 
enabled to deal with it wisely and well. 

You all know that, although i, 880 years and 
more have passed away since our Saviour's 
birth, the art of printing books is not yet four 
centuries and a half old. Before the middle of 
the fifteenth century all books were in manu> 
script, written by the human hand on various 
materials, as parchment, vellum, or paper. The 
persons employed in copying books of this kind, 
who, in pagan times, were slaves trained for the 
duty, were called by the Greeks ' grapheis ' or 
scribes, by the Romans ' librarii,' book-men, or 
book-makers. In Christian times the copying 
of books was chiefly carried on by monks or 
others employed in monasteries. It will easily 



THE REVISED TEXT. 41 

be supposed that such scribes, Hke printers who 
have taken their place, were Hable to make 
mistakes in the performance of their work. 
And these errors would be of many various 
kinds, some arisinsf from oversio^ht or careless- 
ness, others from misjudgment. Errors of the 
former kind are such as misspelling words, mis- 
taking one* word for another, dropping out 
words, going on from a wTong place and so 
omitting something, and the like. Errors of 
judgment are still more mischievous. It w^as a 
frequent practice of students, old as well as young, 
to write, in the margin of a manuscript or even 
within it, words suggesting changes which the 
writer regarded as just corrections or as improve- 
ments ; and a scribe copying such a manuscript 
might adopt any such change, either as ap- 
proving it honestly, or as considering himself 
bound in deference to keep it. Such a correc- 
tion was called ' glossema,' a gloss ; and of these 
glosses there are numerous examples in the 
manuscripts of the New Testament. Changes 
of this kind sometimes arose from a desire to 
harmonise one place of Holy Writ with another. 
Thus passages from St. Mark or St. Luke have 
been intruded into St. Matthew. Sometimes 
commentators have been tempted to introduce 



42 SERMON IT. 

improvements due to their own fancy. Thus 
the Authorised Version has in Matt. v. 22, 
• Whoever is angry with his brother without a 
cause;' but, as there is no good authority for 
the words ' without a cause,' the revisers have 
omitted them. In Matt. vi. the Authorised 
Version gives three times ' Thy Father which 
seeth in secret shall reward thee opaily.' Again 
the revisers have omitted the word ' openly,' 
as being without authority. Differences be- 
tween manuscripts are called ' various readings :' 
thus in Matt. ii. 1 1 some manuscripts have 
' they found the child,' but others of greater 
weight have ' they saw the child,' as in our 
Bibles ; and we say ' they saw ' is a better read- 
ing than 'they found.' In Matt. xi. 19 the 
Authorised Version gives ' wisdom is justified 
of her children ;' but the revisers, from the best 
manuscripts, ' wisdom is justified by her works ;' 
and we had no doubt that the error was that of 
some harmonising critic who wished to assimi- 
late the place in Matthew to that in Luke vii. 2,5^ 
where the reading is * of her children.' But I 
must leave this part of my subject here. 

You see, then, that we are chiefly depend- 
ent on manuscripts for textual criticism, and 
it stands to reason that the oldest are on many 



THE REVISED TEXT. 43 

grounds the most trustworthy. Until the 
tenth century, the characters in which scribes 
wrote were what we now call capitals, but in 
textual science they are called uncial letters. 
About the tenth century began a style of 
writing in small letters, like our handwriting ; 
this style is called cursive. And thus the 
extant manuscripts are divided into uncial and 
cursive. Of uncial fewer than a hundred are 
known, and many of these are fragmentary. 
Of cursive nearly one thousand are extant. 
Those which comprise the whole New Testa- 
ment are few in number compared with those 
which contain only particular books or frag- 
ments. Uncial manuscripts are distinguished 
from cursive by capital initial letters. The two 
oldest manuscripts, both of the uncial class, of 
course, and both of the fourth century, are 
Codex B in the Vatican Library at Rome, and 
Codex Sinaiticus, called Aleph, brought from 
the East in 1859 by Tischendorf, and now in 
the Library of St. Petersburg. Next to these 
stand the Codex Alexandrinus (A), in the 
British Museum ; Codex Ephraemi (C), in the 
National Library at Paris ; and Codex Bezae (D), 
in the University Library of Cambridge. Next 
to codices, the most important authorities for 



44 SERMON II. 

the constitution of the text are the ancient 
versions of the New Testament in various 
laneuao^es. 

We find also some assistance in the pas- 
sages of Scripture cited by Christian writers 
of the earhest ages, especially by those who 
are usually called Fathers of the Church. 

Finally, we have lectionaries or service- 
books of the Greek Church, in which the 
portions of Scripture publicly read throughout 
the year are set down in chronological order, 
like the Epistles and Gospels of our Prayer 
Book. Some of these are uncial, though none 
perhaps (says Dr. Scrivener) older than the 
eighth century. 

From all these sources useful assistance is 
obtainable by diligent collation. \_See Professor 
E. Abbott's paper. Appendix II.] 

With the leading rules and general history of 
textual criticism all well-read divines are, as a 
matter of course, more or less familiar. But 
few can be deemed, few would deem them- 
selves, to be in a special manner masters of 
the subject, and authorities concerning it, un- 
less they had acquired a practical knowledge 
of its facts and niceties by the exercise of 
editorial work. Nor, again, would those scho- 



THE REVISED TEXT. 45 

lars who had edited certain portions of the 
New Testament have been hkely to gain so 
wide and so intimate a knowledge of this large 
criticism, as those who had devoted many years 
of life to the formation of a pure text of the 
whole collection. In the revising company 
there were several eminent divines who had 
ably edited various portions of the whole ; but 
three only (since the lamented death of Dean 
Alford) who had for many years been occupied 
with the constitution of the entire text ; and to 
these three we naturally and justly looked for 
the lar^e and definite information which should 
guide our judgment as to reception or rejection 
of any disputed reading. Of these divines I first 
mention the eldest, Dr. Scrivener, to whom, for 
his editions of the text, his fac-simile editions 
of codices, and not less for his copious ' Intro- 
duction to the Criticism of the New Testament,' 
Biblical learning owes a deep debt of gratitude. 
The two others were the Cambridge Professors, 
Canon Westcott and Dr. Hort, who have for 
more than twenty years been jointly engaged 
upon a new edition of the whole text, which 
is now published, with a second volume con- 
taining the valuable Introduction and appendix 
explanatory of the principles and procedure 



46 SERMON 11. 

adopted by these excellent scholars. They 
kindly handed to their colleagues their text of 
the several portions as our work went on ; 
and the assistance thus supplied was indeed 
invaluable. Archdeacon Palmer has printed 
at the Clarendon Press the text which under- 
lies the revised version ; and Dr. Scrivener at 
Cambridge has published the text supposed 
to have been adopted by the translators of 
1611. If capable readers compare these books 
by the light of the learned and copious volume 
which I have before cited, Dr. Scrivener's 
' Introduction ' (second edition, 1874), and now 
of their own second volume by Westcott and 
Hort, they will understand why the revision of 
the text was a work urgently required in the 
interest of religious truth. In the first place, 
the translators of 161 1 did not possess one 
tithe of the materials of Biblical criticism which 
are now accessible to scholars and divines. 
Especially they knew nothing of those two 
codices, the most ancient of all, which avail to 
enlighten us on so many crucial passages, 
Codex B and Codex Aleph. In the next place, 
the knowledge of the Greek language itself 
has been greatly enlarged and improved in 
this country since the reign of James I. 



THE REVISED TEXT. 47 

In these books young students have a body 
of divinity which, If dlHgentl}^ used, will enable 
them to form a correct view of all important 
textual questions affecting the New Testament. 
We found it very advantageous to our work In 
the Jerusalem Chamber that the three divines 
whom I have named represented two some- 
what different schools of feeling on that subject. 
Dr. Scrivener was evidently, I may venture to 
say avowedly, desirous to show as much favour 
as he reasonably could to the readings accepted 
in 161 1. So far as I am entitled to state the 
Impression derived from my own observation, I 
think the judgment of Professors Westcott and 
Hort was generally determined by the prepon- 
derant concurrence of the oldest manuscripts, 
subject to such control as peculiar conditions 
might exercise In a few excepted cases. On 
one conclusion all three critics were assuredly 
of the same mind, namelv, that the value of 
any reading Is to be decided by the weight, not 
by the number, of the documents which contain 
It. The agreement of three of the oldest uncial 
manuscripts In any reading might outweigh the 
appearance of a different reading in a hundred 
cursives ; critical skill having shown that these 
are divisible into families, each traceable to 



48 SERMON 11. 

some common original devoid, perhaps, of 
ancient authority. 

The various readings of the Greek New 
Testament are, as might be expected, very 
different in their degree of importance. Some 
of them may be said to have no importance at 
all in point of sense. Thus it can make no 
difference whether St. Matthew wrote in chap. ii. 
that the wise men ' went into the house and 
found the child,' or ' went into the house and 
saw the child,' though the latter reading has 
the better authority ; but whether he wrote 
in chap. i. of the Virgin Mary, ' till she had 
brought forth her firstborn son,' as in the 
Authorised Version, or ' till she had brought 
forth a son,' as in the revised Testament, 
makes some small difference, because it is 
denied by many, as by the Church of Rome, 
that the mother of Jesus ever bore a second 
child. 

III. Time forbids me to illustrate my subject 
by citing many of the more important new read- 
ings of the revised Testament, but I shall con- 
elude with the mention of four places, in regard 
to two of which we are acknowledged now by 
all reasonable divines to be certainly right, while 
the two others are disputed. 



THE REVISED TEXT. 49 

First : the 7th verse of the fifth chapter In 
St. John's first epistle Is thus read in the 
Authorised Version : * For there are three that 
bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, 
and the Holy Ghost : and these three are one.' 
But all that follows the word 'record' is omitted 
by the revisers ; and, although this verse was 
for many years the subject of voluminous con- 
troversy. Dr. Scrivener says with truth that 
* to maintain the genuineness of this passage is 
simply impossible.' 

Second: in i Tim. ill. 16, where the Autho- 
rised Version has ' God was manifest in the flesh,' 
the revisers write, 'Who was manifest in the 
flesh.' As I cannot attempt to state the grounds 
of criticism in a sermon, I will merely say that 
the decision of the revisers has been antici- 
pated by many divines, as Griesbach, Lach- 
mann, Dean Alford, Bishop Ellicott, and finally 
by two of our most conservative theologians, 
Bishop Wordsworth of Lincoln, and Dr. Scri- 
vener. 

Third: Matt. vi. 13. All our previous 
Bibles keep the doxology, ' For Thine is the 
kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever 
and ever. Amen.' The revisers have cast 
this into the margin. They have with them 

E 



50 SERMON II. 

Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Westcott, 
and Hort; but here they cannot count Dr. 
Scrivener among their supporters. He says, 
' I am not yet absolutely convinced of its 
spuriousness.' And at the close of his discus- 
sion concerning it, he expresses his opinion that 
' the indictment against the last clause of the 
Lord's Prayer is hitherto unproven.' He says, 
however, ' It is vain to dissemble the pressure 
of the adverse case.' Vain indeed, when it is ab- 
sent from the four earliest extant uncials, Aleph, 
B, D, Z, from the Latin versions, and the oldest 
Fathers who expound the Lord's Prayer. It 
seems to have been unknown in the Western 
Church, and the impression left on my own 
mind by consideration of all the evidence is, 
that the doxology is not a part of the Lord's 
Prayer as recorded by St. Matthew, but that 
it was early added by Eastern churches as a 
good conclusion in liturgies, and so gradually 
found its way into Eastern Greek Testaments, 
and thence to a host of cursive manuscripts. 
This is not to be called an indictment ao^ainst 
it, for it is a very good doxology, sound 
doctrine taken from Chron. xxix. 1 1 , 12; and, 
as such, it may be retained without objec- 
tion in our Prayer Book, for it teaches nothing 



THE REVISED TEXT. 51 

questionable, and was brought in for no party 
purpose, like the spurious i John v. 7. 

Fourth : the last twelve verses in St. Mark's 
Gospel (9-20) are exposed to a suspicion of spu- 
riousness, founded on strong external evidence, 
and, as some think, further strengthened by their 
internal character. They have been strenuously 
defended by Dean Burgon in a very able special 
treatise ; and Dr. Scrivener concurs with him in 
asserting their genuineness. The revisers have 
not expunged them, but they leave a break after 
verse 9, and state the facts concerning this pas- 
sage in the margin. My own impression hence 
derived is, that the verses could not be safely 
quoted in support of any peculiar doctrine, seeing 
that their authority can always be disputed, as 
being doubtful. 

I now conclude this discourse with the 
prayer which Dr. Scrivener appends to his in- 
structive volume : 

* God grant that, if these studies shall have 
made any of us better instructed in the letter of 
the Holy Word, we may find grace to grow, in 
like measure, in that knowledge which tendeth 
to salvation, through faith in His mercy by 
Christ Jesus.' ^ 

^ See Appendix II. A. 



52 



SERMON III. 

THE REVISED VERSION. 

St. John's Gospel v. 39. 
Search the Scriptures. 

I. So we read in the Authorised Version, 
but wrongly ; the Revised Version writes with 
just correctness, * Ye search the Scriptures.' 
This is manifestly shown to be right by the 
next words, ' because ye think that in them ye 
have eternal life.' The doctrine of a future 
state of rewards and punishments was in those 
times taught by the Pharisees and their party, 
who were followed as orthodox by the Jewish 
people generally; while the Sadducees, who 
denied this doctrine, were a smaller sect. The 
teachers of the law naturally sought support for 
these truths in the Hebrew Scriptures, and they 
would find in the Psalms and elsewhere texts 
adapted to their purpose ; as in Job xix., ' 1 know 
that my Redeemer liveth;' and in Dan. xii., 



THE REVISED VERSION. 53 

' Many of them that sleep In the dust of the 
earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and 
some to shame and everlasting contempt.' To 
prove this favourite doctrine, says our Lord to 
the Jews, 'ye search the Scriptures:' then He 
continues, ' and these are they that bear wit- 
ness of Me. And ye will not come to Me, that 
ye may have life.* His argument Is, ' Although 
ye Jews search your own Scriptures diligently, 
to find in them proofs of a futur-e state of life 
eternal, yet ye do not find in them, because ye 
do not search diligently and faithfully, those 
many texts which bear witness of Me, that I 
am the Christ, the Son of God, your expected 
Messiah ; and therefore ye do not come to Me 
that ye may have what ye so much desire — 
llfe^llfe eternal : ye do not come to Me, who 
am Indeed the way, the truth, and the life.' 

Thus the verb ' search ' in this place is not 
imperative, but Indicative, ' Ye search :' and it Is 
probable that the translators of 161 1 chose the 
wrong form because It gave a useful weapon 
against the practice of the Church of Rome so 
far as this was supposed to forbid or condemn 
the study of Holy Scripture by the laity. There 
Is, however, no lack of texts In our Bible show- 
ing that our Lord and His apostles did recom- 



54 SERMON III. 

mend to all, by precept as well as by example, 
the diligent study of God's written Word. 

II. In my second sermion the correction of 
the Greek text was the topic specially con- 
sidered. The necessity of this work was great 
and urofent. At the same time with the Revised 
Version appeared two most important books. 
At Oxford was published the Greek text re- 
cognised and adopted by the revising company, 
at the foot of which are shown the readings 
apparently received by the translators of 1611, 
but rejected by the revisers. Conversely, at 
Cambridge was published the Greek text sup- 
posed to have been accepted by the companies 
of 1 6 1 1 , while at the foot are shown the correc- 
tion s of that text accepted by the revisers, and 
also those preferred by some in the revised mar- 
gin. The variations between the (supposed) text 
of 161 1 and that of 1 881, as recorded in these 
books, exceed five thousand in number. But 
many of these changes do not affect the Eng- 
lish translation at all, and many others, which 
do affect it, while in a greater or less degree 
they vary the form of language, leave the real 
sense of the passage unimpaired. Hence it 
must be observed that the gravely important 
varieties of text, though by no means incon- 



THE REVISED VERSION. 55 

siderabie, are but a moderate fraction of the 
total number recorded in the volumes edited by 
Archdeacon Palmer and Dr. Scrivener respec- 
tively. 

At this point I will cite the paragraph in 
the preface to the Revised Version which deals 
with the question of text. 

'With regard to the Greek text, it would 
appear that, if to some extent the translators 
exercised an independent judgment, it was 
mainly in choosing amongst readings contained 
in the principal editions of the Greek text that 
had appeared in the sixteenth century. Wher- 
ever they seem to have followed a reading 
which is not found in any of those editions, 
their rendering may probably be traced to the 
Latin Vulgate. Their chief guides appear to 
have been the later editions of Stephanus and 
of Beza, and also, to a certain extent, the Com- 
plutensian Polyglot. All these were founded 
for the most part on manuscripts of late date, 
few in number, and used with little critical 
skill. But in those days it could hardly have 
been otherwise. Nearly all the more ancient 
of the documentary authorities have become 
known only within the last two centuries ; some 
of the most important of them, indeed, within 



56 SERMON Iir, 

the last few years. Their publication has called 
forth not only improved editions of the Greek 
text, but a succession of instructive discussions 
on the variations which have been brought to 
light, and on the best modes of distinguishing 
oricfinal readines from chang^es introduced in 
the course of transcription. While, therefore, 
it has long been the opinion of all scholars that 
the commonly received text needed thorough 
revision, it is but recently that materials have 
been acquired for executing such a work with 
even approximate completeness.' 

This passage refers to the textual question 
in a general and cursory manner only. It was 
beyond the scope of a preface to do more than 
this ; any detailed account would have required 
a volume such as Dr. Scrivener's 'Introduction,' 
noticed in a former sermon : or such as that 
second appendix now gained from the labours of 
Canon Weslcott and Dr. Hort, besides which 
appendix, the pages (541-562) subjoined to 
their first volume deserve the studious atten- 
tion of all theologians, clerical or lay, form- 
ing as they do a comprehensive outline of facts 
and principles applicable to the textual criticism 
and constitution of the New Testament. 

Leaving now the question of the Greek text, 



THE REVISED VERSION. 57 

I propose In this discourse to speak of variant 
English renderings In places where the original 
is either undisputed, or only partially ques- 
tioned. But in so vast a field as this it is 
evident that my exemplification must be 
limited to a few instances of peculiar interest 
and importance. 

Here, again, it suits my purpose to cite the 
modest language of the preface to the Revised 
Version. 

'We know full well that defects must have 
their place in a work so long and so arduous as 
this which has now come to an end. Blemishes 
and imperfections there are in the noble transla- 
tion which we have been called upon to revise ; 
blemishes and imperfections will assuredly be 
found in our own revision. All endeavours to 
translate the Holy Scriptures into another 
tongue must fall short of their aim, when the 
obligation is imposed of producing a version 
that shall be alike literal and idiomatic, faithful 
to each thought of the original, and yet, in the 
expression of it, harmonious and free. While 
we dare to hope that in places not a few of 
the New Testament the introduction of slight 
changes has cast a new light upon much that 
was difficult and obscure, we cannot forget how 



58 SERMON III. 

often we have failed in expressing some finer 
shade of meaning which we recoo^nised in the 
original, how often idiom has stood in the way 
of a perfect rendering, and how often the 
attempt to preserve a familiar form of words, 
or even a familiar cadence, has only added 
another perplexity to those which already 
beset us.' 

Yes, the existence of blemishes in the re- 
vised volume, thus acknowledged by the col- 
lective voice of the company, would certainly 
not be denied by any individual member ; yet if 
. we were severally required to furnish lists of 
what we regard as blemishes, it is more than 
probable that no two lists would exactly coincide. 
Some would, perhaps, allow that the lan- 
guage of the Authorised Version has occasion- 
ally been altered without adequate reason, and 
with no real improvement; as when we write, 
' Thy will be done, as in heaven, so on earth,' 
for the usual rendering, ' Thy will be done in 
earth, as it is in heaven.' Others would endorse 
a complaint very commonly made, that the 
Greek connective particles are too scrupulously 
represented in our translation, to the detriment 
of English idiom as well as of melodious 
rhythm. They might note many examples 



THE REVISED VERSION. 59 

illustrating this opinion in the Synoptic Gospf^ls ; 
for instance, in chapters viii., ix., xiii., xiv. of 
St. Matthew. The American critics would find 
in the minority of the company support for some 
of their views, as printed at the close of the 
Revised Version. But in these cases, and in 
others which could be suggested, it may be that 
the decision of the majority, for which strong 
reasons were always urged, was wiser than the 
judgment of those who voted in a contrary 
sense ; and if it were not always so, yet a few 
such errors or shortcomings are not a feather in 
the scale when weighed against the vast im- 
provements wrought in the textual constitution 
of the Greek, and the verbal expression of the 
English New Testament, by the labours now 
brought to a conclusion, which I would fain 
hope is not unalterably permanent. 

But I must digress no further from the 
special subject of this day's consideration — the 
English renderings of undisputed Greek words. 

