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Full text of "A revision of the genus Capsicum : with especial reference to garden varieties"

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3*7 



A prevision of the Genus 
Capsicum with Especial 
Reference to Garden Vsrietie 

H. C. Irish 



UC-NRLF 




71 Sfll 




806l'l2 
"A 'N ' 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM WITH ESPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO GARDEN VARIETIES. 



BY H. C. IRISH. 



A revision of the genus Capsicum * from an agricultural 
rather than a strictly botanical standpoint, was first sug- 
gested by Dr. E. Lewis Sturtevant,f who afterwardhimself 
selected the subject for special study and began collecting 
and cultivating a large number of kinds, at the same time 
recording complete descriptions from living plants. In 
1892 all of his material bearing upon the subject, includ- 
ing many herbarium specimens, drawings, colored plates 
and notes was given to the Missouri Botanical Garden J on 
condition that the genus should receive study with a view 
to the ultimate publication of the results in monographic 
form. All garden varieties which were procurable, together 
with numerous so-called species, have been cultivated at the 
Garden for four years, furnishing valuable material in the 
prosecution of the work. In beginning operations, Mr. F. 



* Tournef. Inst. 152. 1700. Linn. Gen. PI. 195. 1742. Jussieu, 
Gen. PI. 126. 1789. Linn. Syst. PI. 1: 1050. 1797 [ed. Willd.]. Miller, 
Card. Diet. 1797 [ed. Martyn]. Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 237. 
1809. Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. PI. 3: 48. 1818. Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. 
Capsici. 1832. Nees von Esenb. Trans. Linn. Soc. 17 : 62. 1832. 
Meisner, PI. Gen. 277. 1836-43. Don, Hist. Dich. PL 4: 444. 1838. 
Endlicher, Gen. PI. 665. 1840 [no. 3854]. Sendt. in Martins, Fl. Bras. 
10: 142. 1846. Dunal in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 411. 1852. Miquel, Fl. 
Ned. Ind. 2:657. 1856. Benth. & Hooker, Gen. PI. 2: 892. 1876. 
Nicholson, Diet. Gard. 1884. Baillon, Hist. PL 9: 331. 1888. Engler 
& Prantl, Pflanzenfam. <4 3b : 20. 1891. Kuntze, Eevis. Gen. PL 447. 
1891. 

English, Red Pepper t Guinea Pepper. French, Piment, Poivre d'Inde 
ou de Guinea. German, Spanischer Pfeffer. Italian, Peperone. Mexi- 
can, Chilli. Hindostan, Tschili. Hungarian, Paprika. Spanish, 
Pimiento. Portuguese, Pimento, Pimentas. 

f American Naturalist 25 : 550. 1885. 

I Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 4: 15. 1893. 



(53) 



46381 i 



MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 



W. Dewart, at that time Botanical Assistant at the Garden, 
made numerous observations, especially noting structural 
characters. Later Mr. J. G. Smith continued the work, 
following much the same plan. My own study of this 
genus began in the spring of 1896 with bringing together 
the material left by others, recording observations on the 
growing plants of that year, and comparing them with 
previous notes. In addition to the work of the gentlemen 
named, I am especially indebted to Professor William Tre- 
lease for valuable assistance and suggestions in all parts of 
the work. 

Concerning the early history of Capsicum, there is 
abundant evidence that the entire genus had its origin in 
the American tropics, though numerous so-called species 
have been attributed to Southern Asia. It seems to have 
been first mentioned by Peter Martyn in an epistle dated 
September 1493, in which he says Columbus brought home 
" pepper more pungent than that from Caucasus/ 7 * De 
Candolle advances the opinion that a plant so easily grown 
and so agreeable to the tastes of inhabitants of warm 
countries would probably have been known previous to the 
discovery of America, whereas no ancient Sanskrit or 
Chinese name for the genus is known, neither were the 
Greeks, Romans, nor even Hebrews acquainted with it.f 
The rapidity with which the plants spread in tropical 
countries, together with the increased commercial trade im- 
mediately following the discovery of America, probably 
caused a rapid dissemination through the Old World 
tropics, where the plants were afterwards found by later 
botanists, many of whom supposed them to be indigenous. 

The opinion of different authorities seems to vary greatly 
concerning the number of species and varieties. Three 
varieties were figured by Fuchsius in 1542, thirteen by 
Gregorius in 1611, twenty by Parkinson in 1640. Thirty- 
five were mentioned by Morison in 1699, twenty-seven by 

* Sturtevant, American Naturalist 24: 151. 1890. 

f De Candolle, Origin of Cultivated Plants 288. 1882. 



A KEVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 55 

Tournefort in 1700, eighteen by Miller in 1731, though in 
1771, after the binomial system had come into use, he gave 
but ten specific names. Linnaeus in the first edition of 
his Species Plantarum (1753) records two species, and in 
his Mantissa (1767) recognizes two additional ones. In 
the fourteenth edition of his Systema Vegetabilium, edited 
by Murray (1789), one new species is given, and in the 
Willdenow edition of the Species Plantarum (1797) still 
another is added. Romer and Schultes, in their edition of 
the Systema Vegetabilium (1819), add what they consider 
fifteen good and three doubtful species to those already de- 
scribed since the time of Linnaeus. Of these fifteen, only 
one was given for the first time by them, all of the others 
having been previously named by various botanists since 
Willdenow's edition. In 1832 Fingerhuth recognized 
twenty-five accepted species, together with seven requiring 
further examination, and twenty-eight botanical varieties, 
three of the species and most of the varieties being named 
by him. In 1846 Sen dtner recorded ten species and numer- 
ous varieties as occurring in Brazil alone, he having named 
seven of the species. In 1852,Dunal recorded fifty accepted 
species, of which eleven were described for the first time, 
together with many varieties, and eleven species requiring 
further examination, besides three doubtful ones. 

This was the last revision of the genus, and but three 
new species have since been described. Altogether about 
ninety specific names have been given, of which the Index 
Kewensis recognizes fifty -four as good. Notwithstanding 
this large number, modern authorities generally believe 
that there are only a few. Professor Asa Gray, in a 
letter to Dr. Sturtevant under date of Nov. 2, 1887, 
expresses a fancy that there are only two species in 
the genus.* Dr. Sturtevant, who had already made 
a considerable study of the genus, expressed the opinion 
that the published species in a majority of cases were only 
forms, and that when these were reduced to synonyms 

* Agricultural Science 2: 1. 1883. 



56 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

the number of species that would be accepted by botanists 
would be very small.* Dr. H. H. Rusby wrote Dr. 
Sturtevant, April 9th, 1888, saying: " I have seen a good 
deal of the genus in South America and have observed a 
great tendency to variation. I have seen but few well dis- 
tinguished forms and about these are grouped hosts, pre- 
senting every shade of variation in size, color, form, and 
surface-planes of fruit. There are corresponding differ- 
ences in pungency and flavor, in detecting which the natives 
are very expert. Each man will have some cherished 
plant that to him is very distinct, and far superior to 
anything that his neighbors can boast." 

In regard to the great variability of Capsicum, Professor 
G. S. Jenman, of the Government Botanist's Office at 
Georgetown, British Guiana, wrote Mr. Dewart, August 24, 
1892, that the genus there presents an infinite variety, and 
where several kinds are grown together the fruit of par- 
ticular forms is often much modified by cross-fertilization, 
though this apparently does not apply to all varieties. 
Professor J. H. Hart, Superintendent of the Botanical 
Department of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Trinidad, 
during the same year wrote Mr. Dewart as follows ; " We 
do not make any specific distinction between the Capsicums 
from here for the simple reason that they degenerate so 
quickly to a simple form under cultivation that we cannot 
refer them to more than a single species. Some of the 
finest will in four or five generations be nothing more than 
' Bird-pepper ' of which the forms are as many as the 
days of the year." 

My work mainly adds strong testimony to the observa- 
tions of these gentlemen. A number of well-marked types 
have been preserved for centuries, and within them various 
forms have constantly appeared. Upon these forms, in 
my opinion, a large number of the so-called species have 
been based. I have therefore separated them into two 
species and preserved the well-fixed types as botanical 

* Agricultural Science 2: 1. 1888. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 57 

varieties. Most of the modern garden varieties easily find 
classification within the types of the annual species, some 
of them almost exactly corresponding with the wood cuts 
and descriptions of some very old forms. Many of the 
varieties from South America and Mexico present, to my 
mind, sufficiently distinct characters in habit of growth 
and in the woodiness of the plants to justify their treat- 
ment as representatives of two species. 

Primarily, the classification of the types is based on the 
shape of the fruit and the calyx characters, as the most 
closely related ones can thus be brought together. The 
erect and pendent fruit, the primary characters of Finger- 
huth and Dunal, are equally constant, but cannot be em- 
ployed primarily in this classification, as both characters 
appear in all but two of the types here given as botanical 
varieties, and hence can only be used in separating the 
forms within these types. 

In citing prelinnean authorities* I have included only the 
descriptions which have been carefully studied and about 
which I had no doubt as to the type or form intended. 
The descriptions of a number are so brief and incomplete 
that they could not be definitely located, hence it seemed 
wise to omit them entirely. Most of the modern works to 
which I have had access and which give fairly complete 
descriptions are referred to unless some doubt exists as to 
the intention of the author. 

In the selection of names for the garden varieties, the 
principles for the nomenclature of cultivated plants adopted 
by the Vegetable Committee of Experiment Station Horti- 
culturists f and the Madison Botanical Congress J have been 
followed. In the citation of varietal synonyms reference 
is made to the earliest and most complete descriptions in 

* For the full titles of works published prior to 1753, reference should 
be made to the catalogue of the Sturtevant Prelinnean Library. Kept. 
Mo. Dot. Gard. 7 : 123-209. 1896. 

t Bailey, Annals of Horticulture 106-107. 1889. 

I Proceedings of the Madison Botanical Congress 41. 27 Aug. 1893. 



58 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

such seed catalogues as I have seen, except where equally 
satisfactory accounts were found in other publications. 

The economic value of the fruit has long been known. 
The southern natives used it as much in ancient times as 
they do at present. Oviedo, who reached tropical America 
from Spain in 1514, particularly mentions its uses.* 
Chanca, physician to the fleet of Columbus in his second 
voyage to the West Indies, in a letter written to the Chap- 
ter of Seville in 1494, alludes to it as a condiment. f Its 
use for this purpose is also mentioned by subsequent writ- 
ers. In Spain and India as early as the sixteenth century 
the fruit was employed in dressing meats and was supposed 
by some to be valuable for dyeing. Medicinally the red 
pepper was known to assist in the digestion of meats, and 
when mixed with honey and applied externally was a remedy 
for quinsy. Mention is also made of its removing freckles 
from the skin.J It was given for dropsy, colic, ague, 
toothache, and other ailments. The fruit was given to 
horses and mules for " dry gripes " brought on by rank 
and sour grass. If Later, a preparation of Capsicum was 
given in case of black vomit, and various tropical fevers, || 
and has been recommended for atonic gout, dyspepsia 
accompanied by flatulence, tympanitis, paralysis, cynanche 
maligna and scarlatina maligna.** At the present time 
Capsicum is employed in medicine mainly as an astringent 
in the form of a tincture. The ground fruit is used in 
combination with quinine for malarial fever. When mixed 
with turmeric and some spice, it forms Curry Powder. 
The pungency ft is due to an active principle called " cap- 



* Sturtevant, American Naturalist 19: 544. 1885. 

t ITuckiger & Hanbury, Pharmacography 453. 1879 [Engl. ed.]. 

J Gerarde, Herball 293. 1597. 

Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 359. 1640. 

t Miller, Gard. Diet. 1797 [ed. Martyn]. 

|| Phillips, Cult. Veg. 1: 118. 1822. 
** Lindley, Veg. Kingdom 621. 1853. 

ft The burning sensation occasioned by eating the pungent varieties 
may be checked by drinking milk. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 59 

saicin " which occurs mainly in the placenta and seed and 
which is volatile when exposed to the air. In its effects 
Capsicum is a stimulant, stomachic, and a rubefacient.* 

Commercially the red pepper is employed more as a 
condiment than for any other purpose, and it is used as a 
seasoning in almost every dish by the inhabitants of warm 
climates. Cayenne Pepper is one of the important prod- 
ucts, consisting mainly of the fruit of the small pungent 
varieties reduced to a fine powder. It is sometimes pre- 
pared by mixing wheat flour with the dried fruit and making 
into cakes with yeast. After baking until quite hard and 
brittle these are reduced to powder and sifted. When 
prepared in this manner it has been known under the name 
Cayenne Pepper Pot^ and when simply dried, powdered, 
and mixed with a little salt, it has been known as Cay an 
Butter. t According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
Mandram is a West Indian stomachic prepared by mashing 
a few pods of bird pepper and mixing them with sliced 
cucumbers and shallots to which have been added a little 
lime-juice and Madeira wine. 

There are various brands of pepper sauce, which consist 
chiefly of the unground fruit of the pungent varieties 
preserved in brine or strong vinegar. Tabasco Pepper 
Sauce or liquid pepper is said to be the pulp of the ripe 
fruit of the Tabasco variety extracted by pressure and so 
handled as to retain all flavor, strength, aroma and color of 
the ripe fruit. Tabasco Catchup is made from the same 
variety. Paprika is a well-known Hungarian condiment 
made from the fruit which is ground after the seeds have 
been removed, and is, therefore, much less pungent than 
the Tabasco sauce. Chilli con came consists of the small 
pungent peppers finely ground and mixed with meat. It is 
much used in the Southern United States. In Mexico the 
fruit forms a very essential ingredient in the tamales so 

* Waggaman, Bot. Mat. Med. 228. 1895. 

f Phillips, Cult. Veg. 1 : 123. 1822. 

I Miller, Gard. Diet. 1797 [ed. Martyn]. 



60 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

common in that country and quite well known in the 
Southern United States. 

Many of the kinds of Capsicum are more or less em- 
ployed either in pickles or in the raw or cooked state, 
the milder sorts being much preferred by northern con- 
sumers and the more pungent ones by the southern people. 
They are sliced and either mixed with salads or served like 
tomatoes with vinegar and salt. The thick-fleshed bell- 
shaped and squash varieties are much used as mangoes. 
These are made by cutting the fruit down one side, remov- 
ing the seed, and filling with chow-chow pickles. The 
parts are then tied together and the whole placed in jars 
or cans containing vinegar where it remains until wanted. 
Some of the medium-sized pungent varieties are eaten by 
native Mexicans in the raw state, the same as radishes, i 
am told by a reliable firm, who manufacture pepper sauce, 
that in Spain some of the large sweet varieties, which with 
us are often stuffed and baked, are canned after being 
cooked in olive oil, and are then eaten with French salad 
dressing without further cooking. In this condition, 
too, the fruit is often employed in stuffing pitted olives. 

Aside from its value as a food and a medicine, Capsicum 
has been recommended as an insecticide when used in con- 
nection with tobacco-paper,* but inasmuch as the operation 
was not a success without the latter it is probable that 
tobacco was the essential ingredient. The seed is consid- 
ered a very healthful bird food, and is used to some extent 
for that purpose. 

In Europe, some varieties, such as Little Gem and Prince 
of Wales, are grown considerably for decorative purposes, 
especially in pots, under glass. 

The culture of the pepper is comparatively simple. It 
does not require special care and yet quickly responds to 
any particular attention which may be given it. A warm 
and moderately light soil that does not quickly dry out 
appears to be the best. The seed generally requires from 

* Gard. Chron. 150. 1852. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 61 

twelve to twenty days to germinate, the exact time depend- 
ing upon its age. The plants are usually started under 
glass in February or March and transplanted into pots or 
fiats when large enough to handle. After all danger of 
frost is past, they are moved to the field and planted one or 
two feet apart. The ground around the plants is thoroughly 
cultivated during the growing season, and in case of 
extreme drouth artificial irrigation is sometimes resorted 
to. 

Its culture does not appear to be especially confined to 
any particular locality but is generally distributed through- 
out temperate and tropical regions for the supply of local 
markets. Capsicum frutescens is confined mostly to 
Southern Asia, Africa, Mexico, and South and Central 
America. The large Sweet Spanish variety is largely culti- 
vated in Spain, and various varieties for the manufacture 
of Paprika are extensively grown in Hungary. The 
Tabasco variety is almost exclusively confined to one 
locality in Louisiana. There is considerable local demand, 
as pickles, mangoes and pepper sauces are quite extensively 
manufactured in St. Louis, and the supply for them is 
largely grown in this vicinity. 

Fortunately peppers are not subject to attack by insects. 
Red spider and greenfly (Aphis) are the only known 
Arthropod enemies, and their depredations are confined 
mainly to plants grown under glass. The red spider may 
be kept in check by repeatedly syringing with water, and 
the greenfly may be killed by fumigating with tobacco. 

There are two fungus diseases which frequently occur, 
especially upon the larger thick-fleshed varieties. One of 
them Dr. Halsted * calls an anthracnose of the pink sort, 
due to Gloeosporium piperotum E. & E., which causes the 
fruit to rot about the time it is maturing. The other 
disease is a dark anthracnose, due to Colletotrichum 
nigrum . f 



* Kept. N. J. Exp. Sta. 326. 1892. 

t Halsted, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 18: 15. 1891. 



MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 



ARTIFICIAL KEY TO GARDEN PEPPERS. 

* Peduncles straight; fruit erect or spreading. 

+- Calyx embracing base of fruit, the latter much longer than broad. 
M- Fruit short, usually less than 1 in. long; peduncles nearly as 
long or longer. 

Plant 2 ft. or more high, maturing slowly and rarely ripen- 
ing fruit except in extreme south. C. frutescena. 
Plant ripening its fruit earlier, usually not over li ft. high 
except for the first variety. C. annuum conoides. 
Fruit usually compressed at the base by the calyx; 
plant at least 2 ft. high. TABASCO. 
Fruit not compressed at the base by the calyx. 
Dark red. 

Oblong fusiform. CORAL GEM. 

Conical or ovate obtuse. CAYENNE. 

Orange red. ORANGE-BED CLUSTER. 

M- +* Fruit usually more than lfe in. long, slender, largest diameter 
usually less than i in.; peduncles shorter; flesh very thin 
(about aV in ). 
Plant about 1 ft. high ; leaves and fruit fascicled. 

C. annuum fasciculatum. 

Fruit red. RED CLUSTER. 

Fruit yellow. YELLOW CLUSTER. 

Plant larger; leaves and fruit not fascicled. 

C. annuum acuminatum* 

Fruit red. CHILLI. 

Fruit yellow. YELLOW CHILLI. 

*- *- Calyx not usually embracing base of fruit, or only obscurely so j 

fruit usually more than li in. long, largest diameter usually 

more than 4 in. ; flesh somewhat thicker. C. annuum longum. 

Petals more or less purple ; fruit black at first, becoming 

orange-red. BLACK NUBIAN. 

Petals white ; fruit green, becoming red when ripe. 

LONG RED. 

