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MAR 2 1959 

Part III. By E. Blatter, s.j., Ph.D., f.l.s. 




[From the Journal of the Bombay Natural Hist. Soc, August I, 1927-j 



E. Blatter, s.j., Ph.D., f.l.s. 

Part III 
( Continued from page 917 of Vol. xxxi) 

GRAMINE^S (Cke. ii, 907) 


E. Blatter and C. McCann 

We have decided to take up the Graminece for several reasons. Since 
Cooke's publication of this family several new species have been described and 
McCann has added over 50 species which are new to the Presidency. More 
important than the numerical additions are the changes made during the last 
fifteen years with regard to the general arrangement of the grasses and the 
definition of certain genera. A great amount of work has been done in Europe 
as well as in America. In Europe it was chiefly O. Stapf who, with his vast 
experience of the grass-flora of many countries and the rich material of the 
Kew Herbarium at his disposal, has advanced our knowledge of the grasses 
and their systematic co-ordination more than anybody else. A comparison of 
his monograph of the grasses in the Flora of Tropical Africa which is still 
in progress with that of the Flora Capensis shows at once in which direction 
and to what extent progress has been made. As regards the second sub- 
family Pooidece the two works reveal only minor changes ; but considerable 
changes were found necessary in the first subfamily Panicoidecz. Here 
again it is chiefly the genera Andropogon and Panicum and their allies which 
have been affected. In this respect, especially where the tribe of Panicec? 
is concerned, we owe a good deal to American botanists. It was chiefly 
the fact that there were no definite dividing lines for the genera of Andpro- 
gonecs and Panicece, that induced Stapf not 'to unite the groups wherever 
intermediate links can be detected,' which would bring about endless 
confusion, but ' to be satisfied with approximately definable groups, which can 
on the whole be easily grasped and remembered.' In other words, it is 
preferable from a practical point of view to adopt smaller genera than 
unmanageable large genera for merely theoretical reasons. As the Kew 
Herbarium, as far as the grasses are concerned, owes its systematic arrange- 
ment entirely to Stapf, and as colonial workers will always appeal to Kew in 
their difficulties, we thought it advisable to follow Stapf in the definition and! 
sequence of the tribes as laid down in the Flora of Tropical Africa. As of 
late the grass-problems have received renewed attention by the Agricultural 
Departments in India, we do not consider it superfluous to bring the systematic 
account of the grasses of Bombay up-to-date. 

An asterisk in front of a name means that the particular genus or species has 
been introduced. 

Two complete keys, one natural and one artificial will be given at the end. 


The mature spikelets fall entire from their pedicels or with them, all are 
alike or differ in sex and structure. Perfect spikelets with 2 heteromorphous 
florets, the upper hermaphrodite, the lower male or barren. Rhachilla not 
continued beyond the upper floret. 

TRIBE I. Mayidecs. — Sexes borne on different inflorescences on the same 
plant or the female spikelets at the base of the inflorescence, and the male 
above them. The male spikelets in pairs, one sessile, the other pedicelled, or 
both pedicelled, in spike-like solitary or panicled racemes, 2-flowered. Glumes 


15 Jour., Bom. Nat Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXI 1, No. 1. [Aug. 1, 1927. 

membranous or chartaceous, enclosing the florets. Valves more or less 
hyaline, awnless. The female spikelets solitary with or without a rudimentary 
pedicelled companion, 1-flowered. Glumes firm, at least the lower which 
ultimately often becomes bony, or both thin and more or less hyaline. Valves 
hyaline awnless. 

1. Male and female spikelets in separate inflorescences. 
Male spikelets in a large terminal panicle. The 
female spikelets in the axils of the leaves 

(a) Female spikes distinct, articulated ... ... *1. Euchlcena. 

(b) Female spikes grown together into a spongy 

more or less cylindrical body ... ... *2. Zea. 

2 Male and female spikelets in separate portions of 
the same spike, the female below. 

(a) Grain enclosed in the usually globose or ovoid 

ivory- like capsuliform supporting sheath ... 3. Coix. 

(b) Grain enclosed in the hardened outer glumes ... 4. Polytoca. 

*1. Euchi^ena, Schrad, 

Stout and tall annuals with leaves very broadly linear or oblong. Male 
spikelets 2-nate (sessile and pedicellate) on the spiciform fascicled branches of 
a terminal panicle, 2-flowered with coriaceous glumes. Female spikelets in 
2-ranked spikes which are clustered in the leaf-axils, not fused as in the Maize 
joints rhomboidal, oblique, articulate, excavate, with the margins of the 
excavation embracing the cartilaginous outer glume and with it forming a 
smooth pseudocarp. 

*1. Euchlsna mexicana, Schrad. Ind. Sem. Hort. Gotting. (1832), var 
luxurians ; H.H. Mann in Bull. 77, Dept. of Agric, Bombay.— Reana luxu- 
riant, Dur. in Bull. Soc. Acclim. Ser. II, IX (1872), 581. 

Vern. name : Teosinte. 

Description : A large, very succulent, strong growing, annual grass, 30 cm.- 
3 m. high. Leaves long, 5-7"S cm. broad. Male spikelets 8-9 mm. long, 
crowded in long spikes in a corymb .15-25 cm. long. Female spikes in the 
leaf-axils. Styles very long, protruding from the top of the enclosing leaf- 
sheath. The spike of the female spikelets breaking up at maturity into 
rhomboidal seed-like joints. Nearly allied to Maize and resembling it in its 
tassel of male flowers and broad leaves. A single plant often sends up 
100 stems. 

Locality : Cultivated in the Ganeshkhind Botanic Garden. 

Distribution : A native of Guatemala. 

Uses: Cultivated for green fodder, but it does not stand drought well. 
Horses are fond of it. 

*2. Zea, Linn. (Cke. ii, 1051, Stapf. Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 26) 

Tall, stout, annual grasses with large leaves, the axils of the lower bearing 
the female inflorescences (cobs), tightly enveloped by large membranous 
bracts. Sexes in different inflorescences on the same plant. Male inflorescence 
terminal, of panicled spike-like racemes with 2-nate spikelets shortly unequally 
pedicelled or one sessile on the inarticulate rhachis, both similar, 2-flowered, 
awnless. Glumes subequal, membranous, convex, obscurely 2-keeled, 9-10- 
nerved. Valves more or less hyaline, 3-5-nerved ; valvules similar, 2-nerved, 
obscurely keeled ; lodicules 2, fleshy. Stamens 3 ; anthers linear. Female 
spikelets 2-nate in 4-11 longitudinal rows, slightly immersed in the spongy 
axis of the cob, with a lower barren and an upper fertile floret, awnless. 
Glumes similar, very broad, fleshy below, hyaline above, nerveless, ciliate. 
Lower valve resembling the glumes, but shorter and ciliate, with or without 
a similar but smaller valvule ; upper valve similar to the lower with a valvule 
about as long as the ovary. Lodicules 0. Ovary obliquely ovoid. Style very 
long, 2-fid at the tip, papillose upwards, exserted in long silky tassels from the 
sheathing bracts. Grain large, subglobose or dorsal ly more or less flattened, 
surrounded by the dried up glumes, valves and valvules ; scutellum large, 
equalling or exceeding £ of the grain. 

Species 1. — A native of America. 

•1. Zea mays, Linn. Sp. pi. ed. I, 971 ; Beauv. Agrost. 136, t. 24, fig. 3 ; 
Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. I, 9 ; Bentl. and Trim. Med. PI. t. 296 ; Duthie, Field and 

Aug. 1, 1927.] Revision of the Flora >o'f the Bombay Presidency 16 

<Gard. Crops 25, t. 5^ Koern, and Wern. Handb. d. Getreidebaues I, 
331-378, II,* 772-870 ; Harsbberger, Maize, in Contrib. Lab. Univ Pensylv. I 
(1893), 75-202 \ Nicholls, Text-book Trop. Agr. (1892), 260-2 H5 ; Montgomery, 
Corn Crops (1913), 1-275 ; Davy, Maize (1914) ; Stapf. in Fl. Trop, Afr, IX, 26. 

Pern. Names r Maize, Buta, Maka. 

Description .• Culms upto3 m, high, sometimes more. Leaf-sheaths terete, 
more or less hairy upwards along the margin ; ligule short, truncate, thinly 
membranous, more or less pubescent ; blades linear-ianceo'late, up to over 
■90 cm. long and 10 em. wide, glabrous or almost so, tips often drooping. 
Male panicle Tap to over 20 cm. long; rhachis pubescent; spikelets up to 
12 mm. long,- anthers 6 mm. long Feffiaale spike (cote) and grains varying 
much in size and shape, the grains al?o in colour. 

Locality : Cultivated widely in the Presidency as a forage for cattle and as a. 
vegetable and for (flour-. 

Origins The origin of Maize is a much discussed question. Some are of 
opinion that it has been developed from Teosinte {Euohlcena)-, others that the 
original wild form has become extinct. A more acceptable opinion is that it is 
a hybrid between Teosinte and an unknown or extinct species resembling pod- 
corn, a variety of Zea mays in which each kernel is enveloped in the elongated 
floral bracts. 1 

Kuwada 2 who studied the number of chromosomes in Maize came to the 
conclusion that Zea mays was originally derived from the hybridization between 
Euchlcetm, and some unknown species of the tribe Afadrofagonece , long 
chromosGMes belonging to the former and short ones to the latter, and that the 
nuclei of its various individuals possess both kinds of chromosomes in various 
combinations according to the law of chance. 

To explain the structure of the ear of Maize, Collins published evidence 
wSiich indicated that the ear may have developed through the twisting of yoked 
pairs of spikelets. Weatherwax 3 tries to refute this opinion. He contends 
that dropping of rows of seeds is due to the discontinuance of a row of paired 
spiikdlets and not to the loss of the pedicelled spikelets from yoked pairs, and 
that there is no Indication that short rows represent long rows partially aborted, 
bat that the abortion of spikelets or of rows in trie ear seems to be much more 
constant as a characteristic of theories than of real ears. 

Genetics of Maize : Those interested in Maize from a genetic point of view 
are referred to the more recent publications mentioned in the foot note. 4 

1 Collins. The origin of maize. Journal Wash. Acad. Sci. 2 (1912), 520. 

2 Kuwada, Y. Die Chromosomenzahl von Zea mays L. Ein Beitrag zur 
Hypothese der Individualist der Chromosomen und zur Frage fiber die 
Herkoinft von Zea mays L. Jour. Coll. Sci. Imperial Univ. Tokyo, 39 (1919), 1-148. 

3 Weatherwax, P. A misconception as to the structure of the ear of maize. 
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 47 (1920), 359-362. 

* Blaringhem, L. — Production par traumatism d\me forme nouvelle de Mais 
a caryopses multiples, Zea. Mays var. Polyspermia. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 
Paris 170, {1920) , 677^-679. 

Collins, G- N.— Structure of the maize ear as indicated in Zea-Euchlcena 
hybrids. Jour. Agr. Res., 17 (1919), 127-135. 

Collins, G. N.— Dominance and the vigor of first generation hybrids. Amer. 
Nat., 55(1921/), 116-133, 

Collins, J. L.— Chimeras in corn hybrids. Jour. Heredity, 10 (1919), 2-10. 

Emerson, R. A.— The nature of bud variations as indicated by their mode of 
Inheritance, Amer. Nat., 36 (1922), 64-79. 

Hume, A. N.— A system for breeding corn or gregarious animals. Jour. 
Heredity, 11 {1920). 191-192. 

Jones, D. F. — Segregation of susceptibility of parasitism in maize. Amer. 
Jour. Hot.. 5 (1918), 295-300. 

Jones, D. F.— -The effect of Inbreeding and crossbreeding upon development. 
Proc. Nation. Acad. Sc. y 4 <1918), 246-250. 

Jones, D. F.— Heritable characters of maize. Jour. Heredity, 11 (19201. 
161-167. ' 

Jones. D. F.— Selection in self-fertilized lines as the basis for corn improve- 
ment. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron., 12 (1920), -77-100. 

Kempton, J. H.— Heritable characters of maize. Jour. Heredity, 11 (1920), 
111-115. ' 

3 [3] 

17 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 1. [Aug. I, 1927, 

3. Coix, Linn. (Cke. ii, 997). 

Species 5 or 6.— Hot countries of the Old World. 

Coix Lacryma=,lobi, Linn. Sp. PL ed.L972 ; Cke. ii, 997 ; S^apf in Fl. Trop. 
Afr. ix, 27. — Coix Lacryma, Linn. Syst. ed. x, 1261 ; Duthie, Grasses of N. W. 
India, 11, and Fodder Grass r N. Ind. 18. 

Locality: Sind : Umarkot r sandy plains (Sabnis B717 !) ; Chuar Chemali, 
Indus River (Blatter and McCann D6S0 !) ; Mirpur Sakro (Blatter and MeCann 
D681 ! D683 !) ; Gharo (Blatter and MeCann D682 !■). — Gujarat : (Graham).— 
Khandesh (McCann !) —Konkafi : Gokhiwara, Bassein (Ryan 25!)-; Matheran 
(Paranjpe !) ; Dohe Forests (Ryan 713!) ; Junga Hill. Thana (Paranjpe!) ; 
Ali bag, rice fields (Ezekiel I) ; Kenery Caves,, foot (McCann 9876!) ; Sion 
(McCann 8453 !) ; Bhandup, near tank (McCann 5098!) ; Horse-shoe Valley, 
Ghatkoper (McCann 9877!) : Common along line from Kalyan to Kasara in? 
streams (MeCann \).—Deccan : Lonavla (Garade ! McCann! Woodrow); 
Khandala, common all over (McCann 9405!); Purandhar (McCann 5005!); 
Igatpuri (McCann 4346 !) ; Panchgani Ghat (Cooke) ; Panchgani (Blatter !).— 
S. M. Country: Devaryi (Sedgwick and Bell 4426!); Dharwar (Sedgwick 
1856 !),— Kanara : (McCann !) ; Common all through the Konkan and Deccan 
during the rains, filling up the banks of streams and fields. 

Distribution : Tropical Asia, cultivated in Africa and America. 

Uses : Used as fodder for cattle. Duthie says that they fatten on it. Haines 
calls it a poor fodder for cattle. Of the false fruits there are several varieties 
differing much in size, shape and colour, and used for decorative purposes in 
the place of beads. According to Stapf one variety with thin shells is an 
important cereal in Burma and in the Farther East. Waxy endosperm, first 
found in maize from China, Burma and the PhilMppines, has been found now 
in Coix Lacryma- Jobi from the same region. 1 

4. Polytoca, Br. (Cke. ii, 998) 

1. Polytoca Cookii, Stapf in Hook. Ic. PI. 24 (1895) t. 2333 ; Cke. ii, 998. 
Locality: Kathiawar : Junagad (Blatter). — Konkan : Tungar forest, 

Bassein (Bhide) ; Bombay (Dalzell) ; Salsette (Jacquemont 706). Deccan: 
Khandala (McCann 9881!) ; Igatpuri (McCann 9880!) ; near Mahableshwar 
(Woodrow 1 ); Mahableshwar (Woodrow, Cooke). Kanara: (Lisboa). 
Distribution : Apparently endemic in the Bombay Presidency. 

2. Polytoca barbata, Stapf in Hook. f. F. B. I. vii (1896), 102 ; Cke. ii, 599". 
Coix barbata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii, 569 ; Dalz. and Gibs. Bombay Fl. 289. 
Coix gigantea, Herb. Russ. ex Wall Cat. No. 8626. — Chionachne barbata, Br. 
in Benn. PI. Rar. Jav. 18 ; Aitchis, Cat. Panj. PL 157 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. 
Ind. 11, and Fodd. Grass. N. India, 19. 

Locality : Gujarat : Chharodi farm (Gammie 16536 !) ; Nadiad farm (Herb. 
Econ. Bot. Poona!) ; Surat (Sedgwick !) ; Junagad, Kathiawar (Blatter 3784 !>. 
Khandesh: Toranmal (McCann 9883 !)■ ; Taloda (Golne!). Konkan: Between 
Worli Fort and Hornby-Villard Road on bank, Bombay (Sabnis 9884 !) ; Thana 
CMcCann!). Deccan: High hills round Junnar, Poona District (Dalzell and 
Gibson); Poona (Woodrow); College of Science, Poona (Herb. Econ. Bot. 
Poona !) ; Ganeshkhind Bot. Gard. (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; Haveli (Herb, 
Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; near Sholapur (Woodrow !). 5. M. Country : S. W. of 
Dharwar (Sedgwick and Bell 4433!); Kunemelihalli (Sedgwick 1947!); 
Kholapur (Woodrow !, Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !>. Kanara : Gersoppa Falls 
(Talbot !)•. 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, Java. 

Kempton J. H — Linkage between brachytic culms and pericarp and cob 
color in maize. Jour Washington Ac. Sc. 11 (1920), 13-20. 

Kempton, J. H.— A brachytic variation in maize. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bui. 925 

Richey, F. D.— The inequality of reciprocal corn crosses. Jour. Amer. Soc. 
Agron. 12(1920), 186-196. 

Urbain, A. — Influence des matieres de reserve de l'albumen de la graine sur 
le development de l'embryon. Rev. Gen. Bot. 32 (1920), 125-139, 165-191. 

1 Kempton, J. H. Waxy endosperm in Coix and sorghum. Jour. Here- 
dity, 12 (1921), 396-400. 


Aug. 1, 1927.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 18 

Tribe II. Androftogonece. — Spikelets usually in pairs, one sessile, the other 
pedicelled, very rarely both pedicelled, those of each pair usually alike as to 
sex (homogamous) or different (heterogamous) on the axes of variously 
arranged, often spike-like racemes. Glumes more or less rigid and firmer 
than the valves, and the lower always longer than the florets. Valves mem- 
branous, often hyaline, that of the upper floret awned or reduced to an awn 
•or muticous. 

The key to the genera of this tribe will be given below. 

5. Dimeria, R.. Br. 

Woodrowia diandra, Stapf. must be referred to this genus. The genus 
Woodrowia, therefore, disappears from the Bombay Flora, 
I. Spikelets in 2-3-nate racemes. Annuals 

(a) Rhachis nearly straight. Awn long 1. D. ornithopoda. 

(b) Rhachis circinately curved. Awn short 2. D. Woodrowii. 

II. .Spikelets in many-nate racemes. Perennial 3. D. gracilis. 

III. Spikelets in panicles. Annual 4. D. diandra- 

The species of this genus usually inhabit open, flat, dry, gravelly plains 
which are well drained during the monsoon,, and several species may be found 
associated with each other in the same locality to the exclusion of every other 
plant. Where D. ornithopoda, gracilis and diandra grow together, the two 
former are more numerous. 

1. Dimeria ornithopoda, Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820), 167, t 14 ; Hack. Monogr. 
Androp. 81 ; Hook, f . in F. B. I. vii, 104 ; Cke. ii, 945.—/?. filiformis, Hochst. 
in Hohenack. PI. Ind. Or. no. 231. — Andvopogon filiformis, Roxb Fl. Ind. 
i 2So. — Andropogon Roxburghianus, Schult. Mant. ii, 451.— Psilostachys 
filiformis, Dalz. and Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 305. 

Description: Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Ronkan : Kankeshwar Hills, Alibag (Bhide!); Marmagoa 
(Talbot!); Vetora (Sabnis 33715!).— Deccan : Mahableshwar (Dalzell and 
Gibson, Lisboa) ; Lingmala to Mahableshwar, 4,000 ft., rain 200 inch. (Sedg- 
wick and Bell 4653!); Lonavla (Bhide!, Lisboa); Khandala, Tata's Lake, 
very common (McCann A309!, 9885!, Woodrow"* ; Sakhar-Pathar, Lonavla 
(Gammie 15948!): Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg B1214 !, B1219!, 
B1279!, B1289!, Woodrow) -5. M. Country: Castle Rock (Bhide!), Londa 
(Woodrow !)•— Ranara : Yellapore (Sedgwick 3124!); Birchy (Talbot 
2251!) ; Karwar (Hallberg and McCann A307!) ; Siddhapur to Sirsi, open 
grass land (Hallberg and McCann A313 !) ; Jagalbet, N. Kanara (Talbot 

Distribution : All over India, Malay Islands, Japan, Tropical Australia. 

2. Dimeria Woodrowii, Stapf in Hook. Ic. PI. 24 (1895), t. 2312; Hook. f. in 
F. B. I. vii, 104; Cke. ii, 945. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Ronkan : Marmagoa (McCann !, Bhide !, Talbot 2557) ; Karanjee, 
Ratnagiri Dist. (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; Ratnagiri (Herb. Dhura!, 
Woodrow). — Ranara: Mirjan (Hallberg and McCann!); Honavar, open 
rocks (McCann 1). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula. 

3. Dimeria gracilis, Nees ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 413 ; Hack. Monogr. 
Androp. 88 ; Hook, f . in F. B. I. vii, 105 : Cke. ii, 946. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Ronkan : Penn, hills (Bhide !) ; Vetora (Sabnis 3714 !) .—Deccan : 
Lonavla (Bhide!, Woodrow); Khandala (McCann A318 !) ; on the Ghats 
(Lisboa!).— S. M. Country : Castle Rock (Bhide!) ; Anmod to Castle Rock 
(Sedgwick 3254!).— Ranara : Bell and Sedgwick 3165! ; Supa (Sedgwick 
and Bell 4880 !) ; Arbail Ghat (Sedgwick and Bell 5018 !) ; Sirsi (Gammie !) ; 
Kumwada (Talbot 2260!); Yellapore (Talbot 1527!); Kadra (Talbot!); 
Sumpkhund (Hallberg and McCann A30S !) ; Sirsi to Siddhapur (Hallberg 
*nd McCann A311 !) ; Devimani (Talbot !). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, Ceylon. 

Where this species is growing together with other species of Dimeria it can 
easily be recognized by its overtowering the others. 



Jour.,. Bom. Nat. Hist. Sot., Vol.. XXXII, No. I. [Awg. 1, 1927, 

4. Dimeria diandra, Stapf in Bhide, New and revised spec, of Gr&m. from 
Bombay Jour, and Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, new s. vii, (1911), 515.— Woedrowia 
diandra, Stapf in Hook. Ic. PI. (1896), t. 2447 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vit, 241 ; 
Cke. ii. 1012. 

Description : Cke. I.e. except for the number and; description ©f the glumes, 
this part of the diagnosis must read like this:. Glumes. 4: Lower invoSucral 
glume more or less dorsally hairy, with ciliolate margins ; upper involucral 
glume with a densely ciliate keel ; lower floral glume obovate-oblong, 
hyaline, nerveless ; upper floral glume 2-lobed, with a geniculate awn about 
12 mm. long from the sinus r column of awn 4 mm. long, spirally ciliate,. brown, 
the upper part of the awn yellow, longer than the column. 

Locality : Konkan : Vasco da Gama (Bhide !) ; Marmagoa (Talbot 2557 l}— 
Deccan : Khandala, open grass land (Saxton and Bhide !, McCann A317 !■).— 
5". M. Country: Castle Rock (Bhide!). — Kancsra : Kumberwada (Talbot 
2261 !) ; Kadra (Talbot 2822 !)) ; Devimani (Talbot 3547 I) ; Jog to Siddahapur, 
open grass land, rocky soil ^Hallberg and McCann A314 L) ; Mirjan (Hallberg 
and McCann A315 !). 

Distribution ; W. Peninsula. 

6. Ischjemum, Linn. (Cke. ii, 957) 

Species about 50. — All belonging to the Old World, except 3 found fn 
tropical America. 

Cooke, 1. c. describes 12 species. Of these Isehtemum angustif&Hum has 
to go under Pollinidium and 1 'serhcemum laxitm, sulcatum and sp-athiflorum 
under Schima. Instead 3 species new to the Presidency will be added to the 
genus Isck&mum, viz;. /. impressum r Hack., /. conjugatum t Roxb. and 
/. timorense, Kth. 
In Ischcemwm the racemes are geminate or digitate. 

A. Margins of lower involucral glume ©f sessile spikelet inflexed ©r incurved 
from base to apex. 
I.. Leaves rounded at the base (slightly cordate in /. molle), sessile ©u 
the sheath. 

1. Pedicel of upper spikelet less than 1/3 the length of the lower 


(a) Lower involucral glume of sessile spike- 
lets with nodulose margins 

{b) Lower involucral glume of sessile spike- 
lets closely transversely ribbed. ... 2. /„ rugosum. 

\c) Lower involucral glume of sessile spike- 
lets dorsally villous all over, not trans- 
versely ridged nor with nodulose 
margins ... ... ._, 3>. I. molle. 

2. Pedicel of upper spikelet 1/3 the length of 

the lower spikelet or more. 
{a} Upper involucral glume of sessile spike- 
lets 2-fid, 3-nerved ... .... 4. I. diplopogon. 

(3) Upper involucral glume of sessile spike- 
lets acuminate, 5-nerved ... .„ 5. I. pilosum. 

II. Leaves hastate or cordate at the base, often 
I. Pedicel of upper spikelet not l/3> of the 
lower spikelet. 

1. /. mristatum. 

/. semisagittalum. 
I. con/ugatum. 

. 8. /. impressum. 

(a) Leaves 7-5— 33 cm. long ..., 6,, 

\b) Leaves 25— 35cm. long ... .,. 7. 

2. Pedicel of upper spikelets as long as the 
lower spikelet, or longer 
B. Margins of lower involucral glume of sessile 
spikelets broadly incurved below the middle. 
I. Keel of upper involucral glume winged above 
the middte. 

1. Sessile spikelets 3 mm. long;, callus, large, 

glabrous ; awn 4 mm. long... ... 9. /. Lisbon. 

2. Sessile spikelets 5 mm. long ; callus short, 
bearded ; awn 12 mm. long 

... 10. 
II. Keel of upper involucral glume not winged. 11. 


Aug, 1, 1927. J Revision &{ the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 29 

1. Ischaemum aristatum, Linn. Sp. PL (1753), 1049; Cke. ii, 958; Ranag 
Achariyar, South Ind, Grass. (1921), 151. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

This grass is a very variable one, so variable, indeed , that it is almost 
impossible to distinguish good varieties, in spite of Hackel's and Hook, f.'s 

Locality: Khandesh: W. Khandesh (Blatter ^.—Konkan : Bassein 
(McCann 4474 I) ; Sion Bombay (MeCann 5233 !) ; Bhandup (McCann b899 !) ; 
Parsik, railway line (McCann 9901 !) ; Matunga near Bombay (Woodrow 4). 
peccan : Khandala, on rocks (McCann 9908 !): Lohagad, half way up 
(McCann 9906 !) ; Deolali (Blatter and H all berg 4554 !) ; lgatpuii (Blatter 
and Hallberg 5169 !) ; Mahableshwar (Talbot 4534 !) ; Lonavla (Garade !) ; 
Panchgani (B.atter and Hallberg B1216 !) ; Pasarni Ghat (Blatter and Hall- 
berg B1307 !).-5. M. Country : Devarayi (Sedgwick and Bell 4456 !) ; Castle 
Rock (Bhide !) ; Belgauro (Ritchie 812/2). 

Distribution : India (also on higher hills), Ceylon, China, Malaya. 

2. Ischaemum rugosum, Salisb. Ic. Stirp. Rar. (1791), 1, t. 1 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind, 
I, 320 ; Hack, Monogr. Androp. 206 ; Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 18, and Fodd, 
Grass. N. Ind. 31 ; F. B. I. VII, 127 ; Cke. ii, 959 ; Ran ga Achariyar, South 
Ind. Grass. (1921), 153 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa pt. V (1925), 1021, 

Locality ; Konkan : Bombay Island (Blatter!) ; Kankeshwar Hills, Alibag 
(Bhide!); Bassein (McCann 4479 \).—Deccan : Khandala, common, Echo- 
Point in a dry pool (McCann 9903!) ; Igatpuri, common (McCann 4348!) I 
Poona (Woodrow),— Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2140 t)„ 

Distribution : India, Ceyion, China, Malaya. 

3. Ischaemum molle, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii (1896), 128 ; Cke ii, 959. 
Locality : Konkan : Sion creek (Sabnis 9900 !) .—Deccan : Lonavla (Bhide ! 

Woodrow), Igatpuri (McCann 9543 !); Khandala, railway line (MeCann 9944!), 
Distribution : W, Peninsula, Central Provinces. 

4. Ischaemum dfplopogon, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii (1896), 129 ; Cke, ii, 960. 

Locality : Konknn : Matheran (Woodrow),— Deccan ; Mahableshwar (Wood- 
row 4) : Mahableshwar, wet rocks in a stream (Sedgwick and Bell 4595!] ; 
Amberwadi, Nasik District (Patwardhan !) ; Sakar Pathar, Lonavla (Gammie 
15963 !) ; Khandala (McCann ») ; Bhorkas near Poona (Woodrow 3 !>, 

Distribution : W. Peninsula. 

5. Ischaemum piiosum. Hack. Monogr. Androp, 240; Duthie Fodd. Grass 
N.India 31 ; Cke. ii, 961. 

Fern. Names: Khavo (Broach), Kunda (Poona), Nuth, Kanigyanhullu 

Locality: Gujarat: Surat, roadside (Sedgwick \).— Khandesh : (Lisboa) ; 
Amalner (Blatter and Hallberg 4397!). — Deccan. Ganeshkhind Bot. Gard, 
Kirkee (Gammie ',) ; Mangri, 8 miles E. of Poona (Herb. Econ. Bot, 
Poona !) ; Yerowda (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; Chattarshinji Hill, Poona 
(Ezekiel !) ; Kirkee (Talbot !) ; Poona (Bhide !) ; Sholapur (Lisboa) ; Satara 
(Lisboa).— 5. M. Country: KunemeMhalli (Sedgwick 2138!); Dharwar 
(Sedgwick and Bell 5341 !) ; black soil field, Haveri (Talbot 2185 I) ; Gadag 
(Talbot 2185 !) ; black soil field, 7 miles S. of Hubli (Sedgwick 5341 !>. 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, Central Provinces, Rajputana. 

6. Ischaemum semi sagit tat urn, Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814), 8; Hack. Monogr, 
Androp. 208; Cke. ii. 961. 

Locality: Khandesh: W. Khandesh (McCann!). — Konkan: Kenery Caves 
(McCann 9,914 !) ; Sion, Bombay (McCann 5,251 I) ; Bassein ? McCann 4482 !> • 
Sewri, Bombay (McCann 3586 !; ; Marmagoa (Talbot 2560 !) ; Parel, Bombay 
(Woodrow) ; Thana (Lisboa).— Deccan : Mahableshwar, in forests (Sedgwick 
and Bell 4802 !) ; Lonavla (Bhide ! Woodrow) ; Khandala, very common 
(McCann 9613 !) ; Igatpuri, very common (McCann 4319 5) ; Satara (Lisboa).— 
5. M. Country : Castle Rock (Bhide !); Dudsagar Falls (McCann I).— Kanara: 
Anmod (Sedgwick 3273!) ; Supa (Talbot 2092 !) ; Jugglepet (Talbot 2089 !) ; 
Yellapur (Talbot, 738). A very common grass growing usually in the shade of 
trees. It is common throughout the S. part of the Presidency, 


21 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 1. [Aug.' I, 1927. 

Distribution : Bengal, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. 

Var. dasyantha, Hack. Monogr. Androp. (1889). 209 ; Cke. ii, 962 

Locality ; Konk an (Stocks ex. Cke.).— Kanara (Woodrovv!) 

7. Ischaemum conjugatum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 321 (not of Roxb. Hort. Beng. 
(1894), 8); Hack. Monogr Androp. 205; F.B.I, vii, 131. Spodiopogon 
conjugatus, Voigt. Hort. Suburb. Calc. 706 —Andropogon cordatifolius , Steud. 
Syn. Gram. 375. 

Description : An annual. Stem spreading from the root and creeping, then 
geniculately ascending, 30-35 cm. high, slender, stiff, purplish, repeatedly 
branching upwards. Leaves short, 25-35 mm. long, base hastate or broadly, 
deeply cordate, acuminate, broadest at the base, rather rigid, striate, lower 
petioled ; sheath of the upper ventricose and often open ; liguie short, glabrous. 
Spikes 2, short, 25-35 mm. long, sessile, villous ; joints very short, quadrately 
clavate, plano-convex, ciliate. Sessile spikelets 3 mm. long, pale. Glumes 4. 
Lower involucral glume oblong, obtuse, flat, 2-toothed, villous from below or 
above the middle to nearly the top, margins narrowly inflexed, not winged, 
upper half often greener, even or lower margins obscurely nodose. Upper 
involucral glume lanceolate, acuminate, strongly keeled, puberulous. Lower 
floral glume paleate. Upper floral glume cleft to about the middle, awn dors- 
ally inserted at or below the cleft, slender, about twice as long as the spikelet. 
Pedicel led spikelets subsessile, almost awnless. Lower involucral glume as 
in the sessile. 

Locality : Konkan : Okda Forest (Ryan, 712 !). Deccan : Mahableshwar to 
Pratabgad (Bhide !) ; Khandala (Garade !) ; College Farm, Poona (Pawar !).— 
Kanara : Gersoppa Falls (Chibber !). 

Distribution : Bengal, W. Peninsula, naturalized in Ceylon. 

8- Ischsemum impressum, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 210 ; F.B.I, vii, 132. 

Stem 10-20 cm. high, slender, prostrate below, branching upwards, quite 
glabrous. Leaves 5-8 cm. long, upper 18 mm. broad, ovate or oblong-lanceo- 
late, cordate, lower narrower, petioled, sparsely hairy beneath, margin 
thickened, scaberulous, sometimes crenulate ; sheath compressed, glabrous ; 
liguie oblong. Spikes 2, yellow ; joints and pedicels stout, clavate, ciliate with 
rigid hairs, forked at the top. Sessile spikelets 6-8 mm. long, shining ; callus 
short, broad, bearded. Lower involucral glume linear-oblong, flat, dorsally 
broadly irregularly depressed with shallow subsemilunar pits in the lower 2/3, 
above it winged and 2-cuspidate, narrowed and margins subnodulose at the 
base, wings erose. Upper involucral glume obtuse, chartaceous, ciliate, 
dorsally rounded with a median gibbosity and an auricle-like wing above it. 
Lower floral glume oblong-lanceolate, hyaline, 3-nerved, ciliate. Upper floral 
glume much shorter, glabrous, cleft to above the middle, awn short, genicu- 
lately inserted at the cleft. Pedicelled spikelets smaller than the sessile. 
Lower involucral glume obtuse, glabrous, many-nerved, winged on one margin. 
Upper involucral glume 7-nerved. Upper floral glume mucronate. 

Locality : Deccan : Mahableshwar (Sedgwick and Bell, 4514 !); Panchgani, 
Tableland (Blatter, 5083 !. B1221 !, B1285!); Igatpuii (Blatter'); Khandala, 
Echo-Point (McCann 9943 !) ; Lonavla (Bhide !). 

Distribution : We have found this species only in the W. Ghats. Hooker f. 
mentions the Konkan, but with a sign of interrogation. As we have never met 
it in the Konkan, it is not likely to occur in that region. Where Huegel's 
specimen comes from we cannot say, and will in all probability never be known.. 
We think it is quite safe to say that /. impressum is endemic in the W. Ghats 
of the Bombay Presidency. 

9. Ischasmum Lisboae, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, (1896), 133 ; Cke. ii, 962. 
Locality: Kanara: N. Kanara (Lisboa) ; Karwar (Talbot 2209 !, McCann! )„ 

A rare grass, apparently endemic in N. Kanara. 

10. Ischaemum ciliare, Retz. Obs. 6 (1791), 36 ; Hack. Monogr. Androp. 225 ; 
Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. India. 30 ; Cke. ii, 962. /. geniculatum, Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. 1,322. S.obliquivalvis, Nees in Nov. Act. Cur. XIX, Suppl. 1(1843), 
185 ; Duthie Grass. M. W. Ind. 16. 

Locality: Konkan: Bassein (Ryan 445!); St. Xavier's College Comp., 
Bombay (McCann 4594!); Parel, Bombay (Woodrow) ; Compoli (McCann 


Aug. 1, 1917. J Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 

9-115!); Alibag, sandy shore (Ezekiel !) ; Uran (McCaan 5126!); Salsette 
(Jacquemont710) .— Deccan: Khandala, very common (McCann 9612 !); Ganesh- 
khind Bot. Gard, (Herb. Econ. Rot. Poona!); Igatpuri (Blatter and Hall. 
3927A!).— S. M. Country: Mngad, hill-side (Sedgwick 1823!); Castle Rock 
(Bhide!).— N. Kanara : Yellapore (Talbot 1526!); Halyal, borders of rice 
fields (Talbot 2141!)! Ankola ^Mamlatdar of Ankola!) ; Karwar, sea coast, 
sandy soil near Gaol (Talbot 2821 !) ; Gersoppa Falls (McCann !) ; Common 
throughout Kanara (McCann !) ; Kakti (Woodrow). 
Distribution : India, Ceylon, China, Malaya, Australia. 

11. Ischaemum timorense, Kunth Revis. Gram, i, 369, t. 98 ; Hack. Monogr. 
Androp. 229 ; F. B. I. vii, 136 : -7. tenellum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 323. 

Stem 15-45 cm. high, slender, branched, straggling, nodes glabrous, or 
sparingly bearded. Leaves 2-5-10 cm. long, sessile and petioled, linear- 
lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous or sparsely hairy, base of upper rounded. 
of lower rounded ; sheath lax, mouth hairy ; ligule obscure. Spikes 2-3, 
25-50 mm. long, rather slender, sparingly villous; joints and pedicels about 
half as long as the spikelets, nearly equal, shortly ciliate. Sessile spike- 
lets 2*5-3 mm. long, greenish or with green nerves ; callus narrow, long- 
bearded. Lower involucral glume ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 
bicuspidate, 5-9-nerved, base ventricose, margins broadly involute below, 
subauricled, dorsally convex, polished, nerves strong. Upper involucral bracts 
longer, acuminate or aristulate, dorsally rounded, recurved, 3-5-nerved, tip 
2-toothed, dorsally usually ciliate. Lower floral glume lanceolate, falcate, 
palea linear-oblong. Upper floral glume shore, 2-lobed, glabrous, awn in the 
cleft very slender, shortly exserted. Pedicelled spikelets like the sessile 

Locality: Sind: Sukkur (Mamlatdar of Sukkur !).— Deccan: Mahableshwar, 
common (Sedgwick and Bell 4503!) ; Lonavla (Bbide!) ; Khandala, behind 
the Saddle (McCann 9915!).— 5. M. Country: Deciduous forests W. of 
Dharwar (Sedgwick and Bell 4500!) ; Devikop (Sedgwick 2170!) ; S. W. of 
Dharwar (Sedgwick and Bell 4429!); Londa (Bhide !). —Kanara : Suppa 
(Talbot 2101 !) ; Yellapore (Talbot 2327 !) ; Dandeli (Talbot 2494 !). 

Distribution : Burma, Chittagong, Bsngal, Central Provinces, Sind, W. 
Peninsula, Ceylon, Malaya, Pacific Islands. 

7. Thelepogon, Roth. (Cke. ii, 971). 

Species 1. — India and tropical Africa.. 

1. Thelepogon elegans, Roth, ex Roem. and Schult. Syst. ii, 788; Nov. 
PL Sp. 62; Hack. Monogr. Androp. 267; F. B. I. vii, 148; Cke. ii, 671.— 
Andropogon princeps, A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 470, t. 102 — Rhiniachne 
princeps, Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 360. — Jardinea abyssinica, 
Steud. I.e.— Rhytachne princeps, Durand and Schinz. Consp. Fl. Afr. v, 700. 

Vern. Names: Bodga (Kairaj, Bhatad (Thana), Bangadi (Poona), Pharoda 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Gujarat : Ahmedabad (Sedgwick !) ; Kaira (ex Burns).— Konkan: 
Matheran (D' Almeida A257 !) ; Thana (ex Burns).— Deccan : Najar to Pasur 
Rd. (Paranjpe!); Lina Hill, Nasik District (Blatter and Hallberg A79!, 
4544!); Katraj Ghat (Gammie!); Bairawadi, Purandhar (McCann 5053!); 
Panchgani (Blatter and Hall. B1267 !) ; Poona (Woodrow) ; Hewra (Dalzell) ; 
near Nasik (Edgeworth) ; Ahmednagar (ex Burns).— 5. M. Country : Dharwar 
(Sedgwick 1824 !) ; Alnawar (Talbot 2303 !) ; Belgaum (Ritchie 812).— Kanara : 
Halyal (Talbot 2094 !, 2142 !). 

Distribution : Central India, W. Peninsula, Tropical Africa. 

Uses : Eaten by horses, although very bitter (Dalzell). 

8. Sehima, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt. 
Arab. 178 ; Stapf . in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 35. 

Annual or perennial grasses. Blades convolute when young, at length 
flat, narrow ; ligules a line of stiff hairs. Racemes usually gently curved, 
dorsiventrally and laterally compressed, with the pedicelled spikelets converg- 
ing over the convex side, joints and pedicels sublinear and parallel. Sessile 
and pedicelled spikelets heteromorphous, Spikelets 2-nate, those of each pair 


23 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Sac., Vol. XXXI! , No. 7. [Aug. 1, 1927. 

"differing in sex, one sessile, the other pedicelled on the articulate fragile 
rhachis of solitary spike-like racemes, the pedicelled tardily separating from 
their pedicels, the sessile deciduous together with the adjacent joint of the 
rhachis and the pedicel. Fiorets 2 ; lower male, upper bisexual in the sessile, 
male or neuter in the pedicelled spikelets. Sessile spikelets : glumes equal 
•or subequal ; lower grooved, rarely flat, 2-dentate or 2-mucronate, more or 
less chartaceous, upwards acutely 2-keeled with inflexed margins, keels winged ; 
upper glume boat-shaped, keeled upwards with a bristle-like awn. Valves 
hyaline, of lower floret entire, muticous, of upper 2-fid and awned from the 
sinus. Valvules more or less equalliag their valves, hyaline. Lodicules 2, 
♦cuneate. Stamens 3. Stigmas linear-oblong, laterally exserted. Grain oblong, 
obtusely trigonous; embryo reaching to the middle of the grain. Pedicelled 
spikelets flat, with 2 florets resembling the lower floret of the sessile spikelets, 
the lower or both more or less reduced and barren. 
Species about 5.— India, Tropica! Africa, N. America. 

A. Racemes enclosed in long narrow spathes ... 1. 5. sPatkifhrum. 

B. Racemes not enclosed in spathes— 

I. Sessile spikelets 6-7 mm. long. Lower in- 

volucral glume of sessile spikelet 6-nerved ... 2, S. nervosum. 
II, Sessile spikelets 7-11 mm long. Lower in- 

volucral glume of sessile spikelet 3-5-nerved „. 3, 5. ischcemoidfs . 
III. Sessile spikelet 9 mm. long. Lower involucral 

glume of sessile spikelet 2-nerved... ... 4. S. sulcatum. 

1. Sehima spathiflorum, nov, comb. Blatter and McCann.— lstchczmmn sfrathi- 
florum, Hook. f. in F. B, I., vii (1896), 138 ; Cke. ii, 963. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Khandesh ,■ Toranmal (McCann 9922 \).—Konkan ? Penn (Bhide !) ; 
Matheran (Paranjpe !) ; Bassein (Ryan 2300 !) ; Kenery Caves (McCann 9920 !) ; 
Island of Salsette in hilly stony places (Jacquemont 797).—Deccans Lonavla 
(fBhide!) ; Khandala (Woodrow) ; Khandala, in watercourses, verv common 
(McCann 9928 !) ; Palasdari on the Bhor Ghat, G. I. P. Railway (Woodrow) ; 
Lohagad, plain (McCann 9919!); Bairawadi, Purandhar (McCann 5054!); 
Igatpuri (Blatter and Hallberg 3836 !, McCann !). 

Dislribulion : Endemic. 

2. Sehima nervosum, Stapf. in Fl. Trop. Afr. IX, 36 ; Haines pt. v, 1023.— 
5". m. zeros tachyum, Hochst. in Schimp. PL Abvss. n. 1705.— Andropogon 
nervosus, Rottl. apud Willd in Verb. Naturf. Fr. Berlin, iv ^1803), 218.— 
Andropogon striatus, Klein apud Willd. Sp. PI. iv. (1805), 903 ; R. Br. Prodr. 
201.— A. tacazensis, Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 369.-/4. macrostachys, Anders, 
m Schweinf, Beitr. Fl. Aeth. 306 {per errorem 310) .— Ischce mum l<axum, R. 
Br. Prodr. 205; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 136, partim ; Cke. ii, 964, pariim.— 
IschcBmumlaxumM^x. genuinmem^ Hack, in Monogr. Androp. 245. — IschcEmum 
nervosum^ Thw. Enura. PL Zeyl. 2>ti$.—Is€hcemum macrostachyum, A. Rich. 
Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 472. —Pollinia striata, Spreng. Pug. ii, Yl.—Hologamium 
nervosum., Nees in Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. xviii, 185, 

Description : A perennial, densely tufted grass. Stems erect, 60 cm. to 1 m. 
high, on a short rootstock, simple or nearly so, plender, terete, about 4-noded, 
middle and upper internodes exserted, smooth or slightly rough below the 
inflorescence, glabrous. Leaves 15-30 cm. and longer, 2-4 mm. broad, erect, 
linear, narrowed into long capillary tips, flat, smooth, striate, glaucous, more or 
less scabrid, lateral nerves about 3 on each side, like the midrib whitish and 
prominent on both sides ; sheaths shorter than the internodes, tight, terete, 
striate, smooth or nearly so, glabrous or sparingly hirsute from tubercle- based 
hairs ; ligule a line of short stiff hairs. Racemes solitary, 5-10 cm. long, erect, 
slightly curved, pale, fragile ; joints and pedicels parallel, sublinear, slightly 
compressed, 3-4\5 mm. long, densely ciliate with white hairs along the angles, 
otherwise glabrous, tips more or less oblique. Sessile spikelets lanceolate-linear 
to linear, acuminate, 6-25-7 mm. long, pale green, with a shortly bearded 
callus. Glumes subequal: lower subchartaceous to chartaceous, with an 
unequally 2-toothed, flat and membranous beak, the teeth of which sometimes 
run out into ciliate mucros, deeply grooved, especially below the middle, 
acutely 2-kee!ed, outer keel generally winged upwards, intracarinal nerves 4, 
with transverse veins in the upper part, like these green and raised on a white 


Aug. 1, 1927.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 24 

•ground ; upper glume subehartaceous, slightly shorter, boat-shaped, sublinear 
|n profile, keeled above, with the keel widened at the apex and passing into a 
fine bristle 11—12*5 mm. long. 5-nerved with fine transverse veins, ciliate. 
Lower floret : valve faintly 2- nerved, Iryaline, ciliate, 4 - 5 mm. long, with a 
narrow, linear valvule of about equal length and a male flower. Upper floret 
bisexual : valve oblong-lanceolate, 4 mm. long, 2-fid, with narrow lobes, 
hyaline, 3-nerved, ciliate; awn up to 43 mm. long slender, column spirally 
twisted, bronze colour, very minutely ciliate along the spiral, bristle whitish, 
as long as the column or slightly longer ; valvule as long as the valve, linear, 
subacute, 2-nerved, ciliate. Anthers 3 mm. long. Styles and stigmas pale, 
2 mm. long. Pedicelled spikelet lanceolate, acuminate, green or tinged with 
purple, 7-8*5 mm. long, glabrous ; lower glume slightly 2-toothed, long-ciliate 
from the hairs of the tightly inflexed margin, keels very narrowly or obscurely 
winged, wing rigidly ciliate, intracarinal nerves 5, the inner 3 very prominent 
and rough ; upper glume lanceolate, longand finely acuminate, hyaline, ciliate, 
3-nerved ; lower floret as in the sessile spikelet ; upper floret very much like the 
lower. Stamens smaller in the lower floret or both florets reduced and empty. 

Locality: Gujarat: Porbandar ('Bhide!); Junagad, Kathiawar (Blatter 
3799 !) ; Surat, city walls (Herb. St. X~. C. 9498 !) ; Ahmedabad (Sedgwick !).— 
Khandesh: (Lisboa) ; Umalla village, on Tapti river (Blatter and Hallberg 
.5160!); Toranmal, common on the slopes (McCann 9916 !).— Dcccan : 
Purandhar Fort (Bhide !, McCann 5106 !) ; Khandala, St. X. Villa compound 
(McCann 9419!) ; Deolali (Blatter and Hallberg 4548 !) ; Lonavla (Bhide!) ; 
Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg B1269!) ; Poona (Woodrow); Poona to 
Karli (Jacquemont 530).— S. M. Country : Dharwar (Bhide !) ; Haveri (Talbot 

Distribution : Bengal, Behar, Central Provinces, Rajputana, W. Peninsula, 
Ceyloi), Tropical Australia, vSomaliland, Abyssinia, Eritrea. Cape deVerd Islands. 

Uses : Used for thatching in Khandesh ( Lisboa) . Considered to be one of the 
•best fodder grasses and is eaten by cattle even after the fall of the spikes( Haines) . 

3, Sehima ischsemoides, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.— Arab. 178; Stapf in Fl. Trop. 
Afr. IX, 37 .—Sehima Koischyi, Hochst. in Flora (1844), 247 '. — Ischcemum 
Sehima, R. Br. Prodr. I, 204.—- Ischcemum inscalptum, Hcchst. in Schimp. PL 
Abyss, n. 739 and Flora (1844), 247; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. 11,472.— 
Andropogon Sehima, Steud. Syn PI. Glum. 1, 369. — Andropogon lineatus, 
Steud. I.e. — Andropogon schaugulensis, Rupr. ex, Steud. I.e. — Andropogon 
inscalptus, Anders, in Schweinf. Beitr. FL Aeth. 306 {per errorem 310). — 
Ischczmum laxum, R. Br. Prodr. (1810), 205; Hook. f. in F.B.I. , VII, 136, 
partim. — Ischcemum laxum var. inscalptum, Hack, in Monogr. Androp. 245. — 
Andropogon rhynchophorus, Stapf in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. LV (1908) Mem. VIIL 

An annual herb. Stems usually in small fascicles, rarely over 45 cm. high, 
slender., terete, simple, 2- or 3 noded, middle and upper internodes slightly 
exserted, smooth, glabrous. Leaves glaucous, linear, tapering to a long fine 
point, up to 13 cm. long, L5-3'l mm. broad, more or less scabrid, midrib fine 
like the 1 or 2 primary lateral nerves. Racemes solitary, or sometimes an 
additional 1 or 2 from the upper nodes, 2'5-7'5 cm. long, erect, or slightly 
■nodding ; joints and pedicels parallel, sublinear, slightly compressed, 3*1 mm. 
long, very densely ciliate from white hairs along the angles, otherwise glabrous, 
tips more or less oblique. Sessile spikelets linear 7-11 mm. long, pale green, 
with a shortly bearded callus ; lower glume subehartaceous to chartaceous, 
with an unequally 2 toothed flat and membranous long beak, the teeth of 
which run out into mucros, deeply grooved, especially below the middle, 
acutely 2-keeled, the outer keel generally winged upwards, intracarinal nerves 
3-5, raised, rough, only distinct just above the groove ; upper glume and florets 
as in Sehima nervosum, excepting the bristle of the glume which is over 
15'5 mm. long and the awn, the column of which is generally more brown than 
bronze in colour and has much longer cilia along the spirals. Pedicelled 
spikelets narrowly lanceolate, long- acuminate, pale green, up to 12 - 5 mm. 
long, glabrous ; lower glume with two long setaceous teeth, sparingly 
hairy on the back, otherwise the spikelet as in Sehima nervosum. 

Locality : Deccan (Woodrow 147, Law, ex. Stapf.) 

Distribution : Tropical Arabia, Yemen, Abyssinia, Sudan, Kordofan, Nubia, 
Cameroons, Cape de Verd Islands- 

4 [11] 

25 Jour.., Bom. Not, Hist, Soc, Vol, XXXII, No. I, [Aug. I, 1927. 

4. Sebima sulcatum, comb. nov. Blatter and McCann. — Ischcemum sulcatum, 
Hack, in Monogr. Androp. 248-; Hook. f. in F.B.I. , vii, 137 ; Cke. ii, 964. 

Description : See Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Deccan : Satara (Lisboa) ; Malsiras, Sholapur Taluk a (Lisboa).— 
5. M. Country : Black soil banks 35 miles S. of Dharwar (Sedgwick 3745 !) ; 
banks of black soil fields 7 miles S. of Hubli (Sedgwick and Bell 53421); 
Dharwar. common (Sedgwick 1819 !, McCann !). 

Distribution : Central 1 Provinces, W. Peninsula. 

9. PoLLiNirauM, Stapf. 

As far as we can make out the diagnosis of this genus was published for the 
first time in Haines' Botany of Bihar and Orissa, pt. 5 (1924), 1020. 

Densely tufted, perennial herbs with woolly rootstock and basal sheaths. 
Leaves convolute when old, wiry, mouth of sheaths ciliate. Spikes digitate or 
fascicled, fascicles with filiform peduncles on a more or less branched panicle. 
Spikelets 2-nate, sessile and pedicelled, similar, on the articulate, fragile, 
compressed, not stout rhaehis. Callus densely clothed with long brown hairs. 
Glumes 4 : Lower involucral glume flattened, 2-3-dentate, dorsally hairy at 
base, 5-7-nerved, margins inflexed ; upper involucral glume cymbiform, 
minutely cuspidate, 3-5-nerved, with a slender awn. Lower floral glume 
hyaline, sparsely ciliate, elliptic, palea finely ciliate ; upper floral glume narrow, 
conduplicate, entire or 2-toothed shortly awned from the tip or minute sinus, 
palea broad and nearly as long as the glume, densely ciliate on the top. 

1. PoUinidium angustifolium, Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa, pt. 5 (1924), 1020. — 
Ischcemum angtistifolium, Hack in Monogr. Androp. 241; Hook. f. in F B.I. 
vii, 129 ; Cke. ii, 960,— Spodiopogon angustifolius, Trim in Mem. Acad. 
Petersb., ser. VI, ii (1833),. 300; Spec. Gram. lc. t. 336.— Pollinia eriopoda, 
Hance in Journ. Bot. iv (1866), 173.- Andropogon binatus. Retz. Obs, vi, 21. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Gujarat : Rajkot (Woodrow) . — Konkan : Victoria Gardens, Bombay 
(McCann 4302 ! ) . — Deccan : College Garden, Poona (Grade!); cultivated at 
Poona (Woodrow). 

Distribution : Afghanistan, India, China, Philippines. 

Uses : In Bihar and Orissa the Sabai grass is used for strings, ropes and 
mats (the Baib matting of Calcutta) and is very largely employed for paper- 
making. Fires improve the crop by removing shade. It is easity grown by 
division of the rootstock or from seed. From seed it yields a crop in about 
three years. Cattle do not eat it (Haines). For Bombay see Cke. I.e. 

10. Apocopis, Nees. (Cke. ii, 967) 

1. Apocopis vaginatus, Hack, in Oestr. Bot. Zeitschr. 41 (1891), 8 ; Cke. ii, 
967.— A. Wightii, Nees, var. vaginata, Hook. f. in F.B.L, vii, 143. 

Description : Cke I.e. 

Locality: Gujarat: Ahmed a bad, field (Sedgwick \).— Konkan : Kalyan 
(Woodrow).— .S". M. Country : Forests W. of Dharwar (Sedgwick \)—Kanara : 
Halyal (Talbot 2379 !) ; N. Kanara (Woodrow). 

Distrib?dion : Bihar, Central India, Deccan and W. Peninsula, Burma, 

11. Lophopogon, Hack. 

I. Lophopogon tridentatus, Hack, in Engl, and Prantl. Nat. Pflanzenf. ii, pt. 
ii (1887), 22, 56, Monogr. Androp. 254, t. i. f. 14 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 149 ; 
Cke. ii, 966.— Andropogon tridentatus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 257 .—Saccharum 
tridentatum, Spreng. Syst. i, 283. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Khandesh : Tapti, Bhusawal (Blatter and Hallberg 5457 f). 
—Deccan : Agricultural College compound, Kirkee (Bhide !) : Bapodi near 
Poona (Gammie 15315 F) ;. Bowadhar near Poona (Garade !)> ; Rahuri (Nana 
A80!); Igatpuri (McCann 4572!'); Chattarshinji Hill, Poona (Ezekiel!); 
Deolali (Blatter 9620!, 9610!); Jeur, Sholapur Dist. (Woodrow !).— 5. M . 
Country: Dharwar, on dry gravelly uplands 2,400 ft., rain 34 inches 
(Sedgwick 3010!). 

Distribution • Central Provinces, W. Peninsula. 


Aug. 1, 1927.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 26 

12. Apluda, Linn. (Cke. ii, 956) 

1. Apltsda varia, Hack, in Monogr. Androp. 196, var. aristata, Hack. 
1. c. 199 ; Hook. f, in F.B.I,, vii, 150 ; Cke, ii, 956, comprekendens etiam alias 
varhiates ; Stapf. in Fl. Trop. Afr. is, 40 ; Haines pt. v, 1057 .—Apluda aris- 
tata, Linn. Oent. ii, 71 ; Schreber Beschr. d. Gr. 93, t. 42 ; Beauv. Agrost 133 ; 
Duthie Fodd. Grass, of N. Ind. 44, t. 29.— Apluda G?yllus, Beauv. Agrost. 
Explie. planches, 15, t. 25, fig. 5 (6 per •erroreni) . 

As our Bombay specimens must be referred to the var. aristata and as 
Cooke's description comprises also other varieties we give in the following Stapf 's 
diagnosis of the variety aristata. This must not prevent botanists from 
paying attention to the possible occurrence of other varieties in the Presidency, 

Description : Mostly annual, blanched from the base. Stems densely 
tufted, erect, 30-180 cm. high, or g-enicu lately ascending and "often rooting 
from the nodes, many-noded, terete, smooth and polished. Leaves 10-45 cm, 
by 4-15 mm., linear-lanceolate, long-attenuated towards the base, almost 
petioled, tapering upwards to a fine setaceous point, convolute in bud, then 
flat, somewhat rigid or flaccid, glaucous below, glabrous or very rarely 
sparingly hairy, slightly rough above, scabrid along the margins, midrib white 
above, stouter towards the base, primary lateral nerves, 5-8 on each side, fine ; 
sheaths terete, tight and glabrous or very rarely sparingly hairy, those sup- 
porting the flowering branches wider and shorter with reduced blades ; 
ligules short, rounded off, glabrous or ciliate. Panicle upto 60 cm. long, much 
compound, primary branches long, those of the following orders gradually 
shorter, bearing clusters of trios of spikelets \ spathe at the base of the trios 
ovate to ovate-oblong, mucronate or bearing rudimentary blades, glabrous, 
green ot tinged with purple, 4-4*5 mm. long ; bulbous basal joint up to 1*5 mm, 
long, whitish. Sessile spikelets lanceolate-oblong, acute, up to 4*5 mm. long. 
Lower involucral glume chartaceous, firmer below, many-nerved ; upper 
involucral glume somewhat gibbous on the back, scaberulous on the keel. 
Lower floret : Valve oblong-lanceolate, acute, slightly shorter than the glumes, 
3-nerved, glabrous ; valvule linear-lanceolate, almost as long as the valve, 
2-nerved. Upper floret : valve 3*1 mm. long, 2-fid to beyond the middle, awn 
up to 9" 3 mm. long, very fine, with or without a distinct twisted column ; 
valvule generally much shorter, oblong or broad-ovate, nerveless. Antheis 
2*3-3* 1 mm, long. Stigmas purple, up to 4*5 mm. long. Grain about 1 mm. 
long, Pedicels 2*3-3*1 mm. long, sparingly ciliate. Lateral pedicelled spike- 
let 4-5 mm. long. Glumes similar, subherbaceous, lanceolate, acute, many- 
nerved ; lower glume rather flat on the back, upper not or obscurely keeled 
and not gibbous. Florets as in the sessile spikelet but the upper not awned, 
both are male more or less reduced. Terminal spikelet reduced to a short 
striate glume, continuing the pedicel. 

Locality: Gujarat: Broach (Chibber !); Nadiad Farm (Herb. Econ. Bot. 
Poona !) ; Surat (Gammie 16467 !, Cooke) ; Karu Roa, Cutch (Blatter 3776 !) ; 
Kala Pacham Island (Blatter 3735 !) ; Garvi Dangs (Sedgwick !) ; Ahmedabad 
(Cooke).— Khan desk: Muravat, Tapti bank (Blatter and^ Ha) 1 berg 4434 ,') ; N. 
slope of Chanseli Hill (McCann A83 1) ; Toranmal (McCann A84 J) ; Munmad, 
Ankai Hill (Blatter A146 !).— Konkan : Dhapli forest (Roan!); extremely 
common throughout the islands of Bombay and Salsette (McCann !) ; Bassein 
(McCann 4480'); Alibag. margin of water-works ( Ezekiel !) . — Deocan : 
Purandhar (McCann 5008 !, Bhide !) ; Khandala, very common (McCann 5294 !) ; 
Diva Ghat(McCann A86!); Sholapur (D'Almeida A87!); Igatpuri, very 
common '(McCann 4325 !, 4324 !); Panchgani (Blatter 53-85!, Bhide!, Blatter 
and Hallberg B1322!).— S. M. Country: Dharwar (Sedgwick and Bell 4489, 
2400 ft., rain 34 inches ; Londa (Gammie 158511); Belgaum (Ritchie 824).— 
Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2495!); Juggleput (Talbot!); Kawarwad ^Talbot 

Distribution: Socotra, India. Ceylon, E. Tropical Asia, Malaya, Australia, 
Pacific Islands. 

Uses : A fairly good fodder grass, and readily eaten by cattle when young 

13. Hemarthria, R. Br. (Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 54) 

Decumbent or ascending perennial grasses with branched, many-noded stems. 
Leaves linear, conduplicate in bud, then flat. Ligules very short, membranous. 


27 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc , Vol. XXXII, No. 1. [Aug. 1, 1927. 

Racemes compressed, often curved, tips more on ess subulate from the slender 
terminal spikelet ; rhachis not or tardily breaking up. Spikelets pseudo-opposite 
owing to the fusion of joints and pedicels, each pair made up of a sessile 
(secondary) spikelet and the pedicelled companion of the sessile spikelet of tie 
next lower node. Spikelets two-nate on the tough or tardily disarticulating 
rhachis of spike-like, spathe-supported racemes which terminate the culms and 
their often fascicled branches, alike in sex and shape, or at least similar ; joints 
and pedicels fused into roughly sernicvlindrie internodes r hollowed out on the 
inner face for the reception of the sessile spikelet ; disarticulation at a right 
angle to the rhachis or slightly oblique, tips of joints truncate, not hollowed out 
orappendaged. Sessile spikelet : Florets 2, lower reduced to a barren valve, 
upper bisexual,, awnless. Glumes equal or subequal, lower flat on the back, 
2-keeled, very narrowly inflexed along the margins, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, 
closing up the cavity formed by the adjacent joint and pedicel, upper 
membranous, adhering to the inner face of the cavity. Valves hyaline,, of lower 
floret 2-nerved, of upper usually nerveless. Valvule of upper floret hyaline, 
small, nerveless. Lodicules 2, cuneate. Stamens 3. Stigmas laterally exserted. 
Grain oblong, dorsally slightly compressed ; embryo about ^ the length of the 
grain : hilum conspicuous, punctiform, subbasal. Pedicelled spikelet with more 
elongated acuminate glumes, especially the terminal, the upper glume 
mucronate or aristate. 

Species about 8. Throughout the warm countries- of the Old World, 1 also 
in America, but probably introduced. 

1. Hemarthria glabra, comb. nov. Blatter and McCann. Rottboellia 
glabra, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey i, 353. Hemarthria coromandelina, Steud. 
Syn. i, 353. Rottboelia compressa, Linn. f. Suppl. 114, var. genuina, Hack. 
Monogr. Androp. 286; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 153. Rottboellia compressa, 
Linn. f. Suppl. 114, partim ; Cke. ii, 952, partim. Hemarthria compressa T 
Kunth Enum. i, 465, partim. 

A word of explanation is required regarding the new name. Haines in his 
Botany of Bihar and Orissa, pt. VI (1924), 1061, mentions a species under the 
name of Hemarthria compressa, R. Br. and gives as synonym Rottboellia com- 
pressa, Linn. f. which, in our opinion, is not correct. Hemarthria compressa, R 
Br. Prodr. Floras Novas Hollandiaa etinsuke Van Diemen, p. 207, represents only 
partly Rottboellia compressa, Linn. f. Besides, Stapf in. FL Trop. Afr. ix, 55 has 
separated Rottboellia compressa, Linn. f. var. fasciculata from the type and 
described it under the specific name Hemarthria fasciculata, Kunth Rev. Gram. 
i, 153. He was allowed to use this old name, because Hemarthria fasciculata 
is the same plant as Hackel's var. fasciculata (Monogr. Androp. 287.) As to 
the species under consideration, it coincides with Hackel's Rottboellia compressa 
Linn. var. genuina. With this Hemarthria compressa, Kunth Enum. i, 465 
agrees only partly and this name cannot, therefore, be adopted. There are 
only two names left which can be considered : Rottboellia glabra and 
Hemarthria coromandelina. Of these the former is the older and should, there- 
fore, be retained, but as the species is being transferred to the genus 
Hemarthria, the plant has to be called Hemarthria glabra, nob. 

Description : A perennial grass. Stems creeping below, then erect, scandent, 
1-5 to 6 m. long (Roxb.). Blade of leaf short, slowly getting narrower 
upwards, but at the apex slightly obtuse ; sheath at the nodes glabrous. 
Racemes slender, compressed, 6-10 cm. long, solitary or the upper ones often 
fascicled. Spikelets 2-nate, 4-45 mm. long ; callus 1 mm. long, obconical, 
obtuse, glabrous. Sessile spikelets : Lower involucral glume broad, ovate 
lanceolate, obtuse, at the apex emarginate or obtusely bidentate, not in the 
least acuminate, scarcely constricted below the apex. Pedicelled spikelets: 
Pedicel adnate. Glumes acute or subacuminate. 

Locality: Sind ; Bughar, Indus River (Blatter and McCann D661 !') ; 
Mirpur Sakro (Blatter and McCann D662!). Gujarat: Kankaria Tank, 
Ahmedabad (Sedgwick \).—Khandesh : Tapti, Bhusawal N. E. (Blatter and 
Hallberg 5495 !).— Kanara : Sirsi to Siddhapur (Hall berg and McCann A78 !). 
We have not included the localities mentioned by Cke. ii, 952 as some of his 
specimens might belong to another species. 

Distribution : We do not know of any definite record as to the distribution 
of this species. Hooker f. calls it common in India. Hackel gives Bengal, 
Sarampur, Punjab, Nepal, Ceylon, China. Duthie says it occurs in moist 


Aug. 1, 1927 ] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 28 

places in the plains, and at low elevations on the hills of N. India, and 
extends to Australia. It would apparently be correct to say that this plant is 
found all over India and Ceylon. We are not so sure about Australia. 

The question now arises whether Hemarthria fasciculata, Kunth occurs in 
the Presidency. Wight, Roxburgh, Hook. f. and Duthie mention it for other 
parts of India and Duthie found it in the same localities where he gathered the 
previous spscies, but we have no reliable information at hand to say that it has 
been found in the Bombay Presidency. In all probability it does occur in our 
parts. In order to help botanists to clear up this point we add Stapf 's descrip- 
tion and synonymy of H. fasciculata, Kunth. At the same time it will be good 
to remember what Hackel says under Rottboellia compressa, Linn, f . : ' Species 
valde polymorpha ; varietates sequentes in speciminibus typicis satis distinctcs, 
ed el ipsa: ita variabiles, ut nullus eartim characterum constans, formceque 
intermedins frequentes.'' 

Hemarthria fasciculata Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 153, and Enum. i, 465; Hack, 
in Mart. PI. Bras. II, iii, 314, t. 72, fig. 2.—H. capensis, Trin. Androp. 
in Mem. Acad. Petersb. 6 me ser. ii, 2\%. — Rottboellia compressa, Linn. f. var. 
fasciculata. Hack. Monog. Androp. 286 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 153 ; Rottboellia 
compressa, Linn. f. ; Cke. ii, 952, partim. — Rottboellia fasciculata, Lam. 
Illustr. i,20±. —Lodicularia fasciculata, Link. Hort. Berol. i, 6. — Lo die id 'aria 
capensis, Nees Fl. Afr. Anstr. 128. — Lepturus fasciculata, Trin. Fund. Agrost. 

Description : A perennial grass. Stems erect or more often ascending, 
sometimes from a long decumbent rooting base, usually branched. 30 cm. to 
l - 5m. high, many-noded, compressed, glabrous. Leaves linear, gradually 
tapering, acute, very variable in length and width, up to 23 cm by 4 mm ; 
sheaths shorter or the lower longer than the internodes, compressed, keeled, 
often ciliate towards the mouth, otherwise glabrous or almost so ; ligules 
membranous, very short, ciliate. Racemes usually fascicled, straight or 
curved, tapering to a slender point formtd by the terminal spikelet, ultimately 
more or less fragile. Sessile spikelet linear-. -blong to oblong, from a short 
obtriangular more or less conspicuous glabrous callus, 4-5'5 mm. long, glabrous. 
Lower glume coriaceous, opaque, usually more or less constricted below the 
obtuse entire or emarginate. 2-keeled and very narrowly winged tips, smooth, 
intracarinal nerves about 7 ; upper broadly oblong-lanceolate, acute, mem- 
branous except at the hardened tip, 3-nerved. Lower floret : Valve oblong, 
subobtuse, distinctly shorter than the glumes, 2-nerved. Upper floret: Valve 
slightly shorter, ovate-oblong, obtuse, nerveless. Anthers r5-2'3 mm. long. 
Stigmas about 1*5 mm. long, laterally exserted. Grain oblong, dorsally com- 
pressed, about l"5mm. long, reddish ; scutellum exceeding half the length of 
the grain ; hilum punctiform, subhasal. Pedicelled spikelet similar in sex and 
shape to the sessile, but slightly longer, with the lower glume more acuminate 
and acute, and the upper sharply mucronate, the mucro somewhat exceeding 
the lower glume. 

Distribution : British E. Africa, Mozambique District, throughout Africa in 
the Mediterranean region (Stapf), India, America, probably introduced. 

14. Manistjris, Linn. f. 
Species 1.— Throughout the tropics. 

1. Manisuris granulans, Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788), 25 ; Beauv. Agrost. 
t. xxi, Fig. 10 ; Roxb. PI. Corom. ii, 11, t. 118; Mart, and Eichl. Fl. Bras, ii, 
2, t. 46 ; Hack. Monogr. Androp. 314 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 18, Fodd. 
Grass, N. India. 29, t. 46 ; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 159 ; Cke. ii, 955 ; Stapf Fl. 
Trop. Afr. ix, 57. — M. polystachya, Beauv. Fl. Owar. et. Ben. t. 14.—Cenchrus 
granularis Linn. Mant. ii, App. 575. — Hackelochloi granularis, O. Ktze. Rev. 
Gen. PL ii, 776,—Rytilix granularis, Skeels in U.S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PL 
Industr. Bull. 282 (1913), 20. 

Locality: Gujarat: Charodi (Gammie 16534 !) .—Konkan : Wada Taluka 
(Ryan 600 !) ; Mulgaum in Salsette, open grass land (McCann 3642 !) .—Deccan : 
Poona (Wocdrow ! Cooke) ; Deolali (Blatter and Hallberg 4552!) ; Igatpuri 
cMcCann 4573!); Railway line, Kirkee to Poona (Garade 8231!) ; Chattar- 
(hinji Hill, Poopa (Ezekiel !) ; Khandala (Woodrow), behind Hotel 


29 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Sec, Vol. XXXII No. 1. [Aug, 1, 1927. 

(McCann 9410 !), behind Duke's Nose (McCann 9393 !}.—£. M. Country : Dhar- 
war (Sedgwick and Bell 4146!, Woodrow). 2,400 ft., rain 34 in.; Kuput 
Hill, Dharwar District (Talbot 2323\).— Kanar a : Halyal (Talbot 1733!, 
2385 !). 

15. Peltophorus, Desv. (Stapf Fl. Trop. Afr. ix. 59) 

Annual or perennial short grasses with slender, much-branched, rarely 
simple stems. Leaves linear, narrow, conduplicate in bud , then flat; ligules 
short, membranous. Racemes much compressed, rather rjender, straight or 
■curved, very conspicuously dorsiventral, Spikelets pseudo-opposite owing to 
the fusion of joints and pedicels, each pair made up of a sessile (secondary) 
spikelet and the pedicelled companion of the sessile spikelet of the next lower 
node. Spikelets 2-nate on the rbachis of spike-like, spathe-supported racemes 
which terminate the stems and their branches, different in sex and shape. 
Joints and pedicels fused into somewhat stout internodes, convex on the back, 
hollowed out on the inner face for the reception of the sessile spikelet ; disarti- 
culation at a right angle to the rhachis, tips of internodes truncate with two 
concavities corresponding to the next upper sessile and the adjacent pedicelled 
spikelet. Sessile spikelet dorsally much compressed. Florets 2, lower male or 
neuter and then with or without a valvule, upper bisexual, awnless. Glumes 
equal or the upper shorter ; lower coriaceous, transversely rugose or muricate, 
conspicuously winged from the keels, upper membranous, immersed in the 
cavity formed by the joint and pedicel, usually 3-nerved, keeled, often in- 
distincly. Valves hyaline, nerveless or 2-3-nerved. Valvule, if present, 
hyaline, nerveless or 2-nerved, Lodicules 2, cuneate. Stamens 3, Stigmas 
linear, laterally exserted low down. Grain oblong; embryo equalling the 
grain. Pedicelled spikelet male or neuter c Lower glume coriaceous, smooth, 
asymmetrically or unilaterally winged, upper variously winged from the keel. 
Florets as in the sessile spikelet but male or barren. 

Species 5.— India (4) and Tropical Africa (1). 
I. Lower involucral glume 2— aristate ... 1. P. diver gens. 

II. Lower involucral glume with a simple awn 
or acuminate* 

1. Lower involacral glume broadly ovate, 

acuminate (not awned) ... ... 2. P. acuminatus . 

2. Lower involucral glume lanceolate with a 

slender scabrid awn ... ... 3. P. Talboti. 

1. Peltophorus divergens, comb. nov. Blatter and McCann. 

Rottboellia diver gens, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 293 ; Lisboa in Jour. Bom. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. vi (1891), 195; Hook. f. in F. B. L, vii, 155 ; Cke, ii, 953. 

Description, : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Konkan : Trombay (McCann A71!). — Dcccan : Mahableshwar, 
4,500 ft., rain 270 inches (Sedgwick and Bell 4560!, Lisboa); Panchgani 
(Blatter and Hall berg B1252 !, B1259 !, B12f3 !, B1286 !), behind the Tableland 
on rocks (Blatter 3805!); Satara (Lisboa); Lonavla (Bhide !) ; Khandala 
(Woodrow), Saddle, very common all over (McCann 9616 !). — 5". M. Country : 
Amboli Gha<- (Talbot 4305 !) ; Belgaum (Ritchie 808, 827).— Kanar a : Castle 
Rock, 1,800 ft., rain 300 inches (Sedgwick and Bell 4295 !), Karwar (Talbot 
3171 !).— Usually growing on rocks in tufts. 

Note. The spikes are very brittle when dry and always fall off. 

Distribution : W. Peninsula. 

2. Peltophorus acuminatus, comb. nov. Blatter and McCann. 

Rottboslliu acuminata, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 291; Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 
155 ; Cke. ii. 953. 

Description : Cke. 1. c — We have examined Talbot's specimen No. 1291 and 
found that the lower involucral glume is much longer than 8 mm. (1/3 in.) 
going up to 10 and 12 mm. 

Locality : Konkan : Marmagoa (Talbot 2572 !, 1291) ; Vasco daGama (Herb. 
St. X. C. 9483 !) ; Malwan (Woodrow).— Kanar a : Karwar (Talbot 3171 !, 
2539, Hall berg and McCann A75 !, Lisboa); Katgal (Hallberg aud McCann 
9934 !) ; Castle Rock (Bhide !). 

Distribution: W. Peninsula. Hooker f., but not Cooke, mentions also the 
Deccan Peninsula collected in by G. Thomson, 


Aug. I, 1927.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 3,0 

3. Peltophorus Talboti, comb. nov. Blatter and McCarm. — Rottboellia Talboli, 
Hook. f. in F B. I. vii, 155 ; Cke, ii, 954. 
Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Konka:i : Vasco da Gama (Bhide I) ; Marmagoa (Talbot 2572 I). 
Distribution : So far only been found in Goa. 

1G. Lasiurus, Boiss. (Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix r 60) 

Perennial, more or less branched and woody below ; branches often in dense 
fascicles, intravaginal. Leaves linear, convolute or flat, hard ; ligule a fringe 
of hairs. Racemes silky-viHous. Spikelets usually 3-nate, rarely 2-nate, on 
the more or less fragile rhachis of villous spike-like racemes which end the 
stems and branches (if any) and are supported by or exserted from often 
spathaceous sheaths, if 3-nate 2 sessile, the. sessile different in sex from, but 
similar in shape to, the pedicelled ; rhachis nodes bearded all round ; joints 
and pedicels linear, the latter more slender and shorter, opposite the joints if 
2 sessile spikelets be present, otherwise approximate, but not contiguous and 
parallel to one of the sides of the joint ; disarticulation at a right angle to the 
rhachis, scar at the tips of the joints suborbicular, smooth, often ciliate. Sessile 
spikelets, if 2, one on each side of the pedicel with a narrow ring-shaped callus. 
Florets 2, lower male, upper bisexual, awnless. Glumes unequal ; lower 
longer, subcoriaceous, flat on the back, acuminate, 2-keeled upwards and 
2-dentate, densely ciliate, upper boat-shaped, membranous, keeled. Valves 
hyaline, 3-nerved. Valvules hyaline, 2-nerved. Lodicules 2, cuneate. Stamens 
3. Stigxas linear, laterally exserted. Grain oblong, slightly dorsally com- 
pressed, embryo half its length. Pedicelled spikelet similar to the sessile, but 
with an indistinct glabrous callus and with both florets male or more or less 

1. Lasiarus birsatus, Boiss. Diagn. ser. II, iv, 146 ; Stapf Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 
60.— Saccharum hirsutum, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt. — Arab. 16. — Rottboellia hirsuta, 
Vahl Symb. i, 11 ; Hack. Monogr. An drop. 311. — Ischcemum mastrucatum , 
Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. 6me. ser. ii, 298. — Ischcsmum hirsutum, Nees in 
Schimp. PL Arab. Fel. No. 791. — Ccelorrhachis hirsuta, Brongn. apud Dene, in 
Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, ii, 13. — Elionurus hirsutus, Munro apud Benth. in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. xixv, 68; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 466 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 162 ; 
Cke. ii, 973. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Sind : Karachi (Bhide!); Sell wan to Laki, foot of hills (Sabnis 
B613 !) ; Umatkot, sandy plains (Sabnis B940 !). 

Distribution ; Nubia, Egypt, Brit. Somaliland, Arabia, Afghanistan, 
Baluchistan, Punjab, Sind, Rajputana. 

17. Rlyonurus, Humb. and BoupL (Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 62) 

Usually perennial, csespitose, aromatic grasses. Blades of leaves flat or 
folded ; ligules very short, membranous. Racemes erect, joints strongly 
compressed, usually villous, tips oblique, not appendaged. Spikelets similar, 
usually awnless, differing in sex, 2-nate, one sessile, the other pedicelled, on 
the articulate fragile rhachis of solitary spike-like racemes, the sessile deciduous 
with the adjacent joint of the rhachis and the pedicel. Florets 2 : Lower 
reduced to an empty valve, upper bisexual in the sessile male, rarely barren, in 
the pedicelled spikelet. Glumes equal : Lower subcoriaceous to herbaceous, 
often 9-toothed or 2-fid, rarely awned, dorsally flattened, 2-keeled, usually 
with fine filiformed transparent balsam ducts close to the ciliate or penicillate 
keels ; upper membranous, lanceolate, acute, rarely awned. Valves hyaline, 
awnless. Valvule obsolete or absent. Lodicules 2, cuneate. Stamens 3. 
Stigmas laterally exserted. Grain oblong, dorsally compressed ; embryo about 
half the length of the grain. 

Species about 15. — Tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. 

1. Elyonurus Royleanus, Nees ex. A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 471 ; Hack 
Monogr. Androp. 343 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 161 ; Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind, 
17, and Fodd. Grass. N. India 28, t. 54; Cke. ii, 972; Stapf in Fl. Trop. 
Afr. ix, 65.— is. Griesebachii, Schmidt, Beitr. z. Fl. Capverd 154. — Ratze- 
burgia Schimperi, Steud. Nomencl. ed. ii, 439 .— Rottboellia elegantissima, 


31 Jour., Bom. Nat Hist. Soc. : Vol. XXXII, No. 1. [Aug. 1, 1927. 

Hochst. ex. Steud. Svn. PI. Glum.i, 365. — Andropogon elegantissimus , Steud. 
Syn. PI. Glum, i, 365— Andropogon Griesebachii, Steud. Syn. PL Glum, i, 365. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Sind : (Woodrow).— Gujarat : Bhodir Maka, Cutch (Blatter 
3747 !) ; Bnuj, Cutch (Blatter 3795 !) ; Rajkot, Kathiawar (Woodrow). 

Distribution : Upper Gametic Plain, Rajputana, W. Peninsula, Arabia, 
Somaliland, Eritrea, Abyssinia, Sudan, Nubia, Cape de Verd Islands. 

18. Rottboellia, Linn. f. (Stapf. in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 72) 

Annual, usually coarse grasses, often with stilt-roots from the lowest nodes, 
more or less branched, particularly upwards. Leaves large, linear-lanceolate, 
rather wide ; ligule membranous, short. Racemes dorsiventral, with the spike- 
lets placed anticously and laterally. Spikelets 2-nate on the nodes of the very 
fragile rhachis of stout cylindric perfectly glabrous spike-like racemes which 
end the stems and their branches, in the latter case spathe-supported, different 
in sex and usually in size, colour and nervation except those of the uppermost 
pairs which are barren, homomorphous and upwards increasingly reduced 
forming a tail-like appendage to the raceme. Joints dorsally flattened below, 
widely cup-shaped and hollow- d out upwards, more or less completely fused 
with the pedicels along their posticuous angles. Sessile spikelets pale, triangular 
in transverse section ; the narrow callus fused with the bases of the adjacent 
joint and pedicel into a glabrous ring from the centre of which protrudes a 
knob fitting into the cup-shaped hollow of the next lower joint, the whole 
plexus falling together. Florets 2, lower male, upper bisexual, awnless. 
Glumes equal: Lower coriaceous, flat on the back, with very narrow inflexed 
margins, 2-keeled upwards ; upper boat-shaped, keeled upwards, acute. 
Valves hyaline, 3-nerved. Valvules as long or almost as long as the valves, 
hyaline, 2-nerved. Lodicules, 2, cuneate. Stamens 3. Stigmas suberect or 
shortly laterally exserted above the middle of the spikelet. Grain broad-oblong 
or ellipsoid, dorsally compressed ; hilum large, suprabasal ; embryo almost as 
long as the grain. Pedicelied spikelet similar to the sessile, but more compressed, 
green, striate, with two male florets, or smaller and more or less reduced. 

Species 2 or 3.— Tropics of the Old World. 

1. Rottboellia exaltata, Linn. f. Suppl. 1H ; Roxb. PI. Corom. t. 157 ; Fl. Ind. 
i, 354 ; Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 17; Hack. Monoer. Androp. 293; Hook. f. 
in F.B I. vii, 156 ; Cke. ii, 955. — R. exaltata, var. genuina. Schweinf. in Hohnel 
Disc. Lakes Rudolf and Stefanie, ii, App. 35'?.— R. exaltata, f arundinacea, 
Plack. in Bot. Soc. Brot. v, 215.— R. arundinacea, Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. 
Fl. Abyss, ii, ±\\.—Stegosia ccchinchinensis, Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 51. — Stegosia 
exaltata. Nash in Amer. Fl. xvii, i, 84. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Ron/can: Dohe forest, Thana Dist. (Ryan 711 !).— Deccan : 
Agricultural College Farm (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; Poona (Bhide !, Cooke, 
Woodrow 2 !) ; Purandhar 4,000 ft. (McCann 5591 !).— S. M. Country : Dharwar, 
in field (Sedgwick 5469 ! ) — Kanara : Hattikeri, near Karwar (Hallberg and 
McCann A74 !). 

Distribution : India, Andamans, Ceylon, China, Malaya, Australia, Africa. 

var robusta, Hook, f . in F.B.I vii, 156. 

Description : Leaf-base more cordately confluent with the sheath. Spikes 
stouter below, slender above the mi Idle. Spikelets in upper half distichously 
imbricate, longer than the joints, fertile nearly to the tip Pales of upper floral 
glume auricled at the base. 

Locality : Poona (Woodrow).— We have not seen this plant. 

Distribution : Malabar, Palamcotta- 

19. Ophiurus, Gaertn. partim ; R. Br. (Stapf Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 74) 

Annual (?) or perennial, sometimes very coarse grasses, usually much branch- 
ed upwards. Leaves linear to lanceolate, short to very long, conduplicate or con- 
volute in bud, then flat ; ligules very .short, membranous. Racemes dorsiventral. 
Spikelets solitary on the nodes of the fragile rhachis of slender cylindric spikes 
which end the stems and their usually fascicled spathe-supported branches, 
their pedicelied companions suppressed or rudimentary and very minute and the 
pedicels completely fused with the joints, both forming together a deeply 


Aug. 1, 1927.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 32 

hollowed-out cylindric receptacle ; disarticulation of the internodes at a right 
angle or slightly oblique to the rhachis, their tips hollowed out. Sessile spike- 
let with a very narrow callus which is fused with the base of the internode into 
a rim from the centre of which protrudes a small knob fitting into the hollow 
of the next lower internode, the whole plexus falling together. Florets 2, 
lower male or neuter, upper bisexual, awnless. Glumes equal : Lower coria- 
ceous, flat or subconvex on the back with very narrow inflexed margins, faintly 
nerved with a transverse groove at the base, upper boat-shaped, hyaline, 
obtuse. Valves hyaline, 2-nerved or nerveless. Valvules similar to the valves. 
Lodicules 2, cuneate. Stamens 3, Stigmas short, laterally exserted. Grain 
oblong, dorsally slightly compressed ; embryo 1/4 the length of the grain. 

Species about 4.— From the Sudan through tropical Asia to Australia. 

Stapf has described the species Ophiurus megaphyllus which forms part of 

O. corymbosus, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 160 (not of Gaertn. f. and not of 

Rottboellia corymbosa, Linn. f.). What is left over of Hook, f's O.corymbosa 

after the separation of O. megaphyllus has to go under O. corymbosa, Gaertn. 

I. Leaves ensiform, very hairy. Robust, 1*5-1*8 m. 1= O. megaphyllus. 

II. Leaves linear, glabrous. Slender, 0'6-l'2 m. ... 2. O. corymbosus. 

1. 0. megaphyllus, Stapf in Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa pt. V (1924), 
1058. — Ophiurus corymbosus . Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 160, partim (non Gaertn. f.); 
Cke. ii, 951, partim; Hack. Monogr, Androp. 317 (partim). 

Description: A large stout grass, 1*5-1*8 m. high, very leafy to the top. 
Leaves narrowly ensiform, tapering from base to apex, upper 10-18 mm. wide, 
lower much wider, flat, very hairy as are the sheaths, but more or less glabres- 
cent with age, hairs with small tubercle bases, margins of sheath hirsute. 
Spikelets 2-4 mm,, slightly shorter or longer than the joints, in very numerous 
peduncled spikes 7*5-10 cm. long, from the leaf-axils. Peduncles 7*5-12*5 cm., 
sheathed at the base, finally far exserted, each solitary on a branch with a vill- 
ous node, often geniculate at the node. Sessile spikelets : Glumes 4 : Lower 
involucral glume oblong, glabrous, with rounded tip, smooth or with few lines 
of small pits, not becoming recurved sometimes bearing a small appendage. 
Upper involucral glume white, becoming inclined forward, quite free from the 
rhachis when the spikelet opens. Pedicel led spikelets : the lowest are some- 
times free at the top and bear a small brown free appendage. 

Locality : We have not been able to examine all the specimens which were 
formerly put under O. corymbosus, Hook. f. and we are, therefore, not in a 
position, to assign an} r specimen to O- megaphyllus, Stapf. 

Distribution : To make a definite statement all the herbarium material of 
O. corymbosa, Hook. f. would have to be examined. 

2. 0. corymbosus, Gaertn. f . Fruct. iii, 4, t. 181 f. 3 a (Ophiuros) ; Haines 
Fl. Bihar and Orissa, pt. V (1924), 1058 ; Rottboellia corymbosa, Linn. f. Suppl. 
114.— O. corymbosa, Hook, f in. F. B. I. vii, 160, partim; Cke. ii, 951, 

Description : Perennial. Stems very numerous, glabrous, erect, slender, 
0-6-1-2 m. high, bulbous at the base, the bulbous bases connected into a 
horizontal rhizome. Leaves linear, glabrous, up to 5 mm. broad, margins 
minutely tubercled at base, the tubercles bearing cilia when young. Spikes 
very slender, 5-12*5 cm. long, sometimes ending in a small tail like that of a 
rattle-snake (Haines), spikelets 2*5 mm. long, equalling the joint. Lower 
involucral glume of sessile spikelet glabrous, with many longitudinal lines of 
small pits, narrowly oblong, tip rounded, finally recurved. 

Locality: Deccan : Deolali (Blatter and Hallberg 4564 ! ) ; Nasik Road 
(Blatter 9624 !) ; Talegaum (McCann !). 

20. Ccelorrhachis, Brown. (Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 78) 

Mostly tall, coarse, perennial grasses, much-branched upwards. Racemes 
with the sessile spikelets which are often imbricate, placed anticously and 
pedicelled laterally. Spikelets 2-nate on the nodes of the fragile rhachis of 
slender, more or less compressed conspicuously dorsiventral spike-like racemes 
which end the stems and their usually fascicled, spathe- supported branches, 
different or very rarely alike in sex, similar in shape or the pedicelled more or 
less or very much reduced ; joints and pedicels similar or the latter more slender, 


33 Jour. s Bom. Nat. Hist Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 1. \_Aug. 1, 1927. 

linear to cuneate or subclavate, dorsally compressed, glabrous, contiguous or 
nearly so ; disarticulation of the joints at a right angle to the rhachis, their 
tips more or less hollowed out, with or without an ear-shaped appendage. 
Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed, the narrow transverse callus fused with 
the base of the adjacent joint and pedicel into an obscure rim from the 
centre of which protrudes a knob fitting into the hollow of the next lower 
joint, the whole plexus falling together. Florets 2, the lower usually reduced 
to the valve with a small valvule, always neuter upper bisexual, awnless. 
Glumes subeqnal ; lower flat or slightly convex on the back, smooth or 
variously sculptured, with narrow inflexed margins, 2-keeled npwards and 
more or less winged from the keels, obtuse or emarginate, very faintly nerved ; 
upper chartaceous, keeled, acute, 1-3 nerved. Valves hyaline, of lower floret 
2-nerved or nerveless, of upper 3-1-nerved or nerveless. Valvule hyaline, similar 
to the valve, 2-nerved or nerveless. Lodicules 2, cuneate. Stamens 3. Stigmas 
shortly laterally exserted. Grain oblong, dorsally compressed ; embryo about 
half the length of the grain. Pedicelled spikelet very varied, similar to the 
sessile or more or less reduced or rudimentary, male or neuter, very rarely 

Species about 12. Tropics of both hemispheres. 

1. Coelorrhachis Clarkei comb. nov. Blatter and McCann. Rottboellia 
Clarkei, Hack, in Oestr. Bot. Zeitschr. 41 (1S91), 8 ; Cke. ii, 954. Rottboellia 
gibbosa, Hack, ex Lisboa in Jouru. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. vi. ( 1891), 195. 

Locality : Kanara : B^rcny .Talbot 2820 !, 2072) ; Jugglepet (Talbot 1566 !) 

Distribution : Chota Nagpar, W. Peninsula. 

( To be continued) 


By E. Blatter, s,j., Ph.D., f.l.s. 

\From the Journal of the Bombay Natural Hist. Soc, October 20, 1927.] 



E. Blatter, s.j., ph.D., f.l.s. 



E. Blatter and C. McCann 

( Continued from page 33 of this volume) 

21. Imperata, Cyr. 

Species 5 or 6, nearly allied. In the warm regions of both hemispheres. 

Imperata cylindriaca, Beauv. Agrost. 165, t. v, fig. 1, Explan. planch. 5 ; Cyr. 
PI. Rar. Neap. Fasc. ii, 26, t. ii ; Hack. Monogr. Androp. 92 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. 
v, 452 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 14 ; Indig. Fodd. Grass t. 15 ; Fodd Grass. 
N. lad. 22 ; F. B. I. vii, 106 ; Cke. ii, 946 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa, pt. 
v, 1015; Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr., ix, 87.--/. Koenigii, Beauv. Agrost. 165.— 
Saccharum cylindricvm, Lam. Encycl. i, 594 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 234 ; Grah. 
Cat. Bomb. PI. 239 ; Griff. Notul. iii, 80. — 6". europaeum et S. indum, Pers. Syn. 
i, 103.— 5. Kavennce, Bieb. Fl Taur. Cauc. iii, 51. 

Some authors distinguish varieties and subvarieties which scarcely seem to be 
justified. Stapf who mentions two varieties (var. Thunbergii, Durand & Schinz, 
and var. Koenigii, Durand & Schinz) says in a note (1. c. 89) : ' The 
varieties and the type, although on the whole pretty distinct within their areas, 
often pass into each other, chiefly along the confines of their areas, or they 
possibly lose their distinctive characters under particular local conditions, when 
the separation becomes almost impossible.' This does not speak in favour or 
good varieties. Hackel (1. c. 93-95) has 3 varieties and several subvarieties, and 
Anderson (in Oefvers, K. Vet. Akad. Forh. Stockh. 1885, p. 157) is still more 
liberal with his subvarieties. Hook, f. makes one variety latifolia (F.B.I. 
1. c.) and remarks about one of Hackel's varieties : 'Hackel distinguishes the 
Indian form as var. Koenigii having villous nodes and broader, less rigid 
leaves, but some of the Indian specimens appear to me quite like the Western 
Hackel's division depends chiefly on such characters as hairiness of the leaf- 
insertions, width of the leaves and height of the ligule. The height and shape 
of the ligule, however, seems, according to Hole's investigations, more or less 
correlated with the width of the lamina, while the other characters appear to 
vary with the locality and do not define forms of any constancy. Hole's 
treatment of Imperata arundinacea (On Some Indian For. Grasses and their 
Oecology, 1911, p. 95) appeals to us much more. Amongst the material 
observed at Dehra Dun he distinguishes 3 forms which are more or less clearly 
defined : — 

(a) The depauperate form common on lawns or areas where the grass is 
continually cut or grazed, with minute, almost filiform, culms and small leaves. 
Leaf-insertions usually long-bearded. Glume IV and pale usually glabrous. 

(b) The ordinary savannah form which usually attains a height of about 
90 cm. with leaves up to 17mm. wide. Leaf-insertions bearded or glabrous. 
Pale and glume IV ciliate. 

(c) A robust form found in swamps or marshy soil where there is an abun- 
dance of available moisture more or less throughout the year. This plant 
attains a height of 2*8 m. and probably more. Leaves up to 26 mm. wide, leaf- 
insertions glabrous. Pale and glume IV ciliate. This is identical with var. 
latifolia, Hook. f. 

F orms of this kind could be multiplied according to various localities. As 
we are not going to distinguish any varieties we give a description of the species 
including all the variations that so far have been observed. 


282 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 2. [Oct. 20, 1927. 

Description : — Culms erect, simple, slender, from 12 em. in height andi 
almost filiform to 2'8 m. high and 8 mm. diam., 3-4-noded, glabrous, solid r 
slightly fistular at base : leaf-insertions tumid, glabrous or densely bearded with 
erect white hairs. Leaf-sheaths rather loose, glabrous or glabrescent, ciliate or 
glabrous along the margin towards apex, the lowest at length usually breaking. 
up into fibres, usually longer than proper internode ; Hgules membranous, 
rounded, truncate or 2-lobed,. ciliate, dorsally silky, attaining a height of 3 mm^ 
Blade of uppermost leaf of flowering culm from mucroniform and 1*25 mm. 
long to 15 cm. long and 6 mm. wide with greatest width in middle, of lower 
leaves erect or arcuate and attaining a length of 12 m. and width of 27 mm., 
greatest width about the middle, dark green, midrib white, apex acuminate, 
narrowed towards the base where the midrib occupies almost the entire width 
of the leaf, smooth, but scabrid on margin and on one or more sub-marginal 
nerves above, especially towards the apex, white villous above on margins 
towards the base and behind theligule. Panicle spike-like, 3-50 cm. long, not 
exceeding 25 mm. in width, cylindric, very dense ; branches and branchlets 
very numerous, crowded, appressed ; pedicels fine with clavate tips, glabrous, 
scaberulous or pubescent, with long fine hairs below. Flcwering panicle purple 
with the exserted stigmas, the callus-hairs being closely appressed to the axis, 
fruiting panicle silvery white with the wide-spreading callus-hairs. Spikelets 
not awned lanceolate,. 3 mm long, both spikelets of each pair similar, each 
1-flowered and hermaphrodite, and at length falling from the pedicel : callus-hairs 
soft, white, 2-3 times as long as the spikelets. Lower involucral glume lanceolate, 
membranous, slightly thickened towards the base, apex hyaline, 3-9-nerved,. 
none of the nerves extending to apex of glume, margins incurved ciliate above, 
dorsally villous with soft white hairs overtopping the glume by \\ to 3 times the 
length of the glume. Upper involucral glume similar and subequal to the lower,, 
but sometimes sub-keeled with mid-nerve extending almost to apex. Lower 
floral glume oblong, hyaline, nerveless, apex acute or subtruncate and laciniate 
or denticulate, ciliate, \ to f of the upper involucral glume. Upper floral glume 
subequal to the lower one, ovate-lanceolate, hyaline, nerveless,, apex acuminate, 
acute or obtuse and laciniate or denticulate, minutely ciliate or glabrous. 
Pale quadrate, rectangular or subpentagonal. hyaline, nerveless, apex 
denticulate or unequally laciniate, glabrous or ciliate, \ the size of the upper floral 
glume or subequal to it. Lodicules none or very minute. Anthers 2, 2-5-3 mm. 
long, orange, filaments sometimes connate below. Stigmas 2, 3-4 mm. long,, 

Locality : Sind : (Stocks). — Gujarat : (Graham).— Konkan : Tardeo, Bombay 
(Hallberg 5398 !) ; Alibag, sandy shore (Ezekiel!); near Thana (McCann!);; 
Banks along railway track between Ghatkoper and Thana, Salsette (McCann ! ).— 
S. M. Country : Shiggaon (Sedgwick 2353 !); Dwararji (Sedgwick and Bell !); 
Castle Rock (Bhide !) ; Londa, common (McCann !.) .—Kanara ; Halyal (Talbot 
1896 !). 

Distribution : The hotter parts of India, ascending in the Himalayas to at 
least 6,500 feet, Mediterranean region .Africa, Java, Japan. China, Australia. 

Biology and Ecology : See Hole, 1. c. 96. 

Uses. .^ Dxithie says of this grass that ' cattle relish it '. 'In Australia/ he 
says, ' it is called blady grass and the young succulent foliage which springs 
up after the occurrence of a fire is much relished by stock. I have observed the 
same effect resulting from periodical fires on certain parts of the Himala}^ where 
this grass is plentiful,' (Duthie, Fodd. Grass, of N. Ind. 23)* 'In India/ 
according to Hole (1. c. 101) ' the succulent white stolons are eaten by pigs and 
areas which have been well-worked by pigs in their search for the stolons are 
not infrequently seen in the forest. It is possible that in some cases the eradi- 
cation of the species might be cheaply accomplished by the aid of pigs.' 

This grass is also known as a paper-making material : ' The ultimate fibre 
obtained from this grass is very similar in most respects to Esparto ; the yield of 
bleached fibre being about the same. This is a favourable indication inasmuch 
as Esparto is one of the best known and most useful sources of supply to the 
trade. The results obtained from the chemical analysis show that the grass is 
capable of yielding a good quality of cellulose, suitable in every way for the 
manufacture of paper.' 1 

The leaves are largely used for thatching (Hole). 

1 Agric. Bull, of the Straits and F. M. States , vii (1908), 586. 

Oct. 20, 1927.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 283 

22. Saccharum, Linn., Stapf Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 94 

The genus as understood by the latest agrostologists comprises also the species 
which were formerly described under the genus Erianthus, Michx. As already 
Temarked by Haines in his Flora of Chota Nagpur the awoed upper floral glume 
of some Saccharum breaks down the only distinction between Saccharum and 

Cooke (ii, 948) mentions 3 species of Saccharum : T. spontaneum-, Linn.,, 
■5". arundinaceunt, Retz. and 6". officiuarum, Linn. To these we add ►S. Munja, 
Roxb and 5". Griffithi, Munro. The two species of Erianthus, observed in the 
Presidency, viz. E. Ravenna?, Beauv. and E. fastigiatus, Nees, will be trans- 
ferred to Saccharum. 

General characters of Saccharum : Perennial tall herbs. Leaves various. 
Panicle large, often silvery-silky and showy, spikelets usually surrounded by 
long silky hairs from the base, all alike, binate, one sessile, the other pedicelled 
•on the articulate fragile rhachis of panicled racemes, the pedicelled falling from 
their pedicels, the sessile deciduous together with the contiguous joint of the 
rhachis and pedicel. Florets 2, the lower reduced to an empty valve, the upper 
hermaphrodite. Involucral glumes equal, often chartaceous to subcoriaceous 
towards the base, membranous to subhyaline upwards ; the lower glume with 
in flexed margins and in the sessile spikelet usually with an even number of nerves ; 
upper glume 1-, 3-, or 5-nerved. Floral glumes hyaline ; upper with a terminal 
bristle-like usually straight awn, or mucronate, or muticous, or 0. Lodicules 2, 
cuneate. Stamens 3. Stigmas laterally exserted. Grain oblong to subglobose ; 
embryo short to half the length of the grain or more ; hilum basal. 

Key to the species, mainly after Haines. 

A, Awn of upper floral glume not or scarcely exserted from spikelets or 0, 
I. Hairs on callus of sessile spikelet much exceeding the spikelets 

1. Culms not leafy above, under 17 mm. diam. 

Leaves under 20 mm. broad. Lower In- 
volucral glumes ciliate ... ... 1. S. spontaneum. 

2. Culms densely leafy above, over 25 mm. 

diam. Leaves over 25 mm. broad. Lower 
Involucral glumes glabrous ... 2. S. officinarum. 

IL Hairs on callus of sessile spikelet shorter or not 
much longer than spikelet 

1. Upper involucral glume of sessile spikelet 

not villous dorsally 

(a) Foliage not glaucous. Culms densely 
leafy above. Sessile spikelet shorter than 

internodes of rhachis ... ... ... 3. S . arundinaceum^ 

(b) Foliage glaucous. Culms not leafy above 

Sessile spikelet longer than internodes 

of rhachis ... ... ... ... 4. S. munja. 

2. Upper involucral glume of sessile spikelet 

villous dorsally ... ... ... 5. S. Griffithii. 

B. Awn of upper floral glume distinctly exserted 

from the spikelet 
L Panicles thyrsiform. Spikelets 3-4 mm. long. 

Awn 2-5 to almost 6 mm. long ... ... 6. S. Ravenna. 

II. Panicles not thyrsiform. Spikelets 4 to almost 

5 mm. long. Awn S mm. long ... 7. S. fastigiatum. 

In the following treatment of the various species we shall draw largely on R. 
'S. Hole, On some Indian Forest Grasses and their Oecology, in Indian Forest, 
Memoirs, vol. i, pt. 1 (1911), 50-91. 

1. Saccharum spontaneum, Linn. Mant. (1771), 183 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1832), 
235 ; Griff. Ic. PL As. t. 139, f. 63 ; Dalz. and Gibs. 304 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. 
Ind. 15, Indig. Fodd. Grass. 57, Fodd. Grass. N. India, 25 ; Hack. Monogr, 
Androp. 113 ; Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 119 ; Cke. ii, 948 ; Hole in Ind. For. Mem. 
i, pt. 1, (1911), 50 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa (1924), 1011.— 5. scmidecum- 
t>ens, Roxb. 1. c. 236.-5. canaliculatum, Roxb. 1. c. 246.-6". chinense, Nees in 
Hook, et Am. Beechy's Voy. 241.— 6". cegyptiacum var. sinense, Anders, in 
Oefvers. K. Vet. Akad. Forhand. Stockh. (1855), 157 (non S. sinense, Roxb.). 
— S. spontaneum, Linn, subsp. cegyptiacum var. nepalense, Hackel, 1. c. 116.— 
Rheede Hort. Malab. xii, t. 46 (probably). 


284 Jour., Born, Nat, Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXI I, No, 2. [Oct. 20, 1927, 

We have not included the synonyms which Stapf Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 95, has 
given under 5". spontanetim var. csgyptiacum, Hack- as we are not in a position 
to judge whether it is a good variety or not. According to Hole the African forms 
placed under var. csgypliacum differ from the Indian plants chiefly by their" 
slightly larger spikelets. But he finds that this difference is very slight and that 
it fails in the case of some African specimens. ' Considering the great variabili- 
ty of the species in India it seems possible that a more complete knowledge of the 
African plant will prove cegyptiacum to be merely one of the several oecological 
forms which are defined by inconstant characters and which are connected by 
numerous intermediates.' 

Description .-—Stem erect or decumbent at the base, reaching up to 6 m. in 
height and 15 mm. in diam., solid above,, fistular below, terete, indistinctly 
striate, usually pruinose when young, polished when old, silky below the pani- 
cle and minutely silky below the upper leaf-insertions, glabrous or minutely 
pubescent below the lower leaf-insertions. Leaf-sheath longer than proper 
internode, often with reddish or purplish blotches, villous at mouth, often 
minutely pubescent at base, otherwise glabrous or with scattered appressed hairs, 
sulcate. Blade erect, of uppermost leaf of flowering culm usually long, varying 
from 5 cm. to 90 cm. in length, of lower leaves up to 12 m. and even 2 m., 
usually very narrow, often not exceeding 1*5 mm. in width and then consisting 
of a very narrowly margined cancavo-convex midrib, but also attaining a width 
of 16 mm. glaucous, midrib white, margin scabrid, often villous above at base 
immediately behind the ligule. Ligule ovate or deltoid, base often sub-auricled, 
membranous, subacute or subtruncate, often fimbriate when old, up to 6 mm. 
high, minutely silky dorsally and ciliate. Flowering panicle 15-60 cm. long, 
conical or lanceolate to oblong branches horizontally spreading or slightly 
ascending, usually reddish or purplish, with the callus hairs closely appressed to 
the branches of the panicle ; primary rhachis sulcate, silky with long white hairs ; 
primary branches subverticillate, simple or compound. Spikelets in pairs, one 
pedicelled and one sessile on the capillary jointed branches and bran chiefs, aw nless, 
lanceolate, 2-5 mm. long, sessile and pedicelled similar, each one-flowered 
and hermaphrodite, pedicelled fruiting spikelet falling from the pedicel, the 
sessile spikelet falling later with the attached pedicel and joint of axis ; joint of 
axis longer or shorter than sessile spikelet, villous on margins, or on margins 
and dorsally ; pedicel \-\\ the length of the sessile spikelet, but usually shorter 
than spikelet, glabrous or ciliate, shorter than proper joint; callus-hairs white, 
from \\-l times as long as sessile spikelet. Lower involucral glume lanceolate, 
the basal third thickened, becoming hard and polished in fruit and more or less 
brown in colour, the upper two-thirds membranous hyaline, with 2 lateral nerves 
from which the margin is inflexed ; apex entire or minutely bidentate ; margin 
ciliate ; dorsally with the upper two-thirds minutely appressed-pubescent. Upper 
involucral glume broad-lanceolate, similar to the lower, but subkeeled with one 
central nerve ; apex sometimes mucronate ; margin inflexed and long— ciliate. 
Lower floral glume hyaline, nerveless, shorter than upper involucral glume, ovate- 
lanceolate, long— ciliate, minutely pubescent above dorsally. Upper floral 
glume minute, linear, ciliate, hyaline, sometimes 0. Pale minute, ovate, 
ciliate, often shorter than the lodicules. Lodicules 2, cuneate, glabrous or 
ciliate at apex. Anthers 3, yellow, turning brown. Stigmas 2, purple. 

'The horizontally spreading callus-hairs of the fruiting spikelet form an 
efficient parachute which aids its distribution by wind. The hairs of neighbouring 
spikelets becoming entangled together, characteristic flocculent masses of several 
spikelets are often seen being carried by the wind or hanging on the adjacent 
vegetation . ' (H ole) . 

As good field characters we may mention the narrow leaves and slender culms,, 
the long callus-hairs and the brown coriaceous base of the involucral glumes. 

This is a very variable species, and Hole does not think that we are justified in 
making different sub-species or varieties. He distinguishes 3 ecological forms : 

(a) The dry sandy soil-form, a xerophilous type The culms are slender, 

erect and tufted, usually less than 5 mm. diam. The leaves 
exceedingly narrow, sometimes only a little more than 1 mm. wide. 
The callus-hairs not less than 3| times the length of the spikelet. 

(b) The swamp form, a hygrophilous type, found in marshes and swamps 

with an abundance of available moisture more or less throughout the 
year. The culms are stout, 5-15 mm. diam., usually decumbent at 
base and not tufted. Leaves broad, reaching a width of 17 mm, 


Oct. 20, 1927.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 285 

The callus-hairs H-3| times as long as the spikelets. The fruiting 

panicle elongate-elliptic to oblong 'with its branches usually more 

persistent than in other forms. 
(c) The loam-form, intermediate between (a) and (b). The culms are 

more or less decumbent at the base and not tufted, but less robust 

and with longer callus-hairs than in (b). 
Locality: Sind: Shikarpur (Woodrow) ; Mirpur Sakro (Blatter and McCann 
D697 \). — Gujarat : Baroda (Cooke) ; Domas near Surat (Dalzell and Gibson), 
—Khandesh : Dadgaum (McCann 9892 !) ; Northern slope of Chanseli (McCann 
9893!); Bor, Bori River (Blatter and Hallberg 4422 !);— Konkan : Kamana, 
Mahim (Ryan 2205 !); Sakwar, river side (Ryan ? 2080 !); Bassein (Ryan 4 !); 
Karj at (Woodrow), on river bank (McCann!); Vihar Lake (McCann 9,894 !) ; 
Alibag, sandy shore (Ezekiel !) .—Deccan : Igatpuri, on bauks of bund (McCann 
4334!); Poona, river bank (Woodrow). — 5. M. Country : Banks of streams, 
common in the S. Dharwar District (Sedgwick and Bell 3693 !); Haveri (Talbot 
2236 !); Castle Rock (Gammie 15743 !, McCann !); Belgaum (Ritchie) .-Kanara : 
Suppa, bed of Kala Nuddi (Talbot 2196 !) ; Hullikal (Talbot 1348 !). 

Distribution of the species, irrespective of the varieties : Africa (Upper 
Guinea, Nile Land, Mozambique District), Lower Egypt, Arabia, Syria, 
Afghanistan, India, Ceylon, Burma, China, Java, Philippines, New Guinea, 

Uses : A favourite fodder of buffaloes. The leaves are used for thatching 
and brooms. Valuable as a fixing agent for shifting sand and unstable soil. 
For 5". spontaneum as a potential source of paper plup see W. H. Brown and 
A. F. Fischer. Philippine forest products as sources of paper pulp, in Forest. 
Bur. Philipp. Islds. Bull. 16 (1918). 

* 2. Saccharutn officinarum, Linn. Sp. PI. ed 1, 54 ; Roxb. Fl. Tnd., i, 237 ; 
Beauv. Agrost. Explan. planch. 5, t. iv, fig. 10 ; Hack. Monogr. Androp. Ill ; 
Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 118 ; Cke. ii, 948 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1012 ; 
Stapf Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 96. 

Description : Stems up to 6 m. high, many-noded, glabrous or pubscent 
below the panicle, more or less coated w r ith wax below the nodes. Leaf-sheaths 
tight, terete, smooth, glabrous except when young ; ligules very short, mem- 
branous, ciliate ; blades linear-lanceolate, up to 1*5 m. long and over 5 cm. broad 
green above, glaucous below, more or less scabnd along the margins, midrib 
very stout, rounded on the back, more or less flat above. Panicles pyramidal, up 
to 1 m. long, dense, silvery ; primary rhachis glabrous except on the pubescent 
nodes, or more or less silky ; primary branches verticillate or semiverticillate, 
very slender, glabrous or hairy. Racemes up to 10 cm. long, very fragile ; joints 
and pedicels filiform, more or less ciliate or glabrous, the joints variable in 
length, the pedicels much shorter. Spikelets lanceolate, up to 4*2 mm. long, 
surrounded from the callus by a tuft of long silky hairs up to 9 mm. long. In- 
volucral glumes subequal, lanceolate, firm towards the base, otherwise subhyaline 
the lower acute, 2-nerved to sub-4-nerved, glabrous, the upper very similar 
1-3-nerved, glabrous or ciliolate Lower floral glume oblong, acute or subacute, 
hyaline, nerveless, ciliate, about 33 mm. long, upper floral glume subacute, 
ciliate, as long as the lower or 0. Pale, if present, very minute, obovate, ciliate. 
Lodicules broad, cuneate, sparingly ciliolate from the top. Stigmas purplish. 
2*1 mm. long. Grain oblong, attenuated upwards, subterete, flesh-coloured ; 
embryo \ the length of the grain. 

Locality : Grown throughout the Presidency. 

Origin: — There are many indications that S. Asia is the original home of 
the sugarcane. 

* 3. Saccharum arundinaceum, Retz Obs. bot. fasc. IV (1786), 14; Hackel 
Monogr. Androp. 117, excl. syn. 5". exaltatum ; Hook. f. in F. B. I., vii. 119 
excl. syn. 5": ciliare, Anders., S. exaltatum, Roxb., S. munja, Roxb., .S. Sara 
Roxb.; Cke ii, 918, excl. syn. 5". exaltatum, Roxb.; Haines Bot. Bihar and 
Orissa, 1012. S. bengalense, Retz. 1. c. v., 16. .S". procerum, Roxb. Fl. Ind., i, 243. 

Description: A gigantic tufted grass. Culms biennial (? or triennial), 
somewhat with the habit of the sugarcane, branched, often 5 m. high, the 
flowering culms sometimes nearly 9 m. high and over 18 mm. diam., solid. 
Stem glabrous, smooth, or slightly rough with very long internodes. Blade 
reaching 1*8 m. in length and 5 cm. in breadth, with rib stout and as broad 
as the blade at base, keeled below, villous with long silky hairs above, margins 


286 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIl, No. 2. [Oct. 20, 1927. 

cutting-. (According- to Hole the midrib in basal leaves occupies at. base 
i or less of the width of the blade). Upper cauline leaves becoming folded 
and filiform. Leaf-sheaths glabrous. Ligule truncate with a ring or tuft of 
long silky hairs 6-25 mm. distance from its base. Panicle 60 cm. to 1'2 m. 
long, pink, white or silvery, diffuse while flowering, with smooth glabrous 
axis, main branches tufted on the axis, tufts alternate cr subverticillate. 
Spikelets 2'5-3"7 mm. long, much shorter than the internodes of the spike. 
Pedicel^ to equal the length of the sessile spikelet. Joint usually longer than 
sessile spikelet ; majority of pedicels shorter than proper joint. Callus-hairs 
pale, not dense, as long as spikelet (according to Hole shorter than or subequal 
to spikelet) . Hairs of joint overtop the joint by less than to 1| times the length 
of the joint. Sessile spikelet : Lower involucral glume chartaceous, dorsally 
sparsely villous, villi overtopping the glume by about H the length of the 
glume. Upper involucral glume chartaceous, not villous dorsally. Lower 
floral glume not villous dorsally. Mucro of upper floral glume not exserted 
beyond apex of spikelet. Pale ciliate. Pedicelled spikelet : Involucral glumes 
dorsally villous, villi overtopping spikelet by 1-1^ times the length of the spikelet. 
Spikelet sometimes 2-3-flowered with 1-2 additional paleate glumes inside the 
floral glumes. 

Locality : Cultivated in gardens. 

Distribution : Bengal, Assam, Burma, extending into China. It is a 
native of the evergreen zone of India characterized by a rainfall exceeding 70 
in., but is frequently cultivated in gardens throughout India. (Hole). 

4.Saccharum raunja, Roxb Fl. Ind. i (1832), 246 ; Hole in Ind. For. Memoirs, I 
<1911), 62 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1013.— S. Sara, Roxb. 1. c. 244 — 
S-ciliare, Anders, in Oefvers. K. Vet. Akad. Forhand. Stockh. (1855), 
155 ; Hackel Monogr, Androp. 118, excl. vars. Griffithii et Boissieri.—S 
arundinaceum. Hook. f. in F. B. I., vii, 119 {partim) .—S. arundinaceum, var. 
ciliare, Haines in FL Chota Nagpur. 

For explanation of above synonymy see Hole, 1. c. 65-67. 

Description : An erect grass, attaining a height of 5'5 m. and 12 mm. 
diam., pale straw-coloured, smooth, striate, solid. Leaf-sheath shortly silky 
at extreme base, otherwise quite smooth, striate, pale straw-coloured, villous 
on margins at apex with long white hairs usually much longer than proper 
internode, uppermost sheath sometimes extending beyond the base of the 
panicle. Upper leaf of flowering culm 22-70 cm. long, flat, tapering from the 
base, long-acuminate, 5-10 mm. broad. Lower leaves up to 2 and 2'4 m. by 
25 mm., but usually only 18 mm. broad. In basal leaves the concave midrib 
occupies \ or more of width of blade. Colour glaucous, midrib white. Margin 
scabrid as are one or more intramarginal nerves below, otherwise smooth, but 
densely white villous at base behind the ligule. Ligule truncate, usually a 
narrow membranous rim, of upper leaves longer, attaining 3 mm., minutely 
silky dorsally and ciliate. Flowering panicle 30-90 cm. long, usually lanceo- 
late, pale cream-coloured to dark reddish-purple, branches spreading. Fruit- 
ing panicle oblong, branches appressed to the axis, white to greyish-white. 
Primary rhachis glabrous, sulcate, more or less scabrid on the ridges. 
Primary branches subverticillate, compound. Ultimate branchlets triquetrous, 
more or less villous with long white hans on angles and on two faces. Spikelets 
in pairs, one pedicelled and one sessile on the capillary jointed branches and 
branchlets of a terminal panicle, awnless, lanceolate, up to 5 mm. long ; sessile 
and pedicelled similar, each one-flowered and hermaphrodite. Pedicelled 
fruiting spikelet falling from the pedicel, the sessile spikelet falling later with 
the attached pedicel and joint of axis. Joint of axis triquetrous, i to subequal 
the sessile spikelet, but usually shorter than the spikelet, villous on two faces 
and on margins, the villi overtopping the joint by once to twice the length of 
the joint. Pedicels triquetrous, \-% the length of the sessile spikelet, villous 
with long white hairs on two faces and on the angles. Most pedicels shorter 
than proper joint, rarely subequal to the proper joint. Sessile spikelets : 
Lower involucral glume lanceolate, chartfc;ous, with two strong lateral nerves 
and usually 1-4 more or less distinct additional nerves, dorsally long villous 
on basal half or two-thirds, the hairs overtopping the glume by about the 
length of the glume, scabrid dorsally on keels, margin inflexed, sparsely 
ciliate above, apex minutely bidentate to entire. Upper involucral glume 
subequal to the lower, lanceolate, chartaceous, keeled, with one strong central 


Oct. 20, 1927. J Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 287 

nerve and usually 2-4 more or less distinct additional nerves, glabrous dorsal! y 
or minutely pubescent towards apex, scabrid dorsally on keel, margins incurved, 
ciliate above, apex usually shortly mncronate. Lower floral glume oblong- 
lanceolate, hyaline-membranous or little shorter than the upper involucral 
glume, 1-3-nerved, margins incurved, ciliate, apex acute or short mucronate. 
Upper floral glume broad -lanceolate to elliptic, shorter than or subequal to the 
upper involucral glume, hyaline, 1-3-nerved, mucronate, ciliate, mucro short 
to 1'25 mm. long, but not exserted beyond the apex of the spikelet. Pale ovate, 
hyaline, ciliate, from i-f the length of the upper floral glume. Pedicelled 
spikelets similar, but both the involucral glumes are dorsally long villous and 
usually with 3-5 strong nerves and occasionally 2 additional fainter ones. 
Lodicules 2, cuneate, glabrous, 05 mm. long. Anthers 3, pale yellow to 
purple, 2-2'5 mm. long. Stigmas yellow, often tinted with purple, 1-1*5 mm. 

To distinguish this species from Saccharum Ravennce Hole gives the follow- 
ing field-characters : Glaucous narrow leaves, awnless spikelets, smooth 
leaf -sheaths. 

Locality: Sind (Stocks in herb. Boiss. ex Hackel) .— Gujarat :— (Sedgwick 
and Sexton). 

Distribution : Northern India in the Punjab and Upper Gangetic Plain. 

Uses : The fibre of the upper leaf-sheaths is used for mats, ropes, etc. It 
has also been favourably reported on as a paper material (Haines). 

5. Saccharum Griffitbii, Munro ex Aitchis. in Journ. Linn. Soc. xix (1822), 
191 ; Hole in Ind. For. Memoirs i (1911), 68-70.— 5. Sara, Aitchis, 1. c. 191 ; 
Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 453. — ? S.Griffithii, Boiss 1. c. 453, — S. ciliare var. Griffithii 
Hackel Monogr. Androp. 119.— Erianthus Griffithii Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 
122 (partim). 

Description : A caespitose grass. Culms 2 m. high or slightly higher, solid. 
Blade glaucous, narrow, about 8 mm. wide ; midrib at base usually occupies 
■§• or more of width of blade ; sheath not hirsute, nodes not bearded. Rhachis 
of racemes fragile. Spikelets 2 at each node of the rhachis, one sessile and 
finally decidous with the accumbent joint, the other pedicelled finally separating 
from the pedicel, both 1-flowered, hermaphrodite. Spikelets 4-6 mm. long, 
muticous ; pedicel 1-g the length of the sessile spikelet ; joint \— § the length of the 
sessile spikelet. Most pedicels subequal to longer than proper joint ; callus-hairs 
yellow, shorter than to subequal to the spikelet ; hairs of joint overtopping joint 
by once to twice the length of joint. Sessile spikelet : Lower involucral glume 
chartaceous, dorsally densely villous in basal §, villi not overtopping the glume, 
or overtopping by less than \ the length of the glume. Upper involucral glume 
chartaceous, dorsally villous in basal £ or f , villi not overtopping or overtopping 
by less than \ the length of the glume. Lower floral glume sometimes sparsely 
villous dorsally. Upper floral glume with a very short mucro, P5 mm. long, not 
exserted beyond apex of spikelet. Pale ciliate, Pedicelled spikelet : Involucral 
glumes dorsally villous in basal |-|, villi not overtopping or overtopping by less 
than \ the length of the spikelet ; no additional glumes inside the floral glumes. 

Locality : Sind :— Near Hyderabad (Blatter and McCann D698 !); W. of 
Tatta (Blatter and McCann D699 !); near Karachi (ex Hackel I.e.). 

Distribution : Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Punjab, Sind. 

6. Saccharum Ravennae, Linn. Syst. ed. xiii, 88 ; Sibth. & Sm. Fl. Gra?ca, 
t. 52 ; Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ., fig. 1505 ; Stapf Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 97; Haines 
Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1014.— Erianthus Ravennce, Beauv. Agrost 162 ; 
Roem. and Schult. Syst. ii, 323 ; Hack. Monogr. Androp. 139 ; Hook. f. 
F. B. I. vii, 121 ; Stapf in Kew Bull. (1907), 208 ; Nees Gen. Fl. Germ. t. 90 ; 
Boiss. Fl. Or. vi, 455 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 15, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 26 ; 
Cke. ii, 949 ; Hole in Ind. For. Memoirs, i (1911), 87.— A ndropogon Ravennce, 
Linn. Sp. PL ed. ii, 1481 ; Host. Gram. Austr., lii, 1, t, 1. — Ripidium Ravennce \ 
Trin. Fund. 169. 

Description : Culms erect, up to 6 m. high and 17 mm. thick, solid, often 
slightly fistular just below the panicle, smooth and polished, striate, shortly and 
finely bearded at the leaf insertions- Leaf-sheath hirsute with bulbous-based 
hairs, the latter varying in colour from white to yellow or brown, the hairs being 
more or less deciduous and old sheaths are often rough with the persistent bul- 
bous bases ; upper sheaths glabrescent, always longer than the proper internode, 
long ciliate on margins towards the apex. Blade of uppermost leaf of flowering 


288 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 2. [Oct. 20, 1927. 

culm from 20 cm. long and 6 mm. wide, linear and tapering from base, to 75 
cm. long and 16 mm. wide with greatest width about the middle ; lower leaves 
usually l'2-l*5m. long and 25 mm. wide, but also attaining a length of 1*8 m. 
and width of 38 mm., broadest about the middle, sometimes in upper third, dark 
green, midrib white, apex acuminate, narrowed towards the base, in basal leaves 
the concave midrib occupies \ or more of width of lamina at base, often the 
entire width of the leaf, densely villous above towards the base with bulbous- 
based hairs, more or less scaberulous along nerves, margins scabrid. Ligule a 
narrow membranous rim not longer than 175 mm., entire, rounded or deeply 
2-lobed. patently hairy dorsally with stiff white hairs, ciliate. Panicle 30-90 cm. 
long, lanceolate, dense or somewhat lax and lobed, silvery silky, with a tinge of 
grey and purple, or quite white ; primary rhachis sulcate, glabrous, smooth below, 
scabrid on the ridges ; branches slender, solitary from the distant nodes, divided 
from the base, up to 20 cm. long, branchlets unequal, divided again, glabrous 
except at the nodes. Racemes sessile or the lower more or less peduncled, 
narrow to oblong ; joints and pedicels filiform, long ciliate, with thickened tips, 
the latter shorter than the joints- Callus-hairs shorter than to subequal to 
length of spikelet, purplish or brownish. Sessile spikelet : Lower involucral glume 
lanceolate with 2 lateral keels, dorsally flat or depressed between the keels, apex 
2-mucronulate, one or both margins incurved, dorsally scabrid on keels, 
otherwise glabrous, or more or less villous dorsally, villi not overtopping the 
glume, or overtopping by less than \ the length of the glume, 2-nerved, some- 
times with 1-2 additional faint nerves between the keels- Upper involucral 
glume subequal to the lower, with a central keel, mucronate, margin incurved, 
ciliate, dorsally scabrid on keel, otherwise glabrous or more or less villous 
dorsally, villi not overtopping the glume, or overtopping by less than \ the 
length of the glume, 1-nerved and sometimes 1 or 2 partial lateral nerves. 
Lower floral glume slightly shorter than upper involucral glume, oblong-lanceo- 
late, hyaline, apex mucronate or acute, dorsally glabrous., margin incurved, 
ciliate above, 1-3-nerved- Upper floral glume usually f the length of the lower, 
ovate-lanceolate, hyaline, margin incurved, ciliate, longf-awned, awn 2*5-6 mm. 
long, 3-nerved. Pale about f the length of the upper floral glume, ovate- 
lanceolate, hyaline, glabrous, nerveless. Lodicules 2, cuneate, glabrous. Anthers 
3, yellow streaked with purple- Stigmas yellow- Pedicel led spikelet like the 
sessile, but involucral glumes often strongly 3-nerved and hairy. 

Can easily be distinguished from Saccharum munja by its distinctly awned 
spikelets, the broader dark green leaves and hairy leaf -sheaths- (Hole). 

Locality : Sind—L,%k\ (Bhide !) ; Khairpur Mirs, sandy plain (Sabnis 
B226 !) ; Sehwan (Sabnis B36 !, B664 !) ; Larkana (Sabnis B444 !, Cooke) ; 
Pad-Idan (Sabnis B498 !, B509 !) ; Sukkar (Sabnis B552 !) ; Nasarpur, sandy 
plains (Sabnis B1049 !) ; Umarkot, sandy plains (Sabnis B1211 !) ; Sanghar 
(Sabnis B900 !) ; Jamesabad (Sabnis B968 !) ; Phuleli Canal, on banks (Sabnis 
B195 !) ; Mirva Canal, sandv banks (Sabnis B258 !) ; Khairpur forests (Sabnis 
B329 !) ; Sita Road (Sabnis B367 !) ; Sehwan to Laki, foot of hills (Sabnis B60! , 
BUI !) ; Mirpur Sakro (Blatter and McCann D694 !) ; Chuar Chemali (Blatter 
and McCann D695 !) ; Indus Delta (Blatter and McCann D696 !) ; Karachi 
(Cooke, Woodrow). — Deccan : College Garden, Poona (Garade !)- 

Distribution : Western Himalaya, Punjab, Upper Gangetic Plain, Sind, 
extending westwards to the Mediterranean. 

Uses : The culms are used for making screens, etc. The leaves quickly 
decay and are therefore useless for thatching. 

7. Saccharum fastigiatum, Steud Syn. Gram. (1855), 409; Haines Bot. Bihar 
and Orissa, 1014. Erianthus fastigiatus, Nees ex Steud. 1. c. ; Hack. Monogr 
Androp. 150 ; Hook. f. in P. B. I., vii, 125 ; Cke. ii, 949. 

Description ; Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : S. M. Country :— Belgaum (Ritchie 792). 

Distribution : Sikkim, Khasia, Assam, Bengal, Chota Nagpur, Orissa, 
W. Peninsula. 

23. Spodiopogon, Trin., Cke. ii, 947. 

Spodiopogon albidus, Benth. in Journ. Linn. Soc 19 (1881), 66 ; Hackel 
Monogr. Androp, 185 ; F. B. I. vii, 108 ; Cke. ii, 947- — Andropogon rhizophorus 
Steud. Syn. Gram. 381 ; Dutbie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 26. — Andropogan petiolatus, 
Dalz. Bomb. Fl. (1861), 30,3. 

Description : Cke ii, 947. 


Ocl. 20, 1927.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 289 

Locality: Khandesh : Toranmal (McCann 9886 1, 9888) \—Konkan ■: W, 
Ghats (Woodrow 157) .; Warsai, near Perm (Bhide !) ; Perm (McCann 5374A !) ^ 
Below Palli Hill, Bandra (Ryan I) ; Tungar, Bassein (Bhide !) ; Salsette (Jac* 
quemont 708) ; Matheran (Cooke) ; Matheran, Harrison's Springs (D'Almeida 
A242 \).—Deccan : Lonavla (Bhide !, McCann !, Woedrowj ; Khandala, very 
common (MeCann, 9401 !) ; Khandala to Karjat (Blatter and Hallberg 5325 !),* 
Gaaeshkhiad Bot. Gardens, Kirkee (Gammie !.) ; Sinhagad Forest, Poona 
District (Bhide !) ; Lohagad, upper half (McCann 9437!); Purandhar Fort 
(McCann 5004 !); I^atpuri, common (McCann 4327); Mahableshwar (Cooke).; 
Mahableshwar to Pratapgad (Bhide 1182 \).—S. M. Country : Derikop, forest 
(Sedgwick 1862 '!■).— Kanara :• (McCann!) ; Arbail Ghat (Sedgwick and Bell 
3168 !) ; Suppa (Talbot, 279 !)• 

Distribution : Central Provinces, Rajputana, W. Peninsula. 

24. Pogonathertjm, Beauv., Cke. ii, 965- 

1. Hairs of callus longer than the spikelet...l. P. crinitum. 

2. Hairs of callus shorter than the spikelet...2, P*. saccharoideum. 

1. Pogonatherum crinitum, Kunth Enum. PI. ] (1833) , 478 ; Hook, f. in F, B. I. vii, 
141 ; Cke- ii, 935- — P- saccharoideum var- monandrum, Hack- Monogr, Androp. 
193- —P. polystachyum, Kunth Revis- Gram- 493.— P. refractum, Nees in Hook, et 
Arn. Beechy's Voy. 239-— Pollinia monandra, Spreng. Syst. i, 288-— Pogonopsis 
ienera, Presl. Rel.Hasnk. i, 133, t- 46-- 1 'schcemum crinitum , Trin. in Mem. Acad. 
Petersb. ser. vi, ii (1833), 298-— Andropogon crinitus, Thunb, Fl. Jap. 40, t. 1 ■— 
JL. monandries Roxb, Fl- Ind, i, 2§&— Pogonatherum, Griff. Notul. hi. 81, la PI. 
As- t. 145, fig. 2, 

Description : Cke, ii, 965- 

Locality: Kanara: Sirsi (Gammie !); Sumpkund, in a cutting (McCann 
9947 !, Woodrow !); Nilkhund Ghat on steep bank along roadside (Talbot 
781 !) ; Gersoppa Falls (Talbot 2671 !, McCann, 9939 !)• 

Distribution : More or less all over India, Afghanistan, China, Malaya, New 

*2. Pogonatherom saccharoideum, Beauv. Agrost. 56, 1. 11, fig. 11 ; Duthie Grass. 
N. W. Ind. 16, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 27 ; F. B. I. vii, 141 ; Cke. ii, 966 ,• Haines 
Bot. Bihar and Orissa, 1017. — P. saccharoideum var, genuinum, Hack. Monogr. 
Androp. 193.— /*. polystachyum., Roem. and Sch. Syst. ii, 497 .—Pollinia polys- 
iachys, Spreng. Syst. i, 288 ; Kunth Rev. Gram. 493, t 162 .—Saccharum 
paniceum, Lamk. Encycl. i, 595, illust. t. 40. fig. 31.— The Bamboo Grass- 

Description : A much tufted, branched and very leafy elegant grass, 30-60 
cm. high ; stem firm or almost woody, slender, polished, from a perennial 
Woodstock ; nodes on stem glabrous or bearded. Leaves 2'5-6"5 cm. long 
up to 2*5 mm. broad, linear, acuminate, bearded at the base and margins of 
sheaths. Spikes 17 mm. to 5 cm. long, terminating all the branches ; rhachis 
compressed and pedicel bearded ; each spikelet with 2 long fine scaberulous 
awns 15-25 mm. long. Sessile spikelet : Lower involucral glume narrow-oblong, 
broadest above, faintly 2-4-nerved, tip bearded. Upper involucral glume the 
largest, conduplicate, 25 mm. long, 1-nerved, keel produced into a long awn, 
tip densely ciliate. Lower floral glume sometimes absent. Pale of upper floral 
glume broadly ovate-oblong, much exceeding the minute ovary. Pedicelled 
spikelet about f-f the length of the sessile. 

Locality : Grown in gardens. 

Distribution : Hilly parts of India from the Punjab to Bhutan, Burma and 
China, southwards to Central India and Ceylon, Malaya* 

25. Eulalia, Kunth ; Stapf Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 97, 
(Formerly under Pollinia, Trin.— Cke. ii, 950). 
Perennial. Culms sample, erect or ascending. Leaf-blades convolute when 
young, then flat, usually narrow, gradually passing into the sheath. Racemes 
often coloured, brown or purplish. Spikelets all alike or nearly so, one sessile, 
the other pedicelled on the articulate fragile rhachis of 2-nate, digitate or 
fascicled spike-like racemes, the pedicelled falling from their pedicels, the 
sessile deciduous together with the contiguous joint of the rhachis and the 
pedicel. Involucral glumes equal or somewhat unequal, rigidly membranous to 
coriaceous, the lower dcrsally flattened or shallowly concave (never grooved), 


290 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 2. [Oct. 20, 1927 

more or less 2-keeled with inflexed margins, the upper 1-3-nerved, keeled. 
Lower floral glume empty, sometimes much reduced, muticous, hyaline ; upper 
floral glume very short, 2-lobed, awned, pale small or 0. Lodicules small, 
cuneate. Stamens 3. Stigmas linear, laterally ex-erted- Grain oblong ; embryo 
almost half the length of the grain or longer ; hilum basal, punctiform. 
Species about 25, in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World. 

1. Ra :emes many, 6-12 1- E. argentea. 

2. Racemes few, 2-4 2. E. fimbriata. 

1. Eulalia argentea, Brogn. Voy. Coq. Hot. 92; Haines Bot. Bihar and 
Orissa, 1018.— Pollinia argentea, Trim in Bull Sc Acad. Petersb. i (1836), 71 ; 
Hackel Monogr. Androp. 162 ; Hook, f . in F. B. I. vii, 111 ; Cke. ii, 950. — 
P. tristac/iya, Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. 368 {partim) ; Duthie Fodd. Grass. N.W. 
Ind. 26, t. Si.—Erianthushexastachyus, Hochst, in Hohen. PI. Ind. Or. no. 279. 
— E. Roxburghii, F. Muell. Fragm. Phyt. viii, 117 ' .—Andropogon tristachyus, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 256. 

Description: Cke. ii, 950. 

Locality: Khandesh : Tapti Valley, railway line (Bhide !).— Konkan : Ratna- 
giri (Woodrow) -; Near Ratnagiri (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; St. Xavier's 
College compound, Bombay (McCann 4510 !) ; Parsik Hill (McCann 9715 !) ; 
above Kenery Caves (McCann 9723!) ; Ghatkoper, Horse-shoe Valley (McCann 
9891!); Marine Lines, Bombay (Hallberg 9889!); Bassein (McCann 9475!); 
Vetora (Sabnis 33507 \).—Deccan : Lonavla (Bhide!, McCann!, Woodrow, 
Lisboa) ; Khandala, very common (McCann 9716 ! ) ; Lohagad, way up (MiCann. 
9718 ! ; Panchgani (Blatter 5388 !. Blatter and Hallberg B. 1213 !, McCann !) ; 
Mawal (Woodrow)-— 5. M . Country: Dharwar District (Sedgwick 2112!); 
Dastikop (Sedgwick 2088 !) ; Castle Rock (Bhide !, McCann A. 304 !).— Kanara: 
SuppaTaluka(Talbot 2257!); Jugglepet(Talbot 1569!) ; Yellapore (Talbot 1525!); 
Halyal (Talbot 2224!); Kumberwada (Talbot 2257!); Dandeli (Talbot 
2267 !). 

Distribution : Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, Australia. 

2. Eulalia fimbriata. Blatter and McCann, comb, nova.— Pollinia fimbriata, 
Hackel Monogr. Androp. 164 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 112 ; Cke. ii, 950. 

Description .-Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Konkan: Dahe Forest (Ryan 708!)'; Uran (McCann, 5123!); 
Trombay (McCann 305!) ; Matherau, Monkey Point (D'Almeida A. 254 ! , 
A. 255 !). — Deccan : Lonavla (Chibber 11 !, Woodrow 173) ; Khandala, common 
(McCann 5300!). 

Distribution. W. Himalaya, W. Peninsula, Pegu. 

26. Sorghum, Pers. Syn. i, 101 ; Stapf Fl. Trop. Afr., ix, 104. 
Annual or perennial, often robust, grasses. Leaf -blades convolute in bud, 
usually flat, herbaceous, often large. Panicles erect or nodding with verticillate 
or scattered branches, often large, in the spontaneous species mostly loose, in 
the cultivated forms frequently variously contracted to compact. Spikelets 
2-nate, those of each pair differing in shape and sex, one sessile, the other 
pedicelled or represented by a pedicel only, on the articulate fragile or (in 
cultivated forms) tough rhachis of panicled few- (sometimes- 1 or, the other 
extreme, 6-8-) jointed racemes, the sessile spikelet falling with the contiguous 
joint and the accompanying pedicelled spikelet or at least its pedicel. Florets 
2, lower reduced to an empty valve, upper hermaphrodite in the sessile, male 
or neuter in the pedicelled spikelets, if present at all. Sessile spikelet: In- 
volucral glumes equal, coriaceous, at least when mature, rarely permanently 
chartaceous, muticous. Lower with a broad flattened or convex back with the 
margins narrowly inflexed near the tips and elsewhere involute. Upper 
cymbiform with narrow hyaline, usually upwards ciliate margins. Lower floral 
glume empty, hyaline, ciliate, 2-nervedor nerveless. Upper oblong to ovate, 
1-3-nerved, 2-lobed or dentate, with the lobes free or more or less adnate to a 
perfect or variously reduced awn or a mucro rising from the sinus, rarely 
entire and mucronate or muticous, Pale hyaline, often minute or 0. Lodi- 
cules 2, ciliate or glabrous. Stamens 3. Stigmas laterally exserted ; styles 
terminal or subterminal. Grain in the wild species mostly obovoid, dorsally 
compressed, in cultivated forms frequently enlarged, globose or subglobose ; 
embryo as long or slightly longer than half the grain. Pedicelled spikelets, if 
present, much narrower than the sessile, lanceolate to subulate, male or neuter 


Oct> 20, 1927.] Revision of the Flora of Ihe Bombay Presidency 291 

sometimes reduced to the glumes or one glume only or quite suppressed. In- 
volucral glumes permanently herbaceous, awnless like the hyaline 2-1-nerved 
ciliate floral glumes. 

Accordingto Stapf (Fl. Trop. Afr., ix, 105) there are about 35 wild species 
in the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres, very few extending 
into the temperate zones. One group of forms is widely cultivated in the tropics, 
particularly in Africa. 

The classification of the material belonging to the section Eu-sorghum 
forms a difficult problem, which we are not prepared to tackle at present. The 
difficulties are well explained by Stapf (I.e.), and we cannot refrain from 
quoting the passage, though somewhat length}', because it may be a help to 
workers on this genus and induce them, at the same time, to subject the vast 
material available in the Presidency to a more scientific examination and exact 
taxonomic treatment, by which Botany as well as Agriculture will profit. 

Those species, says Stapf, 'which come under consideration in this work 
(Flora of Tropical Africa) have with two exceptions (S. purpureo-sericeum and 
5. versicolor) been placed by Hackel in one vast species, Andropogon 
Sorghum, the leading idea being that they were all derived from one wild an- 
cestor, the old Holms halepensis, Linn. Piper, however, has recently advan- 
ced good reasons why this is extremely improbable. He has pointed out that 
the Linnean Holcus halepensis {Andropogon Sorghum, subsp. halepensis, 
var. genuinus, Hack.) is aperenn ; al type almost confined to the Mediterranean 
region {sensu lato) and absent from tropical Africa which is the home of most of 
the spontaneous annual forms and probably also the cradle of most of the 
cultivated races known collectively as Guinea corn {Andropogon Sorghum, 
subsp. sativus, Hack.) . To these spontaneous annuals and the cultivated forms 
he confines the name Andropogon Sorghum, and dealing in particular with the 
former he groups them under 11 subspecies, whilst he abstains from attempting 
to classify the latter. Most of Piper's subspecies are here recognized as definite 
units, but with the status of species, a procedure which seems to have the advan- 
tage of simplicity and directness, whilst it leaves the door open to any theoreti- 
cal grouping which may in the future be desirable. The same reasoning has 
been applied to the cultivated forms. Hence the breaking up of Hackel's 
Andropogon Sorghum, var. sativus. Koernicke, who made the first com- 
prehensive attempt to classify them, relied for that purpose exclusively on 
characters exhibited by mature infructescences, especially their degree of 
looseness or contraction and the colours of the ripe glumes and grains ; but 
Hackel in his monograph introduced characters taken from the shape of the 
spikelets . The grain being in most cases the thing aimed at in the evolution of 
these very numerous races, it is clear that artificially introduced modifications 
must from the beginning have tended in the grain-state to obscure or repress 
the phytogenetically important features in so far as they were economically 
indifferent or undesirable. It seemed therefore, more promising to base the 
primary grouping on the comparison of the flowering stages, which might be 
expected to be more or less outside the influence of the artificially moulding 
forces of man. Within these primary groups, which are treated here as species, 
nothing more than a purely artificial arrangement can for the present be 
attempted. An exhaustive treatment of the hundreds of races which have been 
given distinctive popular names would, even if it were possible, be beyond the 
scope of a colonial flora.' 

If Stapf, with all the facilities of Kew and the British Museum and other 
European herbaria at his disposal, complains about * the very rudimentary state 
of our knowledge and of our collections ' nobody can reasonably expect that 
we should bring order into the chaotic state of the Sorghum question in India. 
Years of intensive study of Indian and African forms are required to bring the 
intricate problem nearer its solution. 