III. One new rendering in the revision has 
been received with general but not universal 
favour. I allude to the well-known passage. Acts 
xxvi. 28, which in the Authorised Version is, 
' Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou per- 
suadest me to be a Christian.' We have a ques- 



6o SERMON ///. 

tloij of reading- here as well as of interpretation. 
The translators of i6i i found a verb which they 
render ' to be,' though they ought to have written 
it * to become ' a Christian. But the revisers, from 
the three oldest uncials, and several versions, 
have received a different verb, ' to make,' and 
they write the words, ' with but little persuasion 
thou wouldst fain make me a Christian.' This 
is a good rendering, and assuredly a true one. 
Literally the words are, * in a little thou usest 
persuasion to make me a Christian.' The 
idiomatic phrase ' in a little ' may imply ' space 
of time ' or ' number of words,' which amount to 
the same thing here ; and king Agrippa in effect 
says, * You are such an enthusiast, O Paul, that 
you think it will take little time and few words to 
make me a Christian.* Yet this excellent inter- 
pretation is said to be contested by no less a 
person than Dr. Ryle, Bishop of Liverpool. His 
words, reported in Pztblic Opinion by a hearer 
of his sermon, are the following : — " I hold with 
Luther, Beza, Grotius, Poole, Bengel, and Stier, 
that the translation given in our Authorised 
Version is right and correct. I am fortified in my 
belief by the fact that this is the view of one who 
thought and spoke and wrote in the language of 
the New Testament ; I mean the famous Greek 



THE REVISED VERSION. 6i 

Father Chrysostom. And last, but not least, 
no other view appears to me to harmonise with 
the exclamation of the apostle St. Paul in the 
verse which follows : ' Almost,' he seems to say, 
taking up Agrippa's words ; ' I want thee to be 
not almost, but altogether a Christian." — Now, 
without weighing opinion against opinion (though 
I could cite crowds of eminent scholars and 
divines who differ from the Bishop and those 
whom he cites), I must declare my entire con- 
viction that the authorised rendering is unten- 
able on every ground which can be specified : 
first, because the true reading is ^ to make,' not 
' to be' or ' to become \ secondly, because ' almost' 
is an incorrect rendering of the Greek phrase ; 
thirdly, because the verb does not in good 
Greek prose mean 'thou persuadest' in the 
Bishops sense, but ' thou-art-using-persuasion ;' 
fourthly, because ' Christianos,' a Christian, was 
at that time a term of opprobrium or contempt ; 
and St. Paul does not say in his reply, ' I wish 
thou and all who hear me this day might be- 
come Christians,' but ' I wish ye might become 
such as J am, except these bonds.' Agrippa 
uses the sneering appellation ' Christianon.' 
Paul does not embrace it as a glorious name ; 
no, he only says 'such as I am,' with the 



62 SERMON III. 

courteous exception of his chains. Neither 
Paul nor any of the apostles ever call them- 
selves Christians. St. Luke tells us that the 
disciples were first so called at Antloch ; yes, so 
called they were in contemptuous reproach. 
Hence St. Peter says In his first epistle, Iv. i6, 
' If a man suffer as a Christian, let him not be 
ashamed, but let him glorify God in this name! 
Even so the Christians of the Reformation 350 
years ago were contemptuously called Pro- 
testants on account of the protest made against 
an edict of the Diet of Speier ; but the martyrs 
of Mary's reign in England were not ashamed to 
suffer under the name of Protestants, protesting, 
as they deemed, against false doctrine and mis- 
chievous superstition. 

While, however, I am sure that the ' almost 
and altogether' of the Authorised Version Is 
totally wrong, I am not quite satisfied with the 
revised rendering of verse 29. I regret that the 
' would to God ' of the Authorised Version has 
been kept. I believe (with Webster and Wilkin- 
son) the right translation to be this : ' I would 
pray to God, whether with little prayer or with 
much, that not thou only, but also all that hear 
me this day, might become such as I am, except 
these bonds.' 



THE REVISED VERSION. 63 

When Bishop Ryle has reconsidered the 
authoritative reading, and the just sense of the 
several words, I venture to beheve that he will 
abandon the old error here. 

IV. The revisers are blamed, to my great 
surprise, by some high authorities, such as the 
Times and the Edinbui^gh Review, because 
in I Cor. xiil., and everywhere else, they 
have (with Tyndale) rendered the Greek word 

* agape' by the English 'love,' Instead of retain- 
ing the word 'charity,' which the translators 
of 1 6 1 1 unhappily imported from the ' caritas ' 
of Jerome's Latin version, known as the Vul- 
gate, or perhaps from its daughter, the Rhemlsh 
version. I venture to affirm that, as scholars, 
having a just regard for the proprieties of lan- 
guage, it was impossible for us to adopt any 
other rendering than love (to love), as Luther 
and other German translators have ' Hebe * 
(lieben), and nothing else. I must put the 
question before you with some fulness of 
detail. 

The Greek language has various words 
meaning Tove' and 'to love.' ' Phllos ' is 'a 
friend;' 'fhilein,' to love in a friendly way; 

* philia,' friendship. ' Storge ' is a word of 
somewhat rare use, the love of kin, mainly 



64 SERMON III. 

that of parents for their offspring ; the verb 
beino- ' stereein.' ' Eros,' with Its verb ' eran,' 
expresses love as a passion, not only sexually, 
but in all metaphors of an analogous nature, 
as love of pleasure, love of money, love of 
power, and the like. Lastly, we have the 
beautiful noun ' agape,' with its verb ' agapan,' 
which may be used, and is in Scripture used, 
for all or any of these feelings when they are 
pure and lovely and of good report. Let me 
exemplify Its use in a few texts: — (i) As to 
earthly feeling and conduct : Eph. v. 25, ' Hus- 
bands, love your wives,' with all that follows. 
Love of our brother, love of the saints, are 
ao-ain and aeain so recommended. Gal. v. 13, 
' By love serve one another.' But need I do 
more than read to you that passage of St. Paul, 
Rom. xiil. 8, Q, 10 ? — ' Owe no man any thing, but 
to love one another : for he that loveth his 
neighbour hath fulfilled the law. Every com- 
mandment Is summed up In this word, 
namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy- 
self. Love worketh no ill to his neighbour : 
love therefore is the fulfilment of the law.' 
Such is agapan, such is agape, between man 
and man. What need we else ? Why import 
the Latin 'caritas,' charity, to supersede the 



THE REVISED VERSION. 65 

sweet Teutonic word 'Hebe' (love) in i Cor. xlil., 
and a few other places, as our former translators 
have unfortunately done ? (2) But the use of 
these excellent words in Scripture is not con- 
fined to earthly relations. They are used In 
Holy Writ to express what the Divine Being 
feels towards His rational creatures, what His 
rational creatures ought to feel towards Him. 
The love of God, the love of Christ, are set 
forth in both senses, as "our duty and as our 
blessing; and the whole is crowned by the 
wondrously thrilling, the deeply comforting 
assurance of the beloved disciple St. John, that 
' God is love.' And all this is declared to us 
by the word agape. 

It remains to ask how it was that Jerome 
thought proper to render that word by 'caritas,' 
and why (if indeed we can find any reason) our 
own translators adopted it partially in the form 
'charity.' Jerome's reason is perhaps not far 
to seek. For ' love ' the Latin language has 
but one comprehensive word, 'amor;' its verb 
being ' amare,' to love. But there is a second 
verb, 'diligere,' properly meaning to choose, 
but also used in the sense which we often express 
by the word 'liking,' or even mildly ' loving ;' 
and from this verb a noun was coined and 

F 



66 SERMON III. 

sometimes used in later Latin, 'dilectio/ whence 
we get the word 'predilection.' 

The words 'amor,' 'amare,' are used to ex- 
press all kinds of earthly love, good or not. Divine 
love in any pure and lofty sense was not known 
to the heathen world in general, only perhaps 
to a few philosophers. Owing to the frequent 
abuse of those words by some licentious Latin 
writers, Jerome was, we think, unwilling to 
apply them to the pure and virtuous love of 
Christian brethren, or to the high and holy 
love which links the creature with the Creator, 
the redeemed with the Redeemer. Hence he 
adopted instead of 'amor' another classical word, 
distorting its sense, and applying it too largely. 
I mean the word 'caritas.' You know that 
'carus' (Ital. caro, French cher) means in Eng- 
lish 'dear,' and its substantive 'caritas' means 
therefore ' dearness,' and has properly an objec- 
tive sense only, that character or quality which 
causes some person or thing to be dear. Thus 
a Roman would say, ' My country attaches me to 
itself by a strong dearness ; ' or two friends might 
be said to be united by a mutual dearness, and 
the like. This noun, I say, Jerome, avoiding 
'amor,' thought proper to misuse by adopting it 
in all the senses, subjective and objective, which 



THE REVISED VERSION, 67 

'amor' can assume. He has therefore used it 
throughout the whole of his Latin translation 
(the Vulgate), even in St. John's epistles and 
other places, where the love of God and of 
Christ are set forth. He has not shrunk even 
from writing ' Deus est caritas/ God is carity 
(charity). 

But what was he to do for a verb ? If he 
used 'caritas,' dearness, for 'amor,' love, he could 
not say * caritare to charity,' for ' amare to love,' 
seeing that 'caritas' is objective in its proper use, 
and has no verb of its own. What then did 
Jerome do ? He took the lukewarm word 
'diligere,' 'to choose with a liking,' 'to like,' and 
so ' to love.' And this verb he has used for 
'amare' in almost all the places where the Greek 
hasagapan. Fancy ' Love thy neighbour as thy- 
self in this shape, ' Choose thy neighbour with 
a liking as thou choosest thyself;' or, for ' Christ 
loved us,' 'Christ chose us with a liking,' and 
gave Himself for us! At such disadvantage has 
Jerome placed the whole theory and practice of 
holy Christian love in his Latin version of the 
New Testament. Meaning, no doubt, to do 
right, he did wrong ; meaning to do good, he 
did harm. And why, again and again I ask, 
why did the translators of 161 1 adopt his 

F 2 



68 SERMON III. 

degenerate word 'caritas' In i Cor. xiii., and in 
some twenty other places which Cruden's ' Con- 
cordance ' will show you, when they shrank 
from adopting It throughout the first two 
Epistles of St. John, and In some seventy 
places besides, and when they have rendered 
agapan by the English verb 'to love' every- 
where? Here they were hampered. They had 
no such refuge as Jerome's 'dlllgere,' poor as 
that Is ; 'to like' was Impossible ; the beautiful 
word 'lleben,' to love, stood alone, they could 
not do other than take It. Why then their 
'charity'? I cannot be sure. I can only guess. 
I Imagine that In i Cor. xill. they wished for 
a noun which should be free from any tinge 
or suspicion of passionateness, and so they laid 
hold on Jerome's 'caritas,' which the Rhemish 
version would give as 'charity,' and sprinkled 
the same word here and there 'charily' to give 
it more vogue. Their motive we may not 
doubt was good, but their reasoning and their 
conclusion were bad, and the revisers of 
1 88 1 could not possibly avoid reversing their 
decision. 

But some will say, with counter-protest, the 
Authorised Version has given to this word 
' charity' a home In our language, and we cannot 



THE REVISED VERSION. 69 

do without it : is it to disappear from our Bibles ? 
is its very foundation to be removed ? are we to 
lose it ? To this last question I answer at once, 
No. The English language has got the word 

* charity,' and that word it wall keep, though 

* love ' be read in i Cor. xiii. The revisers 
as little had the will as they had the powder to 
expunge a word from our dictionaries, to deny 
it a place in our literature, to forbid its use in 
daily conversation. The word 'charity' has 
nothing to fear from ceasing to stand In the 
epistles of Scripture. But, let me ask, has 
English usage preserved that high ideal of 
Christian love of one's neighbour which St. 
Paul depicts in that beautiful chapter ? Surely 
not. Charity, in common parlance, has these 
meanings : (i) beneficence, a beneficent act, or a 
beneficent institution ; (2) that disposition or 
principle of thought and conduct which leads us 
to think and speak as little evil and as much good 
of others as we possibly can. And the epithet 
' charitable ' we apply in these senses : (1) bene- 
ficent, (2) putting the best construction on 
the acts and characters of others. But do 
these definitions exhaust St. Paul's description 
of Christian 'agape'? No. Beneficence is 
expressly distinguished from ' agape ' in v. 3 : 



70 SERMON III. 

Bestowing goods profiteth nothing without 
love. And yet I venture to say that the word 
' charity ' is used more than twenty times by 
English folk and in English writings as re- 
ferring to beneficence, for once that it is used in 
that second signification, which comes nearer to 
the picture of love, as * being kind,' as taking no 
account of evil, as ' rejoicing not in unrighteous- 
ness,* as * believing all things, hoping all things.' 
Yet even these features do not complete the por- 
trait of Christian ' agape.' Finally, then, I re- 
peat, that the revisers have most assuredly done 
right in replacing everywhere (for ' agape ') the 
Latin word ' charity ' by that Saxon word ' love,' 
which the Authorised Version itself uses in 
seventy passages instead of Jerome's word ; 
while the cognate verb ' to love,' in that version 
as well as in the revised, is employed through- 
out the New Testament. Against these facts, 
and the conclusion to which they point, can any 
weighty argument be found ? 

V. There is, I suppose, no feature in the Re- 
vised Version which has been more assailed by 
the outside world than its mode of dealing with 
the Lord's Prayer. I must therefore not 
conclude this sermon without endeavouring to 
quiet any alarm you may have felt respecting it. 



THE REVISED VERSION. ji 

The prayer as read in the eleventh chapter 
of St. Luke, 1-4, Is, by the authority of manu- 
scripts, reduced to the following words : 

' Father, hallowed be Thy name. Thy 
kingdom come. Give us day by day our daily 
bread. And forgive us our sins ; for we our- 
selves also forgive every one that is indebted to 
us. And bring us not into temptation.' 

In St. Matthew vi. 9-13 the revisers depart 
from the Authorised by writing, — 

( i) * Thy will be done, as in heaven, so on 
earth.' 

To many this inversion, though literal, seems 
unnecessary, 

(2) 'Have forgiven' in the place of 

' forgive.' 
^ This is required by a new reading. 

(3) ' And bring us not into temptation.' 
This change is right, because the Greek in 

both Gospels means ' bring,' and because ' lead ' 
is an over-strong and painful word drawn from 
the Vulgate, and used there for the reason that 
Latin has no verb which adequately represents 
' bring ' in the sense required here. 

(4) ' But deliver us from the evil one.' 
The revisers are, as might be expected, 

severely censured for writing 'the evil one,' 



72 SERMON III. 

where the Greek would equally well bear the 
Authorised rendering 'evil.' Let me say that 
the majority who voted this change included 
excellent scholars and divines of high repute. 
Their arguments were exceedingly strong, and 
not easy to confute. But a minority still doubt 
whether the alteration is worth keeping in 
the face of wide dissatisfaction, and whether 
the protest of a margin ought not to content 
those who strongly believe in the concrete sense 
of the Greek term used by our Lord here.^ 

Remember this one thing, my Christian 
brethren, that, if the Revised Testament were 
authorised for public use at once, it would not 
follow that any change need be made in the 
Lord's Prayer as it now stands in our Common 
Prayer Book and in the Church Catechism. 
For at the present time the forms used in our 

^ In Public Opinion I find a provincial journalist cited as 
saying that in future times the revisers of 1881 will be known 
as those who introduced the devil into the Lord's Prayer. I 
would invite his attention to Matt. iv. i-ii ; xiii. 19, 38, 39; 
Luke X. 17, 18; Acts xxvi. 15-18; i John iii. 8; v. 18, 19. In 
the same Public Opinion I read, in a letter of Mr. Dykes : ' Of 
the many beauties of the Revised Version I reckon none more 
acceptable than the changed ending of Matt. vi. 13, having long 
sympathised with the complaint of good John Berridge of 
Everton, in his ' Christian World Unmasked,' that whereas the 
devil's name was originally in the Lord's Prayer, ' some roguish 
body ' had wiped it out. 



THE REVISED VERSION. 73 

Church Services do not exactly agree with 
those which appear in the Authorised Versions 
of St. Matthew and St. Luke. We do not say 
' foreive us our debts ' with St. Matthew, nor 
' forgive us our sins ' with St. Luke. And 

o 

we may still repeat the ascription of glory at 
the close, even though we deem it to have 
been added with the best intentions by pious 
Eastern bishops. 

These considerations should set every mind 
at ease about this cherished form of prayer, and 
assist us now in ascribing to God, the Father, Son, 
and Holy Spirit, ' the kingdom and the power 
and the glory for ever and ever. Amen.' ^ 

1 Appendix III. shows all the places of real importance in 
which the Revised Version differs from the Authorised. 



APPENDICES. 



APPENDIX I. 

I THINK it right to append a few words in defence 
of some interpretations of passages in the New Tes- 
tament as adopted in Sermon I. 

I. I Cor. ii. 13, irvsvfiaTiKCL irvevfiaTLKols crv^- 
KpivovTBs. Here the Authorised Version renders 
* comparing spiritual things with spiritual ; ' and this 
is kept in the Revised Version. I have declared my 
conviction that the competing translation, ' explaining 
spiritual things to spiritual men,' which stands in our 
margin, is the right one. Biblical scholars do not 
deny that the verb o-vyKplvco can have this sense in 
Hellenistic Greek, though the usage is not classical. 
In my view, explained by my paraphrase, the logic 
of the whole context demands that irvsviiaTtKols 
should be taken as masculine (to spiritual men), not as 
neuter (spiritual things), (i) St. Paul immediately goes 
on to say : ' The psychic [i.e. the merely intellectual] 
man cannot receive spiritual things, but the spiritual 
man judgeth all things, and he is not subject to the 
judgment of the psychic man. But to you Corin- 
thians, unhappily, I could not speak as to spiritual 
men, seeing that you are carnal' All this consecution 
refers to irvsvixanKols, spiritual men, in v. 13. Nor does 



75 APPENDIX T. 

it seem unimportant that the verb Kpivzi thus speedily 
follows its compound avyicplvsL. The help in judging 
which one spiritual man gives another has for its 
result, that each Kplvsi, is able to judge. (2) The 
whole chapter dwells not upon inspired writings, but 
upon inspired men. St. Paul claims for himself and 
the other apostles that they are such : but their 
disciples also must be inspired men, irvsvfiaTLKol 
(spiritual, not carnal), in order to receive spiritual 
teaching profitably. Worldly wisdom and worldly 
greatness avail nothing for such a purpose (vv. 5-9, 
14). We apostles, he says (he the only learned one 
in the ordinary sense), tell you the things bestowed 
by the grace of God (12, 13) not in words taught of 
human wisdom, but in words taught of the Holy 
Spirit, to which he adds, Trvsv/jLartKa irvsv^ariKols 
(TvyKpLvovTss. Now if these three words are ren- 
dered as in the Authorised Version, and explained, 
as Prof Blunt understood them, * comparing one 
place of Scripture {i.e. the Old Testament) with 
another,' then we have a purely intellectual (psychic) 
operation, the work of a scholarly student, rudely 
thrust in here, and jarring, as a false note, with the 
whole tone of the chapter, which calls upon * spiritual 
men ' to accept, as its proper recipients, ' the spiritual 
teaching ' of the inspired fishermen of Galilee as well 
as that of the inspired student of Tarsus. It may be 
that some persons defend the Authorised Version 
without narrowing it to the comparison of written 
documents. I cannot fully estimate any such view 
without having it before me. Yet it seems to me 
that it can only consist in some mystical notion of 



APPENDIX L ^j 

St. PauFo inner conscicusness. And this would seem 
to me a Go(f:ia not less rudely introduced, not less 
jarring with the tone of the context, than the more 
limited sense in which Prof. Blunt has taken the 
words. I cannot therefore reconcile myself to any 
interpretation but that which makes irvsvixanKols 
masculine. I think it is masculine also in xii. i, 
because the immediate context speaks of the distin- 
guishing signs of spiritual men. But as the chapter 
goes on to treat of spiritual things also, the error, if 
it be one, is not of much importance. 

II. Rom. viii. 33-4. We read in the Authorised 
Version, ' Who shall lay any thing to the charge of 
God's elect ^ It is God that justifieth. Who is he 
that condemneth .'' It is Christ that died, yea rather, 
that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of 
God, who also maketh intercession for us.' 

This version assumes that full stops are to be 
placed after 'justifieth' and 'for us ; ' and that the 
only notes of interrogation are those which follow 
the words ' elect ' and ' condemneth.' Also it assumes 
that the true reading is 6 KaraKplvcov, ' he that con- 
demneth,' not 6 KaraKpivMv, 'he that shall condemn.' 
Tittmann's edition has (except thatit keeps KaraKpivwv) 
Tls iy/caXsasL Kara 5k\sktmv ®sov ; Oeos* 6 hiKaioiv ; 
ris 6 KaraicpLvwv', ^picrTos aTToOavcov) /jloXXov Ss koX 
s'yspOsls ; OS Kal sanv iv Ss^ia rod ©sou ; os koI 
svTv^')(^obvsL vTTsp rj/jLMv ', I thiuk comuias would answer 
the purpose after diroOavcov, iyspOsLs, and rod Ssov, 
but (with this variation) I have no doubt Tittmann is 
right. The superior force and beauty of the interro- 
gatives can escape no intelligent mind : and what 



78 APPENDIX I. 

clinches the argument in their favour is the exact 
paralleHsm of the next verse, 35 : T/s* i^yuas "^wplcrzi 
diro rrjs dyd7rr]9 rov l^ptarov ; BXl'y^n^, 1) arsvo'^wpLa, 
rj Stcoy/jLos, rj Xifjuo^, rj yv^voTi^s, rj Kivhvvos, 7) pi^d^aipa ; 
Therefore I would render 33, 34, 'Who shall accuse 
God's elect ? Will God who justifieth ? Who is he 
that shall condemn ? Will Christ who died, nay 
more, who also rose, who is also on God's right 
hand, who also intercedeth for us ? ' The words ' yea 
rather,' and * even,' in the Authorised, are very faulty. 

III. Phil. iii. 16, 17. The words of 16, it\7]v, 
sis o i(j)6d(Ta/jbsv, tc5 avTM aroi'^sLv, are much more 
fitly taken as a modest preface to v. 17 than in the 
very harsh construction which makes (ttoi^^slv an infini- 
tive used imperatively, refers tw avTM to the relative 
o, and puts a full stop after aTOi')(elv. The words sis 

s(p6daap,sv are a well-known parenthetic idiom — 
quoniam hue (i.e. ad hanc doctrinam) processimus, 
ut eadem viagraderemur; the clause rw avro) (ttoij(sIv 
being in apposition to the relative o. I render, there- 
fore, ' Nevertheless, as we have so far attained, to walk 
by the same rule, brethren, be ye with common con- 
sent imitators of me,' &c. : i.e. as we have learnt the 
duty and wisdom of union and uniform conduct. The 
context before and after v. 16 proves that it is so 
connected with v. 17 and what follows. 

IV. Rom. ix. 5. On this important passage 

1 have for very many years felt no doubt that 
the punctuation and interpretation given in my 
sermon are true. There are four various punctua- 
tions, and four corresponding translations, which I 
will first set down, and then discuss in my own order. 



APPENDIX I. 79 

(1) KoX i^ MV 6 KpLCTTOs TO Karct acipfca, 6 o)v sttI 
TravTwv, 0SO9 sv\oyr]T09 sl9 tovs alcbvas • dfjir/p. Auth. 
Vers. * and of whom according to the flesh Christ 
came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.' 