--- Calyx not embracing base of fruit, the latter slightly longer than 
broad, subconical, ovate, or oblong, usually | in. to 2 in. long. 

C. annuum abbrematum. 
Fruit bright red when ripe. 

Changing from green to light yellow or straw color before 
ripening, subrugose, not turbinate. 
Usually mucronate, oval. KALEIDOSCOPE. 

Not mucronate, subconical. CELESTIAL. 

Not changing to light yellow. 

Very rugose, often turbinate. RED WRINKLED. 

Neither rugose nor turbinate. ETNA. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 63 

Fruit yellow when ripe. 

With longitudinal furrows, rarely turbinate. 

PRINCESS OF WALES. 
Not furrowed, usually very rugose and turbinate. 

YELLOW WRINKLED. 

l Calyx not embracing base of fruit, the latter spherical or heart- 
shaped, smooth. C. annuum cerasiforme. 
Fruit usually less than in. in diameter. 

Red. LITTLE GEM. 

Yellow. PRINCE OF WALES. 

Fruit usually in. to 1 in. in diameter. 
Round or cherry shaped. 

Red. CHERRY. 

Yellow. YELLOW CHERRY. 

Heart-shaped. 

Red. OXHEART. 

Yellow. YELLOW OXHEART. 

:Jl-i-Calyx not embracing base of fruit, usually seated in a basal de- 
pression. C. annuum grossum. 
Fruit red, subconical or prismatic. BRAZILIAN UPRIGHT. 
Fruit yellow. GOLDEN UPRIGHT. 
**Peduncles curved or recurved ; fruit pendent. 

f- Calyx embracing base of fruit, the latter much longer than broad, 
w- Fruit very slender, usually less than i in. in diameter; flesh 
very thin (about -fa in-)- G. annuum acuminatum. 

| to li in. long. 

Red. NEPAL CHILLI. 

Yellow. YELLOW NEPAL CHILLI. 

li to 4 in. long. 

Red. LONG CAYENNE. 

Yellow. LONG YELLOW CAYENNE. 

M- -M- Fruit stouter ; flesh thicker, often furrowed longitudinally. 

IVORY TUSK. 

- -i- Calyx not embracing base of fruit, the latter much longer than 
broad, mostly stout, tapering. C. annuum longum. 

Petals purple; fruit black at first, becoming orange-red. 

BLACK NUBIAN. 
Petals white; fruit red or yellow. 

Calyx usually not entirely covering the flat base of fruit. 
Flesh about | in. thick, only slightly pungent. 

COUNTY FAIR. 

Flesh thinner, very acrid pungent ; fruit slender for the 
group. LONG RED. 

Calyx usually covering the base, but at most obscurely 
embracing it. 

Fruit red. CARDINAL. 

Fruit yellow. LONG YELLOW. 

Calyx usually seated in a basal depression. 

Apex distinctly 3 to 4 lobed. ELEPHANT'S TRUNK. 
Apex pointed or obscurely lobed. PROCOPP'S GIANT. 



64 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

: *- Calyx not embracing base of fruit, usually seated in a basal 

depression; fruit swollen, angular. C. annuum grossum. 

Fruit subconical, decidedly tapering. EMPEROR. 

Fruit prismatic or subconical, slightly tapering to a 3 to 4 

lobed apex. 

Subconical. MONSTROUS. 

Prismatic. SWEET SPANISH. 

Fruit squarish, subtruncate, about as long as broad. 

Apical end usually much contorted, often larger than base ; 
fruit 2 to 3 in. in diameter. BELL. 

Apical end not usually contorted, but quite uniformly 
lobed ; fruit larger than last. 

Red. SWEET MOUNTAIN. 

Yellow. GOLDEN DAWN. 

Fruit squarish, subtruncate, longer than broad, deeply fur- 
rowed and lobed, 5 to 7 in. long, 8 to 4 in. in diameter. 
Red. RUBY KINO, 

Yellow. GOLDEN KING. 

Fruit 2 to 3 in. broad, very oblate. 

Red. SQUASH, 

Yellow. YELLOW SQUASH. 

: Calyx not embracing base of fruit, the latter slightly longer than 

broad, subconical, ovate, or oblong, usually | in. to 2 in. long. 

C. annuum abbreviation. 
Fruit bright red when ripe. 

Changing from green to bright yellow or straw color be- 
fore ripening, subrugose, not turbinate. 

Oval, usually mucronate. KALEIDOSCOPE. 

Not changing to light yellow, very rugose, often turbinate. 

RED WRINKLED. 
Fruit yellow when ripe. 

Longitudinally furrowed, rarely turbinate. 

PRINCESS OF WALES. 
Not usually furrowed, very rugose, turbinate. 

YELLOW WRINKLED. 

: : *- Calyx not embracing base of fruit, the latter spherical or 
heartshaped, smooth, usually in. to 1^ in. in diameter. 

C. annuum cerasiforme. 

About g in. in diameter, yellow. PRINCE OF WALES. 

Round or cherry shaped, & to 1^ in. in diameter. 

Red. CHERRY. 

Yellow. YELLOW CHERRY. 

Heartshaped. 

Red. OXHEART. 

Yellow. YELLOW OXIIEART. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 65 



SYNOPSIS. 

A Herbaceous or suffrutescent, annual or biennial. 
C. ANNUUM L. 

Capsicum annuum Linn. Hort. Cliff. 59. 1737. 

Herbaceous or suffrutescent plants usually growing two 
or three feet high, sometimes four or five, rarely only a 
foot, with numerous erect angular branches usually rising 
from near the ground, generally smooth, sometimes 
sparsely pubescent. Leaves medium small to very large, 
ovate acuminate to oblong elliptical; petioles smooth or 
sparingly hairy. Peduncles solitary, sometimes in twos, 
usually smooth. Corolla white or dingy white, except in 
one variety when it is more or less blotched with purple. 
Fruits variable in size, color and form. 

This species furnishes all the leading commercial varieties 
now in cultivation. In temperate latitudes they are treated 
as annuals, while in tropical countries some varieties are 
biennial or perennial. 

a Fruit oblong linear. 

* Calyx usually embracing base of fruit. 

*- Fruit usually less than 1 in. long; peduncles about as long or longer. 

C. annuum conoides (Miller). 

Capsicum conoides Miller, Gard. Diet. 1771 [no. 8. ed. 6]. Linn. Syst. 

4: 662. 1819 [ed. Rom. et Schult.]. Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Cap- 

Bici 14. t. 3. f. b. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4 : 446. 1838. Rich. 

Fl. Abyss. 2 : 96. 1851. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 414. 1852. See- 

mann, Bot. Herald 402. 1852-57. Miquel, Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 : 659. 1856. 
Capsicum conoides sulcatum Fingerh. Monogr. 15. t. 3. f. c. 1832. Dunal 

in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 415. 1852. 

Capsicum conoides chordale Fingerh. 1. c./. d. Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum conoides oblong o-conicum Dunal, 1. c. 
Piper oblongum, exiguum erectum pyramidale. Greg, de Reg. in Clus. 

Cur. Post. 97, /. 4, 98. 1611. Jonstonus, Dendrog. t. 56. 1662. 

Raius, Hist. PI. 1 : 677. 1686. 
Piper Indicum siliquis surrectis & oblongis diff. 3. majus et minus (excl. 

majus). Bauhin. Pinax 103. 1623. 
Capsicum exiguum erectum pyramidale. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 367. /. 

6. 1640. 



66 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

Capsicum minus fructu parvo pyramidal! erecto. Sloane, Cat. PI. Jam. 

112. 1696. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum oblongum minus. Morison, Hist. PL Oxon. 

3:529. 1699. 
Capsicum siliquis surrectis & oblongis, exiguus. Tournef. Inst. 152. 

1700. 
Piper Indicum minimum erectum. [Beslerus], Hort. Eyst. 1. Autumn. 

Ord. 1:8./. 1. 1713. 
Solanum mordens minus erectum. Weinmann. Phyt. Iconog. 4 : 349. pi. 

930. f. b. 1745. 
Negro-pepper. Hughes, Hist. Barb. 213. 1750. Fide Maycock, Fl. Barb. 

104. 1830. 
Capsicum fructu minimo conico rubro. Browne, Hist. Jam. 176. 1756. 

Plants stiff rutescent, 1-2^ ft. high, diffusely spreading 
l-2 ft. Stem and lower branches striate, green, spar- 
ingly corky. Branches short between the nodes, often sub- 
pubescent. Leaves numerous, ovate lanceolate, acuminate, 
pubescent on midvein below, sparsely pubescent above, 2-3 
in. long, J-2 in. wide, rarely larger, quite erect, smooth or 
subscabrous, usually rather dark green; petioles f- f- in. 
long, rather slender, pubescent or subglabrous. Peduncles 
solitary or often in twos, usually slender, stiff, straight, 
erect, slightly enlarged toward the calyx end. Calyx 
obconical or cup-shaped, usually embracing base of fruit; 
teeth obscure. Corolla greenish white, small, spreading 
|-f in. Fruit erect, subconical or oblong cylindrical, acu- 
minate or obtuse, usually shorter than the peduncles, f-l^ 
in. long, -} J- in. diam., 2-3 celled, red or yellow, some- 
times blotched with purple before ripening, mostly borne 
above the leaves; flesh about -fa in. thick, extremely 
pungent. 

CORAL GEM.* The habit of growth of this variety is, 
apparently, subject to extreme variation in different locali- 
ties, the plant in some places making a tender growth of 
not more than a foot, while in other places it attains a 
height of 2 ft. In the former case the branches are light 
green, quite flexible, frequently decumbent with numerous 
upright middle shoots, forming a rosette-like mass, and 

* Vaughan, Cat. 1889. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 67 

the leaves but slightly darker on the upper surface than 
below. The larger growing plants are stouter and more 
branchy. Fruit usually slender, fusiform, smooth, ex- 
tremely pungent, red, sometimes blotched with brown 
before ripening, usually scattered so thickly over the 
plant as to give the appearance of a bouquet of corals. 
Plate 9, f . 2. 

TABASCO.* Plant usually about 2^ ft. high, with an 
erect spreading habit. Leaves often 4 in. long by 2^- in. 
wide, dark green, usually distinctly pubescent along the 
veins. Fruit oblong cylindrical, obtuse or acute, usually 
compressed at the base by the calyx, deep red when ripe, 
the unripe ones often drying to an orange color, more fre- 
quently borne in twos than in other varieties of this group. 

CAYENNE. f Plant more woody than others. Branches 
fewer but more erect, and quite rigid. Leaves deep green 
on upper surface, decidedly paler below. Calyx occasionally 
seated on base of fruit. Fruit usually as long as or slightly 
longer than the penduncles, subconical or ovate, obtuse, 
about 1 in. long, -J- in. diam., at first green, changing to 
blackish, then yellowish-red, finally red. 

ORANGE-RED CLUSTER. J Plants usually with a flattish 
top. Branches slender but rigid, purple striate, and de- 
cidedly purple at nodes. Leaves smooth, quite erect, very 
dark green on upper surface, much paler below. Fruit 
1-1-J- in. long, about as long as or longer than peduncles, 
very rigidly erect, standing prominently above the leaves, 
of a beautiful orange-red color. The great number of 
fruits equally distributed over the symmetrical plant make 
it one of the most ornamental varieties. Plate 9, f. 3 

* Described from Dr. Sturtevant's notes and herbarium specimens. 
Seed received by him from Mcllhenny of New Iberia, La., 1888. 

f Hovey, Seed Cat. 1888. Described from Dr. Sturtevant's notes 
and herbarium specimens. Seed received by him from Livingston, 
Columbus, O., 1888, who listed it as Cayenne of Commerce, in contrast 
with the Long Cayenne. 

J Listed in Haage & Schmidt, Seed Cat. 15, 1893, under the German 
name Orangerother Trauben-Pfeffer. 



68 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

-H- Fruit usually more than 1& in. long; peduncles shorter. 
w Leaves and fruit fascicled ; fruit erect. 

C. amiuum fasciculatuni (Sturt.). 

Capsicum fasciculatum Sturtevant, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 15: 133. 

1888. 

" Stems smooth, green, round, subverrucose, swollen at 
the branchings and purple, dichotomous or triehotomous. 
Branches angular, few, erect- spreading, green, purple at 
insertion of petioles, subpubescent, bearing the leaves for 
the most part clustered or bunched at the swollen summits. 
Leaves spreading, crowded into bunches, nearly of one 
size, the larger ones 3J in. by 1 in., usually 3 in. by f in., 
elliptical-lanceolate, pointed at both ends, from the base 
extending equally into the petiole, deep green above, paler 
below, the middle nerve distinct; slightly scabrous, entire 
or subrepand ; borne almost entirely in a confused mass 
along with the berries at the summit of branches, very 
rarely lower down. Petioles smooth, nearly as long as, or 
sometimes even longer than the leaves, slender, margined 
by the extension of the leaf blade. Peduncles smooth, 
angular, thickish, erect, enlarging towards calyx end, 
rather long, 1^ in., grouped in clusters rather confusedly 
with the leaves, but the tendency of the grouping seeming 
to be in twos or threes, axillary or extra-axillary. Calyx 
cyathiform, embracing base of fruit, obscurely ten or 
twelve-nerved (5 or 6 distinct), subpentagonal, subtruncate, 
five or six-toothed, the teeth acute, erect, smooth. Corolla 
white, quite large, about % in. in diameter, the divisions 
very long and narrow, often twisted. Berry cylindro-con- 
ical, straight or curved, about 3 in. long, by -J- in. diameter, 
or smaller, usually rugose, sometimes smooth, at first a 
shining green, then red; two-celled; the placenta thick at 
the base ; acrid. 

" This species differs principally from Capsicum annuum, 
Fingerhuth, by the round stem; pubescent and dichotom- 
ous or triehotomous branchings; freedom from lower 
leaves ; the leaves clustered at summits ; all of one size and 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 69 

nearly or quite lanceolate ; petioles as long as the leaves ; 
the clustered peduncles ; the white corolla with deep and 
narrow lacinese, and the shining green of the unripe berry. 
The aspect of the plant is very distinct, the dark green 
lanceolate leaves closely clustered and so dense as to over- 
lap, the low and spreading compact, bush-like appearance, 
the fruit crowded with the leaves, the bare and knobby- 
looking stems where exposed to view. As grown by me 
the plant was 1-1^ ft. high, and ripened its berries in 
September of the year when sown." * 

BED CLUSTER.! This variety, and its yellow form, are 
the only ones included in this group. Professor Bailey 
alludes to it as one of the most distinct of any he ever 
grew.J Catalogue descriptions sometimes allude to it as a 
form, or sport, from Chilli. This is evidently true, as 
variations toward the Chilli type have often been ob- 
served. Plate 9, f. 4. 

YELLOW CLUSTER. Identical with the preceding except 
that the fruit is of a bright yellow color. 

++ ** Leares and fruit not fascicled. 
O. annuum acuminatum Fingerh. 

Plants herbaceous or suffrutescent, 1-J 2-J ft. high, 
spreading 1^2 ft. Branches numerous, erect or spread- 
ing, bearing a dense mass of foliage. Leaves solitary, 
sometimes semifascicled, 2-3^ in. long, 1-2 in. wide, avg. 
about 1-j- by 2*- in., ovate acuminate, deep green on upper 
surface, much paler below, sparsely pubescent on veins 
below ; margins subciliate especially on younger leaves ; 
petioles medium stout, f-1 in. long, generally smooth. 
Peduncles slender, enlarging toward calyx end. Calyx 



* Original description of the species fasciculatum. 

f Burpee, Cat. 1889. Japan Cluster. Dreer, Cat. 1891. French, 
Piment a bouquet rouge. German, Bother Trauben-Pfeffer. Japanese, 
Tenjikumamori, according to Stnrtevant, 1. c. 

t Bull. Mich. Agr. Coll. 31: 38. Nov. 1887. 

Haage & Schmidt, Cat. 1893. German, Gelber Trauben-Pfeffer. 



70 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

usually embracing base of fruit. Corolla medium, spread- 
ing -J-J in., dingy white. Fruit very slender, -J-4^- in. 
long, -J | in. diani., smooth or subrugose, usually more or 
less curved, 2-celled; flesh very thin, about -fa in. thick, 
extremely pungent, red or yellow. The long fruit of this 
and the preceding variety is sometimes called finger-pepper. 

= Fruit erect. 

CHILLI.* Plants about 2^ ft. high, very branchy. Fruit 
borne about even with the leaves, at first a shining green 
afterwards becoming coral red, 2-3 in. long, nearly straight, 
smooth or subrugose ; base sometimes slightly compressed 
by the calyx. This differs from Chili as described by 
Burr f in having shorter and erect fruit. Dr. Sturtevant's 
notes indicate both pendent and erect forms. Plants 
grown by us from seed of many sources produced almost 



* Bed ChiU. Hovey, Cat. 1889. Chili Pepper. Burr, Field & Gard. 
Veg. 622. 1863. Long Cayenne. Hend. Cat. 1884. ChiU Pepper, or 
Chillies. Vilmorin-And. Veg. Gard. 151. 1885 [Eng. ed. Robinson]. 
Chili. Bailey, Bull. Mich. Agr. Col. 31: 38. 1887, French, Piment du 
Chili. German, Chileniacher scharfer Pfeffer. 

Capsicum conicum Meyer, Fl. Esseq. 112. 1818. Linn. Syst. 4: 809. 

1819 [ed. R6'm. et Schult."]. Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 16. 

1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PL 4 : 445. 1838 . Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 

415. 1852. 
Capsicum annuum acuminatum Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 13. t. 2.f. 

c. 1832. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 412. 1852. 
Capsicum conicum orientale. Dunal, 1. c. 415. 
Capsicum Chilense Hort. Vilmorin-And. Fl. Pleinc Terre 886. 1870 

[3d ed.]. 

Piper Indicum surrectis corniculis. Camerar. Hort. Med. 127. 1688. 
Piper Indicum siliquis surrectis & oblongis. difC. 1. Pyramidale majus. 2. 

pyramidale minus. Bauhin. Pinax 102. 1623. 
Capsicum siliquis surrectis & oblongis, brevibus. Tournef . Inst. 162. 

1700. Miller, Gard. Diet. 1771 [ed. 6]. 
Piper Indicum medium longum erectum. Hort. Eyst. 1. Aut. Ord. 1 :11. 

/. 2. 1713. 

Capsicum surrectum, medium Styli forma. Tillus, Cat. PI. Pisa. 30. 1723. 
Solanum mordens fructu longo erecto. Weinmann. Phyt. 349. t. 928. /. 
e. 1745. 

t Burr, Field and Gard. Veg. 611. 1866. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 71 

invariably erect fruit, and the few pendent ones properly 
belonged to the Long Cayenne variety. Plate 10, f . 1. 

YELLOW CHILLI.* Fruit usually more pyramidal in shape 
than the preceding, usually thicker and averaging some- 
what shorter, otherwise differing only in being of a bright 
yellow color. Plate 10, f. 2. 

= = Fruit pendent. 