For the present we follow Haines in retaining the old species of 6". halepense 
and 5. vulgure. Of species not known from the Presidency before we add 
►S. subglabrescens, Schweinf. & Aschers. and £\ nitidum, Pers. This, we 
admit, is not quite satisfactory, but it is all we can offer at the present state of 
our knowledge and with the material at our disposal in India. 

In order to enable Indian botanists to utilize Stapf 's and Piper's investiga- 
tions in the further study of the genus Sorghum we shall add, in the way of an 
appendix, the descriptions of those species which Stapf has described from 
tropical Africa and which have also been observed in India, whether in the 


292 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Sec, Vol. XXXII, No. 2. [Oct, 20, 1927. 

Presidency or outside it. It is only in this way that we shall be able to co-ordi- 
nate the knowledge obtained on so widely spread a* genus like Sorghum 
and it would not help botanical science to start the investigations of Indian 
Sorghums on independent lines without constant reference to the work done in 
other fields. It might be easier and perhaps also more convenient for certain* 
practical purposes, but on the whole certainly less scientific and in the long rum 
more confusing. 

A. Wild species 

I. Racemes up to 4-noded 

1. Primary branches of panicle divided 

(a) Stems up to 4*5 m. high ... 1. S. halepense: 

(b) Stem about 75 cm. high ... 2. S. subglabreseens. 
2: Primary branches ©f panicle simple ... 3. 5. purpureo-seri- 


II. Racemes 2-8-noded .». ... 4. 5". mtidum. 

B. Cultivated species ,., ... 5. S. vulgare. 

I. Sorghum halepense, Pers. Svn. i (1805), 101.— Andropogon halepensi^ 
Brot. PL Lusit. i (1804), 89; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 182; Cke. \\ r 983 > 
Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1033. 

Vern. Names : Boru, baru ; called Johnson Grass in America. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Gujarat: Ahmedabad (Gammie 16389!); Perim Isl., Gulf of 
Cambay (Blatter 3813!).— Khandesh : Toranmal (McCann 9643 !) ; Khadgauir* 
(McCann 9642 \).—Konkan : Bassein Port (Chibber 138 !) ; Kase forest, Dhants 
Range (Ryan 1919 !> ; Vetora (Sabnis 33072 !) ; Trombay (McCann A. 269 !) ; 
Bycul la (McCann 965S !).— Deccan : Ganeshkhind Botanic Gardens (Herb. 
Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; Purandhar (McCann 5001 !)•; Khandala, railway line neaF 
Rama's Bed (McCann 9426!) ; Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg B, 1302!).— 
S. 31. Country: Kunnur, 2,000 ft., rainfall 35 " (Sedgwick and Bell 4964!); 
near Kilgerry (Talbot 2617 \}.—Kanara : Halyai Fort (Talbot 2006 •!•). 

Distribution : Most warm countries. 

Uses: A good .fodder grass. The grain is eaten. See Vinalle,H. N. : A study 
of the literature concerning poisoning of cattle by prussic acid in Sorghum^ 
Sudan grass and Johnson grass, Journ. Amer. Soe. Agron. 13 (1921),, 267-80- 
Gives remedies for hydrocyanic acid poisoning.. 

2. Sorghum sirbglabrescens, Schweinf. 8t Asehers. in Beitr. FI. Aethiop^ 
302, 306 ; Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 137.— Andropogon subglabreseens, Steud. 
Syn. PL Glum. i> 393.— .4. Sorghum, subsp. sativus, var. subglabreseens 
Hack, in Monogr. Androp. 519 ; Chiovenda in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma vii, 25 
Description : Annual. Culms (Stapf saw only a meagre specimen) slender 
almost simple, 75 cm. high, about 8-noded, internodes, except the uppermost 
shorter than the sheaths. Leaf -sheaths finely pubescent at the nodes ; ligules- 
very short, shortly ciliate from the back ; blades linear from a broad (middle 
and upper leaves) or slightly narrowed (lower leaves) base,, long-attenuated 
upwards, up to 20 by 1"7 cm., green, flushed with red, quite glabrous. Panicle 
oblong, erect, 8*5 by almost 25 cm., contracted, moderately dense ; branches; 
scattered, erect, the longest not much over 2*5 cm., long and undivided for about 
12 mm. from the base, almost simple, scabrous to spinulously ciliate, sparingly 
hairy at the base. Racemes tough, up to 4-noded and 8*5-10'6 mm. long, dense ; 
Joints rather stout, up to 2 mm. long, shortly whitish-ciliate ; pedicels very 
similar, up to 1 mm. long. Sessile spikelet oblong, actue in flower, broad- 
ovoid or ellipsoid in fruit, 63 by 3*3 mm., at length variegated, awned ; callus- 
beard scanty, 1 mm. long. Involucral glumes equal, gaping when mature, 
more or less coriaceous and glossy in the lower third, spongy-subcoriaceous and 
constricted about the middle, then papery, more or less whitish strigillose, at 
length sometimes almost glabrous ; lower finely 13-nerved, nerves showing above 
the coriaceous base, keels rather sharp, scabrid, running into minute teeth, be- 
tween which the minute hyaline tip protrudes , the coriaceous part rich maroon 
to almost black, followed by a pale transverse zone, then violet or purple across 
the middle, the broad triangular somewhat depressed tip straw-colour or 
reddish upwards ; upper glume almost as broad as the lower, 9-nerved, slightly 
keeled, coloured like the lower. Floral glumes ciliate; lower broad- oblong, up to> 
almost 5*3 mm. long ; upper ovate, subentire, 3*3 mm. long, awn up to 12'7 mm. 
long, sharply bent, column stout A twisted* equalling the bristle. Grain exposed 


Oct. 20, 1927.] Revision of the Ftora of the Bombay Presidency 293 

upwards between the gaping glumes, equalling or slightly exceeding them, 
obovoid, 4*2 mm. long, more or less orange ; embryo-mark and nerves obscure. 
Pedicelled spikelet neuter, persistent, linear-lanceolate, acute, 5 - 3 mm. long and 
more, reddish, lower involucral glume up to 11-, upper 7-nerved. 

Locality : Mahratta Country (Young, ex Stapf). 

Distribution : Abyssinia, tropical Arabia. 

Note : According to Stapf the specimen from India is a smaller variety of the 
type just described. 

3. Sorghum purpureo-sericeum, Aschers. & Schweinf. in Schweinf, Beitr. 
Fl. Aethiop. 302, 306 ; Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr., ix, 1^0. —Andropogon purpureo- 
sericeus, Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. FL Abyss, ii (1851), 469 ; Hack, in Monogr. 
Androp. 524 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 185 ; Cke. ii, 984. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Gujarat: GarviDangs, in a field (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona!).— 
Khandesh (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona!); Bhusawal (McCann 5224 !).— Deccan : 
Poona, above the Ghats (teste W. Burns).— S. M. Country : Kolhapur (Wood- 
row !) ; Belgaum (Ritchie 887).— Kanara : N. Kanara ( Woodrow 40 ! ) . 

Distribution : Central Provinces, W. Peninsula, tropical Africa. 

4. Sorghum niddum, Pers. Synops. i, 101 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1034. 
—Andropogon nitidus, Kunth, Revis. Gram, i, 166.— A. serratus, Thunb. Fl. 
Jap. 41 ; Hack, in Monogr. Androp. 520.— Anatherum nitidum, Spreng. Syst. 
i, 290.— Andropogon fuscus, J. S. Presl in C. B. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. i, 342.— 
A. consimilis, Steud. Syn. i, 394.— A. pedicellatus, Steud. 1. c. 394. — Holcus 
fulvus, R. Br. Prodr. 199.— Sorghum fulvttm, Beauv. ap. Roem. et. Schult. 
Syst. ii, 840. —Chrysopogon fuscus, Trin. in Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 360. 

Description : A tall tufted grass, l-2'4 m. high, densely villous at the nodes. 
Leaves 10-75 cm. by 8-20 mm., setaceously acuminate, glabrous or sparsely hairy 
on both surfaces, hairs often tubercle-based, midrib broad, prominent, white ; 
sheaths terete below, keeled upward, more or less hairy ; mouth silky-villous ; 
ligule very short, truncate. Panicle 10-30 cm. long, oblong, lax, subsimple, 
rhachis glabrous, branches capillary, about equalling the spikes, glabrous or 
scaberulous, whorls distant. Spikes 8-37 mm. long, red-brown ; joints and 
pedicels % to f the length of the sessile spikelets, margins shortly villous. Sessile 
spikelets broadly ellipsoid, callus rounded (Haines), or acute (Hook. f.). 
Lower involucral glume coriaceovis, broadly oblong or elliptic acute or obtuse,, 
dorsally flattened with incurved margins, brown-hairy and keels hispid, 7- 
nerved, or about 3-nerved between keels, sometimes nearly black, polished. 
Upper involucral glume broadly cymbiform with rounded back, lanceolate, 
acute, 1-nerved, hairy upwards. Lower floral glume as long as or shorter than 
the upper involucral glume, hyaline, margins inrolled, 2-keeled, ciliate ; upper 
floral glume linear-oblong, 2-lobed, awned or not. Pedicellate spikelet linear- 
oblong, pale or greenish with brown hairs. Lower involucral glume oblong, 
rounded or sub-truncate, dorsally depressed and 2-nerved between the keels ; 
upper equal, rather narrower, obtuse margins much inflexed, 3-nerved between 
keels. Lower floral glume hyaline, linear. 

Locality : Kanara : Tinai (Talbot 2574 !) ; Sambiani (Talbot 1337 !) ; Sirsi 
to Sidderpur (Hallberg and McCann A 270 !). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, Nicobars, Asia, tropical Australia. 

5. Sorghum vulgare, Pers. Syn. i, 101 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1033. 
—Andropogon Sorghum, Brot. Fl. Lus. i, 88. 

Description : Stout, usually tall annual grasses. Leaves broadly linear with 
a prominent white midrib. Panicle usually thyrsiform decompound with 
crowded whorls of erect branches and branchlets, rarely subeffuse. Rhachis of 
spike tenaceous, joints when forcibly separated leaving a ragged scar at the tip. 
Pedicelled spikelets usually neuter, pedicels short. 

This is the Great Millet or Jowar, cultivated in most parts of the Presidency. 
(See H. H. Mann, Fodder Crops of W. India. Dept. Agr. Bombay, Bull. 
11 of 1916, and G. L. Kottur, Classification and Description of the Jowars 
of the Bombay Karnatik, Dept. Agr. Bombay Bull. 92 and others.) 

After what we have said above we do not consider it advisable to enter into a 
description of the numerous varieties and torms. But we may mention in this 
place that a variety common in the Presidency, viz. S. vulgare var. Roxburghii^ 
Hackel in Monogr. Androp. 510 has been described as a species by Stapf under 



Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 2. [Oct. 20, 1927, 

the name of 5. Roxburghii in Fl. Trop. Afr., ix, 126. The description will be 
given in the following appendix to the genus Sorghum. 

1. S. verticilliflorum. 



Species of Sorghum described from Africa by Stapf which also occur in India 
All the information is taken from Stapf, mostly almost verbatim. 
A. Mature sessile spikelets deciduous with the 
adjoining joint of the rhachis and its 
pedicelled companion : spontaneous grasses 
Matiire sessile spikelets persistent : cultivated 

Mature glumes whollycoriaceousorthe lower 
with a herbaceous triangular tip, its nerves 
not visible on the back except at the tip, 
particularly when this is herbaceous 
Mature panicles more or less loose, usually 
with arched or drooping branches, never 
quite compact 
(a) Sessile spikelets ovate or elliptic to 
* Mature spikelets pale straw-colour, 
permanently more or less hairy ; the 
grain embraced below by the tightly 
appressed glumes 




* * Mature spikelets bright tawny early 
glabrescent ; the grain almost wholly 2. 
exposed between the involute glumes... 
(b) Sessile spikelets broadly obovate in 

outline ... 3. 

Mature panicles very dense to compact, 
rarely more or less loosened owing to the 
reduction of the primary axis and the 
consequent subdigitate arrangement of 
the branches 
Mature glumes thinly crustaceous to papery, 

the tips brittle and breakng irregularly. 

Back of spikelets longitudinally striate. 

Sessile spikelets 6 - 3-85 mm. long. Pedi- 
celled spikelets 7*6-10 mm. long ... 5. 

Sessile spikelets 5—6*3 mm. long. 
Pedicelled spikelets up to 6 3 mm. long 6. 

5"- Roxburghii, var. 

S. Roxburghii, var. 

S. bicolor, var. 

4. 5". Durra. 

S. papyrascens. 

S. cernuum. 

* 1. Sorghum verticilliflorum, Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 116.— 5. halepense, Nees 
Fl. Afr. Austr. 88, non Pers.—Andropogon verticil liflorus, Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, 
i, 393. — A. Sorghum, subsp. halepensis , var. effusus, Hack. inMonogr. Androp. 
503 (Partim)--A. Sorghum verticilliflorus, Piper in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash, 
xxviii, 37— A. halepensis, var. effusus, Stapf in Dyer, Fl. Cap. vii, 346 (partim). 

Description : An annual. Culms l"2-2*4 m. high, sometimes slightly pruinose 
below the nodes- Leaf-sheaths delicately silky-pubescent at the nodes ; ligules 
up to over 2 mm. long, scarious, hairy on the back ; blades linear from a 
broad rounded and often clasping base, long attenuated upwards, up to 45 cm. 
long, rarely over 25 mm. wide, green, sometimes slightly glaucous or flushed 
with purple, hairy just behind the ligule, otherwise glabrous. Panicle oblong to 
ovoid-oblong, often rather contracted and more or less nodding at first, then 
spreading out and more erect, up to 37 cm. long and ultimately 15-22 cm. 
wide ; branches slender, flexuous, whorled, longest up to 22 cm. long and 
undivided to up to 5, rarely 7\S cm. from the base, distantly branched, slightly 
and shortly hairy to villous at the base, like the branchlets more or less rough, 
at least upwards. Racemes fragile, up to 5-, but mostly 2- or 3-noded, rarely 
over 18 mm- long ; joints slender, 3*3-4*2 mm. long, shortly ciliate, cilia dirty 
white or pale fulvous, often wilh a tinge of purple ; pedicels similar, slightly 
shorter, their tips subdiscoid- Sessile spikelet ovate to ovate-lanceolate, shortly 
acuminate to acute, 37-4*5 mm. by 15-2"2 mm., straw-coloured, greenish 
towards the tips (at least when young), sometimes tinged with purple, ultimately 


Oct. 20, 192/.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 295 

often turning bright or blackish-red particularly below ; callus-beard less than 
1 mm. long. Involucral glumes equal, coriaceous, slightly glossy below (more 
so when ripening), thinner upwards, lower usually slightly bulging below and 
somewhat depressed towards the tips, 11-13-nerved, with the nerves very obscure 
near the tips or more or less marked, sharply 2-keeled and scabrid to spinulously 
ciliolate in the upper half or third, more or less strigillose, often glabrescent, 
rarely almost glabrous, hairs pale whitish or fulvors, loosely appres^ed, upper 
sharply keeled towards the tips with the keel rough, 7-nerved, more or less hairy. 
Floral glumes conspicuously ciliate, lower lanceolate, 5*3 mm. long, upper 
ovate, shortly 2-lobed, 22 mm. long ; awn fine, 1*3-1'7 cm. long. Anthers 3*3 mm. 
long. Grain obovate-oblong, 3*3 mm. by 02 mm., fuscous, paler below; 
embryo-mark distinct, hardly exceeding the middle of the grain. Pedicelled 
spikelet male or neuter, early deciduous, subulate-lanceolate to linear, acutely 
acuminate, 63 mm. long, pale greenish, often tinged with red or purple ; lower 
involucral glume 9-, upper 5-nerved. 

Distribution : Nileland, Mozambique District, Natal, the Comoros, Seychelles, 
Madagascar, the Mascarenes. Introduced into India as Tabucki grass, also to 
Australia, Polynesia, and the West Indies. 

* 2. Sorghum Roxburghii, Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 126. 

Description : Annual. Culms stout, tall, often slightly waxy, pruinose below 
the nodes. Leaf-sheaths softly pubescent at the nodes ; ligules very short, 
scarious, hairy from the back ; blades linear to linear-lanceolate from a broad 
clasping base, long-attenuated upwards, up to over 45 cm. long and up to 37 mm. 
wide, usually hairy to tomentose inside above the ligule and outside at the 
junction with the sheath, otherwise glabrous. Panicle oblong to ovoid-oblong, 
rarely subovate or elliptic in outline, erect, contracted and dense (rarely lax) 
in flower, somewhat to much loosened when mature ; branches slender, flexuous, 
whorled or semiverticillate, the longest undivided for up to 12-25 mm. (rarely 
much more) from the base, more or less ciliate towards the base and often 
villous at the junction with the nodes, otherwise like their divisions glabrous or 
nearly so, finely scabrid upwards. Racemes tough, up to 4- (rarely 5-) noded, 
8-12 mm. long ; joints slender, 2-3'3 mm. long, distinctly and often densely 
ciliate, cilia white or purplish ; pedicels similar but more slender, of about the 
same length or more often shorter with very slightly thickened tips. Sessile 
spikelet ovate, acute, with a small fine point, sometimes flattened on the back 
when young but soon convex, about 5*3 mm. by 2*7-3-3 mm., permanently pale 
or dull straw-coloured to tawny, at length slightly glossy; callus-beard, white. 
Involucral glumes equal, coriaceous, lower about 10-13-nerved, finely and often 
obscurely 2-keeled towards the tips with the keels slightly scabrid, transversely 
constricted at the base, more or less white-strigillose (to almost tomentose) 
when young, at length more or less glabrescent on the back, upper 7-9-nerved, 
finely keeled upwards, tip usually straight. Floral glumes distinctly ciliate, 
cilia up to 1 mm. long, lower broad-oblong, as long as the glumes, upper 
broad-ovate, 3*3-4 mm. long, middle nerve much thickened from the middle 
upwards, running out into a short straight mucro, lobes adnate to it almost all 
along. Anthers 2*7 mm. long. Grains elliptic or ovate-elliptic in outline, 
3-8-4-8 mm- by 2-7-3'3 mm., dull white (in the African specimens). Pedicelled 
spikelet usually neuter, linear or linear-lanceolate, up to 4'2mm. long, more 
often much reduced and quite small, persistent ; lower involucral glume, if 
well developed, up to 9-nerved, upper 5-nerved. 

Of this species Stapf describes two varieties which also occur in India. 

(a) Var. semiclausum, Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr- ix, 127 '.-Holcus Sorghum minus 
et Sisna., Wall- Cat. 8777 F. A—Andropogon Sorghum, subsp- salivus, var. 
Roxburghii (?) and fulvus, Hack, in Monogr- Androp. 510 and 512-—A- Sorghum, 
var. Vsorum (?)• Stapf in Dyer Fl. Cap. vii, 348, in nota ; Medley Wood, 
Natal PL ii 5 t- 120, non Koern. neque Hack. 

Description : Panicles fairly dense, also when mature. Involucral glumes 
less coriaceous towards the tips and more or less showing the nerves in that 
portion, permanently more or less strigillose, their margins clasping the grain 
so that only its top or upper half is exposed. 

Distribution : Nileland of tropical Africa, Mozambique District, Natal, 
Madagascar, India. 

{b) Var. hians, Stapf 1. c 127— Holcus Sorghum nitidum, Wall. Cat. 8777D— 
Andropogon Sorghum, var. hians, Stapf in Hook. f. F. B. L, vii, 184.— A- Sorghum, 


296 Jour., Bom Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 2. [Oct. 20, 1927, 

var. Roxburghii, K. Schum. in Engl. Pfl. Ost. Afr. B, 48 ; C t iv, F-H ; Busse 
and PiJger in Engl- Jahrb. xxxii, 184, partim- 

Description : Panicles more or less loose with very flexuo^^s and often drooping 
branches- Involucral glumes coriaceous to the tips with the nerves quite obscure, 
subglabrous and somewhat glossy on the back when mature, their margins 
involute, exposing the whole grain, which is often placed with its back and front 
parallel to the median line of the spikelet. 

Distribution : Mozambique District ; also in India. 

* 3. Sorghum tricolor, Moench Meth- 207, var. obovatum, Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. 
ix, 127-— S. bicolor, Willd. Enum. Hort- Berol. 1036-— 5- nigrum, Roem. 
& Schult- Syst. ii, 837- — S- vulgare bicolor, Pers. Syn. i, 101 — 5- vulgare, var. 
obovatum, subvar. ?iigrum, Rendle in Cat- Afr. PL Welw. ii, 151-— J>. rubens, 
Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 1036-— Holcus bicolor, Linn. Mant Alt. 301 — 
H. Sorghum, Mieg. in Act- Helv. viii, 129, t. 4. f. k—H- niger, Ard. in Sagg. 
sc e lett- acad. Padova, i, 134, t- 5—H. saccharatus—Ga.ertn- Fruct ii, 3, t. 80. 
fig. 2 (?), non aliorum auctorum. — Andropogon niger, Kunth. Enum. i, 501-— 
A- rubens, Kunth 1. c 502. — A. Sorghum, subsp. sativus, var- obovatus, Hack, in 
Monogr. Androp. 514. — A. Sorghum, var. bicolor, Koern. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 
ii, 226- 

Description : An annual. Culms stout, up to 4 m. high, many-noded. Leaf- 
sheaths mostly overlapping, finely pubescent at the nodes ; ligules short, ciliate 
from the back ; blades linear to lanceolate-linear from a broad and rounded or 
slightly narrowed base, up to 50 cm- long and 75 cm. broad, pubescent to 
tomentose inside above the ligules and less so or glabrous on the back at the 
junction with the sheath. Panicles erect, contracted and more or less dense, or 
loose and oblong or oblong-ellipsoid or obovate to oblanceolate in outline 75-30 
cm. by 5-9 cm. ; branches erect or obliquely erect, rather rigid, finally sometimes 
slightly drooping, the longest often more than half the length of the panicle and 
undivided for 12 mm. to 75 cm. from the base, like the branchlets very rough, 
spinulously ciliolate or ciliate, particularly upwards, silghtly hairy, rarely villous at 
the base- Racemes tough, compact, frequently 3- or 4- (rarely 5-) noded ; joints 
somewhat stout, flattened, 1-6-27 mm. long, shortly whitish or fulvously ciliate ; 
pedicels similar, about 1 mm- long. Sessile spikelet more or less broadly obovate 
even in flower, with very short broad and depressed tips, 4-8-58 mm- by 33-4-2 mm., 
straw-coloured to tawny, finally darker, often with red or brown or purple spots 
or blotches or turning altogether fuscous, chestnut- brown or quite black, closed 
when mature or only slightly gaping, usually awned ; callus-beard scanty. 
Involucral glumes equal, firmly coriaceous except at the papery to membranous 
tips, unevenly strigillose particularly and mostly persistently on the tips or almost 
glabrous ; lower up to 16-nerved, nerves very faint, keels short, usually obscure, 
tips very short, broadly triangular with a hyaline point, depressed ; upper broad, 
9-nerved, obscurely keeled close to the tip, otherwise broadly rounded on the back. 
Floral glumes ciliate, lower broad-elliptic, about 4*2 mm- long, upper broad-ovate, 
3-3 mm. long, 2-lobed, awn about 106 mm- long, sometimes much reduced. 
Anthers up to 4' 2 mm- long. Grain tigfhtly enclosed in the glumes or the top slightly 
exposed, obovate- oblong in outline, 3-3-38 mm- by 2-2 4 mm-, brown; embryo- 
mark distinct ; nerves obliterated. Pedicelled spikelet neuter, persistent, 
lanceolate to linear-oblong, acute, about 4*2 mm- long, reddish ; lower involucral 
glume 9-10 -, upper about 7-nerved. 

Distribution: Lower Guinea- Occasionally cultivated in the Mediterranean 
region from Madeira to India, also introduced into Australia, the West Indies and 

* 4. Sorghum Durra, Stapf in Fl. Trop- Afr. ix, 129.—Ho/cus Durra, Forsk. Fl. 
Aeg.-Arab. 174— //. Duna (sphalm.), Gmelin Syst- 173- — Andropogon Sorghum, 
var- aegyptiacus, Koern. in Aschers- & Schweinf. 111. Fl. Egypte \§<±—A- Sorghum, 
subsp. sativus, var- Durra and aegyptiacus, Hack, in Monogr- Androp- 516. 
— A. Sorghum, subsp. sativus var- Durra, Chiov- in Ann- Istit. Bot Roma, 
viii, 2\.—A- Sorghum, var. niloticus aud Schweinf urthianus , Koern. in Aschers- 
& Schweinf. 1-c 778, 779-A- Sorghum, var. arabicus and rubrocernuus, Koern- in 
Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii, App. ii, 12 (probabiliter) 

Description : An annual. Culms stout, up to 4 m- high and even more, 

20-40-noded- Leaf-sheaths finely pubescent at the nodes ; ligules very short, 

shortly ciliate ; blades up to 40 cm- by 5 cm , quite glabrous (? always). Panicle 

usually quite compact, ovoid or ellipsoid, erect or sometimes recurved, 10-15 cm- 


Oct, -20, 1927.] Revision of the -Flora of the Bombay Presidency 2$? 

by 5-10 cm- ; branches erect, mote or less flexuous, rather slender, rough to 
spinulously ciliate, particularly upwards, ciliate to subvillous at the base, the 
longest up to one half or one-third the length of the panicle, divided from very 
low down. Racemes compact, tough, about 8'5 mm. long ;(in flower), mostly 3-or 
4-noded; joints somewhat stout, flattened, 1 to almost 2 mm. long, "whitish* 
ciliate ; pedicels similar, but still shorter. Sessile spikelet rhombic-obovoid, 
subacute (in flower), greenish or straw-coloured with greenish tips, ultimately 
whitish or variously brown, dark red or black, awned or awnless, callus-beard 
scanty- Involucral glumes equal, coriaceous up to beyond •§• or §, then papery, 
unevenly stngillose, particularly at the tips and sides; lower with a broad 
triangular greenish strongly nerved tip, about I2-nerved with 3 or 4 finer 
nerves interspersed, 2- keeled upwards (keels rough) , more or less flattened out 
and very broad to rotundate when mature with the tips worn off and the back 
glossy; upper broad, 9-nerved with some additional finer nerves, slightly keeled 
upwards. Floral glumes ciliate ; lower ovate-elliptic, over 4'2 mm- long; upper 
broad-ovate, 2-toothed,4 , 2 mm. long, awn up to 75 mm- long, mostly much shorter 
and then hardly twisted and differentiated into column and bristle or quite 
suppressed. Anthers over 2 mm- long. Grain subgk)bose, slightly compressed, 
with a broad rounded much exposed top, white, yellow or variously reddish, 
53 by 53 mm., nerveless, embryo-mark faint. Pedicelled spikelet neuter 
( ? always) , persistent ; lanceolate to linear-oblong, subacute, up to 6-3 mm- 
long, greenish ot reddish, lower 11-, upper 7-nerved- 

Distribution : Nilelmnd of Tropical Africa, Arabia, Afghanistan, India. 

*5- Sorghum papyrascens, Stapf in FL Trop. Afr. ix, 134. 

Only mature panicles were known to Stapf. Culms up to 12 mm. across at the 
base of the panicle. Panicle erect, oblong to oblanceolate in outline, contracted, 
dense, up to over 30 cm. by 10-13 cm. ; branches more or less whorled, often 
many to a whorl, erect, the longer slightly arching, rather robust, like the 
branchlets rough to spinulously ciliolate upwards and softly ciliate or pubescent 
In addition, villous at the base or 12 mm- above it, following (longest) up to 15 
cm. long and undivided for-5-7i cm. from the base. Racemes tough, up to 
4-noded and 18 mm. long, dense, much crowded ; joints moderately slender, up 
to over 3-3 mm- long, shortly white-ciliate ; pedicels similar, 1-2-7 mm- long. 
Sessile spikelet oblong (in flower), at length ovoid or oblong-ovoid, tight or 
somewhat inflated, closed, up to 9-5 mm. long, permanently pale straw-coloured 
or reddish ; callus-beard very short Involucral glumes equal, papery and trans- 
parent throughout ; lower up to 16-nerved with numerous transverse veins, very 
obscurely keeled upwards or keelless, nerves raised from the base upwards, 
softly pubescent to almost villous, very imperfectly giabrescent or at length 
almost glabrous, hairs white ; upper broad, about 13-nerved, very obscurely 
Reeled upwards, much less hairy- Floral glumes conspicuously ciliate ; lower 
broad-elliptic, -53 mm. long ; upper broad-ovate, entire and awnless or shortly 
2-lobed, withamucro or an awn up to 63 (rarely 106) mm. long, usually 
slightly bent and hardly twisted- Lodicules densely ciliate. Grain completely 
enclosed by the glumes or partly exposed by their breaking up, obovate to 
orbicular-obovate in outline, compressed, biconvex, dull white or orange; 
embryo-mark faint, elliptic, slightly exceeding the middle of the grain. Pedicelled 
spikelet neuter, reduced to the involucral glumes, persistent, linear or linear- 
lanceolate, acute, pale straw-coloured or reddish, 6- 3-8*5 mm- long, lower H-13-, 
mpper 9-nerved, shorter- 

Distribution : Nileland of tropical Africa- Also known from India- 

* 6. Sorgbcm cerrraum. Host- Gram- Austr- iv, t- 3 ; Reichb. Ic- Fl- Germ, (1845,) 
t- 80, fig- 466 ; Stapf in FL Trop- Afr. ix, 136—HoUus Sorghum, Linn. Sp- 
PI. ed- 1, 1047 (partim) ; Mant ii, 500- — H. Dora, Mieg- in Act- Helv- viii 
<1777), 125, t- 4, fig- 3— H -cernum, Ard- in Saggi se e lett Acad. Padovai, 
128, t- iii, fig. 1 and 2-—//. compactus , Lam. Rncycl. iii, lAQ.—Andropogon 
compactus, Brot Fl- Lus. i, 88-—^. cernuus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 213— A^ Sorghum 
var- cernuus, Koern. in Koern- & Wern. Handb. Getreideb. i, 314.— A. Sorghum 
subsp- sativus, var. cernuus, Hack, in Monogr- Androp. 515- 

Description : An annual- Culms stout. 3-4 m- high and more, 20-30-noded- 
Leaf-sheaths minutely pubescent at the nodes ; ligules very short, densely 
ciliate from the back ; blades linear-lanceolate, over 30 cm- by 6 cm., pale 
green, pubescent to tomentose inside above the ligule and outside at the junction 
with the sheath- Panicle erect or recurved, ovoid to oblong, very compact or 

298 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 2. {Oct. 20, 1927. 

somewhat loose, 10-25 cm. by 5-7-5 cm- ; branches rather stout below, rigid, 
spinulously ciliolate, particularly upwards, softly ciliate to villous at the base, 
branches divided almost from the base, the longest 5-7*5 cm. long. Racemes, 
compact : up to 3- or 4-noded, up to 106 (rarely 12 r 7) mm- long ; joints stout, 
compressed, 1 mm- long, more or less white-silky-villous; pedicels very similar, 
of about the same length. Sessile spikelet ovate with rather broad tips , 5*3 mm- 
by 3-3-3-8 mm., pale straw-coloured with greenish tips, whitish when mature, 
awned- Involucral glumes equal, coriaceous aboutuptothe middle or at the 
base only, otherwise papery and often partly spongy, white-silky-villous all over 
or glabrous on the coriaceous portion of the back ; lower 12-nerved (with the 
nerves distinct upwards and sometimes with a few very delicate additional nerves 
interspersed), sharply 2-keeled upwards with the keels spinulously ciliolate and 
abruptly ending, forming minute teeth between which the hyaline end of the tip 
protrudes ; upper very broad, about 12-nerved, slightly keeled upwards- 
Floral glumes very densely ciliate ; lower broad-ovate, 2-lobed, 4*2 mm. long ; 
upper broad elliptic-oblong, awn about 8*5 mm. long with the bristle half the 
length of the long-exserted column or more or less reduced. Anthers 33 mm. 
long. Grain equalling the glumes or more or less exserted, orbicular or orbicular- 
obovate in outline, more or less compressed, 4 - 2-53 mm- by 4'2 mm-, white, dull ; 
embryo-mark indistinct- Pedicelled spikelet neuter, linear-lanceolate, 4*2 mm. 
long, pubescent, lower involucral glume 11-, upper 10-nerved. 

Distribution : Upper Guinea, North Central Tropical Africa, N. Africa, the 
Orient to Turkestan and N. India as far as Manipur. 

(To be continued): 


A// fi uJi 

<yy*4 c^>^L4^H^c^Si 

Part V. By E. Blatter, s.j., Ph.D., f.l.s. 



[From the Journal of the Bombay Natural Hist. Soc, January 15, 1928.] 



E. Blatter, s.j., Ph.D., f.l.s. 




E. Blatter and C. McCann 

{Continued from page 298 of this Volume. ) 

27. Cleistaceine, Bsnth. in Hook. Ic. PL xiv, 60, t. 1379 ; Stapf in FL 

Trop. Afr. ix r 154. 

Tall, rather coarse grasses, annual according to Stapf, perennial according 
to Hook. f. Leaves long, narrow, flat, with stout midribs. Panicles narrow, 
more or less contracted, greyish or fulvously hairy. Spikelets solitary, all 
alike, hermaphrodite, pedicelled on the tough rhachis of racemosely arranged 
or panicled racemes, falling entire from the thickened tips of the pedicels. 
Florets 2, lower reduced to an empty glume, upper hermaphrodite. Involucral 
glumes equal, very similar, with involute margins, more or less coriaceous, 
delicately 7-9-nerved, muticous. Floral glumes hyaline, lower 2-nerved, upper 
2-dentate or subentire, 3-nerved, with a twisted flexuous awn from the sinus or 
tip; pale very minute, ciliate. Lodicules 2, broad-cuneate, sparingly ciliate. 
Stamens 3. Stigmas laterally exserted , plumose. Grain oblong to obovoid- 
oblong, very obtuse or truncate ; embryo half the length of the grain. 

Species 3, one in West India and 2 in tropical Africa. 

1. Cleistachne Stocksii, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 163. 

Description : Stem tall, stout, simple. Leaves 3J-40 cm. by 12 mm., finely 
acuminate, softly hairy, midrib stout, margins slightly thickened, ciliolate, 
sheath terete, ligule oblong, coriaceous. Panicle 15-20 cm. long, long- 
peduncled, sub-erect ; rhachis and branches sparsely ciliate, pedicles of spike- 
lets strigose with bright yellow hairs. Spikelets 5 mm. long, crowded, dark 
brown, callus short, bearded. Lower involucral glume dark brown, obscurely 
many-nerved, hirsute, shining, upper like lower, but narrower nearly glabrous. 
Lower floral glume 2-nerved, margins infolded, tip hispid, upper a twisted awn 
16-25 mm. long, dilated at the base into a hyaline, entire, 3-nerved membrane, 
embracing the minute, ovate, obtuse pale. 

Locality: Tungar forest, Bassein (Bhidef). 

Distribution : So far only found in Malabar on the Bababoodan Hills. 

28. Vetiveria, Thouars ex Virey in Journ. de Pharm. 1. sen, xiii, 499 ; 

Stapf in FL Trop. Afr. ix, 156. 

Coarse, perennial, glabrous grasses ; rhizomes stout ; culms stout, more or 
less compressed below. Leaf-biades firm to hard, conduplicate in bud, then 
flattening out, at least upwards, gradually passing into the sheath ; lower 
sheaths much compressed, flabellate-imbricate. Panicles erect, long, of many- 
rayed whorls of slender simple or rarely compound racemes, glabrous except 
for the frequently bearded calli. Spikelets 2-nate, of each pair subsimilar, 
differing in sex, one sessile, the other pedicelled, on the articulate fragile 
rhachis of copiously whorled (rarely panicled) peduncled 3-to many-jointed 
racemes, the sessile spikelets falling with the contiguous joint and the accom- 
panying pedicelled spikelet or at least the accompanying pedicel ; joints and 
pedicels slender, slightly and gradually thickened upwards. Florets 2, lower 
reduced to an empty glume, upper hermaphrodite in the sessile, male in the 
pedicelled spikelets. Sessile spikelet laterally slightly compressed, awned or 


409 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 3. [Jan. 15, 1928. 

awnless. Involucral glumes equal, lower more or less coriaceous or char- 
taceous with a broad rounded back and subinflexed margins, usually muti- 
cous, upper boat-shaped, keeled upwards, with bread hyaline ciliate margins, 
muticous, mucronate or aristuiate. Floral glumes hyaline, of lower floret 
2-nerved, of upper minutely 2-dentate, muticous or mucronulate or with a per- 
fect or imperfect awn from the sinus. Pale minute, hyaline, nerveless. Lodi- 
cules 2 glabrous. Stamens 3. Stigmas laterally exserted ; styles subterminal. 
Grain oblong, slightly oblique at top. Pedicelled spikelet dorsally compressed ; 
involucral glumes much thinner than in the sessile, like the floral glumes 
usually awnless. 

Species about 7 in the tropics of the Old World. 

1. Leaves 5-13 cm. long. Panicle 15-18 cm. long ... 1. V. Lawsoni. 

2. Leaves 30-90 cm . long, Panicle up to over 30 

cm. long ... ... ... 2. V. zizanioides. 

1. Vetiveria Lawsoni, Blatter & McCann, nov. comb.— Andropogon Lawsoni, 
Hook. f. F.B.I. vii,187. 

Description : Rootstock stout, horizontal. Stem erect, simple, slender, 
internodes very long. Leaves chiefly subradical, 5-13 cm. by 5 mm., exactly 
linear, rigid, curved, acute or obtuse, tips serrulate, base not contracted, mar- 
gins ciliate, nerves 4-8, strong ; sheaths compressed, of lower very short, of 
cauline very long, striate; ligule a ridge of hairs. Panicle 15-18 cm. long, 
narrow, elongate, branches or peduncles of spikes opposite and fascicled, 
branchlets slender, puberulous with a white scurf. Spikes 6-12 mm. long, pale 
reddish, erect ; joints 6-8, very obliquely truncate, tips obscurely ciliate, pedi- 
cels nearly equalling the spikelet, slender, compressed. Sessile spikelets 4 
mm. long, linear-lanceolate, callus bearded with silky hairs. Lower involucral 
glume linear, rigid, coriaceous, tip obtuse, bristly, keels muricate, scaberulous 
margins inflexed, upper involucral glume cymbiform, tip 2-fid, awn longer 
than the glume, base ciliate, keel pectinately ciliate above the middle. Lower 
floral glume oblong, ciliate, nerveless, upper arched, linear, obtusely 2-dentate, 
awn verv slender. Pale oblong, ciliate, nerveless. Anthers long. Pedicelled 
spikelets male, longer and narrower than the .sessile, callus naked ; lower in- 
volucral glume 3-nerved, awned, keels pectinately ciliate, upper acuminate, 
awned. Floral glumes oblong, obtuse, ciliate. 

Locality : S. M. Country: Dharwar District, very common (Sedgwick 
2170 !) ; Dharwar (McCann A277 !). 

2. Vetiveria zizanioides, Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906), 346-49, 362, in Fl. Trop. 
Afr. ix, 157. — V. odorata, Virey in Journ. de Pharm. 1. ser. xiii, 499.— V. arundi- 
nacea et muricata, Griseb., Fl. Brit., W. lnd. 559, 560. — Phalaris zizanioides, 
Linn. Mant. Alt., 183. — Andropogon muricatus , Retz., Obs. iii, 43 ; Roxb. Fl. 
lnd. i, 265 ■ Grah. Cat. Bomb. PI. 238 ; Grift. Ic. PI. As. t. 139, f. 57, t. 155, 
f. l ; Dalz. and Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 302 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. lnd. 90, Fodd. 
Grass. N. lnd. 36, t. 2i.—A. Festucoides, J. S. Presl in C. B. Presl Reliq. 
Haenk. i, 340.— A. squarrosus, Hack, (non Linn, f.) var. genuinus, Hack, in 
Monogr. Androp. 542-44.-^4. squarrosus, Hook. f. {non Linn, f.) in F. B. I. 
vii, 186.— A squarrosus, Cooke {non Linn, f.) in Fl. Bomb. Pres. ii, 991. — 
Agrostis verticillata, Lam. 111. Gen. i, 162.— Anatherum muricatum, Beauv. 
Agrost. Expl. Planch. 15. 

J. D. Hooker and Cooke and many others have followed Hackel in calling 
this plant Andropogon squarrosus, Linn. f. Stapf (in Kew Bull. 1906, 347) has 
explained that this name applies to quite a different plant : ' No notice was 
taken of Scheuchzer's description or of Petiver's and Du Bois's specimens, and 
when Linnaeus, about 1770, x received the grass from Koemg he described it 
as something new under the name Phalaris zizanioides. Koenig, however, also 
sent specimens of the grass to Retzius, who published it as Andropogon muri- 
catus 2 in 1783. This name, which was suggested by Koenig himself, was 
subsequently adopted by Roxburgh and most other botanists. More recently, 3 
however, it has been replaced by Andropogon squarrosus, a name adopted by 
the younger Linnaeus * for a plant, also communicated by Koenig, who found it 

1 Linna3Us, Mant. Alt. (1771), 183. 

2 Retz. Observ. iii (1783), 43. 

3 Hackel, Andropog. in DC. Monogr. Phaner. vi (1889), 542. 

*Linn.f. Suppl. (1781), 433. 


Jan. 15, 1928] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 410 

" circa Zeylonam natans supra stagna profundiora," and entirely distinct from 
Andropogon muricaius. Tne specimen is still in Linnseus' herbarium aid was 
correctly identified by R. Brown 1 with his Panicum abortivum, that is Chamce 
raphis spinescens, a characteristic floating grass of the Indo-Malayan region. 
Retzius 2 himself s responsible for the erroneous reduction of Andropogon 
squarrosus to Andropogon muricatus, which recently has been revived, although 
Roxburgh 3 long ago drew attention to the confusion. " Zizanioides " being 
the earliest specific epithet, it will have to be adopted for the '! Khas Khas," so 
that its name under Veliveria must be V . zizanioides.'' 

Vern. Names : Vala, Ushir, Valo, Bala, Khas Khas of the Anglo-Indians, 

Description: A densely tufted perennial grass. Rootstcck branching with 
spongy aromatic roots. Culms stout, up to over l - 8 m. high, usually sheathed 
all along. Leaf-sheaths compressed, especially the lower which are sharply 
keeled and fan-like, imbricate, very smooth, firm ; liguJes reduced to ascarious 
rim ; blades narrowly linear, acute, 30-90 cm. long, 4"2-10G mm. wide, erect, 
rigid, firm or somewhat spongy, usually glabrous, rarely more or less hairy 
downwards on the face, pale green, midrib slender, lateral nerves close, 6 or 
more on each side, rather stout, slightly prominent, margin spinously rough. 
Panicle oblong up to over 30 cm. long, usually contracted ; rhachis stout, 
smooth ; whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays ; branches oblique to suberect, naked 
for up to 5 cm., filiform, slightly rough. Racemes up to 5 (rarely 7'5) cm. long, 
very slender ; joints about as long as the sessile spikelets or sometimes distinctly 
exceeding them, smooth or more or less rough, minutely and unequally ciliolate 
at the slightly oblique tips ; pedicels similar, but shorter. Sessile spikelet 
linear-lanceolate to almost linear, acute or subacute, 4*2-4 - 8 mm long, yellow- 
ish, olive or violet-brown or purplish to almost black; callus obtuse, under 
1 mm. long, glabrous. Involucral glumes, acute, coriaceous, lower muriculate 
all over the back, 5-nerved, lateral nerves close, very fine ; upper spinulously 
muricate on the keel. Lower floral glume as long as the involucral glumes, 
acute, reversedly ciliolate, upper up to 3*3 mm. long, narrow, oblong-lanceolate, 
mucronulate, ciliate. Lodicules 2, quadrate and conspicuous, though small. 
Styles and stigmas short. Stigmas purple. Anthers 2-3*3 mm. long. Pedi- 
celled spikelet sparingly aculeolate or almost smooth ; upper floral glume entire, 

Locality: Gujarat: Road to Lasandra (Chibber!); Daman (Bhide!); 
Ahmedabad, common in damp valleys (Sedgwick!). — Konkan : Ghatkoper, 
Horse-shoe Valley (McCaim 9957 !).— N. Kanara : Dandeli (Talbot 2209 !). 

Cke. I.e. classes this species amongst non-indigenous plants We are of 
opinion that it is indigenous in most parts of the Presidency. 

Distribution : Practically over the whole of India, and eastwards to Burma. 
Occasionally cultivated. Lower Guinea in Tropical Africa. Throughout the 
Malayan region only cultivated or as an escape. Introduced into the Mascare- 
nes, the West Indies and Brazil. 

Early history and economic uses : See Stapf in Kew Bull., I.e. 

29. Chrysopogon, Trin. Fund. Agrost. 187 ; Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr., 

ix, 159. 

Perennial (at least in the Old World). Leaf-blades narrow. Panicles 
usually lax, of whorls of simple or basally divided filiform branches, rarely 
the branches 2-nate or solitary. Spikelets in threes at the ends of the 
branchlets of terminal panicles, one sessile, the other 2 pedicelled, the three 
falling entire from the thickened, nearly always bearded, oblique tips of the 
peduncles ; exceptionally 2-nate in 2-jointed racemes, one sessile, the other 
pedicelled, each sessile spikelet falling with the contiguous joint and its 
pedicelled companion, pedicels and joints, if present linear-filiform, never 
longitudinally grooved or appendaged. Florets 2, lower reduced to an emptv 
glume, upper hermaphrodite in the sessile, male or neuter in the pedicelled 
spikelet. JSessile spikelets usually laterally compressed, awned. Involucral 
glumes subequal ; lower coriaceous or chartaceous, involute with a rounded 

R. Brown Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. (1810), 193. 

! Retz., 1. c, v (1789), 21. 

'Roxburgh Fl. Ind. ed., Carey and Wall. I (1820), 270. 


411 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 3. [Jan. 15, 1928. 

back or complicate and more or less keeled upwards, upper boat-shaped, 
more or less keeled. Floral glumes hyaline, lower 2-nerved, upper linear, 
entire or 2-dentate with a usually perfect awn from the sinus. Pale or small, 
hyaline, nerveless. Lodicules 2, small, glabrous. Stamens 3. Stigmas 
exserted laterally low down. Grain linear, laterally compressed ; embryo half 
the length of the grain ; scutellum linear-obiong. Pedicelled spikelet dorsally 
compressed, awnless or aristulate. 

Species about 18 in the hot parts of the Old World, only a few entering the 
temperate zone. One in Florida and Cuba. 

Cooke (ii, 934-986) describes 4 species of Andropogon belonging to the 
section Chrysopogon : A. aciculatus, Retz., A. lancearius, Hook. L, A. monti- 
cola, Schult., and A. Aucheri, Boiss. 

To these we add 4 species not noted from the Presidency before : Chrysopogon 
Wightianus , Ness, Ch. aspsr, Heyne, Ch. polyphyllus, Blatter and McCann, and 
Ch. Gryllus, Trim 

A. Pedicels of the upper spikelets half as long as 

the sessile spikelets or longer 
I. Pedicels of upper spikelets glabrous or 
nearly so 

1. Stems erect. Leaves 15-45 cm. long ... 1. C. Gryllus. 

2. Stems creeping below. Leaves 2-13 cm. 

long ... ... ... ... 2. C. aciculatus. 

II. Pedicels of upper spikelets villous with 
rusty rarely pale hairs 

1. Lower involucral glume of pedicelled 

spikelets long-awned, upper not or very 

shortly awned 
(a) Callus long villous all round 
(6) Callus glabrous in front ... 

2. Involucral glumes of pedicelled spikelets 

bolh awned 

B. Pelicel of upper spikelets not half as long 

a> tiie sessile spikelets 
I. Lower sheaths compressed 
II. Lower sheaths terete 

1. Leaves, peduncle and branches of panicle 


2. Leaves, peduncle and branches of panicle 

not glabrous 

1. Chrysopogon Gryllus, Trin. Fund. Agrost. 188 ; Nees Gen. Fl. Germ. Mono- 
cot, i, t. 93 ; Beath. Fl. Austral, vii, 537. — Andropogon Gryllus, Linn. Cent. PI. 
ii, 33 ; Hack. Monogr. Androp. 550 ; Host. Gram. Austr. ii, 1, t. 1 ; Sibth. Fl. 
Grsec. i. t. 67 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Iud. 22, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 40 ; Hook, 
f. in F. B. I. vii, 187 ; Collett Fl. Siml. 602, fig. 191.— ^4. echinulatus, glabra- 
tus et Royleanus, Steud, Svn. Gram. 395, 397. --Chrysopogon glabratus, Trin. 
in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 6, ii (1833), 318.— Rhaphis Gryllus, Desv. Opusc. 
69. — R. echinulala, Nees in Royle 111. Bot. Himal. 417. — Pollinia Gryllus, 
Spreng. Pngill. ii, 10 ; Reichb. lc. Fl. Germ. t. Si.—Apluda Gryllus, Presl. 
Cyp. & Gram. Sic. 55. — Holcus gryllus et pallidus, Br. Prodr. 199. 

Description : Stems simple, forming dense hard tufts, erect, 15 cm. to 1'5 
m. high ; nodes smooth. Leaves 15-45 by 4-8 mm., linear, acute, glabrous or 
hirsute, margins serrulate ; sheath keeled above, glabrous or pubescent. 
Panicle large. 12-20 cm., rhachis angular, scabrid, axils bearded, branches long, 
5-10 cm., capillary, spreading, simple or branched, usually very many in a 
whorl and bearing 2-4 spikes, tips obliquely truncate and densely bearded. 
Sessile spikelets 5-8 mm., callus straight, acute. Lower involucral glume 
coriaceous, 2-toothed, dorsally rounded with 2 muricate or mamillate keels or 
channels, shining, smooth or scaberulous, margins broadly involute, upper 
chartaceous, hyaline, lanceolate, mucronate or aristulate, awn equalling the 
spikelet or shorter, keel and sides bristly above the middle. Lower floral glume 
linear-oblong, obtuse, nerveless, upper linear, minutely 2-toothed, awn minute 
or 12-35 mm. long Pale small, oblong, glabrous. Pedicelled spikelets rather 
longer than the sessile, teiete, lanceolate, acuminate ; pedicels glabrous or 
ciliolate. Lower involucral glume acuminate or aristulate, 5-9-nerved keels 




C asper. 

C. lancearius. 


C. Wightianus. 


C. montanus. 


C. polyphyllus. 


C. Aucheri. 

Jan. 15, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 412 

ciliate above, upper lanceolate, acuminate, ciliate. Floral glumes narrower, 
ciliate, awn of upper half the size of the glume. 

Locality : N. Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2088 !). 

Distribution: Temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to Sikkim, 4,000-9,000 
ft. Khasia Hills, 4,000-5,000 ft., westwards to N. Africa and S. Europe, 

2. Chrysopogon aciculatus, Trin. Fund. Agrost. 188; Duthie Grass. N. W. 
Ind. 22 {acicularis), Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 39; Benth. Fl. Hongk. 424, Fl. 
Austral, vii, 538.— Andropogon aciculatus, Retz. Obs. v (1789), 22 ; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. i, 262 ; Grah. 238 ; Hack. Monogr. Androp. 562 ; Hook. f. in F. B, 1. vii, 
188; Cke. ii, 984. -A. acicularis, Willd. Sp. pi. iv, 906.— Rhaphis acicularis, 
Desv. Opusc. 69. — R. trivalvis, Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 553 ; Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. 
t. 8, 9. — Centrophorum chinense, Trin. Fund. Agrost. 106, t. 5.— Rheede Hort. 
Mai. xii, t. 43. 

Description ; Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Konkan : Alibag, sandy shore (Ezekiel \).—N. Kanara : Karwar, 
sea-shore (Sedgwick and Bell 5070 !) ; Jog, hills (Hallberg and McCann A272 !). 

Distribution : More or less throughout India, Ceylon, Tropical Asia, 
Australia, Polynesia. 

Uses : According to Haines the leaves which lie close to the ground escape 
to a large extent the lips of cattle. The plant is a pest on account of the sharp 
callus and small awns sticking to the clothes. 

3. Chrysopogon asper, Heyne ex Wall. Cat. n. 8784. — Andropogon asper, 
Heyne in Herb. Rottlerex Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 189. 

Description : Stem 30-90 cm., leafy below, very slender above. Leaves 
distichous, 30-45 cm. by 12-18 mm., broadly linear, acute, cordate, coriaceous, 
flat, smooth, 11-nerved, midrib very slender, spinulose beneath, margins 
spinulosely serrulate, and with a few long tubercle-based cilia towards the 
broad semi-amplexicaul base ; sheaths broad, compressed, laxly hirsute, lower 
ones 12 mm. broad, keeled, armed with scattered tubercle-based hairs. 
Panicle 18 cm. long, narrow, of many whorls of short, unequal, simple, smooth, 
erect branches bearing solitary rarely 2 erect spikes, tips very shortly bearded. 
Sessile spikelets 6 mm. long, pale, coriaceous, callus up to 2 mm., long villous 
all round. Lower involucral glume hispid beneath, the tip strongly compressed 
above ; upper with the keel and sides more or less hispid above the middle, awn 
as long as the glume or shorter. Lower floral glume shorter than the upper 
involucral, narrow, obtuse, 2-nerved, ciliate, upper consisting of the linear, 
hyaline, 3-nerved base of the awn, awn 35-50 mm. long. Pedicelled 
spikelets 8 mm. long, narrowly lanceolate, 7-nerved, pale, shining, keels 
ciliate ; pedicels very shortly rufous-villous on both margins, excised at 
the tip in a semi-circle ; lower involucral glume thin, tip 2-dentate, nerves 
strong, sub-equidistant, or the 3 lateral on each side submarginal, margins 
narrowly incurved, keels ciliolate from base to tip, upper lanceolate, acuminate, 
3-nerved, ciliolate. Lower floral glume linear-oblong, 2-nerved, ciliate, upper 
narrowly lanceolate, 1-nerved. 

Locality : N. Kanara : Tinai (Talbot 2564 !). 

Distribution : Madras : Pulicat Hills. 

4. Chrysopogon iancearius Haines in Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1036.— Andro- 
pogon lajicearius, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 190 ; Cke ii, 985. 

Description . Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Deccan : Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg B 1230;).— S". M, 
Country. Castle Rock (Woodrow). Seems to be very rare in the Presidency. 

Distribution : Sikkim Himalaya, Behar, Chota Nagpur, Orissa, W. Penin- 

Uses : A good fodder according to Haines. 

5. Chrysopogon Wightianus, Nees ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 397 .—Andropogon 
Wightianus, Steud. Syn. Gram. 395; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 191.— A. aristu- 
latus, Hochst ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 397 ; Hack, in Monogr. Androp. 556.— 
A. breviaristatus , Steud. 1. c. 396.— Rhaphis orientalis, Desv. Opusc. 69. — 
R. Wightianus, Nees ex Steud. 1- c. 

Description : Very variable in habit. Stems short or long, erect or ascending 
from a short stout creeping stock. Leaves 7-25 cm- long, linear, acute, rigid, 
from glabrous to pubescent on both surfaces and with sometimes tubercle- 

2 [51 

413 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 3. {Jan. 15, 1928. 

based hairs, spinulosely serrulate ; sheaths glabrous, lower ones compressed ; 
ligule very short, villous. Panicle 7-13 cm. long, contracted, lower branches 
long, few in a whorl, rhachis and branches minutely hairy ; spikes solitary, green 
or brownish. Sessile spikelets subcylindric, 4 mm. long, callus long, densely 
bearded with rusty hairs all round. Lower involucral glume laterally compres- 
sed above, minutely truncate, glabrous below, hispid above, obscurely 4-nerved, 
tip 2- dentate, upper chartaceous, hispid above on the keel and sides, tip 2- 
lobed, awn as long as the glume or shorter. Lower floral glume linear-oblong, 
2-nerved, ciliate, upper consisting of an awn with a narrowly dilated 2-lobed 
base, awn 50-65 mm. long, column hispid. Pedicelled spikelets nearly 12 mm. 
long, lanceolate, pubescent ; pedicel truncate, margins shortly villous. Lower 
itrvolucral glume glabrous or pubescent, 7-nerved, awn longer than the glume, 
keels ciliate, upper lanceolate, 3-nerved, awa as long as the glume or shorter. 
Lower floral glume oblong, 2-nerved, ciliate, upper very narrow, ciliate* 

Locality : S. M. Country : Castle Rock (Bhidel). — N. Kanara : Jog to Sid- 
derpur, open grass land (McCann A273!). 

Distribution : Madras, Nilgiris, Burma, Assam. (Hackel mentions a speci- 
men gathered in Ceylon but, according to Hooker f ., it seems to be a starved 
specimen of Chrysopogon zeylanicus, Thw.). 

6. Chrysopogon montanus, Trin. in Spreng. Neue Entdeck. ii, 93; Haines Bot, 
Bihar and Orissa 1037— Andropogon monticola, Schult. Mant- (1824), 665 - 
Kunth Enum. PL i, 506 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 395 ; Plack. Monogr. Androp. 557 
(excl. var. velutinus) ; Hook f. in F. B. I. vii, 192, cum omnibus var-: Cke- ii, 
985 ; Hole in Ind- Forest Mem. i (1911), 108—^. Sprengelii, Kunth Rev- Gram. 
166.— Pollinia fulva, Spreng. PugilL ii, 93— Andropogon Trinii, Steud- Syn, 
Gram 395 ; Hack. Monogr. Androp- 558. — A ciliolatus cceruleus et 
increscens, Steud. 1. c— Chrysopogon ciliolatus, Boiss, FL Or. v. 458 (excl. van 
Aucheri, Boiss); Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind- 22-— C u?ruleus y Duthie 1. c. 23, 
Fold. Grass. N. Ind. 39, t. 60— C. increscens, Nees ex Steud. 1. c 396— C. 
Wightianus var. leucanthus, Thw- Enum. PL Zeyl. 366. — C. serrulatus, Trin. 
in Mem. Ac. Petersb. ser. 6, ii (1833), 318, Spec Gram. t. 331— C. Esenbeckii, 
Arn- in Steud. Syn. 395— Raphis ciliolata et cosrulea, Nees ex Steud- Syn .396, 395. 

This synonymy requires an explanation. Chrysopogon montanus, Trin. as 
understood in this place comprises Hackel's two species Andropogon monticola 
Schult. and A. Trinii, Steud., and is identical with Hook, i-'s- A. monticola, 
Schult. with all its varieties. 

Hackel has two species and he distinguishes them by the following characters : 

A. monticola : Upper involucral glume of sessile sp'kelet keeled, the keel 
from the base up to f-f of its length densely pectinate ciliate with long, rigid, 
rufous hairs, shortly white hispid in the upper \. 

A. Trinii: Upper involucral glume of sessile spikelet keeled below the apex 
only, keel white-ciliate, the lower f-f not keeled and glabrous. 

Hook. f. in F- B. I. makes of these species two varieties : var monticola proper 
and var. Trinii, and includes them under A. monticola, Schult-, adding a third 
ariety : var. robustus- 

At the same time Hooker confesses: ' I am unable to classify the varieties of 
this common and variable plant in accordance with geographical areas or 
ether considerations. This, if possible, must be effected by field-botanists in 
India. There is every gradation from the coarsely hirsute keel of monticola* 
to the perfectly smooth of some states of Trinii; from the awnless to long 
awned gl. I of the pedicelled spikelets, and from the glabrous to the pubescent 
of the same organ ; the colour of which affords no character ; nor does its 
length, or that of the cilia on its keels. ' 

Cooke (ii, 985) has adopted the name/i. monticola, Schult- with Hooker's 
description and evidently also the latter's varieties. But his opinion does not 
count in this case as he has not seen any specimens from the Presidency and 
' was therefore ' as he says himself, ' unable to fix definitely the variety to 
which the Bombay species belong. They will probably belong to var. Trinii 
H- f .' What induced Cooke to say that they probably belong to var. Trinii we 
cannot understand, especially as Hooker came to the conclusion that he was 
not able to classify the varieties according to geographical areas. 

We have examined a great number of specimens from all parts of the Presi- 
dency, except Sind, Cutch and Kathiawar and we have been able to separate 


Jan. 15, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 414 

many into the two varieties. They exhibit almost the same distribution and 
often both are found in the same locality, with this exception that var- Trinii 
has not been observed in N. Kanara, Gujarat and the Konkan. But we must 
also mention, and this is the most important point, that we saw many specimens 
all over the country which could not be classed under either variety, and it 
would require many new varieties if we wanted to give a name to all the 
different variations. And even then they would be forms only and not 

Haines seems to have felt the same difficulty when he tried to classify the 
montanus material of Bihar and Orissa. He distinguishes five forms- If we 
wanted to follow the same method for our area, we doubt whether double the 
number of forms would yield satisfactory results. 

Stapf describes the specimens from Tropical Africa under the name of 
C. montanus var. iremulus, Stapf. He calls it ' one of the several races which 
constitute the rather polymorphic species C. montanus, Trin., whose area 
includes Southern Africa, Madagascar and India. The var. tremulus ap- 
proaches very closely the var. elatior-, Stapf, a large-spikeleted parallel to the 
var. serrulatus ■, Stapf (Chrysopogon serrulatus, Trin.) and differs from it 
apparently only in the almost quite smooth rhachis and branchlets (a few sharp- 
pointed hairs may be found under a high power) and the pedicels, which are 
glabrous almost up to the middle, and not ciliate from the base. ' It seems 
to us (it may look like presumption on our part to criticize our veteran and 
highly merited agrostologist) that it is somewhat risky to found new varieties 
of a protean species on a few specimens only. 

According to Hole all the 3 varieties mentioned by Hooker * appear to vary 
greatly, as regards their habit and vigour of growth, in response to the moisture 
conditions of the habitat and also according as whether, or not, the plants 
are habitually grazed, cut for fodder, or periodically burnt. The colour of 
the cilia of glume II of the sessile spikelet (pale or white in robust us and rufous 
in monticola), accordingly, appears to be the chief difference in the habit, and 
these forms appear to have different and fairly defined areas of distribution 
{monticola occurring chiefly in Central and Southern India, while robustus is 
mainly found in N. India, in the outer N. W. Himalayas and Sub-Himalayan 
tract).' Hole who studied the varieties robustus and Trinii both from 
herbarium specimens and in the field has observed that the plant at Dehra Dun 
gradually and imperceptibly passes from the typical robustus to the typical 
Trinii. We are justified in stating that a similar transition takes place between 
monticola and Trinii in Western India. (Of Central and Southern India 
we have no experience). We have therefore a gradual transition from 
robustus to Trinii at Dehra Dun, and from Trinii to monticola in W. India 
and consequently, we are not allowed to consider Hooker's varieties as good 

Vern. Names: Sunthia Khad (Dohad), Agiva, Gogar, Ghora, Dand, 
Pandhari Kusal (Poona), Kare Hullu (Bijapur). 

Description : A very variable perennial grass , Stems usually slender, erect 
or geniculately ascending, glabrous, sometimes robust, simple or branched, 
30 cm. to 1"2 m. , but often attaining 2 m., slightly compressed, solid, develop- 
ing usually axillary leafy and flowering branches from all the upper nodes except 
the one next below the panicle. (The branches growing within the sheaths 
push the latter away from the stem which often results in a characteristic fan- 
shaped appearance.; Blade of uppermost leaf of flowering stem usually 
mucroniform, but attaining 8 cm., of lower leaves up to 43 cm. long and 8 mm. 
broad, linear acuminate, tapering from the base, scabrid on margins, sometimes 
also scabrid dorsally on midrib, and scaberulous above, especially towards the 
apex, often ciliate towards the base with tubercle-based hairs, at least when 
young; sheath glabrous, compressed, keeled, especially of the lower leaves, 
shorter or longer than the proper internode ; ligule a minute membranous rim. 
Panicle 5-15 cm. long, ovate to subcylindric, yellowish to purplish, of several whorls 
of few or many capillary flexuous very unequal branches bearing solitary spikes, 
branches of flowering panicle more or less horizontally spreading, of the fruiting 
panicle erect and closely appressed to the rhachis, rhachis and branches smooth 
or scaberulous. Spikelets in clusters of 3, a central sessile hermaphrodite one 
with 2 lateral pedicelled male ones, the clusters being terminal and solitary on 
the capillary branches of the panicle. Sessile spikelets laterally compressed, 
4-7 mm. long, tip of peduncle brown-bearded, clavate, callus short, with oval 


415 Journ., Bom. Nat. Hist Sac, Vol. XXXII, No. 3. {Jan. IS, 1928. 

scar and dense beard. Lower involucral glume laterally compressed, narrow- 
oblong, embracing the margins of the upper, chartaceous 2-4-nerved, hispidly 
ciliate dorsally on keel towards the apex or almost glabrous, often scabernlous 
dorsally on nerves and minutely pubescent with appressed hairs dorsally near 
margin, apex subtruncate or 2-dentate. Upper involucral glume laterally com- 
pressed, broader than lower, obtusely keeled, subcoriaceous, 3-nerved, margins 
broad, hyaline, membranous, ciliate or not, very variable with regard to its 
hairiness, sometimes almost glabrous, at other times hispidly ciliate dorsally on 
keel with long white or rufous hairs more or less from base to apex, sometimes 
also pubescent, or minutely villous dorsally on keel and lateral nerves, awned, 
awn 2 - 5-6 mm. long, apex entire or 2-lobed. Lower floral glume \ the length 
of to subequal the upper involucral glume, linear, hyaline, ciliate, nerveless or 
indistinctly 1-3- or more- nerved, apex obtuse. Upper floral glume consisting of 
the narrow 3-nerved base of the awn, basal \ or § hyaline, membranous, 
upper portion chartaceous, awn geniculate, 10-18 mm. long, but also reaching 
37 mm. (including the twisted column) , margins ciliate or not, apex entire or 
2-lobed. Pale sometimes present, very narrow, 1*25 mm. long. Lodicules 2, 
cuneate, glabrous. Anthers 3, up to 3 mm. long, yellow or purple. Stigmas 
2, laterally exserted at base of spikelet, yellow. Pedicelled spikelet dorsally 
compressed, subequal the sessile spikelet; pedicel less than half the sessile 
spikelet, usually about \ the spikelet, densely ciliate on both margins with stiff 
rufous or white hairs, the upper of which are shorter than to subequal the 
spikelet. Lower involucral glume lanceolate, membranous, 5-7-nerved, 
minutely pubescent with appressed hairs dorsally, especially towards the apex, 
or almost glabrous, sometimes ciliate dorsally on midrib and marginal neives, 
especially towards the apex acute or shortly awned. Upper involucral glume 
subequal to the lower, 3-nerved, margins incurved, long ciliate, apex acute or 
mucronate, glabrous dorsally. Floral glumes linear, hyaline, ciliate, nerveless 
or indistinctly nerved. Pale sometimes present, as in sessile spikelet, but 
slightly longer, very narrow. 

The flowers are much visited by small bees. 

Locality: Gujarat: Mahal-Dangs, elevation 800 ft., rainfall 100" (Sedgwick 
and Bell 5391 !) —Khandesh: Tapti River (Blatter and Hallberg 5476! ); Bhusawat 
(McCann 5224 A!); Nandgaum, Bori River (Blatter and Hallberg 3827!); 
Bori, Tapti Island (Blatter and Hallberg 5146!) ; Amalner, Bori River (Blatter 
and Hallberg 4455 \).—Konkan : Sion Creek (Sabnis A 231 !) ; Matheran 
(D 'Almeida 9958 \).—Deccan : Khandala to Karjat (Blatter and Hallberg 
A 232 !) ; Kirkee (Talbot !) ; Pashan (Garrmie !) ; Mangiri, Smiles E. of Poona 
(Gammie !) ; Katraj (Gammie !) ; Pasarni Ghat (Blatter and Hallberg 
B 1209 \).—S. M. Country : Dumbai (Talbot 2317 !) ; Badami (Talbot 2926 !) ; 
N. W of Dharwar (Sedgwick 3141 !) ; Dharwar, dry pasture land, elevation 
2,400 ft., rainfall 34" (Sedgwick 1817 !) ; Konankeri, elevation 1,800 ft., rainfall 
35" (Sedgwick and Bell 4439!); Haveri (Talbot 2189 \).—Kanara : Jog to 
Siddhapur, open grass land (Hallberg and McCann A274 !). This species 
forms patches of many individuals, or combines with other individuals to form 
associations of a few species'. 

Distribution .- Throughout India, especially in hilly tracts, from the N.W. 
Himalaya southwards, ascending to 6,000 ft., extends to Ceylon, Burma, 
Afghanistan, Tropical and S. Africa, Madgascar. 

Uses : In Bihar and Orissa this grass is considered to be a valuable fodder, 
and Hole, writing of the Siwalik Division, calls it one of the most valuable 
fodder grasses. In Mount Abu, according to Lisboa, it is reckoned as a good 
fodder grass and the grain is used as food by the natives. But the same writer, 
under the name of Andropogon serrulatus, Trin. (— Chrysopogon montanus 
var. Tnnii) remarks : • Said to be good fodder, used much in Poona, but 
reports from other places unfavourable.' (J. C. Lisboa, List of Bombay 
Grasses, Bombay (1896), 81). 

The last statement might find an explanation by a suggestive note made by 
Hole (1. c. Ill) : ' So far as the local (Dehra Dun) plant is concerned speci- 
mens with the more hairy glume II tend to occur in localities where there is a 
scarcity of available moisture, both on the dry ridges and slopes of the Siwalik 
Hills and also (rarely) on water-logged soil, and the writer believes that the 
characters which have been utilized to define these varieties vary in response to 
the factors of the habitat and particularly in response to the available water 
supply. Provided that the development of the plants has not been interfered 


Jan. 15, 1928.] Revision of the tlora of the Bombay Presidency 416 

with by grazing, grass-cutting, or other agency, those plants with the more 
hairy glume II are usually less robust and less coarse, or rank, than the others, 
and they are therefore as a rule most valued for fodder and are distinguished 
locally by the vernacular name of dhaula, whereas the coarser plants with 
smooth glume are called gurla. As this grass affords a valuable fodder and is 
sometimes cultivated, in consequence, it is important to determine the extent to 
which its characteristics are constant. If, as suggested above, they depend on 
the available moisture, it is obvious that cultivation of this grass on good 
agricultural land, with a large quantity of available moisture, would result in 
producing an inferior class of rank, coarse fodder.' 

7. Chrysopogon polyphyllus, Blatter & McCann, comb, nov .--Andropogon 
polyphyllus, Hook. f. in F. B, I. vii, 194 {qui habet Hack. mss. in Herb. 
Duthie).— A. Aucheri, var. polyphyllus, Hack, in Herb. Duthie. 

Description : Stem 60-90 cm, high, as thick as a crow-quill or more, stiff, 
simple or fastigiately branched, quite glabrous. Leaves crowded or not, 15-25 
cm. by 2-4 mm., narrow, rigid, acuminate, flat, pale glaucous-green, glabrous 
on both surfaces, coriaceous, midrib and nerves very slender, margins minutely 
scaberulous ; sheaths terete, appressed, hard. Panicle 10-13 cm. long, oblong, 
subsecund, dense-flowered, very pale, branches 6-12 mm., very unequal, in many 
closely approximate whorls, smooth, peduncle slender, quite glabrous. 
Sessile spikelets 4 mm. long, drooping, white or pale purplish, callus long, 
li mm. long, obtuse, bearded at the very base only with long fulvous hairs. 
Glumes as in C. montanus . Lower involucral glume obtuse, glabrous, keel 
ciliate towards the tip ; upper not awned, keel glabrous or ciliate. Upper 
floral glume with an awn 3-8 mm. long, nearly straight, pale. Pedicelled spike- 
lets narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous, 7-nerved, eciliate, not awned, 
rather longer than the sessile ; pedicels naked, villous at the tip only. 

Can easily be distinguished from C. montanus by the stout naked callus 
which is bearded at the base only, and by the naked pedicels which are long- 
villous only at the tip. 

It differs from the next species, C. Aucheri by its size, the long, glabrous 
glaucous leaves and the glabrous peduncle and branches of the panicle. 

Locality : Gujarat : Porbandar (Bhide !) ; Dohad (Bhide !) ; Watrak River 
on rocks (Sedgwick 1165!); Daman (Bhide). — Deccan : Dhond, river-bank 

Distribution : Central Provinces. W. Peninsula. 

8. Chrysopogon Aucheri. Stapf in Kew Bull. (1907), 211.-— Andropogon Aucheri, 
Boiss. Diag. ser. 1, fasc. 5 (1844), 77 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 195; Cke. ii, 986.-^4. 
Aucheri, var. genuinus, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 560. — Chrysopogon ciliolatus, 
var. Aucheri, Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 458. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Stapf thinks that C. Aucheri comprises several geographical races and that 
the one from which the species was first described extends from Arabia through 
Southern Persia and Baluchistan to Sind. He characterizes it ' by the lower 
glume of the pedicelled spikelet being usually awnless or in any case much 
more shortly awned than the upper, by the glume awns not being ciliate or 
ciliate only at the base, and by the longer beards of the pedicels.' 

Locality: Sind: Gizri (Sabnis B777 !) ; Jemadar ka Landa near Karachi 

Distribution: Sind, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, S. Persia, Arabia (not 

30. Arthraxon Beauv. Agrost. Ill ; Cke. ii, 967. 

Species about 20, in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World. 

We retain the 6 species mentioned by Cke. I.e. His A. lanceolatus, 
Hochst. will be slightly restricted under the name of A. serrulatus, Hochst., the 
name A. lancifolius , Hochst, will be substituted for A. microphillus, Hochst., 
and A. quartinianus, Nash, will take the place of A. ciliaris, Beauv. 

Key as in Cke. 

1. Arthraxon inermis, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 145 ; Cke. ii, 968. 
Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Konkan : Okda Forest, Thana District (Ryan 718 !); Wada Range, 
Thana District (Ryan 692 !) ; Matheran (Woodrow !); Marmagoa (McCann !). 
—Deccan: Mahableshwar (Sedgwick and Bell 4513!, Woodrow) ; Purandhar 


417 Jour,, Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. XXXII, No. 3. \Jan. 15, 1928 

(McCann 5592 !); Khandala (McCann 9950 !, 9740 !).— S. M. Country : Derikop 
woods (Sedgwick 1845 !) ; Castle Rock (Gammie 15678 !). 
Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

2. Arthraxon serrulatus, Hochst. in Flora (185S), 188 ; Stapf in Fl. Trop Afr. 
ix„ 163 — A. lanceolatus , Hack, in Monogr. Androp. 348 (excl. var. echinatus) \ 
Duthie, Grass. N. W. Ind. 17; Hook.f. in F.B.I, vii, 143 [partim excl. Batra* 
therum echinatum, Nees in Edinb. Phil. Journ. xviii, (1835) 181 ; Andropogon 
echinatus, Heyne ex Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 91 ; Arthraxon echinatus, Hochst. 
in Flora (1856), 188 ; Andropogon lanceolatus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 257) ; Cke. ii, 
968 {partim). A. lanceolatus var genuinus, subvar. serrulatus, Schweinf. in 
Bull. Herb. Boiss., 2. ser. ii, 10. — Andropogon serrulatus , Link Hort. Berol. i, 
241 [quoad specimen, descriptio partim erronea ?); A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 
458.-^4 prionodes, Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. I, 383. — Batratherum lanceolatum, 
Nees in Edinb. New Phil. Journ. xviii (1835), 181. — B, serrulatum, Hochst., ex 
Steud. I.e. 

This species mcludes all the material of the Nileland of Tropical Africa, of 
tropical Arabia and the greater part of the Indian specimens which, up to now, 
were ranged under Arthraxon lanceolatus, Hochst., as understood by most 

It has been pointed out by Stapf that Arthraxon lanceolatus, Hochst., was 
founded on Andropogon lanceolatus, Roxb., a Coromandel plant, which has 
larger and wider long-awned spikelets with the lower involucral glume very 
minutely rnuricate towards the tips only. Neither of these names can, 
consequently, be mentioned as synonyms of Arthraxon serrulatus . 

Description. — A perennial grass ; rhizome short, emitting fascicles of closely 
set culms and innovation shoots, which are more or less thickened below and 
covered with reddish silky cataphylls. Stems rather slender, up to 90 cm. 
high, many-noded, usually finely pubescent, sometimes glabrous, with vegeta- 
tive branches below and usually solitary flowering branches above, the latter 
subfastigiate. Leaf-blades lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, setaceously acumi- 
nate, with a caudate amplexicaul base glaucous or greenish, 25-5 cm. long, 12- 
18 mm. wide, margius cartilaginous, ciliate with the cilia springing from tuber- 
cles, smooth, very finely pubescent below or glabrous, primary lateral nerves 
about 8-11 on each side, fine, slightly raised below; ligule 1-2 mm. long, rounded, 
membranous; sheaths terete, tight, slightly shorter than the internodes or exceed- 
ing them in the leafy shoots, more or less hairy with tubercle-based hairs and 
often softly pubescent at the nodes, the uppermost frequently glabrous. Racemes 
2-5 nate, slender, greenish or suffused with purple or violet, 3-over 5 cm. long on 
a short common axis, the fascicles borne on a slender peduncle, shortly or far 
exerted from the supporting bladeless or almost bladeless sheath ; rhachis fragile 
shortly bearded at the nodes ; joints narrowly linear, 3'3-6*3 mm. long, hairy on 
the back and sides, or the lowest almost glabrous, hairs increasing upwards to 
more than 2 mm.; pedicels very similar, but much shorter and more slender. 
Sessile spikelets narrowly lanceolate -linear to linear slightly tapering upwards 
up to 7*4 mm. long (not including the awn), glabrous; callus very short, 
puberulous. Glumes 4. Lower involucral glume chartaceous, 6 mm. long, 
lanceolate, with a minutely truncate hyaline tip, very convex on the back, which 
is smooth or more often muricate along the 4 indistinct or faintly raised 
inner, spinulously muricate along the outer nerves, margins hyaline, compara- 
tively wide ; upper linear-lanceolate in profile, membranous, 3-nerved, glabrous 
or nearly so. Lower floral glume linear, acute, up to 4 mm. long, b} aline, 
nerveless or obscurely 1-nerved at the base ; upper membranous at the base, 
hyaline upwards, narrowly lanceolate-linear in profile, 2-dentate, with the 
teeth minute, sometimes produced into short capillary bristles, delicately 
3-nerved, awned from near the base, awn 8-15 mm. long, very fine, kneed 
about the middle, twisted below. Anthers up to 3 mm. long. Grain bacilliform 
about 42 mm. long. Pedicelled spikelet male, linear-lanceolate, acute, about 
5 mm. long. Involucral glumes subequal, lower herbaceous-chartaceous, acute, 
Scaberulous along the outer and slightly so on the 4-5 inner nerves or almost 
smooth, upper slightly shorter, membranous, otherwise as in the sessile spikelet. 
Lower floral glume as in the sessile spikelet, upper linear-oblong, obtuse, 
nerveless, muticous. 

Locality : Sind : (Stocks 642).— Gujarat : Morvi, Kathiawar (Woodrow). — 
Deccan : Lonavla (Woodrow) ; Pashan, tank (Gammie!). Panchgani (Blatter 


Jan. 15, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 418 

and Hallberg B1277!).— 5. M. Country : S. W. of Dharwar (Sedgwick and 
Bell 4436!) ; Derikop (Sedwick 2022!) ; Belgaum, Fort wall (Sedwick 

Distribution : More or less throughout India, Tropical Arabia and Tropical 
Africa (Nileland). 

3. Arthraxon Meeboldii, Stapf in Cke. ii, 969, in Kew Bull. (1908), 449. 
Locality : Western Ghats : Khandala, in open, grassland on a hillbide, 600 m. 

(Meebold 9132); Khandala, common (McCann 9949!, 9948!); Lonavla, 
common (Bhide !, McCann!); Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg B1238 !, 
B1225!), Tableland (Blatter 3804 ;); Mahableshwar (Sedgwick and Bell 4523). 
—N. Kanara : Tinai (Talbot 2569!). 
Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

4. Arthraxon lancifolius, Hochst. in Flora (1856), 188; Stapf in Fl. Trop. 
Afr. ix, 165.— A. microphyllus . Hochst. in Flora (1856), 188; Hack. Monogr. 
Androp. 351, incl. var. lancifolius ; Hook.f. in F.B.I, vii, 147 ; Cke. ii, 970 ; 
Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1026.— A. Schmidtii, Hochst. (1856), 189.— A. 
minor, Hochst. I.e. 188, partim.—A. SchimPeri, Hochst. I.e. partim. — A. 
molle, Balf. f. Bot. Socotra 315. — A. ciliaris, Henriq. in BoJet. Soc. 
Brot. xiii, 133, non Beauv. — Andropogon lancifolius, Trin. in Mem. Acad. 
Petersb. 6 ser., ii (1833), 271.— A. molle, Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 17.— 
A. muliicaulis, Steud. Syn. PL Glum, i, 383. — Batratherum molle, Nees & 
Arn. in Edinb. New Phil. Journ.,xviii (1835), 181; Aitchis. Cat. Panj. PI. 
174. — B. Schimperi, Nees ex Hochst. I.e. 179 — Psilopogon Schimperi, Hochst. 
ex A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 447. — Pleuroplitis ciliaia, J. Schmidt Beitr. 
Fl. Cap. Verd 152.— P. Schimperi, Regel in Bull. Acad. Petersb. x (1866), 
369. — Lucceaciliata, Steud. I.e. 414. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Gujarat: Surat (Herb. Dehra Dun !, Cooke!). — Konkan : Tun- 
gar hill, Thana District (Herb, Econ. Bot. Poona!); Parel (Herb. Econ. Bot, 
Poona!); Ktnla (Garade!); Salsette (Jacquemont 713). — Deccafi : Trimbak, 
Nasik District (Herb. S. X. C, Bombay!).— 5. M. Country : Belgaum 
Fort walls (Sedgwick 3012!); W. of Dharwar, banks of road, in forest 
(Sedgwick 1851 !); Castle Rock (Bhide I). —Kanara : Karwar (Talbot 1308 !) 
Yellapore (Talbot 2084 !). 

Distribution: More or less throughout India, Ceylon to Tonkin and S. W. 
China, tropical Africa (Upper Guinea, Nileland). 

5. Arthraxon quartinianus, Nash in North Americ. Fl. xvii (1912), 99, 
Merrill in Phillip, Journ. Sc. Bot. vii (1912), 229; Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix 
166.— A. major, Hochst. in Flora (1856), 188.— A. coloratus, Hochst. I.e. — 
A. plumbeus, Hochst. I.e. 189. — A violaceus Hochst. I.e.— A. Schimperi, 
Hochst. I.e. partim. — A. ciliaris, Rendle in Cat. Afr. PI. Welw. ii, 138, non 
Beauv.— A. ciliaris, subsp. quartinianus, Hack. Monogr. Androp. (excl. vars. 
Hookeri et glabrescens) . — Alectoridia quartiniana, A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, 
ii, 448, t. 99.— Luccsa major, Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 414 ; Hochst. I.e. 179 — 
L. plumbeaet violacea, Steud. I.e.— L. Schimperi, Hochst. in Flora (1856), 180 
(the genuine). — Pleuroplitis plumbea, Nees ex Steud. I.e. — P. violacea, Nees 
ex Steud. I.e.— P. major, Regel in Bull. Acad. Petersb. U866), 369, partim, — 
P. quartiniana. Regel I.e. 376, partim. —Andropogon violaceus, Heyne ex Steud. 
I.e.— A. Alectoridia, Steud I.e. 383. 

We wish to substitute A. quartinianus, Nash in place of A. ciliaris, Beauv. 
This latter species which was described in 1812 has been emended repeatedly 
since then, and that to such an extent that it is scarcely possible to recognize 
the original plant. Hackel made five subspecies : Langsdorffii, submuticus> 
nudus, Quartinianus , and Vriesii, and nine varieties. The subspecies were 
arranged by him in two leading groups : 

1. Joints of rhachis glabrous, or with a few scattered hairs towards the tip 
{Langsdorfii, subnnclicus, nudus). 

2. Joints of rhachis, at least the upper, more or less ciliate {Quartinianus , 
Vriesii).— To these two groups Hooker f„ added a third one (F.B.I., vii, 146): 

3. Spikes silkily villous, spikelets 5-7 mm. long, lower involucral glume 
entire or minutely 2 toothed, awn 12 mm. or more. (This is Arthraxon 
cuspidatus, Hochst., considered by Hackel as a distinct species. 

Arthraxon quartinianus, Nash, and adopted by Stapf 1. c<, cowers part of the 
subspecies Quartinianus in Hackel 's group 2, including var. Quartinianus 


419 Jour. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 3. [Jan. 15, 1928. 

s. str. and var. coloratus, but excluding var. Hookeri and var. glabrescens. 
Quartin's specimen No. 14, collected in Abyssinia, and representing a form with 
large spikelets, has, according to Stapf , to be considered as the basis of the 
species, whilst Schimper's 1532, the type of Arthraxon coloratus, stands for 
the other extreme. 

Arthroxan quartinianus , Nash, includes all the material of the Bombay Pre- 
sidency that has come under our observation. 

The rest of A. ciliaris, Beauv. et auctorum has to be studied separately, but 
as the material lies outside the Presidency we leave it to other botanists to work 
out their respective material. 

Description: Annual. Stems very slender, ascending from a branched, 
sometimes prostrate and rooting base, from 8-30 cm. high, smooth, glabrous or 
finely puberulous below the inflorescence, with solitary or 2 to 3-nate branches 
above, internodes mostly exserted. Leaf-blades ovate-lanceolate to oblong- 
lanceolate from a cordate amplexicaul base, finely acuminate, 25 to over 
50 mm. long by 6-12 mm. broad, flaccid, with scattered tubercle- based hairs on 
both sides, ciliate towards the base, primary lateral nerves 3-4 on each side, 
very fine ; ligules membranous, ciliolate, short, truncate ; sheaths lax, the upper 
very often more or less inflated and bladeless, more or less hirsute in the upper 
part with tubercle-based hairs and densely ciliate along the upper margins, 
nodes shortly bearded. Racemes 1 to about 9, in fascicles, born on filiform, 
ultimately long exserted peduncles, 2*5-15 cm. long, very slender, flexuous ; 
rhachis fragile ; joints 3*3 mm. long, usually shortly ciliate, but the uppermost 
cilia sometimes up to 1*6 mm. long, sometimes glabrous or nearly so ; pedicels 
reduced to a minute point or subule. Spikelets solitary, sessile, oblong-lanceo- 
late in profile, somewhat oblique, laterally compressed, including the very 
minute glabrous or minutely puberulous callus, 3 - 3-4'2 mm. long. Involucral 
glumes subequal, lower subchartaceous, acute, scaberulous along the very 
slender 7-9 nerves or almost smooth towards the base, upper obliquely lanceolate 
to linear-lanceolate in profile, acute or minutely mucronate, 3- (rarely 5-) 
nerved, eciliate. Lower floral glume oblong, obtuse, hyaline, obscurely 
2-nerved. shorter by \ than the involucral glumes, upper narrowly linear- 
lanceolate in profile, 2-2*7 mm. long, awn from near the base, usually 6"3 mm. 
long, more rarely down to 4'2 or up to 8*5 mm. long, very delicate, kneed and 
twisted beicw the middle. Stamens 2. 

Locality: Gujarat: Chamargaon (Woodrow). — Khandesh : common 
(McCann ! ) . — Konkan : very common (McCann !) .— Dcccan . Mahableshwar 
(Sedgwick and Bell 4501 !) ; Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg B1244 !, B1252 !, 
B1257!, B1266 !, B1273 !, B1290!) Khandala, very common (McCann!).— 
S. M. Country: S. W. of Dharwar (Sedgwick and Bell 4434!); Dharwar 
(Sedgwick 3098 !) ; Gadag (Talbot 2304 !) ; Belgaum (Ritchie 796 A).— Kanara: 
Halyal (Talbot 2161 !) ; Yellapore (Talbot 1057 !). 

Distribution : From Bihar southwards to Ceylon, Tropical Africa (Nileland, 
Upper and Lower Guinea, Mozambique District), introduced into Jamaica and 

6. Arthraxon jubatus, Hack. Monogr. Androp. (1889), 358 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. 
vii, 147 ; Cke. ii, 970. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Konkan-. (Law, Stocks). — Deccan: Kori Fort, 12 miles south of 
Lonavla (Woodrow) ; Khandala, damp rocks (Hallberg 9788!) ; Lohagad Fort, 
top (McCann 9789 ! ) 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

31. Capillipedium, Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 169. 

Annual or perennial grasses. Stems slender, simple or branched, sometimes 
very copiously, often bearded at the nodes. Leaf blade with a rather con- 
spicuous white midrib Panicles delicate, when much divided the branchlets at 
length more or less divergent. Spikelets small, 2-nate, one sessile, the other 
pedicelled, similar in shape but differing in sex, in 1-2- (rarely up to 8-) jointed 
racemes at the ends of the capillary primary and secondary and often tertiary 
or even quaternary branches of a loose panicle ; joints and pedicels finely fili- 
form, longitudinally grooved and hyaline in the groove, disarticulating 
horizontally ; sessile and pedicelled spikelets deciduous, the former with the 
adjacent joint and pedicel. Florets 2 in the sessile spikelet, lower reduced to 

Jan, 15, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 420 

an empty glume or quite suppressed in the pedicelled spikelets, upper her- 
maphrodite ; one male or neuter, in the pedicelled spikelet. Sessile spikelet 
dorsal ly compressed, awned, callus small, shortly bearded. Involucral 
glumes equal, membranous to subherbaceous ; lower 2-keeled, with narrow 
inflexed margins ; upper boat-shaped, 3-nerved, keeled, grooved on both sides 
along the obtuse keel. Lower floral glume hyaline, nerveless, upper consisting 
of a hyaline, linear stipe, firmer upwards, passing into a slender awn. PaleO. 
Lodicules 2, minute, glabrous. Stamens 3. Stigmas exserted laterally, longer 
than the styles. Grain oblong-ellipsoid or oblong, dorsally slightly compressed; 
embryo exceeding \ of the grain. Pedicelled spikelet awnless, glume, if 
present, hyaline, nerveless. 

Species 6, in tropical and subtropical Asia, Polynesia and Australia, tropical 

Three species, described by Cooke (ii, 981, 982) under Andropogon assimilis, 
Steud., A. Hugelii, Hack., and A. filiculmis, Hook. f. belong to this genus. 

1. Stems more or less suffrutescent below, stiff, 

1. Nodes of stem glabrous ; callus shortly 

bearded ... ... ... 1. C assimilis. 

2. Nodes of stem bearded ; callus densely 

villous ... ... ... 2. C. Hugelii. 

II. vStems decumbent and interlaced, very 

weak, filiform ... ... ... 3. C. filiculmis. 

1. CapiUipedium assimile, A. Camus, Graminees in H. Lecomte. Fl. 
Generate de 1'Indo-Chine 7 (1922) 314; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 
(1924), 1028 {A. Camus prior fecit combinationem novam). — Andropogon 
assimilis, Steud. in Zoll. Syst. Verz. (1854), 58; Syn. Gram. (1855), 397; 
Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 179; Cke. ii, 981.— A. montanus, Benth. Fl. Hongk. 
423, non Roxb., excl. syn.; Hack. Monogr. Androp. 490, excl. syn.— ChrysoPo- 
gon pictus, Hance in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 5, v (1866), 252. — C. glaucoPsis, Duthie 
Grass. N. W. Ind. 22—Raphis repens, Nees ex Steud. 1. c. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Khandesh : Toranmal, growing among Strobilanthus (McCann 
9671!). — Konkan: Above Kenery Caves (McCann 9959 !).— Deccan : in dry 
forest, between Mahableshwar and Panchgani, at 4,000 ft. (Sedgwick and Bell 
4738 !). — Kanara : Jugglepet, road side, common (Talbot 1386 !). 

Distribution : Temperate Himalaya, Khasia, Behar, N. Bengal, Rajputana, 
Central India, W. Peninsula, Java, China, Japan. 

2. CapiUipedium Hugelii, Blatter & McCann, nov. comb. — Andropogon 
Hugelii, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 492 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 180 ; Cke. ii, 982. 

Description: Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Khandesh'. Toranmal (McCann 9672 !).— Konkan : Mulgaum 
(McCann 3664 !).— Deccan : Khandala, St. Xavier's Villa (McCann 9423 !) ; 
dry forests between Mahableshwar and Panchgani (Sedgwick 4738!); 
Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg B1321 !, McCann !).— S. M. Country: 
Deciduous forests west of Dharwar (Sedgwick 4498 !). — Kanara : Halyal (Tal- 
bot 2082 !) ; Ecumbi to Mungod (Hallberg and McCann A288 !). 

Distribution : Rajputana, Central Provinces, Central India, W. Peninsula. 

3. CapiUipedium filiculme, Blatter & McCann, nov. comb .—Andropogon 
filiculmis, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 181 ; Cke ii, 982. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Konkan: Trombay (McCann A286 !).— Deccan ; Khandala to 
Karjat (Blatter and Hallberg A2S7 !) ; Igatpuri (Blatter and Hallberg 5117 !) ; 
Poona, in rocky places (Jacquemont 310) ; Donshi, Mawal Districts (Woodrow 
26); Purandhar (McCann 5570 !).— S. M. Country : forests near Dharwar 
(Sedgwick 1854!). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

32. Amphilophis, Nash in Britt. Man. Fl. N.U.S. ed. i, 71 ; 
Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 171. 

Perennial grasses. Stems slender, simple or branched, bearded or beardless 
at the nodes. Panicles mostly subdigitate with a short primary axis, rarely the 
racemes on branches of the second order ; racemes always shortly peduncled. 

3 [13] 

421 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hisi. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 3. [Jan. 15, 192& 

Spikelets small, 2-nate, one sessile, the other pedicelled, similar in shape or 
the pedicelled reduced and smaller, the latter always different in sex except 
sometimes the lowermost pair which may be homogamous (male or neuter), on 
the fragile rhachis of many-jointed shortly peduncled racemes' ; joints and 
pedicels filiform, longitudinally grooved and hyaline in the groove, disarticu- 
lating horizontally; sessile and pedicelled (always ?) spikelets deciduous,. 
the former with the adjacent joint and pedicel. Florets 2 in the sessile 
spikelets, lower reduced to an empty glume, upper hermaphrodite, 2 or 1 in 
the pedicelled spikelet, the lower male or neuter, the upper neuter or usually 
quite suppressed. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed, awned ; callus small, 
shortly bearded. Involucral glumes equal, thinly chartaceous to membranous r 
lower 2-keeled, with narrow sharply inflexed margins ; upper boat-shaped, 
3-nerved, acutely keeled, Lower floral glume hyaline, nerveless, upper a 
hyaline linear stipe, firmer upwards, passing into a slender awn. Pales or 
very minute. Lodicules 2, minute, glabrous. Stamens 3. Stigmas exserted 
laterally usually low down, longer than the styles. Grain oblong, obtuse, 
dorsally slightly compressed ; embryo about half the length of the grain. 
Pedicelled spikelet awnless, glumes, if present, hyaline, nerveless. 

Species probably over 25, mostly in Tropical Asia. 

Cke. (ii, 977-981) mentions 8 species which belong to the section 
Amphilophis of Andropogon : Andropogon ccmpressus, Hook, f., A. Wood- 
rowii, Hook. f., A. pertusus, Will-d., A. Kuntzeanus, Hack., A. ensiformis, 
Hook, f., A. concanensis , Hook.f., A. intermedins, Cooke (non R. Br.), 
A. odoratus, Dna. Lisboa. All these are now being transferred to the new 
genus Amphilophis, Nash, 

Key to the species [after Cke.) 

A. Racemes digitate or fasciculate, the lower longer than the rhachis of 

the inflorescence 
I. Lower involucral glume of sessile spikelets 
villous below the middle 

1. Lower involucral glume not pitted 

(a) Upper involucral glume mucronulate ... I. A. compressa. 

{b) Upper involucral glume obtuse ... 2. A. Woodrozvii. 

2. Lower involucral glumes pitted ... ... 3. A. pertusa. 

II. Lower involucral glume of sessile spikelets 

glabrous below the middle (sparsely silky 
in A. ensiformis) 

1. Nodes of stem densely bearded ... 4. A. Kuntzeana. 

2. Nodes of stem glabrous 

(a) Leaves reaching 12 mm. broad ... 5. A. ensiformis. 

(b) Leaves reaching 3 mm. broad ... 6. A. concanensis. 

B. Racemes panicled, the lower branches shorter 

than the rhachis of the inflorescence 
I. Non-aromatic ; sheaths terete ... ... 7. A. glabra. 

II. Aromatic ; sheaths compressed ... ... 8. A. odorata. 

1. Amphilophis compressa, Blatter & McCann, comb. nov. Andropogon 
compressus, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii (1896), 172 ; Cke. ii, 977. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Deccan : Khandala, plain behind the Saddle (Hallberg 9657 1, 
Bhide I); Lonavla (McCann 9433!);Mawal (Wocdrow !) ; Poona (Wood- 

Distribution : Western Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

2. Amphilophis Woodrowii, A. Camus. Andropogon Woodrowii, Hook. f. in 
F.B.I., vii (1896), 173 ; Cke. ii, 978. 

Description : Cke. I. c. 

Locality: Deccan: Khorbasa, Mawal Districts (Woodrow) ; Pand, 20 
miles W. of Poona (Woodrow !). 
Distribution : Western Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

3. Amphilophis pertusa, Stapf in FL Trop. Afr. ix, 175; Haines Bot. 
Bihar and Orissa 1030.— Holcus pertusus, Linn. Mant. Alt. 301.— Andropogon 
pertusus, Willd. Sp. PI. iv, 922 ; Beauv. Agrost. 131, t. 23, fig. 2 ; Roxb. FL 
Ind. i, 258 ; Hack. Monogr. Androp. 479 (vars. genuinus et Wightii) ; Duthie 


Jan. 15, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 422 

Grass. N.W. Ind. 2\{excL Syn.), Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 38, t. 25; Boiss. Fl. Or. 
V. 464 ; Balf. f. Bot. Socotra 316 ; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 173 ; Cke. ii, 978.— 
Lepeocercis pertnsa, Nees ex Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 364. 

Vern. Names : Ghanga, marvel (Satara, Sholapur, Poona), payen, palva, 
pal van . 

Description : Cke. ii, 978. A very variable plant. We must confess we 
find it impossible to follow various authors who have described a number of 
varieties. It would be easy to increase their number on merely morphological 
grounds, but the results would be highly unsatisfactory. It is only from 
genetical tests that we can expect to get an insight into the natural variations 
of this and other species of this genus. 

Locality: Gujarat: Perim Island, Gulf of Cambay (Blatter 3814!).— 
Konkan : Daman (Bhide!); St. Xavier's College compound, Bombay 
{McCann 9630!, 96311).— Deccan : Nasik (Bourke 11!); Rahuri (Nana 
-A278 !) ; Khandala, Campoli (McCarn 9961 !) ; Pashan (Gammie !) ; Lonavla 
(Woodrow) ; Agricultural College, Kirkee (Bhide!); Poona (Cooke); 
Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg B1236 !), on edge of Tableland (Blatter 
9962 !), on roadside 4,000 ft. (Sedgwick and Bell 4699 !) ; Satara (Lisboa) ; 
Sholapur (Lisboa); Joonur (Talbot !).— S.M. Country: W. of Dharwar, 
elevation 2,000 ft., rainfall 35" (Sedgwick and Bell 4494 !) ; Dharwar, elevation 
'2,400 ft., rainfall 34" (Sedgwick and Bell 4488 !.) ; Kunur, elevation 2,000 ft., 
rainfall 35" (Sedgwick and Bell 4953!); Badami (Talbot 2944!); Haveri 
(Talbot 2233!); Gokak (Sheodye !).— Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2080!, 

Distribution : More or less throughout India, chiefly in the drier parts, 
Ceylon, Afghanistan, Arabia, tropical Africa (Upper Guinea, Nileland, 
Mozambique District). 

Uses : A good fodder grass. (See W. Burns, L. B. Kulkarni and S. R. God- 
bole : A study of some Indian grasses and grasslands. Mem. Dept. Agr. in 
India, xiv (1925), 47, 48.) 

4. Amphilophis Kuntzeana, Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1031.— Andropogon 
Kuntzeanus, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 478; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 175 ; Cke. ii, 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Konkan : (Stocks). — Deccan : (Woodrow 1531) ; Mawal (Wood- 

Distribution : Bihar, Central Provinces, W. Peninsula. 

5. Amphilophis essiformis, Blatter & McCann, comb. nov. — Andropogon ensi- 
formis, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 175 ; Cke. ii,979. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Deccan : Lonavla (Woodrow I). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

6. Amphilophis concanensis, Blatter & McCann, comb, nov .—Andropogon 
concanensis, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 174 ; Cke. ii, 980, 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Konkan : Matheran (Woodrow \) .—Deccan : Yenna River, Ling- 
mala, Mahableshwar, 4,000 ft. elevation, 200 " rainfall (Sedgwick and Bell 
4652 !) ; Lingmala, Mahableshwar (Blatter and Hallberg B1328 !) ; Khandala, 
in water courses, common (McCann 9651 !) ; Manmad, river-bed (Blatter 
A283 !) ; — Kanara: Kalanadi River, Supa, on rocks, elevation 2,000 ft., rainfall 
100 " (Sedgwick and Bell 4857 !) ; Halyal (Talbot 2221 !) ; Goond (Talbot 
2202 !) ; Gersoppa Falls, on rocks in river bed (Hallberg and McCann A279 !). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

7. Amphilophis glabra, Stapf in Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 172.— Andropogon glaber, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 271; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 392.— A. punctatus, Trin, 
Ic. t. 328, nan Roxb. — A. intermeduis var. punctatus, subvar. glaber, Hack. 
Monogr. Androp. 487. — A. intermedius , K. Schum. in Engl. Pfl. Ost.-Afr, 
C. 98 ; Hook, f in F. B. I. vii, 175 ; Cke. ii, 980.-^4. intermedius, var. 
punctatus, Stapf in Dyer, Fl. Cap. vii, 345. — Amphilophis glabra. Haines 
Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1028, non Stapf and partim. 

It will be seen from the above synonymy that Stapf considers Andropogon 
glaber, Roxb. as the type of the species. Of Andropogon intermedins, R. Br. as 


423 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 3. [Jan. 15, 1928, 

conceived by Hackel he includes only the var. punctatus, subvar. glaber. Haines 
in his- Bot. Bihar and Orissa, 1028, adopts Stapf 's name Amphilophis glabra with 
the following synonyms : Andropogon intermedins, R. Br. inc. A. glaber, 
Roxb., A. punctatus, Roxb. and A. montanus, Roxb. ? 

This is evidently not Stapf 's Amphilophis glabra. Haines includes Andro- 
pogon intermedins, R. Br., whilst Stapf confines his species to var. punctatus,, 
Haines has A. punctatus, Roxb. as a synonym, Stapf excludes it expressly. 

Haines' description is much wider than that given by Stapf and includes 
Haekel's vars. genuinus, Hcenkei, punctatus and glaber, and one of his own 
var. hirta. He says in a foot-note (p. 1029) : • These varieties are after Hackel 
and were described before I consulted Stapf 's Gramineae in Fl. Trop. Africa, 
where he reduces Haekel's intermedins to Roxburgh's glaber. The names (e.g. 
genuinus) in some cases become inapplicable if Roxburgh's glaber is the type. 
Var. Hcenkei is, 1 think, a distinct species and easily distinguished in the field. 
It should be called Amphilophis Hcenkei.' 

Haines seems to overlook the fact that Stapf 's glabra is restricted to one of 
Haekel's varieties of Andropogon intermedins, viz., punctatus and that, conse- 
quently not all of Haekel's names can be applicable. 

In our opinion Haines is not justified in calling his species Amphilophis 
glabra, Stapf. As it includes practically the whole of Andropogon intermedins, 
R. Br. taken in Haekel's sense he might have called it Amphilophis intermedia t 
Haines, if that name had not been preoccupied by Stapf (Fl. Trop. Afr. ix„ 

We are not arguing the point whether Stapf or Haines is right in the 
treatment of Andropogon intermedins, R. Br. et auctorum ; good reasons can 
be adduced for both cases. All we wish to say is that Haines' Amphilophis 
glabra is not A. glabra, Stapf. 

Those who prefer to adopt Haines' A. glabra and Haekel's varieties might 
consider a remark made by Hackel himself (I.e. 487) : ' A. fascicularis 
Thwaites Ennm. PI. Zeyl. p. 437 non Roxb. complectitur varietates 
[Hcenkei] et 8 [punctatus] formis inlermediis {spiculis in eadem panicula 
mixtis) conjuncias. Etiam in Bengalia transitus et ipsa varietas J3 [Hcenkei\ 
proveniunt ; in Himalaya, e. gr. pr. Simlah formce inter 3 [punctatus] et 
oc [genuinus] intermedin inveniuntur. J 

We adopt Stapf 's conception of A. glabra together with his description. Dr- 
Stapf was kind enough to name some of our Bombay specimens. 

Description ; Perennial. Rhizome very short, hard, innovations extravagi- 
nal, cataphylls ovate to lanceolate, acute, hard, smooth. Stems tufted, erect 
or shortly ascending, to overlm. high, rather stout below, glabrous, 5-7- 
noded, simple or very sparingly branched. Leaf-sheaths terete, glabrous, 
smooth, the intermediate and upper mostly shorter than the internodes, nodes 
glabrous or the upper bearded. Blades linear, long-tapering to a setaceous- 
point, hardly broader, not or slightiy contracted at the base, up to over 30 cm. 
by 8*5 mm. (mostly narrower), pale green, often turning reddish or purplish,, 
glabrous, rarely with very fine, long, spreading, white hairs at and above the 
ligule, smooth except at the margins, midrib rather stout to very stout down- 
wards, lateral nerves 3-4 on each side ; ligules truncate, very short, scarious. 
Panicle narrowly oblong, 10-23 cm. by 25-38 mm., erect, primary axis much 
longer than the lowest racemes, somewhat stout and (at least when mature) 
stiff, smooth, shortly bearded at the branch axils, otherwise glabrous and 
smooth ; branches whorled, up to 6 in a whorl or semiverticillate, or 2-nate or 
solitary from the weaker nodes, straight, 25-75 mm. long, the longer divided 
from 12 mm. above the, few to 7-noded, secondary branches simple. 
Racemes 12-38 mm. long, straight or flexuous, usually purplish, inconspi- 
cuously white-villous ; joints and pedicels 2-3*3 mm. long, ciliate, uppermost 
cilia much longer than the rest, up to 1 mm. long. Sessile spikelet pale green 
or purplish throughout, including the small minutely bearded callus 3*3-3'8 
mm. long. Involucral glumes equal ; lower truncate, slightly concave on the 
back, chartaceous-membranous, hairy below the middle, more rarely glabrous,, 
keels rigidly ciliolate upwards, intracarinal nervts 4-5, very fine, evanescent 
upwards with or without a pit above the middle ; upper lanceolate, acute, 3- 
nerved, keel scabrid upwards, margins sparingly ciliate. Lower floral glume 
oblong, 2-7 mm. long, hyaline, nerveless, ciliate, upper an awn 6*3-12'7mm. 
long, brown below, pale above the bend. Pedicelled spikelet neuter, mostly 
reduced to the glumes, narrowly linear-oblong to linear, 2*7-3*3 mm. long,. 

L i«j 

Jan. 15, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 424 

glabrous, of the same colour as the sessile. Lower involucral glume rigidly 
and minutely ciliolate, 5-9-nerved, often rolled in, not pitted, upper hyaline, 
nerveless, often minute. 

Locality: Konkan : Penn (McCann A282 !). — Deccan : Pimpalgam, on the 
brink of a stream (Bhide !) ; Lonavla (Hallberg 9955 !) ; Khandala, St. Mary's 
Ravine, on a water course (McCann 9435 !). 

Distribution : More or less throughout India, Tropical Asia, N.E. Australia, 
Tropical Africa (Upper and Lower Guinea, Mozambique District, Nileland) 

8. Amphilophis odorata, A. Camus. Andropogon odoratus, Dna. Lisboa in 
Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. iv, (1889), 123, cum ic. and vi (1891), 68 
203 ; Hook.f. in F.B,I. vii, 177 ; Cke. ii, 981. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Khandesh (Lisboa) .—Konkan : Khardi (Mrs. Lisboa).— Deccan : 
Igatpuri (McCann A281 !), Lonavla ; (Mrs. Lisboa, Bhide!) ; plain at foot of 
Lohagad (McCann 9-^56!) ; Pand, 20 miles W. of Poona (Herb. Econ. Bot. 
Poona !) ; Mawal, Poona District (Woodrow). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

33. Dichanthium, Willemet in Usteri Ann. xviii (1796), 11 ; 
Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 177. 

Perennial or annual. Stems simple or branched, usually many-noded, 
bearded or beardless at the nodes. Panicles usually subdigitate with a short 
or very short primary axis, rarely the latter elongated ; racemes always shortly 
peduncled. Spikelets small, 2-nate, one sessile, the other pedicelled, similar 
in shape, different in sex, except the lowermost 1 or 2 pairs (sometimes 3 or 4) 
of each raceme which are (with occasional exceptions in D. annulatum) 
homogamous (male or neuter), in many-jointed, shortly peduncled, subdigi- 
tate, rarely subpanicled or racemosely arranged, racemes ; joints and pedicels 
filiform, solid, disarticulating subhorizontally except trie lowest bairen pairs ; 
fertile sessile and pedicelled spikelets deciduous, the former with the adjacent 
joint and pedicel. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed, awned except the 
basal homogamous ones , callus small, shortly bearded. Involucral glumes 
equal, thinly chai taceous, lower usually very obtuse, 2-keeled, with narrow 
sharply inflexed margins, upper boat-shaped, 3-nerved, acutely keeled. 
Lower floral glume hyaline, nerveless, upper reduced to the hyaline base of a 
slender awn ; pale minute or absent. Lodicules 2, minute, glabrous. 
Stamens 3. Stigmas exserted laterally at or above the middle or near the tips. 
Grain oblong, obtuse, dorsally compressed ; embryo rather more than half the 
length of the grain. Pedicelled spikelet awnless. Lower involucral glume 
oblong, many nerved, upper flat with sharply inflexed margins closing over the 
hyaline lower floral glume if present and the stamens, upper floral glume 
usually 0, never awned. 

Species 10 in the tropical and warm-temperate regions of the Old World. 

So far 4 species were known from the Presidency and described by Cooke 
under Andropogon armatus, Hook, f., A. Cookei, Stapf, A. caricosus, Linn, 
and A. annulatus, Forsk. To these we have added 2 new species : 
Dichanthium panchganiense, Blatter & McCann, and D. McCannii, 

Key to the species 

A. Racemes digitate (sometimes solitary in 
D. caricosus) , 25 mm. long or longer 
I. Lower involucral glumes of pedicelled 
spikelets armed with marginal bul- 
bous-based bristles 

1. Lower involucral glume of pedicelled 

spikelet always pitted ... ... 1. D. panchganiense. 

2. Lower involucral glume of pedicelled 

spikelet not pitted 
(a) Ligule absent ... ... ... 2. D. armatum. 

\b) Ligule present ... ... ... 3. D. McCannii. 


425 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 3. [Jan. 15, 1928. 

II Lower involucral glumes of pedicelled 
spikelets not armed with marginal 

1. Nodes of stem glabrous ; ligule a 

shortly ciliate small membrane ... 4. D. caricosum. 

2. Nodes of stem bearded ; ligule large, 

membranous ... ... ... 5. D. annulatum 

B. Racemes solitary, less than 25 mm, long ... 6. D. serrafalccides. 

1. Dichanthiutn panchganiense, Blatter & McCann in Journ. Bomb. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. xxxii (1927), 381. 

Locality : Deccan : Panchgani (McCann ! ) 
Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

2. Dichanthiutn armatum, Blatter & McCann, comb. nov.—Andropogon 
armatus, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 197 : Cke. ii, 987. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Konkan : Stocks (teste Hook, f.).— Deccan : Kalsabai Hills, 
Nasik District (Patwardhan 1183 !); Gira Hill, Khandala (McCann 9430 ! 9431 !); 
Lohagad (McCann 3871 ! ) ; Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg B1212 ! ) ; 
Pasarni Ghat (Blatter and Hallberg B1304 ! ). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

3. Dichanthium McCannii, Blatter in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xxxii 
(1927), 381. 

Locality : Deccan ; Panchgani (McCann ! ). 
Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

4. Dichanthium caricosum, A. Camus : Note sur le genre Dichanthium 
Willemet in Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 27 (1921), 5i9.—Andropogon cari- 
cosum, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1763), 1480 ; Hack. Monogr. Androp. 567 ; Hook, 
f. in F. B. I. vii, 196 ; Cke. ii, 967 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa, 1039— For 
further synonyms see Hook, f . 1. c. 

Three authors have made the new combination Dichanthium caricosum : 
{a) A. Camus 1. c. (6). Stapf in Ridley Fl. Malay Penins. v (1925), 210. (c) 
Haines in Bot. Bihar and Orissa (1924), 1039. A. Camus has therefore to be 
adopted as authority for D. caricosum. 

We are not trying to describe varieties or forms of this very variable species. 

Vern. Names : Marvel (Mar.), Zinzvo (Guj.). 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

This species can, according to Burns and others 1 be distinguished from 
D. annulatum, Stapf by the following characters : — 

Dichanthium caricosum. Dichanthium annulatum. 
Habit : Big and tufted with ter- Medium size with termi- 

minal and axillary in- nal inflorescences . 

Nodal hairs on stem : Short. Long. 

Colour of inflorescence : Light purplish-green. Purple. 

Hairs of inflorescence : Short. Long. 

Haines 1. c. believes there is no single character by which D. caricosum can 
be distinguished from D. annulatum. ' I have,' he says, ' tested all those given 
in the F. B. I. and found them fail on specimens named by Sir J. D. Hooker 
himself ; the key characters in Bengal plants are also unworkable as applied to 
the same specimens, many of which have bearded nodes, and the character of 
spiral or subdistichous spikelets is difficult to apply. Linnasus described 
Andropogon caricosus as with solitary spikes, and Willdenough (sic ! ) adds 
• leaves with sparse hairs and sheaths hirsute at the base ' (probably he refers 
to the nodes).' 

In his key-characters Haines says that in D. caricosum the callus is glabrous. 
This seems to be a mistake. Hackel calls the callus Brevissime barbatus, Cooke 
has ' bearded,' Rangachari describes it as ' short and shortly hairy below.' We 
have always found it bearded. 

Locality: Gujarat: Surat, road sides (Sedgwick 2>lS\).—Khandesh : 
Toranmal (McCann 9669!) ; Tapti, N. E. of Bhusawal (Hallberg 5111 !) ; 

1 W. Burns, L. B. Kulkarni and S. R. Godbole : A Study of Some Indian 
Grasses, in Mem. Dept Agr. Ind., xiv (1925), 46. 


Jan. 15, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 426 

N. slope of Chanseli (McCann 9968 ! ).— Konkan : Parsik, railway tract 
(McCann 9633 ! ) . — Decca n : Junnar (Mamlatdar of Junnar!) ; Shevgaon 
(Mamlatdar of Shevgaon!); Lohagad, half-way up (McCann 9627!); 
Agricultural College Farm, Poona (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona!); Khed 
(Mamlatdar of Khed !) ; Purandhar (McCann 5570 !) ; Bairawady, Purandhar 
(McCann 5075 ! ) ; Panchgani (Blatter 3803 ! , Blatter and Hallberg B1223 ! ) ; 
between Mahableshwar and Panchgani, elevation 4,000 ft. (Sedgwick and 
Bell 4743;).— 5". M. Country: Dharwar, elevation 2,400 ft., rainfall 34" 
(Sedgwick 1828 \).—Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2427 !). 

Distribution : India, Burma, Ceylon, Mauritius, China. 

Uses : A good fodder grass. 

5. Dichanthium annulatum, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 178; Haines Bot. 
Bihar and Orissa 1039. — Andropogon annulatus, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.-Arab, 
(1775), 173 ; Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 33, t. 20 ; Hack.Monogr. Androp. 570 ; 
Hook, f . F.B.I, vii, 196 ; Cke. ii, 988.- For further synonyms see Hook, f . 1. c. 

Vent. Names: Zinjoo, handi daroya, daroya (Surat), dhrow (Broach), 
zinzma (Charodi), jinjva (Panch-Mahals), marvel (Poona), sheda, sam-payen 
palvan-hullu, marwalyan-hullu (Dharwar). 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Sind : Jamesabad (Sabnis B972 !) ; Mirpurkhas (Sabnis B1028 !, 
B1185 !) ; Hyderabad (Sabnis B51 !) ; Pad-Idan (Sabnis B515 !) ; Larkana 
(Sabnis B462 !) ; Nasarpur (Sabnis B1140 !) ; Tatta, Kullan Kote Lake (Blatter 
and McCann D667 !) ; Tatta, tombs (Blatter and McCann D668 !) .—Gujarat : 
Kabirwad (Chibber !) ; Nadiad Farm (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !) . — Khandesh ; 
Amboli, Bori River (Blatter and Hallberg 5148 !) ; Dadgaum (McCann 9665!) ; 
Toranmal (McCann 9670 ! ) ; Bor, Bori River (Blatter and Hallberg 4428 ! ); 
Umalla, Tapti Bank (Blatter and Hallberg 5228 ! ).— Konkan : Sion (McCann 
3672 !) ; Sewri (McCann 3587 !) ; Parsik, railway line (McCann 9654 !) ; Cam- 
poli (McCann 5356 !). — Deccan : Kirkee to Poona, railway line (Garade 83 !) ; 
College Garden, Poona (Garade !) ; Chattarshinji Hill, Poona (Ezekiel) ; 
Trimbak (Chibber !) ; Khandala, very common (McCann 5297 !) ; Manmad 
Blatter 99/0 !) ; Purandhar, north foot (McCann 9421 !).— S.M. Country: 
Devikop, elevation 1,800 ft., rainfall 40" (Sedgwick 3984 !). — Kanara : Halyal 
(Talbot 2081 !) ; Kulgi (Talbot 2299 !). 

Distribution : Tropical Africa (Nileland, Mozambique District), from 
Morocco through North Africa, the Orient and India to China and Australia, 
Pacific Islands. 

Uses : Considered good fodder. 

6. Dichant'iiutn serrafalcoides, Blatter & McCann, nov. comb. — Andropogon 
Cookei, Stapf ex Woodrow in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xiii, 438 (nomen 
tanlum) ; Cke. ii, 986 (descriptio) .—A. {Dichanthium ?) serrafalcoides, Cooke et 
Stapf "in Kew Bull. (1908), 450. 

The systematic position of this species is somewhat doubtful. Cooke already 
found that it does not agree with Hackel's subgenus Dichanthium, but he adds: 
' It is the only subgenus into which it will fit at all.' Cooke and Stapf, when 
describing the same species under a different name, remark : ' Ob spiculas secun- 
darias infimas saepissime neutras caeterum eadem forma ac fertiles si vis ad 
Dichanthiun referendus, sed nulli speciei arete af finis spiculis maiusculis in 
racemos spiculis Serrafalci haud dissimiles congestis insignis.' Following 
this suggestion we have put it under Dichanthium. 

Description : Cke. ii, 9»6. 

Locality: Deccan : Lonavla (Bhide !); Khandala, Echo Point (McCann 9403!); 
Kalanbai Hills (Patwardhan !) ; Sakar-Pathar near Lonavla (Woodrow !) ; 
Mahableshwar (McCann!); Panchgani (McCann!, Blatter and Hallberg 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

34. Eremopogon, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix (1917), 182. 

Perennial or annual grasses. Stems slender, simple below, more or less 
branched above, the branches often gathered in fastigiate bundles, each sup- 
ported by a bladeless sheath and terminated by a solitary raceme. Spikelets 
small, 2-nate ; one sessile, the other pedicelled, similar in shape, different in 
sex, on the fragile rhachis of many-jointed solitary spatheate racemes which are 


427 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 3. [Jan. 15, 1928. 

frequently gathered in fastigiate bundles, rarely the lowermost 1-3 pairs homo- 
gamous ; joints and pedicels filiform, compressed, solid or slightly grooved, 
disarticulating horizontally ; spikelets deciduous, the sessile with the adjacent 
joint and pedicels. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed, awned ; callus small, 
shortly bearded. Involucral glumes equal, thinly chartaceous to membranous, 
lower 2-keeled, with narrow inflexed margins, upper boat-shaped, 3-nerved, 
acutely keeled. Lower floral glume hyaline, nerveless, upper reduced to a hya- 
line upwards firmer linear stipe passing into a slender awn. Stamens 3. Stig- 
mas exserted laterally near the middle of the spikelet, longer than the styles. 
Pedicelled spikelet awnless ; somewhat similar to the sessile. 

Species about 5, in the tropical and warm -temperate parts of the Old World. 

Cooke knew one species from the Presidency which he described under the 
name of Andropogon foveolatus, Del. We add Eremopogon Paranjpyeanum, 
Blatter and McCann. 

1. Lower involucral glume of sessile spikelet 4-nerv- 

ed ... ... ... ... ... 1. E. foveolatus. 

2. Lower involucral glume of sessile spikelet faintly 

5-7-nerved ... ... ... ... 2. E. Paranjpyeanum 

1. Eremopogon foveolatus, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix (1917), 183.— 
Andropogon foveolatus, Del. Fl. Egypte 16, t. 8, fig. 2 ; Duthie Fodd. Grass. 
N. Ind. 35, t. 22 ; Hack. Monogr/ Androp. 402 ; Hook. f. F. B. 1. vii, 168 ; 
Cke. ii, 977.— A. strictus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 260. — A. monosiachyus, Spreng. 
Pug. ii, 9.— Hypogynium foveolatum, Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa (1924), 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Sind : Sehwan to Laki, foot of hills (Sabnis B 651 !). — Gujarat : 
Road to Lasandra (Chibber !) ; Bhuj Hill, Cutch (Blatter 3765 !) —Khandesh : 
Umalla, Tapti Bank (Blatter and Hallberg 5222 ! ); Bhusawal (McCann 4243 !); 
Bor, Bori River (Blatter and Hallberg 4309 !) ; Naradana (Blatter and Hallberg 
5180 \).—Konkan: Parel, poor specimen (McCann 5373 \).—Deccan . Pan- 
chgani, roadside, elevation 4,000 ft., rainfall 60 " (Sedgwick and Bell 
4735 !) ; Yeola (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; Arangaon, Ahmednagar (Ryan !) ; 
Chattarshinji Hill (Ezekiel!); Deolali (Blatter 4550 !) ; Manmad (Blatter 
A?61 !) ; Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg B1245!).— S. M. Country : Dharwar, 
elevation 2,400 ft., rainfall 34 " (Sedgwick 1825 !) ; Haveri (Talbot 2229 !). 

Distribution: Tropical Africa (Upper Guinea, Nileland), Canaries, from 
Egypt and Tropical Arabia to the drier parts of India. 

2. Eremopogon Paranjpyeanum, Blatter & McCann, comb. nov. — Andro- 
pogon Paranjpyeanum, Bhide in Journ. and Proc. Asiat. Soc. Beng., New 
series, vii (1911), 514. 

Descriptioti : A delicate-looking grass. Stems slender, erect, 30-45 cm. 
high; upper nodes pubescent; leaves 2'5-7 # 5 cm. by 2 mm., subcordate at 
base, long-hairy on both sides, the margins thickened and minutely irregularly 
repand and spinulosely serrulate ; sheaths glabrous ; ligule a short erose 
membrane. Racemes solitary, 12-25 mm. long (without the awns), on a very 
slender peduncle. Sessile spikelets 3 mm. long. Lower involucral glume 
oblong, obtuse, faintly 5-7-nerved, glabrous, margins narrowly incurved, keels 
shortly ciliate at the apex, upper just a little longer than the lower, 3-nerved, 
oblong, apiculate. Lower floral glume shorter than the involucral glumes, 
hyaline and with ciliate margins, epaleate, upper floral glume consisting of the 
narrow base of the awn, just a little more than half as long as the lower in- 
volucral glume, obscurely margined and 1-nerved with 2 obscure narrow lobes 
at the apex, and an interposed slender, twisted, scabrid awn about 4 cm. long, 
bearing a bisexual flower. Pedicelled spikelets about 4 mm. long. Lower 
involucral glume oblong, obtuse, 7-9-nerved, margins incurved and broadly 
winged at the keels, wings shortly ciliate towards the apex, upper involucral 
glume a little shorter than the lower, oblong, acute, 3-nerved, margins ciliate. 
Lower floral glume shorter than the upper involucral, hyaline, ciliate, faintly 
3-5-nerved, epaleate, male. Joints and pedicels compressed, obliquely truncate, 
|-§ as long as the sessile spikelets and ciliate with short white hairs on both 

Locality : S. M. Country : Castle Rock (Bhide !). 
( Distribution : So far endemic. 


Jan. 15, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 428 

35. Schizachyrium. Nees Agrost. Bras, 331. Stapf in Prain 
Fl. Trop. Afr. ix. 1184. 

Annual or perennial grasses, rarely stiff rutescent, never very tall. Stems 
slender. Leaf-blades folded in bud, usually narrow. False panicles varying 
from very loose and scanty to densely fascicled ; spathes mostly very narrow, 
scarious, membranous or lower down herbaceous. Spikelets 2-nate, of each 
pair differing in sex and mostly also more or less in shape and in size one sessile 
the other pedicelled, on the articulate fragile rhachis of many-pointed solitary 
racemes terminating the culms and their branches, supported by spathes and 
often collected into a false panicle, the sessile spikelets falling with the conti- 
guous joint and the accompanying pedicelled spikelets jjoints and pedicels 
thickened upwards, often rather stout with a scarious cupuliform and more or 
less dentate terminal appendage. Sessile spikelets dorsally compressed or some- 
times in their lower half almost terete, awned ; callus short with a short beard 
at the very base. Involucral glumes equal or subequal, lower chartaceous to 
subcoriaceous, more or less convex or flat on the back with at least from the 
middle upwards, sharply inflexed and mostly narrow margins, 2 keeled, the 
keels running out into teeth or mucros, upper thinner to membranous, nar- 
rowly boat-shaped to dorsally flattened, keeled (at least upwards), 1-3 nerved, 
the delicate margins ciliolate Floral glumes, ciliolate, hyaline, lower mem- 
branous downwards and often purplish, 2-nerved, upper usually 2-fid or 2-den- 
tate, rarely entire, awned, awn from the sinus or continuing the entire valve, 
Pale or a microscopic hyaline scale. Lodicules 2, minute, glabrous. Stamens 
3, rarely 2. Stigmas laterally exerted low down ; style terminal. Grain 
narrowly linear in outline or tapering upwards, subterete ; embryo short. 
Pedicelled spikelet similar to the sessile, but usualey relatively broader and 
flatter, or more or less reduced .and then :sometimes quite small. Involucral 
glumes, or more or less membranous, the lower aristulate or muticous. = Floral 
glumes, if present hyaline, ciliate, muticous. 

Species about 50, in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

1. Schizachyrium brevi folium, Nees Agrost. Bras. 332 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 
495 ; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop Afr. ix, 187 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1042. 
— Andropogon brevifolius, Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 26, Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 209 ; 
Hack, in monogr. Andiop. vi, 363 (excl. var. fragilis) ; Duthie Grass. N.W. 
ltd. 19, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 34; Hook, f F.B.I, vii, 165.-^4 obtusifolius, 
Poir. Encycl. Suppl. i, 583.— A parvifolius, Roxb. Fl Ind. i, 277.—A.\tenellus 
Presl. Rel. Haenk. i, 335.-^4. debilis, Kunth Enum. PI. i, 488.— A. floridus, 
Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. 6 ser ii, 265.— Pollinia brevifolia, Spreg, Syst, 
i. 288. 

Description : Annual. Stems weak, up to 60 cm. flong, usually ascending 
from a decumbent base, rarely erect many-noded, branchedf rom most of the 
nodes: branches often 2-4-nate and dividing again, very slender to filiform, 
geniculate, glabrous, the lower internodes usually much compressed. Leaf- 
blades linear, constricted at the junction with the sheath, the lower and those of 
the primary branches obtuse or sub-obtuse or suddenly narrowed to a sharp 
point, 25-38 mm long and 2-6 3 mm. wide, the upper and those of the secon- 
dary and tertiary branches much narrower and more acute, often glaucescent, 
smooth except along the margins and the lower side of the midrib, nerves very 
fine. Ligules membranous, very short, ciliolate Sheaths compressed, the 
lower keeled, somewhat lax, glabrous, smooth, the uppermost spathe-like ; 
leaves like the spathe of the inflorescence ultimately turning reddish. Spathes 
on subcapillary curved or fiexuous branchlets, very narrow, acute, reaching to 
the base of the racemes or slightly exceeding them ; racemes borne on fiilform 
upwards clavate peduncles, slender from less than 12 mm. to slightly over 
25 mm. long, 5-11-jointed ; joints 2-2'7 mm. long, widening upwards from a 
slender base, tips 2-dentate glabrous, smooth pedicels as long as the joints, 
very slender and only slightly ^thickeneed upwards. Sessile spikelets |linear* 
lanceolate, acuminate, more or less convex on the back, pale green, about 
3*3 mm. long including the minute callus, which is more or less shortly bearded, 
at least on the sides. Involucral glumes equal lower thinly chartaceous, 2- 
dentate, scaberulous along the keels, with very fine intracarinal nerves, smooth 
or very minutely scaberulous on the back ; upper boat-shaped, acute 1-nerved, 
ciliolate. Lower floral glume eiliptic, obtuse, hyaline, neveless, ciliolate, 
upper 2-fid almost to the base, 1* 6 mm. long, segments linear-oblong, sub- 


429 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 3. [Jan. 15, 1928, 

obtuse, sparingly eiliolate, awn 8-5-12-7 mm. long. Anthers 0-5 mm. long, deep 
red or purple. Grain sublinear, tapering upwards, Pedicelled spikelet reduced 
to a minute glume,, often passing indistinctly into the pedicel and produced into 
a bristle-like awn, about 4 - 2 mm. long. 

Locality : S. M. Country : Badami (Talbot 2930 !). 

Distribution : Widely distributed throughout the tiopics, 

36. Andropogon, Linn.; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 208. 

After the restoration of HackePs subgenera to the rank of genera, the general 
characters of Andropogon itself must be modified in many ways : 

Mostly perennial grasses of various habit. Spikelets 2-nate, the sessile and 
pedicelled differing from one another in sex and more or less heteromorphous, all 
pairs similar, or if the lowest sessile spikelet male or imperfect then resemb- 
ling the others. Spikes (spiciform racemes) many-jointed, fragile, paired (very 
rarely solitary) or corymbose (digitate or subdigitate) on terminal peduncles, 
embraced below by a spathe-like leaf (spatheole), frequently 2 or more pairs 
with their spathes subtended by a common spathe and so on to more compo- 
site branching, the whole forming a false panicle ; the sessile spikelets falling 
with the contiguous joint and the accompanying pedicel ; joints and pedicels 
filiform or thickened upwards and then the tips frequently more or less cupular 
orauricled. Sessile spikelets dors ally or laterally compressed, nearly always 
awned ; callus short, mostly quite obtuse, shortly bearded. Involucral glumes 
equal or subequal, subcoriaceous to membranous, lower flat or concave or 
channeled on the back, with at least from the middle upwards sharply inflexed 
margins, 2-keeled ; upper more or less boat-shaped, keeled upwards, 3-1-nerved, 
sometimes aristulate. Floral glumes ciliate or eiliolate, rarely glabrous, lower 
hyaline, 2-nerved, upper 2-fid or 2-dentate, hyaline or firmer and some- 
times substipitiform below the insertion of the awn. Pale a hyaline nerveless 
scale or 0. Lodicules 2, minute, glabrous. Stamens 3. Stigmas laterally 
exserted ; styles terminal. Grain narrowly lanceolate to oblong in outline, 
subterete to planoconvex ; embryo about half the length of the grain. Pedicel- 
led spikelets often very different from the sessile in shape and less so in size, 
always more or less compressed dorsally, never concave or channelled on the 
back, sometimes reduced and then of ten small or quite suppressed. Involucral 
glumes herbaceous-chartaceous to membranous, the lower muticous or very 
rarely aristulate. Floral glumes, if present, hyaline, ciliate, muticous. 

Species about 100, mostly in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

1. Andropogon pumihis, Roxb. FI. Ind. 1 (1832), 273 ; Steud, Syn. Gram. 388 ; 
Hook f. in F.B.I, vii, 170 ; Cke. ii, 976 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1044.— 
A. demissus, Steud, I.e. — A. pachyarthrus, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 449; 
Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 21, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. t 39. 

Vern. Names : Zinzvo (Surat), baerki, gondwal, lalgavat, tambrut, gondal, 
chiman chara, malakava. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Gujarat: Nadiad farm (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; Surat 
(Dalzell).— Khandesh : Bhusawal (McCann 5451!)! Bor, Bori River (Blatter 
and Hallberg 5116 !) ; to Naradana (Blatter and Hall berg 5207 \).—Deccan : 
Pashan (Gammie !) ; Bairawadi, Purandhar (McCann 5054 !) ; Manmad (Blat- 
ter A262!); Shiuda (Sabnis A260 \) ; Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg 
B1268!,B1274!, B1326 !).— S. M. Country: Haveri (Talbot 2230!); Dumbal 
(Talbot 23.1.8!) ; Harsol (Sedgwick 1083 \).—Kanara : Karwar (Lisboa). 

Distribution : Nepal, Bihar, Rajputana, Central Prov., W. Peninsula. 

37. Cymbopogon, Spreng.; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 265. 

Perennial, densely tufted and usually aromatic grasses. Leaves often very 
coarse. Panicles frequently much compound and contracted, spatbeate. 
Spikelets 2-nate, those of each pair differing in sex and more or less in shape — 
except those of lowest pair of the lower or of both racemes which are homoga- 
mous (male or neuter) — one sessile, the other pedicelled on the articulate fragile 
rhachis of many-jointed paired racemes, terminating the culms and their 
branches ; raceme-pairs supported by a spatheole, collected into often decom- 
pound or supra-decompound spatheate panicle ; the fertile spikelets falling with 
the contiguous joint and the accompanying pedicel ; joints and pedicels filiform 

jafi IS, 1928.3 Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 430 

or linear with frequently more or less cupular or auricled tips, those of the 
lowest pair (raceme-base) often conspicuously swollen, oblong or barrel- 
shaped and hard. Sessile spikelets (above the lowest) female or hermaphro- 
dite, dorsally, rarely, laterally, compressed, awned (normally) ; callus very 
short, obtuse, shortly bearded. Involucral glumes equal or subequal, more or 
less chartaceous, lower almost flat or slightly depressed or narrowly grooved on 
the back, with at least from the middle upwards sharply inflexed margins, 2- 
keeled, upper more or less boat-shaped, keeled upwards, usually 1-nerved^ 
Floral glumes ciliate or ciliolate (sometimes obscurely), lower entire, hyaline, 
2-nerved, upper 2-fid or2-lobed, hyaline, rarely firmer and almost stipe-like 
below the insertion of the awn ; column of awn, if any, smooth. Pale 0. 
Lodicules 2, minute, glabrous. Stamens 3. Stigmas laterally exserted ; styles 
terminal. Grain oblong in outline, subterete to plano-convex in cross-section -, 
embryo about half the length of the grain. Pedicelled spikelets usually slightly 
different in shape and size from the sessile, but never depressed or grooved on 
the back. Involucral glumes muticous, lower chartaceous to sub-chartaceous 
upper thinner. Lower floral glume hyaline, 2-nerved, upper 0, but usually a 
male flower present. 

Species about 36, in the tropical, more rarely in the subtropical regions of the 
Old World. 

Cooke mentions one Indigenous (Andropogon Jwarancusa, Jones) and one 
cultivated species {Andropogon Schoenanthus-, Linn.) belonging to this genus. 
We add two indigenous species and a cultivated one,: 

Key, mainly after Stapf : 

A, Blades long, hard, rough-edged throughout, filiform to linear; 
lower involucral glume of sessile s pikelet flat or con-cave between the keels 

I. Raceme- joints villous all over, hairs long, 
more or less concealing the sessile 
spikelets ; awn usually a straight, very 
short bristle 

1. Basal leaf-sheaths in dense tufts, tightly 

clasping, thickened below ; blades 
more or less filiform and flexuous, 
except when very short ; raceme- 
fascicles more or less simple ... 1. C. Schcenanthus . 

2. Basal leaf-sheaths ultimately loosened 

and curled ; blades flat ; raceme- 
fascicles compound ... ... 2. C Jwarancusa* 

II. Raceme-joints bearded along the sides, 
but hairs not concealing the sessile 
spikelets; fertile spikelets awnless ... 3. C. citratus. 

B, Blades flat, 5-30 mm. wide, rounded to 

subcordate and stem-clasping at the base, 

of a soft texture, with smooth edges ; at 

least in the lower part ; lower involucral 

glume of sessile spikelet with a narrow 

groove from the middle downwards 

corresponding to a keel inside 
I. Blades 10-30 mm. wide (rarely under 10 
mm.), somewhat fat, rich green, at 
least above ; panicles 10-30 cm. long, 
turning reddish when mature ... 4. V. Martini. 

II. Blades 2-6 mm. wide, thin, glaucous ; 
panicles 10-20 cm. long, glaucous or 
straw-colour when mature ... .., 5. C. ccesius. 

1. Cymbopogon Schoenanthus, Spreng. Pug. ii {1815), 15, non Schult.; Stapf 
In Kew Bull. (1906), 303-313, 352-353, in Prain PL Trop. Afr. ix, 268.— C, 
tirabicus, Nees ex Steud. Syn. PL Glum , i (1855), 387. — C. Arriani, Aitch. 
Cat. Punj. PL (1869), 174.— C. Circinnatus, Hochst. ex Hack, in Monogr, 
Androp. 599.— Andropogon Schoenanthus, Linn. Sp. PL ed. 1 (1753), 1046 
{non Hackel et plurimorum auct.).—A. bicornis, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.— Arab* 
(1763), 173, non Linn.— A. laniger, Desf. Fl. Atl. ii (1800), 379; Boiss. Fl. 
Or. v, 465; Balfour Bot. Socotra, 316; Hack, in Monogr. Androp. 598; 
Benth. in Hook. Ic. PL t. 1871.— A. Olivieri, Boiss. Diagn. PL Or. ser. i, 


431 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 3. {Jan. 15, 1928. 

fasc. v (1844), 76.— A. circinnatus. Hochst. e* Steud. Svn. PL Glum, i (1855), 
387.-^7. Arria?ii, Edgew. in Journ. Linn. Soc. vi (1862), 208.— A Jzi'aran- 
cusa, subsp. laniger, Hook.f. F.B.L vii. 203; Cke. ii, 976 (var. tantum) . — 
Gymnanthelia lanigera, Anderss. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 306 {women 
tantum) . 

For a discussion of the foundation of this species see Stapf in Kew Bull. 
(1906), 303-305. 

Description : Perennial, compactly caespitose, with numerous intravaginal 
innovations, 15-45 cm. high. Culms erect, slender, few — to 4-noded and simple 
below the inflorescence, terete, glabrous, very rarely with a few small hairs at 
the nodes. Leaf-blades semiterete, filiform > wiry, flexuous, very firm and 
often circinate upwards, rounded on the back, channelled on the face, or those 
of the culms somewhat flatter and shorter, up to more than 23 tm. long, 1 mm. 
in diameter, glabrous, finely scaberulous on the nerves below, though often 
smooth to the touch, pale, glaucous, evenly 7-9-nerved, the midrib showing 
only above as a broad, white band. Ligules membranous to scarious, oblong, 
truncate, ciliate, up to 3*3 mm. long. Sheaths very firm, smooth, glabrous, 
tight, those of the innovations and base of the culms widened at the base, very 
tough and long-persistent, straw-coloured, up to 13 cm. long. Spatheate 
panicle narrow, 8-30 cm. long, few — to 7-noded lower internodes 5-7*5 cm. 
long, upper rapidly decreasing in length, slender, glabrous ; lowest primary 
branch rarely undivided at the base, 3-2-noded and up to 15 cm. long, usually 
forming up to 4-rayed tiers ; lowest subtending sheaths with foliaceous blades; 
rays finely filiform, 2*5-3*7 cm. long, rarely to over 5 cm., glabrous ; spathes 
narrowly lanceolate, subherbaceous, often tinged with pale purple, with a 
short blade or the upper bladeless and produced into a setaceous point, 3*7-4*3 
cm. long, glabrous. Spatheoles very narrow, acute or with a setaceous point, 
12-25 mm. long, pale or straw-coloured ; peduncles finely filiform, widened up- 
wards 3*3-4*2 mm. long, tips truncate. Racemes 2-nate, more or less divari- 
cate, at length epinastically deflexed, 1-2 mm. long, white-villous, pale or 
tinged with purple, one subsessile, the other with a bare base, 1-2 mm long, 
bases puberulous to pubescent in the fork, ciliate-bearded upwards, with 
minutely cupular and denticulate tips, that of the subsessile raceme as well as 
the adjacent pedicel stout, elliptic to elliptic-oblong in outline and convex on 
the back, ultimately more or less glabrescent and glossy ; fertile joints filiform, 
slightly widened towards the oblique subcupular auricled tips, 2* 7-3 3 mm. 
long, densely hairy to villous from the back and the angles ; adjacent pedicels 
similar to the joints but more slender. Homogamous pair of spikelets one at 
the base of the sessile or of both racemes ; the sessile spikelet of the lowest but 
one of the sessile raceme intermediate and imperfectly awned. Fertile spike- 
lets linear-lanceolate, more or less acuminate, acute, including the callus 
5*3-6*3 or even 7*4 mm. long, glabrous, pale green below, reddish upwards; 
callus short obtuse, shortly bearded. Involucral glumes equal, chartaceous, 
lower nerveless and shallowly concave between the acute scaberulous keels, 
minutely 2-denticulate, upper lanceolate-oblong in profile, acute, slightly 
curved on the back, 1-nerved, margins broadly hyaline upwards, ciliate. 
Lower floral glume linear-oblong, nerveless, hyaline, ciliolate, slightly shorter 
than the involucral glumes, upper very narrow, shortly 2-fid, cuneate-linear 
and chartaceous below the insertion of the awn, less than 3*3 mm. long, 
lobes broadly lanceolate, ciliate, awn up to 1 cm. long, very fine, more or less 
keeled at and slightly twisted below the middle ; column smooth. Anthers 
2 mm. long. Pedicelled spikelets male, linear-oblong, 4*2-6*3 mm. long, 
glabrous, more reddish than the sessile ; involucral glumes subchartaceous, 
with 5-9 evenly distant intracarinal nerves, the upper thinner, 3-nerved ; lower 
floral glume linear-oblong, sub-2-nerved, ciliolate, 4'2 mm. long; upper 
floret reduced to a male flower, or its glume present as a microscopic scale. 

Locality : Sind : (Stocks 816, Woodrow) ; Jemadar ka Landa near 
Karachi (Stocks). 

Distrbution : From Morocco through N. Africa, Arabia, Persia, Afghani- 
stan, Baluchistan, Punjab, Sind. 

History and Uses : See Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906), 305-313, 353. 

2. Cymbopogon Jwarancusa, Schult. Mant. ii (1824), 458 ; Stapf in Kew Bull. 
(1906), 354 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa 1045.— Andropogon Jwarancusa 
Jones in Asiat. Research, iv (1795), 109 ; Cke. ii, 976.— A. Jwarancusa var. 


Jan. 15, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 432 

genuinus, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 599. — A I. stibsp. Jwarancusa proper, 
Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 203.— A. laniger, Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. t. 23. 

Vern. Names : Jwarankusa (i.e. fever-restrainer) (Sanskr.), khavi (Hindust.) 

Description: Usually a tall grass, up to 1*8 m. high, with very aromatic 
roots, densely tufted, the stems from clusters of firm, persistent, finally loose 
and open and tortuous leaf-sheaths, more or less widened below. Leaves flat, 
up to 60 cm. long and 5 mm. broad, narrowly linear, filiform above and ending 
in a long capillard tip, ligule - 5 mm. long, membranous. Panicles long, 
narrow interruptey, with very compressed, short, fascicled branches bearing 
spathes about 5 cm. long and spatheoles 6-18 mm. long. Racemes 14-L8 cm. 
long, often 5 joined, joints half as long as the uppermost villi. Spikelets 3-4 
pairs, green, half hidden by the 5 mm. long villi, on the joints and pedicels. 
Sessile spikelets 5 mm. long ; lower involucral glume flat or concave 
between the keels, which are neither winged nor margined (omitting 
of course, the ordinary inflexed margins of the glume common to the genus) 
or sometimes narrowly margined, scabrid or ciliolate, nerves 2-4 or between 
the keels. Joints of rhachis and pedicels subclavate, with toothed tips. 
Pedicelled spikelets equal or rather longer than the sessile, narrowly lanceolate, 
purplish ; lower involucral glume 7-9 nerved. 