(2) Kal if MV 6 ^pLo-Tos TO Kara crdpKa. 'O cov 
sttI irdvTwv Ssos svXoyrjro^ sl9 tov9 alcovas ' dfjirjv. 
' And of whom is the Christ after the flesh. God who 
is over all be (is) blessed for ever. Amen.' 

(3) Kal if MP 6 Xpccrrbs to /caTa crdp/ca, 6 cop iirl 
irdpTwp. (^sos £v\oy7]Tos sis T0V9 alcopas • d/juyp. * And 
of whom is the Christ after the flesh, who is over all. 
God be (is) blessed for ever. Amen.' 

(4) Kal if MP 6 Xpio-Tos TO KaTCL crdpKa. 'O mp 
STTI iraPTMP ^£09, ev\oyr]Tos ds tov9 auMPas * dfjurfp, 
' And of whom is the Christ after the flesh. He 
who is over all is God, blessed for ever. Amen.' 

The last of these is the interpretation which I 
have advocated as the only true, the only unobjec- 
tionable one. I shall now compare it in the first 
instance with (2) and (3). Each of these latter 
labours under a weighty objection, which has been 
constantly urged against them : namely, that in the 
elliptical ascription of blessing £v\oy7]T09 or ev- 
\oyrjfj.spo9 is elsewhere (and ought to bej the first 
word. From this objection (4) is exempt, for it 
makes the words 6 mp sttI irdpTMP ^569 a sentence, 
®s69 being its predicative noun, to which su\oyi]T69 
belongs as an adjunct epithet. The ellipse of saTi 
in such a sentence is one of the most ordinary 
character, and indeed almost demanded by the pre- 
sence of MP. The grammatical construction is there- 
fore unimpeachable. A much bolder ellipsis of saTl 



8o APPENDIX L 

before the predicative %zos appears 2 Cor. i. 21 : 
o Se ^s^aiMV rjfjids aijv v/jllv sis l^piarov kol '^ploas 
r)/jidsy ©eoy. But 6sos svXoyrjros for deos sarco ev- 
XoyrjTos I regard as far from unimpeachable. No 
example of the ellipse of a third person imperative 
has ever to my mind been satisfactorily established, 
though that of opt. slt) occurs in every epistle. That 
from this ascription in the New Testament ^be' 
should be excluded and * is '. adopted seems proved 
by Rom. i. 25, 69 sanv svXoyijros, with which corre- 
sponds 2 Cor. xi. 31, o cbp svXoyrjTos. (In John 
xii. 13, A. V. writes 'is.') Therefore I hold that 
in Eph. i. 3, ' Blessed is ' should be written for 
' Blessed be.' Again in i Pet. i. 3. Thus, while doc- 
trinally there is no important distinction between (2) 
and (4), yet, grammatically, (4) is incomparably 
superior. 

It remains to consider the Authorised Version, 
which has to encounter objections of a different kind, 
objections which I hold to be fatal to it. For — 

I. While St. Paul distinctly declares our Lord's 
divine nature in at least two chapters, Phil, ii., Col. i., 
and, I think, implies it always, there are but two 
places where he is supposed to ascribe to Him the 
predicate Osos, while the passages are numerous in 
which he purposely distinguishes between 6 6s6s (6 
irarrip), and o KvpLos 'Irjaovs ^piaros. 

To these passages I must now invite attention. 

(i) No passage is more important in this discus- 
sion than the opening verses of Romans, chap, i., 
since in these St. Paul treats doctrinally of Christ's 
nature. Himself is set apart (he says) to carry 'the 



APPENDIX I. 8 1 

good tidings (gospel) of God . . . concerning His Son, 
— who was born, after His human nature (flesh), of 
David's lineage ; but after His divine nature (the 
Spirit of holiness) was declared miraculously {hv 
SvvdfjLSi), by rising from the dead, to be the Son of 
God — even Jesus Christ our Lord.' In other words, 
that same Jesus, whom, we acknowledge to be Christ 
the Lord, was declared to be the Son of God (the 
divine Messiah), not, be it observed, to be (dso9 iiri 

TTCLVTOdV. 

(2) Next let us observe the relation between 
^£09 {irarrip) and ^Irjaov9 'Kpiaro^, as exhibited in 
the salutations prefixed to the various epistles of 
St. Paul. 

Rom. i. 7 : x^P^^ ^/^^^ '^^^ slprjvr) airo %zo\} 

irarpos r]iJLo)v teal Kvplov ^Irjaov X.pL(TTOu : 

'Grace to you and peace from God our 

Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.' 

The same is found in i Cor. i. 3 ; 2 Cor. ii. 2 ; 

Eph. i. 2 ; Phil. i. 2. 
Gal. i. 2 and 2 Thess. i. 2 have the same, except 

' the ' for * our.' 
Col. : ' Grace to you and peace from God 
our Father,' (followed by) ' We give thanks 
to God the Father of our Lord Jesus 
Christ,' &c. 
I Thess. i. I : ' Unto the church of the Thessa- 
lonians in God the Father and the Lord 
Jesus Christ : Grace to you and peace.' 

1 Tim. i. 2 : ' Grace, mercy, peace, from God 

the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.' 

2 Tim. i. 2 : As in i Tim. 

G 



82 APPENDIX I. 

Tit. i. 4 : ' Grace and peace from God the 
Father, and Christ Jesus our Saviour.' 
(3) The following passages are cited from other 
parts of St. Paul's epistles : — 

Rom. XV. 6 : ' That with one accord ye may 
with one mouth glorify the God and Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ.' 

1 Cor. i. 9 : ' God is faithful, through whom ye 

were called into the fellowship of His Son 
Jesus Christ our Lord ; ' viii. 6 : ' To us 
there is one God, the Father, . . . and one 
Lord Jesus Christ.' 

2 Cor. i. 3 : * Blessed be \is\ the God and Father 

of our Lord Jesus Christ ;' repeated Eph. i. 3 : 
' The Son of God, Jesus Christ' {See also 
iv. 6; v. 19.) 

Gal. i. I : ' Through Jesus Christ, and God the 
Father.' 

Eph. vi. 23 : ' Peace be to the brethren, and 
love with faith, from God the Father and 
the Lord Jesus Christ.' {See v. 20.) 

Phil. ii. 5-1 1. (This great crucial passage as 
rendered in Revised Version should be care- 
fully pondered.) 

Col. (Chapters i., ii., and iii. to verse ij are essen- 
tial to the study of the question before us ; 
they declare Christ's divinity very plainly, 
but nowhere call Him ©sos-.) 

1 Thess. iii. 11: ' Now may our God and 

Father Himself, and our Lord Jesus, direct 
our way unto you.' {See i. 3, 9, 10.) 

2 Thess. i. 12: 'That the name of our Lord 



APPENDIX I. 83 

Jesus Christ may be glorified in you, and ye 
in Him, according to the grace of our God 
and the Lord Jesus Christ;' ii. 16: 'Now 
our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, and God our 
Father ' &c. (Observe the loftiness of divinity 
which this verse, and the whole of this early 
epistle, ascribe to the Lord Jesus Christ, but 
without calling Him %zo9,) 

1 Tim. i. I : * Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus, 

according to the commandment of God our 
Saviour, and Christ Jesus our hope.' See 
in i. 12, &c., the greatness and goodness of 
' Christ Jesus our Lord,' the Saviour of 
sinners and ensample of all that shall be- 
heve in Him ; ending with the doxology 
17: Now unto the King eternal, incorrupt- 
ible, invisible, the only God, be \is\ honour 
and glory for ever and ever. Amen. (Com- 
pare ii. 5, 6, and the memorable place, iii. 16, 
which, by the reading os, now universally 
received, calls Jesus Himself the fjbvarrjpiov 
dsorrjTos^ as in Col. ii. 2, 3.) See v. 21 ; 
vi. 13. 

2 Tim. iv. I : * I charge thee in the sight of God 

and of Christ Jesus ' &c. 
Our quotations from St. Paul's epistles have now 
brought us face to face with the passage. Tit. ii. 13. 
This is the only place in which I am, unhappily, com- 
pelled to argue against the rendering of the Revised 
Version, except in the passages upon which my 
opinion was expressed in my sermon of 1861 at Cam- 
bridge, now reprinted ; it being understood that I 

G 2 



84 APPENDIX 1. 

was free to defend those opinions. And this defence 
involves a defence of the Authorised Version in ren- 
dering here tov ixe^yaXov ©sot) koI ^corrjpos rj/xcov 
^l7](Tov Xptarov, * the great God and our Saviour Jesus 
Christ.' This the majority of the revisers have placed 
in the margin, giving in their text 'our great God and 
Saviour Jesus Christ.' My friend Mr. Humphry, in 
his tract, p. 10, applauds and welcomes this decision as 
' a more clear declaration of the Godhead of Christ' I 
am sorry to differ from him, but I do differ from him — 
I will not say toto cceio, for I think the Scriptural de- 
claration of Christ's Godhead stands in no need of this 
translation, nor of that received in Rom. ix. 5. To 
my mind the doctrine is clearly enough declared in 
Phil, and Col., and assumed by the apostle through- 
out his writings, as well as in his history given by 
St. Luke. But I believe that he has everywhere 
avoided predicating Christ by the title ^eos, and I 
point to the passage i Tim. i. 12-17, crowned by 
ii. 5-7 and iii. 16, and illustrated by the two epistles 
above named and by Rom. i„ &c., as containing and 
justifying the view which I take of his doctrinal stand- 
point on this /jbV(TT7]pLov 6s6t7]to9. Its logical com- 
pletion, as deduced from his writings and those of other 
apostles and evangelists, came in God's good time at 
another epoch of Church history. Referring to the 
Greek of this passage, I admit, of course, the possi- 
bility, nay, even the plausibility of the rendering in 
. the revised text. But I do not concede its necessity ; 
and I contest its analogical fitness, as compared with 
St. Paul's writings generally, and with this epistle 



APPENDIX L 85 

itself. Necessary it is not. As a Greek scholar, I 
deny that crcorripo^ rjfiMv is necessarily controlled by 
the article rov before /jusydXcv ^sov : and I feel assured 
that St. Paul, having written in i. 4 'from God the 
Father and Christ Jesus our Saviour,' would not have 
expected anybody reading this Greek to doubt that 
Tov /jLsydXov Ssov represents Ssov irarpos, and 
^coTf]po9 Tj/jiMP ^l7](7ov XpcaTov reprcscuts the previous 
X.pt(TTov ^Itjctov tov XcoTTjpos Tjficov. If such wcrc the 
mind of Paul when he wrote this, he might fearlessly 
omit the second article before ^corrjpos, as ^schylus 
has omitted it before Kparr^advTwv in the passage koI 
TO)v dXovrcov Kal K parr] a dvTOJV 8 i')(^a \ cfxovasd/covscvhaTL, 
Again. 301. The poet, depaiting from grammatical 
usage, omits a second tcov before KparTjcrdpTcov: why.'* 
because the captured and the conquerors could not be 
taken for the same, and his readers or his audience 
could make no mistake. Neither would St. Paul 
deem it necessary to place a tov before awTYjpos, as 
he had never called Christ Jesus ' the great God,' and 
in the beginning of his epistle he had called Him * our 
Saviour,' distinctly from God the Father. If, indeed, 
he had written tov ©sou koI awTTjpos, there might 
have been some chance of mistake ; ^ but the epithet 
fisyaXov removes, or ought to remove, all chance, 
being a well-known Old Testament attribute of the 
supreme God. Even in the Revelations, v. 13, to 
which the passage before us leads attention, we find 

^ Yet in i Tim. v. 21 the Auth. renders rov Qeov koI Kvplov 
'Irjaod XpccTTod, ' God, and the Lord Jesus Christ.' The Revi- 
sion omits livplov, rendering ' God, and Jesus Christ.' 



86 APPENDIX I, 

distinction still kept between God and the glorified 
Jesus (ch. i.), between ' Him who sitteth on the throne' 
and ' the Lamb.' On these grounds I hope to be 
forgiven for saying that I adhere to the Authorised 
Version of Tit. ii. 1 3> which now stands in the revised 
margin ; and since (with Mr. Humphry) I do not 
advocate ' servile adherence to the Greek order,' I 
should not have been disturbed if * the Saviour ' 
had ended the verse, as in i. 4. Thus my conclusion 
is that Tit. ii. 13 can never be justly cited as 
proving that St. Paul has designated Christ Jesus 
by the predicate %zos. Of Rom. ix. 5 I say the same. 
Let us now compare the other doxologies found 
in St. Paul's writings with that in Rom. ix. 5. 

Rom. i. 25 : 'And worshipped and served the 
creature rather than the Creator, who is 
blessed for ever. Amen.' 
Rom. xi. 36 : * To Him be \is\ the glory for ever. 

Amen.' 
2 Cor. xi. 3 1 : ' The God and Father of the 
Lord Jesus, He who is blessed for evermore, 
knoweth that I lie not' 
Gal. i. 5 : ' Our God and Father ; to whom be 

\is\ the glory for ever and ever. Amen.' 
Eph. i. 3 : ' Blessed be \is\ the God and Father 

of our Lord Jesus Christ' (So i Pet i. 3.) 
Eph. iii. 21 : ' Unto Him be \is\ the glory in the 
church and in Christ Jesus unto all genera- 
tions for ever and ever. Amen.' 
Phil. iv. 20 : ' Now unto God our Father be \is\ 

the glory for ever and ever. Amen.' 
I Tim. i. 17: * Now unto the King eternal. 



APPENDIX I. 87 

incorruptible, invisible, the only God, be [?>] 
honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.' 

1 Tim. vi. 15: 'He shall show, who is the 

blessed and only Potentate, the King of 
kings, and Lord of lords ; who alone hath 
immortality, dwelling in light unapproach- 
able ; whom no man hath seen, nor can see : 
to whom be \is\ honour and power eternal. 
Amen.' 

2 Tim. iv. 18: * To whom be \is\ the glory for 

ever and ever. Amen.' [In this passage ' to 

whom ' refers to o Y^vpios, and it is possible 

to contend that this means the Lord Jesus 

Christ. Careful examination of the epistle 

. will not, I think, lead to this conclusion. 

Jesus is twice called ' our Lord ' (i. 2, 8) ; 

but *the Lord,' so frequently recurring, 

generally {see i. 18; ii. 7, 14, 19, 22) mitst 

mean God, and may do so always.] 

All these doxologies, then, with their solemn 

Amens, are to the honour of God supreme, not of 

6 Ysjvpios 'l7]crov9 l^ptaros. 

Heb. xiii. 21 is ambiguous ; and although I am 
convinced that w {to whom) refers to the subject 6 
©SOS, some may choose to contend that it belongs to 
the proximate 'Irjaov Xpiarov. 

Compare i Pet. v. 1 1 : ' To Him [God] be [u] 

the dominion for ever and ever. Amen.' 
Jude 25 : * To the only God our Saviour, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord, be [zs] glory, majesty, 
dominion, and power, before all time, and 
now and for evermore. Amen.' 



88 APPENDIX I. 

In 2 Pet. iii. 1 8 the doxology is to 'our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ' But this epistle was one of 
the ancient avTiXs'yoiJLsva, and among those who have 
denied its genuineness are Calvin, Neander, and 
Olshausen. 

Those who, after examining all these passages 
(to which many might have been added), and weigh- 
ing the intrinsic probability founded on their accumu- 
lated evidence, can approve the authorised text and 
translation in Rom. ix. 5, or the revised translation 
in Tit. ii. 1 3, have minds very differently constituted 
from mine. If St. Paul, in the outset of his epistle, 
doctrinally declares his Good-tidings concerning the 
Son of God, Jesus Christ our Lord ; and after speak- 
ing of Him, Kara adpKa, as in ix. 3, does not add 
that He is 6sos (Kara irvEvfia), but vlos ©soi), how 
can those w^ho have a satisfactory alternative be 
expected to believe that in ix. 5 he all of a sudden 
calls the Christ * God over all, blessed for ever ' } 

And this he is supposed to do in a place where he 
is consoling the Jews by enumerating their many and 
great privileges, especially that of being the country- 
men of 6 ^piaros TO Kara adpKa. If indeed the Jews 
of St. Paul's time had been expecting their Messiah 
to be the supreme God (6 IttI TrdvTwv) manifest in the 
flesh, there might be some ground for maintaining the 
ascription. But no such expectation existed among 
them. Of an incarnate God they had no idea, no 
anticipation. 

The interpretation which I support is in striking 
harmony with Eph. iv. 4—6: sv aay/xa koI sv Hvsvfia, 

KaOoiS Kal SKX'^OtJTS sv /JLLO, sXtTlBc TTjS Kkl]0-£WS V/JiMV' 



APPENDIX L 89 

zh Y^vpios^ jxla irians^ %v ^dirTia^a^ zh ^sos /cat 
Trarrjp iravrcov, 6 iirl Trdvrcov, koI 8id irdvTWV^ koI sv 
irdo-Lv. As, in recounting Jewish privileges, he crowns 
the list by saying that God (the one God of Israel) 
is * over all,' so here, recounting Christian privileges, 
St. Paul adds that God the Father (of His redeemed 
children) is ' over all,' and more than this, is ' through 
all and in them all ' (i.e. by His Holy Spirit). 

Lachmann and Meyer are among the most emi- 
nent interpreters who punctuate fully after adpKa. 
But the revised margin is not accurate in ascribing 
this view to moderns only. See the second volume 
of Professors Westcott and Hort : Introduction and 
Appendix to their Text of the N. T. At p. 109, 
stating the external evidence on this question, they 
show that the oldest Greek MSS., Aleph, B, A, have 
no punctuation in the passage, but that C (Codex 
Ephraemi) and some good cursives have a full stop 
after adpica. This is quite sufficient to prove the 
existence of the interpretation for which I contend 
before the fifth century. A probability is also shown 
that Origen held this opinion. And Dr. Hort him- 
self says that such punctuation alone seems adequate 
to account for the whole of the language employed, 
more especially when it is considered in relation to 
the context. 

Finally, this passage can never be cited in any 
controversy: for the other party would at once deny 
the * orthodox ' punctuation and translation to be 
correct ; and by what force of argument is he to be 
silenced, when manuscripts prove nothing on one 
side or on the other, and internal probability is all in 



90 APPENDIX I. 

all ? Is any good purpose served by clinging to un- 
tenable interpretations, any more than to untenable 
readings ? ' Sursum corda ! ' ^ 

^ In Matt. i. 20 and Luke i. 35 the Authorised translators 
have rendered Hagion Pneuma ''the Holy Ghost/ though it has 
no article : and the Revisers follow them. In Tit. ii. 13 they 
have not carried on tov to 2coTrjpos : the Revisers have carried 
it on, and are applauded as giving 'a. more clear declaration 
of the Godhead of Christ.' This ' clutching at straws ' does 
not seem to serve the cause of orthodoxy, but to damage it. 
If St. Paul had called our Saviour deos in these places, as He is 
more than once called in St. John's Gospel, this would not 
prove that the apostles and their age had been taught to look 
behind the veil of that great fxvaTTjpiov deoTrjTos. It would still 
be true that the logical definitions of our creeds, drawn from 
Scriptural data, grew in later days out of the need felt in the 
Church of silencing the over-curious speculations of erring 
men. But let it be seen that all those data are sound. Bishop 
Shuttleworth was a learned and candid divine ; but in his Para- 
phrase of the Epistles, p. 345, he writes, on i Tim. iii. 16, ' If we 
admit the commonly received and more probable reading, Qeos, 
in preference to the 6s- contended for djy the Socinians^ it will 
form an epitome of belief consisting of the following articles : 
first, the divinity and incarnation of Christ,' &c., &c. And 6? 
is now allowed by all wise and candid divines of our Church 
to be the true reading. Since the fivaTrjpiov is Christ himself, 
there is not the very slightest difficulty in its bemg referred to 
by a masculine relative. 



91 



APPENDIX II. 

The following paper by Professor Ezra Abbot, D.D., 
LL.D., is reprinted from the Sunday School Times 
of May 21, 1881, p. 340 : — 

A VERY important part of the work of the new 
revision has consisted in the settlement of the Greek 
text to be followed in the translation. This was a 
duty which could not be evaded. To undertake to 
correct merely the mistranslations in the common 
English version, without reference to the question of 
the genuineness of the text, would be equivalent to 
saying that, while the mistakes of translators must be 
rectified, those of transcribers and editors should be 
regarded as sacred. It would be deliberately im- 
posing on the Christian public hundreds of readings 
which all intelligent scholars, on the ground of deci- 
sive evidence, now agree in rejecting as spurious. 

That there should be many mistakes in our manu- 
scripts of the Greek New Testament, as there are in 
all other manuscripts of ancient authors, and that a 
portion of these mistakes should be capable of correc- 
tion only by the comparison of many different copies, 
was inevitable in the nature of things, unless a per- 
petual miracle should be wrought. That such a 



92 APPENDIX II. 

miracle has not been wrought is shown by the multi- 
tude of ' various readings ' which a comparison of 
copies has actually brought to light, the number of 
which was roughly reckoned at thirty thousand in 
the days of Mill (1707), and may now be estimated 
at not fewer than one hundred thousand. 