LONG CAYENNE.! Plant vigorous, 1-J 2^- ft. high. 
Branches numerous, medium stout, green, erect or upright. 



* Seed from Professor L. H. Bailey, Cornell University, 1892. 

Capsicum pyramidale Miller, Gard. Diet. 1771 [no. 7. ed. 6].- Linn. 

Syst. 4 : 563. 1819 [ed. Ro'm. et Schult.]. Fingerh. Monogr. 1. c. 15. 

f. 3. f. e. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PL 4: 446. 1838. Dunal in DC. 

Prodr. 13 1 : 414. 1852. Miquel, PL Ned. Ind. 2: 661. 1856. 
Capsicum torulosum Hornem. Hort. Hafn. Suppl. 27. 1819. Fide Index 

Kewensis. 
Capsicum pyramidale torulosum Fingerh. Monogr. 15. 1832. Dunal in 

DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 414. 1852. 
Capsicum pyramidale longicorne Dunal, 1. c. 

Capsicum minus flavum. Rumph. Herb. Amb. 5: 248. t. 88. f. 3. 1747. 
Capsicum siliquis surrectis & oblongis brevibus. Miller, Gard. Diet. 1771 

[ed. 6]. 

t Vilmorin-And. Veg. Gard. 151. 1885 [Eng. ed. Robinson]. Cay- 
enne. Bailey, Bull. Mich. Agr. Col. 31:38. 1887. French, Piment de 
Cayenne. 

Capsicum longum DC. ex Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 28. t. 6. f. d, 

1832. 
Capsicum longum ceratoides recurvum Dunal in DC. Prodr. 18 1 : 424. 

1852. 
Capsicum longum Cayennense Hort. Vilmorin-And. Fl. Pleine Terre 884. 

1870 [3ded.]. 

Siliquastrum tertium. Fuch. Hist. Stirp. Basil. 733. /. 1542. 
Capsicum oblongius. Fuch. Hist. Stirp. Basil. 426. /. 1545. 
Siliquastrum oblongius. Fuch. Hist. Stirp. Lugd. 693. /. 1551. 
Capsicum recurvis siliquis. Dodon. Hist. Stirp. Pempt. 704. /. 1583; 

716. /. 1616. Magnol, Hort. Monsp. 41. 1697. Tournef. Inst. 152. 

1700. Tillus, Cat. PI. Hort. Pisa. 30. 1723. Boerhaave, Index PL 

Lugd.-Bat. 2: 68. 1727. Miller, Gard. Diet. 1731 [no. 2]. 
Piper Indicum. Camerar. PI. Epit. 347. /. 1586. 
Siliquastrum varietas longum. Camerar. PI. Epit. 348. /. 1586. 



72 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

Leaves medium, dark green, l|-3 in. long, 1-1^ in. 
wide; petioles medium, 1-1-} m - long. Peduncles solitary, 
medium stout, 1-1^ m ' l n g curved or recurved. Corolla 
white, spreading f-li in. Fruit 3-4 in. long (rarely more), 
i-f- in. diam., pendent, oblong acuminate, usually sub- 
rugose and more or less curved, usually transversely fur- 
rowed; flesh very thin and extremely pungent. Plate 
11, f . 3. 

The earlier catalogue accounts of Cayenne, True Cayenne, 
or Small Cayenne, refer to another variety, here called 
Cayenne. Vilmorin mentions Long Cayenne as a sub- 
variety of Long Eed and belonging to a different botanical 
species from the True Cayenne. 

LONG YELLOW CAYENNE.* Identical with the preceding 
except that the fruit is of a bright yellow color. Plate 12, 
f. 1. 



Capsicum siliquis longis recurvis. Bauh. Phyt. 155. 1596. 

Piper longum minus siliquis recurvis. Greg, de Reg. in Clus. Cur. 

Post. 101, /. 10, 102. 1611. Jonstonus, Dendrog. t. 56. 1662. 
Piper Calecuticum, sive Capsicum oblongius. Bauhin. Hist. PI. Ebrod. 

2:943. 1651. 
Chilli, Piper siliquosumMexicanum. Hernand. Nov. Hist. Romae 1 : 135. 

1651. 

Siliquastrum. Pancovius, Herb./. 296. 1678. 
Piper Capsicum. Chabraeus, Sciag. 297. /. 1677. 
Solanum Capsicum dictum, propendentibus siliquis oblongis recurvis. 

Hermann. Hort. Acad. Lugd.-Bat. 576. 1687. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum minus siliquis recurvis. Morison, Hist. PI. 

Oxon. 3: 529. 1699. 
Solanum, urens siliqua propendente rubra. Morison, 1. c. Sect. 13. t. 2. 

f. 1699. 
Capsicum siliquis recurvis, minus. Tournef. Inst. 152. 1700. Tillus, 

Cat. PI. Hort. Pisa. 30. 1723. Boerhaave, Index PI. Lugd.-Bat. 2: 

68. 1727. 
Piper Indicum minus recurvis siliquis. Hort. Eyst. 1. Aut. Ord. 1: 6. /. 

2. 1713. 
Solanum mordens siliquis oblongis recurvis. Weinmann. Phyt. 349. J. 

927. f.d. 1745. 

* Henderson, Cat. 1884. 
Capsicum longum luteum Fingerh. Monogr. t. 7. /. b. 1832. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 73 

NEPAL CHILLI.* Plants not distinguishable from Long 
Cayenne, of which it is probably a subvariety. Calyx oc- 
casionally not embracing base of fruit. Fruit -J-l^- in. 
long, -J-f in. diam., oblong, cylindrical, or obtusely conical, 
smooth or often with a transverse depression on one side 
near the apex. Often varies so as to be almost identical 
with Long Cayenne. Plate 11, f. 1. 

YELLOW NEPAL CHILLI. f Identical with the preceding 
except that the fruit is of a bright yellow color. 

* * Calyx not usually embracing base of fruit except in the Ivory 
Tusk variety. 

. anniium longum Sendt. 

Capsicum annuum Linn. Fl. Zeyl. 38. 1747; Hort. Upsal. 47. 1748; Sp. 
PI. 188. 1753. Gouan, Hort. Reg. Monsp. 111. 1762. Miller) 
Gard. Diet. 1771 [no. Led. 6]. Aublet, Hist. PI. Guiane 1: 219. 
1775. Linn. Syst. 226. 1784 [ed. 14. Murray]. Thunb. Fl. Japon. 
93. 1784. Loureiro, Fl. Cochin 1: 127. 1790; 1: 157. 1793 [ed. 
Willd.]. Gaertn. Fruct. et Sem. 2:241. 1791. Lamarck, Enc. 
Meth. 2: 26. 1793 [no. 2388]. Linn. Sp. PI. 1: 1050. 1797 [ed. 
Willd.]. Miller, Gard. Diet. 1797 [ed. Martyn]. (In part). Des- 
font. Fl. Atlant. 1: 196. 1798-1800. Poiret, Enc. Meth. 6: 324. 

* Seeds of this variety and of the Yellow Nepal Chilli were received 
from Saharanpur Garden in India in 1895. They are not known in cul- 
tivation in this country. 

Capsicum pendulum Willd. Enum. Hort. PI. Reg. Berol. 242. 1809. 
Hornem. Hort. Hafn. 1 : 224. 1813. Linn. Syst. 4: 562. 1819 [ed. 
Rom. et Schult.]. Link, Enum. PL Hort. Reg. Berol. 1 : 190. 1821. 
Fingerh. Monogr. 25. t. 7. f. d. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PL 4: 445. 
1838. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 425. 1852. 

Capsicum pendulum minus Fingerh. Monogr. 25. 1832. Dunal in DC. 
Prodr. 13 1 : 426. 1852. 

Capsicum pendulum torulosum Fingerh. 1. c. Dunal, 1. c. 

Capsicum pendulum majus. Dunal, 1. c. 

t Capsicum Sinense Linn. Syst. 226. 1784 [ed. 14. Murray]. Lam. Enc. 
Meth. 2: 26. 1793 [no. 2394]. Linn. Sp. PI. 1: 1051 [ed. Willd.]. 
Miller, Gard. Diet. 1797 [ed. Martyn]. Poiret, Enc. Meth. 6: 326. 
1804. Persoon, Syn. PI. 1: 229. 1805. Hornem. Hort. Hafn. 1: 
224. 1813. Linn. Syst. 4: 564. 1819 [ed. Rom. et Schult.]. Link, 
Enum. PI. Hort. Reg. Berol. 1: 190. 1821. Fingerh. Monogr. 26. 
t. S. f. d. 1832. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 426. 1852. 

Capsicum curvipes Dunal, 1. c. 423. 



74 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

1804. Persoon, Syn. PL 1 : 229. 1805. Hornem. Hort. Hafn. 1 : 223. 

1813. Meyer, Fl. Esseq. 112. 1818. Linn. Syst. 4: 559. 1819 [ed. 

Rom. et Schult.]. Link, Enum. PL Hort. Keg. Berol. 1 : 190. 1821. 

Moon, Cat. PL Ceylon 16. 1824. Weyhe & Nees von Esenbeck, 

PL Offic. 1. pi. 1 90. 1828. Roxb. FL Ind. 1 : 573. 1832. Fingerh. 

Monogr. Gen. Capsici 12. t. 2.f. a. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4= : 444. 

1838. Sendt. in Martius, Fl. Bras. 10 : 147. 1846. Hooker, Niger FL 

472. 1849. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 412. 1852. Miquel, Fl. Ned. 

Ind. 2 : 657. 1856. Drury, Useful PL Ind. 111. 1858. Reichenb. Ic. 

FL Germ. 20. pi. 13. f. 2. 1862. Miquel, Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 3: 117. 

1867. Hemsley, Biol. Cent.-Am. 2 : 423. 1881-2. 
Capsicum Tournefortii Bess. Cat. Hort. Crem. 27. 1811. Fide Index* 

Kewensis. 
Capsicum annuum ovoideum Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 14. t.2.f. e. 

1832. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 412. 1852. 
Capsicum annuum subangulosum Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 13. t. 2. 

f. d. 1832. 

Capsicum annuum longicarpum Don, Hist. Dich. PL 4: 445. 1838. 
Capsicum annuum longum Sendt. in Martius, Fl. Bras. 10: 147. 1846. 

Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Plant. 449. 1891. (As to races with refracted 

fruit.) 

Capsicum annuum erectum Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Plant. 449. 1891. 
Siliquastrum majus etminus. Fuch. Hist. Stirp. Basil. 731-732. /. 1542; 

Hist. Stirp. Lugd. 693. /. 1551. 

Capsicon rubeum & nigrurn. Fuch. Hist. Stirp. 425. /. 1545. 
Piper Indicum, sive Siliquastrum. Pinaeus, Hist. PL Lugd. 12. 1561. 
Piper Indicum. Matth. Comment. 23. /. 1560; 400. /. 1570. Compend. 

PL Omnib. 322. /. 1571. Matth. Opera 434. /. 1598. Blackw. 

Herbarium 2. pi. 1 29. 1754. 

Capsicum, Piper Indicum. Lobel, PL Stirp. Hist. Antv. 172. 1576. 
Capsicum oblongioribus siliquis. Dodon. Stirp. Hist. Pempt. 704. /. 

1583; 716. /. 1616. 
Siliquastrum. Bassaeus, Eicones PL 859. /. 1590. Tabern. Kreuterbuch 

529. /. 1591; Volk. Kreuterbuch 2: 559. /. 1613. 
Capsicum Actuarij, sive Caninum Zinziber. etc. Lobel. Icones Stirp. 

316. 1691. 
Capsicum. Clus. in Monard. Simplic. Med. 387. 1593. Monardus in 

Clus. Exot. 340. /. 1605. 

Capsicum siliquis oblongis. Bauhin. Phytopinax 155. 1596. 
Capsicum longioribus siliquis. Gerarde, Herball 292. /. 1 . 1597 ; 364. /. 

1. 1636. 
Piper Americanum vulgatior. Greg, de Reg. in Clus. Cur. Post. 103. /. 

1611. 

Piper oblongum recurvis siliquis. Greg, de Reg. in Clus. Cur. Post. 101. 
/. 9. 1611. Jonstonus, Dendrog. *. 56. 1662. Raius, Hist. PL 1 : 

678. 1686. 
Piper Indicum longum maximum. Hort. Eyst. 1613 [fide Morison, 

PL Hist. Oxon. 8: 529. 1699]; 1. Aut. Ord. 1: 6./. 2. 1713. 



A KEVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 75 

Solanum urens siliqua propendente rubra. Morison, 1. c. Sect. 13. t. 2. 

f.2. 
Piper Indicum propendentibus siliquis oblongis recurvis. Bauhin. 

Pinax 102. 1623. 
Piper Indicum vulgatissimum. Bauhin. Pinax 102. 1623. Morison, 

Hist. PL Oxon. 3: 528. 16<J9. 
Capsicum oblongum minus recurvis siliquis. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 357, 

/. 1,358. 1640. Sloane, Cat. PI. Jamaic. 113. 1696. 
Capsicum majusvulgatius oblongis siliquis. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 855, 

366. /.J. 1640. Magnol, Hort. Monsp. 41. 1697. 
Capsicum oblongum majus recurvis siliquis. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 

357, /. Id, 358. 1640. 

Capsicum erectumjmajus longurn. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 358. 1640. 
Figures without name, in Hernand. Nov. Hist. PL 1 : 135-137. 1651. 
Piper Indicum longiorib. siliquis rubr. Sweert. Florilegium 2: t. 35. 

f. 3. 1654. 

Piper longum majus surrectum. Jonstonus, Dendrog. t. 56. 1662. 
Piper vulgatissima. Jonstonus, Dendrog. t. 56. 1662. 
Capsicum Brasilianum fructu oblongo. Hunting, Waare Oeffen. 341. 

1682. 
Solanum Capsicum dictum siliquis surrectis & oblongis. Hermann. Hort. 

Acad. Lugd.-Bat. 576. 1687. 

Solanum Capsicum dictum vulgatissimum. Hermann. Hort. Acad. Lugd.- 
Bat. 574. 1687. 

Capsicum siliquis surrectis & oblongis. Magnol, Hort. Monsp. 42. 1697. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum siliquis oblongis recurvis. Morison, PL 

Hist. Oxon. 3 : 529. 1699. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum siliquis surrectis & oblongis. Morison, 

PL Hist. Oxon. 3: 530. 1699. 
Capsicum siliquis longis, propendentibus. Tournef. Inst. 152. 1700. 

Tillus, Cat. PL Hort. Pisa. 30. 1723. Miller, Card. Diet. 1731 

[no. 1]. 

Piper Indicum medium. Hort. Eyst. 1. Aut. Ord. 1: 7. 1713. 
Capsicum; fructu oblongo, nunc erecto, nunc nutante, rubro. Miller, 

Gard. Diet. 1731 [no. 9]. 

Capsicum. Piper indicum. Blackw. Herbal 1. pi. 129. 1737. 
Solanum mordens medium. "Weinmann. Phyt. 4: 349. t. 927. f. e. 1745. 

Plants quite erect, stalky, 1^-2^- ft. high, tree like. 
Stem green, sparingly hairy, stout. Branches few, large, 
quite erect, green, purplish at nodes, often purplish stnate, 
sparsely pubescent. Leaves ovate acuminate, deep green, 
2-J-4in. long, 1^-2^ in. wide, slightly hairy on midrib be- 
low; lower ones often pendent, sometimes involute and 
more or less wrinkled ; upper ones smoother and more 
erect ; petiole large, smooth, sometimes longer than blade. 



76 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

Peduncles solitary, curved or straight either on the same 
or on different plants, -J-l-g- in. long, stout, enlarging 
toward calyx end. Calyx usually pateriform or funnel- 
form, rarely embracing base of fruit except in the Ivory 
Tusk variety, though sometimes where the calyx is slightly 
larger than the base the fruit is obscurely inclosed by the 
margin of the calyx. Corolla large, dingy white, spread- 
ing |-1 in. Fruit 3-12 in. long (rarely more), f-lf in. 
diam., tapering; base flat or slightly depressed ; flesh iV-i 
in. thick, sometimes mild, sometimes extremely pungent. 
The varieties differ from C. annuum acuminatum by 
the stems and branches being larger and more stalky; 
leaves larger, often pendent and involute ; calyx pateri- 
form or funnel form ; fruit larger, and flesh thicker. 

+- Corolla more or less blotched with purple ; fruit at first nearly 
black, afterwards becomiDg orange -red. 

BLACK NUBIAN*. Plant vigorous, 2-2^ ft. high, quite 
loosely spreading 2-3 ft. Stem and branches smooth, 
dark purple or purple striate. Leaves 2-3 in. long, IfIf 



* Childs, Cat. 1892. Purple or Sore-throat. Titford, Hort. Bot. 47. 
1812. Purple or Slue Podded syn. Black Podded. Burr, Field & Card. 
Veg. 623. 1863. Purple Capsicum. Vilmorin-And. Veg. Gard. 161. 1885 
[Eng. ed. Robinson] . French, Piment violet, Piment noir. German, 
Schwarzernubischer Pfeffer. 

Capsicum nigrum Willd. Enum. Hort. Reg. Berol. 1 : 242. 1809. Poiret, 

Enc. Meth. Suppl. 4: 414. 1816. 
Capsicum purpureum Vahl ex Hornem. Hort. Hafn. 1: 224. 1813. 

Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1: 573. 24 Dec. 1831. Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 

446. 1838. 
Capsicum violaceum DC. Hort. Monsp. 87. 1813. Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 

PL 3: 49. 1818. Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 23. 1832. Don, 

Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 447. 1838. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 423. 1852. 
Capsicum bicolor (Jacq.) , Bot. Mag. 43. t. 1835. 1816. Linn. Sp. PI. 

4: 564. 1819 [ed. Rom. et Schult.]. Link, Enum. PI. Hort. Reg. 

Berol. 1: 190. 1821. Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 15. t. 3.f. a. 

1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 446. 1838. Dunal in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 

413. 1852. Seemann, Bot. Herald 401, 1852-57. Miquel, Fl. Ned. 

Ind. 2:660. 1856. 
Capsicum Quitense Willd. Herb. Linn. Syst. 4: 809. 1819 [ed. Rom. et 

Schult.]. Fide Index Kewensis. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 77 

in. wide, more or less blotched with purple especially along 
the veins, smooth, slightly puffed; petiole -J-l^- in. long. 
Peduncles straight or curved on same plant, -J-ly in. long, 
quite slender. Corolla spreading J f in., purple or purple 
striate along the margins of the petals. Ovary green at 
first but soon after the corolla drops becoming a dark glossy 
purple. Fruit upright, spreading, or pendent, on same 
plant, 2-4 in. long, -J-f in. diam., tapering to a rounded or 
sometimes acute apex, smooth or somewhat irregularly 
curved, 1-2 celled; base usually narrowing into the calyx; 
flesh about -fa in. thick, quite firm, extremely pungent; 
black or dark purple, ripening into a deep orange-red 
mottled with dingy brown spots. 