Note.— This species is nearly related to C Schcenanthus and the two, as 
pointed out by Hackel (1. c. p. 600), are not always distinguishable with cert- 
ainty. v At high altitudes, ' says Stapf (1. c. 314), ' as in Kumaon and Spiti, or 
in the dryer parts of the Punjab, it (C. Jwarancusa) becomes dwarfed 
and narrow-leafed and forms a " transition state " to C. Schoenanthus The 
latter is a characteristic desert plant, able to exist with a minimum supply of 
water. On the other hand, C. Jwarancusa is dependent on an, at least 
temporarily, abundant supply of water, and prefers the neighbourhood of 
rivers, or actually grows in the beds of torrents. It is not impossible, that the 
distinguishing characters of C Jwarancusa as compared with C. Schoe- 
nanthus, that is the robust state, the long, flat and relatively broad leaves, and 
the more composite panicles, are mainly due to eolaphic conditions.* 

Locality : Sind: Karachi (Dalzell and Gibson); Bholari (Bhide !); Shikarpur 
(Bhide !); Umerkot, sandy plains (Sabnis B1082!); Gharo (Blatter and McCann 
D669! D670!) ; Gholamalla (Blatter and McCann D671!).— Gujarat : Ahmeda- 
bad (Dalzell and Gibson). 

Distribution : Outer hillzone of the United Provinces, Kumaon, Garhwal 
(up to 3,000 m. or over) and westwards as far as Peshawar, Jodhpur and Jais- 
almer States, Sind ; Bihar. 

Uses : Stapf is of opinion that this grass is very probably used along with 
C. Schcenanthus. See also Stapf (1. c. 313-314). 

*3. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf in KewBull. (1906), 357 in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. 
ix, 282.— Andropogon Schoenanthus, Linn. Syst, ed. x (1759), 1304, not of Sp. 
PL; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey and Wall, i (1820), 278.— A. citratus DC. Cat. 
Hort. Monsp. (1813), 78 ; Nees in Allgem. Gartenz. iii (1835), 266.— A. citriodo- 
rum (sic !) Desf. in Tabl. Ecole Bot. ii (1815), 15.-^4. Roxburghii, Nees in 
Wight Cat. (1833), no. 1699 (nomen tantum) ; Steud Syn. PI. Glum. i. 
(1855), 395— A. ceriferus Hack, in Mart. Fl. Bras ii, pt. iii (1883), 281.-^4. 
nardus, var. ceriferus, Hack. Monogr. Androp. (1889), 605. Sehcenanthus 
amboinicum, Rumph. Herb. Amboin. v, 181, t. 72. 

For the taxonomic position of this species see Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906), 

Vern. Names'. Oleu cha, hirva cha (Mar.), lili cha (Guj.), vasane-hullu, 
kavance hullu, majjige hullu (Canarese). 

Description : A tall perennial, throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a 
short, oblique annulate, sparingly branched rhizome, usually barren, but 
occasionally giving rise to a stout erect culm up to over 1*8 m. high, 7-8-noded 
and simple below the panicle. Leaf-blades linear, long -attenuated towards the 
base and tapering upwards to a long setaceous point, up to over 90 cm. long by 
16-18 mm. wide, very firm, glaucous-green, glabrous, smooth or more or less 
rough upwards and along the margins ; midrib somewhat stout below, 
whitish on the upper side ; primary lateral nerves 4-6 on each side, raised 
particularly above with 2-4 secondary nerves between them- Ligules very 
short, scarious, rounded or truncate. Sheaths terete, those of the barren 
shoots much widened at the base, and tightly clasping each other, narrow and 
separating upwards, with rounded shoulders at the mouth, 10-30 cm. long, 


433 Jour , Bom. Nat. Mist. Soc ., Vol. XXXII, No. 3. [Jan. 15, 1928, 

subcoriaceous, quite glabrous and smooth, more or less cinnamon-coloured or 
russet on the inside ; sheath of the culms tight, shorter than the internodes, 
finely pubescent or velvety at the nodes. Spatheate panicle decompound to 
subdecompound, loose, 30 to over 60cm. long, nodding; internodes 4 to over 
6, the longest up to 20 or 22 cm. long, rapidly, decreasing in length upwards ; 
lowest primary branches undivided at the base, up to over 45 cm. long, and 
up to 5- or 6-noded, the following forming mixed tiers of very unequal variously 
compound and simple rays, ultimate tiers up to 4-rayed ; rays filiform and 
glabrous; spathes narrow-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 2*5-5 cm. long with 
narrow membranous margins. Spatheoles very narrow, linear-lanceolate to 
almost subulate when inrolled, 14-18 mm. long, acute or finely acuminate, 
reddish to rich russet. Peduncles 6-10 mm. long, glabrous. Racemes 2-nate, 
finally spreading at right angles or epinastically deflexed, moderately dense, 
14-25 mm. long, pale, variously tinged with dull purple, loosely villous, one 
subsessile, the other with a slender filiform bare base, almost 2 mm. long and 
hairy, the pedicel of the homogamous pair also slender, though short; fertile 
joints filiform, slender, 2-3 mm. long, ciliate on both sides, tips obliquely 
auriculate and cupular, adjacent pedicels very similar. Homogamous pair of 
spikelets 1 at the base of the sessile raceme, its sessile member usually slightly 
differing in shape from the fertile spikelets. Fertile spikelets linear to linear- 
lanceolate, acutely acuminate, 5-6 mm. long, reddish, glabrous; callus short, 
obtuse, minutely bearded. Involucral glumes subequal, lower subchartaceous, 
slightly depressed towards the base, otherwise flat on the back, keels acute, 
scaberulous above, intracarinal nerves or 1, short or indistinct, upper boat- 
shaped, slightly curved on the back, acute, keeled upwards. Lower floral 
glume hyaline, linear-oblong or almost linear, sub-2-nerved, ciliolate above, 
slightly shorter than the involucral glumes, upper narrowly linear, acute, about 
4 mm. long, usually entire and awnless, rarely more or less 2-fid with a Small 
bristle from the sinus. Anthers 2 mm. long. Pedicelled spikelets male or 
neuter, linear to subulate-lanceolate, as long as the sessile, reddish, glabrous; 
lower involucral glume 5-9-nerved, upper 3-nerved; lower floral glume 
shorter to much shorter than the involucral glumes, hyaline, ciliolate, upper 
very narrowly linear, nerveless if present at all. 

Locality : Gardens in Bombay. 

Distribution : This grass is only known in the cultivated state. Probably of 
Indian origin, and now widely distributed over the tropics of both hemispheres. 
See Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906), 334. 

History and uses of the Lemon-grass : Stapf I.e. 322-330. 334, 358. 

4. Cymbopogon Martini, Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906), 359 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and 
Orissa 1046. — C. Martinianus, Schult. Mant. ii (1824), 459.— Andropogon 
Martini, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1820), 280.— A. pachnodes, Trin. in Mem. Acad. 
Petersb. ser. 6, ii (1833), 284. and Spec. Gram. Ic. (1836), tab. 327.—^. Calamus 
aromaticus, Royle, Essay Antiq. Hind. Med. (1837), 33 {nomen tantum), Illustr. 
Bot. Himal. (1840), tab. 28Q.—A. nardoides, ctNees, Fl. Afr. Austr. (1841), 116. 
— A. Schosnanthus, Fluck. and Hanb. Pharmacogr. (1874), 660 {non Linn.) — 
A. Schosnanthus, var. genuinus, Hack. Monogr. Androp. (1889), 609 {partim). 
— A. Schcenanthus , var. Martini, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii (1897), 204 {exclus. 
synon. referentibus ad pi ant as Africanas). — For the foundation of this species 
and its synonymy see Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906), 335-337. 

Fern. Names : Geranium grass, Rusa grass ; rohisha, rosem (Sanskr.) ; 
rusa, gandh-bel, mirchia gandh, tikhari (Hindust.) ; rohish, roshegavat 
(Mar.) ; rhonse, rauns (Guj.) ; eunthi hullu, khasi hullu (Kanar.). 

Description : A tall, perennial sweet-scented grass, l"5-2'4m. high. Stems 
glabrous, straw-coloured, leafy. Leaves flat, usually broad, rounded or sub- 
cordate at the base, more or less glaucous beneath, those below the inflore- 
scence rarely under 23 cm. long by 1 cm. wide at the base, but often 25 cm. 
wide below, tapering from a little above the base or from the middle to a firm 
tip, glabrous except for the scabrid margins, margin sometimes smooth near 
the base. Spikes 2-nate, 12-38 mm. long, oblique or divaricate or less often 
deflexed. Peduncle about half the length of the 18-25 mm. long spatheole, 
several spatheoles and their peduncles from a spathe of lower order, these 
arranged in long usually narrowly oblong panicles not more than 35-5 cm. 
wide, but sometimes panicle with many branches and broader. Joints and 
pedicels slenderly clavate (excluding the much thickened lowest), about half as 


Jan 15, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 434 

long as the sessile spikelets, tips with a lanceolate tooth or 3-toothed, margins 
loag-villous, 3 5-5 mm. long. Lower involucral glume (above the lowest spike- 
let) with lanceolate centre becoming oblanceolate or oblong from the keels 
being membranously winged above the middle, back with a vertical median 
depression below the middle corresponding to a ridge inside ; upper cymbiform 
with the dorsal keel winged above, minutely ciliate below. 

Locality : Gujarat : Cbampanir (Chibber!) ; Ahmedabad, dry hills (Sedg- 
wick 310 !) • Junagad, Kathiawar (Blatter 3783 !) ; Bhuj-Rhodir-Maha, Cutch 
(Blatter 3649 !) ; An jar, Cutch (Blatter 3741 !) .— Khandesh : Road to Chinchpada 
(Chibber!); Toranmal (McCann A235 !). -Konkan : Wada Range (Ryan 
488!) ; Gokhirva, Bassein (Ryan 41 !) ; Keltan (Ryan 392 !) ; St. Xavier's 
College compound (McCann 4461 !). — Deccan : Ganeshkhind Botanic Gardens 
(Garade 435 !) ; Purandhar (Bhide !) ; Pashan (Gammie !) ; Modasa (Sedgwick 
and Saxton !) ; Khandala, very common (McCann !) ; Igatpuri (Blatter and 
Hallberg-4432 !) ; Purandhar (McCann 5010 !) ; Kasara, Igatpuri Ghat (McCann 
4343A !) ; Panchgani (Blatter and Hallberg B1248 !, B1282 !, B1297 !, B1324 !). 
—5. M. Country : Haveri (Talbot 2180 !) ; Dharwar (Talbot 2616 !) ; Badami 
(Talbot 2928 !). [According to Malcolmson, ' the Rusa grass in the Deccan 
affects particularly the trap, more or less avoiding the granite, so much so that 
he was able to trace the green-stone dykes across the granite by the luxuriance 
of the grass ' (ex Stapf)]. 

Distribution ; From the Afghan frontier to the Rajmahal Hills in Bengal and 
from the subtropical zone of the Himalaya to about 12° N., excluding the desert 
region of the Punjab and the greater part of the northern Carnatic. 

Stapf excludes also the outer slopes of the Western Ghats, but the localities 
given above show that the grass is well represented in that region. For the 
history and uses of the Rusa grass oil Oleum Palmarosce seu Geranii Indici 
(Palmarosa oil) see Stapf in Xew Bull. (1906), 338-341, 360. 

5. Cymbopogon caesius, Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906), 360. in Prain Fl. Trop. 
Afr. ix, 287. — AndroPogon caserns, Nees in Wight. Cat. (1833) nos. 1700b {nomen 
tantum) and in Hook, and Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 244 cum descriptione 
(Partim). — A. Schcenanthus, var. caesius, Hack, in Monogr. Androp. 610; 
Schweinf . in Bull Herb. Boiss. ii, App. ii, 14 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I. 205, exlus. 
fere omnibus synon. 

For foundation of this species see Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906), 344. 

Description : A perennial, tufted grass, up to 1 m. high, with intra— and ex- 
travaginal innovation-shoots from a short rhizome. Culms erect or geniculate- 
ascending, slender, more or less wiry, frequently branched below, the branches 
often in fascicles from the knees, often many-noded, terete, glabrous, smooth. 
Leaf-blades linear from a scarcely narrowed rarely slightly rounded base, 
tapering to a long setaceous point, those of the culms up to over 15 (sometimes 
almost 30) cm. long, 2-6 (sometimes 10) mm. broad, of the innovations usually 
much shorter, flat, bluish-glaucous, glabrous, smooth, midrib slender, primary 
lateral nerves very fine, 3-4 on each side. Ligules very short, rounded, 
scarious. Sheaths rather firm, tight, the lowest mostly short, those placed at 
branching nodes at length thrown aside, inrolling or deciduous, glabrous, 
smooth, usually much shorter than the internodes. Spathaceous panicle 
narrow, mostly 7-15 cm. long, rarely much longer, sometimes reduced and 
small, dense or interrupted ; internodes usually 4-6, the lowest rarely exceeding 
a third of the panicle, the following gradually decreasing ; lowest primary 
branch shortly exserted from its sheath, undivided at the base, or like the 
following forming mixed or (upwards) simple-rayed tiers ; rays of ultimate 
tiers 5-3, finely filiform. 7-10 cm. long, glabrous ; lowest subtending sheaths 
with foliaceous blades: spathes lanceolate, acuminate— 2*5— 4 cm. long, sub- 
herbaceous, glaucous, sometimes turning reddish. Spatheoles narrowly lanceo- 
late, acuminate, 14-16 mm. long, subherbaceous to scarious, turning dirty 
straw-colour or slightly reddish ; peduncles filiform 5 6 mm. long, glabrous. 
Racemes 2 nate, obliqualy erect. 12-14 mm. long, greenish, more or less 
white- villous, one subsessile, the other with a bare base, over 2 mm. long, finely 
pubescent on the inner side, ciliate and thickened upwards, base of the sub- 
sessile raceme swollen, hard, fused with the equally swollen and hard adjacent 
pedicel ; fertile joints filiform, about 2 mm. long, glabrous on the back, densely 
ciliate on the sides, cilia snow-white, tips often cupular with a crenulate margin 
or auricle ; adjacent pedicels very similar. Homogamous pair 1 at the base of 


435 Jour , Bom, Nat. Hist. Soc. t Vol. XXXII, No, 3. [Jan. 15, 1928. 

the sessile raceme. Fertile spikelets oblong, slightly wider above the middle, 
subobtuse., 4 mm. long, greenish, glabrous ; callus very small, obtuse, minutely 
bearded. Involucral glumes equal, subchartaceous. lower minutely truncate, 
flat on the back with a fine median grove in the lower half, keels narrowly 
w ; nged frjm the middle upwards, intracarinal nerves 1 on each side towards 
the keels, very fine ; upper narrow in profile, very acute, very narrowly winged 
above the middle with 1 delicate nerve on each side near the margin. Lower 
floral glume delicate, oblong, minutely truncate, ciliolate, nerveless, upper 
substipitiform, almost 3 mm long, 2-fid to the middle, segments subulate, 
ciliolate, awn very fine, 10-14 mm. long, bent at and twisted below the middle. 
Anthers almost 2 mm. long. Pedicelled spikelets male, linear to lanceolate- 
oblong, subobtuse, 4 mm. long, green, glabrous ; lower involucral glume 
slightly convex on the back, subherbaceous, about 10-nerved, the inner 6 nerves 
prominent, upper subhyaline, 3-nerved ; floral glume oblong, truncate, sub-2- 
nerved, almost 4 mm. long. 

Locality : Gujarat : On sandy and gravelly hills and banks, Ahmedabad and 
Prantij . 

Distribution : Throughout the Carnatic, Gujarat, Arabia, Somaliland. 

For history and uses see Stapf Kew Bull. (1906), 342-345, 361. 

( To be continued) 


By E. Blatter, s.j., Ph.D., f.l.s. 


[From the Journal of' the Bombay Natural Hist. Soc, May 31, 1928.] 



E. Blatter, s-j., Ph.D., f.l.s. 


E. Blatter and C. McCann 

{Continued from p. 435 of this Volume) 

38. - Heteropogon, Pers. ; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 410. 

Perennial or annual grasses, with simple or more often upwards branched 
culms ; branches few to many, mostly flowering and gathered into a spatheate 
panicle ; racemes conspicuously dorsiventral, the bases of the male (or neuter] 
spikelets subimbricate on the back of the raceme, their upper parts bending 
forward around the sides, forming a hollow in which the fertile spikelets are 
enclosed, with their awns exserted an'ticously and often intertwisted. Spikelets 
2-nate, those of the lower (1 to many) pairs alile in sex and shape, male or 
neuter, of the upper pairs differing in sex and shape, one of each pair sessile, 
the other pedicelled on the many-jointed rhachis of solitary racemes, terminat- 
ing the culms and their upper branches ; rhachis, tough or upwards tardily 
disarticulating and glabrous between the homogamous pairs, readily disarticulat- 
ing above them ; homogamous pairs long- persistent, the spikelets of the 
heterogamous pairs falling separately, the pedicelled with the pedicel, the 
sessile with the adjacent joint and the adjacent pedicel or its base. Sessile 
spikelets subcylindric, awned ; callus long, pungent, densely bearded upwards. 
Involucral glumes equal, the lower coriaceous rarely chartaceous, more or less 
tightly involute, quite keelless, nerves obscure, often connected by few trans- 
verse nerves in the upper part ; upper with a deep longitudinal groove on each 
side, coriaceous, rarely chartaceous, between them, thinner towards the margins, 
membranous at the tips, 3-nerved. Lower floral glume hyaline, nerveless, upper 
stipitiform from a hyaline very slender base, cartilaginous upwards and passing 
into a usually stout geniculate awn. Pale small or absent. Lodicules large or more 
or less reduced, to very minute. Stamens 3, often rudimentary or absent. Stigmas 
exserted terminally or laterally. Grain more or less linear in outline, subterete, 
slightly dorsally compressed ; embryo somewhat exceeding the middle of the 
grain. Pedicelled spikelets male or neuter, dorsally flattened, usually slightly 
asymmetric, and often somewhat twisted, muticous, imbricate. Lower involu- 
cral glume herbaceous, many-nerved, winged upwards from one or both keels ; 
upper membranous, lanceolate- oblong, acute, 3-nerved. Floral glumes 
hyaline, 1-nerved, well developed or more or less reduced. Stamens 3 or 0- 

Species about 6, in the tropical and subtropical regions of the whole world. 

Cke. describes four species under Andropogon, viz. A. polystachyos , Roxb., 
A. triticeus, R- Br., A. Ritchiei, Hook, f., and A. contortus, Linn. We trans- 
fer these to Heteropogon and add Heteropogon oliganthus, Blatter & McCann. 
A. Not more than 30 cm. high 

I. Upper involucral glume of pedicelled 

spikelet 1-3-nerved ... ... 1- H. oliganthus. 

II. Upper involucral glume of pedicelled 

spikelet 5-nerved ... ... 2. H. polystachyos. 



623 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXI I, No. 4 [May 31, 1928. 

B. More than 40 cm. high 

I. Lower involucral glume dorsally deeply 

grooved ... ... ... 3. M. insignis. 

II. Lower involucral glume not dorsally 

1. Ligule of several narrow membranous 

segments ... ... ... 4. H. Ritchiei. 

2. Ligule truncate, ciliolate ... ... 5. H- contortus. 

1. Heteropogon oliganthus, Blatter & McCann, nov. comb— Andropogon 
oliganthus, Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 368 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 201. 

Description : A dwarf annual. Stems 7-15 cm. high, tufted, slender, some- 
times creeping below, geniculate. Leaves 5-7' 5 cm. long, quite flat, subensi- 
form, acuminate, softly hairy, margins thickened, cartilaginous, sheaths 
compressed ; ligule very short, membranous. Spikes usually very shortly 
exserted from the long, narrow, glabrous spathes ; peduncle curved, puberulous. 
Spikes 8-16 mm. long, with 3-6 pairs of glumes, lower spikelets neuter. Joints 
and pedicels about half as long as the sessile spikelet, long-ciliate. Sessile 
spikelet 5 mm. long, oblong ; callus short, obtuse. Lower involucral glume 
obtuse, chartaceous, dorsally villous toward the base, not dorsally channelled, 
shining, faintly nerved, with narrowly involute margins, ciliolate towards the 
truncate tip, callus bearded, upper involucral glume obtuse, apicnlate. Lower 
floral glume very short, broadly oblong, ciliate, upper with a shining awn 3-4 cm. 
long, column of awn glabrous. Pale very small. Anthers 1 mm. long. Pedi- 
celled spikelet, neuter, larger than the sessile, ovate-oblong. Lower involucral 
glume herbaceous, obovate-oblong, truncate, distinctly 9-13-nerved, subemargi- 
nate, keels scabrous, margins ciliolate, hardly incurved, upper shorter by £, 
membranous, oblong, obtuse, 1-3-nerved, ciliate. Pale of upper floral glume 
very small. 

Hackel, l.c, is of opinion that this species is intermediate between Dichan- 
thium and Heteropogon, but comes nearer the Heteropogons, because the 
sessile spikelets differ from the pedicelled ones in shape, nervation and the dorsal 

Locality: Deccan : Kalsubai (Patwardhan !) ; Mahableshwar, open edge 
above the precipices looking from Dhobi's Waterfall path to Elphinstone Point, 
elevation 4,500 ft., rainfall 270 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4608!); Panchgani 
(Blatter & Hall berg B1221 \, McCann !). 

Distribution : Nilgiris. 

2. Heteropogon polystachyos, Blatter & McCann. comb, nov .—Andropogon 
polystackyos, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1832), 261; Steud. Syn. Gram. 367; Hook. f. 
in F.B.I, vii, 989 ; Dalz. and Gibs. 301 ; Cke. ii, 989.— A. pumilus, Roxb. Ic. 
ined. t. 2021 (ex Hook. f.). 

Description : Cke. l.c. 

Locality : Deccan : Khandala (Woodrow) ; Mahableshwar, western side of hill 
(Dalzell & Gibson). We have not seen this species. 
Distribution : Peninsular India. 

3. Heteropogon insignis, Thw. Enuin. PI. Zeyl. 437 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, vii. 
517. — Andropogon triticeus, R. Br. Prodr. (1810), 201 ; Hack. Monogr. Androp, 
588; Steud. Syn. Gram. 368; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 200 ; Cke. ii, 989.— A. 
ischynanthus et liananthus , Steud. l.c. 367. 

Description : Cke. l.c. 

Locality : Konkan : Above Kenery Caves (McCann 9634 !). — Deccan : Around 
Vital Hills, Poona (Bhide 782!); Chattarshinji Hill, Poona (Ezekiel!); 
Khandala, very common on open hillside composed of rock fragments (McCann 
9425 !) ; Igatpuri (McCann 4338 !) ; Mawal, Poona District (Woodrow).— 6". M. 
Country. Manoli (Talbot 3978 \).—Kanara : Anmod, bare hillsides, elevation 
2,000 ft., rainfall 200 inches (Sedgwick 3324 !). 

Distribution: India (Burma, C. Provinces, W. Peninsula), Ceylon, Malaya, 

4. Heteropogon Ritchiei, Blatter & McCann, comb. nov. -Andropogon Ritchiei, 
Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 201 ; Cke. ii, 990. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 


May 31, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency B24 

Locality : Deccan : Katraj Ghat, eleven miles S.E. of Poona (Gammie 1037 !) ; 
liills near Poona \ Woodrow) , — >S. M. Country. Belgaum {Ritchie teste 
Hook, f.) 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, apparently endemic. 

5. Heieropogon contortus, Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. ii, 836 ; Stapf in Prain ; 
Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, M\.—Andropogon contortus, Linn. Sp. Pi. (1753), 1045^ 
Hack. Monogr. Androp. 585 {excl. A. polystachyus, Roxb.) ; Hook. f. in F.B-I. 
vii, 199 ; Cke. ii, 990. For other synonyms see Hook, f . and Stapf 11, cc. 

Vern. Names : — Snnkhali, Nani Sunkhali (Dohad) ; Survalu (Charodi) ; 
Kursali (Poona) ; Kusal, Sukhli kursali, Ganjali hullu (Belgaum) (ex Burns). 
Known to Anglo-Indians as Spear grass. 

Description : Cke. 1, c. 

Locality: Gujarat: Sevalia (Chibberl) ; road to Lasandra (Chibber!) ^ 
Sungiri (Gammie 15586 !) ; Junagad Kathiawar (Blatter 3789 !). — Khandesh : 
Bhusawal (Gammie \) ; Toranmal (McCann 9640 !). — Konkan : Dahe forests 
{Ryan 717!); Osarvira forest, Mokhada range (Ryan 190!); Ma- b; r hill 
(McCann 3620!) ; Mulgaum (McCann 4245 !) ; Parsik, railway line (McCann 
&655!); above Kenery Caves (McCann 9662 !).— Deccan : Katraj Ghat, 
11 miles S. E. of 'Poona (Shevade !) ; Trimbak (Chibber !) ; Khandala, very 
common all over the hills (McCann 9422 !) ; Bairawadi, Purandbar (McCann 
5059 !) ; Rahuri (Nana A264 !) ; Chattarshinji Hill, Poona (Ezekiel !); Manmad, 
river bed (Blatter A269 ! ) ; Igatpuri (McCann 4328!); Pancbgani (Blatter & 
Hallberg B1246!, B1296 !, B1308 !).— S.M. Country : Dharwar, elevation 
2,400 ft., rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick 1820 !) ; Castle Rock {Gammie 15686 !) ; 
Badami (Talbot 2925 \).—Kanara : Yellapore (Talbot 734 !), 

Distribution : Mediterranean region and tropics and subtropics generally. 

Uses : For an interesting account of this grass see W. Burns, L. B. Kulkarni 
and S, R. Godboie : A study of some Indian Grasses and Grasslands, in Mem. 
Dept. Agr. India xiv (1925), 28-44. 

Varieties : Hackel (I.e.) distinguishes two varieties and.excluding polystachyus, 
5 subvarieties. His first variety genuinus is characterized by the male spikelets 
being more or less covered on the back or at least above or towards the margins 
with white, patent tubercle-based bristles. This character together with the 
degree of ramification of the culms forms the foundation of four subvarieties : 
iypicus, Roxburghii, hispidissimus and secundus. 

The second variety glaber has the male spikelets glabrous. Both varieties 
-are represented in India, and all the subvarieties except secundus. 

To Hooker f. (1. c.) these varieties and subvarieties appear * to be too in- 
constant for definition ', and, according to Stapf (I.e.) the inconstancy of those 
characters * is so evident that it is not worth while to discriminate between the 
forms corresponding to them.' Haines, too, has abstained from distinguishing 
varieties and forms. 

Burns and others in the paper quoted above (p. 40) wrote in 1925 : ' In onr 
observations at Kalas and elsewhere we noticed variability within the species, 
and early came to the conclusion that there must be definite varieties of Andro- 
pogon contortus. We can say with confidence that there are at least two 
varieties, differing markedly in size, habit, longevity, and in morphological 
characters. One is small and annual, the other large and perennial.' Since 
then Patwardhan and Hedge have published a paper 1 in which they describe in 
detail the morphology, anatomy, physiology and ecology of the two varieties. 
As the authors themselves identify their perennial variety with Hackel's 
•subvariety typicus, and their annual variety with Hackel's hispidissimus, we 
shall refer to them in the following under Hackel's names. The description is 
laken entirely from the paper just mentioned. 
Key to the varieties. 
1. Lower involucral glume of pedicelled 
spikelet sparsely hairy with long tuber- 
cle-based deciduous hairs on the back, 
in the upper part and towards the 

margins ; lower part glabrous ... {a) var genuinus, subv. 


/ a G. B. Patwardhan and G. R. Hedge, Two varieties of Andropogon contor- 
ius, Linn. In Journ. Ind. Bot. Soc, vi (1927) 213. 



625 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXI I, No. 4 [May 31, 1928. 

2. Lower involucral glume of pedicelled 
spikelet densely hairy with tubercle- 
based persistent hairs all over the back ; 
hairs in lower part shorter than in 
upper ... ... ... (5) var. genuinus, subv. 


(a) var- genuinus, subv. typicus, Patwardhan and Hedge I.e.; Hack, in 
Monogr. An drop. 586 (sub Androp.). 

Description: Perennial. Stems densely tufted, 45 cm* to 1*2 m., subereet 
or decumbent, about 3 mm. thick at the ha.- e and much flattened, glabrous, 
simple or subfastigi«tely branched from the nodes of the upper half ; inter- 
nodes not much logger than the leaf-sheaths. Leaves crowded at the base; 
sheaths smooth, compressed, keeled, shortly auricTed at the mouth ; ligule 
short, truncate, eiliolate ; lamina 5-35 cm. long, acuminate or abruptly so, at 
first folded inward, afterwards flat, rigid, subereet, eiliolate or sparingly hairy 
on the upper surface, with tubercle- based hairs towards the base, rough to 
the touch on both surfaces. In semi-dry or dry specimens the leaves may be 
vinaceous to deep vinaceous in colour. Spike solitary, terminal, 2'5-7'5 cm, 
long excluding the awn, with closely imbricating pairs of sessile and pedicelled 
spikelets. Spikelets subseevmd, pedicelled ones all male or neuter ; of the ses- 
sile spikelets the lower 2 to 8 male or neuter awnless, the upper awned, female ; 
the lower awnless spikelets persistent, the upper awned ones deciduous. 
Sessile spikelet : Lower involucral glume narrow, linear-oblong, truncate 
or rounded, brownish, many-nerved, hispid with short sparse hairs, 
margin incurved, tip membranous ; upper involucral glume linear, obtuse, 
coriaceous dark brown, hispidulous, 3-nerved, margins incurved. Lower 
floral glume oblong, hyaline, thin, nerveless, short, truncate, paleate ; upper 
empty, reduced to an awn about 7*5 cm. long, column slightly hairy, eallus 
long, pointed, with a tuft of reddish brown hairs. Ovary linear, stigmatic 
branches from 6-8 mm. long, with thick-set hairs, carmine in colour, fading 
towards the tips. Pedicelled spikelet : Lower involucral glume lanceolate, 
obliquely twisted, sparsely hairy with long, tubercle-based, deciduous hairs on 
the back in the upper part and towards the margins, lower part glabrous, mar- 
gins unequally winged ; upper involucral glume oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 
5-nerved, ciliate towards the tip, margins hyaline. Lower floral glume oblong- 
hyaline, 1-nerved, ciliate, epaleate, containing stamens ; upper empty, obovate, 
lanceolate, hyaline, ciliate, nerveless. Stamens 3, filaments 3 mm. long ; anthers 
oblong=lanceolate, cordate at base, pale yellow when young, light purplish 
vinaceous ; pollen grains round, not sculptured, dull grey. The sessile male 
spikelets in the lower part are similar to the pedicelled spikelets above. Fruit 
5-8 mm. long, thinly hispid, dark brown with 2 deep furrows on the ventral 
side, armed with a pointed callus below and a long lash-like awn above. 

Locality : Tegur (ex Burns and others) . 

Distribution : Tropics and subtropics generally, N. W. Himalaya, Afgha- 
nistan (ex Haekel), 

{b) var. genuinus, subv. hispidissimus- Patwardhan and Hedge I.e. ; Hack, 
in Monogr. Androp. 587 (sub Androp.).— Andropogon hispidissimus, Hochstett. 
in Scbimper PI. Abyss, un. it. no. 1219. — A. besukiensis, Steud. in Zoll. 
Syst. Verz. 59. 

Description : Annual. Stems little tufted, 15-60 cm. high, erect or slightly 
decumbent below, slender and slightly compressed near the base, glabrous, 
simple or subfastigiately branched from the upper 2 or 3 nodes; internodes 
much longer than the leaf-sheaths. Leaves little crowded at the base ; sheaths 
smooth, slightly keeled, shortly auricled at the mouth ; ligule short, truncate 
and eiliolate ; lamina 2*5-20 cm. by 2*5-5 mm. wide, linear, acuminate or 
abruptly so, ciliate or hairy on the upper surface up to nearly half its length 
from the base with tubercle-based hairs, rough to the touch on both surfaces, 
in semi-dry or dry specimens straw to very light purple in colour. Spike solitary, 
terminal, 1-5 cm. long excluding the awns, with closely imbricating pairs of 
sessile (lower) and pedicelled spikelets. Spikelets subsecund, pedicelled, all 
male or neuter ; of sessile the lower 2-5 male or neuter, awnless, upper 4-12 
female, awned. Those which are male or neuter persistent, the upper 4-12 
pairs which include both males and females deciduous. Sessile spikelet : 
Lower involucral glume narrow, linear-oblong, truncate or rounded, brownish, 


May 31, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 626 

many-nerved, densely hairy with whitish long hairs, margins incurved, tips 
membranous ; upper involucral glume linear, obtuse, coriaceous, dark brown, 
hispidulous, 3-nerved with incurved margins. Lower floral glume oblong, 
hyaline, thin, nerveless, short, truncate, epaleate, upper empty, reduced to an 
awn, 5'1 cm. long, column densely hairy with whitish hairs, callus long, 
pointed, bearded with light brown hairs. Ovary linear, stigmatic branches 
4-5 mm. long with thinly set ox-blood red hairs. Pedicelled spikelet : Lower 
involucral glume lanceolate, obliquely twisted, densely 'hairy with tubercle- 
based, persistent hairs all over the back, hairs on lower part shorter than in 
upper; upper involucral glume oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 5-nerved, 
ciliate, tip hairy, margins hyaline. Lower floral glume oblong, hyaline, 
1-nerved, ciliate, upper oblong or obovate-lanceolate, hyaline, nerveless. 
Stamens 3, filaments 4 mm. long ; anthers oblong, sagitate, pale yellow when 
young, sulphur yellow when mature ; pollen grains round, smooth, dull grey. 
The sessile spikelets in the lower part* are similar to the pedicelled spikelets 
above. Fruit 5-8 mm. long, densely hairy with whitish soft hairs, light brown 
with two deep furrows on the ventral side, armed with a pointed callus below 
and a long, lash-like awn above. 

Locality : ' Usually found on the very shallow parts of Deccan soils ' (ex 
Burns and others, 1. a). 

Distribution : Malabar, tropical Africa, Madagascar, Java, Philippines. 

39. Iseilema, Hack. ; Cke. ii, 995. 

Cke. has described two species : /. Wightii, Anders, and /. laxum, Hack. 
We add a third one, /. anthephoroides, Hack. 
The following key is after Hole 1 : — 

A. Lower involucral glume of hermaphrodite 

spikelet dorsally appressed, hairy at base and 

ciliate on margins in basal i ... 1. /. anthephoroides. 

B. Lower involucral glume of hermaphrodite 

spikelet glabrous dorsally at base and on 
margins in basal \. 
I. Spathe and upper floral leaf not tubercled on 

keel ... 2. /. laxum. 

II. Spathe and upper floral leaf tubercled on 

keel ... 3. /. Wightii. 

1. Iseilema anthephoroides, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 683 ; Hook. f. in. F.B.I. 

vii, 219 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa, 1054. 

Description : A much tufted annual grass, very leafy below, with many 
stems 30-80 cm. high, sometimes pink, nodes glabrous. Leaves mostly short, 
the longer ones about 13 cm. by 5 mm., subobtuse, ciliate at base and tip of 
sheaths, cilia with small tubercle-bases, blades with scabrid margins, nerves 
usually fine and uniform ; ligule of short fine hairs. Panicles long, rather 
strict, but some of the spatheoles divergent, lower spathes foliaceous, upper 
with shorter blades, base of blade and top of sheath with very long cilia ; 
spathes often with many tubercles on the margins. Spatheoles cymbiform, 
not acuminate, smooth and glabrous or minutely tubercled and scaberulous, 
margins scarious, several spatheoles from each spathe or leaf-sheath. Peduncle 
of cluster very short, 2*5-5 mm. long. Cluster scantily bearded at the base. 
Involucral spikelets broadly oblong, 4 mm. long, rounded at tip, not or very 
sparsely ciliate, their pedicels about 1 mm. long and nearly as broad at top, 
compressed, bearded. Glumes 2 only. Lower involucral glume with narrowly 
inflexed margins, strongly 2-nerved on the back and almost sulcate on either 
side of midrib, 2 other partial nerves between the strong ones, upper involucral 
glume nearly as long, flat, oblong, obtuse, 1-nerved ; floral glume absent. 
Anthers yellow. Sessile spikelet 5-6 mm. long, suddenly tapering part or 
beak rather longer than the lower broader part. Lower involucral glume 
2-cuspidate at tip, 4-nerved between keels, hispid-hairy on the back on the 
wider portion, the beak scabrid or scabrellous ; upper involucral glume as long, 

1 R. S. Hole, The Indian Species of Iseilema, Agric. Journ. of India, 
Special Ind. Sc. Congress Number (1917), 125-131. See also A. Camus, Le 
genre Iseilema, in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, series 4, xxiii (1923), 493. 



Jour., Bom, Nat, Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 4 [May 31, 192& 

narrowly lanceolate with prominent ciliate keel on lower third, seabrellous 
above, margin inrlexed. Lower floral glume very narrow, 2 -nerved, ciliate, 
upper reduced to the membranous base of the awn, awn 12-14 mm. long, 
very slender, nearly smooth. 

Locality: Khandesh: Near Naradana (Blatter & Hallberg 5206!). — 
Deccan : Katraj Ghat (Gammie 929 !) ; Deolali (Blatter & Hallberg A316 \) ; 
Chattarshinii Hill, Poona (Ezekiel !) ; Pashan (Gammie!).-^. M. Country ; 
Black soil fields E. of Hubli (Sedgwick & Bell 5295!); Yelvigi (Sedgwick 

Distribution : W. India and Deccan. 

Uses : A smaller yielder and an inferior fodder plant than A laxum. See 
W. Burns Bull. 78, Dept. Agric. Bombay, p. 11. 

2. Iseiletna laxam, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 682 ; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 218; 
Cke. ii, 996. For synonyms see Hook. f. 1. c 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Gujarat: Red upland near Talod (Sedgwick!). — Khandesh : 
Bor, Bori River (Blatter & Hallberg 4429 !) ; Toner, Tapti bank (Blatter & 
Hallberg 5167!); Dadgaum (McCann A322 \).—Konkan : Sion (McCann 
3668!) ; Thana (McCann 8728 !) ; Parsik Hill (McCann A321 !) ; Bhandup, 
rice field (McCann A323 !) ; Trombay (McCann A324 X).— Deccan : Grasslands 
between Mahableshwar and Panchgani (Sedgwick & Bell 4742!) ; Nasik 
(Bourke !) ; Lohagad, half way up (McCann A320!); Poona (Jacquemont 
439).— S.M. Country: Dastikop (Sedgwick 2059!); Dharwar (Sedgwick 
1826!); Belgaum (Ritchie 799).— Kanara : Halval (Talbot 2087 1} ; Sirsi 

Distribution : Upper Gangetic Plain, Orissa, Deccan, W. Peninsula. 

Uses : Considered to be the best fodder grass in Central and S. India. 

3. IseHema Wightii, Anders, in Nov. Act. Soc. Se. Upsala ser. 3, 2 (1858), 251; 
Hack. Monogr. Androp. 679; Hook. f. F.B.I. vii r 218; Cke. ii. 996. For 
synonyms see Hackel and Hook. f. 11. cc. 

Vern. Names: Mabid (Dohad), Moshi (Surat), Gandhi ^Charodi), Gandheli 
(Panch Mahals), Sona, Tambrut, Tambit, Gondval, Gamsi, Mussau (ex Burns). 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Gujarat : Kharaghoda (Saxton 503C ! ) ; in a very marshy valley 
between Wastrapurand Tbaltij (Sedgwick 322L) ; Morvi,Kathiawar (Woodrow).— 
Khandesh: Antroli, Bori River (Blatter & Hallberg 5150 \).— Deccan : Panch- 
gani (Blatter & Hallberg B1294!); Poona (Woodrow).— 5. M. Country : 
Kunnur (Sedgwick & Bell 4922 !) ; Rhanibennur (Bhide !) ; Haveri (Talbot 
2254!); Dharwar (Nana A325 1). ; Belgaum (Woodrow).— Kanara : Halyal 
(Talbot 2143!). 

Distribution : Throughout India. 

Uses : A fair fodder. 

40. Thkmeda, Forsk. ; Cke. ii. 992. 

Species about 16, in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World, 
chiefly Indo-Malayan. 

Cooke describes 4 species : T. imberbis, T. Cooke, T. ciliata, Hack., 
T. cymbarza, Hack., and T. tremula, Hack. Following the laws of priority we 
have to substitute for the first two : T. triandra, Forsk.. and T. quadrivalvis* 
O. Kuntze. 

I. Involucral spikelets truly vertieillate 

1. Involucral spikelets glabrous or more or 

less irregularly beset with tubercle-based 

hairs ... ... .,. I. T. triandra. 

2. Involucral spikelets always with a row of 

stiff bristles along the flexures near the 
tips, the bristles arising from coarse pale 
II. Involucral spikelets in closely superposed 
1. Inflorescence a decompound thyrsiform 
panicle. Lower involucral glume of 
bisexual spikelets not channelled ... 3. T. cymbaria. 


2. T. quadrivalvis. 

May 31, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 628 

2. Inflorescence a racemiform panicle . 
Lower involucral glume of bisexual 
spikelets deeply channelled ... ... 4. T. tremula. 

1. Themeda triaadra, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt. Arab, cxxiii et 178; Schweinf. in 
Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii, Append, ii, 16, 95; K. Schum. in Engl. Pfl. Ost.— Afr. 
A. 51 ; Rendle in Cat. Afr. PI. Welw. ii, 161 ; Pilg. in Engl. Pflanzenw. Afr. ii, 
151, fig. 114; Pilg. in Mildbr. Wiss. Ergebn. Deutsch. Zentr.— Afr. Exped.ii, 45 ; 
Eyles in Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. v. 298 ; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 416, 
partem tantum nostrce speciei ampiectens.— Themeda Forskalii, Hack, in Monogr. 
Androp. 659, excl. syn. Anthistiria hispida, Thunb. qiuz est Tristachya 
leucothrix , Trin. sec. Stapf. ; Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 43 ; Durand & 
Schinz Consp. Fl. Afr. v. 731 ; K. Schum I.e. A. 23, 56, 79 ; Engl. Hochge- 
birgsfl. Trop. Afr. 115 ; Batt. & Trab. Fl. Anal. Alger, et Tunis 355 ; Stapf 
in Kew Bull. (1907), 212; Pilg. in Engl. Pflanzenw- Afr. ii, 119.— Anthistiria 
imberbis, Retz. Obs. iii, 11 : Desf. in Journ. de Phys. xl, 293, t. 1 ; Thunb. FL 
Cap. i, 402, ed. Schult., 107 ; Kunth Enum. i, 481; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 401; 
Stapf in Dyer Fl. Cap. vii, 366; Wood Natal PI. ii, t. 133; Burtt Davy in 
Transvaal Agric. Journ. iii, 287, t. 52 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I vii, 211; Trin. FL 
Ceyl. v, 248 ; Prain Beng. PI. 1207.— A. glauca. Desf. Fl. Atlant. ii, 380, t. 254 
excl. syn.—Stipa paleacea, Vahl ; Coss. & Durieu Expl. Scient. Alger, ii, 52. — 
A- Desfontainei, Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 161. — A. ciliata, Retz. I.e. (non Linn. f„); 
Lamk. 111. t. 841, f . 2 ; Cav. Ic. 5, t. 459 ; Nees in Linnaea vii, 284 et in Fl. Afr. 
Austr. 121 ; Anders, in Peters Reise Mossamb. Bot. 562 ; Oliv. in Trans. Linn. 
Soc, xxix, 176 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind., i, 247 ; Grah. Cat. Bomb. PI. 239 ; Dalz. & 
Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 304 ; Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. 366 ; Trim. Cat. Ceyl. PL 108 
Benth. FL Austr. vii, 542.— A. Forskahlii, Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 162, Enum. PL 
481.— A. vulgaris, Hack, in Engl. & Prantl. Naturl. Pflanzenfam. ii, pars 2, 
29.— A. punctata, Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 448.-^4. paleacea, 
Ball, in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xvi, 734.— A. australis, R. Br. Prodr. 200.— 
A. cuspidata, Anders. in Nov. Act. Upsal. 2 (1856), 229. — A. ccsspitosa, Anders. 
I.e. 241. — A. argentea, Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. Yl^. — A. depauperata, Anders, I.e. 
243.— ^4. syriaca, Boiss. Diagn. PL Or. ser. i, fasc. 13, 72. — Themeda polygama, 
Gmel. Syst. 149.— Stipa arguens, Thunb. Prodr. 20 (non Linn.).— Calamina 
imberbis, Roem. & Schult. Syst. ii, 810. — Themeda imberbis, T. Cooke in 
Cke. ii, 993.— T. imberbis, Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa, 1049. 

Hooker f. who deals with this species under Anthistiria, Linn., says in a 
preliminary remark (F.B.L.vii, 211) : ' The species of this genus are most 
difficult of discrimination, of which the best proof is the irreconcilable conclu- 
sions of two excellent botanists, both experts in the order of Graminece, 
Anderson (in Nov. Act. Upsal iii, ii (1856) ) and Hackel (Monogr. Androp.).' 

He then criticizes Hackel for having restored Forskahl's name of Themeda 
' because of its having four years of priority, and of Linnaeus' description of 
Anthistiria being very inaccurate.' He admits the claim of priority, but as to 
the other reason he rightly adds that if inaccurate description has to be consi- 
dered, a host of the genera of old authors would have to be invalidated. Hooker 
finally decides in favour of Anthistiria because this genus ' had for upwards of 
a century been adopted by all botanical writers.' This reason, however, does 
not hold good in view of the present rules of nomenclature. Hackel restored 
Themeda in 1889 and since then most system atists have followed his example. 
It was easy to settle this point, but the real difficulty comes in when we have to 
define and give a name to all the material gathered by Hackel (1. c. 659-664) 
under his Themeda Forskalii, and by Hooker f. under Anthistiria imberbis* 
Retz. (F.B.I, vii, 211). 

A glance at Hackel's synonymy and localities shows that he has included all 
the forms of this highly variable grass which are found in the tropical, sub- 
tropical and sometimes in the temperate regions of the Old World. The same 
applies to Hooker's A. imberbis, except that he separated Hackel's var. dubia 
laxa and restored it to its former specific rank of A. laxa, Anders. But this is 
of minor importance in this connection. It does not change the fact that both 
Hackel and Hooker describe the same material and of the same area though 
under different names. 

Hackel justifies the adoption of the specific name Themeda Forskalii in this 
way : ' Themeda triandra, Forsk. FL Aeg.-arab. p. 178, Anthist. Forskalii 
Kunth Revis. Gram. 1, p. 162, generis typus, a Forskalio prope Bulgose in 


629 Jour., Bom- Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 4 [May 31, 1928. 

Arabia felici lecta, probabiliter etiam varietas est Th. Forskalii meae ; sed 
descriptio rem dubiam relinquit, specimina authentica desiderantur. Nee 
hucusque ullam hujus generis speciem in Arabia felici lectam vidi, etsi proba- 
bile est, Th. Forskalii varietates in Syria Abyssiniaque crescentes etiam in Arabia 
inveniri. Itaque nomen specificum " triandra " tamquam dubium et rem indi- 
cans quae in hoc et plerisque Graminearum generibus nullius est momenti, 
seposui, " Forskalii " a Kunthio datum non minus quidem dubium, sed generis 
auctorem commemorans recepi.' 

Hooker does not agree with Hackel, ' The earliest names of this plant are 
Themeda triandra, Forsk., and Anthistiria imberbis, Retz. Hackel has abandon- 
ed both, substituting first Anthistiria vulgaris, and then Themeda Forskalii, 
on the ground that A. imberbis was perhaps not Forskahl's T. triandra (why 
then call it Forskalii ?) of which no type specimen exists, and because triandra 
indicates a character of no individual value in grasses. In so doing he over- 
looked Gmelin's name of T. polygama (Syst. 149). Having regard to the wide 
range of A. imberbis, from Australia to Africa, its presence in Arabia might 
well be anticipated; and that it is a native of that country is now proved by 
Schweinfurth's finding Hackel's var. glauca in that country. This makes the 
var. (which is local, and not Indian) the type of the species, and if Forskahl's 
name of Themeda is to be retained, necessitates a re-arrangement of the varieties. 
To me it appears most expedient to retain Retz. 's name which applies to the 
prevalent form over the area of distribution as the specific one. ' 

Hooker's reasons against Hackel's view are certainly valid, but his own 
Anthistiria imberbis does not rest on a firmer foundation. The fact that the 
var. is local and not Indian should not prevent us from making it the type of 
the species, and the other circumstance that a re-arrangement of the varieties 
will become necessary if the name Themeda is retained, can only be a reason of 

So far we come to the conclusion that Hackel and Hooker deal with the same 
material, but that neither name is satisfactory. 

We come now to the latest publication affecting our question. Stapf I.e. has 
adopted the name Themeda triandra, Forsk. (1775) instead of T. Forskalii 
(1889), ' as there is no doubt that the type of Forskal's species, which apparently 
has been lost, was one of the forms covered by the description given by Stapf ' 
(see Schweinfurth in Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii, App. II, 16). 

But here Stapf creates a new difficulty. His description applies only to the 
' African share of HackePs T. Forskalii '. In order not to be open to misstate- 
ments we quote the whole passage in which Stapf explains his position : ' The 
species, as defined here, is, however, taken in a sense somewhat narrower than 
Hackel's; this restriction requires a short explanation. Hackel in his mono- 
graph of the Andropogonecs distinguishes eleven varieties and as many sub- 
varieties or forms within his T. Forskalii, whilst other authors have at various 
times described more than a dozen species, all of which come within the com- 
pass. There can be no doubt as to the close affinity of these forms and the 
question of their status is mainly one of expediency. A careful examination of 
the large amount of material at Kew and the British Museum has led to the 
conclusion that for the present it will be most useful to detach, firstly, those 
forms that are fairly uniform, and at the same time exclusive, over a large area ; 
and secondly, those that, though of a limited range, stand out from the remain- 
der by some character or characters. This leaves a residuum much less homo- 
geneous than any of the segregates just referred to. It consists apparently of 
more or less fixed races, mutants, hybrids and edaphic forms which from her- 
berium material are the less separable because they are to a high degree inde- 
pendent of geographical areas. At the same time, however, they are all 
African with an extension into Arabia, Syria and the south-eastern corner of 
Asia Minor, and, taken as a whole, represent practically the African share of 
Hackel's T. Forskalii. It is to this aggregate that the description and synonymy 
given above apply.' 

From the above it is evident that Stapf 's T. triandra, Forsk. is not identical 
with Hackel's T. Forskalii and Hooker's A. imberbis, Retz., as it comprises 
only the African element including ' an extension into Arabia, Syria, and the 
south-eastern corner of Asia Minor.' Stapf 's synonymy leads to the same con- 
clusion, except for the inclusion of T. imberbis, T. Cooke (Fl. Bombay ii, 993). 
The Australian element Anthistiria australis, R. Br. has been separated by the 
same author as Themeda australis, Stapf. It seems to us that Stapf 's treatment 


May 31, 1928.] , Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 630 

of T. Triandra is somewhat arbitrary. We quite agree that the name should 
remain and that it is the only correct name, but we cannot agree to its being 
restricted to the African element only, and it is difficult to understand why the 
Indian specimen should not go by the same name If we could distinguish 
groups of varieties or forms that are confined to more or less definable geogra- 
phical areas, it would be admissible to speak, e.g. of an African group and 
call it T. triandra, because Arabia exhibits one of those African forms, or of an 
Indian or Australian group, and name them accordingly. But experience 
shows that with regard to the material under review there are no such geogra- 
phical areas which contain a group of varieties or forms that are peculiar to one 
area exclusively. A glance at the localities given by Hackel under the different 
varieties and sub-varieties will confirm our statement. 

We are, therefore, of opinion that the name Themeda triandra, Forsk. should 
embrace all the material that was described by Hackel under T. Forskalii, by 
Hooker under A. imberbis, and by Cooke under T. imberbis. 

Haines describes the material from Bihar and Orissa under the name of 
T. imberbis, T. Cooke, and adds in brackets ' partly '. His species, therefore, 
is not Cooke's T. imberbis, but must be given some other specific name as long 
as Cooke's name stands. But if botanists adopt our T. triandra, Forsk. Haines' 
name will be merged in it, and his material may be treated as a form or group 
of forms under that species. 

Description : See Hackel, Hook. f. and Cooke 11. cc. 

Locality: Gujarat: Ahmedabad (Gammie 16391 !) . — Khandesh: Toranmal 
(McCann 9813 \).—Konkan : Mokhada range (Ryan 2626 !) ; Mahaluxmi (Sabnis 
A297!); Bhandup (McCann 9810!); Bassein (McCann 4475 !).— Deccan : 
Ganeshkhind Botanic Gardens (Garade !) ; Panchgani (Blatter 3806 !, Blatter 
& Hallberg B1326 !) ; Khandala, common (McCann A291 !) ; Bairawadi, 
Purandhar (McCann 5069!); Igatpuri (McCann 4322!); Poondra (Talbot 
4307!).— 5. M. Country: Devaranji, elevation 1,800ft., rainfall 90 inches, 
(Sedgwick & Bell 4427!); Castle Rock (Gammie 15728!) ; Dudsagar Falls 
(McCann A298 !) ; Dharwar (Nana A289 !). 

Distribution : Africa, Indo-Malaya, Australia. 

2. Themeda quadrivalvis, O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. II, 794 ; Stapf in Prain 
Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 420 ; Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1050.— Andropogon 
quadrivalva, err. typog., Linn. Syst. ed. 13, 758. — Themeda ciliata, Hack, in 
Monogr. Androp. 664 ; Cke. ii, 994. — Anthistiria ciliata, Linn. f. Suppl. 113 ; 
Gsertn. Fruct. ii, 465. t. 175 ; Lam. 111. t. 841, fig. 1 ; Beauv. Agrost. t. 23, f. 7 ; 
Kunth Enum. i, 481 ; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 401 ; Baker Fl. Maurit. 448 ; 
Balf. f . Bot. Socotra 317 {partim) ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 42 ; Hook. f. in 
F B.I. vii, 213 ; Stapf in Dyer Fl. Cap. vii, 368.— A. scandens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
i, 248 ; Duthie Fodd. Gr. N. W. Ind. t. 61.— A. semiberbis, Nees. Fl. Afr. 
Austr. 125. — Andropogon nutans, Linn. Mant. ii, 303. 

Vern. Names : Bongrut (Sholapur) ; Bhathu (Surat) ; Bhati, Zini bathi, 
Mothi bathi (Dohad) ; Bhatharu (Broach) (ex Burns). 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Gujarat: Ahmedabad (Gammie 16391!). — Khandesh: Toranmal 
(McCann 9817 \).—Konkan : Parsik, railway line (McCann 9808!) ; Alibag, 
water- works (Ezekiel!); S. Konkan (Stocks teste Cooke, Law); Salsette 
(Jacquemont 717 teste Cooke) .—Deccan : Pashan, near Poona (Gammie!); 
road, Mahableshwar to Pratapgad (Bhide 1170 !) ; Purandhar (McCann 5571 !), 
Bairwadi, Purandhar (McCann 507A!); Panchgani (Blatter & Hallberg 
B1311!, B1325!).— 5. M. Country: Konankeri, elevation 2,000 ft., rainfall 40 
inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4943!); Dharwar, elevation 2,400 ft., rainfall 34 
inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4486!); Dastikop elevation 2,500 ft., rainfall 35 
inches (Sedgwick & Bell 2060!); Castle Rock (Gammie 15729 !) ; Belgaum 
(Ritchie 886 teste Cooke).— Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2115 !). 

Distribution : N. W. India, Bengal, C. Provinces, W. Peninsula, Tenasserim. 
Introduced in tropical and S. Africa. 

3. Themeda cymbaria, Hack, in Monogr. Androp. 668 ; Cke. ii, 994.— 
Anthistiria cymb aria, Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814), 6, et Fl. Ind. i, 251 (excl. 
syn.) ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 482 (excl. syn.) ; Grab. Cat. Bomb. PL 219 ; Dalz 
& Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 304 ; Hook, f . in F. B. I. vii, 215 ; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v, 249, 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 


631 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 4 [May 31, 1928. 

Locality : Khandesh : Dadgaum (McCann 9815 ! ) ; Toranmal (MeCann 
9818 ! ).—Konkan : common (Cooke); I am doubtful (McCann). — Deccan : 
Lonavla (Garade !).— S. M. Country : Castle Rock (Gammie 15634 !). — Kanara : 
Mirjan (Hallberg & McCann A295 !). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, Ceylon. 

4. Themeda tretnula, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 667 ; Cke. ii, 995,- Anthistiria 
tremula, Nees ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 401 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 214.— Andros- 
cepia tremuia, Anders, in Nov. Act. Upsal. ser. iii, ii (1856), 247. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Konkan : Trombay (McCann A293 !) ; Ghatkoper, Horse-shoe 
Valley (McCann A327 !).— Deccan : Khandala (McCann 5359!); lgatpuri 
(Blatter & Hallberg 5484!) ; Purandhar, northern foot (McCann 5041!); 
Poona (Woodrow teste Cooke).— 5". M. Country : Devaranji, elevation 1,800 ft., 
rainfall 90 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4428 !) ; Castle Rock (Gammie 15687 !).— 
Kanara : Devimani Ghat (Kulkarni !) ; Jugglepet (Talbot 1568 !) ; Tinai Ghat 
(Sedgwick & Bell 3196 !) ; Sirsi to Siddhapur (Hallberg & McCann A294!). 

Distribution : From the Central Provinces and the Konkan southwards, 

41. Pseud anthistiria, Hook. f. ; Cke. ii, 992. 

Species 4. — Indian. 

Cooke has described one species : P. hispida, Hook, f . We add two others ; 
P. umbellata, Hook. f. and P. heteroclita, Hook. f. 
I. Ligule exauriculate 

1. Ligule a truncate glabrous membrane, much 

divided to the base, the tips minutely ciliolate. 

Sessile spikeleis glabrous ... ... 1, P. hispida, 

2. Ligule short, membranous. Sessile spikelets 

not glabrous ... ... ... ... 2. P. heteroclita* 

II. Ligule auricled ... ... ... ... 3. P. umbellata* 

i. Pseudaothlstiria hispida, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 219 ; Cke. ii, 992. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Gujarat : Surat (Garade I) .—Konkan : Dahe Forest (Ryan 705 !) ; 
Matheran (D'Almeida A329 !) ; Ghatkoper, Horse-shoe Valley (McCann A326 !); 
Sion (McCann 5247 !) ; St. Xavier's College compound, Bombay (McCann 
4524 !) ; Kalyan (Woodrow).— Deccan : Lonavla (Gammie !) ; Purandhar Fort 
(Gammie 1010!); lgatpuri Ghats (McCann 4343!); Khandala, common, 
railway line (McCann A331 !) ; Panchgani (Woodrow). — 5. M. Country : Castle 
Rock (Gammie 15634, McCann A328 !) ; Derikop (Sedgwick 2061!); Londa 
(Gammie 15863!, Woodrow).— Kanara : Birchy (Talbot 2096 !) ; Yellapore 
(Talbot 1522 !) ; Devimani Ghat (Kulkarni !). 

Distribution : C. Provinces, W. Peninsula. 

2. Pseudaothlstiria heteroclita, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 219.— A ndropogon 
heteroclitus, Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. 115; Steud Syn. Gram. 389; Hack, in 
Monogr. Androp. 400.— A. monomeros, Hocbs' in Hohen. PI. Ind. Or. no. 
183.— Anthistiria heteroclita, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 2*9. 

Description : Stems 30-80 cm. high, geniculate, slender, terete, smooth, sub- 
simple or branched. Leaves linear, 15-30 cm. long, 3-5 mm. broad, glabrous 
or more or less ciliate on both surfaces, nerves distinct, margins with long, 
tubercle-based hairs or nearly glabrous ; sheaths much shorter than the 
internodes, quite glabrous ; ligule short, membranous, exauriculate. Panicles 
20-30 cm. long, "leafy, compound, with many shortly peduncled fascicles, 
fascicles of spikes about 12 mm. broad, proper spathes 7-10 mm. long, hardly 
longer than the spikes, towards the margin with long, tubercle- based bristles ; 
spikes 6-8 mm. long. Sessile spikelets 3-4 mm. long, linear-oblong, hispidu- 
lous all over. Lower involucral glume furrowed. Upper floral glume awned, 
awn 18-24 mm? long, thin. Pedicelled spikelets lanceolate, with a few long, 
tubercle-based bristles, keel ciliate. 

Locality : Konkan (Law ex Hook. f). 

Distribution : Bengal, Konkan, S. Kanara. 

3. Pseudanthistiria umbellata, Hook. f. in F. B, I. vii, 220 — A ndropogon 
umbellatus, Hack. Monogr. Androp. 401. 


May 31, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 632 

Description : A very slender, glabrous plant with filiform, prostrate, creeping 
branched stems, rooting at the nodes, stems 30-60 cm. long, compressed. 
Blade 2-5 cm. long, distant, linear-oblong, acute, rounded at base, sessile or 
short-petioled, nerves distinct, very slender, with a few scattered cilia on both 
surfaces, nearly smooth ; sheaths shorter than the blade, often with tubercle- 
based hairs above, rarely glabrous ; ligule passing at the sides into 2 short, 
herbaceous, fimbriate auricles of the sheath. Panicle leafy, very lax, interrupted, 
12-20 cm. long ; fascicles of spikelets few, axillary, 6-12 mm. broad, glabrous 
or with a few tubercle-based cilia on simple, rarely branched capillary pedun- 
cles shorter than the leaves ; lower peduncles sometimes elongate, 2'5~-7'5 cm. 
long and bearing several fascicles ; outer spathes 8-25 mm. long ; spikes 3-6 in 
a fascicle, proper spathe ]0-12 mm. long, rather "longer than the spikes, 
glabrous or towards the margin with a few bulbous-based hairs. Sessile 
spikelets 3-4'5 mm. long, linear, scaberulous. Lower involucral glume 
dorsally concave ; awn of upper floral glume 12-14 mm. long, very thin. 
Pedicelled spikelets linear-lanceolate, naked, awn 12-18 mm. long. 

Locality. S. M, Country: Londa (Gammie 15869 \).—Kanara : Birchy 
{Talbot 2073!). 

Distribution : Deccan and W. Peninsula, Ceylon, 

42. Digitaria, Hall. Hist Stirp. ii (1768), 244 ; Stapf in Pram Fl. 
Trop. Afr, ix, 422. 

Species more than 100, in the warm parts of the whole world, but chiefly in 
the Old World. 

Cke. (ii, 940-942) describes 6 species. All are retained in this place, but the 
name of Digitaria sanguinalis will be replaced by D. marginata. 

Key as in Cke, 

1. Digitaria ternata, Stapf in Dyer Fl. Cap. vii, 376, et in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. 
ix, 452 ; Cke. ii, 940.— Paspalum ternatum, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 17. — 
Panicum ternatum, Hochst, in Flora xxiv (1841), 1, Intell. 19; Hack, in Oest. 
Bot, Zeitschr. (1901), 331. — P. phcenocarpum, var. gracile, Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. 
23.—Cynodon ternatum, A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 405. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. Occasionally long fine hairs are found on the 

Locality: Deccan: Purandhar Fort (Bhide!).— 5. M. Country: Belgaum 
(Herb. Bot. Gard. Cal.). 

Distribution : India (Khasia Hills, Burma, W. Peninsula), Yunnan, tropical 
and S. Africa. 

2. Digitaria marginata, Link Hort, Berol, i, 229 ; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop, 
Afr. ix, 439. 

Description : Annual, 30 cm, to 1 m. high. Stems tufted, usually ascend- 
ing from a geniculate or prostrate base, simple or branched from the lower 
nodes, glabrous, few to many-noded. Leaves 5-15 cm. by 4-8 mm,., linear or 
linear-lanceolate from a slightly contracted and rounded base, acute, flat, 
flaccid, glabrous or sparingly hairy particularly towards the mouth, margins 
finely cartilaginous, rough and often crisp, midrib very slender, whitish ; 
sheaths thin, subherbaceous, loose, glabrous, or more or less beset with 
spreading tubercle- based hairs often forming a loose beard at the base ; ligules 
truncate, membranous, up to over 1 mm. long. Spikes mostly 4-9, sessile, 
subdigitate, solitary or 2-3 — nate on a short, scaberulous common axis, erect or 
spreading, rather slender, strict or slightly flexuous 5-15 cm. long, often finely 
pubescent at the base ; rhachis almost straight, triquetrous, lateral angles 
winged, herbaceous, scabrid, internodes up to more than 2 mm. long. Pedicels 
2-nate, one very short, the other up to 1*5 mm. long, angular, scabrid. 
Spikelets appressed, lanceolate, acutely acuminate, 2-4 mm. long, pale 
greenish, rarely tinged with purple, variously hairy, rarely quite glabrous. 
Lower involucral glume an ovate, obtuse to subacute membranous scale, 
usually not over - 3 mm. long, sometimes obsolete or quite suppressed ; upper 
ovate-lanceolate, acute, equalling or considerably exceeding half of the upper 
floral glume, rarely distinctly shorter, 3-nerved, with fine lines of hairs between 
the nerves and along the margins, rarely quite glabrous. Lower floral glume 
corresponding in outline and size to the spikelet, firmly membranous, 7-nerved, 
rarely quite glabrous, usually with fine lines of hairs between the inner side- 

633 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 4 [May 31, 1928. 

nerves (of each half) and along the margins ; upper floral glume oblong- 
lanceolate, acutely acuminate, almost as long as the spikelet, thinly 
chartaceous, pale or slightly purplish, brownish when ripe. Grain oblong, 
plano-convex, whitish, scutellum less than half the length of the 

This species is not identical with Paspalum sanguinale, Lamk. of the F. 
B.I. or with Digitaria sanguinalis, Scop, in Cooke's Flora or in Haines 7 
Bot. of Bihar & Orissa. D. sanguinalis, Scop, (sensu stricio) is a plant of 
S. Europe and has not been found either in India or tropical Africa, as was 
pointed out by Pilger (in Engl. Jahrb. xxx, 118) and Stapf. Most of the 
numerous synonyms given by Hook. f. in the F. B. I. would have to be men- 
tioned under the different varieties. Here we have to deal only with one 
variety which was described by Cooke as var. ciliaris, Prain and which was 
called var. fimbriala by Stapf. 

var. fimbriata, Stapf, 1. c. 440. — Digitaria fimbriata, Link Hort. Berol. 1. c. 
226.— D commutata, Schult, Mant. ii, 262. — D. chrysoblephora, Fig. & De 
Not. in Mem. Ace. Tor. ser ii, xiv, 364. — Digitaria ciliaris, var. quadristachya, 
Wight.— D. sanguinalis, var. ciliaris, Rendle in Cat. Afr. PI. Welw. ii, 163, 
and in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xl, 228. — Digitaria sanguinalis , var. ciliaris, 
Prain Beng. PL 1181 ; Cke. ii, 940 — Panicum ciliare, Retz. Obs. iv, 16; Kunth 
Enum. i, 82 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 290 ; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 360 ; Dalz. & 
Gibs. Fl. Bomb. 290 ; Duthie Indig, Fodd. Grass, t. 9— P. fimbriatum, Presl 
Rel. Haenk. i, 298 ; Kunth Enum. i, 81. — P. sanguinale var. ciliare, Franch.' 
Contr. Fl. Congo Franc. 46. — P. sanguinale var. blepharanthum, Hack, in 
Durand & Schintz Consp. Fl. Afr. v, 762. — P. sanguinale, var. macrostachyum, 
Hack. 1. c. 763. — Paspalum sanguinale var, ciliare, Hook. f. in F. B. I. 
vii, 15. 

Description : Upper involucral glume usually much exceeding the middle 
of the fertile floret and frequently equalling f of its length. Indumentum of 
spikelets uniform or more often more or less varied in the same inflorescence ; 
hairs of the upper involucral glume and low r er floret partly in fine lines, all of 
one kind, very fine, thin-walled, obtuse-tipped, partly more thick-walled with 
slightly clavate tips, and up to 1 mm. long, spreading out at maturity and 
forming a rigid double fringe on each side of the spikelet, the inner fringe 
often mixed with a varying number of tubercle- based acute yellow bristles 
which ultimately also spread out at right angles. 

It is well to remember what Stapf says in a note, 1. c. 441 : ' The peculiar 
indumentum cf the spikelets, which in the mature state leads to the formation 
of spreading fringes, may extend to all spikelets alike or it may be, at least in 
its perfect development, confined to the long-pedicelled member of each pair 
of spikelets or only to some of them, in which case the indumentum of the 
fringeless spikelets approaches more or less that of var. Linkii.' Var. Linkii, 
Stapf is Hooker f.'s var. commutatum of Paspalum sanguinale in F. B. I. 
vii, 15. 

Vern. Names : Tara (Surat) ; Shikaol or Arotaro (Dohad) ; Chansarieu 
(Broach) ; Taro, Modhan (Sind) ; Fakri, Fakria, Kurad, Suka, Revga, Dinohi, 
Shikar koli, Kalam hullu (Bijapur) ; Shimpigyan hullu (Belgaum) (ex Burns). 

Locality: Sind: Sanghar (Sabnis B903!) ; Mirpurkhas, in cultivated fields 
(Sabnis B1209!) ; Bughar, Indus River (Blatter & McCann D686!); Ghula- 
malla, garden (Blatter & McCann D687 \)— Gujarat : Cutch (Blatter 8742 !) ; 
Ahmedabad (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona!). — Khandesh : N. slope of Chanseli 
(McCann 9535!) ; Bor, Tapti Island, on sand and mud (Blatter & Hall berg 
5463!) ; Muravat, Tapti Bank (Blatter & Hallberg 3839!) ; Umalla (Blatter 
& Hallbere 5178!); Amalner (Blatter & Hallberg 4443!); Sumit (Blatter 
& Hallberg 5188!) ; Bor, Bori River (Blatter & Hallberg 5213!) ; Dadgaum 
(McCann 9531 !)— Konkan : Victoria Gardens, Bombay (McCann 9831!); 
Versova, Salsette (McCann 4308!); Malabar Hill (McCann 4300!); very 
common through the Islands of Bombay and Salsette (McCann !) ; Parsik, 
railway line (McCann 9530 !) ; Bassein (McCann 4485 !) ; Alibag, sandy shore 
(Ezekiel!). — Deccan : Khandala (McCann 3650!); Igatpuri (McCann 9833!); 
Purandhar (McCann 5606!); Chattarshinji (Ezekiel!); Pashan (Gammie!); 
Deolali (Blatter & Hallberg 4556!); Gangapur (Blatter & Hallberg 4581!); 
Panchgani, Maratha Well (Blatter & Hallberg B1233!).— S. M. Country. 
Haveri, dry ground, compound of P. W- D. (Talbot 2228 !) ; Dharwar (Sedg- 


May 31, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 634 

wick!); Belgaum (Herb. Bot. Gard. Cal. !). — Kanara : Karwar (Talbot 
1294 !) ; Halyal" (Talbot 2153 !) ; Kulgi (Talbot 2279 !). 

Distribution : Tropics of both hemispheres, rarely found beyond the tropics. 

3 Digitaria pennata, Chiov. in Result. Scient. Miss. Stefanini — Paoli i, 183 ; 
Cke. ii, 941, erronee ascribens nomen Hookerof.; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop- 
Afr. ix, 472.— Pcmicum pennatum, Hochst. in Flora xxxviii (1855), 197; 
Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii, App. ii, IS— Pas Palum pennatum, Hook. f. 
in F.B.I, vii, 1G. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Sind : Karachi (Stocks teste Hook, f.) ; Jemadar ka Landa, 
near Karachi (Stocks) ; Tatta, Kullan Kote (Blatter & McCann D684 !) ; 
Tatta (Blatter & McCann D685 !) . — Gujarat : Porbandar (Bhide !) ; Morvi, 
Kathiawar (Woodrow). 

Distribution : Baluchistan, tropical Arabia and Africa. 

4. Digitaria pedicellaris, Prain Beng. PI. (1903), 1181; Cke. ii, 941 ; Haines 
in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1009,— Pas palam pedicellare, Trin. ex Steud. Norn. 
ed. 2 (1841), 272 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I., vii, 19.— P. pedicellatum, Nees & Arn. in 
Wight Cat. 2310 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. I.— Milium sanguinale, Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. i, 315 {excl. syn. Burm.). 

Dssc'vi'bt'iOTi * Cke 1 c 

Locality: Konkan: Thana (McCann 8725!); Sion (Herb. S. X. C. !) ; 
Mulgaum (McCann 3663 !).— Deccan : Chattarshinji Hill, Poona (Ezekiel !).— 
6". M. Country: Hubli, elevation 2,000 ft., rainfall 30 inches (Sedgwick & 
Bell 4229!). 

Distribution : Throughout India. 

5. Digitaria longiflora, Pers. Syn. i (1805), 85 {non Trin.); Cke. ii, 941; 
Siapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 469 ; Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1008.— 
Digitaria Pseudo-Durva, Schlechtend. in Linnsea, xxvi, 458.— D. linearis, 
Schult. f. Mant. ii, 264 {non Roem. and Schult.).— D. tenuiflora, Stapf in Dyer 
Fl. Cap. vii, 380 [non P. Beauv.) .—Pas palum longiflorum, Retz. Obs. iv, 15 
{non Trin.) ; Baker Fl. Maurit. 431 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 17 {partim).—P. 
brevifolium, Fluegge Gram. Monogr. 150. — P. Pseudo-Durva, Nees Fl. Afr. 
Austr. 21.— P. filiculme. Nees ex Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. 358. — Panicum longi- 
florum, Gmel. Syst. 158.— P. parvulum, Trin. Pan. Gen. 117.— P. argyrot- 
richum, Durand & Schintz Consp. Fl. Afr. v, 741 {non Anders.) .—Milium 
filiforme, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 314. 

Digitaria tenuiflora, P. Beauv. given as a synonym by Cke. seems to be a 
different species. It is apparently a perennial of erect habit and with long 
narrow leaves. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Deccan: Deolali (Blatter & Hallberg 9835 !).— S. M. Country: 
Dry uplands, Dharwar, elevation 2,400 ft., rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick 2653 !) ; 
Belgaum (Herb. Bot. Gard. Cal.).— Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2310!) ; Londa 

Distribution : Throughout India, Ceylon, tropical and S. Africa, Mada- 
gascar, Mascarenes, Malaya. 

6. Digitaria Royleana, Prain Beng. PI. (1903), 1181 ; Cke. ii, 942; Haines in 
Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1008.— Paspalum Royleanum, Nees ex Thw. Enum. 
(1864), 358 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 18 ; Trin. Fl. Ceyl. v, 125. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Konkan : St. Xavier's^ College compound (McCann 4533 !) ; 
Mulgaum, Salsette (McCann 9523 !).— Deccan : Khandala (McCann 3651!); 
Lonavla (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona!) ; Purandhar Fort (Bhide!) ; Lina Hill, 
Nasik District (Blatter & Hallberg 4542 !); Lohagad, way up (McCann 9512 !); 
Katraj Ghat, 11 miles S.E. of Poona (Bhide!) ; Panchgani, slopes below 
Third Tableland (Blatter & Hallberg B1229 !) ; Panchgani, Maratha Well 
(Blatter & Hallberg B1224 !, B1281 !) ; Mahableshwar, in a garden, elevation 
4,500 ft., rainfall 270 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4584 !) ; Suvasni Ghat 
(Woodrow).— 5. M. Country : Dharwar, elevation 1,600 ft., rainfall 34 inches 
(Sedgwick 2843 !) ; Belgaum (Herb. Bot. Gard. Cal. I).— Kanara : (Talbot!) 

Distribution : Hilly districts throughout India, Ceylon ; apparently not in 
tropical Africa. 


$35 Journ., Bom. Nat. Hist Soc., Vol. XXXI Y", No. 4 [May 31, 1928^ 

43. Aixoteropsts,. Presi, emend. Hltehc. in Contrib. U. S. Nat, 
Herb, xii, 210 ; Stapf in Prain FL Trop. Afr. ix. 482. (Axonopus, Beauv. ; 

Cke. ii, 925). 

Stapf (1. c. 483) explains why he adopts Alloteropsis, PresI, as emended by 
Hitchcock. ' As Hitchcock (Contrib U.S.Nat. Herb, xii, 210) has pointed 
out, Presl's description and analyses of Alloteropsis are based on a composition 
of a Panicoid and an Andropogonoid grass, whilst the original in Presl's 
herbarium is undoubtedly the plant described here as A. semialala, and so is 
also the habit figure (1) in Presl's plate. The genus is therefore accepted here? 
with Hitchcock's emendation.' 

1 Another member of this genus, A, cimieina, was included by Palisot de 
Beauvois (Agrost. 12) in his genus Axonopus under its earliest synonym. 
Milium cimicinum and as " A cimicinus ? " on p. 154,. and this led J. Dv 
Hooker (Fl. Brit. Ind. vii, 64) to use the name Axonopus- in preference to* 
Alloteropsis, a view which was adopted by myself in Fi. Cap. vii, 418. From 
P. Beauvois' diagnosis however, and from the fact that he quotes in the first 
place Milium eompressum as example for Axonopus, there can be no doubt 
that he had primarily Milium eompressum in view when establishing his genus- 
Axonopus, and it is in that sense that the genus is understood in this work- 
A. cimieina also forms the basis of another genus, Coridochloa, Nees in Edinb.. 
New Phil. Journ. xv, 381. A. Chase (in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxiv,. 
157) maintains this genus as distinct from Alloteropsis, and I followed her 
when drawing up the key of the genera of Tropical African grasses (p. 13) ; 
but I have since come to the conclusion that the species referable to these 
two groups are so similar in the peculiar structure of their spikelets that they 
are better merged into one genus for which Alloteropsis has priority over 
Cordiochloa . ' 

We have, therefore, to add the characteristics of the genus as given bj 
Stapf :: 

Perennial or annual. Leaf- blades flat or more or less convolute; ligules' 
membranous, ciliate or ciliolate, short or reduced to a mere rim. Racemes 
sessile or peduncled, often more or less compound towards the base,, digitate 
or subdigitate on a more or less elongated common axis. Spikelets ovate or 
elliptic to lanceolate-oblong ; acute or acuminate, mostly awned, slightly or 
conspicuously compressed from the back, falling entire from the pedicels, 
2-nate or fascicled, subsecund and abaxial on the triquetrous rhachis of more 
or less spiciform racemes. Lower floret usually male, upper hermaphrodite. 
Involucral glumes unequal, lower smaller, membranous to hyaline, 3-1-nerved,. 
very acute, often mucronulate, upper equal or subequal to the spikelet,. 
membranous to chartaceous, 5-nerved, with the outer nerves submarginal,, 
densely ciliate along them. Lower floral glume resembling the upper involucral 
glume, but ciliate, pale short, deeply 2-fid with conspicuously auricled flaps,. 
upper floral glume chartaceous, glabrous, delicately ciliolate upwards,, 
5-nerved, produced into a straight awn or mucronate, pale equal to the glume, 
2-keeled, with broadly auricled flaps. Lodicules 2, broadly cuneate. Stamens 
3. Styles distinct, stigmas laterally exserted. Grain enclosed by the glume 
and pale, elliptic-oblong, dorsally much compressed ; scutellum about half the 
length of the grain ; hilum basal, punctiform. 

Species about 5. — In the tropics and the warm temperate zone of the Oldi 
World, 2 in India. 

In the Bombay Presidency there is only one species : 

1, Alloteropsis cimieina, Stapf in Prain FL Trop. Afr. ix, 487 ; Haines in Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa 1009. — Milium cimicinum, Linn. Mant. Alt. IM.—Panicum 
cimicinum, Retz. Obs. iii, 9 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind.. i, 295 ; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. i„ 
43.— P confugatum, Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 291.— Axonopus cimicimes (?),, 
Beauv. Agrost. 154 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 64 ; Hook. f. in Trim. Fl. Ceyl. 
v, 166 ; Cke. ii, 925.— Urochloa cimieina, Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 31, t. 103 ;; 
Dalz. & Gibs. 1. c 289. — Cordiochloa cimieina, Nees in Edinb. N. PhiL 
Journ. xv (1833), 381 ; A. Chase in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash, xxiv, 158. — C 
Hmbriata, Nees ex Wight Cat. no. 1656 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab, PI. 158. 
Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Konkan : Sewri (McCann 3586 F) ; Mulgaum (MeCann 3654!).— 
Deccan: Sinhagad forests (Bhide!): Lina Hill, Nasik District (Blatter & 


May 31, 1928] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 636 

Hallberg4583 !) ; Panchgani (Hallberg!).— S. M. Country: Dharwar (Sedg- 
wick 2032 !, Woodrow) ; Gokak (Shevade !) ; Badami (Woodrow).— Kanara : 
Halyal (Talbot 2294 !) ; Kulgi (Talbot 2434 !). 
Distribution : Tropical Africa, Madagascar, throughout India to Java. 

44. Eriochloa, H. B. & K. ; Cke. ii, 944. 

Species about 25. — In the warm parts of the whole world. 
Cooke describes one species : E. polystachya, H. B. & K. which name has 
to cede to E. ramosa, O. Kuntze. 

1. Eriochloa ramosa, O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PL ii, 775 ; Hack, in Bull. Acad. 
Int. Bot. xvi, 19 ; Merrill in Philipp. Journ. Sc. i, Suppl. 348 ; Stapf in Pram 
FL Trop. Afr. ix, 498 ; Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1006.— E. annul at a f 
Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 30, and Enum. i, 73 ; Duthie List Grass. N. W. Ind. 2 ; 
Beuth FL Hongk. 409 ; Hack, in Engl. Jahrb. vi r 233.— £". polystachya, Duthie, 
111. Indig. Fodd. Grass. Ind. t. 41 ; Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 2 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I. 
vii, 20 ; Cke. ii, 944 ; Rendle in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xxxvi, 320 {non H. B. 
& K. !).— Milium ramosum, Retz. Obs. vi (1791), 22 ; Roxb. FL Ind. i, 317 ; 
Griff. Notul. iii, 15 ; Ic. PL Asiat. t. 139, f. 60.— Agrostis ramosa, Poir. EncycL 
Suppl. i, 257 —Pas p alum annul atum, Fluegge Monogr. Pasp. 133 ; Trin Sp„ 
Gram. Ic. t, 133. — Helopus Icevis, Trin. ex Spreng. Neue Entdeck. ii, 49, fig. 
k,—H. annulatus, Steud. Syn. Glum, i, 99 {non Nees) ,—Pipatherum annulatum, 
Presl, Rel. Haenk i, 221 {non Raddi). 

Note.— Masaja Honda in his Revisio Graminum Japoniee (Bot. Mag. Tokyo 
37 (1923), 113-124) is of opinion that Eriochloa ramosa, O. Kuntze, has to be 
partly emended and changed to the new species Eriochloa Hackelii. Details 
are wanting to form an opinion on this point. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Sind : Umerkot, in a garden (Sabnis B718!); Jamesabad, on 
banks of a watercourse (Sabnis B967 !) ; Bughar, Indus River (Blatter & 
McCann D691 !) ; Tatta, Kullan Kote Lake (Blatter & McCann D692 !) ; Tatta 
(Blatter & McCann D693 !).— Gujarat : Ahmedabad (Gammie 16408!).— 
Konkan: Bassein (Bhide !) ; Antop Hill (McCann 3613!) ; Alibag, rice field 
(Ezekiel, !) ; Bandra, on walls and in ditches (McCann !) ; Bombay (Hallberg 
A141 !) ; Bombay, near Mahim (Woodrow, Lisboa) ; Bhandup, in an old 
distillery compound, in a ditch (Hallberg A19 !). — 5. M. Country : Shiggaon, 
elevation 2,000 ft., rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick 2356!); Kunnur, elevation 
2,000 ft., rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4937!) ; Ranibenur (Bhide!) ; 
Dharwar (Sedgwick !).— Kanara : Halyal (Talbot !). 

Distribution : Tropics of the Old World, introduced into Ascension Island, 
St. Helena, Cuba. 

45. Brachiaria Griseb. in Ledeb. FL Ross, iv, 469 ; Stapf in Prain FL 
Trop. Afr. ix, 505. 

(Sect. Brachiaria and part of sect. Paspaloidecs of Panicum of the F.B.I.). 

Perennial or annual. Leaf-blades linear to Lanceolate, usually flat ; 
ligules reduced to a narrow ciliate or ciliolate rim. Racemes usually subsessile 
and solitary on a common axis, sometimes bare at the base owing to the 
arrest of spikelets, rarely truly peduncled and panicled, simple or compound 
near the base, rarely to or beyoud the middle ; rhachis filiform, triquetrous 
or more or less flattened and herbaceous with a wavy or zig-zag midrib, 
which projects as a mostly acute keel on the face ; pedicels solitary or in 
pairs, alternately to the right and the left of the facial angle or the midrib, if 
solitary all short or very short, if paired, the primary slightly to very much 
longer ; spikelets closely appressed, always biseriatein the plane, but frequent- 
ly becoming 1-seriate by the dovetailing of the alternate spikelets of the closely 
approximate ranks, more or less contiguous with their sides or imbricate, form- 
ing dense, spike-like racemes, or distant by almost their own length or more, 
glabrous or hairy. Spikelets more or less elliptic or oblong, more or less flat- 
tened or slightly depressed, convex on the base, falling entire from the pedicels. 
1-2-, rarely more-nate, secund and adaxial (with lower involucral glume towards 
the axis and the convex side of the upper floral glume away from the axis) > 
closely appres?ed to and 2-seriate on the triquetrous or flat rhachis of spiciform 
racemes ; lo'3?e i floret male or barren with a usually well -developed pale, very 


637 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No 4 [May 31, 1928. 

rarely the latter suppressed. Involucral glumes dissimilar and mostly very 
unequal in length. Lower involucral glume shortest ; upper resembling and 
more or less equalling the lower floral glume, 5-7- (rarely 9-) nerved. Lower 
floral glume 5-, rarely 7-nerved, the lateral nerves placed towards the margins 
and distant from the middle nerve ; pale usually only slightly shorter than the 
valve with well-developed inflexed flaps, or the latter vanishing above the middle; 
upper floral glume oblong to elliptic in outline, emucronate, though sometimes 
contracted into an apiculus, crustaceous or subcoriaceous with firm involute 
margins, faintly 5-nerved ; pale almost as long as the glume, 2-keeled, its 
sides tightly embraced by the valve. Lodicules 2, small, broadly cuneate. 
Stamens 3. Styles distinct ; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted from the upper 
part of the spikelet. Grain tightly enclosed by the glume and pale, more or 
less flattened on both faces ; hilum subbasal, punctiform ; embryo half to over 
f the length of the grain. 

Species about 80. In the warm parts of the whole world, but chiefly in 

Cooke mentions 3 species which belong to this genus : Panicum Isachne, 
P. ramosum and P. muticum. To these we add Brachiaria distachya [Panicum 
distachyum) . 

A. Spikelets 0'5 mm. long or slightly more ... 1. B. Isachne 

B. Spikelets 2*5-4 mm. long 

I. 90 cm. to l - 8 m. high ... ... 2. B. mutica. 

II. Less than 80 cm. high 

1. Spikes 5-many ... ... ... 3. B. ramosa. 

2. Spikes 2-4 ... ... ... 4. B. distachya. 

1. Brachiaria Isachne, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 552 ; Haines in Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa 1004 (habet Roth per errorem).—B. cruciformis, Griseb. in 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross, iv, 469.— Panicum Isachne, Roth ex Roem. & Schult. Syst. 
ii, 458 ; Roth Nov. PI. Sp. 54 ; Schult. Mant. ii, 252 ; Steud. Syn. PL Gl. i, 57; 
Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 28; Stapf in Dyer Fl. Cap. vii, 390 ; Cke. ii, 931. — 
P. eruciforme, Sibth. & Sm. Fl. Graeca i, t. 59; Baker Fl. Maurit. 434; 
Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii, App. ii, 19 ; Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 3, 
Indig. Fodd. Grass, t. 43, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 6; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 437.— 
P. caucasicum, Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 262.— P. Wightii, Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. 29.— 
P. pubinode, Hochst. ex. A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 363. — Echinochloa cruci- 
formis, Koch in Linnsea, xxi, 437 ; Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ, i, t. 29, fig. 1413. 

Description : Cke. ii, 931. 

Locality: Sind : (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona!). — Gujarat: Surat (Chibber!, 
Dalzell teste Cooke).— Khandesh : Sungiri (Gammie 16552!); Dhulia Farm 
(Chibber !) ; Chanseli (McCann A92 !) ; Nimb, Tapti Bank (Blatter & Hall- 
berg 9571 !) ; Dadgaum (McCann9562 !) ; Tapti, Bhusawal (Blatter & Hall- 
berg 5156!) ; Umalla village (Blatter & Hallberg 5159 !) ; Bor, Bori River 
(Blatter & Hallberg 4424 !).— Konkan : Clerk Rd., Bombay, along brackish 
water (Sabnis 9565 !) ; very common in Bombay and Salsette Islands (McCann !). 
— Deccan : Yeola (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; Mangiri, 8 miles E. of Poona 
(Gammie!); Sholapur (D'Almeida A91 !) ; Deolali (Blatter 9570!, 9569!); 
Khandala, common (McCann 9566!) ; Purandhar, N. foot (McCann 9568 !) ; 
Panchgani, below Sidney Point (Blatter & Hallberg 1271 \).—S. M. Country : 
Nelogi, elevation 1,800 ft., rainfall 30 inches (Sedgwick 2134 !) ; Haveri (Talbot 
2150 \).—Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2150 !). 

Distribution : Throughout the plains of India in damp places, Ceylon, west- 
wards to Italy and tropical and S. Africa. 

*2. Brachiaria mutica, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 526.— Panicum 
muticum, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.— Arab. 20 ; Link Hort. Berol. I, 206 ; Hook. f. in 
F. B. I. vii, 34, and in Trim. Fl. Ceyl. V, 140.— P. numidianum, Lam. 111. I, 
172; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 438.— P. purpurascens, Raddi ex Opiz in Flora (1822), 
266.— P. barbinode, Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 318 ; Duthie List Grass. N. W. Ind. 
2.— P. sarmentosum, Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 561 (non Roxb.). — P. equuium, 
Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 73.- P. molle, Griseb. Fl. Brit. West Ind. 547 (excl. 
syn.); Baker Fl. Maurit. 436. 

In adopting Forskal's name ' muticum ' for this species Stapf, according to 
his own words, has relied on Ascherson's indentification (Asch. & Schweinf. 
111. Fl. Egypt 160) of the type with the Algerian P. numidianum. 


May 31, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 638 

Popular Names : Water Grass, Mauritius Grass, Para Grass, Scotch Grass, 
Buffalo Grass. 

Description : Perennial 1 -2*5 ra. high. Stems ascending from a sometimes 
prostrate and copiously rooting base, stout, terete, usually many-noded and 
sheathed high up, simple or sparingly branched, glabrous, often waxy, pruinose 
below the nodes. Leaf-blades linear, up to 30 cm. long, 6-10 mm. broad 
glabrous or rarely more or less hirsute, margins scabrid. Panicle oblong to 
ovate-oblong in outline subsecund or almost quaquaversal, 6-20 cm. long; 
common rhachis terete to semiterete, more or less deeply channelled or triquet- 
rous upwards, scabrid along the angles, glabrous. Pacemes numerous, 
solitary or irregularly approximate, sometimes paired or in false whorls, shortly 
peduncled or subsessile, obliquely spreading, 7 (rarely 12) to 2 - 5 cm. long, 
mostly compound, glabrous, greenish or tinged with purple ; rhachis fiat, with a 
slender, raised midrib up to 1 mm. wide, villosulous at the base, otherwise 
glabrous ; secondary racemes usually very short, and 6-3-spiculate ; pedicels 
solitary or paired, very short, or if paired then the longer up to 1 mm. long, 
frequently with a few setules. Spikelets laterally contiguous or discontiguous, 
those of the secondary racemes often imbricate, oblong or lanceolate -oblong, 
acute, 3-3 - 5 mm. long, glabrous. Involucral glumes dissimilar, lower broad- 
ovate, acute to subacute, from less than § to not quite \ the length of the 
spikelet, faintly 3-5-nerved, often tinged with purple ; upper corresponding in 
outline and size to the spikelet, 5-7-nerved. Lower floral glume as long as the 
upper involucral glume and similar to it ; pale narrowly oblong, subacute, 
almost as long as the glume, with narrow flaps ; anthers 2 mm. long ; upper 
floral glume slightly shorter than the spikelet, mostly 3 mm. long, oblong, 
subacute or minutely apiculate, pale yellowish, glume and pale crustaceous, 
very finely transversely wrinkled or almost smooth. Stigmas blackish-purple, 
very conspicuous. 

Locality : Cultivated at Kirkee and Surat (Woodrow) and very likely in other 

Distribution : A native of S. America and W. Africa, but introduced else- 
where (Stapf). 

Uses : A fodder grass. See Kew Bull. (1894) , 3S4. 

3. Brachiaria ramosa. Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr ix, 542 ; Haines Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa 1005. — Panicum ramosum, Linn. Mant. (1767), 29; Steud. 
Syn. PL Glum, i, 97 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 36 {partim) ; Trim. Fl. Ceyl., v, 
140; Prain Beng. PI. 1175; Cke. ii, 932.— P. arvense, Kunth Rev. Gram, 
i, 391, t. 109.— P. Petiveri, Dis. ii, 144. {partim) ; Baker FL Maurit. 434 ; 
Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PL 160; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 6, Fodd. Grass. 
N. Ind. 11 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 439.— P. brachylachnum, Steud. I.e. 62.— P. 
cognatissimum, Steud. I.e. 69.— P. patens, Boj. Hort. Maurit. 365 (non Linn.).— 
P. pygmaeum, Boj. I.e.— P. Helopus, Watt. Diet. Econ. Prod, vi, part 1, 10 
{partim).— P. umbrosum, Retz. Obs. 4 (1786), 16 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 297. 

Description : Cke. ii, 932.— Stapf points out that this species occurs in a glab- 
rous and a pubescent state, and that the original specimen in Linnaeus' herbarium 
represents the former. ' The pubescence,' he says, ' if present, extends gener- 
ally to the culms, the leaves, the axes of the inflorescence and the spikelets, the 
upper glume [upper involucral glume] and lower valve [lower floral glume]. 
On the blades it may be scanty and disappear with age. It does not seem to be 
correlated with any other character, and the area of the glabrous and pubescent 
states overlap completely, in fact both have been taken in the same collecting.' 

He mentions another curious modification in which the lower floral glume is 
more firmly membranous to crustaceous and faintly transversely rugose and 
thus more or less resembles the upper floral glume (not the upper involucral 
glume as is normally the case). It has been collected in India and W. Africa. 

Locality-. Sind: Chachra (Mamlatdar of Chachra !) ; Shahabander (Karachi 
P.O.C. of Shahabander!); Sangarh (Sabnis B901!, B887 !) ; Nasarpur, 
clayey soil (Sabnis B1057 !).— Gujarat : Ahmedabad (Herb. S.X.C. 2165!); 
Mausari (Mamlatdar of Mausari!); Sumrasar, Cutch (Blatter 3756!).— 
Khandesh : Tamer, Tapti bank (Blatter & Hallberg 5172 !) ; Antroli, Bori 
River (Blatter & Hallberg 5149!); Toranmal (McCann AU2 \) .—Konkan : 
Malabar Hill (McCann !) ; Versova (McCann 9588 !) ; Byculla (McCann 9586 !) ; 
Sion (McCann 8689 !) ; Bandra Hill, in fallow fields (Vakil A115 \).-Deccan : 
Khandala (Sedgwick 2631!); Poona (Woodrow!); Lina Hill, Nasik District 


639 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, No. 4 {May 31, 1928, 

(Blatter & Hallberg A145!).— 5. M. Country : Dharwar, garden weed 
(Sedgwick 2651!); Haveri (Talbot 2231!); Badami (Woodrow teste Cooke). 
Distribution : Throughout India, Ceylon, Afghanistan, tropical Africa (Upper 
Guinea, Cape Verd Islands,). 

4. Brachiaria distachya, Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1004 {per errorem 
distachyum) .— Pani:um distachyum, Linn. Mant. i, 138; Retz. Obs. iii, 17; 
Lamk. Til. t. 43, f. 2 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 41 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab, PL 159 ; 
Duthie Grass N. W. Ind. 3 ; Indig. Fodd. Grass, t. 42, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 6 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austral, vii, 478 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 37. — P. subquadriparum , 
Trin. Gram. Panic. 145, Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 186.— Digitaria distachya, Pers. Syn. 
i, 85. 

Description : A slender, creeping grass, glabrous or panicle sparsely hairy. 
Stems 30-60 cm. high. Leaves linear or lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acu- 
minate, 5-15 cm. by 3-6 mm., widest at the rounded or amplexicaul base, flat ; 
sheaths ciliate or not on the margins, mouth hairy. Spikes 2-4, distant, 2 5-65 
cm. long, rarely more than 10 cm., erect, at last spreading; rhachis slender, 
glabrous. Spikelets variable in size, pale green, 3-4 mm. long, solitary, subses- 
sile, spikately arranged in 2 (-1) series, ellipsoid, glabrous. Lower involucral 
glume embracing the spikelet and margins overlapping below, i to nearly \ the 
spikelet, 5-7-nerved, obtuse or subacute ; upper involucral glume ovate, acute, 
7-nerved, paieate or not, pale if present narrow, neuter. Lower floral glume 
5-nerved, upper ellipsoid, obtuse or rounded, 2 mm. long, brown and minutely 
transversely lineolate or obscurely rur ulose when ripe. 

Locality : Gujarat : Ahmedabad, banks and margins of fields around Ahmeda- 
bad (Sedgwick 239 !).— S.M. Country : Dharwar (Sedgwick 2840 !). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, China, Malaya, Australia, 

46. PAvSpalum, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 855 ; Cke. ii, 943. 

Species over 200, chiefly in tropical America, only a few in the Old World. 

Cooke describes 3 species : P. scrobiculatum, Linn., P. compactum, Roth, 
and P. distichum, Linn., to which we add Paspalum dilatatum, Poir. P. 
distichum has to be replaced by P. vaginatum, Sw., for reasons detailed below. 
I. Leaves over 14 cm. long 

1. Plant 60-90 cm. high ... ... 1. P. scrobiculatum. 

2. Plant 1-1-5 m. high ... ... 2. P. dilatatum. 

II. Leaves less than 11 cm, long 

1. Leaves 2 -5-7 '5 cm long, 8--12 mm. 

broad ... .,. ... 3. P. compactum. 

2. Leaves 5-10 cm. long, 1*2-4 mm. 

broad ... ... ... 4. P. vaginatum. . 

1. Paspalijm scrobiculatum, Linn. Mantiss. (1767), 29 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii 
10 ; Cke. ii, 943 ; Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1000.— P. scrobiculatum, 
Linn. var. Commersonii, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 573.— P. scrobicu- 
latum, Linn. var. frumentaceum, Stapf 1. c. 575.— P. scrobiculatum, Linn. var. 
polystachyum, Stapf 1. c. 576.— For further synonyms see Hook. f. and Stapf 
11. cc. Hook f. gives P. orbiculare, Forst. Prodr. 7 as a synonym, but Stapf 
considers it as a distinct species of the Polynesian and Indo-Malayan regions 
with an extension into New Zealand and Australia. Of Hook. f. syn. in the 
F. B. I. we wish to enclose only those which apply to spontaneous forms of the 
Old World. 

As can be seen from the above synonymy we are not following Stapf in 
distinguishing several varieties or rather forms. He takes the cultivated forms 
of India to be the original P. scrobiculatum of Linnaeus and calls it P. scrobicu- 
latum var. frumentaceum. All the spontaneous forms of P. scrobiculatum as 
understood by most post-Linnaean authors are put by Stapf under P. scrobicu- 
latum, Linn. var. Commersonii, the type for this combination being P. 
Commersonii, Lam. 111. i, 175, t. 43, fig. 1. The third form var. polystachyum 
does not seem to occur in India. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Sind : Jamesabad, in bed of watercourse (Sabnis B979 !) ; Bohara 

(Blatter & McCann D689 !).— Konkan : Victoria Gardens, Bombay (McCann 

4297 !) ; Mulgaum, Salsette (McCann 3607 !) ; Parsik, between stones of railway 

tl act (McCann 9516!); Vihar Lake, Salsette (McCann 9517 \).-Deccan : 


May 31, 19 8.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 640 

Khandala, in watercourse, on sandy soil (McCano 9824 !).— 6". M. Country \ 
Konankeri, Dbarwar District, elevation 1,800 ft., rainfall 40 inches (Sedgwick 

6 Bell 4966!); W. of Dharwar, elevation 2,000 ft. rainfall 40 inches (Sedg- 
wick & Bell 4452 !) ; Dastikop, elevation 2,500 ft., rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick 
2109!) ; Dharwar (Garade!) ; Beloaum (Herb. Bot. Gard. Cah \).~Kanarai 
Halyal (Talbot 2297 !) ; Karwar (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona 2297 !, 6181) ; Castle 
Rock (Gammie !). 

Distribution : Tropics of the Old World. 

*2. Paspalum dilatatum, 1 Poir. Encvcl. v, 35; New South Wales Agric. 
Gaz. x (1899), 32, with plate ; Trin. Diss. 11, 113, with plates; Agric. Grass. 
U. S. 31-32; H. H. Mann in Dept. Agric. Bomb. Bull. 77, 68.— P. ovatum, 
Nees ex Trin. Gram. Panic. 113.— P. pratense, Spreng Syst. i, 247.— P. Selloi, 
Spreng. ex Nees Agrost. Bras. 43. 

Popular Names : Golden Crown Grass, Hairy-flowered Paspalum. 

Description : A tall, erect grass, about 1-1*5 m. high. Culm developing 
from a thick rootstock with 3-5 leaves ; leaf at base of culm often about 30 cm. 
long, 8-12 mm. broad, smooth on both sides, rugose along the margins. 
Raceme 12-30 cm. long, having 5-10 somewhat spreading spikes, which are 

7 cm. or more in length, 2*5-5 cm. apart, upper ones gradually shorter. 
Spikeiets closely arranged in 4 rows, two on each side of the narrow and nearly 
straight axis in alternate pairs, 1*5-2 mm. wide, and 3-4 mm. long, ovate, 
acutely pointed, crowded and overlapping each other, compressed, margins 
clothed in silky hairs. Involucral glumes ovate, acute, 5-nerved, nearly smooth 
except the fringe of white hairs on the margin. Floral glumes thick, hard, and 
firm, very minutely punctate. Pale fitting inside the flowering glume and 
enclosing the stigmas and styles. Anthers linear. Styles 2 ; stigmas blackish- 
purple, plumose. 

Locality : Cultivated. See Mann, 1. c. 

Distribution : Virginia, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, S. America, especially 

Uses : One of the best fodder grasses in N. America and is extensively 
•cultivated there. For a full account see Kew Bull. (1902), 1-4. 

3. Paspalum compactum, Roth Nov. PL Sp. (1821), 36 ; Kunth Enum. PL i, 61 ; 
Sterna. Syn. Gram. 31 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 12 ; Cke. ii, 943.— P. miliaria, 
C. Muell. in Bot. Zeit. xix (1861), 325.— P. Canarce, Steud. 1. c. 58.— P. imper- 
fecta n, Roxb. ex Kunth I.e. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Konkan : Tiwari-Pada, Bassein {Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona 1690 !) ; 
Matheran, to Louisa Point (D'° Almeida A243 !).— Deccan : Khandala, growing 
in gravelly soil, very common (McCann 9823 !) ; Igatpuri, very common 
(McCann 4587 ! ) ; Panchgani, First Tableland (McCann B1300! , B1265 ! ) , Second 
Tableland (McCann B1242 !, B1292 !) ; Mahableshwar (Cooke, Woodrow).— 
*S\ M. Country : Londa (Bhide !) ; Belgaum (Hole 15 !). — Kanara : Yellapore 
(Talbot 657 !) ; Tinai (Talbot 2566 !) ; Castle Rock, elevation 1,900 ft., rainfall 
250 inches (Sedgwick 2752!); Karwar, Bingy Ghat (a very villious form, 
McCann) (Talbot 1529 !) ; Devimani, elevation 1,300 ft. (McCann A17 !). 

Distribution : W, Peninsula of India. 

4. Paspalum \aginatum, Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 21, Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 135; 
Trin. Gram. Pan. 94, Panic. Gen. 53, Sp, Gram. Ic. t, 120 ; Kunth Enum. i, 
52 ; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 20 ; Hitchcock & Chase in Contrib. U. S. Nat. 
Herb, xviii, 307 {non P. Beauv. FL Owar.) ; Stapf in Prain FL Trop. Afr. ix, 
570. — P. vaginaium, forma longipes, Lange in Vidensk. Medd. Naturh. Foren. 
Kjobenh. (1854), 42, Pug. PL Hisp. i, 28.— P. distichum, N. L. Burm. Fl. Ind. 
23 ; Gaertn. Fruct ii, 2, t. 80 ; Kunth 1. c. ; Steud. 1. c. 29 ; Baker Fl. Maurit, 
431 ; Benth, FL Austr. vii, 460 ; Hack, in Forschungsr. S. M. S. ' Gazelle ' iv, 
6 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 12 ; Rendle in Journ. Linn. Soc„ Bot. xxxvi, 319 ; 
Cke. ii, 943 ; Ridley Mat. Fl. Mai. Pen. iii, 124 ; Stapf in Dyer Fl. Cap. vii, 371 : 
Merrill in Philipp. Journ- Sc. i, Suppl. i, 346 (non Linn.).— P. disti-chum, var. 
vaginaium, Griseb, FL Brit W. Ind. 541— P. littorale, R. Br. Prodr. 188 ; Trin. 

1 We have to thank Mr. K. Biswas, the Curator of the Herbarium of the 
Sibpur Botanic Garden, for most of the information contained under this 


641 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXX11, No. 4 [May 31, 1928, 

Gram. Pan. 95, Sp. Gram. Xc t 112— P longiflorum, P. Beauv! Fl. Owar. ii, 
46, t. 85, fig- 2; Gran. Cat. Bomb. 234 {non Retz.).— P. brachiatum, Trin- ex 
Nees Agrost. Bras. 62. — P. foliosnm, Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 25— P. sauamatum T 
Steud. 1. c. 21. — P.inflatum. A. Rich- in Sagra Fl. Cub. iii, 298— 
P. kleinianum, Presl Rel. Haenk. i, 209.— P Boryamtm, Presl 1. c— Digit aria 
foliosa, Lag. Gen. et Sp. Nov- 4— D- vaginata, Philippe Fl- d. Pyren. ii, 415. — 
D. paspaloides var. longipes, Lange ex Willk & Lange Prodr. Fi. Hisp. i, 
45. — Sanguinaria vaginata, Bub. Fl. Pyren. iv, 258. 

To explain the change of name from P. distichum, Linn, to P. vaginaium, 
Sw., and to elucidate certain points of the above synonymy taken from Stapf, it 
will suffice to quote the short explanation given in the Fl. Trop. Afr. p. 572 : 
' Frequently confused with Paspalum distichum, Linn. (Herb. Linn. !) which 
has broader and flatter leaves, mostly sessile or subsessile lateral spikes and 
spikelets with firmer sides and a more convex upper glume, which is appressedly 
and silky pubescent.' 

Description : Cke. ii, 943. 

Locality: Gujarat'. Marshy edge of the Bokh, Prantij (Herb. Econ. Bot, 
Poona!).— Konkan : Marine Lines, Bombay (Hallberg 9514!); sea-shore, 
Bombay (Woodrow) ; Malabar Hill, Bombay (McCann 3609 !) ; St. Xavier's 
College compound (McCann 9830 !) ; Alibag, sandy shore (Ezekiel !) ; Malwan 

Distribution : Tropics of the whole world, mostly on the sea-shore ; intro- 
duced into Galicia (Spain) and the Western and Central Pyrenees. 

47. Paspalidium, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix (1917), 15 clavi et I. c. 

(1920), 582. 

(Sect. Paspaloides in F. B. I. partim). 
Perennial, semiaquatic or terrestrial. Leaves linear, flat or involute. Ligule 
a ciliolate rim. Racemes sessile or sub-sessile and secund on the alternate 
notches of a triquetrous common axis of a false compound spike, more or less 
appressed to the more or less hollo wed-out flanges of the latter. Rhachis ending 
in a subulate point. Spikelets mostly conspicuously 2-seriate, nearly always 
quite glabrous, ovate to ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate (when seen in front 
view), awnless, falling entire from the pedicels, solitary, secund and abaxial en 
the rhachis. Involucral glumes mostly dissimilar and very unequal in length ; 
lower reduced to a small scale or up to, rarely over, half the length of the 
spikelet, upper mostly almost equalling the spikelet, 5-7-nerved with the 
nerves evenly distributed, rarely both glumes much reduced. Lower floral glume 
similar to the upper involucral glume with the inner side-nerves more distant,. 
pale if present only slightly shorter than its glume with well developed inflexed 
flaps ; upper floral glume oblong to elliptic in outline, acute to apiculate ; 
emucronate, crustaceous with firm involute margins, faintly 5-nerved, pale 
almost as long as its glume, 2-keeled, its sides tightly embraced by the glume 
all along. Lodicules 2, small, broadly cuneate. Stamens 3. Styles distinct; 
stigmas plumose, laterally exserted from the upper part of the spikelet. Grain 
tightly enclosed by the more or less hardened glume and pale. 

Species about 12.— In the warm countries of the whole world. Six are con- 
fined to Australia and New Caledonia. 

Cooke (ii, 929) describes 3 species belonging to this genus :. Panicum 
flavidum, Retz., P. punctatum, Burm., and P. fluitans, Retz. We retain all, but 
substitute the older name geminalum for fluitans. 

I. Lower spikes shorter than the internodes. Upper 

involucral glume shorter than the upper -floral 

glume ... ... ... ... l. P. flavidum. 

II, Lower spikes as long as or longer than the internodes. 

Upper involucral glume about £ the upper floral 

glume 2. P. punctatum, 

III. Lower spikes as long as or shorter than the iaternodes. 

Upper involucral glume mostly as long as the 

upper floral glume 3. P. geminatum. 

1. Paspalidium flavidum— A. Camus in Lecomte Fl. l'lndo-Chine, vii 1, 419 ; 

Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1001 {erronee attribuens combinationem 

Stapf io).— Panicum flavidum, Retz. Obs. iv (1786), 15 ; Griff. Notul. iii, 33 ; Ic. 

PI. As. t. 139, fig. 67 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 3, Indig. Fodd. Grass, t. vi, 


May 31, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 642 

Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 7 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. vii, 474 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 28 ; 
Cke. ii, 929.— P. brizoides, Jacq. Eclog. Gram. (1813), 2, t. 2; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
i, 293 ; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 290 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 2 ; Aitchis, 
Cat. Panjab PL 159 ; Baker Fl. Maurit 433. — P. floridum Royle 111. Bot. 
Himal. 420. 

Description : Cke. ii, 929. 

Locality : Sind : Sanghar (Sabnis B762!). — Gujarat: Near Surat (Dalzell & 
Gibson teste Cooke) ; Morvi, Kathiawar (Woodrow teste Cooke) ; Porbandar, 
Kathiawar (Woodrow teste Cooke).— Konkan : Mulgaum (McCann 9579!); 
Thana (McCann 8726!); N. & S. Konkan (Laws teste Cooke).— Deccan : 
Poona (Bhide !) ; Mr. Gammie's compound, Kirkee (Bhide 894 !) ; Khandala 
(Woodrow teste Cooke!). — 5. M. Country: Konankeri, in a small tank, 
elevation 1,800 ft., rainfall 40 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4954!) ; Belgaum 
(Herb, Econ. Bot. Poona \),—Kanara : Yellapore (Talbot!); Halyal (Talbot 

Distribution : Plains of India, Ceylon, tropical Asia (not in tropical Africa as 
reported by Hook. f. and Cooke). 

2. Paspalidium punctatura, A. Camus in Lecomte Fl. l'lndo-Chine, vii, 419 ; 
Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1001 {erronee attribuens combinationem 
Stapfio).—Panicum punctatum, Burm* Fl. Ind. (1768), 26; Hook. f. in 
F.B.I, vii, 29 ; Cke. ii, 929. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Deccan : Poona (Woodrow, Lisboa) ; Ahmednagar (Woodrow). 
Distribution : Throughout India in marshes, Ceylon, Malaya (not in tropical 

3. Paspalidium geminatum, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix (1920), 583 ; 
Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1002.— Panicum geminatum, Forsk. Fl. 
Aegypt.— Arab. 18 ; Schweinf. in Bull Herb. Boiss. ii, App. ii, 19 ; Hack, in 
Bull Herb. Boiss. iv, App. iii, 14 ; Hitchcock & Chase in Contrib. U.S. Herb, 
xv, 30.— P. fluitans, Retz. Obs. iii, Set v, 18 ; Willd. Sp. PL i, 338 ; Kunth Enum. 
i, 78 ; Steud. Syn. PL Glum, i, 59 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 455 ; Baker Fl. Maurit. 
433 ; Cke. ii, 929.— P. brizoides, Lam. 111., 1, 170 (non Retz.).— P. paspaloides, 
Pers. Svn. i, 81 ; Kunth Enum. i, 77 ; Steud. I.e. 60 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 436 ; 
Balfour f . Fl. Socotra 310 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 30, in Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v, 135.— 
P. beckmannitzforme, Mikan ex Trin. in Spreng. Neue Entdeck. ii, 83 ; 
Spreng. Syst. i, 309.— P. truncatum, Trin. Diss. ii. 130, et Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 168. 
— P. affine, Nees Agrost. Bras. 113.— P. brizaeforme, Presl Rel. Haenk. 302 ; 
Steud. I.e. 60.— P. numidianum, Sieb. ex Schult. Mant. ii, 267 {non Lam.). 
P. carnosmn, Saizni. ex Steud. I.e.— P. appressum, Doell. in Mart. Fl. Bras, ii, 
ii, 184. — P. glomeratum-, Buckl. Prel. Rep. Geol. Agr. Surv. Tex. app. 3 {non 
Moench.).— P. turgidum, Cheval Sudania 2S.—Paspalum appressum, Lam. 111. 
i, 176. — Digitaria appressa, Pers. I.e. 85.— D. affinis, Roem. & Schult. Syst. 
ii, 470. 

Description : Cke. ii, 929. 

Locality: Sind: Munchar Lake (Stocks teste Cooke) ; Tatta (Blatter & 
McCann D611 !, D612 !).— Gujarat : Porbandar (Bhide !) ; Lasundra (Chibber!); 
Ahmedabad, canal banks (Sedgwick !) ; Cutch, Anjar, tank (Blatter 3745 !). — 
Khandesh : Dhulia (Chibber !) ; Borod, growing in water, partly submerged 
(McCann A97 !). — Konkan: Mahaluxmi (Sabnis 5449!) ; opposite Kantwadi, 
sandy shore, Bandra (Vakil A99 !) : Victoria Gardens (McCann A100 !) ; common 
in Bombay Isl. (McCann ^.—Deccan : Bund Gardens, Poona (Garade 343!) ; 
sides of stream Dangar Guy, Ahmednagar (T. Cooke 6 !) ; Manmad, river bed 
(Blatter A94 !) ; Sholapur Tank, in water (D'Almeida A95 !) ; Pashan 
(Gammie !) ; Igatpuri (Blatter & Hallberg 5492 !).— S. M. Country : Dharwar 
(Sedgwick 3692 !) ; Shiggaon (Sedgwick 2081 \).—Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 

Distribution : More or less throughout India, Ceylon, Afghanistan, Arabia^ 
tropical Africa and America. 

48. Urochloa, Beauv. Agrost. 52, t. xi, fig. 1 ; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. 

Afr. ix, 586. 
Perennial or annual . Leaves linear to lanceolate, flat; ligules aciliate rim. 
Racemes sessile or subsessile on a common axis, simple or nearly so ; rhachis 
more or less triquetrous with a low almost straight or zigzag facial angle or keel, 


U3 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Sot., Vol. XXXII, No. 4 [May 31, 1928. 

rarely strap-shaped ; pedicels solitary or in pairs, alternately to the right and 
the left of the facial angle, usually reduced to short disc-tipped stumps, or if 
binate the primary slightly longer. Spikelets close, contiguous or slightly dis- 
contiguous, 2 or irregularly pluri-seriate, glabrous or hairy, broad-ovate to- 
elliptic or lanceolate-oblong, awnless, usually more or less flattened or slightly 
depressed abaxially, convex on the back, falling entire from the pedicels, soli- 
tary or binate or in fascicles of 3-4, secund and abaxial on the rhachis. involucral 
glumes similar and subequalor more often dissimilar and very unequal in length, 
the ower being the shorter, upper resembling and more or less equalling the 
lower floral glume, 5-11 (mostly 7-) nerved. Lower floral glume 5-7-, rarely 
more-nerved the inner lateral nerves somewhat distant from the midnerve,. pale 
subequal to the glume, with well- developed infiexed flaps and sharp sometimes 
marginate keels ; upper floral glume elliptic to rotun date-elliptic in outline,, 
very obtuse, with usually scabrid or barbellate mucro, narrowly involute, 5-7- 
nerved, pale almost as long as the glume, 2-keeled, the sides tightly embraced 
by the valve all along. Lodicules 2, small, broadly cuneate. Stamens 3 ; 
styles distinct ; stigma plumose, laterally exserted upwards. Grain tightly 
enclosed by the glume and pale, broadly to rotnndate-elliptic, dorsally com- 

' ' Very similar to Brachiaria, but with the orientation of the spikelets inverted 
and a short fine mucro from the very obtuse apex of the fertile valve. Although 
very similar in general appearance, none of the species of Urochloa can be said 
to approach closely members of the genus Brachiaria. Their affinities are 
clearly inter se, suggesting a distinct line of evolution. The occurrence of 
parallel states^ one with glabrous, the other with pubescent spikelets, but other- 
wise indistinguishable, runs almost through the whole genus. To this may be 
added the presence of a submarginal fringe in the lower floret, almost normal 
in some and very rare in other species, and apparently in no. case correlated 
with other characters." (Stapf he). 

Species about lS.-^Hot parts of the Old World, one in America, but perhaps 

Cooke describes 3 species of Panicum which belong here : Panicum prostra- 
tum, Lamk., P. setigerum, Retz., and P. Javanicum* Poir., to which we add 
Urochloa marathensis, Henrard. 

A. Spikelets up to 2 mm. long ... ... 1. U. reptans. 

B. Spikelets 2 - 5-5 mm. long 

I. Spikelets lanceolate, acuminate ... 2. U. setigera. 

II. Spikelets ovate to elliptic-oblong 

1. Leaves about 3 cm. long. Racemes 2 cm. 

long ... ... .,. ... 3. 17. marathensis\ 

2, Leaves 3'5-15 cm. long. Racemes 2*5-5 cm. 

long ... ... ... ... 4. U. Helopus. 

I. Urochloa reptans, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 601 ; Haines in Bot.. 
Bihar & Orissa 1003.— Panicum reptans, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, 870 ; Hitchc 
& Chase in Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb, xv, 36, fig. 17, excl. P. grossarium. 
-P. repens, N. L Burm. Fl. Ind. 26, t. 11, f. 1 ; Rottl. in Neue Schrift. iv, 182 ; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 302; Boi. Hort. Maur. 364 [non Linn.).— P. prostratum, 
Lam. 111. i, 171 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 446 ; Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 546 ; 
Schweinf. in Bull. Herb, Boiss. ii, App. ii, 20 ; Baker Fl. Maur. 435 ; Duthie 
List. Grass. N. W. Ind. 6 ; 111. Indig. Fodd. Grass, t. 45 ; Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 
11; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 438; Dalz. & Gibs. 290; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 33 ; 
Cke. ii, 932 ; Merrill in Philipp. Journ. Sc. i, 355.— P. barbatum, Lam. 1. c. 
—P. ccespitosum, Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 146. —P. Sieberi, Link. Hort. Berol. i, 207. 
—P. procumbens, var. Nees Agrost. Bras. 109. — P. crispum, Llanos, Fragm. 42. 
— P. insularum, Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 61. — P. calacczense, Steud. I.e. 65. 
—P. aurelianum, Halein Wood Classb. ed. iii, 787.— P. viaticum, Salzm. ex Doell 
in Mart. Fl. Bras, ii, ii, 155. — P. marginatum, Vahl ex. Hook. f. 1. c— Brachi- 
aria prostrata, Griseb. in Abh. Ges. Wiss. Goett. vii, 263. 

Description : Cke. ii, 932, under Panicum prostratum. 

Locality: Gujarat: Ahmedabad, famine grass plot, Bed ar (Herb. Gujarat 
College!); Ghad, on black soil (Sedgwick 1124!). — Khandesh : Nandurbar, 
(Mamlatdar of Nandurbar !) ; Umalla, Tapti bank (Blatter & Hall berg 5229 !); 
Bor, Tapti (Blatter & Hallberg4417 \).—Konkan : Vasco da Gama (Bhide !); 
Matunga, salt pans (Sabnis 9572 !) ; Byculla (McCann 9577 \).—Deccan : Kirkee 


May 31, 1928.1 Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 644 

(Bhide!); Poona (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; Deolali (Blatter A107!); 
Shoiapur (D'Almeida A108 ! , A109 !).—£. M. Country. S. W. of Dharwar, 
elevation 1,800 ft., rainfall 90 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4437 !) ; Dharwar, 
under trees on black soil, elevation 2,400 ft., rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick 2882 !). 
Distribution : Plains of India, Ceylon, Tropics generally, subtropical 
America, also tropical Arabia and the Mascarenes. 

2. Urochloa setigera, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 598 ; Haines in Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa 1003. — Panicum setigerum, Retz. Obs. iv, 15 ; Roxb. FL Ind. 
i, 299 ; Kunth Enum. i, 90 (excl. syn. nonnullis) ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 37 ; 
Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v, 141 ; Cke. ii, 933.— P. affine, Poir. Encycl. Suppl. iv, 273 
(ex Kunth). 

Description : Cke, ii, 933, under Panicum setigerum. 

Locality : Sind : Mirpur Sakro (Blatter & McCann D609 !); Gharo (Blatter 
& McCann D610 \) -Gujarat : Rajkot, Kathiawar (Woodrow 45 teste Cooke!).— 
Khandesh : Dhulia (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona \).—Konkan : Bassein (Paranjpe !). 
—Deccan : Ganeshkhind Bot. Gardens (Herb. Econ. Boc. Poona!); Mangiri 
Farm, 11 miles S. E. of Poona (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, Mauritius, tropical and S. Africa. 

Note : We do not think there, is any good reason for retaining Hook, f.'s 
var. tomentosa which was also mentioned by Cke. 1. c. We refer to the note 
given above after the general characteristics of the genus and add what Stapf 
says with regard to this species in particular : ' The African specimens have 
glabrous spikelets. In India, however, the pubescent form appears to be pre- 

3. Urochloa maratbensis, Henr. in Mededeel. Rijks Herb. 43 (1922), 1-3, pi. 1. 
— Panicum marathense , Henr. in Herb. Lugd. Bat. 

Distribution : Annual, dwarf and robust, glaucous, branching from the 
lower geniculations. Stems low, striate, quite glabrous, few-noded, nodes 
pubescent. Leaf-sheaths terete or slightly compressed, striate, lower ones gap- 
ing, upper ones tight, shorter than the internodes, hirsute with bulbous-based 
hairs. Ligule very short, covered with long hairs. Blade cordate at the base ; 
linear-lanceolate, gradually acutate, more or less 3 cm. long, 5-7 mm. broad, 
Sat, on both sides but especially on the upper sparingly covered with spreading 
bulbous-based hairs, margin thickened, distinctly undulate, fimbriate with long 
tubercular hairs. Racemes 2-3, distant from each other more or less lcm., 
2 cm. long, stout, erect-patulous or finally reflexed ; rhachis subtrigcnous, 
pilose at the base, more than twice as narrow as the spikelets slightly undulate, 
the angles scaberulous, otherwise glabrous, giving off solitary pedicels. Spike- 
lets biseriate, broadly elliptic, very acute, 4 mm. long, anteriorly almost flat, 
posteriorly very convex, green, glabrous. Involucral glumes very unequal. 
Lower almost i of the spikelet, subobtuse, 5-nerved, upper as long as the 
spikelet, very acute, distinctly 7-9-nerved. Lower floral glume equal in 
shape to the upper involucral glume, flat, 5-nerved, glabrous on the back 
tubercular-echinulate near the margin, except near the tip and base, paleate 
Upper floral glume shorter than the preceding glumes, elliptic with a 
rounded tip, rigid, opaque, brown-straw-coloured, rugulose, long caudate, 5- 
nerved, bullate below. 

Locality : S. M. Country and N. Kanara (A, P. Young ex Henrard). We 
have not seen the specimen. 

Distribution : So far endemic. 

Note : Henrard has a variety from the same localities : var. Velutina, which 
differs from the type by the densely pubescent spikelets. What we said in a 
note under the previous species can be applied here. 

4. Urochioa Helopus, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 595 ; Haines in Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa 1002.— U. pubescens, Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 31, Enum. PI. i, 
74. — U. panicoides, Schult. Mant. ii, 595 (non Beauv. ).— Panicum Helopus, 
Trin. in Spreng. Neue Entdeck. ii, 84 ; Panic. Gen. 150, et Gram. Ic. et 
Descr. ii, t. 183 ; Nees Agrost. Bras. 117 ; Steud. Syn. PL Glum, i, 57 ; Duthie 
List Grass. N. W. Ind. 4, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 8.— P. Helopus var. glabrescens> 
K. Schum. in Engl. Pfl. Ost.— Afr. C. 101 ; Stapf in Dyer Fl. Cap. vii, 392.— 
P.hirsutum, Koen. ex Roxb. FL Ind, i, 300. — P. Kcsnigii, Spreng. Syst. i, 
311.— P. hochstelterianum, A. Rich. Tent. FL Abyss, ii, 369. — P. geminatum 
Hochst. ex A. Rich. I.e. (non Forsk.). — P. controversion, Steud. Syn. PI- 


645 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. c oc, Vol. XXXII, No. 4 [May 31, 1928. 

Glum, i, 60 ; Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. II, ii, \9.—Setaria ? hirsuta, 
Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 47, Enum. PL i, 157.— 5 pilifera, Spreng. Syst. iv, Cur. 
Post. 33.— Panicum javanicum, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 35 (non Poir, partim) ; 
Cke. ii, 933 {partim). 

This is the species which was described by Hook. f. and many others, 
amongst them by Cooke, under the name of Panic um javanicum, Poir. 
According to Stapf P. javanicum, frequently confused with U. Helopus, is U. 
panicoides, Beauv., a distinct species. A number of synonyms and references 
have, according to the same authority, to be excluded from the F.B I. under 
Panic um javanicum : Bentham's Flora of Australia (vii, 476) mentions Panicum 
Helopus, but it is partly Brachiaria notochtona, Stapf {Panicum notochtonum, 
Domin) and partly Brachiaria ramosa, Stapf. T. 7 in Duthie's Fodd. Grass. 
does not represent Panicum Helopus, but Brachiaria ramosa, Stapf. Urochloa 
panicoides, Beauv. is a synonym of Panicum javanicum, Poir. P. trichopus, 
Hochst. is Urochloa trichopus, Stapf. 

As a number of foreign elements have crept into the usual descriptions of our 
species we give Stapf 's description of P. Helopus. 

Annual. Stems tufted, 30-60 cm. high, erect or geniculately ascending from 
a short sometimes rooting base, frequently sparingly branched from the lower 
nodes, 4-10-noded, intermediate internodes like the uppermost (peduncle) very 
sparingly pubescent or almost glabrous. Leaf-blades lanceolate to linear- 
lanceolate from a wider and semi-amplexicaul base, 3*5-15 cm. by 8-12 mm 
rarely up to 25 cm. and then linear and narrowed towards the base, soft, flat, 
pale or yellowish-green, loosely and often finely hirsute with tubercle- based 
hairs, rarely almost glabrous, margins usually crisped or wavy and more or less 
ciliate. Sheaths somewhat loose, pale, striate, densely ciliate upwards, more or 
less shortly hirsute with the hairs tubercle-based, nodes pubescent to subvillous. 
Ligules a densely ciliate rim. Inflorescence of mostly 4-7 erect or at length 
more or less spreading stiff or slightly flexuous sessile or subsessile spiciform 
secund racemes ; common axis 1-2-5 (rarely 75 cm.) long, subsemiterete below, 
much flattened upwards, pubescent. Racemes moderately dense, 2-seriate, 
simple, 25-5 cm. long, solitary or here and there approximate and then 
unevenly distributed ; rhachis straight or slightly wavy, flat on the back, about 

I mm. wide, villous at the base, glabrous upwards, rarely sparingly hair}', 
angles scabrid ; internodes up to 1 mm. long ; pedicels solitary, reduced to short 
stout stumps with discoid tips, frequently bearing some long spreading hairs. 
Spikelets laterally contiguous or subcontiguous ovate to elliptic-oblong, very 
acute, 4-5 mm. long, greenish, glabrous or pubescent. Involucral glumes 
dissimilar ; lower broad-ovate, subobtuse to acute, clasping at the base, P5-2 
mm. long, glabrous or sparingly and minutely pubescent, 5-nerved upper one 
corresponding in size and outline to the spikelet, prominently 7-11- (mostly 9-) 
nerved, glabrous or pubescent. Lower floral glume very similar to the upper 
involucral glume, but flat or slightly depressed, 5-7-nerved with the inner side- 
nerves distant, glabrous or pubescent, pale oblong, acute, slightly shorter than 
its glume. Anthers 2 mm. long. Upper floral glume rotundate-elliptic, 
greenish to pale brown, 2*5-3 mm. long, pale finely transversely rugose or 
granular, mucro up to 1 mm. long, sparingly barbellate. Grain rotundate- 
elliptic on outline, much compressed, about 2 mm. long, yellowish or greenish. 

Locality'. Gujarat: Baroda (Cooke teste Cooke). — Deccan : Katraj Ghat, 

II miles S. E. of Poona (Shevade !) ; Poona (Woodrow !) ; Deolali (Blatter 
A110 !) ; Ganeshkhind Bot. Gardens (Patwardhan !) ; Chattarshinji (Bhide !) ; 
Mangiri, near Poona (Gammie 15344!); Akola (Mamlatdar of Akola!); 
Dapuri near Poona (Jacquemont 482 \).—S- M. Country : Dharwar, elevation 
2,500 ft., rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick 2157!); Kilgerry (Talbot 2419 !) ; 
Haveri (Talbot 2284 !) ; Bijapur (Meebold 11201 !) ; Badami (Woodrow teste 
Cooke).— Kandra : Kulgi, elevation 2,000 ft. (Talbot 2283 !) ; Nundgod (Mam- 
ratdar of Nundgod). 

Distribution : Plains of India, Ceylon, tropical and S. Africa, Mauritius. 

49. Echinochloa, Beauv. Agrost. 53, t. 11, fig. 2 ; Stapf in Prain 
Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 604. 

Annual or perennial. Leaf-blades from a slightly constricted or equally wide 
rarely much attenuated base. Ligules or represented by a transverse fringe of 
hairs. Panicles of crowded or loosely arranged secund specif orm branches 


May 31, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 646 

mostly bearing spikelets from the base or near it. Spikelets ovate to elliptic- or 
lanceolate-oblong, usually cuspidate or awned, very convex on the back, flat or 
slightly depressed in front, falling entire from the pedicels, 2-nate or clustered, 
secund and abaxial on the triquetrous rhachis of racemosely arranged false 
spikes Involucral glumes unequal, membranous, the lower much shorter, 
more or less ovate from a clasping base, 3-5-nerved, often mucronate, the upper 
corresponding in length and outline to the spikelet (as seen from the back), 
very concave, 5-7-nerved, acute, cuspidulate or cuspidate, rarely produced into 
a short awn. Lower floret equalling the upper glume (excluding cusps or 
awns) ; lower floral glume very similar to the upper involucral glume, but flat 
or depressed on the back and often with a more pronounced cusp or an awn ; 
pale equal to the body of the valve, or in barren florets more or less reduced, 
hyaline, finely 2-keeled. Upper floral glume ovate to elliptic- oblong, apiculate 
or obtuse, very convex on the back, subcoriaceous or crustaceous, polished, 
faintly 5-nerved, margins firm, involute up to near the tip, then flat, not emb- 
racing the tip of the pale, pale sub-equal to the glume and similar in substance, 
with rounded keels and flaps which thin out towards the flat slightly recurved 
tips. Lodicules 2, cuneate, fleshy. Stamens 3- Styles distinct ; stigmas 
plumose, exserted from near the tips. Grain broad-elliptic dorsally flat, 
ventrally convex ; hilum punctiform, subbasal. 

Species about 20-25.— The warm regions of both hemispheres. 

Note: It will be useful to remember what Stapf says regarding this genus 
I.e. 605 : ' The segregation of the numerous forms which make up the genus 
Echinochloa and their reduction to more or less well definable species is still 
unsatisfactory, mainly owing to their apparently endless variability and the 
difficulty, if not impossibility, of discriminating between stable and unstable 
modifications and the effects of hybridization. Here, as in other cases, observa- 
tion in the field and experiment will have to decide.' 

Cooke describes under Panicum 2 species which have to be referred to 
Echinochloa : P. colonum and P. stagninum. We add E. Crus-Galli which 
Cooke thought did not occur anywhere in the Bombay Presidency. 
I. Lower involucral glume and upper floral glume 

equally acute or cuspidate ... 1. E. colona. 

II. Lower involucral glume and upper floral glume 
cuspidate or produced into an awn, the latter 
more than the former. 

1. LiguleO ... ... ... ... 2. E. Crus-Galli. 

2. Ligule a fringe of stiff hairs or absent in the 

uppermost leaves ... ... ... 3. E. stagnina. 

1. Echinochloa colona, Link Hort. Berol. ii, 209 ; Pari. PL Nov. 40 ; Hitchc. 
in Gray Man. Bot ed. 7, 118. et in Contrib. XL S. Nat. Herb, xii, 213, xvii, 
256, xviii, 345; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 607; Haines in Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa 997.— E. zonalis, Pari. PI. Panorm. i, 119.— Panicum colonum, 
Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 10 (1759), 870, Sp. PI. ed. ii, 84 ; Jacq. Eclog. Gram. t. 
32 ; Roxb. Fl. lnd, i, 299 ; Nees Agrost. Bras. 119; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 
46 ; Benth. Fl. Hongk. 411, et Fl. Austral, vii, 478; Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 
545 ; Baker Fl. Maurit, 438 ; Duthie List Grass, N. W. Ind. 3, Indig. Fodd, 
Grass, t. 4, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 4 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 435 ; Balf, f . Bot. Socotra 
310 ; Hack, in Bol. Soc. Brot. vi, 140 ; Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii, App. 
ii, 20, 95 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 32 ; Cke. ii, 931.— P. arabicum, Nees ex 
Steud. Nomencl. ed. ii, 252, et Syn. PL Glum, i, 63 {partim).—P. brizoides, 
Linn. Mant. ii, 184.— P. tetrastichon, Forsk. FL Aegypt.— Arab. 19.— P. 
cuspidatum, Roxb. FL Ind. i, 301 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 3 ; Steud. 1. c. 
47.— P. pseudo colonum, Roth. Nov. Sp. 47; Steud. I.e. AS.—P.zonale, Guss. Ind. 
Sem. H.R. Bocc. 1825, et Fl. Sic. Prodr. i, 82.— P. numidianum, Presl. Cyp. & 
Gram. Sic. 19 {non Lam.).— P. Daltoni, Pari, ex Webb in Hooker Niger Fl. 
185.— P. equitans, Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. FL Abyss, ii, 365.— P. Crus-Galli 
var. colonus, Coss. Glum. Expl. Alger. 28. — P. Peiiveri, Kotsch. ex Griseb. 
I.e. {non Trim). 

Description : Cke. ii, 931. 

Locality : Sind: Karachi (Nankad !); Mirpurkhas (Bhide!, Sabnis B1176 !) ; 
Sind (Blatter!) ; Larkana, barren plains (Sabnis B93 !, B95 !, B457 !) ; Sanghar 
(Sabnis B899 !, B894 !) ; Nasarpur, clayey soil (Sabnis B1048 !) ; Mirva Canal, 
-Khairpur Mirs (Sabnis B263 !) ; Khairpur Mirs (Sabnis B337!) ; Sehwan to 


647 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXX2I, No. 4 {May 31, 1928. 

Laki (Sabnis B63 !) ; Hyderabad (Sabnis B49 !) ; Pad-Idan (Sabnis B516 !) ; 
ChuarCh. (Blatter & McCann D616!, D621 !) ; Baghar (Blatter & McCarm 
D617!); Mirpnr Sakro (Blatter & McCann D618!, D620!); Ghulamalla 
(Blatter & McCann D619) ; Shikarpur (Woodrow).— Gujarat : Lasundra 
(Chibber!); Anjor (Cutch), brackish water (Blatter 3743!); Ahmedabad 
(Cowper !) ; Morvi, Kathiawar (Wcodrow). — Khandesh : Muravad, Tapti 
bank (Blatter & Hallberg 4435!); Bor, Tapti Island (Blatter & 
Hallberg 4439!); Dadgaum (McCann A104!); N. slope of Chanseli 
(McCann A105!).— Konkan ; Bombay, salt swamps (Woodrow!); 
Vetora (Sabnis 33589!); Charni Road, Bombay (Sabnis 4292!); 
Bombay, very common (McCann!); Alibag, rice fields (Ezekiel!). — Deccan : 
Pnrandhar Fort (Bhide !, McCann 5520 !); Nira Canal, Poona District (Chib- 
ber !); Khandala, very common (McCann A101 !); Sholapur (D'Almeida 
A102!); Igatpuri (Blatttr & Hallberg 5487 ! ; McCann 4331!); Deolali (Blatter 
A103!); Poona, canal (Ezekiel !).— S. M. Country : Dharwar (Sedgwick 2655!) ; 
Castle Rock (McCann A106!); Londa (Woodrow). — Kanara : Dongi Nallah 
(Talbot !); Karwar (Talbot 614!). 

Distribution : Throughout the plains of India, Ceylon, all over the tropics and 
the warm-temperate regions of the world. Probably of African and Indian 
origin according to Stapf . 

The same author is of opinion that Panicum frumentaceum, Roxb. which 
is grown in India as a grain crop, is evidently descended from Echinochloa 
colona. Roxburgh's species may, therefore, be treated as a variety : 

y ■ var. frumentacea, Blatter & McCann . — Echinochloa frumentacea, Link. Hort. 
Berol. i, 204 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PL 161.— Panicum frumentaceum, Roxb„ 
Fl. Ind. i, 304 ; Schult. Mant ii, 230; Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 164; Duthie 
Grass. N. W Ind. 4, Field & Gard. Crops 3. t 24, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 8— 
P. Crus-Galli, var. frumentaceum, Trim. Cat. Ceyl. PL (1885), 104.— 
Echinochloa Crus-Galli, var. frumentacea, Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 
998. — Panicum siagninum, Retz. var. frumentacea, Cooke in Cke. ii, 931.— 
Oplismenus frumentaceus, Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 45, Enum. PL i, 146; Dalz. 

6 Gibs. Bomb. FL Suppl. 98. 

Description : Tall, robust. Stems erect, from 60 to 120 cm. high. Panicle 
often nodding. Spikes secund, incurved, crowded. Spikelets mostly 3-nate, 
unequally pedicelled, one at least sessile, varying from hispidulous to almost 
glabrous, and from acute to cuspidulate or rarely distinctly cuspidate. 

Locality : Cultivated in and near the Ghat districts. 

2. Echinochloa Crus-Galli, P. Beauv. Agrost. 161 ; T. Nees Gen. Fl. Germ. 
Monocot. i, t. 21 ; Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ, i, t. 29, fig. 1411, 1412 ; Hitchc. in 
Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb, xii, 213 ; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 610 ; Haines 
in Bot. Bihar & Orissa, 998.— E. commutata, Schult. Mant. ii, 267.— 
E. hispidula, Nees in Royle 111. Bot. Himal. 416; Dalz. & Gibs. Fl. Bomb, 
Suppl. 98.— Panicum Crus-Galli, Linn. Sp. PL ed. i, 56 ; Fl. Dan. t. 1564 ; 
Host, Gram. Austr. ii, 15, t. 19 ; Knapp Gram. Brit, xi, Trin. Sp. Gram. 
Ic. t. 161, 162 ; Nees FL Afr. Austr. 58 ; Steud. Syn. PL Glum, i, 47 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. vii, 479 {partim) ; Duthie List. Grass. N.W. Ind. 3 
{partim) t. A. fig. 1; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 435 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 30 
(partim) ; Stapf in Dyer FL Cap. vii, 397.— P. hispidum, Forst. Prodr. 

7 ; Nees Agrost. Bras. 257. — P. hispidulum, Retz. Obs. v, 18 ; Lam. 111. i, 171 ; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 306 ; Nees FL Afr. Austr. 57 ; Royle 1. c. 420 ; Steud. Syn. 
PI. Glum, i, 47. — P. oryzinum, Gmel. Syst. i, 157. — P. stagninum, Host. Gram. 
Austr. iii, t. 51 (non Retz.).— P. Hostii, Marsch. Bieberst. Fl. Tauro-Cauc. iii, 
57. — P. limosum, Presl ex Nees Agrost. Bras. 257. — Milium Crus-Galli, Moench 
Meth. 202. — Oplismenus Crus-Galli, Dumort. Agrost. Belg. ; Kunth Rev. 
Gram, i, 44, et Enum. i, 143 (excl. syn. P. zonale). — O. limosus, Presl. Rel. 
Haenk. i, 321 : Kunth Enum. i, 144. — Orthopogon Crus-Galli, £pre]g. Syst. i, 
307.— O. Retzii, Spreng. I.e. 

Description : Annual, up to 1 m. high. Stems geniculately ascending, 
branched below, compressed towards the, glabrous and smooth, inter- 
nodes enclosed or exserted. Leaf-blades linear, base scarcely narrowed, 
narrowed to an acute point, 7-25 cm. by 6- over 12 mm., flat, subflaccid, 
glabrous, more or less dull greyish-green, smooth or scaberulous below, 
particularly towards the tip, margins finely cartilaginous, scabrid to almost 
smooth. Sheaths somewhat loose, the lower often compressed, whitish and 


JMay 31, 1928.] . Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 648 

thin, the upper subherbaceous, all smooth, glabrous and striate except the 
basal which are pubescent above their insertion. Ligules 0, junction of blade 
aud sheath glabrous inside marked by a brown zone. Panicles erect, strict or 
flexuous, at length exserted, 7 -5-20 cm. long ; axis triquetrous, scabrid ; 
branches few to about 15, solitary or 2-nate, suberect or spreading, distant 
except the uppermost or all more or less approximate forming a ' loberi ' 
panicle, the lower 2 5-6" 2 cm. long, forming rather stout dense mostly 
many-ranked simple or subcomposite subsecund sessile false spikes ; 
rhachis triquetrous, scabrid, coarsely bristly, particularly near the nodes ; 
pedicels fascicled or 2-nate, very short, up to 1 mm. long, scabrid, bristly at 
the base, tips subdiscoid. Spikelets crowded, ovate-elliptic in outline, acute, 
cuspidate or awned 25-3 mm. long, greenish or tinged with purple. Lower 
involucral glume membranous, very broadly ovate,. clasping at the base, obtuse 
to subcuspidate, 1 mm. long, 5-nerved scaberulous ; upper herbaceous-mem- 
branous, very broadly ovate-oblong, concave, acute, cuspidate, as long as the 
spikelet, 5- or (near the tip) 7-nerved, rigidly pubescent between the scabrid 
and spinulose nerves. Lower floral glume similar to the upper involucral glume, 
but flat or depressed on the back, cuspidate or produced into a scabrid often 
long flexuous awn, 7-nerved (at least at the tip), pale elliptic, shorter by \ than 
its glume, keels scaberulous upwards; upper floret hermaphrodite, elliptic- 
ovate in outline, cuspidate, over 2 mm. long, whitish or yellowish, polished, 
glume and pale subcoriaceous. Anthers oblong. Grain broad- elliptic in outline, 
T5 mm. long. 