This host of various readings may startle one who 
is not acquainted with the subject, and he may 
imagine that the whole text of the New Testament is 
thus rendered uncertain. But a careful analysis will 
'^ show that nineteen-twentieths of these are of no 
more consequence than the palpable errata in the 
first proof of a modern printer ; they have so little 
authority, or are so manifestly false, that they may 
be at once dismissed from consideration. Of those 
which remain, probably nine-tenths are of no import- 
ance as regards the sense ; the differences either 
cannot be represented in a translation, or affect the 
form of expression merely, not the essential meaning 
of the sentence. Though the corrections made by 
the revisers in the Greek text of the New Testament 
followed by our translators exceed five thousand 
hardly one-tenth of them will be noticed by the 
ordinary reader. Of the residue, many are indeed of 
sufficient interest and importance to constitute one of 
the strongest reasons for making a new revision, which 
should no longer suffer the known errors of copyists 
to take the place of the words of the evangelists and 
apostles. But the chief value of the work accom- 
plished by the self-denying scholars who have spent 
so much time and labour in the search for manu- 
scripts, and in their collation or publication, does not 



APPENDIX 11. 93 

consist, after all, in the corrections of the text which 
have resulted from their researches. These correc- 
tions may affect a few of the passages which have 
been relied on for the support of certain doctrines, 
but not to such an extent as essentially to alter the 
state of the question. Still less is any question of 
Christian duty touched by the multitude of various 
readings. The greatest service which the scholars 
who have devoted themselves to critical studies and 
the collection of critical materials have rendered, has 
been the establishment of the fact that, on the whole, 
the New Testament writings have come down to us 
in a text remarkably free from important corruptions, 
even in the late and inferior manuscripts on which 
the so-called ' received text ' was founded ; while the 
helps which we now possess for restoring it to its 
primitive purity far exceed those which we enjoy in 
the case of any important classical author whose 
works have come down to us. The multitude of 
' various readings,' which to the thoughtless or 
ignorant seems so alarming, is simply the result of 
the extraordinary richness and variety of our critical 
resources. 

At this point it may be well to illustrate, by a 
brief statement, the difference between the position of 
the present revisers and King James's translators 270 
years ago, as regards a critical knowledge of the 
Greek text of the New Testament. The translators 
or revisers of 161 1 followed strictly no one edition of 
the Greek Testament, though their revision seems to 
agree more closely, on the whole, with Beza's later 
editions (1588 and 1598) than with any other. But 



94 APPENDIX II. 

Beza's various editions (1565-98, fol. 1 565-1604, 
8vo) were founded mainly on Robert Stephens's 
editions of 1550 and 155 1. For those editions 
Stephens had a very imperfect collation of fifteen 
manuscripts from the Royal Library at Paris, and of 
the Complutensian Polyglot, whose readings were 
given in his margin. Of his manuscripts, ten con- 
tained the Gospels, eight the Acts and Epistles, and 
two the Apocalypse. Two of these manuscripts of 
the Gospels were valuable (D and L), but he made 
very little use of them ; indeed, the manuscript read- 
ings given in his margin seem in general to have 
served rather for show than for use. Scrivener has 
noted 119 places in which his text is in opposition to 
all of them. That text is, in fact, substantially formed 
from the last editions of Erasmus (1527-35), which 
differ very slightly from each other. Now what was 
Erasmus's critical apparatus } In the Gospels he 
had, all told, three manuscripts, — one of the tenth 
century, and a good one, but which he hardly ever 
followed, because its text seemed so peculiar that he 
was afraid of it. He used as the basis of his text in 
the Gospels an inferior manuscript of the fifteenth 
century. In the Acts and Catholic Epistles he had 
four modern manuscripts ; in the Pauline Epistles, 
five ; in the Revelation, only one, an inaccurate copy 
of which was used by the printer. This manuscript 
was mutilated, lacking the last six verses of the book, 
which Erasmus supplied by tmnslatijig back from the 
Latin Vulgate into pretty bad Greek. This was not 
all. In other passages he took the liberty of correct- 
ing or supplementing his text from the Latin Vulgate ; 



APPENDIX II. 95 

Beza occasionally took a similar liberty ; and the 
result is, that in a considerable number of cases, not, 
indeed, in general of much importance, the reading 
of the common English version is supported by no 
known Gj^eek maniLscript, but rests on an error of 
Erasmus or Beza (for example, Acts ix. 5, 6 ; Rom. 
vii. 6 ; 2 Cor. i. 6 ; i Pet. iii. 20 ; Rev. i. 9, 11; 
ii. 3, 20, 24 ; iii. 2 ; v. 10, 14 ; xv. 3 ; xvi. 5 ; 
xvii. 8, 16; xviii. 2, &c.). Such is the foundation 
of the text on which the so-called Authorised Version 
was based. 

It is impossible, without entering into tedious 
detail, to give an adequate idea of the immense 
accession to our critical resources which has resulted 
from the lifelong labours of generations of scholars 
since our common version was made. I will merely 
allude to Mill's edition of the Greek Testament (1707), 
on which he spent thirty years, mainly in collecting 
materials; to Bengel (1734), who did much to estab- 
lish correct principles of criticism ; to Wetstein, 
whose magnificent edition of the Greek Testament 
(1751-52}, in two folio volumes, represents the 
arduous labour of forty years, and who added greatly 
to our knowledge of manuscripts, and the quotations 
of the Christian fathers ; and to the extensive colla- 
tions of manuscripts by Alter, Birch, with his 
associates, and Matthaei, the latter of whom alone 
carefully examined more than one hundred. Above 
all his predecessors, Griesbach stands pre-eminent. 
He not only added much to the materials already 
collected, but was the first to turn them to proper 
account in the correction of the received text, and in 



96 APPENDIX II. 

critical tact has perhaps been excelled by none of 
those who have succeeded him. After Griesbach, 
who links the last to the present century, we may 
name the Roman Catholic Scholz, a poor critic, but 
who brought to light and partially collated many 
hundreds of manuscripts before undescribed ; Lach- 
mann, the eminent classical scholar, whose original 
genius gave a new impulse to textual criticism ; 
Scrivener, to whom we are indebted for excellent 
editions of two important uncial manuscripts (the 
Codex Bezae or Cambridge manuscript of the Gospels 
and the Acts, and the Codex Augiensis of the Pauline 
Epistles), and for the careful collation of about seventy 
cursive manuscripts ; and, above all, Tischendorf and 
Tregelles, whose indefatigable labours have made an 
epoch in the history of New Testament criticism. 
-To describe these labours here in detail is utterly out 
of the question. It may suffice to say that, for the 
purpose of enlarging and perfecting our critical 
apparatus, Tischendorf visited nearly all the principal 
libraries of Europe, collating or copying for publica- 
tion the most important manuscripts of the New 
Testament, whose text had not before been printed. 
Besides this, he took three journeys to the East, 
bringing home rich manuscript treasures, and crown- 
ing all with the magnificent discovery of the Sinai 
manuscript, of the fourth century, containing the 
New Testament absolutely complete. He spent 
more than eight years in these travels and collations. 
His editions of the texts of Biblical manuscripts, 
published by him for the first time, or for the first 
time accurately, comprise no less than seventeen 



APPENDIX II, 97 

large quarto and five folio volumes, not counting the 
* Anecdota Sacra et Profana,' and the * Notitia edi- 
tionis Codicis Sinaitici/ two quarto volumes contain- 
ing descriptions or collations of many new manu- 
scripts. Many of his collations, or copies of important 
manuscripts, still remain unpublished, though used in 
his last critical edition of the Greek Testament. 
Between the years 1840 and 1873 he issued as many 
as twenty-four editions of the Greek New Testament, 
including the re-impressions of his stereotyped editio 
acadeimca. Only four of these editions, however, 
those of 1 841, 1849, 1859, and 1869-72, are inde- 
pendently important, as marking great advances in 
the acquisition of new materials. The mere catalogue 
of Tischendorf's publications, prepared by Dr. Gre- 
gory for the Bibliotheca Sacra (January 1876), most 
of them relating to Biblical criticism, covers more 
than ten octavo pages. 

Dr. Tregelles, like Tischendorf, visited many of 
the principal European libraries, making three journeys 
to the Continent for this purpose, and collated with 
extreme care the most important uncial manuscripts, 
and a number of very valuable cursives. He com- 
pared his collations with those of Tischendorf, and, in 
case of any discrepancy, settled the question by a 
re-examination of the manuscript. The only new 
manuscript which he published was the Codex Zacyn- 
thius, a palimpsest of great value belonging to the 
library of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and 
containing about a third of the Gospel of Luke. 
He issued but one edition of the Greek Testament 
(1857-72), and was disabled by paralysis from person- 

H 



98 APPENDIX II. 

ally completing the Prolegomena or Introduction to 
this, and from supplying the needful corrections and 
additions. His accuracy in the statement of his 
authorities, and the new material incorporated in the 
notes, give the work great value, and the arrangement 
of the matter is very lucid. But though not to be 
compared with Tischendorf in the extent of his con- 
tributions to our stock of critical material, Dr. Tre- 
gelles did far more than his rival to illustrate and 
enforce the principles on which a critical edition of 
the Greek Testament should be based, and to estab- 
lish, by what he called 'comparative criticism,' the 
right of a few of the oldest manuscripts, in many 
cases, to outweigh a vast numerical majority of later 
authorities. He did far more, probably, than any 
other writer, to overcome the blind and unreasoning 
prejudice which so long existed in England in favour 
of the so-called ' received text.' 

A rough account of the number of Greek manu- 
scripts of the New Testament now known will give 
some idea of the vast enlargement of our critical 
materials since the time when the common English 
version was made. We have now for the Gospels 60 
uncials (reckoning the six Psalters, &c., which contain 
the hymns in Luke i. 46-55, 68-79; ii- 29-32), 
ranging from the fourth century to the tenth, and 
more than 600 cursives, dating from the tenth century 
to the sixteenth ; for the Acts and Catholic Epistles, 
seventeen uncials and over 200 cursives ; for the 
Pauline Epistles, twenty uncials and over 280 cur- 
sives ; for the Revelation, five uncials and about 
TOO nirqjves. To these are to be added over 340 



APPENDIX 11. 



99 



Evangelistaries and about eighty Praxapostoli ; that 
is, manuscripts containing the Lessons from the 
Gospels and the Acts and Epistles read in the service 
of the church. This very rough statement, however, 
requires much qualification to prevent a false impres- 
sion, as more than half of the uncials are mere frag- 
ments, though very valuable fragments, and most of 
the others are more or less mutilated ; while a large 
majority of the cursives have been but partially 
collated, or only inspected. But all of the uncials, 
incomparably the most valuable part of the apparatus, 
have been thoroughly collated (with the exception of 
the recently discovered Codex Rossanensis) ; indeed, 
the whole text of the most valuable among them has 
been published. 

There is another very important class of our 
critical documents which can be noticed only in the 
briefest manner. The translations of the New Testa- 
ment into different languages, made at an early date 
for the benefit of Christian converts ignorant of Greek 
— the a7icient versiojis, a5 they are commonly termed — 
represent the text current in widely separated regions 
of the Christian world, and are often of the highest 
importance in settling questions of textual criticism. 
Two of these versions, the Old Latin and the Cure- 
tonian Syriac, belong to the second century ; two, 
the Memphitic or Coptic, and the Thebaic or Sahidic, 
to the earlier part of 'the third ; four more, the Peshito 
Syriac in its present form, the Gothic, the Latin 
Vulgate, and the Ethiopic (perhaps) to the fourth ; 
two, the Armenian and the Jerusalem Syriac, to the 
fifth ; and there are several other later versions of 



lOO APPENDIX IT. 

considerable importance, as the Philoxenian or Har- 
clean Syriac and the Slavonic. The earlier editors of 
the Greek Testament knew none of these except the 
Vulgate and the Peshito, and the former only in a 
very corrupt text. They made little use of either of 
them, except occasionally to corrupt the Greek text 
from the more familiar Vulgate. The Curetonian 
Syriac is a recent discovery ; and the value of this 
and of the other early versions in textual criticism 
can hardly be overestimated. Our knowledge of the 
Old Latin version or versions has been very greatly 
extended by the labours of scholars in the present 
century in connection with the discovery of new 
manuscripts. 

A third and also very important class of our autho- 
rities consists of the numerous quotatmis of the New 
Testament by early Christian writers, many of them 
one or two centuries earlier than the date of our 
oldest manuscripts. In respect to these, though Mill, 
Bengei, Wetstein, Sabatier, Griesbach, Matthsei, and 
others had made extensive collections, our critical 
apparatus has been greatly augmented by the labours 
of Tischendorf and Tregelles. 

The most valuable result of these vast accessions 
to our critical apparatus has been indirect rather than 
direct. It has enabled us to trace the outlines of the 
history of the text ; to determine, approximately, the 
relative value of our different authorities and their 
distinguishing characteristics ; it has enabled us to 
establish on a solid foundation certain principles of 
criticism, which serve as a guide through the laby- 
rinth of conflicting testimonies. 



APPENDIX III. 

SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS 

in the Revised Version of the New Testament. 



[The Former Column gives the English of the Authorised Version : the Revised 
Correction stands in the opposite Column. A (Absent) impHes that the 
Authorised word or words were omitted in the Revision by preponderant 
authorities.! 





MATTHEW. 




Chapter I. 






25 


her firstborn son : . 
Chapter II. 


• 


a son: 


18 


lamentation and 




A 




Chapter III. 






6 


in Jordan, 
Chapter V. 


• 


in the river Jordan, 


21 


by them .... 


. 


to them 


22 


without a cause 


. 


A 


27 


by them of old time, 


. 


A 


30 


be cast .... 


• 


go 


44 


bless them that curse you 


, do 






good to them that hate ^ 


^ou, 


A 


— 


which .... 


. 


that 


— 


despitefully use you and . 


. 


A 


47 


pubhcans so .? . 


. 


Gentiles the same.? 



I02 



APPENDIX in. 





Chapter VI. 






I 


alms .... 


. 


righteousness 


4 


himself .... 


. 


A 


4, 


6,18 shall reward thee openly. 


shall recompense thee. 


5 


when thou prayest, thou 


shalt 


when ye pray, ye shall 


12 


as we forgive . 




as we also have forgiven 


13 


for thine is . , . . Amen. 




A 


21 


your .... your 




thy ... . thy 


25 


and .... 




or 


33 


the kingdom of God, 




his kingdom, 


34 


for the things of itself. . 
Chapter VI I. 




for itself. 


2 


to you again. . 


. 


unto you. 


24 


I will liken him 


. 


shall be likened 


24, 


25 a rock 


. 


the rock 


29 


the scribes. 
Chapter VIII. 


■ 


their scribes. 


'5 


unto them. 




unto him. 


28 


Gergesenes, . 




Gadarenes, 


31 


suffer us to go . 




send us 


32 


into the herd of swine. . 




into the swine. 




the whole herd of swine . 




the whole herd 




Chapter IX. 






8 


they marvelled, 


. 


they were afraid, 


13 


to repentance. 


. 


A 


35 


among the people. 


. 


A 


36 


fainted and were scattered 






abroad. 


• 


were distressed and scati 




Chapter X. 






3 


Lebbseus, whose surname 


was 


A 


4 


Canaanite, 


. 


Cananaean, 


10 


staves : . . . . 


, 


staff: 


23 


another: .... 


. 


the next : 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



103 



Chapter XI. 



2 two of 


by 


9 but what went ye out for to 


but wherefore went ye out? to 


see ? A prophet ? 


see a prophet ? 


— more 


much more 


16 and caUing .... 


which call 


19 of her children. 


by her works. 


23 which art exaked unto heaven, 


shalt thou be exalted to heaven ? 


shalt be brought down to hell : 


thou shalt go down unto Hades. 


Chapter XIII. 




9, 43 to hear .... 


A 


44 Again 


A 


46 who 


and 


5 1 Jesus saith unto them, 


A 


— Lord 


A 


Chapter XIV. 




6 was kept, .... 


came, 


13 by ship, 


in a boat. 


30 boisterous .... 


A 


32 come 


gone up 


33 came and .... 


A 


34 into the land of . . . 


to the land, unto 


Chapter XV. 




4 commanded, saying 


said 


6 and honour not his father or 




his mother, he shall be free. 


he shall not honour his father. 


— the commandment . 


the word 


8 draweth nigh unto me with 




their mouth, and . 


A 


14 of the blind .... 


A 


17 yet 


A 


39 Magdala. .... 


Magadan. 


Chapter XVI. 




3 ye hypocrites. 


A 


4 the prophet .... 


A 


13 whom do men say that I the 


who do men say that the Son 


Son of man am 1 


man is ? 


26 lose his own soul ? . 


forfeit his life 1 



I04 



APPENDIX III. 



7 
i6 

17 

22 

23 





Chapter XVII. 




4 


let us make .... 


I will make 


10 


first 


A 


20 


unbelief : .... 


little faith : 


21 


Howbeit .... fasting. . 


A 


26 


Peter saith unto him, Of stran- 


And when he said, From stran 




gers. 


gers, 




Chapter XVIII. 




II 


For .... lost. 


A 


29 


at his feet .... 


A 




all 


A 


35 


their trespasses. 
Chapter XIX. 


A 


16 


Good Master, .... 


Master, 


17 


Why callest thou me good ? 


Why askest thou me concerning 




there is none good but one, 


that which is good? One 




that is, God : 


there is who is good : 


20 


from my youth up . 


A 


29 


or wife 


A 



Chapter XX. 
standing idle, .... 
and .... receive . 
for many .... chosen. . 
in the way, and 
and to be ... . with ? 
and be ... . with : 
26, 27 let him be . 
30, 31 have mercy on us, O Lord, 
34 their eyes .... 

Chapter XXI. 
7 they set him 

13 have made .... 
15 crying 

Chapter XXII. 
7 when the king heard thereof, he 
13 take him away, and 
30 the angels of God . 



standing ; 

A 

A 

, and in the way he 

A 

A 

shall be 

Lord, have mercy on us, 

they 

he sat 
make 
that were crying 

the king 

A 

angels 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTLONS. 



105 



35 


and saying, .... 


A 


39 


the second is like unto it, 


a second like imto it is this, 


40 


hang 


hangeth 


44 


make 


put 




thy footstool 

Chapter XXIII. 


underneath thy feet. 


3 


observe, that observe and do ; 


, these do and observe : 


7 


Rabbi, Rabbi 


Rabbi. 


8 


Master, 


teacher. 


— 


even Christ ; . . . . 


A 


14 


Woe .... damnation. . 


A 


17 


sanctifieth .... 


hath sanctified 


19 


fools and .... 
Chapter XXIV. 


A 


2 


And Jesus said 


But he answered and said 


17 


to take anything out of his 


to take out the things that are 




house : 


in his house : 


18 


clothes 


cloke. 


36 


but my Father 


neither the Son, but the Father 


42 


what hour .... 
Chapter XXV. 


on what day 


6 


Cometh ; 


A 


13 


wherein .... cometh. . 


A 


15 


and straightway took his jour- 






ney 


and he went on his journey. 


16 


Then he that had . 


Straightway he that 


20, 


22 beside them 


A 


31 


holy . . . • . 
Chapter XXVI. 


A 


3 


and the scribes, 


A 


20 


he sat down with the twelve. . 


he was sitting at meat with the 
twelve disciples. 


28 


of the new testament. 


of the covenant. 


42 


cup .... from me, 


cannot pass away, 


43 


he came 


he came again 


— 


asleep again ; . 


sleeping. 


44 


he left them, 4 . . 


he left them again, 



io6 



APPENDIX III. 



44 


went away again, . 


• • 1 


went away. 


50 


wheiefore art thou come ? . | 


do that for which thou art come. 


53 


now pray to 


. 


beseech 




presently give . 


. 


even now send 


55 


with you . 


. 


A 


59 


and elders, 


. 


A 


60 


came two false witnesses, 


came two. 


63 


answered and . 
Chapter XXVII. 


. . 1 


A 


5 


in the temple, 


. 


into the sanctuary, 


23 


the governor said, . 


. 


he said. 


35 


that it might be . . . 


. lots. . 


A 


42 


If he be . 


, 


He is 


58 


the body to be delivered. 


it to be given up. 


64 


by night . 
Chapter XXVIII 


• . 


A 


2 


from the door. 


• 


A 


9 


as they went to tell his dis- 






ciples, . 




A 


17 


him, 


. 


A 


20 


Amen. 
Chapter I. 


MAR 


A 

K. 


2 


in the prophets, 




in Isaiah the prophet, 


4 


John did baptize 




John came, who baptized 


5 


they of . . . 




all they of 




and were all . 




and they were 


II 


in whom . 




in thee 


13 


there 




A 


14 


of the kingdom 




A 


16 


his brother 




the brother of Simon 


19 


thence, . 




A 


23 


there was 




straightway there was 


24 


Let us alone ; . 




A 


27 


what thing is this ? 


what new 






doctrine is this ? 




what is this ? a new doctrine .? 


31 


immediately . 




A 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



107 



39 



42 



7 
16 

17 

18 



he preached in their syna- 
gogues .... and cast out 
as soon as he bad spoken, 

Chapter II. 

straightway .... 

blasphemies ? . 

the scribes and Pharisees 

to repentance .... 

And the disciples of John and 

of the Pharisees 

new 

doth burst .... 
the wine is spilled, and the 

bottles will be marred : 



Chapter III. 

5 whole as the other. 
15 to heal sicknesses, and . 

18 Canaanite, .... 

29 is in danger of eternal damna- 

tion : 

Chapter IV. 

I was gathered .... 

10 parable 

12 their sins .... 

15 that was sown in their hearts, 

19 this world, .... 

20 some thirtyfold, some sixty, 

and some an hundred. 
22 which shall not be . 

30 with what comparison shall we 

compare it .'* 

31 is less 

32 but when it is sown, it groweth 

up 

34 liis 

36 there were also with him other 

little ships 

yj it was now full. 



he went into their synagogues 
. . . preaching and casting out 
A 



he blasphemeth ; 

the scribes of the Pharisees 

A 

And John's disciples and the 

Pharisees 
A 

will burst 
the wine perisheth, and the 

skins : 



A 

A 

Cananaean, 

is guilty of an eternal sin : 



is gathered 

parables. 

it 

which hath been sown in them. 

the world, 

thirtyfold and sixtyfold and a 

hundredfold, 
save that it should be 
in what parable shall we set it 

forth ? 
though it be less 

yet, when it is sown, groweth up 
his own 

other boats were with him. 
the boat was now filling. 



loS 



APPENDIX III. 





Chapter V. 








I 


Gadarenes. 




Gerasenes. 


3 


could bind him, no, not 


with 


could any more bind him, no, not 




chains : 




with a chain: 


1 1 


nigh unto the mountains 




on the mountain side 


13 


And forthwith Jesus 




And he 




they were about 




in number about 


14 


the swine 






them 


15 


and clothed 






clothed 


22 


And, behold, . 






