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Full text of "Revolutionary characters of New Haven : the subject of addresses and papers delivered before the General David Humphreys branch, no. 1, Connecticut society, Sons of the American revolution; also list of men so far as they are known from the territory embraced in the town of New Haven, Connecticut, who served in the Continental army and militia and on Continental and state vessels and privateers, and those who rendered other patriotic services during the war of the revolution, and a record of known casualties [comp. by W. S. Wells]; together with the location of known graves in and about New Haven of patriots of 1775-1783. And catalogue of the officers and members of Gen. David Humphreys branch since its organization"

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 

CALIFORNIA 
SANTA CRUZ 



m<*- 









REVOLUTIONARY CHARACTERS 
OF NEW HAVEN 

THE SUBJECT OF 

ADDRESSES AND PAPERS 

DELIVERED BEFORE THE 

General David Humphreys Branch. No. i 



A limited edition has been published, and 
copies may be had for two dollars per volume, 
postage paid, by remitting that amount to 

SEYMOUR C. LOOMIS, 

Chairman Publication Committee, 
69 Church Street, 

New Haven, Conn. 



AND 



Catalogue of the Officers and Members of 

Gen. David Humphreys Branch 

Since its Organization 



NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

Published by the 
General David Humphreys Branch, No. i 

Connecticut Society 
Sons of the American Revolution 



REVOLUTIONARY CHARACTERS 
-. OF NEW HAVEN 

THE SUBJECT OF 

ADDRESSES AND PAPERS 

DELIVERED BEFORE THE 

General David Humphreys Branch, No. i 

Connecticut Society 
Sons of the American Revolution 

ALSO 

List of Men so far as they are Known from the Territory 
Embraced in the Town of New Haven, Connecticut, who 
Served in the Continental Army and Militia and on Continental 
and State Vessels and Privateers, and those who Rendered 
other Patriotic Services during the War of the Revolution, and 
a Record of Known Casualties; together with the Location 
of Known Graves in and about New Haven of Patriots of 



1775-1783 



AND 



Catalogue of the Officers and Members of 

Gen. David Humphreys Branch 

Since its Organization 



NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

Published by the 
General David Humphreys Branch, No. i 

Connecticut Society 
Sons of the American Revolution 



COPYRIGHT 1911 

BY THE 

GENERAL DAVID HUMPHREYS BRANCH, No. i 

OF THE CONNECTICUT SOCIETY 
SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



PRESS OF 

THE PRICE, LEE & ADKINS Co.. 
NEW HAVEN, CONN. 







INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

BY VOTE OF THE GENERAL DAVID HUMPHREYS BRANCH, 

NUMBER ONE, CONNECTICUT SOCIETY, SONS OF THE AMERICAN 
REVOLUTION, PASSED FEBRUARY FIRST, NINETEEN HUNDRED 

AND TEN, THIS VOLUME WAS AUTHORIZED. ARRANGED AND 

EDITED BY A SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION APPOINTED 
FOR THAT PURPOSE. 

SEYMOUR C. LOOMIS, Ex-Officio, 
GEORGE F. BURGESS, 
GEORGE H. FORD, 
EARNEST C. SIMPSON, 
WILLIAM S. WELLS. 

May, 1911. 



v 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

JAMES HILLHOUSE 7 

SERVICES IN HONOR OF EZRA STILES 17 

EZRA STILES 19 

THE DEFENSE OF NEW HAVEN 31 

DAVID WOOSTER 39 

COL. JOHN TRUMBULL, THE PATRIOT AND ARTIST 47 

NOAH WEBSTER 55 

GEN. DAVID HUMPHREYS 59 

THE EARLY CAREER OF BENEDICT ARNOLD 73 

BUNKER HILL DAY 91 

LIST OF MEN FROM NEW HAVEN KNOWN TO HAVE SERVED 

THE REVOLUTION CAUSE 97 

KNOWN CASUALTIES 112 

KNOWN PRISONERS 114 

LOCATION OF KNOWN GRAVES, IN AND ABOUT NEW HAVEN, 

OF SOLDIERS AND PATRIOTS 115 

LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE GEN. DAVID HUM- 
PHREYS BRANCH SINCE ITS ORGANIZATION 119 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAGE 

HON. JAMES HILLHOUSE 7 

EZRA STILES, LL.D 17 

NEW HAVEN GREEN IN THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 31 

SKETCH OF THE INVASION OF NEW HAVEN, JULY STH, 1779, 

DRAWN BY PRESIDENT STILES 33 

MAJOR-GEN. DAVID WOOSTER 39 

THE GEN; DAVID WOOSTER HOUSE 43 

COL. JOHN TRUMBULL 47 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, JULY 4TH, 1776 51 

THE NOAH WEBSTER HOUSE 55 

AUTOGRAPHIC LETTER OF GEN. WASHINGTON, INTRODUCING 

COL. HUMPHREYS TO BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, UNITED 

STATES MINISTER TO FRANCE, DATED JUNE 2, 1784.... 65 

THE BENEDICT ARNOLD HOUSE 73 

THE DEATH OF GENERAL WARREN AT THE BATTLE OF 

BUNKER HILL 91 




HON. JAMES HILLHOUSE. 



JAMES H1LLHOUSE 



BY GEORGE HARE FORD. 



Address delivered before the Gen. David Humphreys Branch, Connecticut Society. 
Sons of the American Revolution, 1902. 



James Hillhouse was descended from an ancient and 
noble family in the North of Ireland, near Londonderry, 
where their estates 250 years ago were large and important 
and various members of the family were distinguished 
by having received degrees from the famous University 
of Glasglow in Scotland. The Hillhouse name appears 
among the signatures of an address to William and Mary, 
and one of the family was Mayor of Londonderry. 

The original American Hillhouse, Reverend James, 
came to this country and settled in New Hampshire in 1719; 
afterwards at Montville (meaning Hillhouse) between New 
London and Norwich. Cotton Mather refers to him as, 
"The hopeful young minister lately arrived in America." 
His son, James Abraham, the foster father of the subject of 
our sketch, graduated from Yale in 1749, and became a dis- 
tinguished lawyer in New Haven. He built and resided 
in the large and stately old mansion, now known as Grove 
Hall. 

Having no children, and his brother William (the 
father of our James) having many sons, James was adopted 
by his Uncle, and at the age of seven was installed in the 
old big but childless home, corner of Whitney Avenue and 
Grove Street, where he resided the greater part of his life. 
He inherited his Uncle's or foster father's fortune and the 
Aunt's property. The combined real estate he thus acquired 
covers a large section beyond Grove Street towards Whit- 
neyville, including Prospect Hill, an extensive part of which 
is now owned by Yale University. 



8 James Hillhouse 

The father, William, was a striking character in the 
Connecticut Legislature, where he served during one hun- 
dred and six semi-annual sessions. The picturesque descrip- 
tion of the man as left by his grandson, James A. Hill- 
house, the poet (son of James), who resided in the Hill- 
house mansion in Sachem's Woods, is as follows : 

"Venerable image of the olden days, stupendous shoe buckles, 
long gold headed cane kept only for great occasions, conspicuous 
watch fob ; high and classical forehead, heavy eyebrows, lifted only 
long enough to express an opinion and then relapsing. As the oldest 
man on the Governor's Council, he sat at his right. At his leave tak- 
ing and retirement at 80 years there was not a dry eye among the 
Council Board. At this advanced age it was his custom to journey 
to and from Hartford on horseback; and he was Major of the second 
regiment of Cavalry. On Christmas Day it was his custom to roast 
an ox and distribute it to the needy. Applications were received with 
care and discretion, the individual representing then what our ' Board 
of Charities' on a more extended scale stands for to-day." 

Young James was in Hopkins Grammar School in 1771 
with Roger Sherman and David Wooster. He was promi- 
nent in advocating and encouraging a movement toward 
the formation of the city of New Haven which culminated 
in 1784. He was a student in Yale in 1773. President 
Dwight, father of the President Dwight of our day, then a 
tutor, saw in him the elements of his after greatness, took 
great interest in the stripling, and it is said that Hillhouse 
referred in after life with great emotion to President Dwight 
as his great benefactor. While in college his name appears 
with that of Nathan Hale as one of the actors in the 
Linonian Society plays. 

The uncle and foster father died in 1775. Anticipating 
the ambitions of his foster son and nephew, he forbade him 
to leave his studies and embrace the cause of the Continen- 
tal Army, which at that time was engaging the attention of 
many of the young men. They afterwards became famous 
in the contest following. 

Upon the records of the first meeting for the organiza- 
tion of the Second Company of Governor's Foot Guard in 
1774, as well as upon the application of the State Legisla- 



James Hillhouse 9 

ture for a charter, the following winter, appears the name of 
James Hillhouse. There was a division of opinion in those 
days, on the political situation, and when a few months 
later the news of the Lexington alarm reached New Haven, 
and this company, of which he was a member, under Bene- 
dict Arnold, applied for permission to march to Cambridge, 
the authorities opposed it and refused not only the applica- 
tion but ammunition. Arnold and his command, however, 
took the keys, secured the ammunition and marched to Lex- 
ington under the name of the New Haven Cadets. Not being 
permitted to use the charter name, three weeks afterward all 
but twenty returned to New Haven. Arnold remained, 
receiving an appointment to another command in the army. 

Hillhouse was entrusted by Governor Trumbull to pro- 
mote the enlistment of a Brigade in "A stirring appeal," 
"to all friends of American freemen, urging them to go 
forward without hire or reward and never lay down their 
arms until they have driven every invader from the land." 

The year 1779 found him the third commander of the 
Second Company of Governor's Foot Guard; and on the 
morning of the 5th of July when the British landed on our 
shore, summoning his own men and such volunteers as had 
presented themselves, including a body of students with 
President Daggett of Yale at their head, he marched his 
command across the causeway and meadows at the West 
River Bridge and attacked the advance guard of the Eng- 
lish Army. It was in this engagement that Adjutant Camp- 
bell was shot and killed, on Milford Hill, by a soldier 
named Johnson, in Hillhouse's command. 

The records, plans or map of that campaign show Hill- 
house and his band of 1 50 followers as resisting an army of 
1,500 men under Gen. Tyron, and in close contact with the 
enemy, delaying them for hours, and enabling the citizens of 
the town to remove and secrete much of their valuable 
property and prepare for further resistance. Gen. Garth 
with his forces having entered the city from the east side, 
Madame Hillhouse, who was known as an adherent of the 



io James Hillhouse 

King and Church of England, by extending hospitality to 
the British officers, preserved the Hillhouse home from 
destruction ; but when they discovered that her adopted son 
and nephew was leading the resistance on the other side of 
the town, the situation for her was most perilous. She ad- 
mitted the fact, however, but assured them that the house 
and property were hers and that she could not control the 
impetuosity and ardor of the young man. 

It may be interesting here to note that Aaron Burr on 
the 5th and 6th of July while visiting in New Haven, or- 
ganized and commanded, temporarily, a body of men that 
assisted in the resistance. 

The courageous act of Captain Hillhouse in leading the 
young men of New Haven in defence of their homes con- 
firmed their confidence in his ability and increased admira- 
tion of his character, and the following year he was elected 
to the State Legislature and re-elected until called to a seat 
in the Council of the Governor, and the next year there- 
after, at the age of 32, he was elected to the second Congress 
of the United States. 

He was re-elected to the third and fourth Congress; 
then chosen to complete the unexpired term of Oliver Ells- 
worth, who had resigned his seat in the Senate for the 
Chief-Justiceship of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and was returned to the Senate for the second, third 
and fourth time, making a continuous service of nearly 20 
years in Congress. Upon the election of Thomas Jefferson 
as President, he was chosen presiding officer of the 
Senate. 

In Congress he was called the "Sachem" from his 
strong Indian complexion and features, and his favorite 
toast was: "Let us bury the hatchet;" and he was jok- 
ingly accused of always having a hatchet concealed under 
his papers. From this title of "Sachem" was derived the 
name of Sachem Street and Sachem's Woods, which cross 
and finish that beautiful avenue, Hillhouse Avenue, the pride 
of our city, which is crowned with the dignified Hillhouse 



James Hillhouse n 

mansion (where the latter days of Hillhouse were 
spent), and at the foot of which stands our master 
piece of simple and refined art, The New Haven His- 
torical Society Edifice (the gift of Henry F. English), 
so appropriately set on the site of the old Robert Newman 
barn, where was held the first formal and official gather- 
ing of the members of the Davenport-Eaton colony, and 
where the "fundamental agreement" was discussed, 
adopted and signed in November, 1638. This avenue was 
laid out by Hillhouse in 1792, 105 feet wide through the 
Hillhouse farm ; afterwards it became as now lined on either 
side by the homes of wealth and learning of this collegiate 
city ; and with its majestic elms forming a tree arched aisle 
of world-wide fame. No one contributed more than James 
Hillhouse to making this the "City of Elms," and he 
originated that idea and devoted years of his life to bringing 
the small trees from off his farm between this city and Meri- 
den, and planting them in rows along our streets, setting 
out many of the trees with his own hands, assisted by a boy 
who held the trees, or drove the stakes, while Hillhouse 
shoveled in the dirt. That boy afterwards lent additional 
lustre to the name of Yale College and the "City of Elms" : 
he became Yale's President, Jeremiah Day ! 

Hillhouse's first efforts in this direction, it is said, were 
directed to Temple Street, and when Senator Wade Hamp- 
ton of South Carolina visited New Haven, he arrived before 
he was anticipated, and found Senator Hillhouse working 
the road with well trained oxen. Hampton was much 
interested in the work that was in process and spoke to the 
negro Tom, who was driving the oxen, remarking: "See, 
Tom, how those oxen work ! They know more than you do." 
"Oh, Mas'r," said the negro in reply, "Dem oxen has had a 
Yankee bringin' up." 

His endeavors in planting the trees were discouraged by 
his neighbors and ridiculed, as philanthropic efforts of good 
citizens frequently are, and frequently have been, one man 
remarking to him: "Hillhouse, you will never live long 



12 James Hillhouse 

enough to see those trees amount to anything." His reply 
was : "If I don't someone else will." This was characteristic 
of his whole life: "He lived for others." 

He had a voice in getting names to the new streets laid 
out after the defining of the original nine squares. It was 
always a regret with him that he did not insist in carrying 
the streets running east straight through to Mill River. 

Through his efforts and under his direction and that of 
his associate, Pierpont Edwards, the public square, or 
New Haven Green was leveled and enclosed with a fence at 
a cost of $2,000.00, which was paid for by private subscrip- 
tion and without expense to the City; and the fence, 
although of wood, remained for the first half of the nine- 
teenth century, and then was sold to the town of Milford to 
be utilized around their square. The present fence was 
erected in 1846. 

The inviting and encouraging of strangers to locate at 
New Haven was not overlooked; this endeavor corre- 
sponded to the work now undertaken by the Committee on 
New Enterprises of the New Haven Chamber of Com- 
merce, though the work to-day is much wider in its 
scope. As far back as 1784, immediately after the charter 
of the City was secured, at a City Meeting held in the 
Statehouse, Hillhouse was appointed chairman of a com- 
mittee on Hospitality, "To welcome and assist all strangers 
coming to reside in New Haven, and cultivate their ac- 
quaintance, so that their residence may be rendered as agree- 
able and eligible as possible." A few years later he advo- 
cated the removal of graves from the back of Center 
Church, and the purchase of the tract on Grove Street for a 
cemetery, "To be laid out in family lots with larger and 
better arrangement for the accommodation of families ; and 
by its retired situation calculated to impress the mind with 
the solemnity becoming the repository of the dead." Pre- 
vious to this time it had been the custom to bury the dead in 
the rear of the church or the churchyard. Mainly through 
his efforts he interested thirty others and purchased the plot 



James Hillhouse 13 

on Grove Street and established the Grove Street Cemetery, 
the wisdom and judgment of which work is recognized and 
appreciated by a grateful community today. This is said to 
have been, the first public cemetery in the world laid out in 
family lots, the Pere LaChaise in Paris which was among 
the first of European cemeteries of this character not being 
opened until 1804, or eight years later. At that time, the 
new departure was an exceedingly unpopular measure and 
it was used against him as a weapon in political campaigns 
for twenty years afterward. 

About 1815, the New Haven Register took the lead in 
appealing to the people for a Constitutional Convention. In 
the summer of 1818 the last vigorous effort was made and 
the Federal candidate opposing the Register candidate was 
James Hillhouse. The fierceness of the opposition may be 
discerned in a paragraph copied from one of the papers 
issued during the Campaign in which he is referred to as 
"A most desperate and ferocious prosecutor of the most 
desperate and ferocious deeds. God forbid that the 
destroyers of the sepulchres of our fathers should ever 
receive the suffrage of our sons." How history repeats its- 
self, for the strongest advocate for a Constitutional Con- 
vention the past few years has been the New Haven 
Register! And again after a period of over eighty years 
its representative is sent to a Constitutional Convention. 
Yet, we can congratulate ourselves that in the twentieth 
century the choice of Colonel Osborn was practically a 
unanimous one, and exempt from the usual unfortunate 
strife that attends the election for a public office. 

Hillhouse's thought and foresight are explained in the 
following quotation from a speech of his while in Congress. 
He said: 

" The office of President is the only one in our government clothed 
with such powers as might endanger liberty, and I am not without 
apprehension, that at some future period they may be exerted to over- 
throw the liberties of our country." 



14 James Hillhouse 

He thus describes an election going on at that time : 

" In whatever direction we turn our eyes, we behold the people 
arranging themselves for the purpose of commencing the electioneering 
campaign for the next President and Vice President. All the passions 
and feelings of the human heart are brought into the most active 
operation. The electioneering spirit finds its way to every fireside, 
pervades our domestic circles, and threatens to destroy the enjoyment 
of social harmony. The candidates may have no agency in the busi- 
ness. They may be the involuntary objects of such competition with- 
out directing or controlling the storm. The fault is in the mode of 
election, in settling people to choose a King. The evil is increasing 
and will increase until it shall terminate in Civil War and despotism." 

This declaration naturally excited much comment. But 
how pertinent the prophecy as we, who enter the twentieth 
century find on reviewing his predictions and how far they 
have been realized. 

Hillhouse was called upon by his fellow citizens upon 
all occasions of ceremony for some form of public service. 
He delivered an oration in honor of General Lafayette at a 
Memorial service held in 1834. As early as 1782, he was 
elected Treasurer of Yale College. The college at that 
time being in need of funds, his diplomacy was demon- 
strated in his suggesting that the Governor and Lieuten- 
ant Governor of the State be made members of the Corpora- 
tion of the college ; and an appropriation of $40,000.00 was 
secured from the State and expended under his direction, 
from time to time, for new and much needed buildings. He 
continued in this office, uninterrupted, for 50 years, until 
his death in 1832, which long service in itself was a most 
remarkable record in the history of any one man or any one 
college. 

The original grant of Northern Ohio to the State of 
Connecticut known as the Connecticut Reserve, including 
the land on which the City of Cleveland now stands, 
amounting in all to 3,300,000 acres, had been sold to a com- 
pany of capitalists by the State, the proceeds from the in- 
terest derived to be applied to the support of the public 
schools, the fund being known as the first School Fund. In 



James Hillhouse 15 

1809 the Fund seemed in danger of being lost entirely to the 
State. The Legislature of that year abolished the Board of 
Managers, and turned to Hillhouse as the only man who 
could solve the difficulty, creating for him the office of 
School Fund Commissioner. To accept this office he re- 
signed from the United States Senate and devoted fifteen 
years of his life to this work, and without litigation or ex- 
penses for counsel he restored the Fund to safety, increas- 
ing its value from $1,000,000 to $1,700,000. To accom- 
plish this, it is said that he sometimes travelled 50 to 
75 miles per day in a sulky or on horseback with his famous 
horse "Young Jim." Once followed by two ruffians at 
night with $20,000.00 in his possession, he went at full 
speed for 30 miles, saving the amount, but permanent 
injury resulted to his faithful horse. Every boy and girl in 
Connecticut who enjoys the advantages of public school 
education is indebted to James Hillhouse for saving and 
preserving the School Fund. Livermore in his Republic of 
New Haven speaks of him as the foremost citizen of his 
day. 

His pastor, Rev. Doctor Bacon, describes him, as "Tall, 
long limbed, light in motion and light in step; firm, he 
seems like some Indian chief of poetry or romance, as 
Massasoit or King Philip of our early history, as fancy pic- 
tures them." Dr. Bacon refers to him as the indefatigable 
nursing father of the school fund of Connecticut and 
throughout a long and eventful life, a beautiful example of 
the public spirited citizen." In all his 50 years of participa- 
tion in public affairs, there was scarcely an effort made for 
local improvement in which he was not a leader of the 
movement. 

Hillhouse was a man untiring in his labors, hopeful 
under all difficulties, unmoved by the temptations that sur- 
round a public life; firm, intelligent, thoughtful, sweet and 
kindly, he proved courageous and patient, full of good, wise 
and noble impulses. Captain James Hillhouse was a man 
the like of whom does not appear in every generation. 



1 6 James Hillhouse 

His zeal and energy were expended in efforts to benefit 
his time, and that to follow. Always disinterested and free 
from personal motives he seemed to have no thought of 
personal glory, financial or political. His unceasing ex- 
ertion for his town, his city and his country were the result 
of labors that knew no weariness. 

"But in those hours when others rest, 
Kept public cares upon his breast." 

In December, 1832, while engaged in reading his college 
correspondence he arose and went to his bedroom, lying 
down quietly on his bed ; shortly afterwards his son having 
occasion to speak to him went to his room, but the old man 
was asleep : quietly and gently the Angel of Death had 
touched this honored old man, who from early youth to old 
age had been an active laborer in every concerted effort to 
advance New Haven to its present proud position. It was 
truly said at his funeral "He aimed at the public good, and 
lived for his country." 

The virtues of our forefathers do not belong entirely to 
the ages of the past, but they are ours by inheritance; and 
while the stage coach and the flint-lock are superseded and 
any attempt to reinstall them would be like efforts to call 
back the candlelight and the spinning wheel, charming but 
not practical, yet the patriotism and unselfishness of these 
notable men of former days can be admired and appreciated 
as well in this century as two centuries ago. Therefore, do 
we not honor ourselves as Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion in recalling their deeds and perpetuating the memories 
of such a soldier and such a patriot of local and national 
fame as James Hillhouse. 




EZRA STILES, LL.D. 

President of Yale College 1778-1 795- 



SERVICES IN HONOR OF EZRA STILES 

AT THE 

GROVE STREET CEMETERY 

IN NEW HAVEN 

Introducing the speaker, Hon. Simeon E. Baldwin, Chief Justice of Connecti- 
cut, upon the occasion of the exercises held at the grave of Ezra Stiles, on June 14. 
1908, Seymour C. Loomis, President of the Branch, made the following remarks on 
Ezra Stiles, the Patriot. 