Locality : Sind : Mirpurkhas (Bhide ! ) ; Ghulamalla (Blatter & McCann 
D613!); Keti (Blatter & McCann D614 ! ) . — Gujarat : Stream near Prantij 
(Sedgwick !); the Bokh, Prantij Taluka (Sedgwick 1144 !).— Deccan : Poona 
(Woodrow !). — 5". M. Country-. Aluarar, elevation 2,000 ft., rainfall 35 inches 
(Sedgwick 3096 !) ; Bidi, elevation 2,500 ft., rainfall 50 inches (Sedgwick 3076 !). 
—Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2167 !). 

Distribution : Common through the greater part of India and Malaya ; as a 
weed throughout the warm temperate countries of the northern hemisphere, 
rather rare in the tropics of Africa and the New World and south of the Tropic of 
Capricorn (Stapf). 

Uses : See Duthie, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 6 ; Vasey Agric. Grass. Unit. States 
ed. ii, 27; Maiden Man. Grass. N. S. Wales, 38-41; Yearbook U. S Dept. 
Agric. (1902),580-5S2. 

3. Echinoch'.oa stagnina, P. Beauv. Agrost. 161 ; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. 
617 — E. scabra, Roem. & Schult. Syst. ii, $79.—Panicum stagninum, Retz. 
Obs. v, 17 ; Roxb. Fi. Ind. i, 295 ; Grah. Catal. 237 ; Nees Agrost. Bras. 261 ; 
Trin. Pan. Gen. 128, et in Mem. Acad. Petersb. 6me ser. iii, 216 ; Steud. Syn. 
PL Glum, i, 47 ; Stapf in Dyer Fl. Cap. vii, 394 ; Cke. ii, 930.— P. scabrum, 
Lam. 111. i, 171, et Encycl. iv. 744 ; Nees 1. c. ; Steud. 1. c— P. Galli, Thunb. 
Prodr. 18, et Fl. Cap. ed. i, 389, ed. Schult. 103.— P. Crus-Galli, Woodrow in 
Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xiii(1901), 433 (non Linn.). — P. Crus-Galli, var. 
stagninum, Fenzl. in Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. 1850 ; Hook. f. in Trim. Fl. Ceyl 
v, 136 ; Prain Beng. PI. 1174. — P. Crus-Galli, vars maximum, submuticum et 
leiostachyum, Franch. Contr. Fl. Congo Franc, in Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun. 
viii, 347. — P. pichcm, Nees Fl. Afr. Austr, 59 {non Agrost. Bras.)- — P. Burgu, 
A. Cheval. in Rev. Cult. Colon, vii, 513-520.— P. Lelievrei, A. Cheval. I.e. 
516- — P. oryzetorum, A. Cheval. \.c—Orthopogon stagninus, Spreng. Syst. i, 
307. — Oplismenus stagninus, Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 44, et Enum. i, 144 (partim) ; 
Dalz. & Gibs. Fl. Bomb. 292— O. scaber, Kunth Rev. Gram I.e. 44, Enum. 
I.e. 145. 

Description : Cke. ii, 930, under Panicum stagninum. 

Locality. Sind: Ghulamalla (Blatter & McCann D615 \).—Konkan : Virar, 
on bank of a tank (McCann 9585!, 9584 !).— Deccan : Igatpuri (Blatter & 
Hallberg 5473!) ; Khandala, in water in the. smaller village tank (McCann 
27441!); Panchgani (Blatter & Hallberg B1241 !) .—S. M. Country : Hulkop, 
elevation 2,000 ft., rainfall 50 inches (Sedgwick 3175!); Chikkerur, Taluka 
Kod, water hole by road (Sedgwick 1969 !) ; Bomigatti tank (Sedgwick 3830 !) ; 
common in the Carnatic (Sedgwick).— Kanara : Pardhani (Talbot 3136 !). 

Distribution : More or less throughout India, Ceylon, tropical and S. Africa. 

Uses : Considering tropical African conditions Stapf observes (I.e. 619) : 
' This grass deserves everv attention on account of its locally abundant supply 


649 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXII, Ne. 4 [May 31, 192ft. 

and high sugar-content. Chevalier states that it is the most useful of all the 
plants growing in a wild state in the neighbourhood of Timbuctu. Every part 
of it is utilized. It yields excellent fodder, material for thatching and caulking, 
is burned to produce a salt used in the manufacture of soap and indigo, the 
grains are eaten and the canes are gathered for extracting sugar or preparing 
vinaigre or a beverage resembling cider. Sir John Kirk also describes it as one 
of the richest of fodder grasses. Although typically a perennial with long 
rhizomes creeping in the mud of swamps, lakes and rivers, it seems on tempor- 
arily flooded land to flower frequently the first year and then to behave as art 

{To be continued) ,, 


by I /A- / "-*. astc/^p-^ c<th4^iu ic <hh^c 

Part VII. By E. Blatter, s.j., ph.d., f.l.s. 






{From the Journal of the Bombay Natural Hist. Soc, September 30, I92S-I 



E. Blatter, s.j., fh.d., f.l.s. 




E. Blatter and C. McCann" 
{Continued from p. 649 of Volume XXXII) 

50. Pseudechinol^ena, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 494. 

Annual. Culms very slender with a prostrate rooting base. Leaf-blades 
lanceolate, soft. Spikelets very irregularly armed or quite unarmed, obliquely 
ovoid, laterally compressed and mostly conspicuously gaping, falling entire 
from the pedicels, binate or more often subsolitary or solitary, secund on the 
flat or subtriquetrous slender rhachis of spiciform racemosely arranged racemes. 
Involucral glumes herbaceous, of about the same length and almost as long as 
the spikelet, or the lower distinctly shorter, heteromorphous. Lower more or 
less flat, 3-nerved, smooth or almost so ; upper boat- shaped, gibbous down- 
wards, 7-nerved, with longitudinal rows of more or less transparent spots- 
between the nerves and with or without shorter or longer,, stout, hooked hairs or 
bristles from the centre of the spots Lower floret male or barren, as long as 
the spikelet ; glume oblong-lanceolate with a minutely truncate tip, laterally 
compressed, but rounded on the back, chartacecus, with membranous margins 
and a delicate hyaline area at the base, smooth, pale almost as long as the 
glume, more or less convolute, faintly 2-nerved. Upper floret hermaphrodite, 
shorter than the lower ; glume broad-lanceolate to oblong, subacute, very 
convex on the back, chartaceous, faintly 5-nerved pale similar to the valve in 
texture, tightly clasped by it when mature, Lodicules 2, cuneate Stamens 3-. 
Styles free at the base, capillary ; stigmas plumose, subterminally exserted. 
Grain oblong in face-view, semi-obovate in profile, back very convex ; scutellum 
elliptic, almost half the length of the grain * hilum subbasal, punctiform. 

Species 1. — Tropics of the whole world. 

The only species of this genus was originally described under Echinolcena* 
This genus, however, is exclusively American which, according to Stapf 7 
differs from Pseudechinolczna in many ways, ' as in its 'densely packed spikes, 
the many-nerved lower glume, the "eglandular" always unarmed upper glume, 
the uniformly papery 5-nerved lower valve [lower flora,! glume] which is accom- 
panied by a sharply 2-keeled flat valvule [pale], the basally appendaged 
fertile valve [upper floral glume] and the acutely auricled or toothed flaps of 
its valvule [pale], and finally the flatter grain which is marked with a panduri- 
form line on the face extending through its full length and possesses a slender 
linear hilum/ 

Pseudechinolaena polystachya, Stapf in Prain FT. Trop. Afr. ix, 495 - Echi- 

noldma polystachya, H. B. & K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. i, 119, viL t. 679; Kunth 
Enum. i, 172, Suppl. 127 ; Hitchcock Mex. Grass, in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb, 
xvii, 223; A. Chase in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash, xxiv, 118. — E. Trinii, MoritzS 
Syst. Verz. Zoll 102 —Lappago aliena, Spreng. Neue Entdeck.. iii, 15.— 
Panicum uncinatum, Raddi Agrost. Bras. 41; Trin. Gram. Panic. 240, and" 
Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 216 ; Kunth Enum. i, 172 ; Steud. Syn. PL Glum, i, 60 ; Hook, 
f. in F.B.I, vii, 58 ; Trim. Handb. Fl. Ceyl v, 160. —P. glandulosum, Nees ex 
Trin. Gram. Pan. 174, and Agrost. Bras. 128.— .P. nemorosum, 3 Trin. I.e.—/ 7 , 

8 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 1 [Sept 30, 1928. 

hetew-nthum. Link Hort. Berol. i, 212, Kunth I.e. 92.— P. echinatum, Willd. ex 
Doell in Mart. Fl. Bras. II, ii, 193.— P. polystachyum, K. Schum. in Engl. Pfl. 
Ost.— Afr. C. 103 (non aliorum). 

Description: Perennial. Culm about 60 cm. long, of which about half is rising 
above ground, and the other half prostrate, giving off numerous short or long 
branches, growing into secondary culms, their bases often finely filiform, all 
many-noded and rooting from the nodes near the ground ; erect or ascending 
portion above the last branch 5-S-noded with as many perfect leaves; internodes 
exserted, terete, glabrous. Leaf-blades lanceolate from a shortly contracted or 
rounded and usually slightly oblique base, acutely acuminate, from less than 
12 mm. (lowest) to up to over 6 cm. by 4-12 mm., dark green, glabrous, with 
scattered or very fine stiff hairs above, finely and appressedly pubescent under- 
neath, midrib very fine, whitish or straw-coloured, lateral nerves fine, numerous, 
crowded. Sheaths tight, terete, strongly striate, more or less appressedly 
hairy and ciliate along the margin or only ciliate. Ligules thin, membranous, 
rounded or truncate, ciliolate, under 2 mm. long. Inflorescence up to over 15 
cm. long, with up to 6 or even 8 racemes, mostly much shorter and with fewer 
racemes, occasionally reduced to a solitary raceme ; common axis subterete, 
almost smooth, glabrous, 05 mm. in diam.; racemes appressed to the common 
axis or obliquely spreading, the lowest up to 35 mm. long, sometimes quite 
short ; rhachis filiform, triquetrous, minutely puberulous ; pedicels filiform, 
angular, pruinosely scaberulous, lateral up to 2 mm. long, often much shorter. 
Spikelets often unequally developed, the lower of each raceme or the lower 
(secondary) of each pair often reduced in a varying degree, if perfect about 
4 mm. long. Involucral glumes dull or brownish green ; lower oblong- to ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, as long as the spikelet or shorter, glabrous or sparingly 
and minutely scaberulous, nerves stout ; upper semi ovate in profile, acute with 
the tip laterally compressed, armature vary variable in the same raceme, from 
short asperities to sharply pointed hairs bent at a right angle near the base, then 
appressed and directed forwards, or short or long (to over 1 mm.), cylindric or 
stoutly subulate protruberances beaiing terminally at a right angle a fine very 
sharp bristle pointing mostly forwards, outermost lateral nerves marginal. 
Lower floral glume pale, greenish only at the tip, very delicately scaberulous, 
hyaline basal area oblong, 1 mm. long ; upper slightly over 2 mm. long, straw- 
coloured smooth, shining. Grain 1*6 by 0*6 mm., pale. 

Locality : Kanara : Siddhapur, evergreen forest (Talbot 1081 !). 

51. Oplismenus, P. Beauv. Fl. Owar. ii, 14 ; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. 

Afr. ix, 630. 

Species about fifteen, in the warmer parts of the world, but mostly tropical. 
We retain the two species mentioned by Cooke ii, 926, 927. 

1. Oplismenus compositus, P. Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 54; Roem. & Schult. 
Syst. ii, 484 ; Kunth Enum. i, 141 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 161 ; Duthie Grass. 
N.W. Ind.81; Hook. f. F.B.I., vii, 66 ; Cke. ii, 926 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 
999; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 634. For syn. see Hook. f. and Stapf 
11. cc. 

Description : Cke. I.e. A very variable plant. 

Locality : Khandesh : Tpranmal (McCann 9593 !) .—Konkan: At the foot of the 
Ghats under the shade of trees (Dalzell & Gibson); Bassein (Chibber 164 !) ; 
Kenery Caves (McCann 9445 !) ; Sion, woods (Blatter 9591 !) ; Matheran, to 
Louisa Point (D'Almeida A244 !, Woodrow) ; Thana (Lisboa).— Deccan : 
Igatpuri (McCann 4342 !) ; Khandala, common in forests (McCann 5335!) ; 
Lonavla (Lisboa); Panchgani, Tiger path (Blatter & Hallberg B1253!).— 
5. M. Country : Bidi, shade of trees (Sedgwick & Bell 2962 !) ; forests W. of 
Dharwar (Sedgwick & Bell 1853 !) ; Castle Rock (Bhide !, McCann !) ; Londa 
(Woodrow!).— Kanara: Yellapore (Talbot 736!); Karwar (Talbot 1322!); 
Goond (Talbot 2204 !) ; Amshi Ghat (Talbot 2192 ;) ; Kadgal (Woodrow). 

Distribution : Throughout India, Ceylon, tropical and subtropical Asia. 
Australia and Polynesia. 

2. Oplismenus Burmanni, P. Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 54; Rrem. & Schult. 
Syst. II, 482; Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 44, and Enum. i, 139; Duthie Grass. 
N. W. Ind. 8., 111. Indig. Fodd. Grass, t. 47, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 13 ; Hook. 


Sefk. 30, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency § 

f. F. B. I. vii, 68 ; Cke. ii, 927 ; Haines BOt. Bihar & Orissa 999 ; Stapf in 
Pram FL Trop. Afr. ix, G36.— For syn. see Hook, f . and Stapf II. cc. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Gujarat: Surat, shady places (Sedgwick 314 !). — Konkan : Versova 
'(McCann 4313 ! ); A-libag, sandy shore, on the roots of coconut tree (Rzekiel !); 
Bombay 1st. (McCann !); Parel (Herb. Dehra Dun I, Woodrow).— Deccan : 
Chakan (Gammie !); Khandala, very common, forming Carpets under trees 
(McCann 9592!); Lonavla (McCann 3898 X)\ Igatpuri (McCann!),; Panchgani 
=( Woodrow).- -5. M. Country : S. W. of Dharwar -(Sedgwick & Bell 4438 !) ; 
L)harwar, shade of trees (Sedgwick 1837 !); Londa ^(Gammie 15826 !); Castle 
Rock (Gammie 15696 \).—J&maru : Halyal (Talbot 2085 !); Karwar (Talbot 
1295 !) . 

Distribution ■: Widely distributed throughout the tropics of both hemis- 

52. Panicum, Linn. Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. IX, 638. 

Annual or perennial grasses, rarely suffrutescent, of various habit and size, 
leaves mostly linear to linear-lanceolate, but also ovate or filiform to subulate. 
Ligules usually reduced to a ciliate rim or a fringe of hairs, rarely a distinct 
membrane or 0. Panicles usually much divided and at least temporarily open, 
Spikelets usually loosely scattered, glabrous or hairy, lanceolate to oblong, 
•elliptic or orbicular in outline, symmetrical in profile, rarely somewhat oblique, 
falling entire or almost so from the often elongated pedicels of a compound or 
decompound panicle, without -a definite orientation towards the axis. Involucral 
glumes more or less herbaceous-membranous, lower usually shorter than the 
upper, often very much so, rarely equalling it, usually with lor more nerves, 
or if very small, nerveless ; upper as long as the spikelet, rounded on the back, 
-5-9-nerved Lower floral glume very similar to the upper involucral glume 
and equally rounded and curved on the back, 5-9-, rarely 3- or 11-nerved, 
.male or neuter, pale thinly membranous to subhyaline, subequal to the lower 
floral glume or more or less reduced, rarely suppressed.. Upper floral 
•glume subcoriaceous to coriaceous with firm margins, obtuse to subacute, 
emucronate, faintly nerved,, hermaphrodite, pale subequal to the glume and of 
.■similar substance, tightly embraced by the more or less involute margins of the 
glume. Lodicules 2, broadly cuneate. Stamens 3. Styles distinct ; stigmas 
laterally exserted near the tip of the floret. Grain tightly enclosed by the 
(hardened valve and valvule, dorsally compressed, biconvex to almost plano- 
convex ; scutellum elliptic to ovate-elliptic, about half as long as the grain ; 
hilum subbasal, punctiform. 

Species about 400. in the tropical and subtropical regions of both .hemis- 
pheres, few an the warm-temperate regions. 

Cooke mentions 20 indigenous and 4 cultivated species. 

Of the 24 species we have put Panicum flavidwm, Retz., P. punctatum, 
Burm., and P fluitans under Paspalidium. 

Panicum stagninum, Retz. and P. colonum, Linn, have been transferred to 

Panicum Isachne, Roth, P. ramosum, Linn, and P. muiicum, Forsk. belong 
to Brae hi aria. 

Panicum pro stratum, Lamk , P. setigerum, Retz. and P. javanicum, Poir. 
fhave been described under Urochloa. 

Panicum interruptum, WMld. and P. myosuroides will be dealt with under 

Panicum patens , Linn. w 7 ill be transferred to Cyrtococcum. 

New to the Presidency are P. psilo<podium, Trin, and P. aur-iium, Presl, 

A. Lower involucral glume as long as the lower 

floral glume or nearly so ... ... 1. P. turgidwn. 

33. Lower involucral glume shorter than the 
•lower floral glume 
I. Annuals 

1. Leaves less than 12 mm. broad 

a. Panicle about 35 cm. long... ,... '2. P. obscurans. 

b. Panicle not more than 25 cm. long 

aa. Spikelets gaping ... ,.. 3. P. trypheron. 

<bb^ Spikelets not .gaping „, ,,. 4. P. p silo podium.* 



1 {Sept. 30, 1928'. 


P. miliaceum. 
P. miliar e. 


P. subeglume. 


P. maximum. 


P. paludosum. 


P. antidotale. 
P. moftianum. 


P. auritum. 

10 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 1 

2. Leaves more than 12 mm. broad 

a. Spikelets 4*5-5 mm. long ... 

b. Spikelets 2-3*2 mm. long ... 
II. Perennials 

1. Lower involucral glumes very minute, one 

or rarely both often obsolete 

2. Lower involucral glumes distinctly evi- 


a. Culms up to 3 m. high 

b. Culms less than 1*7 in. high 
aa. Culms not more than 90 cm. high... 
bb. Culms more than 90 cm. high 

+ Spikelets laxly clustered on the 
+ + Spikelets solitary 
+ + + Spikelets fascicled, subsecund, ses- 
sile or shortly pedicelled 

1. Panicum turgKum, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775), 18 ; Del. Fl. Egypt© 
19, t. 9, fig. 2 ; Trin. Diss. Gram. Pan. 189, Gram. Icon. & Descr. ii 227, 
Pan. Gen. 221, and in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. vi, iii, 307 ; Kunth Enum. i, 97 ; 
Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 88 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 441 ; Dnthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 
13 ; Balf. f. Bot. Socotra 310 ; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 44 ; Stapf in Kew Bull. (1907), 
214 ; Muschler. Man. Fl. Egypt i, 57 ; Cke. ii, 935 ; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. 
Afr. ix, 706.— P. nubicum, Fig. & De Not. in Mem. Ac. Torin. ser. 2, xiv, t. 
21, fig. 1-12. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Sind : (Duthie teste Cooke); Sehwan, sand hills (Bhide !).— 
Gujarat : Rajkot, Kathiawar (Woodrow teste Cooke). 

Distribution : Tropical Africa, Egypt, Cyprus, S. Palestine, Arabia, Socotra, 
S. Persia, Baluchistan, Sind, Gujarat. 

Uses : An excellent fodder for camels. 

2. Panicum obscurans, Woodr. in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, xiii (1901), 434 ; 
Cke. ii, 935.- Isachne obscurans, Woodr. in Gard. Chron. 23, ser. 3 (1898/, 161. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

According to Woodrow the whole inflorescence breaks off and is driven about 
by the wind. 

Stapf says that the tropical African Panicum hippothrix, K. Schum. is very 
similar and perhaps identical with P. obscurans, biit he adds that the blades cf 
the latter are much wider, measuring up to 14 mm. and that the panicle ' is 
perhaps on the whole mmre open with slightly larger spikelets.' (In Prain Fl. 
Trop. Afr. ix, 699.) These are scarcely differences to justify specific distinction, 
but as we have not seen the African plant, we do not venture to decide the 
point. If the identity between the two species should be established, Woodrow 's 
specific name, being of a later date by four years, will have to cede to 
P. hippothrix. 

Locality : Deccan : Mangiri Farm (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona!) ; Jeur near 
Sholapur (Woodrow). 

Distribution : Endemic. 

3. Panicum trypheron, Schult. Mantiss. ii (1824), 244 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 47 ; 
Prain Beng. PI. 1176 ; Cke. ii, 936 ; Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 995.— 
P. miliare, Wall. Cat. No. 8712 (partim) E.—P. mucronatum, Heyne in Wall. Cat. 
No. 8717 {partim).— P. Neesianum, Wight & Arn. ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 74.— 
P. Roxburghii, Spreng. Syst. i, 320 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 126 ; Steud. I.e. 98.— 
P. tenellum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 306 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 7. 

Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop, Afr. ix, 712 has separated P. porphyrrhizos , Steud. 
from P. trypheron, Schult, as understood by Hook. f. in F.B.I. I.e., and with it 
all the material covered by the following synonyms : P. confine, Hochst. ex 
Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 72.— P. jumentorwn, A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 373 
(non J acq.). — P. trypheron, therefore, does not occur in tropical Africa. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Gujarat: On the Idar Frontier, Prantij Taluka, sandy waste 
(Sedgwick \).—Konkan: Malabar Hill (Lisboa teste Cooke).— Deccan : Poona 


Sept. 30, 1928 ] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 11 

(Woodrow teste Cooke) ; Jeur (Wood row teste Cooke); Malhargad (Woodrow 
teste Cooke). — .S\ M. Country: Dharwar (Garade !) ; Dharwar, on pastures and 
dry hills (Sedgwick 6144 !). 

Distribution : Punjab, Bengal, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Cbina, Borneo. 

4. Panicum psilopodium, Trin. Gram. Panic. 217 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 100 ; 
Steud. Syn. Gram. 83 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PL 161 ; Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 
6, Field and Gard. Crops i, t. 23, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 10 {in nota) ; Hook. f. 
F.B.I. vii,46; Saxton & Sedgwick, Plants of N. Gujarat in Rec. Bot. Surv. 
Jnd. vi (1918), 312 ; Haines in Bot. Bihar &Orissa 993. 

Description ; An annual,, tufted grass. Culms erect or quickly ascending, 
30-60 cm. high, rather slender, simple or branched, usually leafy up to the 
panicle. Leaves rather broadly linear, acute or somewhat acuminate, 7-30 cm. 
by 4-8 mm. glabrous or with few short spreading hairs towards the base, rarely 
thinly hairy all over. Sheaths of tea with spreading hairs which leave minute rais- 
ed dots after falling, more usually glabrous, loose, striate. Ligule a narrow row 
of hairs. Panicle spreading, 5-20 cm. long, with very capillary branches and 
slender pedicels which are often 10 mm. long. Spikelets 2-3 mm. long, gemi- 
nate, narrowly elliptic, with abruptly acute tip. Lower in vol ucral glume very 
broadly ovate-acute, about \ the spikelet, base amplexicaul but not overlapping 
itself in front, 5-nerved. Upper involucral glume oblong-ovate, as long as 
spikelet, minutely cuspidate, 9- (11-) nerved. Lower floral glume similar, with 
delicate, oblong, margined pale. Upper narrow- ellipsoid, acute, very smooth 
and polished as is its pale. 

Locality : Gujarat : Ahmedabad and elsewhere in shady wet places in the 
monsoon (Saxton & Sedgwick). 

Distribution : India, Burma, Malacca, Ceylon. 

*5. Panicum miliaceum, Linn. Sp. PI. (1753), 58; Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.— Arab, 
civ; Host. Gram. Austr. ii, 16, t. 20 ; Kunth Enum. i, 104, Suppl. 81; Trin. 
Pan. Gen. 194, Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 221 ; Reichb. Ic. Fl Germ, vii, t. 82 ; Steud. 
Syn. PL Glum, i, 77 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 5, Field and Gard. Crops t. 23, 
Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 9 ; Hook f . F.B.I, vii, 45 ; Watt. Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind. 
vi, 12 ; Cke. ii, 939 ; Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 696. — P. asperrimum, 
Fisch. Cat. Hort. Govenk. ex Jacq. Eclog. Gram. 46, t. 31 ; Nees Agrost. Bras. 
199.— P. Milium, Pers. Syn i. 83. — Milium esculentum, Mcench Meth. 203.— 
M. Panicum, Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. viii, no. 1. 

Vern. Names: Common Millet; cheno (Guj.) ; vari (Decc.) ; gajro 
(Panch Mahals); sava (Mar.); chinee (Sind). 

Description : A tufted annual, - 6— 1*2 m. high. Stems erect or geniculately 
ascending, terete, stout or slender, 4-5-noded, simple or sparingly branched, 
more or less softly hirsute below the nodes, the uppermost internode usually 
quite glabrous. Leaf-blades linear from an equally wide or slightly contracted 
and rounded base, long-tapering to a slender point, 15 to over 30 cm. by 6-20 
mm., flat, flexuous, usually glabrous except for the often ciliate lower margins 
and hispidulous dorsal midrib, rarely sparsely hairy all over, hairs long and 
fine, midrib somewhat stout and prominent below in large leaves, primary 
lateral nerves 3-6 on each side, very slender. Sheaths terete, somewhat loose 
or the upper tight, closely striate, spreadingly hirsute with tubercle- based hairs, 
pubescent or loosely bearded at the nodes, longer or slightly shorter than the 
internodes. Ligule a narrow ciliate rim. Panicles contracted and rather dense 
or open, narrowly oblong, nodding, often with their base permanently enclos- 
ed in the uppermost sheath or only shortly exserted, up to 30 cm. long in sub- 
spontaneous specimens usually scantier, looser and at length more open, 
divided up to the fourth or in cultivated specimens the fifth degree, all the 
divisions filiform, angular and scabrid ; primary axis slender or somewhat 
stout below, subterete, striate or grooved and smooth towards the base ; pri- 
mary branches more or less approximate below, more distant upwards, often 
much divided from low down ; branchlets relatively long, the lower divided 
again in the same manner or like the remainder from much higher up with 
spikelets in small loose racemes of 2 (rarely 3) towards the summit ; pedicels 
hardly thickened upwards, with truncate tips, the lateral from less than 2-6 mm. 
long. Spikelets ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate, apiculate-acuminate, turgid, 
4*5-5 mm. long, glabrous, green or brownish green. Involucral glumes per- 
sistent, unequal, strongly and prominently nerved ; lower broad-ovate, acute, 

[5] • 

12 Jour.-, Bom. Nat~ Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. I {Sept. 30, I92SL 

from i-% the length of the lower fibret,. 5-nerved, tipper corresponding in size 
and outline to the spikelet, broadly rounded on the back, 11-nerved, tip con- 
tracted^ apiculateto shortly rostrate. Lower floral glume barren, very like the 
tower involucral glume, pale ovate to ovate-oblong, truncate or emarginate, up» 
to' about i the length of the glume. Upper floret hermophrodite, elliptic-oblong 
m outline, subacute, very convex on the back, uptO'Over 3 by 2 mm., variously 
coloured (white, yellow, red, brown or black), very smooth and polished, 
glume and pale crustaceous. Grain white. 

Locality r Cultivated in many parts of the Presidency, chiefly in Gujarat and: 
on the Ghats. 

Distribution: Supposed to have originated, in India. But see DeCandolle, 
Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 376, London 1909, 

Uses : Cultivated for its grain and as a good fodder- 

*6. Panicum miliary Lamk. 111. Gen. i (1791), 173; Roxb. FI. Ind. i, 309 ; 
Kunth Enum, PL. i, 104 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panja,b. PI. 159 ; Duthie Grass. N. W- 
Ind. 5, Field and Gard. Crops 7, t. 26, Indig. Fodd. Grass, t. 46,. Fodd. Grass. 
N. Ind. 10-; Hook. f. in F.B.I. vii,46 ; Cke. ii, 939 {parHm) % ; Haines in Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa 993.. 

Description: An annual grass. Culms 30-90 cm. high, rather slender, erect 
or base geniculate, simple or branched, usually leafy up to the panicle. Leaves 
linear, 15-60 cm. by 12-25' mm., gradually tapering from a broad base, glabrous 
or finely hairy, sheaths glabrous, rarely hirsute with tubercle- based hairs. Pani- 
cles very compound, contracted or thyrsiform, and of ten nodding, 10-25 cm. long 
(without the subsidiary axillary panicles which are often developed) . Spikelets 
glabrous, rather flattened, suddenly acute or slightly cuspidate, 2-3*2 mm. 
long, mostly paired; on unequal pedicels, but often solitary at the ends of the 
branchlets, lanceolate in flower, elliptic or broadly elliptic in fruit. Lower 
involucral glume very broadly ovate, subtruncate, then suddenly acute, or 
scarcely acute, about \ the spikelet, white, membranous, 3-5-nerved, nerves 
arching and anastomosing. Upper involucral glume herbaceous, ovate-lanceo- 
late, 11-13-nerved. Lower floral glume 9-nerved, neuter, pale as long as its 
glume. Upper floral glume narrow-elliptic or elliptic-oblong to broadly ovate„ 
acute, shining,, white or pale brown, or dark brown, often 3-5-streaked dorsally. 

Locality : Cultivated occasionally in some parts of the Presidency. 

Note. — P. miliare 'is in all probability a cultivated form of P. psilopodium. It 
is not always easy to distinguish between the two. Hooker already felt this- 
difficulty.. 'If I remember aright,' he says, ' P. miliare was conjectured by 
Munrotobea cultivated form of P. Psilopodium ; and except in the greater size, 
more contracted panicle, rather larger spikelets and usually shorter pedicels of 
P. miliarrel failed to find characters whereby to separate them, and these are 
not very reliable. In its common state the grain of miliare is broader than in 
any form of psilopodium and much darker coloured.' (F.B.I, vii, 46). Duthie 
was unable to distinguish P. miliare from P. psilopodium (Fodd Grass, N. 
Ind, 10). Stapf, however, is inclined to think that they are separable. In his 
opinion the true P. psilopodium has nearly always glabrous leaves, smaller 
spikelets and a shorter lower involucral glume. Prain in his Bengal Plants 
gives as the characters of P. miliare: 'Leaves hairy; cultivated'., and of P. 
psilopodium: ' Leaves glabrous ; wild.' But he has nevertheless, as Haines 
points out ' named most of the glabrous-leaved forms in the Calcutta Herb, as. 
miliare, and I have myself noticed whole crops with glabrous leaves, whereas 
I have collected psilopodium with hairy leaves.' 

The same author, after discussing the various statements, sums up his own 
observations : ' Although absolutely the leaves of miliare are often broader 
than in psilopodium, yet they are relatively narrower and much more alternate. 
Moreover the cultivated miliare and its feral forms always appear to have more 
or less contracted panicles in contrast to the shorter, always quickly effuse, 
panicle of Psilopodium. The grain of miliare is, as would be expected, rather 
larger, being 'OS-'l'in. long as compared with '0.7 in. long in psilopodium. 7 

7. Panicittn subeglitme,Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 6, iii, pt. 2 (1835), 
292; Steud. Syn. Gram. 82; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 51; Cke. ii, 936.— P. 
arcuatum, Br. ex Neesin Wight Cat. no. 1639 {non Br. Prodr.).— P. Brownia- 
num, Wight & Arn. ex Steud. I.e. 98.—/*. lorreyanum, Wight & Arn. ex 
Steud. Nom. ed. 2, ii, 264.— Milium capillare, Roth. Nov. Sp. 39; Kuntfe 


Sept. 30, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 13 

Enuni. PL i, S7.—M. tomeuiosum, Koen. ex Rottl. in Ges. Naturf. Fr. Neue 
Schr. iv (1803), 220 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 34 ; Kunth I.e. 66. 

Description : Cke.l.c. 

Locality : S. M. Country : Badami (Woodrow teste Cooke ; Bhide ! ). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula. 

*8. Panicum maximum, Jacq. Ic. i, 2, t. 13 ; Collect. i r 76 ; Trin, Pan. Gen. 
180, and in Mem. Acad. Petersb. 6 ser. iii, 268 ; Nees FL Afr. Austr. 36 ; 
Steud. Syn. PL Glum, i, 72 ; Griseb. FL Brit. West Ind. 549 ; Doell in Mart. 
FL Bras, ii, ii, 202: Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 159; Baker FL Maurit. 436; 
Boiss. FL ur. v, 439 ; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 49 ; Trim. FL Ceyl. v, 153 ; Stapf in 
Dyer FL Cap. vii, 404; Cke. ii, 939; Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 995; 
Stapf in Prain FL Trop. Afr. ix, 655.— P. maximum var. hirsutissimum, Oliv. 
in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix, Bot- 171.— P. maximumvar. obtusissimum, Stapf in 
Cheval. Sudania 161, 163. — P. polygamum, Sw. Prodr. Ind. Occ. 24.— P. laeve 9 
Lara. 111. i, 112.— P. jumentorum, Pers. Syn. i, -3 ; H.B. & K. Nov. Gen. & 
Sp. i, 104 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 5, Fodd. Grass N. Ind. 9.— P. altissimum^ 
Brouss. Elench. Hort. Monsp. (1805), 42 (non Meyer) ; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. 
FL Supples.-/ 5 , trichocondylum, Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 74.— P. pample- 
moussense, Steud. l.c 71.— P. hirsutissimum, Steud. I.e. 72. — P. giganteum y 
Mez in Engl. Jahrb. xxiv, 143. 

Vern, Name : Guinea Grass. 

Description: A perennial, densely tufted grass, up to 3 m. high. Culms 
erect or geniculate-suberect, usually stout, 3-4 noded, simple or sparingly 
branched with the branches erect, terete or compressed below, usually quite 
glabrous and smooth, more rarely more or less hirsute and rough from the 
tubercular hair-bases. Leaves glabrous or more or less softly hairy or coarsely 
hirsute with tubercle-based hairs. Sheaths rather firm, the lower compressed, 
the others terete and tight, often bearded at the mouth and usually so at the 
nodes, rarely the nodes quite glabrous. Ligule membranous, very short, ciliolate 
usually with dense hairs from behind it. Blades linear from an equally wide or 
very gradually narrowed and shortly contracted base, long-tapering to a fine 
point, 10--60 cm. by 4-18 or even 25 mm., flat, margins scaberulous to spinu- 
lously scabrid, midrib prominent below, whitish and shallow ly channelled 
above, primary nerves up to 9 on each side. Panicle erect or nodding,, 
contracted or open, from 10 to over 45 cm. long, glabrous or more often 
villosulous at the lower nodes and motile branch bases, divided to the 4th or 
5th degree, all the divisions filiform to capillary, often more of less wavy,, 
angular and scabrid or the larger smooth downwards ; primary axis compa- 
ratively slender, smooth, terete and often fluted below, scaberulous upwards ; 
lower primary branches whorled, suberect or spreading, up to 30 cm. long, 
mostly remotely divided from 2*5-7'5 cm. above the base, their lower branch- 
lets often up to 7*5 cm. long, flexuous and remotely divided or like the rest 
rather short and contracted ; penultimate divisions usually closely 2-3-spiculate 
with the lateral pedicels shorter than the clustered spikelets, more rarely loose 
to very loose with the pedicels several times longer, all the pedicels very fine 
with small subcupular tips. Spikelets oblong, subobtuse to acute, somewhat 
turgid, broadly rounded on the back, 3-4*5 or sometimes 4 mm. long, light 
green or tinged with purple, glabrous or rarely more or less densely pubescent. 
Involucral glumes dissimilar, faintly nerved. Lower rounded or shortly acute 
or minutely apiculate, about \ to \ the length of the spikelet, hyaline, 3-1- 
nerved or almost nerveless. Upper corresponding in shape and size to the 
spikelet, membranous, 5-nerved. Lower floral glume male, like the upper 
involucral glume, 7-nerved, pale slightly shorter, oblong, obtuse. Upper floret 
hermaphrodite, oblong, shortly acute up to almost 3 mm. long, whitish, glume 
and pale thinly crustaceous, finely transversely rugose except on the flexures. 
Anthers 1-1 5 mm. long. Grain over 1 mm. long." 

Locality : Widely cultivated, chiefly in Gujarat and Sind. 

Distribution : Indigenous in tropical and S. Africa, Madagascar, the 
Mascarenes and in Yemem. Introduced into India and America. 

Uses : An excellent fodder grass. 

9. Panicum palud>sum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1832), 307 (non Nees) ; Wall. Cat. 
no. 8711 ; Griff. Notul. 37, Ic. PL Asiat. t. 139. f. 127 ; Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. 
Ind. 1L— P. proliferum, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 50 (non ham.)— P. proliferum, 


14 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 1 {Sept. 30, 1928. 

var. paludosum, Cooke in Fl. Bomb, ii, 937 {non Stapf ).t-/>. proliferum 
Haines in Bot. Bihar & Orissa 995 {non Lam.)—/*, proliferum, Prain in 
Beng. Plants 1176 {non Lam.).— P. decompositum var. paludosum, Trim. Cat. 
Ceyl. PI. 105. 

The explanation for the above synonymy is contained in a note given by 
Stapf (in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 719) to justify his new species Panicum longi- 
jubatum, Stapf of tropical Africa which, on a previous occasion, he had describ- 
ed as var. longijubaium of P. proliferum (in Dyer Fl. Cap. vii, 406). 

• The P. proliferum of authors covers a number of allied yet clearly distinct 
species. The name is Lamarck's, but since Hitchcock (in Contrib. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. xii. 147) has shown that his plant so named is identical with P. miliare, 
Lam., P. proliferum becomes a synonym unconnected with any of the forms 
so far referred to it. Of these, one, namely Hooker's P. proliferum (Fl. Brit. 
Ind. vii. 50) , is identical with Roxburgh's P. paludosum (Roxb. Fl., Ind. ed. 
Carey, i. 307), another, a native of America, is P. dichotomiflorum, Michx. 
(Fl. Bor. Am. i. 48). Both appear to me sufficiently distinct from the African 
plant described above ; P. paludosum mainly by its conspicuously larger and 
more finely acuminate spikelets ; P. dichotomiflorum by its pronounced 
branching habit and the smaller number of nerves of the upper glume 
(mostly 7) and lower valve (5-7, mostly 5).' 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Konkan : Byculla (McCann A140 ! ) ; Sewri (McCann 3641 ! ) ; 
Salsette (Lisboa teste Cooke).— Deccan: Khandala (McCann 5310!); Poona 
(Lisboa teste Cooke) ; Lonavla ( Lisboa teste Cooke). — S. M. Country : Devarayi 
(Sedgwick 4118 !). — Kanara : Gersoppa Falls, on rocks in river bed, common 
(Hallberg & McCann A139 !) ; Karwar (Hallberg & McCann A124 !). 

Distribution: India, Ceylon. (It certainly does not occur in tropical and 
S. Africa, but whether it extends eastwards beyond India we are not able to 

10. Panicum antidotale, Retz. Obs. fasc. 4 (1786), 17 ; Hook f. in F.B.I, vii, 

52 ; Cke. ii, 937 ; Blatter Fl. Aden 372.— For other references and synonyms see 
Hook. f. I.e. 

Description ■ Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Sind : (Stocks 659 teste Cooke) ; Karachi to Landi (Burns !) ; Laki 
(Bhide!;; Sukkur ( Woodrow teste Cooke) ; Clifton, near Karachi (Sabnis 
B797 !) ; Umerkot, sand dunes (Sabnis B1080 !) ; Mirpurkhas (Bhide !) ; 
Mirpurkhas, in fallow fields (Sabnis B1208!); J amesabad, in fields (Sabnis 
B1154 !) ; Sanghar (Sabnis B769 ! ) ; Gharo ( Blatter & McCann DS06 ! , D608 ! ) . 
—Gujarat: Bhuj, Rhodi Maka, Cutch (Blatter 3751 !) ; Sumrasar, Cutch 
(Blatter 3760 !) ; Kathiawar (Woodrow teste Cooke).— S. M . Country: Dharwar 
(Garade !) ; Londa (Woodrow teste Cooke). 

Distribution: Arabia, Afghanistan, Punjab, Upper Gangetic Plain, W. Pen- 
insula, Ceylon, Australia. 

11. Panicum montanum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1832), 313 [excl.descr. gluma sup. 
florali) ; Kunth Enum. PL 126 ; Benth. Fl. Hongk. 412 ; Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 

53 ; Cke. ii, 938 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa, 996.— .P. courtallense , Nees & 
Arn. ex Wight Cat. no. 2342 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 83.— P. euchroum, Steud. 
I.e. 98. 

Description: Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Konkan : Pen, hills (Bhide!) ; Kenery Caves (McCann A134 !, 
A136 !).— Deccan : Lohagad, halfway up (McCann A137 !) ; Khandala 
(McCann A136 !) ; Lonavla (Garade !).— 5. M. Country : Castie Rock, on hill 
behind station (Bhide \).— Kanara : Dandeli (Talbot 2243 !) ; Kala Nuddie 
(Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona!); Karwar, hillside in shade of trees (Hallberg & 
McCann A135 !, Talbot !) ; Sumpkhund (Hallberg & McCann 9935 !). 

Distribution : Hotter hilly parts of India, Ceylon, Penang, Malaya, China^ 

12. Panicum auritum, Presl ex Nees Agrost. Bras. 176 ; Rel. Haenk. i, 305 ; 
Trio. Pan. Gen. 176 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 113 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 70 ; Baker 
Fl. Maurit. 437 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. hi, 45S ; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 40; Haines 
Bot. Bihar & Orissa. 995.— P. insulicola, Steud. 1. c. 78.— P. javanum, Nees 


Sept. 30, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 15 

and Bflhsein Miq. PI. Jungh. 376 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. I.e. 453.— .P. patens, 
Bojer Hort. Maurit. ex Baker I.e. 

Description : A perennial, tall, erect grass. Culm 0-9-1-6 m. high, soft. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate, broadly cordate at base, 20-35 cm. by 24-30 mm. glabr- 
ous or sparsely hairy beneath. Sheath glabrous or sparsely hairy Vvith villous 
mouth. Ligule very short. Panicle long contracted or more or less effuse, 20-45 
cm. long, fastigiately branched, branches erect, 5-12 cm. long, branchlets and 
fascicles of spikelets subsecund. Spikelets green, glabrous, 1-7-2-5 mm., sessile 
or shortly pedicelled, strongly nerved, subacute. Lower involucral glume 
broadly ovate, i - \ the length of the lower floral, obtuse or acute, nerves 3-5 
arching, upper involucral and lower floral subequal, ovate-oblong, acute or 
acuminate, 5-nerved, pale of lower floral glume small, neuter. Upper floral 
glume as long as the lower, lanceolate-acuminate, smooth, white, thinly 

Locality : S. M. Country : Castle Rock (Gammie 15717 i). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malaya, China. 

53. Hymenachne, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 48, t. 10, f. 8. 
Rather stout grasses. Leaves broadly linear. Panicles thyrsoid, branches 
erect, appressed with spiciform branchlets and very numerous crowded nar- 
rowly lanceolate acuminate secund spikelets, articulate on their minute 
pedicels. Lower involucral glume cuspidate, keeled, membranous, shortest, 
upper with sheathing amplexicaul base on the long internode of the rhachilla 
between it and the lower floral glume, prominently 3-nerved, cuspidate or awned. 
Lower floral glume longest, lanceolate-acuminate, passing gradually into the 
awn, with three strong nerves meeting in the base of the awn and two lateral 
weaker ones, empty; upper longer than upper involucral glume, oblong, mem- 
branous in flower scarcely hardened in fruit, smooth, faintly 2-nerved, embracir g 
the pale except at the tip, pale similar and as long. Lodicules minute. Stamens 
3. Styles free. 
This genus is not represented in Cooke. The following species is described 
in the F.B.I, under Panicum myurus, H.B. & K. 

1. Hymenachne myuros, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 49, t. 10, fig. S {excl. syn. 
Lam.) ; Nees Agrost. Bras. 275 ; Griseb. Fl. Brit. West Ind. 553 {excl. syn.) ; 
Steud. Syn. Gram. 78 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 991.— Panicum myurus„ 
H.B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. i, 98 {excl. syn. Lam.) ; Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 
33. Enum. PI. i, 86, Suppl. 65 ; Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 10 {excl syn.) ; 
Benth. FL Austral, vii, 480 [excl. syn. interruption) {Excl. in omnibus syn. 
Lam., Rudge, Richard, Trin.) ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 39.— P. acutiglumum, 
Steud. Syn. Gram. 66. — P. auritum, Hassk. PL Rar. Jav. 22 (non Presl.) — 
P. Hasskarlii, Steud. in Zoll. Syst. Verz. 54, Syn. Gram. 70 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. iii. 456. — P. myurum, Meyer Fl. Esseg. 50 {excl- syn. Lam. & Rudge). 
— P. mangaloricum, Steud. I.e. 78. — P. serrulatum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 307 ; 
Kunth. Enum. PL i, 126.— Agrostis monostachys, Poir. Encycl. Suppl. i, 256, 
ex Kunth I.e. 

Description : Culm stout, tall, 0-6-L8 m. high, spongy below, rooting at the 
nodes of the prostrate base, erect, leafy. Leaves 20-50 cm. by 18-25 mm. flat, 
tapering from a broad cordate base to a fine point, margin serrulate ; sheath 
smooth, glabrous or ciliate ; ligule very short, rounded, hyaline. Panicle very 
dense, narrow, very compound with closely appressed branches, 15-30 cm. 
long, rarely 25 mm. diam., often interrupted, sometimes quite cylindric. Spike- 
lets variously grouped, shortly and unequally pedicelled, secund on the erect 
branches of the panicle, 4-6 mm. long, narrowly lanceolate, pale green. Lower 
involucral glume i of the lower floral glume, narrow from an amplexicaul base, 
aristulate, hispidulous on keel and cusp ; upper narrowly lanceolate, subaris- 
tate, hispidulous, 3-nerved. Lower floral glume much longer than upper 
involucral glume, narrowly lanceolate, gradually tapering into the awn as long 
as spikelet, strongly 3-nerved, hispidulous on nerves, pale imperfect or ; 
upper small, thin, narrow, finely acuminate, almost embraced by the lower, 
shorter than the upper involucral glume, enclosing its pale on the edges. 
Styles distinct. 

Locality: S. M. Country: Tadas, tanks, elevation 2,000 ft., rainfall 35 
inches (Sedgwick .& Bell 4917 !). 

Distribution : Tropical Asia, Australia and America. 


16 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 1 [Sept. 30, 1928, 

54, Cyrtococcum, Stapf in Prain Pi. Trop. Afr. ix, 745. 

Perennial. Culms weak, rising from a decumbent or creeping and rooting 
base. Leaf-blades flat, linear-lanceolate or almost linear. Ligules membranous, 
short. Spikelets on long to very long and capillary or short pedicels, widely 
scattered or approximate, obliquely obovate to semi-obovate, laterally much 
compressed, falling entire from the pedicels of very loose and open or contract- 
ed and dense panicles. Involucral glume thinly membranous, unequal to 
subequal, 3-5 nerved. Lower floret barren with or without a pale, glume 
similar to the upper involucral glume, pale, if present, narrow, 2-nerved. 
Upper floret about as long as or almost as long as the lower, hermaphrodite, 
glume narrowly boat-shaped, papery to subcrustaceous with firm very narrowly 
involute margins, obsoletely 5-nerved ; pale subequal to the glume, with a 
narrow convex back, of the same substance as the vaJve, with fine keels and 
thin flaps. Lodicules two, minute, broadly cuneate. Stamens three. Styles 
distinct ; stigmas sublaterally exserted high up. Grain not known. 

Species 6 or 7. Tropical Africa, Indo-Malaya. 

None of the species here described were mentioned by Cooke. Hook, f . in. 
F.B 1. has them under Panicum, sect. Gibbosce. 
I. Spikelets shortly pedicelled 

1. Leaves 2*5-5 cm. long ... ... 1. C. trigonum. 

2. Leaves 5-15 cm. long ... ... 2. C. pilipes. 

II. Spikelets on capillary pedicels which are much 

lunger than the spikelets ... ... 3. C. patens. 

1. Cyrtococcum trigonum, A. Camus in Bull. Mus. Hist, Nat. 27 (1921), 118.— 
Panicum trigonum, Retz. Obs. iii, 9 {excl. syn. Burm.) ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 
116 ; Nees Agrost. Bras. 206 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 305 ; Hook. f. F.B.I. VII, 56.- 
P. dif forme, Roth. Nov. Sp. S2.—P. radicans, Biihse in Miq. PL Jungh, 375 ; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat, iii, 453 [non Retz.).— P. gibbum, Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 87. 

Description ; Perennial. Culms decumbent, branching, interlaced below; 
branches erect. Leaves 25-5 cm. long, linear-lanceolate, glabrous or laxly 
hairy. Sheath glabrous or margin ciliate. Ligule rounded. Panicle 25-35 mm 
Ion?, contracted, rhachis and short, suberect branches glabrous. Spikelets 1*5 
mm. long, very shortly pedicelled, hispidulous. Lower involucral glume about 
\ the length of the lower floral glume, obtuse or acute, 3-nerved, pale brown ; 
upper pale brown. Lower floral glume 5-nerved, pale brown ; upper naked or 
bearded at the tip. 

Locality: Konkan : Matheran, Harrison's Springs and Monkey Point (D* 
Almeida A251!, A252!). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, Java. 

2. Cyrtococcum pilipes, A. Camus in Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 27 (1921), 118.— 
Panicum pilipes , Nees & Arn. ex Biihse in Miq. PI. Jungh. iii, 376 ; Miq, F. 
Ind. Bat. iii, 453 ; Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 57.— P. hermaphroditum, Steud. Syn, 
Gram. 67 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, vii, 485.— P. oxyphyllum, Hochst. ex Steud. 
I.e. 65. 

Description : Perennial. Culms 30-60 cm. high, geniculately ascending from 
a slender, creeping, branching base, lower nodes rooting, upper subpubescent. 
Leaves 5-15 cm. long, 8-35 mm. broad, glabrous or sparsely hairy above, 
puberulous beneath, finely acuminate, base narrow. Sheath glabrous or ciliate, 
mouth hairy. Ligule rounded. Panicle 7-13 cm. long, contracted, branches 
short, rather remote, erect or spreading with short fastigiate branchlets, often 
slender hairs on the pedicels. Spikelets 1'5 mm. long, brown, very shortly pedi- 
celled, glabrous. Lower involucral glume about h the length of the lower 
floral glume, obtuse, 3 nerved. Lower floral glume 5-nerved ; upper white, its 
pale narrow, patent, hard. 

Locality: Konkan: Above Kenery Caves (McCann A133 !) ; Matheran 
( D 'Almeida A132 !, Woodrow !).— Dcccan : Mahableshwar, in forests, eleva- 
tion 4,500 ft., rainfall 270 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4801 !) ; Pratapgad Fort 
(Bhide 1207 \).—S. M. Country : Castle Rock, in shade of trees (McCann 
A131!, Bhide!) ; Belgaum (Herb. Bot. Gard Cal. !).— Kanara : Coastal 
forests, Karwar (Sedgwick & Bell 5113 !) ; deciduous forests, Kirwatti (Sedg- 
wick 3130!) ; Halyal (Talbot !) ; Sups, elevation 2,000 ft. (Talbot 2091 !)V; 
Yellapore (Talbot 907!); Devimani Ghat (Hallberg & McCann A128 !) ; 


Sept. 30, I92S.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 17 

Gersoppa Falls (Hallberg & McCann A125 !) ; Atimod, forests (Sedgwick 
3252 !) ; Kulgi, elevation 2,000 ft. (Talbot). 

Distribution : Mascarene Islands, Madagascar, India, Malaya, Australia, 
Pacific Islands. 

3. Cyrtococcum patens, A. Camus in Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 27 (1921), 118.— 
Panicum patens, Linn. Sp. PI. 86 ; Burm, Fl. Ind. t. 10, f. 2 ; Spreng. Syst. i, 
322 {excl. syn. multinode) ; Kunth Enum. PI. I, 126 {excl. syn. Roxb.) ; Hook, 
f. F. B. 1. vii, SI.— P. accrescens, Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 88, etcorrig. vol. iii ; 
Kunth I.e. 116.— P. obliquum, Roth. Nov. Sp. 51 ; Kunth I.e. 103; Miq. Fl. 
ind. Bat. iii, 452.— />. radicans, Retz. Obs. iv, 18; Nees Agrost. Bras. 206 ; 
Kunth I.e. 216. 

Description : Culms 30-90 cm. high, creeping and rooting and branched 
below, leafy, nodes glabrous. Leaves 5-15 cm. by 6-8 mm., ovate to linear- 
lanceolate, finely acuminate, thin, glabrous or cdiate below with tubercle-based 
hairs. Sheath with the margins and mouth ciliate. Ligule rounded. Panicle 
5-13 cm. long, contracted or effuse, usually inclined with spreading glabrous or 
puberulous branches naked below, and very long distant spreading branchlets, 
rnachis. branches and pedicels capillary. Spikelets 1*5 mm. long. Lower invo- 
lucral glume ^-| the length of the lower floral glume, ovate, obtuse, 3-nerved. 
Upper mvolucral and lower floral glume glabrous or with ciliate tips. — A very 
variable plant. 

Locality : Konkan : Vasco da Gama (Bhide !) ; Vetora (Sabnis 33440 !).— 
5". M. Country : Tadas, in shade of trees, elevation 2,000 ft., rainfall 35 in. 
{Sedgwick 2102 !) ; Castle Rock (Gammie 15579!), very large specimen 
(McCann A144 \).—Kanara : Nagargalli, forests, very abundant (Sedgwick 
2892 !) ; Gersoppa Falis (Hallberg & McCann A126 !, Chibber !) ; Malamani, 
elevation 1,600 ft. (Talbot 2676 !) ; Kulgi (Talbot 2280 !) ; Guddhalli, Karwar 
(Hallberg & McCann A127 i). 

Distribution : Tropical Asia, Malaya, Pacific Islands. 

55. Sacciolepis, Nash in Britt. Man. Bot. 89 ; Stapf in 
Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 747. 

Annual or oftener perennial grasses. Leaf-blades linear and flat or filiform- 
convolute, or filiform-subulate. False spikes often very dense, dark or varie- 
gated. Spikelets mostly very small, oblong to ovate-oblong or elliptic or 
lanceolate, subterete or laterally compressed, usually somewhat turgid, falling 
entire from the short finely filiform pedicels of a spiciform, very rarely open 
panicle. Involucral glumes similar in structure but unequal. Lower much 
shorter, softly or rigidly membranous, with a narrow hyaline margin or hyaline 
tip, stiffened by the hardening of the prominent and often rib-like nerves, or 
more or less dissimilar owing to the reduction of the lower glume to a small 
hyaline scale, or its differentiation into a narrow, hardened obscurely nerved 
back and broad hyaline margins. Upper with a curved or basally gibbous or 
saccate back, always much concave, mostly 7- or 9-, rarely 5- or up to 13-nerved. 
Lower floral glume male or barren, very dissimilar to the upper involucral 
glume and of the same or almost the same length, but with a straighter back ; 
pale narrow, hyaline, finely 2-keeled, shorter than the glume, sometimes 
reduced or quite rudimentary. Upper floral glume hermaphrodite, oblong in 
outline seen from the back, very convex, chartaceous, ultimately subcrustace- 
ous, with firm narrowly involute margins, obscurely 5-nerved ; pale almost the 
length of the glume, tightly embraced by it all along and of the same texture, 
2-nerved, hardly keeled. Lodicules two, small, broadly cuneate. Stamens 
three. Styles distinct ; stigmas long, loosely plumose,, exserted terminally or 
subterminally. Grain tightly enclosed by the glume and pale, elliptic in outline, 
dorsally compressed, with an almost flat backhand convex face ; hilum puncti- 

Species over 30.— Tropics of the whole world, 
I. Lower involucral glume 3-nerved 

1. Spikes 1-5 cm. long. Spikelets lan- 

ceolate-ovoid, hispid, 2-2*5 mm. ... 1. 5. indica. 

2. Spikes 5-23 cm. long. Spikelets 

ovoid, P3-2-1 mm. long ... 2. S. niyosuroides. 

II. Lower involucral glume 5-nerved ... 3. S. interrupta. 


3& Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. I [Sept. 30, I92&. 

1. Sacciolepis indica, Chase in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash, xxi (1908), 8 ; Haines: 
B'ot. Bihar & Orissa 990.— Panicum indicum, Linn. Mant. ii, 1F4 ; Retz. Obs. 
iii, 9 ; Kunth Enum. PL. i, 133 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 84 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 285 ; 
Benth.. FI. Hongk 413, Fl. Austral, vii, 480 ; Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 41 
{partim, excl. aliqndbws syn.). — Hymenachne indica, Biihse ex Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. iii, 458. 

Description ; A slender grass, 15-60 cm. high. Leaves Mnear-acuminate,. 
5-13 cm. long, up to 4- mm. wide,, glabrous or hirsute, base narrow ; sheath not 
auricled. Panicle spiciform, oblong or cylindrie. dense-flowered, green or 
slightly purplish, 1-5 em. long by about 4 mm. diam.., branches very short. 
Spikelets longer than their pedicels, 2-2-5 mm. long, crowded, ovoid, acute or 
acuminate, straight or curved, shortly or hispidly hairy, or glabrous. Lower 
involucral glume ovate, \-\ of the lower floral glume, lanceolate from a broadl 
base, acute, 3-nerved ; upper usually subcymbiform, curved, obtuse, 7-11- 
nerved, 2*5 mm. long. Lower floral glume as long as the upper involucral 
glume, broadly ovate, obtuse, 9-nerved, pale minute ; upper narrowly ellipsoid, 
very acute, white, smooth, polished, sides overlapping the margins of the- 
similar pale, base obtuse, mucronulate with remains of the rhachilla. 

Note'.— Stapf has separated Panicum angustum, Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic t. 334 
from Panicum indicum, Linn, as conceived by Hook. f., and named it Saccio- 
lepis angusta. In his opinion the various varieties given in the F.B.I, are mostly 
referable to 5". angusta, Stapf. 

5. indica is not a well-defined species. It appears to pass insensibly into .S*. 
myosuroides and 5. interrupta. According to Hook, f., the former differs in 
its caudiform spike and more minute rounded spikelets, the latter in its stouter 

Haines thinks it is better to confine S. indica to those specimens with hairy 
spikelets. We have not followed him in this. 

Locality r S. M. Country : Khanapur, elevation 2,50ft ft., rainfall 70 inches. 
(Sedgwick 3080 !>; Castle Rock (Bhide !),— Kanara : Tank near Yellapore- 
('Talbot!); Kulgi (Talbot 2291 !> : Siddhapur to Sirsi (Hallberg & McCann. 
A118 !) ; Karwar (Talbot 1297 !, Hallberg & McCann A116 !}. 

Distribution : Tropical Asia and Australia. 

2. Sacciolepis myosuroides,, Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 990.— Panicum 
myosuroides, R.. Br. Prodr. (1810), 189; Kunth Enum. PL i, 77 ; Steud Syn. 
Gram. 56; Benth. Fl. Austr. vii, 480 {excl. syn. angustum) ; Duthie Fodd. 
Grass. N. Ind. 11; Hook, f., F.B.I, vii., 42; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v, 148 ; Prain 
Beng. PL 1175; Cke ii, 934.— P. curvatum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 286 (mon Linn.). 

Description : Cke. E.c. 

Locality: Konkan .- Savant vadi (Woodrow); AHbag (Lisboa). — We have 
mot seen any specimen. 
Distribution : India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, China, Australia. 

3. Sacciolepis interrupta, Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. ix, 757 ; Haines Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa 991.— Panicum interruptum, Willd. Sp. PI. i, 341 ; Kunth 
Enum. i, 87; Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. 51 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 286 ; Griff. Notul. 
iii, 26, and Ic. PI Asiat. t. 139, fig. 221, t. 146, fig. 2 ; Dalz. & Gibs. 
316 ; Steud. Syn. PL Glum, i, 66 ; Hook. f.F.B.I. vii, 40 ; Stapf in Dyer Fl. 
Cap. vii, 413.— P uliginoswm, Roth Nov. PL Sp. 50. — P. inundatum, Kunth 
Rev. Gram, i, 34, and Enum. i, 88 ; Steud. I.e. 66.— Hymenacnne interrupta r 
Biihse in Miq. PI. Juugh i, 377 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 458 ; Steud. I.e. 10L— 
P. indicum, Hack, in Bolet. Soc. Brot. v, 210 {non Linn.). 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Very variable in size and shape, especially the panicle which varies a good 
dleal as to colour. 

Locality: Sind : (Woodrow teste Cooke). — Konkan: Bassein, tank (Burns! )r 
Wada, tank (Ryan 453!); Nagotna (Gammie 16074!) ; Borivli-Kanary, in water 
(McCann AI20!); Bhivandi (Chibber !) ; Vihar (Sabnis.!); Gokura Creek, 
Bassein (Garade 1708!) ; Virar, on bank of a tank (McCann 9583 !) ; PanveB 
(Woodrow) ; Vengurla (Woodrow) ; margins of tanks throughout the Konkan 
(Dal'zell & Gibson).— Deccan : Tingerwadi, Igatpuri (Blatter & Hallberg 
3825!).— 5. M. Country: Tadas, tanks (Sedgwick & Bell 4916 !) ; Londa, in 
water (Gammie 15854!) ; Hulkop (Sedgwick ^& Bell3174!) ; Belgaum (Herb- 

Sejph 30, 1928.1 Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency \% 

Ecou. Bot. Poona \).—fCanara: Sirsi-Siddhapur (Hallberg & McCann A117 !) $ 
Tinai Ghat (Gammie 15791 !). 

Usually inhabiting marshy and swampy places -such as rice fields and the 
banks of tanks. 

It is doubtful as to whether Woodrow^s plant from Sind was correctly named 
as this grass is one of moist regions. 

Distribution : Tropical and S. Africa, India, Ceylon, Malaya. 

56. SErARiA, P. Beauv. Agrost. 51, t. xiii, fig. in" ; Cke, ii, 918. 

(In 1897 F Lamson Scribner (in U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Bull, iv, 38) 
proposed the name Chcsiochloa for the grasses generally known as Setaria, 
Stapf has given convincing reasons why the old name should be retained. See 
KewBull (1920), 124-127. 

Species about 100.— Warm regions of the World, a few species common as 
weeds in the more temperate parts. Cooke has 5 indigenous and 1 cultivated 
-species. We retain them all. 
Key : 

A. Leaves more of less plicate 

I. Perennial. Culm reaching 2*4 m. „. 1. S. plicala. 

II. Annual. Culm reaching 0'6 m. ... ... 2. S . rhachitricha, 

B. Leaves flat, not plicate 

AA. Bristles not retrorsally barbellate 

I. Upper floral glume smooth ... ... €. S.italica. 

II . Upper floral glume rugose 

1. Panicle spiciform, continuous ; 

bristles 6 or more... ... ... 3, .S, glauca. 

2. Panicle interrupted or subpyramidal ; 

bristle 1 on pedicel and usually 3-4 

below pedicel ... ... ... i. S. intermedia. 

BB. Bristles retrorsally barbellate ... 5. S. verticillata. 

1. Setaria plicata, T. Cooke in Fl. Bomb, ii, 919.— Panicum plicatum, Lam. 
HI. 1 (1791), 171; Jacq.Eclog. Gram. i. t. 1; Trin. Gram. Panic. 183, Gen. 
Pan. 161, Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 223 ; Kunth Enum. PL i, 94 ; Griff. Notul. iii, 24, 
Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 139, fig. 229 ; Duthie Grass. N, W. Ind. 6, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 
11 ; Benth. Fl. Hongk. 411 ; Hook, f . F. B. I. vii, 55 ; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v, 157. 
~— P. amplissimum, Steud. Syn. Gram. 54.— P. asperatum, Kunth Rev. -Gram, 
i, 39, Enum. PI. 1. c 39 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 456.— P. excurrens, Trin. Pan. 
■Gen. 131, 249, Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 49; Benth. Fl. Hongk. 412 {excl. syn.).— 
P. nepalense, Spreng. Syst. 321 ; Dalz. & Gibs. 291 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 
160.— P. nervosum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. I, 311.— P. neurodes, Schult. Mant. II, 228 ; 
Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 5.— P. Wallichianum, Nees FL Afr, Austr. 49. 

Description : Cke. ii, 919, 

Locality : Konkan •■ Victoria Gardens, Bombay (McCann 5376 !,) ; Parel 
*{Lisboa) ; western side of the Ghats (Dalzell & Gibson).— Diccan : Linginala,, 
Mahableshwar, in forest (Sedgwick & Bell 4642 !) ; Panchgani, (Blatter & 
Hallberg B1234 !, B1235 ! McCann !),— S. M. Country : Belgaum Fort, common 
all over Belgaum in compounds (Sedgwick 3066!), — Kanara: Kulgi (Talbot 
•2278 !) ; Halyal (Talbot 2408 !). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula and Islands, China. 

Uses : Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental grass, 

2. Setaria rhachitricha, T. Cooke in Fl. Bomb, ii, 919.— Panicum rhachitri- 
ichum, Hochst. in Flora 27 (1844), 254 ; Hook. Niger Fl. 187 ; Steud. 
Syn. Gram. 63 ; Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 56 ; Prain Beng. PI. 1176.— P. thamaerap- 
his, Nees ex. A. Braun In. Sem. Hort. Berol, (1853) Append. 20.— (.P. homony- 
imum, Steud. I.e. 48 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 4 (homogynum). 

Locality : .S. M. Country : Londa (Gammie ex Woodrow). 

We doubt the occurrence of this species in the Presidency. Neither Cooke 
uor we have seen any specimens. There are none in Herb. Kew, neither do the 
herbaria of the Presidency contain any. Besides, the distribution of the species 
is not in favour of its presence in Bombay. 

Distribution : India (subtropical Himalaya, Cho'ta Nagpur, Calcutta), tropi- 
cal Africa. 


20 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 1 {Sept. 31, 1928 

3. Setaria glauca, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 51 ; Kunth. Enum. PI. i, 149, Suppl. 
106; Griff. Notul. 44, PI. Asiat. t. 149. f. 1; Dalz. & Gibs, 293; Aitchis. Cat, 
Punjab, PI. 162 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 466 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind 8,- In dig. 
Fodd. Grass, t. x, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 14 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 442 ; Hook. f. F. 
B. I. vii, 78 ; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v, 162 ; Prain Beng. PI. 1170 ; Cke.ii, 920.— Panicum 
glaucum, Linn. Sp. PI. 76 ; Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 195 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 285 ; 
Benth. Fl. Hongk. 411.— P. lutescens, Weig Obs. (1772), 20.— Setaria lutescens, 
Hubbard in Rhodora xviii (1916), 232.— For other synonyms see Hook. f. 1. c. 

Mr. C. E. Hubbard of the Kew Herbarium informs us that he changed Setaria 
glauca, Auct. into S. lutescens on account of the synonym Panicum hdescens, 
Weigel Obs. (1772), 20. Dr. Stapf thinks that this name change is unnecessary 
and we quite agree with him after reading his MS. on this question which he 
kindly allowed Mr. Hubbard to put at our disposal. As Dr. Stapf is now about 
to publish his MS. we refrain from giving his arguments in this place. 

Description •■ Cke. ii, 920. 

Locality: Gujarat: Nadiad (Chibber!); Ahmedabad (Saxton 1063!); 
Baroda (Cooke).— Khandesh : Toranmal (McCann A149 !, A150!); N. slope of 
Chanseli (McCann A151 !).— Konkan : Bhandup (McCann 3606!); Mulgaum 
(McCann A147!); Bassein (McCann 9607!); Sion (McCann 3573!); Thana 
(Lisboa).— Deccan: Shivner Fort, Junnar (Paranipe!); Mahableshwar, common 
(Woodrow !, Dalzell & Gibson, Cooke); Panchgani, behind Maratha well 
(Blatter 3824 !) ; Chattarshinji Hill, Poona (Ezekiel!); Shewapur, near Poona 
(Bhide 981!); Khandala, very common (McCann 8406!); Purandhar, foot 
(McCann 5603 !); Lohagad, top (McCann 9501 !); Nasik (Lisboa).— S. M. Coun- 
try : Dharwar Dist. (Sedgwick 2173 !); Dumbai, under trees (Talbot 2300 !).— 
Kanara : Dandeli (Bell 4224); Halyal (Talbot 2144 !); Onore (Talbot 1063 !). 

Distribution : All warm, temperate and tropical regions. 

4. Setaraia intermedia, Roem. & Schult. Syst. ii (1817), 489 ; Kunth Enum. PI. 
i, 150; Aitchis. Cat. Paniab. PI. 162; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 9, Fodd. Grass. 
N. Ind. 14 ; Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 79 ; /Trim. Fl. Ceyl, v, 163 ; Cke. ii, 920 ; 
Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 989.-5". glauca, Hochst. PI. Hohenack. no. 937. — 
Panictim intermedium, Roth. Nov. Sp. 47. 

Description ■■ Cke. ii, 920. 

Locality : Gujarat: Doongri (Chibber!); Ahmedabad (Gammie 16351) ; 
Nadiad (Chibber !).— Khandesh : Toranmal (McCann A152 f) ; Umalla village 
(Blatter & Hallberg 5184 !). — Konkan : Dadar, very common in Bombay Isl. 
(McCann A153 !); common in Salsette (McCann !) .—Deccan : Purandhar Fort 
(Bhide !, McCann 5595 !, 5022 !); Chattarshinji, Poona (Bhide !) ; in cultivated 
fields about Poona (Jacquemont 355); Igatpuri, common (McCann 4320 !); 
Khandala, common (Blatter 4410!, McCann!); Lonavla (McCann 4466!); 
Panchgani (Blatter & Hallberg B1227 !, B1272 !).— 5. M. Country : Dharwar 
(Sedgwick 1839 !); Belgaum (Ritchie 839) .—Asmara : Yellapore (Talbot 1520!); 
Halyal (Talbot 2296 !). 

Distribution : Temperate and tropical regions. 

5. Setaria verticillata, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 51 ; Kunth Enum. PI. I, 152 ; 
Dalz. & Gibs. 294 ; Aitchis, Cat. Panjab PI. 162 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 9, 
Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 15 ; Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 47 ; Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 
80 ; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v, 163 ; Prain. Beng. PI. 1170 ; Cke. ii, 921 ; Haines Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa 989.-5. respiciens, Hochst. ex. Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 
467 .—Panicum adhaerens, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.— Arab. 20.— P. verticillatum, 
Linn. Sp. PI. ed. ii, 82 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i/301 ; Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 202.— 
Pennisetum verticillatum, Br. Prodr. 195.— Other synonyms in Hook, f . 1. c. 

Description: Cke. ii, 921. 

Locality : Sind : Umerkot (Sabnis B748 !) ; Sanghar (Sabnis B758 !) ; Mir- 
purkhas, cultivated fields (Sabnis B701 !) ; Bughar, Indus River (Blatter & 
McCann D640 !) ; Ghulamalla, garden (Blatter & McCann D641!) ; Mirpur 
Sakro (Blatter & McCann D642 \). — Gujarat : Ahmedabad (Sedgwick!); 
Cutch (Blatter 3744 !); Baroda (Woodrow) ; Morvi, Kathiawar (Woodrow). — 
Konkan : Sion (Herb. S.X.C. 5236 !) ; Juvem (Herb. S.X.C. 4237 !) ; Malabar 
Hill (McCann 3626!); Byculla (McCann !).- S. M. Country: In a village, 
Dharwar Dist. (Sedgwick 3109 !). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, temperate and tropical regions. 

Sept. 30, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 21 

*6. Setaria italica, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 51; Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ, t 47; 
Aitchis. Cat. Pan jab PI. 162 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 8, Field and Gard. 
Crops 5, t. 25, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 15 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii 467 ; Hook. f. 
F. B. I. vii, 78; Prain Beng. PL 1170; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 988.— 
Panicum italicum, Linn. Sp. PL (1753), 56; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 302; Dalz. & 
Gibs. Suppl. 98. — Pennisetum macrochaetum, Jacq. Eclog. Gram, iii, 36, t. 25.- 
Rheede Hort. Malab. xii, t. 79- For other references see Hook, f . I.e. 
Vern. Names : Italian millet, foxtail millet, rala. 

Description : Annual. Culms erect, tufted, 0'6— 1*5 m. high = Leaves linear 
or lanceolate-linear, acuminate, 7-10 mm. broad or broader. Sheath densely 
ciliate on margin and mouth. Panicle 7-13 cm. long, 10 mm. wide or more, 
dense, inclined or nodding, simple, cylindric or lobed or compound ; rhachis 
very hairy. Spikelets oval, 2-2*5 mm. long, in small clusters on the abbreviat- 
ed branchlets of the panicle, with 2-3 bristles below each pedicel, bristles 
nearly smooth or microscopically barbellate, 5-8 mm. long, barbs suberect or 
spreading. Lower involucral glume oblong or subglobose, hyaline, smooth ; 
upper ovate, obtuse or rounded, about f the length of the upper floral glume, 
5-nerved. Lower floral glume hyaline, delicately 4-5-nerved, as long as and 
same shape as the upper floral glume, but not concave. Upper floral glume 
oval or elliptic or subglobose, concave, hardening, variable in length, not 
rugose but smooth and microscopically cancellate. 

Locality: Konkan: Bombay, cultivated in compound of the Training College 
(McCann 4286 !) ; Bassein, Botanic Garden (Jo.-hi !) ; Chowpatti, Bombay 
(Herb. S.X.C. 4299 \).—Deccan : Ganeshkhind Botanic Gardens(Patwardhan !). 
—S. M. Country: Dharwar, cultivated (Talbot 2014!). 

Extensively cultivated throughout as a food-grain. 

Distribution: Most warm, temperate and tropical countries. 

Origin: See DeCandoUe, Origin of cultivated plants, p. 378. 

57. Spinifex, Linn. Mant. ii, (1771), 163 ; Cke. ii, 913. 
Species 4,-1 in India, 3 in Australia. 

1. Spinifex squarrosus, Linn. Mant. (1771), 300; Lam. 111. t. 840 ; Duthie 
Grass. N. W. Ind. 11 ; Benth. Fl. Hongk. 415 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat iii, 474 ; 
Hook. f. F.B.L vii, 63 ; Grab. Cat. 240 ; Trim. H. Ceyl . v. 5 ; Prain Beng. PL 
1168 ; Cke. ii, 913; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 1010.— Stipa littorea, Burm. 
f. FL Ind. 29. —Stipa spinifex, Linn. Mant. i, 84 ; Rheede Hort. Mai. xii, t. 75 

Description: Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Gujarat: Near Domas (Cooke).— Konkan: Vengurla (Chibber !) ; 
Juvem (McCann 4263 !) ; Versova (McCann 9827 !) ; Bandra (Blatter !) ; sandy 
shores near Bandra (Graham) ; Shrivardhan (Woodrow) — Kanara : Sandy sea 
shore, Karwar (Sedgwick & Bell 5057!, 5056!); Kumpta (Chibber!, 
Woodrow); Honavar, very common (McCann!, Chibber!); Onore (Talbot 

Distribution: India, Ceylon, Java, China. 

Uses: A valuable sand-binding plant. 

58. TRiCHOLiENA, Schrad. in Schult. Mant. ii (1824), 163 ; Cke. ii, 924. 
Species 10-12.— Chiefly African. The following 2 in the Bombay Presidency. 

1. Tricholaena Teneriffae, Parlat. in Welb. & Berth. Phyt. Canar. iii, pt. 2 
(1848), 425; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 65; Cke. ii, 924.-- Saccharum Teneriffcs, 
Linn. f. Suppl. 106. — For further synonyms see Hook. f. I.e. 

Description: Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Sind : Laki (Bhide !) ; Thano-Bullo-Khan (Woodrow). 

Distribution: Punjab, W. Peninsula ; westward to Sicily and N. Africa. 

2. Tricholffina Wightii, Nees ex Steud, Syn. Gram. (1855), 93 ; Lisboa in Journ. 
Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. v, (1890), 347 ; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 65 ; Cke. ii, 925.- 
RhynchelytrumWightii, Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 21.— For further synonyms 
see Hook. f. I.e. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Konkan : Commonly cultivated in gardens in Bombay (McCann !); 
Sewri, probably an escape (Hallberg 3592 !).— Deccan : Diva Ghat (McCann 


22 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 1 (\S>M 30, 1928. 

S59D !) ; Malhargad (Woodrow) ; Poona (Woodrow) ; Mahableshwar (Lisboa) ; 
Pauchgani (Lisboa).— 5. M. Country: Badami (Bhide !, Woodow 23). 

Distribution: India (Rajputana, W. Peninsula), Arabia, CapeVerd Islands. 

5^. Pennisetum, Pers. Syn. i, (1805), 72 ; Cke. ii, 914. 

Species about 40.— In most warm countries. 

Cooke has 6 indigenous and 1 cultivated species. We add another cultivated 
species : P. purpureum, Schum. & Thoun. The name P. cenchroides , Rich, has 
to cede to P. ciliare, Link., and P. typhoideum. Rich, to P. spicatum, Roem. & 

A, Anther-cells not bearded at the tips 

I. Bristles of involucel free to the base 

1. Inner bristles of involucel scaberulotis, 

not ciliate 

(a) Leaves 30-45 cm. long ... 1. P. Alopecuros. 

(b) Leaves 7-15 cm. long ... 2. P. dichotomum* 

2. Inner bristles of involucel ciliate below 

the middle, but naked at the base. 

Involucel stripitate ... ... 3. P. orientate. 

3. Inner bristles of involucel densely 

villous or ciliate below the middle, not 
naked at the base. Involucel sessile 
{a) Inner bristles of involucel den- 
sely villous ... ... 4. P* pedicellatum* 

(<b) Inner bristles of involucel laxly 
ciliate with long silky hairs, 
not villous ... ... 5. P. setosum. 

II. Inner bristles of involucel dilated below, 
their bases confluent in a coriaceous 
disk ... ... ... ... 6. P. ciliare. 

B. Anther-cells more or less bearded at the tips 

Styles connate 
I. Culms less than 2 m. high. Pale of upper 

floral glume truncate ... .. 7. P. spicatum. 

II. Culms more than 2 in. high. Pale of upper 

floral glume minutely 2-toothed ... 8. P purpureum. 

1. Pennisetum Alopecuros, Nees ex Steud Syn. Gram. (1855), 102; Duthie 
Grass. N. W. Ind. 10 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. v. (1890), 338; 
Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 84; Cke. ii, 914.— P. Uohenacheti, Hochst. ex Steud. I.e. 
103. — P. aureum, Dalz. & Gibs. 294 — Gymnothrix Alopecuros, Nees in Wight 
Cat. no. 1663 ; SteudA.c.—G. cenchroides, Roem. & Schult. Syst.ii, 499. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Sind: (Dalzell).— Gujarat : N. Sonasan, on dry sandy bank 
(Sedgwick \).—Khandesh : Toranmal, very common around lake (McCann 
9862 \).—Deccan : Poona (Woodrow !, Lisboa, Jacquemont 407) ; near Poona 
(Gammie 15314!); Nasik (Bourke ! , Blatter & Hallberg 9863!, Lisboa); 
Purandhar, N. foot (McCann 5045!); Lohagad, plain (McCann 9502!); 
Panchgani (Blatter 3802 !, Blatter & Hallberg 1292 !, McCann!); Lonavla 
(Lisboa).— S. M. Country: Dharwar (Sedgwick 3718!); Londa (Gammie 
15827 !) ; Belgaum (Woodrow).— Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2090 !). 

Commonly found in clumps on sandy soil near streams and lakes. It is 
extremely tough and occupies sometimes large patches of land excluding almost 
everything else. Dichanthium caricosum is commonly found growing together 
with this grass. 

Distribution : Rajputana, C. India, W. Peninsula. 

Uses : ' In Poona brooms are said to be made of it, and at Mt. Abu it is 
employed in the manufacture of cordage.' (Lisboa). 

2. Pennisetum dichotomum, Del. Fl. d'Egypt. (1813), 159, t. viii, fig. 1., Trin. 
Diss, ii, 66, Pan. Gen. 94 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 161. Suppl. 110 ; Steud. Syn. 
Gram. 105 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 444 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 162 ; Dutbie Grass. 
N. W. Ind. 10 ; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 85 ; Aschers.— Schweinf. 111. Fl. d'Eg. 161, 
No. 1131 ; Cke. ii, 915.— P. phalaroides, Schult. Mant. ii, \\1 —Gymnothrix 
longiglumis, Munro in Cat. Griff, etc. PI. 56 [nojnen). — Cenchrus ramosissimus 


Sept. 30, 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 23 

Poir. Encycl. vi, 51 ; Dalz. & Gibs. 294. — Phalaris retacea, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt. 
— Arab. 20. — Panicum dichotomum, Forsk. I.e. 

Description: Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Sind : On sand hills (Stocks, Wood row ) ; Bholari (Bhide f) ; 
Nasarpur, sandy plains (Sabnis B1050 !) ; Sehwan, sand dunes (SabnisB673 !). — 
Gujarat : la hedges (Dalzell & Gibson). 

Distribution : Punjab, N. W. Provinces, W. Peninsula, Afghanistan, Persia, 
Arabia, Syria, Sinai, Egypt. 

Uses : Collected for fodder, one of the most valuable of desert plants. 

3. Pennisetum orientale, Rich, in Pers. Syn. i (1805), 72 ; Boiss. Fl. Or v, 445 ; 

Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 10 ; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 86 ; Cke. ii, 915 ; Muschler 
Fl. Egypt (1912), 66; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 986. — P. arenosum, Edgew. 
in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxi (1852), 180 ; Aitchis Cat. Pan jab PI. 162 ; Duthie 
Grass. N. W. Ind. 10.— P. persicum, Boiss. & Biihsein Nov. Mem. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. xii (1860), 232. -P. sinaicum. Dene, in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. ii (1834), 11 ; 
Aitchis. I.e. ; Duthie I.e.— P. tiberiadis, Boiss. Diagn.ser. i, xiii. 4£.—Cenchrus 
orientalis, Willd. ex Trin. Diss, ii, 69.— Panicum orientate, Willd. Enum, Hort. 
Berol. ii 1031. 

Description : Cke. ii, 915. 

Locality: Sind: Hyderabad (Woodrcw !) ; Mirpurkhas (Mankhad !). — 
Konkan : Victoria Gardens, Bombay (McCann 4385 !). 

Distribution : W. Himalaya, Punjab, W. Peninsula, Persia, Syria, Cilicia, 
Sinai, Egypt, Algeria. 

4. Pennisetum pedicel latum, Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 6, iii, pt. 2 (1835) ¥ 
184 : Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 86 ; Cke. ii, 916 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 986.— 
P. lanuginosum, Hochst. in Flora xxv (1842), Beibl. i, 133 ; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. 
Abyss, ii, 385 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. v (1890), 339.— For 
further synonyms see Hook, f . 

Description : Cke. ii, 916. 

Locality: Gujarat: (Lisboa); Rajkot ( Woodrow).— Khandesh : Toranmal 
in watercourse (McCann 9868 \).—Deccan : College Farm, Poona (Garade !). 
Distribution : Bihar, Rajputana, W. Peninsula, tropical Africa. 

5. Pennisetum setosum, Rich, in Pers. Syn. i (1805), 72; Hook, f F.B.I, vii, 87, 
Cke. ii, 916 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 986.— P. barbaium, Schult. Mant 
ii, 147.— P. holcoides, Schult I.e. 148 ; Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 10, lndig. Fodd. 
Grass, t. 49, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 17.— P. purpurascens, H. B. & K. Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. i, 113.— Panicum barbatum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 282 . — Panicmrt 
holcoides, Roxb. I.e. 285. 

Description : Cke. ii, 916. — Our specimens from Khandesh have the bristles 
quite free from hairs. 

Locality : Sind: Hyderabad (Woodrow). — Gujarat: Ahmedabad, No. 6 
grass plot Bhadar (Sedgwick \) .— Khandesh : To Toranmal (McCann 9869 !) ; 
Chanseli Hill, S. slope (McCann 9867 !). 

Distribution : India (W. Bengal, Bihar, Upper Gangetic Plain, W. Peninsula) y 
tropical Africa and America. 

6. Pennisetum ciliare, Link. Hort. Berol. i (1827), 213 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 445 ; 
Aschers.-Schweinf. 111. Fl. d'Eg-161, no. 1132 ; Sickenberg Contrib. FL d'Eg. 
301 ; Muschler FL Eg. i, 65.-Cenchrus ciliaris, Linn. Mantiss. ii, 302 ; Desf. 
Fl. Atlant. ii, 387 .-Pennisetum cenchroides, Rich, in Pers. Syn. i (1805), 72 ; 
Beauv. Agrost. 59, t. 13, f . 5 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PL 162; Lisboa in Journ. 
Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. v (1890), 338 ; Duthie Grass. N.W.Ind. 10, lndig. Fodd. 
Grass, t. 12, 13, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 17. 

Fern. Names : Jiral, Anjan, Dhaman (Sind), Vaghnoru (Gujarat). 

Description : Cke. ii, 916. 

Locality: Sind: (Burns I); Mirpurkhas (Mankad !, Sabnis B1043!); Jaco- 
babad (Deputy Commissioner!;; Sanghar (Sabnis B892!); Clifton, near 
Karachi (Sabnis B805 !); Jamadar kaLanda, near Karachi (Stocks); Sehwan 
to Laki (Sabnis B620!); Nasarpur (Sabnis B1056!); Umerkot, sand dunes 
(Sabnis B1079f); Tatta, Kullan Kote Lake (Blatter & McCann D630 !, 
D631 !, D633!), Tatta (Blatter & McCann D632 !, D634 !, D635 !)!; Indus Delta 
(Blatter & McCann D636l).-Gttjarat: Nadiad (Chibber !); Dohad, (Chibber !); 
Daman (Bhide !); Surat (Gammie !); Ahmedabad (Sedgwick !.)'; near Madalpur, 


24 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol, XXXIII, No. 1 [Sept 30, 1928. 

Ahmedabad (Saxton 1065!); Bhuj Hill, Cutch (Blatter 3767 !); Rajkot, Kathi- 
awar (Woodrow).—K/iandesh: Tapti bank, Muravad (Blatter & Hallberg 
51651 !); Uraalla, Tapti bank (Blatter & Hallberg 5208 \).—Deccan : (Lisboa !). 
—S.M. Country. Gokak (Shevade!). 

Distribution : India (Kashmir, Upper Gangetic Plain, W. Peninsula, 
Deccan), throughout Africa, Sicily, Canaries. 

7. Pennisetum spicatum, Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. ii (18.17), 499.— Panicum 
spicatum. Roxb. Fi. Ind. i, 283. — Penicillaria spicata, Willd. Emim. Hort. 
Berol. 1037 ; Aitchis. Cat. Punjab PI. 163.— Holcus spicatus, Linn. Syst. ed, x, 
1305; Grah. Cat. Bomb. PI. 238; Dalz. & Gibs. Suppl. 99.— Pennisetum 
typhoideum, Rich, in Pers. Syn. i (1805), 72; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 447 ; Duthie 
Grass. N.W. Ind. 11, Field and Gard. Crops 30, t. 71, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 
18; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. v (1890), 339; Hook. f. F B.I. 
vii, 82 ; Pram Beng. PI. 1169 ; Cke. ii, 917 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 
985.— Panicum americanutn, Linn. Sp. PI. i, 56.— Pennisetum americanum , 
K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenw. Ost.— Afr. B. (1895), 51; Hitchc. in Bailey 
Cyclop. Hortic. 2537.— Holcus racemosus, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.— Arab. (1775), 
175.— Alopecurus indica, Burm. Fl. Ind. 27. 

In order to explain the above synonymy and the final adoption of the speci- 
fic name P. spicatum we reproduce a MS. note kindly sent to us by 
Mr. Hubbard : 

"Pennisetum typhoideum L. Rich, in Pers. Syn. i. 72 (1805) has been changed 
to Pennisetum americanum by K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenw. Ost. -Afr. B. 51 
(1895), based on Panicum americanum L. Sp. PI. ed. i. 56, (1753) Panicum 
americanum L. in turn, is based on Panicum americanum Clusius Hist., ccxv 
(1601). Hitchcock in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. xxii. 218 (1921) suggests that the 
figure (in Clusius) is that of the ' common millet ' (Setaria italica) and that the 
description is based on more than one species. I do not think the figure is that 
of the ' common millet ', it is however very similar to a form of ' pearl millet ' 
cultivated in Spain ; in addition Clusius says that his Panicum americanum 
grows as tall as a man and has stouter, thicker stems than the common millet 
which he calls Panicum vulgare and figures on the same page. In the second 
edition of the Species Plantarum, 1484 (1763), Linnseus quotes Panicum ameri- 
canum in synonomy under Holcus spicatus L. (first published in Syst, Nat. ed. 
x. ii. 1305 (1759); this is the basis of Pennisetum spicatum Roem. et Schult. 
Syst. Veg. ii. 499 (1817). It appears advisable to use this name in preference to 
Pennisetum americanum K. Schum., owing to the uncertainty as to what 
Panicum americanum Clusius really is and also the name 4 americanum ' is 

Vern Names : Bajri, bulrush millet, cat-tail millet, pearl millet. 

Description : Annual. Culms tall, erect, stout, terete, 0*9— 1*8 m. high, rooting 
at the lower nodes, sometimes woolly, pubescent below the inflorescence. 
Leaves 30-90 cm. by 6-50 mm., linear to linear-lanceolate from a rounded base, 
acute, flat, more or less rough, glabrous, rarely hirsute ; sheath terete, rather 
inflated, glabrous except the bearded nodes and the often villous junction with 
the blade, rarely hirsute, usually slightly rough, rather shorter than the inter- 
nodes, ligule a narrow, long and densely ciliate rim. Panicle spike-like, cylin- 
dric, very dense, 10-20 cm. long, often purplish ; rhachis stout, villous ; 
branchlets reduced to a peduncled involucrate cluster of 1-8 spikelets ; pedun- 
cles villous, straight, 2*5—5 cm. long, often horizontally spreading or partly 
deflexed ; involucre of very numerous ciliate often purplish bristles about as 
long as the spikelets. Spikelets sessile, or shortly pedicelled within the in- 
volucre, readily deciduous when ripe, oblong, 5-6 mm. long, pale or purplish 
upwards. Lower involucral glurne minute or 0, half-orbicular or subquadrate, 
1-3-nerved ; upper variable in length, sometimes absent, usually %-% the 
length of the upper floral glume, subquadrate, truncate, obtuse or retuse, 
3-nerved, very rarely as long as the upper floral glume and coriaceous. Lower 
floral glume ovate-oblong, obtuse or truncate and apiculate, 5-nerved, epaleate 
or paleate, male or neuter, rarely bisexual ; upper coriaceous or herbaceous, 
ovate, acute, 5-7-nerved, pale very broad, truncate, ciliate at the tip and 
dorsally, nerves 2, approximate, excurrent. Lodicules 0. Anthers linear, 2*5 
-3 mm. long, tips bearded. Styles connate. Grain oblong, obovoid, or pyri- 
form, smooth, free, top exposed. 

Locality : Cultivated throughout the Presidency. 


Sept. 30 1928.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 25 

Origin : Unknown. See Leeke. Untersuchungen uber Abstammung nnd 
Heimat der Negerhirse. 

8. Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. & Thonn. Beskr. Guin. PI. 44 ; Stapf in 
Kew Bull. (MZ), 309. — P. macrostachyum, Hook. Niger Flora 563. —P. 
Benihamii, Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 105.— P. nitens, Hack, in Bol. Soc. Brot. vi 
(1888), 142. — Gymnothrix nitens, Anderss. in Peters Reise nach Mossamb. vi 
(1881), 552.— Pennisetum f lexis pica, K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenw. Ost.-Afr. 
C (1895), 105. 

Popular Name : Elephant Grass. 

Description: Perennial. Rhizome creeping. Culms erect, in tufts of up to 
20, 2-3 m. or occasionally up to 7 m. high by P2-2-5 cm. diam. at the base ; 
branches obliquely erect, terete, glabrous, smooth, excepting the upper part of 
the uppermost interi ode which is more or less hairy to tomentcse, exserted 
parts sometimes covered with a glaucous bloom ; nodes mostly exserted from 
the sheaths, all glabrous or most of them or only the uppermost with a ring of 
stiff, long, appressed hairs. Leaf-blade linear, inserted on the sheath with a 
very marked hinge-fold, tapering upwards to a fine point, 30-60, rarely to 90 
cm. long by 2'5 cm. diam., with a strong midrib, rounded or the back with a 
shallow channel above towards the base, and in the larger leaves with 6 or 7 
slightly prominent primary nerves on each side, dull green, sometimes slightly 
glaucous or tinged with purple, more or less rough on both sides, glaucous 
beneath, usually more or less hairy above, especially t< wards the base which 
sometimes becomes fringed, hairs fine, mosily rather stiff and long and often 
springing frcm small tubercles ; margins spinulosely scabrid. Sheaths terete, 
clasping the stem, striate, glabrous and smooth or pubescent to hirsute with 
tubercle- based hairs near the top. Ligule a narrow rim bearing a dense fringe 
of white hairs 2 or 3 mm. long. Inflorescence a dense, cylindric, erect spike, 
8-20 and even 30 cm. long a> d 15-3 cm. diam., yellow or tinged with brown, 
purple or quite blackish-pu pie, made up of deciduous spikelets or fascicles of 
spikelets, each spikelet or fascicle surrounded by an involucre of numerous 
bristles of unequal length, most of them 5-8 mm. long, one usually very much 
longer (1* 2-2 or exceptionally to 4 cm. long), scabrid, one or several of the 
innermost and longest sparingly plumose towards the base, rarely all naked, 
often dark yellow, brownish or purplish towards the tips or blackish-purple 
from the base. Spikelets sessile or if in fascicles of 2-4, the lateral pedicelled, 
all lanceolate, more or less acuminate, 5-7 mm. long, glabrous, straw-coloured 
or tinged with brown or purple towards the tips of the florets, rarely blackish- 
purple all over, hermaphrodite or, if fascicled, the lateral male, rarely neuter 
or all hermaphrodite. Lower involucral glume suppressed or quite rudimen- 
tary, upper ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute, 0*5-1, rarely to 2 mm. long, 
subhyaline, 1-nerved or nerveless. Lower floral glume male or more often 
barren, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, half as long to almost as long as the 
upper glume, 3-nerved, rarely 1- or 5-, or even 7-nerved, pale linear- 
lanceolate, 2-nerved, shorter than the glume or in the barren florets reduced or 
suppressed ; upper hermaphrodite or in the lateral spikelets male, lanceolate, 
acuminate or rostrate-acuminate, scaberulous upwards, usually 5-nerved, pale 
narrow, linear-lanceolate, slightly shorter than the glume, tips minutely 
2-toothed. Lodicules 0. Anthers 2'5-3 mm. long, tips very minutely peni- 
cillate. Styles united throughout ; stigmas very slender, up to 4 mm. long, 
exserted from the top of the floret. Mature grain unknown. 

A most variable plant as can be seen from Stapf 's description given above. 
He refrains from subdividing the species. 

Popular Names : Elephant Grass, Napier's Fodder. 

Locality : Imported into Bombay in 1915. Has been grown at several centres 
in W. India : Agricultural College Farm, Poona, the Governor's Dairy Farm, 
Ganeshkhind, the Sewage Effluent Farm at Hadapsar in the Deccan, the 
Chharodi Cattle Farm in N. Gujarat, and the Willingdon Cattle Farm near 

Distribution: Indigenous in tropical Africa between 10° N. Lat. and 20° 
S. Lat. 

Uses : One of the best fodder-grasses. See Stapf Kew Bull. (1912), 313-316 ; 
H. H. Mann in Bull. 100 and 127 of the Dept. Agriculture, Bombay; 
Rhodesian Agric. Journ. vii (1910), 1398. 

( To be continued) 


Part VIII. By E. Blatter, s.j., ph.d m f.l.s. 


e4tA^*# & 

[From the Journal of the Bombay Natural Hist. Soc, February 15, 1929.] 



E. Blatter, s.j., ph.d., f.l.s 




E. Blatter and C. McCann 

{Continued from page 25 of this Volume.) 

60. Cknchrus, Linn. ; Hitchcock and Chase in 
Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb, xx (1920), 50. 
Annual or perennial herbs. The inflorescences are spike-like racemes, con- 
sisting of involucellate clusters of shortly pedicellate spikelets jointed on a 
simple rhachis. Iavolucel consisting of hardened spike-like bristles, connate at 
the base into a short, coriaceous cup, which is surrounded by erect or squarrose 
bristles. Spikelets 1-3 in each involucel, mostly glabrous or nearly so, persist- 
ent, 1-2-flowered, with 3-4 glumes Lower involucral glume 1-nerved, usually 
narrow, sometimes wanting ; upper involucral glume and lower floral glume 
subequal, 5-7-nerved. Lower floral glume longer than the upper involucral, 
with or without male flower, paleate Upper floral glume coriaceous, with a 
hermaphrodite or female flower. Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Styles 2, stigmas 
plumose. Grain broad, oblong, dorsally compressed, with a punctiform hilum, 
free within the glume and pale. 

Species about 25. — Tropical and subtropical. 

1. Base of involucel rounded ... ... 1. C. bif torus. 

2. Base of involucel turbinate ... ... 2, C. catharticus. 

1. Cenchrus biflorus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1832), 233; Cke. ii, 917; Achariyar 
S. Ind. Grass. (1921), 121— For synonymy see Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 89. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Sind : Karachi (Woodrow) ; Jamadar ka Landa, near Karachi 
(Stocks); Jamesabad, in fields (Sabnis B1110 !) ; Umerkot, sandy plains 
(Sabnis B1081 !) ; Nasarpur, clayey soil (Sabnis B1051!) ; Mirpur Sakro 
(Blatter and McCann D627 !) ; Tatta (Blatter and McCann D628 !). — Gujarat ; 
Kharaghoda, under trees (Saxton 1064 !) ; Ahmedabad (Sedgwick !, Cooke) ; 
MorviTwoodrow).— Khandesh : Bhusawal, Tapti (McCann 5154!); Umalla, 
TaptiBank (Blatter and Hallberg 5158 !) ; Kaperkhedo, Bori River (Blatter and 
Hallberg 4393 !) . 

Distribution : Punjab, Rajputana, Gangetic Plain, W. Peninsula, Balu- 
chistan, Arabia, Africa. 

2. Cenchrus catharticus, Del. Cat. Hort. Monsp. (1838); Schlecht. Linnsea 
xiii (1839) Litt. p. 103; Cke. ii, 918; Hitchcock and Chase in Contrib. U.S. 
Nat. Herb, xx (1920), 53, fig. 8 ; Achariyar S. Ind. Grass. (1921), 122.— For 
synonyms see Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 90. 

Description : Cke. ii, 918. 

Locality : Sind : Karachi (Burns !) ; Gharo (Blatter and McCann D629).— 
Gujarat : Ahmedabad, sandy ground (Sedgwick !) ; Sumrasar, Cutch (Blatter 
3762 !) ; Perim Island, at the mouth of the Narbada River (Raoji).— Khandesh : 
Bor, Bori River (Blatter and Hallberg 5115 !). 

Distribution : Punjab, Gangetic Plain, W. Peninsula, Bellary, Nellore, 
Arabia, tropical Africa. 


230 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 2 [Fed. 15, 1929. 

61. Isachne, R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. (1810), 196 ; 
Cke. ii, 922. 
For discussion of the genus see : Chase Genera Paniceae. iv. Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington 24 (1911), 149 and Hitchcock North Americ. Species of Isachne in 
Contrib. U.S. Nat Herb. 22 (1920), 115. 
Key in Cke. ii, 922. 

1. Isachne Li«boae, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii (1896), 22 ; Cke. ii, 922. 
Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Deccan : Mahableshwar, elevation 4,000 ft., rainfall 270 inches 
(Sedgwick and Bell 4581!), Fitzgerald Ghat, Mahableshwar (Woodrow!), 
common near the lake (McCann!); Panchgani, First Tableland (Blatter and 
Hallberg!), very common on Tableland (McCann !). 

Distribution: This species is very local, inhabiting apparently only the 
Panchgani and Mahableshwar plateaux. 

2. Isachne elegans Dalz. in Dalz. & Gibs. Bombay Fl. (1861), 291 ; Hook. f. 
in F.B.I, vii, 23 ; Cke. ii, 923. 

Description: Cke. I.e.— We have found specimens reaching the following 
dimensions : Stem 90 cm. ; leaves 25 by 1 cm., or broader, sparingly hairy or 
almost villous ; panicle 25 by 15 or more cm. 

Locality : Konkan : Pen, in inundated land (Dalzell).— Deccan : Margins of 
rivulets in the Deccan (Dalzell and Gibson) ; Mahableshwar, elevation 4,000 
ft., rainfall 270 inches (Sedgwick and Bell 4583!); Panchgani, Tableland, 
forming, large patches (Blatter 5080 !) ; Sinhagad forest (Bhide!) ; Nasrapur 
to Purandhar (Bhide 1001 !) ; Purandhar, N. foot (McCann 5048 !) ; Lohagad 
Fort, top (McCann 9560 !) ; Kbandala, behind hotel (McCann 9555 !); Lonavla 
(Woodrow 175) ; Ganeshkhind Gardens (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona!); between 
Poona and Karli (Jacqueraont 556).— 5. M. Country : Dharwar, rice fields, 
elevation 2,500 ft. (Sedgwick 1829!).— Kanara : Halyal, rice fields (Talbot 
2305 !).— Usually forming large mats in damp soft soil, and then not growing 
very tall. 

Distribution : So far endemic. 

3. Isachne australis, R. Br. Prodr. (1810), 196; Cke. ii, 923.— For synonyms 
see Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 923. 

Description : Cke . 1 . c . 

Locality : Gujarat : (Lisboa). — Konkan : Nagotna, in dry plains (Gammie 
16064!); Kharda (Ryan 565!) ; Bhandup (McCann 9841!); Matunga to 
Mahim (McCann 9842 !) ; Andheri (McCann 5129 !) ; Sion (McCann 5244 !) ; 
Pen (McCann 5390 !) ; Alibag, rice fields (Ezekiel !); Mulgaum, tank (McCann 
5103 !) ; Matheran, Charlotte Lake (D'Almeida A247 !).— Deccan: Khandala, 
common (McCann 9840 !) ; Sakarpathar, Lonavla (Gammie 15961 !) ; Igatpuri 
(Blatter and Hallberg 4308 !) ; Poona (Lisboa) ; Mahableshwar (Woodrow) ; 
Nasik (Lisboa).— S.M. Country : Dharwar District, rice fields, elevation 1,800 
ft., rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick 3737 !) ; Kunnur, marshes, elevation 2,000 ft., 
rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick and Bell 4936!) ; Londa (Bhide \).— Kanara : 
Karwar (Bell !) ; Gohann (Herb. Econ. Bot. Poona !) ; Halyal (Talbot 2160 !); 
Sirsi to Siddhapur (Hallberg and McCann A19 !) ; Yellapore (Talbot 1521 !) ; 
Kadgal (Herb Econ. Bot. Poona !). 

Distribution : All over India, Australia, New Zealand. 

4. Isachne miliacea, Roth. Nov. PI. Sp. (1821), 58; Cke. ii, 923.— For syno- 
nyms see Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 25. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Konkan: (Woodrow).— Deccan : Lonavla (Woodrow); Maha- 
bleshwar, in forests, fairly common in one spot (McCann !).— Kanara : Sulgeri, 
500 ft., rainfall 200 inches (Sedgwick and Bell 4248 !) ; Yellapore (Talbot 1522'); 
Gersoppa Falls, Mysore side (McCann & Hallberg A23 !). 

Distribution : More or less throughout India, Ceylon, China, Malay and 
Pacific Islands, S. America. 

62. Arundinella, Raddi Agrost. Brasil. (1823), 37 ; Cke. ii, 999. 
Species about 55. — In the tropics. 

Cooke describes 12 species from the Bombay Presidency. We retain them 
all except that we change A. agrostoides, Trin. into A. ciliala, Nees, and A. 


Feb. 15, 1929.] ' Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 


brasiliensis into A. hispida, O. Ktze. To the 12 species we add another : A. 
v/llosa, Wight & Arn. 

Key after Cke. ii, 999. 





Upper floral glume with 3 awns. 
Leaves less than 10 cm. long Annuals 

1. A straggling grass. Leaves glabrous 

or sparsely hairy... 

2. An erect grass. Leaves hispid with bul- 

bous-based hairs 
Leaves 15-30 cm . long. Perennials 
Upper floral glume with 1 awn 
Spikelets 15-2 mm. long 
Spikelets 2'5-3mm. 

1. Stem scarcely 15 cm. high. Leaves 2*5- 

4 cm. long 

2. Stem exceeding 15 cm. 

a. Stem reaching 45 cm. Leaves 2*5-10 

cm. long ; they and the sheaths 
clothed with long soft hairs 

b. Stem reaching 90 cm. Leaves 10-15 

cm. long ; they and the sheaths gla- 
brous or nearly so 

c. Stem reaching 4 ft. Leaves 20-30 cm. 

long, sparsely hairy ; sheaths gla- 
brous or nearly so 
Spikelets 4-6 mm. long 

1. Panicle branched 

a. Rootstock hard, creeping, not tuber- 

ous. Rhachis of panicle angular, gla- 

b. Rootstock tuberous. Rhachis of panicle 

filiform, scaberulous 

2. Panicle spicate 

a. Leaves 2"5-4 cm. long 

b. Leaves 10-20-30 cm. long ... 
Upper floral glume without awn ... 


A. avenacea. 


A. tuberculata. 
A. setosa. 


A. tenet la. 


A. Pygmcsa. 


A. ciliata. 


A. Metzii. 


A. Lawii. 




A. hispida. 

A. capillaris. 

A. spicata. 
A. villosa. 
A. gigantea. 

1. Arundinella avenacea, Munro ex Thw. Enum. PI. Ceyl. (1864), 362; Hook. 
f. in F. B. I. vii, 69 ; Cke. ii, 1000 {arenacea per err.). — A. Campbelliana, Lisb. 
in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. v (1891), 346.-^4. malabarica, Heyne ex Hook. 
f. in P. B. I. vii (1897), 69.— Air a, no. 3, Griff. Notul. iii, 55, Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 
146. f. iii. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1000.— This grass in its young state resembles A. 
spicata so much, that it can easily be mistaken for that species. 

Locality : Konkan : Ratnagiri (Woodrow).— Deccan : Mahableshwar, very 
common, 4,500 ft., rainfall 270 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4510 !, Lisboa); Panch- 
gani (Blatter 5383!), Tiger's Path (Blatter & Hallberg B1255 !) ; Khandala, 
very common (McCann 9604 !) ; Tiger Leap near Lonavala (Woodrow).— 
S. M. Country : Ram Ghat (Ritchie 890 ) . — Kanara : Castle Rock (McCann 
9854!, Woodrow, Bhide !) ; Anmod, 1,800 ft., rainfall 200 inches (Sedgwick 
3253 !) : Tinai Ghat, 1,869 ft, rainfall 250 inches (Sedgwick 3269 !) ; Yellapore 
(Talbot 1035 !) ; Supa (Talbot 2487 !) ; Kumberwada (Talbot 2255 !) ; Karwar 
(Talbot 1302 !) ; Katgal (Hallberg & McCann A165 !) ; Devimane (McCann 

Distribution : Khasia, Burma, W Peninsula, Ceylon. 

2. Arundinella tuberculata, Munro ex Lisboa in Jonrn. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
v (1891), 344 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 69 ; Cke. ii, 1000 : Janowski in Bot. 
Archivi (1922), 24. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Konkan : Vasco da Gama (Bhide !).— Deccan : Panchgani, slopes 
below Third Tableland (Blatter & Hallberg 1232 !) ; Pasarni Ghat (Blatter & 
Hallberg 1306 !) ; Poona (Woodrow).— 5. M. Country : Dry hills between 
Yelvigi and Savanur, 1,900 ft., rainfall 25-30 inches (Sedgwick 1959!).— 


232 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 2 {Feb. 15, 1929. 

Kanara : Manoli (Talbot 3979 !) ; Jog to Siddhapur, open grassland, rocky 
soil (McCann 9856 !) ; Katgal, open grass land (Hallberg & McCann A164 !) ; 
Karwar, open grass land (Hallberg & McCann A163 !). 
Distribution : Central India. 

3. Arundinella setosa, Trin. Gram. Panic. (1826), 63; Hook. f. in F. B. I. 
vii, 70 ; Cke. ii, 1001 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 13 ; Janowski in Bot. Archiv. 
i (1922), 24.— A. hirsuta y Nees ex Steud. Syn. Gram, 115 ; Hoben. PI. Ind. Or. 
no . 920.—^. stricta, Nees in Hook. Kew Journ. ii (1850), 102 ; Dalz. & Gibs. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Konkan : Near Bombay (Ritchie).— Kanara : Dandeli (Talbot 
2266 !) ; Gersoppa Falls, on rocks in river bed (McCaan A166 !, A162 !)„ 

Distribution : W. Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Bihar, Central India, Nilgiris, 
Ceylon, Tonkin, China, Philippines. 

4. Arundinella fenetla, Nees & Wight ex Steud. Norn. ed. 2, pt. 1 (1840) . 143 ; 
Dalz. & Gibs. 292 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 13 ; Lisb. in Journ. Bomb. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. v (1891), 345 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 71 ; Cke. ii, 1001.— Anema. 
grostis tenella, Wight ex Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i (1854), 115. — Arundinella 
pumila, Steud. I.e. — Acratherum pumilum, Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. Fl. 
Abyss, ii (1851), 414, t. 100. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1001. 

Locality : Khandesh : Toranmal (McCann 9594 !).— Konkan : Pen (McCann 
5502 !) ; Bombay (Lambert).— Deccan : Mahableshwar, 4,500 ft., rainfall 200 
inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4522 !) ; common under the shade of trees (Dalzell, 
Cooke, Woodrow, Lisboa) ; Panchgani (Blatter 3798 1). Maratha Well (Blatter 
& Hallberg B1222 !) ; Karli and Khandala (Jacquemont 631) ; Khandala, very 
common (McCann 5354 !) ; Lonavla (Gammie !, Woodrow) ; Pnrandhar 
(McCann 5013!) ; Igatpuri (McCann 5354).— Kanara : Yellapore, 2,000 ft., 
rainfall 100 inches (Sedgwick 3125 !) ; Haiyal (Talbot 2553 !) ; Dandeli (Talbot 
2268!) ; Tinai (Talbot 2576 !).— A very ornamental grass, found commonly 
throughout the hilly parts of the Presidency. 

Distribution : W. Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Bihar, Central India, W- Penin- 
sula, Abyssinia. 

5. Arundinella pygmaea, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii (1896), 72; Cke. ii, 1002; 
Janowski in Bot. Archiv i (1922), 25. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Konkan : Crest of W. Ghats (Woodrow).— Deccan : In public 
garden, Mahableshwar, 4,500 ft., rainfall 270 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4619 !) ; 
Khandala (McCann 5318 !) ; Igatpuri (Blatter & Hallberg 5143 I).— Kanara : 
N. Kanara (Lisboa). 

Distribution : Endemic. 

6. Arundinella cillata, Nees ex Miq. in Verh. Nederl. Ind. iii, iv (1851), 30 ; 
Janowski in Bot. Archiv i (1922), 25.— Holcus ciliatus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1820), 
318.— Arundinella agrostoides, Trin. Ic. xxiii (1828-36) t 265 ; Cke. ii, 1002.— 
A. agrostoides var. ciliata, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 71.—£randtia holcoides r 
Kunth. Rev. Gram, ii (1835), 127, t. 170.— Perotis polystachya Heyne ex Hook, 
f. I.e. 71. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1002. 

Locality : Konkan : (Wight). — We have not seen any specimens. 

Distribution : India, Philippines. 

7. Arundinella Metzii, Hochst. in Miq. Anal. Bot. Ind. pt. 2 (1851), 19; 
Steud. Syn. Gram. 116, excl. syn. Roxb. ; Cke. ii, 1003.— Agrostis fusca, 
Heyne ex Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 72.— Arundinella agrostoides, Trin. var. 
tenella, Herb. Ind. Or. Hook. f. & Th. ex Hook. f. I.e. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1003. 

Locality: Deccan: Lonavla (Woodrow).— 5. M. Country: Devarayi, 1,800 
ft., rainfall 90 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4474 !).— Kanara : Yellapore, 2,000ft., 
rainfall 100 inches (Sedgwick 3469 !) ; Sunksal, rocky bank of a stream in 
evergreen forest 500~ ft., rainfall 150 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 5040 !) ; Birchy 
(Talbot 2105 I, 2116 !, 2488 !) ; Dandeli (Talbot 2268 !). 


Feb, 15, 1929.] , Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 233 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, 

8. Arundinella Lawii, Hook. f. in Trim. PL Ceyl. v (1900), 180; Cke. ii, 
1003. — ^4 agrostoides, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii (1896), 71, partim. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Konkan : (Woodrow 35 !) ; N. & S. Konkan (Law), 

Distribution: W. Peninsula, Ceylon. 

9. Arundinella hispida, O. Ktze Rev. Gen, (1891 j, 761 ; Janowski in Bot. 
Archivi (1922), 26.— Andropogon hispidus, Willd. Sp. PL iv (1805), 908.— 
Ischcsmum hispidum, H.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. i (1815), 194. — Arundinella 
crasiliensis, Raddi Agrost. Brasil. (1823), 37, t. 1, fig. 3 ; Trin. Diss, ii, 62, Sp. 
Gram. Ic. t, 266 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 73 ; Cke. ii, 1003.— ,4. pallida, Nees 
Agrost. Brasil. (1829), 165.— AcratJierium miliaceum, Link Hort. Berol. ii 
(1841), 234.— Orthopogon agrostoides, Trev. ex Steud. Norn. ed. 2, ii (1841), 
234. — Andropogon virens, Spreng. Syst. i (1825), 287 .—Arundinella Mikani, 
Neesl.e. 465. — Goldbachia Mikani, Trin. in Spreng. Neue Entdeek. ii (1821), 
8l.—Riedelia Mikani, Trin. ex Kunth Enum. PL i (1833), 515,- Aira 
brasiliensis, Spreng. Syst. i (1825), 278, — Ischcemum pallidum, Kunth. Enum. 
PL i (1833), 515. — Arundinella Ritchiei, Munro ex Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. v (1891), Wi.-Holcus nervosus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1820} , 318.— 
Arundinella nepalensis, Trin. Sp. Gram. (1828) i t. 268 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. 
Ind. 13 ; Lisboa I.e. 343. 

Description .- Cke. ii, 1003.— A most variable plant. See Hook. f. in F.B.I. 
vii, 74. 

Locality : Deccan : Mahableshwar, 4,500 ft, rainfall 270 inches (Dalzell & 
Gibson, Lisboa), in a stream (Sedgwick & Bell 4543!); Panchgani (Wood- 
row) ; Khandala (Saxton 1205!, Lisboa) ; Lonavla (Hallberg 9660 !, Garade!, 
Lisboa). — Kanara : Castle Rock, on banks of Duoki River, 1,900 ft. (McCann 
4855!); Kalanudi to Supa, 1,800 ft., rainfall 100 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 
4872!) ; Yellapore, in a gravelly stream bed, 2,000 ft., rainfall 100 inches 
{Sedgwick 3126 !) ; Sumpkhund, in river bed (Hallberg & McCann A159 !) ; 
Dandeli (Talbot 2241 !). 

Distribution : Throughout the hilly parts of India, China, Malaya, 
Australia tropical America. 

10. Arundinella capillars, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii (1896), 74 ; Cke. ii, 1004. — 
A. mutica, Nees ex Steud. Syn. Gram. (1855), 116.— Andropogon capillaris. 
Herb. Heyne ex Hook, f. in F.B.I. I.e. 75. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Konkan : Parel, Bombay Island (Woodrow).— A 7 ". Kanara : Kala- 
nudi (Woodrow). 

We doubt the occurrence of this species in the Bombay Presidency. 
Woodrow gives two localities, but neither Cooke nor we have seen his speci- 
mens. Lisboa (Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. v (1891), 8) calls this plant 
common all over Bombay. If it is really common it is strange that we should 
never have met it. 

Distribution : W. Peninsula. 

11. Arundinella spicata, Dalz. in Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. FL (1861), 293 ; Hook, 
f. in F.B.I, vii (1896), 77, sub speciebus indeterminab . ; Cke. ii, 1004. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Deccan : Mahableshwar, common in open localities, 4,500 ft , 
rainfall 270 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4508 !), common on the Mahableshwar 
Hills (Dalzell & Gibson, Woodrow, Cooke) ; Panchgani, very common on the 
Tablelands (Blatter 3797 !, McCann !). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula ; so far endemic. 

12. Arundinella villosa, Wight & Arn. ex Steud. Syn. PL Glum, i (1854), 
115 ; Hook. f. in F.B.L vii, 72 cum omnibus vanetatibtis.—A. Hookeri, Munro 
ex Hook. f. I.e. 73. 

Description : Stem 30-40 cm. high, tufted, slender, stiff, leafy at the villous 
base, villous below the panicles. Leaves 10-20 cm. by 2-2*5 mm., strict, rather 
rigid, glabrous, tomentose or villous. Ligules of long hairs. Panicle very 
narrow, 5-10 cm. long, spiciform, rhachis villous; branches 12-18 mm. long, 


234 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 2 [Feb. 15, 1928\ 

brown. Spikelets subdistichously crowded, spreading or erect, 5-6 mm. long, 
setosely hirsute, Lower involucral glume f of upper, long-pointed, 3-5 nerved, 
upper involucral glume subaristately long-pointed, 5-nerved. Lower floral 
glume sharp-pointed, 5-nerved, neuter or male ; upper oblong-lanceolate, very 
minutely scaberulous, rounded at the tip, sometimes 2-dentate, awn not twice 
as long as the spikelet, column of awn included, twisted. 

The leaves vary a good deal as to their size. In addition to the measure- 
ments given above, the following have been observed : 30 cm. by 8 mm. and 
5-15 cm. by 6-8 mm. 

Locality : Deccan : Khandala (McCann 9602A !, 9002B !). 

Distribution : E. Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Central India, Deccan Peninsula, 

13, Arundinella gigantea, Dalz. in Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. (1861), 293 ; 
Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii (1896), 76 ; Cke. ii, 1005. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Konkan : (Stocks); Kineshvar below the Ghats (Dalzell and 
Gibson). — 5". M. Country: Londa (Bhide!); Devarayi (Sedgwick 4474!).— 
Kanara : Castle Rock, in shade (McCann 9853 !, Gammie 15668!); Dudsagar 
Falls (McCann A174 !) ; Nagergali, forests, 1,800 ft., rainfall 80 inches (Sedg- 
wick 2921 !) ; Birchy (Talbot 2250 !) ; Dandeii (Talbot 2593 !) ; Tinai Ghat 
(Talbot 2626!); Jugglepet (Talbot 1387!); Supa (Talbot 2493!); Karwar 
(Hallberg and McCann A161 !) ; Gersoppa Falls, on rocks in river bed (Hall- 
berg and McCann A160 !) ; Yellapore (Sedgwick 3469 !, Talbot !). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula ; so far endemic. 

63. Tristachya, Nees. 

1. Tristachya barbata, Nees ex Steud. Syn. PI. Gram. (1856), 238 ; Boiss. FL 
Or. v (1881), 552 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 32 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 272 ; 
Cke. ii, 1005.- T. Stocksii, Boiss. I.e. ; Munro in Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PL 168 ; 
Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 51.— Laudetia barbata, A. Braun in Flora xxiv 
(1841) ii, 714. — Sorghum barbatum, Hochst. & Steud. PL Arab. Exsic. 
No. 788 ex Hook. f. I.e. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Sind : (Stocks 1217, 648 ex Cooke). 

Distribution : Arabia, Nubia. 

64. Thysanolaena, Nees in Edinb. N. Philos. Journ. xviii (1835), 180. 

Cooke has one species : Thysanolcena Agrostis, Nees. We change it into 
T. Procera, Mez. 

1. Thysanolcena procera, Mez. in Janowski. Bot. Archiv i (1922), 27. — 
Agrostis procera. Retz. Obs. iv (1779), 19.— Melica latifolia, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 
(1814), 8— Agrostis latifolia, Heyne ex Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 61.— Agrostis 
maxima, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1820), 319. — Thysanolcena maxima, O Ktze. Rev. 
Gen. ii (1891), 7Qk.—Panictwi acariferum, Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. i (1828), 87.— 
Thysanolcena acarifera, Nees and Ain. in Nov. Act. Leopold, xix, Suppl i 
(1843), 181; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. v (1890), 347; Dxithie 
Grass. N. W. Ind. J3, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 21. — T. Agrostis, Nees in Edinb. 
N. Phil. Journ. xviii (1835), 180 ; Hook. f. in F.B..I. vii, 61 ; Cke. ii, 1006.— 
Myriachaeta arundinacea, Zoll. & Mor. Syst. Verz. Zoll. (1845-46), 101.— 
M. glauca, Mor. ex Steud. Syn. PL Glum, i (1854), 404. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1006. 

Locality: Gujarat: In bed of nalla (Sedgwick and Bell 5393!); Bansda, 
Surat District (Woodrow).— Khandesh : (Lisboa) ; Chanseli to Dadgaum, in a 
dry nalla (McCann 9589!); Dangs (Woodrow). — Konkan : Victoria Gardens, 
Bombay (McCann 9846!); Thana (Lisboa).— Deccan : Ganeshkhind Botanic 
Gardens (McCann 9847 !) ; Nasik (Lisboa). 

Distribution : Throughout India, Penang, eastwards to New Guinea. 

65. *Avena, Linn. Sp. PL (1753), 79 ; Gen. PL Ed. 5 (1754), 34. 

Annual or perennial herbs, low or moderately tall. Panicles narrow or open, 
usually rather few-flowered of usually large spikelets. Spikelets 2-several- 


Feb. 15, 1929.], Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 235 

flowered ; rhachilla bearded, disarticulating above the involucral glumes and 
between the flowering glumes. Involucral glumes about equal, membranous 
or papery, several-nerved, longer than the lower floret, usually exceeding the 
upper floret. Floral glumes indurate, except toward the summit, 5-9-nerved, 
bidentate at the apex, bearing a dorsal bent and twisted awn, which is straight 
and reduced in Avena sativa. 

The genus as just described does not include Trisetum, Pers. as is the case 
ia Hook, f.'s Avena in F.B.I, vii, 274. 

Species about 55. Chiefly temperate regions. One species cultivated in the 

*1. Avena sativa, Linn. Sp. PL (1753), 79. -The Common Oat. 

An annual grass. Stems erect, tufted, smooth, 12 m. high. Blades flat, up 
to 30 cod. high and 12 mm wide, scabrous, especially on the margins ; ligule 
membranaceous, truncate, 1-3 mm. long, toothed or serrate, decurrent along 
the margin of the sheath ; sheaths smooth, striate, the lower rather papery. 
Panicle open or more or less contracted, erect or nodding, sometimes 1-sided, 
the pedicels thickened at the apex. Spikelets large, drooping, variable in 
size, but usually about 20-25 mm. long ; involucral glumes strongly several- 
nerved, membranaceous, acuminate, scabrous, containing usually 2 florets ; 
floral glumes smooth or slightly hairy at the base, teeth acute but notawned, 
the dorsal awn absent or, if present, usually straight and not much longer than 
the involucral glumes, often present only on the lower floret, pale enclosed by 
the inrolled margin of the glume, densely short-ciliate on the 2 keels. — The 
florets do not easily disarticulate, which condition is probably due to cultivation. 

Locality : Very little cultivated in the Presidency. Has been grown at 
Hyderabad (Sind), also at military grass farms for military horses at Ahmed- 
nagar and elsewhere. 

Grows best in the cold weather and always under irrigation. 

For a useful introduction to the study of oats see: Herbert Hunter. Oats, 
their varieties and characteristics. London, 1924. 

66. Coelachne, R. Br. Prodr. (1810), 187. 

A small, leafy, vaiiable marsh grass. Leaves short, flat or convolute. Spike- 
lets 2-flowered (both flowers perfect or upper imperfect) in open or contracted 
or spiciform panicles, not articulate on the pedicels, not awned. Rhachilla 
jointed at the base, produced between the lower and upper floral glume but not 
beyond the upper. Lower involucral glume suborbicular, concave, obtuse and 
delicately nerved ; upper smaller, more oblong, both persistent. Lower floral 
glume much longer, subsessile, coriaceous, glabrous, except the shortly bearded 
callus, pale as long, coriaceous; upper much smaller and pale more or less 
hairy. Stamens 3 ; anthers long, narrow. Ovary ovoid ; stigmas free. Grain 
free within the glume and pale. 

Tropical Asia, Australia, Madagascar. 

1. Coelachne pulchella, R. Br. Prodr. (1810), 187 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 270. 

Description : Stems 15-45 cm. high, flaccid, decumbent or ascending, slender 
or rather stout, leafy up to the panicle. Leaves uniform throughout the stem, 
1-2*5 cm. long, lanceolate, subulate, acuminate, distant or subequitantly 
sheathing, ecostate, minutely scaberulous above, nerves striate ; ligule a few 
hairs. Panicle very various. Spikelets l-2'5 mm. long, sessile or pedicelled, 
globose or ovoid. Lower involucral glumes suborbicular or hemispheric, 
many-nerved, membranous or herbaceous. Lower floral glume hermaphro- 
dite, coriaceous, dorsally rounded, nerves or very obscure, pale, coriaceous ; 
margins incurved ; upper much the smallest, often imperfect, neuter or female. 

Locality : Deccan : Mahableshwar, by the lake, 4,500 ft., rainfall 270 inches 
(Sedgwick & Bell 4851 \).—S. M. Country : Roadside near Khanapur, 2,500 ft., 
rainfall 60 inches (Sedgwick 2960 \).—Kanara -' Kumbmoada (Talbot 2273 !) ; 
Karwar. in wet fields (McCann !) ; Sirsi to Siddhapur, in fields (Hall berg & 
McCann A47 !) ; Castle Rock, in a marsh (Bhide !, McCann !). 

Distribution : Of the genus. 


236 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 2 {Feb. 15, 1S29., 

67. Danthonia, Lam. & DC. Fl. Franc. 3 (1805), 32 ; Hitchcock Genera 
of Grass, of Unit. St. in Bull 772 Unit. St. Dept. Agric. (1920), 118. 

Annual or perennial grasses, tufted, low or moderately tall. Panicle few- 
flowered, open or spike like of rather large spikelets. Spikelets 3-many-flowered, 
with the uppermost florets reduced, erect, not jointed on their pedicels. Rha- 
chilla hairy, readily disarticulating above the involucral glumes and between 
the flowering glumes, produced beyond the uppermost glume. Lower involu- 
cral glumes empty, subequal, as long as the whole spikelet, persistent, keeled, 
acute or acuminate, 3-9-(rarely 1-) nerved. Flowering glumes dorsally rounded, 
ciliate, 7-9-nerved, 2-fid, lobes acute, usually extending into slender awns, a 
stout awn arising in che sinus ; awn flat, tightly twisted below, geniculate, 
exserted, including 3 nerves of the glume ; pale broad. Lodicules 2, fleshy. 
Stamens 3. Styles free. Grain free within the membranous or hardened glume 
and pale. 

Species about 100.— In the temperate regions of both hemispheres, especially 
abundant in S. Africa. 

1. Danthonia Gammiei, Bhide in Journ. & Proc. As. Soc. Beng. new series, vii 
(1911), 513. 

Description : Stem 10-60 cm. high, nodes glabrous. Leaves linear, glabrous 
below, sparsely long-ciliate above, 2*5-7*5 cm. by 2*5-3 mm., base rounded; 
ligule a very narrow, truncate, fimbriate membrane ; sheaths glabrous ; upper 
leaves very much reduced in size. Peduncle and rhachis hairy ; panicle lax, 
racemose, 2*5-5 cm. by 12-16 mm. Spikelets few, short-pedicelled, about 
18 mm. long excluding the awns. Involucral glumes empty, lanceolate, 
acuminate, lower one strongly 5-nerved, dorsally rounded , glabrous, subscoria- 
ceous, margins membranous ; upper one by 3 shorter than the lower, membran- 
ous, 3-nerved. Lower floral glume without the awns much smaller than the 
involucral glumes, terete, convolute, 7-9-nerved, dorsally villous all over, 
2- dentate with a stout broad median awn ; column of awn golden yellow, twisted 
and shining, tail minutely scabrid, dorsally narrowly 2-channelled ; teeth 
produced into small slender awns reaching as far as the column of the median 
awn, with a fringe of long white hairs at the junction of the lateral awns with 
the glume ; rhachilla produced and terminating in a minute, ciliate, awned or 
awnless barren glume (upper floral glume) ; lodicules membranous, half as 
long as the anthers, oblong, emarginate. Stamens 3. Styles 2, distinct. 
Anthers and plumose stigmas protruding from the top of flowering glume. 

Locality : Kanara : Castle Rock (Gammie !) ; Jog to Siddhapur, open grass 
land on rocky soil (McCann A50 !, A51 !) ; Mirjan, laterite flats ( Haliberg 

Distribution : So far endemic. 

68. Phragmites, Adans. Fam. PI. ii (1763), 34, 559 ; Cke. ii, 1006 
{Phragmites, Trim). 

Some European authors have taken up Tirickoon, Roth. Archiv. Bot. Roemer 
i, pt. 3 (1798), 37 as antedating Phragmites, Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820), 134. 
The latter name, however, dates from Adanson (1763) and should be retained. 
Cf. M. L. Fernald. The Generic name Phragmites in Rhodora 24 (1922), 55-56. 
Also : Hitchcock. Genera of Grass. Unit. St. in Bull. 772 Unit. St. Dept. Agric. 
(1920), 64. 

Species 3. One in tropical Asia, one in S. America and one cosmopolitan. 

1. Phragmites Karka, Trin. ex Steud. Norn. ed. 2, pt. ii (1841), 324 ; Cke. ii, 
1007.— For synonyms see Hook. f. vii, 304. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality: Sind: Keti (Blatter & McCann D652!, D653!); Tatta, Kullan 
Kote Lake (Blatter & McCann D654 !). Gujarat: Mahals-Dangs, by a stream, 
800 ft., rainfall 100 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 5390 !) ; Anjar, Cutch (Blatter 
3740 \).—Kkandesh: Bhusawal, N. E. Tapti River (Blatter & Haliberg 4436 !) ; 
Chanseli Hill, N. slope, watercourse (McCann A44 !, A45 !) —Deccan : Dhond 
(Woodrow).— S. M. Country : Banks of Warda River, Bangalore Road, 1,800 
ft., rainfall 33 inches (Sedgwick 2092 !); Haveri (Talbot 2178 !, 2198 !).— Kanara: 
Supa, 2.100 ft. (Talbot 2195 !). 

Feb. 15, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 237 

Distribution : More or less throughout India, tropical Asia, Afghanistan, 
Japan, Australia, Africa. 

*69. Arundo, Linn. Sp. PI. (1753), 81 ; Gen. PI. ed. 5 (1754), 35. 

Tall, stout, perennial grasses with broad linear blades and large plume-like 
terminal panicles. Spikelets 2-7-flowered, laterally compressed, in large decom- 
pound panicles ; flowers mostly bisexual ; rhachilla disarticulating above the 
involucral glumes and between the flowering glumes, joints short, glabrous. 
Involucral glumes equal, broadly lanceolate, shortly acuminate, keeled, 
membranous, 3-5-nerved. Floral glumes more or less equalling the involucral 
glumes ovate to lanceolate-ovate, acuminate, finely bifid or entire, long-hairy 
below, 5-9-nerved, 3 nerves more or less percurrent or excurrent, the rest short, 
the middle nerve often produced into a short, fine bristle ; callus short, shortly 
bearded. Pales slightly exceeding \ the length of the floral glume. 2-keeled. 
Lodicules 2, obovate, nerved, glabrous. Stamens 3. Ovary glabrous ; styles 
distinct, almost as long as the laterally exserted plumose stigmas. Grain 
obovoid-oblong, broad, loosely enclosed in the floral glume and pale ; hilum 
basal, punctiform ; embryo occupying almost wholly one side of the grain. 

•1. Arundo Donax, Linn. Sp. PI. (1753), 81.— For synonyms see Hook. f. in 
F. B. I. vii, 303. 

Description : Stem creeping below, erect, 1-3 m. high, smooth, hollow, very 
rrany-noded, simple or scantily branched, internodes slightly exceeded by the 
sheaths, these very tight, firm, smooth. Blades linear-lanceolate from a broad 
base, long-tapering to a very fine point, more or less drooping, 30-60 cm. long, 
2-5 cm. broad, smooth. Panicles erect, 30-60 cm. long ; branches scaberulous, 
erect or drooping ; spikelets 8-10 mm. long, light brown. Involucral glumes 
glabrous ; floral ones 6-10 mm. long ; hairs 5-6 mm. long. Anthers 3 mm. 
long. Grain 2*5 mm. by almost 1 mm. 

Locality: Often grown in gardens. 

Distribution : Lower Himalaya, Punjab, Naga, Nilgiri and Coorg Hills, N. 
Asia, N. Africa, Europe. 

70. Polypogon, Desf. Fl. Atlant. i (1798), 66 ; Hook. f. 
in F.B.I, vii, 245 

Annual or perennial, usually decumbent grasses, with flat blades. Spikelets 
1-flowered, minute, jointed (but persistent) on the pedicels, laterally compress- 
ed, keeled, densely crowded on the short branches of a spiciform or lobed 
panicle ; rhachilla not produced beyond the lower floral glume. Glumes 3. 
Involucral glumes equal, concave, keeled, bifid, notched or entire, with a 
slender awn below the tip or in the sinus. Lower floral glume much smaller, 
hyaline, sessile, truncate, toothed, awned or not ; pale small, 2-nerved. 
Lodicules 2, falcate. Stamens 1-3 ; anthers small. Ovary glabrous ; styles 
free. Grain obovoid, free within the glume and pale. 

Species about 10.— Temperate regions of the world, chiefly in the Eastern 

1. Polypogon Monspeliensis, Desf. Fl. Atlant. i (1798), 66.— For synonyms see 
Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 245. 

Description: Stems tufted, 10-60 cm. high, stout or slender, leafy, base 
geniculate. Leaves 7-15 by 3-6 mm., green, ligule oblong. Panicle 1-15 cm. 
by 6-10 mm. broad, pale yellowish green, silky, sometimes lobulate from the 
projecting branches. Spikelets 1-2 mm. long, minutely pubescent, very shortly 
pedicelled. Involucral glumes very variable in breadth, obovate-oblong, sides 
scaberulous, keels scabrid, margins ciliate, tip entire, notched or very shortly 
2-fid ; awns from the length of the glume to 8 mm. long, excessively delicate. 
Lower floral glume very small, oblong, glabrous, 2-fid, awned or not; pale 
oblong, tip notched. Anthers very minute, short. Ovary ovoid. 

Locality : Sind : Sukkur (Bhide !). Shikarpur (Bhide !) 

Distribution : Tropical and temperate regions. 

71. Heleochloa, Host. Gram. Austr. i (1801), 23 ; 
Cke. ii, 1011. 

Species about 7.— Mediterranean-oriental. 
1. Panicles less than 2'5 cm. long ... ... 1. H. schcenoides. 


238 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 2 {Feb. 15, 1929. 

2. Panicles reaching 8 cm. ... ... ... 2. H. dura. 

1. Heleochloa scboenoides, Host. Gram. Austr. i (1801), 23, t. 30 ; Cke. ii, 
1011. — For synonyms see Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 235. 

Description : Cke. 1 c. 
Locality : Sind: Bhubak (Cooke !). 

Distribution : Punjab, W. Himalaya, Kashmir, Bundelkhand, westwards to 
the Atlantic. 

2. Heleochloa dara, Boiss. Fl. Or. v (1881), 477 ; Cke. ii, 1011.— For synonyms 
see Hook, f in F B.I. vii, 236. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Sini : Salt-water creeks (Stocks 455) ; Gholam in Indus Delta 
(Blatter and McCann D688 !). 
Distribution^ : Arabia. 

72. Garnotia, Brogn. ; Cke. ii, 1012. 

1. 5-20 cm. high, growing on trees. Leaves 2-5-5 

cm. long ... ... ... ... 1. G. arborum 

2. 30-60 cm. high. Leaves 7-20 cm. long ... 2. G. stricta. 

1. Garnotia arborum, Stapf ex Woodrow in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, xiii 
(1901), 439 ; Cke. ii, 1013. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Igatpuri (McCann 4598 !) ; Lonavla (Gammie 15501 !) ; on trees 
at Nandgaon on the crest of the Ghats 10 miles S. of Lonavla (Woodrow 30) ; 
Kalsubai Hill, under a steep rock (Patwardhan 1189 !). 

Distribution : Apparently endemic. 

2. Garnotia stricta, Brogn. in Duperr. Voy, Bot. (1829), 133, t. 21 ; Cke. ii. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Konkan : Pen (McCann 5501 ! ) ; Kalyan (Talbot !) ; between 
Neral and Karjat (Woodrow).— Deccan : Khandala, St. Mary's Villa, on root 
(McCann A299!) ; Igatpuri (McCann 4589 !) ; Panchgani (Blatter and Hall- 
berg B 1283 ! ; B1305 \).-Kanara : Top of Guddhelli (Hallberg & McCann 
A303 !) ; Gersoppa Falls (Hallberg & McCann A300 !). 

Distribution : Himalayas, Khasia Hills, Bighar, W. Peninsula, Sandwich 

73. Aristida, Linn. Sp. PI. (1753), 82 ; Cke. 1007. 

Species about 150. In the warmer regions of the world. 

We shall have to refer repeatedly to the splendid monograph by J. Th. 
Henrard : A Critical Revision of the Genus Aristida in Mededeelingen van s* 
Rijks Herbarium, Leiden, No. 54 (1926) and No. 54A (1927). So far 2 vols, 
have appeared. 

Cooke describes 7 species. We retain them and add Aristida mutabilis, 
Trin. & Rupr., and A. pogonoptila, Boiss. 

A. Awns without column 

I. Involucral glumes not awned ... ... 1. A. Adscensionis. 

II. Involucral glumes awned 

1. Spikelets 17 mm. long ... ... 2. A. setacea. 

2. Spikelets 10 mm. long ... ... 3. A. Hystrix. 

3. Spikelets 6 mm. long ... ... 4. A. mutabilis. 

B. Awns with a column 

I. Column of awn articulate on the floral glume 

1. Awn plumose 

a. Glumes glabrous. Central awn without 

a naked tip ... ... ... 5. A. pogonoptila. 

b. Glumes not glabrous. Central awn 

with a naked tip ... ... 6. A. hirtigluma. 

2. Awn not plumose 

a. Stems less than 15 cm. high. Lower 


Feb. 15, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 239 

involucral glume 5 mm. long ... 7. A. hystricula. 

b. Stems reaching 2 ft. high. Lower invo- 
lucral glume 22 mm. long ... 8. A. funiculata. 
II. Column of awn not truly articulate on the 

floral glume, though readily separating 9. A. redacta. 

1. Aristida Adscensionis, Linn. Sp. PI. (1753), 82 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 190 ; 
S eud. Syn. Gram. 13b> ; Hook, f in F. B. I. vii, 294, excl. synonymis aliqui- 
bus ; Cke. ii, 1008. — A. abyssinica, Trin. & Rupr. Sp. Gram. Stip. in Act. 
Acad. Petrop. ser. vi, v (1842), 134.— ,4. canariensis, Willd. Enum. (1809), 
99.— A. modatica, Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1855), 139.— A. curvata, Nees var. 
abyssinica, Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii (1851), 392.-^4. divaricala, Jacq. Eclog. 
Gram. (1813), 7, t. 6 {non Humboldt <?/ Bonpl. nee Lagarca). — A. Heymanni, 
Regel in Act. Hort. Petrop. vii, 2 (1881), 649—^4 hysirix, Duthie Fodd. Grass. 
N.lnd, 47, t. 31 (non Linn, f.) — A. aethiopica, Trin. et Rupr. I.e. (1842), 134, 
non 167 sicut habet Hook. f. — A. Adscensionis , Linn. var. aethiopica, Hook. f. 
in F. B. I. vii, 225.-^4 Ehrenbergii Trin. et Rupr. I.e. (1842), 136.— A. Adscen- 
sionis, Linn. var. Ehrenbergii, Henrard I.e. i (1926), 158.— A. festucoides, Poir, 
Encyclop. i (1810), 453. — A. Adscensionis, Linn. var. festucoides, Henrard I.e. 
i (1926), 177. — A. Adscensionis, Linn. var. angustifolia, Pilger in Henrard I.e. 
i (1926), 9. — A. Adscensionis, Linn. var. typica, Stapf in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 
vii, 224.-^4. Adscensionis, Linn. var. bromoides, Henrard I.e. i (1926), 62.— A. 
coarctata, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. i (1815), 122.— A. debilis. Mez. in Fedde 
Rep. sp. nov. xvii (1921), 151. — ^f. fasciculata, Torrey in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
New York i, pt. 1 (1824), 154.— A. Grisebachiana , Fournier Mex. PL pt. ii, 
Gram. (1881), 78.— A. Adscensionis, Linn, subsp. guineensis, Henrard I.e. i 
(1926), 216.-^4. Hermanni, Mez in Fedde Rep. sp. nov. xvii (1921), 153.-^4. 
Adscensionis, Linn. var. humilis, Henrard I.e. (1927), 247. — A. interrupta, 
Cav. lc. v. (1799), 45, t 471, fig. 2.— A luzoniensis, Cav. Ic. v (1799), 45, t. 
470, fig. 2.— A. Adscensionis, Linn. var. condensata, Henrard Lc. ii (1927), 
318. — A. macrochloa, Hochst. in Flora xxxviii (1855), 200. — A. maritima, 
Sleud. Syn. PL Glum. (1855), 137.— A. mauritiana, Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. 
Fl Abyss, ii (1851), 392.-^. mongholica, Trin. & Rupr. Lc. (1842), 133.-^4. 
?iana, Steud. Syn. PL Glum. (1855), 137.— A. nigrescens, Presl. Reliq. Haenk. 
i (1830), 223.— Chcetaria canariensis, P Beauv. Agrost. 30. 

The above is a list of synonyms which have been included by Henrard under 
A A iscensionis, Linn, either as representing the typical plant or as subspecies 
and varieties. 

The following is a list of synonyms which Hook, f . in the F.B.I, (vii, 224, 225) 
had cited under A. Adscensionis, but which have to be excluded according 
to H en rard's recent investigations. 

Aristida ccerulescens, Desf. FL Atl. i (3798), 109, t. 21, f. 2, treated as a 
distinct species by Henrard i, 99. — A. chcetophylla, Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 
(1855), 420, no. 1086.-^4. depressa, Retz. Obs. iv (1786), 22 (ex Henrard i, 136). 
—A. elatior, Cav. Ic. vi (1799), 65, t. 581, fig. 1 (non Doell), put by Henrard (p. 
161) under A. ccerulescens, Desf.— A. gigantea, Linn. f. Suppl. (1,781), 113. 
Henrard (i, 199) is doubtful about the identity of this species, as he has not seen 
the type.— A. Jacquiniana, Tausch in Flora ii (1836), 508, considered by 
Henrard (ii, 268) as a distinct species —A. paniculata, Forskal in FL Aegypt. 
—Arab. (1775), 25. Hook. f. considers it to be identical with A. Adscensionis 
' ex descript.' Trinius, however, observes that Forskal's diagnosis agrees with 
nearly all the Aristidas with naked awns. Before we can find Forskal's type it 
will be impossible to place his plant with anything like certainty. (See Henrard 
ii, 418).— A. mutabilis var. cequilonga, Trin. & Rupr. I.e. (1842), 150. Henrard 
I.e. ii (1827), 366 retains A. mutabilis as a distinct species and considers the 
specimen mentioned under the variety cequilonga as the type-specimen of A. 
viutabilis .— Chcetaria ccerulescens, P. Beauv. Roem & Schult. Syst- ii, 294, 
identical with A. ccerulescens, Desf. — C. depessa, P. Beauv. Agrost. 30.— C. 
elatior, P. Beauv. Agrost. 30.— C. gigantea, P. Beauv. Agrost., doubtful. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1008. 