And 


23 


and she shall live 






and live 


27 


of Jesus, . 






the things concerning Jesus, 


33 


in her 






to her 


36 


As soon as Jesus hear 


i the 


i But Jesus, not heeding (?) the 




word that was spoken, 




word spoken, 


38 


he Cometh 




they come 


40 


lying. 




. A 


42 


astonished 




amazed straightway 




Chapter VI. 









2 unto him, that even such 

mighty works are 
9 and not put on 
1 1 whosoever 

— Verily .... that city. 

1 5 or as 

16 It is John .... he is risen 

from the dead. 
20 he did many things 
22 and pleased 

— the king .... 

26 sat with him, . 

27 his head to be brought: . 
36 bread : for they have nothing 

to eat. 
39 to make all . 
43 twelve baskets full of the frag 

ments, .... 
48 he saw .... and about . 



unto this man ? and what mean 

such mighty works 
and, said he^ put not on 
whatsoever place 
A 



John .... he is risen. 

he was much perplexed 

she pleased 

and the king 

sat at meat, 

to bring his head: 

somewhat to eat. 
that all should 

broken pieces, twelve basketfuls, 
seeing .... about 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



109 



51 beyond measure, and won- 

dered. .... 

52 for their heart 

53 into the land of Gennesaret, . 

Chapter VII. 
I, 2 which came from Jerusalem. 
And when they saw some 

— eat 

— they found fault. 
4 and of tables. 

8 as the washing .... ye do. . 

1 2 And {the erasure of this particle 
changes the co7istructio7i of 
1 1- 1 2, and renders the added 
* he shall be free ' needless 

16 If any man .... hear. . 

19 purging all meats 1 . 

25 For a certain woman 

— heard of him, and came . 

30 the devil gone out, and her 

daughter laid upon the bed 

31 of Tyre and Sidon, he came 
35 straightway 



but their heart 

to the land unto Gennesaret, 

which had come from Jerusalem, 

and had seen that some 
ate 
A 
A 
A 



A 

A 

this he said, making all meats 

clean. 
But straightway a woman 
having heard of him, came 
the child laid upon the bed, and 

the devil gone out. 
of Tyre, he came through Sidon 
A 



Chapter VIII. 

I the multitude being very great, 

9 that had eaten 

17 yet 

21 how is it that ye do not under- 

stand .'' . 

22 he Cometh 

24 I see men as trees, . 

25 made him look up : 

— every man 

26 neither go into the town, 

— nor tell it .... in the town. 
36 shall it . 



when there was again a great 

multitude, 
A 

A 

do ye not yet understand ? 

they come 

I see men, for I behold them as 

trees, 
he looked stedfastly, 
all things 

do not even enterinto the village. 
A 
doth it 



no 


APPENDIX III. 


36 


if he shall .... 


to 




lose his own soul ? . 


forfeit his life? 


yi 


or what shall .... 


for what should 




soul? 


life ? 




Chapter IX. 




3 


as snow ; .... 


A 


6 


to say ; 


to answer ; 





were . . . . . 


became 


7 


there was .... 


there came 


9 


came 


were coming 


16 


the scribes, .... 


them, 


23 


if thou canst believe, 


if thou canst ! 


24 


with tears, Lord, 


A 


26 


was 


became 


28 


why could not we cast him out ? 


we could not cast it out. 


29 


and fasting 


A 


31 


(x. 34) the third day 


after three days 


33 


he came 


they came 


— 


among yourselves . 


A 


38 


and he followeth not us ; 


A 




because he followeth not 


because he followed not 


44, 


46 Where .... quenched. 


A 


49 


and every sacrifice .... salt. 
Chapter X. 


A 


I 


by the farther side of 


and beyond 


6 


God made them male and fe- 






male. ..... 


male and female made he them. 


8 


be 


become 


10 


the same 


this 


12 


a woman 


she herself 


21 


take up the cross, and . 


A 


29 


or wife 


A 


46 


bUnd Bartimasus, the son of 


the son of Timasus, Bartimseus, 




Tim^us, 


a blind beggar, 


— 


begging. .... 


A 


49 


commanded him to be called. 


said. Call ye him. 


50 


rose 


sprang up 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



Chapter XL 



6 


commanded : . 


said : 


8 


others cut down branches off 


others branches which they had 




the trees, 


cut from the fields. 





and strawed them in the way . 


A 


lO 


in the name of the Lord : 


A 


II 


and into the temple : 


into the temple: 


23 


those things which . 


what 




whatsoever he saith. 


it. 


24 


ye desire, when ye pray, 


ye pray and ask for, 


26 


But if ... . your trespasses. . 


A 


29 


also 

Chapter XIL 


A 


4 


and at him they cast stones, 


and him they wounded in the 




and wounded him in the 


head, and handled shame- 




head, and sent him away 


fully. 




shamefully handled. 




6 


Having yet therefore one son. 






his wellbeloved, . 


He had yet one, a beloved son : 


.. 


also 


A 


17 


marvelled .... 


marvelled greatly 


19 


children, .... 


child, 


21 


neither left he any seed: 


leaving no seed behind him: 


22 


had her, and .... 


A 


23 


therefore, when they shall rise 


A 


25 


the angels which are 


angels 


27 


but the God of the hving : 


but of the living : 





therefore 


A 


30 


this is the first commandment. 


A 


31 


and the second is like, namely 






this, 


the second is this : 


32 


Well, Master, thou hast said 


Of a truth. Master, thou hast 




the truth : for there is one 


well said that he is one ; 




God; 




33 


and with all the soul. 


A 




more 

Chapter XIIL 


much more 


8 


and troubles : . 


A 


14 


spoken of by Daniel the pro- 






phet, 


A 



112 



APPENDIX III. 



i8 


your flight .... 


it 


22 


even 


A 


25 


the stars of heaven shall fall, . 


the stars shall be falling from 
heaven. 


27 


his angels, .... 


the angels, 


32 


and 


or 


34 


the Son of man is as 
Chapter XIV. 


it is as when 


19 


and another said. Is it I ? 


A 


22 


eat 


A 


24 


of the new testament, 


of the covenant, 


27 


because of me this night : 


A 


31 


the more .... 


A 


40 


And when he returned, . 


And he came again, 


— 


asleep again, .... 


sleeping. 


43 


great 


A 


45 


Master, Master; 


Rabbi ; 


51 


the young men 


they 


52 


from them .... 


A 


65 


the servants did strike him 


the officers received him with 




with the palms of their hands. 


blows of their hands. 


70 


and thy speech agreeth thereto. 


A 


72 


And the second time 
Chapter XV. 


And straightway the second time 


3 


but he answered nothing. 


A 


7 


with him, .... 


A 


8 


crying aloud .... 


went up and 


. — 


as he had ever done 


as he was wont to do 


24 


when they had crucified him. 






they parted .... 


they crucify him, and part 


28 


And the ... . transgressors. . 


A 



LUKE. 



Chapter I. 

T are most surely believed . 

28 blessed art thou among women. 

29 when she saw him, . 

35 of thee 



have been fulfilled 

A 

A 

A 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



113 



37 with God nothing shall be im- 
possible. 
42 voice, ..... 
50 from generation to generation. 
75 all the days of our Mfe. 
78 hath visited 

Chapter II, 

5 Mary his espoused wife 

9 behold 
12 lying 
14 good will towards men. 

2 1 of the child, 

22 her .... 
33 Joseph . 

37 she was a widow of about 

40 in spirit . 

42 to Jerusalem . 

43 Joseph and his mother 

Chapter III. 
2 Annas and Caiaphas being the 
high priests. 

Chapter IV. 
I into the wilderness. 

4 but by every word of God 

5 And the devil, taking him up 

into an high mountain 
8 Get thee behind me, Satan : for 
18 to heal the brokenhearted 
26 to Sarepta, a city of Sidon, 

4 1 Thou art Christ the Son of God. 
43 am I sent 

Chapter V. 

33 Why do 

36 if otherwise, then .... a rent, 

38 and both are preserved. . 

39 straightway .... 
— better. 



no word from God shall be void 

of power, 
cry, 

unto generations and generations, 
all our days, 
shall visit 



Mary, who was betrothed to him, 

A 

and lying 

peace among men in whom he 

is well pleased, 
him, 
their 

his father 

she had been a widow for 
A 
A 
his parents 



in the high-priesthood of Annas 
and Caiaphas, 

in the wilderness. 
A 

And he led him up and 

A 

A 

toZarephath in the land of Sidon, 

Thou art the Son of God. 

was I sent. 



else he will rend the new, 

A 

A 

good. 



I 



114 



APPENDIX III. 





Chapter VI. 




I 


the second .... first, . 


a Sabbath, 


lO 


whole as the other . 


A 


i6 


also 


A 


26 


so 


in the same manner 


35 


hoping for nothing again; 


never despairing (.'') ; 


45 


evil treasure of his heart . 


evil treasure 


48 


for it was founded upon a rock. 
Chapter VII. 


because it had been well builded 


10 


that was sick .... 


A 


11 


the day after, .... 


soon afterwards, 


— 


many of 


A 


19 


to Jesus, 


to the Lord, 


28 


there is not .... the Baptist: 


there is none greater than John 


31 


And the Lord said . 


A 


42 


Tell me therefore, which of them 


Which of them therefore 


44 


with the hairs of her head. 
Chapter VIII. 


with her hair. 



3 unto him 

20 by certain which said 

26, 37 Gadarenes .... 

27 long time, and 

34 and went 

40 it came to pass, that, when Jesus 

was returned, 
45 and sayest thou. Who touched 

me ? 

48 be of good comfort . 
54 put them all out, and 

Chapter IX. 

I his twelve disciples, 

3 staves, 

7 by him 

10 went aside privately into a 
desert place belonging to the 
city called Bethsaida. 

35 my beloved Son: 



unto them 

A 

Gerasenes 

and for a long time 

A 

as Jesus returned, 

A 
A 
A 



the twelve, 

staff, 
A 

withdrew apart to a city called 
Bethsaida. 

my Son, my chosen: 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



115 



38 


look 


to look 


48 


shall be great. . . , 


is great. 


so 


not against us is for us. . 


not against you is for you. 


54 


even as Elias did . 


A 


55, 


56 and said .... to save them 


A 


57 


it came to pass 


A 




Lord 

Chapter X. 


A 


I 


also 


A 


II 


on us 


to our feet 


— 


unto you 


A 


15 


which art .... 


shalt thou be 




thrust down to hell. 


brought down to Hades. 


20 


rather 


A 


21 


in the spirit, .... 


in the Holy Spirit, 


3^- 


when he was at the place, came 


when he came to the place, 


35 


when he departed . 


A 


3« 


it came to pass 
Chapter XI. 


A 


2 


Our Father which art in heaven, 


Father, 


— 


Thy will .... heaven. . 


A 


4 


lead 


bring 


— . 


but deliver us from evil . 


A 


29 


the prophet .... 


A 


ZZ 


secret place, .... 


cellar, 


44 


scribes .... hypocrites 


A 


53 


as he said these things unto 


when he was come out 1 




them. 


thence, 


54 


that they might accuse him. . 
Chapter XII. 


A 


18 


fruits 


corn 


31 


all 


A 


56 


do not discern 
Chapter XIII. 


know not how to interpret 


9 


well : and if not, then after that 


thenceforth, well-, but if 




thou shalt cut it down. 


thou shalt cut it down. 


15 


thou hypocrite, 


ye hypocrites, 



not, 



ii6 



APPENDIX III. 



19 
25 
31 

35 


great 

Lord, Lord 

The same day 

verily 

the time come when 

Chapter XIV. 




A 

Lord 

In that very hour 

A 

A 


3 
10 


on the sabbath day ? 
of them . 

Chapter XV. 


• 


on the sabbath, or not } 
of all 


16 
21 

22 


filled his belly . 
make me as one of 

servants. 
Bring forth 

Chapter XVI. 


thy hired 


been filled 

A 

Bring forth quickly 


9 


when ye fail, . 


, 


1 when it shall fail, 



Chapter XVII. 

9 I trow not. 

18 There are not found 

21 lo there ! . 

23 See here ; or, see there : 

36 two men shall be ... . left. 



Were there none found 

there ! 

lo there, or lo here ! 

A 



Chapter XVIII. 
7 though he bear long with them "i 



and he is longsuffering over 
them 1 



Chapter XIX. 

42 If thou hadst known, even thou, 
at least in this thy day, the 
things which belong unto thy 
peace ! 

45 therein, and them that bought 

46 my house is ... . 



if thou hadst known in this day, 
even thou, the things which 
belong unto peace ! 



my house shall be 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



17 



Chapter XX. 

1 3 when they see him . 

14 come 

23 Why tempt ye me ? 

30 and the second .... childless 

31 the seven also : and they left . 
33 last of all . . . . 
33 is she ? 

Chapter XXI. 

4 unto the offerings of God 
1 1 in divers places, and famines . 
25 with perplexity ; the sea and 
the waves roaring ; 

Chapter XXII. 

31 And the Lord said, . 

61 crow, .... 

62 Peter .... 
64 they struck him on the face 
68 me, nor let me go ; . 

Chapter XXIII. 

6 of Galilee, 

17 For of ... . feast. . 

23 and of the chief priests . 

38 in letters of Greek, and Latin 

and Hebrew, 

39 If thou be Christ, . 

42 And he said unto Jesus, Lord 

— into thy kingdom. . 

45 And the sun was darkened, 

54 that day was the preparation, 

Chapter XXIV. 

I and certain others with them . 
10 , and other women that were 

with them, which told 
17 and are sad ? . 
42 and of an honeycomb. 



A 
A 

A 

and the second : 

the seven also left 

afterward 

shall she be '^. 



unto the gifts 

and famines in divers places 
in perplexity for the roaring of 
the sea and the billows ; 



A 



crow this day, 

he 

A 

A 



It, 
A 
A 



Art not thou the Christ ? 

And he said, Jesus, 

in thy kingdom. 

the sun's light failing: 

it was the day of the Preparation, 



: and the other women with 

them told 
And they stood still, looking sad. 
A 



iiS 


APPENDIX III. 


46 


Thus it is written, and thus it , Thusit is written, that the Christ 




behoved Christ to suffer, 


should suffer, 


49 


of Jerusalem, .... 


A 


53 


praising and .... 


A 


— 


Amen 


A 



JOHN. 



Chapter I. 

27 . He it is, who coming after 

me is preferred before me, 

29 John 

42 of Jona : . 

43 and saith 
49 and saith unto 
51 Hereafter 



, even he that cometh after me 

he 

of John : 

and Jesus saith 

A 

A 



Chapter III. 

15 in him should not perish, but . 

25 the Jews 

32 And what .... 



may in him 
a Jew 
What 





Chapter IV. 




15 


hither 


all the way hither 


17 


said 


said unto him 


42 


the Christ, .... 


A 


43 


and went .... 


A 


51 


and told him .... 


A 




Thy son liveth. . . . 
Chapter V. 


that his son lived. 
• 


3 


great 


A 


4, 


5 waiting for ... . disease he 






had 


A 


5 


an infirmity thirty and eight 


been thirty and eight years in 




years. 


his infirmity. 


16 


and sought to slay him, . 


A 


27 


also, 


A 


30 


of the Father .... 


of him 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



119 



Chapter VI. 
II to the disciples, and the dis 

ciples .... 
17 was not come . 
22 when .... 

— save that one . 

— whereinto his disciples were 

.entered 
51 which I will give 
58 as your fathers did eat manna 
65 my Father, 
69 that Christ, the Son of the living 

God 

71 Iscariot the son of Simon 

Chapter VII. 
10 gone up, then went he also up 

unto the feast, 
20 and said, 
26 the very Christ 1 

39 the Holy Ghost 

40 this saying, 
46 spake like this man, 
50 by night . 
53 (to viii. 11) 



Chapter VIII. 
6 as though he heard them not . 
9 being convicted by their own 
conscience, . 

— standing .... 

10 and saw none but the woman 

— those thine accusers .'* 

1 1 sin no more. . 

29 the Father hath not 

38 which ye have seen with your 

father 

44 abode not 

59 going through the midst of 

them, and so passed by. 



had not yet come 

A 

save one, 

A 

A 

as the fathers did eat, 

the Father. 

the Holy One of God. 
the son of Simon Iscariot, 



gone up unto the feast, then went 
he also up, 

A 

the Christ .? 

the Spirit 

these words, 

so spake. 

A 

(omitted by most ancient au- 
thorities, and varied by others : 
in R. V. printed within 
brackets) 



, where she was, 

A 

they ? 

from henceforth sin no more. 

he hath not 

which ye heard from your father, 
stood not 



A 



I20 



APPENDIX III. 



Chapter IX. 

6 the eyes of the blind man 

8 bhnd, 

9 He is like him. 

1 1 the pool of ... . 

Chapter X. 

12 scattereth the sheep : 

13 the hirehng . . . . 
26 as I said unto you. . 

38 and believe .... 

Chapter XI. 

22 But I know . . . . 
31 saying, She goeth . 
41 from the place where the dead 
was laid 



his eyes 

a beggar, 

No, but he is like him. 

A 



scattereth them ; 

he 

A 

and understand 



And even now I know 
supposing that she was goim 



Chapter XII. 

I which had been dead, 

4 Simon's son, . 

7 Let her alone : 

— hath she kept this . 

47 and believe not, 

Chapter XIII. 



24 that he should ask who it 

should be of whom he spake. 

25 He then lying .... 
32 if God be glorified in him. 

Chapter XIV. 

5 ye know, and the way ye know. 
28 because I said, I go 

Chapter XV. 
1 1 that my joy might remain 



A 
A 

Suffer her to keep it : 

(Omit) 

and keep them not, 



and saith unto him. Tell us who 

it is of whom he speaketh. 
He leaning back, as he was, 

A 



the way ye know, 
because I go 



that my joy may be 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



121 



Chapter XVI. 

lo My Father, .... 

1 6 because I go to the Father. . 

23 inmy name, He will give it you. 
33 ye shall have .... 

Chapter XVII. 

4 I have 

1 2 in the world . 

17 through thy truth: . 
21 one in us: 

24 I will that they also, whom thou 

hast given me, be with me 
where I am : 



the Father, 

A 

, He will give it you in my name. 

ye have 



having 

A 

in the truth: 

in us: 

that which thou hast given me, 
I will that, where I am, they 
also may be with me ; 



Chapter XVIII. 



20 


the Jews always 


all the Jews 


40 


all 

Chapter XIX. 


A 


3 


and said, ... 


and they came unto him and said, 


7 


by our law .... 
Chapter XX. 


by that law 


16 


saith unto him, 


saith unto him in Hebrew, 


29 


Thomas 

Chapter XXI. 


A 


2S 


Amen 


1 A 



Chapter I. 

14 and supplication 

15 of the disciples, 
19 proper 

25 take part of . 



ACTS. 



of the brethren, 



take the place in 



122 



APPENDIX III. 



I 

7 
30 



31 
33 
41 
47 



Chapter II. 

with one accord 

one to another 

according to the flesh, he would 

raise up Christ to sit on his 

throne ; 
that his soul was not left in hell, 

now 

gladly ..... 
And the Lord added to the 

church daily such as should 

be saved. 



together 
A 

he would set one upon his 
throne ; 

that neither was he left in Hades, 

A 

A 

And the Lord added to them day 

by day those that were being 

saved. 



Chapter II L 



3 


asked 


asked to receive 


6 


rise up and walk. . 


walk. 


II 


the lame man which was healed 


he 


18 


Christ 


his Christ 


20 


he shall send Jesus Christ, 


that he may send the Christ who 




which before was preached 


hath been appointed for you. 




unto you : 


even Jesus: 


22 


unto the fathers 


A 


— 


the Lord your God . 


the Lord God 


25 


our fathers, .... 


your fathers. 


26 


his Son Jesus .... 
Chapter IV. 


his Servant, 


17 


straitly 


A 


24 


thou art God, .... 


A 


25 


who by the mouth of thy servant 


who by the Holy Ghost, by the 




David hast said, 


mouth of our father David 
thy servant, didst say. 


27 


of a truth .... 


of a truth in this city 




child 


Servant 




Chapter V. 




5 


these things 


it. 


24 


the high priest and . 


A 


28 


Did not we straitly command 


We straitly charged 


32 


his witnesses .... 


witnesses 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



33 took counsel . 


. 


were minded 


34 the apostles . 


. 


the men 


37 much people . 


. 


some of the people 


39 overthrow it ; . 




overthrow them ; 


42 Jesus Christ. . 


• 


Jesus as the Christ. 


Chapter VI. 






3 of the Holy Ghost . 


. 


of the Spirit 


8 of faith .... 


. 


of grace 


13 blasphemous . 


• 


A 


Chapter VII. 






17 had sworn to . 




vouchsafed unto 


18 king .... 




king over Egypt, 


30 of the Lord 




A 


32 and the God of Isaac, an 


dthe 




God of Jacob. 




and of Isaac, and of Jacob. 


35 did God send . 




hath God sent 


yj the Lord your God 




God 


— him shall ye hear. . 




A 


43 Remphan, 




Rephan, 


Chapter VIII. 






7 {text corrupt) 


. 


{reading and version doubtful) * 


10 the great power of God. 


• 


that power of God which is 
called great. 


13 beholding the miracles 


and 


beholding signs and great mira- 


signs which were done 




cles wrought. 


22 God, 


. 


the Lord, 


37 And PhiHp .... Son of God. 


A 


Chapter IX. 






5 the Lord .... 


• 


he 


5-6 it is hard .... said unto him, 


A 


6 Arise 




But rise 


8 no man : . 




nothing : 


12 in a vision 




A 


— hand 




hands 


18 forthwith, 




A 



1 viii. 7. The readings now received afford no construction. 
supplied after aKaOapra, the verse might be construed. 



Were the rel. « 



124 



APPENDIX III. 



19, 


26 Saul 


he 


20 


Christ 


Jesus 


21 


came 


he had come 


25 


the disciples .... 


his disciples 


31 


the churches .... 


the church 




and were .... 


being 


— 


were multiplied. 


was multiplied. 


Z^ 


desiring him that he would not 


intreating him, Delay not to 




delay to come unto them. 


come unto us. 




Chapter X. 




6 


he shall .... to do. 


A 


7 


Cornelius .... 


him 


II 


unto him, .... 