Not all who served the Revolutionary cause carried 
a musket or a sword. Among the patriots were those, 
who by their example, writings, public speeches and their 
counsel, nobly and effectively promoted and served their 
country's welfare. One of the few, who were elected hon- 
orary members of the Society of the Cincinnati, when 
that organization was first formed, was Ezra Stiles. He 
was born at North Haven in 1727, and descended from 
the Stileses of Windsor. He was the President of Yale 
College during the principal part of the Revolutionary 
war, having been chosen in 1777, inaugurated in 1778, 
and continued in office until his death in 1795. The col- 
lege, though relatively of equal influence as at present, 
consisted then of only one hundred and thirty-two under- 
graduates, and its faculty beside the president, of a pro- 
fessor of divinity, Naphtali Daggett, a professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy and three tutors. 

President Stiles was in office at the time New Haven 
was invaded by Try on in 1779, and assisted much by his 
counsel and exhortations in its defense. He was of deli- 
cate health and unable to withstand much physical hard- 
ship, but his heart and his mind were true to his country. 
He was the friend and adviser of Gov. Trumbull. He 
had studied for the law, which he practiced for about 
two years; then entered the ministry and was settled at 
Newport in Rhode Island. He refused to be considered 



1 8 Services in Honor of Ezra Stiles 

a candidate for the presidency of Yale College when the 
subject was mentioned to him at the time President 
Daggett was elected in 1766, though he was induced to 
accept it eleven years later. 

He was educated in science, and was one of the first 
to conduct, when a tutor, a series of electrical experiments 
with a machine, which had been given to Yale by Dr. 
Franklin. During his whole life he exemplified by his 
teaching and example a tolerance in religion and politics 
which was rare for that period. One of his closest friends 
was a Jewish rabbi. Stiles was, however, well grounded 
in his own beliefs. He was opposed to the custom, which 
prevailed before the Revolution among the ministers of 
the Church of England, of preaching a sermon on each 
thirtieth of January in commemoration of the martyrdom 
(as they then called it) of King Charles I. He objected 
strongly to such an observance in this country and claimed 
that it should rather be celebrated as an anniversary of 
joy and thankfulness that a tyrant had been made to 
yield to the * 'sovereignty of the people." He wrote a 
biography of the exiled Judges Whalley, Goffe and Dix- 
well, which did much to excite the people of New Eng- 
land to revolt from the British Rule. His diary kept 
during that critical period is of priceless value to the his- 
torian. But of all his achievements the greatest was that 
he put Yale College on the solid foundation, and what 
has now become the traditional principle of the university, 
of conducting its affairs in harmony with the people of 
the state and of training men for the public service. 



EZRA STILES 



BY SIMEON E. BALDWIN, LL.D. 

Address delivered in the old cemetery in New Haven before the Gen. David 
Humphreys Branch of the Sons of the American Revolution, June i4th, 1908. 



There are three classes of men, whose memory we would 
honor to-day: Those who fought in the Revolution the 
largest class; those who conducted the civil affairs of the 
country during the Revolution, a much smaller class; 
those who prepared the way for the Revolution, and made 
possible its success. To this last class the smallest of all 
the prophets of Independence, belonged Ezra Stiles, of 
whom I have been asked to speak to you this afternoon. 

A minister of religion, the son of a minister, and the 
grandson of a minister, his profession was one of peace. 
But he was not one of those to whom peace at any price 
seems worth the having. There are things in this world, 
rights to be won, duties to be fulfilled, where the motto 
must be, Peaceably if we can, forcibly if we must. 

Thirty years before the Declaration of Independence, 
when graduating from Yale, he defended in debate the 
proposition that divine law gives no hereditary title to a 
King. 

In 1760, when settled as a minister in Newport, he 
delivered a sermon there, on a day of public thanksgiving 
for the surrender of Montreal to the British, which com- 
pleted the conquest of Canada. How, he asked, did Ameri- 
can political institutions compare with those of Europe? 
We were planting an empire of better laws and religion 
and, he added: 

"It is probable that in time there will be formed a provincial con- 
federacy and a common council standing on full provincial suffrage ; 
and this may in time terminate in an imperial diet, where the imperial 
dominion will subsist, as it ought, in election." 



20 Ezra Stiles 

The time of which he spoke was soon to come. On 
August 1 4th, 1765, came the uprising at Boston against the 
Stamp Act. For many years afterwards the anniversary of 
the event was celebrated. There were annual gatherings to 
commemorate it, as he notes in his diary, at the Liberty 
Tree in Dorchester. But a greater anniversary was to take 
its place ; that of the solemn uprising of all the thirteen col- 
onies, to declare their full independence of the British 
crown. 

I have mentioned his diary. This exists in manuscript 
in the library of Yale University, and the larger part of it 
was printed a few years ago in its series of Bicentennial 
publications. It covers a long period of years, and shows 
from the beginning to the end the spirit of the ardent patriot, 
the cultivated scholar, and the keen observer of all that 
makes the history of the time. 

He was for a long time pastor of a church in Newport, 
and on coming there found that a memorial day was cele- 
brated in one of the other churches, of a very different 
character from that of the Boston affair of 1765. 

The thirtieth of January had always been observed in the 
Episcopal church at that place, as the anniversary of the 
death of Charles I. In 1770 the service was omitted, and 
Stiles says in his diary, that if the day were to be observed, 
it ought to be, not in sorrow for a martyred King, but as a 
Thanksgiving that one nation on earth had so much forti- 
tude and public justice as to make a royal tyrant bow to the 
sovereignty of the people, and sentence him to a well 
merited punishment. 

In the same spirit, he copies in his diary (I, 649) the 
epitaph on the cannon marking the grave of John Brad- 
shaw, President of the Court of Regicides : 

" Stranger 
Ere thou pass, contemplate this Canon, 

Not regardless be told 
That near its Base lies deposited the Dust of 

JOHN BRADSHAW, 
Who nobly superior to all selfish Regards 



Ezra Stiles 21 

Despising alike the pageantry of Court Splendor, 

The Blast of Calumny & the Terrors of royal Vengeance, 

Presided in the illustrious Band of Heroes and Patriots 

Who fairly and openly adjudged 

CHARLES STEWART, 

Tyrant of England, 
To a public and exemplary Death : 
Thereby presenting to the amazed World, 
And transmitting down thro' applauding ages 

The most glorious Example 
of unshaken Virtue, Love of Freedom and 

Impartial Justice; 

Ever exhibited on the blood-stained Theatre 
of human action. 

O Reader 
Pass not till thou hast blessed his Memory 

And never never forget 
THAT REBELLION TO TYRANNY 
[S OBEDIENCE TO GOD. " 

In March, 1770, Newport set up a Liberty Tree, to 
mark the anniversary of the repeal of the Stamp Act 
(March 18, 1766). 

In 1772, Dr. Stiles wrote to a friend in England, that 
the system of that country as to colony administration was 
leading directly to the establishment of a glorious empire 
here; and in 1774, in a similar letter, declared that no man 
in America believed that our increasing millions would 
always submit to despotism. Revolution might come and 
if it did its success was "indubitable." 

All his ministerial brethren were by no means of his 
opinion. 

June 30, 1774, was made by the Rhode Island Assembly 
a day of Public Fasting and Prayer, on account of the 
closing of the port of Boston by the British ministry. The 
shops of Newport were shut and Dr. Stiles preached a ser- 
mon appropriate to the day ; but in a neighboring church, he 
says in his diary, the clergyman took for his text "Fast not 
as the hypocrites do," and preached a "High Tory sermon 
against Boston and New England, as a turbulent, ungov- 
erned people." 

In the following September, when Gen. Gage seized the 



22 Ezra Stiles 

powder in the Charlestown arsenal, 30,000 men, says his 
diary, started for Boston from different parts of New Eng- 
land. This shows, he adds, that New Englanders "are 
ready to fight for their Liberties." 

He was confident of success. Great Britain, he thought, 
could not stand up against a commercial war with us. Her 
whole foreign commerce was then but five million pounds 
a year, of which over three million was with her American 
colonies. 

Of the Continental Congress of 1774, he wrote that it 
was a "regular, legal, patriotic body wherein two millions 
were as justly and truly represented, as ever any body of 
mankind were before. It held up a light to the world to 
shew to all enslaved empires how they may put their lives 
in their hands and rise to liberty." 

The battle of Lexington soon came. The news, he 
writes, reached New Haven on Friday night "and on Lord's 
day morning the company of cadets marched from New 
Haven via Hartford for Boston." * 

In July, 1775, he writes: 

" From this time I consider the Twelve United Colonies of America 
as having now taken the form of a republic. The old forms of pro- 
vincial Govt's may subsist a little longer, but their efficacy will diminish, 
while the Continental Congress will grow in authority & rise into su- 
preme dominion." 

In July, 1778, Dr. Stiles was made President of Yale, 
and one of his first acts was to lecture to all the students on 
the nature of the government of the eleven United States 
which had then adopted constitutions for themselves, 
whether before or since "the glorious Act of Independency." 

On July 5, 1779, when the British invaded New Haven t 
Dr. Stiles sent his son Ezra with the College company of 
students to defend the approaches to the city, while he him- 
self rode from one military post to another, uttering, we 

* It may not be generally known that half of the building in which Captain Benedict 
Arnold, who led the party, kept his drug store is still standing. It is on George street, 
in the rear of the Wood block. 

t A sketch drawn by Pres. Stiles showing the forces of the invaders, their 
places of landing and lines of march is reproduced opposite page 33 of this volume. 



Ezra Stiles 23 

may be sure, words of patriotic encouragement and sym- 
pathy. 

On July 4, 1780, Dr. Stiles, with the other clergy of the 
town, made part of a company "of Patriots" who dined to- 
gether at the "Coffee House" in this city. His diary has 
this brief description of it : "After dinner thirteen patriotic 
toasts were given. * * * At the third, the ministers 
retired." 

The Fourth of July was celebrated then at New Haven 
with less noise, and more solemnity than now. The diary 
gives this account of the day in 1787. 

"4. Anniversary of Independence celebrated in New Haven. 
Between XI & XII a Procession was formed from the Court House 
(by Desire of the Committee for Celebration) by the Scholars preceded 
by the two City Sheriffs, then the Citizens, Common Council-Men, 
Aldermen (Mayor* abs. at Philad a . Convention) & the Clergy viz. 
Mess" Whittr, Street, Wales, Edw ds , Holmes, Austin & myself. Be- 
ing seated in the Meetinghouse, I being desired by the Committee 
presided, gave XVIII th Ps. Watts: then I made a Prayer of Thanks- 
giv& 20; then sang Ps. 73. Then havs been previously desired to 
do so covered my head with my Hat,f and called up the Orator viz. 
David Daggett Esq.J who made an excellent Anniversary Oration of 
fourty Minutes. Closed with an Anthem. Dined with about 100 
Gent, in the State House. " 

In 1788 the entry was as follows : 

" 4. Anniversary celebrated in New Haven. A Procession formed 
at the Long Wharf of a Commixture of all Descriptions, accords to 
the Idea conceived at Boston at their Rejoycing last Winter. A Sower 
headed the Procession succeded by 3 pair of Oxen & one holds a Plow ; 
then Reapers, Rakers, Shoemakers, Sadlers, Cabinet Makers, Black- 
smiths, Goldsmiths &c. then a Whale Boat manned & rows a federal 
ship, Cap* & Sailors, Citizens, Merch* 8 , Scholars of the several Schools, 
Masters, Tutors of the College, 7 Ministers, City Sheriffs, High Sheriff, 
Common Council Men, Aldermen, Mayor Mr. Sherman, the Committee 
of the Day & Orator. The Procession moved at Eleven o'clock & 
march thro' State street up as high as Elm street, thro' that to College 
street then round thro' Chapel street, by the College into the Green - 

* Roger Sherman, who was then in attendance at the Convention which was framing 
the Constitution of the United States. 

tThe academic custom for a College President when performing some solemn act 
at a public function. 

J Afterwards Chief Justice of Connecticut, and U. S. Senator. 

111, 269. 



24 Ezra Stiles 

the Head reached round the Green to the Brick Meetinghouse Door 
when the other End was at the College, or a Length of about an hun- 
dred or 120 Rods. The whole March was near one Mile & three Quar- 
ters. Entered the Meet&h. at Noon or XI. 59. 
Exercises, 

XI h 59. A.M. Entered Anthem singing. 

XII. 2. Salute by discharge of XIII Canon in a Park around 

Liberty Pole, the Federal Flag flying. 
XII. 9. Declaration of Independ. 1776. Read by Mr. Meigs. 

20. Hymn 67 th Watts sung. 
XII. 26. to XII. 54. Prayer by Dr. Wales. 

55. Singing 21 Psalm. 
i. 6. to 1.39. Oration by Mr. Baldwin.* 

Contribution for the poor. 

1.47. Federal Hymn composed by Tutor Bidwell. 
1.56. Blessing by myself. Thus the exercises continued about 
two hours in the Meetshouse. 

We then broke up & went to the State House, where about 150 
Gentlemen dined together & drank 13 Toasts under the Discharge of 
Canon. At the fourth Toast which was Gen. Washington, the Min- 
isters retired and smoked a pipe in the Council Chamber. Reverend 
Mess" Dana, Street, Trumbull, Edw d8 , Wales, Austin, & myself were 
present. Afterw ds the Ministers walked & drank Tea at my House, "f 

It is hard for us to appreciate at this distance of time 
the horrors which attached to the war of the Revolution, on 
account of the participation of the Indians in the invasions 
of the British forces. His diary J notes that in January, 
1782, soon after the successful expedition of our troops 
against the Six Nations, in which many packs of peltry 
were captured, there were found among them eight of human 
scalps. They were the fruit of the preceding three years of 
Indian ravages on the frontiers of New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, and had been made up, says 
Stiles, to send to the Governor of Quebec, to be forwarded 
thence to London. One pack contained two hundred and 
eleven scalps of girls ; another one hundred and ninety-three 
scalps of boys; another one hundred and two of men, 
eighteen of whom had been burned alive. 

*Simeon Baldwin, afterward a judge of the Supreme Court of Errors, and Mayor of 
New Haven. 

tin, 3. 
tin, 56. 



Ezra Stiles 25 

In 1783, Dr. Stiles delivered the election sermon at 
Hartford. This, you recollect, was an annual affair. The 
General Assembly always attended, and it was followed by 
a public dinner, at the expense of the State. Dr. Stiles took 
for his subject the Treaty of Peace with its acknowledg- 
ment of our independence and sovereignty, and painted in 
strong colors a great future for the United States. The dis- 
course awakened wide attention both here and in England, 
and a sumptuous edition was soon published in London. 
The title is significant of the author's thought : "The United 
States elevated to Glory and Power." 

The Indian trading-post known as St. Louis, founded 
by the French in 1764, though on Spanish territory, con- 
tinued for many years to be practically under French con- 
trol. Spain, in 1789, endeavored to vindicate her title and 
strengthen her hold upon Western America by inviting 
accessions from the United States. Dr. Stiles, with his 
customary largeness of view, comments upon these facts 
thus, in his diary for August 27, 1789: 

"The King of Spain has this year begun a City on the West side of 
Mississippi, at the Mouth of Missouri. And published a Proclam* to 
invite Settlers from the English in the United States, with great Immu- 
nities & Privileges allows free Lib? of Conscience in Religion gives 
400 Acres to a Family & Cow & farm Utensils & ten years freedom from 
Taxes, i. This will make a large Draught of Settlers from Kentucky 
&c. 2. They will seed the Territy W. of Mississippi with English 
Blood even to future increase Millions. 3. Extend the English Lan- 
guage over all n. America. 4. Tho' at present under Spanish Gov* & 
may continue so an age or two, yet upon the first Quarrel between 
Spain & us they will either come to us, or erect themselves into an inde- 
pend. Republic. 5. They will be the means of introducing more liberal 
ideas among the Mexican Span ds & this Communic a will shew them 
the Way to free themselves from the Tyranny of European Masters, & 
bring on a Revolution in Spanish America. 6. This Precedent will 
make way for the Protestant Religion in Mexico & old Spain. 7. Open 
the Navig* of Mississippi to us."* 

Most of these forecasts have been fulfilled. There was 
a rush of immigration from our Southwestern territory. 
*in, 364. 



26 Ezra Stiles 

The change of title soon to come from Spain to France could 
not check the seeding of the Mississippi valley with English 
blood. It came into the United States. The navigation of 
the Mississippi became free. Revolutions in Spanish Amer- 
ica followed, and now all America is under republican gov- 
ernment, either in name or fact. 

These opinions were not shared by many of his contem- 
poraries, and among those of them who took a narrower 
view I may include one no less eminent than the Revolution- 
ary hero, under whose name you are associated. In his ora- 
tion before the Society of Cincinnati in 1804, General Hum- 
phreys, in alluding to our purchase of the Louisiana terri- 
tory, remarked that it was "the first national act towards an 
unnecessary enlargement of empire," and that the Mississ- 
ippi river was a boundary which appeared to have been 
designed by nature as our Westward barrier. 

Dr. Stiles watched the progress of the French Revolu- 
tion with the greatest interest. There, on a wider field than 
here, the drama of Revolution was to be exhibited. In 
August, 1791, he notes in his diary the news, just received, 
of the arrest and return to Paris of the royal family, on 
June 21, and observes of it: 

"A grand & important Event, w c will either involve a Civil War, 
or more firmly establsh the Supremacy & Authory of the National 
Assembly. It will do the latter, & convince all the Sovereigns of 
Europe the Vanity of withstandg the general & popular Revolutions 
of a Nation of enlightened Subjects."* 

Dr. Stiles was throughout his life deeply interested in 
all that pertained to civil government, both in theory and 
practice. While a minister at West Haven, he pursued for 
three years the study of law, and was then admitted to the 
bar in this county, where he practiced for two years. He 
read the leading institutional work on Roman Law in the 
original Latin. In political philosophy, he recognized 
Machiavelli as a profound teacher, and perhaps gave him 
in. 4 a8. 



Ezra Stiles 27 

too much credit, in view of his advocacy of a policy of dis- 
simulation. "To-day," says the diary in 1786, "I have been 
reading in the Works of that great Politician, Civilian and 
Patriot the learned and excellent Machiavel, and am par- 
ticularly well pleased with his Letter Apr. i, 1537 at the 
Beginning of the Reformation. He appears to be a true 
Christian and a hearty Friend to the civil and religious 
Liberties and Rights, not of Florence and Italy only, but of 
all Mankind. Our Members of Congress have been much 
conversant in his Writings, and imbibed much Light and 
Wisdom from them." * 

Another of the leading works of his day on political 
science he held in high regard. This was Montesquieu's 
Spirit of the Laws, which had been published in 1748. It 
had a profound influence on our own constitutional institu- 
tions. Voltaire said of it, that when the human race had 
lost their charters of liberty, Montesquieu re-discovered and 
restored them. This work was made a text-book in Prince- 
ton College very soon after the Revolution. President Stiles 
followed this example, and taught it to the Senior Class 
here, beginning in 1789. 

In 1793, he added to his course in Political Science with 
the Senior Class instruction in Vattel's Law of Nature and 
Nations. 

Nothing of interest in the events of the day escaped the 
notice of Dr. Stiles. The progress of invention he watched 
with especial care. Under date of November 21, 1794, we 
find this note in his diary, which shows that the method of 
making paper from wood is no novelty. 

"Mr. Goodrich, last Week from Rutland, Verm 1 , brought me a 
Verm 1 Newspaper of Ins 1 made at New Haven Verm 1 of the inner 
Rind of Bass Wood. This is the first paper of Bass Bark, and it is the 
first Copy or sheet of this kind of paper ever printed. It will make 
common ordinary but not superfine Paper. This bark will cost not 
one third so much as Rags, so in this Manufact, Two Thirds saved, "f 

*III, 211. 

till, 547. 



28 Ezra Stiles 

Dr. Stiles in his theology was what the phrase of the 
day denominated as "latitudinarian ;" but would have 
been counted to-day among the ultra-conservatives of his 
profession. 

He had quite close relations with a number of learned 
Jews. One of them, a Mr. Lopez of Newport, died, and 
his diary thus notes the event : 

"He was my intimate Friend & Acquaintance! Oh! how often 
have I wished that sincere pious & candid mind could have perceived 
the Evidences of Xty, perceived the Truth as it is in Jesus Christ, 
known that Jesus was the Messiah predicted by Moses & the Prophets! 
The amiable & excellent Characters of a Lopez, of a Manasseh Ben 
Israel, of a Socrates, & a Gangenelli, would almost persuade us to hope 
that their Excellency was infused by Heaven, and that the virtuous & 
good of all Nations & religions, notwithstands their Delusions, may 
be brou't together in Paradise on the Xtian System, finding Grace 
with the all benevolent & adorable Emmanuel who with his expiring 
breath & in his deepest agonies, prayed for those who knew not what 
they did."* 

Three years later another of his old friends died Gov. 
Hopkins of Providence, He quotes in his diary from an 
" extra " published by the Providence Gazette, to announce 
the event, in which it is observed that the Governor con- 
templated religion "as a divine System formed by the 
Universal Parent, connecting rational Beings in a common 
Interest, & conducting them to unbounded Felicity. 
Hence an universal Benevolence adorned his Virtues, and 
a full Persuasion of the unbounded Goodness of the Deity 
brightened the Prospects of his future Happiness. In 
Life he rose sup. to the follies, & in Death to the fears of 
an ignorant, licentious World. He expected with Pa- 
tience, & met with philosophic & pious Intrepidity, the 
the fatal Messenger Death, & with rapturous Extasy em- 
braced the Glories of Immortality." "I," adds the Presi- 
dent, "well knew Gov. Hopkins. He was a man of a 
penetrating astutious Genius, full of Subtlety, deep 
Cunning, intriguing & enterprising. He read much esp y 
in History & Government; by Read g , Convers a & Observ* 

*m, 24. 



Ezra Stiles 29 

acquired a great Fund of political Knowledge. He was 
rather a Quaker, hav g a seat in the Meeting, but it has 
been said these thirty years by his most intimate Ac- 
quaint* that he was a Deist, and of this I made no doubt 
from my own frequent Convers a with him. He was a 
Man of a Noble fortitude & Resolution. He was a glorious 
Patriot! (but Jesus will say unto him I know you not.) "* 
What is called the " historical criticism" of the bible 
is thought by many to be a thing of late date in this coun- 
try. Dr. Stiles was by no means unfamiliar with it, or 
out of sympathy with its aims. In 1786 we find him read- 
ing in French a book entitled " Conjectures on the original 
memorials of which Moses apparently made use in com- 
posing the Book of Genesis. " 

But time forbids further reference to the details of 
this good man's life. They are open to the eye of all, as 
given from day to day by his own pen. There is no one 
among the citizens of Connecticut of the eighteenth cen- 
tury whose character can be known to us as closely as his. 

Samuel Johnson is a familiar figure to succeeding gen- 
erations, because he had a skilful biographer. His writ- 
ings are little read; but Boswell's Life of him is in every 
library. Rousseau's writings are now little read ; but not 
so his autobiography; St. Augustine's, but not so his 
"Confessions." So Stiles' diary gives us the material 
for judging the man, even more accurately than could 
his contemporaries. 