- Corolla white. 

n- Calyx pateriform, usually not entirely covering the flat base of 
the fruit. 

LONG RED.* Branches often quite prominently purple 
striate. Corolla spreading about 1^ in. Fruit 4-7 in. 
long, i-l|- in. diam., oblong conical, frequently more or 
less curved, with an acute, rounded or sometimes obscurely 
2-3 lobed apex, smooth, sometimes obscurely furrowed 



Capsicum bicolor purpureum Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 16. 1832. 

Dunal in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 414. 1852. 
Capsicum Hamiltonii Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 447. 1838, Dunal in DC. 

Prodr. IS 1 : 429. 1852. 

Capsicum longum violaceum Dunal in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 424. 1852. 
Capsicum Narunca Hort. Matr. ex Dun. in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 414. 1852. 

Fide Index Kewensis. 
Capsicum siliquis longis, propendentibus, purpureis. Haller, Enum. 

Hort. Gott. 215. 1753. 

* Burr, Field & Gard. Veg. 622. 1863. Vilmorin-And. Veg. Card. 150. 
1885 [Eng. ed. Robinson] . Bailey, Bull. Mich. Agr. Col. 31 : 39. 1887. 
Coral Peppers. Titford, Hort. Bot. 1812. French, Piment rouge long, 
Piment rouge long ordinaire. German, Langer rother Pfeffer. 

Capsicum longum DC. Cat. Monsp. 86. 1813. Linn. Syst. 4: 560. 1819 
[ed. Rom et Schult.]. Hornem. Hort. Hafn. Suppl. 27. 1819. 
Link, Enum. PI. Hort. Reg. Berol. 1: 190. 1821. Miquel, Fl. Ind. 
2:658. 1856; Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 3: 117. 1867. 



78 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

longitudinally, rarely subrugose, 2-celled; flesh iV-iV in. 
thick, usually quite pungent, sometimes mild. 

A very old and universally cultivated variety, especially in 
European countries. Dr. Palmer speaks of the Mexican 
plant corresponding to this variety as very common in 
cultivation in that country, being the universal market 
variety which bears abundantly. Several cases were seen 
where plants were in quite a thrifty condition at three years 
of age. These plants were four feet high, presenting a 
clumsy appearance, with heavy branches hanging loosely 
about. The fruit on a single plant was variable in shape, 
straight or bent, smooth or wrinkled, slender or thickened. 

COUNTY FAIR.* Fruit 4-6 in. long, 1^-2 in. diam. at 
the base, hornshaped, smooth, glossy, rounded at apex, 
often with obscure furrows extending a part or the entire 
length, terminating in a minutely lobed apex; flesh firm, 
about ^ in. thick or more, mild and slightly juicy when 
ripe, somewhat pungent about the seeds, deep red. 

This is one of the most productive of the long varieties, 
as well as the best in quality, and merits a high place where 
pungent properties are not desired. It was introduced 
about 1892. Plate 14, f. 1. 

M- -M. Calyx funnel form, usually entirely covering the base or some- 
times obscurely embracing the fruit. 

CARDINAL. f Plants not distinguishable from Long Red. 
Peduncles sometimes curved upwards, placing the fruit in 
an erect position. Fruit 4-7 in. long, ^-1-^ in. diam., taper- 



* Henderson, Cat. 1892. 

Capsicum longum incrassatum Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 24. t. 7.f. 

a. 1832. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 424. 1852. 
Capsicum Americanum, fructu oblongo, dulce (Plum.) Tournef. Inst. 

153. 1700. 
Solanum mordens fructu propendente oblongo crasso. Weinmann. 

Phyt. 349. t. 927. f. c. 1745. 

t Henderson, Cat. 1891. Bed Cardinal. Bailey, Bull. Mich. Ag. CoL 
31:40. 1887. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 79 

ing to n usually acute apex, usually curved and sometimes 
twisted, often obscurely furrowed ; flesh about -^ in. thick, 
slightly pungent; seeds extremely pungent. Introduced 
about 1890. Plate 13, f . 1. 

LONG YELLOW.* Fruit averages a little smaller than 
Long Red, otherwise the same except in color, which is a 
bright yellow, and in the calyx which is somewhat funnel 
form entirely covering or slightly embracing the base of 
the fruit. A very old variety. Plate 12, f . 2. 



* Burr, Field & Gard. Veg. 622. 1863. Vilmorin- And. Veg. Gard. 
151. 1885 [Eng. ed. Robinson]. Long Yellow French. Bailey, Bull. Mich. 
Agr. Col. 31 : 38. 1887. French, Piment jaune long. German, Langer gel- 

ber rfeffer. 

Capsicum longum rectum Fingerh. Monogr. 25. t. 7. f. c. 

Capsicum longum luteum Hort. Vilmorin- And. Fl. Pleine Terre 884. 1870 

[3ded.]. 
Piper Indicum propendentibus siliquis etc. diff. 3. Siliqua flava, vel 

aurea. Bauhin. Pinax 102. 1623. 

Capsicum siliqua flava breviore. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 357. /. 18. 1640. 
Capsicum siliqua flava longiore. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 358. 1640. 
Piper longum siliquis luteis. Jonstonus, Dendrog. t. 66. 1662. 
Piper siliqua flava. Jonstonus, Dendrog. t. 56. 1662. 
Capsicum siliquis flavis. Magnol, Hort. Reg. Monsp. 42. 1697. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum siliqua flava vel aurea oblonga. Morison, 

Hist. PI. Oxon. 3: 530. 1699. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum siliqua flava lata. Morison, Hist. PI. Oxon. 

3: 530. 1699. 
Capsicum fructu flavescente. Tournef . Inst. 152. 1700. Tillus, Cat. PI. 

Hort. Pisa. 30. 1723. Boerhaave, Index PI. Lugd.-Bat. 2: 68. 1727. 
Piper Indicum Aureum latum. Hort. Eyst. 1. Aut. Ord. 1 : 9. /. 2. 1713. 
Piper Indicum Siliquis flavis. Hort. Eyst. 1. c.f.l. 
Capsicum; fructu flavo, pyramidato, oblongo, nunc erecto, nunc nutante. 

Miller, Gard. Diet. 1731 [no. 11]. 
Capsicum; siliqua lata; nervosa; longa; recurva lutea. Boerhaave, Index 

PI. Lugd.-Bat. 2: 69. 1727. 
Capsicum; siliqua propendente; aurea; incurva. Boerhaave, Index PI. 

Lugd.-Bat. 2: 69. 1727. 
Capsicum ; siliquis recurvis ; luteis. Boerhaave, Index PI. Lugd.-Bat. 2 : 

68. 1727. 
Solanum mordens fructu aureo lato. Weinmann. Phyto. 349. t. 928. f. b. 

1745. 
Solanum mordens siliquis flavis. Weinmann. Phyto. 349. t. 928. /. o. 

1745. 



80 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

m. ++ m. Calyx usually seated in a basal depression. 

ELEPHANT'S TRUNK.* Evidently a large form of Cardi- 
nal. Fruit 6-9 in. long, rarely about a foot, 2-3 in. 
diam., deeply furrowed and wrinkled, tapering gradually 
from the base to a prominently 3-4 lobed apex, often much 
curved and twisted, dark red; flesh somewhat pungent. 
Introduced about 1892. Plate 13, f. 2. 

PROCOPP'S GIANT. f Fruit 5-8 in. long, l}-2^ in. diam. 
at base, very rugose and irregular in form; flesh quite thick 
(about -j- in.), slightly pungent. Introduced about 1888. 

Because of the many peculiar contortions it ordinarily 
assumes it is often considered a monstrosity. Plate 14, f. 
2, and plate 15, f . 1. 

++ ++ ++ -H. Calyx usually cup-shaped and inclosing base of fruit. 

IVORY TusK.J Plant quite a rank grower. Peduncles 
slender. Fruit 3-(5 in. long, -J-J- in. diam., pendent, 
straight or slightly curved, usually smooth at first, the ripe 
fruit often with few shallow longitudinal furrows, the 
glossy surface of the unripe fruit resembling a tusk, often 
of an ivory white sometimes tinged with green, finally 
becoming a deep red; flesh medium thin, moderately 
pungent. Introduced in 1894, and not yet very gen- 
erally disseminated. Plate 11, f. 2. 

a a Fruit oblate or oblong, truncated, deeply lobed, furrowed and 
wrinkled; flesh mild, ^y-i in. thick. 



C. annunm grossum Sendt. 

Capsicum grossum Linn. Mant. 47. 1767. Thunb. Fl. Jap. 93. 1784. 
Linn. Syst. 226. 1784 [ed. 14. Murray] . Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1 : 254. 



* Senary, Seed Cat. 1895. French, Trompe d j Elephant. German, 
Elephanten- RUssel . 

Capsicum annuum proboscideum. Haage & Schmidt, Gartenflora 41 : 582, 
583, /. 125. 1892. 

t Benary, Seed Cat. 1894. German, Procopp's riesen Pfeffer. 
% Childs, Cat. 1894. 

Capsicum ceratocarpum. Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 22. t. 6. f. c. 
1832. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 423. 1852. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 81 

1789. Desfont. Fl. Atlant. 1:196. 1789-1 800. Linn. Sp. PI. 1: 

1051. 1797 [ed. Willd.].- Miller, Card. Diet. 1797 [ed. Martyn]. 

Lam. Enc. Meth. 2 : 26. 1793 [no. 2389]. Poiret, Enc. Meth. 5: 

326. 1804. Persoon, Syn. PI. 1 : 230. 1805. Hornem. Hort. 

Hafn. 1:223. 1813. Linn. Syst. 4: 562. 1819 [ed. Rom. et 

Schult.]. Moon, Cat. PI. Cey. 16. 1824. Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. 

Capsici 21. t. 5-6. 1832. Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1:674. 1832. Nees 

von Esenb. Trans. Linn. Soc. 17: 162. 1832. Don, Hist.Dich. PL 

4:445. 1838. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 422. 1852. Miquel, Fl. 

Ned. Ind. 2: 659. 1856. Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 239. 1885. 
Capsicum angulosum Miller, Gard. Diet. 1771 [no. 4. 6th ed.]. Linn. 

Syst. 4: 561. 1819 [ed. Rom. et Schult.]. Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. 

Capsici 27. t. 8. f. a. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 446. 1838. 

Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 426. 1852. 

Capsicum annuum angulosum Miller, Gard. Diet. 1797 [ed. Martyn]. 
Capsicum silvestre Veil. Fl. Flum. Repr. in Rio de Jan. Archiv. Mus. Nac. 

5: 58. 1881. 

Capsicum annuum rugulosum Fingerh. Monogr. 13. t. 2. /. b. 1832. 
Capsicum angulosum ovale Fingerh. Monogr. 28. t. 8. /. b. 1832. Dunal 

in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 426. 1852. 
Capsicum angulosum conicum Fingerh. Monogr. 28. 1832. Dunal in DC. 

Prodr. 13 1 :426. 1852. 
Capsicum grossum pomiferum Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 22. t. 5.f. c. 

1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4 : 446. 1838. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 

423. 1852. 
Capsicum grossum ovatum Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 22. t. 6. /. d. 

1832. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 423. 1852. 
Capsicum grossum cordatum Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 22. t. 6. f. 

a. 1832. Nees von Esenb. Trans. Linn. Soc. 17:63. 1832. 
Capsicum grossum angulosum Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 22. t. 6. f. 

b. 1832. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 423. 1852. 

Capsicum Chamaecerasus Nees von Esenb. Trans. Linn. Soc. 17 : 65. 

1832. 

Capsicum grossum globosum Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 446. 1838. 
Capsicum grossum bifidum Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4 : 446. 1838. 
Capsicum pomiferum Steud. Norn. 1: 279. 1840 [ed. 2]. 
Capsicum annuum grossum Sendt. in Martius, Fl. Bras. 10: 147. 1846. 

Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Plant. 449. 1891. 

Capsicum annuum rugosum Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 412. 1852. 
Capsicum angulosum macrocarpum Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 426. 1852. 
Capsicum Axi (Blume). Veil. Fl. Flum. Repr. in Rio de Jan. Arch. Mus. 

Nac. 5 : 69. 1881. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 428. 1852. 
Siliquastrum quartum. Fuch. Hist. Stirp. Basil. 734. /. 1542. 
Capsicon latum. Fuch. Hist. Stirp. Basil. 427. /. 1545. 
Siliquastrum latum. Fuch. Hist. Stirp. Lugd. 694. /. 1551. 
Capsicum latum. Dodon. Post. Trium. Ant. 183. /. 1554. 
Capsicum latis siliquis. Dodon. Hist. Stirp. Pempt. 705. /. 1583; 

717. /. 1616. 

6 



82 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

Piperis Indici varietas. Matth. Opera 434. /. 1598 ; 434. /. 1674. 
Piper cum siliqua lata ac rugosa. Greg, de Keg. in Clus. Cur. Post. 99- 

100. /. 8. 1611. Jonstonus, Dendrog. t. 56. 1662. Raius, Hist. 

PL 1 : 678. 1686. 
Capsicum siliqua lata & rugosa. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 357-358. /. 5. 

1640. 

Capsicum bifurcata siliqua. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 368. 1640. 
Capsicum siliqua latiore & rotundiore. Bauhin. Hist. PI. 2: 943. /. 

1651. Tournef. Inst. 162. 1700. Boerhaave, Index. PI. 2:69. 

1727. Miller, Gard.Dict. 1771 [ed. 6]. 
Piper Capsicum siliqua latiore & rotundiore. Chabraeus, Omn. Stirp. 

Sciag. 297. /. 1677. 
Capsicum seu Piper Indicum siliqua longa ampliore & dulciore Mexi- 

canum. Morison, PI. Hist. Oxon. 8: 629. 1699. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum longum ventre tumido, siliqua per summum 

tetragona. Morison, PI. Hist. Oxon. 8: 629. 1699. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum maximum obtusum. Morison, PI. Hist. 

Oxon. 8:630. 1699. 
Capsicum fructu longo, ventre tumido, per summum tetragono. Tournef. 

Inst. 152. 1700. 
Capsicum fructu bifido. Tournef. Inst. 152. 1700. Tillus, Cat. PI. 

Pisa. 30. 1723. Boerhaave, Index PI. 2: 69. 1727. 
Capsicum fructu tereti, oblongo, latifolium. Tillus, Cat. PL Pisa. 80. 

1723. 
Capsicum; siliqua lata nervosa; rubra. Boerhaave, Index PL g: 69. 

1727. 
Capsicum; Africanum, fructu pyramidal! pendulo rugosissimo. Miller, 

Gard. Diet. 1731 [no. 4]. 
Capsicum; fructu maximo, oblongo rugoso plerumque nutante rubro. 

Miller, Gard. Diet. 1731 [no. 18]. 
Solanum mordens bifurcata siliqua. Weinmann. Phyt. 349. t. 928. f. a. 

1746. 
Turbilo-Pepper, Hughes, Hist. Barb. 213. 1760. Tide Maycock, Fl. 

Barb. 104. 1830. 

Plants herbaceous, 1^2 ft. high. Branches green, often 
warty, glabrous, much enlarged at the nodes. Nodes 
slightly blotched with purple, subhairy. Leaves thick, 
dark green, often glossy on the upper surface, ovate, acu- 
minate or sometimes obtuse ; lower ones very large, usually 
3-5 in. long, 2|-3 in. wide, usually pendent, more or less 
wrinkled, often slightly involute ; veins prominent, rarely 
subpilose on the under surface; petioles 2-3 in. long, 
stout, deeply channeled : upper ones smaller, quite erect, 
rarely wrinkled or involute. Peduncles stout, -1 in. long, 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 83 

often swollen at the base, abruptly narrowing just above, 
gradually enlarging toward the calyx end. Corolla large, 
spreading --1^- in., coarse, dingy white. Fruit large, ob- 
late, oblong, or truncated, deeply 3-4 lobed, usually with 
a basal depression, more or less sulcate and rugose, 3-4 
celled; flesh -fa- -J- in. thick, firm, and of a mild flavor. 

++ Fruit pendent, not usually oblate. 

= Fruit subconical, usually tapering to a narrow obscurely lobed or 
sometimes rounded apex. 

EMPEROR.* Plants about 2 ft. high, vigorous. Fruit 
3-5 in. long, 1^-2^- in. diam.,t tapering toward the 
apex, giving a broadly conical form, slightly furrowed; 
apex rounding or obscurely lobed; flesh medium thick, 
slightly pungent. 

= -a Fruit subconical or prismatic, slightly tapering to a 3 to 4 
lobed apex, decidedly longer than broad. 

MONSTROUS. J Plants 2-2 ft. high, vigorous, much 
branched and with a dense foliage. Peduncles curved or 
rarely straight. Fruit 3-6 in. long, 1^2^- in. diam., 
cylindro-conical, 3-5 shallow furrows extending the entire 
length, often transversely sulcate and very rugose, 3-5 
lobed, 2-3 celled ; flesh % in. thick, slightly pungent, dark 
red. A late but prolific variety, originated in France 
and introduced to notice in this country about 1867. 
Plate 16. 



* Giant Emperor. Thorburn, Cat. 1883. Bailey, Bull. Mich. Agr. 
Col. 31: 40. 1887. 

t Henderson, Cat. 1883, and Thorburn, Cat. 1884, give the size of the 
fruit as 3 by 14 in., which is evidently a mistake. 

J Vilmorin-And. Veg. Gard. 153. 1885 [Eng. ed. Robinson]. Mon- 
strous, or Grossum. Henderson, Cat. 1876. Spanish Monstrous. 
Thorburn, Cat. 1884. Monstrosum. Burr, Cat. 1886. Crimson Queen. 
Tillinghast, Cat. according to Dr. Sturtevant. French, Piment mon- 
strueux. German, Sehr grosser milder monstrb'ser Pfeffer. 

Capsicum grossum monstrosum Hort. Vilmorin-And. Fl. Pleine Terr* 
884. 1870 [3d ed.]. 



84 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

SWEET SPANISH.* Evidently only a form of Monstrous. 
Fruit 4-6 in. long, 2-3 in. diam., but slightly tapering 
toward the apex, usually with three or four furrows extend- 
ing from the base to the apex, giving a uniformly prismatic 
shape with rounded angles. Plate 17. 

YELLOW SPANISH.! Identical with the preceding except 
that the fruit is of a bright yellow color. 

===== =a Fruit squarish, subtruncate, slightly longer than broad, 

sometimes very oblate; apical end often much contorted. 



Plant like the Monstrous. Fruit 2-3 in. long, 
in. diam., subtruncate, 3-4 prominent furrows ex- 
tending the entire length, often with one or more second- 
ary furrows between the prominent ones near the base 
which vanish toward the apex, often lobed about a central 
nipple and sometimes much contorted at the apex, 3-4 
celled; flesh -| J- in. thick, slightly pungent. The fruit 
appears exceptionally subject to great variation, and very 
oblate forms often appear which are almost identical with 
the Squash pepper. Professor Bailey has recorded a 
variation toward the Cayenne type. The oblate form of 
Bell may usually be recognized by a slight projection at 
the apical end, while in the Squash variety this char- 
acter is usually wanting. Plate 18, and plate 19, f. 1. 