A 


— 


knit at the four corners, and 






let down to . 


let down by four corners upon 


16 


again 


straightway 


21 


which were .... Cornelius ; . 


A 


23 


Peter 


he arose and 


30 


I was fasting until this hour ; 


until this hour, I was keeping 




and at the ninth hour I 


the ninth hour of prayer in 




prayed in my house, 


my house, 


32 


who, when he cometh, shall 






speak unto thee. . 


A 


33 


of God 


of the Lord. 


48 


the Lord 

Chapter XL 


Jesus Christ. 


II 


where I was, .... 


in which we were. 


12 


nothing doubting. . 


making no distinction. 


21 


believed, and .... 


that believed 


22 


that he should go . 


A 


25 


Barnabas .... 


he 


28 


Csesar 


A 



Chapter XII I. 
19, 20 he divided their land to 
them by lot. And after that 
he gave unto them judges 
about the space of four hun- 
dred and fifty years, 



he gave them their land for an 
inheritance, for about four 
hundred and fifty years : and 
after these things he gave 
them judges, 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



125 



23 raised 

2i'}, unto us their children, 

35 Wherefore .... 

42 And when the Jews were gone 

out of the synagogue, the 

Gentiles besought 



brought 

unto our children. 
Because 

And as they went out, they be- 
sought 



Chapter XIV. 
28 there 



Chapter XV. 

II Christ 

17-18 who doeth all these things. 
Known unto God are all his 
works .... 

23 letters after this manner ; 

24 saying .... law : . 
ZZ unto the apostles. . 



34 Notwithstanding . . 
yj determined 
40 of God. . 



still. 



who maketh these things known 

thus 

A 

unto those that had sent them 

forth. 
A 

was minded 
of the Lord. 



Chapter XVI. 

7 the Spirit .... 

10 the Lord .... 

13 out of the city 

— where prayer was wont to be 
made ; 

16 to prayer, .... 

17 unto us 

31 Christ, 



the Spirit of Jesus 

God 

without the gate 

where we supposed there was a 

place of prayer ; 
to the place of prayer, 
unto you 
A 



Chapter XVII. 

5 which believed not, 
13 and stirred up 
26 blood 



stirring up and troubling 
A 



126 



APPENDIX III. 



Chapter XVIII. 
I Paul 

5 was pressed in the spirit, 
7 Justus, 

21 bade them farewell, saying, 

— I must by all means .... 
Jerusalem : but . 

22 and he sailed ... 
25 the things of the Lord, . 

Chapter XIX. 
I -2 and finding certain disciples 

he said unto them, 
Christ Jesus. . 
one Tyrannus. 
Jesus, 
We adjure 
overcame them, 
and her magnificence should 

be destroyed, 

goddess 

there being no cause whereby 

we may give an account of 

this concourse. 



Chapter XX. 
the disciples .... 

they 

and tarried at Trogyllium ; 
But none of these things move 

me, neither count I my life 

dear unto myself, 

with joy, 

of God, 

Chapter XXI. 



4 

9 

10 

13 
16 



35 
40 



15 

24 



25 



he 

was constrained by the word, 
Titus Justus, 

taking his leave of them, and 
saying, 

A 

, he set sail 

the things concerning Jesus, 

and found certain disciples : 
and he said unto them, 

Jesus. 

Tyrannus. 

A 

I adjure 

mastered both of them, 

and that she should even be de- 
posed from her magnificence, 

A 

there being no cause for it ; 
and as touching it we shall 
not be able to give account of 
I this concourse. 



we 
we 
A 

But I hold not my life of any 
account as dear unto myself, 



4 go up to . 

5-6 and prayed. And 

8 that were of Paul's company 



set foot in 

we prayed, and 

A 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



127 



16 

20 
30 



20 
30 



34 



the multitude must needs come 
together: . . . . 

and concluded that they ob- 
serve no such thing, save 
only that they keep 

Chapter XXII. 
the name of the Lord, 
to his death, .... 
from his bands, 
to appear, .... 

Cha-pter XXIII. 
but if .... to him, 
let us not fight against God. . 
they would .... 
that the Jews laid wait for the 
man, 

farewell 

the governor .... the letter, . 



Chapter XXIV. 

1 the elders 

2 very worthy deeds are done 
6-8 and would have . . . 

unto thee 
10 the more cheerfully . 
14 which are written in the law 

and in the prophets. 

18 Whereupon certain Jews from 

Asia 

• — nor with tumult 

Chapter XXV. 
2 the high priest 
5 any wickedness 

8 he 

16 dehver any man to die . 
20 because I doubted of such 
manner of questions, 



giving judgment that they should 
keep 



his name. 

A 

A 

to come together, 



and what if . . 

A 

thou wouldest 



. . to him? 



I that there would be a plot against 
I the man, 

I he . „ . . it. 



certain elders 
evils are corrected 

A 

cheerfully 

which are according to the law 

and which are written in the 

prophets. 

amidst which they 
nor yet with tumult ; but there 
were certain Jews from Asia — 



the chief priests 
any thing amiss 
Paul 

give up any man 
being perplexed how to inquire 
concerning these things, 



28 



APPENDIX III. 



Chapter XXVI. 

28 Almost thou persuadest me to 

be a Christian. 

29 that not only thou, but also all 

that hear me this day, were 
both almost, and altogether 



with but little persuasion thou 

wouldest fain make me a 

Christian, 
that whether with little or with 

much, not thou only, but 

.... might become 



[Reddendum puto : 



I would pray to God, whether with little prayer or with much, 
that not' &C.1 



Chapter XXVII. 

14 Euroclydon. . 

19 we ... . our own . 

Chapter XXVIII. 

I they .... they 

16 the centurion .... but . 

25 our 

29 And when . . . with themselves 

30 Paul .... 



Euraquilo. 
they 



we . 

A 

your 

A 

he 



. their own 



Chapter I. 

16 of Christ : 

24 also . 

29 fornication, 

31 implacable. 



ROMANS. 



Chapter II. 
17 behold, . 



. I but if 



Chapter III. 

7 For if 

22 and upon all . 
30 seeing it is one God which 
shall justify 



But if 
A 

if so be that God is one, and he 
shall justify 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTLONS. 



T29 



I 
II 

19 



Chapter IV. 
our father 
also : 

for where 
he considered not 
neither yet 

Chapter V. 
we have . 



our forefather 

A 

but where 

he considered 

and 



. j let us have 



Chapter VI. 

1 1 our Lord 

12 it in 

Chapter VII. 
6 that being dead wherein we 
were held; .... 
18 I find not 

Chapter VIII. 
I who walk .... spirit. . 

II Christ 

20-21 who hath subjected the same 

in hope, because the creature 

itself also 
24 for what a man seeih, why doth 

h6 yet hope for t 
26 infirmities 
34 that condemneth t 
-^ Christ . 

— that is risen again 

— even 

Chapter IX. 
28 For he upon the earth. 



31 hath not attained to the law of 

righteousness. 

32 by the works of the law. 

— For 

33 whosoever .... 



having died to that wherein we 

were holden ; 
is not. 



A 

Christ Jesus 

who subjected it, in hope that 
the creation itself also 

for who hopeth for that which 

he seeth ? 
infirmity 

that shall condemn ? 
Christ Jesus 

that was raised from the dead 
A 



For the Lord will execute his 
work upon the earth, finishing 
it and cutting it short. 

did not arrive at that law. 

by works. 

A 

he that 



K 



I30 



APPENDIX III. 



Chapter X. 



I 


for Israel .... 


for them 


5 


For Moses describeth the right- 


For Moses writeth that the man 




eousness which is of the law, 


that doeth the righteousness 




That the man which doeth 


which is of the law shall live 




those things shall live by 


thereby. 




them. 




15 


that preach the gospel of peace, 






and 


A 


17 


of God 

Chapter XI. 


of Christ 


6 


But if ... . work. 


A 


13 


For 


But 


17 


root and fatness 


root of the fatness 


19 


The branches .... 


Branches 


21 


take heed lest he also spare 






not thee 


neither will he spare thee. 


22 


thee, goodness, 


thee, God's goodness, 


31 


may obtain .... 
Chapter XII. 


may now obtain 


20 


Therefore if . 
Chapter XIII. 


1 But if 


3 


good works, .... 


the good work, 


9 


Thou shalt not bear false wit- 






ness 


A 


II 


for us 

Chapter XIV. 


for you 


4 


God 


the Lord 


6 


and he that . . . regard it. 


A 


— 


He that eateth 


and he that eateth, 


9 


and rose, and revived, . 


and lived again. 


10 


of Christ 


of God 


21 


or is offended, or is made weak. 


A 


22 


Hast thou faith 


The faith which thou hast, 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORI^ECTIONS. 



131 



Chapter XV. 



7 
8 

15 

16 

17 



Now 1 say that Jesus Christ . 
brethren, , . . . 

of Jesus Christ 
whereof I may glory through 

Jesus Christ 
of any of those things which 

Christ hath not wrought by 

me, 
in the power of the Spirit of 



you 

For I say that Christ 

A 

of Christ Jesus 

my glorying in Christ Jesus 
of any things save those wh'ch 
Christ wrought through me, 





God; . 


. 


. 


in the power of the Holy Ghost ; 


24 


I will come to you ; 


. 


A 


29 


of the gospel . 
Chapter XVL 


• 


A 


3 


Priscilla . 


. 


Prisca 


5 


of Achaia 






of Asia 


6 


on us. 






on you. 


8 


Amplias . 






Ampliatus 


t6 


The churches . 






All the churches 


18 


Jesus 






A 


24 


The grace . . . . Ar 


nen. 




A 


27 


be the glory . 






[to whom] be the glory 






I CORINT 


HIANS. 




Chapter I. 






15 


I had baptized 


• 


ye were baptized 


20 


this world 1 






the world .? 


22 


a sign, . 






signs, 


23 


unto the Greeks 






unto Gentiles 


26 


ye see 






behold 


29 


in his presence. 






before God. 


30 


of God is made unto i 
Chapter II. 


as wisdom, 


was made unto us wisdom from 
God, 


I 


testimony 


. 


mystery 


4 


of man's wisdom, . 


. 


of wisdom, 


7 


the world 




• 1 


the worlds 



K 2 



132 



13 



4 
7 

20 



APPENDIX III. 



Eye 

the things which 
the Holy Ghost 

Chapter III. 

and divisions, .... 
carnal ? . 

Who then is Paul, and who is 
Apollos, but ministers 

Chapter IV. 

Moreover . . . . 
to think of men above 

Chapter V. 

commonly 

is not so much as named 



as . 

Jesus Christ (2 

for us : 

Therefore 

Chapter VI. 

set them 

Now therefore there is utterly 

a fault among you, 
and in your spirit, which are 

God's 



Things which eye 
Whatsoever things 
the Spirit 



A 

men } 

What then is Apollos, and what 
is Paul ? Ministers, 



Here moreover 
to go beyond 



actually 

is not even 

A 

Jesus 

A 

A 



do ye set them 

Nay, already it is altogether a 
defect in you, 



Chapter VII. 

3 due benevolence : 
5 fasting and 



II 



Chapter VIII. 

other 

with conscience of the idol 

unto this hour eat it as a 

thing 
through thy knowledge shall 

the weak brother perish, 



her due 
A- 



being used until now to the idol, 
eat as of a thing 

through thy knowledge he that 
is weak perisheth, the brother 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS, 



^33 



Chapter IX. 



I 


Am I not an apostle? am I 


Am I not free 1 am I not an 




not free ? 


apostle .? 


— 


Christ ..... 


A 


lO 


he that ploweth should ploiv in 


because he that ploweth ought 




hope ; and he that thresheth 


to plow in hope ; and he that 




in hope should be partaker 


thtesheth to tliresh in hope of 




of his hope. 


partaking. 


i8 


of Christ .... 


A 


20 


as under the law 


as under the law, not being my- 
self under the law, 


22 


as ..... - 


A 


23 


this I do . 
Chapter X, 


I do all things 


I 


Moreover .... 


For 


9 


Christ, ..... 


the Lord, 


9, 


10 also ..... 


A 


19 


that the idol is any thing, or 


that a thing sacrificed to idols is 




that which is offered in 


anything, or that an idol is 




sacrifice to idols is any thing.? 


anything ? 


^3 


for me (2) .... 


A 


28 


unto idols, .... 
for the earth is the Lord's, and 


A 




the fulness thereof: 


A 




Chapter XI. 




2 


brethren, .... 


A 


24 


Take, eat : , . . . 


A 


— 


broken ..... 


A 


26 


this cup ..... 


the cup 


29 


unworthily .... 


A 


— 


not discerning the Lord's body. 


if he discern not the body. 


31 


For if we would judge ourselves, 


But if we discerned ourselves, 


34 


And if 

Chapter XI L 


If 


2 


ye were Gentiles, . 


when ye were Gentiles, 


— 


carried away .... 


ye were led away 


3 


calleth Jesus accursed ; . 


saith Jesus is anathema ; 




that Jesus is the Lord, . 


Jesus is Lord, 



134 



APPENDIX III. 



8 


knowledge by . 


knowledge according to 


9 


healing by the same Spirit ; . 


heahng in the one Spirit ; 


12 


of that one body, 


of the body, 


13 


into one Spirit. 


of one Spirit. 


i5> 


16 is it therefore not of the 


it is not therefore not of the 




body? 


body. 


30 


best ..... 
Chapter XIV. 


greater 


18 


my God, 


God, 


25 


and thus 


A 


34 


your women .... 


the women 


— 


they are commanded to be 


let them be 


35 


women ..... 


a woman 


Zl 


commandments 
Chapter XV. 


commandment 


20 


and become .... 


A 


29 


for the dead (second) 


for them 


32 


what advantageth it me, if the 


what doth it profit me.^ if the 




dead rise not ? let us 


dead are not raised, let us 


44 


there is 


if ihere is 


47 


the Lord .... 


A 


55 


death, where is thy sting ? O 


death, where is thy victory ? 




grave, where is thy victory ? 


death, where is thy sting ? 




Chapter XVI. 




22 


Jesus Christ .... 


A • 





Anathema Maran-atha. . 


anathema. Maran atha. 



2 CORINTHIANS. 



10 
12 
14 



Chapter 
which is . . 



doth deliver 
simplicity 
the Lord 



. salvation. 



or whether we be comforted, it 
is for your comfort, which 
worketh in the patient en- 
during of the same sufferings 
which we also suffer: 

will deliver : 

holiness 

our Lord 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



135 



18 was not 

20 all the promises of God in him 
are yea, and in him Amen, 



is not 

how many soever be the promises 
of God, in him is the yea : 
wherefore also through him is 
the Amen, 



Chapter II. 

5 me, but in part : that I may 
not overcharge you all. 



not to me, but in part (that I 
press not too heavily) to you 
all. 



3 

10 



Chapter III. 

in fleshy tables of the heart. 
For even 



in tables that are hearts of flesh. 
For verily 



10 
14 



Chapter IV. 

who commanded the light to 

shine 

the Lord .... 
by 



that said, Light shall shine 

A 

with 



Chapter V. 

5 whp also hath given 

12 for . 

14 if one 

17 all things 

18 Jesus 
21 For. 



who gave 

A 

one 

they 

A 

A 



Chapter VI. 
16 ye are 



. I we are 



Chapter VII. 

12 our care for you 

13 Therefore we were comforted 

in your comfort : yea, and 
16 therefore . . . . 



your earnest care for us 
Therefore we have been com- 
forted : and in our comfort 
A 



136 



APPENDIX III. 



Chapter VIII. 

4 that we would receive the gift, 
and take upon us 
4-5 saints. And this they did, . 

19 with this grace, 

— same 

— and .... of your ready mind : 

20 no man ..... 

21 providing . . . . 

Chapter IX. 

4 this same confident boasting. . 

10 both minister .... 

Chapter X. 

7 do ye look .... 

8 somewhat more 

Chapter XI. 

I a little in my folly : . 

3 so 

— simpHcity . ... 

6 we have been throughly made 

manifest among you 

31 our Lord Jesus Christ, . 

-^1 desirous to apprehend me : 

Chapter XII. 

I It is not expedient for me 
doubtless to glory. 

7 {Probably coiTicpt. See note}) 

1 1 in glorying .... 
15 though the more abundantly I 

love you, the less I be loved. 

19 Again, think ye . . . 

20 debates, envyings, . 

— strifes, 



If I love you more abundantly, 

am I loved the less } 
Ye think all this time 
strife, jealousy, 
factions, 

* In xii. 7 very ancient corruption seems to lurk. The 5i6 (wherefore), 
which interrupts the construction, is supported by preponderant authority of 
mss., but is found in one version only. The repetition of the clause 'iva /xr] 
vTrepaipw/xai has strong support in mss., but not so large as did has. 



in regard of this grace and 

saints : and this, 

in the matter of this grace, 

A 

and to shew our readiness : 

any man 

for we take thousrht 



this confidence, 
shall supply 



ye look 

somewhat abundantly 



in a little foolishness : 

A 

simpHcity and purity 

we have made it manifest among 

ail men to you-ward 
the Lord Jesus, 
in order to take me : 



I must needs glory, though it is 
not expedient ; but 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



^Z7 





Chapter XIII. 






2 


I write .... 


. 


A 


4 


though .... 


. 


A 


7 


I pray .... 




we pray 


H 


Amen 




A 




GALATIANS. 




Chapter I. 






lO 


for if ... . 


. 


if 


II 


But 




For 


i8 


Peter, .... 
Chapter II. 


• 


Cephas, (so ii. 11, 14) 


14 


why .... 




how 


i6 


knowing .... 
Chapter III. 


• 


yet knowing 


I 


that ye should not obey 


the 






truth, .... 


. 


A 


— 


among you ? . 


. 


A 


12 


The man that . 




He that 


17 


in Christ .... 


. 


A 


29 


and heirs 
Chapter IV. 


• 


heirs 


6 


your hearts, . 


. 


our hearts. 


7 


of God through Christ. . 




through God. 


14 


my temptation which was in 


that which was a temptation to 




my flesh 




you in my flesh 


15 


Where is then the blessedness 


Where then is that gratulation 




ye spake of? 




of yourselves ? 


24 


the two .... 




two 


25 


and is ... . 


. 


for she is 


26 


the mother of us all. 
Chapter V. 




our mother. 


I 


Stand fast therefore in 


the 


With freedom did Christ set 




liberty wherewith Christ hath 


us free : stand fast therefore. 




made us free, 






19 


Adultery, 




A 


21 


murders, .... 


. 


A 


24 


Christ's .... 


. 


of Christ Jesus 



138 



APPENDIX III. 



15 



17 



Chapter VI. 

in Christ Jesus 
availeth . 
the Lord . 



EPHESIANS. 
Chapter I. 



6 


wherein he made 


us acceptec 


which he freely bestowed on us 


15 


and love unto all the saints, 


and which you show toward all 








the saints, (.? See Col. i. 4) 


18 


understanding . 
Chapter II. 


* 


heart 


I 


trespasses 


. 


your trespasses 


17 


to them . 


. 


peace to them 


19 


but . 
Chapter III. 


* 


but ye are 


3 


he made known 




was made known 


6 


of his promise in 


Christ . 


of the promise in Christ Jesus 


8 


among 


. 


unto 


9 


fellowship 


. 


dispensation 


— 


by Jesus Christ : 


. 


A 


14 


of our Lord Jesus Christ, 


A 


21 


by Christ Jesus 
Chapter IV. 




and in Christ Jesus 


6 


in you all. 


. 


in all. 


9 


first 


. 


A 


17 


other Gentiles 
Chapter V. 


• 


the Gentiles 


2 


loved us, . 


. 


loved you, 


5 


ye know . 


. 


ye know of a surety, 


15 


See then that ye 


walk circum- 


Look therefore carefully how ye 




spectly. 




walk, 


17 


understanding . 


. 


understand 


29 


the Lord . 


. 


Christ 


30 


of his flebh and of his bones. 


A 



lO 
12 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 

Chapter VI. 

my brethren, . . . • I -^ 

of the darkness of this world, . | of this darkness, 



139 



PHILIPPIANS. 



Chapter I. 

I Jesus Christ, .... 

14 the word 

16-17 {The contents of these verses 

18 notwithstanding 

23 which is far better : 

28 but to you of salvation, . 

Chapter II. 

9 a name 

21 which are Jesus Christ's . 

30 not regarding .... 

Chapter III. 
16 Nevertheless, whereto we have 
already attained, let us walk 
by the same rule, let us mind 
the same thing. 

Chapter IV. 
13 through Christ which 
23 The grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ be with you all. Amen. 



Christ Jesus, 

the word of God 

are transposed in Revised V.) 

only that 

for it is very far better : 

but of you salvation, 



the name 

of Jesus Christ. 

hazarding; 



Only, whereunto we have already 
attained, by that same rule 
let us walk. (See p. 78.) 



in him that 

The grace of the Lord Jesus 
Christ be with your spirit. 



COLOSSIANS. 



14 
16 

23 
28 



Chapter I. 

and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

which is come unto you, as it 
is in all the world ; and 
bringeth forth fruit, as it 
doth also in you, . 

through his blood, . 

that are (2) 

to every creature . 

Jesus 



which is come unto you ; even 
as it is also in all the world 
bearing fruit and increasing, 
as it doth in you also, 

A 

A 

in all creation 

A 



I40 



APPEADIX III. 



Chapter II. 



2 


being knit 






they being knit 


— 


to the acknowledgment of the 


; that they may know the mystery 




mystery of God, and of the 


of God, even Christ, 




Father, and of Christ ; 




7 


therein with thanksgiving. 


in thanksgiving. 


II 


of the sins 


A 


13 


in 


through 


— 


having forgiven you 


having forgiven us 


18 


intruding into those things 


dwelling in the things which he 




which he hath not seen, 


hath seen. 




Chapter III. 




7 


in them 


in these things. 


13 


Christ . 






i the Lord 


15 


of God . 






of Christ 


17 


and the Father 






the Father 


18 


own 






A 


20 


unto 






in 


22 


God : 






the Lord : 


24 


for ye serve 






ye serve 


25 


But he that . 






For he that 




Chapter IV. 




8- 


that he might know youi 


that ye may know our estate, 




estate, and . 


and that he may 


12 


Christ, . 