His body was laid to rest on the Green, and there, I 
presume, this monument, by which we are now assembled, 
was first erected. 

No interment took place in this cemetery until 1797, 
two years after his death. 

The monuments were removed here from the Green in 
1821. A public religious service was held in the Center 
Church on June 26th of that year, when Abraham Bishop 

*m, 172. 



30 Ezra Stiles 

delivered a funeral address, immediately after which a 
committee of which James Hillhouse the greatest beau- 
tifier of New Haven was chairman, accompanied by the 
President and Faculty of the College, conveyed the monu- 
ments of the College officers and students who were buried 
on the Green to this lot. That in memory of President 
Stiles, erected by the University, summarizes his character 
in stately Latin phrase, which may be translated thus : 

Endowed with a lofty mind, 
imbued with universal erudition ; 
of the most gracious urbanity, 
of approved morals 

Eminent for 
charity, faith, evangelical piety, 

in the duties of 

father, friend, teacher, 

minister of the church, man ; 

to his family most dear; 

in the church dignified with great respect; 

through all lands held in honor, 

he lived : 
amid the tears of all 

he died, 

May 12, 1795 

Aged 68. 




NEW HAVEN GREEN IN THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 

From a drawing in possession of the New Haven Colony Historical Society. 



THE DEFENSE OF NEW HAVEN 

AND 

RESISTANCE MADE AGAINST INVADING 

TROOPS ALONG THE WEST SHORE, 

JULY, .779 



BY GEORGE HARE FORD. 

Delivered before the Connecticut Society, Sons of American Revolution, at a 
summer outing at the West Shore, September, 1908. 



Historical and ever memorable events on this Connecti- 
cut Coast and along this Connecticut shore a century and a 
quarter ago, suggest the occasion and the spot for this 
gathering in a social way of men whose ancestors were as- 
sociated as friends and patriots in that American conflict, 
1775 to '8 1, which brought about the establishment of this, 
now the second nation on the face of the earth. A natural 
pride inspires us as we contemplate this fact, and a spec- 
ial pleasure pervades the members of this patriotic society 
as we gather and greet each other, reiterate and rehearse 
historic incidents, and assist to transmit for generations fol- 
lowing the magnificent heritage secured to us through those 
anxious and perilous times by the deeds of our forefathers. 
The grandeur of their achievements can not be too highly 
estimated. 

The Revolutionary battles of Connecticut, while not 
numerous, were important. The population of the state 
then consisted of one hundred and forty thousand white 
and five thousand colored. Four thousand patriots had 
marched to Lexington; thirty-eight thousand were enrolled 
in the Continental army, a larger number than from any 



32 The Defense of New Haven 

other state, except Massachusetts. Connecticut had fur- 
nished largety of manufactured supplies and munitions of 
war, and fitted out frequent expeditions by land and water, 
causing great annoyance to the British. An attempt had 
been made to negotiate, and Governor Trumbull had re- 
plied in no uncertain words. Commanding General Sir 
Henry Clinton, with headquarters at the city of New York, 
had evidently planned, after capturing Stony Point and 
other strongholds on the Hudson, for a similar campaign 
along the Connecticut shore. 

It was in the summer of 1779, the British in control of 
Long Island and the Sound, that General William Tryon, 
then Colonial Governor of New York, in command of 5,000 
well equipped troops, embarked on forty-eight ships with 
Sir George Collier, Commander-in-Chief of the British 
Naval forces of America, composing the largest fleet that 
entered Long Island Sound during the Revolution, and set 
sail for conquest along this coast. It was supposed at first 
that they were bound for New London or Newport, and not 
until they had passed Stratford Point, did the people of this 
locality realize that New Haven was their possible destina- 
tion. 

New Haven was one of the principal seaports of the 
State, one of the State capitals, the seat of Yale college, and 
had the credit of furnishing the first and only uniformed 
company, officered and equipped at Lexington. The thrift of 
its founders as represented by Eaton, the noted merchant, 
and the pious Davenport was emphatically stamped upon the 
community, giving the city a degree of importance to the 
British. 

Saturday nights were kept sacred in the colony instead of 
Sunday night according to the old New England custom. 
It was on the eve of Sunday, July 4th, the third anniversary 
of the Declaration of Independence. New Haven had never 
celebrated this great event as many of the larger cities and 
towns had already done. A gathering was held in the old 
Center Church at sundown to complete elaborate arrange- 



avnny tAe Ifbr offtte /fevo/ution 




>'</ 4-/y/eces Cannon. 



/nras/on of rfe* Haven MS&/779 
0rd by ft+tMuit Shto. 'f 



SKETCH OF THE BRITISH INVASION OF NEW HAVEN, JULY STH, 1779. 

Drawn by President Stiles. 



The Defense of New Haven 33 

ments for a celebration of the event the following day. 
General Wooster was mourned and Arnold was eulogized. 
Orations and ceremonies were to take place with a banquet 
in the evening when toasts would be drunk and patriotic 
sentiments expressed. The adjoining towns had been in- 
vited to participate in the ceremonies. Everybody was en- 
thusiastic and satisfied that the day would be a great success. 
Colonel Hezekiah Sabin was to be the Grand Marshal. 
The Governor's Foot Guard of Lexington fame were to 
lead the procession under their beloved and distinguished 
commander, James Hillhouse, afterwards representative in 
Congress, United States Senator, Mayor, and fifty years 
Treasurer of Yale University. By his persistency in plant- 
ing elm trees here the name of our Elm City was acquired. 

"At 10 :oo o'clock p. m. on the Lord's Day, July 4th," as 
President Stiles in his diary informs us, "advice was re- 
ceived that a great fleet was off Westfield, now Bridgeport. 
I pleaded for militia immediately, but did not believe that 
the enemy intended to land." 

The diary continues : "July 5th, Monday morning, one 
and one-half a. m., fleet had anchored off New Haven, 
alarm guns, bells rang, beat to arms in earnest. At day 
light, with telescope on steeple, clearly saw the boats putting 
off from the ships and landing troops." 

History tells us, the expedition sailed under the follow- 
ing instructions from Sir Henry Clinton: "New Haven is 
the only port in which the rebels have vessels, except New 
London. Begin at New Haven. The country is populous and 
there are many friends there, Likewise land at Stratford 
Point and Milford, capturing cattle; your next object Fair- 
field." The landing was made along the beach between 
where to-day is the summer residence of our esteemed 
citizen Max Adler and Savin Point. Up the old road 
from the shore to the West Haven Green (that you passed 
in coming here) the left division of the invading army 
marched under command of General George Garth. Here 
they halted for rations and breakfast. They then resumed 



34 The Defense of New Haven 

their march three divisions of ten companies each, and (Bar- 
ber in his "History of Antiquities of New Haven" says) 
"The marching of these troops along the road and summit 
of Milford hill, with their scarlet uniforms and well bur- 
nished arms flashing in the sun-beams, was described by eye 
witnesses as the most imposing military display they ever 
beheld. 

Although no great battle was fought on this sultry July 
morning, the warfare of Lexington and Concord was re- 
peated by unorganized groups of patriots from behind stone 
walls, fences and bushes. Milford Hill was reached before 
any organized resistance was made. Here Adjutant Camp- 
bell of the British Army was killed, and President Daggett 
of Yale University was taken prisoner, while carrying on an 
individual warfare in advance of our main column. 

The combined patriot forces were hastily marshalled 
under Col. Sabin, senior officer in command, Capt. Hill- 
house and others, including Aaron Burr, afterwards Vice- 
President of the United States, visiting in the vicinity, who 
took command of a section of the defense. But they were 
insufficient to arrest the advance of the invading army. Re- 
treating across and burning West Bridge, they planted field 
pieces in charge of Capt. Bradley, and their fire was so ef- 
fective as to prevent the British from crossing at this point. 
Unable to enter the town here as anticipated, the British 
troops kept on through Allingtown up to Hotchkisstown 
(now Westville, the home of our registrar), and the defense 
at West River was transferred to along the opposite side 
of the river at this point. Despite vigorous resistance, the 
city was entered by the enemy. 

The story of the two days occupancy of the town, the 
plundering of the houses and experiences of residents has 
been so often told, and the legend of every detail being so 
highly familiar to and cherished by our people, it need not be 
detailed fully here. President Stiles in his diary says that 
"one-third of the population armed and went to meet the 
enemy. A quarter moved out of town, and the rest, Tories 



The Defense of New Haven 35 

and timid Whigs, remained unmoved." The town was full 
of confusion and alarm. Important papers and valuables 
were removed or secreted and buried. The women and chil- 
dren as far as possible, were sent to East and West Rocks. 

Many instances of heroism may be recalled. Perhaps 
the most conspicuous man of the day was the Acting Presi- 
dent of Yale, Napthali Daggett, who, mounted on his black 
mare and with a fowling piece across the pummel of the sad- 
dle, rode to the front followed by an enthusiastic company of 
Yale students. Far in advance of the command, he planted 
himself in a clump of bushes on Milford hill and opened a 
warfare on his own account. Unable to successfully resist 
the enemy, Col. Sabin had ordered a retreat, but Daggett in 
his enthusiasm, declined to leave the spot, and kept on 
blazing away until the head of the line was within a few 
yards of his ambush. A detail was sent to capture him, and 
the officer in charge addressing Daggett in the following 
language : "What are you doing, you old fool, firing on 
his majesty's troops?" "Exercising the rights of war, sir," 
was his reply, and off went the fowling piece again. Sur- 
rendered and taken prisoner, he afterwards died of the in- 
juries he received. 

Captain John Gilbert, at the head of a company from 
Hamden, reaching Broadway, was commanded by a British 
officer to surrender, and replied by shooting the officer. Gil- 
bert was immediately bayoneted by the British soldiers. 
Many of the names upon our rolls are to be found on the 
muster rolls of the defenders of the town, and are entitled 
by lineal descent to especially commemorate the events of 
that day. Among the killed and wounded appear the names 
of Hotchkiss, Gilbert, English, Bradley, Daggett, Beers, 
Atwater, Mix and others prominent in the local branch of 
our Society. 

Patriotic women cast bullets and supplied them to our 
troops. Others, by their skilled and ready Yankee inge- 
nuity, prevented disaster and thought too quickly for the 
now rum befuddled brains of the enemy, thereby saving 



36 The Defense of New Haven 

property and lives. Tories, too, assisted in the crisis by 
their hospitality and assurance of loyalty to the King, im- 
pressing upon the officers how much the Royal cause would 
suffer if the town was burned. Gen. Garth, taken to the 
top of the Court House, and surveying the situation from 
the roof, remarked it was "too beautiful a town to burn." 
But plunder and destruction prevailed. Valuables of every 
description were taken or demolished. 

An interesting story in connection with Deacon Ball of 
Center Church, who lived at the corner of Chapel and High 
streets, where the Yale Art School now stands. He was the 
custodian of the solid silver Communion Cups, and secreted 
them by lifting his little eight year old daughter up the 
chimney sufficiently high to put them on a ledge. They 
were not discovered by the enemy and are still in use at 
Center Church. 

The old historic New Haven Green occupied by the 
main forces, was then surrounded by dwelling houses. The 
only one remaining, so far as I know, is the Pierpont resi- 
dence on Elm Street, between the Graduates Club house and 
the Governor Ingersoll house at Temple Street. The Pier- 
pont house is in a good state of preservation, and is owned 
and occupied by Anson Phelps Stokes, Jr., Secretary of 
Yale University. This house was used as a hospital during 
the Invasion. Where the Tontine Hotel now stands was 
Ogden's Coffee House. Ogden was a Tory who became so 
unpopular by entertaining the British that he and his 
family were soon obliged to move from the city. 

"Being a prosperous commercial town, a large number 
of New Haven's inhabitants were wealthy. Many were 
engaged in West India trade, and there was scarcely a house 
that did not have in its cellar a barrel of old Santa Cruz 
rum. The soldiers soon discovered this, and from the great 
supply of liquor, became more or less intoxicated," as already 
intimated. But organized and unorganized bodies of patriots 
were swiftly gathering from surrounding towns. General 
Andrew Ward with three regiments of Continentals was 



The Defense of New Haven 37 

fast approaching from the east. The English generals, 
unable to control their men, began to be alarmed, and fear- 
ing they might be surrounded and their retreat cut off, 
cautiously withdrew their forces and re-embarked in the 
night to the surprise of the patriots and inhabitants of the 
town, and on the morning of the third day New Haven was 
no longer in possession of the hostile forces, and had es- 
caped the disaster that attended the raids upon Fairfield and 
Norwalk two days later by the same forces, when all the 
public buildings, churches, school houses, mills and four 
hundred and seventy-one dwelling houses in those places 
were burned. 

Had not a successful resistance been made at New Ha- 
ven and our forces rallied with such strength as to make the 
foe's retreat desirable, this important port in possession of 
the British would have been a most serious embarrassment 
to the whole Continental army, and the result would have 
been far reaching. 

This brief reference to the events that occurred in this 
vicinity, may impress us with the interest that should be at- 
tached to and maintained in connection with historic spots. 
The East and West shores of New Haven harbor were made 
historical in connection with the American Revolution. In 
1895 this Society gathered upon Beacon Hill, Fort Wooster 
Park, on the East, and placed a tablet in memory of the 
American patriots who resisted the invading troops on that 
side. Today we gather upon the West Shore, not to place a 
tablet, but in a social way, in a sort of family reunion, and 
incidentally to review some of the events that occurred 
along the West coast that lies at our feet. 

A Defenders' Monument Association has been formed, 
under the auspices of the New Haven Colony Historical 
Society, for the purpose of erecting a suitable memorial 
where the cannon were placed to command West Bridge 
and the most important resistance was made. The Mem- 
orial group selected is typical of those who took part in the 
defense as regards age and social condition. One represents 



38 The Defense of New Haven 

the citizen soldier, a merchant of local aristocracy in half 
Continental uniform ; one, a well-to-do farmer, the other, a 
young student at Yale, and all in heroic size. The group is 
spirited and artistic. When completed it will be the most 
notable and impressive Revolutionary memorial erected 
in our State. 

The actors on the scene we have contemplated have 
gone, but the spirit that animated them to battle for their 
liberties and their homes is the same that has inspired men to 
heroic deeds since the dawn of civilization. The members 
of this Society especially represent the heroes of that period 
of our country's history. 

As England cherishes the fame of her Wellington and 
Waterloo, France her Napoleon and his conquests, as Ger- 
many reveres Frederick the Great, at rest at Sans Souci, 
and America her Washington, Bunker Hill and Yorktown, 
so along similar lines may we not most justly honor these 
men of lesser fame, who in their time, by their valor and 
their deeds as occasion offered, contributed their share to 
the grand result, American Liberty and American Pros- 
perity. 




MAJOR-GENERAL DAVID WOOSTER. 

From a portrait in his early life. 



DAVID WOOSTER 



BY A. HEATON ROBERTSON. 

Delivered in Grove Street Cemetery at the Monument to General Wooster, at the 
annual meeting ot the Branch, June 26, 1910. 



When one sees the mighty river, bearing on its bosom 
the wealth of nations and lapping with its wavelets the 
mighty machinations of man, he is apt to forget the 
springs and the rivulets without which it would have 
no existence. So, too, at the present day, to one, as he 
looks upon this country of ours, stretching from ocean 
to ocean, and covered with enterprises more varied and 
undertakings more gigantic than any land, peopled by 
representatives of every nation under the sun, forming 
one cosmopolitan whole, with active brain and cunning 
hand excelled by none, he is likewise apt to forget those 
men who years ago made possible this country and that 
emancipation of the human race which never has been 
equalled since the dawn of history. Among the men of 
Connecticut who contributed to all that we and humanity 
enjoy to-day, the name of David Wooster stands out 
as one of the beacon lights of its history. 

David Wooster was born in that part of the town of 
Stratford, Connecticut, which is now Huntington, about 
opposite the town of Derby, on the 2d day of March, 
1710. He came to New Haven and entered Yale College 
about 1734 or 1735, an d graduated in a class of fifteen 
in 1738, three years later receiving his degree of M.A. 
from the same institution. Immediately after gradua- 
tion, in 1739, at the breaking out of the war between 
England and Spain, he entered the army as lieutenant 
of light infantry, but I find no record that he ever saw 
any active service under this commission. 



40 David Wooster 

The Connecticut Assembly, at its session in 1739-40, 
authorized the building of a sloop of war of about one 
hundred tons, the war between England and France 
having broken out afresh, to protect the coast of the 
colony, and in May, 1741, David Wooster was appointed 
lieutenant of this sloop. In 1742, he was advanced to 
the position of captain in the -infant navy of the Con- 
necticut colony, in which capacity he served for over 
two years, in guarding our coast. In February, 1745, 
the Connecticut Assembly passed a resolution, after 
much debate, for the raising of five hundred men to take 
part in an expedition with the other colonies against 
Cape Breton, particularly seeking the destruction of 
Louisburg, the strongest fortress on the American con- 
tinent, and at that time garrisoned by French regulars. 
Wooster was appointed Captain of one of the companies 
of this levy, resigned his commission in the Colonial 
navy, and took a very active part in the siege of Louis- 
burg, in the regiment of Col. Burr of Connecticut and 
under the general command of Sir William Pepperell, 
the hero of Louisburg. 

So useful and distinguished were his services, that 
to him was assigned the honor of conducting part of the 
prisoners to France for exchange. At the siege of Louis- 
burg for the first time the Colonial army met the disci- 
plined troops of Europe and showed to the world that 
they were not inferior. After exchanging his prisoners, 
David Wooster went to England, where he was received 
with no little attention at Court, and was made a Cap- 
tain in the regular service of Great Britain, and stationed 
at New Haven on recruiting service. 

He married, March 6, 1745, Mary Clapp, the daughter 
of President Clapp of Yale College, by whom he had four 
children, two of whom married Thomas, who grad- 
uated at Yale in 1768, who also served as an officer in 
the Revolutionary War, and Mary, who married the Rev. 
John O. Ogden, an Episcopal clergyman. Mrs. Ogden 



David Wooster 41 

had three children, who died unmarried. Thomas had 
seven children, one of whom, Charles, was a rear admiral 
in the Chilian navy. He was married and left one son, 
Charles Francis Wooster, a lieutenant in the United States 
army, who died unmarried in 1855, and was the last lineal 
descendant of Gen. David Wooster, the other children 
of Thomas having died without children. There are some 
descendants living of the brothers of Gen. Wooster 's 
father, among whom was Col. William B. Wooster of 
Derby. Mr. C. B. Wooster of New Haven is also one of 
the descendants. 

On the declaration of peace between France and Eng- 
land, David Wooster retired and lived in New Haven 
on half pay as an officer of the British army, at the same 
time being engaged in mercantile pursuits, in partner- 
ship with his classmate, Aaron Day, and afterwards alone. 
During this period of semi-peace, he founded Hiram 
Lodge, the first lodge of Freemasons in the State of Con- 
necticut, and was its Grand Master. Wooster Lodge of 
New Haven was named in his honor. He lived part of 
the time on George Street and later on Wooster Street, 
New Haven, which was named for him, as were also 
Wooster Square, and Fort Wooster on East Haven heights. 

In March, 1756, when the Connecticut Assembly (war 
having broken out again between England and France) 
raised 2,500 men to send against Crown Point, he was 
appointed Colonel of the Second Regiment and served 
in the campaign which, owing to the incompetency of 
the English leaders, proved a failure. In 1757, he repre- 
sented New Haven in the General Assembly. In 1759, 
at the request of Pitt, the Prime Minister of England, 
whose letter was read to the General Assembly, 5,000 
men were raised to serve in the campaign against Canada, 
under Amherst. Wooster served as Colonel, and some of 
the time in command of the Connecticut brigade, during 
1759 and 1760 in the attack on Ticonderoga, and other 
battles in the northern campaign. 



42 David Wooster 

On the declaration of peace, in 1761, he returned to 
New Haven, and carried on a successful business as a 
merchant, serving some of the time as Collector of Cus- 
toms of the port of New Haven, and he accumulated 
considerable property for those days. 

Immediately on the breaking out of the Revolutionary 
War, he resigned his commission in the British army, 
and at the special session of the General Assembly, which 
was called on the news of the battle of Lexington, he was 
commissioned Major-General of the Colony forces, the 
resolution reading, "from his proved abilities, well-known 
courage and great experience." He was present on the 
expedition that invaded Canada in 1775, led by General 
Montgomery, Wooster being one who affixed his name to 
the bond of indemnity given to raise money to equip 
Connecticut troops. His troops were assembled on the 
Green in New Haven, previous to setting out on the 
expedition. Of this assembly, Deacon Nathan Beers of 
New Haven, himself an officer in the Revolution, said: 

"The last time I saw General Wooster was in June, 1775; he was 
at the head of his regiment, which was then embodied on the Green, 
in front of where the Center Church now stands. They were ready 
for a march, with their arms glittering and their knapsacks on their 
backs. General Wooster had already dispatched a messenger for his 
minister, the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, with a request that he would 
meet the regiment and pray with them before their departure. He 
then conducted his men in military order into the meeting house, and 
seated himself in his own pew awaiting the return of the messenger. 
He was speedily informed that the clergyman was absent from home. 
Colonel Wooster immediately stepped into the deacon's seat in front 
of the pulpit, and calling his men to attend to prayers, offered up a 
humble petition for his beloved country, for himself, and the men 
under his command, and for the success of the cause in which they 
were engaged. His prayers were offered with the fervent zeal of an 
apostle, and in such pathetic language that it drew tears from many 
an eye and affected many a heart. When he had closed, he left the 
house with his men, in the same order they had entered it, and the 
regiment took up its line of march for New York. With such a 
prayer on his lips, he entered the Revolution." 

Wooster was present at the capture of Fort 
Chambly, where he showed distinguished ability; also at 




THE GEN. DAVID WOOSTER HOUSE. 

Formerly on south side of George Street facing College Street. 



David Wooster 43 

the taking of Montreal, and at the attack on Quebec, and 
on the death of Montgomery in the latter attack, the 
chief command in Canada fell upon Wooster, under most 
disheartening conditions. His relations with General 
Schuyler, the second in command, were most unfortu- 
nate, and charges were preferred against him for incom- 
petency and his patriotism was doubted. He had, in the 
June previous, been appointed by Congress as one of the 
eight Brigadier Generals in the Continental Army. The 
charges were investigated by Congress and discharged 
as groundless and unjust, but Wooster never forgot the 
manner in which he was treated. The Committee re- 
ported in August, 1776, that " no thing censurable or 
blameworthy appears against Brigadier General Wooster," 
and this report was accepted. Connecticut showed that 
her confidence in Wooster's ability and patriotism was 
in no way diminished, for in October, 1776, after the 
report of Congress, he was again appointed, by the Gen- 
eral Assembly, Major General and Commander-in-Chief 
of the Connecticut militia, and was assigned to the duty 
of protecting the southwestern portion of Connecticut, 
which was threatened by the British troops. 