* Burr, Field and Gard. Veg. 625. 1863. Quince- Pepper. Burr, 1. c. 
623. Large /Sweet Spanish. Landreth, Cat. 1881. Spanish Mammoth. 
Vilmorin-And. Veg. Gard. 163. 1885 [Eng. ed. Robinson]. New Sweet 
Spanish. Henderson, Cat. 1887. French, Piment doux d'Espagne. 
German, Bother milder ipanischer Pfeffer. 

t This name is given to the yellow form of Spanish Mammoth t accord- 
ing to Vilmorin-And. Veg. Gard. 1. c. 

JBurr, Field & Gard. Veg. 617. 1863. Bed Prince. Everitt, Cat. 
1887. Bell, or Bull Nose. Hend. Gard. for Profit 264. 1887 [3d ed.]. 
Sweet Spanish. Bailey, Bull. Mich. Agr. Col. 81 : 41. 1887. Bull Nose. 
Landreth, Cat. 1894. French, Piment gros carredouz, Piment cloche. 

Bull, Mich. Agr. Col. 31: 37. 1887. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 85 

= = Fruit squarish, subtruncate, slightly longer than broad, neither 
oblate nor with apex contorted. 

SWEET MOUNTAIN.* Plants If -2 ft. high. Branches 
comparatively few. Fruit 3-4 in. long, 2-3 in. diam., 
not tapering toward the apex, 3-4 shallow furrows 
extending the entire length, usually uniformly 3-lobed ; 
flesh mild. Originated about 1865. 

This variety is sometimes considered a synonym of 
Bell but the uniformly smaller plants and larger and milder 
fruits, which are not as subject to great variation, make it 
quite distinct, though at most it is but a subvariety or 
improved form. Plate 19, f. 2, and plate 20. 

GOLDEN DAWN.| Not usually distinguishable from the 
last except that the fruit is of a beautiful golden yellow 
color. It often varies to subconical without increasing in 
length. Introduced about 1882. Plate 21, f. 2. 

= == = Fruit squarish, subtruncate, longer than broad, usually slightly 
tapering. 

KUBY KiNG.J Plant not distinguishable from Sweet 
Mountain. Fruit 4-7 in. long, 2-4 in. diam., deeply 4-5 
furrowed and lobed, usually slightly tapering toward the 
apex ; flesh slightly pungent. A very large form of Bell. 
Introduced about 1884. Plate 21, f. 1. 

GOLDEN KINO is said to have originated as a sport 

* Burr, Field & Gard. Veg. 625. 1863. Bailey, Bull. Mich. Agr. 
Col. 31 : 41. 1887. Sweet Mountain, or Mammoth. Hend. Qard. for Profit 
264. 1886. French, Piment carr6 doux d'Amtrique. German, Eckiger 
dicker kurxer rother siisser Pfeffer. 

f Thorburn, Cat. 1883. Hend. Gard. for Profit 265. 1886 [3d ed.]. 
Golden Dawn Mango. Sibley, Cat. 1884. Yellow Bell. Bailey, Bull. Mich. 
Agr. Col. 81 : 41. 1887. Yellow Nocre. Notes and figures by Dr. Stur- 
tevant, seed from Batchelor, 1887. Sweet Golden Dawn. Thorburn, 
Cat. 1887. Golden Mango. Seed from Childs, 1892. French, Piment 
carre jaunt hattf. 

t Hend. Gard. for Profit 265. 1886 [3d ed.]. New Large Scarlet. 
Batchelor, seed, 1887. 

Burpee, Cat. 1894. Mammoth Golden Queen. Storrs & Harrison, 
Cat.1882.- Orange Mammoth. Livingston, seed, 1887. French, Piment 
mammoth jaune d'or. 



86 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

from Ruby King about 1886. The fruit appears to be a 
little shorter in proportion to the diameter than Ruby 
King, otherwise the same except that the color is a bright 
golden yellow. Introduced about 1893. Plate 22, f. 1. 

++ ++ Fruit erect, not usually oblate. 

BRAZILIAN UPRIGHT.* Plant about 2 ft. high, foliage 
rather dense. Leaves 3-5 in. long, ovate acuminate to ovate 
obtuse. Penduncles 1-1^ in. long, comparatively slender, 
sometimes slightly bent under weight of fruit. Fruit 2-5 
in. long, 1^2^- in. diam., prismatic, subconic or subtruncate, 
irregularly rugose, rarely nearly smooth, in general 2-3 
lobed at apex, 2-3 deep furrows at base becoming obscure 
or lost at the middle ; base usually depressed ; flesh firm, 
about -J in. thick, mild; seeds acrid. Introduced about 
1890. Plate 23. 

GOLDEN UPRIGHT.! About 1^ ft. high, with few large 
stout branches. Leaves dark green, few. Fruit yellow, 3-4 
in. long, 2-3 in. diam., subtruncate, deeply 3-4 lobed, flat or 
slightly depressed at base, 3-4 shallow sinuses radiating 
from the calyx, vanishing toward the middle, reappearing 

* New Brazilian Sweet Upright. Thorburn, Cat. 1892. 
Piper rotundum majus surrectum. Greg, de Reg. in Clus. Cur. Post. 

96-97. /.I. 1611. Raius, Hist. PL 1: 677. 1686. 
Piper Indicum siliquis surrectis rotundis, diff. 1. maximum obtusum. 

Bauhin. Pinax 103. 1623. 
Piper Indicum siliquis surrectis & oblongis. diff. 4. siliqua bifurcata. 

Bauhin. Pinax 103. 1623. 
Capsicum rotundum majus surrectum. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 256-357. 

/. 3. 1640. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum siliqua bifurcata. Morison, PI. Hist. Oxon. 

8: 530. 1699. 
Piper Indicum bifurcata siliqua. Hort. Eyst. 1. Autum. Ord. 1: 8. /. 2. 

1713. 
Piper Indicum maximum rotundum erectum. Hort. Eyst. 1. Autum. 

Ord. 1: 11. f.l. 1713. 
Capsicum Af ricanum ; f ructu pyramidale rugosissimo plerumque erecto. 

Miller, Gard. Diet. 1731 [no. 5]. 

t Burpee, Cat. 1883. Golden Upright Sw.eet Mango. Senary, Cat. 
1893-4. Yellov) Nocre. Benary, Cat. 1893-4. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 87 

and becoming deeper toward apex, usually 1-2 obscure 
sinuses between larger ones, subrugose, 3-4 celled; flesh 
firm and sweet; seeds slightly acrid. The fruit has a 
tendency to elongate, becoming subconical, often nippled 
at the apex and sometimes obscurely furrowed. Intro- 
duced 1887. Plate 22, f. 2. 

.H. ++ ++ Fruit pendent, very oblate. 

SQUASH.* Plant 1-2 ft. high with few stout, quite erect 
branches. Peduncles 1-1-J- in. long, stout, much enlarged 
toward calyx end. Fruit truncate, very oblate, 1-2 in. 
long, 2-3 in. diam., usually with three or more deep fur- 
rows extending from base to or near the apex and numer- 
ous obscure ones about half as long, 2-3 celled ; flesh firm, 
| i in. thick, rather insipid, slightly pungent, often with 
a trace of tomato flavor. This is a very late variety and 
not an abundant bearer. The fruit is excellent for 
mangoes. Plate 24, and plate 25, f. 1. 



* Burr, Field & Gard. 624. 1863. Bailey, Bull. Mich. Agr, Col. 31 1 
41. 1887. Red Tomato Capsicum or American Bonnet Pepper. Vilmorin- 
And. Veg. Gard. 154. 1886 [Eng. ed. Robinson] . Squash or Tomato- 
Shaped. Hend. Gard. for Profit 265. 1886 [3d ed.]. Red Tomato. 
Bailey, Bull. Mich. Agr. Col. 31: 41. 1887. New Dwarf Early Red 
Squash. Burpee, Cat. 1893. French, Piment tomate, Piment tomate nain 
hatif. German, LiebesapfelfrUchtiger rother Pfeffer. 

Capsicum tetragonum Miller, Gard. Diet. 1771 [no. 8. ed. 6]. Linn. Syst. 

4:561. 1819 [ed. Rom. et Schult.]. Link, Enum. PI. Hort. Reg. 

Berol. 1:190. 1821. Fingerh. Monogr. Gen. Capsici 30. t. 10. 

f. d. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4:446. 1838. Miquel, Fl. Ned. 

Ind. 2:658. 1856. 

Capsicum annuum tetragonum Miller, Gard. Diet. 1797 [ed. Martyn], 
Capsicum cydoniaeforme Hort. Linn. Syst. 4 : 661. 1819 [ed. Ro'm. et 

Schult.]. 

Capsicum tomatiforme Fingerh. in Steud. Nom. 279. 1840 [2d ed.]. 
Capsicum dulce Hort. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 428. 1852. 
Capsicum grossum lycopersicoides Vilmorin-And. Fl. Pleine Terre 884. 

1870 [3ded.]. 
Piper Indicum fructu dependente Pomi amoris forma. Bauhin. Pinax 

102. 1623. Raius, Hist. PL 1 : 678. 1686. 
Solanum mordens seu Capsicum latifolium mali Aethiopici, etc. Pluken- 

etius, Phyto. l.t.227.f.l. 1692. 



88 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

YELLOW SQUASH.* Identical with the preceding ex- 
cept that the fruit is of a bright yellow color. 

a a a Fruit subconical, ovate or elliptical, slightly longer than broad, 
i-2 in. long; calyx not embracing base. 

C. annuum abbreviatum Fingerh. 

Capsicum annuum abbreviatum Fingerh. Monogr. 14. t. 2. f. 1. 

Plants suffrutescent, 1-2 ft. high. Branches numer- 
ous, erect or in some varieties loosely spreading, deep 
green, smooth, slender, distinctly angled, sometimes sul- 
cate. Leaves broadly ovate, 2-4 in. long, l-J-2^ in. wide, 
minutely ciliate, usually deep green above, much paler 
below, extending slightly into the petiole, often puffed, 
sometimes smooth and glossy. Peduncles 1-1^- in. long, 
about as long as or longer than the fruit, rarely in twos, 
medium slender, straight or curved in different varieties, 
smooth, or on younger specimens subhairy. Calyx seated 
on the base of the fruit. Corolla medium, spreading 
about I in., dingy white. Fruit J-2 in. long, varying 
much with different varieties, in general ovate, usually 
more or less rugose except in the Etna variety, some- 
times turbinate, red or yellow when ripe, often variously 
blotched with brown or light yellow before ripening. 

Capsicum sive Piper Indicum latifolium Mali Aethiopici fructu magno- 

striato. Morison, Hist. PI. Oxon. 8: 529. 1699. 
Capsicum seu Piper Indicum Pomi amoris forma. Morison, Hist. PI. 

Oxon. 3:529. 1699. 
Capsicum fructu rotundo, maximo. Tournef. 153. 1700. Tillus, Pisa. 

30. 1723. 
Piper Indicum rotundum maximum. Hort. Eyst. 1. Autum. Ord. 1: 10. /. 

1. 1713. 
Capsicum ; latifolium ; Mali Aethiopici etc. Boerhaave, Index PL Lugd.- 

Bat. 2:69. 1727. 
Solanum seu Piper Indicum maximum. Weinmann. Phyt. 4: 349. t. 928. 

f. d. 1745. 

* Burr, Field & Gard. Veg. 626. 1863. French, Piment tomatejaune. 
German, Liebesapfelfriichtiger gelber Pfeffer. 

Capsicum grossum lycopersicoides luteum Hort. Vilmorin-And. Fl. 
Pleine Terre 884. 1870 [3d ed.]. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 89 

* Fruit erect. 
- Light yellow or straw-color before ripening. 

CELESTIAL.* Plants very erect, about 1-J ft. high, 
conical in form, rather compact, moderately branchy. 
Leaves rather lighter green and smaller than in other vari- 
eties of this group ; petioles slender. Peduncles 1-1J in. 
long, straight, slender, stout, scarcely enlarging toward the 
calyx end. Fruit erect, 1^-2^ in. long, 1-1-J- in. diam., 
ovate, subconical, or subpyramidal, rarely much elongated, 
smooth, or obscurely wrinkled ; apex acute, rounded, or 
sometimes obscurely lobed ; base flat, usually not entirely 
covered by the calyx ; unripe of a greenish yellow or dingy 
white often with numerous purplish brown spots, later be- 
coming more yellow or straw color, finally a bright red, 
2-3 celled ; flesh moderately firm, -^^ in. thick, extremely 
pungent. Introduced about 1887, having been brought 
from China some years before. 

The fruit begins setting early, lasting nearly all sum- 
mer. The lower ones ripening one or two weeks earlier 
than the others and borne, as most of them are, in large 
numbers beyond the leaves, the various colors on the same 
plant present an unusually novel appearance, making it 
especially desirable as a pot plant. Plate 25, f. 2 and plate 
26, f. 1. 

*- - Neither light yellow, nor straw-color. 

ETNA.! Plants about 1^ ft. high. Branches numer- 
ous, quite diffusely spreading. Leaves medium, 



* Thorburn, Cat. 1888. Childs 1 Improved Celestial. Childs, Cat. 
1894. French, Piment chinois. 

Capsicum leucocarpum Dunal in DC. Prodr. 18 1 : 429. 1862. 
Capsicum; Americanum, latifolium, fructu oblongo, erecto, candido. 
Miller, Gard. Diet. 1731 [no. 17]. Fingerh. Monogr. 32. 1832. 

f Eed Etna. Burpee, Cat. 1893. 

Piper oblongum erectum majus pyramidale. Greg, de Reg. in Clus. 

Cur. Post. 97-98. /. 2. 1611. Eaius, Hist. PL 1: 677. 1686. 
Piper erectum minus pyramidale. Greg, de Reg. in Clus. Cur. Post. 

97-98. /. 5. 1611. Raius, Hist. PL 1 : 677. 1686. 



90 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

in. long, 1-1 J in. wide. Fruit 1-2 in. long, f-lf in. 
diam., at first ovate or subconical, often becoming sub- 
truncate and obscurely 2, 3, or rarely 4 lobed with the 
same number of shallow furrows, dark red; flesh about 
fa in. thick, slightly pungent. Only moderately produc- 
tive. Introduced in 1890. Plate 27, f . 2. 

* * Fruit pendent, 
i- Changing from green to light yellow or straw -color before ripening. 

KALEIDOSCOPE.* Plants vigorous, about 2 ft. high, 
spreading 2^-3 ft. Branches long, slender, loosely spread- 
ing. Leaves medium large for the group, often smooth, 
glossy, and thick ; petioles sometimes longer than the blade. 
Peduncles slender, obscurely canaliculate, curved. Fruit 
nodding or pendent, 1-1-J- in. long, ^-1 in. diam., oval or 
elliptical, abruptly narrowing toward both ends, usually 
mucronate, often with a rigid bristly projection at the apex, 
subrugose, numerous shallow furrows extending a part or 
the entire length, changing in color from green to yellow- 
ish green, and yellowish red, finally a bright red; flesh 
about % in. thick, moderately firm, mild. Introduced 1890. 
Valuable mainly as an ornamental. Plate 25, f . 3, and 
plate 26, f . 2. 

Capsicum erectum pyramidale majus. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 356. /. 

1640. 
Capsicum erectum pyramidale minus. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 357. /. 

1640. 

* Childs, Cat. 1891. German, Kaleidoscop. 

Piper Indicum fructu aculeato. Bauhin. Pinax 102. 1623. Eaius, 

Hist. PI. 1 : 678. 1686. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum fructu aculeato majus. Morison, Hist. PI. 

Oxon. 8: 629. 1699. 
Solanum urens fructu aculeato. Morison, Hist. PI. Oxon. Sect. 13. t. 2. 

/. 16. 1699. 
Capsicum fructu aculeato, minori. Tournef. Inst. 153. 1700. Tillus. 

Cat. PI. Pisa. 30. 1723. 

Capsicum fructu aculeato, majori. Tournef. 1. c. 
Piper Indicum rotuudum aculeatum. Hort. Eyst. 1. Aut. Ord. 1 : 12 /. 1 . 

1713. 
Piper Indicum orbiculatum medium. Hort. Eyst. 1. c. /. 2. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 91 

+- -H- Not changing from green to light yellow, 
n- Usually more or less turbinate. 

RED WRINKLED.* Plants 1-2 ft. high, often spreading 
23 ft. Branches often purple striate. Leaves 2-3^ in. 
long, 1^2 in. wide; petioles 1 1-J- in. long. Peduncles 
curved, usually -J1 in. long, slender, slightly enlarged 
toward calyx end. Corolla greenish white, spreading -J-^ 
in. Fruit very rugose, about 1 in. long, f-|- in. diam., 
pendent or nodding, usually turbinate, with projecting 
nipples, bright red when ripe. Plate 27, f. 3. 

YELLOW WRINKLED.! Identical with the preceding 
except that the fruit is of a bright yellow color. 

- -M. Not usually turbinate. 

PRINCESS or WALES 4 Plants 1-1^ ft. high, quite erect, 
branches numerous, slender, stiff, puberulent, scarcely 
more hairy at the nodes, leaves often puffed or wrinkled, 
2-3^- in. long, 1-J 2 in. wide, pubescent on veins below, 
ciliate ; petioles medium short. Peduncles usually curved, 
slender, smooth. Corolla greenish white, usually spread- 
ing about J- in. Fruit conical to ovate- elliptical, 1-lf in. 
long, ^-1 in. diam., more or less sulcate, rarely turbinate, 
at first dark green, becoming blotched with purple, finally 

* Thorburn' s Fancy Red Wrinkled. Thorburn, Cat. 1892 German, 
Runtliger rother Pfeffer. 

Capaicum umbilicatum Veil. Fl. Flum. Repr. in Rio de Jan. Arch. Mus. 
Nac. 5: 60. 1881. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 428. 1852. Sturt. 
Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 16: 108. 1888. 

t Thorburn, Cat. 1892. German, Runeliger gelber Pfeffer. 
% Williams, Cat. 1878. 

Capsicum luteum Lam. Enc. Meth. 2: 26. 1793 [no. 2392]. Poiret, 
Enc. Meth. 6: 327. 1804. Linn. Syst. 4: 462. 1819 [ed. Rom. et 
Schult.]. Fingerh. Monogr. 26. t. 8.f. c. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. 
PI. : 445. 1838. Dunal in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 425. 1862. 

Piper siliquaflava. Greg, de Reg. in Clus. Cur. Post. 102. /. 12. 1611. 
Raius, Hist. PL 1 : 678. 1686. 

Solarium mordens seu Capsicum fructu flavescente. Weinmann. 349. t. 
930. f. a. 1745. 



92 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

a lemon yellow, usually 4-celled, extremely pungent. An 
ornamental English variety which originated about 1876 
and is said to be the result of a cross between Prince of 
Wales and Yellow Gem, possessing the habit of the former 
and fruit of the latter. Not very generally catalogued by 
American seedsmen. 

aaaa Fruit generally smooth, oval, spherical, cherry or heart shaped, 
|-li in. in diameter; calyx seated on the base. 