Note: Cooke includes under A. Adscensionis the plant called A. depressa, 
Retz. Obs. iv (1789), 22 by Dalz. & Gibs, in their Flora of Bombay, and stated 
by them to occur ' on dry hills \ Neither Cooke nor we have seen the speci- 
men and so we cannot know whether it is the real 'Aristida depressa of Retz or 


240 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 2 [Fed. 15, 1929. 

whether it belongs to A. Adscensionis . If it is Retz.'s species we would have 
to add A depressa, Retz. to the Bombay Flora, as it is considered to be a 
species distinct from A. Adscensionis. 

For the benefit of botanists who wish to clear up this point we quote 
from Henrard, p. 137, where he points out the difference between the two 
species. ! Well -developed plants (of A. depiessa) have sterile innovation- 
shoots but the root-system is rather faint and much resembles that of annual 
grasses. The blades are thin and setaceously coavolute and the panicles are 
very loose and open. The spikelets differ from those of A. Adscensionis in the 
very unequal length of the glumes, the lower glume is about fas long as the 
upper and both are moreover very acute, the lower distinctly awned.the upper 
without a bifid apex and slightly pointed.' 

Locality: Sind : Laki (Bhide! ) ; Sehwan to Laki, foot of hills (Sabnis 
B612 !) ; Umerkot, sand dunes (Sabnis B1075 !) ; Tatta (Blatter & McCann 
D626 !), Kullan Kote Lake (Blatter & McCann D62S ! ) . — Gujarat : Ahmedabad 
(Saxton 1066!); Bhuj Hill, Cutch (Blatter 3769!); road to Lasandra 
(Chibber!); Sevalia (Chibber !) ; road to Gogka (Chibber!); Jetalsar, 
Kathiawar (Woodrow ±3) .—Khan desk : Bor, Tapti River (Blatter & Hallberg 
5412 !) ; Toranmal (McCann A230 \).—Deccan : Pashan (Gammie !) ; Manmad 
(Blatter 9973 !) ; Happy Valley, Ahmednagar District (Chibber !) ; Panchgani 
(Blatter & Hallberg B1315 !) ; Poona (Cooke, Woodrow) ; Bowdhan Hill near 
Poona (Woodrow 38).— 5". M. Country : Dharwar, 2,400ft., rainfall 34 inches 
(Sedgwick & Bell 4346 !) ; Haveri (Talbot 2181 !) ; Ranibennur (Jouvhkat !) ; 
Gokak Hills (Bhide !). 

Distribution : Most warm countries. 

2. Aristida setacea Retz. Obs. iv (1786), 22; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 225 ; 
Cke. ii, 1008 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 977. 

We are not in a position to say how far Hook, f.'s synonymy is correct. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Gujarat : Rajkot, Kathiawar (Woodrow).— Khandesh : Dadgaum 
(McCann 9764 !) —Konkan : Vetora (Sabnis 33677 !) ; Vengurla, sea coast 
(Chibber !) ; Salsette ( Graham) . —Deccan : Manmad (Blatter 229 !) ; Khandala 
(Graham) ; Ganeshkhind Botanic Gardens (Patwardhan !).— 6". M. Country : 
Kappatgudd Hills, 2,600 ft., rainfall 30 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 5217!) ; 
Dharwar, 2,500 ft., rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick 1822 !); dry hills and fields 
N. of Dharwar (Sedgwick 3778 !) ; Byadgi (Talbot 1759 !) ; Badami (Bhide !).- 
Kanara : Karwar, common (Sedgwick & Bell 5065 !) ; Halyal (Talbot 2161 !). 

Distribution : Bihar, W. Peninsula, Mas. arene Islands. 

3. Aristida Hystrix, Linn f. Suppl. (1781), 113 [non Thunbg.) ; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. i, 350 ; Graham 335 ; Dalz. & Gibs. 295 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 225 ; Cke. 
ii, 1009. 

Description : Cke. I.e. — Hooker f.'s statement (I.e.) that the callus is 
naked is not correct. Cke. (I.e.), however, is right when saying that it is shortly 

Locality: Gujarat: Daman, on sand hills (Bhide !).— 5. M. Country: 
Tadas, dry hillsides, 2,000 ft., rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick 3823 !) ; Dharwar 
(McCann !, Sedgwick !) ; Haveri (Talbot 2182 !) ; Badami (Bhide !, Cooke, 

Distribution : Central Provinces, W. Peninsula. 

4. Aristida mutabiHs, Trin. & Rupr. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. vi (1842), 
150 ; Hook, f . in. F.B.I, vii, 226, excl. aliquib. syn.—A. articulata, Edgew. in 
Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. vi (1862), 209 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 164 ; Duthie 
Grass. N. W. Ind. 26, Fodd. Grass. N, Ind. 47.-^? mulabilis, Trin. & Rupr. 
var. tangensis, Henrard I.e. ii (1927), 3Q&.—A. longeradiala, Steud. Syn. PI 
Glum. (1855), 140.— A. hoggariensis, Batt & Trib. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. Tome 
liii, serie iv, Tome vi (1906), Sess. extraor. avril 1906, p. xxxii.— A. mutabilis, 
Trin. & Rupr. var. hoggariensis, Henrard 1 c. ii (1927), 239 

The following synonyms given by Hook. f. I.e. must be excluded : Aristida 
Kunthiana, Trin. & Rupr. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. vi (1842), 151, a dist- 
inct specie?,.— Aristida meccana, Hochst. ap. Trin. & Rupr. I.e. 152, a distinct 


F*eb. 15, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 241 

Description : An annual grass. Stems 15-30 cm. high, many ascending from 
the root, simple or proliferously branched, slender. Leaves 2'5-75 cm. long, 
very slender, curved, convolute, rigid, smooth. Panicle 7-15 cm. long, very 
narrow, subeylindric ; branches very short, crowded or sometimes with a few 
remote lower down on the stem, ascending from a naked base and bearing a 
dense oblong fascicle of spikelets ; rhachis smooth, branches scaberulons. 
Spikelets (excl. awns) 6 mm. long, very short-pedicelled, pale green or straw- 
eoloured. Lower involucral glume 5 mm. long, shortly awned, keel scaberu- 
lous : upper 6 mm. long, tip 2 toothed below the awn. Floral glume scaberu- 
lous, callus shortly bearded, awn obscurely articulate with the glume, column 
nearly as long as the glume, slender, smooth, branches capillary, rather short, 
central one about 12 mm. long. 

Locality : Sind : Sehwan to Laki, foot of hills (Sabnis B235 !). — Khandesh : 
W. Khandesh (Blatter!). 

Distribution : Punjab, Sind, Rajputana, Khandesh, S. India, Arabia, tro- 
pical Africa. 

5. Aristida pogonoptila, Boiss. Fl. Or. v (1884), 496; Henrard I.e. ii (1927), 
456. — Arthratherum bogonoptilum, Jaub. and Spach 111. PI. Or. iv (1850-53), 
56, t. 337. 

Description : A perennial grass. Rhizome short, oblique, branching. Stems 
15^5 cm. high, strict or geniculate, erect, simple or sparsely branching, 
slender, terete, glabrous, smooth, obsoletely and finely striate, few-noded, leafy 
at the base and covered with imbricate sheaths. Uppermost internode at 
flowering time scarcely longer than the sheath ; lower internodes longer than 
the sheaths. Nodes quite glabrous, mostly rufescent. Leaves glaucescent, 
thin, more or less flexuose or rarely rigid, keelless. on the back finely papillose, 
articulate on the sheath. Lower leaves 7-25 cm. long, the uppermost very 
often short (2*5-5 cm ). Lowest sheaths aphyllous, chartaceous, straw-colour- 
ed, persistent, subcomplicate, striate, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, mostly 
acuminate. Proliferous sheaths rotund-truncate, keelless, nerved, densely 
ciliate with long, white hairs at the apex, densely bearded at the mouth with a 
ring of short bristles, otherwise glabrous, the upper ones herbaceous, tubular- 
involute. No ligule. Panicle 7" 5-15 cm. long, oblong, somewhat lax, simple 
and made up of many spikelets. Rhachis filiform, continuous, semiterete, 
scabrous, strict. Branchlets capillary, flexuose, scabrous, alternate, disti- 
chous ; the spikelets arranged in racemes, pedicelled, mostly 3-5, unequal, 
getting shorter upwards ; pedicels capillary, scabrous, thickened at the 
apex, most of them longer than the glume. Glumes 3. Involucral glumes 
awnless, of unequal length, subnavicular, 3-nerved, glabrous or with 
scattered hairs on the back and the margins. Lower one shorter, 
usually fimbriolate at the apex ; upper one inserted slightly higher up, 
narrower than the lower one and about 2 mm. longer, slightly narrowed at the 
base, emarginate at the apex. Floral glume (including the stalk and awn) 
about 5 cm. long. Stalk stout, turbinate, densely setulose, bearded-hirsute at 
the apex. Inner pale tubular-involute, thinly 3-nerved, chartaceous, keelless, 
oblong, glabrous, cinereous or black-violet, long awned, on the back papillose- 
scabrous, especially from the middle to the apex, obtusely emarginate after the 
awn has fallen. Awn deciduous, setaceous-subulate, far below the middle 
geniculate and trifurcate ; the undivided part almost as long as the glume, 
contorted, erect, canaliculate, filiform, papillose-scabrous, near the apex cons- 
picuously bearded-hirsute, otherwise naked, or laxly hairy ; lateral awns 
capillary, naked, scabrous, more or less diverging, strict, about i the length of 
the central one and much thinner ; central awn strict, long-plumose, at the 
base setaceous-filiform, upwards capillary. Inner pale minute, membranous, 
hyaline, nerveless, involute, keelless, glabrous, cuneate-obovate, truncate or 
rotundate at the apex, obsoletely crenulate. Lodicules 2, submembranous, 
glabrous, finely striate, obliquely ovate, obtuse. Stamens 3. Filaments capil- 
lary. Anthers yellowish, glabrous, linear, elongate, emarginate at apex and 
base. Ovary obovate ; quite glabrous. Styles 2, terminal, elongate, filiform, 
densely plumose, laterally exserted. 

Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 228 included this species under A. hirtigluma, Steud. 
but, according to Henrard, it ' differs in the glabrous glumes, in the shorter 
column, more hairy and barbulate at the point of insertion of the 3 awns and 
in the more loosely and longer plumose central awn, without a naked tip.' 


242 Jour., Bom, Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 2 [Feb. 15, 1929. 

Locality: Sind (ex Boiss.). 

Distribution : Pturjab, Sind, Baluchistan. 

6. Aristida hirtigluma, Steud. Norn. ed. 2, pt. 1 (1840), 131, et Syn. Gram. 
(1855), 144 ; Trin. & Rupr. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. (1842), 171 ; Aitchis. Cat. 
Panjab. PI. 164; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 26; Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 47 ; 
Boiss. Fl. Or. v. 496 ; Hook, f . in F. B. I. vii, 227, excl. aliquibus syn. ; Cke. 
ii, 1009.-^4. ciliata, Steud. Hochst, herb. arab. un. it. no. 165 (non Desf.) ex 
Henrard.— A. ciliata, Steud. & Hochst. ex Steud. Nom, ed. 2, pt. 1 (1840), 
131 {non Desf.).— A. Schimperi, Hochst. & Steud. ex Steud. I.e. 143.— Arthra- 
therum ciliatum, Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. i, Gramineae (1841), 182, excl. syn. 

The following synonyms cited by Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 228 have to be 
excluded : 

Aristida decorata, Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. (1855), 421, which is A. Raddiana* 
Savi.— Aristida paradisea, Edgew. in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xvi, ii (1847), 
1219, which is a distinct species. See Blatter Fl. Aden in Rec. Bot. Survey 
Ind. vii, 3 (1916), 380.— Aristida pogonoptila, Boiss. Fl.Or. v. (1884), 496, a 
distinct species. 

Description: Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Sind: Bholari (Bhide!) ; Sehwan, sand hills (Bhide !) ; Laki 
(Bhide !) ; hills near Bullo Khan (Woodrow !) ; Sehwan to Laki, foot of hills 
(Sabnis B614 !). 

Distribution: Tunis, Upper Egypt, Sinai, Syria, Nubia, Abyssinia, Eritrea,. 
Highlands of Somaliland, Arabia, Sind, Punjab. 

7. Aristida hystricula, Edgew. in Journ. Linn. Soc. vi (1862), 208; Aitchis. Cat. 
Punjab PL 164 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 26 ; Fodder Grass. N. Ind. 47 ; 
Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 227 ; Cke. ii, 1009. 

Description: Cke. I.e. — Henrard I.e. ii (1927), 251, points out that ' the most 
striking character, a character neglected by all the authors who studied the 
species, is the densely hairy bifid callus.' Hooker I.e., therefore, when saying 
that the callus is ' minute, glabrous ' is not correct. Cooke does not describe 
the callus. — Apparently no Indian species has a naked callus. 

Locality: Sind: Laki (Bhide !) ; Bholari (Bhide !) ; Hyderabad (Bhide !) ; 
Jamadar ka Landa near Karachi (Stocks 1187). 

8. Aristida funiculata, Trin. & Rupr. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 6, vii (1849), 
159 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 164 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 492 {partim) ; Duthie Fodd. 
Grass. N. Ind. 47 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 226 ; Cke. ii, 1010 —A. macrathera, 
Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii (1851), 393; Boiss. I.e. 493 {Macranthera).— A.Mai lica, 
Edgew. in Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. vi (1862), 206.— A. funiculata, Trin.&Rupr. 
var. mallica, Henrard I.e. ii (1927), 328. —A. paradoxa, Steud. ap. Schmidt 
Fl. Cap. Verd. (1852), 140.— A. funiculata, Trin. & Rupr. var. paradoxa, Hen- 
rard I.e. ii (1927), 425. 

Description: Cke. ii, 1010. 

Locality: Sind: Mirpurkhas (Sabnis B1038 !) ; Gharo (Blatter & McCann 
D622 !) ; Tatta, tombs (Blatter & McCann D623 !) ; Ghulamalla (Blatter & 
McCann D624 !) ; Jam village (Woodrow 19). — Gujarat : Red earth upland N. 
of Taloda (Sedgwick!) ; dry waste land, Ahmedabad (Sedgwick!) ; Bhuj, 
Bhodir Maka, Cutch (Blatter 3728 \).—Khandesh : Bor, Tapti River (Blatter & 
Hallberg 4416 !) ; Amalner, Bori River (Blatter & Hallberg 5108 \).—Deccan : 
Poona (Lisboa) ; Dapuri near Poona (Jacquemont 489) ; Pashan near Poona 
(Gammie !) ; Kirkee to Poona, railway line (Garade 816 !) ; Katraj Ghat (Bhide 
1041 !) ; Panchgani (Blatter & Hallberg B1310 !) ; Satara (Lisboa) ; Sholapur 
(Lisboa) ; Wai (Talbot 4483!); Nasik (Bourke !) ; Bairawadi, Purandhar 
(McCann 5062 !) ; Rahuri (Nana A227 \).-S. M. Country: Dry fields Yelvigi 
1,800 ft., rainfall 28 inches, (Sedgwick & Bell 4898 !) ; Belgaum (Woodrow) ; 
near Belgaum (Woodrow !) ; Badami (Bhide !), 

Distribution: Punjab, Rajputana, W. Peninsula, Baluchistan, Arabia, tropical 

9. Aristida redacta, Stapf in Kew Bull. (1892), 85 ; Hook, f, in F. B. I. vii, 
227; Cke. ii, 1010.— Stipa aristoides, Stapf ex Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 358 ; Prain Beng. PL 1211. 

Description: Cke. I.e. 


Feb. 15, 1929.]' Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 243 

Locality: Konkan: Trombay, common on the hillside (McCann A212 !, 
A213 !) ; Kankeshwar hill, Alibag (Bhide !). — Deccan : Lonavla (Woodrow) ; 
Junnar, Poona District (Woodrow) ; Wai (Talbot 4484 ) ; Lohagad, plain 
(McCann 9503!) ; Bairawadi below Purandhar (McCann 5063!) ; Pashan 
(Garnmie !); Panchgani (Blatter & Hallberg B1275 !)— 5. M. Country: Hubli, 
barren hillside, 2,200 ft., rainfall 28 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4929 !) ; Yelvigi, 
dry fields, 2,000 ft., rainfall 28 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4897 !) ; Dharwar, 
2,400 ft., rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4891 ! Talbot 2910) ; Haveri 
(Talbot 2216 \).—Kanara : (Law).— This species commonly grows on open hill 
sides among other plants by which it is supported as it is very weak and bends 

Distribution: Central India, Nagpur, W. Bengal, W. Peninsula, S. Persia. 

( To be continued) 


Part IX. By E. Blatter, s. j., ph.d., f.l.s. 







[Ftom the Journal of the Bombay Natural Hist. Soc., May 31, 1929.] 



E. Blatter, s.j., ph.d., f.l.s. 




E. Blatter and C. McCann 

{Continued from page 243 of this Volume) 


74. Trachys, Pers. ; Cke. ii, 1013. 

1. Trachys mucronata, Pers. Syn. i (1805), 85 ; Beauv. Agrost. 107, t. 21, f. 7 ; 
Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 96 ; Cke. ii, 1014. — T. muricata, [per errorem pro mucro- 
nata) Steud. Syn. Gram. 1\2.— Cenchr us muricatus , Linn. Mant. 302. — C. trip- 
saceus, Herb. Linn, ex Munro in Journ. Linn. Soc. vi (1862), 55. — Trachy- 
siachys geminata, A. Dietr. Sp. PI. ii, \Q. — Tripsachum distachyum, Herb. 
Linn, ex Munro I.e.— Panicum dimidiatum, Burm. Fl. Ind. 25, t. 8, f . 3. — 
P. squarrosum, Retz, Obs. iv (1786), 15, t. 1 ; Roxb. Cor. PI. iii, t. 206 ; Fl. Ind. 
i, 288. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1014. 

Locality: S. M. Country: Badami (Bhide!, Cooke, Woodrow) ; Gokak 
(Talbot !) ; Dharwar (Woodrow). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, Ceylon. 

75. Nazia, Adans. Fam. PI. ii (1763), 581 ; Hitchcock Genera of Grass . 
Unit. St. in Unit. St. Dept. Agric. Bull. 772 (1920), 165. 

{Tragus, Haller Stirp. Helv. ii (1768), 203 ; Cke. ii, 1014). 

The type species is Cenchrus racemosus, Linn, and the genus Nazia, Adans. 
is based on this species. As to Tragus, Haller, this author, according to 
Hitchcock, cites pre-Linnaean writers who connect Tragus with Cenchrus 
racemosus, Linn. 

Species 3. — Tropical regions of both hemispheres. 

1. Nazia raceuiosa, Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. iii, 357 ; Hitchcock Genera of 
Grass. Unit. "St. in Unit. St. Dept. Agric. Bull. 772 (1920), 165.— Tragus 
racemosus, Scop. Introd. Hist. Nat. 73 ; Desf. Fl. Atlant. ii, 386; Duthie 
Grass. N. W. Ind. 13, lndig. Fodd. Grass, t. 14, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 22; 
Hook. f. in. F. B. I. vii, 97 ; Cke. ii, 1014 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 
979.— T. brevicaulis, Boiss. Diag. PI. Or. Ser. i, xiii, 44. — Lap Pago racemosa, 
Honck. Syn PI. Germ, i, 440 ; Host. Gram. Austr. i, t. 36 ; Sibth. Fl. Graec. 
ii, t. 101 ; Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ, i, t. 30 ; Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. 362 ; Aitchis. 
Cat. Panjab PI. 163 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, vii, 506 ; Miq. Fl. Ind Bat. iii, 473.- 
L. biflora, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1832), 281 ; Grah. Cat. 234.— L allena, Dalz. & 
Gibs. 295 {non Spreng.). — L. occidentalis, Nees in Schimp. PL Arab. Fel. ed ii, 
No. 793. — Cenchr -us racemosus, Linn. Sp. PI. 1049. — C linearis, Lam. Fl. Franc. r 
iii, 631.— Phalaris muricata, Forsk. Fl. Aeg —Arab. 302. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1014. 


481 Jour., Bom, Nat. Hist. Soc. t Vol. XXXIII, No. 3 {May 31, 1929. 

Locality: Sind : Tatta, Tombs (Blatter & McCann D679 ! ) . — Gujarat : 
Ahmedabad, waste ground (Sedgwick !) ; Domas, near Surat (Graham) ; 
Rajkot, Kathiawar (Woodrow).— Khandesh : Bor, Tapti bank (Blatter & Hall- 
berg 5467 !).— Konkan : Salsette (Graham). — Deccan : Poona (Woodrow!, 
Jacquemont 386); Chattarshinji Hill, Poona (Bhide!); Bijapur (Cooke, 
Woodrow).— S. M. Country: Dharwar (Sedgwick & Bell 4145!); Mallapur 
Hill, Bagalkot (Paranjpe !) ; Gokak (Shevade !) ; Badami (Woodrow !). 

Distribution : Most warm countries. 

76. Latipes, Kunth. 

1. Latipes senegalensis, Kunth Rev. Gram, i, (1829), 261, t. 42 ; Enum. PI. i, 
171, Suppl. 125 , Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 13, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 22 ; Hook, 
f. in F.B.I, vii, 97 ; Cke. ii, 1015.— Lappago Latipes, Steud. Syn. Gram. 112.— 
Tragus senegalensis, J. Gay ex Kunth Enum. PI. i, 171. 

Description : Cke, ii, 1015. 

Locality : Sind : (Woodrow !) ; Karachi (Burns !) ; 20 miles N. of Karachi 
(Woodrow) ; Jamadar ka Landa, near Karachi (Stocks 1186). 

Distribution : Baluchistan, Arabia, Abyssinia, Senegal. 

77. Perotis £ Ait. ; Cke. ii, 1016. 

Species 2 or 3.— Tropics of the Old World and subtropical Australia. 

1. Perotis latifolia, Ait. Hort. Kew i (1789), 85 ; Beauv. Agrost. t. 4, f . 9 , 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 239 ; Grah. Cat. Bomb. PL 237 ; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 296 ; 
Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 13 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 479 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 
98; Cke. ii, 1016; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 978.— For synonyms 
see Hook. f. I.e. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1016. 

Locality : Gujarat : Baroda (Cooke) ; Surat (Lisboa) ; Domas near Surat 
(Dalzell & Gibson) ; Daman, on sand hill (Bhide!) ; Ahmedabad (Saxton 
1052!); Balsar (Herb. S. X. C. !).— Konkan : Juvem (McCann 4312!) 
Versova (McCann 4204 !) ; Alibag, sandy shore (Ezekiel !) ; Bassein (Bhide ! 
Mai wan (Woodrow).— 5". M. Country: Mallapur Hill, Bagalkot (Paranjpe !) 
Gokak (Shevade!) ; Badami (Bhide!, Cooke, Woodrow) ; Londa (Bhiva!) 
Gokak Falls (Sedgwick \).—Kanara : Kalanudi (Sedgwick & Bell 4287!) 
Karwar (Talbot 1068 !, McCann !) ; Honore (Talbot 1068 !). 

Usually growing on sandy shores. It is easily recognized by its purplish 
squirrel-tail-like inflorescence. 

Distribution : More or less throughout India, Ceylon, S. Africa. 

78. Osterdamia, Neck. Elem. Bot. iii (1790), 218. 
(Zoysia, Wild. (1801) ; Cke. ii, 1016). 

Species about 10, tropical Asia to Australia and New Zealand, Mauritius ; in 
Japan alone there are 7 species (See : Honda Masaji Revisio Gram. Japoniae 
i, in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 37 (1923), 113-124. 

1. Osterdamia Matrella, O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. ii (1891), 781; Hitchcock Genera 
of Grass. Unit. St. in Unit. St. Dept. Agric. Bull. 772 (1920), 166. -Agrostis 
matrella, Linn. Mant. ii, 185: Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 317.— Matrella juncea, Pers. 
Syn. PI. i (1805), 73. -Zoysia pungens, Willd. in Ges. Naturf. Fr. Neue 
Schrift. iii (1801), 441; Br. Prodr. x, 208; Beauv. Agrost. i, t. 4, f. 1 ; Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 478 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 99 ; Cke\ ii, 1016 ; Haines Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa (1924), 979. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1016. 

Locality : Gujarat : Daman, on sand hills (Herb. Econ. Bot. !, Lisboa).— 
Konkan : Alibag, sandy shore (Ezekiel !) ; Juvem (McCann 4314 !) ; Bombay, 
Walkeshwar, seashore, rocks (Sabnis !) ; Marine Lines (Hall berg 9873!); 
Versova, marsh (McCann 9875 \).—Kanara : Karwar (Talbot 1531 !, McCann !). 

Distribution : Tropical Asia. 


May 31, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 



79. Sporobolus, R. Br. PI. Nov. Holl. (1810), 169; Cke. ii, 1017. 

Species about 95.— Warm regions of both hemispheres, most abundant in 

Cooke describes 10 species. We retain all of them and add 3 others : 
5". virginicus, Kunth, 5. scubrifolius, Bhide, and 5. tremulus, Kunth. 

A. Involucral glumes both shorter than the floral 

I. Stamens 2 

1. Culms 30-90 cm. high ;: panicle reaching 

25 cm. 

2. Culms scarcely 15 cm. high ; panicle 

reaching 20-25 cm. 
II. Stamens 3 

1. Panicle narrow, 12-20 mm. broad. Spike- 

lets reaching 2*5 mm. long 

2. Panicle reaching 7*5 cm. broad 

a. Panicle 30-45 cm. long. Spikelets 

1 mm. long 

b. Panicle 10-15 cm. long. Spikelets 

2 mm. long 

B. Lower involucral glume as long as the floral 

glume or nearly so. Panicle interrupted 
I. Spikelets 2'5 mm. long. Leaves very 
II. Spikelets 1*5 mm. long. Leaves glaucous. 

C. Lower involucral glume much shorter than 

either of the two others 
I. Panicle contracted 

1. Perennials 

a. Margins of leaves smooth ... 

b. Margins of leaves serrulate ... 

2. Annual... 
II. Panicle effuse 

1. Spikelets 2*5 mm. long 

2. Spikelets 1-1*5 mm. long 

a. Floral glume ovate, acute ... 

b. Floral glume ovate-lanceolate, acumi- 

nate ... ... ... 13. 


5. diander. 


S. sindicus. 


S. indicus. 


S. minutiflorus 


S. io dados 


S. virginicus. 
S. glaucifolius. 

.. 9. 
.. 10. 

.. 11. 

.. 12. 

►S. tremtclus. 
S. orient alts. 
S. piliferus. 

S. arabicus. 

S. scabrifolius. 

S. coromandelianus. 

1. Sporobolus diander, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 26 ; Jacq. Eclog. Gram. t. 28 ; 
Link Enuin. Hort. Reg. Berol. i, 87 ; Kunth Enum. PL i. 213 ; Griff. Notul. 
iii, 46, Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 139, f. 85 ; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 296 ; Aitchis. Cat. 
Paniab PI. 165 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 29 ; Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 40, t. 63 ; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 375 ; Hook, f in F.B.I, vii, 247 ; Cke. ii, 1017. -Agrostis 
diandra, Retz. Obs. v, 19; Roxb. Fl. Ind.i, 317.— Vilfa erosa, Trin. in Mem. 
Acad Petersb. ser. vi, Sc. Nat. ii (1840), 86.— V. Retzii, Steud. Norn. ed. ii, 
ii, 768, Syn. Gram. 162. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1017. 

Locality : Sind : Jamesabad, fields (Sabnis B927 !).— Gujarat : Ahmedabad 
(Sedgwick \).—Konkan : Bombay (Blatter 5267 !).— Deccan : Deolali (Blatter 
549!); Khandala (McCann 5409!); Chattarshinji Hill, Poona (Ezekiel !, 
Jacquemont 352) ; Katraj Ghat (Shevade !) ; Panchgani (Blatter & Hallberg 
B1318!).— S. M. Country: Dharwar (Sedgwick 2658!); Londa (Bhide !).- 
Kanara : Dandeli, 1,800 ft., rainfall 100 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4221 !). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, Asia, tropical Australia. 

2. Sporobolus sindicus, Stapf in Cooke Fl. Bomb, ii, 1018. 
Description: Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Sind : 20 miles from Karachi (Woodrow).— We have not seen this 
Distribution : So far endemic. 


483 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 3 {May 31, 1929. 

3. Sporobolus indicus, R. Br. Prodr. (1810), 170 ; Link Hort. Reg. Berol. i, 87 ; 
Kunth Enum. PI. i, 211 ; Duthie Fodd. Grass N. Ind. 49 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I. 
vii, 248 ; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v, 261 ; Prain Beng. PL 1213 ; Cke. ii, 1018; Haines 
Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 97^.— Agrostis indica, Linn. Sp. PL 63.— 
A. elongata, Lamk. 111. i, U2.—A. tenacissima, Jacq. Collect, i, 85, Ic. Rar. 3, 
t. 16 {excl. syn.) .—Sporobolus tenacissimus , Beauv. Agrost. 26 ; Duthie Fodd. 
Grass. N. Ind. 49.- Vilfa capensis & elongata, Beauv. Agrost. 16 ; Trin. 
Gram. Diss, i, 154 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 159. -V. exilis, Trin. in Mem. Acad. 
Petersb. ser. 6, Sc. Nat. ii (1840), 89.— V. indica, Trin. ex Steud. Norn. ed. ii, 
ii, 767, Syn. Gram. 162.— V. tenacissima, H.B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. i, 138 ; 
Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 60. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1018. 

Locality : Deccan : Chattarshinji Hill, Poona (Ezekiel !) ; Lina Hill, Nasik 
Dist. (Blatter A59 !) ; Kolhapur (Woodrow).— Kanara : Castle Rock 1,600 ft., 
rainfall 250 inches (Sedgwick 2851 !). 

Distribution : Most warm countries. 

4. Sporobolus minutiilorus, Link Hort. Reg. Berol. i (1827), 88; Kunth 
Enum. PL i, 214 \ Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 248 ; Cke. ii, 1019.— Vilfa minutiflora, 
Trin. Gram. Diss, i, 158 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 158.— V. Capillans, W. & A. ex 
Wight Cat. No. 2036 (non Miq.). — V. mangalorica, Hochst. ex Miq. Anal. Bot. 
ii, 24; Steud. I.e. 158— V. tenuissima, Schult. Mant. ii, 47.—Panicum 
tenuissimum, Mart, ex Schrank in Denkschr. Bot. Ger. Regensb. ii (1822), 26. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1019. 

Locality : Konkan : Bombay Island, very common (McCann 4296 !, 3635 !), 
Parel (Woodrow) ; Mulgaum (McCann 3660 !).— Kanara : Dandeli, 2000 ft., 
rainfall 100 inches (Sedgwick and Bell 4220 !) ; Kumpta (Chibber !). 

Distribution .* W. Peninsula. 

5. Sporobolus ioclados, Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. (1841), 161 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I. 
vii, 249 ; Cke. ii, 1019. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 
Locality : Sind (Stocks). 
Distribution : S. Africa. 

6. Sporobolus virginicus, Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 67, Enum. PL i, 210, Suppl. 
167 ; Hook. f, in F.B.I, vii, 249.— Agrostis virginica Linn, Sp. PJ. 63 ; Labill. 
PL Nov. HolL i, 20, t. 23.-^4. barbata, Pers. Syn. i, 75.— A. lateralis, Lamk 
111. 161. — A. pungens, Pursh Fl. Am. Sept. 64 —Podosemum virginicum, Link 
Euum. Hort. Berol. i, 85.— Vilfa virginica, Beauv. Agrost. 16 ; Trin. Diss, i, 
155 ; Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 48 ; Baker Fl. Mauritius 449.— V. barbata, Beauv. I.e.— 
V. littoralis, Beauv. I.e.— Sporobolus littoralis, Kunth 11. cc. 68, 213. 

Description : Perennial. Stems erect or ascending from a decumbent woody 
creeping base, branched, hard and often tortuous at the base, 15-30 cm. high. 
Leaves strict, close-set, distichous, erecto-patent, 2*5-7*5 cm. long or more, 
narrow and almost terete for the involute margins, pungent, very pale, glabr- 
ous or scaberulous above, striate ; sheaths terete, short or long ; ligule of long 
soft hairs. Panicle 2*5-10 cm. long, elongate, narrow, subspiciform, interrupt- 
ed, very pale ; branches very short. Spikelets 2*5-2 mm. long, very shortly 
pedicelled, crowded. Glumes 3, all 1-nerved, keels glabrous or obscurely 
scabrid towards the tip. Involucral glumes oblong-lanceolate, acute, the lower 
shorter than the upper. Pale oblong, narrowly truncate. Grain broadly obovoid, 
with a pericarp loosened if moistened. 

Locality : Gujarat : Porbandar (Chibber !). Chibber was the first to find this 
species on the shores of continental India. 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, westward to Africa and America, eastward to 

7. Sporobolus glaucifolius, Hochst. in Flora xxv, pt. 1 (1842), Beibl. 133 
{nomen nudum) ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 250 ; Cke, ii, 1019.— Vilfa glaucifolia, 
Steud. Syn. Gram. 154.— V. scabrifolia, Hochst. ex Edgew. in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. vi (1862), 196 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab, PL 165.— Agrostis barbata, 0, sene. 


May 31, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 484 

galensis, Pers. Syn. i, 76.— A. littoralis |3, Lamk. iii, 161 ; Poir. Encycl. SuppL 
i, 251. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1019. 

Locality: Sind: Mirpurkhas (Bhide !), fallow fields {Sabnis B1191 !) ; 
Jacobabad (Bhide!); Magarpir, near Karachi (Sabnis B224!); Karachi 
(Woodrovv 18).— Gujarat : Porbandar (Woodrow 21 !) ; road to Gogha (Chib- 
ber !) ; dry rice fields, Chandola, Ahmedabad (Sedgwick !').— Konkan : 
Bombay fore shore (Sedgwick 2568 !) ; Sion (McCann 3677 \).-S. M. Country : 
Khanapur, 2,500 ft., rainfall 60 inches (Sedgwick 3011 !). 

Distribution : Panjab, Sind, tropical Africa. 

8. Sporobolus tremulus, Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 67, Enum. PL i, 210, Suppl. 166 ; 
Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 250; Sedgwick & Saxton in Rec. Bot. Surv. India vi, 
219 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 974.— Agrostis tremula, Willd. Sp. PL 
i, 372 {excl. syn.).— A. juncea, Lamk. Encycl. i, 60, 111. t. 41, f. 2. — A. tena- 
cissima. Roxb. PI. Ind. i, 316 {excl. syn.).— Vilfa tremula, Trin. Diss, i, 155.— 
V. geniculata, Nees ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 156. — V. orientalis, Wight Cat. 
No. 1745 (Partim). — Sporobolus geniculatus , Nees ex Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PL 
165.— 5. orientalis, Trim. Cat. Ceyl. PL 108 (non Kth.). 

Description : A small grass, 2*5-30 cm. high, erect or prostrate, wiry, strict, 
often tufted, from a hard, knotted, stoloniferous stock ; stolons 15-45 cm. long, 
stout or slender, leafy, flexuous. Leaves short, 1-5 cm. long, rigid, subulate or 
filiform, flat or convolute, pungent, narrowed from the usually hairy base to 
the tip, margins smooth. Ligule a few hairs. Panicle narrow, 2*5-10 cm. 
long, subspiciform sometimes longer, flexuous and interrupted, with erect 
branches, rarely a few spreading. Spikelets crowded, 1-5 mm. long, articulate 
on very short pedicels half their own length or less, very pale ; rhachilla 
readily disarticulate above the lowest glumes and these also separately falling. 
Glumes all 1-nerved. Lower involucral glume about -| of the floral glume, 
lanceolate ; upper involucral glume and floral glume subequal. Pale as long 
as its glume. Stamens 3. Grain oblong. 

Locality : Gujarat : Sides of the Chandola Tank which are submerged in 
the monsoon (Sedgwick \).—S. M. Country : Kunnur, margins of tanks, 
2,000 ft,, rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4936 !) ; Marrikop, margins of 
tanks, W. of Dharwar, 1,800 ft., rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4495 !) ; 
Ranibennur, grassy plains near water (Bhide !). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, Burma, Tonkin, Cambodia. 

9. Sporobolus orientalis, Kunth Enum. PL i (1833), 211 ; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. 
PI. 295 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 251 ; Cke. ii, 1020 ; Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 
49 ; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v. 263.— Agrostis orientalis, Nees Agrost. Bras. 393 {excl. 
syn. Roxb.).— A tenacissima, Linn. f. Suppl. 107 {excl. syn. Jacq.).— A. elon- 
gata, Roth Nov. Sp. PL 41.— Vii fa orientalis, Nees ex Trin. in Mem. Acad. 
Petersb. ser. vi. Sc. Nat. ii (1840), 65; Steud. Syn. Gram. 156.— V. diandra, 
Trin. Diss, i, 154 {excl. syn. Retz.).— Sporobolus 'humifusus, Trim. Cat. Ceyl. 
PL 108 {non Kunth). 

Description : Cke. ii, 1020. 

Locality : Gujarat : Prantij Taluka, low grounds liable to inundation 
(Sedgwick !) ; Karie Roa, Cutch (Blatter 3771 !) ; Umrat, on salt land (Wood- 
row V).— Konkan : Bassein (McCann 4481 !).— Kanara : Karwar, borders of rice 
fields (Talbot 1531!). 

Distribution : Punjab, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. 

10. Sporobolus piliferus, Kunth Enum. PL i (1883), 211; Hook. f. in F.B.I, 
vii, 251 ; Cke. ii, 1020.- Vii fa pilifera, Trin. Diss, i, 157, ii, 23, Sp. Gram. Ic. t, 
58.— Sporobolus ciliatus, Munro in Herb. Ind. Or. Hook, f . & T. ex Hook f . in 
F.B.I, vii, 251* Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 29 {non Vilfa ciliata, Presl.).— Tria- 
chyrum nilagiricum, Steud. in Hohen. PL Ind. Or. no. 931. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1020. 

Locality: Deccan : Panchgani, Tableland, 4,300 ft., rainfall 60 inches 
(Sedgwick & Bell 4693!, Blatter & Hallberg B1319 !, B1320 !, McCann!).— 
S. M. Country : Dharwar (Bhide !) ; Belgaum (Ritchie 836). 

Distribution : W. Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Nilgiris, W. Peninsula, Malacca. 

485 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 3 [May 31, 1929. 

11. Sporobolus arabicus, Boiss. Diagn. PI. Or. ser. i, xiii, 47 ; Hook. f. in 
F.B.I., vii, 252 ; Cke. ii, 1020.-5. pallidus, Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 514 {non Lindl.); 
Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 165 {excl. syn.).— Vilfa pallida, Nees ex Trin. in Mem. 
Acad. Petersb, ser. vi, Sc. Nat. ii (1840), 62; Steud. Syn. Gram. 155.— 
V. arabica, Steud. I.e. 241. 

Hook f . calls the synonymy of this plant a perplexing one, ' owing to the 
double use of the specific name pallidus, and to the fact of Vilfa being now 
regarded as a synonym of Sporobolus. This name {pallidus) was applied by 
Nees in 1840 to the Arabian plant described above, under Vilfa; and by 
Lindley in 1848 to a very different Australian one, under Sporobolus. Bentham 
{Fl. Austral, vii, 623) assuming that Nees had referred his plant to Sporobolus, 
renamed Lindley's S. Lindleyi. Lastly, Boissier, when he founded his 
5. arabicus, was not aware that it was Trinius's Vilfa pallida, which he erro- 
neously cites in Fl. Orient., under Sporobolus pallidus, Trin. In this case the 
proper course appears to me to be to retain the name Sp. pallidus, Lindl., for 
the Australian plant, and Sp. arabicus, Boiss., for the Arabian and Indian.' 
Personally we are inclined to call this species S. pallidus, Boiss., as Vilfa 
pallida, Nees is the oldest name for the Indo- Arabian species. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1020. 

Locality: Sind : (Burns!); Laki (Bhide !) ; Mirpur Sakro (Blatter & 
McCann D672 !, D677 !, D678 !) ; Gharo (Blatter & McCann D673 !, D676 !) ; 
Tatta (Blatter & McCann D674!, D675 !) ; Jamadar ka Landa near Karachi 
(Stocks 663) ; Karachi (Woodrow) ; between Karachi and Magar Peer 
(Wykeham Perry). 

Distribution : Punjab, Waziristan, Rajputana Desert, Afghanistan, Balu- 
chistan, Arabia. 

12. Sporobolus scabrifollus, Bhide in Journ, & Proc. As. Soc. Beng. new. ser. 
viii (1912), 312, pi. xxv. 

Description : Stems erect, 20-75 cm. high. Nodes glabrous. Leaves 2*5— 
12 cm. long, 3-9 mm. broad, lanceolate, rounded or subcordate at the base, 
hairy on both surfaces with bulbous based hairs, margins slightly thickened 
and spinulosely serrulate ; sheaths glabrous ; ligule a fringe of hairs. Panicle 
7*5-17'5 cm. long, 2*5-9 cm. diam. ; branches whorled or fascicled, a few 
solitary ones or twins intervening. Spikelets about 1 mm. long. Glumes 3, 
involucral ones empty, ovate, acute, membranous, 1-nerved, the lower one f 
the size of the upper ; flowering glume just a little shorter than the upper 
involucral, ovate, acute, membranous, 1-nerved, paleate, bisexual : pale 
shorter than the glume. Stamens 3 ; styles 2 ; stigmas plumose. Grain 
rounded, slightly beaked at the extremities ; lodicules minute. 

Locality : S.M. Country : Ranibennur (Bhide !) ; Haveri (Talbot 2176 !). 

Distribution: So far endemic. 

13. Sporobolus coromandelianus, Link. Hort. Reg. Berol. i (1827), 89 (in nota). 
Kunth Rev. Gram, i (1829), 68 ; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 296 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I. 
vii, 252 ; Cke. ii, 1021 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 975.—Agrostis coro- 
mandeliana, Retz. Obs. iv, 19 ; Vahl. Symb. i, 10 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind i, 316.— 
A. indica, Forsk. Fl. Aeg.— Arab. 104.— Vilfa coromandeliana, Beauv. Agrost. 
15 ; Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. t 11 {omittens glumam involucri inferiorem) ; Steud. 
Syn. Gram. 153. — V. commutata, Trin. Diss, i, 156. — V. discosPora, Trin. in 
Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. vi, Sc. Nat. ii (1841), 59. — V. Roxburghii, Nees ex 
Trin. I.e. — V. Roxburghiana, Nees ex Wight Cat. No. 1742 ; Steud. Norn. ed. 
ii, ii, 59.— Sporobolus commutatus, Kunth Enum. i. 214 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 
376 {excl. syn. pulchello) ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v (1S84), 513 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab 
PI. 165 : Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 29.-5. discosporus, Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. 
158. — Triachyrum cordofanum, Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 176. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1021. 

Locality: Sind: Jamadar ka Landa near Karachi (Stocks). — Gujarat : 
Shady places at DhansuraMadasa-Petha (Sedgwick \).—Khandesh : Bor, Bori 
River (Blatter & Hallberg 4426 ! ) — Konkan : Kennedy Seaface, Bombay 


May 31, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 486 

(Sabnis4295 !) ; Bombay (Law) .—Deccan : Poona, College Farm (Khomne!) ; 
Gungapur (Blatter A56!).— 5". M. Country : Dharwar, 2,400 ft., rainfall 34 
inches (Sedgwick 2832 !). 

Distribution : Punjab, Orissa, Burma, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Afghanistan, 


80. Desmostachya, Stapf. in Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa (1924), 962. 
{Eragrostis, Beau v., partim). 

This genus agrees with Eragrostis, Beauv., except in the following points : 
Spikelets very closely packed, imbricate, laterally very much compressed, 
secund, sessile and articulate on the very short densely crowded branchlets of 
a tall narrow racemiform panicle, acute and deciduous ; rhachilla sub- 

Species 1. — India to Syria and N. Africa. 

1. Desmostachya bipinnata, Stapf in PI. Cap.vii, 632 —Briza bipinnata, Linn. 
Syst. Nat. x, 875.— Uniola bipinnata, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. ii, 104.— Leptochloa 
bipinnata, Hochst in Flora xxxviii (1855), 422. — Eragrostis cynosuroides , Beauv. 
Agrost. 71, 162 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 264 ; Wight Cat. No. 1774, 1774b ; Trin. in 
Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. vi, i (1831), 415; Dalz. and Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 298 ; 
Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 169; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 37, Fodd. Grass. N. 
Ind. 62, t. 40 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 583 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vii (1893), 387 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii 324 ; Cke. ii, 1028 ; Pram Beng. PI. 
1221.— Poa cynosuroides, Retz. Obs. fasc. iv, (1786), 20 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 333 ; 
Del. Fl. d'Egypt 159, t. 10 ; Grab. Cat. Bomb. PI. 236 ; Kunth Enum. PL i, 
227. — Desmostachya cynosuroides, Stapf in Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa (1924), 
962 ; Blatt., McCann and Sabnis in Journ. Ind. Bot. vi (1927), l§. — Cynosurus 
durus, Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.— Arab. 71. 

Description: Cke. ii, 1028 (under Eragrostis). 

Locality: Sind : Jacobabad (Bhide!); Hyderabad (Bhide!, Woodrow) ; 
Sukkur (Sabnis B550 !, Bhide !) ; Miani forest, Hyderabad (Bhide !) ; Larkana 
(Sabnis B100 !) ; Sehwan to Laki, foot of hills (Sabnis B66 !) ; Sehwan, sand 
dunes (Sabnis B674!); Sita Road (Sabnis B360 !) ; Khairpur Mirs, forest 
(Sabnis B328!); Phuleli Canal, on banks, at Hyderabad (Sabnis B181 !) ; 
Sanghar (Sabnis B895!); Pad-Idan (Sabnis B517 !) ; Ghulamalla, fields 
(Blatter and McCann D643!); Mirpur Sakro (Blatter and McCann D644!, 
D646!, D647!); Gharo (Blatter and McCann D645 !, D648 !).— Cutch : 
(Blatter ^.—Gujarat : Surat (Gammie!) ; Nadiad Farm (Supt. of Farm!) ; 
road to Lasundra (Chibber !) ; Charodi (Gammie 16526 !) ; Mandvi, Kathiawar 
(Woodrow). — Konkan : Palghar, Mahim (Ryan 2189) ; Bassein (Patwardhan !); 
Dahana, Thana Dist. (Burns !).— Deccan : Nasik (Lisboa). 

Distribution : India, Syria, Egypt, Nubia. 

81. Eragrostis, Beauv. Ess. Agrost. (1812), 70, pi. 14. 

f. 11 ; Cke. ii, 1021. 

1 Hitchcock ascribes the genus to Host because Hast was the first to describe 
a species of Erogrostis (Gram. Austr. 4 (1809), 14, pi. 24). Host, however, did 
not give a diagnosis of the genus and so we retain Beauvois who first diagnosed 
the genus, I.e. 

Species more than 100.— Tropical and temperate regions. 

Cooke describes 15 species Of these Eragrostis cynosuroides, Beauv. has 
been put under Desmostachya above. The other species are being retained, 
with the exception that E. tenella, var. viscosa, Stapf is considered as a distinct 
species (E. viscosa). Of two species the names had to be changed viz. E. 
amabilis is here called E. unioloides, and E. maior goes under the name of E. 
Eragrostis. E. papposa and.E. brachyphylla are new to the Presidency. 

Key, after Cooke. 


487 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 3 [May 31, 1929. 

A. Spikelets panicled. 

AA. Rhachilla of spikelets more or less jointed 

and breaking up from above downwards 

I. Panicle spiciform, compact, 5-7*5 cm. by 

8 mm. ; rhachis bearded at the nodes ; 

margins of flowering glumes ciliate ... 

II. Panicle open or more or less contracted ; 

margins of flowering glumes not ciliate 

1. Spikelets 5 mm. long ; panicle large, 

lax, thyrsiform, 20-50 by 10-15 cm. ... 

2. Spikelets 2*5 mm. long ; panicle short, 

compact, cylindric, 12-40 mm. long. 

3. Spikelets 2*5-4 mm. long ; panicles 

5-20 cm. long 

a. Grain ovoid. Stamens 3 
aa. Not sweet-scented ... 
bb. Sweet-scented 

b. Grain obovoid. Stamens 2 

BB. Rhachilla of spikelets tough, persistent ; 
flowering glumes falling away from its 
base upwards 
I. Spikelets flat, ovate-elliptic or oblong ; 
lateral nerves of flowering glumes very 
prominent, straight, almost percurrent; 
pales deciduous with their glumes 
II. Spikelets less compressed, linear or 
linear-oblong ; lateral nerves less pro- 
minent. When spikelet compressed or 
lateral nerves prominent, then with 
persistent pales 
In Spikelets more or less fascicled on the 
primary or secondary branches or 
shortly pedicellate in narrow racemes 
aa. Leaves glaucous ; grain oblong. 
bb. Leaves not glaucous ; grain 
globose or nearly so 
2, Spikelets not fascicled; long pedicellate, 
more or less divaricate when ripe 

a. Leaf-margins glandular 

aa. Lower involucral glume 1-3- 
nerved ; upper 3-u.erved 

bb. Both involucral glumes 1-ner- 

b. Leaf-margins eglandular ; involucral 

glumes 1-nerved 

aa. Spikelets versatile, 2*5 cm. long 

or longer, narrowly linear ; 

branches of panicle solitary... 

bb. Spikelets small, 4 mm. long 

or less 

§ Mouth of leaf-sheath naked. 

§§ Mouth of leaf-sheath 


t Perennial. Grain obovoid. 

tt Annual. Grain ellipsoid ... 

B. Spikelets distichously spreading, secund, in a 

long, simple terminal spike 

1. Keels of pale distinctly winged ... 

2. Keels of pale not winged 


E. cilia ta. 


E. as per a. 


E. ciliaris. 



E. tenella. 
E. viscosa. 
E. interrupta 

7. E. unioloides. 



E. g angelica. 
E. stenophylla. 

E. Eragrostis. 
E. minor. 


E. tremula. 


E. tenuifolia. 



E. papposa, 
E. pilosa. 


E. bifaria. 

E. brachyphylla, 

1. Eragrostis ciliata, Nees Agrost. Bras. (1S29), 51?, Obs. 1 {nomen nudum) ; 
Wight Cat. No. 1788 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 265 ; Dak. and Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 298 ; 
Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 313 ; Cke. ii, 1022 ; Haines Bot. Bihar and Orissa (1924), 


May 31, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 488 

956.— E. rupestris, Steud. 1. c.—Poaciliata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 334.— P. rupestris, 
Roth. Nov. PL Sp. 71. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1022. 

Locality : Gujarat : Domas, near Surat (Dalz. and Gibs.),— We have never 
come across this species. 

Distribution : India, Cochin-Chiua. 

2. Eragrostis aspera, Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. (1841) 408 ; Lisboa in Journ., Bomb. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 386 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 314 ; Cke. ii, 1023.— 
E. paniculata, Steud. Syn. Gram. 278.— Poa paniculata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 340. 
—P. aspera, Jacq. Hort.Vindob. iii, 32. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1023. 

Locality: Konkan : ( Lisboa !).-£. M. Country: Hubli, in water hole, 
2,500 ft., rainfall 30 inches; (Sedgwick & Bell 4230!) in a small tank near 
Dharwar, 2,500 ft., rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick 1814 ! ) ; common in the water 
holes in the Naval Tract (Sedgwick) —N. Kanara : (Lisboa !). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, S. India, Ceylon, tropical and S. Africa, Isle of 

3. Eragrostis ciliaris, Link Hort. Reg Berol. i (1827), 192 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 582 ; 
Baker Fl. Maurit. 456 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 37, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 62 ; 
Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PL 169 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 
380 ; Hook.f. in F. B. I. vii, 314 ; Cke. ii, 1023.— Poa ciliaris, Linn. Sp PL 
102.— Eragrostis lobata, Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. vi, i (1831), 396.— 
E. lepida, Hocbs^. ex A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 424.— £. plumosa, Boiss. Fl. 
Or. v, 582 {excl. syn).—E. pulchella, Pari, in Hook. Niger Fl. 186. — E. arabica, 
Jaub. & Spach 111. PL Or. iv, 31, t. 322,— Megastachya ciliaris, Beauv. 
Agrost. 74. 

Stapf (in Hook. f. F. B. I. 1. c.) distinguishes 2 varieties : — 

a. var. ciliaris Proper, Stapf. Panicle spiciform, more or less lobed or 

b. var. brachystachya, Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 582. Panicle short, compact, 

In our opinion the many intermediate forms make it practically impossible to 
keep up this varietal distinction. The above synonymy and the following 
description are such as to include both varieties. 

Description : Annual. Stem 15-60 cm. high, procumbent below and geni- 
culately ascending;, slender, glabrous, smooth. Leaves very narrow, flat, 
tapering to a fine point ; sheaths striate, usually bearded at the mouth with 
long hairs ; ligule a fringe of short hairs. Panicle 1-15 cm. long, spiciform, 
more or less lobed or interrupted, or short, compact and cylindric, appear- 
ing hairy from the long cilia of the pales ; branches very short, divided from 
the base, glabrous ; nodes of glabrous rhachis naked ; pedicels very short, 
glabrous. Spikelets 2*5 mm. long and broad, crowded, 6-12 flowered, strongly 
compressed, very pale ; rhachilla breaking up. Involucral glumes subequal, 
ovate-lanceolate, acute, 1'5 mm. long. Floral glumes about 1 mm. long 
oblong, subtruncate. mucronulate, spreading, lateral nerves submarginal. 
Pales equal to their glumes and falling with them, the keels with long 
rigid cilia. Stamens 3 ; anthers very short. Grain elongate-ovoid, about 
0*5 mm. long. 

Locality : Sind : Karachi ( Burns ! ) ; Jamadar ka Landa, near Karachi 
(Stocks) ; Mirpurkhas ( Sabnis B1175 ! ) ; Mirpurkhas Farm, Mankad (Herb. 
Econ. Bot. ! ) ; Jamesabad, in fields ( Sabnis B1109 ! ) ; Nasarpur, clayey soil 
(Sabnis B105S ! ) ; Sanghar ( Sabnis B757 ! ) ; Tatta ( Blatter & McCann 
D649 \).—Cutch : Bhuj Hill (Blatter !).— Gujarat : Baroda (Woodrow) ; Domas, 
near Surat (Bhide !) ; Porbander ( Bhide ! ) ; Nadiad (Chibber!) ; Broach 
( Woodrow ! ) ; Sungiri ( Gammie 16553 ! ) ; Perim Isl., Gulf of Cambay 
( Blatter \).—Khandesh : Taner, Tapti bank (Blatter & Hallberg 5166 ! ) ; 
Nim, Tapti bed (Blatter & Hallberg 5400 !) ; Tapti Isl. near Bor, on sand and 
mild (Blatter & Hallberg 4394 !) ; Bor, Bori River ( Blatter & Hallberg 4423 !); 
Amalner, Bori River (Blatter & Hallberg 5114 !).— Konkan : St. Xavier's 
College, compound (McCann 4527 ! 4596 !) ; Alibag, sandy shore Ezekiel !).— 
Deccan : Trirnbak, Nasik Dist. (Chibber \).— Kanara : Honavar (McCann !). 

Distribution : India, Arabia, tropical Africa and America. 


489 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIit, No. 3 [May 31, 1929. 

4. Eragrostis tenella, P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. Syst. ii (1817), 576 ; Stapl in 
Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 315 ; Cke. ii, 1023.— Poa amabilis, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 
i (1753), 68.— Poa tenella, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. i (1753), 69. 

A. Camus in Lecomte's Flore General del'Indo-Chine has adopted the 
name Eragrostis amabilis for this species. Mr. Hubbard of Kew has informed 
us that, according to the Vienna Rules of nomenclature (Art. 46) this does not 
seem to be correct. Poa amabilis, Linn, is the same as Poa tenella, Linn., and 
Eragrostis tenella, P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. is based on Poa tenella, Linn. 
Apparently Stapf (in Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 315) was the first to unite the two 
species; as the name first used when the species were united takes precedence 
over the other, we have to retain the name E. tenella, P. Beauv. 

Description : Usually a small, very elegant and slender annual grass, very 
variable, rarely 45 cm. high. Stems many, slender, densely tufted. Leaves 
slender, narrow, acuminate, attaining 12 cm. by 5 mm., usually much less ; 
sheaths long-ciliate near the mouth. Panicles decompound, excessively branch- 
ed 2-8 in, long, contracted or spreading, pale green or purplish, oblong-ovate 
or cylindric, never with the long interrupted rhachis and pseudo-verticillate 
branches of E. interrupta. Spikelets innumerable, minute to small on 
capillary brrnchlets and pedicels, 1-4 mm. by 1 mm. or less, not strongly 
compressed, 3-9-flowered . Involucral glumes subequal or unequal. Flowering 
glumes oblique, not mucronate, lateral nerves remote from the margins ; keels 
of pale usually obscurely ciliate. Stamens 3. Grain broadly ovoid, pale brown, 

Var. plumosa, Stapf in Hook. f. F.B.L vii, 315 ; Cke. ii, 1024 ; Haines Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa (1922) 957 '.— Eragrostis plumosa, Link. Enum. Hort. Berol. 
i. (1827), 192 (non Boiss.) ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 38, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 
64, t. 38, 77 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 170 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. 
Soc. vi (1893), 385.— Poa plumosa, Retz. Obs. iv, 20 ; Kunth Enum. PI. 
i, 338; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 337.— P. tenella, Linn. Sp. PL ed. i, (1753), 69 : Burm. 
Fl. Zeyl. t. 47, f. 3 ; Retz. Obs. V, 19.— Eragrostis tenella, P. Beauv. 1. c— 
P. despiciens, Link. Enum. Hort. Berol. i, 88.— Eragrostis despiciens, Schult. 
Mant. ii, 318. 

Description : Stems tufted, sometimes reaching 40 cm. high and more, and 
as well as the panicle eglandular. Panicle delicate, open, often . flexuous ; 
branches capillary, rhachis bearded at the nodes ; pedicels distinct, often long. 
Spikelets 1*2-4 mm. long, 3-9-flowered, rhachllla subarticulate. Involucral 
glumes unequal, the lower distinctly shorter than the upper. Floral glumes 
less than 1 ram. long. Keels of the pale pectinately ciliate with long hairs. 
Anthers minute. Grain ovoid, less than 0*5 mm. long. 

Locality : Sind : Mirpurkhas, on banks of dry watercourse ^Sabnii B1023!),— 
Gujarat : Surat (Bhide !, Woodrow),— Khandesh : Bor, Tapti Island, sandy 
mud (Blotter & Hallberg 4395!) ; Umalla, Tapti bank (Blatter & Hallberg 
5230 !) ; Chanseli (McCann 9978 \).—Konkan : Common (Lisboa) ; Byculla, 
common in Bombay Island (McCann Al ; Uran (Hallberg & McCann 5131!, 
5124 \).-Deccan : Sholapur (D'Almeida 9977 !) ; Poona (Cooke, Woodrow).— 
S.M. Country: Dharwar, 2,400 ft., rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick 2830!); 
Yelvigi, 1,800 ft., rainfall 30 inches (Sedgwick 2035 !) ; Badami (Bhide !) ; 
Gokak (Shevade \),-Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2383 !). 

Distribution : Throughout India and Ceylon. 

Var. riparia, Stapf in Hook. f. F.B I. vii, 315 ; Cke. i, 1024. 

Cooke included this variety on the authority of Graham (Cat. Bomb. PI. p. 
236, under Poa tenella). Graham does not give any locality ; Cooke has not 
seen any specimen from the Presidency and we have not found it anywhere in 
our area. We, therefore, drop this variety. 

5. Eragrostis viscosa, Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 6. i (1831), 397; 
Dalz, &Gibs. 298; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 386 ; 
Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1922), 957. -Poa viscosa, Retz. Obs. iv (1786), 20; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 336 ; Grah. Cat. Bomb. PI. 236 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 
336.— Eragrostis tenella var. viscosa, Stapf in Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 315 ! Cke. 
ii, 1024. 

Description : A tufted, sweet-scented-grass, 15-40 cm high, the panicles 
occupying the greater part of the plant. Stem and rhachis of panicle, pedicels 
and glumes with scattered microscopic glands. Leaves mostly convolute, 


May 31, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 490 

erecto-patent, 2'5-3-5 cm. long with rigid tips, base and mouth of sheath 
with very long cilia. Panicles dense, cylindric or oblong, 7-13 cm. long and 
up to 3*5 cm. broad. Branches very numerous, more or less spreading, equal, 
sometimes opposite or 2-nate, but never in interrupted whorls as in E. inter- 
rupta ; rhachis usually glabrous, rarely obscurely bearded at the nodes. Spike- 
lets 5-20-flowered, often purplish, usually about 3 mm. long ; rhachilla readily 
breaking up. Involucral glumes nearly equal or the lower very slightly shorter 
than the upper. Floral glumes broadly ellipsoid, obtuse or rounded, with the 
keel minutely scaberulous. Pale nearly as long as the glume, rigidly ciliate on 
the keels. Grain pale brown, polished, about 0'5 mm. long. 

Locality: Gujarat : Junagad, Kathiawar (Blatter 3282 !, 3791 !).- Khandesh: 
Bor, Bori River (Blatter & Hallberg 4430 !) ; Amalner, Bori River (Blatter & 
Hallberg 5113!) ; Nim, Tapti bank (Blatter & Hallberg 3829 !) ; Dadgaum 
(McCann All \).—Konkan : Malabar Hill, Bambay.— Deccan . Khandala ; 
Panchgani (Blatter & Hallberg B1280!).— S. M. Cuntry : Dastikop fields, 
2,500 ft. rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 1898 ! ).— Kanara : Sulgeri, 
500 ft., rainfall 200 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4250 !) ; Birchy (Talbot 2102 !). 

Distribution : From the Gangetic Plain southward, Ceylon, tropical and 
S. Africa. 

6. Eragrostis interrupta, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 71 (non Roem. & Schult. neque 
Trin.) ; Stapf in Hook, f . F.B.I, vii, 316 ; Cke. ii, 1024 ; Haines Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa (1924), 957.— Poa interrupta, Lamk. iii, i, 185; Poir. Encycl. 
v, 87 ; Heyne ex Roth Nov. Sp. 67 ; Koen. ex Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 335.— Poa 
Kcsnigii, Kunth Enum. PI. i, 346. — Eragrostis Kcsnigii, Link Enum, Hort. 
Berol. ii, 294 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 266.— Eragrostis interrupta, Beauv. var. 
Kcsnigii, Stapf in Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 316 ; Cke. ii ; 1024 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & 
Orissa (1924), 957.— E. hapalantha, Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. vi, i 
(1839), 409 {partim).—E. minutiflora, Presl. Rel. Haenk. i, 274 {excl. syn.) ; 
Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii. ( 1893), 386.— E. mossulensis, Steud- 
Syn. Gram. 264.— E. nutans, Nees in Wight Cat. no. 1776 ; Steud. Nom. 
ed. ii, i, 563 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 38, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 
63, t, 76; Aitchis, Cat. Panjab PI. 169; Lisboa 1. c. 381; Boiss. Fl. 
Or. v, 583.— E. Rothii, Steud. Syn. Gram. 267. -E. stricta. Steud. I.e. 264.— 
E. verticillata, Nees in Wight Cat. no. 1784.— Poa nutans, Koen. ex Roth Nov. 
Sp. 64; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 335 {non Retz.).— Poa diarrhena, Schult. Mant. 616.- 
Eragrostis diarrhena, Steud. Syn. Gram. 266. — E. interrupta, var. diarr- 
hena Stapf 1. c.—Poa diandra, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 336 {non Br.).— Eragrostis 
diandra, Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 169 {non Steud.) ; Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 
37 .—Diplachne elongata, Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 268.— Eragrostis 
diplachnoides , Steud. 1. c — Eragrostis interrupta. var. dipiachnoides, Stapf 
1. c.-E. caudata, Nees ex Steud. 1. c. 264 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 37.— 
E. japonica, Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. vi, i. (1831), A05.-E. tenella B. 
Roem. & Schult. Syst. ii, 356.— £. tenella, Benth. Fl. Hongk. 431, Fl. 
Austral, viii, 643 {non Beauv.) ; Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 65, t. 
78.— E. tenellula, Steud. Syn. Gram. 279.— E. tenuissima, Schrad. ex Nees 
Fl. Afr. Austr. 409, 410.— E. interrupta, var. tenuissima, Stapf I.e. ; Sedgwick 
and Saxton in Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. vi, 219 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924) 
958.— Poa Japonica, Thumb. Fl. Jap. 31.— P. tenella, R. Br. Prodr. 181 
{non Beauv.) ; Roxb. Fl. Ind, i, 337.— P. tenellulla, Kunth Enum. PI. i, 

We have examined a great number of specimens from all parts of the 
Presidency. Most of them cannot be classed under any of the 4 varieties 
mentioned by Stapf. If we wanted to classify them we would have to greatly 
multiply the number of varieties which could not be satisfactory neither irom a 
theoretical nor practical point of view. Cooke puts the Bombay material 
under E. interrupta, var. Koenigii, Stapf. But then he has seen only one 
specimen from Surat. We have dropped all the varieties as can be seen from 
the above synonymy. The following description comprises them all. 

Description: A very variable slender grass from 5-90 cm., annual or 
perennial. Stems smooth and polished, tufted, geniculate and ascending from 
the base, branched or not, nodes glabrous. Leaves slender, up to about 25 cm. 
long, narrow, flat, glabrous ; sheaths glabrous, close ; ligule a fimbriate 
membrane. Panicle exceedingly variable, up to 60 cm. long, either contracted 
with appressed branches or interrupted with many tiers of rather short 


491 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 3 {May 31, 1929. 

spreading subwhorled branches (either long narrow with sziort dense suberect 
or erecto-patent pseudo-whorls or long effuse or contracted with solitary or 
2-3-nate branches, simple or if branched the whorl rarely overtopped by 1 or 2 
branches, ultimate branches not divaricate or long loose narrow, usually stiff, 
branches pseudo-whorled, spreading, ramified from the base, brancblets and 
pedicels divaricate- or long linear-oblong, branches up to 5 cm. long, hardly 
whorled, simple at the base, etc.). Spikelets usually very minute, from 
1-6 mm. long, ovate to linear, few- to many-flowered. Flowering glumes 
obtuse, nerves slender, green or pale brown, rarely coloured, keels of pale 
scaberulous or smooth. Stamens 2. Grain obovoid. 

Locality: Sind : Pad-Idan (Sabnis B513!); Mirpurkhas, fallow fields 
(Sabnis B1175 !) ; Jamesabad (Sabnis B1164 !) ; Ganja Hill, near Hyderabad 
(Sabnis B996 !) ; Bhagar, Indus River (Blatter & McCann D650 !).— Gujarat : 
In water holes (Dalzell & Gibson) ; Dangs, 800 ft., rainfall 100 inches 
(Sedgwick & Bell 5392 !) ; Surat (Gammie 16436 !, Woodrow, Cooke) ; Kabir- 
wad, Broach Dist. (Chibber!); Nadiad (Chibber!); road to Lasandra 
(Chibber !).— Khandesh : Tapti, Bhusawal, N. E. (Blatter & Hallberg 4437 !) ; 
Bor, Tapti Isl., sand and mud (Blatter & Hallberg 5475!) ; Nim, Tapti, left 
bank (Blatter & Hallberg 5221 !) ; Amalner, Bori River (Blatter & Hallberg 
4433 !); Muravat, Tapti bank (Blatter & Hallberg 5151 !, 5205!) ; Bor (Blatter 
& Hallberg 5488 !) ; Chanseli Hill, northern slope (McCann 9986!) ; Umalla, 
Tapti bank (Blatter & Hallberg 5214!); Toramnal (McCann 9976 !, 9995 !) .— 
Konkan : Tisgaon, near Kalyan (Garade !) ; Borivli to Kenery Caves (McCann 
9989!); Vihar Lake (McCann 9996!); Pen (McCann 8556!); Kase Dohan, 
Thana Dist. (Ryan 1920 !) ; Ghatkoper, Horse-shoe Valley (McCann 9994!) ; 
Parel (McCann 5417!); Sion (McCann 5246!); Bassein (Lisboa) ; Thana 
(Lisboa) ; Alibag, rocky river bed (Ezekiel !) —Deccan : Bhowdan, near Poona 
(Woodrow) ; Bahuli, 14 miles N.W. of Poona (Woodrow) ; Ganeshkhind 
Botanic Gardens (Gammie!); Trimbak (Chibber!); Dhond, along river 
(Bhide 1349!) ; Barsi River (Gammie 15766 !) ; Khandala, very common in 
fields (McCann 9998!); Khandala to Karjat (Blatter & Hallberg 5322!) 
Igatpuri (Blatter & Hallberg 5193 !) ; Bairawadi, Purandhar (McCann 5056 !) 
Tangawadi, Igatpuri (Blatter & Hallberg 3834 !) ; Lohagad (McCann 9987 !) 
Vaslang, Sholapur (D' Almeida 9980 !).— S. M. Country : Margin of tanks, 
Yelvigi, 1,800 ft., rainfall 28 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 3612 !) ; Dharwar, 2,400 
ft., rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4975 !) ; Dastikop, 2 500 ft., rainfall 
35 inches (Sedgwick 2135 \).—Kanara : Halyal, 1,800 ft. (Talbot 2100!); 
Kincholi (Talbot 944 !) ; Castle Rock, on banks of a tank (McCann 9993 !). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, tropical Asia and Africa. 

7. Eragrostis unioloides, Nees ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 264 ; Trim. Cat. Ceyl. PI. 
109; Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 38; Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 65; Aitchis. Cat. Panj. 
PI. 170; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. His<- Soc. viii (1S93), 363; Griseb. in 
Goett. Nachr. (1868), 76 —Poa unioloides Retz. Obs. v, 19 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 
330 ; Kunth Enum. PL i, 335 ; Grah. Cat. Bomb. PI. 236.— P. multiflora, Roxb. 
FJ. Ind. i, 338.— P. polymorpha, R. Br. Prodr. 180. -P. rubeus, Lamk. Illustr. 
i, 184, t. 45, f. 2 ; Kunth I.e. 335. —Eragrostis amabilis, Wight & Arn. ex Nees 
in Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 251 (non Linn.); Nees in Act. Acad. Nat. 
Cur. xix, Suppl. i (1843), 205; Stapf in Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 317; Cke. ii, 1025; 
Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1922), 958.— £". polymorpha, Trin. ex Steud. Norn. 
ed. ii, i, 364, 562. — E. rubeus, Hochst. ex Miq. Anal. Bot. ii, 26 ; Steud. Syn. 
Gram 265.— Briza rubra, Lamk. Illustr. i, 187 ; Kunth I.e. 371. — Uniola indica, 
Spreng. Syst. i, 349 ; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 298.— Megastachya polymorpha, 
Beauv. Agrost. 74. 

Mr. Hubbard of Kew has helped us with regard to the synonymy of this 
species, He says in a letter : ' The combination E amabilis, Wight & Arn. is 
based on Poa amabilis, Linn, but the majority of the references, the description 
and the specimens refer to a different plant which has for a long time been 
known under this name. It cannot, however, be called E. amabilis, Wight & 
Arn. and the next name for it is Eragrostis unioloides, Nees {Poa unioloides, 
Retz.). The fact that the name £. amabilis has been applied to a different 
species might be used as additional justification for rejecting it.' 

Description : Cke. ii, 1025. 

Locality : Sind : Mirpur Sakro (Blatter & McCann D651 !).— Konkan ; Penn 
(Bhide!, McCann!); very common in the Bombay and Salsette Islands 

May 31, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 492 

(McCann !) ; Alibag (Ezekiel !) ; Uran (Hallberg & McCann 5130 !) ; Parel, 
Bombay Island (Woodrow) ; Bassein (Woodrow). — Deccan : Igatpuri (Blatter 
& Hallberg 5192!, McCann!); Bairawadi, Purandhar (McCann 8739!); 
Lohagad, way up (McCann 9504 !) ; Khandala, very common (Blatter 4375 !, 
5440 !, McCann !) ; Lonavla (Woodrow 165) ; Poona (Woodrow) ; Katraj Ghat 
(Bhide!) ; Panchgani (Blatter 5387 !, Blatter & Hallberg B1243 !) ; Mahableshwar 
(Talbot 4511!).— 5. M. Country: Marshes N. of Belgaum (Ritchie 846); 
Dharwar (Sedgwick 2114 !).— Kanara : Karwar, sandy fields by the sea 
(Sedgwick & Bell 5086!) ; Castle Rock (Gammie 15723!) ; Dudsagar Falls 
(McCann 9985!). 
Distribution ; India, Ceylon, tropical Asia. 

8. Eragrostis gangetica, Steud. Syn. Gram. (1855), 266; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v, 
293; Stapf in Dyer Fl. Cap. vii (1900), 617 ; Prain Beng. PI. 1221 ; Cke. ii, 

1025 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 958.— E. elegantula, Stapf in Hook, 
f. F.B.I, vii (1896), 318 {non Nees). 

Description : Cke. ii, 1025. 

' Very similar to E. stenophylla in the character of the panicle and the slatey- 
blue spikelets, but the longer striolate grain is correlated in all the specimens 
with the longer usually more acuminate glumes and slightly stouter pedicels 
than occur in stenophylla. 1 Haines. 

Locality: Konkan : Vihar Lake (McCann 5096!) ; Campoli (McCann 9409!).- 
Deccan : Igatpuri (Blatter & Hallberg 5198!) ; Khandala (McCann A10!) ; 
Khandala to Karjat (Blatter & Hallberg A3!) ; Poona, Canal (Ezekiel!) ; 
Borkas, Mawal, Poona Dist. (Woodrow) ; Panchgani (Blatter & Hallberg 
B1218!, B1276!); Lingmala, Mahableshwar, 4,000 ft., rainfall 200 inches 
(Sedgwick & Bell 4654 l).—S. M. Country : Hirdridihal, on the margin of a 
tank, 2,000 ft., rainfall 30 inches (Sedgwick 3801!) ; Havasbhari, edge of a 
tank, 2,000 ft., rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick 2110!) ; Tadas, tank, 2,500 ft., 
rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick 1910!); Dharwar, rice field (Talbot 2637 !) ; 
Londa (Bhide X).— Kanara : Karwar (Talbot !) ; Halyal (Talbot 2381 !) ; Tinai 
Ghat (Gammie 15808). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon. 

9. Eragrostis stenophylla, Hochst. ex Miq. Anal. Bot. Ind. ii (1851), 27 ; Lisboa 
in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist Soc. vii (1893), 385 ; Stapf in Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 
318 (excl. aliq. syn.) ; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v, 294 ; Prain Beng. PL 1221 ; Cke. ii, 

1026 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 959.— E. Brownei, Nees in Wight Cat. 
(1833) No. 1780 (partim) ; E. elegantula, Nees I.e. 1781, a, (non Steud.) ; 
Duthie Grass N.W. Ind. 37, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 63, t. 74. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1026. 

Locality : Khandesh : Tapti Island, near Bor, on sand and mud (Blatter 
& Hallberg 5470!) ; Umalla, Tapti, on sand (Blatter & Hallberg 5180 !).— 
Konkan : Uran (Hallberg & McCann 5134 !) ; Mai wan (Woodrow).— Deccan : 
Khandala (McCann 5319!) ; Igatpuri (Blatter & Hallberg 5142!) ; Pashan, 
near Poona (Gammie!) ; Purandhar (McCann 5601!) ; Panchgani (Blatter & 
Hallberg B1316 !) ; Barkas, Mawal, Poona Dist. (Woodrow).— 5. M. Country : 
Hirbudihal, on the margin of a tank (Sedgwick 2081 !).— Kanara : Halyal 
(Talbot 2165 !) ; Kulgi (Talbot !). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, tropical Asia and Africa. 

10. Eragrostis Eragrostis, Blatter & McCann, nov. comb, [non Karst. quae est 
E. minor, Host.) .—Br iza Eragrostis, Linn. Sp. PI. 70 ; Schreb. Beschr. Gras. 
ii, l^.—Poa Eragrostis, Cav. 1c. i (1791), 63, t. 92 ; Sibth. Fl. Graec. t. 73.— 
Megastachya Eragrostis, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 74. — Briza oblonga, Moench 
Meth. (1802), 185.— Eragrostis maior, Host. Gram. Austr. iv (1809), 14, t. 24 ; 
Hook. f. F.B.L vii, 320; Cke. ii, 1026; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 
959.— E. flexuosa, Steud. Syn. Gram. 266; Duthie Grass. N.W. India 37.— 
E. megastachya, Link Enum. Hort. Berol. i (1820), 187 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 
333 ; Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 91 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 169 ; Duthie Grass. 
N.W. Ind. 38, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 63, t. 75 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 382; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 580.— E. multiflora, Aschers. ex 
Boiss. I.e.— Poa multiflora, Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab, lxi, no. 58, civ, no. 69, 
p. 21.— Eragrostis pczoides, Trin. in Mem." Acad. Petersb. ser. vi, i (1831), 
404.— E. vulgaris var. megastachya, Coss. et Dur. Fl. Alger. 148. — Poa 


493 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 3 {May 31, 1929, 

cilianensis, All. Fl. Pedem. ii, 246, t. 91, f. 2.— P. flexuosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
i, 339.— P. Roxburghiana, Schult. Mant. ii, 315.— P. tortuosa, Spreng, Syst. 
Veg. i (1825), 345. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1026. 

Locality : Sind : Sanghar (Sabnis B897 !, B753!) ; Mirpurkhas, ou bank of 
dry watercourse (Sabnis B1024). — Gujarat : Kabiiwad, Broach (Gammie!); 
Morvi, Kathiawar (Woodrow).— Khandesh: Chanseli, N. slope (McCann A14 !); 
Nim, Tapti bank (Blatter & Hallberg 5109 !); Umalla, Tapti sand (Blatter & 
Hallberg 5177!); Bor, Tapti sand (Blatter & Hallberg 5187 !) .— Konkan : 
Mahalaxmi, Clerk Road, along brackish water (Sabnis A13 ! ) . — Deccan : 
Kannala, Sholapur Dist. (Mamlatdar of Kannala!); Purandhar (McCann 
5039!); Khandala, road (Blatter 5445!); Kirkee (Gammie 896!); Poona 
(Jacquemont 349, Woodrow), Agricultural College Farm (Ezekiel !).— S.M. 
Country: Dharwar, 2,400 ft., rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick 2834!); Badami 
(Woodrow).— Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 2159 !). 

Distribution : India, Ceylon, westwards to the Mediterranean, tropical and 
subtropical Asia. 

11. Eragrostis minor, Host Gram. Austr. iv (1809) , 15 [in nota) , et in Fl. Austr. 
i (1827), 135 ; Stapf in Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 321 ; Cke. ii, 1027 ; Haines Bot. 
Bihar & Onssa (1924), 960.— £\ poczformis, Link Hort. Berol. i, 188 ; Reichb. 
Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 91.— ii. poczoides, Beauv. Agrost. 76 ; Duthie Grass. N. W.Ind. 
38, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 65; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PL 170; Lisboa in Journ. 
Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 387 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, SKQ.-E. poczoides 0, 
Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb.ser. vi, i (1831), 404.— Poa Eragrostis, Linn. Sp. 
PL 68 (partim !) ; Kunth Enum. PL i, 332 ; Schreb. Beschr. Graes. ii, t. 38 ; 
Host Gram. Austr. ii, 50, t. 69.—£riza Eragrostis, Vill. FL Delph. ii, 50 (non 

Description: Cke. ii, 1027.— Stapf I.e. considers the glands on the leaf- 
margins as ' a very constant character ' . It would be better to say that the 
margins are usually glandular. 

Locality : Sind : Jamesabad, in fields (Sabnis Bllll !) ; Pad-Idan (Sabnis 
B510 !) ; Larkana (Sabnis B476 !); Sanghar (Sabnis B751 !, B752 !).— Gujarat : 
Godra (Woodrow) ; Panch Mahals (Woodrow— Khandesh : Umalla, Tapti sand 
(Blatter & Hallberg 5180 !) ; Tapti Island near Bor, on sand and mud (Blatter 
& Hallberg 4449 !, 5470 !); Manmad, Redmond's garden (Blatter A12 !) ; Tapti 
Bhusawal, N. E. (Hallberg 5112 !).— Konkan : Parel (McCann 5376 !); Bombay 
(Lambert). — Deccan: Tangawadi, Igatpuri (Blatter & Hallberg 5835!); 
Purandhar (McCann 5601!); Bhimthadi, Poona Dist. (Mamlatdar of Bhimthadi!); 
Man, Satara Dist. (Mamlatdar of Man !) ; Poona (Jacquement 350), Chattar- 
shinji Hill (Ezekiel!); Nasik (Lisboa).- S. M. Country : Dharwar, 2,400 ft., 
rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4487 !); Gokak hills (Shevade !). 

Distribution : India, Afghanistan, tropical Africa. 

12. Eragrostis tremula, Hochst. in Schimp. PL Abyss, no. 6, in Flora (1842) I, 
Beibl. 134 ; Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 65, t. 79 : Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. 
Nat Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 382 ; Boiss. FL, Or. v. 581 ; Prain Beng. PL 1221 ; 
Stapf in Hook, f . F. B. I. vii, 320 ; Cke. ii, 1027 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 
(1924), 960. — Poa tremula, Lamk. 111. i, 185.— Eragrostis multiflora, Trin. in 
Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. vi, i (1841), 401; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. FL 298; 
Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 38 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab. PL 169.— Poa multiflora, 
Roxb. FL Ind. i, 338 {non Forsk.). — Eragrostis rhachitricha , Hochst. ex Miq, 
Anal. Bot. Ind. pt. ii (1851), 25 ; Watt Diet. Econ. Prod, iii, 256. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1027. 

Locality: Cutch : Sumrasar (Blatter \). — Gujarat .: Sevalia (Chibber !) ; 
Perim Island, Gulf of Cambay (Blatter !); Gogo, Kathiawar ( Dalzell & Gibson, 
Woodrow). — Deccan : Lonavia (Lisboa) —5. M. Country : Londa, on a rock 
in the river bed (Bhide!); Gadag (Bhide !). 

Distribution : India, Afghanistan, tropical Africa. 

13. Eragrostis tenuifolta, Hochst. in Flora 24 (1841) i, Intelligenz. 20 (nomen 
nudum) ; Stapf in Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 322; Cke. ii, 1027 ; Prain Beng. PI. 
1221.— Poa tenuifolia, A. Rich. Tent. FL Abyss, ii, 425.— £". collocarpa, 
K. Schum. in Engler's Pflanzenw. Deutsch— Ost Afr. C. 114.— E. parviglumis, 
Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 268. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1027. 


May 31, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 494 

Locality : Deccan : Panchgani (Blatter & Hallberg B1313 !, B1317 !).— S.M. 
Country : Belgaum ( Ritchie). —Kanara : Dandeli, 1,800 ft., rainfall 100 inches 
(Sedgwick & Bell 4206 !). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, tropical Africa. 

14. Eragrostis papposa, Steud. Nom. ed. ii, i, 564 ; Stapf in Hook. f. F.B.I, 
vii, 322.— Poa papposa, Desf. in Roem. & SchuJt. Syst. ii, 585.— P. nigra-. Clem, 
ex Willk. & Lange Prodr. Fl. Hisp. i, S3.— Eragrostis atro-virens , Lange in 
Koebj. Vediosk. Meddel. (1860) [non Desf.).— E. rigidifolia, Hochst. Herb. 
Mem. Div, Forsk. {nomen).—E. speirostachya, Coss. et Dur. ex Lange I.e.— E. 
vulgaris, var. speirostachya, Coss. et Uur. Fl. Alger. 148.— E. verticillata, 
Coss. ex Lange I.e. {non Cav.). 

Description : An elegant perennial. Stems 30-50 cm. high, very slender, 
simple. Leaves short, strict, very narrow, convolute ; mouth of sheath bearded 
with long silky hairs. Panicle 10-20 cm. long, ovoid, very delicate, lax, open, 
sparingly branched ; rhachis filiform, glabrous ; branches solitary, alternate, 
rarely binate, spreading, almost capillary, naked below, loosely branched 
beyond the middle with capillary, spreading, stiff branchlets ; pedicels long, 
capillary. Spikelets 4-8 mm. long, linear, 7-23-flowered, very pale yellow or 
dark or pale olive-grey ; rhachilia tough. Involucral glumes subequal or 
lower shorter, hyaliue ; lower involucral glume 1 mm. long, usually less, 
nerveless, upper slightly longer, faintly 1-nerved. Flowering glumes broadly 
ovate, margins above hyaline, about 1*5 mm. long ; pale rather shorter, obtuse, 
denticulate, persistent, keels scabrid. Stamens 3, anthers \ mm. long. Grain 
obovoid, about \ mm. long, dorsally grooved. 

Locality : Sind (ex Agharkar). 

Distribution : Punjab; Trans-Indus districts, westward to Arabia, N. Africa, 

15. Eragrostis pilosa, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 71 ; Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 91 ; 
Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 38, Fodd. Grass. N, Ind. 64 : Aitchis. Cat. Panjab 
PI. 170 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 381 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. 
v, 581 ; Stapf in Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 323 ; Cke. ii, 1028 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & 
Orissa (1924), 960.— Poa pilosa, Linn. Sp. PI. 68 ; Host Gram. Austr. ii, 168, t. 
68.— Eragrostis indica, Steud. Syn. Gram. 264.— E. parviflora, Trin.inMem. 
Acad. Petersb. ser. vi, i (1831), 411.—^. pellucida, Steud. I.e. 279 —E. punc- 
tata, Link ex Steud. Nom. ed, ii, i, 561, Syn. Gram. 264.— E. verticillata, Roem. 
& Schult. Syst. ii, 575 ; Reichb, Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 9; Aitchis. Cat, Panjab PI. 
170.— Poa indica, Koen. ex Rottl. in Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berl. Neue Schrift iv 
(1803), 194.— P. parviflora et pellucida, R. Br. Prodr. 180.— P. punctata, Linn, 
f. Suppl. 109 ; Kunth Enum. PL i, 330 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 338— P. verticillata, 
Cav. Ic. i, 63, t. 93 ; Kunth Enum. PI. 329. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1028. 

Locality : Sind : Sanghar (Sabnis B902 !).— Konkan : Bvculla, common in 
Bombay Isl. (McCann A8!) ; Karjat (Halberg 3602!) ; Ka'lyan (Garade!).— 
Deccan : Lina Hill, Nasik Dist. (Blatter & Hallberg 9975 !) ; Khandala 
(McCann A7 !) ; Nasik (Lisboa) ; Deolali (Blatter & Hallberg 4559!) ; Igat- 
puri (McCann 4590 !) ; Gangapur (Blatter & Hallberg 4578 !) ; Waghoti, Mawal, 
Poona Dist. (Woodrow) ; Poona (Cooke), Chattarshinji (Ezekiel !) ; Ganesh- 
khind Botanic Gardens (Supt. of the Gardens!) ; Bairawadi, Purandhar 
(McCann 5068 !).— 5. M. Country : Dharwar (Sedgwick 2672 !, Woodrow). 

Distribution : Most warm countries. 

16. Eragrostis bifaria, Wight ex Steud. Nom. ed. 2, i (1840), 562, Syn. Gram. 
264, Suppl. 282 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 387 ; Stapf 
in Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 325; Cke. ii, 1029. -Poa bifaria, Vahl Symb. ii. 19 ; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 331 ; Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 334, t. 80, Enum. PI. i, 327, Suppl. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1029. 

Locality : Konkan : Bassein (Chibber !) ; Matheran (Gammie 16649 !) ; 
Parsik, hill (Ryan 1147 !) ; Wada range, Thana Dist. (Ryan 687 !).— Deccan : 
Sinhagad, forests (Bhide !) ; Kirkee (Garade 479!) ; Chattarshinji Hill, Poona 
(Ezekiel !); Khandala ( Woodrow).— S. M. Country: between Yelvigi and Sava- 
nur, dry hill side, 1,800 ft. (Sedgwick 2019 !) ; Hubli, dry hill sides, 2,0C0 ft., 


495 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 3 [May 31, 1929. 

rainfall 28 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4915 !) ; Badami (Talbot 2927 !) ; Haveri 
(Talbot 2179 !} ; Belgaum (Ritchie). 
Distribution : W. Peninsula, tropical Africa. 

17. Eragrostis brachyphylla, Stapf in Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 327 ; Haines Bot. 
Bihar & Orissa (1924), 961. 

Description : Perennial. Stem erect, slender, 25-45 cm. high, from a tuft of 
old fibrous leaf-sheaths. Leaves nearly all radical, 5-10 cm. long, 2*5 mm. 
broad, coriaceous, linear, flat or conduplicate, obtuse or subacute, glabrous 
above. Spikes 7-20 cm. long, slender. Spikelets 6-18 mm. long, close-set, 
linear or linear-oblong, secund, 2-seriate, slightly compressed, olive-green, 
about 20-flowered, lenticular in section. Glumes closely imbricate, involucral 
ones subequal, up to 2 mm. long, lower one acute, acutely keeled, upper 
obtuse, dorsally rounded. Flowering glumes up to 2*5 mm. long, rather 
turgidly broadly ovate (when unfolded) with rounded tip or obtuse, lateral 
nerves very weak, midrib microscopically scabrid. Pale as large, somewhat 
obovate, concave towards rhachilla, keels scabrid, narrow. Grain very small, 
shortly ellipsoid, obscurely trigonous, epicarp coarsely reticulate. 

Locality: Gujarat: Sevalia (Chibber !).— 5. M, Country: Badami Fort 
(Bhide I) . 

Distribution : Bihar, Central Provinces, W. Peninsula. 

82. Halopyrum, Stapf ; Cke. ii, 1029. 

Species 1. — Coasts of India and Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa. 

1. Halopyrum mucronatum, Stapf in Hook. Ic. PL t. 2448 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, 
vii, 328 ; Trim. Fl. Ceyl. v, 299 ; Cke. ii, 1029.— Brizopyrum mucronatum, 
Nees in Wall. Cat. no. 8898.— Desmazeria unioloides, Defl. Voy. Yemen 220.— 
Eragrostis mucronata. Trim. Cat. Ceyl. PI. 109 {non Roem. & Schult.). — 
Triticumrepens, Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. 376.— Aeluro pus, Aitchis, Cat. Panj. 
PI. 169.— Eragrostis sp. Sect. Sclerostachya, Benth. in Gen. PL iii, 1187. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1029. 

Locality: Sind: Clifton, near Karachi (Sabnis B796 !) ; Manora Island, 
Karachi Harbour (Sabnis B832 !). — Gujarat : Porbandar (Bhide ! Bhiva). 

83. Diplachne, P. Beauv.; Cke. ii, 1030. 
Species about 20. — Warm regions.— Only 1 species in the Presidency. 

1. Diplachne fusca, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 163 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 561 ; Hook, 
f. F.B.I, vii, 329 ; Trim. FL Ceyl. v, 299 ; Cke. ii, 1030 ; Haines Bot. Bihar 
& Orissa (1924), 962.— Festuca fusca, Linn. Sp. PI. 109 ; Del. FL d'Egypt. 24, 
t. xi, f. l. — Uralepis fusca, Steud. Syn. Gram. 247. — Diplachne indica, 
Spreng. Syst. i, 351. — Tridens indicus, Nees in Wight Cat. No. 1794. — Festuca 
indica, Retz. Obs. iv, 21 ; Kunth Enum. 412.— Eragrostis procera, Steud. I.e. 
266.— Poa procera, Roxb. Fl. lnd. i, 322. — Urolepis Drummondii, Steud. I.e. — 
Triodia ambigua, R. Br. Prodr. 183. — Bromus polystachios, Forsk. FL Aeg.— 
Arab. 23. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1030. 

Locality : Sind: Tatta, Kullan Kote Lake (Blatter & McCann D639!).— 
Konkan : Parsik, side of railway line (McCann A24 !) ; Bassein (Bhide !) ; 
Sion (McCann 5238 !) ; Alibag, rice fields near salt marshes (Ezekiel !) ; Lower 
Parel (Blatter 4283!); Antop Hill (McCann 3614!); Mahim to Matunga 
(McCann 5139!); Matunga, near Bombay, in rice fields (Woodrow 10).— 
Kanara : Near Karwar, maritime marsh (Sedgwick & Bell 5095 !). 

Distribution : Upper Gangetic Plain, Bengal, Orissa, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, 
Egypt, tropical Asia, Africa, and Australia. 

84. Leptochloa. P. Beauv. 

Annual grasses. Leaves flat or involute. Spikelets very minul.e, com- 
pressed, 1 -many-flowered, sessile or shortly pedicelled, alternate and 
unilaterally 2-seriate on the very slender spiciform branches of a lax panicle, 
sessile or minutely pedicelled, not jointed at the base ; rhachilla jointed at the 
base and beneath each glume, produced between each glume and often beyond 
the terminal. Glumes usually 2 (sometimes 1-) -many-flowering, membranous. 


May 31, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 496 

Involucral glumes subequal or unequal, oblong, lanceolate, or almost linear- 
lanceolate, 1-nerved ; lower and other flowering^" glumes ovate when unfolded, 
subacute or obtuse, 3-nerved, 1 nerve in the keel and usually 1 near each 
margin, nerves usually hairy ; pale shorter, 2-nerved. Lodicules 2, cuneate, 
Anthers 3, short. Styles free. Grain subglobose, oblong, obovoid or 3-gonous 
closely invested by the glume or pale. 

Species probably 20, in the warmer regions. 

This genus is not represented in Cooke's Flora. 
Key : 

1. Spikes 1-75, rarely 10 cm. long, Spikelets 

2-3-flowered, under 2*5 mm. long ... 1. L. filiformis. 

2. Spikes 5-10 cm. long. Spikeletes 4-6- 

flowered, 2*5 mm. long ... 2. L. chinensis. 

— L- . AV*^ 

1. Leptochloa filiformis, Roem. & Schult. Syst. ii, 580 ; Kunth Ennm. PI. i, 
270, Suppl. 220 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 209 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 192 ; 
Aitchis. Cat. Panj. PL 167 ; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 298 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & 
Orissa(1924), 972,—Eragrostis chinensis, Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 59, t. 
71.— Aira filiformis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 326.— Poa malabarica, Klein ex Steud. 
Nom. ed. ii, 303, 60. -P. contrecta et panicea, Retz. Obs. iii, 11.— P. virgata, 
Roth Nov. Sp. 66. 

Description : A very slender grass, 30-70 cm. high. Stems tufted and 
geniculately ascending. Leaves flat, flaccid, 10-25 cm. long, finely acuminate, 
Sometimes sparsely hairy on the nerves and on the sheaths ; ligule short, erose 
or setosely lacerate. Panicle 10-20 cm. long, contracted or diffuse. Spikes 
1-7*5 or up to 10 or even 12*5 cm. long, exceedingly filiform with 2-nerved 
rhachis. Spikelets about 1 mm. long, 2-3-flowered, distant nearly their own 
length on the rhachis on very short pedicels. Involucral glumes "linear-or 
oblong-lanceolate. Flowering glumes 2-3, broadly ovate, rather shorter than 
the upper involucral glume, with median nerve and sub-marginal nerves 
microscopically hairy ; pale rather shorter, reduplicate. Grain fusiform- 
oblong, pericarp adherent, but slightly produced each end. 

Locality: Gujarat: Surat, near Athwa Farm (Bhide!); Ahmedabad in 
garden (Sedgwick!). — Konkan : Parel, Bombay Island (Talbot!); Victoria 
Gardens, Bombay Island (McCann 5351 ! , 5568!); Bycull a, Bombay Island 
(McCann A40!). 

Distribution: Throughout India and Burma, Ceylon, tropical Asia, Africa 
and America. 

2. Leptochloa chinensis, Nees in Syll. Ratisb. i (1824), 4, Agrost. Bras. 432 ; 
Benth. Fl. Hongk. 430, Fl. Austral, vii, 617 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 35 
{excl. syn.), Fodd. Grass. N. Ind, 59, t. 71 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. 
Soc. vii (1893), 372 {excl. syn. tenerrima) ; Hook. f. F.B.I, vii. 299 ; Haines 
Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 972.- Poa chinensis, Linn. Sp. PI. 69 {excl. syn. 
Burm.) ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 332.— P. malabarica, Retz. Obs. v, 19.— P. asthenes, 
Roem. & Schult. Syst. ii, 574.— P. decipiens, R. Br. Prodr. 181. 

Description : Stem tall, stout, 60-120 cm. high, erect or geniculately ascend- 
ing. Leaves 15-45 cm. long, flat or convolute, scaberulous ; sheaths loose ; 
ligule short, lacerate. Panicle 15-25 cm. long. Branches numerous, slender, 
simple, opposite or alternate, suberect or spreading, 5-10 cm. long. Spikelets 
4-6-flowered, about 2"5 mm. long, alternate, short-pedicelled, distant or 
approximated, narrow. Involucral glumes somewhat unequal, lanceolate, 
acute or subulate. Flowering glumes broader, lower apiculate with pilose 
nerves ; nerves of pale pilose. Grain loose, obtusely trigonous, subrugose. 

Locality: Gujarat: (ex Lisboa).— Konkan : Parel, Bombay Island (ex 
Lisboa.— 5. M. Country : Kilgerry Tank (Talbot !). 

Distribution : Throughout India and Burma, Ceylon, Malaya, China, Japan, 

Note : Haines thinks that the two species are scarcely more than varieties. 
We can't say how far this view is correct as we have seen only a few specimens. 

{To be continued) 


By Rev. E. Blatter, s.j., Ph.D., f.l.s. 

tf >f ?T 

(0* >MajL 


[From the Journal of the Bombay Natural Hist. Soc., October 15, 1929. 



E. Blatter, s.j., ph.d., f.l.s. 




E. Blatter and C. McCann 
{Continued from page 496 of this Volume) 


85. Oropetium, Trin. ; Cke. ii, 1045. 

Species 6. — India, Ceylon, Algeria, S. Africa. 

1. Oropetium Thonueum, Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820), 98, t. 3; Kunth Enum. 
PI. i, 464 ; Suppl. 375 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 403 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 
45, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 69 ; Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 366 ; Cke. ii, 1046 ; Haines 
Bot. Bihar & Orissa 964.— Nardus Thomcea, Linn. f. Suppl. 105 ; Sm. in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. i, 116. — Rottbosllia Thomcza, Koenig in Naturf . xxiii (1788), 
210 ; Willd. Sp. PI. i. 464 ; Roxb. PI. Corom. ii, 17, t. 133, Fl. Ind. i, 357 ; 
Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. FL 300.—^. pilosa, Willd. 1. c. 465. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1045. 

Locality: Konkan : Trombay, on rocks (McCann A32!); Antop Hill 
(McCann 3611!, 2449 !).— Deccan : Gungapur (Blatter A33 ! . 584!); Poona 
(Woodrow) ; Junnar near Poona (Woodrow).— S. M. Country : Dharwar Dist., 
dry uplands, 2,400 ft., rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick 2656!) ; Badami, Fort 
(Bhide !, Talbot 2923 !) ; Ranibennur (Chibber !). 

Distribution : Throughout the plains of India, Ceylon. 

86. Microchloa, R. Br. ; Cke. ii, 1031. 

Species 7. One distributed throughout the tropics, 3 in Afrcia, 3 in Australia. 

1. Microchloa setacea, R. Br. Prodr. (1810), 298 ; H. B. and K. Nov. Gen. 
& Sp. i, 84, t. 22 ; Beauv. Agrost. 115, t. 20, f . 8 ; Nees Agrost. Bras. 441 ; 
Fl. Afr. Austr. 247 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 258 ; Doell in Mart. Fl. Bras, ii, iii, 
76, t. 21; Steud. Syn. Gram. 202; Benth. Fl. Hongk. 428; Fl. Austral, vii, 
608 ; Hook, f . in F. B. I. vii, 283 ; Cke. ii, 1031 ; Prain Beng. PI. 1226 ; Haines 
Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 964.— Rotbcellia setacea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1832), 
357, Corom. PI. ii, 18, t. 132.— Nardus indica, Linn. f. Suppl. 105. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1031. 

Locality : .S. M. Country : Dharwar (Woodrow), on dry hill sides, 2,400 ft., 
rainfall 34 inches (Sedgwick 2908!); Dumbal (Talbot 2949 !).- Kanara . 
Halyal (Talbot 2387 !).— Usually growing on old walls. 

Distribution : Tropics of the Old and New World. 

87. Cynodon, Rich ; Pers. Syn. PL i (1805), 85 ; Cke. ii, 1032. 

Hitchcock (U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. No. 792 (1920), 178) considers Panicum 
dactylon, Linn, as the type species. He justifies the change of Cynodon into 
Capriola in these words : " Capriola Adans., Fam. PL 2 ; 31, 532, 1763. The 
genera are indicated and distinguished by Adanson in a much abbreviated and 
often unsatisfactory manner. The tabular arrangement of the genera ■ of 
Phalarides, his first section of the grass family or Gramina, includes Capriola 


754 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 4 [Oct. 15, 1929 

with the following diagnosis, interpreting the table : Summit of leaf sheath 
hairy ; flowers in digitate spikes ; glumes laterally compressed, lernna awnless. 
In the index there is given as a synonym under Capriola, • Gramen dactylon 
Offic.' The last phrase appears in the first edition of the Species Plan- 
tarum x in the synonymy under Panicum dactylon as ' Gramen dactylon, 
vadice repente s. officinarum, Scheuch. gram. 104,' thus connecting Capriola 
Adans. with Panicum dactylon. 

" Cynodon Rich. ; Pers. Syn. 1 : 85, 1805. Only one species described, 
C. dactylon, based on Panicum dactylon L." 

In spite of this we have to retain Cynodon. Mr. Hubbard of the Kew 
Herbarium informs us that Cynodon is on the list of nomina conservanda and 
according to International Rules must be used, although it is antedated by 
Capriola, Adans. (1763). 

Species 3. — India, of which one is cosmopolitan. — Only one in the Bombay 

1. Cynodon dactylon, Pers. Syn. i (1805), 85 ; Cke. ii, 1032. — Capriola dactylon. 
O. Ktze. pt. ii (1891), 764. -For synonyms see Hook, f in F. B. I. vii, 288. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1032. 

Locality : Sind : Sita Road (Sabnis B361!) ; Jamesabad, fields (Sabnis 
B907!, B1108!); Sanghar (Sabnis B896!); near Phuleli Canal, cultivated 
fields (Sabnis B135 !) ; Mirva Canal, sandy banks (Sabnis B265 !) ; Sehwan to 
Laki, foot of hills (Sabnis B300 \) ; Mirpurkhas, fallow fields (Sabnis B1190!); 
Gizri, near Karachi (Sabnis B783 !) ; Larkana (Sabnis B458 !, B477 !) ; Baghar 
(Blatter & McCann D690 !).- Gujarat : Junagad, Kathiawar (Blatter 3785 !) ; 
Cutch (Blatter 8553!); Dakore (Chibber !).— Khandesh : Ankai Hill 
(Blatter!); Bor. Bori River (Blatter & Hallberg 5482 ! ) . - Konkan : Very 
common in Bombay and Salsette Islands (McCann !) ; Parsik, railway line 
(McCann A181 !) ; Vihar Lake (McCann 182 \).—Deccan : Igatpuri (Blatter 
& Hallberg 5486 !, McCann !) ; Devlali (Blatter & Hallberg 4570 !) ; 
Khandala, very common (McCann 5433!, 5301!) ; Purandhar, N. foot and 
top (McCann 5042!, 5604! bis); Wai (Mamlatdar of Wai !) ; Panchgani 
(Blatter & Hallberg B1264!, B1270!, B1329 !).-£. M. Country : Devarayi 
forests, 1,800 ft. (Sedgwick & Bell 4102 !) ; Dharwar (Sedgwick !) ; Haveri 
( Talbot ! ) . - Kanara : (McCann !) . 

Distribution : Cosmopolitan. 

88. Gracilea, Koen. ; Cke, ii, 1030, 

Species 2. — India and Africa. 

1. Gracilea Royleana, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii (1896), 284; Prain Beng. PI. 
1226; Cke. ii, 1031; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 965.— Melanocsn- 
chris Royleana, Nees in Proc. Linn. Soc. i (1841), 95 {nomen tantum) ; Aitchis. 
Cat. Panjab PI. 168 {excl. svn.) ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 33, Fodd. Grass. 
N. Ind. 54, t. 67 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. viii (1893). 370.— 
M. Jacquemontii, Jaub. & Sp. 111. PI. Or. iv (1850-53). 36, t. 325.- Pom- 
mereulla Royleana, Steud. Norn. ed. ii, ii, 379. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1031. 

Locality : Gujarat: Daman (Bhide!) ; Bhuj Hill, Cutch (Blatter 3764!).— 
Khandesh: Toranmal, rocks (McCann A54!) ; Amalner, Bori River (Blatter 
and Hallberg 4451 !) ; Tapti, Bhusawal (Blatter and Hallberg 5453 !) ; To 
Naradana (Blatter and Hallberg 5212 !). - Konkan : Bandra (Ryan 1432!) ; 
Parsik (Ryan 1215!) ; Trombay (McCann A52 !) ; Worli Hill, common along 
seashore (McCann 5516 !) ; Antop Hill (McCann 3612 \).—Deccan : Panchgani 
(Blatter & Hallberg B1278 !) ; Katraj (Bhide!); Sinhagad forest (Bhide !) ; 
Near Poona (Jacquemont 383) ; Poona (Woodrow !) ; Pashan, near Poona 
(Gammie !) ; Chattarshinji Hill, Poona (Ezekiel !) ; Kirkee (Gammie!); 
Khandala to Campoli (McCann A57 !) ; Deolali (Blatter A53!, 4545!).— 
5. M. Country: Dharwar Dist, 2,000 ft., rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick 2278 !) ; 
Yelvigi, dry hill sides, 1,800 ft., rainfall 28 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4902 !) ; 
Dharwar (Talbot 2008 !) ; Belgaum (Stocks, Ritchie 831).— Kanara : Yellapore 
(Talbot!) ; Karwar (McCann !), 

Distribution : Bihar, Rajputana, W. Peninsula, Socotra, Nubia. 

1 L. Sp. PI. 58, 1753. 

Oct. 15, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 755 

Var. plumosa, Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii (1896), 284; Cke. ii, 1031 . — Melanocen- 
chris plumosa, Jaub. & Sp. 1. c. 37 ; Hochst. in Flora (1855), 273, Ml. — Pen- 
nisetum plumosum, Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 201.— Ptilonema plumosum, 
Steud. I.e. — Eutriana abyssinica, R. Br» ex Fresen. in Mus, Senkenb. ii, 
(1837), 142. 

Description : Clusters of spikelets larger, 1*2 cm. long including the awns. 

Locality : Jemadar ka Landa near Karachi (Stocks 646). 

89. Enteropogon, Nees ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 284. 

Tall, slender, perennial grasses. Leaves long, very narrow. Spikelets very 
narrow, 1-2-flowered (lower flower perfect, upper if present male or neuter) 
unilateral in a solitary terminal slender spike, not jointed at the base ; rhachilla 
jointed at the base. Glumes 3 or 4. Lower involucral glumes unequal, 
narrow, hyaline, 1-nerved, persistent ; lower floral glume much larger, linear, 
rigid, scabrid, dorsally rounded, 3-nerved, tip entire, or acutely bifid with a 
short erect awn in the cleft ; callus bearded. Pale lanceolate, 2-toothed, keels 
scabrid. Lodicules 2. Anthers very long. Styles distinct. Grain narrow, 
free within the hardened glumes. 

Species 3.— India, Africa. 

1. Enteropogon badamicum, Bhide in Journ. & Proc. As. Soc. Beng. new series, 
vii (1911), 517. 

Description: Stem 60-75 cm., slender, erect, glabrous. Leaves narrow, 
10-18 cm. by 3-6 mm., tapering to a fine acumination, glabrous; sheath 
glabrous, finely long-ciliate at the mouth and sides ; ligule a short membrane 
with a fine fringe of hairs. Spike solitary, terminal, 15 cm. long. Spikelets 
2-seriate and secund on a flattened, trigonous, slightly scabrid rhachis, sub- 
sessile or very shortly pedicelled. Involucral glumes persistent, empty, 
scarious, 1-nerved, glabrous or very minutely puberulous, the lower less than 
half of the upper, more or less unequal-sided and sometimes slightly lobed on 
one side, ovate, subacute and erose at the apex ; upper shortly unequally 
2-dentate at the apex with a short mucro between. Lower floral glume slightly 
longer than upper involucral, 2-dentate at the apex, 3-nerved with a dorsal 
stiff awn about as long as the glume, scabrid at the back and sides, ventrally 
grooved, the groove corresponding with the dorsal ridge which is continuous 
with the awn. Callus bearded with short white silky hairs. Pale a little longer 
than the glume, scabrid at the back and on the keels, 2-nerved, apex slightly 
bifid and erose, with a bisexual flower. Grain oblong, flattened, as long as the 
pale. Upper floral glume like lower, but smaller and also bisexual ; rhachilla 
produced beyond the upper floral glume and bearing a sterile awned glume 
which is much smaller than the upper floral glume. 

Locality : S. M. Country : Badami (Bhide ! Talbot 2924 !), 

Distribution : So far endemic. 

90. Chloris, Swartz Prod, Veg. Ind. Occ, (1788), 25:, 
(Cke. ii, 1033). 

Species about 75. — Tropical and subtropical regions of the Old and New 

Cooke has 4 species. We add 5 more : C. pallida, C. quinquesetica^ 
C. virgata, C. montana and C. gay ana. 

A. Rhachilla not at all produced beyond the 

lower flowering glume ... ... ... 1. C. pallida. 

B . Rhachilla produced beyond the lower flower- 

ing glume 
I. Rhachilla produced beyond the flowering 

glume and bearing 1 awn ... ... 2. C. incompleta, 

II. Rhachilla produced beyond the flowering 
glume and bearing 1-4 reduced empty 

1. Spikes 1-3. Lower flowering glume 

broadly cuneiform ,.. ... i# . 3. C. tenella 

2. Spikes 1-3. Lower flowering glume 

ovoid, hirsute all over ... ... 4. C. villosa* 


"56 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 4 [Oct. 15, 1929. 

3. Spikes 2-10. Lower flowering glume 

bearded at the base and on the margins 
above the middle 

a. Rhachilla bearing 1-2-awned, tabular 

or inflated glumes 

* Upper involucral glume awned. 5. C. virgata, 
** Upper involucral glume awn- 
less ... ... ... 6. C. barbata. 

b. Rhachilla bearing 3-4 empty glumes. 

Spikelets 4-awned altogether ... 7. C. montana. 

4. Spikes 5-18 

a. Spikes 2*5-5 cm. long ... ... 8. C. quinquesetica. 

b. Spikes 6-10 cm. long ... ... 9. C. gay/ana. 

1. Chloris pallida, Hook. f. in F.B.I., vii, 289 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa 
(1924), 967 ' ,—Schoenieldia pallida. Edgew. in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxi (1852) 
161, 183 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 166 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 32, Fodd. 
Grass. N. Ind. 52, t. 64.-5. gracilis, Kunth. Rev. Gram, i, 283, t. 53 ; Enum. 
PI. i, 258 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 365. 

Description : A slender tufted annual, 25j-45 cm. high ; stems simple or 
branched, almost filiform. Leaves 10-20 cm. long, linear, very narrow, 
flaccid, tips capillary, sparsely hairy inside towards the base ; ligule of a few 
hairs. Spikes 1-3, erect, digitate, golden-yellow, 7-13 cm. long, up to 5 mm. 
broad, closely pectinate with the two rows of erecto-patent long-awned spike- 
lets. Spikelets narrow, tapering, about 2 mm. long without the awns 
subsessile. Involucral glumes ovate-lanceolate, subaristately acuminate, 
1 -nerved, keels ciliate, lower \ shorter than the upper. Lower floral glume 
rather longer than the lower involucral, sessile, ovate, 1-nerved, hairy, base 
bearded, tip minutely notched, awn 15-25 mm. long, capillary, curved. Pale 
narrow, keels ciliate, tip 2-dentate. Grain linear, very slender, acute, pericarp 
loose. Rhachilla not produced beyond the lower floral glume. No rudimentary 
upper floral glume. 

Locality: Gujarat: Sevalia (Chibber!); Lasundra (Cbibber!); Khara- 
ghoda, dry salt ground (G.C.H. 537!). — Deccan : Lonavla (Gammie !) ; 
Charodi (Gammie 16531 !). 

Distribution : Bundelkhand, Bihar, Central India, W. Peninsula. 

2. Chloris incorapleta, Roth. Nov. PI. Sp. (1821), 60 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 207 ; 
Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 290 ; Cke. ii. 1034 ; Achariyar South Ind. Grass. (1921); 
258 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 968.— Chloris digitata, Steud. 1. c. ; 
Duthie Grass N. W. Ind. 23 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 
369 (excl. syn.).—C. radiata, Heyne ex Roth 1. c. 61. — C. Roxburghii, Edgew, 
in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxi (1853), 160, 183 ; Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 54. 
t. 65 ; Lisboa 1. c. 368. — C tetrameris, Trin. Gram. Unifl. 235 ; Steud. 1. c. 
206.— Dig itaria elongata, Spreng. Syst. i, 271.— Gymnopogon digitatus. Nees 
in Wight Cat. No. 1753 (ex Hook, f.) ; Steud. Norn. Ed. ii, i, 713.—Melica 
digitata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 326 ; Kunth Enum. PI. t, 37 '.—Clenium digitatum, 
Spreng. Syst. i, TJ^. — Cynodon elongatus, Trin. in Spreng. N. Entdeck. ii, 64. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1034. 

Locality : Gujarat : Bulsar, in the shade of trees (Sedgwick 1114 \).—Khan- 
desh : To Toranmal, in a stony watercourse (McCann 9773 ! 9774 !). — Konkan : 
Thana (Lisboa).— Deccan : Nasik (Lisboa). — 5. M. Country. Deciduous 
forests W. of Dharwar, 2,000 ft., rainfall 40 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4499 !).— 
Kanara: N. Kanara (Woodrow); Goond (Talbot 2203!); Halyal (Talbot 
2382!, 2220!). 

Distribution : Throughout the plains of India, Ceylon, China, Afghanistan. 

3. Chloris tenella, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i (1832), 329 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 267 
Spreng. Neue Entdeck. iii, 126; Steud. Syn. Gram. 204; Dalz. & Gibs 
Bomb. Fl. 296; Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 368 
Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 291 ; Cke. ii, 1033 ; Achariyar, South Ind. Grass 
(1921), 259.— C. triangulata. Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 409 
Steud 1. c. 203 : Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 33. Ctenium indicum, Spreng 


Oct- 15, 1929. J Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 757 

Syst. i, 274.— Tetrapogon triangularis, Hochst. PI. Arab. Schweinf. No. 967 
(ex Hook. f.). 

Description : Cke. ii, 1033. 

Locality: Sind : Jemadar ka Landa near Karachi (Stocks). — Gujarat: 
Surat, on the city walls (Dalzell).— Khandesh : W. Khandesh (Blatter!).— 
Deccan : Bijapur (Woodrow). — 5. M. Country : Badatni Fort (Bhide !). 

Distribution : Rajputana, W. Peninsula, S. India, Arabia, Abyssinia. 

4. Chloris villosa. Pers. Syn. i (1805), 87; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 267, Suppl. 
217, t. 16, i. 3; Jaub. & Sp. 111. PI. Or. iv, 40, t. 327; Coss. & Dur. Fl. 
Alger. 87 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 167 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 291 ; Cke. ii, 
1034.— Chloris tetrapogon, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 158.— Tetrapogon villosus, 
Desf. Fl. Atlant. ii, 388, t. 255 ; Trin. Fund. Agrost. 760; Eoiss. Fl. Or. v, 
555 ; Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 33, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 55, t. 68. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1034. 

Locality: Sind: Gharo (Blatter &McCann D655 !).— Gujarat : Ahmedabad 
(Sedgwick !).— 5. M. Country: Sluavar, on dry bunds, 2,000 ft., rainfall 
35 inches (Sedgwick 3095!) ; Yelvigi, 2,000 ft., rainfall 30 inches (Sedgwick 
1923 !). 

Distribution : Punjab, Rajputana, W. Peninsula, westwards to the Canaries. 

5. Ctrioris virgata. Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. i (1797), 203; Trin. Gram. Unifl. 136; 
Doellin Mart. Fl. Bras, ii, iii ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 291 ; Achariyar South 
Ind. Grass. (1921), 260 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 968 —Rabdochloa 
virgata, Beauv. Agrost. 84.— Chloris compressa, DC. Cat. Hort. Monsp. (1813), 
94; Nees Agrost. Bras. 421, Fl. Afr. Austr. 240 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 204.— 
C. caudata, Trin. ex Bunge Enum. PL Chin. Bor. 70.— C. cryptostachys, Steud. 
in Schmidt Fl. Cap. Virid. 148.- C. decora, Nees in Herb. Royle ; Steud. 1. 
c. 205.— C. elegans, Kunth Enum. PI. i, 264. — C. meccana, Hochst. & Steud. 
ex Schult. Ind. Sem. Hort. Hal. (1843) 7 ; Steud. 1. c. ; Boiss. Fl. Orient, v, 
544 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 33.— C. montana, Griseb. in Goett. Nachr. 
(1868), 84, Abhandl. 300; Duthie 1. c. (non Roxb.).— C. pallida, Link 
Hort. Berol. i, 56, ii, 223.— C. penicillata, Hort. ex Nees 1. c. {non Poir.) — 
C. polydactyla, Durand Diss. Chlorid. '1808), 14, 22; Jacq. Eclog. Gram. 12, 
t. 9 {non Sw.).— C. telrastachys, Hack. mss. (ex Herb. Duthie).— Heterolepis 
elegans, Ehrt. ex Boiss. L c. 

Vern. Names : Kharrut (Sind), Sikaliu, Gadhiu (Surat), Fulkalu (Dohad), 
Faliu (Broach), Khariu (Charodi), Gonde gavat (Deccan), Ganjali hullu 
( Karnatik ) . 

Description : A tufted leafy annual grass, 30-60 cm. high. Stems some- 
what flattened, erect, leafy at the base, occasionally with creeping stems 
rooting at the lower nodes. Leaf-blades rather narrow, linear flat, acute, 
glabrous when old, with scattered long hairs in the leaves of young branches, 
5-25 ^nd even 40 cm. long, 3 mm. or less broad. Sheaths glabrous, compressed, 
upper ones somewhat inflated, margins thin and membranous, mouth of 
sheath bearded with long hairs in the leaves of young branches, quite glabrous 
when old and in flower-bearing branches. Ligule a thin, narrow, mem- 
branous ridge. Spikes 6-15, erect, crowded at the end of the peduncle, 
2-5-6 cm. long, rhachis fine, angular, scaberulous on the edges. Spikelets 
about 2*5 mm. long excluding the awns, 2-awned, short-stalked, consisting 
of 4 glumes. Lower involucral glume slender, subulate, glabrous, with the 
keel glaberulous, 1-nerved, about half the upper; upper involucral glume 
oblong-lanceolate, 2-fid at the apex, glabrous except the scaberulous keel, 
nerve produced between the lobes into a scaberulous awn. Lower floral glume 
oblong-ovate, cymbiform and rather deep, bifid at the apex and awned in the 
sinus, margins slightly ciliate up to about the middle and then closely ciliate 
with long hairs almost to but not to the tip, awn about 6 mm. long, bearded 
at base, on each side of the dorsal nerve there is a shallow groove with short 
scattered appressed hairs. Pale much narrower and rather shorter, often 
reduplicate, toothed or notched. Rhachilla somewhat adnate to lower floral 
glume, shortly produced, bearing a curious semitubular or bucciniform trun- 
cate glume with 2 minute auricles at tip and an awn 8 mm. long. Grain 
fusiform, sometimes slightly curved, pericarp loose. 

Locality: Gujarat: Sungiri (Gammie 16585!); Perim Island, Gulf of 
Cambay (Blatter 3816! 3820 \). -Khandesh : Bor, Bori River (Blatter & 


758 Jour., Bom. Nat Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 4 [Oct. 15, 1929. 

Hallberg 4425 !) ; Toranmal, S. B. slope (McCaan A194 \).—Konkan : Lower 
Parel (Blatter 4279!), very common in Bombay Isl. (McCann !) ; Parsik, 
railway line (McCann A195 !).— Deccan : Abundant on old walls of houses 
in Poona (Achariyar) ; Mangiri, near Poona (Gammie 15342!) ; Katraj Ghat 
(Garamie 1042 !) ; Gangapur (Blatter & Hallberg 4574 !) ; Igatpuri (Blatter & 
Hallberg 5118 !, 5145 !) ; Lina Hill, Nasik Dist. (Blatter & Hallberg A190 !) ; 
Sholapur (D'Almeida A193!).— 5. M. Country: Hnbli 2,000 ft., rainfall 
30 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4219!) ; Dharwar, 2,500 ft., rainfall 34 inches 
(Sedgwick 1818!). 

Distribution: Kashmir (Ladak), Rajputana, Gangetic Plain, Bihar, Burma, 
W. Peninsula, Central & S. India, westward to Algeria; Mongolia, tropical 
and S. Africa and America. 

6. Chloris barbata, Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. i (1797), 200 ; Jacq. Eclog. Gram. 10, t. 
8; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 264, Suppl. 209; Trin. Diss. \, 232, Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 
306 ; Nees Agrost. Bras. 421 ; Steud. S)m. Gram. 204 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 331 ; 
Grah. Cat. 234; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 167; Dnthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 33, 
Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. S3, t. 34 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 
367 ; Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 539 ; Benth. Fl. Hongk. 429, Fl. Austral, vii, 613 
{excl. syn. decora) ; Doell in Mart. Fl. Bras, ii, iii, 67 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 
292; Prain Beng. PI. 1227; Watt. Diet. Econ. Prod, ii, 269; Cke. ii, 1035; 
Achariyar South Ind. Grass. (1921), 264 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 
969.— Andropogon barbatus, Linn. PI. Jam. Pugill. 30, Mantiss. ii, 302. - 
Rheede Hort. Malab. xii, t. 51. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1035. 

Locality : Sind: Mirpur Sakro (Blatter & McCann D656 !); Tatta (Blatter & 
McCann Y>§S7\).—Khandesh : Nim, Tapti bank (Blatter & Hallberg 5399 !) ; to 
Naradana (Blatter & Hallberg 5163 !, 5182 !); Umalla, Tapti bank (Blatter & 
Hallberg A188 \).—Konkan : Parel, very common in Bombay Island (McCann 
5381 !); Sion (McCann 5220 !, 5245 !).— Deccan: Chattarshinji Hill, Poona 
(Ezekiel !); Jeur, Ahmednagar Dist. (Woodrow !). — S.M. Country : Dharwar 
Dist., 2,000 ft., rainfall 35 inches (Sedgwick 1962 !); Haveri (Talbot 2215 !).— 
Kanara : Kulgi (Talbot 2311 !); Yellapore (Talbot 1524 !). 

Distribution : Tropics generally. 

7. Chloris montana, Roxb. Fl. Ind, i, 329 ; Kunth Enum. PL i, 265 ; 
Spreng. Neue Entdeck. iii, 127; Steud. Syn. Gram. 204; Lisboa in Journ. 
Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 369; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 292; Achariyar 
S. Ind. Grass. (1921), 270 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 969. — C. decora, 
Thw. Enum 371 {excl. syn.). — C. barbata var. decora, Trim. Cat. Ceyl, PI. 

Description : Perennial. Stems erect, tufted geniculately ascending from a 
creeping base, rooting at the nodes, quite glabrous, 10 cm. to 1-2 m. high. 
Leaf-blades narrow-linear, finely acuminate, rounded at the base, glabrous, 
folded flat inwards, 10-20 cm. long, 1*5-3 mm. broad ; sheaths shorter than the 
internodes, flat, compressed, glabrous, with a few hairs or none at the mouth 
and with membranous margins, uppermost sheath spathiform, enclosing the 
inflorescence when young ; ligule a thin ridge of short hairs densely arranged. 
Nodes glabrous, dark-ringed. Spikes 2-6, very rarely up to 9, 2*5-7'5 cm. 
long, connate at the base, erect and never spreading. Peduncle slender, long, 
glabrous, but copiously pubescent just below the base of the connate spikes ; 
rhachis angular, slender, scabrid. Spikelets about 3 mm. long excluding the 
awns, short-pedicelled, unilateral, biseriate, thin, slender, 1-flowered, pale or 
purple tinged, disarticulating above the 2 lower empty glumes which persist 
on the rhachis, generally 4-, rarely 3- or 5-awned, awns pale or purple, 3-5 
mm. long ; pedicel short, angular, scaberulous with a few pilose hairs ; 
rhachilla produced, but is shorter than the flowering glume. Glumes usually 6, 
very rarely 5 or 7. Lower involucral glume hyaline, awnless, white or lightly 
purplish, about 1*5 mm. long, lanceolate, finely acuminate, 1-nerved, and with 
a scabrid keel ; upper twice as long as the lower, hyaline, oblong-lanceolate, 
finely acuminate or obtuse and shortly awned, 1-nerved. Lower floral glume 
broadly oblong, chartaceous, 3- nerved, bearded with long hairs along the 
margins from a little above the base and with a tuft of hairs at the base, awned at 
the apex; upper floral glume much smaller, cuneate, conduplicate, awned from 


Oct. 15, 1929,] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 7S9 

the truncate tip, embracing glumes v and vi ; glume v cuneate or subglobose, 
small, enclosing the still smaller or minute glume vi, both awned. Pale 
oblong, a little smaller than its glume, folded along the margins. Stamens 3, 
anthers pale yellow. Styles white with purple stigmas. Lodicules narrowly 

Locality : Deccan ; Nasik (Lisboa). 

Distribution : Upper and Lower Gangetic Plain, southward to Ceylon, 
Coromandel Coast. 

8. Cbloris quinquesetica, Bhide in Journ. & Proc. As. Soc. Beng. (new series) 
viii (1912), 311. 

Description : A glabrous, perennial grass, creeping and rooting at the 
lower nodes and there forming small tufts of leaves and an erect flowering 
stem 60 cm. high ; nodes glabrous. Leaves 2-15 cm. long and 3-5 mm. broad, 
sparsely, delicately long-ciliate when young, ultimately glabrous, lanceolate, 
acuminate, truncate at the base, margins minutely scabrid ; ligule a narrow 
fimbriate membrane. Spikes 5-18, 2'5-5 cm. long, crowded in a very short 
racemose fascicle the branches of which are often decurrent into the peduncle 
for a short distance and form ridges on it which are also studded with stray 
spikelets. Peduncle below the spikes and the rhachises hairy. Spikelets 8 mm. 
long including the awns. Glumes?: i and ir empty, iii flowering, awned, 
paleate, iv-vii barren, epaleate, gradually smaller and rounder, all awned. 
Lower involucral glume 15 mm. long, elliptic-lanceolate, membranous, 
strongly 1-nerved, slightly oblique : upper \\ times as long as the lower, 
elliptic-oblong, membranous, shortly mucronate, strongly 1-nerved. Lower 
floral glume without the awn as long as the upper involucral, elliptic-obovate, 
cuneate, coriaceous, 3-nerved, and with a dorsoterminal awn 5 mm. long, 
lateral nerves densely bearded with long white hairs nearly from the base. 
Pale as long as the glume but narrower, slightly hairy at the back, very shortly 
2-fid at the apex, 2-keeled, keels minutely ciliate. Stamens 3, styles 2, stigmas 
plumose. Grain plano-convex or trigonous. Lodicules minute. 

Locality ; Sind : Jamesabad, in fields (Sabnis B1116 !). — Gujarat : Bhuj, 
Bhodir Maka, Cutch (Blatter 3748!); Runn of Cutch (Blatter 3732!).— 
Konkan : Versova (McCann A185 !) ; Papadi, Bassein, growing on the bunds 
of rice fields, in semi-salt land (Bhide!); Colaba, near a swamp, on 
rocks, very common (McCann A198 ! 5 A199 !, A200 \).—Kanara -■ Karwar, on 
red mud near the shore (Hallberg & McCann A197 ! ) . 

Distribution : So far endemic. 

9. Chloris gayana, Kunth. Rev. Gram, i, 89, 293, t. 58, Enum. i, 267, Suppl. 
216 ; Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. 240 ; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i, 207 ; Oliv. in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. 29, 174 ; Durand & Schinz Consp. Fi. Afr. v, 861. — C. abyssinica, 
Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii, 406; Engl. Hochgebirgs Fl. Trop. 
Afr. 132 ; Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii, App. ii, 32 ; Durand & Schinz 
Consp. 1. c. 860. — C. glabrata, Anderss. in Peters Reise Mossamb. Bot. 557. 

Popular Name : Rhodes Grass. 

Description: Perennial or annual, 0'6-l*2 m. high ; culms erect or geni- 
culately ascending, or prostrate at the base, simple or branched, often emitting 
fascicles of barren shoots or short runners from the lower nodes, often robust, 
3-9-noded, compressed below, glabrous, smooth, upper internodes usually 
exserted; sheaths glabrous or sparingly hairy near the mouth, smooth, the lower 
strongly compressed, keeled, keels sometimes scabrid, the uppermost some- 
times tumid ; ligules membranous, very short, long-hairy ; blades linear, long- 
tapering to a fine point, 15-more than 30 cm. by 6-8 mm. when expanded, flat 
or folded, glabrous or hirsute near the base, green, smooth below, rough above 
on the margins. Spikes 6-15, umbelled, sessile, suberect, rarely spreading, 
6-10 cm. long, greenish or brownish ; rhachis scabrid ; spikelets 3 mm. long, 
3-4-flowered, shortly 2-awned, glumes very unequal, the lower involucral 
ovate-lanceolate, acute, subhyaline, 1-1*5 mm. long, the upper oblong, obtuse, 
mucronate, 2-3 mm. long, firmer, scaberulous ; lower floral glume oblong, sub- 
obtuse or acute, minutely 2-toothed, ciliolate along the marginal nerves 
and shortly bearded below 7 the tips or only finely bearded or almost glabrous, 
with a (sometimes minutely hairy) groove on each face ; awn as long or slightly 


760 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hisi, Sac., Vol. XXX1U, No. 4 [Oct. 15, 1929. 

longer than the glume, straight ; callus minutely bearded, pale glabrous, keels 
scabrid. Anthers 1*5 mm. long ; second floral glume with a male flower, like 
the preceding, but glabrous, 2 mm. long, awn 2 mm. long or less ; vth and vith 
glume rudimentary, cuneate in profile, empty, awnless. 

Locality : Deccan : Poona (Burns !).— See also Mann in Bull. 77, p. 72 of 
Dept. Agric. Bombay. 

Distribution : S.-and tropical Africa. 

91. Dactvloctenium, Willd Enum. PI. (1809), 1029. 

Annual or perennial ; leaves flat, subfiaccid ; spikes in umbels of 2-6, 
erect or stellately spreading ; tips of the rhachis barren, mucroniform, 
usually curved. Spikelets 3-5-flowered, laterally compressed, densely imbri- 
cate, biseriate, sessile, unilateral on a flattened rhachis, the uppermost 
reduced ; rhachilla tardily disarticulating above the empty glumes, tough 
between the flowering glumes. Flowers bisexual, the uppermost rudimentary. 
Involucral glumes 2, unequal, strongly keeled, the lower ovate, acute, thin, 
persistent, the upper elliptic-oblong in profile, obtuse, mucronate or awned, 
firm, deciduous. Flowering glumes ovate, subacuminate, 3-nerved, mucronate 
or awned, deciduous with the grains. Pales about as long as the flowering 
glumes, 2-keeled, subpersistent. Lodicules 2, cuneate, minute. Stamens 3. 
Ovary glabrous; styles distinct, very long, subterminally exserted. Grain 
subglobose, slightly laterally compressed, not grooved or hollowed, rugose or 
punctate ; pericarp very delicate, irregularly breaking away ; embryo scarcely 
equalling \ the length of the grain ; hilum basal, punctiform. 

1. Annual ; grain subglobose ... ... 1. D. aegyptium. 

2. Perennial ; grain ovoid ... ... 2. D. sendicum. 

1. Dactylocteniiim aegyptium, Richt. PI. Europ. i (1889), 68; Muschler Fl. 
Egypt i (1912), 108 (nomen attributum Wildenowio per error.). — Cynosurus 
aegyptius, Linn. Sp. PI. 72. — Dactylocteniiim aegyptiacum, Willd. Enum. PI. 
(1809), 1029 ; Beauv. Agrost. 72, t. 15, f. 2 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 261, Suppl. ii. 
204 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 211 ; Grah. Cat. Bomb. PI. 235 ; Dalz. & Gibs. 
Bomb. Fl. 297; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab. PL 167; Miq. Fl Ind. Bat. iii, 384 ; 
Boiss. FL Or. v, 556 ; Griseb. Fl Brit. W. Ind. 540 ; Baker Fl. Maurit. 452.— 
Eleusine aegyptiaca, Desf. Fl. Atlant. i (1798), 85; Roxb. Fl Ind. i, 344 ; 
Griff. Notul. iii, 51, Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 139, f . 79 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, vii, 615 ; 
Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 34, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 56, t. 35; Hook. f. in 
F.B.I, vii, 295; Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 374; 
Prain Beng. PI. 1229 ; Cke. iii, 1038; Achariyar S. Ind. Grass. (1921), 276; 
Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 970.— E. ciliata, Rafin. in Desv. Journ. 
Bot. iv (1814), 273.— E. cruciata, Lamk. lllustr. i, 203, t. 48, f. 2.—E. mucro- 
nata, Stokes Bot. Mat. Med. i. 150 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii 
(1893), 376.— E. pectinata, Moench Meth. Suppl. 68.— E. prostrata, Spreng. 
Syst. i, 350. — E. radulans t R. Br. Prodr. 186. — Dactyloctenium distachyum, 
Bojer Hort. Maurit. 370.— D. Figarei, DeNot. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. iii, ix 
(1848), 325.— D.meridionale, Ham. Prodr. PL Ind. Occ. 6.— D. mucronatnm, 
Wild. 1. c. ; Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 69.— D. prostratum, Willd. 1. c— D. radu- 
lans, Beauv. Agrost. 72 ; Kunth 11. cc. 262, 204. — Cynosurus distachyus, 
Rottl. ex Steud. Norn. ed. ii, i, 465. — Lhloris mucronata, Mich. FL Am. Bor. i, 
59. — Cenchrus aegyptius. Beauv. Agrost. 157 '.— Rhabdochloa mucronata, 
Beauv. 1. c.—Aegilops saccharinus, Walt. Fl. Carol, i, 249.— Rheede Hort. 
Mai. xii, t. 69. 

Vern. Names: Gandhi (Sind) ; Anchi, Manchi (Kaira) ; Tagar sammi 
(Dharwar) ; Hakki kalin hullu (Karnatik). 

Description : Cke. ii, 1038 (under Eleusine aeygptiaca). 

Locality : Sind: Ghulamalla, garden (Blatter & McCann D599 !) ; Tatta 
(Blatter & McCann D600!); Indus Delta (Blatter & McCann D601 !) ; 
Karachi (Bhide !) ; Mirpurkhas (Bhide !, Sabnis B1170 !) ; Umerkot (Sabnis 
B1001 !) ; Hyderabad, cultivated fields (Sabnis B50 !) ; Sukkar, cultivated 
fields (Sabnis B540 !) ; Nasarpur (Sabnis B1138 !, B1059 !) ; Sanghar (Sabnis 
B888 !).— Gujarat : Sumarasar, Cutch (Blatter 3759 !) ; Perim Island, Gulf of 
Cambay (Blatter 3818!); Bhuj Hill, Cutch (Blatter 8551 \).-Khandesh : 
Muravad, Tapti bank (Blatter & Hallberg 5164 !) ; Bor, Bori River (Blatter & 


Oct. 15, 1929. J Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 761 

Hall berg 5483 !).— Konkan : Wada Range, Thana Dist. (Ryan 685!), Juvem 
(McCann 4264 !); Vetora (Sabnis 33592 !); Mulgaum (McCann A208 !) ; Versova 
(McCann A205 !) ; Uran (Hallberg & McCann 5135 !) ; Marine Lines, Bombay 
Isl. (Hallberg A206 !) ; very common in Bombay 1st. (McCann !) ; Ratnagiri 
(Woodrow 41). — Deccan : Poona (Jacquemont 399, 486), Agricultural College 
garden (Garade 665!); Bopodi, near Poona (Gammie 15310!); Manmad, 
riverbed (Blatter A211 !) ; Khandala to Campoli (McCann A209!) ; Khandala 
(Gammie 15395 !, McCann !) ; Igatpuri (Blatter & Hallberg 5195 !, McCann !) ; 
Sharanpur, near Nasik (Woodrow).— 5. M. Country: Yelvigi, 1,800 ft., 
rainfall 25-30 inches (Sedgwick 2002 !) ; Gokak (Shevade !) ; Badami (Wood- 
row 12).— Kanara : Dundeli, 1,800 ft., rainfall 100 inches (Sedgwick & Bell 
4215 !); Halyal (Talbot 2306 !) ; Karwar, sea shore and near sea (Talbot 1298 !). 
Distribution : Spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions. 

2. Dactyloctenium scindicum, Boiss Diagn. Ser. 2, fasc. 4 (1859), 131, Fl. Or. 
v (1881) 557.— Eleusine scindica, Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. (1888), 58; 
Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 377 .—Dactyloctenium 
glaucophyllum, Courb. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. iv, xviii (1862), 133.- Eleusine 
glaucophylla, Munro ex Benth. in Journ. Linn. Soc. xix (1881), 107.— ii. 
aristata, Ehrenb. ex Boiss. Fl. Or. v (1881), 557 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 296- 
Cke. ii, 1039. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1039 (under Eleusine aristata). 

Locality: Sind : Karachi, (Burns!), seeds grown, taken from a bird's crop 
(Ticehurst !) ; Sanghar (Sabnis B893!) ; Indus Delta (Blatter & McCann 
D602 !) ; Mirpur Sakro (Blatter & McCann D603 !); Gharo (Blatter & McCann 
D604 !); Mundgiro (Stocks 637). -Gujarat : Ahmedabad (Woodrow), dry open 
hills (Sedgwick !); Sevalia (Chibber \)\— Konkan : Ratnagiri (Woodrow). 

Distribution : Punjab, Rajputana, W. Peninsula, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, 
Arabia, Nubia. 

92. Eleusine, Gaertn. Fruct.,& Sem. i (1788), 7, pi. 1, f. 11 ; Cke. ii, 1037 
(Partim) . 

Annual or perennial ; leaves long, flat or folded, flaccid or firm ; spikes in 
interrupted spikes or the upper or all in a terminal umbel, straight, subereCt, 
spreading or deflexed ; spikelets glabrous, 3-6-flowered, laterally compressed, 
densely imbricate, alternately biseriate, unilateral, sessile on a flattened rhachis, 
the uppermost terminal, perfect ; rhachilla disarticulating above the involucral 
glumes and between the flowering glumes, or tough, produced, sometimes 
terminating with a rudimentary glume. Flowers bisexual. Involucral glumes 
2, subequal, persistent, obtuse or obscurely mucronate, membranous, strongly 
keeled, 3-5 nerved, the lateral nerves close to the keel, the lower shorter, with 
the keel crested . Flowering glumes very similar, 3-nerved near the base ; 
lateral nerves submarginal above, with 1-2 short additional nerves close to the 
keel. Pales slightly shorter than the glumes, 2-keeled, keels winged. Lodi- 
cules 2, minute, cuneate. Stamens 3. Ovary glabrous ; styles slender from a 
broadened base, distinct ; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted. Grain broadly 
oblong to globose, broadly grooved ; pericarp loose, delicate, breaking up 
irregularly or almost circumscissile ; seed finely striate ; embryo suborbicular, 
basal ; hilum punctiform, basal. 

Species 6. In the warm regions of the E. hemisphere, 1 widely spread 
through the tropics. 

Of the 5 species mentioned by Cook, 2 have been transferred to Dacty- 
loctenium above, viz. E. aegyptiaca and E. aristata. We add 2 species new to 
the Presidency : E. verticillata and E. brevifolia. 

A. Erect. 

1. Spikes digitate 

1. Spikes slender, nearly glabrous at base 

Seed oblong, obtusely trigonous ... 1. E. indica. 

2. Spikes stout, often incurved pubescent 

at base, seed globose ... ..* 2. E coracana. 

II. Spikes scattered or whorled ... ... 3. E. verticillata. 

B. Prostrate or creeping and rooting 

I. Ligule hairy. Spikes digitate ... ... 4. E. flagellifera, 

II. Ligule obsolete. Heads of spikes globose... 5. E. brevifolia 

762 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXI II, No. 4 {Oct. 15, 1929. 

1. Eleusine iadica, Gaertn. Frttct. i (1788), 8 ; Lamk. 111. i, 203, t. 48 : Kunth 
Enum. PI. i, 273, Suppl. 224, t. 16, f. 4; Steud. Syn. Gram. 211 ; Roxb. Fl 
lad. i, 345 ; Grab. Cat. Bomb. PI. 235 ; Griff. Notul. iii, 52, 53, Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 
119, f. 156 & t. 150, f. 1 : Thw. Enum. PI. Zeylan. 371 ; Trim. Cat. Ceyl. PI. 
109 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PI. 168 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 34, Fodd. Grass. 
N. Ind. 57, t. 69 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat iii, 385 ; Boiss. Fl. Orient, v, 555 ; Benth. 
Fl. Hongk. 429, Fl. Austral, vii, 615 ; Nees Agrost. Brass. 439, FL Afr. Austr. 
251 ; Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 540.— #. distachya, Trin. ex Steud. Norn. Ed. 
ii, i, 549.— is", distans, Moench. Meth. 210.— E. domingensis, Sieb. ex Schulb 
Mant. ii, 323.— i?. Gouini, inaequalis, rigidifolia, 8? scabra, Fourn. exHemsl. 
Bio). Centr. Amer. iii, 565.— E. gracilis, Salisb. Prodr. 19.— E. marginata, 
Lindl. in Mitch. Three Exped. i, 319 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 2Y1.-E. tristachya, 
Lamk. I.e. ; Kunth Revis. Gram. i. 92, Enum. i, 273 ; Steud. I.e. ; Hook. f. in 
F. B. I. vii, 293 ; Cke. ii, 1037 ; Achariyar S. Ind. Grass. (1921), 273, f. 206 ; 
Haines Bot. Bihar & Or'ssa 970,—Cynosurus indicus, Linn. Sp. PI. 72.— 
Panicum compression, Forsk. Fl. Aeg. Arab. 18.— Paspalum dissectum, Kniphof 
Cent. Bot. in Orig. t. 11.— Triticum geminatum, Spreng. Syst. i, 326.— 
Agropyrum geminatum, Schult. Mant. iii, 655. — Rheede Hort. Mal. xii, t. 69. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1037. 

Locality : Gujarat : Bhuj Hill, Cutch (Blatter 8549 \).~Khandesh ; Umalla, 
Tapti bank (Blatter & Hallberg 5231 !) ; N. slope of Chanseli (McCann 
A202 !). — Konkan : Byculla (McCann A207 !) ; very common in Bombay and 
Salsette Isls. (McCann!); Alibag (Ezekiel !) ; Vetora (Sabnis 33595 !) ; 
Bassein (McCann 4478 \).—Deccan : Khandala, very common (McCann 9407 !); 
Khandala to Karjat (Blatter & Hallberg 5323 !) ; Igatpuri (Blatter & Hallberg 
5199!) ; Poona (Woodrow).-S. M. Country : Dharwar, 2,400 ft., rainfall 34 
inches (Sedgwick & Bell 4988 \).—Kanara ; Yellapore (Talbot 1523 !) ; Halyal 
(Talbot 2103 !) ; Nencholi, near banks (Talbot 954 !). 

Distribution ; Throughout the plains of India, tropics of the Old World. 

* 2. Eleusine coracana, Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. i (1788), 8, t. 1 ; Lamk. 
Illustr. t. 28 ; Schreb. Gram. ii. t. 35 ; Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 70 ; Steud. Syn. 
Gram. 211 ; Panz. in Muench. Denkschr. iv (1814) t. 8 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 342. 
Grah. Cat. 235 ; Dalz. & Gibs. Suppl. 97 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PL 168 ; 
Duthie Grass. N. W. led. 34 ; Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 57, t. 69, Field & Gard. 
Crops 15, t. 28 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat, Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 373 ; Hook. 
f. in F. B. I. vii, 294 ; Cke. ii, 1039 ; Prain Beng. PL 1229 ; Haines Bot. Bihar 
& Orissa ;1924), 970. — Cynosurus coracanus, Linn. Syst. Ed. ii, 875.— Eleusine 
cerealis, Salisb. Prodr. 19.— -i?. sphesrosperma, Stokes Bot. Mat. Med. i, 
149. — E. stricta, Roxb. I.e.'. Tocussa, Fresen. in Mus. Senkenb. ii 
(1837), 141.— Rheede Hort. Mal. xii, t. 78. 