In the spring of 1 777, Sir William Howe having learned 
that military stores were deposited at or near Daribury, 
Connecticut, he sent General Tryon, who was at that 
time Governor of New York and a general in the British 
army, with a detachment of 2,000 men to march on to 
Danbury and capture or destroy the military stores. 
Tryon landed at Saugatuck or Westport harbor in April, 
and marched on towards Danbury. Wooster was in 
New Haven at the time, and hearing of it, went imme- 
diately, unattended by troops, to Danbury, to take the 
chief command, leaving orders that the militia should 
follow him. He found General Silliman in command of 
a few troops, and he at once took command. His forces 
consisted of a few hundred undisciplined men and less 
than one hundred continental troops. Tryon, with little 



44 David Wooster 

or no opposition, had reached Danbury and destroyed 
the stores before the arrival of Wooster, and had started 
on his return. Wooster, at the head of some 200 men, 
immediately pursued him, and coming upon him near 
Ridgefield made a vigorous attack, which was successful. 
Still following up the enemy, he made another attack, 
and his men giving way, in the act of turning to urge 
them on, he was struck in the small of the back by a 
bullet and his backbone broken, April 27th, 1777. He 
was removed to Danbury, where he died on the 2d of 
May, 1777, in the 67th year of his age. It was the inten- 
tion to bury him at New Haven, but owing to the condi- 
tion of his body, mortification having set in before his 
death, he was buried at Ridgefield. When the surgeon, 
Dr. Turner, after examining General Wooster, informed 
him that his wound was mortal, he received the news 
with the calmness of a Christian and a soldier. He desired 
that Mrs. Wooster be sent for. After being delirious for 
three days and suffering great agony, he passed peace- 
fully away, momentarily recognizing Mrs. Wooster. 
Congress resolved the next month that a monument 
costing $500 be erected to his memory "as an acknowl- 
edgment of his merit and services." This money was 
never expended, but in 1854, a monument was erected 
in Ridgefield to his memory, by contributions from the 
state, the masons and the citizens of Danbury. The cost 
of the monument was over $3,000. The General Assem- 
bly appropriated $1,500, the Masonic Lodge $1,000 and 
the citizens of Danbury the remainder. It was unveiled 
on the 27th of April, 1854, with military, masonic and 
civic ceremonies. The military was represented by the 
New Haven Blues, the Hartford Light Guard, the Bridge- 
port Washington Guard, the Bridgeport Montgomery 
Guard, the Bridgeport Governor Rifle Co., and the Stam- 
ford Light Guard. The Freemasons were represented 
by Chancellor Walworth, the Grand master of the Grand 
Lodge of New York. There were also representatives 



David Wooster 45 

from the Grand Lodges of Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
Georgia and South Carolina. The orator of the day was 
Hon. H. C. Deming of Hartford, who wore upon his per- 
son Wooster 's sash, which he had on at the time he was 
shot. 

On the monument is this inscription : 

"David Wooster, 

First Maj. Gen. of the Conn. Troops, in the Army of the Revolution; 
Brig. Gen. of the United Colonies; born at Stratford, March 2, 1710-11. 
Wounded at Ridgefield, April 27,1777, while defending the liberties 
of America, and nobly died at Danbury, May 2d, 1777. Of his country, 
Wooster said: 'My life has ever been devoted to her service, from my 
youth up, though never before in a cause like this: a cause for which 
I would most cheerfully risk nay, lay down my life.' " 

On the other side, the Masonic inscription is as follows : 

"Brother David Wooster, 

impressed while a stranger in a foreign land, with the necessity of 
some tie that should unite all mankind in a UNIVERSAL BROTHER- 
HOOD, he returned to his native country, and procured from the 
Provincial Grand Lodge of Massachusetts a Charter, and first intro- 
duced into Connecticut that light which has warmed the widow's 
heart, and illumined the orphan's pathway. Under the Charter of 
1750, Hiram Lodge No. i, of New Haven, was organized, of which 
he was first Worshipful Master. Grateful for his services as the Master 
Builder of the oldest Temple, for his fidelity as a Brother, and his 
renown as a patriot and a soldier, the Free and Accepted Masons have 
united with his native State and the citizens of Danbury, in' rearing 
and consecrating this Monument to his memory. Erected at Danbury, 
A. L. 5854, A. D. 1854. DAVID CLARK, Grand Master." 

Wooster not only devoted his life and services to the 
cause of the American Revolution, but expended also all 
his private means, so that his widow was left penniless 
at the time of his death. In stature, he was tall and slim, 
courteous and dignified in manner, a man with a high 
sense of public duty, a consistent Christian and a devoted 
husband and father. The first President Dwight of Yale 
said of General Wooster: 

"General Wooster was a brave, generous-minded man, respectable 
for his understanding and for his conduct both in public and private 
life, ardent in his friendships and his patriotism, diffusive in his char- 
ities and steadfast in his principles; he was long a professor of religion 
and adorned the profession by an irreproachable and exemplary life." 



46 David Wooster 

Truly it can be said of Wooster that he lived and died 
"For God, for country and for Yale." For God, by his 
conspicuous piety and religious principles, and his en- 
deavors and death in the cause of the rights of humanity. 
For country, 

"To every man upon this earth 
Death cometh soon or late, 
And how can man die better 
Than facing fearful odds, 
For the ashes of his fathers 
And the temples of his gods?" 

For Yale, to illustrate by his life and death, as so many 
of Yale's sons have done, that an education does not 
unfit men, as claimed by the cheap demagogues, for 
business, for patriotism, or for duty in any walk of life, 
but rather, as a divine fire, urges them on to win dis- 
tinction in business, finance, statesmanship and martial 
achievements. 

Traduced and maligned by his enemies, he proved by 
his life and death their utter falsity. The life of Wooster 
and those who fought to establish our national indepen- 
dence and to make possible all that this country has 
accomplished for the world and humanity, should ever 
be to us, their sons, and to all, of whatever race or con- 
dition, who enjoy the fruits of their hardships and sacri- 
fices, an inspiration to keep the fires of liberty and patri- 
otism burning. Yea, more than an inspiration a duty 
to keep the fires of liberty ever bright and to see that our 
patriotism is pure and without alloy, so that when this 
life is ended and our little day is done, we can meet them 
face to face in God's great to-morrow, with the satisfac- 
tion of having done our duty in whatever sphere we are 
called to labor. 

AUTHORITIES. 

Sanford's History of Connecticut; Hollister's History of Connecticut; Atwater's 
History of the City of New Haven; Yale Biographies and Annals, Dexter; Connecticut 
Colonial Records; Dwighfs Travels in New England and New York; Proceedings at 
the Completion of the Wooster Monument, with Oration by H. C. Deming, and New 
Haven Palladium; Barber's Connecticut Historical Collections. 




COLONEL JOHN TRUMBULL. 



COL. JOHN TRUMBULL-THE PATRIOT 
AND ARTIST 



BY SEYMOUR C. LOOMIS. 

An address delivered on the annual decoration day of the Gen. David Humphreys 
Branch, S. A. R., June 27th, 1909, in the Yale Art School, where the Trumbull Gallery 
is now located and Col. Trumbull and his wife are buried. On this occasion also, a 
Revolutionary Soldier's Marker, located on the outside of the building over the grave, 
was unveiled. 



There are few persons connected with the American 
Revolution, who have left a greater impress upon suc- 
ceeding generations than Col. John Trumbull, of Con- 
necticut. He was a graduate of Harvard, a patron and 
benefactor of Yale, an aide of General Washington, an 
exile from his country, confined in a British prison, an 
artist devoted to recording in immortal colors the stir- 
ring and commanding scenes which surrounded the 
natal days of our government, and a man whose courtly 
ways and noble instincts place him in the foreground 
among those other men of the colonies who threw off 
the yoke of allegiance to Great Britain in 1776. 

John Trumbull, born June 6, 1756, was the son of 
Jonathan Trumbull, of Lebanon, Connecticut, the only 
colonial governor at the outbreak of the war, who re- 
tained his office during the years that followed. Gov- 
ernor Trumbull was the confidential friend and adviser 
of General Washington, by whom he was called "Brother 
Jonathan," an appellation now commonly used to mean 
the American People. The Trumbulls of New England 
were well known for their integrity, breadth of view, 
sound sense and mental capacity. These were the char- 
acteristics inherited from a line extending back to Scot- 
land. To these natural traits were added the education 
and training gained in the schools of theory and of ex- 
perience in active public life. Governor Trumbull and 



48 Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist 

his three sons Joseph, Jonathan, Jr., and John were all 
prominent revolutionists from the beginning and took 
a leading part in the prosecution of the war. A fourth 
son, David, also served his country at the time but in 
a less prominent way. John, the youngest of the three, 
graduated at the age of seventeen from Harvard in 
1773, as his father had previously done in 1727. He 
enlisted immediately after the Lexington alarm and in 
April, 1775, marched with others from his native town, 
to the defense of Boston. General Washington upon 
assuming command was attracted to Trumbull by a plan 
of Boston and the surrounding country, which Trumbull 
had made at considerable peril to himself. Shortly after 
this incident he was appointed second aide-de-camp 
upon the general's staff, the first being Thomas Mifflin, 
of Philadelphia, afterwards President of Congress in 
1783, at the time Washington resigned his commission. 
Trumbull remained as aide for a short time only, 
and then was chosen major of a brigade at Roxbury, 
where the excellence of his service was noticed by 
Adjutant-General Gates, by whom on the 28th of 
June, 1776, he was appointed deputy adjutant-general 
with the rank of colonel. He accepted this position and 
entered heartily into the campaign. There was, how- 
ever, an unwarranted delay on the part of Congress in for- 
warding to Trumbull his commission. After long waiting 
it was finally received, but to his great surprise and dis- 
appointment, it was found to have been dated in Sep- 
tember, when the appointment was made in June. This 
discrepancy in the dates permitted several other men, 
whose terms of service had been shorter, to outrank 
Trumbull in military standing. Then followed a series 
of letters by Trumbull and his friends to the Conti- 
nental Congress. The treatment accorded to him is 
illustrated in a remark by Hancock when Col. Trumbull 
was under consideration, the substance of which was, 
that "the Trumbull family has already been well pro- 



Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist 49 

vided for," alluding to the high positions held by his 
father and two brothers. John answered this remark 
laconically, "We are sure of four halters if we do not 
succeed." He tried to have the commission corrected but 
was met by language too sharp and bitter for his high 
sense of honor to countenance, whereupon he resigned 
and thus ended his official military career. This was 
on February 22, 1777, about two years after his 
enlistment in April, 1775. 

Having been refused his commission on account of 
jealousy, which, alas, is still present too often in official 
life, he returned to his native town of Lebanon to resume 
the art with which by nature he was so richly endowed. 
Later he resolved to go to Europe and study under Ben- 
jamin West, the distinguished American artist. Before 
leaving, however, he could not resist the call to assist 
General Sullivan and the French fleet under D'Estaing 
in recovering possession of Rhode Island. He embarked 
for Europe in May, 1780, where he arrived after a favor- 
able voyage of about five weeks. In Paris he visited 
Dr. Franklin, John Adams and John Quincy Adams, and 
also Mr. Strange, the eminent engraver. Then he set 
out for London, where he took up his permanent resi- 
dence upon the understanding with the British govern- 
ment that he should not be molested for his previous 
acts of revolution in New England provided he avoided 
in England all political intervention. He kept his part 
of the contract, but the retaliatory spirit of the men then 
in power in the British government could not withstand 
the temptation of persecuting Trumbull after the fate 
of Major Andr had come to their knowledge in the fall 
of 1780. Trumbull was seized for treason, thrown into 
prison, and was closely confined for seven months. 

His time, however, was not lost, for he was allowed 
to work with his pencil and brush, and among other 
results was a copy of a "Correggio," which now hangs 
in the Trumbull gallery in New Haven. During his in- 



50 Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist 

carceration he also became well acquainted with many 
of the leaders of the liberal party, particularly with 
Fox and Burke. Even at this distant day we can see 
this fine specimen of American youth, of broad mental 
and physical calibre, confined in a London jail, visited 
by those men of the mother country who saw in the 
American colonies the beginnings of a great nation, 
whose customs and heritages were, as were their own, 
Anglo-Saxon, whose speech was the same and whose 
cause was, in their opinion, just. These men saved 
Trumbull and, eventually, their influence in England 
prevented further warfare after the surrender of Corn- 
wallis, and led to the final evacuation of New York. 

Under the terms of his release from prison Trumbull 
was obliged to leave England within thirty days. He 
did so at once and went to the continent. Under direc- 
tions from his father, the governor, he tried to negotiate 
in Holland a loan for Connecticut, but was unable to 
accomplish it. John Adams also failed at the same time 
to effect one for the nation. Trumbull then sailed for 
America, where he arrived in January, 1782, after a most 
perilous voyage, the details of which are strikingly set 
forth in his "Reminiscences." Upon reaching Lebanon 
he was taken seriously ill, and his life was endangered. 
It was autumn before he recovered. He then went to 
the army to superintend the faithful execution of the 
supply contract, and was thus engaged when the pre- 
liminary articles of peace were signed. 

After the war was over he was ready for a permanent 
occupation. His friends made business offers, which 
would doubtless have proved of great pecuniary profit 
to him, but he felt obliged to decline them, although he 
was entirely without financial resources. He was irre- 
sistibly led to his art. His father rather objected, and 
seeing that commercial life was not agreeable, tried to 
persuade him to enter the profession of the law, but 
Trumbull remained steadfast, and in December, 1783, 



, 

Jfc 



DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE JULY 4TH, 1776. 

TRUMBULL'S MASTERPIECE. 
From the original painting in the Trumbull Gallery, Yale School of Fine Arts. 



Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist 51 

sailed again for London. Upon arrival there he went 
at once to his old patron and teacher, West, at whose 
house he applied himself by day, and at the academy, 
at night. 

It was then that he formed a fixed purpose that his 
art should be of some benefit to his country, and to em- 
ploy in her behalf the talent which he possessed. He 
became firm in his determination to record on canvas in 
a way which should thrill the hearts of men, and yet be 
faithful to the matters and facts involved, the history 
of the events which he had known, and some of which 
his own eyes had witnessed. First, we have the "Death 
of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill,"* and 
of "General Montgomery at the Attack on Quebec." 
Then followed the "Declaration of Independence," which 
was done at enormous expense of time, because of 
TrumbuH's requirement of himself that each figure in 
his historical paintings should be a true likeness of the 
person represented. It was no easy task to arrange the 
composition, but to obtain individual sittings from the 
forty-eight different men, who had signed that immortal 
document, and who had then become scattered over 
this country and Europe, was at that time a large 
undertaking. Some had died. Theirs were omitted be- 
cause Trumbull required a correct portrait. Jefferson's 
was done in Paris, Adams' in London, that of Rutledge 
in Charleston, and so on. The groupings, the color, the 
perspective and the spirit in each face, prove that the 
artist's work was commensurate with the importance 
of the subject. It is called TrumbuH's masterpiece, and 
with the "Battle of Bunker Hill," and "Death of Mont- 
gomery" hangs with most of his other best works in the 
Trumbull gallery in the Yale School of the Fine Arts, 
in accordance with the terms of a contract made by 
Trumbull with Yale College in 1831, under which he was 
to turn over to the college his paintings, in consideration 

* A reproduction of this picture appears facing page 91 of this volume. 



52 Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist 

of an annuity of one thousand dollars a year. This he 
drew for twelve years until his death in 1843. The con- 
sideration was not the equivalent in value of the paint- 
ings, and Trumbull intended it to be, as it in fact was, 
a gift to Yale, taking to himself the small annuity only 
because it was needed for his own subsistence. 

Among his other paintings are the "Sortie from Gib- 
raltar," representing the gallant conduct and death of 
the Spanish commander in 1781, the "Surrender of Corn- 
wallis" at Yorktown, "The Surrender of Burgoyne" at 
Saratoga, "Washington Resigning His Commission" 
at Annapolis, "The Battle of Princeton," and the "Cap- 
ture of the Hessians" at Trenton. The portraits of Gen- 
eral Washington and of Alexander Hamilton in the Yale 
gallery are remarkable; especially the one of Hamilton 
which, it is said, reflects the spirit of that statesman 
better than any other in existence. We may also men- 
tion the portraits of his father, Governor Jonathan 
Trumbull, Captain Thomas Seymour, President Dwight 
the elder, and Oliver Ellsworth, which are at New Haven; 
also the portraits of Washington, Chief Justice Jay, 
Governor Clinton and General Hamilton now in the 
common council room at the City Hall in New York 
City. Engravings of his "Declaration" and others of his 
earlier paintings were made by Miiller of Stuttgart and 
were subscribed for by the leading men of this country 
and of Europe. 

Trumbull' s choicest works were done prior to 1796, 
that is, before the forty-first year of his age. At that 
time he became a member of the commission appointed 
for the execution of the seventh article of the treaty 
negotiated by Mr. Jay between England and the United 
States. That article related to claims for damage done 
to American commerce because of illegal captures by 
British cruisers. Trumbull's residence and growing influ- 
ence abroad made him peculiarly qualified for that office, 



Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist 53 

and he felt he must accept it. The work of the commis- 
sion was not finished until 1804. 

In 1800 he married, and the portrait of his wife is 
now in the New Haven gallery. After her death in 1824, 
he said of her, "she was the perfect personification of 
truth and sincerity, wise to counsel, kind to console 
by far the most important and better moral half of me, 
and withal beautiful beyond the usual beauty of women." 

In 1816 he was requested by Congress and by Presi- 
dent Madison, who made the choice of subjects, to paint for 
the National Capitol the "Declaration of Independence," 
the "Surrender of Burgoyne," the "Surrender of Corn- 
wallis" and "Washington Resigning His Commission." 
They are copies from the ones now in the New Haven 
gallery but of much larger size. The originals are about 
twenty inches by thirty inches and the copies twelve 
feet by eighteen feet, and the figures life size. He was 
eight years in painting them and received thirty-two 
thousand dollars from the government, and finally hung 
them by his own hand in the rotunda of the National 
Capitol, where they still remain. Replicas subsequently 
painted by him may also be found in the Wadsworth 
Athenaeum at Hartford and in the State House at Annap- 
olis and elsewhere. While the copies and replicas are 
interesting from an historical standpoint, they lack the 
highly artistic qualities possessed by the originals. 

Trumbull was instrumental in founding the Academy 
of Fine Arts in New York and was its president from 
1816 to 1825. He spent his last years in New Haven 
with the elder Prof. Silliman, who lived at the northwest 
corner of Hillhouse Avenue and what was then called 
New Street, now Trumbull Street, named in his honor. 
The house has since been moved to the rear part of 
Prof. Silliman's lot, and faces Trumbull Street. Trum- 
bull died on November loth, 1843, in New York City, 
where he was on a visit. His body was brought to New 
Haven and buried beside his wife under the old Trum- 



54 Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist 

bull gallery, which then stood in the middle of the pres- 
ent university campus, and was afterwards used for the 
president's and treasurer's office. In 1864, the art school 
building was erected and the remains of Trumbull and 
his wife were interred under that structure. A suitable 
tablet in the basement and an inscription on the outer 
wall mark his grave, whereon it is truly stated that he 
was a Patriot and Artist. He gave his best life work to 
the college and through it to the country at large. 




THE NOAH WEBSTER HOUSE. 

On the Southwest Corner of Temple and Grove Streets, now Standing. 



NOAH WEBSTER 



BY GEORGE HARE FORD. 

Address delivered at the grave of Noah Webster in the Grove Street Cemetery, 
New Haven, June fifteenth, 1902. 

All nations have their honored rolls of soldiers and 
patriots whose fame they perpetuate by monuments and by 
recounting their achievements. In France, homage is regu- 
larly paid to the piety and heroism of the Maid of Orleans. 
England bids her sculptors carve for Westminster Abbey the 
images of her great men. On the heathered hills of Scot- 
land, the sword of Wallace is yet a bright tradition. On 
the soft blue waters of the Lake of Lucerne stands the 
chapel of William Tell, and in each July on the anniversary 
of his revolt, boat loads of representatives of the Allied 
Cantons, with the banner of the republic hanging from the 
bow, visit the sacred spot and chant their National Hymns. 
America decorates the graves of those who established its 
government and of those likewise who maintained its 
honor and integrity, and by whispers from the past, the 
nation tells how precious are the memories of her founders 
and defenders. 

The General David Humphreys Branch, Sons of the 
American Revolution, are conspicuously honored in having 
on their roster the names of so many eminent men of both 
local fame and national renown, conspicuous not only for 
their revolutionary service, but known to the world at large 
for their learning and ability. In the Grove Street Ceme- 
tery the bronze emblem of this society has been placed upon 
the graves of 125 soldiers and patriots of our war for 
independence who served their country then, and whom we 
honor now each year by assembling on the Sunday preced- 
ing Bunker Hill Day, recalling at the grave of some dis- 
tinguished patriot, his services and placing our wreath with 
ceremony on his grave; and detailing members of the so- 



56 Noah Webster 

ciety to perform the latter service upon the graves of all our 
honored dead. 

Noah Webster was a descendant of John Webster, of 
Warwickshire, England, who came to this country in 1635 
and was one of the original settlers of Connecticut at Hart- 
ford. He took part in the Pequot war, was a member of 
the Colonial Council and the fourth Governor of the State of 
Connecticut. On his mother's side Noah Webster descended 
from William Bradford, one of the founders and the second 
Governor of the Plymouth colony. One year previous to 
the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, he came to New 
Haven and entered Yale College. On the following April, 
almost before the echoing notes of Paul Revere's alarm 
had faded away and the Second Company Governor's Foot 
Guard had marched to Lexington, "there was speedily or- 
ganized in New Haven," as Blake tells us, "two companies 
of house-holders, one company of artillery, and one com- 
pany of Yale students," in which enterprise Noah Webster 
took a most active part. The first duty of the battalion, it is 
proudly recorded, was that of acting as escort to General 
Washington, when he was on his way in July, 1775, to take 
command of the Continental Army. Reviewing these 
youthful soldiers on the New Haven Green with his staff 
officer, General Washington made a brief address and com- 
plimented them upon their efficiency and patriotism, and 
was then escorted by them to the limit of the city with Noah 
Webster at the head of the column. 

When the western part of Connecticut was thrown into 
confusion by Burgoyne's expedition, Webster left his col- 
lege course and entered the Continental Army in the detach- 
ment under the command of his father, Capt. Webster. In 
this campaign all the male members of this family, four in 
number, were in the army. Notwithstanding this interrup- 
tion, he completed his studies and graduated in 1778, with 
others of Revolutionary and public fame, such as Joel Bar- 
low, Minister to the Court of France, Oliver Wolcott, Secre- 
tary of the Treasury under Washington, and afterwards 



Noah Webster 57 

Governor of the State of Connecticut, and others who in 
later years served their country with great distinction and 
honor. 