C. annuum cerasiforme (Miller). 

Capsicum Olivaeforme Miller, Gard.Dict. 1771 [no. 6. ed. 6]. 
Capsicum ovatum DC. Cat. Hort. Monsp. 86. 1813. Poiret, Enc. Meth. 

Suppl. 4: 414. 1816. Linn. Syst. 4: 661. 1819 [ed. Bo'm. et 

Schult.]. Fingerh. Monogr. 28. t. 9.f. b. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. 

PI. 4: 445. 1838. Dunal in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 426. 1852. 
Capsicum oxycarpum Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 426. 1852. 
Piper cum siliqua olivaria. Greg, de Reg. in Clus, Cur. Post. 99-100. /. 6. 

1611 . Jonstonus, Dendrog. t. 58. 1662. Baius, Hist. PL Oxon. 1 : 

677. 1686. 
Piper Indicum propendentibus siliquis rotundis, diff. 3. eiliqua olivari. 

Bauhin. Pinax 102. 1623. 
Capsicum siliqua Olivaria propendens. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 367. /. 10. 

1640. Morison, Hist. PL Oxon. 8: 629. 1640. 

Capsicum siliqua Olivaria erecta. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 357. 1640. 
Solanum urens siliqua propendente, etc. M orison, Hist. PL Oxon. Sect. 

13. t. 2. f. 12. 1699. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum perenne siliqua Olivae magnitudine & 

forma. Morison, Hist. PL Oxon. 8: 630. 1699. 
Capsicum siliqua Olivae forma. Tournef. Inst. 153. 1700. 
Capsicum; fructu Olivario erecto. Miller, Card. Diet. 1731 [no. 13]. 

Plants suffrutescent, 1-2 ft. high, spreading 2-2-J- ft., 
with rather dense foliage. Branches numerous, quite uni- 
formly 4-angled, green or purplish striate, purple and much 
enlarged at nodes. Leaves ovate or oblong acuminate, 1^ 
3J- in. long, ^-1^ in. wide, flat, usually slightly wrinkled, 
margins usually subciliate ; petioles medium slender, -J-l in. 
long. Peduncles curved or straight on different plants or 
often on the same plant, f-Jin.long, stout, much enlarged 
toward calyx end, solitary, sometimes in twos. Calyx 
somewhat wrinkled, seated on base of fruit. Corolla large, 
dingy white, spreading f-l^ in. Fruit spherical, subcordate, 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 93 

oblate, or occasionally obscurely pointed or slightly elon- 
gated, erect, spreading, or pendent, -J-l in. diam., smooth 
or very rarely minutely rugose or sulcate, when unripe often 
more or less blotched with purple on side next the sun ; 
flesh firm, -iV~l m - thick, extremely pungent. 

* Fruit |-i in. in diameter, oval or lemon-shaped. 

LITTLE GEM.* Plant about 1-J-ft. high. Leaves medium 
small, larger ones 2 in. long by 1 in. wide; petioles rather 
short. Peduncles straight or slightly curved. Corolla 
obscurely greenish white, spreading about in. Fruit 
globular, ovate, or elliptical, about f in. diam., usually 
erect, smooth, red, usually 3-celled, extremely pungent. 
Introduced in England about 1881. Not generally cata- 
logued by American seedsmen. 

PRINCE OF WALES. f Plant stout, upright-spreading, 
12-15 in. high. Leaves 2-2^- in. long, 1-1-j- in. wide. 
Peduncles curved, long and slender. Fruit small, about -J 
in. diam., lemon-shaped, bright yellow. A very old 
and prolific variety formerly much cultivated in Europe as 
an ornamental plant. 

* * Fruit i-1 in. in diameter, generally cherry-shaped. 

CHERRY. :f Plant 2-2^ ft. high, quite woody and very 
branchy. Fruit ^-1 in. diam. quite uniformly spherical or 
cherry-shaped, smooth, sometimes obscurely furrowed; 
flesh firm, about -J- in. thick, extremely pungent, dark red. 



* Floral Magazine pi. 479. 1881. Williams' Little Gem. Williams, 
Cat. 1882. Miniature Tom Thumb, Batchelor, seed, 1887. CroZe or 
Bird's Eye. Thorburn, Cat. 1893. 

f Veitch, Cat. 1872. German, Prim von Wales Pfeffer. 

Capsicum sive Piper Indicum siliqua flava ovali. Morison, Hist. PL 8: 
630. 1699. 

J Burr, Field and Gard. Veg. 620. 1863. Vilmorin-And. Veg. Gard. 
152. 1885 [Eng. ed. Robinson]. Round or Large Cherry -Pepper. Burr, 
1. c. 624. Cranberry. Hend. Gard for Profit 265. 1886. Bailey, Bull, 
Mich. Agr. Col. 31: 37. 1887. Bed French,. Bailey,!, c. 38. Piment 



94 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

Although a well-fixed variety, elongated and very oblate 
forms of the fruit occasionally appear, especially from seed 
received under the name Cranberry. Plate 28, f. 2 and 4. 



airelle rouge. Vilmorin-And. Cat. 1891. French, Piment cerise. German, 
Kirschformiger rother Pfeffer. 

Capsicum cerasiforme Miller, Card. Diet. 1771 [no. 5. ed. 6]. Lam. Enc. 

Meth. 2:26. 1793 [no. 2391]. Linn. Sp. PL 1:1051. 1797 [ed. 

Willd.]. Poiret, Enc. Meth. 5:325. 1804. Persoon, Syn. PL 1: 

230. 1805. Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1 : 406. 1810. Hornem. Hort. Hafn. 

1:223. 1813. Linn. Syst. 4:563. 1819 [ed. Rom. et Schult.]. 

Link, Enum. PL Hort. Reg. Berol. 1 : 190. 1821. Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1 ; 

574. 1832. Fingerh. Monogr. 19. t. 5.f. b. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. 

PL 4: 446. 1838. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 18 1 : 422. 1852. Miquel, Fl 

Ned. Ind. 2: 660. 1856. 

Capsicum annuum /? Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1 : 253. 1789. 
Capsicum annuum Miller, Card. Diet. 1797 [ed. Martyn]. (In part.) 
Capsicum sphaericum Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 1:241. 1809. Linn. 

Syst. 4:661. 1819 [ed. Rom. et Schult.]. Hornem. Hort. Hafn. 

Suppl. 27. 1819. Link, Enum. PL Hort. Reg. Berol. 1 : 190. 1821. 

Fingerh. Monogr. 28. t. 9.f. a. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PL 4: 445. 

1838. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 427. 1852. 
Capsicum Milleri Linn. Syst. 4:563. 1819 [ed. R6'm. et Schult.]. 

Fingerh. Monogr. 20. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PL 4: 445. 1838. 

Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 422. 1852. 
Capsicum cerasiflorum Link, Enum. PL Hort. Reg. Berol. 1: 190. 

1821. 
Capsicum cerasiforme minus Fingerh. Monogr. 20. 1832. Dunal in DC. 

Prodr. 13 1 : 422. 1852. 

Capsicum cerasiforme maurocarpum Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum cerasiforme cerasiflorum Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum grossum cerasiformis Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 239. 1885. 
Siliquastrum variatas rotundum. Gamer. PL Epit. 348. /.* 1586. 
Capsicum siliquis rotundis cerasi forma. Bauhin. Phytopinax 156. 1596. 
Piper cum siliqua rotunda cerasorum modo. Greg, de Reg. in Clus. 

Cur. Post. 99-100. /. 7. 1611. Jonstonus, Dendrog. t. 66. 1662. 

Raius, Hist. PL 1 : 677. 1686. 
Piper Indicu siliquis surrectis rotundis. diff. 2. Rotundum minus parum 

acuminatum. Bauhin. Pinax 103. 1623. 

Piper Indicum propendentibus siliquis rotundis. diff. 4. Siliqua ro- 
tunda. Cerasorum modo. Bauhin. Pinax 102. 1623. 
Piper Indicum siliquis surrectis cerasi forma. Bauhin. Pinax 103. 

1623. Raius, Hist. 678. 1686. 

Capsicum rotundioribus siliquis. Gerarde, Herball 364-365. /. 7. 1636. 
Capsicum siliqua rotunda Cerasorum. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 357-368. 

/. 11. 1640. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 95 

YELLOW CHERRY.! Identical with the preceding except 
that the fruit is of a yellow color. Not universally cata- 
logued by seedsmen. Plate 28, f. 2. 



Piper rotundum majus surrectum. Jonstonus, Dendrog. t. 56. 1662. 
Capsicum arborescens, fructu cerasino. Hunting, Waare Oeffen. PI. 342. 

1682. 
Capsicum frutescens, fructu cerasino. Hunting, Warre Oeffen. PI. 

341. 1682. 
Capsicum siliquis surrectis Cerasi forma. Hagnol, Hurt. Reg. Honsp. 

42. 1697. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum propendentibus siliquis rotundis. Hor- 

ison, Hist. PL Oxon. 8: 629. 1699. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum siliquis Cerasi forma. Horison, Hist. 

PI. Oxon. 3 : 530. 1699. 

Capsicum sive Piper Indicum siliqua rotunda Cerasorum forma. Hor- 
ison, Hist. PL Oxon. 8: 529. 1690. 
Solanum urens siliqua propendente rotunda, etc. Horison, 1. c. Sect. 

13. t. 2.f. 14. 

Solanum Capsicum dictum, propendentibus siliquis rotundis. Her- 
mann. Hort. Acad. Lugd.-Bat. 576. 1687. 
Capsicum siliquis surrectis, Cerasi forma. Tournef . Inst. 158. 1700. 

Tillus, Cat. PL Hort. Pisa. 80. 1723. 
Capsicum siliqua propendente, Cerasi forma. Tournef. Inst. 163. 1700. 

Tillus, Cat. PL Hort. Pisa. 20. 1723. 
Capsicum siliquis surrectis, rotundis. Tournef. 153. 1700. Hiller, 

Gard. Diet. 1771 [6th ed.]. 
Capsicum siliquis surrectis, rotundis, parum acuminatis. Tournef. Inst. 

153. 1700. 
Capsicum fructu rotundo, maximo. Tournef. Inst. 163. 1700. (In 

part.). Tillus, Cat. PL Hort. Pisa. 30. 1723. Hiller, Gard. Diet. 

1771 [6th ed.]. 
Capsicum; Americanum, fructu rotundo, Cerasorum forma. Hiller, 

Gard. Diet. 1731 [no. 16]. 
Capsicum; fructu rotundo, majore, nuiic erecto, nunc nutante rubro. 

Hiller, Gard. Diet. 1731 [no. 10]. 
Solanum Capsicum fructu erecto rubro rotundo. Weinmann. Phyt. 349. 

t.929.f.a. 1745. 
Solanum mordens fructu rotundo. Weinmann. Phyt. 349. t. 928. /. /. 

1745. 

t Yellow Fruited Cherry Pepper. Burr, Field and Gard. Veg. 621. 
1863. French, Fiment cerise jaune. German, Kirschformiger gelber 

Pfeffer. 

Capsicum cerasiforme luteum Hort. Vilmorin-And. Fl. Pleine Terre 885. 

1870 [3ded.]. 



96 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

* * * Fruit 1-li in. in diameter, usually heart-shaped. 
OXHEART.* Plant 1-2^ ft. high. Branches few, stout, 
quite erect. Fruit usually heart-shaped, sometimes oblate, 

* Bailey, Bull. Mich. Agr. Col. 31 : 38. 1887. 

Capsicum cordiforme Miller, Card. Diet. 1771 [no. 2. Cth ed.]. Linn. 

Syst. 4: 561. 1819 [ed. Rom. et Schult.]. Fingerh. Monogr. 

29. t. 9. /. c. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PL 4: 445. 1838. Dunal 

in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 427. 1852. Miquel, FL Ned. Ind. 2 : G58. 1856. 

Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 20. pl.lS.f. 3. 1862. Miquel, Mus. Lugd.- 

Bat.3: 117. 1867. 

Capsicum cordiforme ma jus Fingerh. 1. c. Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum cordiforme minus Fingerh. 1. c. Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum cordiforme subangulosum Fingerh. 1. c. Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum cordiforme olivaeforme Fingerh. 1. c. Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum annuum cordiforme Sendt. in Martius, Fl. Bras. 10: 148. 1846. 
Capsicum cordiforme cerasicarpum. Dunal, 1. c. 
Siliquastrum Cordatum. Camer. PL Epit. 348. /. t. 1586. 
Capsicum siliquis latis cordatis. Bauhin. Phytopinax 156. 1596. 
Piperis indici varitas. Matth. Opera 434. /. 1598. 
Piper cordatum. Greg, de Reg. in Clus. Cur. Post. 99. /. 5. 1611. 

Rains, Hist. PL 1 : 677. 1686. 
Piper Indicu siliquis surrectis rotundis. diff. 3. cordatu majus, diff. 4. 

cordat. min. angulosu. Bauhin. Pinax 103. 1623. 
Piper Indicuin propendentibus siliquis rotundis. diff. 2. siliqua cordata. 

Bauhin. Pinax 102. 1623. 
Capsicum cordatum erectum majus, ditto, minus. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 

357. 1640. 
Capsicum cordatum propendens. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 357. /. 9. 

1640. Sloane, Hist. Jam. 114. 1696. 

Figure without name. Hernandez, Novae Hist. Romae. 136. 1651. 
Piper cordatum. Jonstonus, Dendrog. t. 66. 1662. 
Piper Cordatum surrectum majus, ditto, minus. Jonstonus, Dendrog. 

t. 56. 1662. 
Piper rotundum majus surrectum. Raius, Hist. PI. 1 : 677. 1686. (In 

part,) 
Capsicum cordatum siliqua surrecta. Magnol, Hort. Reg. Monsp. 42. 

1697. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum cordatum, majus & minus. Morison, Hist. 

PL 8:530. 1699. 
Capsicum seu Piper Indicum siliqua cordata. Morison, Hist. PL Oxon. 

3: 529. 1699. 

Solanum urens fructu cordato. Morison, 1. c. Sect. 13. t. 2. f. 12. 
Capsicum siliqua propendente, rotunda & cordiformi. Tournef. Inst. 163. 

1700. Tillus, Cat. PL Hort. Pisa. 30. 1723. Miller, Card. Diet. 

1771 [6th ed.]. 



A REVISION OP THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 97 

spherical, or subconical, 1-1 -J- in. diam., very smooth, 
glossy, rarely obscurely wrinkled or furrowed; flesh about 
-J- in. thick, dark red, very pungent. 

YELLOW OXHEART.* A yellow form of the Oxheart 
variety has been known, but now seems to have dropped 
out of cultivation. 

A A Shrubby, perennial. 

a Fruit oblong, acuminate, usually embraced by calyx. 
O. FRTJTESCENS L. 

Capsicum frutescena Linn. Hort. Cliff. 60. 1737; Sp. PI. 189. 1753; 271, 
1762 [ed. 2], (in part). Gouan, Hort. Monsp. 111. 1762. Miller, 
Gard. Diet. 1771 [ed. 6. no. 9]. Aublet, Hist. PI. Guiane 1: 219. 
1775. Linn. Syst. 14:227. 1784 [ed. 14. Murray] . Aiton, Hort. 
Kew. 1:254. 1789. Loureiro, Fl. Cochin. 1:128. 1790; 1: 158. 
1793 [ed. Willd.]. Lam. Enc. Meth. 2:26. 1793 [no. 2395]. 
Linn. Sp. PI. 1: 1051. 1797 [ed. Willd.]. Miller, Gard. Diet. 1797 
[ed. Martyn]. Poiret, Enc. Meth. 5: 326. 1804. Persoon, Syn. PI. 
1:230. 1805. Hornem. Hort. Hafn. 1: 224. 1813. Kunth, Nov. 
Gen. Sp. PI. 8:48. 1818. Linn. Syst. 4:563. 1819 [ed. Rom. et 
Schult.]. Link, Enum. PI. Hort. Reg. Berol. 1 : 190. 1821. Moon, 
Cat. Brit. Ind. 16. 1824. Fingerh. Monogr. 17. t. 4.f.c. 1832. 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1 : 574. 1832. Nees von Esenb. Trans. Linn. Soc. 
17: 63. 1837. Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 446. 1838. Sendt. In Mar. 

Capsicum siliqua propendente, oblonga & cordiformi. Tournef. Inst. 

153. 1700. Tillus, Cat. PL Hort. Pisa. 30. 1723. 

Piper Indicum cordatum. Hort. Eyst. 1. Autum. Ord. 1 : 13. /. 2. 1718. 
Piper Indicum cordatum oblongum. Hort. Eyst. 1. c. /. 1. 
Capsicum; fructu Cordiformi, plerumque nutante rubxo. Miller, Gard. 

Diet. 1731 [no. 7]. 
Solanum mordens fructu erecto cordiformi rubro. Weinmann. Phyt. 

349. t. 929. f. c. 1745. 
Capsicum fructu cordiformi erecto. Haller, Hort. Gott. 216. 1753. 

* Capsicum cordiformc globosum Fingerh. Monogr. 30. 1. 10. f. c. 1832. 

Dunal in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 427. 1852. 
Capsicum strictum Fingerh. Monogr. 21. t. S.f. a. 1832. Dunal in DC. 

Prodr. 13 1 : 422. 1852. 
Capsicum; fructu Cordiformi, nunc erecto, nunc nutante flavo. Miller, 

Gard. Diet. 1731 [no. 12]. 
Solanum mordens, fructu erecto cordiformi, luteo. Weinmann. Phyt. 

349. t. 929. f. b. 1745. 
Capsicum fructu cordiformi minori luteo. Browne, Hist. Jam. 176. 1756. 



98 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

tins, Fl. Bras. 10: H2. 1846 Hooker, Niger Fl. 162. 1849. 

Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 413. 1852. Miquel, Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 660. 

1856. Grisebach, Fl. Ind. 436. 1864. Hemsley, Biol. Cent.-Am. 

2:423. 1881-82. Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 239. 1885. Gray, Syn. 

Fl. 2: 231. 1888. Chapman, So. Fl. 323. 1896. 
Capsicum minimum Miller, Gard. Diet. 1771 [no. 10. ed. 6]. Moon, Cat. 

PI. Cey. 16. 1824. Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1 : 574. 1832. Miquel, Fl. Ned. 

Ind. 2: 659. 1856. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 415. 1852. 
Capsicum conicum Lam. Enc. Meth. 2. 1793 [no. 2890]. Poiret, Bnc. 

Meth. 5:327. 1804. 
Capsicum Havanense Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. PI. 3: 48. 1818. Don, Hist. 

Dich. PL 4: 446. 1838. 
Capsicum Comarim Veil. Fl. Flum. Repr. in Rio de Jan. Arch. Mus. 

Nac. 5: 59. 1881. 