Vern. Names : Nachni, Nagli, Ragi, Makra, Nanguli. 

Description ; Very like Eleusine indica, but stouter, up to 1*5 m. high. Leaves 
often far overtopping the stem, 5-6 mm. broad ; sheaths compressed, loose ; 
ligule of hairs. Spikes 4-7, suberect, with their ends or whole spike frequently 
incurved, rhachis of spikes often pubescent at base, somewhat 3-gonous or 
back flattened. Spikelets much congested, awnless, 3-6-fld. Flowering glumes 
more broadly ovate than in E. indica, and often with 1-2 nerves in the sides, 
variable in size, up to 5 mm. long. Seed globose, dark brown, smooth in some 
varieties, in other cases somewhat rugose, with a depressed black hilum and 
slightly flattened on one side.— A cultivated form of E. indica. 

Locality ; Extensively grown in the hilly districts of the Presidency . 

Distribution : Cultivated in the tropics of the Old World for its seed. 

Uses ; ' It is often said to be a good fodder. This is not my experience, the 
leaves though soft have very tenacious vascular strands aud I have noticed 
animals frequently reject them after chewing a few times.' (Haines). 

3. Eleusine verticillata, Roxb. FL Ind. i (1832), 346 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 211 ; 
Aitchis. Cat. Panjab PL 168 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 34, Fodd. Grass. N. 
Ind. 58, t. 70 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 377 ; Hook. 
f. in P. B. I. vii, 295 ; Saxton & Sedgwick Plants of N. Gujarat in Rec. Bot. 
Surv. Ind. vi (1918), 322.— E. racetnos a, Hey tie in Roth Nov. Sp. 80.— 
Aerachne eleusinoides , Wight & Arn. in Wight Cat. No. 1760 ; Nees ex Steud. 
I.e.— A. verticillata, Lindl. Introd. Nat. Syst. ed. ii, 381. 


Oct. 15, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 763 

Description : An annual grass. Stems 30-90 cm. high, erect, stout or slender, 
simple or branched, soft. Leaves flat, rather broad, flaccid, acuminate, gla- 
brous ; sheath compressed ; ligule a few hairs. Spikes few or many, scattered 
or whorled, or opposite or alternate, suberect, 2 -7*5 cm. long, very many- 
flowered. Spikelets 4-6 mm. long, 8-12 flowered, shining ; glumes small, 
acute, glabrous. Involucral glumes broadly ovate, finely acuminate or 
aristulate. Flowering glumes 2 mm. long, very broadly ovate, 3-nerved, keel 
excurrent, lateral nerves ending in small teeth. Grain rugose, pericarp 

Locality : Gujarat : Ahmedabad, compounds, lanes and banks, common 
(Saxton and Sedgwick !) 

Distribution : Tropics of the Old World. 

4. Eleusine ilageHifera, Nees in Linneea xvi (J 842), 220 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 
211 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 34, Fodd, Grass. N. Ind. 57, t. 37 ; Boiss Fl. 
Or. v, 655 ; Hook. f. in F.B.i. vii, 294 ; Cke. ii, 1038. E. arabica, Hochst. ex 
Steud. I.e. ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab' PI. 167 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 377 ; Watt. Diet. Econ. Prod, iii, 241. 

Description : Cke.ii., 1038. 

Locality : Sind : Jacobabad (Bhide!) ; Mirpurkhas (Jhaveri !) ; Sanghar 
(SabnisB889 !. A236 !) ; Umerkot, sand hills (Sabnis B1002 !, B1017 !); Sehwan 
to Laki, foot of hills (Sabnis B616 !); Pad-Idan (Sabnis B511 !) ; Gharo 
(Blatter & McCann D605 \\.—Khandesh : (Lisboa) .—Gujarat ; Bhuj Hill, Cutch 
(Blatter 3746 !). Deccan : Poona (Lisboa). 

Distribution : Punjab, W. Peninsula, Afghanistan, N. Africa. 

5. Eleusine brevifolia, R. Br. in Wall. Ca f . No. 3815 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii 

294; Achariyar S. Ind. Grass. (1921), 274. — Koeleria brevifolia, Spreng.. 
Pugill. ii, 21. — K. lagopoides, Panz. ex Spreng. 1. c. — Dacty 'lis brevifolia, Koen. 
ex Willd. Sp. Pi. I 410 {excl. syn.) ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 341.— D. cynostiroides , 
Koen. ex Roth. Nov. Sp. 74 (non Linn.). — Poa brevifolia, Kunth Rev. Gram, 
i, 111, Enum. PI. i, 324.— Aeluropus brevifolius, Nees ex Steud. Nora. Ed. 
ii, i, 30. A. Icevis, Trin. Fund. Agrost, 143, t. 12.— A. pubescens, Steud. 
Nom. 1. c. — Eragrostris brevifolia, Benth. in Hook. Ic. PI. xiv, 51. — Triodia 
cynosuroides, Spreng. Syst. Veg. i, 331. 

Description : An annual'grass. Stems creeping and spreading from the root, 
ascending from a decumbent base, generally slender and small, sometimes 
large and proliferously branched, leafy, 7-18 cm. long. Leaf-blade linear, 
acute, with a sub-cordate or rounded base, 2-5 cm. long, 3-4 mm. broad ; sheath 
compressed and glabrous ; ligule a very short membrane, ciliate at the margin 
or obsolete, Spikes usually many, sessile and crowded in globose heads, 
varying in diameter from 8-16 mm. Spikelets sessile, biseriate, ovate-oblong, 
3-4 mm. long, 4-10-flowered. Involucral glumes membranous, ovate-oblong, 
acuminate, shortly awned, glabrous, the lower shorter than the upper, 1-3- 
nerved, the upper 3-5-nerved,,ai:d the nerves very close to the middle one in 
the keel. Lower floral glume and the succeeding ones ovate, cuspidateiy 
acuminate, 3-nerved, nerves villous below the middle and paleate. Pale 
oblong, lanceolate, truncate and minutely 2-toothed, keels villous below the 
middle. Anthers small. Lodicules small and cuneate. Styles long and slender. 
Grain orbicular to ovate, concavo-convex, red-brown, and transversely rugose. 

Locality : S. M. Country : Ranibennur (Bhide !). 

Distribution : Coromandel and Carnatic coasts. 

93. Dinebra, Jacq. Fragm. (1809), 77, t. 121, f. 1 ; Cke. ii, 1039. 

Species about 10. — India, Ceylon, Afghanistan, westwards to the Mediter- 
ranean and tropical Africa. 

Cooke describes one species: Dinebra arabica, which name has to cede to 
Dinebra retroflexa, Panzer. 

1. Dinebra retroflexa, Panzer in Denkschr. Acad. Munch. (1814), 270, t. 12; 
Boiss. Fl. Or. v, 557 ; Muschler Fl. Egypt i ( 1912), 106.— Cynosurus retroflexus, 
Vahl Symb. ii, 20. — Dinebra arabica, Jacq. Fragm. (1809), 77 ; Beauvo Agrost. 
98, t. 16, f . 2 (Dineba) ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 34 ; Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 
55 ; Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 372 ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. 
vii, 297 ; Prain Beng PL 1230; Watt. Diet. Econ. Prod, iii, 115; Cke. ii, 


764 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 4 [Oct. 15, 1929. 

1039.; Achariyar S. Ind. Grass. (1921), 279 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 
971.— Leptochloa arabica, Kunth Rev. Gram, i, 91 ; Enum. PI. i, 271, Suppl. 
221 ; Wight Gat. No. 1756 ; Aitchis. Cat. Punjab PL 167.— Dinceba aegyptiaca, 
Del. Fl. d'Eg. 25, t. xi, f. 3.— Leptochloa calycina, Kunth 11. cc. 91, 272 ; Dalz. 
& Gibs. Bom. Fl. 297 .—Eleusine calycina. Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 346.— Dactylis 
paspaloides .. Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 111. 

Vern. Names : Kali Kauli (Sind) ; Kharia (Broach) ; Lona (Poona, 
Sholapur) ; Halligyan hullu (Biiapur) ; Halgyan hullu, Ululgyan hullu, Nari 
baluda hullu (Karnatik) . 

Description : Cke. ii, 1039. — A more con plete description in Achariyar 279. 

Locality : Gujarat : Banks of the Tapti above Surat (Dalzell & Gibson) ; 
Surat (Woodrow) ; Morvi, Kathiawar (Woodrow). — Khandesh : Dadgaum 
(McCann A37 !) ; Dhulia, Moti Tank (Chibber !); Antab, Bori River (Blatter & 
Hallberg 5147 !) ; Bori, Bori River (Blatter & Hallberg 5490 !) ; Bor, Tapti 
River (Blatter & Hallberg 5469 !) ; Tapti River, Bhusawal (Blatter & Hallberg 
5157 \).—Konkan : Bandra, damp fields at Khar (Vakil A35 !) ; Sion (McCann 
5242 !) ; Parel (McCann 5104 !) ; Byculla (McCann A39 \).—Deccan : Deolali 
(Blatter A34 !) ; Sholapur (D'Almeida B36 ! ) ; along the river, Dhond (Bhide 
1346!) ; Bairawadi, Purandhar (McCann 5050!) ; Poona (Woodrow), Agri- 
cultural College Farm (Ezekiel !). — S. M. Country : Dharwar Dist. (Sedgwick 
2101 !) ; Kelgerry (Talbot 2623 !) ; Haveri (Talbot 2184 !).— Kanara : Yellapore 

Distribution: India, Ceylon, Afghanistan, westward to Egypt and Senegal. 

94. Tripogon, Roth Nov. Sp. (1821), 79 ; Cke. ii, 1035. 

Species about 13.— Tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa, one in 

To the 4 species given by Cooke we add 3 others : T. bromoides, Roth, 
T. filiformis, Nees, and T. Roxburghianum, Bhide. 


A. Flowering glumes simply bifid with an inter- 

posed awn, the lobes awned or not 

I. Awn as long or longer than its glume 

1. Under 8 cm, high. Leaves 2*5 cm. long. 

Ligule membranous, ovate .... 1; T. pauperculus. 

2. 15-45 cm. high. Cauline leaves 15-20 

cm. long. Ligule a ridge ... ... 2. T . capillatus . 

II. Awn shorter than its glume 

1. Lateral lobes of floral glume not 


a. Leaves 30-60 cm, long. S pikelets 

5-12-flowered. Lower involucral 

glume 2 mm. long, lanceolate ... 3. T. Lisbocs. 

b. Leaves 5-20 cm. long. Spikelets 

10-20- flowered. Lower involu- 
cral glume 3 mm. long with a 
proiecting lobe at one side ... 4. T. Jacquemontii. 

2. Lateral lobes of floral glume mucronate 5. T. Roxburghianum, 

B. Flowering glumes 4-fid, outer lobes awned or 

not, inner membranous, sometimes very 
short or truncate 
I. Upper involucral glume deeply notched or 

bifid at the apex ... ... ... 6. T. bromoides. 

II. Upper involucral glume minutely 2-toothed 

below the tip ... ... ... ... 7. T. filiformis. 

1. Tripogon pauperculus, Stapf in Hook. Ic. PI. (1896) t. 2442 (pauperulus per 
err.) ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 285 ; Cke. ii, 1036. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality -■ Konkan : Matheran (Woodrow \).—Deccan : Mahableshwar, rocky 
summit of Sindola plateau (Sedgwick & Bell 4845 !) ; Panchgani (McCann !) ; 
on the crest of the Western Ghats (1890 ft.) 8 miles south of Lonavla on Ficus 
glomerata, in company with mosses and Ltricularia orbiculata (Woodrow 25) ; 


Oct. 15, 1929.,] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 765 

Khandala, common on rocks (McCann A65 !, A66 !) ; near Karli on rocks 
(Woodrow!).— S. M. Country : Dud-sagar (Talbot 2568); Castle Rock, on 
rocks (Bhide!) ; Poondra (Talbot 4306 \).—Kanara : On rocks on a hill near 
Nagangari 2,600 ft., rainfall 100 inches (Sedgwick 2895 !). — This grass usually 
grows on rocks together with mosses and other small plants during the rainy 
Distribution : Endemic in the W. Peninsula. 

2. Tripogon capillatus, Jaub. & Spach Illustr. PI. Or. iv (1850-53), 47, t. 332 ; 
Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 285 ; Cke. ii, 1036 ; Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 
966.-7'. capitatus {per error.) Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii 
(1893), 371. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Khandesh : Toranmal, edge of plateau, 3,000 ft. (McCann 
A6 1! ) . — Konkan : On trees, Matheran (Woodrow!, Lisboa). — Deccan : 
Panchgani (Blatter & Hallberg B1247 !, B1288!); on trees about Poona 
(Jacquemont 580) ; Khandala, common on trees and rocks (McCann A61 !, 
Garade!).-5". M. Country : Castle Rock, 1,800 ft., rainfall 300 inches (Sedg- 
wick & Bell 4332!); Belgaum, on trees on Samboti Hill (Ritchie 866); 
Anmod, on trees (Talbot 2621 \).-^Kanara : Sumpkhund to Sirsi, on trees 
(McCann !). 

Distribution : Bihar, W. Peninsula, Mt. Abu. 

3. Tripogon Lisboae, Stapf in Kew Bull. (1892), 84; Hook, f, in F.B.I, vii, 
286 ; Cke. ii, 1036. — Tripogon sp. nov. Lisboa in Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
vii (1893), 370. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Konkan • Parsik Hill (McCann A337 !) .— Deccan : Purandhar 
(McCann 5009!); Khandala, common, on rocks (McCann A334 !, Bhide !) ; 
Karli, between Poona and Lonavla (Jacquemont 581) ; Panchgani, on Table- 
land (Blatter A338!). Generally forming large tufts and growing on rocks 
overhanging water-courses. 

Distribution : Mt. Abu, W. Peninsula. 

4. Tripogon Jacquemontii, Stapf in Kew Bull. (1892), 85; Lisboa in Journ. 
Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii (1893), 370 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 286 ; Cke. ii, 1037 ; 
Haines Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 966. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Gujarat: Lasundra (Chibber!). — Khandesh: N. slope of 
Chanseli (McCann A335 !). — Konkan : Bombay district, without precise loca- 
lity (Lisboa) ; Matheran (Woodrow). — Deccan : Deviali (Blatter & Hallberg 
4468!); Sholapur (Pinwill) ; near Ahmednagar (Miss Shatuck) ; Gangapur 
(Blatter & Hallberg A339 !) : Khandala (Blatter & McCann 3599 !) ; Poona 
(Jacquemont 353, Woodrow) ; Agricultural College compound, Kirkee (Bhide!) ; 
Purandhar (McCann 5573 !) ; Mahableshwar, W. side of plateau (Sedgwick!). — 
5. M. Country : Belgaum (Talbot !) ; Dharwar (Talbot 2301 !) ; dry hill sides 
near Dharwar (Sedgwick 2896 ! ) . 

Distribution : Bengal, Bihar, Central India, W. Peninsula. 

5. Tripogon roxburghianum, Bhide in Journ. & Proc. As. Soc. Beng. (new 
series) vii (1911), S\S.—Lepturus Roxburghianus, Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 365 
{fortassis Steudel). 

Description : 10-18 cm. high. Stems tufted. Leaves filiform, scarcely 
longer than 2*5 cm., ciliate with long hairs on the margin and at the ligule ; 
sheaths glabrous, margins hyaline ; ligule an oblong lacerated mem- 
brane. Spike solitary, 5-6 cm. long. Spikelets 3 mm. long, 1-2 flowered, with 
the rhachilla jointed and pioduced beyond the upper flower and Lome on a 
flattened rhachis, the internodes of which are alternately concave and convex. 
Lower involucral glume hyaline, very oblique or slightly lobed on one side, 
broadly 1-nerved, remaining attached to the hollow in the rhachis when the 
spikelet is removed. Upper involucral glume very coriaceous and thick, 
broadly 3-nerved, about 2-§ times as long as the lower. Lower flowering glume 
a little shorter than the upper involucral, dorsally hairy in the lower part, 
membranous, 3-nerved, 2 toothed with a short mucro between, teeth also shortly 


766 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 4 [Oct. 15, 1929. 

mucronate. Callus bearded. Pale nearly as long as the glume, 2-keeled, keels 
minutely scabrid. Stamens 3. Styles 2, distinct, stigmas plumose. Grain terete. 
Lodicules 2, cuneate. Upper flower also bisexual or imperfect or 0. When 
complete it is like the lower. 

Locality : Deccan : Chattarshinji Hill, Poona (Bhide! , Ezekiel !).— S.M. 
Country : Badami Fort (Bhide!); Dharwar, dry barren uplands, 2,400 ft. 
(Sedgwick !), 

Distribution : So far endemic. 

6. Tripogon bromoides, Roth Nov. Sp. (1821), 79 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 301 ; 
Stapf in Kew Bull. (1891), 85 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I. vii,:287.— T. festucoides , Jaub. 
& Spach 111. PI. Or. iv, 49, t. 333.-3". lanatus, Hochst. ex Steud. I.e.— Plagio- 
lytrum calycinum, Nees in Proc. Linn. Soc. i, 95.— Avena mysorensis , Spreng. 
Syst. i, 337. 

Description : Stems 15-45 cm. high, stout or slender. Leaves usually 
short, but sometimes as long as the stem, flat or convolute, and filiform. Spike 
long or short, 7-20 cm. long. Spikelets very variable, 4-12 mm. long, few- or 
many- flowered, close or distant. Lower involucral glume ovate or lanceolate, 
deeply notched" on one side, membranous, nerve stout ; upper oblong-lanceo- 
late, deeply bifid, with a short awn in the cleft, membranous or coriaceous, 
with broad membranous margins. Lower floral glume and following bearded 
at the base, broadly ovate, strongly 3-nerved, 4-fid, outer lobes small, placed 
low down and margined with their awns half as long as the glume or longer, 
inner lobes often half as long as the glume, much larger than in any other 
species, awn rarely as long as its glume. 

Locality: Deccan: Poona, Agricultural College Farm (Chirka !) ; Katraj 
Ghat (Gammine!) ; Mahableshwar, 4,500 ft., rainfall 270 inches (Sedwick & 
Bell 4567 !), summit of Sindola plateau (Sedgwick & Bell 4841 !).— S.M. 
Country : Belgaum Fort, walls, 2,600 ft., rainfall 50 inches (Sedgwick 2950) ; 
from Belgaum southwards {teste Hook, f.) ; Dharwar (Talbot 2301 !) ; Bijapur 
Dist. (Talbot 2929 ! ) ; Badami (Bhide ! ) . 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, Ceylon. 

7. Tripogon filiformis, Nees ex Steud. Syn. Gram. 301 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. 
Ind. 33 ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 288 ; Collett Fl. Simlensis (1902), 619, fig. 196. 
— T. semitruncatus , Nees et T. unidentatus, Nees e^: Steud. I.e. ; Duthie I.e.— 
Plagiolytrum filiforme et unidentatum, Nees in Proc. Linn. Soc. 1,95. — Cata- 
podium filiforme, Nees ex Duthie I.e. 

Description: Stem 10-40 cm. high, very slender. Leaves filiform, as long 
as the stem. Spikes 4-25 cm. long. Spikelets crowded, 4-10-flowered, 3-8 mm. 
long. Lower involucral glume ovate, broadly lobed on one side ; upper narrowly 
lanceolate, sharply toothed on one or both margins near the tip. Flowering 
glumes 2-toothed at the tip, teeth actute or jagged, a long awn inserted in the 
cleft and a shorter awn on the outer side of each tooth, tne glume thus being 
3-awned, middle awn twice as long as the glume or longer. 

Locality: Deccan: Wai (Talbot 4485 I) .—S.M. Country: Belgaum 

Distribution : Temperate Himalaya, Khasia Hills, W. Peninsula. 


95. Enneapogon, Desv, ; Cke. ii, 1040. 

Species about 6, in the dry warm regions of the Old World and in Australia; 
1 species in Western N. America. 

There is only one species in the Bombay Presidency. 

1. Enneapogon elegans, T. Cooke in Cooke Fl. Bomb. I J res. ii, 1040. — Pappo- 
phorum elegans , Nees in Wight Cat. No. 1771 (1833) ; Hook. f. in F. B. I. vii, 
301 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 199 ; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 35.— Calotheca elegans, 
Wight & Aru. ex Steud. I.e. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1040. 

Locality : Sind : Laki (Bhide!) ; Karachi District (Woodrow). 

Distribution : Peshawar, W. Peninsula, Burma. 


Oct. 15, 1929.] . Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 767 


96. Oryza, Linn. (Cke. ii, 1042). 

The spikelet of Oryza has been variously interpreted. Hook. f. has the 
following description : ' Glumes 2-3, i and ii much the smallest, empty, scale 
or bristle-like, rarely ; iii chartaceous, obtuse, actute or awned, strongly 
3-5-nerved ; palea as long as the glume.' 

Cooke speaks of 5 glumes, * the 2 lower involucral glumes below the articu- 
lation of the spikelet minute, scale-like (rarely absent) ; the 2 next involucral 
glumes, above the articulation of the spikelet subulate ; floral glume solitary, 
dimidiate-oblong, coriaceous or chartaceous, 5-9-nerved, awnless or with a 
short or long straight terminal awn ; palea linear or lanceolate, as long as the 
glume, 3-5-nerved.' 

Stapf thinks that the usual 2 outer empty involucral glumes are absent, that 
the next 2 (scales or bristles) are empty florets (valves). He also takes the 
ivth-glume to be a pale. 

Species about 17.— Tropical. — 2 species in the Bombay Presidency. 

1. Ligule very short, scarcely longer than broad, 

fringed with short hairs ... ... 1. O. coarctata. 

2. The lower ligules very long, up to 4 cm., 

always much longer than broad ... 2. O. sativa. 

1. Oryza coarctata, Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814), 87, Fl. Ind. (1832), 206 ; Griff. 
Notul. iii, 8, Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 142, f. 1 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 371 ; Hook. f. in 
F. B. I. vii, 93 ; Prain Beng. PL 1184 ; Cke. ii, 1042 ; Prodoehl Oryzece in Bot. 
Arch, i (1922), 232.— O. triticoides, Griff. Notul. I.e. - Sclerophyllum coarctatum 
Griff. I.e. 

Description ; Cke. ii, 1042. 

Locality : Sind : Karachi, in Herb. Kew without collector's name ; covering 
large flats at the mouth of the Indus River (Blatter & McCann !) ; Shikarpur 
(Dr. King's collector) ; Keti (Blatter & McCann D666 !) ; after Keti (Blatter & 
McCann 0665!).—^^™; Sul^eri (Sedgwick & Bell 4241 !). — Forming 
dense mats and covering miles of flat land at the mouth of the Indus river 
within tidal influence, being covered at high tide. 

Distribution : Sundribuns, W. Peninsula. 

2. Oryza sativa, Linn. Sp. PI. (1753), 333 ; Gaertn. Fruct. ii, 5, t. 80, f. 5 ; 
Host. Gram. Austr. iv, t. 325 ; Lamk. Encycl. t. 264 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 7, 
Suppl. 4 ; T. Nees Gen Fl. Germ. Monocot. i, 2 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 200 ; Griff. 
Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 139, f. 149; Duthie Grass. N. W. Ind. 12, Field and Gard. 
Crops 15, t. 4, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 20 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 368 ; Doell in 
Mart. Fl. Brass, ii, ii, 7, t. 1 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, vii, 550 ; Hook, f . in F. B. I. 
vii, 92; Cke. ii, 1043. — (9. communissima, Lour. Fl. Cochin (1790), 267.— 
O. glutinosa, Lour. I.e. 267.— O. montana, Lour. I.e. 267.— O. montana, Ham. 
in Wall. Cat. (1828), 8633.— O. praecox, Lour. I.e. 267.— O. perennis, Mnch. 
Meth. (1794), 197,—O.palustris, Hamilt. Prodr. (1796), 25.— O. latifolia, 
P. Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 27 {non Desv.).— O. parviflora, P. Beauv. I.e.— 
O. denudala, Desv. ex Steud. Nomencl. ed. i (1821), 577. — O. elongata, Desv. 
ex Steud. I.e. — O. marginata, Desv. ex Steud. I.e. — O. mutica, Lour, ex 
Steud. I.e.— O. pubescens, Desv. ex Steud. I.e. — O. rubribarbis, Desv. ex 
Steud. I.e.— O. emarginata, Steud. Nomencl. ed. ii (1841), 234. — O. putnila, 
Host, ex Steud I.e. 234.— O. rufipogon, Griff. Not. iii (1851), 5.— O. glumcspa- 
tula, Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. PI. Glum, i (1854), 3. — O. nepalensis, Don ex 
Steud. I.e. 3. — O repens, Herb. Ham. ex Steud. I.e. — O. segetalis, Russ ex 
Steud. I.e. — O. sorghoides, Desv. ex Steud. I.e. — O. caudata, Trin. ex Doell in 
Mart. Fl. Bras, ii, 2 (1871), 8. 

Description: Annual. Stems creeping or floating, 60 cm. to 3 m. high. 
Leaves 30-60 cm. by 6-8 mm. or more, striate, scaberulous, 1-nerved ; sheaths 
smooth ; ligule long 2-partite. Spikelets loosely panicled, not imbricating, 
awn 7—13 cm. long, yellow or reddish, shining. Involucral glumes i-% the 
length of the floral glume, lanceolate ; floral glume hispid above, dorsally 
spinescently ciliate, awn very long. 

This is Hook, f.'s description prepared from the plant which Roxburgh and 
other Indian writers consider to be the indigenous Rice. 

768 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXlll, No. 4 • [Oct. 15, 1929. 

For a note on the inflorescence see : S. G Bhalerao : The Morphology of the 
Rice Plant and of the Rice Inflorescence. In Journ of Ind. Bot. Soc. v 
(1926), 13. 

Much interesting information on Oryza saliva-can. be had in 

Watt, G. : Dictionary of Economic Products of India v (1891). 

Watt, G. : Commercial Products of India (1908). 

Heuze : Les PL Aliment, des Pays Chauds (1899), 14-116. 

Mollison : Textb. Ind. Agric iii (1901), 32-44. 

Semler : Trop. Agrik. iii (1903), 1-48. 

Copeland, E. B. : Rice (1924). 

Statistical Atlas of the Bombay Presidency, 1925. 

Wild Rice : We possess little reliable information regarding the Wild Rices 
of the Presidency. S. G. Bhalerao (in Agric. Coll. Mag. xx (1928), 45) has 
published a paper on ' The Wild Rice {Oryza sativa) of the Bombay Presi- 
dency ', which contains a number of interesting observations. 

According to him the wild type of Rice ' occurs abundantly on the Western 
Ghats and occupies the zone where the rainfall is over 30-35 inches. As an 
annual aquatic, it occurs in marshy areas, in small pools and ponds and on the 
margins of the big tanks. It is rarely found in more tran 3 feet depth of 
water and on land without any standing water as well.' 

We have found a Wild Rice in pools on Tableland at Panchgani (rainfall 
60 in.). 

97. Homalocenchrus, Mieg. Act. Helv. Phys Math. 4 (1760), 307. 
{Leer sea, Sw.) 

Description : Cke. ii, 1041 {Leer sea). 

We follow O. Kuntze (Rev. Gen.) and Hitchcock (Genera of Grass. Unit. St. 
in U.S, Dept. of Agric. Bull. 772 (1920), 205) in going back to the genus 
Homalocenchrus . Hitchcock says that one species is referred to the genus with 
certainty, another being doubtfully referred to it. No specific names are 
used, but under the first there are two citations which appear in the Species 
Plantarum under Phalaris oryzoides, Linn, which Hitchcock considers as type 

Species 14.— Tropical and temperate regions. 

Only one species in the Presidency. 

1. Homalocenchrus hexandrus, O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. (1891), 111 .—Leer sia 
hexandra, Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1797), 131; PI. Dan. t. 1744 ; Kunth 
Enum. PI. i, 6 ; Host. Gram. Austr. t. 35 ; Engl. Bot. t. 2908 ; Reichb. Ic. Fl. 
Germ, i, t. 52 ; Duthie Grass. N.W. Ind. 12; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. iii. 367; 
Benth. Fl. Austral, vii, 549; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 94 ; Cke. ii, 1042 ; Haines 
Bot. Bihar & Orissa (1924), 981.— Asprella hexander, Roem. & Schult. Syst. 
ii (1817), 251 —Leersia australis, R. Br. Prodr. (1810), 210; Kunth 1. c. 6.— 
AsPrella australis, Roem. & Schult. 1. c— Oryza australis, A. Br. ex Schweinf. 
Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. (1867), 300; Aschers.— Schweinf. 111. Fl. d'Eg. 167, 
No. 1U8.— Leersia ciliata, Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814), 26 ; Aitchis. Cat. Panjab 
PI. 157 ; Duthie 1. c, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 2l.—L.xiliaris, Griff. Not. iii, 2.— 
L. glaberrima, Trin. Oryz. 7 ; Miquel 1. c. 368. — L. mexicana, H. B. & K. 
Nov. Gen. & Sp. i (1815), 195 ; Kunth 1. c. 6 and ii, 2, Suppl. 2, Rev. Gram. 
178, t. 1. — Asprella mexicana, Roem. & Schult. 1. c. — Oryza mexicana, Doell. 
in Mart. Fl. Bras, ii, ii (1871), 10.— Zizania ciliata, Spreng. Syst. ii (1825), 136 ; 
Kunth Rev. Gram. i. 8 ; Griff. Not. iii, I.— Oryza hexandra, Doell in Mart. 
FL Bras, ii, ii (1871) , 10.— Pharus ciliatus, Retz. Obs. v ( 1779), 23.— Pseudoryza 
ciliata, Griff. Ic. PL Asiat. t. 144, f. \.— Turraya nepalensis, Wall. Cat. 8637D.— 
Blepharochloa ciliata, Endl. Gen. 1352. — Hygroryza ciliata, Nees ex Steud, 
Nomencl. ed. ii, i (1841), 783. — Leersia brasiliensis, Spreng. Nov. Prov. 
(1819), 47.— Asprella brasiliensis, Roem. & Schult. Mant. ii (1824), 153.— 
Leersia contractu, Nees Agrost. Bras. (1829), 516.— L. luzoniensis, Presl. 
Rel. Haenk. i (1830), 207.— L. parviflora, Desv. Opusc. (1831), 61.— L. abyssi- 
nica, Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii (1851), 356.— Asprella purpurea, 
Bory Hort. Maurit. (1837), 376.— Leersia elongata, Willd. herb. No, 1511 
ex Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. 6 ser. iii (1839), 172.— L. mauritanica, Salzm. 
ex Trin. 1. c. 174.— L. Triniana, Sieb. ex Trin. 1. c. 174.— L. gracilis, Willd. 
herb. No. 1512 ex Trin. 1. c. 173.— L. Griff ithiana, C. Mill, in Bot. Zeitg. xiv 


Oct. 15, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 769 

(1856), 345.— L. capensis, C. Mill. I.e. 345.— L. Gouini, Fourn. ex HemsL Biol. 
Centr. — Am. Bot. iii (1885), 514 (nomen). — Homalocenchrus Gouini, O. Kuntze 
Rev. Gen. (1891), 777 .—Leersia csgyptiaca, Fig. & De Not. in Mem. Ac. Torin. 
ser. ii, xiv, (1853), 317.— L. ferox, Fig. & De Not. 1. c. 319. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1042, under Leersia hexandra. 

Locality: S. M. Country: Devaraji (Sedgwick & Bell 4463!) ; Sadambi 
Tank, Tadas (Sedgwick 2052 !) ; Sluavar, in tanks (Sedgwick 2289 !) ; Castle 
Rock, in rice field (Bhide !) ; Kunnur, margin of tank (Sedgwick 4930 !) ; 
Londa (Woodrow).— Kanara : (McCann !) ; Halyal Tank (Talbot 1345!, 

Distribution : More or less throughout India, Ceylon, Africa, America, 

98. Hygroryza, Nees in Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. xv (1833), 380 ; 
Cke. ii, 1041. 

Species 1.— India, Ceylon, Tonkin. 

1. Hygroryza aristata, Nees in Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. xv (1833), 380 : Duthie 
Grass. N. W. Ind. 12, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 20 ; Aitchis- Cat. Pan. PI. 157 ; 
Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 95 ; Trin. Fl. Ceyl. v, 185 ; Prain Beng. PI. 1185.— 
Pharus aristatus, Retz. Obs. v (1779-91), 23. — Leersia aristata, Roxb. Hort. 
Beng. (1814), 26, Fl. Ind. ii (1832), 207; Griff. Not. iii, 3.— Zizania aristata, 
Kunth. Rev. Gram, i (1830), 8 ; Enum. PI. i, 10.— Z. Retzii, Spreng. Syst. ii 
(1825), 136. —Potamochloa Retzii, Griff. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. v, (1836), 571, t. 
24. f. 2, Not. iii, 8, Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 139, f . 147 & t. 140.— Pharus nutans, Herb. 
Russell ex Wall. Cat. (1828) No. 8638 ; Rheede Hort. Mai. x, t. 12. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1041. 

Locality : Gujarat : Chikli (Woodrow). — Konkan : Bhiwandi, near 
Kalyan (Chibber!) ; Nagotna (Gainmie 16063 !) ; Kurnul, pond (Ezekiel !) ; 
bank of Vihar Lake (McCann !). — Deccan : Poona, Agricultural College 
Garden (Bhide !, McCann !). 

Distribution : Of genus. 


99. Elytrophorus, Beauv. ; Cke. ii, 1044. 
Species 1. — Tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. 

1. Elythrophorus articulatus, Beauv. Agrost. (1812), 67; Cke. ii, 1044.— For 
synonyms see Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 1044. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality: Gujarat: Godra (Woodrow). — Konkan: Alibag, rice field 
near waterworks (Ezekiel !) ; Penn (McCann 5504 !, 5509 !) ; Condita (McCann 
4242 !) ; Bhandup, in damp rice field (Nana A46 !) ; Kalyan (Woodrow).— 
Deccan: Khandala, Bushy Lake, in dry bed (McCann 9392!); Matheran 
(Gammie 1664 !) ; Karjat, Honad Taluka (Bhonsle !) ; Igatpuri (Blatter & 
Hallberg 5144 !, 5494 !).— 5. M. Country : Chabbi, rice field, 2,000 ft., rainfall 
30 inches (Sedgwick 3705 !) ; Londa (Woodrow).— Kanara : Halyal (Talbot 
1370 !). 

Distribution : Of the genus. 

100. Aeluropus, Trin ; Cke. ii, 1045. 

Species few.— From the Mediterranean and Caspian regions to the Punjab, 
Sind, and S. India. — Only 1 species in the Bombay Presidency. 

1. Aeluropus villosus, Trin. ex L. Mey. Verz. Pflanz. Cauc. (1831), 18 ; Cke. 
ii, 1045. For synonyms see Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 334. 

Description : Cke. I.e. 

Locality : Sind : Near salt creeks in Sind (Stocks 506) ; Gharo (Blatter & 
McCann D659 !, D660 !) ; Mirpur Sakro (Blatter & McCann D658 !) ; Karachi 
(Bhide !, Woodrow) ; Laki (Bhide !) ; Kotri, banks of Indus (Sabnis B370 !) ; 
Sehwan, clayey plains (Sabnis B606 !) ; Sehwan to Laki, foot of hills (Sabnis 
B108!); Sanghar (Sabnis B891 !).— Gujarat : Surat, mud-flats, mouth of 


770 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXX111, No. 4 {Oct. 15, 1929. 

Tapti River (Hall berg A29 !) ; Porbandar (Bhide !) ; Dharasna (Chibber !) ; 
road to Gola (Chibber!); Karie Roa, Cutch (Blatter 3770!, 3773 !) ; Kala, 
Pachan Isl., Cutch (Blatter 3739 !) ; (Runn of Cutch Blatter 3730 !, 3731 !).— 
Konkan: On the salt ground near the sea (Graham, Lisboa) ; Bandra, salt 
marsh (Vakil A28 !) ; Penn (McCann A31!); Bassein Creek (Chibber!); 
Nagaon, Sion, salt marsh (McCann 5240 !) ; Salsette (Wight 53). 

Distribution : Punjab, Sind, W. Peninsula, in salt ground, Ceylon, 
Afghanistan, Persia, Caspian region, Arabia, Mediterranean region. 

101. Centotheca, Desv. ; Cke. ii t 1043. 

Species doubtfully 3. — Tropical Africa, Asia, Australia. — One species in the 

1. Centotheca lappacea, Desv. in Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom. ii (1810), 189, et in 
Journ. Bot. i (1813), 71 ; Cke. ii, 1043.— For synonyms refer to Hook. f. in 
F.B.T. vii, 332. 

Description : Cke. 1. c. 

Locality : Konkan : Vetora (Sabnis 33564 !, 33727 \).—Kanara : Castle 
Rock, evergreen forests, 1,600 ft., rainfall 250 inches (Sedgwick 2714 ! ; 
Gammie 15693 !) ; Guddhalli, Karwar (Hallberg & McCann A25 !) , Katgal 
(Hallberg & McCann A26 !) ; Devimani Ghat (Hallberg & McCann A27 !) ; on 
a fern stem (Woodrow !). 

Distribution : Himalayas, Khasia Hills, Central India, Burma, W. Penin- 
sula, Ceylon, Malaya, China, Polynesia, tropical Africa. 


102. Lepturus, Br. ; Hook. f. in F.B.I, vii, 365. 

Small, slender grasses. Leaves flat or convolute. Spikelets 1-2-flowered, 
sessile, solitary, half-immersed in hollows of the rhachis of a simple, terminal, 
articulate or not-straight or incurved spike with the back of the lowest floral 
glume opposite the rhachis ; rhachilla jointed. Glumes 3 or 4. Lower involucral 
glume minute or 0, upper longer than the flowering glumes, linear, rigid, 
acute, 5-nerved, erect or at length deflexed ; flowering glumes much shorter 
than the upper involucral glume, hyaline ; pale 2-keeled. Lodicules 2, cuneate, 
or lobed. Stamens 1-3. Ovary glabrous ; styles short, distant. Grain narrow 
or oblong, glabrous, free. 

Species 6. —The Old World. —One species in the Presidency, new to it. 

1. Lepturus repens, R. Br. Prodr. (1810), 207 ; Brongn, in Duperr. Voy. Bot. 
57, t. 16 ; Kunth Enum. PI. i, 463, Suppl. 374 ; Steud. Syn. Gram. 357 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austral, vii, 668; Hook. i. in F.B.I, vii, 365.— Rotboellia repens, Forst. 
Prodr. 9.—Monerma repens, Beauv. Agrost. 117 .—Lepturus aciculatus, Steud. 
Syn. Gram. 357. — Lolium Coelorachis, Forst. in Herb. Paris, Steud. Nom. ed. 
ii, ii, 64. 

Description : A perennial grass. Stem elongate, woody, branched and 
widely creeping below. Leaves 7 to 15 cm. long, 3-6 mm. broad, spreading or 
erect, acuminate, glaucous ; sheaths glabrous or mouth ciliate ; ligule incons- 
picuous. Spikes shortly peduncled, fragile. Spikelets 2-fid ; rhachilla elongate, 
bearing an upper imperfect flower. Involucral glumes 1 (or 2 in the uppermost 
spikelet) flat, rigid, 6-12 mm. long, closely appressed to the rhachis ; flowering 
glume, much shorter than the involucral, elliptic, concave, 3-nerved. Pale 2- 
keeled. Lodicules fleshy, obliquely truncate or 2-lobed, glabrous. Grain 

Locality: Kanara : 4 miles from Halyal (Bhide). 

Distribution: N. Kanara, Ceylon, Malay and Pacific Islands, Australia. 

103. Triticum, Linn. 

* 1. Triticum sativum, Lam. Fl. Fr. ed. 1, iii (1778), 625. 

We are not in a position to discuss the many varieties or forms that are 
cultivated in the Presidency. We refer to some literature which may help those 
who wish to make further inquiries into this very complicated question. 

Hackel in Engler & Prantl. Pflanzenfam. ii, 80. 


Oct. 15, 1929.,] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 771 

Murray in Watt Dictionary of Economic Prod, vi, pt. 4, 89. 

Koerneck & Werner, Handbuch der Getreide Arten. 

Howard, A. and Howard, G.L.C. The varietal characters of Indian wheats. 
Mem. Dept. Agr. Ind. (Bot. ser.) ii (1908), and many other papers on wheat 
which were mostly published by the Department of Agriculture in India. 

Schulz, A. Die Abstammung des Weizens. Mitt. natf. Ges- Halle a. 
S. I. (1912), 14-17. 

Percival, J. The wheat plant : a monograph. 463 p., 218 f. London 1921. 

Huber, J. A. Ueber Abstammung und Systematik des Weizens. in Natur- 
forscheriii, (1927), 577-582. 

Cooke mentions 2 varieties which are chiefly grown in the Presidency : 
(a) Var. spelta. This is Linne's Triticum Spelta. 
\b) Var. pilosa. This is Triticum pilosum, Dalz. & Gibs. 

104. Hordeum, Linn. 
1. Hordeum vulgare, Linn. Sp. PL (1753), 84. 

The following three varieties are grown in the Bombay Presidency. 

(a) Var. hexastichon^ Hordeum hexastichon, Linn. Sp. PL (1753), 85. 

(b) Var. distichon = H. distichon, Linn. I.e. 

(V) Var. nudum = H. nudum, Arduini ex Schult. Mant. ii. (1824), 437. 
We refer to : 

Schulz, A. Die Abstammung der Saatgerste, Hordeum sativum. Mitt. 

Natf. Ges. Halle a. S.I. (1912), 18-27. 

Wiggans, R. G. A. classification of the cultivated varieties of Barley. Cornell 
Agr. Exp. Stat. Mem. 46 (1921), 365-456. 

Blaringhem, L. Sur las caracteres d'especes elementaires d'Orges 
{Hordeum). Bull. Soc. Bot. France 71 (1924), 623-27. 


105. Bambusa, Schreb. Gener. Plant. (1789) no. 607. (Cke. ii, 1046). 

Species 73. — Eastern Asia, Australia. — One species indigenous in the Presi- 
dency, and 2 commonly cultivated. 
I. Stem and branches unarmed 

1. Spikelet subcylindric ; fertile flowers 5-9 .. 1. B. nana. 

2. Spikelet compressed, flattened, distichous, 

fertile flowers 5-6 ... ... ... 2. B. vulgaris. 

II. Stem and branches armed ... ... 3. B. arundinacea. 

*1. Bambusa nana, Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814), 25, Fl. Ind. ii, 190; Munro 
Monogr. Bamb. in Transact. Linn. Soc. xxv (1866), 89 ; Gamble Ind. Bamb. 
Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. vii (1896), 40, t. 38; Brandis Ind. Trees 669 ; Camus, 
Bambusees (1913), 121, pi. 37, f. B.—B. glaucescens, Siebold Cat. ex Munro.— 
B. glauca, Lodd. Cat. — B. caesia, Sieb & Zucc. ex Munro. — B. sterilis, Kurz 
in Miquel Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. ii, 285. — B. viridi- glaucescens, Carriere 
in Revue Hortic. (1869), 292 {non Riv.). — B. aurea, Franchet & Savatier (non 
A. & C. Riviere). — Ischurochloa floribunda, Btise in Miq. PL Jungh 390; 
Miquel Fl. Ind. Bat. iii, 422. — Arundinaria glaucescens, P. Beauv. Agrost. 144 ; 
Ruprecht in Act. Acad. Caes. Petrop. (1840), 23, t. 1, fig. 3 ; Munro Monogr. 
I.e. 22. — Panicum arborescens, Linn. — Triglossun arundinaceum , Fisch. apud 
Roem. & Schult. Syst. 846. — Ludolfia glaucescens, Willd. in Mag. Gesell. 
N. F. Berlin (1808), 320. 

Description : Stems densely tufted, 2-3 m. high, rarely more, 3 cm. in diam., 
glabrous, green when young, then yellow, unarmed, hollow, much branched 
from the base ; branches fascicled, semiverticillate, often dichotomous. 
Sheaths of young shoots glabrous, striate, very long, attenuate, apiculate, 
lanceolate, truncate at the apex, surmounted by an imperfect limb rather 
long-acuminate and decurrent into 2 ciliate auricles. Leaves often small, 
2"5-7*5 cm. long, the larger ones often attaining 14 cm. by 5-7 mm., rounded 
at the base, long-acuminate, smooth or pubescent below, scabrous on the 
margins, glaucous-bluish ; secondary nerves 5-7 pairs, not tessellate, but 
provided with pellucid glands. Spikelets 12-45 mm. long, few clustered or 
solitary on the branches of short diffuse panicles, straw-coloured, shining, 


772 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist, Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 4 {Oct. 15, 1929. 

5-9-flowered ; sometimes with bractiform subfoliaceous scales at their bases ; 
rhachilla glabrous, flattened. Glumes all flowering or rarely the lowest empty, 
ovate, acute, many-nerved. Pale shorter than the glumes, keels minutely 
ciliate at or near the tip only. Stamens long-exserted, pendulous ; anthers 
obtuse or finely apiculate, yellow. Ovary obovoid, pubescent at the apex. 
Style very short, divided from almost the base into 3 long and hairy stigmas. 
Grain elliptic, furrowed, shortly beaked, top hairy. 

Distribution: China, Japan.— Cultivated in Manila, Luzon, Java, Malay 
Peninsula, India, Europe. 

* 2. Bambusa vulgaris, Schrad. apud Wendl. Collect. PI. ii (1810), 26, t. xlvii; 
Rupr. in Act. Acad. Caes. Petrop. (1840), 137, t. xi, fig. 47 ; Munro, Monogr. 
107; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. ccxxxii ; Brandis lad. Trees 670; A. & C. Riviere 
Les Bambous 191 ; Gamble Tnd. Bamb. 43, pl. 40 and in Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 
391. Camus Les Bambusees (1913), 122, pl. 76, f. f A.— B, Thouarsii, Kunth 
Not. Gen. Bambus. in Journ. Phys. (1822), 148 ; Rupr. Bambus. 48, t. xi, f. 
48. — B. surinamensis , Rupr. in Act. Acad. Caes. Petrop. (1840), 49, t. xi, 49. — 
B. Sieberi, Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 528.— B. hutnilis, Reichb. ex Rupr.— 
B. arundinacea, Moon Cat, 26 ; Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. ii, 316. — B. auriculata, 
Kurz. aPud Houz. de Lehaie. 

Description : Stems unarmed, 6-15 m., 5-10 cm. in diam., first green, then 
yellow, or striped, polished ; nodes hardly raised, with usually a ring of brown 
hairs ; internodes 25-45 cm. long, walls rather thin. Stem-sheaths 15-25 cm. 
by 17-23 cm., often streaked with yellow, thickly hairy above, top rounded, 
refuse ; blade 5-15 cm., appressed hairy on both surfaces, base rounded, decur- 
rent with rounded, falcate, fimbriate auricles ; ligule broad., toothed or 
fimbriate. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 15-25 cm. by 16-40 cm., pale, petioled, 
glabrous, tessellate by pellucid glands, tip twisted, scabrid, nerves 6-8; sheath 
laxly hairy; ligule short, ciliate, auricle rounded. Panicle large, leafy. 
Spikelets 15-20 mm., in bracteate clusters of 3-10 oblong, acute, bifid, empty 
glumes, 1-2 ovate, many-nerved with the tip ciliate ; flowering glumes 6-10, 
larger. Pale as long as the glume, keels white, ciliate. Lodicules 3, winged, 
ciliate. Anthers obtuse, hairy, apiculate, purple. Ovary narrow, hairy ; 
style long. 

Distribution: Mauritius, Bourbon, Madagascar, Hawaii, Java. — Cultivated 
in other countries. 

A handsome variety is grown in Indian gardens. 

Var. striata, Auct. mult. — Bambusa striata, Lodd. ex Lindl. in Penny 
Cyclop, iii (1835), 357 ; Munro Monograph 121 ; Curtis Bot. Mag. xxx (1874) t. 
6079. — Var. vittata, A & C. Riviere 1 . c—B. vulgaris vel culmis variegatis, 
Hort. Gall. — B. variegata, Hort. — Var. aureo-variegata, Hort. 

Rather smaller in size. The stems are striped with yellow and green, the 
stripes alternating at every node ; the branchlets are yellow and the leaves 
somewhat smaller and paler. On drying the stripes disappear. 

Distribution : Probnbly the result of cultivation in China and Japan. 

3. Bambusa arundinaria, Retz. Obs. v (1789), 24 sub Bambos ; Willd. Sp. Pl. ii 
(1799), 245 ; Roxb. Corom. Pl. i, 56, t. 79, Fl. Ind. ii, 191 ; Poir. Encycl. viii, 
701; Rupr. in Act. Acad. Caes. Petrop. (1840), 51, t. xiii, fig. 50 ; Munro, 
Monogr., 103 ; Brandis Ind. Trees 671 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. ccxxi ; Gamble Ind. 
Bamb. 52 et in Hook. f. F. B. I. vii, 395; Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 70 ; 
Cke. ii, 1046 ; Camus Les Bambusees (1913), 128, pl. 75, f. A.—B. Arundu, 
Klein ex Nees in Linnaea ix (1834), 471 ; Rupr. Bamb. 1. c. 53 t. 13, f. 53.— 
B. Neesiana, Arn. ex Munro 1. c — B. orientalis, Nees I.e. 475 ; Rupr. 1. c. 52, 
t. 13, f. Sl.—H. pungens, Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. i, 270. — B. spinosa, Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii, 198. — Ar undo Bambos.. \ Ann. Sp. Pl. 81. — A. indica arborea, Auct — 
Nastus arundinaceus , Sm. in Rees Cycl. xxiv, no. 1. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1046. 

Locality: Gujarat: (Gamble); Dangs (WV.odrow). — Konkan : Kanary 
Caves (McCann A215 !, A216 !) ; Wada Range (Rvan 494 !) ; Vetora (Sabnis 
33282 !); Western Ghats (Gamble).— Deccan : Igatpuri (McCann A218 ! ) ; 
Karli (Gammie 16169!); Khandala, St. XavieVs Villa (McCann A224 ! , 
A225 !).— Kanara : Karwar (Hallberg & McCann A217 ! ) ; 3 miles from 
Mirjan (Hallberg & McCann A 220 !). 

Distribution : India, Burma, Ceylon.— Often cultivated. 


Oct 15, 3929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 773 

106. Oxyten ANTHER a, Munro ; Cke. ii, 1047. 

Species 16. — Malay Peninsula, Siam, India, tropical Africa. — 2 in the 
Bombay Presidency. 

1. Spikelets 1-flowered ; style glabrous ... 1. O. Ritcheyi. 

2. Spikelets 2-flowered ; style hairy ... ... 2. O. Stocksii. 

1. Oxytenanthera Ritcheyi, nov.comb.—Bambusa Ritcheyi, Munro in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. 26 (1868), 113. — Oxytenanthera monosiigma, Bedd. For. Man. in Fl. 
Sylv. (1873) ccxxxiii, et Ic. PI. Ind. Or. (1874), 56, t. 234 ; Gamble Ind. Bam- 
bus (1896), 74, t. 65 ; Brandis Ind. Trees (1911), 674 ; Talbot For. Fl. Bombay 
ii (1911), 571; Camus Bambusees (1913), 148 ; Troup Silvic\ Ind. Trees iii 
(1921), lOOQ.'^ScMsestachyum hindostanicum, Kurz in Proc. As. Soc. Beng. 52, 
ii (1873), 252. 

Why we made the change from O. tn&nostigma to O . Ritcheyi is evident 
from the synonymy. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1048. 

Locality : Konkan : Ghats (Talbot, Woodrow).— Deccan : Sakhar-Pathar 
Hill near Lonavla (Woodrow) ; Satara Ghats (Brandis) ; Mahableshwar 
(Fagan.) ; Poona District (Wroughton) ; Ahmednagar (Wilkins). — S. M. 
Country : (Ritchie 820). — Kanara : N. Kanara (Woodrow) ; Wuddermone 
(Talbot 905 !, 252 !) ; Arbail Ghat (Talbot 906 !■) ; Arbail (Talbot 251 !, 857 !) ; 
Godhuli (Talbot 583 !) ; Snpa (Talbot !). 

Distribution : W. Peninsula. 

2. Oxytenairthera- Stocksii, Munro in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvi (1868), 130, 
Bedd. For. Man. in Fl. Sylv. (1873), ccxxxiii ; Gamble Bamb. Brit. Ind. 75, 
t. 66, et in Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 403 ; Cke. ii, 1048 ; Talbot For. Fl. Bombay ii. 
570 ; Camus Les Bambusees (1913), 149. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1048. 

Locality : Konkan : (Stocks). — Deccan : Panchgani, planted (Woodrow). — 
Kanara: Kumpta, cultivated (Talbot 269!, 3601 !) ; Karwar (Talbot 856!) ; 
commonly cultivated along the coast ; rare in the Ghat forests of N. Kanara 

Distribution : W. Peninsula, In do-China. 

107. Dendrocalamus, Nees ; Cke. ii, 1049. 

Species 24. — Africa, Indo-Malaya, Philippines, China. 

1. Stem -sheaths 7-30 cm. long ; leaves up to 25 by 

3 cm. ... ... ... .*. 1. D.strictus. 

2. Stem-sheaths 50 cm. long, as broad at the 

base ; leaves up to 50 by 10 cm. ... ... 2. D. giganteus. 

1. Dendrocalamus strict us, Nees in Linnsea 9 (1834), 476; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. ii, 421; Munro Monogr. 147 ; Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. cccxxv ; Brandis Ind. 
Trees 675; Duthie Fodd. Grass. N. Ind. 71; Gamble Bamb. Brit. Ind. 78, 
t. 68, 69 et in Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 404 ; Cke. ii, 1049 ; Camus Les Bambusees 
(1913), 152 pi. 87, f. B.— For synonyms see F.B.I, vii, 404. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1049. 

Locality: Sind : Junnar Hill (Burns!). — Gujarat: Junagad, Datar Hill, 
Kathiawar (Chibber !) ; Panch Mahals (Woodrow). — Khandesh : To Toronmal 
(McCann 9791!); base of Toranmal (McCann A221 ! ) .— Konkan : Planted 
(Woodrow). — Deccan: Rocky hills (Gamble); Karli (Gammie 16167!); 
Ganeshkhind Botanic Gardens (Patwardhan !). — 5. M. Country : Byadgi, 
Dharwar Dist. (Talbot!). — Kanara: Karwar (Talbot !) ; Ambgaum (Talbot 
1788 !) ; Dongi Nallah (Talbot 959 !). 

Distribution : India, Java. 

*2. Dendrocalamus giganteus, Munro in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvi (1868), 150; 
Kurz Ind. Forester i, 346 ; Gamble Bamb. Brit. Ind. 88, t. 76 et. in. Hook. f. 
F.B.I, vii, 406 ; Brandis Ind. Trees 678; Cke. ii, 1050 ; Camus Les Bambusees 
(1913), 159, pi. 85, f. A.—Bambusa gigantea, Wall. Cat. Bot. Gard. Calc. 79; 
Gardeners' Chronicle pi. Sept. 1892. 


774 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIII, No. 4 [Oct. 15, 1929. 

Description .* Stems 20-30 m. by 20-25 cm. in diam., branched above ; 
nodes hairy, internodes rather short, grey-green, young with waxy scurf ; walls 
thin. Stem-sheaths 50 cm. long, as broad at the base, deciduous, thinly 
strigose with golden hairs, top depressed ; blade 12-40 by 9 cm., decurrent into 
glabrous, stiff, brown wavy auricles, narrowed above into a short point ; ligule 
5-12 cm., stiff, black, margin serrate. Leaves up to 50 by 10 cm., oblong, 
cuspidately acuminate, tips twisted, young hairy beneath, midrib strong, 
nerves 12-16 pairs, with pellucid cross bars. Panicle very large, branchlels 
slender, curved ; heads up to 2" 5 cm. diam., 1*2-2*5 cm. apart. Spikelets 12 
mm. long, ovoid, acute, spinescent, puberulous, sometimes all flowering ; 
rhachilia produced with an imperfect glume. Involucral glume ovate, 
mucronate, striate ; flowering glumes 3-6, thin, mucronate, many-nerved. 
Anthers acuminate. Ovary ovoid and long style hairy ; stigma simple. Grain 
oblong, obtuse, hairy above. 

Distribution : India (Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula, Penang, Malacca, 
Perak), Cochin-China. Cultivated in gardens of India, Ceylon and Europe. 

108. Teinostachyum, Munro. 

Stems thin, overhanging, sometimes climbing. Stem-sheaths usually thin. 
Leaves various. Panicle spiciform, on leafy branches. Spikelets up to 7*6 cm. 
long, slender, many-flowered, sometimes pedunculate, in bracteate whorls, 
upper and lower flowers imperfect. Involucral glumes 1-2, mucronate ; 
flowering glumes similar, mucros longer. Pale convolute, keels ciliate. 
Lodicules 3, 3-9-nerved. Stamens 6, filaments free, slender. Anthers obtuse or 
obtusely apiculate. Ovary ovoid or depressed-globose, apex produced enclos- 
ing the style ; stigmas 2-3, plumose. Grain ovoid, acuminate, beaked, 
pericarp crustaceous. 

Species 5.— India, Ceylon. — One species in the Bombay Presidency; not 
mentioned by Cooke. 

1. Teinostachyum Wightii, Bedd. Fl. Sylv. t. cccxxiii, Forest Man. ccxxxiii 
[fixcl. syn.) ; Gamble Bamb. Brit. Ind. 99, t. 87, etin Hook. f. F.B.I, vii, 410 ; 
Brandis Ind. Trees 679 ; Camus Les Bambusees (1913), 163. 

Description : Stem 3-6 m. by 2*5-3 cm., semi-scandent ; branches pendu- 
lous ; nodes narrowly ringed ; internodes bright green, rough above ; walls 
thin. Stem-sheaths 25-30 by 2*5-3 cm., papery, hirsute with black-brown hairs, 
top truncate, not auricled ; blade subulate, 12-17 cm., decurrent on the sheath; 
ligule 2*5 mm. Leaves 15-40 cm. by 2*5-5 cm., oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 
tip scabrous, twisted, whitish and sparsely hairy beneath, midrib broad, 
yellowish, nerves 6-7 pair, tessellate by glands ; sheath glabrous ; ligule 
narrow. Panicle large, with spiciform drooping branchlets ; rhachis smooth, 
slender ; rhachilia of spikelets slender, flattened and concave below, thickened 
and ciliate above. Spikelets 12-25 mm. Involucral glume 1, ovate, mucro- 
nate, 5-7-nerved, dorsally hirsute ; flowering glumes 1 or 2. mucronate, 
nerved transversely. Lodicules ovate, short-ciliate, 3-5-nerved. Ovary stalked, 
depressed-globose, smooth, style included in the long beak of the ovary. 
Grain stoutly stalked, ovoid, beaked, glabrous. 

Locality : Ghats of N. Kanara. 

Distribution : Nilgiris, Anamalais, about 3,300-5,000 ft. altitude. 

109. Ochlandra, Thw. ; Cke. ii, 1050. 

Species 11.— India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Java, Madagascar. — Only one 
species in the Bombay Presidency. 

I. Ochlandra Talboti. Brandis Ind. Trees (1911), 684; Talbot For. Fl. 
Bombay ii (1911), 572 ; Cke. ii, 1050 ; Camus Les Bambusees (1913), 181.- 
O. stridula, Woodr. Journ. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc xiii (1901), 442 {non Thw.). 

Ochlandra Rheedii var . Sivagiriana, Gamble which Talbot (1. c.) identifies 
with Ochlandra Talboti, has been described as a distinct species by Camus 
under the name : Ochlandra Sivagiriana in Les Bambusees (1913), 181. 

Description : Cke. ii, 1050. 


Oct, 15, 1929.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 775 

Locality: Kanara : Gersoppa Falls (Talbot 3628!, McCann !) ; Katgal 
(Talbot 3506 !, McCann !) ; Yellapore (Bell !) ; near Sulgeri (Bell 3357 !) ; 
Dadmune (Talbot !) ; common throughout the Kanara forests (McCann !) ; 
Honavar, at Alanki (McCann !). 

Distribution : Endemic in N. Kanara. 

A Correction. 

In vol. 32 (1927), 27 we made a new combination Hemarthria glabra. 
Mr. Hubbard of Kew informs us that this combination is invalid and gives 
the following explanation :— 

• R. Brown described the genus Hemarthria in his Piodr. Fl. Nov. 
Holl. 207 (1812). He had two species H. compressa and H. uncinata. The 
first, H. compressa, is accompanied by a descriptive phrase of three words, 
then the letter J. denoting one of his specimens from Port Jackson or that 
neighbourhood (in Australia), followed by Rottboellia compressa, Linn. f. 
Suppl. 114 ; thus Hemarthria compressa was really based on Rottboellia 
compressa, Linn. f. The Australian plant which R, Brown cited, was 
incorrectly identified by him with R. compressa, Linn. f. ; that together 
with all the Australian material is referable to his Hemarthria uncinata. 
Rottboellia compressa, Linn. f. was based on a plant collected in India ; 
our Indian specimens all agree with this specimen and are all Hemarthria 
compressa, (Linn, f.) R. Br. We have no Indian material of Hemarthria 
fasciculata, (Lam.) Kunth and those specimens identified by Hooker in Flora 
of British India and by others as Rottboellia compressa var. fasciculata, (Lam.) 
Hack., are all typical Hemarthria compressa. H. fasciculata, Kunth 
is based on Rottboellia fasciculata, Lam., a species originally described 
from North Africa and now known to occur throughout Africa, in the Medi- 
terranean region and in America.' 

Our Hemarthria glabra, therefore, must be called Hemarthria compressa, 
(Linn, f.) R. Br. 

The species is known from Afghanistan, India, China and Indo-China. 

The other species, Hemarthria fasciculata, Kunth (xxxii (1927), 28 of 
this series) for which we had no locality, but which we included on the 
authority of others, must be excluded, as it has not been observed in India. 

(To be continued.) 


By Rev. E. Blatter, s.j., Ph.D., f.l.s. 

[From the Journal of the Bombay Natural Hist. Soc, March 1, 1930.] 



E. Blatter, s.j., ph.d., f.l.s. 



E. Blatter, s.j., ph.d., f.l.s., and C. McCann 

{Continued from page 775 of Volume XXXIII) 

Key to the Genera 

We follow, where possible, the systematic arrangement given by Stapf in the 
Flora of Tropical Africa. We add in brackets the reference to the genera 
in our series. 

SUB-FAMILY I : Panicoideae.— Mature spikelets falling en- 
tire from their pedicels or with them, all alike or 
differing in sex and structure ; perfect spikelets 
with two heteromorphous florets, the upper herma- 
phrodite, the lower male or barren ; rhachilla not 
continued beyond the upper floret (Genera 1-61). 
TRIBE I : Mayde^e.— Sexes in different inflore- 
scences on the same plant, or the female spikelets 
at the base of the inflorescence, the male above 
them ; spikelets never awned, the male and female 
very dissimilar (Genera 1-4 J. 

1. Male and female spikelets in separate inflore- 

scences ; male spikelets in a large terminal 
panicle ; the female spikelets in the axils 
of the leaves. 

A. Female spikes distinct, articulated (vol. 32, 

15) .. ... ... ... 1. Euchlaena. 

B. Female spikelets grown together into a 

spongy more or less cylindrical body 

(vol/32, 15) ... ... ... 2. Zea. 

2. Male and female spikelets in separate portions 

of the same spike, the female below, 

A. Grain enclosed in the usually globose or 

ovoid ivory-like capsuliform supporting 

sheath (vol. 32, 17) ... ... 3. Coix. 

B. Grain enclosed in the hardened outer 

glumes (vol. 32, 17) ... ... 4. Polytoca. 

TRIBE II : Andropogone^e. — Spikelets usually in 
pairs, one sessile, the other pedicelled, very rarely 
both pedicelled, those of each pair alike as to sex 
(homogamous) or different (heterogamous), rarely 
3-nate or solitary on the axis of a usually spike-like 
raceme. Involucral glume more or less rigid and 
firmer than the floral glumes, the lower always 



Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIV, No, 1 [March 1, 1930. 

longer than the florets ; floral glumes membranous, 
often hyaline, that cf the upper floret usually 
awned or reduced to an awn (Genera 5-41). 

1. Sub-tribe: Dimerince. — Spikelets homogam- 

ous, second on a slender inarticulate 
rhachis, 1-flowered, diandrous (vol. 32, 
18) ... ... ... ... 5. Dimeria. 

2. Sub-tribe: Ischcemince .— Fertile spikelets 2- 

flowered ; fertile floret awned from the 
sinus of the bifid or bidentate upper floral 
glume, sometimes awnless in Apluda 
(Genera 6-13). 
A. Group Ischcemastrce . — Racemes several- 

to many-noded, espatheate ; spikelets of 

each pair homogamous or more often 

heterogamous, usually similar in shape 

and nervation, rarely distinctly hetero- 

morphous ; fertile spikelets awned 

(Genera 6-12). 
i. Margins of lower involucral glume of sessile 

spikelet inflexed. 

a. Stem not woolly below ; joints and 

pedicels stout ; spikelets heterogam- 
ous (Genera 6-8). 

(1) Spikes clustered ; lower involucral 

glume not channelled (vol. 32, 19)... 6. Isch&mum. 

(2) Spikes solitary ; lower involucral 

glume usually channelled (vol.32, 

22) ... ... ... 7. Sehima. 

b. Rootstock and base of stem clothed 

with woolly sheaths ; spikelets similar 
and homogamous (vol. 32, 25) ... 8. Pollinidiutn. 

ii. Margins of lower involucral glume of 
sessile spikelet not inflexed. 

a. Spikes solitary ; spikelets 2-nate, 1-2- 

flowered, 2-awned (vol. 32, 289) ... 9. Pogonatherum, 

b. Spikes solitary or 2-nate ; spikelets 2- 

flowered, diandrous ; lower involucral 
glume very broad truncate (vol. 32, 
25) . ... ... ... 10. Apocopis. 

c. Spikes digitate ; spikelets 2-flowered ; 

lower involucral glume tubercled 

(vol. 32, 22) ... ... ... 11. Thelepogon. 

d. Spikes 2-oo-nate ; spikelets 2-nate, 

upper alone awned (vol. 32, 25) ... 12. Lophopogon. 
B. Group Apludastrcs. — Racemes 1-noded, 
reduced to 3 heteromorphous spikelets, 
the sessile with a male and a herma- 
phrodite floret and an inflated callus, 
one pedicelled with 2 male florets, the 
other rudimentary on a glume-like 
pedicel ; fertile florets awned or awnless 
(vol. 32, 26) ... ... ... 13. Apluda. 

3. Sub-tribe: Rotboellincz . — Fertile spikelets 

1- or 2-flowered ; fertile florets awnless 

(Genera 14-21). 

Group Rotboelliastrce . — Racemes at the 

ends of the culms and their branches in 

a false (rarely true') spatheate panicle 

or solitary and terminal on simple or 

sparingly branched culms. 
A. Spikelets all alike, also as to sex ; racemes 

tough or tardily disarticulating, much 

compressed, joints and pedicels fused 

(vol. 32, 26) ... ... ... 14. Hgmarthria. 


March 1, 1930.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 


B. Spikelets of each pair more or less dis- 
similar, at least as to sex, the pedicelled 
male, neuter or suppressed (Genera 
i. Sessile spikelets small, globose, foveolate, 
1-flowered, pedicelled very dissimilar ; 
joints and pedicels fused (vol. 32, 28) ... 
ii. Sessile spikelets not globose (Genera 

a. Sessile spikelets winged from the trans- 

versely rugose or muricate lower 
involucral glumes, 1-flowered, pedi- 
celled very dissimilar; joints and 
pedicels fused (vol. 32, 29) 

b. Sessile spikelets not winged (Genera 

17-21) . 

(1) Racemes usually more or less villous, 

very rarely glabrous, never cylindri- 
cal, joints and pedicels moderately 
stout, gaping, 
i. Spikelets 2-flowered, very villous all 
over, the sessile sometimes 2 at a 
node and sub-opposite (vol. 32, 30) 
ii. Spikelets 1-flowered ; racemes more 
or less villous from the joints and 
pedicels or the edges of the spike- 
lets, rarely glabrous ; lower in- 
volucral glume with a transparent 
oil-duct inside each keel or a fringe 
of penicillate warts (vol. 32, 30) ... 

(2) Racemes glabrous, cylindrical, parti- 

cularly when the spikelets are 
closed (Genera 19-21). 
i. Pedicels and joints fused. 

(a) Racemes stout, few from each 
culm ; sessile spikelets 2-flower- 
ed, pedicelled male or neuter 
(vol. 32, 31) 

(b) Racemes slender in ample spathe- 
ate panicles ; sessile spikelets 
1-flowered (vol, 32., 31) 

ii. Pedicels free from the joints ; 
racemes usually in terminal and 
lateral spatheate fascicles or fas- 
tigiate panicles ; coarse tall grasses 
(vol. 32, 32) 
4. Sub-tribe : Saccharines. — All spikelets alike 
in shape and sex, or if different in sex, 
then the pedicelled female (Genera 22-25). 
A. Group Saccharastrce \ — Racemes in more 
or less compound panicles or racemosely 
arranged on an elongated common axis ; 
spikelets 1-flowered ; awn from the sinus 
of the 2-dentate floral glume or from the 
tip of the entire valve or (Genera 22-24) . 
i. Rhachis quite tough ; racemes in spike- 
like or thyrsoid solitary panicles ; all 
spikelets pedicelled, muticous (vol. 32, 
ii. Rhachis of racemes readily disarticulating. 
a. vSpikelets in a wide, often thyrsoid, 
more or less plumose and silvery 
panicle, 2-flowered, usually awned, 
rarely mucronate or awnless (vol. 32, 

15. Manisuris. 

16. Peltophoras . 

17. Lasiurus. 

18. Elyonurus. 

19. Rotboellia. 

20. Ophiurus. 

21. Coelorrhachis . 

22. Imperata. 

23. Saccharum. 



Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIV, No. 1 [March 1, 1930. 


b. Spikelets in panicled racemes, 2-flower- 

ed, awned (vol. 32, 288) ... ... 24. Spodiopogon. 

B. Group PolliniastrcB . — Racemes digitate, 
rarely solitary ; spikelets 1-2-flowered ; 
awn from the sinus of the 2-fid or 2- 
dentate floral glume; spikelets dorsally 
compressed ; callus short, obtuse (vol. 32, 
289) ... ... ... 25. Eulalia. 

S ub -tribe : Andropogonince. — Spikelets of 
each pair different in sex and frequently 
also in shape and size, or if those of some 
pairs of a raceme are alike in sex, then 
both male or neuter ; fertile spikelets 1- 
flowered (Genera 26^41). 

A. Racemes in more or less compound espa- 

theate panicles ; pedicels without a 
translucent middle line (Genera 26- 
Group Sorghastrce. — Pedicelled spikelets 
male, neuter or suppressed (including 
the pedicel in Cleistachne) ; awn from 
the sinus of the 2-fid floral glume. 
i. Spikelets dorsally compressed, at least 
when in flower; lower involucral glume 
of the fertile spikelets firmly charta- 
ceous to coriacous. 

a. Spikelets in threes, one of them fertile, 

or in racemes of 2-8 pairs ; the 
pedicelled male, neuter, or if quite 
suppressed, then at least the pedicels 
present (vol. 32, 290) ... ... 26. Sorghum. 

b. Spikelets solitary (vol. 32, 408) ... 27. Cleistachne. 
ii. Spikelets laterally more or less com- 

a. Racemes of many pairs of spikelets ; 

primary branches of panicles in 

whorls of 6-20 (vol.32, 408) ... 28. Vetiveria. 

b. Racemes usually reduced to 1 sessile 

hermaphrodite and 2 pedicelled 
male or barren spikelets, rarely of 
2 or more but always few pairs 
(vol. 32, 410) ... ... ... 29. Chrysopogon. 

B. Racemes not in compound espatheate 

panicles or if so (Capillipedium) , then 
the pedicels* with a translucent middle 
line (Genera 30-41). 
i. Fertile floral glume awned from low down 
on the back. 
Group Arthraxonastrce . — Sessile spike- 
lets convex on the back and rounded on 
the sides, often muriculate, particularly 
along the sides ; pedicelled usually 
rudimentary or 0, rarely male ; racemes 
digitate (vol. 32, 416) ... ... 30. Arthraxon 

ii. Fertile florel glume awned from the sinus 

of a 2-fid or 2-dentate valve or continuing 

the more or less stipitiform floral glume 

(Genera 31-41). 

a. Margins of the lower involucral glume 

of the fertile spikelet inflexed and 

the glume therefore sharply 2-keeled 

more or less all along with a short 

obtuse callus, rarely the keels 

rounded off downwards with the 

margins subinvolute, but then the 

March 1, 1930.] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 


back of the glume deeply sunk 
between the keels and the callus short 
or long and acute ; awn glabrous or 
scabrid, very rarely hirsute (Andro- 
pogon sp.) ; spikelets awned 
(Genera 31-37). 

(1) Awn forming a continuation of the 

stipitiform fertile floral glume. 
Group Amphilophiastrce .— Racemes 
digitate or racemosely digitate, 
and then usually very numerous, 
all more or less peduncled on 
simple or almost simple culms, 
or solitary at the end of the culms 
and their branches and sometimes 
gathered into a scanty spatheate 
false panicle, rarely in compound 
espatheate panicles (Capilli- 
pedium) (Genera 31-34). 
i. Racemes in compound espatheate 

panicles (vol. 32, 419) 
ii. Racemes not in compound espathe- 
ate panicles (Genera 32-34). 
(a) Racemes digitate, or many race- 
mosely arranged on a common 
axis shorter than the raceme. 

a. Sessile spikelets of all pairs 

hermaphrodite, awned (vol. 32, 

b. Sessile spikelets of the lowest 1-3 

or 4 pairs male or neuter and 
awnless (vol. 32, 424) 
(6) Racemes solitary at the ends 
of the culms and branches 
(vol. 33, 426) 

(2) Awn from the sinus of the 2-fid or 

2- dentate fertile floral glume 
(Genera 35-37) . 
i. Group Schizachyriastrce .— Racemes 
solitary at the ends of the culms 
and their branches, the branches 
usually gathered into a narrow, 
lax, spatheate, false panicle ; joints 
and pedicels thickened upward ; 
pedicelled spikelets: male, neuter 
or suppressed (vol. 32, 428) 
ii. Group Andropogonastrce. — Racemes 
2-nate at the end of simple or 
almost simple culms or gathered 
into spatheate false or true 
(a) Racemes 2-nate on a slender 
peduncle arising from a flatten- 
ed spathe ; sessile spikelets alike 
in sex and form ; joints opaque 
(vol.32, 429) 
(6) Racemes 2-nate, with a spathe 
supporting or surrounding each 
pair, gathered into often much 
decompound spatheate panicles ; 
the lowest pair of one of the 
racemes homogamous, male or 
neuter ; all pairs of the other 
heterogamous ; mostly aromatic 
grasses (vol. 32, 429) 

31. Capillipedium. 





35. Schizachyrium. 

36. Andropogon. 




17 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. XXXIV, No. 1 [March 1, 1930, 

b. Margins of the lower involttcral glume 
of the fertile spikelets involute, inflex- 
ed and 2-keeled (if at all) only close 
to the tips, the spikelets, therefore, 
with rounded sides or quite terete ; 
callus elongate and acute or pungent ; 
awn more or less hirsute, from the 
stipitiform floral glume (Genera 38- 

(1) Group Heteropogonastrce. — Race- 

mes many-noded, solitary ; all 
pairs of spikelets heterogamous and 
alike or the lowest 1-many homo- 
gamous and barren, very different 
from the fertile, not forming an 
involucre around them (vol. 32, 622) 

(2) Group Theniedastrce . — Racemes 

fasciculiform, solitary at the apex of 
the stem and branches. Spikelets 
dimorphic, the 4 lower sessile form- 
ing an involucre round the upper, 
i. Rhachis articulate below the in vol u- 

cral spikelets (vol. 32, 626) 
ii. Rhachis articulate above the involu- 
cral spikelets (vol. 32, 627) 

(3) Group Pseudothemedastrce . — Like 

ThemedastrcB above but without the 
involucrant spikelets of that group 
(vol. 32, 631) 
TRIBE 111 : Panice^;.— Spikelets in usually con- 
tinuous spikes, racemes or panicles Involucral 
glumes herbaceous or membranous, the lower 
generally smaller, very small or suppressed. 
Lower floral glume generally resembling the 
involucral glumes in structure and nervation, the. 
upper fertile firmer, at length rigid, often 
chartaceous or crustaceous, awnless, very rarely 
mucronate {Urochloa) (Genera 42-61). 
1. Sub-tribe : Panicincs.— Upper floret only 
fertile ; lower floral glume usually resemb- 
ling the upper involucral glume, not 
indurated (Genera 42-60). 

A. Undershrubs ; flowers dioecious. 

Group Spinificastrace .'—Male spikelets 2- 
flowered, articulate in rigid umbellate 
spikes ; female in large globose heads of 
stellately spreading quill -like rhachis, 
one spikelet at the base of each (vol. 

B. Herbs ; flowers not dioecious (Genera 43- 


i. Group Digitariastrcz .-—Inflorescence of 

usually slender, spiciform, digitate or 

subdigitate or somewhat distant, very 

rarely solitary racemes ; fruiting floral 

glume with usually flat, thin to hyaline 

margins, thinly cartilaginous, often 

brown or dark, with the usually 

minute, often microscopic, scale-like 

pale of the barren floret attached to 

the base. 

a. Spikelets awnless ; lower involucral 

glume minute, rarely ; lower floral 

glume usually with 5-7 close, straight, 

prominent nerves (vol. 32, 632) 

38. Heteropogon. 

39. heilema. 

40. Themeda. 

4 1 . Pseudanthiria . 

42. Spiniftx. 

43. Digitaria. 


March 1,, 1930. J Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 


b. Spikelets slender awned (vol. 32, 635). 44. Alloteropsis. 

ii. Inflorescence usually different (but see 

Axonopus and Paspalum) ; fruiting 

floral glume with more or less inrolled 

margins, usually crustaceous and 

straw-coloured or whitish ; pale of 

the barren floret, if developed, not 

attached to the false fruit (Genera 


a. Spikelet falling entire and singly from 

the persistent pedicels (Genera 45- 


(1) Group Panicastrce .-—Spikelets not awned, or 

if awned, then sub-sessile in false second 

variously arranged spikes and with the 

awns from the entire tips of the upper 

involucral glume and lower floral glume 

(Echinochloa sp.) or from the tips of both 

involucral glumes or at least the lower 

(Genera 45-<S7). 

i. Inflorescence of variously arranged (rarely 

solitary) simple or compound, usually 

second, spike-like, dense (rarely loose) 

racemes, not an open or contracted and 

cylindric panicle ; spikelets usually 

paired or sometimes particularly towards 

the base of the raceme in fascicles of 3 

(rarely more) unequally pedicelled or 

solitary, alternately to the right and the 

left of the median line of a usually 

dorsiventral rhachis ; fruit dorsal ly (very 

rarely laterally) compressed, its glume 

and pale crustaceous ; racemes usually 

rather dense (Genera 45-52). 

(a) Back of fruit abaxial (Genera 45-47). 

a. Spikelets strongly laterally com- 

pressed, distant on long slender 
rhachises ; lower involucral glume 
herbaceous, as long as the spikelet 
(vol. 33, 7) .. 

b. Spikelets more or less dorsally com- 

pressed ; lower involucral glume 
never herbaceous. 
(i) Lower involucral glume rudimentary 
with a swollen annular callus at 
the base of the rhachilla ; fruit 
mucronate (vol. 32, 636) 
(ii) No swollen annular callus at the 
base of the spikelet. Lower in- 
volucral glume present ; racemes 
racemosely arranged (vol. 32, 636). 47. Brachiaria 
(6) Back of the fruit adaxial (Genera48-52). 

a. Lower involucral glume typically 

absent ; spikelets usually con- 
spicuously planoconvex, with the 
flat side turned away from the 
rhachis (vol. 32, 639) ... 

b. Lower glumes developed ; rhachis 

persisting, not articulate ; spikelets 

falling from the pedicels (Genera 

(i) Involucral glumes neither awned nor 
caudate ; if shortly cuspidate- 
acuminate, then the fruiting floral 
valve obtuse with an imposed 


45. Pseudechinolana. 

46. Eriochloa. 

!. Paspalum. 

19 Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXI V, No. 1 [March 1, 1930. 

muero and the margins inrolled all 

* Fruiting flowering glume acute, 

not mucronate ; spikelets solit- 
ary, closely biseriate, contiguous 
with their sides ; false spikes 
rigid, hot several times longer 
than the internodes of the long 
common axis ; their lower parts 
more or less appressed to the 
alternately hollowed out flanges 
of the latter (vol. 32, 641) ... 49. Paspalidium. 
** Fruiting flowering glume obtuse, 
abruptly mucronate or aristu 
late ; spikelets solitary or paired, 
when solitary contiguous with 
their backs ; false spikes often 
flexuous or curved, usually 
several times longer than the 
internodes of the relatively short 
common axis, spreading from 
the base (vol. 32, 642) ... 50. Urochloa. 

(ii) Glumes caudate-or cuspidate-acumi- 
nate or awned. 

* Glumes awned from the entire 

acute or acuminate tip, or cau- 
date or cuspidate-acuminate ; 
margins of the fruiting flowering 
glume flat upwards, not em- 
bracing the tip of the pale ; 
racemes dense, more or less 
secund, often very numerous 
(vol. 32, 645) ... ... 51. Echinochloa. 

** Glumes awned from the slightly 
notched tips ; racemes elong- 
ated or short to very short, 
secund, compact, spreading 
from the common axis (vol. 33, 

8) ... ... ... 52. Ofolismenus. 

ii. Inflorescence an open panicle, rarely con- 
tracted, cylindrical and spike-like (Sacci- 

olepis, Setaria sp.) (Genera 53-57). 
(a) Spikelets not supported by bristle-like 
branches (Genera 53-56). 

a. Spikelets not gibbous or, if slightly 

so, then not in cylindrical false 
spikes (Genera 53-55). 
(*') Branches of panicle not adnate to the 
main axis. 

* Panicle much contracted, dense, 

very compound, with erect nar- 
rowly lanceolate spikelets ; lower 
floral glume beaked, upper floral 
glume rather thin (vol. 33, 15)... 53. Hymenachne, 
** Panicle usually open ; lower floral 
glume not beaked, upper floral 
glume crustaceous (vol. 33, 

9) ... ... ... 54. Panicum. 

(ii) Branches of panicles more or less 

adnate to the main axis so that 
the pedicels appear to spring more 
or less directly from the axis (vol. 
33, 17) ... ... ... 55. Sacciolepis. 

b. Spikelets distinctly gibbous, laterally 

much compressed (vol. 33, 16) ... 56. Cyrtococcum. 


March 1, 1930] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 


(b) All the spikelets or only the upper of 

each branch supported by bristle-like 

branches (vol. 33, 19) 

(2) Group Meliniastrce.— Spikelets finely awn- 

ed or mucronate from the notched tips of 

the upper involucral glume and barren 

floral glumes (or if muticous, these at 

least slightly notched) delicately pedi- 

celled, panicled ; lower involucral glume 

very minute. Upper involucral glume 

and barren floral glume gibbous at or 

below the middle, both 5-nerved ; nerves 

hidden by copious and long silky hairs 

and anastomosing below the obtuse tips 

(vol. 33, 21) 

b. Spikelets falling in groups or if 

singly, then surrounded by an 

involucral of bristles or at least 

supported by 1 to several bristles. 

Group Cenchastrce .— Spikelets falling by an 

involucral of bristles or spines or bract-like 

scales, or at least supported by 1 to several 

bristles ; or with the lower involucral glumes 

of each group forming a false involucre 

(1) Involucre of free naked or plumose bristles 

(vol. 33,22) 

(2) Involucres of spines or rigid bristles united 

at the base into a hard cup (vol. 33, 
2. Sub-tribe: Isachnincs. — Both florets fertile, 
or if the lower male, then its floral glume 
more or less resembling that of the upper 
floret and indurated. 
Group Isachnastrce . — Florets very similar, 
spikelets more or less panicled (vol. 33, 230). 
SUB-FAMILY II : Pooideae.— Mature spikelets breaking up, 
leaving the persistent or subpersistent glumes on 
the pedicel, or if falling entire, then not consisting 
of 2 heteromorphous florets as in Panicoideae 
(Genera 62-109). 
1. Blades not articulated on the sheath, rarely 
(Centotheca) transversely veined (Genera 
A. Awn of the fertile floret, if present, kneed 
and twisted below the knee, or straight 
in reduced forms (Genera 62-78). 
i. Florets 2 or more (Genera 62-69) . 
TRIBE IV : Arundinelle^e.— Florets 2, hetero- 
morphous, the lower awnless, or barren. Rhachilla 
not continued beyond the upper floret. Lower floral 
glume awnless, rather resembling the involucral 
glumes ; upper generally awned, at length firm or 
hard : awn from sinus between 2, sometimes minute 
or bristle-like, lobes, rarely from the entire obtuse 
tip, usually kneed and twisted below the knee. 

a. Upper floral glume 2-setose, minutely 

2-toothed or entire ; awn sometimes 
reduced (vol. 33, 230) ... 

b. Upper floral glume always distinctly 

2-toothed or 2-lobed ; awn always 
kneed ; spikelets in clusters of 3 (vol. 
33, 234) 
TRIBE V : A vbne^e.— Florets 2-many, all alike, ex- 
cept the uppermost which often are reduced. 
Floral glumes with hyaline shining margins or 

57. Setaria. 

58. Trickolaena. 




61 . Isachne. 

62. Arundinella. 

63 Tristachya. 



Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol, XXXIV, No. 1 [March 1, 1930 

firmer, 5-or more nerved, rarely 3-nerved ; awn, if 
present, from the back or sinus or between bristles, 

a. Floral glumes awn less or awned from 

the back ; florets 2 or more, the 
uppermost reduced. 

(1) Spikelets 2- or more-flowered, 

awned (vol. 33, 234) ... ... 64. Avena. 

(2) Spikelets 2-flowered, awnless (vol. 

33, 235) ... ... ... 65. Coelachne. 

b. Floral glumes awned from the sinus of 

the bifid tip ; florets 3 to many, the 
uppermost reduced (vol. 33, 236) ... 66. Danthonia. 
TRIBE VI : Arundineve. — Florets 2-many, enve- 
loped in very long hairs, springing either from the 
callus or from the back or margins of the floral 

a. Hairs springing from the margins of 

the upper floral glume (vol. 33, 234). 67. Thysanolaena. 

b. Hairs springing from the callus (vol. 33, 

236) " ... ... ... 68. Phragmites. 

c. Hairs springing from the involucral 

glumes (vol. 33, 237) ... .. 69. Arundo. 

ii. Florets 1 (Genera 70-78). 
TRIBE VII: Agroste.?e. -Floret 1. Rhachilla 
rarely produced beyond the floret ; upper floral 
glume membranous, not changed when mature, 
usually 5-nerved, all the nerves or the outer side- 
nerves often slightly excurrent, parallel or at least 
not anastomosing. Spikelets awned or not. 

a. Spikelets in cylindric spike-like pani- 

cles, not awned (vol. 33, 237) ... 70. Heleochloa. 

b. Spikelets in open or contracted many- 

flowered panicles, awned. 

(1) Involucral glumes acuminate or 

awned (vol. 33, 238) ... ... 71. Garnotia. 

(2) Involucral glumes awned from the 

. ' notched or lobed tips (vol. 33, 237)... 72. Polypogon. 

TRIBE VIII: Stipes.— Floret 1. Rhachilla not 

produced beyond the upper floral glume which is 

bisexual, hardened when mature, tightly enveloping 

; nerves joining or closely approaching at 

Awn terminal, rarely absent. 

Awns 3, from the entire tip, or 1, sim- 
ple below and 3-branched above, 
very rarely quite simple (vol. 33, 
238) ... ... ... 73. Aristida. 

ZoysiEuE. — Floret 1. Mature spikelets 
falling entire and singly, or in clusters. Rhachilla 
not continued beyond the floret. Involucral 
glumes equal or the lower much smaller or sup- 
pressed. Floral glume small, delicately membra- 
nous, 3-1-nerved ; spikelets in slender spiciform 
panicles or racemes (Genera 74-78). 

a. Spikelets falling in clusters of 2-4, 

(1) F'ascicles secund on a broad articu- 
late rhachis ; glumes 4 ; upper 
involucral glume not echinate (vol. 
33, 480) ... ... ... 74. Trachys. 

(2) Fascicles all round a slender 
rhachis ; glumes 3 ; upper involu- 
cral glume echinate (vol. 33, 480)... 75. Nazia. 

b. Spikelets falling singly. 
(1) Lower involucral glume with pecti- 
nate margins ; upper involucral 


the fruit 
the tip. 


March 1, 1930] , Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 


glume spinulosely tuberculate : 
glumes 3- (vol. 33, 481) 
(2) Involucral glumes neither pectinate 
nor tuberculate. 
i. Glumes 2 ; spikelets not awned (vol. 

33, 481) ... 
ii. Glumes 3 ; spikelets with a long 
awn (vol 33, 481) ... 
B. Awn of the fertile floret, if present, never 
kneed and twisted below the knee 
(Genera 79-104) . 
(i) Floral glumes typically 3-nerved (Genera 
TRIBE X : Sporobole^e.— Floret 1. Involucral 
and floral glumes very similar ; rhachilla not or 
rarely produced beyond the floret. Upper floral 
glumes membranous, acute or obtuse, not changed 
when ripe, 1-or more or less distinctly 3-nerved, 
awnless, usually olive-green or grey ; side-nerves, 
if present, delicite, evanescent above. Seed often 
free in the delicate pericaro. 

Spikelets small (vol. 33, 482) 
TRIBE XI : Eragroste^e . — Florets usually numer- 
ous and far exserted from the glumes. Spikelets 
variously panicled, sometimes spicate or sub- 
spicate ; involucral and floral glumes somewhat 
similar in general appearance ; floral glumes 
membranous or chartaceous, entire or 2-3-cleft, 
3-nerved, the nerve evanescent above or excurrent 
into bristles; side-nerves usually submarginal, 
glabrous or pubescent or finely ciliate below ; 
pales often persistent or subpersistent (Genera 
80-84) . 

a. Floral glumes entire (Genera 80-83). 

(1) Upper involucral glume 3-nerved 

(vol. 33, 486) 

(2) Upper involucral glume 5-nerved 

(vol. 33, 495) 

(3) Upper involucral glume 1-nerved. 

i. Floral glumes ovate subacute or 

obtuse (vol. 33, 495) 
ii. Floral glumes acute or acuminate 
(vol.33, 486) 
6. Floral glumes toothed (vol. 33, 
TRIBE XII : Chloride^.— Florets 1 to many. 
Spikelets usually in 2-ranked secund spikes or 
spike-like racemes, rarely distinctly pedicellate 
and paniculate ; floral glumes usually membranous, 
truncate, emarginate or toothed, 3-nerved ; nerves 
distant, subparallel, distinct, percurrent or ex- 
current, and often ciliate all along, the lateral 
submarginal (in Eleusine there are sometimes addi- 
tional side-nerves close to the middle nerve of the 
glume). Awn, if present, straight, usually from a 
truncate or toothed tip (Genera 85-94). 

a. Floral glumes entire, emarginate or 
more or less 2-dentate or 2-lobed, 
muticous or with the middle-nerve 
running out into an awn or mucro, 
or reduced in some species of Tri- 
pogon (Genera 85-93). 
(1) Spikelets 1-flowered (genera 85-88) . 
i. Spikes solitary, terminal (set also 
Chloris) (genera 85-87). 

76. Latipes. 

11. Osterdamia, 
78. Per otis. 

79. Sporobolus. 

80. Eragrostis. 

81. Halopyrum. 

82. Leptochloa. 

83. Desmostachya. 

84. Diplachne. 



Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc; Vol. XXXI V, No. 1 [March 1, 1930. 

{a) Spikelets minute, more or less 
sunk in the rhachis, 1-3-flowered 
(vol. 33, 753) ... ... 85. Oropetium. 

(b) Spikelets not sunk in the rhachis 
A. Spikelets awnless, minute, 
unilateral on flattened rhachis, 
1-flowered (vol. 33, 753) ... 86. Microchloa. 
b. Spikelets awned, 1-2-flowered in 
deciduous articulate clusters 
(vol. 33, 754) ... ... 87. Gracilea. 

ii. Spikes digitate (vol. 33, 753) ... 88. Cynodon. 

(2) Spikelets with several florets (Genera 
i. Spikelets with 1 (rarely 2, Chloris 
sp.) fertile and 1 or several imperfect 
florets above or below the fertile (see 
also Microchloa) . 

(a) Spikelets in long secund solitary 

spikes ; floral glumes narrow, 
firm, glabrous or scaberulous, 
with a short erect awn from the 
notched or subentire tips (vol. 
33, 755) ... ... ... 89. Enteropogon. 

( b) Spikelets in digitate, rarely 

solitary or 2-nate spikes ; the 

florets much widened upwards, 

or if narrow, then delicate and 

usually with a fine awn from 

below the tips, often ciliate ; 

floral glumes or at least some of 

them awned, very rarely sub- 

muticous (vol. 33, 755) ... 90. Chloris. 

ii. Spikelets with 2 or more fertile florets 
and without imperfections below 
them (See also Chloris sp.) ; floral 
glumes awnless or with a rigid mucro 
or very short awn from the acumi- 
nate tips {Dactyloctenium sp,), 
entire or subentire (Genera 91-93). 

(a) Spikelets in digitate or subdigitate 


a. Spikes terminated byaspikelet; 

involucral and floral glumes 
emucronate or obscurely 
mucronate (vol. 33, 761) .. 91. Eleusine. 

b. Spikes terminating with a sharp 

point ; upper involucral glume 
and floral glumes rigidly 
mucronate or shortly awned 
(vol 33, 760) ... ... 92. Dactyloctenium. 

(b) Spikelets in racemosely arranged 

spreading or deflexed, finally 
deciduous spikes (vol. 33,763)... 93. Dinebra. 
b. Floral glumes variously toothed or lobed 
with the middle and side-nerves running 
out into awns or mucros. 
Spikes solitary and terminal on the culms ; 
spikelets mostly olive- green or dark 
greyish ; all 3 nerves or at least the 
middle-nerve running out into a fine 
short awn or mucro (vol. 33.764) ... 94. Tripogon. 

{ii) Floral glumes 5 to many-nerved, very 
rarely 3-nerved (genera 95-104). 
TRIBE XIII : Pappophorb,e. — Floral glumes broad 
5-many-nerved, cleft into 3-many subulate lobes, 


March 1, 1930] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 


with or without alternating fine straight awns from 
the sinuses. 

Floral glumes 9-cleft (vol. 33, 766) 

TRIBE XIV : Or yzk^e.— Spikelets all alike or more 
or less heteromorphous and unisexual. Fertile 
Floret 1, awned or not, terminal with 2 minute empty- 
florets (floral glumes) below it or solitary. Involucral 
glumes very minute or confluent into an annular 
rim or suppressed ; pale 3-9-nerved ; stamens 
usually 6, rarely more, or 1-3. 

a. A floating glabrous grass ; spikelets 

awned (vol. 33, 769) 

b. Leafy tall grasses, not floating ; spike- 

lets usually awnless. 

(1) Keels of floral glume and pale pec- 

tinately ciliate ; spikelets awnless 
(vol. 33, 768) 

(2) Keels of floral glume and pale not 

pectin ately ciliate ; spikelets rarely 
awned (vol. 33, 767) ... 
TRIBE XV : Festuce^e.— Involucral glumes more, 
or less resembling the floral ones in general appear- 
ance. Fruiting florets 2 to many, very rarely 1, 
often much exserted from the glumes. Floral 
glumes 5-or more-nerved (rarely 1-3-nerved). 
Awns, if present, terminal or subterminal, never 

a. Leaves narrow, not tessellately nerved ; 
fruiting glumes without submarginal 
( 1) Leaves reaching 30 cm . long or more, 
flaccid ; inflorescence in long, 
often interrupted cylindric spikes 
(vol. 33, 769) 
Leaves less than 5 cm. long, rigid, 
pungent ; inflorescence in short 
subcapitate spikes (vol. 33, 769)... 
Leaves broad, tessellately nerved ; 
fruiting glumes with reflexed sub- 
marginal tubercle- based bristles (vol. 
33, 770) 

Horded. — Spikelets sessile, singly or 
more or less sunk in the hollows of the 
rhachis of a simple spike ; florets 1 or more. 

a. Spikelets solitary at the nodes of the 

(1) Spikelets with their median plane 
radial to the rhachis ; florets 1-2 ; 
floral glumes membranous to sub- 
hyaline, 3-nerved (vol. 33, 770) ... 
Spikelets with their median plane 
tangential to the rhachis ; floral 
glumes more or less ventricose, 
keeled upwards, 5-9-nerved (vol. 
33, 770) ... 

b. Spikelets in groups of 3 at the nodes of 
a dense spike ; floral glumes 5-nerved 
(vol. 33,771) ... 

Blades articulate on the sheath and transversely 

TRIBE XVII : Bambuse^e.— Shrubs or trees ; spike- 
lets all of one kind ; florets few to many (rarely 1); 
lower 2 or more glumes empty, gradually increas- 
ing in size up to the flowering, with sometimes small 
terminal imperfect ones ; floral glumes subherbace- 



in clusters 


95. Enneapogon. 

96. Hygrorhiza. 


Honialocenchrus . 




101. Centotheca. 

102. Lepturus. 







Jour., Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XXXIV, No. 1 [ March 1, 1930. 

ous to subcoriaceous, 5 to many-nerved, usually 
awnless ; lodicules usually 3 ; stamens 3-6 or more ; 
styles 2 or 3 (genera 105-109). 

A. Pericarp thin, adnate to the seed. 

i. Pales all 2 to keeled ; stamens 6 ; fila- 
ments free (vol „ 33,771) ... ... 105. Bambusa. 

ii. Pales of upper flowers or glume-like, not 

keeled ; filaments connate (vol. 33, 773).. 106. Oxytenanthera. 

B. Pericarp fleshy or crnstaceous, not adnate 

to the seed 
/'. Spikelets 2 to many-flowered; pale 2-keeled; 
lodicules none ; stamens 6 ; pericarp 
crustaceous (vol. 33, 773) ... ... 107. Dendrocalamus. 

ii. Spikelets many-flowered ; pales 2-keeled; 

lodicules 3, conspicuous (vol. 33, 774)... 108, Teinostachyum. 
Hi. Spikelets 1-flowered ; pale absent or glume- 
like ; stamens 6-120 ; pericarp fleshy 
(vol. 33, 774) ... ... ... 109. Ochlandra. 

An alphabetical list of the genera adopted in our series and meant to 
facilitate the finding of the genera in former articles. 

Aeluropus, vol. 33, 769 
Alloteropsis, vol. 32, 635 
Amphilophis, vol. 32, 420 
Andropogon, vol. 32, 429 
Apluda, vol. 32, 26 
Apocopis, vol. 32, 25 
Aristida, vol. 33, 238 
Arthraxon, vol. 32, 416 
Arundinella, vol. 33, 230 
Arundo, vol. 33, 237 
Avena, vol. 33, 234 
Bambusa, vol. 33, 771 
Brachiaria, vol. 32, 636 
Capillipedium, vol. 32, 419 
Cenchrus, vol. 33, 229 
Centotheca, vol. 33, 770 
Chloris, vol. 33, 755 
Chrysopogon, vol. 32, 410 
Cleistachne, vol. 32, 408 
Coelachne, vol. 33, 235 
Coelorrhachis, vol. 32, 32 
Coix, vol. 32, 17 
Cymbopogon, vol. 32, ,j 
Cynodon. vol. 33, 753 
Cyrtococcum, vol. 21 
Dactyloctenium, vol. ^3, 760 
Danthonia, vol. 33, 236 
Dendrocalamus, vol. 33, 773 
Desmostachya, vol. 33, 486 
Dichanthium, vol. 32, 424 
Digitaria, vol. 32, 632 
Dimeria, vol. 32, 18 
Dinebra, vol. 33, 763 
Diplachne, vol. 33, 495 
Echinochloa, vol. 32, 645 
Eleusine, vol. 33, 761 
Elyonurus, vol. 32, 30 
Elytrophorus, vol. 33, 769 
Ermeapogon, vol. 33, 766 
Enteropogon, vol. 33, 755 
Eragrostis, vol. 33, 486 
Eremopogon, vol. 32, 426 
Eriochloa, vol. 32, 636 


Euchlaena, vol. 32, 15 
Eulalia, vol. 32, 289 
Garnotia, vol. 33, 238 
Gracilea, vol. 33, 754 
Halopyrum, vol. 33, 495 
Heleochloa : vol. 33, 237 
Hemarthria, vol. 32, 26 
Heteropogon, vol. 32, 622 
Homalocenchrus, vol. 33, 768 
Hordeum, vol 33, 771 
Hygrorhiza, vol. 33, 769 
Hymenachne, vol. 33, 15 
Imperata, vol. 32, 281 
Isachne, vol. 33, 230 
Isachaemum, vol. 32, 19 
Iseilema, vol. 32, 626 
Lasiurus, vol. 32, 30 
Latipes, vol. 33, 481 
Leptochloa, vol. 33, 495 
Leptnrus, vol. 33, 770 
Lophopogon, vol. 32, 25 
Manisuris, vol. 32, 26 
Microchloa, vol. 33, 753 
Nazia, vol. 33, 480 
Ochlandra, vol. 33, 774 
Ophinrus, vol. 32,31 
Oplismenus, vol. 33, 8 
Oropetium, vol. 33, 753 
Oryza, vol. 33, 767 
Osterdamia, vol. 33, 481 
Oxytenanthera, vol. 33, 773 
Panicum, vol. 33, 9 
Paspalidium, vol. 32, 641 
Paspalum, vol. 32, 639 
Peltophorus, vol. 32,29 
Pennisetum, vol. 33, 22 
Perotis, vol. 33, 481 
Phragmites, vol. 33, 236 
Pogonatherum, vol. 32, 289 
Pollinidiura, vol. 32, 25 
PolypogoD, vol. 33, 237 
Polytoca, vol. 32, 17 
Pseudanthiria, vol. 32, 631 

March 1, 1930] Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency 26 

Pseudechinolaena, vol. 33, 7 Thelepogon, vol. 32, 22 

Rotboellia, vol. 32, 31 Themeda, vol. 32, 627 

Saccharum, vol. 32, 283 Thysanolaena, vol. 33, 234 

Sacciolepis, vol. 33, 17 Trachys, vol. 33, 480 

Schizachyrium, vol. 32, 428 Tricholaena, vol. 33, 21 

Sehima, vol. 32, 22 Tripogon, vol. 33, 764 

Setaria, vol. 33, 19 Tristachya, vol. 33, 234 

Sorghum, vol. 32, 290 Triticum, vol. 33, 770 

Spinifex, vol. 33, 21 Urochloa, 32, 642 

Spodiopogon, vol. 32, 288 Vetiveria, vol. 32, 408 

Sporobolus, vol. 33, 482 Zea, vol. 32, 15 
Teinostachyum, vol. 33, 774 


NBS -RB 8/6 



of tit 

{§ot&nic&? §buxvi$ of 3nMa 

Volume VIII.— No. 6. 



Rev. E. BLATTER, S.J., PhJD., FJL.S. 


Gnetaceae — Gramineae. 




Price Rs. 2 or 3s. 6d, 


M / 










Volume VIII.— No. 6. 



Rev. E. BLATTER, S. J., Ph.D., F.L.S. 

Gnetaceae — Gramineae. 


List of Agents from whom 
Government of India Publications are available, 




Steimatzky, Jerusalem. 

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North- West Frontier Province :— Manager, Government Printing and Stationery, Peshawar. 

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English Book Depot, Bank Road, Ambala Cantonment 

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London Book Co. (India), Arbab Road, Peshawar, Murree. 

Nowshera and Rawalpindi. 
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• Agents for publications on Aviation only. 

Malhotra & Co., Quetta, Messrs. U. P . 

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Nateson & Co., Publishers, George Town, Madras, 

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Oxford Book and Stationery Company, Delhi, Lahore, 

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Calcutta and 219, Cloth Market, Delhi. 
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Ray & Sons, 43, K. & L. Edwardes Road, Rawalpindi, 

Murree and Peshawar, Messrs. J. 
Ray Chowdhury & Co., 68-5, Ashutosh Mukherjee Road, 

Rochouse & Sons, Madras. 
Roy Chowdhury & Co., 11, College Square, Calcutta, 

Messrs. N. M. 
Sampson William & Co., 127-B, The Mall, Cawnpore. 
Sarcar & Sons, 15, College Square, Calcutta, Messrs. M. C. 
Sarkar & Co., Ltd., 18, Shama Charan Dey Street, and 

8/2, Hastings Street, Calcutta, Messrs. P. C. 
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Seshachalam <fc Co., MasuliDatam, Messrs. M. 
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Standard Book Depot, Lahore, Dalhousie and Delhi. 
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Standard Law Book Society, 5, Hastings Street, Calcutta. 
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Varadachary & Co., Madras, Messrs. P. 
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Messrs. A, H. 
Young Man & Co., Ajmer, and Egerton Road, Delhi. 



1. Ephedra Tourn. ex L. 

1. E. alata Decne. Enum. pi. rec. par Bove. Ann. Sc. tfat. Iser. 
II (1835) 239, var. Decaisnei Stapf in Denksehr. d. Mathem.-Naturw. 
Classe d. Kais. Akad. d. Wissensch. Wien (1889) 37. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) ; Oasis Farrun, Wady 
Shellal, between Kas Abu Zenime and Wady Charandel, and between 
Wady Charandel and Wady Werdan (ex Kneuck.) ; Tih Desert (Boiss.) ; 
Sinai Valleys (Bove, Auch.). 

3. E. foliata (Boiss.) Stapf in Denkschr. d. Mathem.-Naturw, 
Classe d. Kais. Akad. der Wissensch. Wien (1889) 49, t. 2 and 10, f. 
1-11, var. ciiiata Stapf 1. c. — E. ciliata Aitchison Fl. Kurum Valley 
(1882) 187.— E. foliata Aitch. Bot. Affghan. Bound. Comniiss. 112.— 
E. Alte Brandis For. Fl. 501, t. 69. — E. peduncularis Boiss. 1. c. 717. — 
E. asparagoides Griff. Not. II, 340. 

Habitat : II. Aden (S. 106 !, Thomson, Den. !, Perry!). 

Fl. : Apr. 1878 (Perry), May 1886 (Den.), Dec. 1888 (S.). 

Fr. : Feb. 1857 (Thomson), Apr. 1878 (Perry), May 1886 (DefL), 
Dec. 1888 (S.). 

Distrib. : Punjab, Sind, Persian Baluchistan, Turkestan and west- 
wards to Syria. 

3. E. Alte C. A. Mey. Monogr. d. Gattung Ephed. (1846) 75, t. 3, 
fig. 4 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 715.— E. aphylla et distachya Forsk. Fl. 
Aeg.-Arab. (1775) LXXVIL— E. altissima Del. Descr. de l'Eg. 110 (non 

Habitat : I. Eaphidim (Schimp. 280 !) ; Bestam (Schimp. 316 !) ; 
Sinai (Auch. 2873 !) ; Mt. Catherine (Drake 2 !) ; top of Mt. Sinai 
(Bove 214 !). 

Fl. : June 1832 (Bove), July 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Egypt, Syria, Cyrenaica, Somaliland. 

Vern. name : Aelde-gammel (Bove), Alte (Schimp.). 

4. E. fragilis Desf. Fl. Atlant. II, 372. 
Habitat : I. Wady Arabah (Hart). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean, Arabia. 


1. Cupressus Tourn. ex L. 

1. C. sempervirens L. Sp. PL 1002. 

Habitat : I. Jebel Musa, ca. 2,100 m., probably cult, (ex Kneuck) ; 
Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) very likely planted. 

Distrib. : N.-W. India, planted only. The horizontally branches 
variety is wild in N. Persia, Syria and Asia Minor. 


3. Juniperus Tourn. ex L. 

1. J. procera Hochst. ex Endl. Syn. Conif. 26. 
Habitat : II. Yaman (ex Fiori). 
Distrib.: Tropical Africa . 

3. J. phoenicea L. Sp. PL 1471. 
Habitat: I. Central Midian (Burton !). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean region. 

3. J. macropoda Boiss. FL Or. V, 709. 

Habitat : IV. Maskat, Gebel Akhdar (Auch. 5335). 

Distrib. : Arabia, Persia, Himalayan region. 


1. Enhalus C. A. Kich. 

1. E. acoroides Steud. Nomencl. I, 554. — Stratiotes acoroides Linn, 
f. Suppl. 268. — Enhalus acoroides Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1881) 6. — E. marinus 
Griff. Not. PL As. Ill, 178, Ic. t. 249, 250. 

Habitat : II. Hodeidah (S. 149 !). 

Fr. : Sterile in Dec. (S.). 

Distrib. : Indian and Pacific Oceans, on the shores of Asia, Africa, 
Australia and Melanesia. 

Vera, name : Suram (S.). 

3. Halophila Thouars. 

1. H. ovalis (R. Br.) Hook. f. in Fl. Tasm. II (1860) 45 ; Boiss. 
Fl. Or. V (1881) 2 ; Balfour, The genus Halophila 47. — Caulinia ovalis 
R. Br. Prodr. Nov. Holl. 339. — Halophila ovata Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. 
Bot. 429, t. 40, fig. 1. 

Habitat : I. Gulf of Suez (Frauenfeld, Aschers.). 

II. Hodeidah (S. 150 !) ; Aden (Balfour !) ; near Jedda 
(Hildebr. 107). 

Fr. : Dec. 1888 (S.). 

Distrib. : Also known from the Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean, South 

Vorn . name : Suram (S.). 

%. II. stipulacea Aschers. Sitzb. Naturf. Fr. Berlin (1867) 3.— Zos- 
tera stipmacea Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. (1775) Descr. 158. — Thalassia 
stipulacea Koenig Aim. Bot. IJ, 97, 


Habitat : I. Gulf of Suez (Del., Ehrenb. !, Schimp. !) ; near Tor 
(Ehrenb. ! , Bove !). 

Distrib. : Bed Sea, Indian Ocean, islands of E. Africa. 

3. Thalassia Solander. 

1. T. Hempricliii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. in Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 
7. — Schizotheca Hemprichii Ehrenb. Symb. Phys. Bot. Tab. XI. 1 ; 
Act. Acad. Berol. (1832) t. 429. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (S.). 

Distrib. : Indian and Pacific Oceans on the shores of Africa and 
tropical Asia, Indian Archipelago, Melanesia. 


1. Holothrix L. C. Rich. 

1. H. Vatkeana Rchb. f. in Journ. Bot. XIV (1876) 346. 
Habitat : II. Spring el Mechader, near Menacha (S. 1431 !). 
Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.), Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa. 

3. Habenaria Willd. 

1. H. arabica Blatter, nov. comb. — Bicornella Arabica Defl. Vov. 
Yemen 208, t. 6. 

Habitat : II. Yaman (Defl. !). 

3. H. macrantha Hochst, in A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II (1851) 
294, t. 87. 

Habitat : II. At the Shibam near Menacha, 2,600 m. (S. 1768). 
Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia. 

3. H. aphylla R. Br. Prodr. 312, in nota. 

Habitat : Arabia (non vidi). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

3. Eulophia R. Br. 

1. E. Schimperiana Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II (1851) 283. 
Habitat : II. Wolledie at the foot of Jebel Melhan, 700 m. (B. 
735 !). 

Fl. : Jan. (S.). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia. 


%. E. Petersii Keichb. f. in Flora XLVIII (1865) 186. 
Habitat : Arabia (ex Herb. Kew). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa. 

4. Orchis (Tourn.) L. 

1. 0. palustris Jacq. Coll. I, 75. 
Habitat : IV. Hufuf Oasis (Cheeseman). 
Distrib. : Europe, N. Africa, Orient. 


1. Zingiber Adans. 

1. Z. officinale Kosc. Trans. Linn. Soc. VIII, 348. 
Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, cultivated in coffee plantations, 1,000 m. 
(S. 1882). 

Vera, name : Sengebil (S.). 


1. Canna L. 

1. C. indica L. Sp. PL 1. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, above Hille, 900 m. (S. 501) ; near Ussil 
in Wady Hedjan, 12 m. (S. 1272) ; Manod near Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 
984) ; wild or run wild. 

Fl. : Jan. (S.). 

Vera, name: Jussr (S.), Schenef-el-diq (S.). 


1. Mnsa L. 

1. M. sapientium L. Sp. PL 1477. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, cultivated in coffee plantations, 900- 
1,000 m. (S. 1819). 


I. Sanseviera Thunb. 

1. S. Ebrenbergii Scbweinf. in Baker Journ. Linn. Soc. XIV, 549 ; 
Kew Bull. (1892) 129 ; Oliv. in Bot. Mag. 2269. 

Habitat : II. Outliers W. of Jebel Melhan and in the plain of 
Tehama, 300-500 m. (S. 696 !) ; W. of the foot of Jebel Bura, near 
Chalife, 400 m. (S. 190 !). 

Distrib. : Abyssinia. 


%. S. gumeeusis WiM. Sp. PL II, 159. 

Habitat : II. Yaman (ex Fiori) ; Jebel Melhan near Wolledje, 
600 m. (S. 696a !) ; Jebel Bura, above Hille, 800 m. (S. 378). 
Fl. : Feb.-Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Feb.-Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa. 

Vern. name : Dermeg, Tiharag (S.). 


1. Iris Tourn. ex L. 

1. I. floreutina L. Sp. PL II, 55 ; Bot. Mag. t. 671.—/, Forsk. 
Fl. Aeg.-Arab. (1775) p. GUI.— I. sp. Den. Voy. Yemen 209. 

Habitat : II. Top of Shibam, below the old castle ; S. W. slope 
of the hill between el-Hausan and Hayjera, 2,850-2,200 m. (S. 1663). 
Fl. : Beginning of Mar. (S.). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

2. I. Sisyrinchiuin L. Sp. PL 40. — /. aegyptia Del. in Labord. Voy. 
Arab. Petr. 82. 

Habitat : IV. From the neighb. of Koweit and here and there in 
hollows in the neighb. of Regat (Pelly !). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean, Orient, Afghanistan, Baluchistan. 

3. I. Helenae Barbey Herboris. au Levant (1880) 159, no. 841 ; 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 132 ; Baker Handb. Irid. 19. 

Habitat : I. Desert between Egypt and Palestine near El-Arish 

Fl. : Mar. (Barbey). 

4. I. palaestina Boiss. FL Or. V (1884) 122. — Xiphium falaestinum 
Baker in Seem. Journ. (1871) 108. 

Habitat : I. Tel Abou Hereireh to Gaza (Hart). 
Fl. : Last week of Dec. (Hart). 
Distrib. : Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia. 

2. Gladiolus L. 

1. G. segetum Ker-Gawl. in Bot. Mag. (1804) t. 719 ; Boiss. FL 
Or. V (1884) 139 ; Baker Handb. Irid. 200 ; Musch. FL Egypt. I (1912) 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean to Persia and Turkestan. 

£. G. segetum Ker-Gawl. var. Guepini (Koch) Boiss, FL Or. V 
(1884) 139 ; Musch. FL Egypt I (1912) 238.— G. Guepini Koch Flora 
XXIII (1840) 466. 


Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 


1. Pancratium Dill, ex L. 

1. P. maritimum L. Sp. PL (1753) 291 ; Boiss. FL Or. V (1884) 
152 ; Baker Handb. Amaryll. 118 ; Musch. FL Egypt I (1912) 235. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

%. P. tortuosum Herb, in Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. I, IV (1840) 28 ; 
Baker Handb. Amaryll. 120. — P. tortifolium Boiss. Diagn. ser. I, XIII, 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Zohrab 101 !, Fischer 94 !, Schimp. 876 !) ; 
Aden (Thomson !). 

III. Dhofar Mts. (Bent 153). 

Fl. : Feb. (Fischer), Apr. 1861 (Thomson), Dec. 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Arabia, Egypt, Nubia. 

3. P. trianthum Herb, in Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. I, IV (1840) 28.— 
P. tenuifolium Hochst. in A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II (1851) 312. 

Habitat : II. Haifa, Wady Moaden (DefL). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia. 

4. P. Sickenbergerii Aschers. & Schweinf. in G-artenzeitg. II (1883) 
345 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 153 ; Baker Handb. Amaryll. 118. 

Habitat : I. Wady es Sheikh, Wady Barak and Wady Lebwel 
(Hart !) ; from Akaba to Ain Abon Weirideh (Hart) ; between Suez 
and Mt. Sinai (Boiss. !) ; Bir el Fachme (Sickenb.) ; Bir Abu Elf em 

Fl. : Nov. and Dec. (Hart). 

Distrib. : Egypt, Sinai. 

Vern. name : Aissalan (ex Boiss.). 

5. P. maximum Forsk. FL Aeg.-Arab. (1775) Descr. 72 ; Schweinf. 
in Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II, 82. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Melhan, near Wolledje, 600 m. (S. 699 !) ; 
Jebel Bura, above Hille, 900 m. (S. 352 !) ; Aden (S. 109 !) ; near Taes 

Fl. : Dec. 1888 (S.). 

Distrib. : S. Arabia, Nubia. 

Observ. : Flowered at Aden on the 6th day after heavy rain (S.). 

Vern. name : Bassal er robach ( = bulb of the baboon) (S.). 


2. Crinum L. 

I. C. ycmcnsc Scliweinf. Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. 81 ; Defl. 
Voy. Yemen (1889) 209 ; (Deflers non descripsit plantam quare Schwein- 
furth consideramus speciei auctorem.). — Crinum yemense Hort. Damman 
in Gard. Chron. I, 643. — C. jemenicum Hort. Damman. — Non est C. 
latifolium Linn, uti habet Index Kewensis. Vide Schweinf. I. c. 

Habitat : II. Haifa (Defl. !). 

Distrib. : Arabia. 

3. Ixiolirion Fisch. 

1. I. moiitanum Herb. App. (1821) 37. — Amaryllis montana Labill. 
Ic. PL Syr. Dec. II, 5. 

Habitat : I. Gaza (Boiss. !, Barbey). 

Distrib : Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Persia. 

4. Haemantkus L. 

1. H. arabicus Koem. et Schult. ex Schweinf. in Bui]. Herb. Boiss. 
(1894) App. II, 80.— H. coccineus Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. (1775) Des! 

Habitat : II. Hadie (Forsk.) ; Lokkeme Jebel Harassa, 2,000 m. 
(S. 1971 !) ; Jebel Bura, 900 m. (S. 1841) ; Kahil near Menacha, 2,500 
m. (S. 1441, 1701); Jebel Melhan, 900 m. (S. 756). 

Fl. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.), Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Arabia. 

Vern. name : Bassal el hannesch (S.) (means Snake-bulb). 

2. H. coccineus L. Sp. PL 325 ; Defl. Ext. Bull. Societe Bot. France 
XLIII (1896) 330. 

Habitat : II. Haifa, Serrya (Defl.). 
Distrib. : S. Africa, Arabia. 

5. Polianthes L. 

I. P. tuberosa L. Sp. PL 316. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, above Hille, cultivated. 1.000 m (S 

Fl. : Jan. 1889. 
Distrib. : Mexico. 

Vern. name : Sambag ; rengess (S.). 

6. Vellozia Vand. 

1. V, sp, Scliweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II, 94, under 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, above Hille, 1,000 m. (S. 1872). 

Vern. name : Thalliq (S.). 


%. V. (xerophyta) arabica Baker in Kew Bull. (1894) 342 ; Ic. Plant. 

Habitat : III. Under the edges of rocks at Dobaibah, alt. 1,200 m. 
(Lunt 205 !). 

Fl. : Feb. 1894 (Lunt). 

Distrib. : Arabia. 

?. Sternbergia Waldst. & Kit. 

1. S. cholchiciflora Waldst. & Kit. PL Ear. Hung. II (1805) 172, 
t. 159 ; Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 147 .-—Amaryllis cholchiciflora Ker-Gawl. 
in Journ. Sc. & Arts II (1817) 345. — Stembergia aetnensis Guss. Fl. Sic. 
Prodr. I (1832) 395.— S. dalmatica Herb. Amaryll. (1837) 413, t. 47, 
f m 2. — S. Glusiana Ker-Gawl. ex Schult. f . Syst. VII, 794. — S. macrantha 
J. Gay ex Boiss. Fl. Or. 1. c. 148 ; Hart Bot. Sinai & S. Palest, in 
Transact. Roy. Irish Acad. (1885) 445. — S. pulchella Boiss. & Blanche 
Diagn. ser. II, IV, 97.— S. Schuberti Schenk PL Sp. Aegypt. (1840) 
11. — S. stvpitata Boiss. & Haussk. ex-Boiss. 1. c. 148. 

Habitat : I. Mount Hor, especially about the summit (Hart !). 

Fl. : Early in Dec. (Hart). 

Distrib. : S. Europe, Syria, Palestine, Persia. 


1. Androcymbium Willd. 

1. A. palaestinum Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XVII (1880) 445. 
Habitat : I. Wady Arabah (Hart). 
Distrib. : Sinai, Palestine. 

3. Cclchicum L. 

1. C. montaimm L. Sp. PL 342. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Holland !). 
Distrib. : S. Europe. 

3. C. Ste\eni Kunth Enum. PL IV, 144. 

Habitat : I. Jebel Catherine (Hart !) ; Mt. Hor and Petra (Hart !). 

Fl. : Second week of Dec. 

Distrib. : Arabia, Syria. 

3. C. variegatum L. Sp. PL 342. 
Habitat : I. Sinai. 

Distrib. : S. Europe. 

4. C. velutinum Bornm. et Kneuck. in Allg. Bot. Zeitsch. (1903) 


Habitat : I. Jebel Catherine, ca. 2,450 m. (ex Kneuck.). 
Distrib. : Sinai. 

flora Arabic a. 459 


1. Littonia Hook. 

1. L. obscura Baker Ic. Plant. 2365. 

Habitat : III. Near Cosair, nearly sea level (Lunt 280 1). 

Fl. : Mar. 1894 (Lunt). 

Distrib. : Endemic. 

%. L. minor Defl. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. XXXII (1885) 353. 
Habitat : II. Little Aden (Defl. 517 !) ; Wady el'anterich (Defl. 
541 !). 

Fl. : Apr. 1890 (Defl.). 
Fr. : Apr. 1890 (Defl.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

2. Merendera Earn. 

1. M. abyssinica Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II, 337. 
Habitat : II. JSTeighb. of Aden (Hunter 57 !). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

Vern. name : Shagorat-al-tair (Hunter). 

3. Oagea Salisb. 

1. G. reticulata Schult. Syst. Veg. VII (1829) 552, var. tenuifolia 
Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 238. 

Habitat : I. Towards top of Mt. Catherine (Schimp. 404 !) ; N. 
Midian (Burton !). 

Fl. : Apr. 1835 (Schimp.). 

Vern. name : Betet hakjel (Schimp.). 

4. Tulipa L. 

I. T. montana Lindl. in Bot. Eegist. XIII (1827) t. 1106 ; Boiss. 
Fl. Or. V, 192 ; Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIV (1873) 279. 
Habitat : I. Sinai. 
Distrib. : Egypt, Sinai, Armenia, Persia, Kurdistan, Afghanistan. 

5. Hyacinthus (Tourn.) L. 

1. H. flexuosus Baker in Journ. of Botany XII (1874) 8. — Belle- 
valia flexuosa Boiss. Diagn. Plant. Or. Ser. I, fasc. XIII, 36. 

Habitat : I. N. Midian (Burton !). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Sinai, Midian, Syria. 

2. H. colchicoides Delile in Laborde Voy. Arab. Petr. 32. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 

Distrib. : Arabia. 


0. Muscari Tourn. 

1. M. coiiiosuni (L.) Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. VIII (1768) no. 2 ; Baker 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. XI (1871) 414. — Hyacinthus comosus L. Sp. PL 
i, 318. — Muscari Holzmanni Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 293. — Bellevalia comosa 
Heldr. in Atti Congr. Fir. 228. 

Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 

Distrib. : Middle and south Europe and the other parts of the 
Mediterranean region, Egypt, Sinai. 

7. Urginea Steinh. 

1. U. undulata Steinh. in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, I (1834) 330 ; Baker 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII (1873) 220. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Egypt. All other parts of the Mediterranean region. 

8. Albuca L. 

1. A. Yerburyi Ridley in Journ. Bot. XXII (1884) 370. 
Habitat : II. Aden (Yerburyi !, Birdwood 126 ! Beevor !). 
Distrib. : Aden. 

2. A. abyssinica Dryand in Vet. Acad. Nya. Handl. Stockh. (1784) 


Habitat : II. Near Menacha, 2,900 m. (S. 1664) ; near Kahil 
above Menacha, 2,500 m. (S. 1439 ! 1753 !) ; Jebel Bura above Hille, 
1,000 m. (S.). 

Distrib. : S. Africa, Abyssinia, Eritrea. 

9. Dipcadi Medic. 
1. D. erythraeum Webb. & Benth. Hist. Nat. Canar. Ill, pt. 2 
(1840-1850) 341 ; Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XI (1871) 40.— Urope- 
talum erythraeum Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 286. — Hyacinthus serotinus Forsk. 
Fl. Aeg.-Arab. 209. 

Habitat : I. Desert, between Suez and El Tor (Schimp. 405 !) ; 
N. Midian (Burton !). 

II. Jedda (Fischer 96 !). 

IV. Found sprinkled all over the plain from Koweit 
to Regat (Pelly). 

Fl. : Feb. (Fischer), Mar. 1835 (Schimp.), 
Fr. : Mar. 1835 (Schimp.). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Syria, Arabia. 

%. D. tacazzeanum (Hochst.) Baker in Trans. Linn. Soc. II, ser. I ? 


Habitat: II. Yaman (Herb. Kew!). 
Distrib. : Arabia, Eritrea. 



10. Allium (Tourn.) L. 
1. A. ascalonicum L. Amoen. Acad. IV, 454. 
Habitat : III. Cultivated at Shibam ; 600 m. (Lunt 172 !). 
Fl. : Jan. 1894 (Lunt). 
Fr : Jan. 1894 (Lunt). 
Distrib. : Cultivated everywhere. 
Vern. name : Busl (Lunt). 

%. A. sativum L. Sp. PI. 296. 

Habitat : III. Cultivated at Al Ghatan, 345 m. (Lunt 179 !). 

Distrib. : Europe. 

3. A. cepa L. Sp. PL I (1753) 431. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 

II. Yaman (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : A cosmopolitan pot-herb. 

4. A. neapolitanum Cirillo. Plant, rar. regn. Neap. I (1788) 13, t. IV. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 

Distrib. : Throughout the Mediterranean region. 

5. A. paniculatum L. Sp. PI. ed. II (1762) 428, var. pallens Boiss. 
Fl. Or. V (1884) 260. 

Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean region. 

6. A. nigrum L. Sp. PI. ed. II, 430. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Europe, Orient. 

H. A. sinaiticum Boiss. Diagn. Ser. I, XIII, 31. 
Habitat : I. Between Mt. Sinai and Nuckl (Boiss.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

8. A. stamiueum Boiss. Diagn. Ser. II, IV, 119. 
Habitat : I. Sinai and Mt. St. Catherine (Schimp. 258). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean, Orient. 

11. Bulbiue L. 

1. B. asphodeloides Spreng. Syst. II, 85. 

Habitat : II. Yaman (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, South Africa. 

13. Asphodeline Reichb. 

1. A. lutca Reich. Fl. Germ. Excurs. 116. 

Habitat : Arabia (ex Baker). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean region, Caucasus, Asia Minor, 


13. Asphodelus (Tourn.) L. 

1. A. viscidulus Boiss. Diagn. PL Or. ser. 1, fasc. VII (1846) 118. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Schimp. 237 !) ; sandy plain of Kamleh 
between Sinai and Jebel Tib (Boiss. !). 

Fl. : Mar. 1835 (Schimp.), Mar. 1846 (Boiss.). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Arabia, Syria. 

3. A. fistulosus L. Sp. PL 309. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Zohrab !) ; Taifa (Botta !). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean region, Orient, India. 

3. A. fistulosus L. var. tenuifolius Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XV 
(1877) 272. 

Habitat : I. Wady Hamme (Scbimp. 206 !) ; N. Midian (Burton !) ; 
Wady Nasb (Lord !) ; Desert of Sinai (Bove 505 !) ; Arabia Petraea 
(McDonald !) ; Sinai, near Senned (Drake 85 !). 

IV. Neighbourhood of Koweit (Pelly !). 

Fl. : Apr. 1868 (Lord). 

Fr. : Mar. 1835 (Scbimp.), Apr. 1868 (Lord), June 1832 (Bov6). 

Vern. name : Baruak (Schimp.), Barwry (Drake). 

4. A. fistulosus L. var. clavatus Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. XV 
(1877) 271. 

Habitat : III. Weed in cultivated crop near Sbibam, 600 m. (Lunt 
170 !). 

Fl. : Jan. 1894 (Lunt). 
Fr. : Jan. 1894 (Lunt). 
Distrib. : Dhofar. 

5. A. penduiinus Coss. est Dur. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. IV (1857) 399, 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea : Wady Mokateb (Boiss. !) ; Arabia 
Petraea (McDonald!). 

Fr. : Mar. 1846 (Boiss.). 
Distrib. : Algeria, Arabia. 

6. A. teuuifolius Cav. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ill (1800) 46, t. 27, fig. 2, 
var. micranthus Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 315. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Boiss. !). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean region, Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Nubia. 

?. A. microcarpus Viv. in Linnaea I (1826) 500. 
Habitat : I. Beersbeba (Lowne 306 !)^ 
Distrib. : Mediterranean, Canaries. 


14. Dracaena Vand. 

1. D. serruteta Baker in Kew Bull. (1894) 342. 

Habitat : III. On hills near Dobaibah, about 1,200 m. (Lunt 206 !). 

Distrib. : Arabia. 

15. Scilla L. 

1. S. yemensis Den. Voy. Yemer (1889) 212. 
Habitat : II. Yaman (Den.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

Ik. Aloe Tourn. ex L. 

1. A. trichosaiitha Berger. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. XXXVI (1905) 
62.—A. percrassa Schweinf. (1894) non Tod. 

Habitat : II. Yaman (ex Fiori). 
Distrib. : Eritrea, Yaman. 

2. A. inerinis Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. (1775) 74.-— ^4. Luntii Baker in 
Kew Bull. (1894) 342 et in Bot, Mag. (1895) t. 7448. 

Habitat : II. Neighb. of Taez (Forsk.). 

III. Hills near Dobaibak, 900 m. (Lunt 225 !). 
Fl. : Feb. 1894 (Lunt). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

3. A. menachensis Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II 
64 (sub. var.). 

Habitat : II. Near Menacha, 2,200 m. (S. 1685 !). 
Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

4. A. vaccillaiis Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. 74. 

Habitat : II. Ussil, 1,400 m. (S. 1350) ; near Menacha, 2,300 m. 
(S. 1497, 1623). 

Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

Vem. name : Cher (S.). 

5. A, safoaea Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. App. II (1894) 74. 
Habitat : II. Wady Madfar near Hodjela, 700 m. (S. 941 !) ; Aggara 

near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1010 !) ; Ussil, 1,400 m. (S. 1344 !). 
Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 
Observ. : Notizblatt Konig, bot. Gart. Berlin (1895) 425. 

Vem. name : Oeschb. (S.). 


6. A. rubroviolacea Sehweinf. in Bui]. Herb. Boiss. II, App. II 
(1894) 71. 

Habitat : II. Top of Shibam near Menacha, 2,900 m. (S. 1658 !). 

Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Obseev. : Figd. for Herb. Kew and for Bot. Mag. t. 7882. 

Vern. name : Ssabr (S.). 

1 A. pendens Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. 74 ; Bot. Mag. t. 7827. 
Habitat : II. Above Ussil, 1,500 m. (S. 1222 !) ; in Wady Nahemi 
above Attara, 2,000 m. (S. 1751) ; Jebel Bura, 900 m. (S. 363, 1845). 
Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 
Vern. name : Arrar (S.). 

8. A. tomentosa Den. Voy. Yemen (1884) 211. 
Habitat : II. Yaman (Defl. !). 

Distrib. : Arabia. 

9. A. vera L. Sp. PI. 320, var. officinalis Forsk. descr. 73, 74. 
Habitat : II. Badjil, 200 m. (S. 531) ; foot of Jebel Bura near 

Hille, 600 m. (S. 360) ; at Chalife, 300 m. (S. 182) ; at the foot of Jebel 
Melhan, 600 m. (S. 658). 

Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Arabia. 

10. A. vera L. var. angustifolia Sehweinf. in Bull. Herb, Boiss. 
App. II (1894) 62. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura near Hille, 600 m. (S. 305). 
Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Yaman. 

H. Kniphofia Moench. 

I. K. sumarae Defl. Voy. Yemen, 210. 
Habitat : II. Yaman (Defl. !). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

18. Asparagus Tourn. 

1. A. racemosus Willd. Sp. PL II, 152. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, 900-1,200 m. (S. 487). 
III. Dhofar Mts., 480 m. (Bent 189 !). 
Distrib. : India, Orient, tropical Africa, Australia, 

3. A. asiaticus L. Sp. PL 313. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Schimp. 914 !) ; Ussil, 1,400 m. (S. 1164) ; 
Menacha, 2,000-2,400 m. (S. 1613 ; 1505) ; western slope of Jebel Bura 
above Hille, 900 m. (S. 423), 



Fl. : Feb. (S.). 

Fr. : Dec. 1837 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : India, Orient, tropical and S. Africa. 

3. A. stipularis Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. (1775) 72. 

Habitat : I. Sinai (Holland Ilia !) ; Arabia Petraea (McDonald !). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean region, Canary Islands. 

4. A. africanus Lam. Encycl. I, 295. 

Habitat : III. Hills near Dobaibah, 1,200 m. (Lunt 217 !) ; South 
coast, el-Hami (S. 190). 

Distrib. : Arabia, S. Africa. 

5. A. officinalis L. Sp. PL 313. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, cultivated in the coffee region, 1,000 m. 
(S. 488) ; Jebel Melhan, 1,000 m. (S. 864). 

Distrib. : Europe, Caucasus, Siberia, Arabia. 
Vera, name : Sstifel herr (S.) Cat's hair. 

6. A. scaberulus Rich. Tent. FL Abyss. II, 320. 
Habitat : II. Yaman. 

Distrib. : Arabia, Abyssinia. 


1. Cyanotis D. Don. 

1. €. foecunda DC. ex Hassk. Commel. Ind. 110. 
Habitat : II. Arabia (Botta !). 
Distrib. : Arabia, Abyssinia. 

3. C. nyctitopa Den. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. XLIII, 234, 
Habitat : II. Yaman Haifan (Defl.L 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

%. Aneiiema R. Br, 

1. A. Forskalei Kunth Enum. IV, ll.—Commelma tuberosa Forsk. 
descr. 12. — Aneiiema Ehrenbergii Clarke in DC. Mon. III,. 227, 228. 
— A. taeazzeanum Hochst. in Clarke, DC. Mon. Ill, 222. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, 600-900 m. (S. 289) ; foot of Jebel 
Melhan. 600 m. (S. 698) ; Regma near Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 944) ; Aggara 
near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1055). 

Fl. : Jan.-Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib.: Yaman, Eritrea. 


%. A. aequinoctiale Kunth Enum. PI. IV, 72. 
Habitat : II. Yaman (Botta !). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia. 

3. A. aequinoctiale Kunth, var. minor C. B. Clarke in DC. Monogr. 
Ill, 221. 

Habitat : II. Yaman (Botta !). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

3. Commelina L. 

1. C. albescens Hassk. in Schweinf. B&tr. Aeth. 210. 

Habitat : II. Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1073) ; near Badjil, 
250 m. (S. 1783) ; S. of Jebel el Areys, 200-300 m. (Den. 411 !); neighb. 
of Aden (Hunter 169 !). 

III. Dhofar Mts. (Bent 123a !). 

Fl. : Mar. 1890 (Den.). 

Fr. : Mar. 1890 (Den.). 

Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia. 

%. C. Forskalei Vahl Enum. II, 172. 

Habitat : II. Ussil, 1,200 m. (S. 1110, 1056) ; foot of Jebel Bura, 
600 m. (S. 230) ; near Saiman and Wady Fatimah (Schimp. 763 !) ; 
Wady Fatimah (Fischer 93 !). 

III. Stream, foot of Dhofar Mts. (Bent 123 !). 

Fl. : Feb. (Fischer), Nov. 1835 and Feb. 1836 (Schimp.). 

Fr. : Feb. (Fischer), Dec. 1888 (S.). 

Vern. name : Ueldn, uoaldn (Ussil), gjellf (Hille). 

3. C. Forskalei Vahl var. pterocarpa Schweinf. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 
App. II (1894) 56. 

Habitat : II. Eavine near Hille, Jebel Bura, 700 m. (S. 283, 36-4) ; 
Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 902). 
Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

4. C. benghalensis L. Sp. PI. 60, var. hirsuta Hassk. in DC. Monogr. 
Ill, 160. 

Habitat : II. Foot of Jebel Melhan, 600 m. (S. 753) ; Regma near 
Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 780). 
Fl. : Jan. 1889. 
Fr. : Jan. 1889. 
Distrib. : Yaman, Eritrea. 

5. C. benghalensis L., var. fimbriata Schweinf. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 
App. II (1894) 53. 

Habitat : II. Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1045). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. Eritrea. 


6. C. Beccariaua Martelli Fl. Bogos, 87 (? 0. Krebsiana Kunth 
Enum. IV, 40, 41 ; ?— C. edulis Kick Tent, FL Abyss. II, 341). 

Habitat : II. Above Menacha, Wady Schurfa, 2,500 m. (S. 1758) ; 
in the north-west below Menacha, 2,000 m. (S. 1544). 

Fl. : Feb.-Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Arabia, Eritrea. 

3. C. Petersii Hassk. in Peters Mossamb. II, 522. 
Habitat : II. Ussil, 1,400 m. (S. 1259 !). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia. 

8. €. ussilensis Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. App. II (1894) 58. 
Habitat : II. Ussil, 1,800 m. (S. 1258 !). 
Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 


1. Juncus (Tourn.) L. 

1. J. bufonius L. Sp. PI. 328. 

Habitat : I. Damp places of Sinai (Bove 31 !). 

Fr. : Nov. 1832 (Bove). 

Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

Vern. name : Kerbel (Bove). 

%. J. bufonius L., var. subauriculata Buchenau in Allg. Bot. Zeits. 
(1903) 165. 

Habitat : I. Oasis Firan (ex Kneuck.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

3. J. bufonius L., var. fascicubtus Koch Svn. Flor. Germai . I (1837) 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

4. J. Fontanesii Laharpe Monogr. Joncac. (1827) 130. — J. articula 
tus Desf. Fl. Atl. I, 313. — J. pyramidatus Laharpe Monogr. Joncac. 
(1827) 128. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 
II. Menacha, 2,300 m. (S. 1577 !). 
Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean region, German E. Africa, British Ctntral 
Africa, Nyassaland, Egypt, W. Asia. 

5. J. subulatus Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. (1775) 75. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 
Distrib. : Morocco to Syria. 

b 2 


6. J. glaucus Ehrh. Beitr. Zur Naturk. VI (1791) 83, var. longi- 
cornis Grogndt. 

Habitat : I. Kaphidim (Schimp. 287 !). 
Fr. : July 1835 (Schimp.). 

V. J. acutus L. Sp. PL I (1753) 325.- J. spinosus Forsk. Fl. Aeg.- 
Arab. 75. 

Habitat : IV. Maskat (Auch. 5475 !) ; Hufuf Oasis (Cheeseman). 
Distrib. : Temperate region. 

8. J. maritimus Lam. Encycl. Ill (1789) 264, var. arabicus Aschers. 
ard Buch. in Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 354. 

Habitat : I. Near Tor (Bove 29 !) ; Wady Farran (Lord !) ; Wadies 
Sudr, Ghurundel and Elain, Akaba ; in the Arabali and Ghor es Safieh ; 
S. Midian (Burton !). 

Fr. : Apr. 1878 (Burton), May 1868 (Lord), June 1832 (Bove). 

Distrib. : Egypt, also known from Sinai, Palestine and Afghanistan. 

9. J. punctorius L. Fl. Suppl. 208. 
Habitat : I. Mt. Sinai to Tor (Lord !). 
Fr. : May 1868 (Lord). 

Distrib. : S. Africa, W. Asia. 

10. J. punctorius L. f. var. mauritanicus Buchenau et Trabut in 
Monogr. Juncac. (1890) 278. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Bucbenau). 

Distrib. : S. Africa, Somaliland, Eritrea, Abyssinia, Sinai, Balu- 

11. J. effusus L. Sp. PL 326. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea, near Kaphidim (Schimp.). 
Distrib. : Europe, Siberia, Japan, India, N. America, Australia. 


1. PhoeniY L. 

1. P. dactylites L. Sp. PL I (1753) 1188. 
Habitat : Cultivated all over Arabia. 

%. P. rcclinata Jacq. Fragm. Bot, (1809) 27, t. 24.— P. spinusa 
Thonning in Videnskabernes Selskabs Afhandl. IV (1829) 211. 

Habitat : II. Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1037) ; Wady 
Madfar near Hodjela, 700 m. (S. 993) ; foot of Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 

Distrib. : Tropical Africa. 

Vera, name : Schottob (Hodjela), Schegja (Usail). 


2. Hyphaenc Gaertn. 

1. H. thebaica Mart. Hist. Palm. Ill, 225. 

Habitat : II. Bare and only in the lowland, here and there culti- 
vated. At Hodeidah in the sand of the coast region successfully culti- 

Distrib. : Along the valley of the Nile in middle and upper Egypt ; 
Shaikh Othman near Aden. 

3. Cocos L. 

1. C. nucifera L. Sp. PL I (1753) 1188. 
Habitat : II. Lahej (Defl.) cultivated. 

III. South coast, near el-Hami, east of Schehr, planted in 
great quantities. 

Fr. : Feb. 1881 (S.). 

Distrib. : Cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

4. Areca L. 

1. A. catechu L. Sp. PL 1189. 

Habitat : II. Yaman. 

Distrib. : Exact native country of the Betel-nut Palm is uncertain. 


1. Pandanus Kumph. ex L. 1 

1. P. tectorius Soland, ex Parkinson Journ. Vov. H. M. S. Endeavour 
(1773) 46.— P. odoratissimus L. f. Suppl. (1781) 424. 

Habitat : II. In the ravine Offer, Jebel Bura near Hille, 600 m. 
(S. 314) ; Wady Chuoiet, 1,200 m. (S. 1181) ; Aggara near Hodjela, 
600 m. 

Fl. : Female flowers Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : India, Arabia. 

Vern. name : Kadi (S.). 


1. Typha L. 

1. T. angustifolia L. Sp. PL 971. 

Habitat : II. Bahr-es-Sahan near Ammerieh, in the low country of 
the Tehama (S. 474) ; Spring near Bet-el-Mograb, not far from Menacha, 
2,400 m. (S. 1707). 

III. Stream of valley leading to Dhofar Mts. (Bent 94 !). 

Distrib. : Europe, N. America, Asia, also in tropical America. 

Vern. name : Hafe, haffa (S.). 


2. T. angustata Bory e t Cliaub. Nouv. Fl. Pelop. 4. 

Habitat : I. Between Tor and Sinai (Bove 35 !) ; Jebel Catherine 
(Drake 36 !) ; Wady Hebran (Schimp. 366 !) ; Arabia Petraea 
McDonald !). 

Fl. : June 1832 (Bove). 

Fr. : June 1832 (Bove), June 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Also found in the Mediterranean region, Orient, northern 
India, Nubia and Abyssinia. 

Vern. name : Haifa (Drake). 

3, T. latifolia L. Sp. PI. I (1753) 971. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 
Distrib. : Almost cosmopolitan. 


1. Lemna L. 

1. L. polyrrhiza L. Sp. PI. I (1753) 970. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 

Distrib. : Widely distributed in most warm and temperate regions. 

% h. minor L. Sp. PI. I (1753) 970. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 

Distrib. : Widely distributed through the warm and temperate 
regions of the earth. 