It is said that when Webster returned home from grad- 
uation his father gave him $8.00 in Continental cur- 
rency and advised him that he must rely upon his own 
exertions in the future. To secure his education for the bar, 
he accomplished a famous work, "Webster's Spelling Book," 
which was the stepping stone to his most distinguished 
achievement, presenting it to the inspection of the members 
of the Continental Congress, who stamped upon it their ap- 
proval and encouraged him to further efforts by awarding 
him a copyright for its protection, while Governor Trumbull 
of Connecticut risked more than the whole amount of his 
property for its publication. 

It was while prosecuting the study of law, that Webster 
began from time to time to note down every word whose 
meaning he did not properly understand which led him to 
conceive the scheme of preparing and publishing a new 
dictionary to supply the place of the famous English dic- 
tionary by Johnson, which had been in use for seventy years 
with scarcely any improvement. Comprehension of the far 
reaching result attained may be realized when we contem- 
plate that the many editions of Webster's dictionary, a few 
years since reached into millions of copies of this great 
work. 

Not long since the principal bookseller in London was 
asked for the best English dictionary and the work of Noah 
Webster was handed the enquirer with the reply "that, sir, 
is the only real dictionary we have of the English language, 
although it was prepared by an American." One eminent 
historian has said "it is a noble monument of the industry 
and research of the author and an honor to his country." 

By most of the present generation, Dr. Webster is 
looked upon chiefly as a learned collegian, and the reputa- 
tion of his grammar and dictionary encourages the im- 
pression that his time was devoted to books and studies 



58 Noah Webster 

only. On the contrary he was active in many other capaci- 
ties. He was an alderman of the city of New Haven, repre- 
sented his town in the Legislature, was a Judge in the State 
Courts, and in 1808 was an active member of the Chamber 
of Commerce. He prepared a memorial of 4,000 words to 
President Jefferson in reference to fostering the growth of 
manufacturing in this country, with a view to rendering the 
people independent of foreign nations. Agitating the water 
question, he was appointed chairman of a committee to build 
the first aqueduct in New Haven and he entered with zeal 
into all matters of public welfare relating to government, 
schools and commerce. His advice was sought on a great 
variety of subjects. He gave freely of his efforts from his 
pen. It is said that he made to Washington the first distinct 
proposal for a new constitution and that his works did more 
to allay popular discontent and support the authority of 
Congress than that of any other man. He wrote upon a 
greater variety of topics than any other author in the United 
States, especially upon such subjects as the foundation of 
government, the laws of the nation, the science of banking, 
the history of the country, the progress of disease, the varia- 
tions of the climate, and on agriculture, education, religion 
and morals. 

In .personal appearance and presence he was distin- 
guished by dignified ease, affability and politeness with 
refinement manifest in all his expression of feeling. He was 
annoyed at notice of his observances of all the nicer proprie- 
ties of life, and was direct, frank and open, but never allow* 
ing any sentiment to escape him on any occasion that was 
not most courteous and refined. 

He lived in this community, in the house now standing 
on the corner of Temple and Grove streets, where he died 
at the age of eighty-five, and he was buried in the Grove 
Street Cemetery. 

It can be truly said of him "That he was known and 
read of all men." 



GENERAL DAVID HUMPHREYS 



BY ALONZO NORTON LEWIS, M.A. 

The following, found with the manuscript after the death of Rev. Mr. Lewis, is 
self-explanatory : 

"This sketch of General Humphreys was read before the 'General David Hum- 
phreys' Branch of the Sons of the American Revolution' in 1893. In February, 1895 . 
the writer was asked to furnish a copy for publication. Having mislaid (or destroyed) 
the manuscript, he has been obliged to reproduce it. 

It seems strange that no Life of General Humphreys has ever been written.* The 
writer lays no claim to originality in this sketch, having compiled most of the material 
from an excellent History of the Humphreys Family by Frederick Humphreys, M.D. 

A. N. LEWIS, 

Member of the S. A. R. and 
Chaplain of the Society of the 
Cincinnati in Connecticut. 
New Haven, February 13, 1895." 



The Humphreys family may be traced back to the 
Norman Conquest. Among the brave warriors who 
followed William the Conqueror from Normandy in 1066, 
we find Sir Robert de Umprevillet Knight, "his Kins- 
man," Lord of Tours and Vian: Humphrey de Carteret, 
whose son Regnaud de Carteret accompanied Duke 
Robert to the Holy Land. Humphrey, Lord of Rohan, 
who seems to have been related to the Conqueror, and 
whose descendants were Hereditary Constables of Eng- 
land, and subsequently Earls of Hereford, Essex and 
Northampton. There were also Humfrey of Tilleul, the 
Warden of Hasting's Castle, io66-'67; Humfrey, the 
King's Seneschal, t killed in the storming of the Castle 
at Le Maur, 1073; and Humfrey the Priest, who was 
living in the neighborhood of Battle Abbey prior to 1087. 

* After Rev. Mr. Lewis wrote the above, a sketch of General Humphreys' life was 
prepared by Rev. Edwin S. Lines, and has been printed in the second volume issued 
by the Branch. See "Exercises at Unveiling of Tablet on Beacon Hill," etc., page 45. 

t Humphreysville was rightly named. 

J Marshal, steward, or major-domo. 



60 General David Humphreys 

In the "Doomsday Book," one of the most ancient 
records of England, the name "Hunfridus" frequently 
occurs. 

Members of the Humphrey family were engaged in 
the Crusades. Peter d' Amfreville, 1197; Le Sire 
d' Umfraville, and L. S. D'Omfrei, 1091. 

In i34o-'9o Humphrey coats of arms (then spelled 
Humfrey) were in existence and duly recorded. 

The cross bottony, or "budded cross," is used as the 
crest, or as the central figure, in several of the Humphrey 
arms. These Crusader crosses were the marks of distinc- 
tion awarded or allowed to the Knights who had borne 
arms in the "Holy Wars," or wars for the recovery of 
the Holy Sepulcher. The escallop shell upon a coat of 
arms also indicates a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The 
bezants were heavy gold coins of the value of 15 pounds 
sterling ($75.00) which were used for the ransom of 
Christian captives taken by the infidels in the Holy Wars, 
and held in captivity, and indicate the large use of this 
money (by the Humphreys) for this purpose. 

II 

The predominant mental trait of the family is self- 
reliance, to the extreme of rashness, or the neglect of 
ordinary prudence in their ventures. The Humphreys 
have always responded "prodigally" to a call to arms. 

Other traits noted are readiness of acquisition, and 
ready adaptation to circumstances. They learn readily 
and retain easily; succeed as professional men, not so 
well as tradesmen. Says Dr. Frederick Humphreys, "I 
have known none as mere mechanics. They sometimes 
learn trades, but never work at them." 

Another characteristic is an artistic temperament, 
indicated in a delicate, almost feminine cast of features; 
and facility of language. Almost all the Humphreys 
are good talkers, story-tellers and speakers. 



General David Humphreys 61 

Goodness of heart is another characteristic. "It has 
been stamped," says Judge Barbour of Hartford, "upon 
the countenance, giving what has been called the 'Hum- 
phrey look.' ' 

The Humphreys are a prolific stock. Large families 
are the rule, especially in the olden time. The men are 
tall, of a clear countenance and large of stature, unless 
their mothers are of small stock. The women are noted 
for vivacity, intelligence and pleasing address, their sons 
often manifesting, in a remarkable degree, the prominent 
family traits. 

Ill 

The name has been spelled various ways. Amfre- 
ville, Anfray, Anfrie, Homfray (French, homme vrai, 
i. e., true man), Hunffreys (Welch), Humfrey, Humph- 
rys, Humphery, Hunpheirs, Humphreys, Humphry, Hun- 
fridus, Hunfredus, Humfroi, Homfrey, Hunfrey, Hum- 
frauvils, Humfrestone (Humphry's town?) and Hum- 
phrey: Onfray, D' Omfrei: Umfrauvill, Umfreville, 
Umfraville, Umfravill, Umphraville, Umfray, Umphrey, 
Umphrastown (Humphrey's town?) and Umfrevile. 

IV 

General David Humphreys, LL.D., F.R.S., was born 
July loth, 1752, at Derby, Connecticut. As a boy he was 
decidedly "bookish," "passionately so," says the author 
to whom I am indebted for much of the material of this 
sketch. He was fitted, under the tuition of his father, 
for Yale College, which he entered in 1767; graduating 
in 1771 with distinguished honors, at the early age of 
nineteen. Dr. Daggett was the President, whose regime 
exhibits the most brilliant display of eminent names 
furnished by the Catalogue of Yale. Trumbull, Dwight, 
Humphreys, and a little later, Barlow. With the caustic 
satire of Trumbull, the noble songs of Dwight and the 
elaborate effusions of Barlow, were mingled the patri- 
otic effusions of Humphreys. 



62 General David Humphreys 

After his graduation (1771), he resided for a short 
time (as instructor) in the distinguished and courtly 
family of Col. Phillips of Phillips Manor, West Chester 
Co., N. Y. At the breaking out of the Revolution he 
entered the army, in his 24th year, as Captain, and was 
speedily promoted Major in General Israel Putnam's 
Brigade. Soon after, he became aide-de-camp to Put- 
nam, a confidential position which was a high compli- 
ment to the young soldier, and considered a very im- 
I^rtant one, both in field and cabinet service. In this 
capacity he was present in the memorable retreat from 
New York after the Battle of Long Island, August 27th, 
1776, and at the affair of Harlem Heights. 

Major Humphreys was Brigade Major of the ist 
Connecticut Brigade on Hudson Highlands in the au- 
tumn of 1777, when the British captured Forts Clinton 
and Montgomery. He was also aide for a time to Gen. 
Greene. Early in 1780 he was appointed aide and Mili- 
tary Secretary to Gen. Washington, with the rank of 
Lieut. -Colonel, and soon after became a member of the 
General's military family, remaining until the end of the 
War, enjoying his full confidence, and sharing the toils 
of his arduous duties. He alludes to his association with 
three distinguished generals in his "Poem on the Happi- 
ness of America." 

"I, too, perhaps, should Heav'n prolong my date, 
The oft-repeated tale shall oft relate ; 
Shall tell the feelings in the first alarms, 
Of some bold enterprise th' unequalled charms ; 
Shall tell from whom I learned the martial art, 
With what high chiefs I played my early part ; 
With Parsons* first, whose eye, with piercing ken, 
Reads thro' their hearts the characters of men; 
Then how I aided, in the following scene, 
Death-daring Putnam then immortal Greene 
Then how great Washington my youth approved, 
In rank preferr'd, and as a parent loved; 
(For each fine feeling in his bosom blends 
The first of heroes, sages, patriots, friends^ 

* Brig. Gen'l Parsons of Connecticut. 



General David Humphreys 63 

With him what hours on warlike plains I spent, 
Beneath the shadow of th' imperial tent; 
With him how oft I went the nightly round, 
Thro' moving hosts, or slept on tented ground; 
From him how oft (nor far below the first* 
In high behests and confidential trust) 
From him how oft I bore the dread commands, 
Which destin'd for the fight the eager bands: 
With him how oft I pass'd the eventful day, 
Rode by his side, as down the long array, 
His awful voice the columns taught to form, 
To point the thunder, and to pour the storm." 

He proved himself an efficient and worthy officer on 
the Staff of the Commander-in-Chief, and especially at 
the siege of Yorktown, where he had a separate com- 
mand. When Lord Cornwallis surrendered, October 19, 
1781, Col. Humphreys had the distinguished honor of 
receiving the English colors, and as a mark of approba- 
tion, bearing them from Washington to Congress, with 
copies of the returns of prisoners, arms, ordnance, and 
25 stands of colors surrendered, with a letter from the 
Commander-in-Chief commending the bearer to the con- 
sideration of the Government, f 

Congress ordered "an elegant sword to be presented, 
in the name of the United States in Congress, to Col. 
Humphreys, to whose care the standards taken under 
the capitulation of York (sic) were committed, as a 
testimony of their opinion of his fidelity: and that the 
Board of War take order therein." In 1786 this order 
was carried into effect, and the sword presented by Gen. 
Knox, then Secretary of War, accompanied by a highly 
complimentary letter. 

In November, 1782, he was commissioned Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel, the commission to bear date from the 23d 
of June, 17 , when he was appointed aide-de-camp 
to Washington. 

While in the service Col. Humphreys had given his 

* First was then pronounced "fust." 

t Col. Humphreys had a picture executed in Spain, portraying his delivery of the 
trophies of Yorktown to Congress. 



64 General David Humphreys 

name and influence to the establishment of a company 
of colored infantry which was attached to Col. Meigs', 
afterwards Col. Butler's, Regiment of the Connecticut 
Line, of which he continued nominal Captain during the 
War. Jethro Martin, a colored servant (slave?) of Col. 
Humphreys, received a pension for many years on ac- 
count of his military service. 

In May, 1782, we find the names of David Humphreys, 
Aide-de-Camp, and Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., Secretary, 
officially endorsed upon a copy of Gen. Washington's 
reply to a letter of Col. Nicola, proposing the establish- 
ment of a Kingdom, and suggesting the title of King to 
the illustrious Commander-in-Chief . 

Preliminaries of peace between the United States and 
Great Britain having been settled in November, 1782, 
hostilities were suspended. In December, 1783, Washing- 
ton resigned his commission at Annapolis, being attended 
on that occasion by Col. Humphreys, who by special 
request accompanied him to Mount Vernon. His friend 
Barlow alludes to this event in his " Vision of Columbus." 

"While Freedom's cause his patriot bosom warms, 
In lore of nations skilled, and brave in arms, 
See Humphreys glorious from the field retire, 
Sheathe the glad sword, and string the sounding lyre 
That lyre, which erst, in hours of dark despair, 
Roused the sad realms to urge th' unfinished war: 
O'er fallen friends, with all the strength of woe, 
His heart-felt sighs in moving numbers flow. 
His country's wrongs, her duties, dangers, praise, 
Fire his full soul, and animate his lays. 
Immortal Washington with joy shall own 
So fond a favorite and so great a son." 

In May, 1784, Col. Humphreys was elected by Con- 
gress Secretary to the "Commission for Negotiating Treaties 
of Commerce with Foreign Powers," the Committee being 
John Adams, then Minister to Holland, Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Minister to France, and Thomas Jefferson, whom he 
accompanied in July of the same year to Europe. Gen. 
Kosciusko, also, was his compagnon du voyage. 



9 




FACSIMILE OF WASHINGTON'S AUTOGRAPHIC LETTER INTRODUCING 

COL. HUMPHREYS TO BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, UNITED 

STATES MINISTER TO FRANCE. 

The text of the letter is as follows: 

Mout Vernon 2d June 1784. 
Dear Sir; 

Congress having been pleased to appoint Colo Humphreys Secretary to 
the Commissioners, for framing Commercial Treaties in Europe; I take the liberty of 
introducing him to you. 

This Gentleman was several years in my family as an Aid de Camp. His zeal in 
the cause of his Country his good sense, prudence, and attachment to me, rendered 
him dear to me; and I persuade myself you will find no confidence wch you may think 
proper to repose in him, misplaced. He possesses an excellent heart, good natural & 
acquired ability and sterling integrity to which may be added sobriety, & an 
obliging disposition. 

A full conviction of his possessing all these good qualities, makes me less scrupu- 
lous of recommending him to your patronage and friendship. He will repeat to you 
the assurances of perfect esteem, regard, & consideration, with which I have the 
honor to be, 

Dear Sir, 

Yr. Most Obedt. & very Hble. Ser., 

GO. WASHINGTON. 
The Hon'ble 

Doct'r Franklin. 



General David Humphreys 65 

Col. Humphreys bore with him a highly complimentary 
letter of introduction from Washington to Minister 
Franklin. 

At the close of two years of negotiation, he returned 
to America, and at once visited his old Commander at 
Mount Vernon. 

In the Autumn of 1786, when the Shay Rebellion 
broke out, Col. Humphreys was elected a member of the 
General Assembly from Derby, and October 2oth of the 
same year was appointed by that body to command the 
3d U. S. Infantry. This Regiment was raised, in compli- 
ance with a requisition of Congress, "on account of an 
Indian War," its real object being disguised from motives 
of policy. Col. Humphreys fixed upon Hartford as his 
headquarters, where he renewed his intimacy with John 
Trumbull and Joel Barlow. With these two friends and 
Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, he was soon engaged in writing 
the "Anarchiad," a satirical poem in 24 numbers, and 
from this association one of the "four bards with Scripture 
names,"* were satirized in London. The Shay Rebellion 
being suppressed early the following year, the Regiment 
was reduced, April ist, 1787, and Col. Humphreys was 
again invited to the hearth of Washington. 

In the Fall of 1789 he was appointed by Congress a 
Commissioner to treat with the Creek Indians on the 
frontiers of the Southern States, his associates being 
Cyrus Griffin and Gen. Benj. Lincoln. 

In 1791 he was commissioned first Minister from the 
United States to Portugal, and served in that capacity 
for several years. He concluded treaties with Algiers 
and Tripoli, after his return from the United States, 
where he went to make a personal representation on the 
subject of the Barbary aggressions. Many American 
citizens were rescued from captivity, and our commerce 
secured from further spoliations. 

* John, David, Joel and Lemuel. They were also called the "Hartford Wits." 



66 General David Humphreys 

In 1797 he was transferred to the Court of Madrid 
as Minister to Spain, where he remained until 1802, when 
he returned to his native land. 

The following extract from the "Farewell" of the 
Abbe O'Moore, written January i, 1802, gives'a foreigner's 
opinion as to his moral worth : 

"Humphreys has strength of character to bear, 
Unmoved, all fortunes in a lofty sphere; 
Beneath his feet repulsive pride to throw, 
And stoop with dignity to those below. 
But if his country bids, in arduous hour, 
He, bold, asserts his ministerial power; 
And mildly stubborn, ev'n before a throne, 
Supports his nation's honor and his own." 

He married in Lisbon, in 1797, Ann Frances Bulkley, 
daughter of John Bulkley, an English banker residing 
in that city. Her annual income is said to have been 
^30,000. She is described as "a lady of refinement, and 
of a fine, motherly disposition." Their places of residence 
were Boston, New Haven and Derby, Col. Humphreys 
being frequently called to his native town by business 
engagements. 

In June, 1796, Col. Humphreys received the following 
letter from* Washington, which shows that the Father of 
his Country had a vein of humor in his composition: 

"Whenever you shall think, with the poet or philosopher, that 
'the post of honour is a private station,' and may be disposed to 
enjoy yourself in my shades I do not mean the shades below, where, 
if you put it off long, I may be reclining, I can only repeat, that 
you will meet with the same cordial reception at Mount Vernon that 
you have always found at that place; and that I am, and always 
shall be, 

Your sincere friend, 
And affectionate servant, 

GEO. WASHINGTON." 

The man who could inspire such a friendship in the 
heart of such a man as Washington must have been 
something more than common. 



General David Humphreys 67 

V 

While a resident of Lisbon, Colonel Humphreys' 
attention had been turned to the importance of a more 
general introduction of manufactures into the United 
States. 

In order to improve the breed of sheep in this country, 
he contracted "with a person of the most respectable 
character" to deliver to him, at Lisbon, one hundred 
Spanish merino sheep, "composed of 25 rams and 75 ewes, 
from one to two years old." They were conducted with 
proper passports across the country of Portugal by three 
Spanish shepherds, and escorted by a small band of 
Portuguese soldiers. On the loth of April, 1802, they 
were embarked in the Tagus, on board the ship Persever- 
ance, of 250 tons, Caleb Coggeshall master. In about 
fifty days 21 rams and 70 ewes were landed in Derby, 
Conn., they having been shifted at New York on board 
of a sloop destined to that landing. The nine which died 
were principally killed in consequence of bruises received 
by the violent rolling of the vessel on the Banks of New- 
foundland.* 

In recognition of this service the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural Society presented Col. Humphreys with an ele- 
gant gold medal. 

The introduction of the Spanish sheep caused a great 
excitement. Col. Humphreys discouraged all specula- 
tion, selling the herd at cost, or less, to the most enter- 
prising farmers. His advice and entreaties, however, 
were unheeded, and soon the price rose from one hundred 
to four hundred dollars, mounting from that to $1,000, 
$1,500 and $2,000 per head. A few were sold as high as 
$2,500 and $3,000! Many honest men suffered great loss 
in the speculation, but no blame could be attached to 
Col. Humphrey s.t 

* From an address by Col. Humphreys before the Mass. Agricultural Society. 
t These were the first merinoes ever brought to America. 



68 General David Humphreys 

VI 

In 1803 Col. Humphreys began his distinguished 
career as a manufacturer, purchasing a tract of land, 
the water power, two fulling mills, a clothier's shop, etc., 
on the Naugatuck River, at the Derby Falls. These mills 
had been used for the dressing of cloth, the spinning and 
weaving of the wool being done at the homes of the inhab- 
itants. Machinery for the weaving of the cloth, and 
skilled mechanics were brought from Europe; cottages 
were erected for the operatives, and a school established 
on this property, the name of the village being called 
Humphreys ville,* in compliment to its founder. 

He succeeded so well in this beneficent and philan- 
thropic enterprise, the production of fine broadcloth, 
that, in 1808, he had the reputation of producing the 
best quality of that kind of goods in America. So cele- 
brated had "Humphreys' cloth" become, that in Novem- 
ber, 1808, President Jefferson, desirous of appearing at 
the White House, on New Year's Day, with a suit of 
clothes of American manufacture, sent to the Collector 
of Customs at New Haven the following order: "Home- 
spun is become the spirit of the times. I think it an useful 
one, and therefore that it is a duty to encourage it by 
example. f The best fine cloth made in the United States, 
I am told, is at the manufactory of Col. Humphreys. 
Send enough for a suit." 

In 1808-09 the Philadelphia Domestic Society offered 
a premium of $50 for the best piece of broadcloth 20 
yards long and six quarters wide. Col. Humphreys took 
the prize. Coats were made therefrom for Presidents 
Jefferson and Madison, and the Heads of Departments; 
also for Capt. Isaac Hull, afterward Commander of the 
frigate Constitution. The price of this cloth was $12 
a yard. 

Mr. John Winterbotham of England, father of the 

* Since unjustly changed to Seymour. 

t Would Jefferson have been a "Free Trader" in 1895? 



General David Humphreys 69 

authoress, Mrs. Ann S. Stephens, was associated with 
Col. Humphreys in his manufacturing enterprise at 
Humphreysville . 

Mrs. Stephens, in the History of Derby, gives a 
graphic description of Col. Humphreys, from which we 
quote. 

"Col. H. kept up in his appearance and habits all the traditions 
that have come down to us from the Revolution. I remember him, 
at first dimly, in a blue coat and large gold (or what appeared to be 
gold) buttons, a buff vest, and laced ruffles around his wrists and in 
his bosom. His complexion was soft and blooming like that of a child, 
and his gray hair, swept back from his forehead, was gathered in a 
cue behind, and tied with a black or red ribbon. His white and plump 
hands I recollect well, for wherever he met me they were sure to ruffle 
up my curls, and sometimes my temper, which was frequently tran- 
quilized with some light silver coin ranging anywhere from a four- 
pence half -penny to a half dollar." 