Capsicum odoriferum Veil. 1. c. 60. Fide Index Kewensis. 
Capsicum toxicarium Po'ppig. Fingerh. Monogr. 32. 1832. Fide Index 

Kewensis. 
Capsicum frutescens minus Fingerh. Monogr. 17. 1832. Dunal in DO. 

Prodr. IS 1 : 413. 1852. 
Capsicum fastigiatum (Blume). Nees von Esenb. Trans. Linn. Soc. 

17: 64. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 446. 1838. Wight, Illust. 

Ind. Bot. 2: 198. I860. Dunal in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 416. 1862. 

Miquel, Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 659. 1856. 
Capsicum cereolum Bertol. Hort. Bonon. PI. Nov. 1 : 6. t. 2. 1838. Fide 

Index Kewensis. 

Capsicum odoratum Steud. Nona. 1 : 279. 1840. Fide Index Kewensis. 
Capsicum Jlexuosum Sendt. in Martius, Fl. Bras. 10: 143. 1846. Dunal 

in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 413. 1862. 

Capsicum Abyssinicum A. Rich. Fl. Abyss. 2: 96. 1851. 
Capticum chlorocladum Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 416. 1862. Hemsley, 

Biol. Cent.-Am. 2: 423. 1881-82. 

Capsicum crispum Dunal in DC. Prodr. 13 1 : 416. 1862. 
Capsicum fructescena multilobatum Dunal, 1. c. 413. 
Capsicum Jlexuosum Perrottetii Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum crispum Piper rabiosum Dunal, 1. c. 416. 
Capsicum annuum frutescens Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Plant. 449. 1891. 
Capo-Malago. Rheede, Hort. Malab. 2: 109. t. 56. 1679. 
Capsicum sive Piper Indicum siliqua longa gracile Corallii coloris. 

Morison, Hist. PI. Oxon. 8: 529. 1699. 
Capsicum sive Piper Barbadiense Iructu Berberidis acerrimo. Morison, 

Hist. PI. Oxon. 8: 630. 1699. 
Spur- Pepper. Hughes, Hist. Barb. 213. 1750. Fide Maycock, Fl. Barb. 

104. 1830. 

Plants shrubby, perennial, 2^-6 ft. high. Branches 
angular, often channeled, puberulent, or pubescent, 
especially on the younger portions, usually greatly enlarged 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 99 

at the nodes, green, or sometimes purplish striate, slightly 
purple at the nodes. Leaves broadly ovate acuminate, 3-6 
in. long, 2-3^- in. wide, usually puffed or wrinkled, more 
or less pubescent especially along the veins. Petioles 
medium, usually subciliate. Peduncles slender, 1-2 in. 
long, often in pairs, usually longer than the fruit. Calyx 
usually cup-shaped embracing base of the fruit, teeth 
short. Corolla white or greenish-white, spreading f J 
in., often with ocherous markings in the throat. Fruit red, 
ovate, obtuse, or oblong acuminate, ^-1^- in. long, -J-^- in. 
diam. 

As the fruit of this species does not ripen freely except 
in tropical and subtropical latitudes it is not grown com- 
mercially in the north. However a number of cultivated 
varieties from Mexico and Brazil,* which evidently belong to 
this species, have been grown by Dr. Sturtevant at Geneva, 
New York, and by the writer at the Missouri Botanical 
Garden. By starting them early in the season with the aid 
of artificial heat most of the varieties produced some ripe 
fruit. The plants however did not attain the size and vigor 
which they reach in their native habitat. The fruit is 
often called " bird pepper." 

a a Fruit ovate or subround, usually seated on the calyx. 
C. frutescens baccatum (L.).f 

Capsicum baccatum Linn. Mant. 47. 1767. Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1: 
253. 1789. Linn. Syst. 226. 1784 [ed. 14 Murray]. Loureiro, Fl. 
Cochin 1 : 127. 1790; 1 : 157. 1793 [ed. Willd.]. Lam. Enc. Meth. 



* The following varieties sent from Mexico by Dr. Palmer are referred 
to this species: Chili de arvol, Chili pico de pijaro, Chili Piquin, Chili 
Unque, and Mirasol, together with the following sent from Brazil by 
Prof. O. A. Derby: Pimentas cemerim grandc, Pimentas dido de dama, 
Pimentas Malagueti, and Pimentas pitanga. 

| Supposed wild specimens examined from Bolivia (Bang, no. 1126, 
1891); Paraguay (Morong, no. 961, 1888-90); Mexico (Pringle, 1888) ; 
Texas (Pammel, 1888 ; Trelease, 1897). 

The following varieties sent from Brazil by Prof. Derby are referred 
to this group: Pimentas Mariana, and Pimentas Cumary, together with 
one from Mexico by Dr. Palmer, Chiltepin. 



100 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

2: 26. 1793 [no. 2393]. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 : 1050. 1797 [ed. Willd,]. 

Poiret, Enc. Meth. 6:325. 1804. Persoon, Syn. PI. 1:229. 

1805. Hornem. Hort. Hafn. 1:224. 1813. Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 

PI. 8: 48. 1818. Linn. Syst. 4: 564. 1819 [ed. Rom. et Schult.]. 

Link, Enum. PL Hort. Reg. Berol. 1 : 190. 1821. Fingerh. Monogr. 

18. t. 4.f. a. 1832. Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 447. 1838. Sendt. in 

Martins, Fl. Bras. 10:146. 1846. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 18 1 :420. 

1852. Miquel, Fl. Ned. Iiid. 2: 660. 1856. Grisebach, Fl. British 

W. Ind. 436. 1864. Hemsley, Biol. Cent. -Am. 2:423. 1881-2. 

Gray, Syn. Fl. 2 : 231. 1888. 

Capsicum pulchellum Salisb. Prodr. 134. 1796. Fide Index Kewensis. 
Capsicum microcarpum DC. Cat. Hort. Monsp. 86. 1813. Hooker, Niger 

Flora 162. 1849. Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 446. 1838. Linn. Sp. 

PL 4 : 566. 1819 [ed. Rom. et Schult.] . Sendt. in Martins, Fl. Bras. 

10:146. 1846. Dunal in DC. Prodr. 18 1 : 420. 1862. Fingerh. 

Monogr. 19. t. 4. f. b. 1832. 
Capsicum globiferum Meyer, Fl. Esseq. 113. 1818. Linn. Syst. 4: 808. 

1819 [ed. Rom. et Schult.]. Fingerh. Monogr. 19. 1832. Don, 

Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 446. 1838. Dunal in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 421. 1862. 
Capsicum micranthum Link, Enum. PL Hort. Reg. Berol. 1 : 190. 1821. 

Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4 : 447. 1838. 

Capsicum ciliare Link, Enum. PL Hort. Reg. Berol. 1: 190. 1821. 
Capsicum Cumanense Fingerh. Monogr. 17. 1832. Dunal in DC. 

Prodr. IS 1 : 417. 1862. 

Capsicum Willdenowii Don, Hist. Dich. PI. 4: 447. 1838. 
Capsicum villosum Sendt. in Martius, Fl. Bras. 10: 144. 1846. Dunal in 

DC. Prodr. 18 1 : 418. 1862. 

Capsicum villosum latifolium Sendt. 1. c. 146. Dunal, 1. c. 419. 
Capsicum villosum muticum Sendt. 1. c. Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum campylopodium Sendt. 1. c. 144. Dunal, 1. c. 416. 
Capsicum Schottianum leptophyllum. Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum mirabile (Mart.) Sendt. 1. c. Dunal, 1. c. 417. 
Capsicum mirabile grandiflorum Sendt. 1. c. Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum Schottianum Sendt. 1. c. Dunal, 1. c. 416. 
Capsicum Sabenti Sendt. 1. c. 145. Dunal, 1. c. 419. 
Capsicum parvifolium Sendt. 1. c. Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum parvifolium Sellowianum Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum hisptdum Dunal) 1. c. Hemsley, Biol. Cent.- Am, 2 : 423. 

1881-82 

Capsicum hispidum glabriuseulum Dunal, 1. c. 420. 
Capsicum glandulosum Dunal, 1. c. 417. 
Capsicum laurifolium Dunal, 1. c. 418. 
Capsicum salicifolium Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum gracilipe* Dunal, 1. c. 
Capsicum angustifolium Dunal, I.e. 420. 
Capsicum microphyllum Dunal, 1. c. 421. 

Capsicum annuum baccatum Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Plant. 449. 1891. 
Capsicum brevioribus siliquis. Lobel, PL Hist. 172. f. 1576. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 101 

Siliquastrum rotundum angustifolium. Bassaeus, Eicones 859. /. 1690. 

Tabern. Kreuterbuch i: 630. /. 1691; Volkom. Kreuterbuch 2: 659. 

/. 1613. 
Capsicum, Piper Indicum brevioribus siliquis. Lobel. Icoues Stirp. 817. 

1691. 
Capsicum Brasilianum. Garcias ab Horto, Aromatum 888. 1693. Clus. 

Exot. 340. /. 1605. Pancovius. Herb. /. 297. 1673. 
Capsicum minimis eiliquis. Gerarde, Herball 292. /. 2. 1697; 364. /. 

3. 1636. Dodon. Hist. Stirp. Antv. 705. 1583; 717. 1616. 
Piper Brasilianum. Greg. de. Reg. in Clus. Cur. Post. 104. 1611. 
Capsicum minus Brasilianum. Parkinson, Theat. Bot. 856-857. /. 1640. 
Quiya apua. Marcg. in Piso, De Med. Bras. 39. 1648. 
Piper siliquosum magnitudinis baccarum Asparagi. Bauhin, Hist. PL 2: 

944. /. 1651. 
Capsicum Brasilianum fructu rotundo. Munting, Waare Oeffen. PI. 

841. 1682. 
Capsicum minus fructu rotundo, erecto, parvo, acerrimo. Sloane, Cat. 

PI. Jam. 111. 1696. 
Capsicum sive Piper Brasilianum fructu erecto e rotundo oblongo 

minimo. Morison, Hist. PL Oxon. 3: 580. 1699. 

Capsicum minus rubrum. Humph. Herb.Amboin. 5 : 248. t. 88. f. 2. 1747. 
Capsicum; fructu parvo, rotundo, acerrimo. Miller, Gard. Diet. 1731 

[no. 16]. 

Plants 1-3 ft. high, under cultivation often 6 ft. 
Branches numerous, slender, fastigiate, flexuose, usually 
quite densely purple striate, scabrous, pubescent. Leaves 
ovate acuminate, rather abruptly narrowing into the 
petioles, solitary or in twos, more or less pubescent along 
the veins and sometimes on the surface. Petioles short, 
usually hairy, broadened at base. Peduncles solitary or in 
twos, extra axillary, vertical (giving a peculiar character 
to the plant), slender, 1-1^ in. long, smooth or on young 
specimens subhairy. Calyx short, cyathiform, subhairy, 
subciliate. Corolla small, spreading about -J- in., greenish 
white. Fruit ovate or subround, about -J- in. diam. Un- 
ripe fruit sometimes changing from green to blackish 
spotted, finally ripening into a red or yellow. 



102 MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 



The following garden varieties have not been sufficiently 
studied by me for satisfactory arrangement in the synop- 
sis: Yellow Gem, Williams' Cat. 1878. Tom Thumb, 
Batch elor, 1887. Boston Squash , Cheese, Golden Dwarf, 
Red Upright, Yellow Mango, Bailey, Annals of Horticul- 
ture 1889 : 125. Galveston Red, Weissfruchtiger Pfe'ffer, 
Haage & Schmidt, Cat. 1893. Black Fruited Chili, 
Scarlet Maddaloni, Benary, Cat. 1893-4. Columbus 
goldgelber Pfeffer, Columbus rother Pfeffer, 8irius 
, Violetter Pfeffer, Haage & Schmidt, Cat. 1897. 



The following species, apparently not in cultivation in 
Europe or the United States, and of which I have not 
seen authentic material, cannot be placed in the preceding 
synopsis because of the absence of certain essentials from 
such descriptions as I have seen. Those in italics are in- 
troduced into the synopsis as synonyms on the authority 
of the Index Kewensis. 

CAPSICUM CONOIDEUM Miller, Gard, Diet. 1768 [no. Led. 8]. 

CAPSICUM CHINENSE Jacq. Hort. Vindob. 3: 38. t. 67. 1776. 

Capsicum pulchellum Salisb. Prodr. 134. 1796.= C. frutescensbaccatum. 

CAPSICUM PUBESCENS Ruiz & Pav. 1. Per. 2 : 30. 1797. 

CAPSICUM CAERULESCENS Bess. Cat. Hort. Crem. 27. 1811. 

Capsicum Tournefortii Bess. 1. c.= C. annuum longum. 

Capsicum torulosum Hornera. Hort. Hafii. Suppl. 27. 1819.= C, an- 
nuum acuminatum. 

CAPSICUM AGGREGATUM Willd. Herb. Linn. Syst. 4: 809. 1819 [ed. 
Rom. et Schult.]. 

Capsicum Quitense Willd. Herb. Linn. Syst. 1. c. = C. annuum longum. 

CAPSICUM DICHOTOMUM Veil. Fl. Flum. Repr. in Rio de Jan. Arch. Mus. 
Nac. 5:60. 1881. 

CAPSICUM INAEQUALE Veil. 1. c. 59. 

Capsicum odoriferum Veil. 1. c. 60.= C. frutescens. 

Capsicum toxicarium Poppig. Fingerh. Monogr. 32. 1832. = C. frutes- 
cens. 

CAPSICUM USTULATUM Paxton, Mag. Bot. 5: 197. 1838. 

Capsicum cereolum Bertol. Hort.Bonon. PL Nov. 1: 6. t. 2. 1838. = C- 

frutescens. 
Capsicum odoratum Steud. Nom. 1: 279. 1840 [ed. 2]. = C. frutescens. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM . 103 

CAPSICUM BAUHINI Dunal in DC. Prodr: 13 1 : 428. 1852. 

CAPSICUM HORNEMANNI Dunal, I.e. 429. 

Capsicum pubesccns Dunal, 1. c. 421. = C. frutescens baccatum. 

Capsicum Narunca Dunal, 1. c. 414. = C. annuum longum. 

CAPSICUM MAXIMO wiczn Regel & Each, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 40. 

1858. 

CAPSICUM NEPALENSIS Drury, Useful PI. Ind. 112. 1868. 
CAPSICUM ANOMALUM Franch. & Sav. Enum. PI. Jap. 2: 452. 1879. 
CAPSICUM KACEMIGERME (?) Veitch, Traveler's Notes 178. 1896. 

The following species apparently does not belong to 
this genus: 

CAPSICUM TORULOSUM Veil. Fl. Flum. Repr. in Rio de Jan. Arch. Mus. 
Nac. 5:59. 1881. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES ILLUSTRATING CAPSICUM. 

All of the illustrations were drawn from nature or from 
original photographs by Miss Grace E. Johnson, under 
supervision of the author. Except where otherwise stated 
all figures are of natural size. 

PlateS. Details of flower and fruit. 1, flowers in different stages 
of expansion; 2, open flower bud X 8; 3, flower and opened corolla; 4, a 
stamen from back, front and side X 6> 6 one-celled cherry pepper, in 
cross section; 6, two, three, and four-celled forms of the larger peppers, 
in cross section. 

Plate 9. 1, Capsicum frutescens; 2, Coral Gem; 3, Orange-red Clus- 
ter; 4, Red Cluster. 

Plate 10. 1, Chilli; 2, Yellow Chilli; 8, two forms of Long Cayenne. 

Plate 11. 1, two forms of Nepal Chilli; 2, Ivory Tusk. 

Plate 12. 1, Yellow Cayenne; 2, Long Yellow. 

Plate 13. 1, Cardinal; 2, Elephant's Trunk. 

Plate 14. 1, County Fair; 2, Procopp's Giant: both reduced. 

Plate 15. 1, Procopp's Giant; 2, A slightly tapering form of Emperor. 

Plate 16. Monstrous. 

Plate 17. Sweet Spanish, natural size and reduced. 

Plate 18. Oblate forms of Bell. 

Plate 19. 1, Bell; 2, Sweet Mountain : both reduced. 

Plate 20. Sweet Mountain. 

Plate 21. 1, Ruby King; 2, Golden Dawn. 

Plate 22. 1, Golden King; 2, Golden Upright. 

Plate 23. Short form of Brazilian Upright with cross and longitudi- 
nal sections showing position of the seeds. 



104 



MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 



Plate 24. Squash, usual and less grooved forms. 
Plate 25. 1, Squash; 2, Celestial; 3, Kaleidoscope: all reduced. 
Plate 26. 1, Celestial; 2, Kaleidoscope. 

Plate 27. 1, Kaleidoscope; 2, Etna; 3, Red Wrinkled; 4, Little Gem. 

Plate 28. 1, Occasional form of Bed Wrinkled; 2, Cherry; 3, Yellow 

Cherry; 4, Cranberry, usual, conical, and elongated forms ; 5, Oxheart. 



i(nm[nni|ii 
i 



2 



[ii ii jni iijii 



3 



4 



FOUR INCHES, DIVIDED INTO TWELFTHS. 



REFT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 8. 




FLOWER AND FRUIT OF CAPSICUM. 



KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 




C. FRUTKSCENS AND 0. ANNUUM, VABS. 



KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 10. 




C. ANNUUM ACUMINATUM. 



KEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 11. 




C. ANNUUM ACUMINATUM AND LONGUM. 



KEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 12. 




C. ANNUUM ACUMINATUM AND LONGUM. 



KEPT. Mo. EOT. CARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 13. 




C. ANNUUM LONGUM. 



REFT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 14. 





C. ANNUUM LONGUM. 



EEPT. Mo. Box. GAUD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 15. 




C. ANNUUM LONGUM AND GROSSUM. 



KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 16. 




C. ANNUUM GROSSUM. 



KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 17. 




C. ANNUUM GROSSUM. 



KEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE is. 





C. ANNUUM GROSSUM. 



KEPT. Mo. BOT. GAKD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 19. 





C. ANNUUM GROSSUM. 



REFT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 20. 





0. ANNUUM GROSSUM. 



KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 9. 






C. ANNUUM GROSSUM. 



KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL 9. 



PLATE 22. 




C. ANNUUM GROSSUM. 



KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 23. 




0. ANNUUM GROSSUM. 



REPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 24. 




C. ANNUUM GROSSUM. 



KEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 25. 





0. ANNUUM GROSSUM AND ABBREVIATUM. 



KEPT. Mo. BOT. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 26. 




C. ANNUUM ABBREVIATUM. 



KEPT. Mo. Box. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 27. 




C. ANNUUM ABBREVIATUM AND CERASIFORME. 



EEPT. Mo. EOT. GARD., VOL. 9. 



PLATE 28. 




C. ANNUUM ABBREVIATUM AND CERASIFORME. 



INDEXES TO NAMES OF CAPSICUMS. 



POPULAR NAMES. 



(Synonyms in Parenthetic.) 



American bonnet pepper, (87). 

Bell, 84. 

Bell, Yellow, (85). 

Bird pepper, 59. 