3. L. paucicostata Hegelmaier in Monogr. Lemnac. (1868) 139, 
t. VIII. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 

Distrib. : Widely distributed through the warmer parts of the 

4. L, gibba L. Sp. PL I (1753) 970. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 

II. Wady Nahemi above Attara, 2,100 m. (S. 1744) ; 
near Menacha, 2,850 m. (S. 1662 !). 

Distrib. : Tropical Africa, widely distributed in Europe, Asia and 

Vern. name : Bellessinan (Menacha) (S.). 


1. Damasonium Mill. 

I. I>. alisros Mill., var. compactum Micheli in DC. Monogr. Phanerog. 
Ill (1881) 42. 


Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 

Distrib. : Egypt, also common in the Mediterranean and Atlantic 


I. Arisaema Mart. 

1. A. cniieaphyllum Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II (1851) 
352 ; Defl. Voy. Yemen (1889) 215. 

Habitat : II. Yaman at the tops of Jebel Shibam near Menacha, 
2,800 m. (Defl. 347) ; on the way from Shibam to the castle Kaukaban, 
2,600-2,800 m. (Defl. 621) ; Wady Suleymen, 2,400 m. (Defl. 574) ; 
top of Jebel-el-Sumara, on the way from Yerim to Ibb, 2,800 m. (Defl.). 

Distrib. : N. African Steppen Province, Abyssinia, Yaman. 

%. A. Bottae Schott Prodr. (1860) 42 ; Engl, in DC. Mon. Phan. II 
(1879) 551. 

Habitat : II. Yaman, Ahl el caf (Botta !) ; Haifan (Defl.) ; Mt. 
Sabor (Botta !). 

Distrib. : Abyssinia, Eritrea, Yaman. 

3. A. flavum Schott Prodr. (1860) 40 ; Engl, in DC. Mon. Phan. 
II (1879) 548.— Arum flavum Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. p. CXX, n. 525 
(1775) 157. 

Habitat : II. Neighb. of Aden (Hunter 268 !) ; near Taaes (Forsk. 
in Herb. Univers. Kiel.). 

Distrib. : Abyssinia, Eritrea, Yaman, Afghanistan, Kurram Valley, 
subtropical western Himalaya, Garhwal. 

%. Colocasia Schott. 

1. C. esculenta Schott Meletem. (1832) 18. — Arum esculentum L. 
Sp. PI. (1753) 965, ed. 2 (1763) 1369. 

Habitat : II. Yaman Manod near Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 946 !) ; foot 
of Jebel Bura near Hille, 600 m. (S. 334). 

Distrib. : Cultivated in all hot countries. 

Vern. name : Kurlcum (Hills) ; ssandj (Ussil.). 


1. Cymodoeea Kon. 

1. C. isoetifolia Aschers. Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berlin (1887) 3. 

Habitat : II. Hodeidah (S. 147 !) ; Aden (Defl. 317 i). 

Distrib. : Red Sea, Indian and Pacific Ocean between the tropics. 


». C. ciliata Ehrbg. Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berlin (1867) 3.—Zostera 
ciliata Forsk. descr. 157. 

Habitat : I. Hamah Island (Slade !) ; Eed Sea (Bove 540 !) ; near 
Suez (Schimp. 961 !). 

II. Aden (Thomson !) ; Hodeidah (S. 787 !). 

Distrib. : Widely distributed in the Bed Sea and the Indian Ocean 
to N.-E. Australia. 

Vern. name : Suram (S.). 

3. C. nodosa Aschers. Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berlin (1867) 4. 
Habitat : II. Hodeidah (S. 148 !). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean Sea, African Atlantic coast from Tanger to 

4. C. scrrulata Aschers. et Magnus Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berlin 
(1870) 84. 

Habitat : II. Hodeidah (S. 146 !). 

Distrib. : Eed Sea coasts and also known from Australian coasts. 

5. C. rotundata Aschers. et Schweinf. Sitzb. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berlin 
(1870) 84. 

Habitat : II. Hodeidah (S. 158a !) ; Aden (Balfour !). 
Distrib. : Widely distributed in the Eed Sea. 

6. C. Hemprichia Ehrbg. 

Habitat : II. Aden (Balfour !) ; Aden Bir Ahmed (DefL). 

3. Diplanthera Thou. 

1. D, iiuiuervis Aschers. in Engl. Naturl. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 
(1897) 37. — Zostera uninervis Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. 157. — Halodule 
uninervis Aschers. in Boiss. Fl. Or. V. 24. 

Habitat : I. Tor (Ehrenb. !) ; 

II. Hodeidah (S. 148) ; Aden (Balfour !). 

Distrib. : Common in the Eed Sea and in the Indian and Pacific 

3. Naias L. 

1. N. graminca Del. Descr. Egypte Hist. Nat. II. (1813) 282, t. 50 
fig. 3. 

Habitat : III. Dhofar Mts., river mouth, coast (Bent 217 !). 
Distrib. : Generally distributed throughout the warmer parts of the 
Old World. 

2. N. minor Ail. Fl. pedemont. II (1785) 221. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 


Distrib. : Also found in Europe, Asia Minor, Syria, Kurdistan, 
Persia, Afghanistan, India, Burma, Malacca and Manchuria. 

3. N. marina L. Sp. PL ed. I (1753) 1015, var. Ehrcnbergii A. Br. 
in Journ. of Bot. II (1864) 275. 

Habitat : II. Yaman (ex Rendle). 
Distrib. : Arabia, Tunis, Socotra. 

4. Zaimichellia Mich, ex L. 

1. Z, palustris L. Sp. PL I (1753) 969. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea. 

Distrib. : Cosmopolitan species wanting only in Australia but found 
in New Zealand. 

5. Ruppia L. 

1. R. rostellata Koch ex Reichb. Ic. PL Crit. II, 66. 
Habitat : I. Tor ex aqua subdulci thermarum (Ehrenb. !). 
Distrib. : Common in brackish waters. In almost all temperate 
and subtropical countries. 

%. R. maritima L., var. spiralis (L.) Aschers. in Boiss. Fl. Or. V 
(1884) 18. 

Habitat : I. Near el Tor (Schimp. 219 !). 

Fr. : March 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. of type : Temperate and tropical regions. 

6. Potamogeton (Tourn.) L. 

1. P. iiatans L. Sp. PL I (1753) 126. 

Habitat : III. Dhofar Mts., Derbat Lake, 240 m. (Bent 211 !). 
Distrib. : A widely dispersed plant, found in nearly all temperate 

%. P. natans L., var. serotinus Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 16. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 
Distrib. : Distribution of type. 

3. P. pusillus L. Sp. PL I (1753) 183. 

Habitat : II. Northern slopes of Jebel Shibam, above Menacha 
2,500-2,600 m. (S. 1674 ! 1963). 
Distrib. : Almost cosmopolitan. 

4. P. Preussii A. Benn. in Fl. Trop. Afr. VIII (1902) 222. 
Habitat : II. Arabia, Yaman (Den.). 

Distrib. : Tropical Africa. Arabia. 


5. P. color atus Hornem. in FL Dan. t. 1449. 
Habitat : Arabia (Schimp. 893 !). 
Distrib. : Europe. 


1. Cyperus L. 

1. C. Feiizeliaims Steud. Syn. PL Cyp. 33. 
Habitat : II. Wady Fatimah (Fischer 119 !). 

III. Dhofar Mts. (Bent 134 !). 
Fl. : Feb. (Fischer). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia. 

%. C. rotnndus L. Sp. PL 45. 

Habitat : I. Ghor es Safieh (Hart). 

II. Jedda (Schimp. 916 I, Zohrab .3 !) ; Yaman (S. 897 ! 
partim) ; foot of Jebel Bura near Hille, 600 m. (S. 351) ; at the river of 
Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1060) ; Wady Fatimah (Fischer 119 !). 
III. Dhofar Mts. : Hafu (Bent 41 !). 
Fl. : Feb. 1837 (Fischer) ; Jan.-Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Jan.-Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

3. C. rotundus L., var. macrostachyus Boiss. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Boiss. !). 
Distrib. of type : Cosmopolitan. 

4. C. falcatus Nees & Ehrbg. in Boeckl Cyp. I. 150. 151. 
Habitat : II. Aden (S. 14). 

III. El Hami, east of Schehr (S. 210). 
Fl. : Mar. & Apr. 1881 (S.). 
Fr. : Mar. & Apr. 1881 (S.). 

4a. C. falcatus Nees var. hamiensis Schweinf. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 
(1894) App. II, 47. 

Habitat : III. El. Hami, east of Schehr (S.). 
Fl. : Apr. 1881 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

5. C. articulatus L. Sp. PL 44. 

Habitat : II. Aggara, Hodjela (S. 1036 !) ; Wady Garu (Ehrenb. !). 
Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1823 (Ehrenb.). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1823 (Ehrenb.). 
Distrib. : Tropics. 

Vern. name : Chasegj (S.). 


6. C. flabeliiformis Eottb. Desc. Nov. PI. 42.— C. gradatns Foisk. Fl. 
Aeg.-Arab. 13. 

Habitat : II. Hodjela, Manod (S. 978) ; Jebel Bura. 900 m. (S. 513) ; 
Wady Chuoiet, 1,200 m. (S. 1168). 
Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.) 
Distrib. : Arabia, Abyssinia. 

Vein, name : Kuff el ma (S.). 

7. C. bulbosus VaM Enum. II, 342. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Zohrab 23 I, Fischer 54 !, Schimp. 809 !) ; Wady 
Adab near Shukra (Den. 471 !). 

Fl. : Jan. 1837 (Fischer), Jan. 1836 (Schimp.), Mar. 1890 (Den.). 
Distrib. : Arabia, Africa, India orientalis. 

8. C. conglomeratus Eottb. Desc. Nov. PI. 21. 

Habitat : I. N. Midian (Burton !) ; Wady Grhurundel and Kamleh 
(Lord !) ; Desert of Tor (Bove 28 !). 

II. Jedda (Schimp. 1042 !) ; Aden (Thomson !, Defl. 37 ! 
Perry '!, S. !) ; Is. of Ketumbal (Ehrenb. !). 

IV. Oman (Pilgrim !) ; Maskat (Bornm. 684 !) ; Central 
Arabia (Pelly !). 

Fr. : Jan. 1893 (Bornm.), Apr. 1868 (Lord), June 1832 (Bove), 
Nov.-Dec. 1888 (S.), Mar. 1881 (S.). 

Distrib. : Generally in the tropics. 

9. C. conglomeratus Eottb., var. effusos Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 369. 
Habitat : II. Near Dahab (Schimp. 301 !) ; near Noweba (Schimp. 

733 !) ; Hanish Island (Slade !) ; Jedda (Fischer 55 !, Zohrab 13 ! 22 !, 
Schimp. 810 !) ; Aden (S. 15 !, Thomson !, Beevor 50 !). 

III. El Hami (S. 210 !). 

Fl. : Oct.-Feb. (Fischer), July 1835 (Schimp.), Nov. 1888 (S.). 
Fr. : Oct.-Feb. (Fischer), Nov. 1888 (S.). 
Distrib. : Of type. 

10. C. conglomeratus Eottb., var. pumilus. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Zohrab 13a in H. K. !) ; Aden (Hook. 105 !). 

III. Dhofar Mts. : Hafu (Bent 28 !). 

IV. Oman (Pilgrim !). 
Distrib. : Of type. 

11. C. arenarms Eetz. Obs. IV, 9. 
Habitat. : II. Neighb. of Aden (Hunter 113 !). 
Distrib. : Tropical Asia. 

13. C. eleusinoides Kunth Enum. PL II, 39. 
Habitat : II. Wady Hedjan, 1,200 m. (S. 1962 !). 


Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distbib. : Generally in the tropics. 

13. C. rubicuiidus Vahl Enum. PL II, 308. 

Habitat : II. Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 897 !) ; Neighb. of 
Aden (Hunter 67 !) ; S.-W. of Jebel Nakhai, 800 m. (Defl. 490 !) ; foot of 
Jebei Bura, 600 m. (S. 386). 

Fl. : Jan.-Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Fb. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1889 (S.), Mar. 1890 (Defl.). 

Distbib. : India, tropical Africa, Arabia. 

14. C. longus L. Sp. PL 45. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler) ; Ghor es Safieh (Hart). 
Distbib. : Europe, Orient. 

15. C. laevigatus L. Mant. II, 179. — C. mucronatus Rottl. Desc. 
Nov. PL 19. 

Habitat : I. Wady es-Sle, Oasis Firan (ex Kneuck.). 

II. Zeyda (Defl.). 
Distbib. : Cosmopolitan in the warmer regions. 

16. C. laevigatus L. var. distachyus Coss. et D. R. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea ; Oasis Firan, Wady Ghurundel (ex 
Kneuck. sub Acorello). 
Distbib. : Of type. 

11 C. atronitens Hochst. in Flora, XXIV (1841) L 

Habitat : II. Jebel Shibam, above Menacha, 2,700 m. (8. 1679 !). 

Fb. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distbib. : Arabia, tropical Africa 

18. C. leptophyllus Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. PL Cyp. 33. 
Habitat : II. Western slopes of Jebel Bura, 900 m. (S. 387 !) ; Wady 
Hedjan, 1,200 m. (S. 1089) ; Shukra (Defl.). 
Distbib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia. 

Vern. name : Schile (Ussil). 

10. €. obtusiflorus Vahl Enum. II, 308. 
Habitat : II. Yaman (Herb. Kew). 
Distbib. : S. Africa, Madagascar, Arabia. 

20. C. polystachyus Eottb. Desc. Nov. PL 39. 
Habitat : II. Yaman (Herb. Kew). 
Distbib. : Everywhere in the tropics. 


%. Scirpus (Tourn.) L. 

1. S. setaceus L. Sp. PL 49. 

Habitat : II. At Menacha, source Mechander, 2,300 m. (S. 1428 !). 

Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Australia, Asia, Europe. 

%. S. corymbosus Heyne in Both Nov. PL Sp. 28, var. bracliyccros 

H. in Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II, 496. 

Habitat : II. At Jebel Shibam, above Menacha, 2,500 m. (S. 1767 !). 

Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. of type : Africa, India. 

3. S. lacustris L. Sp. PL 48. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea. 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

4. S. maritimus L. Sp. PL 51. 
Habitat : I. Ghor es Safieh (Hart !). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

5. S. Holosclioenus L. Sp. PL 49. 

Habitat : I. S. Midian (Burton !) ; Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) ; 
foot of Mt. Sinai (Schimp. 108 !) ; Mt. Sinai (Lord, Bove 21 ! 32 ! 33 !) ; 
Sinai, near Senned (Drake 86 !) ; Jebel Musa ; Wady el Tihyeh to Jebel 
Hertih (Hart). 

Fl. : Mar.-Apr. 1878 (Burton), May 1835 (Schimp.). 
' Fr. : Mar.-Apr. 1878 (Burton), May 1835 (Schimp.), June 1832 (Bove). 

Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

Vern. name : Deess (Drake). 

6. S. littoralis Schrad. FL Germ. I, 142, t. 5, fig. 7. 

Habitat : III. Brackish pool at Ghafyt, 180 m. (Lunt 91) , Dhofar 
Mts., in streams near coast (Bent). 
Distrib. : Europe, Asia, Egypt. 

3. Fimbristylis Vahl. 
1. F. spathacea Roth Nov. PL Sp. 24. 

Habitat : II. S.-W. Arabia (Ehrenb. !). 

III. Near the hot springs of el Hami (S. 158 !); 
Fl. : Apr. 1881 (S.). 
Fr. : Apr. 1881 (S.). 
Distrib. : Warm regions. 

%. F. ferruginca Vahl Enum. II, 291. 

Habitat : II. Above Menacha, 2,500 m. (S. 1709) ; Wady et-Tehm, 
1,500 m. (S, 1245) ; Wady Shaari, foot of Jebel Melhan, 700 m. (S. 677)'- 


Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1075) ; Zeyda (Den.). 

III. Near the hot springs of el Hami (S. 184 ! 199 !). 

IV. Maskat (Auch. 5480 I). 
Distrib. : All warm regions. 

3. F. cf. ferruginea Vahl. 

Habitat : IV. Hufuf Oasis (Cheeseman). 

4. F. dichotoaia Vahl Enum. II, 287. 
Habitat : I. Ghor es Safieh (Hart). 
Distrib. : S. Europe, N. Africa. 

4. Schoenus L. 

1. S. nigricans L. Sp. PL 43. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Bove ! Schimp. !). 

Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

5. Carex (Dill.) L. 

1. C. diluta Bieb. Fl. Taur. Cauc. II, 388. 

Habitat : I. Foot of Mt. Sinai, Gauaje el Leestan (Schimp. 176 !). 

Fl. : Apr. 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Southern Europe, temperate Asia. 

Vern. name : Dis el Muje (Schimp.). 

%. C. diluta Bieb. var. Bottae C. B. Clarke. 

Habitat : I. Mt. Sinai, Arabia Petraea (Figari !) ; Sinai (Botta 3 !) ; 
damp places of Sinai (Bove 23 !). 
Fl. : June- July (Figari). 
Fr. : June-July (Figari) ; June 1832 (Bove). 
Distrib. : Of type. 

3. C. Burchelliana Bockl. in LinnaeaXLI (1877) 234., var. lciocarpa 
Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II. 51. 

Habitat : II. At Menacha, source Machader, 2,300 m. (S. 1424). 

Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. of type : South Africa. 

4. C. divisa Huds. Fl. Angl. ed. I, 348. 
Habitat : I. Ghor es Safieh (Hart). 
Distrib. : North temperate regions. 

5. C. stenophylla Wahlenb. in Vet. Akad, Nya. Handl. Stockh. 
(1803) 142 ; var. planifolia Boiss. 


Habitat : I. Summit of Mt. Hor (Hart) ; from Wady Zewerah to 
Bir es Seba and Tel Abou Hereireh (Hart). 
Distrib. of type : North temperate region. 

6. C. disians L. Syst. ed. X, 1263. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea. 
Distrib. : Western Asia, N. America. 


1. Impcrata Cyrill. 

1. I. cyliadi'ica Beauv. Agrost. 165, 1. 5, fig. 1. 

Habitat : I. Desert of Sinai (Bove 16 !) ; Sinai (Holland !) ; Wadies 
Zelegah and Elain : Ghor es Safieli (Hart). 
Fr. : June 1832 (Bove). 
Distrib. : The hotter parts of the Old World. 

Vern. name : Ealfeh (Bove). 

%. Saccharuni L. 

1. S. biflorum Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. 16. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Syria, Sinai, Palestine. 

%. S. spontoneum L. Mant. (1771) 183. 
Habitat : II. Oasis of Lahadj (Den. 147). 
Fr. : Dec. 1889 (Defl.). 
Distrib. : Tropics of the Old World. 

3. S. officinale L. Sp. PL 54. 

Habitat : II. Yaman (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Cultivated in warm regions. 

4. S. Raveniiae L. Syst. ed. XIII, 88. — Erianthus Ravennae Beauv. 
Agrost. 162. 

Habitat : I. Ghor es Safieh (Hart). 

Distrib. : Western Himalaya, Punjab, Upper Gangetic Plain, Sind, 
extending westwards to the Mediterranean. 

3. Rottboellia L. f. 

1. R. hirsuta Vahl Symb. Bot. I, 11. — Coelorachis hirsuta Brongn. 
in Duperr. Voy. Coq. Bot. 64, 1. 14 (1829) 65, in obs. — Saccharum hirsutum 
Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. 16. 

Habitat : I. Desert of Sinai (Bove 18) ; Sinai (Bove !). 

II. Perim Island (H. K. !) ; near Jedda (Schimp. 791 !) ; 


Badjil (S. 873 !). 

IV. Maskat (Auch. 5460 !). 
Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.), June 1832 (Bove). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia, Afghanistan. 

Vern. name : Tuham, ta'am (S.). 

2. R. exaltataL. f. Suppl. 114, var. genuina Hack, in DC. Monogr. 
VI, 294. 

Habitat : II. Aggara, near Hodjela, in maize fields, 600 m. (S. 1070 !). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Tropics. 
Vern. name : Qoren (S.). 

4. Apluda L. 

1. A. varia Hack, in DC. Monogr. VI, 196, var. aristata Hack. 1. c. 

Habitat : II. Tropical Arabia (ex Stapf). 

Distrib. : Tropical Asia to New Caledonia, tropical Arabia and 

5. Ischaemum L. 

1. I. laxum R. Br. Prod. 205. 

Habitat : II. Foot of Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 300). 

Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Tropics of the Old World. 

6. Elionurus Humb. et Bonpl. 

I. E. hirsutus (Forsk.) Munro ex Benth. in Journ. Linn. Soc. XTX 
(1881) 68. — Saccharum hirsutum Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. 16. 

Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !) ; Arabia Petraea (Bove 18). 
II. Yaman (ex Boiss.). 
IV. Maskat (Auch. 5460). 
Distrib. : Northern Punjab, Rajputana, westwards to Northern 

%. E. Royleanus Nees ex Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II, 474. 
Habitat : II. Mt. Sidr (Fischer 118 !) ; Wady Djara (Ehrenb. !). 
Fl. : Feb. (Fischer). 
Distrib. : India, Arabia, tropical Africa. 

¥. Arthraxon Beauv. 

1. A. iauceolatus Hochst. in Flora XXXIX (1856) 188., var. 
serrulatus Hack, in DC. Monogr. VI, 348, 


Habitat : II. Regma, near Hodjela, 800 m. (S. 951) ; Ussil, 1,400 m, 
(S. 1953) ; Menacha, 2,300 m. (S. 1580) ; Hille, Jebel Bura (S. 361 1). 
Fl, : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fe. : Jan.-Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Disteib. of type : India, Abyssinia, Arabia, Japan. 

8. Andropogon L. 

1. A. sorghum Brot. Fl. Lnsit. I. 88, var. rubrocernuus Kcke. 
Habitat : II. Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 88) ; Ussil, 1,000-1,200 m. (S.). 

Vera, name: Kubri (S.). 

2. A. sorghum Brot. var. saccharatus Kcke. und Worn. Getr. I, 
310. — Rolens Dochna Forsk. descr. 174. 

Habitat : II. Shukra, cultivated (S.). 

3. A. sorghum Brot. var. usorum Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. 87 ; Kcke, 
und Wern. Getr. I, 312. 

Habitat : II. Above Menacha, 2,600 m., cultivated in the rainy season 
(S.) ; eaat of Marraua (S. 162, 164). 

Vern. name : Gjendab ahmar (S.). 

4. A. sorghum Brot. var. yemeusis Kcke. 

Habitat : II. East of Marraua (S. 162) ; Shukra (S. 60). 

5. A. sorghum Brot. var. niger Ard. in Saggi Sc. I, 134 ; Hack, in 
DO. Monogr. VI, 514. 

Habitat : II. At the foot of Jebel Bura (S.). 

6. A. sorghum Brot. var. albida Kcke. 

Habitat : II. Ussil, 1,000-1,300 m., cultivated in the rainy season (S.). 

Vern. name : Ahnessi (S.). 

H. A. sorghum Brot. var. tricolor L. Mant. 2, 301. 
Habitat : II. Aden, cultivated as cattle fodder at Shaikh Othman 
(S.) ; east of Marraua (S. 163). 
Vern. name : GJierb (S.). 

8. A sorghum Brot. var. acthiops Kcke. und Wern. Getr., 313. 
Habitat : II. In the lowland of the Tehama (S.). 

0. A. sorghum Brot. var. arabicus Kcke. 

Habitat : II. Above Menaoha, 2,600 m. cultivated in the rainy 
season (S.). 

Vern. name : Gia'aidi (S.), 



10. A sorghum Brot. var. subglabrescens Hack, in DC. Monogr. VI, 

Habitat : II. Oasis of Lahadj (Den. 123 !). 
Fl. : Dec. 1889 (Den.). 
Fr. : Dec. 1889 (Den.). 

11. A. sorghum Brot. var. Ankolib Hack, in DC Monogr. VI, 519. 
Habitat : II. Yaman (S.). 

Observ. : Lunt's 159 collected at Al Hawi in Hadramant alt. 660 m. 
is afT. to this var. 

12. A. halepensis Brot. Fl. Lusit. I (1804) 89. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !) ; Ghor es Safieh, culti- 
vated (Hart). 

Distrib. : Throughout the tropics. 

13. A. Aucheri Boiss. Diagn. Ser. I, V, 77. 

Habitat : II. Yaman (Defl. !). 
Distrib. : India, tropical Africa, Arabia. 

14. A. Aucheri Boiss. var. sorghum quinquc plumis Hack, in DC. 
Monogr. VI, 561. — A. quinqueplumis Hochst. ex A. Kich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. 
II, 450. 

Habitat : II. Badjil, 200 m. (S. 529) ; Taifa (Botta !). 

III. El Hami (S. 203 !). 
Fl. : 10th Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : 10th Jan. 1889 (S.), Apr. 1881 (S.). 

15. A. hirtus L. Sp. PI. 1046. 

Habitat : I. Wady Zewerah (Lowne) ; summit of Mt. Hor (Hart). 

IV. Maskat, Mt. Chebeck (Auch. 5462). 
Distrib. : Tropics. 

16. A. hirtus L. Sp. PL 1046, var. genuiuus Hack, in DC. Monogr. 
VI, 619. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) ; Wady Farrun and neighb. 
(Lord !) ; Sinai (S. 114 !) ; Desert of Sinai (Bove 15 !) ; foot of Mt. Sinai 
(Schimp. 101 !) : Mt. Sinai (H. K. !). 

II. Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 278) ; Regma near Hodjela, 
800 m. (S. 973) ; foot of Jebel Melhan, 600 m. (S. 654) ; Ussil, 1,400 m. 
(S. 1347) ; Menacha, 2,00-2,500 m. (S. 1538, 1708). 

Fl. : May 1835 (Schimp.). 

Fr. : Mar. 1886 (S.), May 1868 (Lord), May 1835 (Schimp.), June 
1832 (Bove). 

Vern. name : Hammara (Bove), hamra (Schimp.). 


Vt. A. caesius Nees ex Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. 244. — A. 
schoenanthus L. Sp. PL 1046, var. caesius Hack, in DC. Monogr. VI. 
610, 611. 

Habitat : II. Wolledje (S. 627). 

Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia, southern India. 

Vera, name : Qusseba (S.). 

18. A. distachyus L. Sp. PL 1046. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Auch. 2954 !). 

II. Above Menacha, 2,500 m. (S. 1435 !). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

19. A. foveolatus Del. Fl. Aeg. 160, t. 8, fig. 2. 

Habitat : I. Akaba (Hart) ; desert of Sinai (very rare) (Bove !). 

II. Aden, Shukra, Serrya (Den.) ; Aden (Birdwood 131 !, 
S. 79 !, Lunt 337 !) ; desert near Jedda (Schimp. 790 !) ; Jedda (ZoLrab 
216 !) ; El Gidam (Ehrenb. !). 

III. El Hami (S. 173). 

IV. Maskat (Auch.. 5461 !). 

Fr. : Jan. 1825 (Ehrenb.), Apr. 1894 (Lunt), June 1832 (Bove), Nov, 
1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Africa and tropical Asia. 

20. A. pertusus Willd. Sp. PL IV, 922. 

Habitat : II. Foot of Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 478) ; Aggara near 
Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 393) ; Menacha, 2,500 m. (S. 1959). 
Fl. : Jan., Feb., Mar. (S.). 
Fr. : Jan., Feb., Mar. (S.). 
Distrib. : Sicily, tropical Asia, tropical Africa, Australia. 

21. A. aimulatus Forsk. FL Acg.-Arab. 173. 

Habitat : II. Badjil, 190 m. (S. 1960) ; Aggara near Hodiela, 600 m. 
(S. 900). 

IV. From the valley on the 3rd Mar. (Pelly !). 
Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Mar. (Pelly). 
Distrib. : Northern Africa, Arabia, India, Australia. 

%%. A. laniger Desf. FL Atlant. II, 379. 

Habitat : II. Little Aden, Beyt-el-Amir, Massana (Den.) ; Jedda 
(Schimp. 789 !) ; neighb. of Jedda (Fischer 132 !) ; Wady Saylet near 
Beyt-el-Amir (Den. 241 !). 

IV. Maskat (Bornm. 704 !, Auch. 5462 !). 

Fl. : Jan. & Feb. (Fischer), Jan. 1893 (Bornm.), Jan. 1890 (Den.). 



Fr. : Jan. 1836 (Schimp.), Jan. & Feb. (Fischer), Jan. 1893 (Bornni.), 
Jan. 1890 (DefL). 

Distrib. : Orient, India, N. Africa. 

33. A. contortus L. Sp. PI. (1753) 1045. — Heteropogon contortus 
Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. II, 836. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, 600-800 m. (S. 908) ; Wolledje (S. 760 !). 

Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean region and tropics and sub tropics generally. 

34. A. Jwarancusa Jones in As. Res. IV (1795) 109. — Cymbopogon 
Jwarancusa Schult. Mant. II (1824) 458. 

Habitat : Arabia (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : India t tropical Africa. 

35. A. sehima Steud. Syn. PL Glum. I, 369. 
Habitat : II. Yaman (ex Stapf). 

Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Yaman, tropical Arabia, Deccan Peninsula. 

9. Themeda Forsk. 

1. T. triaudra Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. CXXIII et 178, var. glauca 
Hack, in DC. Monogr. VI, 663. 

Habitat : II. Menacha, 2,200 m. (S. 1499 !). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib, : Yaman. 

10. Tragus Hall. 

1. T. racemosus Scop. Introd. 73 ; All. Fl. Pedem. II, 241. 

Habitat : II. Yaman (Schimp. 792 !) ; desert near Jedda (Schimp 
793 !, Fischer 138 !, Zohrab 36 !) ; Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1050 !) 
Wady Bahara (Schimp. 792 !) ; Menacha, 2,200 m. (S. 1594). 

Fl. : Feb. (Fischer). 

Fr. : Jan. 1836 (Schimp.), Feb. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1837 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean region, Afghanistan. 

3. T. occidentalis Nees Agrost. Bras. 286. 
Habitat : II. Ussil, 1,400 m. (S. 1049a). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

3. T. brevicaulis Boiss. Diagn. Ser. I, XIII, 44. 
Habitat : II. Yaman (Boiss,). 
Distrib. : Persia, Arabia. 


11. Latipes Kuntli. 

1. L. senegalensis Kunth Rev. Gram. I, 261, t. 42 (1830). 
ITabttat : II. Yaman (Ehrenb. 232 !) ; Shukra (S. 139 !). 

III. Dhofar Mts. : Coasts Dliofar (Bent 52 !). 
Fr. : Mar. 1881 (S.). 

Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia. 

13. Eriochloa H. B. & K. 

1. E. polystachya H. B. & K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. I, 95. 

Habitat : II. Shaikh Otliman (S. 123) ; Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. 

(S. 1058). 

Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.), Dec. 1888 (S.). 
Distrib. : Mexico. 

2. E. acrotricha Hack, ex Thell. in Viertelj. Naturforsch. Ges. 
Zurich, LII, 435. 

Habitat : II. Tropical Arabia (ex Stapf). 

Distrib. : Tropical Africa, tropical Arabia, occasionally in India. 

13. Panicum L. 

1. P. fat me use Hochst. et Steud. ex Steud. Nom. ed. II. II, 256 ; 

et Syn. PL Gram. 100 (Eriochoae sp.). 

Habitat : II. Aggara near Hodjela in maize fields, 700 m. (S. 1058 !) ; 
Unsert, near Mecca (Schimp. 806 !) ; Wady Fatimah (Fischer 174 !) ; 
Jedda (Zohrab 241, 316 !). 

Fl. : Feb. (Fischer). 

Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : India, Arabia. 

2. P. saiiguinale L. Sp. PL 57. — Digitaria sanguinalis Scop. Fl. Cam. 
ed. II. I, 52. 

Habitat : II. Wady Fatimah, near Mecca (Schimp. 803 !) ; Wady 
Fatimah (Fischer 120 !). 

IV. Near Maskat (Last !). 
Fl. : Feb. (Fischer). 

Fr. : Feb. 1836 (Schimp.). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

3. P. saiiguinale L. var. feiiestratum Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. 
Boiss. (1894) App. II, 18. 

Habitat : II. Foot of Jebel Melhan, 600 m. (S. 626) ; Aggara near 
Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1049) ; Kegma near Hodjela. 900 m. (S. 949). 
Fl. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia, Eritrea, 


4. P. saoguiuale L. var. horizontale Schweinf. in Bull. Herb.Boiss. 
(1894) App. II, p. 18. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 1330) ; Aggara, 600 m. (S. 
1081) ; Menacha, 2,200 m. (S. 1595). 
Fl. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (SI). 
Distrib. : Yaman. 

5. P. leersioides Hochst. in Flora XXXVIII (1855) 196. 

Habitat : II. Foot of Jebel Melhan, 600 m. (S. 762) ; .Ussil, 1,200- 
1,800 m. (S. 1133, 1196) ; Regma near Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 985) ; Aggara, 
600 m. (S. 895) ; Hille, Jebel Bura (S. 322 !). 

Fl. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

6. P. antidotale Retz. Obs. IV, 17. 
Habitat : II. Shaikh Othman (S. 122 !). 
Fl. : Dec. 1888 (S.). 

Fr. : Dec. 1888 (S.). 

Distrib. : Generally in warm regions. 

¥. P. atrosaoguiaeum Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II, 

Habitat : II. Foot of Jebel Melhan, 600 m. (S. 769) ; Ussil, 1,200 
m. (S. 1306). 

Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

8. P. colonum L. Syst. ed. X, 870. 
Habitat : I. Ghor es Safieh (Hart). 

II. Shukra (S. 75 !) ; Unsert near Mecca (Schimp. 801 ! 
963 !) ; Jedda (Zohrab 218 ! 220 ! 315 !) ; Aggara near Hodjela, in 
maize fields (S. 906 !) ; Yaman, W. Fatimah (Fischer 176 !) ; Shaikh 
Othman, Lahej (S.) ; foot of Jebel Melhan, 600 m. (S. 759) ; Ussil, 
1,100 m. (S. 1025). 

IV. Near Maskat (Last!). 

Fl. : Jan.-Mar. (S.). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1836 (Schimp.), Mar. 1881 (S.), Jan.-Mar. 

Distrib. : Warm regions. 

9. P. coloratum L. Mant. I, 30. 

Habitat : II. Aggara, near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 949). 


Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fe. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : N. Africa, Arabia. 

10. P. commutatum Nees in Linnaea VII (1832) 274. 
Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, above Hille, 800 m. (S. 396). 
Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

11. P. commutatum var. nodosum Hack, in Durand & Scliinz, 
Consp. Fl. Af. V, 744. 

Habitat : II. Tropical Arabia (ex Stapf). 

Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Algeria, tropical Arabia, Afghanistan, 

13. P. coutroversum Steucl. Syn. PI. Gram. 60. 
Habitat : II. Aggara, near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 895a). 
Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

13. P. eruciforme Sbth. & Sm. Fl. Graec. I. 44, t. 59. p^^M* 
Habitat : Il.Ussil, Wady Hedjan, 1,200 m. (S. 1278 !). 

IV. Maskat (Auch. 5437 !). 
Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean region, India. 

14. P. gemiuatum Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. 18. 

Habitat : II. Chalife, 200 m. (S. 210) ; Wady Fatimah (Fischer 
191 !) ; Aggara near Hodjela (S. 893 !) ; near Unsert in Wady Fatimah 
(Schirnp. 807 !). 

III. Dhofar Mts. : Coasts (Bent 26 !). 

Fl. : Feb. 1837 (Fischer). 

Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1836 (Schirnp.), Feb. 1837 (Fischer). 

Distrib. : Tropical regions. 

Vera, name : Thalig (S.). 

15. P. repeus L. Sp. PL ed. II, 87. — P. Hygrocharis Steud. Syn. 
PI. Gram. 72. 

Habitat : II. Regma, near Hodjela, 850 m. (S. 950 !). 
Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Warm regions. 

16. P. leucantliuni A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II, 372. 
Habitat : II. Aden (Ellenbeck). 

Distrib. : Yaman, Eritrea, Abyssinia. 


It. P. maximum Jacq. Ic. PL Rar. I, t. 13. 

Habitat: II. Foot of Jebel Bura,. 600 m. (S. 362, 274); Aggara 
near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 911);' Menacha, Wady Ssarif, 1,800 m. (S. 
1698 !) ; Ussil, 1,400 m. (S. 1166). 

Fr. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Tropical America. 

18. P. Meyeriauum Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. 32. 

Habitat : II. Aggara near Hodjela, in rivulets (S. 899 !). 
Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : S. Africa, Arabia. 

19. P. miliaceum L. Sp. PI. 58. 

Habitat : II. Shukra, cultivated (S. 87 !, Defl.). 
Distrib. : Warm regions. 

%0. P. pennatum Hochst. in Flora XXXVIII (1855) 197 (Paspali 

Habitat : II. Aden (Lunt 306 !) ; Ussil, Wady Chuoiet, 950 m. (S. 
1193 !). 

Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.), Apr. 1894 (Lunt). 

Distrib. : N. Africa, Arabia, W. Asia. 

31. P. plicatile Hochst. in Flora XXXVIII (1855) 198. 
Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, 900 m. (S. 458) ; Ussil, 1,200 m. (S. 

Fl. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia. 

%%. P. prostratum Lam. 111. I, 171. 

Habitat : II. Near Unsert in Wady Fatimah (Schimp. 805 !) ; Wady 
Fatimah (Fischer 130 !) ; Wady Fatimah, near Mecca (Schimp. 805 !), 
Aggara, near Hodjela in maize fields (S. 1034 !) ; foot of Jebel Bura, 
Hille, 600 m. (S. 273). 

Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.), Dec. 1888 (S.). 

Fr. : Feb. 1836 (Schimp.), Feb. 1889 (S.), Dec. 1888 (S.). 

Distrib. : Tropics. 

%%. P. ramosum L. Mant. I, 29. 

Habitat : II. Aggara near Hodjela, in maize fields (S. 2007 !) ; 
Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 397) ; foot of Jebel Melhan, 600 m. (S. 932) ; 
Regma near Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 966). 

Fl. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Arabia, Aethiopia, India. 


24. P. sagittifolium Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. PL Gram. 54. 
Habitat : II. Aggara, near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1039). . 
Fl. : Feb. 1888 (S.). 

Fr. : Feb. 1888 (g.). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia. Arabia. 

25. P. abyssiiiicum Hochst. in Flora (1841) I, Intell. 19.— P. sraio- 
rwm..Schwemf. Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II, 20. 

Habitat : II. Menacha in Lucerne, 2,400 m. (S. 1472 !) ; Taifa 
(Schimp. 895 !). 

Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa and tropical Arabia. 

26. P. turgidum Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. 18. 

Habitat : I. Wady Elain, and in the Arabah ; Wady Zalegah 
Akaba (Hart) ; Wady Zewerah (Lowne 149 !) ; N. & S. Midian (Burton !) 
Wady Gennah and neighb. (Lord !) ; Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) 
Wady Hebran (Schimp. 152 !) ; Wady Sewook and neighb. (Lord !). 

II. Jedda (Zohrab 35 !) ; coast line near Hodeida (S.) ; 
Shukra (S. 106); Lahej, Shukra, Jebel Nakhai (Defl.) ; Little Aden 

Fr. : Apr.-May 1868 (Lord), Apr. 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : N. Africa, Arabia. Orient. 

Vern. name : Zaram (Burton). 

!**. P. Cms Oalii L. Sp. PL 56. 

Habitat : IY. Maskat (ex Boiss.). 

Distrib. : The whole world except the Arctic regions. 

38. P. Teneriffae R. Br. A Prod. 1B9. '* 

Habitat : I. Wadies Elain, Elihyeh and Arabah ; Akaba (Hart) : 
Arabia Petraea (Bove, Auch.) ; Wady Shaikh (Boiss.). ^ , 1 
II. Aden, Shukra (Defl.). 
IY. Maskat (Auch. 5447). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean, Orient, Arabia, India. 

39. P. remotum Retz. Obs. IY, 17. 
Habitat : II. Shukra, Serrya (Defl.). 
Distrib. : Arabia, India. 

30. P. desertorum A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II, 365. 

Habitat : II. Tropical Arabia (Fischer 191. Schimp. 807, S. 893). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa, tropical Arabia. 

31. P. insculptum Steud. Syn. PL Gram. 49. 
Habitat : II. Tropical Arabia (S. 895). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa, tropical Arabia. 


14. Cenchrus L. 

1. C. montanus Nees in Royle 111. Bot. Himal. 416. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Zohrab 37 ! 217 !) ; in desert, near Jedda 
(Schimp. 796 ! 797 I, Ehrenb. 235 !) ; Gumfuda (Ehrenb. 235 !) ; cult, 
ground near Shukra (DefL 348 !). 

Fr. : Feb. 1825 (Ehrenb.), Mar. 1890 (Den.), Dee. 1835 (Schimp.). * 

Distrib. : Asia and tropical Africa. 

15. Pennisetum Rich. 

1. P. cenchroides A. Rich, in Pers. Syn. I, 72. 

Habitat : I. Wady Haroun, and the others leading into the Arabah 
from Edom ; Wady Arabah and Ghor es Safieh (Hart) ; Wady Zewerah 
(Lowne !) ; Mt. Horeb (Auch. 2998 !) ; Wady Arabah (Hart !) ; Wady 
Hebran (Schimp. 153 !). 

II. Jedda (Fischer 126 !, Zohrab 19 ! 20 ! 29 !) ; Wady 
Fatimah (Fischer 126!); Aden (Hook. 110!, Thomson!, Perry!); 
Menacha, 2,200 m. (S. 1951) ; Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 894) ; Moglaf, 300 
m. (S. 605) ; foot of Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 392) ; Aden, Shaikh Othman 
(S. 1950) ; Shukra (S. 95, 938) ; Gumfuda (Ehrenb. 233 I) ; Mor (Ehrenb. 
234 !) ; Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 894 !) ; neighb. of Shukra 
(Den. 349 ! 409 !) ; Jedda (Schimp. 973 !). 

III. Dhofar Mts., Hala (Bent 45 !) ; El Hami (S. 189, 172). 
IV. Near Maskat (Last !). 

Fl. : Dec. 1888 (S.), Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1857 (Thomson), Apr. 1835 (Schimp.), 
Mar. 1878 (Perry), Mar. 1881 (S.), Dec. 1888 (S.), Jan. and Feb. 1889 
(S.), Dec. 1847 (Hook.), 

Distrib. : Tropical regions. 

Vern. name : Ihbett (Hille) (S.).j 

%. P. depauperatum Schweinf. Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II, 

Habitat : II. Kahil above Menacha, 2,500 m. (S. 1471 !). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

3. P. dichotomum (Forsk.) Del. Fl. Eg. 159, t. 8, fig. l.~Panicum 
dichotomum Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. p. 19. 

Habitat : I. Wadies Nasb and Elain ; Debbet er Ramleh ; frequent 
in the Arabah (Hart) ; Arabia Petraea (Bove) ; Mt. Horeb (Auch. 
2999 !) ; Wady Sewook (Lord !) ; Sinai (Figari !) ; Wady Nasb (Hart !) ; 
Sinai desert (Auch. 3000 !) ; Wady Hebran (Schimp. 151 !) ; Nakkeb 
(Schimp. 308 !) ; Wady Farrun (Lord !). 

II. Shukra (S. 62 !) ; Oasis of Lahadj (Den. 141 !). 

III. Sibeh, 240 m. (Lunt 11 I). 

IV. Maskat (Auch. 5432 I). 


Fe. : Apr. 1835 (Schimp.), Apr. 1868 (Lord), Apr. and May (Figari), 
Mar. 1881 (S.), Dec. 1889 (Den.). 
Disteib. : Egypt, Arabia, India. 

4. P. glaucifolium Hochst. in Flora, XXIV (1841) I. Intell. 19; 
et ex A. Rich. Tent. FL Abyss. II, 382. 

Habitat : II. Above Menacha. 2,700 m. (S. 1949). 
Fe. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

5. P. orientale Rich, in Pers. Syn. I, 72. — P. gmaicum Decne. 

in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. 2, II (1834) 11. 

Habitat: I. Neighb. of Sinai (Bove 7, 19!, Figari!, Drake 83!); 
Abu Maurad and Mt. Sinai (Schimp. 115 !) ; Wady Hebran (Schimp. 
100 !). 

II. Menacha, 2,200 m. (S. 1502 !). 
Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Fe. : Feb. 1889 (S.), June 1832 (Bove). 

Distrib. : Algeria, Arabia, Orient, India. 

Vern. name : Haussefe (S.), nassje or nessje (Bove), sabote (Drake), hagheni 

6. P. quartiniaimm A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II, 384. 
Habitat : II. Menacha, 2,200-2,500 m. (S. 1699) 

Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Fe. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Disteib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

1. P. spicatum Kornicke nnd Werner, Getr. I, 284. 
Habitat : II. In the lowland of the Tehama, generally cultivated 
(S. 174, 1071, 1952) ; Shukra (S.). 

III. El Hami (S.). 

Vem. name : Dochn (S). 

8. P. americanum (L.) K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenw. Ostafr. B. 
(1895) 51.— P. tyfhoideum Rich, in Pers. Syn. I, 72. 

Habitat : II. Lahadj (Defl. 183 !), Shukra, Kamfer, Massana, Wadv 
Moaden (cult.) (Defl.). 

IV. Zor Hills (Cox and Knox). 
Fe. : Dec. 1889 (Defl.). 

Disteib. : Tropics. 

Vern. name : llm (Arabic, in Zor Hills). 

9. P. viliosum R, Br. Prod, in Salt, Abyss. App. 62, nomen; et 
in Fresen. Mus. Senckenh. II (1837) ]34. 


Habitat : II. Northern slope of the Shibam, 2,600 m. (S. 1648) ; 
neiglib. of Aden (Hunter 54 !) ; Menacha, 2,300 m. (S. 1582 !). 
Fe. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Disteib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

10. P. Yemense Den. Voy. Yemen (1889) 217. 
Habitat : II. Yaman (DefL). 

Disteib. : Yaman. 

11. P. Ruppellii Steud. Norn. ed. IT, II, 298. 

Habitat : II. Haifan (Den.) ; Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 247) ; foot 
of Jebel Melhan, 600 m. (S. 778) ; Menacha, 2,000-2,200 m. (S. 1502). 
Fl. : Dec. 1888 (S.), Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fe. : Dec. 1888 (S.), Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Disteib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

Vern. name : Ghorizzi (J. Bura) ; haussefe (J. Melhan) : silet-aregj (Menacha) 

13. P. Prieurii Knnth Rev. Gram. II, 411, t. 119. 

Habitat : II. Serrya (DefL). 

Disteib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia, India. 

10. Tricholaena Schrad. 

1. T. lougiseta Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. PL Gram. 92. 
Habitat : II. Ussil, 1,300 m. (S.). 
Disteib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

3. T. leucantha Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. PL Gram. 92. 
Habitat : II. Below Ussil, 1,100 m. (S. 1283) ; foot of Jebel Melhan, 
600 m. (S. 792) ; foot of Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 399). 
Fe. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Disteib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

3. T. grandiflora Hochst. in Flora XXIV (1841) Intel!. 19, nomen ; 
et ex A. Eich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II, 445. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, Coffee region (S. 425). 
Disteib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 
Vern. name : Hammere (Hille) (S.). 

4. T. Teneriffae Pari, in Webb. & Bert. Phyt. Canar. Ill, 425. 
Habitat : I. Wady Zewerah (Lowne 230 !) ; Wady Hebran (Schimp. 

150! 990!); Wady Gennah (Lord !) ; Sinai (Auch. 3811 !) ; Arabia 
Petraea (McDonald !) ; Central and S. Midian (Burton !). 

II. Island of Ketumbae (Ehrenb. !) ; Aden (Thomson, 
Hook. 109 !, Perry I, S. 13 !) ; Mt. Sidr. (Fischer 123 !) ; Wady Hedjan, 
near Ussil (S. 1283 !) ; Aden (Den. 56 ! S. 13 !). 


IV. Maskat (Aueh. 5447 !). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.), Apr. 1835 (Schimp.), Nov. 1888 (S.). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean; Orient. 

5. T. Wightii Nees & Am. ex Steud. Syn.Pl. Gram. 93. 
Habitat : II. Ussil, Wady Hedjan (S. 1340 !). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : India, Arabia. 

n. Setaria Beau v. 

1. S. verticillata Beauv. Agrost. 51. — Panicum adhaerens Forsk. 
descr. 20. 

Habitat : I. Near monastery of Mt. Sinai, cult, ground (Schimp. 

II. Regma near Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 980) ; Ussil, 1,400 
m. (S. 1947) ; below Menacha, 2,000 m. (S. 1592) ; Wady Fatimah 
(Schimp. 997 !) ; Jedda (Zohrab 235 !) ; Serrya (Defl.). 

Fr. : Feb. 1836 (Schimp.), July 1835 (Schimp.). Jan. and Feb. 

Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

%. S. viridis Beauv. Agrost. 51. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Holland !). 

IV. Maskat (Auch. 5434). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

18. Ehrliarta Thunb. 

1. E. abyssinica Hochst. in Flora XXXVIII (1855) 193. 

Habitat : II. Menacha, 2,500 m. (S. 1705!). 

Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia. 

10. OryzaL. 

1. O. sativa L. Sp. PL 333. 
Habitat : II. Yaman. 
Distrib. : Cultivated. 

%. O. australis (E. Br.) A. Br. ex Schweinf. Beitr. FL Aethiop, 
(1867) 300. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 
Distrib. : Tropical and subtropical regions. 


20. Lygeum L. 

1. L. spartum Loefi. ex Linn. Cent. PL I, 4. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

21. Phalaris L. 

1. P. canadensis L. Sp. PL 54. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 

Distrib. : Warm and temperate regions of Europe, N. Africa, W. 
Asia and America. 

3. P. minor Ketz. Obs. Ill, 8. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 

Distrib. : Greece, Orient, S. Africa. 

3. P. minor Retz. var. gracilis (Pari.) Aschers. — Schweinf. 111. 
til d'Egypt (1887) 167, n. 1149. 

Habitat : I. Wady Hamme (Schimp. 247 !, Boiss.). 
Distrib. : Native of the Mediterranean countries ; introduced in 
many other parts of the World. 
Vern. name : Chappa (Schimp.). 

4. P. paradoxa L. Sp. PL ed. II, 1665. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean, Orient. 

%%. AristidaL. 

1. A. mutabilis Trin. & Rupr. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. Ser. VI, 
VII (1849) 150 (excl. var. aequilonga). 

Habitat : II. Aden (Birdwood 102a !, Hook. 112 !). 

Fr. : Dec. 1847 (Hook.). 

Distrib. : Senegal, Kordofan, Egypt, Arabia, Punjab, Rajputana, 
Jodhpur, Southern India. 

3. A. mutabilis Trin. & Rupr. var. mcccana Fenzl. in Kotschy PL 
Aeth. n. 103. 

Habitat : II. Mecca. 
Distrib. : Yaman. 

3. A. adsccnsionis L. Sp. PL ed. I. p. 82. 

Habitat : I. Wady Hebran (Schimp. 159 !) ; neighb. of Mt. Sinai 
(Bove 12 ! s Schimp. 368 !). 

II. Aden ; Beyt el-Amir ; Shukra ; Serrya (De£..). 
IV. Maskat (Auch. 5446 !). 
Fr. : Apr. 1835 (Schimp.), May 1835 (Schimp.), June 1832 (Bove). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 


4. A. adscensionis L. var. pumila Coss. in Coss. & Durieu Expl. 
Sc. Alger. II, 84. 

Habitat : I. Sinai desert (Auch. 2993 !) ; W. Sewook (Lord !) ; 
Wady Zewerah (Lowne !) ; foot of Jebel Musa, 1,500 m. (Kneuck. 2al !) ; 
N. & Central Midian (Burton !). 

II. Aden (Perry, Thomson, Hook. 112 !) ; Yaman (Ehrenb. ! 
Traill. !) ; Jedda (Zohrab 26 !). 

Fr. : Feb. 1837 (Thomson), Mar. 1878 (Perry), Apr. 1868 (Lord), 
Apr. 1902 (Kneuck.), Dec. 1847 (Hook.). 

Disteib. : Common in most dry and hot countries. 

5. A. acutiflora Trin. et Eupr. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. Ser. VI, 
VII (1849) 167. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Bove). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Arabia. 

6. A. hirtigluma Steud. Norn. ed. II, I, 131. 

Habitat : I. Wady Hebran (Schimp. 164 !) ; Mt. Sinai (Schimp. 
161 !) ; Wady Farran (Boiss. !) ; Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) ; Wady 
Zewerah (Lowne 221 !) ; Wady Gennah & Sewook (Lord !). 

Fr. : Apr. 1868 (Lord), Apr. 1835 (Schimp.), May 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Egypt, Syria, Arabia. 

•Jf. A. brachypoda Tausch in Flora XIX (1836) 506. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Arabia. 

8. A. plumosa L. Sp. PL ed. II, 1666. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Boiss. !, McDonald !) ; Wady Ghurun- 
del & Eamleh (Lord !) ; El Tor (Schimp. 174 !) ; Eas Mohamemed, 
60-80 m. (Kneuck. 487) ; Debbet er Eamleh ; Wady el Tihyeh ; Akaba, 
and along the Arabah to the Ghor (Hart). 

Fr. : Mar. 1846 (Boiss.), Apr. 1904 (Kneuck.). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean region, Persia, Arabia. 

9. A. lanata Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. (1789) p. LXI, no. 79 and p. 25. 

— A. Forskalei Tausch Flora (1836) 506. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Sinai, Syria. 

10. A. funiculata Trin. et Eupr. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. Ser. VI, 
VII (1849) 159. 

Habitat : II. Shukra (Den.) ; El Gidan (Ehrenb. !) ; Jedda (Zohrab 
164 !). 

Distrib. : N. Africa, Arabia, Baluchistan, 


11. A. ciliata Desf. in Schrad. N. Journ. Ill (1809) 255. 

Habitat : I. Wadies Ghurundel and Arabah ; Ghor es^ Safieh 
(Hart); foot of Jebel Musa (Kneuck. 249!); Jebel Musa, 1,500 m. 
(Kneuck.) ; Wady Hebran (S. 165 !) ; Mt. Horeb (Auch. 2989 !) ; Mt. 
Sinai (Schimp. 161 !) ; Wady Sewook (Lord !) ; WadyMokateb (Boiss. !) ; 
Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) ; neighb. of Sinai (Bove 20 !). 
II. Aden, Khamfer (Defl.). 

Fr. : Mar. 1846 (Boiss.), Apr. 1868 (Lord), Apr. 1835 (Schimp.), 
Apr. 1902 (Kneuck.), May 1835 (Schimp.), June 1832 (Bove). 

Distrib. : N. Africa, S. Africa, Arabia. 

Vern. name : Massje (Bove). 

12. A. obtusa Del. Fl. Aeg.475, t. 13, fig. 2. 

Habitat : I. Wadies Nasb, Sudr, and Ghurundel (Elain) ; Debbet 
er Kami eh (Hart) ; Wady Ghurundel (Post 49 !) ; Wady Hebran (Schimp. 
163 !) ; Arabia Petraea (Figari !) ; Eamleh (Hart !). 
II. Yaman (ex Boiss.). 
IV. Central Arabia (Pelly !). 
Fr. : Mar. 1882 (Post), Apr. 1835 (Schimp.). 
Distrib. : N. Africa, S. Africa, Arabia. 

Observ. : Grows in tufts and forms the principal part of the grass 
of the desert (Pelly). 

13. A. paradisia Edgew. in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XVI (1847) II, 
1219. — A. calojjtila (Jaub. et Spach) ; Schweinf. in Boiss. Fl. Or. V 
(1884) 497. 

Habitat : I. Jebel Musa, 1,500 m. (Kneuck.) ; Arabia Petraea 
(McDonald !) ; Sinai Peninsula (Holland !). 

II. Ghissan (Ehrenb. 241 !) ; Aden (Anders !, Balfour !, 
Perry !, Thomson !, Hook. 108 !, Lunt 307 ! 336 !, S. 28 ! 48 !). 

III. Plains of Dhofar (Bent 49 !) ; El Hami (S. 202 !). 

IV. At the Persian Gulf (Auch. 5445). 

Fr. : Mar. 1881 (S.), Apr. 1861 (Thomson), Apr. 1881 (S.), Nov. 
1888 (S.), Dec. 1847 (Hook.). 

Distrib. : Persia, Afghanistan, Egypt, Arabia. 

14. A. imugens Desf. Fl. Atlant. I, 109, t. 35. 
Habitat : I. Sinai. 

Distrib. : N. Africa, Arabia, Turkestan, Siberia, Nubia. 

15. A. cocrulcscens Desf. Fl. Atlant. I, 109. 

Habitat : I. Wady el Tihyeh (Hart) ; Arabia Petraea (Schimp. 

Distrib. : Mediterranean, Nubia, Abyssinia, Senegal, Cape of Good 
Hope, India, New Holland. 


IS. A. coerulescens Desf. var. hreviaristata Schweinf. Bull. Herb. 
Boiss. (1894) App. II, 27. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 323) ; Ussil (S. 1134) ; foot 
of Jebel Melhan, 600 m. (S. 683) ; Menacha, 2,200 m. (S. 1524) : Eegma 
near Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 981) ; Aden (S. 26). 

Fr. : Jan.-Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Arabia, Aethiopia. 

It, A. coerulescens Desf. var. exilis Schweinf. 

Habitat : II. Menacha, 2,300 m. (S. 1957 !). 

Observ. : Doubtful species according to Stapf in H. K. 

18. A. Schweinfurthii Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 493. 
Habitat : Arabia (ex Muschler). 

Distrib. : Arabia, Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia, Eritrea. 

19. A. Schweinfurthii Boiss. var. Boissieri Schweinf. Bull. Herb. 
Boiss. (1894) App. II, 28. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Zohrab 24, 211 !) ; Shukra (S. 94 !), 
Fr. : Mar. 1881 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia, Aethiopia. 

20. A. pumila Decne. Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. II, 85. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea, Wady Shaikh (Boiss.) ; foot of Mt. 
Sinai (Auch. 2993). 

Distrib. : N. Africa, Arabia. 

23. Stipa L. 

1. S. arabica Trin. & Rupr. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. Ser. VI. Sc. 
Nat. V (1842) 77.— S. barbata Desf. Fl. Atlant, I, 97, t. 27. 

Habitat : I. Neighb. of Sinai (Bove 13 !) ; foot of Mt. Sinai (Schimp. 
107 !) ; Arabia Petraea (McDonald !). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean, Arabia. 

Vern. name : Hammara (Bove). 

2. S. tortilis Desf. Fl. Atlant. I (1798) 99, t. 31, fig. 1. 

Habitat : I. Wady Lebweh (Post 44 !) ; Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) ; 
Wady Hamnie (Schimp. 395 !) ; N., Central and S. Midian (Burton !). 
Fr. : Mar. 1882 (Post), Mar. 1835 (Schimp.). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean, Orient, S. Africa. 

3. 8. parviflora Desf. Fl. Atlant. I, 98, t. 29, 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) ; Mt. Sinai (Schimp. 
102 !, Lord !). 

Fr. : May 1835 (Schimp.). 
Pistrib. ^Mediterranean. 



4. S. capillata L. Sp. PL ed. II, 116. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea. 
Disteib. : Southern Europe, Northern Asia. 

5. S. Lagascae Roem. & Schult. Syst. II, 333. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Boiss.). 
Disteib. : Mediterranean, Orient, Arabia. 

24. Oryzopsis Michx. 

1. 0. miliacea (L.) Aschers.-Schweinf. 111. Fl. d'Egypt 169, n. 1173. 
— Piptatherum miliaceum Coss. Plant, crit. p. 129. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) ; Raphidim (Schimp. 
309 !) ; damp places of Sinai desert (Bove 14 !). 
Fe. : May 1835 (Schimp.), June 1832 (Bove). 
Disteib. : Mediterranean, N. Atlantic Islands. 

Vern. name : Sab al Abu Hossein (Schimp.). 

2. 0. coerulescens Hack, in Denkschr. Acad. Wien, I (1885) 75. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea. 
Disteib. : Asia Minor, Arabia. 

3. 0. holciformis Hack, in Denkschr. Acad. Wien, I (1885) 8. 
Habitat : I. Sinai region (Figari !) ; Mt. Catherine (Schimp. 312 !). 
Fe. : Mar. (Figari) ; May 1835 (Schimp.). 
Disteib. : Arabia, Persia. 

25. Piptatherum Beauv. 

I. P. multiflorum Beauv. Agrost. 18. 

Habitat : I. Wady es Sheikh ; wadies on both sides of the Arabah 
and in the main valley (Hart) ; Arabia Petraea (Schimp. 309, Boiss.). 
Disteib. : Europe, Siberia, Arabia. 

26. Heleochloa Host. 

1. H. dura Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 477. 

Habitat : II. Yaman (Traill !). 

III. Dhofar Mts., Hafa (Bent 32 !) ; near El Hami (S, 
174 !). 

Fl. : Apr. 1881 (S.). 
Fe. : Apr. 1881 (S.). 
Disteib. : Baluchistan, Arabia. 

2. H. schoenoides (L.) Host. Gram.. Austr. I (1801) 23, t. 30. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 
Disteib. : Mediterranean, Persia. 


M. Sporobolus R. Br. 

1. S. hamiensis Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) A pp. JI, 29. 
Habitat : III. El Hami (S. 196). 
Fl. : Apr. (S.). 
Fr. : Apr. (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

3. S. robustus Kunth Rev. Gram. p. 425, t. 126 (1829-35) et Emim. 
PI. I, 213, Suppl. p. 168. 

Habitat : II. Aden (Birdwood !). 

Distrib. : Niger, Cape Verde Islands, Gaboon Coast, Abyssinia, 
Eritrea, Senegambia, Suakim. 

3. S. capensis Kunth Enum. PL I, 212. 

Habitat : II. Plateau of Hagjera, 2,300=2,500 m. (near Menacha) 
(S. 1739 ! 1704). 

Fr. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : S. Africa, Arabia. 

4. S. minutiflorus Link Hort. Berol. I, 88. 
Habitat : IV. Near Maskat (Last !). 
Distrib. : India. 

Observ. : Last's plant is near the above species. 

5. S. glaucifolius Hochst. in Flora, XXV, part I (1842), Beibl. 

Habitat : II. Aden (Birdwood !). 

Distrib. : Tropical Africa, Punjab, Sind, W. Peninsula of India. 

6. S. indicus R. Br. Prod. 170. 

Habitat : II. Menacha, 2,300 m. (S. 1739A !■). 
Distrib. : All warm countries. 

1. S. setulosus (Trin.) Schweinf. Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II, 

Habitat : III. El Hami (S. 174 !). 
Distrib. : Arabia, Aethiopia. 

8. S. arabicus Boiss. Diagn. ser. I, XIII, 47. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 

IV. Maskat (Auch. 5425). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

9. S. spicatus Kunth Rev. Gram. 1, 67. 
Habitat : I. Ain Musa (Hart). 

II. Aden (Birdwood 130 !) ; Hodeidah (S. 157) , Jedda 



(Schimp. 826 !) ; Yaman (Bove !) ; El Gidan (Ehrenb. !). 

III. At the hot springs of el Hami (S. 159 !) ; Gharbbabaja, 
70 m. (Lunt 238 !). 

IV. Near Maskat (Alien. 5420 !, Bornm. 701 !). 
Fr. : Apr. 1881 (S.). 

Distrib. : N. Africa, Arabia, India. 

Vern. name : Elef (S.). 

10. S. minutus Schweinf. Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II, 29. 
Habitat : II. Jedda (Zohrab 209). 
Distrib. : Arabia, Aethiopia. 

38. Polypogon Desf. 
1. P. monspeliensis (L.) Desf. Fl. Atlant. I, QQ.—Phalaris cristata 

Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. p. 17. 

Habitat : I. Wady Farran (Lord !) ; Sinai (Auch. 2981 ! Holland !) ; 
Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) ; S. Midian (Burton !) ; Wady Elain ; 
Ghor es Safieh (Hart). 

Fr. : May 1868 (Lord). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean, Abyssinia. 

%. P. maritimus Willd. in Ges. Naturf. Fr. Neue Schr. Ill (1801) 

Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Southern Europe, Mediterranean. 

29. Agrostis L. 

1. A. alba L. Sp. PL 63, var. scabrighimis Boiss. FL Or. V, 514. 

Habitat : I. Neighb. of Sinai (Bove 17 !). 
Fr. : June 1932 (Bove). 
Distrib. : Northern temperate regions. 
Vern. name : Hammara (Bove). 

3. A. hirfella Hochst, ex Steud. Syn. PL Gram. 173. 
Habitat : II. Above Menacha, 2,500 m. (S. 1413). 
Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

3. A. lerticillata Vill. Prosp. 16. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (McDonald ! ; Schimo. 289). 

II. Ussil, 950 m. (S. 1167 !). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Europe, Arabia, 


4. A. Scliimperiana Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. PI. Gram. 170. 
Habitat : II. Above Menacha, 2,500 m. (S. 1413 !). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

30. Lagurus L. 

1. L. ovatus L. Sp. PL 81. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler, Herb, Kew !). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

31. Crypsis Ait. 

1. C. aculeata (L.) Ait. Hort. Kew. I, 48. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler, Herb. Kew !). 

Distrib. : Temperate and tropical countries. 

32. Trisetum Pers. 

1. T. pumilum Kunth Rev. Gram. I, 102. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Auch. ex Cosson). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

%. T. glomaceuiii Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 534. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Boiss. !). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Arabia, Syria. 

3. T. arenarium Labill. Ic. PL Syr. Dec. V, 10.— Trisetaria linearis 
Forsk. FL Aeg.-Arab. p. LX & 67. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Arabia, Syria. 

33. Avena L. 

1. A. sativa L. Sp. PL 79, var. afoyssioica Hochst. ex A. Rich. 
Tent. FL Abyss. II, 415. 

Habitat : II. El Hausan near Menacha, 2,400 m. (S. 1769). 
Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.k 
Fr. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

3. A. sterilis L. Sp. PL ed. II, 118. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Boiss.). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean, Orient. 

3. A. barbata Brot. Fl. Lusit. I, 108. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (McDonald ! Schimp. 277) ; Sicai 
(Holland, Auch. 2924 !). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Arabia. 



4. A. Wiestii Steud. Gram. p. 231. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Boiss.). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean, Orient. 

5. A. fatua L. Sp. PL 80. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Audi. 2924). 

Distrib. : Central and Southern Europe, N. Africa. Abyssinia, 
Northern Asia. 

34. Tristachya Nees. 

1. T. barbata Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. 269. 

Habitat : II. Yaman, near Ferine (Schimp. 788). 

Distrib. : Arabia, Afghanistan. 

35. Danthonia DC. 

1. II. Forskalii Trin. Sp. Gram. t. 49. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea, Ramla (Boiss.); between Tor and 
Sinai (Kneuck. 251) ; Wady Nasb ; Debbet er Ramleh ; Wady Arabah, 
near the Ghor (Hart). 

II. Jedda (Zohrab 295 !) ; Wady Fatimah (Schimp. 1038 !) ; 
near Taifa (Schimp. 787 !). 

IV. Central Arabia : From the sand ridges, 27th and 28th 
Feb. (Pelly !). 

Fr. : Feb. 1836 (Schimp.) ; Feb. (Pelly). 

Distrib. : Egypt, Arabia. 

Vern. name : Chagaret-el-ghemel (Bove). 

36. Cynodon Rich. 

1. C. dactylon Pers. Syn. PL I, 85. 

Habitat : I. Mt. Sinai (Schimp. 311 !) ; Wady Nasb (Drake 70 !) ; 
Ghor es Safleh (Hart). 

II. Neighb. of Lahadj (Defl. 310 !) ; Jedda (Zohrab 9 !) ; 
Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1011). 

Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Jan. 1890 (Defl.), May 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

Vera, name : Nihil (Schimp.), Nejezl (Drake), Ohbell (S.). 

%. €, dactylon Pers. var. 

Habitat : I. Wady Ghurundel (Hart). 

37. ttchocncfcldia Kunth. 

1. S. gracilis Kunth Rev. Gram. 283, t. 53 (1830). 
Habitat : II. Badjil, 190 m. (S. 595). 
Distrib, : Tropical Africa, Arabia. 


38. Enteropogon Nees. 

1. E. macrostachyum Munro ex Benth. in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIX 
(1881) 101. 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, above Hille, 900 m. (S. 297) ; Ussil, 
1,000 m. (S. 311) ; Wady Madfar, near Hodjela, 700 m. (S. 983) ; foot 
of Jebel Melhan, 600 m. (S. 703). 

Fl. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Jan. and Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

39. Chloris Sw. 

1. €. virgata Swartz. Fl. Ind. Occ. I, 203. — C. barbata L. var. 
meccano, Aschers, et Schweinf. 111. Fl. d'Egypt. 170, n. 1194. 

Habitat ; II. Near Mecca (Schimp. 802 !) ; Wady Fatimah in cult, 
ground (Fischer 127A !) ; Jedda (Zohrab 252 !) ; Mt. Kessr (Fischer 

Fl. : Feb. 1837 (Fischer). 

Fr. : Feb. 1837 (Fischer), Feb. 1836 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Arabia, Egypt, S. Africa, S. America. 

3. C. leptostacliya Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. FL Abyss. II, 407. 
Habitat : II. Regma near Hodjela, 800 m. (S. 959 !). 
Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia. 

3. C. tenella Koen. ex Roxb. Hort. Beng. 82. 

Habitat : II. Wadv Djara (Ehrenb. 236 !) ; Regma near Hodjela 
800 m. (S. 967 !). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1825 (Ehrenb.). 
Distrib. : Arabia, India. 

4. €. myriostachya Hochst. in Flora XXXVIII (1855) 204. 
Habitat : II. Hille, 600 m. (S. 385 !). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Arabia, tropical Africa. 

40. Melanocenchris Nees. 

1. M. plumosa Hochst. in Flora XXXVIII (1855) 273. 

Habitat : IT. Foot of Mt. Kessr near Harames (Schimp. 794 !) ; 
foot of Mt. Kessr (Fischer 129 !) ; cult, ground in Wady Fatimah (Fischer 
127 I). 

Fl. : Feb. 1837 (Fischer). 

Fr. : Feb. 1836 (Schimp.), Feb. 1837 (Fischer). 

Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 


41. Lepidopironia A. Rich. 

1. L. cenchriformis A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II, 442, t. 101 

Habitat : II. Jebel Bura, Hille (S. 385 ! 391) ; Aggara, near 
Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 898). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

43. Tetrapogon Desf. 

1. T. villosus Desf. Fl. Atlant. II, 388, t, 255. 

Habitat : I. Wady Zewerah (Herb. Kew !) ; Wady Gennah (Lord !) ; 
Arabia Petraea (McDonald !) ; Wady Hebran (Schimp. 155 I) ; Mt. 
Sinai (Bove 2 !, Figari !) ; Sinai desert (Aucb. 3001 !) ; Central Midian 
(Burton !). 

II. Aden (Thomson, Lunt 349 !, Balfour, Perry, Beevor 
94 !, S. 11) ; Mt. Sidr (Fischer 122 !) ; Shukra (S. 133). 

Fl. : Feb. (Fischer). 

Fr. : Apr. 1894 (Lunt), Apr. 1835 (Schimp.), May 1868 (Lord), June 
1833 (Bove). 

Distrib. : N. Africa, Arabia. 

Vera, name : Kammara (Bove). 

2. T. macranthus Benth. in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIX (1881) 106. 
Distrib. : Arabia (ex Index Kew.). 

3. T. triangularis Hochst. PI. Arab. Schweinf. n. 967. 

Habitat : II. Foot of Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 297) ; foot of Jebel 
Melhan, 600 m. (S. 799) ; Regma, near Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 967) ; Aggara 
near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1958). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Arabia, Abyssinia, Rajputana, Sind, Khandesh, S. India. 

43. Dinebra Jacq. 

1. D. retroflexa (Vahl) Panzer in Denkschrift. Acad. Munch. (1814) 
270, t. 12.— D. arabica Jacq. Fragm. Bot. p. 77, t. 121. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Arabia, India. 

44. Eleusiiie Gaertn. 

1. E. verticillata Roxb. Hort. Beng. 8. 

Habitat : II. Regma near Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 979 !) ; at the foot 
of Jebel Melhan, 600 m. (S. 798). 
Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 


%. E. floccifolia Spreng. Syst. I, 350. — Gynosurus floccifolius 
Forsk. Descr. 21, 22, 

Habitat : II. Menacha, 2,300—2,900 m. (S. 1700 !) ; Jebel Shibam 
at Menacha, 2,900 m. (S. 1671). 

Fb. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distbib. : Arabia. 

Vern. name : Ghassere (S.). 

3. E. flagellifera Nees in Linnaea XVI (1842) 220. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Ehrenb. 230 !, Zohrab 10 !, Fiscker 124 !) ; 
desert near Jedda (Schimp. 800 !). 

IV. Maskat (Auch. 5468, 5469). 
Fl. : Dec. and Jan. 1837 (Fischer). 
Fb. : Jan. 1836 (Scnimp.), Dec. and Jan. 1837 (Fischer). 
Distbib. : W. Asia ; . tropical Africa. 

4. E. glaucophylla Munro ex Bentb, in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIX 
(1881) 107. 

Habitat : II. Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1174) ; foot of Jebel 
Bura at Hille, 600 m. (S. 477) ; Aden (Lunt 309 !, Hook. 107 !) ; Jedda 
(Fischer 206 !) ; Yaman (Defl. 521 !) ; Mor (Ehrenb. 229 !). 

III. Shukra (S. 71a). 

IV. Maskat (Anch. 5468 !). 
Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Mar. 1837 (Fischer). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Apr. 1894 (Lunt), Dec. 1847 (Hook.). 
Distbib. : Tropical Africa, Arabia. 

5. E. indica Gaertn. Fruct. I, 8. 

Habitat : II. Northern slope of Jebel Bura, 900 m. (S.). 

IV. Maskat (Auch. 5466 !). 
Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Fb. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Distbib. : Cosmopolitan in tropics and sub tropics. 

6. E. coracana Gaertn. Fruct. I, 8, t. 1. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Zohrab 314 !) ; near Shukra (S. 68 !, Defl. 
347 I). 

Fb. : Mar. 1881 (S.), Mar. 1890 (Defl.). 
Distbib. : S. America, India, Egypt. 
Vern. name : Keneb (S.). 

1. E. obtusiflora (Hochst.) Schweinf. Aschers. Beitr. Fl. Aeth. 299. 
Habitat : II. Jebel Bura at Hille, 600 m. (S. 195) ; Eegma at 
Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 1289) ; below Ussil, 1,200 m. (S. 1202). 
Fl. : Jan.-Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fb. : Jan.-Feb. 1889 (S.). 


8. E. multiflora Hochst. in Flora XXIV (1841) I. Intel!. 20 nomen ; 
et in A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II, 412. 

Habitat : II. Above Menacha, near Kahil, 2,500 m. (S. 1462 !). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

9. E. aristata Elirenb. ex Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 557. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Zohrab 166 !) ; Shukra (S. 71 !) ; Aggara near 
Hodjela, 600 m., in maize fields (S. 1174 !). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Mar. 1881 (S.). 

Distrib. : Widely spread along the Red Sea within the tropics. 

Observ. : " Dactyloctenium glaucophyllum ■, Courbon in Ann. Sc. Nat. 
ser. 4, v, 18, (1862) p. 133, has the nodes densely and long pilose, its 
stem ' climbing ', etc, and can hardly have been the above species. " 
(C. B. Clarke).' 

10. E. Tocussa Fre^en. in Mus. Senckenb. II (1837) 141. 
Habitat : II. Wady Djara (Ehrenb. 227 !). 

III. Lokham near Mokalla, 60 m. (Lunt 78 !). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 
Observ. : Cultivated as food for cattle (Lunt). 
Vern. name : Dolchn (Lunt). 

45. Dactyloctenium Willd. 

1. D. aegyptiacum Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. (1809) 102S. 

Habitat : II. Liht (Ehrenb. 231 !) ; Wady Djara (Ehrenb. 228 !) ; 
Wolledje, Jebel Bura (S. 1928 !) ; Jebel Bura, 600 m. (S. 250) ; Jedda 
(Zohrab 219 !) ; Aggara near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1024) ; Regma near 
Hodjela, 900 m. (S. 1929) ; Wady Fatimah near Mecca (Schimp. 801 !) ; 
Wady Fatimah (Fischer 130 !). 

Fl. : Feb. 1837 (Fischer). Dec. 1888 (S.), Jan.-Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1836 (Schimp.), Feb. 1837 (Fischer), Dec. 
1888 (S.), Jan.-Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Widely spread throughout the tropics. 

Vern. name : Kerssi (S.). 

46. Leptochloa Beauv. 

1. L. uiiiflora Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. II, 409. 
Habitat : II. Ussil, 1,400 m. (S. 1348). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

%. L. obtusifolia Hochst. in Flora XXXVIII (1855) 203. 
Habitat : II. Hille, Jebel Bura (S. 495 !). 
Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 


41. Pappoplioruin Schreb. 

1. P. molle (Lehm.) Kunth Enum. PL I, 255. 

Habitat : II, JebelBura, Hille (S. 395 !) ; Ussil, 1,100 m. (S. 1341 !) ; 

Shukra (S. 134). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : S. Africa, Aethiopia, Arabia. 

Observ. : According to Stapf S. 395 is near P. elegans. 

%. P. brachystachyum Jaub. & Spach Illust. IV, 34. — Enneapogon 
brachystachyum Stapf in Fl. Cap. VII, 654. 

Habitat : I. S. Midian (Burton !) ; Sinai (Figari !). 

II. Yaman (ex Boiss.). 
Fr. : Apr. (Figari). 
Distrib. : N. Africa, Arabia. 

3. P. ceuchroides Liehst. in Roem. & Schult. Syst. II, 616 ; 

Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II, 36. 
Habitat : II. Below Ussil, 1,100 m. (S. 1341 !). 
Distrib. : S. Africa, Arabia. 

48. Boissiera Hochst. et Steud. 

1. B. Pumiiio (Trin.) Hack, in Denkschrft. Math.-nat. Classe Kais 
Akad. Wiss. Wien (1885) II, 9. — B. bromoides Hochst. ex Steud. in Flora 
(1838) 25. 

Habitat : I. Foot of Mt. Sinai (Schimp. 402 !) ; Arabia Petraea 
(McDonald 1) ; Sinai (Figari !). 

Fr. : Apr. 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Afghanistan. 

49. Aruodo Tourn. 

1. A. DonaxL. Sp. PL 81. 

Habitat : II. El Hausan, near Menacha, 2,400 m. (S. 1954). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean, Orient. 

Vern. name : Hallal (S. ). 

50. Phragmites Trin. 

1. P. maxima Blatt. & McCann in Bomb. Grasses (in Press).— 
Arundo maxima Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab, 24. 

Habitat : I. Wady el Ain (Hart !) ; N. Midian (Burton !). 
III. Dhofar Mts : Stream near coast (Bent 204 !). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

%. P. maxima Blatt. & McCann, var. isiaca (Del.) Cosson in Coss. 
Dur. Explor. Sci. Alger. II (1854-1867) 125. 

Habitat : I. W. es-Slo, W. Tarfa, forming gigantic tufts (ex Kneuck.). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 


3. P. maxima Blatt. & McCann, var. stenophylla Boiss. FL Or. V 
(1884) 563. 

Habitat : I. Sinai (ex Muschler). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

51. Ammochloa Boiss. 

1. A. palaestiua Boiss. Diagn. PL Or. Ser. I, XIII (1853) 51. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : N. Africa, Sinai, Syria. 

52. Lamarckia Moench. 

1. L. aurea (L.) Moench. Meth. PL Marb. (1794) 201. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean countries from the Canaries to the Punjab 
and Abyssinia. 

53. Koeleria Pers. 

1. K. phleoides Pers. Syn. I, 97. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Haussk.). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

%o K. sinaica Boiss. Diagn. Ser. I, XIII, 53. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Auch. 3061 !). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

54. Melica L. 

1. M. cupani Guss. Suppl. Fl. Sic. Prodr. 17, var. patmosa Boiss. 

Habitat : I. Top of Mt. Catherine (Schimp. 104 !). 

Fr, : May 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. of type : Mediterranean region, Orient, Himalayas. 

55. Sphenopus Trin. 

I. S. divaricate (Gouan) Reichb. Fl. Germ. Excurs. I (1830) 45. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb.* Kew !). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

56. Halopyrum Stapf. 

1. II. mucronatum Stapf in Hook. Ic. PL t. 2448 (1896). — Desmazeria 
unioloides Defl. Voy. Yemen 220. 

Habitat : II. Eastern shore of the isthmus of Barriere Gate, on 
small dunes and sandhills forming large bushes with stolons often reach- 
ing 90 cm. and more (S. !) ; Hodeidah (Den. 31 !) ; Yaman, in salt 
marshes (Bove 257 !). 


Without locality (Den. ! Birdwood !). 
Fr. : Jan. 1831 (Bove), Mar. 1887 (Den.). 
Distrib. : S. Arabia, N. India. 

5?. Eragrostis Host. 

1. B. coelachyrum Benth. in Hook. Ic. PL t. 1368. 

Habitat : II. Near Jedda (Schimp. 799 !) ; Jedda (Fischer 133 !, 

Zohrab 18 ! 212 !). 

Fl. : Jan. 1837 (Fischer). 

Fr. : Jan. 1837 (Fischer), Dec. 1835 (Schimp.), 

Distrib. : Egypt, Arabia. 

%. E. pilosa (L.) P. Beauv. Essai Agrost. (1812) 71. 
Habitat : I. Ghor es Safieh (Hart). 

II. Neighb. of Shukra, cult, ground (Den. 351 !), 
Fr. : Mar. 1890 (Defl.). 
Distrib. : Warm regions. 

3. E. minor Host. F3. Austr. I (1827) 135— 2?. poaeoides P. Beauv. 
Essai Agrost. (1812) 71. 

Habitat : I. Ghor es Safieh (Hart) : near Bestam (Schimp. 266 !). 
II. Near Mecca (Schimp. 999 !). 
IV. Near Maskat (Last !). 
Fr. : Aug. 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Throughout the Mediterranean region from the Canaries 
to Persia ; also extending to middle Europe. 

4. E. major Host. Gram. IV, t. 24. — E. megasiachya Link Hort. 
Berol. I, 187. 

Habitat : I. Ghor es Safieh (Hart). 

II. El-Gelil ; Serrya (Defl.) ; Aden (Birdwood !) ; Aggara 
near Hodjela, 600 m. (S. 1029) ; Eegma near Hodjela, 800 m. (S. 955) ; 
below Ussil, 950 m. (S. 1204, 1280) ; Jedda (Zohrab 12 ! 195 ! 200 ! 223 !) 
Shukra (S. 143). 

Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.), Mar. 1881 (S.). 

Distrib. : Tropical and subtropical regions. 

Vern. name : Ssechegge (Ussil). 

5. E. bipinnata (L.) Muschler in Fl. von el-Tor in Verhdlg. Bot. 
Ver. Prov. Brdbg. IL (1907) 7i.~E. cynosuroides (Retz.) Roem. & Schult. 
Syst. Veget. II (1817) 577.— Cynosurus durus Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. 
p. 21. 

Habitat : I. Wady Arabah (Hart !) ; Am Fabal, near El Faba, 
Ghor es Safieh (Hart). 

II. Lahej (Defl.) ; Aden (Birdwood 133 !). 


Distrib. : Egypt to India and southwards to E. tropical Africa. 

6. E. decidua Hochst. in Flora XXXVIII (1855) 324. 
Habitat : II. Menacha, 2,300 m. (S. 2008). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

7. E. ciliaris Link Hort. Berol. I, 192. 

Habitat : II. Aden (Anders. ! Hildebrandt !, Birdwood !) ; Jebel 
Melhan, 600 m. (S. 634) ; Shukra (S. 144A) ; Wolledje (S. 634 !) ; Jedda 
(Fischer !) ; Gumfuda (Ehrenb. !). 

Fl. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Feb. (Fischer), Feb. 1825 (Ehrenb.). 

Fr. : Jan. 1889 (S.), Feb. 1825 (Ehrenb.). 

Distrib. : Common throughout tropical Africa and America, and 
in N. India. 

8. E. ciliaris Link var. brachystachya Boiss. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Zohrab 15 !, Schimp. 798 !) ; Gumfuda 
(Ehrenb. !). 

III. El Hami (S. 176 !). 

Fl. : Feb. 1825 (Ehrenb.), Apr. 1881 (S.). 
Fr. : Jan. 1836 (Schimp.), Apr. 1881 (S.). 

9. E. plumosa Link Hort. Berol. I, 192, 
Habitat : II. Yaman (ex Boiss.). 

IV. Near Maskat (Last !). 
Distrib. : Tropical Africa and Asia. 

10. E. Brawiii Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II, 38. 
Habitat : II. South western slope of Shibam near Menacha, 2,500 m. 

(S. 1948). 
Fl. : Mar. 
Distrib. : Yaman, Eritrea, 

Vern. name : Thaf-thafu (Schimp.). 

11. E. aulacosperma Fres. Mus. Senckenb I. 144, 145, var. perennis 
Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II, 39. 

Habitat : II. Ussil, 1,100 m. (S. 1323) ; northern slope of Shibam 
near Menacha, 2,500-2,600 m. (S. 1452, 1654, 1946). 
Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fr, : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

13. E. rigidifolia Hochst. mssr. in sched. Schimp. Abyss. 1854, 
n. 374, 189. 

Habitat : II. Below Ussil, 950 m. (S. 1307). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Aethiopia, Arabia, 


13. E. yemenica Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II, 41. 
Habitat : II. Below Ussil, 1,100 m. (S. 1332). 

Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.), 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Yaman. 

14. E. mabrana Schweini. in Bull. Herb. Boiss, (1894) App. II, 42. 
Habitat : III. El Hami (S. 208). 

Fl. : Apr. 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

15. E. Barrelled Dav. in Morot. Journ. de Bot. VIII (1894) 289, & 
in Bull. Herb. Boiss. II (1894) 651. 

Habitat : II. Jedda (Zohrab !), Aden (Birdwood !). 

58. Aeluropus Trin. 

1. A. arabiciis Steud. Nom. ed. II, I, 30. 

Habitat : I. Sinai (ex Muschler). 

II. Aden, Sheikh Othman and Shukra (Den., S. 127) ; Aden 
(Thomson, Anders., Hook. !, Lunt 343 !) ; Perim Island (Herb. Kew !) ; 
Hodeidah (S. 156) ; Shukra (S. 141). 

Fl. : Dec. 1888 (S.), Mar. 1881 (S.), Apr. 1894 (Lunt). 

Fr.: Dec, 1888' (S.), Mar. 1881 (S.). 

Distrib. : Egypt, Abyssinia, Arabia. 

Vern. name : ScMchham (Tehama). 

%. A. villosus Trin. ex C. A. Mey. Verz. Pfl. Cauc. 18. 

Habitat : I. El Tor (Schimp. 204 !, Bove 9 !); N. Midian (Burton). 

II. Yaman (Schimp. 1000 !) ; Yaman : Salt marshes (Bove 
258 !) ; Jedda (Fischer 134 !, Zohrab 16 ! 210 !) ; Hodeidah (S. 155 !). 
III. Common on salt ground, Ghail-babagir, 70 m. (Lunt 
233 !). 

Fl. : Feb. (Lunt), Nov.-Jan. (Fischer), Dec. 1888 (S.). 

Fr. : Feb. (Lunt), Mar. 1835 (Schimp.), June 1832 (Bove), Dec. 
1888 (S.). 

Distrib. : Mediterranean and Caspian regions, Upper Egypt, Nubia, 
Central and S. Arabia, Persia, Afghanistan, Sind, Punjab, W. Peninsula 
of India, Ceylon. 

Vern. name : Neghil (Bove). 

3. A. littoralis Pari. Fl. Ital. I, 461. 

Habitat : II. Sandy plain between Barriere Gate and Shaikh 
Othman (Defl.). 

Distrib. : Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, Algeria, Tunis, 
Egypt, Arabia (not Sind). 


4. A. littoralis Pari. Fl. Ital. I, 461, var. repens Cosson Exp. Alg. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Bove, Schimp. 204). 

59. Dactylis L. 

1. D. glomerate L. Sp. PL 71, var. hispanica (Roth) Koch Syo. 
ed. I (1837) 808. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 
Distrib. of type : Europe, Northern Asia. 

60. Schismus Beauv. 

1. S. marginatus P. Beauv. Agrost. 74, t. 15. 

Habitat : I. Wady Sewook (Lord !) ; Arabia Petraea (McDonald !). 
Distrib. : Southern Europe, Central Asia, S. Africa. 

%. S. arabicus Nees Fl. Afr. Austr. 422. 

Habitat : I. Wady Zewerah (Lowne !) ; Sinai (Figari !) ; Wady 
es-Sle, Oasis Feiran (Kneuck. 267) ; Arabia Petraea (Schimp. 371). 
Fr. : May 1847 (Figari). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Sinai, Syria, Palestine. 

61. Poa L. 

1. P. alpina L. Sp. PI. 67. 

Habitat : I. Sinai (Auch. 2944 !). 
Distrib. : Northern and Arctic regions. 

2. P. sinaiea Steud. Syn. PL Gram. 256. 

Haeitat : I. Sinai (Figari !) ; Mt. Catherine (Schimp. 326 !). 
Fr. : May 1835 (Schimp.).' 
Distrib. : Arabia, Persia. 

3. P. annua L. Sp. PL 68. 

Habitat : I. Ghor es Safieh (Hart). 

II. Near Menacha, 2,500 m. (S. 1453 S) ; Taifa (Schimp 
968 !) ; Kahil near Menacha, 2,500 m. (S. 1453 !). 
Fl. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

4. P. pratensis L. Sp. PL 67. 

Habitat : II. Above Menacha, near el Ejan, 2 : 500 m, (S. 1669 !). 

Fr. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : N. temperate regions. 


5. P. meiiachensis Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. (1894) App. II, 

Habitat : II. North Western slope of Shibam, near Menacha, 2,000 
m. (S. 1720). 

Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Fr. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 
Distrib. : Arabia. 

6. P. abyssioica Jacq. Misc. II, 364. 

Habitat : II. Common weed in fields near Shukra (S. 144 !). 
Fr. : Mar. 1881 (S.). 
Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 

If. P. persica Trin. in Mem. Acad. Sc. Petersb. Ser. VI, I (1831) 373. 
Habitat : I. Mt. Sinai (Schimp. 105 !). 
Fr. : May 1835 (Schimp.). 
Distrib. : Arabia, Persia, Caucasia. 

8. P. soongarica Boiss. Fl. Or. V, 611. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Schimp. 105, Boiss.). 

Distrib. : Northern Asia, Arabia. 

62. Festuca (Tourn.) L. 

1. F. myurus L. Sp. PL 74. 

Habitat : I. Mt. Catherine (Schimp. 347 !). 

Fr. : May 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Europe, Northern Asia, N. America. 

%. F. brevis (Boiss. et Kotschy) Aschers.-Schweinf.-Muschler Fl. 
Egypt. I, 138. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Egypt. 

3. F. bre\is Aschers.-Schweinf.-Muschler, var. subdisticka Aschers- 
Schweinf.-Muschler Fl. Egypt. I, 138. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Egypt. 

4. F. inops var. spiralis Aschers.-Schweinf.-Muschler Fl. Egypt. I, 

Habitat : I. Sinai (ex Muschler, Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Cyrenaica, Syria. 

5. F. dertonensis Aschers, & Graebner Sym Mitteleurop. Fl. II, 1 
(1898-1902) 559. 



Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Europe, N. Africa, Asia. 

6. F. uiiiglumis Sol. in Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. I, I, 108. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Europe, Mediterranean region. 

?. F. pectinella Delile Ind. Sem. Hort, Monsp. (1836) 24. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Egypt, Algeria, Syria, Palestine. 

8. F. divaricata Desf . Fl. Atlant. I. 89, t. 22. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean region. 

63. Scleropoa Griseb. 

1. S. maritima Pari. Fl. Ital. I, 468. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Herb. Kew !). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean region. 

2. S. memphitica Boiss. Diagn. Ser. I, XIII, 62, 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Auch. 3037). 
Distrib. : Northern Africa, Syria. 

64. Cutandia Willk. 

I. C. scleropoides Willk. in Bot. Zeit, XVIII (1860) 130. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Pinard, Boiss. !) ; Oasis Firan, 600- 
650 m. (Kneuck. 259) ; Sinai (Auch. 3037 !). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

65. Bromus Dill, ex L. 

1. B. maximus Desf. Fl. Atlant. I, 95, t. 26. 

Habitat : I. Oasis Firan (ex Kneuck.). 

Distrib. : Europe, Mediterranean region and Caucasus. 

%. B. cognatus Steud. Syn. PI. Gram. 321. — B. adoensis Hochst. ex 
Steud. Syn. PI. Gram. 326. 

Habitat : II. Menacha and slopes of Shibam, 2,000-2,500 m. (S. 
1459, 1578, 1711, 1714). 

Fl. : Feb. and Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Fr. : Feb. and Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Abyssinia, Arabia. 


3. B. Japonicus Thunb. ssp. Siiiaica Hackel in Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 
(1903) 167. " Differt a typo spictdis lineari-oblongis, glumis fertilibus 
lanceolatis marginibus leniter et regulariter arcuatis nequaquam angulatis, 
apice acuto acute bidentatis. 

Dividitur in varietates 2 : 

a Sinaicus geiiuiiius, panicula cowtracta, ramis brevibus erecto patuiis, 
etc., 1. c. 

Habitat : I. W. es-Sle, plain of Baha, W. esch-Sheth (ex Knenck.). 

p incauus. 

Habitat : I. W. Tarfa, plain of Raha, Oasis Firan (ex Kneuck.). 

Disteib. : Japan. 

4. B. tectorum L. X Japonicus Thunb. 
Habitat : I. W. Tarfa, ca. 1,100 m. (ex Kneuck.). 

5. B. tascic ulatus Presl Cyp. et Gram. Sic. 39. 
Habitat : I. Sinai region (Figari !). 

Fe. : May 1849 (Figari). 
Distrib. : Eastern Mediterranean. 

6. B. rubens L. Cent. PL I, 5. 

Habitat : I. Oasis of Firan, 600-650 m. (Kneuck. 291) ; Arabia 
Petraea (Boiss.). 

Fe. : Apr. 1902 (Kneuck.) 
Disteib. : Mediterranean region. 

V. B. matritensis L. Cent. PL I, 5. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Neerg.). 
Disteib. : Europe, N. Africa, Orient. 

8. B. patulus Mert. & Koch in Boehl. Deutschl. Fl. I, 685, var. 

Habitat : I. Foot of Mt. Sinai (Schimp. 1766 !) ; Arabia Petraea 
(McDonald !). 

Disteib. : Europe, Orient, Afghanistan. 

9. B. pulchellus Fig. & Not. Agr. Fragm. 16. 
Habitat : I. Sinai (Figari ex Boiss. vol. V, 656). 
Disteib. : Arabia. 

10. B. hordaceus L. Sp. PL 77, var. glomeratus Aschers.-Schweinf,- 
Muschler Fl. Egypt. I, 146. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Muschler). 
Disteib. : Throughout the Mediterranean region, 


11. B. tectornm L. Sp. PL 77. 

Habitat : I. Mt. Sinai (Bove 6 !) ; Wady Nasb (Drake 50 !) ; foot 
of Mt. Sinai (Schimp. 175 !) ; Wady Farrun and Wady Gennah (Lord !) ; 
Arabia Petraea (McDonald !). 

IY. Central Arabia (Pelly !). 

Fe. : Apr. 1835 (Schimp.), May 1868 (Lard), June 1832 (Bove). 

Distrib. : Europe, Orient, Northern Asia. 

Vern. name: Sufsouf (Bove). 

\%. B. tectorum L. var. anisantha Hack, in Denkschrift. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien L., p. 77 (1885). 

Habitat : I. Foot of Jebel Musa, 1,500 m. (Kneuck. 290). 

66. Brachypodium Beauv. 

1. B. flexum Nees Fl. Afr. Gram. 456. 

Habitat : II. Shibam, above Menacha, 2,600 m. (S. 1655). 

Fl. : Feb. and Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Fk. : Feb. and Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : S. Africa, Arabia, Eritrea. 

3. B. distachyum Beauv. Agrost. 101. 
Habitat : I. Raphidim (Schimp. 252 !). 
Fr. : July 1835 (Schimp.). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean, Orient. 

3. B. ramosum Roem. & Schult. Syst. II, 737. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea. 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

67. Lolium L. 

1. L. multiflorum Lam. Fl. Fr. Ill, 621. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Boiss. !). 

Fr. : Apr. 1846 (Boiss.). 

Distrib. : Temperate regions of Europe and Asia. 

68. Agropyrum J. Gaertn. 
1. A. squarrosum Link Hort. Berol. I, 32. 

Habitat : I. Bestam (Schimp. 157 !). 
Distrib. : Mediterranean. 

3. A, orientale Roem. & Schult. Syst. II, 757. 
Habitat I Arabia Petraea (Figari !). 
Distrib. : Orient, N. Africa. 


69. Triticum L. 

1. T. vulgare Vill. Hist. Plant. Dauph. II (1787) 133, var., Baker in 
Kew Bull. (1894) 343. 

Habitat : III. Cult, under date palms (Lunt 148 !). 

Vern. name : Burr (Lunt). 

2. T. vulgare Vill. var. caesium Alef. 1. c. 330 ; Koern.- Werner. 1. c. 
I, 47 ; Schweinf. 1. c. 45. 

Habitat : II. Menacha (S. 17706 ! 1581). 
Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Vern. name : Berr maisseni (S.). 

3. T. vulgare Vill. var. ferrugineum Alef. Landw. Flora 330 ; 
Koern.-Werner 1. c. I, 47 ; Schweinf. 1. c. 45. 

Habitat : II. Menacha (S. 1770a !). 

Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Observ. : Winter wheat of four months duration (S.). 

Vern. name : Berr damdri (S.). 

4. T. vulgare Vill. ; Koern.-Werner Handb. Getreid. I, 40, var. 
crythrospermum Koern. 1. c. 46 ; Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 
(1894) App. II, 45. 

Habitat : II. Menacha, 2,300 m. (S. 1771 !). 

Fl. : Mar. 1889 (S.). 

Distrib. : Cosmopolitan. 

Observ. : Winter wheat of four months duration (S.). 

Vern. name : Berr hdlba (S.). 

5. T. durum Desf. Fl. Atlant. I (1798) 114 ; Koern.-Werner Handb. 
Getreid. I, 64, var. Megapolitana Koern. ? ; Kneuck. in Allg. Bot. 
Zeitsch. IX (1903) 167. 

Habitat : I. Cult, in Oasis Firan (Kneuck.). 

Observ. : Not quite sure, as ripe fruit is wanting (Kneuck.). 

Yd. Aegilops L. 

1. A. bicornis (Forsk.) Jaub. et Spach 111. PL Orient. IV (1850) t. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 

Distrib. : Cyrenaica, Marmarica, western Asia eastward to Meso- 

2. A. ovata L. Sp. PI. I (1753) 1050. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea. 
Distrib. ; Europe, Arabia. 


HI. Ley turns K. Br. 

1. L. iucurvatus Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820) 123. 
Habitat : I. Oasis Ain Musa (Kneuck. 528). 
Distrib. : Throughout 1 the Mediterranean region. 

%%. Hordeum (Tourn.) L. 

1. H. vulgare L. Sp. PL 84. 

Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (McDonald !). 

IV. Zor Hills (Cox and Knox). 
Distrib. : Cultivated. 

Vern. name : Hantah (Arabic in Zor Hills). 

2. H. vulgare L. subsp. tetrastichum Kcke. et Wern. Getr. I, 156 
var. pallidum Al. 

Habitat : II. Menacha, 2,400 m. (S. 1568). 

3. H. vulgare L. subsp. hexastichum, var. frrachyurum. 

Habitat : II. Near Menacha, 2,200 m. (S. 1684). 

Vern. name: Schair maissani (S.). 

4. H. vulgare L. subsp. distichum var. deficiens Steud. 

Habitat : II. At Menacha, on terraces, 2,300 m. (S. 1490) ; at Ejan, 
on the northern slope of the Shibam, 2,700 m. (S. 1644). 
Fr. : Feb. 1889 (S.). 

Vern. name : Schair habhuri (S.). 

5. H. vulgare L. var. spontaueum Kcke. Brauw. V (1882) 206. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (ex Muschler). 

Distrib. : Everywhere in the Orient from Palestine to Persia. 

6. H. murinum L. Sp. PI. 85. 

Habitat : I. Plain of Eaha, J. Arribe, Oasis Firan (ex Kneuck.). 
Distrib. : Europe, N. Africa, Arabia, Orient. 

7. H. maritimum With. Arr. Brit. PL 172. 

Habitat : I. Mt. Catherine, cult, ground (Schiinp. 383 !) ; N. Midian 
(Burton !). 

Fr. : July 1835 (Schimp.). 

Distrib. : Europe, N. Africa, Arabia, Orient. 

8. H. ithaburense Boiss. Diagn. Ser. I, XIII, 70. 
Habitat : I. Arabia Petraea (Boiss.). 
Distrib. : Asia Minor, Arabia, Orient. 


73. Elymus L. 

1. E. Caput-Mcdusac L. Sp. PL 84. 

Habitat : I. Desert of Sinai (Bove 10 !). 

Fr. : June 1832 (Bove). 

Distrib. : Southern Europe, N. Africa, Orient. 

74. Zea L. 

1. Z. mays L. Sp. PI. ed. I, 971. 

Habitat : II. Cultivated at Shaikh Othman (Yerbury ex litt.) ; 
Mokha (Yerbury). 

Distrib. : Cultivated. 

Vein, name : Hind (Yerbury). 


(Synonyms and species incidentally mentioned are printed iD italics.) 

Abrus L., 169 

Bottae Defl., 169 

precatorius L., 169 
Abutilon Gaertn., 78 

asiaticum Don., 78 

asiaticum Guill. & Perr., 79 

Avicennae Gaertn., 80 

bidentatum Hochst., 78 

denticulatum Planch., 79 

elaeocarpoides Webb., 80 

fruticosum Guill. do Perr., 79 

glaucum Sweet, 79 

glaucum Webb., 79 

graveolens W. & A., 79 

graveolens var. hirtum Masters, 80 

hirtum Sweet, 80 

indicum Sweet, 80 

microphyllum A. Rich., 79 

muticum Webb., 79 

pannosum Webb., 79 

ramosum Guill. & Perr., 80 

Theophrasti Medic, 80 

tortuosum Guill. & Perr., 79 
Acacia Willd., 182 

abyssinica Hochst., 182 

abyssinica var. macroloba Schweinf,, 

Adansonii Guill. & Perr., 183 

Adansonii Martelli, 184 

arabica Willd., 183 

asak Willd., 183 

Aucheri Eenth., 186 

campoptila Schweinf., 183 

eburnea Willd., 184 

Edgeworthii A nders., 184 

Ehrenbergiana Hayne, 185 

erioloba Edgew., 184 

etbaica Schw., 184 

Farnesiana Willd., 184 

fasciculata Guill. & Perr., 188 

fasciculata R. Br., 185 

flava Schweinf., 185 

Giraffae Sieb., 187 

glaucophylla Steud., 185 

hamulosa Benth., 183 

heterocarpa Del., 182 

Hunteri Oliv., 183 

Jacquemontii Benth., 188 

laeta R. Br., 185 

Lahai Steud. & Hochst., 185 

mellifera Benth., 186 

"Nefasia Schweinf., 186 

nilotica Del., 183 

nilotica var. arabica Flori, 183 

nubica Benth., 186 
Qrfota Schweinf., 186 

Perrottetii Steud., 188 

pterygocarpa Hochst., 186 

Saltiana Steud., 185 

Senegal Willd., 186 

Seyal Del., 187 

sp., 188 

spirocarpa Hochst., 187 

spirocarpa var. minor Schweinj '., 187 

s^ZZato Willd., 185 

Stephaniana Willd., 182 

tortilis Hayne, 187 

triacantha Hochst., 185 

vera Willd., 183 

Ferefc Guill. & Perr., 186 

verugera Schweinf., 186 

vervgera var. arabica Defl., 182 

xiphocarpa Hochst., 182 
Acalypha L., 439 

brachystachya Hornem, 439 

ciliata For sic., 439 

crenata Hochst., 440 

decidua Forsk., 440 

fruticosa Forsk., 440 

indica Z., 440 

paniculata Miq., 440 

spicata Forsk., 440 

super a Forsk., 439 

Vahliana Oliv., 440 
Acanthaceae, 353 
Acanthodium spicatum Del., 355 
Acanthus £., 356 

arboreus Forsk., 356 

efZwZis Forsk., 355 

imbricatus Eclgew., 355 

maderaspatensis Forsk., 355 
Acarua serratuloides Spreng., 264 
Achillea L., 252 

aegyptiaca Hort., 252 

arabica Kotschy, 252 

auriculata Willd., 252 

fragrantissima Sch.-Bip., 252 

Santolina L., 252 

semipectinata Desf., 252 
Achyranthes L., 401 

aspera L., 401 

aspera var. argentea Boiss., 402 

cordata Hochst., 400 

corymbosa L., 69 

decumbens Forsk., 395 

paniculata Forsk., 396 

papposa Forsk., 399, 405 

polystachya Forsk., 402 

villosa Forsk., 400 
Achyrocline Less., 239 

glumacea Oliv. & Hiern.., 239 

luzuloides Vatke, 239 



Schimperi Oliv. & Hiern., 239 
Acokanthera G. Don., 291 

abyssinica K. Schum., 291 

Deflersii Schweinf., 291 

Schimperi Schweinf., 291 

Schimperi var. Deflersii Stapf, 291 
Acridocarpus Guill. & Perr, 91 

orientalis A. Juss., 91 
Acrotaphros bibracteata Steud., 164 
Adenia ForsJc., 200 

venenata ForsJc., 200 
Adenium R. & S., 293 

arabicum Balf.f., 293 

arborescens Ehrenb., 293 

arboreum Ehrenb., 293 

Boehmianum Schinz., 293 

Honghel A. DC, 293 

micranthum Stapf, 293 

multiflorum KL, 293 

obesum Anders., 293 

obesum Hook., 293 

obesum Roem. & Schultz, 293 

sp., 293 
Adenoropium Forskalii Pohl, 436 
Adhatoda flava Nees, 359 

leptostachya Nees, 360 

nuda Nees, 361 

odora Nees, 360 

suaveolens Nees, 359 
Adina Salisb., 219 

Galpini Oliv., 219 

lasianiha K. Schum., 219 

microcephala Hiern., 219 

spathellifera Oliv., 219 
Adonis L., 1 

Cupaniana Guss., 2 

dentatus Del., 1 

dentatus var. subinermis Boiss., 2 

microcarpa var. dentatus Coss. & 
Krai., 1 

microcarpus Z)C, 2 
Aegilops L., 517 

bicornis Jaub. & Spach, 517 

ovata X., 517 
Aeluropus Trin., 511 

arabicus Steud., 511 

littoralis ParZ., 511 

littoralis var. repens Cosson, 512 

villosus Trin., 511 
Aeonium leucoblepharum Webb., 196 
Aerua ForsJc., 400 

Bovei Edgew., 401 

javanica Wight, 400 

javanica var. Bcvei Webb., 401 

lanata Juss., 400 

lanata var. rotundifolia Moq., 400 

lanata var. viridis Moq., 400 

tomentosa ForsJc., 400 

tomentosa var. Bovei C. B. CI., 401 
Aeschynomene L., 165 

arabica De#., 165 
Agathaea abyssinica Hochst., 232 

dentata Rich., 232 
Agathophora Bunge, 410 

alopecuroides Bunge, 410 
Agialida arabica Van Tiegh., 109 

rotundifolia Van Tiegh, 109 
Agrocharis melanantha Hochst., 218 
Agropyrum J. Gaertn., 516 

orientale Roem. dk ScJiult., 516 

squarrosum Link, 516 
Agrostis L., 500 

alba war. scabriglumis Boiss., 500 

hirtella Hochst., 500 

Schimperiana Hochst., 501 

verticillata FiW., 500 
Aizoon X., 207 

canariense L., 207 

hispanicum £., 208 
Ajuga L., 384 

bracteosa JFaZZ., 384 

chia Schreb., 384 

crenata Hochst., 384 

Iva Schreb., 384 

remota Benth., 384 

tridactylites Ging., 384 
Albersia cavdata Boiss., 398 

polygama Boiss., 398 
Albizzia Durazzini, 188 

Lebbek Benth., 188 
Albuca L., 46C 

abyssinica Dryand, 460 

Yerburyi Ridley, 460 
Alcea acaulis Boiss., 75 

apterocarpa Boiss., 75 

Kurdica Boiss., 75 

rosea L., 76 

striata Alef., 76 
Alchemilla L., 191 

cryptanta Steud., 191 
Alectra Thumb., 350 

arabica Deft., 350 
Alhagi Desv., 164 

camelorum Fisch., 104 

mannifera Desv., 164 

Maurorum Medic, 164 
Alismataceae, 470 
Alkanna Tausch., 318 

orientalis Boiss., 318 

tinctoria Tausch., 318 
Allium X., 461 

ascalonicum £., 461 

cepa L., 461 

neapolitanum Cirillo., 461 

nigrum Z., 461 

paniculatum var. pallens Boiss., 461 

sativum L., 461 

sinaiticum Boiss., 461 

stamineum Boiss., 461 
Allophylus Z., 120 

africanus Martelli, 120 

rubifolius Ti??^., 120 
Aloe Tourn., 463 

inermis ForsJc., 463 

Luntii Baker, 463 

menachensis ScJiweinf., 463 

pendens ForsJc., 464 

percrassa Schweinf., 463 



rubroviolace* Schtveinf., 464 

sabaea Schweinf., 463 

tomentosa DefJ., 464 

trichosantha Berger., 463 

vaccillans Forsk., 463 

vera var. angustifolia Schweinf., 464 

vera var. officinalis Forsk., 464 
Alsine Scop. 66 

arabica Fisch. & Mey. 67 

Billardieri Boiss. 66 

brevis Boiss., 66 

corniculata Clus., 64 

filifolia Schweinf., 66 

media L., 65 

Meyeri var. major Boiss., 66 

picta Fenzl, 66 

picta var. sinaica Boiss., 66 

proeumbens Fenzl, 67 

prostrata Del., 70 

Schimperi Hochst., 66 

sinaica Boiss., 66 

succulenta Del., 68 

tenuifolia Cranutz., 67 
Althaea L., 75 

acaulis Cavan., 75 

apterocarpa Fenzl, 75 

cretica Weinm., 76 

gariepensis E. Mey., 76 

kurdica Schlech., 75 

Ludwigii £., 76 

rosea Cav., 76 

striata DC, 76 
Alysicarpus Neck., 165 

Hochstetteri Rich., 166 

numinularifolius DC, 165 

rugosus DC, 166 
Alyssum L., 17 

arabicum Ditr. <fc Schinz, 17 

cheiranthifolium Willd., 15 

clypeatum L., 15 

homalocarpum Boiss., 17 

horebicum Boiss., 17 

libycum G'oss., 17 

marginatum Steud., 17 

maritimum Lam., 17 
Amarantaceae, 395 
Amarantus L., 396 

Blitum L., 396 

Stow Moq., 398 

Blitum var. polygonoides Moq., 398 

caudatus L., 397 

chlorostachys TP«W», 397 

gangeticus L., 397 
graecizans L., 397 
hybridus L., 397 

mangostanus L., 397 

oleraceus L., 397 

paniculatus L., 397 

patulus Bertol, 398 

polygamus L., 398 
polygonoides Roxb., 398 

racemis viridibus Forsk., 399 

retroflexus L., 398 

sp., 399 

sylvestris Desf., 398 
sylvestris var. manus 398 
tristis L., 397 
viridis L., 398 
Amaryllidaceae, 456 
Amaryllis cholchiciflora Ker-Gawl., 458 

montana Labill., 457 
Amberboa abyssinica Rich., 267 
crupinoides Dc, 267 
Lippii DC, 267 
sinaica DC, 267 
Amblogyna polygonoides Dalz. & Gibs., 

Ambrosea L., 250 

maritima L., 250 
Ammannia Houston, 197 
aegyptiaca Del., 197 
auriculatav a,r. subsessilis Boiss., 197 
baccifera var. aegvptiaca Koehne, 
Ammi L., 213 

copticum L., 213 
majus L., 213 
Ammochloa Boiss., 508 

palaestina Boiss., 508 
Ampelidaceae, 117 
Amygdalus L., 189 
communis L., 189 
Persica L., 189 
Amyris gileadensis L., Ill 
Za/a^ Forsk., 110 
Kataf Forsk., 110 
opobalsamum L., Ill 
Anabasis L., 413 

articulata Moq., 413 
Ehrenbergii Schweinf., 413 
setifera ilfog., 414 
Anacardiaceae, 120 
Anacardium Rottb., 121 
occidentale Z/., 121 
Anacyclus Z., 252 

alexandrinus Willd., 252 
Anagallis Z., 287 
arvensis L., 287 

arvensis var. laiifclia Post, 287 
latifolia X., 287 
phoenicea Lam., 287 
Anagvris L., 123 

foetida L., 123 
Anaphrenium Z/. ife?/., 121 
abyssinicum Hochst., 121 
insigne Fiori, 121 
Anarrhinum Desf., 344 

abyssinicum Jaub. & Sp., 344 
arabicum Jaub. & Sp., 344 
fruticosum Desf., 344 
orientale Benth., 344 
pedicellatum T. Anders,, 345 
pubescens Fres., 341 
Anastatica L., 14 

hierochuntica L., 14 
Anchusa L., 317 

aegyptiaca DC, 317 
aggregata Lehm., 317 

F 2 



asperrima Del., 319 
,/Zava Forsk.,. 317 
hispida Forsk., 317 
Milleri Willd., 317 
officinalis L., 317 
spinocarpos Forsk., 316 
strigosa Labill., 318 
tuberculata Forsk., 318 
undulata L., 318 
Anchyropetalum Fenzl., 61 

gypsophiloides Fenzl. , 60 
Andrachne L., 432 

aspera Spreng., 432 
telephioides L., 433 
telephioides var. rotundifolia J. 
Mu ell. , 433 
Androcymbium Willd., 458 
palaestinum Baker, 458 
Andropogon L., 481 

annulatus Forsh., 483 

Aucheri Boiss., 482 

Aucheri war. sorghum quinquo 

plumis Hack., 482 
caesius Nees, 483 
contortus L., 484 
distachyus L., 483 
foveolatus DeZ., 483 
halepensis Brot., 482 
hirtus L., 482 

hirtus war. genuinus Hack., 482 
Jwaraneusa Jones, 484 
laniger Des/., 483 
pertusus Willd., 483 
quinqueplumis Hochst., 482 
schoenanihus var. caesius Hack., 

sehima Steud., 484 
sorghum wr. aethiops Kcke., 481 
sorghum var. albida Kcke., 481 
sorghum var. Ankolib Hack., 482 
sorghum var. arabicus Kcke., 481 
sorghum var. bicolor L., 481 
sorghum var. niger Ard., 481 
sorghum var. rubrocernuus Kcke., 

sorghum var. saccharatus Kcke., 

sorghum var. subglabrescens Hack., 

sorghum var. usorum Nees, 481 
sorghum var. yemensis Kcke., 481 
Aneilema i£. £r., 465 

aequinoctiaie Kunth, 466 
aequinoctiale var. minor C B. 

Clarke, 466 
Ehrenbergii Clarke, 465 
Forskalei Kunth, 465 
tacazzeanum Hochst., 465 
Anemone L., 1 

coronaria L., 1 
Anethum Foeniculum L., 216 

graveolens L., 216 
Anisophyllum Forskalei Klotzsch & 
Garcke, 423, 426 

Anisosciadium DC, 211 
lanatum Boiss., 211 
Anisotes A^ees, 360 

trisulcans Nees, 360 
Anogeissus PFaZL, 197 
Bentii Baker, 197 
Anona £., 4 

glabra Forsk., 4 
squamosa L., 4 
Anonaceae, 4 
Anthemis L., 253 

arvensis var, incrassata Aschors.- 

Schweinf., 254 
Chia L., 253 
Cotula L., 253 
deserta Boiss., 253 
Kahirica Vis., 254 
melampodina DeZ., 253 
microsperma Boiss. & Kotschy, 254 
odontostephana Boiss., 254 
peregrina Dene., 253 
philistea Boiss., 254 
retusa DeZ., 254 
rotata Boiss., 254 
Anthospermum L., 222 
hirsutum DC, 222 
hirtum ? Cruse, 222 
muriculatum Hochst., 222 
Antiaris Lesch., 446 

challa Blatter, 446 
Anticharis .EM., 339 
arabica Anders, 340 
arabica Endl., 339 
arabica Hochst., 340 
glandulosa Aschers., 340 
glandulosa var. intermedia Teira- 

ciano, 339 
linearis Hochst., 340 
Schim,peri Endl., 339 
Antichorus depressus L., 90 
Antirrhinum Z-., 345 
aegypticum L., 342 
apterum Vatke, 345 
haelava Forsk., 342 
orontium L., 345 
orontium var. abyssinicum Hochst. j 

pterospermo A. Rich., 345 
Antopetitia cancellata Hochst., 138 
Antura Forsk., 291 

hadiensis G. F. Gmel., 291 

Garcini DC, 249 
Apium L., 212 

graveolens L., 212 
nodinorum Reichb. /., 212 
Apluda X., 480 

varia var. aristata Hack., 480 
Apocynaceae, 291 
Arabis L., 12 

auriculata var. sinaica Boiss., 12 
engleriana Musch., 13 
schweinf urthiana Musch., , t 13 
sinaica Boiss,, 12 


Araceae, 471 
Arbutus L., 284 

Unedo L., 284 
Areca L., 469 

catechu L., 469 
Arenaria L., 65 

arabica Hort., 67 
deflexa Dene., 65 
filifolia Forsk., 66 
flaccida Roxb., 68 

geniculate/, Poir., 67 

graveolens Schreb., 65 

halophila Bunge, 68 

herniariaefolia Desf., 67 

heterosperma Guss., 68 
papillosa Steud., 65 
pharnaceoides Ser., 66 

procumbens Vahl, 67 

prostrata Ser., 70 

salsuginea Bunge, 67 

serpyllifolia var. glutinosa Koch, 66 

succulenta Ser., 68 
Argelia Delilii Dene., 295 
Argemone L., 6 

mexicana L., 6 
Argyrolobium ^cH. cfc Zeyfe., 127 

arabicum Jaub. <fc Sp., 127 

arabicum T. Anders., 128 

Kotschyi Boiss., 128 

crnithopodioides Jaub. & Sp., 128 

roseum Jaub. & Sp., 128 

sp., 128 

unrnorum Jaub. cfc Sp., 128 

virgatum Baker, 128 
Arisaema Mart., 471 

Bottae jScfcoft, 471 

enneaphyllum Hochst., 471 

flavum /Scftoft, 471 
Aristida L., 494 

acutiflora Trin. & Bupr. 495 

adscensionis L., 494 

adscensionis var. pumila Coss., 495 

brachypoda Tausch, 495 

caloptila (Jaub. & Spach), 496 

ciliata Desf., 496 

coerulescens Desf., 496 

coerulescens var. breviaristata 
Schweinf., 497 

coerulescens var. escilis Schweinf., 

Forslcalei Tausch, 495 

funiculata Trin. & Bupr., 495 

hirtiglunia Steud., 495 

lanata Forsk., 495 

mutabilis Tr-m. cfc Bupr., 494 

mutabilis var. meccana, 494 

obtusa Del., 496 

paradisia Edgew., 496 

plumosa L., 495 

pumila Decne., 497 

pungens Des/., 496 

Schweinf urthii Boiss., 497 

Schweinfurthii var. Boisseri 

Schweinf., 497 

Aristolochia L., 418 

.BoMae Jaub. & Sp., 419 
bracteata Betz., 418 
dubia Forsk., 419 

Maurorum var. latifolia Boiss., 419 
rigida Duch., 419 
semper vir ens Forsk., 418 
sp., 419 
Aristolochiaceae, 418 
Armeniaca vulgaris, Lam., 189 
Arnebia Forsk., 319 

cornuta F. & If., 319 
decumbens Coss. & Krai., 319 
flavescens Boiss., 320 
hispidissima DC, 319 
linearifolia DC, 320 
tinctoria Forsk., 320 
Arnica hirsuta Forsk., 270 
Artemisia L., 255 

Abrotanum L., 255 
abyssinica Sch.-Bip., 256 
arborescens L., 256 
Delileiana Bess., 257 
Herba alba Asso., 256 
judaica L., 256 
monosperma Del., 257 
pontica Forsk., 256 
Arthraxon Beauv., 480 

lanceolatus var. serrulatus Hack.. 
Arthrocnemum Moq., 407 
glaucum Ung., 407 
macrostachyum Mor. & Delp., 407 
Arthrosolen C A. Mey., 420 
somalense Franch., 420 
sphaerocephalus Baker, 420 
Arum esculenium L., 471 

flavum Forsk., 471 
Arundo Town., 507 
Donax L., 507 
maxima Forsk., 507 
Asclepiadaceae, 294 
Asclepias L., 296 

aphylla Forsk., 297 
contorta Forsk., 297 
cordata Forsk., 298 
Forskalii Boem. & Shultz, 296 
fruticosa L., 296 
gigantea Forsk., 295 
glabra Forsk., 299 
laniflora Forsk., 296 
nivea Forsk., 296 
procera Willd., 295 
radians Forsk., 291 
setosa Forsk., 296 
sinaica Musch., 296 
spiralis Forsk., 298 
stipitacea Forsk., 297 
Aspalathus persica Burm., 140 
Asparagus To am,, 464 
africanus Lam., 465 
asiaticus L., 464 
officinalis L., 465 
racemosus Willd., 464 



scaberulus Rich., 465 
stipularis Forsk., 465 
Asperugo L., 316 

procumbens L., 316 
Asperula sinaica Dene., 225 
Asphodeline Reichb., 461 

lutea Reich., 461 
Asphodelus L., 462 
fistulosus L., 462 

fistulosus var. clavatus Baker, 462 
fistulosus var. tenuifolius Baker, 462 
microcarpus Viv., 462 
pendulums Coss. & Bur., 462 
tenuifolius var. micranthus Boiss., 

viscidulus Boiss., 462 
Aspidopterys Yemensis Den., 92 
Aspidostigma acuminatum Hochst., 108 
Aster abyssinicus Hochst., 232 
crispus Forsk., 245 
ericaefolius Forsk., 232 
Asteriscus aquaticus var. pygmaeus DC, 
graveolens DC, 249 
pygmaeus Coss. & Dur., 249 
Schimperi Boiss., 250 
Asterocephalus arenarius Vis., 228 
Asterolinum Link & Hoffm., 287 
Linum stellatum Post., 287 
stellatum Hoffm. & Link, 287 
Astragalus L., 153 

abyssinicus Hochst. & Steud., 153 
acinaciferus Boiss., 154 
alexandrinus Boiss., 154 
amalecitanus Boiss., 154 
ammocryptus Boiss., 160 
annularis Forsk., 154 
arabicus Ehrenb., 156 
arabicus Kotschy, 154 
arnoceras Bunge, 155 
baeticus L., 154 
Barba Aronis Ehrenb., 159 
Barba Mosis Ehrenb., 156 
bidentatus Ehrenb., 157 
bombycinus Boiss., 155 
brachyceras Boiss., 157 
brachyceras Ledeb., 155 
cahiricus DC, 155 
Camelorum 0. & W., 155 
Christianus L., 155 
corrugatus Bertol, 155 
corrugatus var. brevipes Post, 156 
cruciatus Link, 156 
drepanocarpus Hochst., 157 
echinus DO., 156 
echinus var. sinaicus,, 156 
eremophilus Boiss., 156 
fatimensis Hochst., 156 
Forskalei Boiss., 160 
Fresenii Dene., 157 
gyzensis Del., 157 
hamosus Kotschy, 155 
hamoaus £.,1S7 
hauarenziz Boiss., 15? 

hispidulus DC, 157 

isopetalus Boiss., 155 

Kneuckeri Freyn, 157 

Kotschyanus Fisch., 161 

lanigerus Viv., 154 

leucacanthus Boiss., 158 

longifiorus Del., 155 

minutus Boiss., 160 

numinularioides Desf. t 158 

peregrinus Vahl, 158 

prolixus Sieb., 158 

pseudostella Z)eZ., 158 

radiatus Ehrenb., 158 

radicatus Dene., 159 

Rauwolfii Vahl, 160 

saccharensis Ehrenb., 157 

sanctus Boiss., 159 

Schimperi Boiss., 159 

scorpius Boiss., 159 

Sieberi DC, 159 

sinaicus Boiss., 158 

sparsus Dene., 159 

spinosus Musch., 159 

stella Oouan, 160 

steZZa M. B., 156 

stella var. acutifolius Desf., 158 

stella var. obtusifolius DC., 160 

sultanensis Bunge, 155 

tenuirugus Boiss., 160 

tribuliformis Hochst., 160 

tribulcides Del, 160 

tribuloides var. leiocarpus Boiss., 160 

tribuloides var. minutus Boiss., 160 
trigonus DC, 161 
trimestris Boiss., 155 
trimestris L., 161 
tuberculosus DC, 161 
tumidus Willd., 159 
varius DC, 161 
virgatus Pallas, 161 
Asy stasia Blume., 358 

coromandeliana Nees, 359 
gangetica I 7 . Anders., 358 
petalidioides -De/L, 359 
Atractylis £., 263 

cancellata L., 263 
citrina Coss. & Krai., 263 
flava Des/., 263 
flava var. citrina Musch., 263 
flava var. glabrescens Boiss., 263 
prolifera Boiss., 263 
serratuloides Sieb., 264 
Atraphaxis £., 414 

spinosa var. sinaica Boiss., 414 
Atriplex L., 404 

alexandrium Boiss., 405 
crystallinum Ehrenb., 404 
dimorphostegium Karel & Ker., 404 
Ehrenbergii F. v. M. 404 
farinosum Forsk., 404 
Halimus L., 404 

hastatum var. salinum Wallr., 404 
Kataf Ehrenb., 404 
laciniata L., 404 



leucocladum Boiss., 404 

palaestinum Boiss., 405 

parvifolium Lowe, 405 

portulaccoides L., 405 

roseum L., 405 
Aubrietia Adans., 17 

schweinfurthiana Musch., 17 
Avena L., 501 

barbata Brot., 501 

fatua L., 501 

sativa var. abyssinica Hoscht., 501 

sterilis £., 501 

Wiestii St&ud., 541 
Avicennia L., 365 

aZ6a Blum, 365 

officinalis L., 365 
Azadirachta .4. Juss., 113 

indica JL. Juss., 113 
Azima Law., 291 

tetracantha Lam,, 291 

Baccharis aegyptiaca Forsk., 233 

resiniflua Hochst. & Steud., 235 
Baehmeria hypoleuca Hochst., 448 
Balanites Delile, 109 

aegyptiaca Del., 109 

arabica Blatter, 109 

rotundifolia Blatter, 109 
Balanophoraceae, 423 
Balanus myrepsica Belon, 122 
Ballota L., 380 

arabica Hochst. & Steud., 382 

damascena Boiss., 380 

Schimperi Benth., 380 

undulata Benth., 380 
Balsamea abyssinica Engl., 110 

Mukul Engl., Ill 

Schimperi Engl., 112 
Balsamodendron abyssinicum Berg., 110 

gileadense Kunth, 111 

kafal, 110 

Kataf Kunth, 110 

mukul Hook., Ill 

myrrha Nees, 111 

opobalsamum Kunth, 111 

Playfairii Hook, f., Ill 

Boxburghii Stocks, 111 

Schimperi Berg., 112 
Barbeya Schweinf., 449 

oleoides Schweinf., 449 
Barkhausia adenothrix A. Rich., 274 
Barleria L., 356 

acanthoides Vahl., 356 

arabica Belang., 356 

Aucheriana Nees, 356 

bispinosa Vahl., 356 

Candida Nees, 357 

diandra Hochst. & Steud., 357 

farinosa Defl., 357 

Hildebrandtii S. Moore, 357 

Hochstetteri Nees, 357 

macracantha R. Br., 358 

noctiflora Hochst., 356 

noctiflora L. /., 357 

Prionitis L., 357 
Smithii Rendle, 357 
sp., 358 

spinicyma Nees, 356 
triacantha Hochst., 357 
trispinosa Vahl, 358 
trispinosa var. microphylla Nees, 
Bauhinia L., 181 

inermis For sic, 181 
Bellevalia comosa Heldr., 460 

fiexuosa Boiss., 459 
Bentia Bolfe., 362 

fruticulosa Bolfe, 362 
Berberidaceae, 5 
Berberis Forsk., 5 
Berberis L., 5 

aristata DC, 5 

Forskaliana C. K. Schneider, 5 
sp., 5 

tinctoria Lesch., 5 
Berchemia IVecfc, 116 

yemensis Defl., 116 
Bergia abyssinica Rich., 392 
Bersama Fresen., 120 

abyssinica Fres., 120 

integrifolia A. Rich., 120 

serrata A. Rich., 120 

Berula angustifolia Koch, 214 

Bicornella Arabica Defl., 453 

Bidens L., 251 

abyssinica Sch.-Bip., 251 
apiifolia Forsk., 252 
pilosa L., 251 
Bignoniaceae, 353 
Biscutella L., 29 
apula L., 29 
columnae Ten., 29 
didyma war. apula Ooss., 29 
didyma var. minor Blatter, 29 
Bixineae, 53 
Blainvillea Cass., 251 
Gay ana Cass., 251 
latifolia Z>C, -251 
rhomboidea Cass., 251 
Blastania Kotschy & Peyr., 205 

fimbristipula Kotschy da Peyr., 205 
Blepharis Jwss., 355 

boerhaaviaefolia Pers., 355 
edulis Pers., 355 
edulis var. congesta Bolfe, 355 
maderaspatensis Heyne, 355 
sp., 356 
Blepharispermum Wight., 236 
hirtum Oliv., 237 
yemense £>e/?., 236 
Blumea DO., 235 
aurita DC, 235 
Jacquemonti Hook. /., 236 
purpurascens Rich,, 236 
Boeriiaavia L., 389 

ascendens Willd., 389 
diandra Forsk., 391 
dichotoma Vahl, 39 J 



diffusa Forsk., 391 
elegans Ghoisy, 389 
elegans var. stenophylla Boiss., 389 
glutinosa Vahl, 389 
grandiflora Rich., 390, 391. 
pedunculosa Rich., 389 
plumbaginea Cav., 389 
plumbaginea var. dichotoma 

Schweinf., 390 
plumbaginea var. Forskalei Schw- 
einf., 390 
plumbaginea var. glabrata Boiss., 

plumbaginea var. grandiflora Schw- 
einf., 390 
plumbaginea var. viscosa Boiss., 390 
repanda Willd., 391 
repens L., 390 
repens var. conjungens Aschers., & 

Schweinf., 391 
repens var. diffusa Hook. /., 391 
repsns var. elegans Aschers. & 

Schweinf., 389 
repens var. undulata Aschers. -Sch- 
weinf., 391 
repens var. viscosa Ghoisy, 391 
rubicunda Steud., 389 
scandens Ehrenb., 391 
scandens Forsk., 390 
stellata Wight, 391 
verticillata Poir., 391 
viscosa Fres., 390 
Boissiera Hochst. & Steud., 507 
bromoides Hochst., 507 
Pumilio Hack., 507 
Bonaveria Securidaca Desv., 138 
Boraginaceae, 306 
Borago verrucosa Forsk., 313 
Borrago arabica Ehrenb., 314 
Boscia Lam., 43 

angustifolia Rich., 43 
arabica Pestalozzi, 44 
intermedia Hochst., 43 
mossambicensis Klotzsch, 43 
pubens Rich., 44 
reticulata Hochst., 43 
salicifolia Oliv., 44 
Boswellia Roxb., 112 

Carterii Birdw., 112 
Frereana G. Birdw., 112 
sacra Fliick, 112 
serrata Carter, 112 
Boucerosia aaronis Hart, 301 
adenensis Defl., 302 
Aucheriana DC, 302 
Awdeliana Dell., 302 
cicatricosa Defl., 303 
dentata Defl., 303 
Forskalii Dene., 303, 304 
penicillata Defl., 303 
quadrangula Dene., 304 
sinaica Dene., 304 
sp., 304 
Bo ichoa Cham., 3G3 

marrubifolia Schauer, 363 

pterygocarpa Schauer, 364 
Bovea sinaica Dene., 347 
Brachypodium Beauv., 516 

distachyum Beauv., 516 

flexum Nees, 516 

ramosum Roem. & Schult., 516 
Brachyramphus lactucoides Anders., 279 
Brassica L., 21 

amplexicaulis Hochst., 21 

arvensis L., 24 

Aucheri Boiss., 34 

bracteolata Fisch. & Mey., 21 

campestris L., 21 

eruca L., 24 

fragilis Sieber, 23 

juncea Hk. f. & Th., 22 

napus L., 22 

nigra Koch, 22 

oleracea L., 22 

oleracea var. botrytis DC., 22 

Schimperi Boiss., 22 

sinaica Boiss., 25 

Tournefortii Gouan., 22 

Willdenowii Boiss., 22 
Breweria evolvuloides Choisy, 329 

evolvuloides R. Br., 329 

evolvuloides Vatke, 329 

intermedia Hochst., 329 

latifolia Hochst., 329 

oxycarpa Hochst., 329 

virgata Vatke, 329 
Bridelia Willd., 432 

tomentosa var. glabrata Schweinf., 
Brocchia cinerea Vis., 255 
Bromus Dill, 514 

adoensis Hochst., 514 

cognatus Steud., 514 

fasciculatus Presl., 515 

hordaceus var. glomeratus Aschers. - 
Schweinf. -Muschler., 515 

Japonicus Thunb. ssp. Sinaica 
Hack., 515 

matritensis L., 515 

maximus Desf., 514 

patulus Mert. & Koch,, 515 

patulus var. villosa, 515 

pulchellus Fig. & Not., 515 

rubens L., 515 

tectorum L., 516 

tectorum L. X Japonicus Thunb., 

tectorum var. anisantha Hack., 516 
Brotera bracteosa Guill. & Perr., 86 
Browallia humifusa Forsk., 350 
Brunella L., 378 

vulgaris L., 378 
Bryonia obtusa Rich., 202 
? Bsuss Forsk., 288 
Buchnera hermonthica Del., 350 

humifusa Vahl, 351 
orobanchoides R. Br., 350 
Buddleia L., 305 


acuminata R. Br., 306 

foliata R. Br., 305 

polystachya Fres., 305 
Bufionia L„ 67 

rnulticeps Dene., 67 
Bulbine L., 461 

asphodeloides Spreng., 461 
Bunias cakile L., 32 

spinosa L., 31 
Buphthalmum arabicum Del., 249 

graveolens Forsk., 249 

spinosum L., 250 
Bupleurum L., 212 

glaucum Ledeb., 212 

linearifolium mr. Schimperianum 
Boiss., 212 

nodifiorum Smith, 212 

proliferum Del., 212 

protractum var. heterophyllum Wolff, 

Schimperi Boiss., 212 

semicompositum L., 212 

subovatum Link, 212 
Burseraceae, 110 

Cacalia odora Forsk., 259 

pendula Forsk., 260 

sempervirens Vahl, 258 

semperviva Forsk., 257 

sonchifolia L., 257 
Cadaba Forsk., 42 

farinosa Forsk., 42 

farinosa var. microphylla Rich., 42 

glandulosa Forsk., 42 

heterotricha Stocks, 42 

longifolia DC, 43 

monopetala Edgew., 42 

rotundifolia Forsk., 43 

scandens Pax., 43 
Cadia Forsk., 175 

arabica J. F. Gmel., 175 

purpurea J.ii., 175 

varia L'Herit., 175 
Caesalpinia L., 175 

data Sw., 176 

pulcherrima Swartz, 175 
Caesalpinieae, 175 
Caidbeja adhaerens Forsk., 448 
Cajanus DC, 173 

|aw DC, 173 

indicus Spreng., 173 
Cakile Gaertn., 32 

aegyptiaca Gaertn., 32 

arabica Velen. & Bornm., 32 

maritima Scop., 32 

maritima var. aegyptiaca Coss., 32 

maritima var. 8. integrifolia Boiss, 

maritima var. sinuatifolia DC, 32 
Calendula L., 261 

aegyptiaca Z>es/., 261 

arvensis L., 261 

arvensis M. B. Taur., 261 

persica, C. 4. Mey. t 261 

Calliandra Benth., 188 

umbrosa, Benth., 188 
Calligonum L., 415 

comosum L'Herit., 414 
Callipeltis £tev., 223 

aperta Boiss. & Buhse, 223 
cucullaria #tev., 223 
Calotropis R. Br., 295 

procera R. Br., 295 
Camelina Crantz., 21 

hispida Boiss., 21 
Camellia grandiflora Forsk., 353 
Cameraria obesa Spreng., 293 
Campanula L., 283 

dimorphantba Schweinf., 283 
dulcis Dcrce., 283 
edulis Forsk., 283 
Erinus L., 283 
leptopetala Ehrenb., 284 
rigidipila Hochst. & Steud., 283 
sarmentosa Hochst., 283 
Schimperi Vatkc, 283 
sulphurea Boiss., 283 
Campanulaceae, 283 
Campuleia hirsuta Rich., 350 
Campylanthus Roth, 348 
junceus Edgew., 348 
Canavalia A dans., 170 

polystachya Schweinf., 170 
Canna L., 454 

indica L., 454 
Cannaceae, 454 
Cantuffa exosa J. F. Gmel., 176 

lacerans Chiov., 176 
Capparidaceae, 34 
Capparis L., 44 

aegyptia Lam., 45 
aphylla Roth, 44 
cartilaginea Dene., 44 
decidua Edgew., 44 
galeata Fres., 44 

galeata var. montana Schweinf, 45 
heteroclita Roxb., 41 
inermis Forsk., 45 
mithridatica Forsk., 41 
mucronifolia Boiss., 45 
oblongifolia Forsk., 41 
parviflora Boiss., 45 
sodada R. Br., 44 
spinosa L., 45 

spinosa var. aegyptia Boiss, 45 
spinosa var. galeata Hk. f. & Th., 44 
spinosa var. parviflora Boiss., 45 
spinosa var. rupestris Boiss., 45 
uncinata Edgew., 44 
Capraria arabica Steud. & Hochst., 339 

dissecta Del., 347 
Caprifoliaceae, 218 
Capsella Moench., 26 

bursa-pastoris Moench., 26 
Capsicum L., 336 
annuum L., 336 
frutescens L., 336 
Caraea pinifolia Hochst., 261 


Caralluma B. Br., 301 

aaronis N. E. Br., 301 

adenensis K. 8 chum., 302 

anemoniflora Berger, 302 

arabica N. E. Br., 302 

Aucheriana N. E. Br., 302 

Awdeliana Berger, 302 

chiysostephana Berger, 302 

cicatricosa N. E. Br., 303 

coinmutafca Berger, 303 

dentata Blatter, 303 

flava N. E. Br., 303 

Forskalii K. Schum., 303 

Luntii N. E. Br., 303 

penicillata N. E. Br., 303 

quadrangula N. E. Br., 304 

robusta N. E. Br., 303 

scutellata Defl., 301 

sinaica Berger, 304 

sp., 304 

subulata Dene., 304 

torta N. E. Br., 304 
Cardaria latifolia Jaub. & Sp., 28 
Cardiospermum L., 119 

canescens Wall., 119 

clematideum Rich., 119 

Halicacabum, L., 119 

microcarpum, J?. jB. K., 119 

oblongum Rich., 119 

truncatum Rich., 119 
Cardiostegia Kotschyi Presl, 86 
Cardiotheca pubescens Ehr., 344 
Carduncellus .Adaws., 269 

eriacephalus Boiss., 269 

kentrophylloides £a/cer, 269 
Carduus L., 264 

arabicus Jacq., 264 

argentatus L., 264 . 

eryngioides P. Alpin., 267 

pycnoc9phalus 0«r. arabicus Boiss., 
Garex L., 478. 

Burchelliana var. leiocarpa bch- 
iveinf., 478 

diluta Bieb., 478 

diluta var. Bottae C. B. Clarke, 478 

distans L., 479 

divisa Huds., 478 

stenophylla wr. planifolia Boiss., 
Carissa £., 291 

abyssinica R. Br., 291 

Candolleana Jaub. & Sp., 291 

cornifolia Jaub. & Sp., 291 

edulis Vahl, 291 

Jlfe^e Hochst., 291 

Richardiana Jaub. & Sp., 291 

Schimperi A. DC, 291 

Schimperi Balf. f., 291 
Caroxylon imbricatum Moq., 412 
Carrichtera Adans., 26 

annua Aschers., 26 

FeMae DC, 26 
Carthamus L., 269 

lanatus Z., 269 

tinctorius L., 269 
Carum copticum Benth. & Hook, f., 213 

Petroselinum Benth. & Hook, f., 214 
Caryophyllaceae, 57 
Cassia L., 177 

absus L., 177 

acutifolia Del., 177 

adenensis Benth., Ill 

angustifolia Vahl, 178 

aschreh Forsk., 179 

auriculata L., 178 

cana Wenderoth, 178 

fistula L., 178 

holosericea Fres., 178 

lanceolata Collad., 177 

lanceolata Forsk., 180 

ligustrina Forsk., 180 

medica Forsk., 178 

nigricans Vahl, 178 

obovata Collad., 179 

obtusa Roxb., 179 

occidentals L., 179 

oocarpa Baker, 179 

procumbens Forsk., 178 

pubescens R. Br., 178 

pumila var. yemensis Defl., 180 

Schimperi Steud., 178 

senna Forsk., 178 

senna L., 179 

sophera Hochst., 179 

sophera L., 180 

sunsub Forsk., 180 

Tora L., 180 
Cassytha L., 419 

filiformis L., 419 
Catacline sericea Edgew., 151 
Catha Forsk., 114 

edulis Forsk. 114. 