She goes on to say that Col. H. took great interest 
in the discipline and education of the apprentice-boys 
employed in his factory. Seventy-three of these boys 
were from the New York almshouse, and from the neigh- 
boring villages. For these he established Sunday and 
evening schools with competent teachers, and indulged 
his military tastes by uniforming them, at no light ex- 
pense to himself, as a militia company, drilling them 
himself. "Lady" Humphreys made and beautifully 
embroidered an elegant silk flag for the company, which 
is still preserved, its inscription being as follows: 

1 ' Humphreysville. 
JAM NOVA PROGENIES, 

PERSEVERANDA PACTA, SEMPER SERRANDA, 
MDCCCX." 

Of course there were rogues among the boys, and 
when thefts or small vices were discovered, the offender 
was given his choice to be rendered up to the civil au- 
thorities, or tried and punished by a court organized on 
the premises. Almost invariably they elected the latter. 

The Colonel, in his business enterprise, did not forget 



70 General David Humphreys 

his literary propensities that had connected him with 
Barlow and Trumbull at Yale College. He wrote a great 
deal for the benefit and amusement of the operatives; 
and the Christmas holidays were often celebrated with 
private theatricals, at which an original play (written by 
the Colonel) would be performed by the most talented 
work-people, and in which he himself, more than once, 
took a prominent part. These representations were 
attended by the best people of the neighborhood and 
adjoining towns. In fact he omitted nothing that could 
arouse the ambition or promote the intellectual improve- 
ment of the operatives, and this he did after a grand 
military fashion. His large size increased his fine com- 
manding appearance, as he was six feet two inches in 
height, and weighed about 230 pounds. He was a great 
stickler for etiquette, so much so as to have drawn upon 
himself the ridicule and lampoons of those who failed to 
appreciate his keen sense of propriety and decorum. 

He was representative from Derby to the State Legis- 
lature five sessions, in 1812, '13 and '14, when his public 
career appears to have terminated. 

He was associated, as Member or Fellow, with sev- 
eral literary institutions, both in this country and Europe, 
and received from three American colleges the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws. 

His last years were spent principally in Boston and 
New Haven, his death occurring very suddenly, at the latter 
place, February 2ist, 1818, at the age of sixty-five years. 
He had been suffering, for a few days, from an apparently 
slight indisposition. With his usual courtesy he handed 
a lady friend to her carriage, standing, hat in hand, until 
her departure, then returned to his apartments at the 
hotel,* lay down on the sofa, and expired. 

His monument stands in the northwestern part of 
the ancient New Haven cemetery. It is a granite obelisk 
about twelve feet in height. The following inscriptions 

* The Tontine (?). 



General David Humphreys 71 

are upon two bronze tablets which are inserted in the 
east and west sides of the pedestal. The epitaph was 
written by his early and faithful friend, Judge John Trum- 
bull, the poet. 

DAVID HUMPHREYS, LL.D. 

Acad. Scient. Philad. Mass, et Connect. 

et in Anglia Aquae Solis, et Regiae Societat, 

Socius. 

Patriae et Libertatis amore accensus, 
Juvenis vitam Reipub. integram consecravit, 

patriam armis tuebatur, 

consiliis auxit, literis exorvavit, 

apud exteras gentes concordia stabilivit. 

(On the reverse side) 

In bello gerendo 

maximi ducis Washington administer et adjutor; 

in exercitu patrio Chiliarchus; 

in Republica Connecticutensi 

militum evocatorum Imperator; 

ad Aulam Lusitan. et Hispan. Legatas, 

Iberia re versus natale solum 

vellere vere aureo ditavit. 

In Historia et Poesi scriptor eximius; 

in Artibus et Scientiis excolendis, 

quae vel decori vel usui inserviunt, 

optimus ipse et patronus et exemplar. 

Omnibus demum officiis expletis, 
cursug; vitae feliciter peraeto, fato cessit, 
Die XXI. Februar. Anno Domini MDCCCXVIII, 
cum annos vixisset LXV. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

David Humphreys, Doctor of Laws, Member of the Academy 
of Sciences of Philadelphia, Massachusetts and Connecticut: of the 
Bath (Agricultural) Society, and of the Royal Society of London. 
Fired with the love of country and of liberty, he consecrated his youth 
wholly to the service of the Republic, which he defended by his arms, 
aided by his counsels, adorned by his learning, and preserved in har- 
mony with foreign nations. 

In the field he was the companion and aide of the great Wash- 
ington, a Colonel in the army of his country, and commander of the 
Veteran Volunteers of Connecticut. He went as Ambassador to the 
Courts of Portugal and Spain, and returning, enriched his native 
land with the true Golden Fleece. He was a distinguished Historian 
and Poet; a model and Patron of Science, and of the ornamental 
and useful arts. 

After a full discharge of every duty and a life well spent, he died 
on the 2ist day of February, 1818, aged 65 years." 



72 General David Humphreys 

VII 

The literary works of General Humphreys, both in 
prose and verse, which were numerous, may be found in 
an octavo volume entitled "The Miscellaneous Works of 
David Humphreys, Late Minister Plenipotentiary from 
the U. S. to the Court of Madrid/' Several editions of 
his writings were published both in Europe and America. 

REV. MR. LEWIS ADDED THIS ADDENDA TO His SKETCH: 

"There ought to be erected to the memory of Gen. Humphreys a public monument 
worthy of his fame and services. The citizens of his native town, whose name was 
changed from Humphreysville to Seymour, ought to do this as an act of justice. 

In his Valedictory Address to the Society of the Cincinnati in Connecticut, July 
4, 1804, Gen. Humphreys said in substance: 'In sixty years slavery in the United 
States will practically disappear.' In 1863 (59 years after this prophecy) President 
Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation." 




THE BENEDICT ARNOLD HOUSE. 

Formerly on the north side of Water Street about midway between Union and Olive Streets. 



THE EARLY CAREER 

OF BENEDICT ARNOLD 



BY GEORGE HARE FORD. 

Read before the General David Humphreys Branch, Connecticut Society, Sons 
of the American Revolution, and the members of the Second Company Governor's 
Foot Guard, at their Armory, November, 1907. 



It is not inappropriate that here in this Armory occupied 
by a command that has been continually in existence since 
the Revolutionary period, we consider the early career of 
Benedict Arnold, who was elected its first Captain, March 
6th, 1775. 

Although of Connecticut birth, and a New Haven 
citizen, his career belongs to the whole country, and next 
to the immortal Washington, probably no American name 
has been more conspicuous for soldierly ability and heroism, 
though in his later life it was tarnished with disgrace and 
infamy. 

ANCESTRY. 

In the old historical churchyard at Newport, adjoining 
the aristocratic Trinity edifice, the Arnold plot is prominent 
to-day. The stones, in a good state of preservation, record 
the genealogy of the family for generations, for the Ar- 
nolds were among the first settlers and proprietors of Rhode 
Island. 

William Arnold came with Roger Williams, suc- 
ceeded him as President of the colony under the first 
charter, and was for fifteen years governor of the colony 
under the second charter. He had three sons, Benedict, 
Thomas and Stephen. This Benedict was the grandfather 
of Captain, Colonel, Brigadier, and afterwards Major- 
General Benedict Arnold. Benedict, General Arnold's 



74 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 

father, moved to Norwich, Connecticut, in 1730, and en- 
gaged in commerce with England and the West Indies ; was 
the owner of vessels, acquired a competency, and became a 
merchant; served as Collector, Selectman and militia Cap- 
tain. He married a Mrs. King, a widow, who is said to 
have been eminent for her amiable qualities and Christian 
virtues, and highly connected. 

His BOYHOOD DAYS. 

Half way between Norwich and the upper town, in a 
fine old colonial residence, Arnold was born January 3rd, 
1740 (Sparks Biography, 1835), although some historians 
give the date January I4th, 1741. The most trustworthy 
authorities indicate the former date as correct. He was 
reared in the atmosphere and associations of such men as 
Jonathan Trumbull, General Jabez Huntington, aide to 
Washington; Samuel Huntington, president of Congress, 
and others, whose influence helped to develop in young 
Arnold character that was powerful, patriotic and lasting. 

As a boy it is recorded that his courage was remarkable, 
that among his playmates he was an athletic despot, a ring- 
leader in every bit of mischief, performing feats of daring, 
such as firing field pieces with fire brands in his hands, cele- 
brating events by building bonfires from valuable casks, 
boxes, and any available material, and offering to fight any 
authority who attempted to interrupt his pranks. His con- 
duct then is said to have caused perpetual, anxiety to his 
mother. 

Under date of April I2th, 1754, attending school at 
Canterbury, she wrote him as follows : 

44 Keep a strict watch over your thoughts, words and actions. Be 
dutiful to your superiors, obliging to your equals, and affable to in- 
feriors, if any there be. Always choose that your companions be your 
betters, that by their good examples you may learn. 

Your affectionate mother, 

HANNAH ARNOLD." 



The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 75 

Apprenticed while a lad to his uncles, Lathrop Brothers, 
druggists (said to have been distinguished in their day for 
worth of character and extensive business relations), indif- 
ferent to the good or ill opinion of others, continuing his 
feats of rashness and daring, he soon wearied of his duties, 
and at sixteen enlisted as a soldier, without the knowledge 
of his family. His mother was so distressed that, through 
influential friends, she succeeded in getting him released 
from the army, and brought back, but he soon ran away 
again, re-enlisted, and was stationed at Ticonderoga and 
different places on the Canadian frontier. Employed in 
garrison duty only, and seeing no prospect of gratifying 
his ambition for bold adventures, he returned to Norwich 
and the position he had left. 

MOVES TO NEW HAVEN. 

With a capital of $2,000, furnished him by his former 
employers, he moved to New Haven and opened an apothe- 
cary shop at the corner of George and Church Sts. He soon 
added general merchandise, and prospered to such an ex- 
tent that his later place on Water Street became, in his 
time, what might be termed a big department store of 
to-day. With its profits he purchased and built vessels, ex- 
tended his trade by sailing them to the West Indies, became 
a navigator himself and traveled as far north in the 
country as Canada, purchasing horses and cattle for his 
shipments, and rapidly moving to the front as a merchant, 
and becoming prominent in public affairs. 

The late Thomas R. Trowbridge, Sr., writes in New 
Haven Historical Society papers, giving the names of the 
owners of New Haven vessels, that about this period more 
than one hundred New Haven ships were engaged in trade 
and commerce with Europe and the West Indies, Arnold 
owning the Fortune, Charming Sally, and Three Brothers. 

He was absent on a voyage at the time of the Boston 
massacre, 1770, and on hearing the news upon his return, 



76 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 

his indignation was great, his utterances and arguments 
were outspoken, and his patriotism conspicuous and inspir- 
ing to his fellow citizens. 

He was a foremost man in the community, and when 
he was chosen Commander of the Second Company, Gov- 
ernor's Foot Guard, good citizens of every calling appeared 
in the ranks. To be a private in his command was an 
honor ; to be an officer, a mark of high distinction. 

MARCH TO CAMBRIDGE. 

The story of the assembling of his command upon the 
New Haven Green in April, 1775, upon the arrival of the 
news of the battle of Lexington; the opposition that he 
received from his superior commander, General Wooster, 
who advised him to wait for proper orders ; his impetuous 
reply, "None but Almighty God shall prevent my march;" 
his demand upon the New Haven selectmen for the keys to 
the powder house, and upon their refusal, his second 
demand that if they did not yield, he would take his 
ammunition by force; his ardor as a leader, with his com- 
pany hastening forward by rapid march to Cambridge, are 
details too well known to be dwelt on here. 

The compact that he drew up, and compelled each man 
to sign, stipulated that they would conduct themselves 
decently and orderly to their countrymen and each other, 
avoid drunkenness, gaming, profanity, and every vice, obey 
their officers, and that upon the decision of a majority, any 
person guilty of offence should be dismissed from the 
service. 

Historians all concede that the Revolutionary campaign 
of Connecticut forces began under Benedict Arnold and his 
command, and it is said to have been a proud day for the 
city and state when the company took up the line of march 
to Cambridge with banners bearing the arms of the colony, 
and drum heads painted with the crest and motto of the 
state. 



The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 77 

COMMISSIONED A COLONEL. 

The import of the engagements at Concord and Lexing- 
ton over, and plans for a campaign were considered. Many 
of his company returned home, but Arnold remained, and 
proposed to the Massachusetts authorities a scheme for the 
capture of Ticonderoga. From his experience and famili- 
arity with the locality, he offered to take the lead in the 
enterprise. In thirty days he was commissioned as a 
colonel in the service of Massachusetts and commander-in- 
chief of four hundred men to proceed on this expedition to 
take this fort. He was authorized to procure stores and 
provisions for his command. 

CAPTURES TICONDEROGA. 

His temperament admitted no delay. Three days after 
receiving his commission he arrived in Stockbridge, near 
the frontier of Massachusetts. Forty miles distant at Ben- 
nington he met an unorganized body of Green Mountain 
boys under Ethan Allen, who had also conceived the idea 
of capturing Ticonderoga. Arnold showed his commission, 
and claimed the command of the joint expedition, but the 
Green Mountain boys were too much attached to their com- 
mander to permit any one to supersede him, and for once 
the discretion of Arnold got the better of his ambition, and 
he consented to a compromise, and joined the party as a 
volunteer, maintaining his rank, but not the chief command. 

"In the name of the great Jehovah and the Continental 
Congress" the fort was captured by the combined forces, 
Ethan Allen, the commander, entering the fort at the head 
of his men, and Arnold passing at his left hand, the love of 
glory, common to both, being gratified. 

Although wounded in pride, Arnold again assuming 
that no other person was vested with authority equal to his, 
attempted to assume command, but was again defeated. 



78 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 

COMMANDS NAVY. 

But it was not his nature to be idle. In four days (and 
here his maritime experience became useful) he commanded 
a vessel and with fifty volunteers went down Lake Cham- 
plain, surprised the garrison at St. John's, captured valuable 
stores, one sloop and four boats, and burned five others. 
Hence he became commander of the first naval engagement 
between the Americans and the British. 

Thus in an eight-day campaign under Allen and Arnold, 
the formidable outposts of Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 
renowned in former wars, fell into the hands of the Ameri- 
cans. 

Meantime, preparations were being made to bring some 
vessels from Montreal in an expedition to proceed up Lake 
Champlain to take the forts. This gave Arnold an oppor- 
tunity for separating from Allen, and he was made com- 
mander of the North on the lake. With headquarters on 
the king's sloop which he had captured, he proceeded to 
equip his vessels with guns, mortars and stores, and com- 
missioned a captain for each vessel. 

In June of this same year he expressed to Congress the 
belief that the whole of Canada might be taken with two 
thousand men, and offered to head this expedition, and be 
responsible for consequences. He was personally acquainted 
with the country, and, in his mercantile pursuits, had made 
friends in Montreal and Quebec. 

ADMIRAL OF A FLEET. 

Arnold was then acting in the double capacity of com- 
mander of the fortress at Crown Point, and admiral of his 
little fleet, and paid from his own pocket hundreds of 
pounds, and contracted debts on his own personal credit. It 
is stated that his presumption and arrogance at this time be- 
came a subject of censure. Protests against the assump- 
tion of so large an authority resulted in the appointment of 
a committee from Connecticut and Massachusetts to con- 



The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 79 

sider the situation. Meanwhile General Washington had 
taken command of the army at Cambridge, and Congress 
had decided upon the invasion of Canada, to be made under 
General Schuyler, and Arnold was selected to conduct the 
expedition, receiving from Washington the commission of 
colonel in the Continental service. 

PROMOTED TO BRIGADIER-GENERAL. 

In September, 1775, six months after his election as cap- 
tain of the Foot Guard, he left Boston for Quebec, with his 
company of men, including volunteers under Colonel Aaron 
Burr, afterwards Vice President of the United States. The 
route was over the mountains, across the rivers and marshes 
of Maine and New Hampshire, an uninhabited country, 
hauling barges with them ; cold weather and snow overtook 
them; clothing in rags, limbs torn by briers, provisions 
scarce, and blankets worn out, hemlock boughs supplying 
them shelter, fish and roots their chief diet. "Marvelous," 
says Carrington, "was the endurance of these men." As 
though in his element, Arnold's courage never abated, his 
confidence of success never failed him. He was animated 
by the thought that they would surprise Quebec and suc- 
ceed in the conquest of Canada. When he saw the towers 
of Quebec from the top of Mt. Bigelow, less than three 
days' rations remained after thirty-two days' march through 
the wilderness without meeting a human being. 

At daylight, on the morning of November 9th, the 
drums in the city of Quebec beat "To arms," when Arnold's 
men appeared upon the river shore. By the aid of thirty 
bark canoes he had transferred his seven hundred and fifty 
men across the river, with many unserviceable muskets, 
ruined cartridges, and an average of five pounds only of 
ammunition per man. 

On Christmas Day, 1775, at the officers' council, it was 
resolved to make an attack as soon as possible, the little 
army having formed a junction with Montgomery, who 



80 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 

had the chief command. On the 3ist day of December an 
attack was made under the most adverse circumstances. 
The breath of the men covered their faces with ice, the 
ground was hard and slippery. Amid a whirl of grapeshot 
Montgomery was killed; Arnold moved on, becoming the 
ranking commander. His right knee was shattered by a 
musket ball, and he was carried to the rear. The assault 
failed. 

However, Congress, on receiving the news of the attack 
on Quebec, promoted Arnold to the rank of brigadier-gen- 
eral, in recognition of his gallant conduct and extraordi- 
nary ability. With his shadow of an army he maintained a 
blockade through that tedious winter. 

AT MONTREAL. 

In the spring of the following year General Wooster ar- 
rived in Quebec, and, being of superior rank, succeeded 
Arnold in command. A coldness and reserve sprang up be- 
tween them, and Arnold, with his detachment, retired to 
Montreal, which he held at great risk until the last moment. 
In evacuating Montreal, after his men were safely em- 
barked, Arnold, with his aide-de-camp, rode two miles to 
reconnoitre, then returned, stripped the horses, shot them 
and pushed off the boat with his own hands, thus indulging 
in the vanity of being the last man to embark from the 
shore. 

A quarrel having arisen among members of his com- 
mand, Arnold went to Albany to report Seizing supplies 
at Montreal for sustenance, the goods were taken in such a 
hurry that lists of the articles, and form of delivery, were 
not complete, and they were placed in charge of Col. Hazen, 
who from personal hostility to Arnold neglected to properly 
care for them, and the blame fell on Arnold as the mover 
in the enterprise. He, in return, threw the blame on Hazen, 
which resulted in a court martial for Col. Hazen. The 
court martial refused to accept the testimony of one of 



The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 81 

Arnold's principal witnesses, decided in favor of Hazen, 
and demanded an apology from Arnold, who promptly 
refused, with a letter in which he criticized the Court of 
Inquiry. The matter was referred to General Gates, who 
had succeeded Schuyler as commander-in-chief of the north. 
Gates endorsed the conduct of Arnold, stating that "the 
country must not be deprived of that most excellent officer's 
services at this important moment." 

Although the court acquitted Hazen, Arnold's military 
popularity sustained him in his prestige as an officer. This 
transaction was the first important link in the chain of 
events which finally led to Arnold's ruin. 

BATTLE OF PLATTSBURG. 

About this time the British conceived the plan of reach- 
ing New York by Lake Champlain. Arnold was appointed 
in command of the fleet on the lakes, and on October nth, 
1776, occurred the most obstinate naval battle in Revolu- 
tionary history, off Plattsburg. Overcome by superior 
numbers, Arnold ordered his fleet on shore, and as soon as 
the vessels were aground, set them on fire and ordered his 
forces to leap in the water, and wade to the beach, which 
done he formed them on the bank to prevent the approach 
of the small boats of the enemy, he being the last to leave 
his own galley, and then not until the fire had made such 
progress that it could not be extinguished. Not being in con- 
dition to oppose the enemy, he proceeded through the woods 
to Crown Point and Ticonderoga. At this time, though 
disliked by many in the army from a spirit of jealousy and 
rivalry, he was admired by the people at large for his daring 
achievements. Now ordered to reinforce General Wash- 
ington in New Jersey, he arrived a week preceding the 
battle of Trenton, and was immediately dispatched to Rhode 
Island, January, 1777. 



82 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 

OFFICERS APPOINTED OVER HIM. 

About this time an incident happened which made him 
begin to talk of the ingratitude of his country, and had an 
important bearing on his future. Congress, operating on 
the same principle as to-day of dividing patronage, created 
five new major-generals, without including Arnold, then 
the senior brigadier, in the list. All of them were juniors 
in rank. He was astonished and indignant, but concealed 
his emotions with more moderation than might have been 
expected from such an impetuous disposition. Washington 
was surprised, feared the ill effects, and wrote Arnold a 
soothing letter, begging him to take no hasty steps, express- 
ing his conviction that there was some mistake which would 
be, in due time, rectified, adding assurances of his own 
admiration and friendship. Arnold replied immediately, but 
with symptoms of strong feeling. "Congress undoubtedly 
has a right," said he, "of promoting those who, from their 
abilities and their long and arduous service, it esteems the 
most deserving, but the promoting of junior officers to the 
rank of major-generals, I view in a civil way as requesting 
my resignation. I have sacrificed my business interests, 
ease, and happiness in our cause, I have repeatedly fought 
and bled, and am ready at all times to risk my life. My 
commission was conferred unsolicited, and received with 
pleasure, only as a means of serving my country. With 
equal pleasure I resign, when I can no longer serve with 
honor." 

VALOR AT DANBURY. 

His business gone, his wife dead, and family scattered 
in his absence, his property pledged ; disgusted and dis- 
heartened on his way home via Philadelphia where he de- 
manded of Congress his rights, he arrived in Connecticut at 
the time the British expedition under General Tryon landed 
at Compo, near Fairfield. Generals Silliman and Wooster 
had collected about six hundred men, only one hundred 



The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 83 

being Continental troops, the others volunteers. Arnold 
joined them near Redding, marched to Bethel, and learned 
in the middle of the night that the town of Danbury had 
been destroyed. Wooster with two hundred men marched 
to harass the enemy in the rear, Arnold and Silliman, with 
the other division, taking a different route, with a design of 
intercepting their retreat. Wooster overtook the enemy's 
rear and attacked them, placing himself at the front to 
encourage his men, and had just called out, "Come on, my 
boys, never mind those random shots," when he received 
the wound that proved mortal. 

Arnold reached Ridgefield, took a position and erected a 
barricade of carts, logs and earth across the road to prevent 
the British from passing. With only five hundred men 
against the two thousand, Arnold was obliged to retreat, but 
was the last man to leave the scene. Entangled with his 
struggling horse, which had been shot under him, one of 
the redcoats rushed forward with a fixed bayonet to kill 
him, shouting, "Surrender! You are my prisoner!" "Not 
yet," said the intrepid Arnold, and drawing his pistol, he 
shot the would-be captor dead, and escaped under heavy fire 
unharmed. This was only another exhibition of his cool 
and steady courage in moments of extreme danger. Con- 
gress made good his horse with the following words of 
approval : "In the name of this Congress, as a token of their 
approbation for his gallant conduct in the action against the 
enemy in their late enterprise at Danbury." 