Christ Jesus, 


— 


complete . 






fully assured 


13 


a great zeal 






much labour 


18 


Amen. 






A 



Chapter I. 



I THESSALONIANS. 



I from God .... Christ . 
4-5 knowing, brethren beloved, 

your election of God. For 
5 we were among you 



A 

knowing, brethren beloved of 

God, your election, how that 
we shewed ourselves toward you 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



141 



Chapter II. 



9 

JO 

19 


for labouring . 
among you 
their own prophets, 
Christ 






working 
toward you 
the prophets, 
A 




Chapter III. 






2 
11, 


and our fellowlabourer . 
13 Christ .... 

Chapter IV. 




A 
. A 


I 

8 

II 
13 


God, so ye 

who hath also given unto 
his holy Spirit. 

own 

I 

Chapter V. 


us 


God, even as ye do walk,— that 

ye 
> who giveth his Holy Spirit unto 

you. 
A 
we 


3 

5 
27 

2b 


For when 

Ye are all 

holy .... 

Amen 




. When 

for ye are all 

A 

A 




2 THESSALONIANS. 




Chapter I. 






2 

8 
12 


our Father 

Christ : . . . . 

Christ (I) ... 

Chapter II. 




the Father 

A 

A 


2 

4 
6 
8 

10 
11 
16 
17 


of Christ . 
as God . 
in his time. 

the Lord shall consume 
in them . 
shall send 
even 

you in every good wore 
work. . 


1 and 


of the Lord 
A 

in his own season. 
the Lord Jesus shall slay 
for them 
sendeth 
A 

them in every good work and 
word. 



142 



APPENDIX III. 



4 

12 

14 
i8 



Chapter III. 
command you. 
by our 
and have . 
Amen. 



command, 
in the 

that ye have 
A 



I TIMOTHY. 
Chapter I. 
and Lord Jesus Christ, which 





is our hope 


and Christ Jesus our hope. 


2 


our Father and Jesus Christ . 


the Father and Christ Jesus 


4 


godly edifying .... 


a dispensation of God 


12 


And I thank .... 


I thank 


1/ 


wise ..... 
Chapter II. 


A 


3 


For 


A 


7 


in Christ 

Chapter III. 


A 


3 


not given to wine, . 


no brawler. 




not greedy of filthy lucre ; 


A 


4 


a brawler, .... 


contentious, 


i6 


God 

Chapter IV. 


He who 


6 


Jesus Christ, .... 


Christ Jesus, 


lO 


suffer reproach, 


strive, 


12 


in spirit, 

Chapter V. 


A 


4 


good and 


A 


i6 


man or 


A 


21 


the Lord Jesus Christ, . 
Chapter VI. 


Christ Jesus, 


5 


Perverse disputings 


wranglings 




from such withdraw thyself. . 


A 


7 


and it is certain 


A 


12 


also 


A 


17 


the living .... 


A 


19 


eternal life. 


the life which is life indeed. 


21 


Amen 


A 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



143 



2 TIMOTHY 
Chapter I. 

I, 10 Jesus Christ 

3-4 in my prayers night and 

day ; greatly desiring to see 

thee, 
1 1 of the Gentiles. 



Christ Jesus 

in my supphcations, night and 
day longing to see thee, 





Chapter II. 






3 


Thou therefore endure 


hard- 






ness, . 


. 


Suffer hardship with me. 


— 


Jesus Christ. . 


. 


Christ Jesus. 


7 


and the Lord give thee 


. 


for the Lord shall give thee 


19 


of Christ . 


. 


of the Lord 


21 


and meet . 




meet 




Chapter III. 




10 


hast fully known 
Chapter IV. 


. 1 didst follow 


I 


the Lord Jesus Christ, 




Christ Jesus, 


14 


reward him 




the Lord will render to him 


18 


And the Lord . 




The Lord 


22 


Jesus Christ 




A 


— 


Amen. 




A 






TITUS. 




Chapter I. 




4 


the Lord Jesus Christ 


. 


Christ Jesus 


7 


not given to wine, . 


. 


no brawler, 


— 


not given to filthy lucre ; 


. 


not greedy of filthy lucre ; 



Chapter II. 
sincerity . 

Chapter III. 

and powers, . 
Amen. 



to authorities, 
A 



144 



APPENDIX III. 



PHILEMON. 



2 


to our beloved Apphia, . 


to Apphia our sister, 


6 


Jesus. . . . 


A 


12 


whom I have sent again : thou 


whom I have sent back to thee 




therefore receive him, that 


in his own person, that is my 




is, mine own bowels : 


very heart : 


20 


refresh my bowels in the Lord. 


refresh my heart in Christ. 


25 


Amen 


A 




HEBREWS. 




Chapter L 




2 


in these last days . 


in the end of these days 


3 


when he had by himself purged 


when he had made purification 




our sins, 


of sins. 


8 


the sceptre .... 


and a sceptre 


12 


and they 

Chapter III. 


As a garment, and they 



1 Christ Jesus ; . 

9 when your fathers tempted me, 
proved me, 

lo that 

1 6 for some . . : . provoke . 

— howbeit not all ... . Moses. 

Chapter IV. 

2 not being mixed with faith in 

them 
7 as it is said, . . •• . 

Chapter V. 

4 he that is .... 

1 2 that one teach you again which 

be the first principles 



Chapter VI. 

4 who were once enhghtened, 

and have tasted . 
lo labour of love .... 



even Jesus ; 

wherewith your fathers tempted 

me by proving me, 
this 

For who .... provoke ? 
nay, did not all they . . . Moses ? 



because they were not united by 

faith with them 
as it hath been before said. 



when he is 

again that some one teach you 

the rudiments of the first 

principles 

who were once enlightened and 

tasted (? otice were) 
the love 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



45 



Chapter VII 

4 even 

14 priesthood 

17 he testifieth, .... 
18-19 For the law made nothing 
perfect, but the 

2 1 after the order of Melchisedec : 

22 by so much .... 



A 

priests. 

it is witnessed of him, 
(for the law made nothing per- 
fect), and a 
A 
by so much also 



Chapter VIII. 

2 and not . 

4 priests 

[ I his neighbour . 

[2 and their iniquities 



not 

those 

his fellow-citizen 

A 



Chapter IX. 



9 


then present, in which 




now present ; according to which 






(i.e. parable) 


10 


which stood only in meats and 


being only (with meats and 




drinks, and divers washings. 


drinks and diverse washings) 




and carnal ordinances, 


carnal ordinances. 


T7 


otherwise it is of no strength 






at all 


for doth it ever avail , . . . ? 


28 


so Christ 

Chapter X. 


so Christ also, 


I 


can 


they can 





offered ? . . . . sins. 




offered, .... sins ? 


7 


God. . 




A 


12 


this man . 




he 


16 


minds . . . 




mind 


30 


saith the Lord. 




A 


34 


of me in my bonds. 




on them that were in bonds, 




knowing in yourselves that ye 


knowing that ye yourselves have 




have in heaven a better and 


a better possession and an 




an enduring substance. 


abiding one. 


38 


the just 


my righteous one 






L 





146 



APPENDIX III, 





Chapter XI. 




3 


things which are seen 


what is seen 


II 


and was dehvered of a child . 


A 


13 


and were persuaded of them . 


A 


20 


concerning .... 


even concerning 


32 


and of {three) .... 
Chapter XII. 


AAA 


3 


himself, 


themselves (?) 


7 


if ye endure chastening, . 


It is for chastening ye endure ; 

{see margin) 


15 


many 


the many 


17 


rejected : for he found no place 


rejected (for he found no place 




of repentance, though 


of repentance), though 


20 


or thrust through with a dart. 


A 


24 


better things .... 


better 


25 


who 


when they 




if we 


who 


26 


I shake 


will I make to tremble 


28 


godly fear : . . . . 
Chapter XIII. 


awe : 


6 


and . . * . . 


A 


— 


fear what man shall do unto me. 


fear. What shall man do unto 
me? 


9 


about 


away 


20 


our Lord Jesus, that great 


the great 


— 


through 


with 





covenant 


covenant, even our Lord Jesus, 


21 


work 


thing 




in you 

JAMI 
Chapter I. 


in us 


19 


Wherefore, .... 


Ye know this, 




let 


But let 


25 


he 

Chapter II. 


A 


3 


here under .... 


sit under 


19 


that there is one God ; . 


that God is one ; 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



H7 



Chapter III. 

5 how great a matter a little fire 

kindleth ! 

6 a world of iniquity : so is the 

tongue among our members, 
that it &c. 

8 unruly 

12 so can no fountain both yield 
salt water and fresh. 



how much wood is kindled by 

how small a fire ! 
the world of iniquity among our 

members is the tongue, which 

&c. 
restless 
neither can salt water yield 

sweet. 



Chapter IV. 
4 adulterers and . 



5 


The spirit that dwelleth 


in u 


s doth the spirit which he made to 




lusteth to envy ? 




dwell in us long unto envy- 
ing ? {See viargin) 


II 


and (I) . 


. 


or 


12 


There is one lawgiver, 




One only is the lawgiver and 
jw-dge, 





another? . 


. 


thy neighbour ? 


r4 


For what is your life ? It is evei 


1 What is your life ? for ye are 




Chapter V. 






5 


as . 




. A 


9 


condemned : . 






. judged : 


II 


endure, . 






endured : 


i6 


Confess . 






Confess therefore 


— 


faults 






sins 






I PE 


.TER, 




Chapter I. 






7 


much 




A 


12 


unto us . 






unto you 


i6 


Be ye . 






Ye shall be 


20 


in these last times 






in the end of the times 


22 


through the Spirit 
with a pure heart 






^ 1 

from the heart / 


23 


for ever. . 






A / 


24 


of man 

the flower thereof . 






thereof j 
the flower , 



148 



APPENDIX III 



Chapier II. 




6 Wherefore also 


Because 


12 shall 


A 


2 1 for us, leaving us . . 


for you, leaving you 


25 as sheep going astray 


going astray like sheep 



15 

16 

20 

21 



Chapter III. 

having compassion one of an- 
other, love as brethren, be 
pitiful, be courteous ; 

knowing that ye are thereunto 
called, 

the Lord God in your hearts : 

whereas they speak evil of you, 
as of evildoers, . 

once 

The like figure whereunto even 
baptism doth also now save us 



compassionate, loving as breth- 
ren, tender-hearted, humble- 
minded ; 

for hereunto were ye called, 
in your hearts Christ as Lord : 

wherein ye are spoken against, 
A 

which after a true likeness doth 
now save you, even baptism. 



I 
3 

8 
J4 



16 



Chapter IV. 

for us 

of our life .... 
us 

shall cover the 

on their part he is evil spoken 
of, but on your part he is 
glorified. . . . . 

on this behalf. 



A 
A 
A 

covereth a 



A 

in this name. 



II 
I?, 
14 



Chapter V. 

willingly ; . . . • 

be subject one to another, and 

be clothed with humility : 

Jesus 

make you perfect, stablish, 

strengthen, settle you. 
glory and .... 

wherein ye stand. . 
Jesus. Amen. 



wilhngly, according unto God ; 
gird yourselves with humility, to 

serve one another : 
A 
shall himself perfect, stablish, 

strengthen you. 
A 

stand ye fast therein. 
A 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



149 



2 PETER. 



21 



18 



Chapter I. 

to glory and virtue. 

holy men of God spake . 

Chapter II. 

pernicious ways ; . . . 
as natural brute beasts, made 

speak evil of the things that 

they understand not ; and 

shall utterly perish in their 

own corruption ; 
and shall receive the reward 

of unrighteousness, as they 

that 
sporting themselves with their 

own deceivings while they 

feast with you ; 
Bosor ..... 

clouds 

to whom the mist of darkness 

is reserved for ever, 
that were clean escaped 



1CHAPTER III. 

there shall come 
days scoffers, ■ 
in the night 



in the last 



by his own glory and virtue, 
men spake from God 



lascivious doings ; 

as creatures without reason, 
born mere animals 

railing in matters whereof they 
are ignorant, shall in their 
destroying surely be destroyed, 

suffering wrong as the hire of 



-doim 



men tnat 



revelling in their love - feasts 
while they feast with you ; 

Beor- 
and mists 

for whom the blackness of dark- 
ness hath been reserved, 
who are just escaping 



in the last days mockers shall 
come with mockery, 

A 



I JOHN 
Chapter I. 

write we unto you, that your 



joy may be full. . 

Chapter II. 
7 Brethren, 

27 the same anointing 
— ye shall abide . 

28 when he shall appear, 



we write, that our joy may be 
fulfilled. 



Beloved, 

his anointing 

ye abide 

if he shall be manifested, 



i;o 



APPENDIX 111, 



Chapter III. 

I of God : 

5 to take away our sins ; . 

14 his brother .... 

16 the love of God 

Chapter IV. 

3 that Jesus Christ is come in 
the flesh .... 
20 how can he love 

Chapter V. 

7 in heaven .... are one. 

8 and there are three that bear 

witness in earth, . 
13 that behave on the name of 
the Son of God ; . 

20 may know .... 

21 Amen 



of God : and such we are : 

to take away sins ; 

A 

love 



Jesus 
cannot love 



A 

A 

A 

knovsr 

A 



the Lord 

we lose . . . we receive . 
transgresseth . . . . 
he that abideth in the doctrine 
of Christ 



2 JOHN. 
A 



13 Amen A 



ye lose ... ye receive 
goeth onward 



he that abideth in the teaching, 



3 JOHN. 



5 to the brethren, and to stran- 
gers; 
7 for his name's sake 

9 I wrote 

1 3 many things to write, 



toward them that are brethren 

and strangers withal ; 
for the sake of the Name 
I wrote somewhat 
many things to write unto thee, 



3 our common . 
19 separate themselves, 
22 making a difference ; 



JUDE. 



the common 
make separations, 
who are in doubt : 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS, 



51 



23 and others save with fear, pull- 
ing them out of the fire ; 

25 wise 

— and power both now and ever. 



and some save, snatching them 
out of the fire ; and on some 
have mercy with fear ; 

A 

and power before all time, and 





REV 


ELA' 


noN. 




Chapter I. 






2 


and of all things 


, 


even of all things 


6 


kings and priests 


, 


to be a kingdom, to be priests 


8 


the beginning and the ending; | 


A 





the Lord, 




the Lord God, 


9 


Jesus Christ {bis) 




Jesus {bis) 


u 


I am . . . , and, 




A 


13 


seven .... 




A 


e8 


Amen ; , . . . 




A 





of hell and 




A 


20 


candlesticks which thou sawest 


candlesticks 




Chapter IL 






7 


the midst of . 


. 


A 


9, 


13 works, and 


. 


A 


E5 


, which thing I hate. 


. 


in like manner. 


20 


to teach and to seduce . 




and she teacheth and seduceth 


21 


of her fornication; and 


she 


and she willeth not to repent of 




repented not 




her fornication. 


27 


shall they be broken 
Chapter IV. 


* 


are broken 


10 


fall down ... - worship . 


. . 


shall fall down .... shall wor- 




cast 




ship .... shall cast 




Chapter V. 






14 


him that liveth for ever and 
Chapter VI. 


ever. 


I A. 


I 


3, 5, 7 and see. 


. 


A 


15 


the mighty men, . 


.■ 


the strong, 



152 



APPENDIX III. 



5-8 



17 



17 



5 



Chapter VII. 

were sealed . 

Chapter X. 

5 his hand .... 

Chapter XI. 

5 the kingdoms ibis) . 
- are become .... 
and art to come 

Chapter XII. 

woe to the inhabiters of the 

earth and of the sea ! 
of Jesus Christ. 

Chapter XIV. 

guile : 

— before the throne of God. 

8 Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that 

great city, 

9 a third angel .... 

Chapter XV. 

3,4,8,10,12,17 angel 

Chapter XVI. 

5 O Lord, .... 

— and wast, and shalt be, . 

7 another out of the altar say, 

16 Armageddon . 

17 of heaven. 

Chapter XVII. 

4 and filthiness .... 

8 that was, and is not, and yet is. 

1 3 shall give .... 

Chapter XVIII. 

2 mightily with a strong voice, . 
13 cinnamon, . . . . 



A (except Judah and Benjamin) 



. I his right hand 



the kingdom 
is become 
A 



woe for the earth and for the 

sea : 
of Jesus. 



lie: 
A 

fallen, fallen is Babylon the 

great, 
another angel, a third, 



I A 



and which wast, thou Holy One, 
the altar saying, 
Har Magedon. 
A 



, even the unclean things 
how that he was, and is 

and shall come, 
give 



with a mighty voice, 
cinnamon, and spice, 



not, 



SELECT TEXTUAL CORRECTIONS. 



153 



Chapter XIX. 
13 dipped in . . . 

17 supper of the great God ; 

Chapter XXI. 
27 that defileth, . 

Chapter XXII. 

I a pure river 
— of the Lamb. . 



20 
21 



God of the holy prophets 

be unjust 

be filthy .... 

be righteous 

be holy .... 

Even so, come, Lord Jesus. 

with you all. . 



sprinkled with 
great supper of God ; 



I unclean, 



a river 

of the Lamb, in the midst of 

the street thereof. 
God of the spirits of the prophets 
do unrighteousness 
be made filthy 
do righteousness 
be made holy 
Come, Lord Jesus, 
with the saints. 



The foregoing are but a small selection of the numerous variations 
exhibited by the mss. of the Apocalypse. They seem to be the most 
signal. 

In using this Index it must be understood — 

(i) That all, or nearly all, the changes noted are such as arose 
from n.ew readings of the Greek text. 

(2) That a vast number of new readings are omitted, which seem 
to make no signal change in the sense. 

Many changes of small importance are recorded in this Index, I 
am quite sure. I can but express my earnest hope, that none of not- 
able importance have been omitted through oversight. 



POSTSCRIPT. 

I HAD corrected the proof of my prefatory letter to Dr. 
Scrivener, and this final sheet of my Index was before me, 
when the new number (304) of the ' Quarterly Review ' was 
brought into my study. Its opening article, on the Revised 
Greek Text, I read on the same evening, and again the 
following day. I read it without amazement, for certain 
reasons ; but I read it also without amusement. The ' furor 
theologicus ' never amuses, it only saddens me. I know 
what it has done in the ages past ; I see what it is doing 
in the present day ; I dread what it may do in the times that 
are coming. But many there are of two classes who will be 
more than amused ; they will be delighted by the reviewer's 
unsparing onslaught. What classes I mean his acute mind 
may easily discern, and I leave him to consider the re- 
spective grounds of their delight. 

The vials of the reviewer's wrath are chiefly emptied on 
the textual criticism of Dr. Westcott and Dr. Hort. That 
criticism, I own, did often decide the judgment of the 
revising company, but, in disputed cases, always after argu- 
ments on the different sides heard with careful attention. 
The reviewer, ' non videns manticse quod in tergo est,' im- 
putes to these two divines a magisterial tone and language 
(p. 360). But he seems (if I do not mistake him) to admit — 
and much of what he has said tends to prove — that he has 



156 POSTSCRIPT. 

not accurately mastered the critical principles of these 
eminently learned and indefatigably laborious scholars. 

I do not notice this review with any purpose of formally 
replying to its assault upon the work of revision. Even if 
time and space allowed, I have neither the authority nor 
the minute textual learning which would justify me in 
attempting that task. But something I must say in reference 
to my second sermon. And I think the language used by 
the reviewer in his opening pages calls for that brief notice 
which this occasion offers.^ 

The facts of our work, simply and shortly stated, are 
these : — • 

In May 1870 the Southern Convocation, which is the 
larger fraction of the Anglican Church, nominated a com- 
mittee to provide a revision of the Authorised Version of the 
Bible. This committee, from itself as a nucleus, formed two 
revising companies, and co-opted other members into each. 
The Presses of our two ancient Universities purchased the 
copyright of the entire work. The New Testament Company, 
of which alone I can speak, carried on its labours for eleven 
years, losing two by death, and co-opting one new member. 
The Presses published the Revised New Testament in May 
last, and when it was presented to the Southern Convocation, 
it was received with a vote of thanks to the Company — that 
Company consisting of one archbishop, several bishops, 
deans, archdeacons, and other Christian ministers. 

Of such a work and such workmen the ' Quarterly ' 
reviewer thinks it consistent with the Christian character, 
and not beneath his personal dignity, to suggest (p. 307) 
that they are committing ' assault and battery ' on ' the very 
citadel of revealed truth ; ' that ' it is high time for every 

^ I am bound to state that the italics, in what follows, are all my 
own> and that my use of them has obHged me, once or twice, to 
neglect those of the reviewer, but, I hope and believe, without injury 
to his meaning'. 



POSTSCRIPT. 157 

faithful man to bestir himself,' ' ne quid detrimenti civitas 
Dei capiat ; ' that ' such as have made Greek textual criti- 
cism in any degree their study, should address themselves to 
the investigation of the claims of this, the latest product of 
the combined Biblical learning of the Church and of the 
sects.' 