Forskahlii Rich., 114 

spinosa Forsk., 115 
Caucalis L., 218 

glabra Forsk., 217 

melanantha Benth. & Hook. /., 218 

Stocksiana Boiss., 218 

tenella Del, 218 
Caucanthus Forsk., 92 

Arabicus Lamk., 92 

edulis Forsk., 92 

Forskalii Raeusch., 92 
Caulinia ovalis R. Br., 452 
Caylusea St. Hil., 45 

abyssinica Fisch. & Mey., 45 

canescens St. Hil., 46 

canescens var. abyssinica Schweinf., 

canescens var. prostrata Post, 46 
Cebatha Forsk., 4 

b. foliis pubescentibus Forsk., 5 

edulis Forsk., 4 
Celastraceae, 114 
Celastrus arbutifolius Hochsfc., 114 

edulis Hochst., 114 

edulis Vahl, 114 



montanus Roth, 115 
obscurus Rich., 114 
parviflorv.s Vahl, 115 
Schimperi Hochst., 114 
senegalensis Lam., 115 
serratus, 114 
serrulatus R. Br., 114 
Celosia L., 395 

argentea L., 395 
argentea var. vera Moq., 395 
caudata Vahl, 396 

cristata var. castrensis Moq., 395 
cristata var. splendens Moq., 395 
populifolia Moq., 395 
trigyna L., 395 

trigyna var. fasciculinora Fenzl., 396 
Celsia L., 341 

Bottae Defl., 341 
parviflora Dene., 341 
Celtis £., 442 

australis Rich., 442 
integrifolia Lam., 442 
integrifolia Lam., 446 
Kraussiana Bernh., 442 
vesiculosa Hochst., 442 
Cenchrus L., 490 

montanus Nees, 490 
Centaurea Del., 267 
Centaurea L, } 266. 

aegyptiaca D, 266 
Ammocyamus Boiss., 266 
araneosa Boiss., 266 
Carduus Forsk., 263 
crupinoides Desf., 267 
dhofarica Baker, 267 
dimorpha Fw., 267 
eriophora Forsk., 266 
eryngioides Lam., 267 
Hochstetteri Oliv. & Hiern., 267 
Lippii L., 267 
maxima Forsk., 268 
pallescens DeZ., 268 
Schimperi DC, 268 
scoparia DC, 268 
sinaica DC, 268 
solstitialis Z., 269 
virgata Lam., 269 
Cephalandra indica Naud., 205 
Ce.ihalanthus spathelliferus Baker, 219 

verticillatum Boivin, 219 
Cephalaria Schrad., 227 
syriaca Schrad., 227 
syriaca var. sesselis Post, 227 
Cerastium L., 64 

dichotomum L., 64 
glomeratum Thuill., 65 
inflatum Link, 65 
viscosum X., 65 
vulgatum Sm., 65 
Ceratogonum sinuatum Hochst. & Steud., 

Ceratonia L., 180 

siliqua L., 180 
Ceratonychia nidus Edgew., 395 

Ceratophyllaceae, 450 
Ceratophyllum L., 450 

demersum L., 450 
Ceropegia L., 300 

boerhaaviifolia Defl., 300 
rupicolaDe/Z., 300 
sepium Defl., 300 
sp. Defl., 301 
squamulata Dene., 300 
tubulifera De/Z., 301 
variegata Dene., 301 
Chadara arborea Forsk., 87 
tenax Forsk., 88 
velutina Forsk., 89 
Chamaemelum auriculatum Boiss., 255 
Charachera viburnoides Forsk., 363 
Chascanum laetum Fenzl., 364 

marrubifolia Fenzl., 363 
Cheiranthus L., 11 

bicornis Sibth. & Sm., 10 
Cheiri L., 11 
Corinthius Boiss., 11 
Farsetia L., 14 
incanus L., 10 

Lenoneri Heldr. & Sartor, 11 
linearis Forsk., 14 
tristis Forsk., 10 
Chelidonium- corniculaium L., 7 
dodecandrum Forsk., 7 
hybridum L., 8 
Chenolea Thunb., 405 

arabica Boiss., 405 
Chenopodiaceae, 402 
Chenopodium L., 402 
album L., 402 
ambrosiodes L., 402 
£0^5 Forsk., 403 
Botrys L., 402 
foetidum Schrad., 403 
fruticosum L., 408 
murale L., 402 
opulifolium Schrader, 403 
Schraderianum ii!oem. c& Schultz., 403 
triangulare Forsk., 402 
viride Forsk., 403 
vulvaria L., 403 
Chloris Sw., 503 

barbata var. meccana Aschers & 

Schweinf., 503 
leptostachya Hochst., 503 
myriostachya Hochst., 503 
tenella Koen., 503 
virgata Swartz., 503 
Chorispora DC, 34 

syriaca Boiss., 34 
Chrozophora Aec&., 438 
obliqua A. Juss., 438 
obliqua var. angustifolia Schweinf, 

obliqua var iwma Schweinf., 438 
oblongifolia ^. Jwss., 438 
plicata A. Juss., 438 
tinctoria Juss., 438 
Chrysanthellum ^'cA., 252 



sp., 252 
Chrysanthemum L., 254 

coronarium L., 254 
Chrysocalyx Schimperi Hochst., 
Chrysocoma L., 235 

montana Vahl., 243 

mucronata Forsk., 242 

ovata Forsh., 235 

spathulata Forsk., 230 

spicata Forsk., 237 
Cicer L., 166 

arietinum L., 166 

cuneatum Hochst., 166 
Cichorium L., 271 

alatum Hochst. & Steud., 248 

Bottae Defl., 271 

divaricatum Schousb., 271 

endivia L., 271 

pumilum J acq., 271 
Cienfuegosia Welshii Garcke, 84 
Cineraria L., 257 

abyssinica Sch.-Bip., 257 

Schimperi Sch.-Bip., 257 
Cirsium abyssinicum Sch.-Bip., 264 
Cissus arbor ea Forsk., 290 

cyphopetala Fres., 117 

digitata Lamk., 117 

quadrangidaris L., 118 

rotundifolia Vahl, 118 

ternata Gmel., 118 
Cistaceae, 50 
Cistanche Hoffm. & Link, 351 

lutea Hoffm. & Link, 351 

rosea Baker, 351 

tubulosa Wight, 351 
Cistus arabicus L., 52 

ellipticus Desf., 50 

ledifolius L., 50 

Lippii L., 51 

micranthus Viv., 51 

niloticus L., 50 

L., 51 
Forsk., 50 

stipulatus p. Forsk., 50 

thymifolius L., 52 

virgatus Desf., 52 
Citrullus Neck., 204 

colocynthis Schrad., 204 

vulgaris Schrad., 204 

vulgaris var. Kasch Blatter, 205 
Citrus L„ 108 

aurantium Risso, 108 

Bigaradia Loisel, 108 

limonum var. dulcis Moris, 109 

limonum var. pusilla Risso, 108 

medica L., 108 
medica Risso, 109 
Cladostigma Radlk., 329 

dioicum Radlk., 329 
Claoxylon Dejiersii Schweinf., 439 

Mercurialis Thwaitos, 439 
Clematis L., 1 

Flammula L., 1 
grata Oliv., 1 


inciso-dentata Rich., 1 

orientalis var. simensis O. Ktze., 1 

orientalis var. Wightiana O. Ktze., 1 

simensis Fresen., 1 
Cleome £., 34 

arabica L., 34 

areysiana Defl., 35 

brachycarpa Fa/iZ, 35 

brachystyla Defl.., 36 

brevisiliqua Schult.f., 36 

chrysantha Dene., 36 

cor data Ehrenbg., 37 

Denersii Blatter, 38 

digitata Forsk., 36 

diversifolia Hochst. & Steud., 35 

droserifolia Del, 36, 39 

Ehrenbergiana Schweinf., 37 

gracilis Edgew., 37 

grandiflora Ehrbg., 38 

gynandra Forsk., 40 

hispida Defl., 38 

hispida Ehrbg., 36 

macradenia Schweinf., 37 

muricata Edgew., 38 

oxypetala Boiss., 37 

pallida Kotsehy., 37 

papillosa Steud., 37 

paradoxa R. Br., 37 

parvi flora R. Br., 35 

pentanervia, Ait. 38 

pentaphylla L., 40 

polytricha Franch., 38 

pruinosa Anders., 38 

pulchella Defl., 38 

quinquenervia DC, 38 s 39 

radula Fenzl., 37 

roridula R. Br., 36 

ruta Cambess., 35 

scaposa DC, 37 

Schweinf urthii Gilg., 39 

siliguaria Br. Br., 34 

sp., 39 

trinervia Fres., 39 

Vahliana Fresen., 35 

venusta Fenzl., 38 

viscosa L., 39 
Clinopodium fruticosum Forsk., 380 
Clitoria L., 169 

Ternatea L., 169 
Ciuytia L., 437 

Jauberfciana Muell.-Arg., 437 

lanceolata Forsk., 437 

lanceolata Jaub. & Sp., 437 

lanceolata var. pubescens Rich., 437 

rayricoides Jaub. & Sp., 437 

Richardiana Muell.-Arg., 437 

Richardiana var. pubescens Muell.- 
Arg., 437 

Richardiana var. ? tenuirama 
Schweinf., 437 
Cluytiandra Muell., 433 

somalensis Pax., 433 
Clypeola £., 29 

glabra Boiss, 29 



gracilis Planch., 29 

maritima L., 17 

microcarpa Moris, 29 
Cnicus L. t 264 

lanceolatus Willd., 264 
Coccinia W. & A., 205 

indica W. & A., 205 

moghadd Aschers., 205 
Cocculus DC, 4 

Cebatha DC, 4 

hirsutus Diels, 5 

Leaeba DC, 4 

pendulus Diels, 4 

villosus DC, 5 
Cochlearia coronopus L., 26 

Dra&a Del., 27 

Draba L., 28 
Cocos £., 469 

nucifera L., 469 
Coelorachis hirsuta Brongn., 479 
CoffeaX., 221 

arabica L., 221 

laurifolia Salisb., 221 
Colchicaceae, 458 
Colchicum L., 458 

montanum L., 458 

Steveni Kunth., 458 

variegatum L., 458 

velutinum Bornm. & Kneuch., 458 
Coleus Lour., 369 

aegypticum Forsk., 369 

arabicus Benih., 369 

barbatus Benth., 369 

Forskahlii var. adoensis Briquet, 369 

Zatarhendi Benth., 369 
Colocasia Schott., 471 

esculenta Schott., 471 
Colutea L., 153 

haleppica Lam., 153 

spinosa Forsk., 159 
Combesia abyssinica Rich., 193 
Combretaceae, 196 
Cornbretum L., 197 

ferrugineum A. Rich., 197 

molle R. Br., 197 

reticulatum Fres., 197 

Rueppellianum, 197 

Schimperiana, 197 

trichanthum var. yemense Defl., 197 
Cometes £., 394 

abyssinica R. Br., 394 

abyssinica T. Anders., 395 

apiculata Dene., 395 

surattensis Burnt., 395 
Oommelina L., 466 

albescens Hassle., 466 

Becca-riana Martelli, 467 

benghalensis var. fimbriata 

Schweinf., 466 
benghalensis var. hirsuta Hassle. , 

edulis Rich., 467 

Forskalei FcjAZ, 466 

Forskalei var. pterccarpa Schweinf., 

Krebsiana Kunth, 467 

Petersii Hassle., 467 

tuber osa Forsk., 465 

ussilensis Schwpinf., 467 
Commelinaceae, 46o 
Commiphora Jacg., 110 

abyssinica Engl., 110 

abyssinica yar. simpHcifolia 
Schweinf., 110 

erythraea Engl., 110 

kataf ^ngrZ., 110 

Mukul^naL, 111 

myrrha i£wo?. ,111 

opobalsamum var. Ehrenbergiaua 
Engl., Ill 

opobalsamum var. gileadens?s 
Engl., Ill 

opobalsamum var. Kunthii Engl., Ill 

quadricincta Schweinf., 112 

S chimp eri Engl., 112 
Compositae, 230 
Coniferae, 451 
Convolvulaceae, 322 
Convolvulus L., 324 

acicularis Vatke, 327 

althaeoides L., 324 

angustifolius Vah], 324 

arabicus Hochst., 324 

armatus Del., 325 

arvensis £., 324 

arvensis var. auriculatus Choisy, 325 

asyrensis Kotsrhy., 325 

bifiorus Forsk., 324 

Cantabrica L., 325 

cirrhosus R. Br., 324 

Cneorum Forsk., 326 

congestus R. Br., 324 

crinigera Oliv., 328 

Deserti Hochst. & Sleud., 325 

Dorycnium L., 325 

fatmensis Kunze, 325 

Forskalei Spreng., 323 

Forskalii Del., 326 

glomeratus Choisy, 324 
( o onatodes Steud., 323 

hadramauticus Baker, 328 

hispidus Vahl, 322 

Hystrix Vahl, 325 

lanatus Vahl, 326 

mascatensis Boiss., 328 

microphyilus Sieb., 326 

penicillatus Rich., 327 

pescaprae L., 322 

pilosellaefolius Desr., 326 

pilosus R. Br., 323 

rhyniospermus Hochst., 326 

sagittatus var. abyssinica Hallier /,, 

sagittatus var. subcordata Hallier 

/., 327 
scammonia X., 327 
Schimperi Boiss., 327 



Scindicus Boiss., 326 
secundus Desr., 327 
sericophyllus Anders., 327 

siculus L., 327 

somalensis Franch., 327 
somalensis Vatke, 328 

spicatus Peter, 328 

spinosus Forsk., 325 

Steudneri Engl., 327 

ulicinus Boiss., 328 

virgatus var. subaphyllus Boiss., 328 
Conyza Less., 232 

aegyptiaca Ait., 232 

arabica Willd., 233 

Bovei DC., 233 

Bovei Schimp., 246 

caule alato Forsk., 233 

cylindrica Baker, 233 

Dioscoridis Desf., 233 

Dioscoridis var. ovalifolia Hausshn. 
& Bornm., 233 

Hochstetterri Sch.-Bip., 234 

incana Willd. , 234 

leucophylla Schultz., 234 

nana Sch.-Bip., 234 

pyrrhopappa Sch.-Bip., 234 

stenodonta Baker, 234 

stricta Willd., 235 

tomentosa Forsk., 239 

triloba Dene., 232 
Corallocarpus Welw., 206 

Courbonii Cogn., 206 

Ehrenbergii Hook. /., 206 

erostris Oliv., 206 

Etbaicus Hook, f., 206 

Gijef Hook, f., 206 

GijefSGhwemL, 206 

glomerulifiorus Schweinf., 206 

parvifolius Cogn., 207 

velutinus C. B. Clarke, 206 
Corchorus L., 90 

aestuans Forsk., 91 

antichorus Raeuschel, 90 

cinerascens Defl., 90 

decemangularis Roxb., 90 

humilis Munro, 90 

microphyllus Fres., 90 

olitorius L., 90 

trilocularis L., 91 
Cordia L., 306 

abyssinica jB. Br., 306 

Gharaf Ehrenb., 306 

Mvxa £., 307 

Myxa Rich., 307 

ovalis Hochst., 307 

J?o^m R. & Sch., 306 

rubra Hochst., 307 

Sebestena Forsk., 307 

subopposita DC, 306 
Cordylocarpus laevigatus Willd., 33 
Coriandrum L., 217 

sativum L., 217 
Cornuiaea Delile, 410 

Ehrenbergii Aschers., 410 

monacantha Del., 410 
Comus Gharaf Forsk., 307 
sanguinea Forsk., 307 
Coronilla Securidaca L., 138 
Coronopus Gaertn., 26 

squamatus Aschers., 26 

verrucarius Musch. & Thellrmg, 
Corrigiola albella Forsk., 392 

repens Forsk., 69 
Cotoneaster Medic, 193 

nummularia F. & M., 193 
Cotula L., 255 

aurea L., 255 

cinerea Del., 255 
Cotyledon L., 195 

alternans Vahl, 194 

Barbeyi Schweinf., 195 

deficiens Forsk., 194 

lanceolata Forsk., 195 

orbiculata Forsk., 194 

Umbilicus L., 195 
Crassocephalum fatmense Hochst. 
Steud., 231 

flavuni Dene., 258 
Crassula L., 194 

abyssinica Rich., 194 

alba Forsk., 194 

puberula R. Br., 194 
Crassulaceae, 193 
Crataegus L., 193 

Aronia Dene., 193 

sinaica Boiss., 193 
Craterostigma Hochst., 348 

plantagineum Hochst., 348 

pumilum Hochst., 348 
Crepis L., 273 

adenothrix Sch.-Bip., 274 

arabica Boiss, 273 

aspera L., 273 

bifida Musch., 273 

bulbosa Tausch., 274: 

parviflora Desf., 274 

radicata Forsk., 272 

Ruppellii Sch.-Bip., 274 
Cressa L., 330 

arabica Forsk., 328 

Cretica L., 330 

latifolia T. Anders., 329 
Crinum L., 457 

jemenicum, 457 

latifolium L., 457 

yemense Schweinf., 457 
Crossandra Salisb., 358 

infundibuliformis iVees, 358 
Crotalaria £., 124 

abyssinica .D. Dietr., 124 

aegyptiaca Benth., 124 

astragalina Hochst., 124 

ckwto W. & A., 124 

Deflersii Schweinf., 124 

dwftia Balf. f., 125 

falcata F«/tZ, 125 

incana L., 125 

juncea X., 125 



leptocarpa Balf.f., 125 
lupinoides Hochst., 126 
melilotoides Steud., 125 
microphylla Vahl, 125 
montana A. Rich., 125 
piriformis Guill. & Pers., 127 
pumila Hochst. & Steud., 125 
pycnostachya Benth., 125 
retusa L., 126 
Saltiana Andrews, 126 
Schimperi A. Rich., 125 
Schweinfurthii Defl., 126 
sp. Defl., 127 
spinosa Hochst., 127 
squanrigera Defl., 127 
striata A. Br., 124 
striata DC, 127 
striata Schum. & Thon., 125 
Croton L., 436 

confertus Baker, 436 
lobatum Forsk., 435 
lobatus L., 437 

lobatus var. riparius Muell.-Arg., 437 
plicatum Vahl, 438 
spinosum Forsk., 435 
tinctorium Forsk., 438 
trilobatum Forsk., 437 
variegatum Forsk., 436 
villosum Forsk., 436 
Crucianella L., 226 
ciliata Lam., 226 

ciliata var. hispidula Boiss., 226 
hispidula Dene., 226 
maritima L., 226 

membranacea Boiss., 226 
Cruciferae, 10 
Crupina Cass., 265 

crupinastrum Vis., 265 
Crypsis Ait., 501 

aculeata Ait., 501 
Cryptadia euphratensis Chesney, 248 
Ctenolepis cerasiformis Hook, f., 205 
Cucumis L., 201 

abyssinicus Rich., 201 

anguria Forsk., 203 

arabicus Del., 203 

chate L., 202 

colocynthis L., 204 

daucus indicus Forsk., 201 

dipaceus Ehrenb., 201 

ficifolius var. echinophorus Naud., 

ficifolius var. ficifolius Naud., 202 

Figarei Del., 202 

inedulis Forsk., 202 

melo L., 202 

melo var. agrestis Naud., 202 

melo var. culta Kurz., 202 

m'heimta Forsk., 204 

olloehie Forsk., 202 

orientalis Forsk., 202 

prophetarum L., 203 

pustulatus Hook., 203 

sativus X., 203 

sativus arakis Forsk., 202 

sativus battich Djebbal Forsk., 204 

sativus Chiar Forsk., 203 

sativus var. Fakus Forsk., 202 
sativus var. schemmam Forsk., 20 

sativus var. Smilli Forsk., 202- 

trilobatus Forsk., 202 

tuberculatus Forsk., 204 
Cucurbita L., 205 

Citrullus L., 204 

Citrullus Battich Forsk., 204 

Citrullus Kasch Forsk., 205 

dubia Forsk., 205 

Lagenaria L., 200 

maxima Duch., 205 

pepolonga Forsk., 205 
Cucurbitaceae, 200 
Cuidone mentzeloides E. Mey., 199 
Culhamia Forsk., 86 
Cupressus Tourn., 451 

sempervirens L., 451 
Cuscuta L., 330 

arabica Fres., 330 

brevistyla A. Br., 330 

Epilinum Weihe, 330 

monogyna Vahl, 331 

pithy mum L., 331 

planiflora Ten., 331 
Cutandia JftKife., 514 

scleropoides Willk., 514 
Cyamopsis DC, 142 

psoralioides DO., 142 

senegalensis G. & P., 142 

senegalensis Mr. angustifolia -Star- 
ter, 142 
Cyanotis D. Don., 465 

foecunda DC, 465 

nyctitropa Zte/L, 465 
Cycniopsis Engl., 350 

humifusa Engl., 350 
Cycnium humifusum Benth. & Hook, f., 

Cydonia Tourn., 192 

vulgaris Pers., 192 
Cylindrocarpus cordata KL, 37 
Cymbopogon Jwarancusa Schult., 484 
Cymodocea Kon., 471 

ciliata Ehrbg., 472 

Hemprichia Ehrbg., 472. 

isoetifolia Aschers., 471 

nodosa Aschers., 472 

rotundata Aschers. & Schiveinf., 472 

serrulata Aschers. & Magnus, 472 
Cynanchum Z., 297 

acutum X., 297 

arbor eum Forsk., 299 

Argel Del., 295 

Boveanum Dene., 294 

pyrotechnicum Forsk., 300 

viminale L., 297 
Cynara L., 265 

Cardunculus L., 265 

Scolymus L., 265 

Sibthorpiana £o«'«S5. 6s Heldr., 265 



Cynodon Rich., 502 

dactylon Pers., 502 
Cynoglossum L., 314 

Bottae Defl., 314 

intermedium Fres., 314 

lanceolatum Forsk., 314 

myosotoides Labill., 315 

pictum Ait., 314 
Cynomorium L., 423 

coccineum L., 423 
Cynosurus durus Forsk., 509 

floccifolius Forsk., 505 
Cyperaceae, 474 
Cyperus L., 4:14: 

arenarius Retz., 475 

articulatus L., 4H4: 

atronitens Hochst., 476 

bulbosus Vahl, 475 

conglomeratus Rottb., 475 

conglomerates var. effusus Boiss., 475 

conglomeratus var. pumilus. 475 

eleusinoides Kunth, 475 

falcatus Nees db Ehrbg., 474 

falcatus var. hamiensis Schweinf., 

Fenzelianus Steud., 4H4: 

flabelliformis Rottb., 475 

gradatus Forsk., 475 

laevigatas L., 476 

laevigatas var. distachyus Coss <fc 
D. R., 476 

leptophyllus Hochst., 476 

longus L., 476 

mucronatus Rottl., 476 

obtusiflorns Vahl, 476 

polystachyus Rottb., 476 

rotundus L., 4H4: 

rotundus var. macrostachyus Boiss., 

rubicundus Vahl, 476 
Cytisus arabicus Dene., 127 
roseus Camb., 128 
uniflorus Dene., 128 

Dactylis L., 512 

glomerata var. hispanica Koch., 512 
Dactyloctenium Willd., 506 

aegyptiacum Willd., 506 

glaucophylhim Courbon, 506 
Daemia R. Br., 298 

cordata R. Br., 298 

extensa R. Br., 299 

Forskalii Schult., 299 

glabra Schult., 299 

incana Dene., 298 

tomentosa Pomel., 298 
Dalechampia L., 442 

cordqfana Hochst., 442 

scandens var. cordofana MuelL- 
Arg., 442 

triportita R. Br., 442 
Damasonium Mill., 470 

alisma var. compactum Micheli, 470 
Danthonia DC, 502 

Forskalii Trin., 502 
Daphne L., 420 

linearifolia #ar£, 420 
Datura L., 337 

aegyptia Vesl., 337 

alba Nees, 337 

fastuosa L., 337 

fastuosa var. aZ6a 0. B. Clarke, 337 

metel L., 338 

Stramonium £., 338 
Daucus L., 217 

Broteri Tew., 217 

carota L., 217 

litoralis var. Forskalei Boiss., 217 

melananthos Steud., 218 

Yemensis Defl., 218 
Debregeasia Gaudich, 448 

bicolor ITedtf., 448 
Deflersia Erythrococca Schweinf., 439 
Delphinium L., 3 

Bovei Dene., 3 

desert! Boiss., 4 

flavum Dene., 4 

penicillatum Boiss., 4 
Descuraenia Irio Webb., 19 
Desmazeria uniolcides Defl., 508 
Desmidorchis Ehrenb., 303 
Desmodium Desv., 165 

gangeticum DC, 165 

Scalpe DC, 165 

Schimperi Hochst., 165 
Detris abyssinica Chiov., 2.32 
Deverra tortuosa DC, 213 

triradiata Hochst., 213 
Dianthera L., 360 

americana var. Forsk., 359 

debilis Forsk., 360 

flava Vahl, 359 

grandiflora K.I., 38 

leptostachya Blatter, 360 

nuda Blatter, 361 

odora Forsk., 360 

punctata Vahl, 359 

trisulca Forsk., 360 
Dianthus £., 57 

caryophyllus X., 57 

Cyri i^. <fc Jf ., 58 

deserti Kotschy, 58 

judaicus Boiss., 58 

Libanotis Labill, 58 

Libanotis war. sinaicus Wittiaws, 

macrolepis Boiss., 58 

multipunctatus Ser., 58 

pumilus Vahl, 58 

sinaicus Boiss., 58 

uniflorus Forsk., 58 
Diceratium prostratum Lag., 14 
Dichondra i^orsL, 330 

repens Forst., 330 
Dichrocephala £>C, 231 

abyssinica Sch.-Bip., 231 

chrysanthemifolia DC, 231 

macrocephala Sch.-Bip., 23^ 
Dichrostachys DC, 182 



nutans Beyith., 182 
Dicliptera Juss., 361 

bivalvis Juss., 361 

chinensis Juss.. 361 

foetida Blatter, 361 

sexangularis Blatter, 361 
Dicoma Cass., 270 

Schimperi 0. Hoffm., 270 
Dicotyledoneae, 1 
Didesmus aegypticus Desv., 31 

aegyptius DC, 31 
Digera Forsk., 396 

alternifolia Aschers., 396 

arvensis Forsk., 396 

ciliata Mart., 396 

Forskaoli BL, 396 
Digitaria sanguinalis Scop., 485 
Dinebra J acq., 504 

arabica Jacq., 504 

retroflexa Panzer, 501 
Diospyros L., 288 

mespiliformis Hochst., 288 
Diotis Des/., 253 

maritima Smith, 253 
Dipcadi Medic, 460 

erythraeum Pfe66. cfc Benth., 460 

tacazzeanum Baker, 460 
Diplanthera TAow., 472 

uninervis Aschers., 472 
Diplotaxis DC, 23 

acris Boiss, 23 

erucoides DC, 23 

Harra Boiss., 23 

pendula DC, 23 

Sieberi Presl, 23 

sp., 24 
Dipsaceae, 227 
Dipteracanthus guttatus Nees, 353 

longifiorus Noes, 353 

patulus Nees, 354 
Dipterygium Dene., 30 

glaucum Dene., 30 

glaucum war. macrocarpa Blatter, 30 
Distemon angustifolius Ehrenb. & Hempr., 

campanularis Ehrenb. & Hempr., 

glandulosus Ehrbg. & Hempr., 340 
Dobera Juss., 290 

glabra DC, 290 

Boxburghii Planch., 290 
Dodonaea L., 120 

arabica Hochst. & Steud., 120 

viscosa Jacq., 120 
Dolichos L., 172 

aeschynome sesban Forsk., 153 

crenatifructus Steud., 172 

cultratus Forsk., 173 

cuneifolius Forsk., 126 

didjre Forsk., 172 

faba indica Forsk., 173 

formosus A. Rid:., 173 

Lablab L., 172 

Lablab var. albiflorus Schweinf., 173 

Lablab var. purpureus Schweinf., 

Lubia Forsk., 172 

polystachios Forsk., 170 

sesban annuus Forsk., 153 

sesban arboreus Forsk., 153 

virosus Roxb., 170 
Dombeya arabica Baker, 87 
Dor anther a linearis Benth., 340 
Dorstenia L., 443 

arabica Hemsl., 443 

foetida Schweinf., 443 

radiata Lam., 443 
Dorycnium Schimperi Jaub. & Sp., 339 
Dracaena Vand., 463 

serrulata Baker, 463 
Droguetia Gaudich., 449 

iners Schweinf., 449 

pauciflora Wedd., 449 
Dumreichera arabica Hochst., 81 
Dunalia acaulis R. Br., 348 
Duvalia Haw., 304 

sulcata N. E. Br., 304 

Ebenaceae, 288 
Ebenus L., 164 

erinacea Jaub. & Sp., 164 

ferruginea Jaub. & Sp., 164 

horrida Jaub. & Sp., 164 

stellata Boiss., 164 

stellata var. unifoliolata Boiss, 164 

tragacanthoides Jaub. & Sp., 164 
Ecballium A. Rich., 201 

Elaterium Rich., 201 
Ecbolium Kurz, 361 

Linnaeanum Kurz, 361 

Bentii N. E. Br., 301 

cereiformis Hook.f., 301 

Dammaniara Schweinf., 301 

Golathi Schweinf., 303 

nubica N. E. Br., 301 

penicillata Schweinf., 303 

quadrangula Defl., 304 

scutellata Berger., 301 
Echinops L., 262 

glaberrimus DC, 262 
spinosus Bove, 262 
spinosus L., 262 
Echinopsilon muricatus Moq., 406 
Echinospermum Kotschyi Boiss., 315 

sinaicum DC, 315 

spinocarpos Boiss., 316 
Vahlianum Lehm., 316 
Echicchilon Desf., 316 

fruticosum Desf., 316 

longifiorum Benth., 316 
Echium L., 320 

glomeratum Poir., 320 

italicum L., 320 

longifolium Del., 320 

longifolium var. nanum Post, 320 
Rauwolfii Del, 321 

rubrum Forsk., 321 



sericeum Vahl, 321 
setosum Vahl, 321 
Eclipta L., 250 

alba Hassk., 250 
erecta L., 250 
Ehretia L., 307 

abyssinica R. Br., 307 
obovata R. Br., 307 
obtusifoba Hochst., 307 
Ebrharta Thunb., 493 

abyssinica Hochst., 493 
Elaeagnaceae, 420 
Elaeagnus L., 420 

bortensis var. orientalis Schlechtd., 
Elatinaceae, 75 
Elatine L., 75 

campy losperma Seub., 75 
hydropiper var. pedunculata Mor., 75 
^Zcaja Forsk., 113 
Eleusine Gaertn., 504 

aristata Ehrenb., 506 
coracana Gaertn., 505 
flagellifera iVees, 505 
floccifolia Spreng., 505 
glaucophylla Munro, 505 
indica Gaertn., 505 
multiflora Hochst., 506 
obtusinora Schweinf., 505 
Tocussa Fresen., 506 
verticillata Roxb., 504 
Elioirarus Humb. & Bompl., 480 
hirsutus Munro, 480 
Royleanus iVees, 480 
Elymus Z., 519 

Caput-Medusae Z., 519 
Emex A T ecfc, 418 

spinosus Campd., 418 
Emilia Cass., 257 

soncbifolia DC, 251 
Enartbrocarpus Labill, 32 
lyratus DC, 32 
strangulatus Boiss., 32 
uncatus Blatter, 32 
Enhalus C. .4. .Rtcfc, 452 
acoroides Boiss., 452 
acoroides Steud., 452 
marinus Griff., 452 
Ennearpogon br achy stachy urn Stapf, 507 
Enteropogon Nees., 503 • 

macrostacbyum Munro, 503 
Epbedra Tourn., 451 

alata var. Decaisnei Stapf, 451 
Alte Brandis, 451 
Alte C. A. Mey., 451 
altissima Del., 451 
aphylla Forsk., 451 
asparagoides Griff., 451 
ciliata Aitch., 451 
distachya Forsk., 451 
foliata Aitcb., 451 
foliata var. ciliata Stapf, 451 
fragilis Desf., 451 
peduncularis Boiss., 451 

Epilobium L., 199 

foliosum Hocbst., 199 

birsutum L., 199 
Eragrostis Host., 509 

aulacosperma var. perennis Schioeinf^ 

BarreHeri Dav., 511 

bipinnata Muschler, 509 

Braunii Schweinf., 510 

ciliaris Link, 510 

cibaris var. bracbystachya Boiss., 

coelacbyrum Benth., 509 

cynosuroides Roem. & Scbult., 509 

decidua Hochst., 510 

mabrana Schiveinf., 511 

major Host., 509 

megastachya Link, 509 

minor Host., 509 

pilosa P. Beauv., 509 

poaeoides P. Beauv., 509 

plumosa Zinfc, 510 

rigidifolia Hochst., 510 

yemenica Schweinf., 511 
Eremobium lineare Boiss., 18 
Eremostacbys Bunge, 382 

laciniata Bunge, 382 
macrochila Jaub. & Sp., 382 
Erianthus Ravennae Beauv., 479 
Ericaceae, 284 
Erigeron L., 232 

aegyptiacum L., 232 
Bovei Boiss., 233 
decurrens Vabl, 233 
Hochstetteri Scb.-Bip., 234 
incanum Vabl, 234 
pyrrhopappus Scb.-Bip., 234 
serratum Forsk., 232 
trilobum Boiss., 232 
viscosum L., 242 
Eriocbloa H. B. & K., 485 
acrotricha Hack., 485 
polystachva H. B. & K., 485 
Erodium L'Hirit., 103 

alexandrinum Del., 105 
allotrichum Steud., 103 
arabicum Dene., 105 
arborescens Willd., 103 
bryoniaefolium Boiss., 103 
chium Willd., 103 
ciconium Ait., 103 
ciconium var. aristatum Post, 103 
ciconium var. erectum DC, 103 
cicutarium L'Herit, 103 
glaballum Del., 105 
glaucophyllum Bove, 101 
glaucopbyllum UHirit., 104 
gruinum UHerit, 104 
heliotropoides Willd., 101 
hirtum IfiZZ^., 104 
Hussoni Boiss., 103 
laciniatum Willd., 105 
laciniatum var. pulverulentvm Post, 



malacoides Willd., 104 

monsonioides Steud., 104 

moschatum UHerit., 105 

niveum Dene., 101 

reflexum Del., 105 

stipaceum Edgew. & Hook, f., 103 

triangulare Musch., 105 

triangulare var. Bovei Murbeck, 105 

triangulare var. pulverulentumZ?om., 
Eroum Lens L., 168 
Eruca Tourn., 24 

sativa Lam., 24 

stenocarpum Boiss. & Reut., 24 
Erucaria Gaertn., 33 

aegiceras J. Gay, 32 

aleppica Gaertn., 33 

aleppica var. latifolia Boiss., 33 

crassifolia Del., 33 

grandiflora Boiss., 33 

latifolia DC, 33 

microcarpa Boiss., 33 

microcarpa var. major Post, 33 

Tourneuxii Coss., 32 

uncata Boiss., 32 
L'rucastrum arabicum F. & M., 22 
Erysimum amplexicaule Rich., 21 

bicorne Ait., 14 
Erythraea DC, 305 

Babylonica Griseb., 306 

Centaurium Pers., 305 

latifolia Smith, 305 

maritima Pers., 305 

pulchella Fries, 306 

ramosissima Pers., 306 

spicata Pers., 306 
Erythrococca Benth., 439 

abyssinica Pax, 439 
Euclea L., 288 

Forskalei Schweinf., 288 

Kellau Hochst., 288 
Eufragia Griseb., 350 

viscosa Benth., 350. 
Eulophia i?. 5r., 453 

Petersii Reichb. /., 454 

Schimperiana ifo'c/i., 453 
Euphorbia L., 423 

abortiva Forsk., 423 

acalyphoides Hochst., 423 

aculeata Forsk., 423 

adenensis De/Z., 423 

aegyptiaca Boiss., 423 

Ammak Schweinf., 424 

antiquorum var. major articulata 
Forsk., 425 

antiquorum var. minor inarticulata 
Forsk., 428 

arabica Hochst. & Steud., 424 

arabica var. intricata Schweinf., 424 

arabica var. trevifolia Boiss., 424 

arguta Soland., 424 

Bofctae Boiss., 424 

Cactus Ehrenb., 425 

cahariensis Forsk,, 425 

cerebrina Hochst., 429 
chamaepeplus var. sinaica Boiss., 

chamaesyce Z., 425 
cornuta Pers., 425 
cuneata Fa7iZ, 426 
cuneata var. Perrottetii Schwsinf., 

decumbens Forsk., 427 
dracunculoides Lam., 426 
esztZa Forsk., 431 
fodhliana Z)e/?., 426 
Forskalii Gay, 423, 426 
fragilis Dene., 426 
fruticosa Edgew., 426 
fruticosa Forsk., 426, 428 
glauca Ehrenb., 426 
granulata Forsk., 426 
granulata var. glabrata Muell.-Arg., 

hadramautica Baker, 427 
helioscopia L., 427 
Hochstetteriana Pax, 431 
hypericifolia L., 427 
inarticulata Schweinf., 428 
indica Lam., 427 
longetuberculosa Hochst., 428 
mauritanica Lam., 428 
monticola Hochst., 431 
obliquata Forsk., 432 
oblongi caulis Baker, 428 
obovata Dene., 428 
officinalis Forsk., 428 
officinarum var. arbor ea Forsk., 424 
parciramulosa Schweinf., 429 
parvula DeZ., 429 
Peplis £., 429 
peploides Gouan., 429 
Peplus X., 429 
Perrottetii Jaub. & Sp., 426 
Petitiana A. Rich., 429 
polyacantha Boiss., 425 
polycnemoides Hochst., 429 
Psoralis L., 429 
qarad Defl., 430 
retusa Forsk., 425 
Riebeckii Pax, 430 
sanguinea var. intermedia Boiss., 

sanguinea var. jemenica Schweinf^ 

Schimperi Presl., 430 
Schimperiana Scheele, 431 
scordifolia J acq., 431 
scordioides De^., 431 
sinaica Hochst., 425 
sp., 432 
sp. Defl., 424 
systyla Edgew., 431 
tenuirama Schweinf., 431 
terracina var. prostrata Boiss., 432 
ihymifolia Forsk., 431 
Tirucalli var. dichotoma Forsk., 430 
Tirucalli var. simplex Forsk., 428 




triaculeata Forsh., 432 

variegata Defl., 431 

viminalis L., 297 

yemenica Boiss., 432 
Euphorbiaceae, 423 
Eurotia Adans., 405 A. Mey., 405 
Euryops Cass., 260 

arabicus Steud., 260 
Euxolus caudatus Moq., 398 

polygamus Moq., 398 
Evax Gaertn., 237 

anatolica Boiss. & Heldr., 237 

contracta Boiss., 237 

palaestina Boiss., 237 
Evolvulus L., 328 

alsinoides var. procumbens Schweinf., 

Zawe Schweinf., 329 

yemensis Defl., 328 
Evonymus inermis Forsk., 109 

Fagonia L., 97 

acerosa Boiss., 97 

arabica L., 97, 98 

Bruguieri DC, 97 

Bruguieri war. Ehrenbergii Schweinf., 

cistoides Del., 99 
cretica L., 97 

cretica var. socotrana Bali, f., 100 
glabra Krause, 98 
glutinosa Z>eZ., 98 
glutinosa Schimp., 99 
glutinosa var. incana Boiss., 98 
glutinosa var. intermedia Boiss., 

grandiflora Boiss., 98 
kahirina Boiss., 99 

kahirina var. minima Po-5i5, 99 

kahirina var. Sinaica Boiss., 100 

Lahovarii Volkens & Schweinf., 99 

latifolia Del., 99 

Luntii Baker, 99 

mollis DeL, 99 

mollis var. grandiflora Post, 98 

myriacantha Boiss., 100 

nummularifolia Baker, 100 

Olivieri DC, 100 

parviflora Boiss., 100 

parviflora var. brevispina Schweinf., 

Schimperi Presl, 100 

sinaica Boiss., 100 

socotrana Schweinf., 100 

tenuifolia Hochst. 6c Steud., 100 

viscida Presl, 98 

viscosa Hochst., 98 
Farsetia Desv., 14 

aegyptiaca Turra, 14 

aegyptiaca var. angustisiliquosa 
Blatter, 15 

aegyptiaca var. ovafo's Post, 16 

ttoivinii Fourn. } 15 

Burtoni O^v., 15 
cheiranthifolia Desv., 15 
clypeata Bove, 14 
clypeata i?. jBr., 15 
depressa Kotschy, 15 
Edgeworthii Hk. /. & Th., 14 
Hamiltonii Boyle, 15 
linearis Dene., 15 
longisiliqua Dene., 16 
ovalis Boiss., 16 
ramosissima Hochst., 16 
rostrata Schenk., 16 
sp., 16, 17 
stylosa Anders., 16 
Felicia Cass., 232 

abyssinica Sch.-Bip., 232 
Richardi Fa£fce, 232 
Schimperi Hochst. & Steud., 232 
Ferula L., 216 

sinaioa Boiss.. 216 
Festuca L., 513 

brevis Aschers. - Schweinf. -Muschler, 

brevis var. subdisticha Aschers.- 

Schweinf. -Muschler, 513 
dertonensis Aschers. 6c Graebner, 513 
divaricata Desf., 514 
inops var. spiralis Aschers. -Schweinf.- 

Muschler, 513 
myurus L., 513 
pectinella Delile, 514 

uniglumis #oL, 514 
Fibigia clypeata Med., 15 

clypeata var. rostrata Fourn., 16 

rostrata Boiss., 16 
Ficoideae, 207 
Ficus L., 443 

barbidens Warb., 446 

benghalensis Vahl, 446 

capensis Thunb., 443 

Carica L., 443 

Carica var. leucccarpa Schweinf., 

Carica var., rupestris Hausskn., 443 

challa Schweinf., 446 

chanas Forsk., 445 

exasperata Vahl, 4A4: 

Forskalei Vahl, 444 

glumosa Del., 4:4:4: 

indica Forsk., 445 

ingens Miq., 444 

lutea Vahl, 444 

morifolia Forsk., 444 

palmata Forsk., 4:44: 

populifolia Vahl, 445 

Pseudo-Carica Miq. 444 

pseudo-sycomorus Dene., 445 

religiosa Forsk., 445 

salicifolia Vahl, 445 

Schimperiana Hochst., 444 

serrata Forsk., 444 

socotrana Balf. f., 446 

sp., 446 

sur Forsk., 445 



sycomoroides For sic., 446 

Sycomorus L., 445 

Sycomorus vera Forsk., 445 

taab Forsk., 445 

toka Forsk., 446 

tolca Forsk., 442 

vasta Forsk., 446 
Fidelia kalbfussioides Sch.-Bip., 274 
Figaria aegyptiaca Viv., 192 
Filago L., 237 

germanica L., 237 

spathulata var. prostrata Boiss., 237 
Fimbristylis Vahl, 4T11 

dichotoma Vahl, 478 

ferruginea Vahl, 477 

spathacea Both, 477 
Fissenia capensis EndL, 199 
Fleuiingia Roxb., 175 

congesta Roxb., 175 

rhodocarpa Baker, 175 
Fleurya Gaudich., 447 

aestuans var. Linnaeana Wedd., 447 
Fluegga Willd., 435 

microcarpa Blume, 435 

obovata Buck. -Ham., 435 
Foeniculum Adans., 216 

capillaceum Gilib., 216 

officinale AIL, 216 

piperitum DC, 216 
Forskohlea L., 448 

tenacissima L., 448 

viridis Ehrbg., 449 
Francoeuria crispa Cass., 245 
Frankenia L., 57 

hirsuta Sibth, 57 

hirsuta var. hispida Boiss., 57 

hispida DC, 57 

pulverulenta L., 57 
Frankeniaceae, 57 

Frankia Schimperi Hochst. & Steud., 248 
Freirea alsinifolia Gaudich., 448 
Friedrichsthalia trichodesmoides Bunge, 

Fugosia Juss., 84 

areysiana Defl. . 84 

Welshii Hochr., 84 
Fumana Spach., 52 

arabica Spach., 52 

glutinosa Boiss., 52 

thymifolia Halassy, 52 
Fumaria L., 8 

abyssinica Hammar, 8 

alexandrina Ehrenb., 9 

capreolata L., 9 

densiflora DC, 9 

judaica Boiss., 9 

micrantha Lag., 9 

officinalis L., 9 

parviflora Lam., 9 
Vaillantii Aschers., 9 
Fusanus alternifolia R. Br., 422 

Gagea Salisb., 459 

reticulata var. tenuifolia Boisz. t 
Gaillonia A. Rich., 222 

Aucheri Jaw&. cfc £#., 222 
calycoptera Jaw6. & Sp., 222 
humifusa Jaub. & Sp., 223 
hymenostephana Jaw6. & Sp., 223 
Galactia P. Br., 170 

tenuiflora var. biflora Schiveinf., 
Galega apollinea Del., 149 
Galium £., 224 

aparine L., 224 

aparine var. hamatum Hiern., 224 

aparinoides C. Koch, 225 

aparinoides Forsk., 224 

capillar e Dene., 224 

ceratopodum Boiss., 224 -* 

Decaisnei Boiss., 224 

hamatum Hochst., 224 

Hierosolymitanum L., 224 

kahelianum Defl., 225 

murale ^4£Z., 225 

nigricans var. brachychaetum Boiss., 

sinaicum Boiss., 225 
spurium var. tenerum Gr. & Godr., 

tenerum Gaud., 225 
tricorne With., 225 
yemense Kotschy, 226 
I Geddesia Barba Mosis Ehrenb., 156 
Geigeria Griessel., 248 

alata Benth. & Hook.f., 248 
Geniostephanus tomentosus Fenzl, 113 
Genista L., 128 

ferox Poir., 128 
monosperma Lamk., 128 
Raetam Forsk., 128 
Gentianaceae, '305 
Geraniaceae, 101 
Geraniospermum muliibracieatum 0, 

Ktze., 106 
n eranium L., 101 

arabicum Forsk., 102 
arabicum var. fl. albo, 102 
arborescens Desf., 103 
. chium Burm. f., 103 
cicutarium L., 104 
compar R. Br., 102 
crassifolium Desf., 104 
crassifolium Forsk., 101 
dissectum L., 101 
favosum Hochst., 102 
hirtum Forsk., 104 
impar Steud., 102 
laciniatum Cav., 105 
libanoticum Schenk, 103 
macrostylum Boiss., 103 
nialamides L., 105 
mascatense Boiss., 102 
molle L., 102 
moschatum L., 105 



ocellatum Camb., 102 

fruticosus R. Br., 296 

simense Hochst., 102 

pauciflorus Hochst. & Steud., 294 

triangulare Forsk., 105 

setosus R. Br., 296 

trilophum Boiss., 102 

sinaicus Boiss., 296 

trilophum var. omphalodeum Lange, 

Gomphrena L., 402 


globosa L., 402 

tuberosum L., 103 

Gossypium L., 84 

Yemense Defl., 102 

arboreum Forsk., 85 

Gerbera Gronov., 270 

arboreum L., 84 

piloselloides Cass., 270 

arboreum var. neglecta Watt, 85 

piloselloides var. yemonsis Defl., 

arboreum var. sanguinea Watt, 84 


areysianum Defl., 84 

Schimperi Sch.-Bip., 270 

barbadense L., 85 

Geropogon glaber L., 281 

herbaceum Aliotta, 85 

Girardinia Gaudich., 447 

herbaceum L., 85 

condensata Wedd., 447 

herbaceum Tod., 85 

Gisekia L., 211 

Nanking var. Roji Watt, 85 

pharnaceoides L., 211 

neglectum Tod., 85 

Gladiolus L., 455 

obtusifolium Stocks, 85 

Guepini Koch, 455 

puniceum Jacq., 84 

segetum Ker.-Gawl., 455 

rubrum Forsk., 84 

segetum var. Guepini Boiss., 455 

sanguineum Hassk., 84 

Glaucium Juss., 7 

Stocksii Mast., 85 

arabicum Fresen., 7 

Vaupellii Graham, 85 

arabicum var. gracilescens Fedde, 

Gramineae, 479 


Grantia Boiss., 242 

corniculatum Curt., 7 

flabellata S. Moore, 242 

corniculatum var. arabicum 0. Ktze., 

senecionoides Baker, 242 


Grewia L„ 87 

violaceum Juss., 8 

arborea Lam., 87 

Glinus crystallinus Forsk., 207 

betulaefolia Juss., 88 

lotoides L., 210 

bicolor var. canescens Burret, 87 

setiflorus Forsk., 210 

carpinifolia Juss., 87 

Globularia £., 362 

chadara Lamk., 88 

Alypum L., 362 

corylifolia A. Rich., 89 

arabica Jaw6. & Sp., 362 

crenata Hochst., 88 

trichocalyx Steud., 362 

dubia Defl., 87 

Glossonema Dene., 294 

echinulata Del., 89 

o^ne N. E. Br., 294 

erythraea Schweinf., 88 

arabicum Defl., 294 

excelsa Vahl, 87 

Boveanum Dene., 294 

membranacea Rich., 88 

edule N. E. Br., 295 

mollis var. petitiana Burret, 88 

Glossostemon Desf., 87 

petitiana A. Rich., 88 

Bruguieri DC, 87 

populifolia Vahl, 88 

Glycine L., 170 

reticulata Hochst., 88 

abyssinica Hochst., 170 

ribesiaefolia Hochst., 88 

javanica £., 170 

sp., 89 

memnonia Del., 174 

tembensis Fres., 88 

micrantha Hochst., 170 

tenax Fiori, 88 

moniliformis Hochst., 170 

velutina Vahl, 89 

Totta Thunb., 174 

villosa Roth, 89 

Gnaphalium L., 240 

villosa Willd., 89 

adoensis Sch.-Bip., 239 

Gundelia L., 262 

fruticosum Forsk., 240 

Tournefortii L., 262 

indicum L., 240 

Gymnarrhena Des/., 248 

luteoalbum L., 240 

micrantha Desf., 248 

luzuloides Sch.-Bip., 239 

Gymnocarpos Forsk., 393 

Niliacum Raddi, 240 

decander Forsk., 393 

orientate Forsk., 241 

fruticosus Pers., 393 

pulvinatum Del., 240 

Gymnosporia TF. <fc ^4., 114 

Ruppellii Fres., 237 

arbutifolia Loes., 114 

Schimperi Sch.-Bip., 239 

montana Benth., 115 

Gnetaceae, 451 

senegalensis Loes., 115 

Gomphocarpus fruticosus Dene., 296 

serrata Loes., 114 



serrata var. pubescens Schweinf., 

annuum Fisch., 50 


arabicum Pers., 52 

spinosa Fiori, 115 

arabicum var. canescens Fenzl., 52 

Gynandropsis DC, 40 

arabicum var. viridifolium Fenzl., 

pentaphylla DC, 40 


Gypsophila L., 59 

argyraeum Baker, 50 

bellidifolia Boiss., 59 

denticulatum Thib., 51 

elegans M. B., 59 

ellipticum Pers., 50 

hirsuta Spreng., 59 

ellipticum var. micranthum Boiss., 

hirsuta var. alpina Boiss., 59 


montana Balf. /., 59 

kahiricum Del., 50 

montana var. diffusa Balf., 59 

Kahiricum var. angustifolium Boiss., 

Rokejeka Del., 59 


somalensis Franch., 59 

kahiricum var. depauperata Post, 50 

vaccaria Sibth., 60 

ledifolium Mill., 50 

libycum Pomel., 50 

Habenaria Willd., 453 

Lippii Del., 50 

aphylla R. Br., 453 

Lippii Ehrenb., 50 

arabica Blatter, 453 

Lippii Pers., 51 

macrantha Hochst., 453 

Lippii var. arabicum, 51 

Haemanthus L., 457 

Lippii var. Ehrenbergii Boiss., 50 

arabicus Roem. & Schult., 457 

Lippii var. elipticum Boiss., 50 

coccineus Forsk., 457 

niloticum Pers., 50 

coccineus L., 457 

roseum Ehrenb., 52 

Haemodoraceae, 454 

salicifolium Mill., 51 

Hagea alsinefolium Biv., 68 

Sancti Antonii Schweinf., 51 

Halocnemon Bieb., 407 

Schweinfurthii Gross., 52 

strobilaceum M. Bieb., 407 ] 

ihymifolium Pers., 52 

Halodule uninervis Aschers., 472 

ventosum Boiss., 51 

Halogeton alopecuroides Moq., 410 

vesicarium Boiss., 52 

Halopeplis Bunge, 406 

virgatum Pers., 52 

amplexicaulis Unger., 406 

virgatum var. vesicarium Dur. & 

perfoliata Bunge, 407 

Barr., 52 

Halopbila Thouars., 452 

Helichrysum Gaertn., 240 

ovalis Hook. /., 452 

abyssinicum Sch.-Bip., 240 

owto Gaud., 452 

Chrysocoma Sch.-Bip., 240 

stipulacea Aschers., 452 

conglobatum Steud., 240 

Halopyrum Stapf, 508 

cymosum O. & H., 250 

mucronatum Stapf, 508 

globosum Sch.-Bip., 241 

Haloihamnus Bottae Jaub. & Sp., 411 

orientale Gaertn., 241 

Haloxylon Bunge, 410 

siculum Boiss., 240 

articulatum Bunge, 410 

Helinus #. Jfey., 117 

salicornicum Bunge, 411 

arabica Jaub. & Sp., 117 

Schweinfurthu Aschers., 411 

Heliophytum longiflorum A. DC, 310 

Haplophyllum arabicum Boiss., 107 

pterocarpum DC, 311 

tuberculatum A. Juss., 107 

Heliosciadum nodiflorum Koch., 212 

Hedyotis graminifolia Linn, f., 221 

Heliotropium £., 307 

maritima Wall., 221 

adenense Gvrke, 307 

Schimperi Presl., 220 

albo-hispidum Baker, 308 

Hedypnois Schreb., 272 

apiculatum E. Mey., 310 

rhagadioloides Willd., 272 

arbainense Fres., 308 

Hedysarum L., 162 

bacciferum Forsk., 308 

capitatum var. pollens Moris, 162 

bicolor Hochst. & Steud., 311 

Crista galli L., 163 

Bottae De/Z., 308 

lappaceum Forsk., 163 

cinerascens Steud., 308 

ptolemaicum Del., 163 

cinereum R. Br., 310 

spinosissimum Sibth. & Sinith, 162 

congestum Baker, 308 

Heeria insignis O. Ktze., 121 

cordofanum Hochst. & Steud., 312 

Heleochloa Host., 498 

cressoides Franch., 312 

dura Boiss., 498 

curassavicum L., 308 

schoenoides Host., 498 

drepanophyllum Baker, 308, 309 

Helianthemum Pers., 50 

Eichwaldi Steud., 309 

acutiflorum Ehrenb., 50 

eriocarpum Del., 312 

albicans Ehrenb., 51 

eritrichioides Kotschy, 309 

' .;-; 



europaeum L., 309 

europaeum var. tenuiflorum Boiss., 

fruticosum Forsk., 311 

gracile R. Br., 313 

Kunzii Lehm., 310 

lasiocarpum F. & M., 309 

lignosum Vatke, 309 

lineatum Del., 310 

longifiorum Hochst. & Steud., 309 

longifiorum var. lophocarpa Jaub. 
<& Sp., 310 

luteum Poir., 310 

marocanum Lehm., 312 

nubicum Bunge, 312 

ophioglossum Stocks, 310 

ovalifolium Forsk., 310 

pallens Del., 311 

paradoxum Vatke, 311 

panifclium Edgew., 311 

pericum Lam., 312 

pterocarpum Hochst. & Steud., 311 

ramosissimum Sieber, 312 

rotundifolium Sieb., 311 

somalense Vatke, 311 

strigosum (Forsk.) Willd., 308 

strigosum Willd., 311 

strigosum var. cordofanum Schweinf., 

stylosum Franch., 310 

subulatum Hochst., 313 

supinum L., 312 

tenuifolium R. Br., 311 

thymoides Jaub. & Sp., 312 

undulatum Vahl, 312 

zeylanicum Lam., 313 
Helminthia echioides Gaertn., 272 
Helminthocarpum A. Rich, 138 

abyssinicum A. Rich., 138 
Hemprichia erythraea Ehrenb., 110 
Heracleum absinthifolium Vent., 217 
Hermannia modesta Planch., 87 
Herniaria L., 393 

annua Lag., 393 

cinerea DC, 393 

fruticosa Coss., 393 

fruticosa var. hemistemon Baratte, 

hemistemon J. Gay, 393 

lenticulata Forsk., 393 
Herpestis Gaertn. /., 347 

Monniera H. B. K., 347 
Hesperis acris Forsk., 23 

africana L., 18 

angustifolia DC, 19 

diffusa Dene., 18 
nitens Viv., 25 
pulchella DC, 18 
pygmaea Del., 19 
ramosissima Del., 18 
Heterachaena m'issavensis Fres., 279 
Heleropocjon conlorlus Roem. & Schult.,, 

Hewittia W. da A., 324 

bicolor Wight, 324 

sublobata O. Ktz., 324 
Hexastylis arabica Rafin., 46 
Hibiscus L., 81 

aristaevalvis Garcke, 82 

cannabinus L., 81 

clandestinus Cav., 82 

Denersii Schweinf., 81 

dongolensis Del., 82 

eriospermus Hochst., 83 

esculentus L., 82 

guineensis Don, 82 

intermedius Hochst., 82 

intermedius Rich., 82 

intermedius var. aristaevalvis Hochr. 

intermedius var. genuinus Hochr., 

jatrophaefolius Rich., 83 

lunariifolius Willd., 82 

micranthus L., 82 

micranthus var. sanguineus Hochr., 

modaticus Hochst., 83 

obscurus Rich., 83 

ovalifolius Vahl, 82 

palmatus Forsk., 82 

parvifolius Hochst., 83 

praecox Forsk., 82 

purpureus Forsk., 83 

radiatus Cav., 81 

rigidus L. f., 82 

rupestris Hochst., 83 

simplex L., 86 

ternatus Cav., 83 

trionoides Hochst., 82 

trionum L., 83 

tripartitus Forsk., 81 

verrucosus Guill. & Perr., 81 

versicolor Schum. & Thonn., 83 

vesicarius Cav., 83 

vitifolius L., 83 

vitifolius Mill., 81 

Welshii Anders., 84 
Hildebrandtia Vatke, 330 

africana Vatke, 330 
Hippocrepis L., 161 

bicontorta Loisel, 161 

bisiliqua Forsk., 162 

buceras Del., 161 

ciliata Boiss., 162 

constricta Kze., 162 

Cornigera Boiss., 161 

divaricata Hochst., 161 

elegantula Hochst., 162 

monocarpa M. B., 162 

multisiliquosa L., 162 

unisiliquosa L., 162 

velutina Del., 161 
Hippocrepistigma fruticosum Defl., 329 
Hirschia Baker, 242 

anthemidifolia Baker, 242 
Hochstetteria Schimperi DC, 270 
Holcus Dochna Forsk., 481 



Holochiloma resinosum Hochst., 365 
Holosteum L., 64 

glandulosum Bertol, 64 

imberbe J. Gay, 64 

liniflorum Stev., 64 

polygamum C Koch, 64 
Holothrix L. C. Rich., 453 

Vatkeana Rchb. /., 453 
Homalodiscus Bye, 50 

Aucheri Boiss., 50 
Hordeum L., 518 

ithaburense Boiss., 518 

maritimum With., 518 

murinum L., 518 

vulgare L., 518 

vulgare subsp. distichum var. defici- 
ens Steud., 518 

vulgare subsp. hexastichum var. 
brachyurum, 518 

vulgare subsp. tetrastichum KcJce. 
& Wern., 518 

vulgare var. spontaneum KcJce., 518 

Huernia R. Br., 305 

arabica N. E. Br., 305 

multangula Schweinf., 303 

Penzigii var. arabica Berger, 305 
Hussonia aegiceras Coss. & Dur., 32 

Sonisii Pomel., 32 

uncata Boiss., 32 
Hyacinthus L., 459 

colchicoides Delile, 459 

comosus L., 460 

flexuosus Baker, 459 

serotinus Forsk., 460 
Hydrocharitaceae, 452 
Hymenocarpus Savi, 138 

nummularius Boiss., 138 
Hyoscyamus L., 338 

albus var. desertorum Aschers., 338 

albus var. repandus Post, 338 

aurens L., 338 

Boveanus Aschers.-Schweinf., 338 

Dafora Forsk., 338 

flaccidus Wright, 338 

muticus £., 338 

pusillus L., 339 
Hyoseris £., 271 

lucida L., 271 
Hypecoum L., 8 

aegyptiacum Aschers.-Schweinf., 8 

dimidiatum Del., 8 

imberbe Sibth. & Smith, 8 

pendulum £., 8 

procumbens L., 8 
Hyper anther a peregrina Forsk., 122 
Hypericaceae, 75 
Hypericum L., 75 

sinaicum Hochst., 75 

tomentosum L., 75 
Hyphaene Gaertn., 469 

thebaica Mart., 469 
Hypoestes .#. £r., 361 

adoensis Rich., 362 

ForsJcalei R. Br., 361 
paniculata Schweinf., 361 
radicans Defl., 362 
triflora R. & S., 362 
verticiUaris iL £r., 362 

Ifloga Cass., 237 

Fontanesii Cass., 237 
spicata Sch.-Bip., 237 
spicata var. condensata Boiss., 238 
Illecebraceae, 392 
Imperata Cyrill., 479 

cylindrica Beauv., 479 
Indigastrum deflexum Jaub. & Sp., 146 
Indigofera £., 142 

abyssinica Hochst., 142 

aeruginis Schweinf., 148 

alta Schweinf., 142 

amorphoides Jaub. & Sp., 142 

Anil var. orthocarpa DC, 146 

arabica Jaub. & Sp., 143 

argentea L., 143 

argentea var. coerulea Baker, 145 

arrecta Hochst., 143 

articulata Gouan., 143 

articulata var. genuina Defl., 144 

articulata var. polyphylla Hochst., 

asperifolia Hochst., 148 

Burmanii Boiss., 144 

coerulea Roxb., 145 

coronilloides Jaub. & Sp., 147 

Deflersii Baker /., 149 

deflexa Hochst., 146 

desmodioides Baker, 144 

diffusa R. Br., 147 

endecaphylla 144, 147 

erythrantha Hochst., 145 

glauca Lam., 143 

gonioides Hochst., 144 

hendecaphylla Jacq., 144 

Hochstetteri Baker, 145 

Houer Forsk., 145 

intricata Boiss., 145 

Jabertiana Schweinf., 145 

leptocarpa Hochst. & Steud., 148 

oblongifolia Forsk., 145 

oblongifolia var. carpostigma 
Schweinf., 146 

ornithopodioides Hochst. & Steud., 

orthocarpa Baker, 146 

parvUS. ora Heyne, 146 

parvula DeZ., 146 

parvula Hochst. & Steud., 146 

paucifolia Del., 145 

quartiniana Rich., 147 

Schimperi Jaub. & Sp., 146 

semitrijuga Forsk., 147 

semitrijuga var. tetrasperma DC, 

senegalensis Lam., 147 

somalensis Vatke, 147 

Spachii Baker, 147 



Spachii var. trifoliolata Schweinf., 

spicata Forsk., 147 

spiniflora Hochst. & Steud., 148 

spinosa Forsk., 147 

spinosa var. spiniflora Schweinf., 

tenuisiliqua Schweinf., 148 

tinctoria Forsk., 143 

tinctoria L., 148 

trigonelloides Jaub. & Sp., 148 

tritoides Baker, 148 

viscosa Lam., 149 
Inga mellifera Willd., 186 

Nefasia Hochst., 186 
Inula L., 241 

arabica L., 244 

crithmoides L., 241 

grantioides Boiss., 241 

odor a Forsk., 247 

viscosa Ait., 242 
Ionidium Vent., 53 

durum Baker, 53 

enneaspermum Vent., 53 

suffruticosum Oing., 53 
Iphiona Cass., 242 

arabica B. Hgp., 244 

horrida Boiss., 242 

juniperifolia Cass., 242 

mucronata Aschers.- Schweinf., 242 

scabra Dene., 242 

scabra var. pinnatifida Boiss., 243 

subulata Baker, 243 
Ipomaea L., 322 

aquatica Forsk., 322 

auricoma A. Rich., 324 

Batatas Lam., 322 

biloba Forsk., 322 

calycina Benth., 322 

calycina C. B. Clarke, 322 

cardiosepala Hochst., 322 

eriocarpa R. Br., 322 

githaginea Hochst., 323 

gossypina Deft., 323 

hederacea Jacq., 323 

hispida Roem. & Schult., 322 

Nil Both, 323 

obscura Ker, 323 

palmata Forsk., 323 

pedata Steud. & Hochst., 328 

pescaprae Both., 322 

Psilophyla Steud., 328 

punctata Baker, 322 

reptans Poir., 322 

sagittata Roxb., 322 

scabra Forsk., 323 

sessiliflora Roth., 322 

trematosperma Hochst., 322 

triflora Forsk., 323 

verticillata Forsk. , 323 
Iridaceae, 455 
Iris Tourn., 455 

aegyptia Del., 455 

florentina L. f 455 

Helenae Barbey, 455 

palaestina Boiss., 455 

Sisyrinchium L., 455 
Isatis L., 30 

aegyptiaca L., 32 

aleppica Scop., 30 

Lusitanica L., 30 

microcarpa J. Gay, 30 

orientalis Willd., 30 

pinnata Forsk., 32 
Ischaemum L., 480 

laxum R. Br., 480 
Ixiolirion Fisch., 457 

montanum Herb., 457 
Ixora occidentalis Forsk., 221 

Jamesbrittenia dissecta O. Ktze., 347 
Jasminum L., 289 

abyssinicum var. gratissimum Di 
Capua, 289 

gratissimum Defl., 289 

mauritianum Bojer, 289 

officinale L., 289 

sambac Ait., 289 
Jasonia sicula DC, 247 
Jatropha L., 435 

aculeata F. G. Dietr., 435 

glandulosa Vahl, 436 

glauca Vahl, 435 

lobata var. genuina Muell.-Arg., 435 

lobata var. glauca Pax, 435 

pungens Forsk., 441 

sp., 436 

spinosa Vahl, 435 

spinosa var. crenulata Pax, 436 

spinosa var. genuina Pax, 435 

variegata Vahl, 436 

villosa Muell.-Arg., 436 

villosa var. genuina Muell.-Arg., 436 

villosa var. glabra Muell.-Arg., 436 
Jaubertia Aucheri Guill., 222 
Juglandaceae, 449 
Juglans L., 449 

regia L., 449 
Juncaceae, 467 
Juncus L., 467 

acutus L., 468 

articulatus Desf., 467 

bufonius L., 467 

bufonius var. fasciculatus Koch, 467 

bufonius var. subauriculata Bu- 
chenau, 467 

effusus L., 468 

Fontanesii Laharpe, 467 

glaucus war. longicornis Grogndt., 

maritimus war. arabicus Aschers. do 
Buch., 468 

punctorius L., 468 

punctorius var. mauritanicus Buch, 
db Trabut, 468 

pyramidatus Laharpe, 467 

spinosus Forsk., 468 

subulatus Forsk., 467 



Juniperus Tourn., 452 

sinaica Boiss., 508 

macropoda JBoiss., 452 

Koelpinia PaZZ., 271 

phoenicea L., 452 

linearis Pall., 271 

procera Hochst., 452 

Kohautia arabica Hochst., 220 

Jussiaea edulis Forsk., 90 

caespitosa Schnizlein, 220 

Justicia L., 359 

Schimperi Hochst. & Steud., 220 

appressa Forsk., 357 

Koniga arabica Boiss., 17 

areysiana Defl, 359 

libyca R. Br., 17 

bispinosa Forsk., 356 

maritima R. Br., 17 

caerulea For sic., 359 

Kosaria foetida Forsk., 443 

calyculata Defl., 359 

Forskahlii Gmel., 443 

chinensis Vahl, 361 

Kuhnia arabica Hochst. & Steud., 244 

debilis Vahl, 360 

dubia Forsk., 359 

Ecbolium L., 361 

Labiateae, 365 

flava Vahl, 359 

Lablab vulgaris Savi, 172 

foetida Forsk., 361 

vulgaris var. albiflorus DC, 173 

Forskalei Vahl, 361 

vulgaris var. purpureus DC, 173 

gangetica L. Amoen., 358 

Lachnopylis oppositifolia Hochst., 305 

lanceata Forsk., 357 

Lactuca L., 275 

odora Lam., 360 

arabica Jaub. c& Sp., 275 

odora mr. villosa Defl., 360 

auriculata DC, 275 

paniculata Forsk., 361 

capensis Thunb., 275 

sexangularis Forsk., 361 

caucasica C Koch, 276 

triflora Forsk., 362 

cretica Desf., 275 

trispinosa Forsk., 358 

flava Forsk., 280 

trisulca Vahl, 360 

goraeensis Sch.-Bip., 275 

verticillaris L. f., 362 

Hochstetteri Sch.-Bip.,275 

violaceae Vahl, 359 

inermis Forsk., 276 

viridis Forsk., 361 

massaviensis Sch.-Bip., 279 

nubica Sch.-Bip., 275 

Kalanchoe Adans., 194 

octophylla Sch.-Bip., 275 

aegyptiaca DC, 194 

orientalis Boiss., 21 '6 

alternans Pers., 194 

Petitiana A. Rich., 275 

Bentii (7. W. Wright, 194 

remotiflora DC, 276 

brachycalyx var. yemensis Defl., 195 

saligna L., 276 

citrina Schweinf., 194 

sativa L., 276 

deficiens Aschers. & Schweinf., 194 

Scariola L., 276 

glandulosa Hochst., 195 

Schimperi Jaub. & Sp., 276 

glaucescens Britten, 195 

spinosa Lam., 281 

lanceolata Pers., 195 

Stocksii Boiss., 275 

yemensis Schweinf., 195 

undulata Ledeb., 276 

Kalbfussia orientalis Jaub. & Sp., 274 

yemensis Defl., 277 

Kanahia P. Pr., 296 

Lagenaria Ser., 200 

DeZt'Ze* Dene., 297 

vulgaris Ser., 200 

Forskalii Defl., 297 

Laggera Sch.-Bip., 236 

laniflora P. Br., 296 

arabica Defl., 233 

Kellaua Schimperi A. DC, 288 

aurita Sch.-Bip., 235 

Kennedya arabica Hochst. & Steud., 170 

pterodonta Sch.-Bip., 236 

Kissenia R. Br., 199 

purpurascens Sch.-Bip., 236 

spathulata R. Br., 199 

Lagonychium Stephanianum M. Bieb., 181 

Kleinia odora DC, 259 

Lagoseris bifida Boiss., 273 

pendula DC, 260 

Lagurus L., 501 

Kniphofia Moench., 464 

ovatus L., 501 

surname De/L, 464 

Lahaya corymbosa Schult., 69 

Kochia Roth, 406 

Lamarckia Moench., 508 

eriophora Schrad., 406 

aurea Moench., 508 

latifolia ^res., 406 

Lamium L., 379 

latifolia var. inermis Boiss., 406 

amplexicaule L., 379 

nmrica,ta Schrad., 406 

Lantana L., 363 

muricata var. tenuifolia Boiss., 406 

&m Rich., 363 

sp., 406 

petitiana A. Rich., 363 

Koeleria Pers., 508 

salviarefolia J acq., 363 

phleoides Pers., 508 

vibunoides Fa&Z, 363 



Lappula Monch., 315 

sinaicum Aschers.-Schweinf., 315 

spinocarpos A schers., 316 
Lap sana taraxacoides Forsk., 271 
Lasiocorys Benth., 382 

arabica Jaub. & Sp., 382 
Lasiopogon Cass., 238 

muscoides DC, 238 
Lasiosiphon Fres., 420 

somalensis H. H. W. Pearsin, 420 
Lathy rus L., 168 

annuus L., 168 

Aphaca L., 168 

Cicera L., 168 

hierosolymitanus Boiss., 168 

marmoratus Boiss. & Blanche, 168 

sativus L., 168 

spectabilis Forsk., 169 

tomentosus Forsk., 152 
Latipes Kunth, 485 

senegalensis Kunth, 485 
Launaea Cass., 278 

angustifolia Musch., 278 

Cassiniana Musch., 279 

chondrilloides Hook, f., 280 

fallax Musch., 279 

glomerata Hook, f., 279 

lactucoides 0. Hoffm., 279 

massavensis Musch., 279 

mucronata Musch., 280 

nudicaulis iloo/c. /., 280 

spinosa Sch.-Bip., 281 

tenuiloba Musch., 281 
Lauraceae, 419 
Lavandula £., 369 

canescens Defl., 369 

coronopifolia Pcn'r., 369 

dentata L., 370 

macra Baker, 370 

Nimmoi Benth., 370 

pubescens Dene., 370 

santolinaefolia Jcra&. & Sp., 370 

setifera Anders., 370 

spica Cay., 371 

subnuda Benth., 371 

vera DC, 371 
Lavatera L., 76 

cretica £., 76 
Lawsonia Z-., 198 

a?6a Lam., 198 

inermis L., 198 

spinosa L., 198 
Leaeba Forsk., 4 
Lebretonia cordata Hochst., 81 

procumbens Wight & Arn., 81 
Leguminosae, 123 
Lemna L., 470 

gibba L., 470 

minor L., 470 

paucicostata Hegelmaier, 470 

polyrrhiza L., 470 
Lemnaceae, 470 
Lens Oren. & Godr., 168 

esculenta Moench., 168 

Leobordea abyssinica Hochst., 123 

lotoidea Del., 123 

persica Jaub. & Sp., 124 
Leontice L., 5 
Leontodon £., 274 

arabicum Boiss., 274 

hispidulum Boiss., 274 

mucronatum Forsk., 280 

tuberosum Z., 274 
Leontopetalum L., 5 
Lepidium L., 26 

abyssinicum Hochst., 26 

alpigenum A. Rich., 27 

alpinum Forsk., 27 

armoracia Fisch. & Mey., 26 

Armoracia Schweinf., 28 

armoracium Fisch. & Mey., 26 

armoracium subsp. abyssinicum 
Thell., 26 

armoracium subsp. intermedium 
Thell, 27 

armoracium var. alpigenum Thell., 27 

arvense Mill., 28 

Aucheri Boiss., 27 

babylonicum Auch., 27 

chalepense L.,21 

chalepense Ledeb., 28 

chalepense var. typicum Thell., 27 

Draba Dene., 27 

Draba L., 27 

Draba § L., 27 

heliopolitanum Ehrbg., 28 

hortense Forsk., 28 

intermedium A. Rich., 27 

Kaji Post, 27 

latifolium L., 28 

latifolium var. linearifolium Trautv. t 

ruderale Defl., 27 

ruderale Oliv., 27 

ruderale var. alpigenum Oliv., 27 

sativum L., 28 

Schweinfurthii Thell., 28 

squamatum Forsk., 26 
Lepidopironia A. Rich., 504 

cenchriformis A. Rich., 504 
Lepigonum eximium Kindb., 68 

leiospermum Kindb., 68 
Leptadenia R. Br., 299 

abyssinica Dene., 299 

arborea Schweinf., 299 

Delile Dene., 299 

ephedriformis Defl., 300 

Forskalii Dene., 299 

heterophylla Dene., 299 

pyrotechnica Dene.., 300 

Spartium Wight, 300 
Leptaleum DC., 21 

filifolium DC, 21 

pygmaeum DC., 21 
Leptochloa Beauv., 506 

obtusifolia Hochst., 506 

uniflora Hochst., 506 
Lepturus R. Br. t 518 



incurvatus Trin., 518 
Lerchea maritima fruticosa 0. Kuntze, 


obtusifolia Steud., 408 
Leucas B. Br., 381 

galeopsidea Hochst., 381 

glaberrima Jaub. & Sp., 381 

glabrata B. Br., 38.1 

infiata Benth., 381 

martinicensis B. Br., 381 

Schimperi Hochst., 381 

trachyphylla Jaub. & Sp., 381 

urticaefolia B. Br., 382 
Leucobarleria R. Lindau, 358 
Leyssera L., 241 

capillifolia DC, 241 

discoidea Spreng., 241 
Liliaceae, 459 
Limeum L., 211 

indicum Stocks, 211 
Limoniastrum Moench., 286 

monopetalum Boiss, 286 
Limosella calycina Forsk., 347 
Linaceae, 91 
Linaria Juss., 342 

aegyptiaca (L.) Dum.-Cours, 342 

albifrons Spreng., 342 

alsinaefolia Spreng., 342 

arvensis var. fiavifiora Boiss., 343 

ascalonica Boiss. & Kotschy, 342 

Elatine Mill, 342 

fioribunda Boiss., 342 

gracilis R. Br., 343 

haelava Chav., 342 

Knenckeri Bornm., 343 

macilenta Dene., 343 

micrantha Spreng., 343 

propinqua R. Br., 343 

sagittata i7oofc. /., 343 

scalarum Schweinf., 343 

simplex DC, 343 

spuria i¥*7Z., 344 
Lindenbergia Lehm., 347 

abyssinica Hochst., 347 

fruticosa Benth., 347 

sinaica Boiss., 347 

sinaica Vatke, 347 

sinaica var. abyssinica Almagia, 347 
Linum D., 91 

abyssinicum Hochst., 91 

gallicum var. abyssinicum Planch., 

strictum L., 91 y 

Lippia L., 363 

ncdiflora 2^'cA., 363 

Schimperi Hochst., 363 
Lithospermum L., 318 

angustifolium Forsk., 319 

Arnebia Del., 320 

arvense L., 318 

callosum Vahl, 319 

cornuUnn Ledeb., 319 

digynum Forsk., 310 

divaricdum Sieb., 316 

heliotropioides Forsk., 312 

hispidum Forsk., 312 

incrassatum Guss., 319 

lignosum Schweinf., 309 

orientale L., 318 

tenuiflorum L. /., 319 

tinctorum Vahl, 320 
Littonia Hook., 459 

minor Defl., 459 

obscura Baker, 459 
Loasaceae, 199 
Lobularia arabici Musch., 17 

libyca Webb., 17 

maritima Desv., 17 
Loganiaceae, 305 
Lolium L. y 516 

multiflorum Lam., 516 
Lonicera L., 219 

Aucheri Jaub. & Sp., 219 
Loranthaceae, 420 
Loranthus L., 420 

Acaciae Zucc, 420 

arabicus Defl., 421 

calycinus R. Br., 422 

curviflorus Benth., 421 

Doberae Schweinf., 421 

Fauroti Branch^, 421 

gibbosulus Rich., 421 

globiferus Schweinf., 421 

globiferus var. verrucosus Sprague, 

Zae^s R. Br., 421 

refescens A. Rich., 421 

regularis Steud., 421 

rufescens DC, 422 

Schimperi Hochst., 422 

verrucosus Engl., 421 
Lotononis DC, 123 

abyssinica Kotschy, 123 

dichotoma Boiss., 123 

dichotoma var. persica Po.9i, 124 

Leobordea Benth., 123 

persica Boiss., 124 
Lotus, L., 138 

angustissimus L., 138 

angustissimus var. diffusus Aschers. 
<fc Schweinf., 138 

arabicus L., 139 

arabicus L. var. glabrescens Sch- 
weinf., 140 

arabicus var. trigonelloides Balfour, 

brachycarpus Hochst. & Steud., 139 

brachycarpus var. menachensis 
Schweinf., 139 

corniculatus L., 139 

creticus L., 139 

creticus var. cytisoides Boiss., 139 

cytisoides L., 139 

dichotomus Del., 123 

edulis L., 140 

Ehrenbergii Schweinf., 141 

Garcinii DC., 140 

glinoides Del., 140 



halophilus Boiss., 141 

pulchella Boiss., 18 

hebranicus Hochst., 140 

pulchella var. pygmaea Pos£, 19 

lamprocarpus Boiss., 140 

torulosa Boiss., 19 

lanuginosus Vent., 140 

torulosa var. contortuplieata #ois,s, L., 140 


palaestinus Blatter, 141 

Malpighiaceae, 91 

pusillus var. maior Boiss., 141 

Malus Hook. /., 193 

roseus Forsk., 139 

communis Des/., 193 

Schimperi Steud., 141 

Malva L., 76 

sp., 141 

aegyptiaca D., 76 

stiliger Ehrenb., 140 

ambigua Guss., 77 

trigonelloides Webb. & Benth., 139 

circinnata Viv., 77 

villosus ForsJc., 141 

malwensis Edgew., 76 

Luffa Tourn., 201 

mareotica Del., 77 

arabum Dill., 201 

nicaeensis AIL, 76 

cylindrica Roem., 201 

parviflora L., 77 

Lunaria libyca Viv., 17 

rotundifolia L., 77 

parviflora Del., 24 

simpliciuscula Steud., 77 

scabra Forsk., 14 

sylvestris L.,11 

Lundia monacantha Schum. & Thonn., 

sylvestris var. ambigua Aschers. &• 


Schweinf., 77 

Lupinus L., 127 

verticillata L., 77 

angustifol'us L., 127 

vulgaris Fries, 77 

palaestinus Boiss., 127 

vulgaris Ten., 77 

Lycium L., 337 

Malvaceae, 75 

arabicum Schweinf., 337 

Manettia lanceolata Vahl, 219 

Barbarum var. vulgar e Ait., 337 

Mangifera L., 120 

europaeum Forsk., 337 

indica L., 120 

persicum Miers, 337 

Marrubium L., 378 

vulgare Dun., 337 

Alysson D., 378 

Lycopsis Dioscoridis Ran. wolf., 321 

plicatum Forsk., 378 

Lygeum L., 494 

undulatum Fres., 380 

spartum Loefl., 494 

vulgare L., 378 

Lythraceae, 197 

vulgare var. lanatum Benth., 379 

Ly thrum L., 198 

Marsdenia R. Br., 299 

bibracteatum DC, 198 

Schimperi Dene., 299 

hyssopifolium D., 198 

Mathiola prostrata Hochst., 15 

tribracteatum Salzm., 198 

stylosa Hochst. & Steud., 16 

Matricaria L., 255 

Maerua Forsk., 40 

aurea Boiss., 255 

arenaria Hk. f. & Th., 41 

auriculata Musch., 255 

crassifolia Forsk., 40 

sp., 255 

nervosa OZiv., 40 

Matthiola R. Br., 10 

oblongifolia ^"c^., 41 

acaulis DC, 10 

ovalifolia Gambess., 41 

arabica Boiss., 10 

racemosa Vahl, 41 

bicornis DC, 10 

rigida R. Br., 40 

humilis DC, 10 

sp., 41 

humilis var. typica Musch., 10 

Thomsoni ^wders., 41 

incana i?. Dr., 10 

triphylla Rich., 41 

linearis Del., 18 

uniflora Vahl, 40 

livida DC, 10 

Maesa j^orsA;., 288 

lunata DC., 11 

lanceolata Forsk., 288 

oxyceras DC, 11 

picfa Hochst., 288 

pumilio subsp. hirta Conti, 10 

Mahernia L., 87 

tristis Dene., 10 

modesta Planch., 87 

Medicago L., 132 

Majorana Rupp., 385 

apiculata Willd., 132 

hortensis Moench, 385 

arabica All., 133 

nervosa Benth., 385 

arborea L., 133 

Malcolmia .#. £r., 18 

Aschersoniana C/r6., 133 

aculeolata Boiss., 18 

coronata L., 133 

aegyptiaca Spreng., 18 

denticulata Willd., 133 

aegyptiaca var. linearis Coss., 18 

denticulata var. apiculata Boiss., 132 

africana i?. Br., 18 

denticulata var. lappacea Boiss., 134 



hispida var. apiculata Urb., 132 

sylvestris var. stenostachya Boiss. 

hispida var. denticulaia Urb., 133 


laciniata AIL, 133 

tomentosa D'Urv., 372 

laciniata var. brachyacantha Boiss., 

Mercurialis L., 439 


annua L., 439 

lappacea Desrouss., 134 

? sp Defl., 439 

lupulina L., 134 

Merendera Ram., 459 

maculata Willd., 133 

abyssinica Rich., 459 

minima Bartal, 134 

Meriandra Benth., 374 

murex Willd., 135 

bengalensis Benth., 374 

orbicularis AIL, 134 

Merremia Dennst., 328 

rigidula Desrouss., 134 

pedata Hallier /., 328 

rotata Boiss., 134 

somalensis Hallier /., 328 

sativa £., 134 

Mesembryanthemum £., 207 

sativa var. erecta Schweinf., 135 

copticum L., 208 

Schimperiana Hochst., 133 

Forskahlei Hochst., 207 

scutellata AIL, 135 

geniculiflorum Forsk. 207 

sp., 135 

Harazianum Deft., 207 

tribuloides Desrouss., 135 

nodiflorum L., 207 

tuberculata TFi'ZZ^., 135 

Micrelium tolak Forsk., 250 

Meineckia phyllanthoides Baill., 434 

Micrococca Benth., 439 

Meisarrhena tomentosa R. Br., 340 

Mercurialis Benth., 439 

Melanocenchris Nees., 503 

Micromeria Benth., 373 

plumosa Hochst., 503 

abyssinica Benth., 373 

Melhania Forsk., 86 

bffiora Be^A., 373 

abyssinica Rich., 86 

Forskahlei £e%^., 373 

bracteosa Boiss., 86 

graecae Benth., 374 

Denhamii .ft. Br., 86 

Juliana var. myrtifolia. Boiss., 373 

Kotschyi Ehr., 86 

microphylla Benth., 373 

Kotschyi Hochst., 86 

myrtifolia J?ows. & Hohen., 373 

oblongata Hochst., 86 

nervosa Benth., 374 

reniformis Hochst. & St., 86 
velutina Forsk., 87 

punctata Benth., 373 

Schimperi Vatke, 373 

MeliaL., 113 

Azedarach L., 113 
Meliaceae, 113 
Melianthaceae, 120 
Melica L., 508 

sinaica Benth., 374 
sp., 374 
Microrhynchus arabicus Jaub. & Sp., 279 

glomeratus Jaub. & Sp., 279 
Hochstetteri Sch.-Bip., 275 
nudicaulis Less., 280 

cupani var. pannosa Boiss., 508 
Melilotus Juss., 135 

abyssinica Baker, 136 
abyssinica Hochst., 136 
alba Desr., 135 
elegans Salzman, 136 
indica L., 136 
messanensis Desf., 136 
officinalis var. (3. L., 135 
parviflora Desf., 136 
sulcata Desf., 136 
sulcata var. maior Gamb., 136 

octophyllus Hochst., 275 
Mimosa L., 182 

arabica Lam., 183 
asak Forsk., 183 
asperata L., 182 
eburnea L., 184 
flava Forsk., 185 
glomerata Forsk., 182 
gummifera Forsk., 187 
Habbas Del., 182 
mellifera Vahl, 186 
nilotica L., 183 

Melissa £., 374 

Orfota Forsk., 186 

abyssinica Hochst., 373 

polycantha Willd., 182 

officinalis L., 374 

scorpioides Forsk., 184 

perennis Forsk., 374 

Sejal Forsk., 187 

Menispermaceae, 4 

Senegal L., 186 

Mentha L., 371 

stellata Forsk., 185 

Kahirina Forsk., 371 

tortilis Forsk., 187 

piperita L., 371 

unguis-cati Forsk., 186 

Pulegium L., 371 

Mimoseae, 181 

sylvestris X., 371 

Mimusops L., 288 

sylvestris var. lavandulacea Boiss., 

Schimperi Hochst., 288 


Mirabilis L., 388 

sylvestris var. niliaca Musch., 372 

Jalapa L., 388 



Mnemosilla aegyptiaca Forsk., 8 

Forshalii Ehrenb., 8 
Modecca abyssinica Hochst., 200 
Mollia rosea Hochst. & Steud., 68 
Mollugo L., 210 

cerviana Seringe, 210 

Glinus A. Rich., 210 

hirta Thunb., 210 

nudicaulis Lam., 210 

tetraphylla L., 69 
Molucella microphylla Del., 381 
Momordica Tourn., 200 

Balsamina L., 200 

Charantia L., 200 

dasycarpa Hochst., 201 

Garriepensis E. Mey., 200 
Monechma Hochst., 360 

bracteatum Hochst., 360 

debile Nees, 360 

violaceae Nees, 359 
Monocotvledoneae, 452 
Monotheca A. DC, 288 

mascatensis A. DC., 288 
Monsonia L., 101 

heliotropoides Boiss., 101 

hispida Boiss., 101 

mallica Edgew., 101 - 

nivea J. Gay, 101 

senegalensis Guill. & Perr., 101 
Morettia DC, 13 

asperrima Boiss., 14 

canescens Boiss., 13 

canescens var. ovalifolia Blatter, 13 

parviflora Boiss., 13 

philaeana DC, 13 
Moricandia DC, 24 

aryensis DC, 24 

arvensis Heb., 25 

arvensis var. suffruticosa Coss., 25 

clavata Boiss. & Rent., 25 

divaricata Coss., 25 

dumosa Boiss., 25 

nitens Durand & Ban., 25 

papillosa Steud., 25 

sinaica Boiss., 25 

spinosa Pomel, 25 

suffruticosa Coss. & Dur., 25 

suffruticosa var. nitens Aschers. & 
Schweinf., 25 
Moringa Juss., 122 

aptera Gaertn., 122 

arabica Pers., 122 

peregrina Fiori, 122 
Moringaceae, 122 
Moms L., 443 

nigra L., 443 
Moscharia asperifolia Forsk., 384 
Musa L., 454 

sapientium L., 454 
Mxisaceae, 454 
Muscari Tourn., 460 

comosum Mill., 460 

Holzmanni Boiss., 460 
Mussaenda luteola Hochst., 219 

Myagrum aegyptium L., 31 

paniculatum L., 30 

rugosum L., 31 
Myosotis L., 318 

hispida Schlecht., 318 

spinocarpos Vahl, 316 
Myrsine Kellau Hochst., 288 
Myrsineae, 288 
Myrtaceae, 197 

Naiadaceae, 471 
Naias L., 472 

graminea Del., 472 

marina var. Ehrenbergii A, Br., 473 

minor All., 472 
Nahus Forsk., 288 
Nasturtiopsis Boiss., 12 

arabica Boiss., 12 

coronopifolia Musch., 12 
Nasturtium R. Br., 12 

Aucheri 0. Ktze., 27 

coronopifolium DC, 12 

Draba Crantz, 28 

fontanum Aschers., 12 

latifolium Gillet & Mag., 28 

officinale R. Br., 12 

palustre DC, 12 

terrestre R. Br., 12 
Nauclea microcephala DC, 219 

microcephalia Del., 219 

verticillata Baill., 219 
Nepeta L., 377 

azurea R. Br., 377 

Deflersiana Schweinf., 377 

longiflora Sims., 377 

Mussini Henkel., 377 

rugosa Benth., 377 

septemcrenata Benth., 378 
Nerium L., 292 

mascatense A. DC, 292 

obesum Forsk., 293 

Oleander L., 292 
Neslia Desv., 30 

paniculata Desv., 30 
Neuracanthus Nees, 358 

Robecchii C B. Clarke, 358 

sp., 358 

spinosus Defl., 358 
Neurada L., 192 

procumbens L., 192 
Neurocarpaea lanceolata Br., 219 
Nicotiana Forsk., 339 
Nicotiana L., 339 

Tabacum L., 339 
Nidorella punctulata DC, 235 
Niebuhria nervosa Hochst., 40 

oblongifolia DC, 41 

oblongifolia Royle, 41 
Nigella L., 3 

arvensis L., 3 

arvensis var. divaricata Boiss., 3 

deserti Boiss., 3 

divaricata Beaupre, 3 

sativa L., 3 



Nitraria L., 94 

Schimperi Anders., 220 

retusa Aschers., 94 

stricta £., 221 

senegalensi* Lam., 94 

Olea L., 289 

sericea Jaub. & Spach, 94 

chrysophylla Lam., 289 

tridentata Desf., 94 

europaea L., 289 

Noaea Moq., 413 

Oleaceae, 289 

mucronata Aschers.-Schweinf., 413 

Oligomeris Camb., 48 

spinosissima Moq., 413 

glaucescens Camb., 49 

Notoceras B. Br., 14 

subulata Boiss., 48 

bicorne Caruel, 14 

Oligosporus monospermus Dene., 257 

canariense R. Br., 14 

Omphalodcs intermedia Dene., 314 

Notonia DC, 257 

myosotoides Fres., 315 

obesa Defl., 257 

Onagraceae, 199 

semperviva Aschers., 257 

Oncoba Forsk., 53 

trachycarpa Kotschy, 258 

monacantha Steud., 53 

Nuxia Lam., 305 

spinosa Forsk., 53 

dentata B. Br., 305 

Onobrychis Gaertn., 163 

Nyctaginaceae, 388 

Cristagalli Lam., 163 

ptolemaica DC, 163 

Ochna Schreb., 109 

Ononis L., 129 

inermis Schweinf., 109 

Aucheri Jaub. & Sp., 140 

parvifolia Vahl, 109 

calycina Lam., 129 

Ochnaceae, 109 

Cherlei Forsk., 130 

Ochradenus DeJ., 49 

Cherleri Desf., 129 

Aucheri Boiss., 50 

Kotschyana Fenzl., 130 

baccatus Del., 49 

mitissima L., 129 

baccatus var. monstruosa Mull.- 

natrix var. stenophylla Boiss., 1 29 

Arg., 49 

persica Burm., 130 

baccatus var. scandens Hochst. <k 

pubescens L., 129 

Steud., 49 

reclinata L., 129 

rostratus Ehrenb., 49 

reclinata var. minor Moris, 129 

Ocimum L., 365 

serrata Forsk., 130 

Basilicum L., 365 

sicula 6?«m., 130 

canum ? Sims, 365 

vaginalis Vahl, 130 

cinereum R. Br., 369 

Onontium arabicum Ehr., 345 

cylindrostachys Schweinf., 366 

Onopordon £., 264 

depauperatum Vatke, 368 

Alexandrinum Boiss., 265 

dichotomum Hochst., 366 

ambiguum Fres., 264 

filamentosum Forsk., 366 

elongatum Dene., 264 

gratissimum Forsk., 368 

Sibthorpianum Boiss. & Heldr., 265 

gratissimum var. swave Hook., 367 

Sibthorpianum var. Alexandrinum 

graveolens A. Br., 365 

Boiss., 265 

hadiense Forsk., 368 

Onosma L., 321 

lamiifolium Hochst., 366 

erectum Sibth., 321 

longistylum Hochst., 366 

fruteseens Lam., 321 

menthaefolium Hochst., 366, 367 

stellulatum var. erectum Boiss., 321 

petitianum Rich., 365 

Ophiorrhiza lanceolata Forsk., 219 

sanctum L., 366 

Orchidaceae, 453 

serpyllifolium Forsk., 367 

Orchis L., 454 

spicatum Defl., 367 

palustris Jacq., 454 

suave Willd., 367 

Origanum L., 372 

tenuiflorum Forsk., 366 

Maru var. sinaicum Boiss., 372 

vaalae Forsk., 367 

Orlaya Hoffm., 218 

Zatarhendi Benth., 367 

maritima Xoc/a, 218 

Zatarhendi Forsk., 369 

Ormocarpum Beauv., 164 

p. Zatarhendi Forsk., 367 

bibracteatum Baker, 164 

Odontospermum Neck., 249 

Orobanchaceae, 351 

graveolens Sch.-Bip., 249 

Orobanche L., 351 

pygmaeum Benth. <fc Hook., 249 

abyssinica Rich., 352 

Schimperi Musch., 250 

aegyptiaea'Pm., 351 

Oldenlandia £., 220 

Catbae Defl., 352 

graminifolia DC, 221 

cernua var. desertorum Beck, 352 

hedyotoides Boiss., 220 

crenata Forsk., 352 

retrorsa Boiss., 220 

minor Sutton, 352 



Mutelii F. Schultz, 352 

nana Noe, 352 

ramosa L. t 353 
Orthosiphon Benth., 367 

brachystemon Defl., 367 

comosum Baker, 367 

glabratus Benth., 368 

pallidus Boyle, 368 

tenuiflorus Benth., 368 

tomentosus var. glabrata Hook, f., 
Orygia .Forsfc., 209 

decumbens Forsh., 209 

portulacifolia Forsk., 72 

villosa Forsk., 209 
Oryza L., 493 

australis ^4. i?r., 493 

sativa L., 493 
Oryzopsis Michx., 498 

coerulescens Hack., 498 

holciformis Hack., 498 

miliacea Aschers.-Schweinf., 498 
Osyris £., 422 

abyssinica Hochst., 422 
Otostegia Benth., 380 

arabica Jaw6. <fc #£>., 380 

Benthamiana Jera&. tfc #p., 380 

fruticosa Schweinf., 380 

inicrophylla Aschers.-Schweinf., 380 

moluccoides Jaub. & Sp., 380 

repanda Benth., 381 

scariosa Benth., 380 

Schimperi Boiss., 380 
Oxalis L., 106 

cernua Thunb., 106 

corniculata L., 106 

Z%<ra Viv., 106 

procumbens Steud., 106 

radicosa Rich., 106 

villosa M. B., 106 
Oxygonum Burch., 415 

atriplicifolium var. sinuatum 
Baker, 415 

sinuatum Dammer, 415 

sp., 415 
Oxystelma R. Br., 295 

aegypticum Dene., 295 

Alpini Dene., 295 

esculentum var. Alpini N. E. Br., 
Ozoroa insignis Del., 121 

F achy podium obesum G. Don, 293 
Pallenis Cass., 250 

spinosa Cass., 250 
Palmae, 468 

Panciatica purpurea Piccinoli, 175 
Pancratium Dill., 456 

maritimum L., 456 

maximum Forsk., 456 

Sickenbergerii Aschers. ds Sch- 
weinf., 456 

tenuifolium Hochst., 456 

tortifolium Boiss., 456 

tortuosum Herb., 456 

trianthum Herb., 456 
Pandanaceae, 469 
Pandanus Rumph., 469 

odoratissimus L. f., 469 

tectorius Soland., 469 
Panicum L., 485 

abyssinicum Hochst., 489 

adhaerens Forsk., 493 

antidotal e Retz., 486 

atrosanguineum Hochst., 486 

colonum L., 486 

coloratura. L., 486 

commutatum iVees, 487 i 

commutatum var. nodosum Hack., 

controversum Steud., 487 

Crus Galli L., 489 

desertorum ^4. Rich., 489 

dichotomum Forsk., 490 

eruciforme Sbth. da Sm., 487 

fatmense Hochst. & Steud., 485 

geminatum Forsk., 487 

Hygrocharis Steud., 487 

insculptum Steud., 489 

leersioides Hochst., 486 

leucanthum .A. Rich., 487 

maximum J acq., 488 

Meyerianum iVees, 488 

miliaceum L., 488 

pennatum Hochst., 488 

plicatile Hochst., 488 

prostratum Lam., 488 

ramosum £., 488 

remotum i^eiz., 489 

repens L., 487 

sagittifolium Hochst., 489 

sanguinale £., 485 

sanguinale var. fenestratum 
Schweinf., 485 

sanguinale, var. horizontale 

Schweinf., 486 

scalarum Schweinf., 489 

Teneriffae R. Br., 489 

turgidum Forsk., 489 
Papaver L., 5 

Argemone Z/., 5 

corniculatum Pall., 7 

Decaisnei Hochst. do Steud., 6 

dubium L., 6 

hybridum X., 6 

opiiferum Forsk., 6 

Rhoeas L., 6 

somniferum L., 6 

somniferum var. Decaisnei O. Ktze., 

somniferum var. glabrum Boiss., 6 

sp., 6 

turbinatum Fres., 6 
Papaveraceae, 5 
Papilionaceae, 123 
Pappophorum Schreb., 507 

brachystachyum Jaw6. <fc Spach 



cenchroides Lichst., 507 

elegans, 507 

molle Kunth, 507 
Papularia crystallina Forsk., 208 
Paracaryuro. Boiss., 314 

micranthum Boiss., 314 

microcarpum Boiss., 315 

niyosotoides Boiss., 315 

persicum Boiss., 315 

rugulosum Boiss., 315 
Parietaria L., 448 

alsinifolia Defl., 448 

judaica L., 448 
Parkinsonia L., 176 

aculeata L., 176 
Parnassia poly nectar ia Forsk., 306 
Paronychia Jnss., 392 

arabica DC, 392 

arabica var. desertorum Dur. & 
Barr., 393 

argentea Lam., 392 

capitata Lain., 392 

desertorum Boiss., 393 

lenticulata Aschers. & Schweinf., 393 

longiseta Webb., 392 

m'vea DC, 392 

sclerocephala Dene., 394 

sinaica Fres., 393 
Paspali sp., 488 
Passer ina hirsuta L., 420 
Passifloraceae, 200 
Pavetta L., 221 

longiflora Vahl, 221 

villosa Vahl, 221 
Pavonia £., 80 

arabica Hochst., 80 

glechomaefolia Rich., 80 

Kotschyi Hochst., 81 
Pedicellaria pentaphylla Schrank, 40 
Peganum L., 107 

Harmal £., 107 

retusum Forsk., 94 
Pegolettia Cass., 244 

senegalensis Cass., 244 
Pelargonium UHerit., 106 

abyssinicum R. Br., 106 

multibracteatum Hochst., 106 
Pennisetum Rich., 490 

americanuni JC. Schum., 491 

cenchroides J.. Rich., 490 

depauperatum Schweinf., 490 

dichotomum DeZ., 490 

glaucifolium Hochst., 491 

orientale Rich., 491 

Prieurii Kunth., 492 

quartinianum ^4. Rich., 491 

Ruppellii iSftewd., 492 

sinaicum Dene., 491 

spicatum Kornicke, 491 

typhoideum Rich., 491 

villosum jB. j5r., 491 

Yemense De^., 492 
Pentaglossum linifolium Forsk., 198 
Pentanisia cymosa Klotzsch, 219 

nervosa Klotzsch, 219 

suffruticosa Klotzsch, 219 
Pentas Benth. & Hook., 219 

carnea Benth., 219 

Klotzschii Vatke, 219 

lanceolata Defl., 219 

Quartiniana Oliv., 219 

Schweinf urthii Scott, 220 
Pentatropis R. Br„ 297 

cynanchoides R. Br., 297 

spiralis Dene., 297 
Peperomia Ruiz & Pav., 420 

arabica Dene., 420 
Pepo longa Forsk., 205 
Pergtdaria tomentosa L., 298 
Periploca L., 294 

aphylla Dene., 294 

ephedriformis Schweinf., 300 

pyrotechnicum Spr., 300 

Secamone Del., 295 
Persica vulgaris Mill., 189 
Petalostemma Chenopodii R. Br., 294 
Petioselinura Benth., 214 

sativum Hoffgg., 214 
Peucedanum X., 216 

areysianum 2)e/?., 216 

graveolens Benth. & Hook.f., 216 
Phaeopappus scoparnis Boiss., 268 
Phagnalon Cass., 238 

arabicum Boiss., 238 

Harazianum Defl., 238 

hypoleucum Sch.-Bip., 238 

nitidum Fres., 239 

rupestre DC, 239 

scalarum Schweinf., 239 

viridifolium Dene., 239 
Phalaris X., 494 

canariensis £., 494 

cristata Forsk., 500 

minor Retz., 494 

minor var. gracilis Aschers.-Schwf. 

paradoxa L., 494 
Pharbitis hispida Rich., 323 
Pharnaceum umbellalum Forsk., 210 
Phaseolus L., 171 

aconitifolius J acq., 171 

multiflorus Willd., 471 

Mungo L., 171 

palmatu s Forsk., 171 

radiatus L., 171 

vulgaris X., 171 
Phaylopsis Willd., 355 

imoricata Blatter, 355 

parviflora Willd., 355 
Phelipaea aegyptiaca Walp., 351 

lutea Desf., 351 

Muteli Reut., 352 

ramosa C. A. M., 353 

ramosa var. Muteli Boiss. 352 

ramosa var. nana Boiss. 352 

tinctoria Forsk., 351 

tinctoria Walp., 351 

tubulosa Schenk, 351 



Phenopus orientalis Boiss., 276 
Phialocarpus glomeruliflorus Defl., 206 
Phlomis L., 382. 

aurea Dene., 382 
floccosa Don, 382 

platystegia Post, 382 
urticaefolia Vahl, 382 
Phoenix L., 468 

dactylifera L., 468 

reclinata J acq., 468 

spinosa Thonning, 468 
Phragmites Trin., 507 

maxima Blatt. & McCann, 507 

maxima var. isiaca Gosson, 507 

maxima var. stenophyla Boiss., 508 
Phryma ? Forsk., 364. 
Phyllanthus L., 433 

arabicus Hochst., 433 

hamrur Forsk., 435 

hodjelensis Schweinf., 434 

lalambensis Schweinf., 434 

maderaspatensis L., 433 

maderaspatensis var. Thonningii 
Muell.-Arg., 433 

Niruri L., 434 

ovalifolius Forsk., 434 

rotundifolius Klein, 434 

tenellus var. arabicus Muell.-Arg., 
Physalis somnifera Forsk., 336 
Physoleucas pachystachya Jaub. & Sp., 

Phyteuma Sinai A. DC, 284 
Picridium Desf., 277 

arabicum Hochst. & Steud., 277 

tingitanum Desf., 277 

tingitanum var. minus Boiss., 277 

tingitanum var. subintegrum Boiss., 

vulgare Desf., 278 
Picris L., 272 

coronopifolia DC, 272 

cyanocarpa Boiss., 272 

echioides L., 272 

radicata Less., 272 

Sahara .Bott., 272 ••;. 

scabra ForsJc., 272 

Sprengeriana Xam., 273 

Sprengeriana var. altissima Aschen: 
dh Schweinf., 273 

strigosa M. B., 273 

sulphurea Del., 273 
Pimpinella L., 215 

Anisum Z>., 215 

arabica Boiss., 215 

cretica var. arabica Boiss., 215 

Griffithiance, 215 

hiriella Rich., 215 

menachensis Schweinf., 215 

peregrina L., 215 

puberulce, 215 

saxifraga ForsJc., 215 

sp., 215 

Tragium Fttf,, 215 

Piperaceae, 420 
Piptatherum Beauv., 498 

miliaceum Coss., 498 

multiflorum Beauv., 498 
Pisonia L., 392 

aculeata L., 392 
Pisum £., 169 

elatius M. B., 169 

fulvum Sibth. & Sm., 169 

sativum L., 169 

sativum war. elatius Alef., 169 
Pittosporacese, 53 
Pittosporum Banks, 53 

abyssinicum DeL, 53 
Pituranthos Viv., 213 

tortuosus Benth. & Hook., 213 

triradiatus Aschers. -Schweinf., 213 
Plantaginaceae, 385 
Plantago L., 385 

abyssinica Hochst., 387 

cegyptiaca Jacq., 388 

albicans L., 385 

amplexicaulis Cavan., 385 

arabica Boiss., 385 

arenaria Wald. & Kit., 386 

argentea Desf., 388 

Bellardii All., 386 

ciliata Desf., 386 

Coronopus L., 386 

Coronopus war. filiformis Musch., 386 

Coronopus var. simplex Boiss., 386 

crassifolia Forsk., 386 

cylindrica Forsk., 386 

decumbens Forsk., 388 

filiformis C. Koch., 386 

Lagopus war. lusitanica Musch., 387 

lanceolata L., 387 

lanceolata var. altissima Boiss., 387 

lanceolata var. capitata Presl, 387 

Loeflingii L., 387 

maior Z/., 387 

maritima L., 386 

ovata Forsk., 387 

phaeostoma Boiss. 6s Heldr., 388 

Psyllium L., 388 

Psyllium var. sinaica Barn., 385 

ramosa Aschers., 386 

rugosa Hochst., 388 

sinaica Dene., 385 

squarrosa Murr., 388 

stricta Schousb., 389 
Platychcete glutinosa Boiss., 245 
Plectranthus Lher., 368 

cylindraceus Hochst., 368 

Forskalei Willd., 368 

hadiensis Schweinf., 368 

ovatus Benth., 368 

quadridentatus Schweinf., 368 
Plicosepalus curviflorus Van Tiegh., 421 
Pluchea Cass., 236 

Disocoridis D. C, 233 

indica Less., 236 

Kotschyi Sch.-Bip., 235 

laxa Baker, 236 



mollis Baker, 236 
Plumbaginacese, 284 
Plumbago L., 286 

auriculata Hochst., 286 

europaea L., 286 

zeylanica L., 286 
Poa L., 512 

abyssinica J acq., 513 

alpina L., 512 

annua L., 512 

menachensis Schweinf., 513 

persica Trin., 513 

pratensis L., 512 

sinaica Steud., 512 

soongarica Boiss., 513 
Pocockia arabica Boiss., 130 
Podanthum Boiss., 284 

lanceolatum Willd., 284 

lanceolatum var. alpinum Boiss., 284 
Podonosma Boiss., 321 

syriacum Boiss., 321 
Pogonostigma arabicum Boiss., 151 

Boivini Jaub. & Sp., 150 
Poinciana L., 176 

elata L., 176 

Playfairii T. Anders., 176 

pulcherrima L., 175 
Polanisia orthocarpa Hochst., 39 

viscosa DC, 39 

viscosa var. icosandra, 39 
Polianthes X., 457 

tuberosa L., 457 
Polliehia Soland, 392 

campestris Soland, 392 
Polycarpaea Lam., 69 

corymbosa Zam., 69 

eriantha Hochst. 69 

fallax J. Gay, 69 

fragilis Del., 69 

humifusa J. Gay, 69 

indica Lam., 69 

prostrata Dene., 70 

repens Aschers. -Schweinf., 69 

spicata Wight, 69 

staticeformis Hochst., 69 
Polycarpon L., 68 

alsinefolium DC, 68 

arabicum Boiss., 68 

succulentum Boiss., 70 

succulentum J. Gay, 68 
■ tetraphyllum L. /., 69 

tetraphyllum var. alsinoides Gr. & 
Godr., 68 
Polygala L., 54 

abyssinica R. Br., 54 

aioenis Hochst., 54 

arabica Boiss., 55 

arabica Edgew., 54 

arvensis Willd., 54 

bracteolata Forsk., 56 

chinensis L., 54 

dhofarica Baker, 54 

dictyocarpa Boiss., 55 

erioptera DC, 54 

erioptera var. exigua Chod., 55 

erioptera var. foliosa Schweinf., 55 

erioptera var. perennis Schweinf., 55 

erioptera var. virgata Ehrenb., 55 

exilis DC, 55 

granulata Hochst., 56 

irregularis Boiss., 55 

irregularis DefL, 54 

mascatensis Boiss., 55 

obtusissima Hochst., 56 

oligantha A. Rich., 54 

paniculata Forsk., 55 

parviflora Lois., 55 

Persicaricefolia Oliv., 58 

punctulata Hochst., 56 

Quartiniana A. Rich., 56 

rosea Zohrab, 55 

Rothiana W. & A., 54 

senensis Oliv., 56 

sphenoptera Fres., 56 

spinescens Dene., 56 

Thurmanniana Chod., 56 

tinctoria Vahl, 56 

tinctoria var. canescens Blatter. 57 

triflora Anders., 54 

triflora. L., 54 

Wallichiana Wt., 56 

Yemenica Chod., 57 
Polygalacese, 54 
Polygonacese, 414 
Polygonum L., 415 
i abyssinicum Rich., 416 

alicifolium Brouss., 416 

alpinum All., 415 

aviculare L., 415 

Bellardi All., 415 
■ equisetiforme Sibth. & Smith, 415 

glabrum Willd., 415 

Hippopotami Ehrenb., 415 

maritimum L., 416 

nodosum Schweinf., 415 

serrulatum Lagasca, 416 
Polypogon Desf., 500 

maritimus Willd., 500 

monspeliensis, Desf., 500 
Ponulus L., 450 

" sp., 450 
P( tulaca £.,71 

? decumbens Vahl, 209 

foliosa Kern., 71 

imbricata Forsk., 71 

linifolia Forsk., 71 

oleracea L.,l\ 

quadrifida L., 71 
Portulacaceae, 71 
Potamogeton L., 473 

coloratus Hornem., 474 

natans L., 473 

natans var. serotinus Boiss. , 473 

Preussii A. Benn., 473 

pusillus L., 473 
Potentilla L., 190 

abyssinica Rich., 190 

dentata Forsk., 190 

J 2 



denticulosa Ser., 190 

pensylvanica Lehm., 190 

pensylvanica var. arabica Den., 190 

pensylvanica var. strigosa L., 190 

reptans L., 190 

supina L., 190 

viscosa Donn, 190 
Poterium £., 191 

verrucosum Ehrbg., 191 
Pouzolzia Gaudich., 447 

arabica De/?., 447 

mixta H. Of. Solms., 447 

parasitica Schweinf., 447 

pauciflora Hochst., 449 

procridioides Wedd., 447 
Prasium L., 383 

maius Z-., 383 
Premna L., 365 

resinosa Schauer, 365 
Prenanthes spinosa Forsk., 281 
Primula L., 286 

Aucheri Jaw&. <fc Sp., 286 

Boveana Dene., 286 

simensis Hochst., 286 

verticillata Dene., 286 

verticillata Forsk., 286 
Primulacese, 286 
Priva Adans., 364 

abyssinica Jaub. & Sp., 364 

dentata Juss., 364 

leptostaohya Juss., 364 
Prosopis L., 181 

juliflora DC, 181 

spicigera L., 181 

Stephaniana Spreng., 181 
Prunus L., 188 

Armeniaca L., 188 

Damascena Boiss., 189 

domestica L., 189 
Psammoseris arabica Boiss. & Reut., 273 
Psiadia J acq., 235 

arabica Jaub. & Sp., 235 

punctulata Vatke, 235 
Psidium L., 197 

sp., 197 
Psilonema homalocarpa Fisch. & Mey., 17 
Psilostachys gnaphalobrya Hochst., 400 
Psilotrichum Blume, 400 

cordatum Moq., 400 
Psoralea L., 141 

arabica Hochst., 151 

bituminosa L., 141 

corylifolia L., 141 

palcestina L., 141 

plicata Del., 142 
Psychotria L., 222 

arabica Kotschy, 222 
Psyllothamnus Beevori Oliv., 70 
Pteranthus .Forsfc., 394 

dichotomus Forsk., 394 

echinatus Desf., 394 

Forskahlei Mirb., 394 
Pterocephalus arabicus Boiss.. 227 

brevis Coult., 229 

Coulteri Boiss., 229 

frutescens Hochst., 228 

involucratus Spreng., 229 

papposus Coult., 229 

papposus Hal., 229 

plumosus Coult., 229 

Quartinianus A. Rich., 228 

sanctus Dene., 229 
Pterolobium R. Br., 176 

abyssinicum A. Rich., 176 

lacerans R. Br., 176 
Pteroloma arabicum Hochst. & Steud., 30 
Pteropyrum Jaub. & Sp., 414 

scoparium Jaub. & Sp., 414 
Ptychotis DC, 214 

arabica Anders., 214 
Pulicaria Gwrtn., 244 

adenensis Schweinf., 244 

arabica Cass., 244 

arabica Schimp., 246 

areysiana Defl., 246 

argyrophylla Franch., 245 

chrysopsioides Sch.-Bip., 247 

crispa Benth. & Hook., 245 

desertorum DC, 247 

Ehrenbergiana Schultz., 245 

glutinosa Jaub. do Sp., 245 

gnaphalodes Boiss., 248 

grandidentata Jaub. & Sp., 245 

inuloides DC, 246 

iphionoides O. K., 244 

leucophylla Baker, 246 

longifolia Boiss., 246 

menachensis Schweinf., 246 

orientalis Jaub. & Sp., 246 

petiolaris Jaub. 6s Sp., 247 

Schimperi DC, 247 

sicula Moris, 247 

undulata Z>C, 247 

«riac«fa R. Br., 232 
Punica L., 199 

granatum L., 199 
Pupalia Jwss., 399 

lappacea Juss., 399 
Pycnocycla Lindl., 211 

Aucheriana Dene., 211 

tomentosa Dene., 211 
Pyrethrum Gazrtn., 254 

santolinoides D(7., 254 
Pyrrhopavpus Hochstetteri Rich., 275 

communis L., 193 

hadiensis Forsk., 175 

Quartinia abyssinica Rich., 176 

Randia Houst., 226 

sp., 226 
Ranunculaceae, 1 
Ranunculus Tj., 2 

aquatilis var. submersus Gren. ds 
Godr., 2 

asiaticus L., 2 

Forskahlii DC, 2 



graecus Griseb., 2 

membranaceus Fres., 2 

multifidus Forsh., 2 

muricatus L., 2 

muricatus Sibth., 2 

muricatus var. graecus TIeldr. 
Sort., 2 

pensylvanicus Defl., 2 

sceieratus L., 3 

trachy carpus Fisch. db.Mey., 3 
Raphanus L., 34 

Aucheri Boiss., 34 

lyratus Forsk., 32 

pinnatus Viv., 33 

Raphanistrum L., 34 

recur vatus Pers., 32 

sativus L., 34 
Rapistrum Desv., 31 

segypticum Baill., 31 

mgosuni ,4^., 31 
Reaumurta L., 14: 

hirtella Jaub.,& Sp., 74 

Palsestinae Boiss., 74 

vermiculata Dene., 74 

vermiculata L., 74 
Reboudia microcarpa Coss., 33 
Reichardia picroides Roth., 278 

tingitana Roth., 277 
Reseda L., 46 

abyss inica Fres., 45 

affinis Kotschy, 47 

alba L., 46 

amblyocarpa Fres., 46 

arabica Boiss., 47 

Aucheri Boiss., 48 

canescens L., 46 

decursiva Forsk., 47 

eremophila Boiss., 47 

hexagyna Forsk., 46 

lurida Muell. — Arg., 46 

lutea L., 47 

luteola L., 47 

mediterranea Ehrenb., 47 

muricata Presl, 48 

odorata L., 48 

pedunculata R. Br., 45 

propinqua R. Br., 47 

pruinosa Bove, 48 

pruinosa Del., 46 

Quartiniana A. Rich., 46 

Schimperi Presl, 49 

spartioides Sieb., 49 

sphenocleoides Defl., 48 

stenostachya Boiss., 48 

sabulata Del., 48 

tetragyna Forsk., 47 

tridens Viv., 49 

undata Ehrenb., 47 
Resedaceae, 45 
Resedella subulata Webb, 49 
Retama Boiss., 128 

Duricei Webb., 129 

Rsetam Webb., 128 

Rsetam var. Duriaei Letourn., 129 

Rhagadiolus Juss., 271 

stellatus Willd., 271 
Rhamnaeeae, 115 
Rhamnus L., 116 

disperina Ehrenb., 116 

leucodermis Baker., 116 

lotus L., 115 

nabeca Forsk., 115 

oleoides L., 116 

palestina Aschers. fr Schweinf., 1.16 

sp., 117 

spiciflorus Martelli, 116 

spina-Christi L., 115 
Rhamphicarpa humilis Hochst., 351 
Rhanterium Desf., 248 

epapposum Oliv., 24S 
Rhazya Dene., 292 

stricta Dene., 292 
Rhizophora L., 196 

mucronata Lam., 196 
Rhizophoraceae, 196. 
Rhoicissus Planch., 119 

erythrodes Planch., 118 

Revoilii Planch., 119 

yemensis Schweinf., 119 
Rhus L., 121 

abyssinica Hochst., 121 

Aucheri Boiss., 121 

coriaria L., 121 

fiexicaulis Baker, 122 

foliosa Rich., 121 

glaucescens JL. Rich., 122 

oxyacantha (7av., 122 

retinorrhaea Steud., 122 

saeneb Forsk., 122 

undulata Rich., 122 

viminalis Rich., 122 
Rhynchocarpa Courbonii Defl., 206 

Courbonii Naud., 206 

Ehrenbergii Aschers., 206 

erostris Schweinf., 206 
Rhynchosia Lour., 173 

ervoidea DC, 174 

flavissima Hochst., 173 

medicaginea DC, 174 

memnonia DC, 174 

minima Z>C, 174 

minima var. memnonia Cooke, 174 

nuda DC, 174 

pulverulenta Stocks, 174 

punctata DC, 174 

rhombifolia DC, 174 

stipulosa Rich., 175 

Totta DC, 174 

viscosa DO., 175 
Ricinus L., 441 

africanus Willd., 441 

communis L., 441 

communis var. africanus Muell.. Arg. , 
Rivea tilicefolia Choisy, 322 
Robbairea Boiss., 70 

prostrata Boiss. 70 



prostrata var. major Aschers. & 
Schweinf., 70 

prostrata var. minor Aschers. cfc 
Schweinf., 70 
Robeschia sinaica Hochst., 20 
Rocama prostrata Forsk., 208 
Rochea dichotoma Hochst., 194 

vaginata Hochst., 194 
Rochetia choenis Del., 113 
Roemeria DC, 7 

dodecandra Stapf, 7 

hybrida DC, 8 

hybrida var. dodecandra Durand & 
Barr., 7 

hybrida var. eriocarpa DC, 8 

hybrida var. orientalis Coss., 7 

hybrida var. tenuifolia Schenk., 8 

orientalis Boiss., 7 
Rolcejeha Forsk., 59 
Roridula Forsk., 36 
Rosa L., 191 

abyssinica R. Br., 191 

arabica Crep., 191 

damascena Mill., 192 

indica L., 192 

moschata var. abyssinica Crep., 191 

rubiginosa var. arabica Boiss., 191 

rubiginosa var. sepium DC, 191 

S chimp eriana Hochst. & Steud., 191 

vitlosa L., 192 
Rosacese, 188 
Rosmarinus L., 377 

officinalis L., 377 
RottboelliaL./., 479 

exaltata var. genuina Hack., 480 

hirsuta Vahl, 479 
Rubia L., 223 

tinctorum L., 223 
Rubiacese, 219 
Rubus L., 189 

arabicus Schweinf., 189 

discolor W. & Nees, 190 

fruticosus Forsk., 189 

glandulosus var., arabicus Den., 189 

Petitianus Rich., 190 

sanctus Schreb., 190 
Ruellia £., 353 

adherens Forsk., 353 

aristata FaM, 353 

grandiflora Blatter, 353 

guttata Forsk,, 353 

heterotricha -De/?., 354 

hispida Forsk., 354 

imbricata Forsk., 355 

intrusa Forsk., 358 

longicalyx Defi., 354 

longiflora Vahl, 353 

matutina Hochst., & Steud., 354 

pallida Vahl, 354 

pallida var. caerulea Blatter, 354 

patula Jacq., 354 

patula var. villosa Defi., 355 

strepens Forsk., 354 

slrepens ccerulea Forsk., 354 

Rumex L., 417 

acutus L., 416 

bucephalophorus L., 416 

dentatus var. pleiodon Boiss., 416 

glaber Forsk., 418 

lacerus Balb., 417 

Limoniastrum Jaub. & Bp., 416 

nepalensis Spreng., 417 

nervosus Vahl, 417 

persicarioides Forsk., 417 

pictus Forsk., 417 

pulcher L., 417 

roseus L., 418 

simpliciflorus Murbeck, 417 

simpliciflorus w. typicus Mnrbeck, 

Steudelii Hochst., 417 

vesicarius !•., 418 

vesicarius var. roseus Schweinf.- 
Musch., 418 

vesicarius var. singulifiorus Meisn., 
Ruppia L., 473 

maritima var. spiralis Aschers., 473 

rostellata Koch, 473 
Ruta £., 107 

angustifolia Pers., 107 

bracteosa DC, 107 

chalepensis L., 107 

chalepensis var. bracteosa Boiss., 

tuberculata Forsk., 107 

tuberculata var. arabica Blatter, 107 
Rutacese, 107 

Saccharum £., 479 

biflorum Forsk., 479 

hirsutum Forsk., 479, 480 

officinale i., 479 

Ravennse L., 479 

spontaneum £., 479 
Scelanthus digitatus Forsk., 117 

quadragonus Forsk., 118 

rotundifolius Forsk., 118 

ternatus Forsk., 118 
Sageretia Brongn., 117 

brandrethiana Aitch., 117 

theezans, 117 
Salicacese, 450 
Salicornia L., 407 

amplexicaulis Vahl, 406 

arabica L., 407 

cruciata Forsk., 407 

europcea Forsk., 407 

fruticosa L., 407 

herbacea L., 407 

perfoliata Forsk., 407 

virginica Forsk., 407 
Salix L., 450 

alba L., 450 
Salsola L., 411 

articulata Forsk., 413 

Bottae Boiss., 411 

Bottse var. Fauroti Franch., 411 



cyclophylla Baker, 411 

fcetida £>eZ., 411 

Forskalii Schweinf., 411 

fruticosa L., 408 

hadramautica Baker, 412 

imbricata For ah., 412 

wwWca Wall., 408 

inermis Forsk., 412 

Kali £., 412 

Zawa Edgew., 408 

leucophylla Baker, 41 2 

longjfolia Forsk., 412 

monobractea Forsk., 406 

mucronata Forsk., 413 

rigida Pall., 412 

tetragona Del., 413 

tetrandra Forsk., 413 

vermiculata mr., villosa Moq., 413 

verrucosa it/. 5., 413 
Saltia i?. Br., 399 

abyssinica R. Br., 394 

papposa ilfog., 399 

Salvadora L., 290 

crassinervia Hochst., 290 

oleoides Dene., 290 
persica Garcin., 290 
persica T. Anders., 290 
Salvadoracese, 290 
Salvia £., 374 

abyssinica Hochst., 376 
abyssinica R. Br., 374 
segyptiaca L., 374 

cegyptiaca var. pumila A? chers. -Sch- 
weinf., 375 
areysiana Defl., 375 
bracteata Buss., 375 
congesta Rich., 376 
controversa Ten., 375 
deserti Dene., 375 
eremophila Boiss., 375 
hypoleuca Hochst., 376 
judaica Boiss., 376 
lanigera Poir., 375 
macilenta Boiss., 376 
mer jamie Forsk., 376 
m*6ia Ait., 376 

nudicaulis var. nubia Baker, 376 
palaestina Benih., 376 
Schimperi Benth., 376 
Schimperiana Hochst., 374 
Sclarea X., 376 
sinaica Del., 376 
spinosa X., 376 

Verbenaca var. vernalis Boiss., 377 
Sambucus L., 218 
nigra £., 218 
Samolus L., 287 

Valerandi L., 287 
Sanguisorba verrucosa A. Br., 191 
Sanseviera Thunb., 454 

Ehrenbergii Schweinf., 454 
guineensis Willd., 455 
Santalaceae, 422 
Santolina fragrantissima Forsk., 252 

sinaitica Fres., 254 
terrestris Forsk., 252 
Sapindacese, 119 
Sapindus L., 120 

trifoliatus L., 120 
Saponaria L., 60 

hirsuta Labill., 59 
vaccaria L., 60 
Sapotacese, 288 
Sarcostemma B. Br. s 297 
aphyllum Hochst., 297 
Forskalianum Schult., 297 
stipitaceum B. Br., 297 
viminale B. Br., 297 
Satureia ovata R. Br., 373 

punctata R. Br., 373 
Savignya DC, 24 

cegyptiaca DC, 24 

segyptiaca war. oblonga Boiss. t 24 
parvi flora Webb., 24 
Scabiosa £., 227 

arabica Blatter, 227 
arenaria Forsk., 228 
Aucheri Boiss., 228 
columbaria I/., 228 
eremophila Boiss., 228 
frutescens war. pumila De/L, 228 
involucrata Sibth. & Sin., 229 
leptopoda Boiss., 228 
Olivieri Coult., 229 
palaestina Linn., 229 
papposa L., 229 
plumosa Sibth., 229 
rhizantha Viv., 228 
rotata Bieb., 229 
sancta Blatter, 229 
Scandix _L., 215 

pinnatifida Few£., 215 
stellata Russell, 215 
Sceura marina Forsk., 365 
Schanginia baccata Moq., 408 

horiensis Moq., 408 
Schimpera Hochst., 31 

arabica Hochst. & Steud., 31 
arabica var. lasiocarpa Boiss., 31 
Schismus Beauv., 512 
arabicus Nees., 512 
marginatus P. Beauv., 512 
Schizocalyx coriaceus Hochst., 290 
Schizotheca Hemprichii Ehrenb., 453 
Schmidelia rubifolia Hochst., 120 
Schcenefeldia Kunth, 502 

gracilis Kunth, 502 
Schcenusl;., 478 

nigricans L., 478 
Schouwia DC, 29 
arabica DC, 29 
arabica var. Schimperi Aschers. & 

Schweinf., 29 
brassiccefolia Jaub. & Spach., 29 
purpurea Schweinf., 29 
purpurea var. Schimperi Musch., 2y 
Schimperi Jaub. & Spach., 29 
thebaica Webb., 29 



Schweinfurthia A. Braun, 344 

Securinega Juss., 434 

aptera Vatke, 345 

abyssinica Rich., 435 

iatifolia Baker, 344 

phyllanthoides Mudl.-Arq.. 434 

pedicellaris Benth. & Hook./., 345 

Seddera Hochst., 328 

pedicellata Benth. & Book. f., 345 

arabica Choisy, 328 

pterosperma A. Braun, 345 

Bottce Jaub. & Sp., 329 

Seilla L., 463 

evolvuloides Wight, 329 

yemensis Defl., 463 

intermedia Hochst. & Steud., 329, 

Scirpus L., 477 


corymbosus var. brachyeeros H., 477 

Iatifolia Hochst. cfc Steud., 329 

Holoschcenus L., 477 

secundiflora Jaub. & Sp., 329 

lacustris L., 477 

virgata Hochst. & Steud., 329 

littoralis Schrad., ill 

Sedum L., 196 

maritimus L., ill 

floribus coryWibosis Forsk., 194 

setaceus L., 477 

sp., 198 

Scitaminaceae, 454 

Seetzenia R. Br., 94 

Sclerocarpus J acq., 251 

Africana R. Br., 94 

africanus Jacq., 251 

orientalis Dene., 94 

Sclerocephalus Boiss., 394 

Seidlitzia Bunge, 410 

arabicus Boiss., 394 

Rosmarinus Bunge 410 

Scleropoa Griseb., 514 

Selaginese, 362 

maritima Pari., 514 

Sempervivum L., 196 

memphitica Boiss., 514 

chrysanthum Hochst., 196 

Scolymus £., 270 

Senebiera coronopus Poir., 26 

hispanicus L., 270 

Senecio L., 258 

macula tus £., 270 

auriculatus Vahl, 258 

Stopolia Boveana Dun., 338 

biflorus FoAZ, 258 

Scorpiuorus L., 161 

bipartitus Sch.-Bip., 258 

muricata L., 161 

coronopifolius Desf., 258 

Scorzonera £., 282 

Decaisnei DC, 258 

ciliata Forsk., 277 

flavus Sch.-Bip., 258 

dubia ? Forsk., 282 

Forskalii Baill., 259 

Kurdica Boiss & Noe, 282 

hadiensis Forsk., 259 

lanata M. B., 282 

hazarianus De/L, 259 

mollis M. B., 282 

kleinioides ? OZu'. <fc Hiern, 259 

mollis var. glabrata Bornm., 282 

linifolius Forsk., 258 

orientalis Forsk., 282 

lyratipartitus Schultz., 257 

orientalis L., 277 

lyratus Forsk., 258 

papposa DC, 282 

odorus Defl., 259 

undulata Vahl, 282 

pendulus Defl., 260 

Scrophularia .L., 345 

Schimperi Sch.-Bip., 260 

aintabensis Boiss. & Haussk., 346 

Scotfw Balf. f., 259 

arguta Soland, 345 

squalidus Forsk., 258 

canina L., 346 

subscandens Hochst., 260 

deserti Del, 346 

Sumarse Defl., 260 

hypericifolia Wydler, 346 

vernalis Waldst. 6c Kit., 260 

libanotica Boiss., 346 

Senna acutifolia Batka, 177 

lucida L., 346 

angustifolia Batka, 178 

orientalis Ehrenb., 346 

Hooker iana Batka, 177 

rostrata Hoclist., 345 

ovalifolia Batka, 178 

sinaica Benth., 346 

Senra Cav., 81 

syriaca Benth., 346 

arabica Webb., 81 

Urvilleana Dene., 346 

incana Cav., 81 

variegata var. libanotica Boiss., 346 

nubica Webb. 81 

xanthoglossa Boiss., 346 

Septimetula refescens Van Teigh., 422 

xanthoglossa var. decipiens Boiss., 

reqularis Van Teigh., 421 


Sericostoma Stocks, 319 

iScrophulariacese, 339 

strigosa Defl., 319 

Scutellaria L., 378 

Serratula poly gy ma Rich., 236 

africana Hoclist., 378 

Sesbania Pers., 152 

arabica Jaxib. & Sp., 378 

arabica Hochst., 152 

peregrina L., 378 

flliformis, Hochst., 153 

Sceurigera DC., 138 

grandiflora Pers., 153 

Coronilla DC., 138 

leptocarpa DC, 153 

oeneSal Index. 


multijuga Schweinf., 153 

punctata DC, 153. 
Setaria Beaw>\, 493 

verticillata Beau v., 493 

viridis Beauv., 493 
Sevada Schimperi Moq., 412 
Sherardia L., 226 

arvensis L., 226 
Sida L., 77 

abuiilon L. ? 80 

n?6a L., 78 

alnifolia L., 7S 

asiatica L., 78 

bidentata Hochst., 78- 

breviflora Steud., 78 

densiflora B.ich., 78 

denticulata Fres., 79 

glauca Cav., 79 

gracilis R. Bi\, 79 

grandiflora Don, 80 

graveolens Roxb., 79 

grewioides 6rwiW. <fc Perr., 77 

mtftca DC, 80 

Kotschyi Hochst., 79 

mutica Del., 79 

pannosa R. Br., 79 

ramosa Cav., 80 

rhombifolia L., 78 

scabra Schum. & Thonn., 78 

spinosa L., 78 

subrotunda Hochst., 77 

urens L., 78 
Silene L., 60 

adhcerens Ehrenb., 62 

affinis Boiss., 60 

apetala Willd., 60 

apetala var. grandiflora Boiss., 60 

arabica Boiss., 60 

arabica F. N. Williams, 64 

asphaltica Ky., 63 

Behen L., 60 

Behen var. minor Boiss., 60 

bipartita var. Oliveriana Post., 63 

bipartita var. stenophylla Boiss., 61 

Burchellii Otf/i., 61 

Burchellii var. macropetala Schweinf. 

canopica Del., 64 

chirensis var. macropctahim Sch- 
weinf., 61 

chirensis var. Schweinf urthii Rohib., 

chlorcefolia var. Schimperiana Boiss., 

colorata mr. vulgaris TFiZ7&., 61 

congesta Boiss., 62 

conica Hochst., 61 

conica L., 61 

conoidea L., 61 

cylindriflora Otth., 61 

dianthoides Schimp., 63 

divaricata Ehrenb., 63 

eremophila Bienert, 63 
flammulsefolia Steud., 61 

gallica L., 61 

Hussoni Boiss, 62 

juncea Sibth., 62 

Lagascoe, Boiss., 60 

leucophylla Boiss., 62 

itnearis Dene., 62 

microsperma Fenzl, 62 

mutabilis L., 62 

nocturna L., 62 

odontopetala Boiss., 62 

odontopetala var. sinaica Boiss., (52 

Oliveriana Otth., 63 

Palaestinse Boiss., 63 

picta DC, 62 

Pseudo-Behen Boiss., 60 

puberula Bertol., 63 

repens Boiss., 64 

Schimperiana Boiss., 63 

Schweinf urthii Bohrb., 63 

setacea Viv., 63 

setacea var. viscida Boiss,. 63 

Sinaica Boiss., 62 

spicata Ehrenb., 63 

syriaca Reut., 62 

tenuis Willd., 64 

villosa Del., 60 

villosa ForsJc, 63 

villosa Eorsk., 61 

Vivianii Steud., 63 

yemensis Defi., 64 
Siliquaria glandulosa Forsk., 34 
Silybum Gcertn., 265 

Marianum Gcertn., 265 
Simarubacese, 109 
Simbuleata Forsk., 344 
Simbuleta arabica Poir., 344 

Forslcahlii F. J. Gmel., 344 
Sinapis L., 22 

arvensis L., 22 

aurica DC, 22 

erucoides L., 23 

Grcecum Tourn., 33 

Harra Forsk., 23 

juncea L., 22 

nigra L., 22 

philceana Del., 13 
Sipanea carnea Hort., 219 
Sison L., 214 

animi Forsk., 214 
Sisymbrium L., 19 

aculeolatum Boiss., 18 

asperum Schimp., 18 

barbarcefolhim Del., 12 

cabulicum Hook. f. & Th., 20 

confertum Stev., 20 

coronopifolium Desf., 12 

erysimoides Desf., 19 

Irio L., 19 

Kneuckeri Bornm., 20 

Nasturtium L., 12 

nitidum Zea., 19 

pannonicum var. rigidvlum Boiss., 20 

pendulum Desf., 23 

pumilum Steph., 20 



ramulosum Poir., 19 

rigidulum Dene., 20 

rigidulum Lag., 19 

Robesetti Steud., 20 

runcinatum Lag., 20 

Schimperi Boiss., 20 

Schimperi Gay, 20 

Sophia var. Schimperi Hk. f. & Th. 3 

stigmatosum Steud., 21 

torulosum Desf., 19 

Zeae Spreng., 19 
Sium L., 214 

angustifolhim L., 214 

erectum Huds., 214 

latifolium L., 214 

Thunbergii DC, 214 
Socotora aphylla Balf. f ., 300 
Sodada decidua Forsk., 44 
Solanacese, 331 
Solanum L., 331 

acetosaifolium Lam., 335 

cegypticum b. Forsk., 332 

albicaule Kotschy, 331 

arabicum Dun., 331 

armatum Forsk, 331 

bahamense var. album Forsk., 335 

bifurcatum Rich., 331 

bifurcum Hochst., 331 

carense Dun., 331 

coagulans Forsk., 333 

coagulans Vahl, 333 

coagulans var. ochraceum Dun., 333 

cordatum Forsk., 332 

dubium Fres., 332 

dubium var. brevipetiolatum Dun., 

flavum Kit., 334 

Forskalii Dun., 332 

gracilipes Dswe., 332 

Hadag Defl., 332 

hirsutum Dun., 332 

incanum L., 333 

inoanum var. ochraceum Blatter, 333 

Lycopersicum L., 333 

melongena var. inerme Hiern., 333 

Milleri Jacg., 334 

nigrum L., 334 

nigrum hirsutum Vahl, 332 

nigrum var. chlorocarpon Spenn., 

nigrum var. villosum L., 335 

palmetorum Dun., 334 

platacanthum Dim., 334 

polianthemum Hochst., 334 

pubescens If iMo"., 334 

Sabseorum De/Z., 334 

sanctum L., 333 

sepicula Dun., 335 

sinaicum Boiss., 335 

terminale Forsk, 335 

trilobatum L., 335 

tuberosum Z,., 335 

villosum Forsk., 332 

villosum Lam., 335 
Xanthocarpum var. Jacquini Dun., 

Solenostemma Hayne., 295 

Argel Hayne, 295 
Sonchus L., 278 

Candolleanus Jaub., & Sp., 280 
Cassinianus Jaub. & Sp., 279 
chondrilloides Sibth. & Smith, 278 
divaricatus Desf., 280 
glaucescens Jordan., 278 
Hochstetteri Sch.-Bip., 275 
massaviensis Sch.-Bip., 279 
melanolepis Fres., 278 
oleraceus L., 278 
Spartium Duriaii Spach, 129 
Bcetam Jaub. & Sp., 128 
Specularia Heist., 283 

speculum .4. DC, 283 
Spergula L., 67 

diandra Murbeck, 67 

diandra var. leiosperma Aschers 

& Schweinf., 67 
flaccida Aschers., 68 
Spergularia Pers., 68 

diandra Heldr. & Sart., 67 
fallax Lowe, 68 
media Boiss., 68 
microsperma Aschers., 67 
pentandra var. intermedia Boiss., 

salina Presl, 68 

salina var. leiosperma Aschers., 68 
Spermacocce calyptera Dene., 222 
Sphserocoma T. Anders., 70 

Hookeri Anders., 70 
Sphenopus Trin., 508 

divaricatus Beichb., 508 
Spinacia L., 403 

inermis Mcench.. 403 
oleracea L., 403 
Spitzelia Saharce Cass. & Krai., 272 
Sponia Hochstetteri Buch., 442 
Sporobolus B. Br., 499 
arabicus Boiss., 499 
capensis Kunth, 499 
glaucifolius Hochst., 499 
hamiensis Schweinf., 499 
indicus B. Br., 499 
minutiflorus Link, 499 
minutus Schweinf., 500 
robustus Kunth, 499 
setulosus Schweinf., 499 
spicatus Kunth, 499 
Stachys £., 379 

cegyptiaca Pers., 379 
affinis .Fres., 379 
nivea Labill., 379 
orientalis Forsk., 379 
palsestina L., 379 
palcestina Vahl, 379 
Stachytarpheta cernua R. Br., 363 
Stcehelina spinosa Vahl, 242 
Stapelia anemoniflora Defl., 302 



chrysotephana DefL, 302 

dentata Forsk., 303 

multangula Forsk., 301 

quadrangula Forsk., 304 

qvadrangula ramosa Forsk., 304 

subulata Forsk., 304 
Statice £., 284 

cegyptiaca Pers., 285 

aphylla Forsk., 285 

arabica Jaub. & Sp., 284 

axillaris Forsk., 284 

Bovei Jaub. & Sp., 284 

cylindrifolia Forsk., 284 

lanceolata Edgw., 284 

Limonium B., 285 

pruinosa B., 285 

spicata Willd., 285 

suflruticosa B., 285 

teretif olia Baker, 285 

Thouini Viv., 285 
Steinheiler Bene., 294 

radians Bene., 294 
Stellaria B., 65 

apetala Ucria, 65 

media Cyrill, 65 
Sterculia £.,85 

abyssinica R. Br., 85 

arabica Anders., 85 

platanif olia E.f.,86 

pyriformis Bunge, 86 
Sterculiacese, 85 
Sternbergia TTaZdfi*. <fc Z^., 458 

odnensis Guss., 458 

cholchiciflora Waldst. & Kit., 458 

Clusiana Ker-Gawl, 458 

dalmatica Herb., 458 

macrantha J. Gay, 458 

pulchella Boiss. & Blanche, 458 

Schuberti Schenk, 458 

stipitata Boiss. & Haussk., 458 
Stewartia corchoroides Forsk., 78 
Stictocardia Hallier., 322 

tilisefolia Hallier. f., 322 
Stipa B., 497 

arabica Trin. & Rupr., 497 

barbata Desf., 497 

capillata B., 498 

Lagascse Bcem. & Schult., 498 

parviflora Besf., 497 

tortilis Besf., 497 
Strabonia gnaphalodes DC, 248 
Stratiotes acoroides Linn, f ., 452 
Streblanthera triehodesmoides Steud. 

Streblocarpus pubescens Klotzsch, 40 

scandens Klotzsch, 40 
Striga Bour., 350 

gesnerioides Vatke, 350 

hermonthica Benth., 350 
- hirsuta Benth., 350 

hirsuta var. perpusilla Rich., 350 

humilis Hochst., 351 

lutea Bowr., 350 

orchidea Hochst., 350 

orobanchoides Benth., 350 

pusilla Hochst., 350 
Strobopetalum N. E. Br., 298 

Benti N. E. Br., 298 
carnosum N. E. Br., 298 
Strozmia glandulosa Vahl, 42 

longifolia R. Br., 43 
Strychnos abyssinica Hochst., 291 
Stylosanthes Sivarlz., 165 

mucronata Willd., 165 

setosa Harv. & Sond., 165 
Suseda Forsk., 408 

asphaltica Boiss., 408 

baccata Forsk., 408 

baccata Schimp., 412 

baccata Volk., 408 

foliis oblongis Forsk., 409 

fruticosa Forsk., 408 

hortensis Forsk., 408 

monoica Forsk., 409 

monoica Schimp, 412 

platyphylla Ehr., 412 

Rosmarina Ehrenb., 410 

setigera var. mvtica Schimp., 408 

sp., 409 

vera Forsk., 409 

vermiculata Forsk., 409 

vermiculata var. puberula G. B. CI. 
Subularia purpurea Forsk., 29 
Sutera Roth, 347 

glandulosa Roth, 347 
Swertia B., 306 

decumbens Vahl, 306 
Symphytum B., 316 

orientale B\, 316 
Syntrophe canescens G. Ehrenbg., 46 

Tachypodwm erysimoides Webb., 19 
Talinum Adans., 71 

crassifolium Willd., 71 

cuneifolium Willd., 72 

portulacifolium Aschers., 72 
Tamaricaceae, 72 
Tamarindus B., 181 

erythrcea Mattei, 181 

indica B., 181 
Tamarix B., 72 

africana Besf., 72 

aphylla Banza, 72 

arabica Bunge, 72 

articulata Vahl, 72 

deserti Boiss., 74 

Ehrenbergii Presl, 73 

gallica B., 73 

gallica var. africana Willd., 72 

gallica var. effusa Schenk, 73 

gallica var. heterophylla Ehrenb., 73 

gallica var. mannifera Ehrenb., 73 

gallica var. nik>tica Ehreb, 73 

macrocarpa Bunge, 73 



mannifera Ehrenb., 73 

mascatensis Bunge, 73 

nilotica Bunge, 73 

Noeana Boiss., 74 

orientalis Forsk., 72 

passerinoides Del., 74 

passerinoides var. macroearpa 
Ehrenb., 73 

pycnocarpa DC, 74 

tetragyna Ehrenb., 74 
Tanacetum sinaicum Del., 254 
Tarchonanthus L., 235 

camphoratus L., 235 
Taverniera DC, 163 

cyclophylla Hochst., 163 

floribunda Schweinf., 163 

glauca Edgeiv., 163 

lappacea DC, 163 

Schimperi Jaub. & Sp., 163 
Teclea nobilis Del., 108 
Tecoma Juss., 353 

sp., 353 
Tecomella Seem., 353 

undulata Seem., 353 
Telephium £., 209 

sphserospermum Boiss., 209 
? Tenuafc Forsk., 306 
Tephrosia Pers., 149 

anthylloides Hochst., 149 

apollinea Quill. & Perr., 149 

apollinea Link, 149 

arabica Steud., 151 

Boivini Blatter, 150 

cordofana Hochst., 149 

decorticans Taub., 150 

desertorum Scheele, 150 

diffusa W. & A., 150 

dura Baker, 150 

elata De/7., 150 

geminiflora Baker, 150 

Hausknechtii Bornm., 151 

iathyroides 0ulf!: cfc Perr., 151 

leptostachya DC, 152 

persica Boiss., 151 

Pogonostigma Boiss., 151 

purpurea Pers., 151 

purpurea tw. leptostachya 

Schweinf., 152 

purpurea var. pumila Baker, 150 

Schweinf urthii !>./?. , 152 

senticosa Per*., 152 

subtriflora Hochst., 152 

tomentosa Pers., 152