At Compo Beach the next day Arnold rallied his men 
and made a gallant defense. Here twenty-two patriots were 
killed and Arnold's horse was shot through the neck. At 
this spot a patriotic memorial is soon to be erected. 

APPOINTED MAJOR-GENERAL. 

The news of all these exploits by Arnold reached Con- 
gress quickly, and without delay Arnold was promoted to 
the rank of Major-General, but the date of his commission 



84 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 

was left below the five major-generals who had been ap- 
pointed over him. He was then assigned to the command 
of the army then on the Delaware above Trenton in the 
neighborhood of Philadelphia. 

Meanwhile Arnold's accounts, in which he claimed to 
have surrendered his entire fortune, had been referred to a 
committee who failed to report. His temper and patience 
exhausted, he tendered his resignation, but in words pro- 
fessing an ardent love for his country. Just at this crisis, 
Burgoyne loomed up. Washington needed Arnold above 
all others, and the same day the letter of resignation was 
sent to Congress, General Washington recommended that 
Arnold be immediately sent to the Northern army. "He is 
active, judicious and brave," said Washington. Flattered 
by this reference, Arnold suspended his demand for resigna- 
tion, leaving it with Congress, and volunteered to serve 
again an act of magnanimity that invites praise and 
esteem. 

St. Clair, one of the five major-generals promoted over 
him, was in command, but Arnold waived all considera- 
tions, and served under him, declaring that he would do his 
duty in the ranks. 

His BRAVERY AT SARATOGA. 

It is stated by historians that Gates in the battle of 
Saratoga was absent from the field, and under the influence 
of intoxicants in his quarters. At a consultation of the 
officers, it was stated that progress was slow. Arnold ex- 
claimed, "I will soon put an end to it," and started out at a 
full gallop. After the battle was over, while Arnold had 
been on the field, and at the head of every attack, Gates, in 
a communication to Congress, said nothing about Arnold 
or his division. High words and harsh language are said 
to have passed between the two generals. Gates was over- 
bearing, and Arnold was impetuous, and it resulted in his 



The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 85 

being relieved of his command. At the second battle of 
Behmis Heights a few weeks later, Arnold had no com- 
mand, but in a high state of excitement, rode about the field, 
seeking the hottest parts, and issuing independent com- 
mands wherever he went. Being the highest officer in rank 
on the field, his orders were always obeyed, and he set an 
example to his troops by leading them on. But accounts 
agree that though rash, he was in the most exposed posi- 
tions animating his troops and urging them forward; and 
that the brilliant manoeuvers were the inspiration of 
Arnold. His horse fell dead under him, and his wounded 
leg was crushed, but the assault was complete, and the day 
was crowned with victory. It was an anomalous fact 
that an officer with no command was the leader. The 
glory Arnold here received added fresh lustre to his military 
fame, while these new victories resulted in securing our 
alliance with France. 

Enemies ascribed his wild enthusiasm to intoxication, 
but those who assisted him on the field were satisfied that 
this was not true. Others said he took opium, but this was 
unsustained. Gates was not upon the field during either 
of these battles. 

Arnold, disabled by his wound, was removed to Albany, 
where he was confined to his room throughout the winter. 
Early in the spring he returned to New Haven borne upon a 
litter. He was received with many demonstrations of 
respect. Citizens went out to meet him on the road, and his 
arrival was announced by a salute of thirteen guns. While 
enroute he remained over night with Amos Bostwick, great- 
grandfather of Capt. Bostwick of the First Company Foot 
Guard. 

While here in New Haven he received from Washing- 
ton a set of epaulets, and a sword knot, with a letter stating 
they were presented as testimony of sincere regard and ap- 
probation for his conduct. 



86 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 

AT VALLEY FORGE. 

In May Arnold rejoined the army then at Valley Forge. 
Washington had determined to appoint him commander at 
Philadelphia as soon as the British evacuated. But soon 
after assuming charge in Philadelphia he became involved 
in difficulties with the local authorities, and was charged 
that his military command had been oppressive, and un- 
worthy of his rank and station, and an investigation was 
ordered and was impending. 

BEFRIENDS THE ORPHAN CHILDREN OF GEN. WARREN. 

About this time Arnold was taking a great interest in 
the orphan children of General Warren, who fell at Bunker 
Hill, and urged Congress, without success, for the $7,000 
pay and pension due them. In a letter to Mr. Hancock of 
Massachusetts he writes, "I enclose $500 at once," and he 
directed that Richard be clothed and sent to the best schools 
in Boston. He writes, "I will provide for them in a suitable 
manner to their birth, and the grateful sentiments I shall 
ever feel to the memory of my friend." 

Becoming apparently weary of military life, he formed 
a project for obtaining a grant of land in New York state 
and establishing a settlement. The New York delegation 
in Congress wrote a joint letter on the subject to Governor 
George Clinton as follows : "To you, Sir, and to our state, 
General Arnold can require no recommendations. A series 
of distinguished services entitle him to respect and favor." 

Upon the charges made against him by the council at 
Philadelphia, he received a mild reprimand from Congress, 
based, however, only on a technical violation of rules. His 
petition to Congress for a settlement of his accounts was 
not recognized. Matters were in a state of perplexity, with 
every prospect of an unsatisfactory termination. 



The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 87 

MARRIES Miss SHIPPEN. 

When Philadelphia was evacuated, many families re- 
mained, who kept up close relations with the British of- 
ficers. Among them was the family of Mr. Edwin Shippen, 
afterwards Chief Justice of the state of Pennsylvania. The 
youngest daughter, a beautiful girl of eighteen, gay, attrac- 
tive and ambitious, was flattered and admired by the British 
officers. Arnold was not long in Philadelphia before he 
was smitten by this charming lady, and sought and won her 
hand. He was a man of fine, commanding presence and was 
living in splendor with military display. At their marriage, 
Arnold (although still suffering from the wounds received 
at Quebec and Saratoga), in his brilliant uniform, leaning 
upon the shoulder of an aide-de-camp during the ceremony, 
gave brilliancy and halo to the occasion. This alliance 
brought him in social contact with the element which had 
no sympathy with the cause of liberty. He asked Congress, 
without success, for four months' pay out of four years 
now due him, that he might purchase horses and equipment, 
and take the field. 

His LAST COMMAND. 

The British being established in New York, it was the 
plan of Washington and Lafayette to proceed to the attack 
against Sir Henry Clinton and his forces. On August 3rd, 
1780, Arnold was assigned to the command at West Point 
and its dependencies, from Fishkill to King's Ferry. 

Here let the curtain fall and the drama close without the 
stage setting or the players in the last act. Since the days 
of Judas Iscariot, in the history of our race Nemesis has 
provided every great nation and occasion with a strong man 
who proved weak. It is perhaps necessary in the develop- 
ment of a great nation that such characters should exist to 
teach others the right. If God, in his wise Providence, had 
seen fit to have called Arnold off the stage at the height of 
his glory won in the conflicts at Ticonderoga, Crown Point, 



88 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 

Quebec, Saratoga or Compo Beach, history would have 
given him a place second to that of Washington, for no 
general of the Revolution had been engaged in more con- 
flicts on land and sea, or battled more intensely for the cause 
of liberty than did Benedict Arnold, and during the first five 
years of the Revolutionary struggles he was considered a 
most ardent patriot, a daring, ambitious and competent 
soldier. There was no danger he would not face, no project 
he would not undertake. Hopeful of success, he usually 
acquired it. In what often seemed a forlorn hope, by his 
persistency, dash, energy and recklessness, success was se- 
cured. The combination of circumstances in his career was 
peculiar. It always seemed to happen that some one else 
was in command in his important engagements. His 
enemies and rivals prevented Congress from giving him the 
recognition he earned, or reimbursing him for his patriotic 
expenditures. His social relations, by his second marriage, 
brought him in contact with the Tories, and the British, 
unable to capture him on the field of battle, accomplished it 
otherwise. 

In 1804 Morgan and his associate editors, Samuel Hart 
and Jonathan Trumbull, in "The History of Connecticut 
as a Colony and as a State," say of Arnold that "He was 
proud, passionate, uncontrolled, and rather of a self-seeking 
nature, quickly responding to affection or resentment, gen- 
erous to the weak, but not conciliatory to companions, 
facts which brought on the final tragedy. Arnold was a 
good man to have for a master, and a magnificently useful 
one to have for a subordinate ; but he was not a comfortable 
yokemate, and it is hard to believe that the train of hates 
and resentments which followed him were wholly without 
his fault. Yet again and again he acted with exemplary 
patience and the utmost magnanimity." 

In 1 80 1 he died in England, grieving at the conscious- 
ness of his great wrong doing. His last words were 
pathetic : "Bring me the epaulets and sword knots Wash- 



The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 89 

ington gave me, and let me lie in my old American uniform. 
God forgive me for ever putting on any other." 

In the Trophy Room at West Point, arranged at in- 
tervals on the walls, are tablets in bronze, placed in memory 
of the distinguished officers of the American Revolution, 
recording their name, age, rank, and deeds. As we 
approach one we read these words, "To the memory 'of 

Major-General ." A slash across the tablet tells the 

rest. What American who reads it cannot recall, with re- 
gret, the name and record that might have adorned that 
tablet, but for the frailties of human nature. 




THE DEATH OF GENERAL WARREN AT THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL. 

Painted by Col. John Trumbull. 
From the original painting in the Trumbull Gallery, Yale School of Fine Arts. 



BUNKER HILL DAY 



BY WILLIAM S. WELLS. 

A portion of an address at the grave of General Humphreys, on June 17, 1906, 
which was the initiative to the compilation of the list of names, so far as could be 
ascertained, of men from New Haven who served in the War of the Revolution, 
included in this volum.e. 



Assemblages of people such as this are prompted by 
a common interest; from a sentiment; or to discharge 
a duty. They make the motive of their meeting visibly 
manifest by ceremony, or by language expressive of the 
thoughts uppermost in their minds. The ceremony we 
are performing to-day is not new to us, for we meet again 
from a natural affinity, from the prompting of patriotism 
and pride in being the descendants of those who fought 
to establish our Government. The world would be 
poor indeed without its graves and memories of its hal- 
lowed dead. The final resting place of anyone who has 
done a noble deed is a living influence upon the world. 
The sepulchers of the dead speak to the living, and this 
day especially do the graves of those receive reverent 
attention who fought in the War for Independence, either 
in the field, on the sea, or in the halls of legislation. We 
stand now, my friends, in the presence of a power that 
is strongly felt; the power and influence of the resting 
places of patriots. This is an hour for the expression 
of the sentiments that have brought us here, and when 
we assemble to do honor to all, we usually select one who 
was particularly conspicuous, and a representative of 
all in their motive of service, such as the patriot about 
whose sepulcher we are now gathered.* 

* Then followed a brief review of the life and services of General David Humphreys , 
more fully given by Rev. Alonzo N. Lewis in this volume and by Right Rev. E. S. Lines, 
D.D., in a former volume published by this Branch. 



92 Bunker Hill Day 

One hundred and thirty-one years ago to-day was 
the i yth of June, 1775. What a notable anniversary 
for us to observe, and those to follow; the anniversary 
of the day on which occurred the battle of Bunker Hill. 
What astounding developments for this country and the 
world have grown out of the great event of that day. The 
magic words, Bunker Hill, are fixed in our earliest recol- 
lections, and have inspired the youth and manhood of 
America to the highest sentiments of patriotism and to 
valiant deeds. Two months before this battle occurred 
the unexpected collision at Lexington. But when the 
sun had set on the night of June i7th, 1775, the day of 
possible reconciliation with Great Britain had passed; 
the die had been cast for weal or for woe to this country, 
and largely for the future welfare of mankind. The 
issue was whether we should continue to be subservient 
to the inconsiderate and oppressive crown of England 
or the alternative to strike to become a free people. Our 
forefathers stood on the threshold of an uncertain but 
mighty future. Bunker Hill decided the course to be 
taken, and the battles on land and sea that followed 
were fought to a glorious conclusion. Through the ages 
Bunker Hill will be repeated in our schools, and in our 
homes, and by poets and orators as in the past one hun- 
dred and thirty years, and will continue to be a most 
forceful influence to arouse the pride of our people to a 
jealous guardianship of that which has been bequeathed 
unto them. Bunker Hill is a synonym for patriotism, 
and for that vital spark which kept alive the spirit of 
our forefathers for eight long years that tried men's 
souls and is still burning in the hearts of all who have 
consideration for the stability of our Republic. 

It was not until the Star Spangled Banner was raised 
to the breezes that liberty was unfettered, and a ray of 
light flashed over the earth to cheer the oppressed and 
downtrodden of the nations of the world. But in the 
formation of this Union of States compromises were 



Bunker Hill Day 93 

forced to be made that did not leave our flag as fully 
the emblem of freedom as it should have been. The 
enforced compromise with slavery and state rights to 
satisfy discordant sectional elements to effect a consoli- 
dation of the Colonies into states, brought its result as 
foreseen at the time by some, and it came in the great 
War of the Rebellion of 1861-1865. But the spirit of 
the men of Lexington, Bunker Hill, Valley Forge and 
Yorktown, and those who fought on the sea, was still 
alive through the intervening years to 1861, when under 
the leadership of the immortal Lincoln, a terrible sacri- 
fice was forced upon us and the flag washed of the stains 
that had been left upon it. This contest enabled our 
country to be reunited on a firmer basis, and on which 
it would, no doubt, originally have been founded, could 
those who formed the colonies into states have had a 
vision of the future. We washed out the stains in the 
Civil War but at a terrible cost and now our flag has 
grown so conspicuous in influence, power and dominion 
that to-day the sun never sets upon it. It is respected, 
honored and feared wherever it floats as representing the 
greatest nation of the world, which was primarily estab- 
lished by the men from whom we came, and whose mem- 
ory we honor, and to whom we pay tribute to-day. 

We cannot too highly extol the services of our great 
General Washington and his faithful officers and soldiers 
for their trying campaigns in the Revolutionary War, 
but on such occasions as this, and others in reference 
to the patriots of the War of Independence, the value 
of the services of the gallant seamen of those days is 
not often brought into conspicuous review. When the 
War of the Revolution broke out the Colonies had no 
supplies or the means of procuring them, and the revolt 
would have been a lamentable failure at the outset ex- 
cept for the work of the cruisers and privateers. Gen- 
eral Washington early foresaw this, and depended largely 
for success upon captured supplies and the interception 



94 Bunker Hill Day 

and capture of reinforcements for the British Army and 
well did these able and fearless seamen do their duty. 

Recently we brought the body of that great com- 
mander, Paul Jones, in solemn reverence to our shores, 
resurrected from obscurity in the forgotten cemetery in 
Paris. We gave it a most honored sepulcher, and at 
whose mausoleum the nation bowed its head in gratitude 
and admiration of his great services to our land. His 
name is associated with the most ardent patriotism, 
audacity and courage, and his resting place will be for- 
ever a shrine of devotion for all Americans. We cannot 
overestimate the value of the brave seamen of those 
days, and their reward has often been unwisely or thought- 
lessly withheld. We should also bear in mind that the 
first bloodshed in the War of Independence was on the 
water in the harbor of Providence on June lyth, 1772, 
one hundred and thirty-four years ago to-day, four years 
before the Battle of Bunker Hill, in the destruction of 
the British man-of-war "Gaspe," and mortally wound- 
ing her captain. It is a remarkable coincidence that 
this date is not only the anniversary of the Battle of 
Bunker Hill, but also the anniversary of the first stroke 
towards the establishment of this great republic of the 
United States of America. 

Certainly the names of Paul Jones, Nicholas Biddle, 
John Barry, James Nicholson and others who braved 
the dangers of the sea and fought so heroically without 
a line of retreat except to find watery graves, are equal 
in laudation to those whose services we cannot too highly 
extol in the weary marches by day and by night, who 
suffered untold trials and privations in the army under 
command of our sainted Washington. 

What an admirable work the people of New Haven 
did when they reared yonder monument in East Rock 
Park, erected to the memory of those whose lives were 
sacrificed to establish our nation and those who fought 
in the war of 1861-1865 to make it more secure. On the 



Bunker Hill Day 95 

monument on bronze tablets is the roll of honor con- 
taining names of five hundred and twenty-six men from 
New Haven who lost their lives in the War of the Rebel- 
lion, and a space is provided for the names of those who 
lost their lives in the War of the Revolution, that of 
1812 and the Mexican War. Are not we, the Sons of 
the American Revolution, a little remiss in our obli- 
gations ; should not the names of those from New Haven 
who fought and died at Bunker Hill, at Valley Forge, 
in the defense of New Haven and in many other battles, 
all of which led to final victory at Yorktown, also be 
recorded in the vacant panel assigned for them on this 
monument? Should not the names of those who carried 
the flag so triumphantly over the seas, that was first 
raised by Paul Jones to the mast of the ' 'Ranger" in 
1777, and who found watery graves, also be placed on 
this shaft beside those who fought and died under Grant, 
Sherman, Sheridan, Foote and Farragut? Have we not, 
my compatriots, left some duty undone : for the names 
of those who died to form the Government are surely 
inseparably linked with those who lost their lives to 
preserve it and add to its greatness. 

Books and history are not read by all, but this mon- 
ument is a visible language standing majestically in its 
purity of white on the highest summit surrounding New 
Haven, on which all can read of the bravery and patri- 
otism of those whose names it bears, or to whose honor 
it was erected. It is a silent sentinel; a witness of the 
past. It is also by its commanding position and dignity 
of appearance a teacher and guardian of American patri- 
otism for the future. Behold it, in its crowning position, 
kissing the first beams of day above the fields, hills and 
meadows, busy factories, institutions of learning, and 
our harbor dotted with vessels in commerce or of pleas- 
ure, and looking out over happy homes and far over the 
surrounding country blessed with peace and prosperity. 
It is a thank-offering of gratitude and tells the traveler 



96 Bunker Hill Day 

far out to sea the story of the sacrifice for the establish- 
ment of our Government, and the mistakes in the begin- 
ning washed away by the blood of her faithful sons. * * * 
Our duty on this occasion so far as we can do it has 
been fulfilled. We always feel better when a duty is dis- 
charged, and as we go hence for another year, may we 
carry into our daily lives those sentiments for each other 
and reverence for our ancestors as we have done for 
years past. May the blessings vouchsafed to us as a 
nation by the patriotism, bravery and sacrifices of our 
forefathers continue to live for a better influence, not only 
in our own lives, but that we may also in some measure 
be able to impart to others the same devotional, lofty 
and patriotic sentiments which have brought us together 
this day. 



LIST OF MEN 

From the territory embraced in the Town of New 
Haven, Connecticut, who are known to have 
Served in the Continental Army and Militia 
and Connecticut State and Continental Vessels 
and Privateers, and those who Rendered other 
Patriotic Service during the War of the Revo- 
lution 1775-1783, together with a Record of 
known Casualties 



COMPILED BY 
WILLIAM S. WELLS, ( late) 2nd Asst. Engineer, U. S. Navy. 

If any errors or omissions in the lists are discovered by anyone, a report to 
that effect together with the source of information will be welcomed by the officers of 
this Branch, S. A. R. 



At the Annual Meeting of General David Humphreys 
Branch No. i, Connecticut Society of the Sons of the 
American Revolution, held at New Haven, Conn., on the 
evening of May 2nd, 1907, the following motion was passed 
unanimously : 

Voted: That the President appoint a committee to take into con- 
sideration the suggestion of Compatriot Win. S. Wells in reference to 
placing the names, as near as they can be ascertained, of the soldiers 
and sailors from New Haven upon the panel which is provided 
for this purpose on East Rock Monument of those who lost their lives 
in the War of the Revolution. 

The president appointed the following committee : Wm. 
S. Wells, Gen. E. S. Greeley and Everett E. Lord. In pur- 
suance of the above resolution, and in the progress of the 
work the committee concluded to include all the names as 

nearly as they could be ascertained from reliable data of 

i 

7 



98 List of Men 

those who served in the War of the Revolution as soldiers 
and those who served on cruisers and privateers, and those 
who rendered patriotic service during the war, together 
with a list of casualties. At the period of the Revolu- 
tionary War, North Haven, East Haven, West Haven, 
Orange, Hamden, Mt. Carmel, Woodbridge, Bethany and 
Westville were included in the district embraced in the juris- 
diction of New Haven. The records of the men who served 
in the Revolutionary War are fragmentary, and from lack 
of such condensed records, some men from the district em- 
braced in New Haven are possibly not included in the list 
which follows. From lack of records this is probable of 
those who served on ships-of-war, cruisers and privateers. 
It was also found that the same names were frequently 
repeated in different organizations from re-enlistments, and 
to avoid repetition the following compilation gives the 
highest recorded rank attained by officers ; and those whose 
names only are given were presumably in the ranks or ren- 
dered special patriotic service. 

Authorities consulted for the names given were: 

Connecticut Men in the War of the Revolution; Connecticut His- 
torical Society, Vols. VIII and XII ; Records of Connecticut Society 
of the Sons of the American Revolution ; Historical Collections of John 
W. Barbour; Town Committees of Safety, etc., published in Atwater's 
History of New Haven; Various Town Histories, and other sources; 
Compatriot George H. Ford and Mr. Sheldon B. Thorpe of North 
Haven rendered valuable assistance. 

The number of names of soldiers, sailors and patriots 
given is 998, of which 41 served in the Navy, and on Cruis- 
ers and Privateers, and names of the latter are in a separate 
list. 

The number of casualties ascertained (killed, died of 
wounds or disease, and missing) is 61 ; wounded 23 ; pris- 
oners 21. 



List of Men\ 



99 



Ebenezer 



Akin, James Sergeant 

Alcock (Ancock), David Sergeant 

Allen, Isaac 

Allen, John 

Allen, Jonathan 

Allen, Phineas 

Alley, William 

Allin, Ebenezer 

Ailing, Abraham 

Ailing, Amos 

Ailing, Caleb Corporal 

Ailing, Charles Clerk 

Ailing, Edward Beardsley 

Ailing, Enos 

Ailing, John 

Ailing, Jonathan 

Ailing, Noah 

Ailing, Stephen Lieut. 