Language like this can affect the revisers in one way 
only; it must make them sorry that the writer should have used 
it. The effects of it on himself become manifest in the sen- 
tences which next follow. He has overlooked the real cir- 
cumstances of the case. He goes on to say that the authors 
of this new revision of the Greek text ' must experience at 
the hands of the Church nothing short of stern and well- 
merited rebuke.' The rebuke which these prelates and 
others have received is a vote of thanks from the Southern 
House of Convocation. ' No middle course ' (so he goes 
on) ' presents itself, since assuredly to construct a new Greek 
text formed no part of the instructions which the revisionists 
received at the ha7ids of the Conwiittee of the Southern Pro- 
vince' If the reviewer had carefully read and remembered 
the Preface of the Revised New Testament, he would have 
spared himself this signal error. The Committee was, as I 
have said, itself the nucleus of the revising company, the 
co-opting body, the guide and guardian (so to say) of our 
initial acts ; and as we began, so we went on "to the close. 
That Committee had received from Convocation itself the 
instruction ' that the revision be so conducted as to com- 
prise both marginal renderings and such emendations as it 
may be found necessary to insert in the text of the Autho- 
rised Version.' But I return to our reviewer. ' Rather,' he 
adds, 'were they warned against venturing on such an 
experiment,' the fundamental principle of the entire under- 
taking having been declared at the outset to be that ' a 
revision of the Authorised Version is desirable,' and the 
fundamental rule laid down for the revising body being that 



IS8 POSTSCRIPT. 

they should introduce into the text as few alterations ' as 
possible consistent with faithfulness.' Error here grows out 
of error ; the resolution of Convocation itself that revision is 
desirable is confused with the first ' by-law ' framed by the 
Committee ' to introduce ' &c. He then proceeds : ' It 
cannot, of course, be denied that this last clause set the door 
inconveniently wide open for innovation. But then a limit 
was prescribed to the amount of licence which might possibly 
result by the insertion of a proviso, which, however, is found 
to have been disregarded by the revisionists almost entirely. 
The condition was imposed upon thetn, that, whenever 
decidedly preponderating evidence constrained their adoption 
of so?ne change in the text from ivhich the Authorised Version 
was made, they shoidd indicate such alteration in the margin. 
Will it be believed that, this notwithstanding, not one of the 
many alteratio7is which have been introduced itito the original 
text is distinctly so commemorated ? ' 

Will it be believed that the clause setting open the door 
was the first by-law framed by the Committee for the guidance 
of itself after its strength should have been completed by 
co-optation ? Will it be believed that the proviso requiring 
the marginal indication of every textual change was another 
by-law of the Committee for its own guidance when it should 
expand into a company — a law which they were at liberty 
to modify or abolish, if it eventually proved to be incon- 
venient ? Will it be believed that in our Preface (iii. i) it is 
distinctly said that it did prove inconvenient to record the 
changes in the margin, and that a better mode of giving 
them publicity was found — namely, the printing them in 
those two Greek texts which have now been edited and 
published by Archdeacon Palmer and Dr. Scrivener severally? 
Finally, will it be believed that either this reviewer has failed 
to read the Preface to the book which he lays under his 
anathema ? or that he read it so cursorily as not to master 
its contents ? or that, having read and mastered, he forgot 



POSTSCRIPT. 159 

them when he sat down to demoHsh the book, and so drew 
up an indictment, every count of which is an error ? 

I am prepared to expect that this phihppic, when 
examined by experts, will be found throughout 'quahs ab 
incepto.' In the course of my experience in the Jerusalem 
Chamber, I never heard from my friend Dr. Scrivener, 
whom the reviewer proclaims to be 'facile princeps ' in our 
company, any suggestion that the most ancient uncial 
codices are so contemptibly corrupt as to be unsafe guides 
in the constitution of a Greek text. Yet so the reviewer 
insists ; while we are left to suppose (for he is not explicit on 
this point) that the few cursive MSS. on which his cherished 
' textus receptus ' (so called) mainly rests, are more trust- 
worthy — MSS. having their parentage and growth in those 
enlightened times that lie between the death of Charlemagne 
and the Crusades, or transcribed from these in subsequent 
centuries, which, though not devoid of scholastic learnino-, 
were, in the Western Church, ignorant of Greek. ^ 

I am compelled by this review to withdraw a statement 
on which I have ventured more than once, to the effect that 
the reading B^o^ in i Tim. iii. 16 is now abandoned by all 
Anglican divines. I really thought that when a divine at 

' The only rule of textual criticism discoverable in this review is 
(317) that the text which has been ' in possession' for three centuries 
and a half should be let alone when the evidence for and against it is 
evenly balanced. If a corrupt text has been 'in possession' for 
ever so long through the timid negligence of authority, it has no just 
claim to be respected on that account. In any case, it is a mere 
truism to say that what stands should be left standing if no reason 
is shown for removing it. But where and how we are to find valid 
reasons, when they exist, this writer does not tell us. Dr. Scrivener 
has given four rules for that purpose (Intr. p. 484), which I commend 
to the attention of my readers. And of Cod. B he says (480) : ' It 
is a document of such value that it grows by experience even upon 
those who may have been a little prejudiced against it, adding that 
its best associate is Cod. C, where the testimony of that precious 
palimpsest can be had. ' 



i6o POSTSCRIPT. 

once so learned and so conservative as Bishop C. Words- 
worth had forsaken it, there was no further chance of 
support for it in our Church. I find myself mistaken ; for 
in this reviewer it finds an uncompromising champion, who 
would cry to the last, U^p. 8' aAAwv /xovocfipwv djxi. Well, I 
have no room for the argument here, and I must be content 
with referring to its full statement in Dr. Scrivener's Intro- 
duction, 552-6. I will only add that when the reviewer 
calls fxva-TTjpiov ... OS a ' patent absurdity,' he seems to have 
forgotten the facts of grammar. If fxva-Trjptov means Christ 
(and it does), the reference to it by masc. os is one of the 
simplest examples of synesis, a construction which abounds 
in Greek and Latin, and becomes, in this place, inevitable. 



i6i 



NOTE. 

On the eve of publication I have received the Philadelphian 
'Sunday School Times' of Nov. 5, containing a paper on 
Westcott and Hort's Greek Testament, vol. i. I cannot refrain 
from citing here the main portion of it, as a wholesome antidote 
to the unfair and intemperate critique which has drawn forth 
my postscript. 

' This edition of the Greek Testament will mark an epoch in 
the history of New Testament criticism. Dr. Schaff accepts its 
text enthusiastically as " the oldest and purest " which has yet 
been published. Many in England, and still more, probably, 
in Germany, will heartily welcome it as a work bearing every- 
where the stamp of independent, original research, and the 
most painstaking care. But in some quarters it cannot fail to 
encounter deadly hostility, and before its conclusions are 
generally adopted there will be much discussion. Though the 
work will now be more fairly judged than if it had been pub- 
lished twenty years ago, the charge of extreme rashness will 
doubtless be brought against the editors by such critics as 
Dean Burgon and the Rev. J. B. McClellan ; and Dr. Scrivener, 
who had the use of their " provisional " text, has already, in the 
second edition of his Introduction (1874), strongly expressed 
his dissent from many of their conclusions. Even scholars who 
have become emancipated from the superstitious worship of the 
so-called " received text," and who are ready to decide critical 
questions on purely critical principles, and not by their " infal- 
lible instincts," may be startled at the boldness of the editors in 
the use of the pruning-knife, which in their hands cuts deeper 
than even in those of Tischendorf and Tregelles. Westcott and 
Hort, for example, regard as later additions to the text not only 
the last twelve verses of Mark, the account of the descent of 
the angel into the pool of Bethesda (or " Bethzatha," as they 
read), and the story of the woman taken in adultery (John vii. 
53 to viii. II), but the passages noted in the margin of the 

M 



\l 



'62 NOJE, 

Revised Version, at Matt. xvi. 2, 3 ; Luke xxii. 19, 20, 43, 
44 ; xxiii. 34 ; xxiv. 3, 6, 12, 36, 40, 51, 52 ; and John iii. 13, as 
"omitted by some [or "many"] ancient authorities." Other 
readings of theirs will seem to many, at first sight at least, very 
questionable. 

' But the last charge which can be justly brought against 
the editors is that of rashness. They may have erred in judg- 
ment, but they have come to their conclusions with great 
deliberation. The history of the work entitles it, not, indeed, 
to immediate, unquestioning acceptance as final in its decisions, 
but to the most respectful consideration. It " was projected 
and commenced in 1853, and the work has never been laid 
more than partially aside in the interval, though it has suffered 
many delays and interruptions. The mode of procedure adopted 
by the editors from the first was to work out their results inde- 
pendently of each other, to hold no counsel together except 
upon results already provisionally obtained, and to discuss on 
paper the comparatively few points of initial difference until 
either agreement or final difference was reached." To this it 
may be added that a large part of the text, the Gospels at 
least, appears to have been in type for more than ten years, 
during which period it has been revised and re-revised with 
great care, as deeper investigations have led the editors to 
modify here and there their earlier decisions. As to the 
character of the editors, none who are acquainted with the 
writings of Professor Westcott and Dr. Hort will question their 
eminent intellectual and moral qualifications for the task they 
have undertaken, — the great moral qualification, in studies such 
as these, being the single aim to ascertain the truth. 

' It is important, however, to observe that the present volume 
exhibits only the results of their critical investigations. It takes 
no notice of the text of any previous edition, so that there is 
nothing to show the extent of its divergence from the so-called 
" received text," or of its agreement with the great critical 
editions of Tischendorf and Tregelles, with which, notwith- 
standing many differences, it does agree in the main. There is 
no discussion of any reading, no statement of the authorities 
(manuscripts, &c.), which, in any questionable case, support 
the text. Alternative readings, indeed, are given, where the 



NOTE. 163 

editors regard the true reading as more or less uncertain ; also 
certain noteworthy rejected readings appear in the text in 
double brackets, or in the margin with certain marks ; and at 
the end of the volume there is a list of still other rejected read- 
ings "which have been thought worthy of notice in the 
appendix [to the second volume] on account of some special 
interest attaching to them." This list also includes a few 
passages in which the editors (or one of them) suspect " some 
primitive error," and propose conjectural emendations. But it 
is a mere list. There is also a very condensed sketch (pp. 54 1-- 
562) of the conclusions of the editors in regard to the true 
principles of criticism, the history of the text, the grouping of 
our chief documentary authorities in accordance with their 
peculiar characteristics, and the determination of the relative 
value of the several documents and groups of documents, in 
estimating which " the history and genealogy of textual trans- 
mission have been taken as the necessary foundation." 

' It is the " critical introduction " in vol. ii. which will give 
the edition of Westcott and Hort its distinctive value, and 
which, whether all their conclusions prove firmly established or 
not, will be most heartily w^elcomed by scholars, and cannot 
fail to contribute greatly to the advancement of New Testament 
criticism. They have undertaken a very difficult and delicate 
task ; but their method is the true one. Some pioneering had 
been done by Griesbach and others ; but no such comprehen- 
sive and scientific investigation of the character and relative 
value of our external authorities for settling the text has been 
hitherto attempted. It is on this introduction that the whole 
structure of the editors rests ; and any criticism of particular 
readings which they have adopted should in fairness be 
reserved till the facts and reasonings on which their system 
of criticism is founded have been carefully studied and 
weighed. 

' To describe the four types of text, " the Western," " the 
Alexandrian," " the Neutral," and " the Syrian " (earlier and 
later), which they find represented m our critical documents, 
would require more space than can here be allowed. It may 
be enough to say that the text which they designate as 
" neutral " and regard as in general approximating most closely 



V 



1 64 NOTE. 

to the original autographs, is represented in its greatest purity 
by the Vatican manuscript (B), to which they assign superlative 
value ; the Sinaitic (Aleph) being, in their judgment, next in 
importance, but far less pure. But, " with certain limited classes 
of exceptions, the readings of Aleph and B combined may 
safely be accepted as genuine in the absence of specially strong 
internal evidence to the contrary, and can never be safely 
rejected altogether" (p. 557). Nay, every combination of B 
with one other primary manuscript, as in the gospels L, C, or 
T, " is found to have a large proportion of readings, which on 
the closest scrutiny have the ring of genuineness, and hardly 
any that look suspicious after full consideration." " Even when 
B stands alone, its readings must never be lightly rejected" 
{ibid.). This estimate differs somewhat from that of Professor 
T. R Birks of Cambridge, who conceives himself to have proved, 
by mathematical calculations, " that on the hypothesis most 
favourable to the early manuscripts, and specially to the 
Vatican, its weight is exactly that of two manuscripts of the 
fifteenth century, while the Sinaitic weighs only one-third more 
than an average manuscript of the eleventh century." {Essay 
oil the Right Esti77iatioii of Manuscript Evideiice in the Text 
of the New Testament. London, 1878, p. 66.) 

' The present volume is issued in such a form that it may 
be used independently of the second : and it is apparently sup- 
posed that there will be some or many theological students 
whose want of a convenient manual edition will be met by this 
volume alone. It certainly is one which every theological 
student may well desire to possess, and should possess if 
possible ; but the question may arise how far it will serve as his 
only edition. If he is ready to accept the conclusions of the 
editors without further inquiry or examination of evidence, and 
without comparison with those of other critics, and if he does 
not care to have a text furnished with references to parallel or 
illustrative passages, or to the quotations from the Old Testa- 
ment, this volume may be perfectly satisfactory. It is beauti- 
fully printed, though the type is not large ; the lines are well 
leaded ; its form is convenient ; and it may be read with great 
delight. Indeed, there is no other existing edition of the Greek 
Testament in which so much is done to aid the mind of the 



NOTE. 165 

reader by the form in which the matter is presented to the eye. 
The great natural divisions of the larger books are marked by 
a wide space, and by the printing of the initial words in capitals ; 
the minor sub-divisions, but such as comprise many paragraphs, 
are separated by a smaller space ; the paragraphs, when they 
include a series of connected topics, as, for example, Matt. 
V. 17-48, are broken up by short but well-marked spaces into 
sub-paragraphs, as in Herbert Spencer's writings, — a most 
excellent device, worthy of general introduction. " Uncial 
type " is employed for quotations from the Old Testament, and 
also to mark phrases borrowed from it ; rhythmical passages, 
like Luke i. 46-55, 68-79, 3-s well as poetical quotations from 
the Old Testament, are printed in a metrical form. The 
chapters and verses are numbered only in the margin. This 
sometimes leaves uncertainty as to the beginning of a verse, in 
which case the doubt should have been removed by a little 
mark of separation. For one who wishes to give himself to the 
continuous reading of the Greek text with the least possible 
distraction, this edition has no rival.' 

No intelligent scholar, even though he may have other 
editions which will supply some of the deficiencies that have 
been mentioned, will be fully contented with the first volume 
alone. The second volume is really the basis of the first, and 
its necessary explanation ; it is that by which the value of the 
editors' work must be measured. 



LONDON : PRINTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE A I\ D CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE 

AND PARLIAMENT STREET 



S. & .£1. 



STANDARD WORKS 

PUBLISHED BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON. 



The HISTORY of ANTIQUITY. From the German of Max 

DuxcKKR. By EvFJ-YX Abbott, M.A., LL.D., of Balliol College, Oxford. The first 
5 vols, are now published iu deiny 8vo. 21^. each. 

The HISTORY of ROME. From the German of Theodor 

MoMMSEx, by the Rev. W. P. DiCKSOx. The Library Edicion, 4 vols, demy 8vo. lbs.; 
or the Popular Editiou, 4 vols, crown Svo. Aiis. Qd. 

The HISTORY of GREECE. From the German of Ernst Curtius. 

Bv A. W. Ward, M.A. 5 vols, demy Svo. 90,<;. 

The RISE and PROGRESS of the ENGLISH CONSTITUTION. By 

Sir Edward Creasy, late Chief Justice of Cevlon. Twelfth Edition. Crown Svo. Is. Qd. 

The LIVES of the QUEENS of ENGLAND of the HOUSE of 

HANOVER. By JoH\ Lohax, F.8.A., Anthor of ' London in the Jacobite Times' &c. 
Fourth and Enlarged Edition. 2 vols, demy Svo. 25.?. 

The NAVAL HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN (1793-1827). By 

WiT.i.iA.M Jam£S. With a Continuation by Captain Chamier. 6 vols, crown Svo. 
with Portrait^, 36^. 

The HISTORY of the AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. By Colonel 

Fletcher. 3 vols, demy Svo. 64s. 

The FIFTEEN DECISIVE BATTLES of the WORLD, from 

Marathon to Waterloo. By Sir Edwaiu) Creasy, late Chief Justice of Ceylon. Library 
Edition. Demy Svo. 10s. *".(/. ; or the Popular Edition, the Twenty-seventh, or. Svo. 6s. 

The HISTORY of the OTTOMAN TURKS, from the Beginning of 

their Empire to tlie Close of 187S. By Sir Edward Creasy, late Chief Justice of 
Ceylon. A New and Revised Edition, being the Fifth. Crown Svo. 6s. 

CURIOSITIES of NATURAL HISTORY. By Frank Buckland. 

The Popular Edition. With Illustrations, in 4 vols, small crown Svo. 14s. Each 
Volume can be had separately, price 3s. M. 

rhe HEAVENS: an Illustrated Handbook of Popular Astronomy. 

By Ameder Cctillemix. Edited by J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.A.S. Revised Edition. 
Demy Svo. with over 200 Illu.^tratious, 12s. 

ADAM and the ADAMITE; or, the Harmony of Scripture and 

Ethnology. By Dominick McCauslaxd, Q.C. Crown Svo. with Map, 6s. 

'.ERMONS in STONES; or, Scripture confirmed by Geology. 

By Do.MixiCK Mc'^AUSLAND, Q.C. New Edition, with Memoir of the Author. Crown 
Svo. with 19 Illustrations, 6s. 

The BUILDERS of BABEL ; or, the Confusion of Languages. By 

DoMixicK McCausland, Q C. Ciown Svo. 6s. 

ESSAYS, Classical and Theological. By the late Connop Thirl- 

WALL, D.D., Bishop of St. David's. Edited by the Rev. Canon Perowne. Demy 
Svo. 20s. 

The CHURCH and its ORDINANCES. Sermons by the late 

Walter Farquhar Hook, D.D., Dean of Chicliester. Edited by the Rev. Walter 
Hook, Rector or Porluck. 2 vols, demy Svor 10s. 6d. 

The LIVES of the ARCHBISHOPS of CANTERBURY, from St. 

Augustine to Juxon; By the late Walter Farqchar Hook, D.D., Dean of Chichester. 
11 vols, demy Svo. £8. os. 

The LIFE and LETTERS of WALTER FARQUHAR HOOK, late 

Dean of Chichester. Edited by the Rev. W. R. W. Stephen.s, Prei'endary of Chichester, 
&c. The Popular Edition, in 1 vol. crown Svo. with Index and Portrait, 6s. 



London : RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8 New Burlington Street, 

^ubU&yeis \x\ (L^riJimuij to ^cr ^i-'jc^ti) llj£ ^u«eu. 



STANDARD WORKS 

PUBLISHED BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON. 



The AUTOBIOGRAPHY of PRINCE METTERNICH. 1773-1830. 

Edited bj' his Son, Prince Richard Metternich. 5 vols, demy 8to. with Portrait and 
Facsimiles, 905. 

The LIFE of LORD PALMERSTON. With Selections from his 

Diaries and Correspondence. By the Hon. Evelyx Ashley, M.P. The New Kditiou, 
2 vols, crown 8vo. with Frontispiece to each volume, 12.s. 

LORD BEACONSFIELD: his Life, Character, and Works. From 

the German of Georg Br-VNDEs. Bv Jank Stl'RGE. Demv 8vo. Cs. 

CORRESPONDENCE OF TALLEYRAND AND LOUIS XVIII. 

DURING THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA. In 2 vol^. demy 8vo. 24^. 

MEMOIR of EARL SPENCER (Lord Aithorp). By Sir Denis le 

Marchan'T, Bart. Demv 8vo. Ids. 

HISTORICAL CHARACTERS: Talleyrand, Mackintosh, Cobbet, 

Canning, Peel. By Lord Dallixg and Bclwkr. Fifth and Enlarged Edition. Crown 

A MEMOIR of CHARLES the TWELFTH of SWEDEN. By his 

Majesty Oscar II. Translated, by s]iecial permission, by George ApGeoijge, Her 
Britannic Majestv's Consul at Stockholm. Royal 8vo. with Two Illustrations, 125. 

The FRENCH HUMORISTS from the TWELFTH to the Nine- 
teenth CENTURY. By Walter Be.^axt. M.A., Christ's Coll., Cambridge. Author 
of 'Stuiips in Earlv French Poetrv." &c. Demv 8vo. I5.s. 

The LIVES of WITS and HUMORISTS. By John Times, F.S.A. 

2 vols, crown 8vo. with Portrait. 12,?. The LIVES of the LATER WITS and 
HUMORISTS. In 2 vols, crown 8vo. Us. 

The LIFE of OLIVER CROMWELL. From the French of M. 

GuizoT. Bv Andrew Scoble. Crown 8vo. with Four Portraits, (is. 

The LIFE of MARY QUEEN of SCOTS. From the French of 

M. MiGXET. By AXDREW Scoble. Crown 8vo. with Two Portraits, 6.?. 

The INGOLDSBY LEGENDS; or. Mirth and Marvels. By Rev. 

Richard Haeiris Barham. The Annotated Edition, 2 vols, demy 8vo. Illustrated by 
Cruikshank and Leech, 245. The Illustrated Edition, printed on toned paper, crown 
4to. bevelled boards, gilt edges 2l5. ; or, in white binding, 22^. 6d. The Carmine 
Edition, with border line round each page, with Seventeen Illustrations, bevelled 
hoards, gilt edges, 10s. 6d. The BuilinKton Edition, 3 vols, frp 8vo lUs. 6d. The 
Edmburgh Edition, crown 8vo. with Thirty-two Engravings by Crnikshank. Leech, 
Tenniel, and Du Maurier, ;'loth, 65. The (New) Popular Edition, crown 8vo. cloth, 3s. Qd. 
The Victoria (Pocket) Eiition, in fcp. 8vo. cloth, 25. 

The BENTLEY BALLADS. Selected from 'Bentley's Miscellany.' 

Crown Svo. Gs. 

The NOVELS of MISS FERRIER. Library Edition, in G vols. 

2I5. ; or each storv. separately. Is. 

The NOVELS of MISS AUSTEN. The only Complete Edition. 

6 vols, crown Svo. with a Frontispiece to each volume, 065. ; or each volume separately, 65. 

The WORKS of THOMAS LOVE PEACOCK. The Collected 

Edition, including his Novels, Fugitive Pieces, Poems, &c. EJiteJ by Sir Hkxry Cole, 
K.C.B., and with Preface by Lor.i Hougiiiox. 3 vols, crown tivu. with Portrait, 31-$. 6'/. 

The NOVELS of MISS BROUGHTON. 7 vols, crown 8vo. 42.s. ; 

or each volume separately, Gs, 

The NOVELS of MRS. HENRY WOOD. 27 vols, crown 8vo. 

£-^. 2.<. ; or each volume separately, 6s. 



London : RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8 New Bm^lington Street, 
^uhusiji^rs in lyrDmaru to i^cr 4tiajestij tl)c (L^uccn.