Bird 1 s eye, (93). 

Black fruited Chill, 102. 

Black Nubian, 70. 

Black podded, (76). 

Blue podded, (76). 

Bonnet pepper, (87). 

Boston squash. 102. 

Brazilian sweet upright, New, (86). 

Brazilian upright, 86. 

Bull nose, (84). 

Capo-Malago, (98). 
Cardinal, 78. 
Cayenne, 67, (71). 
Cayenne of Commerce, (67). 
Cayenne, Long, (70) , 71 . 
Cayenne, Long yellow, 72. 
Celestial, 89. 
Cheese, (102). 
Cherry, 93. 

Cherry pepper, Bound or large, (93). 
Cherry pepper, Yellow fruited, (95). 
Cherry, Yellow, 95. 
Childs' Improved Celestial, (89). 
Chllenlscher scharfer Pfeffer, (70). 
Chill, (70). 
Chili de Arvol, 99. 
"Chili, Black fruited, 102. 
Chill Mirasol, 99. 
Chill plco de pijaro, 99. 
Chill Plquin, 99. 
Chili Unque, 99. 
Chilli, 70, (72). 
Chilli, Nepal, 73. 
Chilli, Yellow, 71. 
Chilli, Yellow Nepal, 73. 
Cluster, Japan, (69). 
Cluster, Red, 69. 
Cluster, Yellow, 69. 
Columbus goldgelber Pfeffer, 102. 



Columbus rother Pfeffer, 102. 

Coral, (77). 

Coral gem, 66. 

County Fair, 78. 

Cranberry, (93). 

Creole, (93). 

Crimson queen, (83). 

Dawn, Golden, 85. 

Dwarf, Golden, 102. 

Dwarf early red squash, New, (87). 

Early red squash, New dwarf, (87), 
Boklger dicker kurzer rother siisser 

Pfeffer, (85). 
Elephanten-RUssel, (80). 
Elephant's trunk, 80. 
Emperor, 83. 
Etna, 89. 

Fancy red wrinkled, Thorburn's, (91). 
French, Red, (98). 

Galveston red, 102. 

Gelber Trauben-Pf offer (69). 

Gem, Little, 93. 

Gem, Yellow, 102. 

Giant, Procopp's, 80. 

Giant emperor, (83). 

Golden dawn, 85. 

Golden dwarf, 102. 

Golden king, 85. 

Golden mango, (85). 

Golden queen, Mammoth, (85). 

Golden upright, 86. 

Golden upright sweet mango, (66). 

Grossum, (83). 

Imported celestial, Chllds', (89). 
Ivory Tusk, 80. 

Japan cluster, (69). 



Kaleidoscope, 90. 
King, Golden, 85. 



(105; 



10G 



MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 



King, Ruby, 85. 

Kirschformiger gelber Pfeffer, (95). 

Kirschformlger rother Pfeffer, (90- 

Langer gelber Pfeffer, (79). 

Langer rother, Pfeffer, (77). 

Large cherry pepper, (93). 

Large scarlet, New, (85). 

Large sweet Spanish, (84) . 

Liebesapfelfrtichtiger gelber Pfeffer, 

(88). 
Llebesapfelfriichtlger rother Pfeffer, 

(87). 

Little gem, 60, 93. 
Long Cayenne, (70), 71. 
Long red, 77. 
Long yellow, 79. 
Long yellow Cayenne, 72. 
Long yellow French, (79). 

Maddahml, Scarlet, 102. 
Mammoth, Orange, (85). 
Mammoth, Spanish, (84). 
Mammoth golden queen, (85). 
Mango, Golden, (85). 
Mango, Golden dawn, (85). 
Mango, Golden upright sweet, (86). 
Mango, Yellow, 102. 
Miniature Tom Thumb, (93). 
Monstrous, 83. 
Mountain, Sweet, 85. 

Negro pepper, (66). 

Nepal chilli, 73. 

Nepal chilli, Yellow, 73. 

New Brazilian sweet upright, (8(5). 

New dwarf early red squash, (87). 

New large scarlet, (85). 

New sweet Spanish, (84). 

Nocre, Yellow, (85, 86). 

Nubian, Black, 76. 

Orange mammoth, (85). 
Orange-red cluster, 67. 
Orangerother Trauben -Pfeffer, (67). 
Oxheart, 96. 
Oxheart, Yellow, 97. 

Pfeffer, Chilenischer scharfer, (70). 

Columbus, 102. 

eckiger dicker ktirzer rother slls- 

ser, (85). 

Elephanten-Riissel, (80). 

gelber Trauben-, (69). 

kirschformiger, (94,95). 

langer gelber, (79) . 

langer rother (77). 

HebesapfelfrUchtiger, (87, 88). 

orangerother Trauben-, (67). 

Procopp's rlesen, (80). 



Pfeffer, rother milder spanlscher, (84). 

rother Trauben-, (69). 

runzllger, (91). 

schwarzer nublscher, (76). 

sehr grosser milder monstroser,(83). 

Sirlus, 102. 

Trauben-, (67, 69). 

vloletter, 102. 

welssfrttchtiger, 102. 

Plment airelle rouge, (93). 

a bouquet rouge, (69). 

carr6 doux d'Amrique, (85). 

carrd Jaune hatif , (85). 

de Cayenne, (71). 

cerise, (94). 

cerise Jaune, (95). 

du Chill, (70). 

chlnols, (89). 

cloche, (84). 

doux d'Espagne, (84). 

gros carr donx, (84). 

Jaune, long, (79). 

mammoth jaune d'or, (85). 

monstrueux, (83). 

noir, (76). 

rouge, long, (77). 

tomato, (87). 

tomate jaune, (88). 

tomate naln hatif, (87). 

violet, (76). 

Pimentas cemerim grande, 99. 

Chiltepin, 99. 

Cnmary, 99. 

dido de dama, 99. 

Malagueti, 99. 

Mariana, 99. 

pltanga, 99. 

Prince, Red (84) . 
Prince of Wales, 60, 93. 
Princess of Wales, 91. 
Procopp's Giant, 80. 
Procopp's rlesen Pfeffer, (80). 
Purple, (76). 

Queen, Crimson, (83). 
Queen, Mammoth golden, (85). 
Quince pepper, (84). 
QuiyaApua, (101). 

Red, Galreston, 102. 

Red, Long, 77. 

Red cardinal, (78). 

Red chilli, (70). 

Red cluster, 69. 

Red Etna, (89). 

Red French, (93). 

Red prince, (84). 

Red squash, New dwarf early, (87). 

Red tomato, (87). 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 



107 



Red upright, 102. 

Red wrinkled, 91. 

Round cherry- pepper, (93). 

Rother milder apanlscher Pf offer, (84). 

Rother Trauben-Pf offer, (69). 

Ruby king, 85. 

Runzliger gelber Pfeffer, (91). 

Runzllger rother Pfeffer, (91) . 

Scarlet, New large, (85) 
Scarlet Maddalonl, 102. 
Schwarzer nubischer Pfeffer, (76). 
Sehr grosser milder monstrftser Pfeffer, 

(83). 

Sirius Pfeffer, 102. 
Sore throat, (76). 
Spanish, Sweet, 84. 
Spanish, Yellow, 84. 
Spanish mammoth, (84). 
Spanish monstrous, (83). 
Spur-pepper, (98). 
Squash, 87. 
Squash, Boston, 102. 
Squash, New dwarf early red, (87). 
Squash, Yellow, 88. 
Sweet golden dawn, (85) 
Sweet mango, Golden upright, (86). 
Sweet mountain, 85. 
Sweet Spanish, 84. 
Sweet upright, New Brazilian, (86). 

Tabasco, 69, 67. 
Tenjikumamori, (69). 
Thorburn's fancy red wrinkled, (91). 
Tom Thumb, 102. 



Tom Thumb, Miniature, (93). 
Tomato-shaped, (87). 
Tomato, Red, (87). 
Trauben- Pfeffer, (67,69). 
Trompe d' elephant, (80). 
Turbilo pepper, (82). 
Tusk, Ivory, 80. 

Upright, Brazilian, 86. 

Upright, Golden, 86. 

Upright, New Brazilian sweet, (86). 

Upright, Red, 102. 

Upright sweet mango, Golden, (86) . 

Vtoletter Pfeffer, 102. 

Welssfrttchtiger Pfeffer, 102. 
Williams' little gem, (93). 
Wrinkled, Red, 91. 
Wrinkled, Yellow, 91. 

Yellow, Long, 79. 

Yellow bell, (85). 

Yellow cherry, 95. 

Yellow chilli, 71. 

Yellow cluster, 69. 

Yellow fruited cherry pepper, (95). 

Yellow gem, 102. 

Yellow mango, 102. 

Yellow Nepal chilli, 73. 

Yellow nocre, (85,86). 

Yellow oxheart, 97. 

Yellow Spanish, 84. 

Yellow squash, 88. 

Yellow wrinkled, 91. 



SPECIES AND BOTANICAL VARIETIES. 



(Synonym* in Parcnthetia.) 



Abysslnicum, (98). 
aggregatum, 102. 
angnlosum, (81). 

conlcum, (81). 

macrocarpum, (81). 

ovale, (81). 

angustlfolium, (100). 
annuum,65, (73,94). 

abbreviatum, 88. 

acumlnatum, 69, (70). 

angulosum, (81). 

cerasiforme, 92. 

conoides, 65. 

cordiforme, (96). 

erectnm, (74). 

f aiclculatum, 68. 

frutescens,(98). 

grossum, 80, (81). 



annnum, longicarpum, (74). 

longum, 73, (74). 

ovoideum, (74). 

proboscideum, (80). 

rugosum, (81). 

rugulosum, (81). 

subangulosum, (74). 

tetragonnm, (87). 

anomalura, 103. 
Axi, (81). 

baccatum, (99). 
Bauhini, 103. 
blcolor, (76). 
purpureum, (77). 

oaerulescens, 102. 
oampylopodlum, (100). 



108 



MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 



cerasiflorum, (94). 

ceraslforme, (94). 

cerasiflorum, (94). 

luteum, (95). 

maurocarpum, (94). 

minus, (94). 

ceratocarpum, (80). 

cereolum, (98, 102). 

Chamaecerasus, (81). 

Chllense, (70). 

Chinense, 102. 

chlorocladum, (98). 

clllare, (100). 

Comarim, (9S). 

conicum, (70, 98). 

orientale, (70). 

oonoides, (65). 

chordale, (65). 

oblongo-conicum, (65). 

sulcatum, (65) . 

conoideum, 102. 
cordlforme, (96). 

ceraslcarpum, (98). 

globosum, (97). 

majus, (96). 

minus, (98). 

ollvaeforme, (96). 

subangulosum, (96). 

criepum, (98). 

Piper rabiosum, (98). 

Oumanense, (100). 
curvlpes, (73). 
cydonlaeforme, (87). 

dlchotomum, 102. 
dulce. (87). 

fasclculatum, (68). 
fastlglatum, (98). 
flexuosum, (98). 

Perrottetil, (98). 

frutescens, 61, 97. 

baccatum, (99). 

minus, (98). 

multllobatum, (98). 

glandnlosum, (100). 
globiferum, (100). 
graclllpes, (loo), 
grossum, (80). 

angulosum, (81). 

blfldum, (81). 

cerasiformls, (94) 

cordatum, (81). 

globosum, (81). 

lycopersicoldea, (87, 88). 

monstrosum, (83). 

ovatum, (81). 

- pomiferum, (81). 



Hamlltonll, (77). 
Havanense, (98). 
hispidum, (100). 

glabrlusculum, (100). 

Hornemannl, 103. 

inaequale, 102. 

laurifolium, (100). 
leucocarpum, (89). 
longnm, (71, 77). 

Cayennense, (71). 

ceratoides recurvum, (71). 

incrasatnm, (78). 

luteum, (72,79). 

rectum, (79). 

-vlolaceum, (77). 
luteum, (91). 

Maxlmowlczll, 103. 
micranthum, (100). 
microcarpum, (100) 
Mllleri, (94). 
minimum, (98). 

Narunca, (77, 103). 
Nepalensls, 103. 
nigrum, (76). 

odoratum, (98, 102). 
odorlferum, (98, 102). 
ollvaeforme, (92). 
ovatum, (92). 
oxycarpum, (92). 

parvlfollum, (100). 
pendulum, (73). 

majus, (73). 

minus, (73). 

tomentosum, (78). 

pomiferum, (81). 
pubegcens, 102, (103). 
pulchellum, (100, 102). 
purpureum, (76). 
pyramldale, (71). 

longicorne, (71). 

torulosum, (71). 

Qultense, (76, 102). 

Rabenli, (100). 
racemigerme, 103. 

sallcifollnm, (100). 
Sohottlanum leptophyllum 
sllvestre, (81). 
Slnense, (73). 
sphaericum, (94). 
strictum, (97). 

tetragonum, (87). 
tomatlforme, (87). 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS CAPSICUM. 



109 



torulosum, (71,102,103). 
Tournefortii, (74, 102). 
toxlcarlum, (98, 102). 

omblllcatum, (91). 

ustulatum, 102. 



villosum, (100). 

latifolium, (100). 

muticum, (100). 

violaceum, (76). 

Wllldenowii, (100). 



PRELINNEAN LATIN NAMES. 



Capsicon latum, 81. 

- nigrum, 74. 

- rubeum,74. 
Capsicum Actnari], 74. 

- Africanum, 82, 86. 

- Americanum, 78, 95. 
-- latifolium, 89. 
arbor escens, 95. 

- Barbadlense, 98. 

- bifurcata siliqua, 82. 

- Brasillanum, 75, 101. 

- brevioribus sillqmis, 100. 

- cor datum, 96. 

- erectum, 75. 
-- pyramldale, 90. 

- exlguum, 65. 

- fructu aouleato, 90. 
--- blfldo, 82. 
-- cordlformi, 97. 
-- flavescente, 79, 91. 



-- longo, 82. 
-- maxlmo, 82. 
-- minlmo, 66. 
-- oblongo, 75. 
-- ollvarlo, 92. 

- parvo, 101. 
-- rotundo, 88, 95. 
-- teretl, 82. 

- frutescens, 95. 

- Indicum fructu aouleato, 90. 

- longum, 82. 
-- maximum, 82. 

- > - minimum, 66. 

- - minus, 72. 

* - oblongum minus, 66. 
-- perenne, 92. 
-- Poml amor is forma, 88. 
-- propendentlbus slllquis, 95. 
-- slllqua bifurcata, 86. 
-- siliqua flava, 79, 93. 
-- slllqua longa, 82, 98. 
-- slliquls oblongls, 75. 

- elllqua rotunda, 95. 
-- sillquia surrectis, 75. 

- latifolium, 87, 88. 

- latls siliquis, 81. 

- latum, 81. 

- longloribus siliquia, 74. 



Capsicum majus, 75. 

mlnlmls sillquis, 101. 

minus Brasilianum, 101. 

flavum, 71. 

fructu parvo, 66. 

fructu rotundo, 101. 

rubrum, 101. 

oblongloribns slllquls, 74. 

oblonglus, 71. 

oblongnm, 75. 

Piper Indicum, 74, 101. 

See Piper. 

recurvls slllquls, 71. 

rotundlorlbus siliquls, 94. 

rotundum majus, 86. 

slllqua flava, 79. 

slllqnls flavis, 79. 

slllqua lata, 79, 82. 

sillquls latls, 96. 

siliqua latiore, 82. 

sillquis longls, 72,75, 77. 

sillquis oblongis, 74. 

siliqua Olivarla, 92. 

siliqua Olivae forma, 92. 

siliqua Propendente aurea, 79. 

siliqua propendente Ceraslforma, 95. 

sillqua propendente oblonga & cor- 
dlformi, 97. 

siliqua propendente rotunda & cor- 
dlformi, 96, 97. 

siliqnls recurvls, 72, 79. 

siliqua rotunda, 94. 

sillquis rotundls, 94. 

siliquis surrectis & oblongis, 66, 70, 

71, T5. 

siliquis surreotls Cerael forma, 95. 

siliquis surreotls rotundls, 95. 

surrectnm, 70. 

Piper Americanum vulgatlor, 74. 

Barbadiense, 98. 

Brasilianum, 101. 

Calecutlcum, 71. 

Capsicum, 82. 

cordatum, 96. 

erectum minus, 89. 

Indicum, 71, 74, 82, 96. 

aureum latum, 79. 

bifurcata eiliqua, 86. 



110 



MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN. 



Piper Indlcum cordatum, 96, 97. 

frnctu aouleato, 90. 

fructu dependence, 87. 

latifolium, 88. 

longiorlbus slllquls, 75. 

longnm maximum, 74. 

longum maximum ventre tu- 

mldo, 80. 

maximum, 88. 

maximum obtusum, 82. 

maximum rotundum, 86 

medium, 75. 

medium erectum, 70. 

minimum ereotum, 66. 

minus, 72. 

obi on gum, 66. 

orblculatum, 90. 

perenne aillqua Ollvae magni- 

tudlne, 92. 

Poml amoris forma, 88. 

propendentlbus sillquls, 75, 79, 

92, 94, 95, 96. 

rotundum aculeatum, 90. 

rotundum maximum, 88. 

sillqua blfurcata, 86. 

slllquls Oerasl forma, 95. 

eiliqua cordata, 96. 

sillqua flava, 79. 

slllqulB flavls, 79. 

slliqua flava ovall, 93. 

slliqua longa, 82, 98. 

slliquls oblongis, 75. 

slliqua rotunda, 95. 

slllqnis surrectis & oblongis, 65, 

70, 75, 86. 
slllquis surrectis Cerasl forma, 

94. 
siliquls surrectis rotundla, 86, 

94, 96. 
surrectis cornlculle, 70. 



Piper Indicum Tulgatlssimum, 75. 

longum, 72, 75, 79. 

oblongum crcctum, 89. 

exlguum erectum, 65. 

recurvls siliquls, 74. 

rotundum majus, 86, 95, 66. 

slllqua flava, 79, 91. 

cum sillqua lata, 82. 

cum slllqua ollvarla, 92. 

cum siliqua rotunda, 94. 

slllquosum, 72, 101. 

vnlgatlsslma, 75. 

Siliquaetrum cordatum, 96. 

latum, 81. 

varietas longnm, 71. 

majus, 74. 

minus, 74. 

oblonglus, 71. 

quartnm, 81. 

rotundum, 101. 

varletas rotundum, 94. 

tertium, 71. 

Solanum Capsicum, 72, 75, 95. 

medium, 75. 

mordens bifurcata sillqua, 82. 

fructu aureo lato,79. 

fructu erecto, 97. 

fructu flavescente, 91. 

fructu longo erecto, 70. 

fructu propendente, 78. 

fructu rotundo, 95. 

mall Aethloplcl, 87. 

minus erectum, 66. 

slliquis flavis, 79. 

siliquls oblongis, 72. 

urens fructu aculeato, 90. 

fructu cordato, 96. 

slliqua propendente, 72, 75, 92, 

95. 



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