Ailing, Thaddeus 

Ailing, William 

Ailing, Zadock 

Allyn (Ailing), Ichabod 

Allyn (Ailing), William 

Ammit (Emmit), John 

Andrews, Elisha 

Andrews, Jedediah Captain 

Andrews, John (Died July n, 

J 777) 

Andrews, Timothy 
Andrus, John 
Anger, Philemon 
Arnold, Benedict Major-Gen. 
Atwater, (Negro Slave) 

(Wounded July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Atwater, Amos 
Atwater, Caleb 
Atwater, David, Dr. (Killed in 

Danbury Raid, April 25-28, 

1777) 

Atwater, David, Jr. 
Atwater, Enos 
Atwater, Jeremiah 
Atwater, John 
Atwater, Jonah 
Atwater, Jonathan 
Atwater, Medad 
Atwater, Samuel 



Augur, Hezekiah 

Austin, Aaron Paymaster 

Austin, Archibald 

Austin, David, Jr. (Wounded July 

5 and 6, 1779) 
Austin, Elijah 
Austin, Jeremiah (Wounded July 

5 and 6, 1779) 
Austin John (Wounded July 5 and 

6, 1779) 

Austin, Jonathan 
Austin, Joshua 

Babcock, Adam 

Bagden, Caesar 

Bailey, Hezekiah 

Bains, Solomon Sergeant 

Baker, Bristol (Blister) 

Baker, Edward Sergeant 

Baldwin, John (Killed at New 

Haven, July 5, 1779) 

Ball, Caleb Ball 

Ball, Reuben (Killed or prisoner 

Oct. n, 1780) 
Ball, Stephen 
Ball, Timothy 
Barnes, Abram 
Barnes, Benjamin 
Barnes, Dan 
Barnes, Jared 
Barnes, John 
Barnes, Joshua, Jr. 
Barnes, Levi 
Barnes, Noah 
Barnes, Samuel 
Barnes, Seth 

Barnes, Solomon Corporal 
Barnes, Thomas (Died in service) 
Barney, Hanover 
Barney, Samuel (Prisoner) 
Barns, Daniel (Died March 30, 

1778) 

Barns, Eliphalet 
Barns, Jacob (?) 
Barns, John 

Barns, Solomon Sergeant 
Barr, Alexander 
Basset, Benjamin 



IOO 



List of Men 



Basset, Hezekiah 

Basset, William 

Bassett, 

Bassett, 

Bassett, Abraham (Died in ser- 
vice) 

Bassett, Daniel 

Bassett, James (Wounded at New 
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 

Bassett, Joseph 

Bassett, Samuel 

Bassett, Timothy (Wounded at 
New Haven, July 5 and 6,1779) 

Battis, Elijah 

Bayley, William 

Beach (Beeck), Asa 

Beach Reuben 

Beardsley, Ebenezer Surgeon 

Beck, Joseph 

Beech, David 

Beecher, Hezekiah 

Beecher, Isaac, Jr. 

Beecher, Samuel 

Beecher, Thaddeus 

Beecher, Wheeler 

Beers, Beacon Capt. and Pay- 
master 

Beers, Isaac 

Beers, Nathan Lieut. (Killed at 
New Haven, July 5, 1779) 

Beers, Nathan, Jr. 

Bellamy, Samuel 

Benham, Daniel 

Benham, Gamaliel 

Benham, John Corporal 

Benham, Thomas 

Bigelow, Paul (?) 

Bills, Thomas 

Bird, Samuel Lieut. 

Bird, Thomas 

Bishop, Daniel Lieut. 

Bishop, David Lieut. 

Bishop, Isaac (Died in service) 

Bishop, Israel 

Bishop James 

Bishop, Jared(?) 

Bishop, Jonah 

Bishop, Joy 



Bishop, Nathan 

Bishop, Nathaniel 

Bishop, Samuel 

Bishop, Samuel, Jr. 

Bishop, Simeon 

Black, Thomas 

Blackman, Samuel, Jr. ist Lieut. 

Blakeslee, Abraham 

Blakeslee, Enos 

Blakeslee, John 

Blakeslee, Jotham 

Blakeslee, Obed 

Blakeslee, Oliver 

Blakeslee, Zopher 

Blakesley, Jesse 

Blakesley, Moses 

Blakeslee, Caleb Musician 

Blakslee, Zealous 

Blaksley, Jared 

Booth, Elisha Ensign 

Booth, Walter Corporal 

Bracket, Benajah 

Bracket, Hezekiah 

Brackett, Giles 

Bradley, 

Bradley, Aaron Fife (Killed at 

New Haven, July 5, 1779) 
Bradley, Abijah 
Bradley, Abner ist Lieut. 
Bradley, Abraham 
Bradley, Abram 
Bradley, Allen 
Bradley, Aner Lieut. (Wounded 

in Danbury Raid, April 2528, 

1777) 

Bradley, Asa 
Bradley, Azariah 
Bradley, Dan 
Bradley, David 
Bradley, Demas 
Bradley, Dimon 
Bradley, Ebenezer 
Bradley, Elihu 
Bradley, Elijah (Prisonei) 
Bradley, Enos 
Bradley, Gurdon 
Bradley, Isaac 
Bradley, Jared 



List of Men 



101 



Bradley, Joel Lieut. 

Bradley, Joel, Jr. 

Bradley, Josiah Captain 

Bradley, Moses 

Bradley, Oliver 

Bradley, Phineas Captain 

Bradley, Simeon 

Bradley, Timothy Captain 

Brewster, James Lieut. 

Bristol, Simeon 

Britton, Samuel 

Brocket, Enos 

Brocket, Hezekiah 

Brocket, Isaac 

Brocket, Isaiah 

Brocket, John 

Brocket, Monson 

Brockett, Benjamin Sergeant 

Brockett, Cornelius 

Brockett, Ebenezer 

Brockett, Jacob Captain 

Brockett, Jacob, 2nd 

Brockett, Joel 

Brockett, Richard 

Broton, James Adkin 

Brown, Henry Corporal 

Brown, Henry Sergeant 

Brown, Jabez 

Brown, Jonathan Captain 

Brown, Robert 

Bruster, Amos 

Buck, John 

Buckminster, Joseph, Rev. 

Chaplain 
Bulford, John 
Bunce, David 
Burbank, David 
Burr, Josiah 
Burrell, Thomas (Prisoner at New 

Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Burrill, Ebenezer 
Burritt, Abel Captain 
Burroughs, Samuel 

Candee, Job 

Candee, Samuel 

Candee, Zacheus 

Capeny, Cuff (Mustered dead) 



Carrington, Dan 

Carter, Joshua (Died, date un- 
known) 

Catlin, Nathan 
Catlin, Thomas 
Champen, Samuel 
Champlin, Seabury 
Chandler, Joshua 
Chatterton, John 
Chidsey, Abram 
Chidsey, Abraham, Jr. 
Chidsey, Ebenezer 
Chidsey, Ephraim 
Chidsey, Isaac, ist. 
Chidsey, Isaac, 2nd 
Chidsey, James Sergeant 
Chidsey, John 
Chidsey, Levi Corporal 
Claridge, Francis 
Clark, Daniel 
Clark, George Ensign 
Clark, David Sergeant 
Clark, Hugh (?) 
Clark, Joel 
Clark, Martin 
Clark, Parsons 

Clark, Richard (Died June i, 1778) 
Clark, Samuel 
Claus, John 
Climet, Robert 
Colburn, Daniel 
Collings, Joseph 
Collins, Luther 
Colony, Patrick 
Colt, Peter 
Cook, George Fife 
Cook, William 
Cook, William Sergeant 
Cooper, Abraham 
Cooper, Isaac 
Cooper, Israel 
Cooper, Joel 
Cooper, Levi 

Cooper, Samuel Drummer 
Cooper, Thomas 4th Corporal 
Cooper, Timothy 
Cornelius, John 
Coshall, Thomas 



102 



List of Men 



Cowles, Jabez 
Coy, Ephraim 
Crumb, Samuel 
Cunningham, Henry Lieut. 
Curtis, Phineas 

Daggett, Ebenezer Ensign (Died 
Nov. 20, 1781) 

Daggett, Henry Lieut. 

Daggett, Naphtali, Rev. (Wound- 
ed at New Haven,' July 5 and 6, 

J 779) 

Daggett, Philip 

Dana, James 

Daniel (McDaniel, Antony), An- 
thony M. 

Danielson, John, Jr. Corporal 

Darling, Joseph 

Davenport, John 

Davis, James 

Davis, John 

Dayton, Ebenezer Captain 

Dayton, Giles 

Dayton, Israel 

Dayton, Jonathan 

Dayton, Jonathan, Jr. 

Dayton, Nathaniel 

DeGrove, John Sergeant 

Denison, John, Jr. 

Dennison, John 

Denslow, Eli 

Denslow, Philander Corporal 
(Died Jan. 2, 1778) 

Dickerman, Hezekiah 2nd Cor- 
poral 

Dickerman, Jesse 

Dickerman, Jonathan 

Dickerman, Joseph 

Dixon, George 

Dodd, Guy 

Dodge, Israel 

Doolittle, Amos 

Doolittle, Daniel 

Doolittle, Isaac 

Dorman, David 

Dorman, Joseph (Killed July 5, 

J 779) 
Douglass, Benjamin 



Downs, Benjamin 
Downs, Nathaniel 
Doyle, Hugh 

Dummer, Nathaniel (Wounded at 
New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Dummer, Nathan, Jr. 
Dwight, Timothy Chaplain 

Eagleston, David \ ? 

Eggleston, David J 

Eastman, Peter 

Edwards, Pierpont 

Emmit (Ammit), John 

English, Benjamin Captain 

(Killed at New Haven, July 5 

and 6, 1779) 
Everton, William 

Fenton, Jotham 

Field, Eyria 

Fillet, John 

Fitch, Jonathan Colonel 

Fitch, Nathaniel 5th Comman- 
dant 

Foot, Isaac Sergeant 

Forbes, Eli 

Forbes, Elijah Captain (Prisoner 
at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 

1779) 

Forbes, Isaac 
Forbes, Jehiel 
Forbs, Levi 
Ford, Daniel 
Ford, Ezra 
Ford, Isaac 
Ford, Jonathan 
Ford, Marten 
Ford, Matthew 
Ford, Moses Corporal 
Ford, Nathaniel 
Ford, Stephen Captain 
Ford, Stephen Private 
Fox, Jonathan 
Fraser, Samuel 
Freedom, Dick 
Freeman, Abel 
Freeman, Chatham 
Frost, Amos 



List of Men 



103 



Fryar, Charles 

Fulton, Alexander (Missing Aug., 
J 777) 

Gainer, James 

Gardiner, Thomas 

Gaylord, Benjamin 

Gibson, Samuel 

Gilbert, Amos 

Gilbert, Daniel 

Gilbert, Ebenezer M. 

Gilbert, Gregson 

Gilbert, Isaac 

Gilbert, James 

Gilbert, John Captain (Killed at 

New Haven, July 5, 1779) 
Gilbert, Joseph Corporal 
Gilbert, Lemuel 
Gilbert, Michael (Killed at New 

Haven, July 5, 1779) 
Gilbert, Moses Corporal 
Gilbert, Sackit 
Gilbertson, Edward 
Gillet, Benjamin 
Gillet, Nathan 
Gillis, John Lieut. 
Gilner, Henry 
Goodrich, Elizur, Jr. (Wounded at 

New Haven, July 5 and 6,1779) 
Goodrich, Gideon (Killed at New 

Haven, July 5, 1779) 
Goodsell, Edward 
Goodsell, Jacob 
Goodsell, John 
Goodyear, Asa 
Goodyear, Jesse Captain 
Goodyear, John 
Goodyear, Stephen 
Goodyear, Theophilus Corporal 
Gore, Richard 
Gorham, John 
Gorham (Goralm), Joseph 
Gorham, Samuel 
Gorham, Timothy (Wounded in 

Danbury Raid, April 25-28, 

1777) 

Gorman, Joseph 
Gortsey, John Corporal 



Grace, Matthew 
Grannis, David 
Grannis, Elle 
Grannis, Jared 
Grannis, Thomas 
Green, Thomas 
Greenough, Samuel 
Greenough, William 
Griffing, Rossiter 
Griswold, White (Missing Oct. 4, 
*777) 

Hall, Samuel 

Hancock, John 

Harden (Harding), Frederick 

Hartley, William 

Hatch, Eastus 

Hayes, Ezekiel 

Heaton, Calvin 

Heaton, Giles 

Heaton, James, Jr. 

Heaton, Jonathan 

Heaton, Nathaniel, Jr. 

Heaton, Theophilus 

Hemberston, 

Hemingway, Abraham 
Hemingway, Enos 
Hemingway, Jared 
Hemingway, John 
Hemingway, Moses 
Hemingway, Samuel 
Hendrick, Coe (Army and Navy) 
Herrick, Stephen 
Hickox, Darius 
Hicks, John 
Hicks, Samuel 
Hill, Jared Lieut. 
Hill, John Corporal 
Hill, Obadiah 

Hillhouse, James Captain 
Hitchcock, Amos 
Hitchcock, Brampton 
Hitchcock, Eliakim 
Hitchcock, Jacob 4th Sergeant 
Hodge, Philo (Wounded) 
Holbrook, Atwater 
Holibert, John (Died Feb. 26, 
1780) 



104 



^ of Men 



Holt, Dan 

Holt, Jacob 

Holt, Samuel 

Hosmer, Prosper 

Hotchkiss, Amos 

Hotchkiss, Caleb (Killed at New 

Haven, July 5, 1779) 
Hotchkiss, Eldad 
Hotchkiss, Ezekiel Sergeant 

(Killed at New Haven, July 5, 

1779) 

Hotchkiss, Isaac 
Hotchkiss, Joel Captain 
Hotchkiss, John (Killed at New 

Haven, July 5, 1779) 
Hotchkiss, Jonah 
Hotchkiss, Joseph P. 
Hotchkiss, Joshua 
Hotchkiss, Lent 
Hotchkiss, Medad 
Hotchkiss, Stephen 
How, Ezra Corporal 
How, John 
Howard, Benjamin (Wounded at 

New Haven, July 5 and 6, 

1779) 

Howe, Joshua 
Howell, Nicholas Corporal 
Howell, Thomas Commissary 
Hoyt, Dyer 
Hubbard, John, Jr. 
Huggins, Ebenezer 
Huggins, James 
Hughes, Henry Freeman 
Hughes, John 
Hull, Joseph 
Hull, Samuel 
Hulls, Daniel 
Humaston, Ephraim 
Humaston, Thomas 
Humberfield, Ebenezer 
Humeston, James 
Hummiston, Ebenezer 
Humphreys, David 
Hunt, John Corporal 
Hunt, Richard 
Huntington, Asa 
Huse, Bodwell 



Huse, Son of Freeman (Now 
(1777) prisoner in Great Brit- 
ain) 

Ingalls, Daniel 

Ives, Ailing (Allen) 26. Ser- 
geant 

Ives, Elam 

Ives, Levi Surgeon's Mate 
Ives, Stephen 
Ives, Thomas 

Jack, Andrew 

Jackson, John 

Jacob, Ezekiel 

Jacobs, Abel 

Jacobs, Ezekiel 

Jacobs, Joseph 

Jacobs, Solomon 

Jacobs, Stephen 

Jacobs, Zophar (Died in service) 

Jocelin (Joslin), John 

Johnson, Abraham Corporal 

Johnson, John 

Johnson, Peter Lieut. 

Johnson, Silas 

Jones, Timothy, Jr. 

Jones, William 

Jones, William Fife 

Jonson, Joseph 

Jonson, Noah 

Judson, David 

Kennedy, John (Killed at New 

Haven, July 5, 1779) 
Keyes, Amasa 
Kimberly, Azel 3rd Lieut. 
Kimberly, Ezra 
Kimberly, Gideon 
Kimberly, Nathaniel 
Kimberly, Silas 
King, George 

Landcraft, George 
Landor, Gael 
Larman, William 
Leanard, Eli (Mustered deadjune, 
1778) 



List of Men 



Leavenworth, Eli Major 

Leavenworth, Jesse ist Lieut. 

Leek, Timothy 

Lester, Guy 

Lines, Abel 

Lines, Benjamin 

Lines, Ezra 

Lines, James 

Lines (Lynds), John 

Lines, Peter 

Lines, Ralph 

Little, Jack 

Lockwood, James (Sec. to General 

Wooster) 
Lorain, Richard 
Lord, Jabesh \ ? 
Lord, Jabez / 
Lounbuary, David Corporal 
Lounsberry, Richard 
Luddington, Elam 
Luddington, Isaac 
Luddington, Jesse 
Luddington, Nathan 
Luddington, Samuel 
Luddington, Timothy (Killed at 

New Haven, July 5, 1779) 
Lumis, Samuel 
Lyman, Daniel 
Lyon, William Colonel 

McCleave, Miles 
McCloud, John 
McCoy, John 

McDaniel, Antony (Daniel, An- 
thony M.) 

Mallery, Amos Sergeant 
Mallery, Calvin 
Mallery, David 
Mallery, Isaac Corporal 
Mallory, Asa 
Mallory, Jacob 
Mallory, Joseph 
Maloney, Daniel 
Manser, John 
Mansfield, Amos 
Mansfield, Charles Fife 
Mansfield, Dan 
Mansfield, Dave 



Mansfield, Ebenezer 
Mansfield, James Kiersted 
Mansfield, Joseph Captain 
Mansfield, Richard 
Mansfield, Samuel Captain 
Mansfield, Timothy (Killed Oct. 

14, 1781) 

Mansfield, William 
Marsh, Robert 
Marshall, Samuel B. 
Martin, Lewis 
Martin, Samuel 
Mason, John 
Matthews, Robert 
Melone (Meloney), Daniel 
Merriman, James 
Merriam, James 
Merrils, Aaron 
Merrils, Cyprian 
Merriman, Marcus 
Miles, Elnathan Sergeant 
Miles, John Lieut. 
Miller, Caleb 
Mix, Amos (Wounded and died 

May, 28, 1781) 
Mix, Blister 
Mix, Caleb Captain (Wounded at 

New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Mix, David 
Mix, Eload 
Mix, John Captain (Prisoner at 

New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Mix, Jonathan, Jr. Captain 
Mix, Medad 
Mix, Samuel 
Mix, Thomas (Wounded at New 

Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Mix, Timothy Lieut. (Died on 

prison ship, New York, in 1778) 
Mix, Timothy 
Molthrop, David 
Molthrop, Elihu Sergeant 
Molthrop, Reuben 
Monson, Joseph Kirk 
Monson, Titus 
Morris, Amos Captain (Prisoner, 

1780) 
Morris, Amos, Jr. 



io6 



List of Men 



Morris, John 

Morrison, Amos 

Mott, Jarib 

Moss, Daniel 

Moss, John 

Moss, Peter (Died Nov. 24, 1778) 

Moulthrop, John Captain 

Moulthrop (Mothrop), Joseph 

Sergeant 

Moultrup, Stephen 
Munson, JEneas Surgeon's Mate 
Munson, ^Eneas, Jr. 
Munson, Basil Captain 
Munson, David 
Munson, Ezra 
Munson, Isaac 
Munson, Jabez 
Munson, John 
Munson, John, Jr 
Munson, Joseph Captain 
Munson, Nathaniel 
Munson, Theophilus Captain 
Munson, Walter 
Munson, William Captain 
Mygatt, Eli 

Nales, John 
Newhall, Joshua 
Newton, Enoch 
Newton, Samuel 
Northrop, Joel 
Noyes, Abraham 
Noyes, William 

Oaks, Nathaniel 

O'Briant, John (Died April 22, 

1783) 

Oharra, Timothy 

Osborn, David 

Osborn, Elijah 

Osborn, Jeremiah 

Osborn, Jonathan 

Osborn, Samuel Ensign 

Oswald, Eleazer Lieut.-Colonel 
(Prisoner at Quebec, Dec. 31, 
1775, exchanged Jan. 10, 1777) 

Otis, Levi 



Painter, Elisha Major (Died Jan 

13. 1781) 

Painter, Lamberton 

Painter, Shubal 

Painter, Thomas (Buried in West 
Haven) 

Pardee, Abijah 

Pardee, Chandler (Wounded and 
prisoner at New Haven, July 5 
and 6, 1779) 

Pardee, Enos 

Pardee, Isaac (Killed at New Ha- 
ven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 

Pardee, John 

Pardee, Joseph 

Pardee, Levi 

Pardee, Levit 

Pardee, Moses 

Pardee, Stephen 

Parker, Edmond 

Parker, Edward 

Parker, Eldad (Killed at New Ha- 
ven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 

Parker, John 

Parkes, Edmond Corporal 

Parmelee, Hezekiah 

Parmelee, Jeremiah Captain 
(Died March 24, 1778) 

Parrott, Mastin 

Patten, Israel Lieut. 

Patterson, William Fife-Major 

Payson, Williston 

Peck, Augustus 

Peck, Ebenezer 

Peck, John Lieut. 

Peck, Joseph 

Peck, Samuel 

Peck, Titus Lieut. 

Peck, Ward 

Perkins, Amos 

Perkins, Samuel 

Perkins, Titus 

Phipps, Daniel Goff 

Pierpoint, Thomas 

Pierpont, Lieut. 

Pierpont, Benjamin 

Pierpont, Evelyn 2nd Lieut. 

Pierpont, Giles 



List of Men 



107 



Pierpont, John 

Pierpont, Joseph 

Pierpont, Samuel 

Pierpont, Thomas 

Pinto, Abraham (Wounded at New 

Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Pinto, Solomon Ensign 
Pinto, William (Volunteer in 1779 

and 1781) 

Pointer or Painter, Deliverance 
Pomp (A Negro) (Killed at New 

Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Potter, Abel 

Potter, Amos 2nd Lieut. 
Potter, David 
Potter, Israel Lieut. 
Potter, Job 
Potter, Levi 
Potter, Medad 
Potter, Moses 
Potter, Stephen 
Potter, Thomas, Jr. 
Potter, Timothy 
Powers, Thomas 
Prady, Christopher 
Prentice, Jonas Colonel 
Prescott, James 
Punderson, Ahimaz Sergeant 
Punderson, Daniel 

Ralph, Jonathan 

Ramsdell, Harthem 

Ray, Caleb 

Ray, Levi 3rd Corporal 

Reynolds, James (Buried in West 

Haven) 

Richards, James 
Robart, Ebenezer 
Roberts, Eben 
Roberts, Thomas (Died Dec. 20, 

1777) 

Robertson (Robinson), Jared 
Lieut. 

Robertson, Samuel Quartermas- 
ter 

Robinson, Samuel Quartermas- 
ter and Lieut. 

Robertson, Thomas 



Robinson, Thomas 

Roe, John 

Rogers, Sharp (Sharper) 

Rohds, Thomas 

Ropp, John 

Rowe, Ezra 

Rowe, John 

Rowe, Matthew 

Rowland, Uriah Quartermaster 

and Sergeant 
Royce, Jotham (Died Dec. i, 

1781) 
Russell, Aaron (A lad) (Killed at 

New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Russell, Edward, Jr. 
Russell, Joseph 

Sabin, Hezekiah Lieut.-Colonel 

(Prisoner at New Haven, July 

5 and 6, 1779) 
Sackett, Daniel 
Sackett, Eli 
Sage, Francis 
Sailes (Sales), James 
Sales, John 
Salmon, Asahel 
Sanford, Eliada 
Sanford, Elihu Sergeant 
Sanford, Elihu, 2nd 
Sanford, Henry 
Sanford, Jairus (Prisoner) (Buried 

in Fair Haven Cemetery) 
Sanford, Joel (Died in action, Feb. 

8, 1782) 
Sanford, Strong 
Sanford, Thomas Sergeant 
Sanford, William 
Scott, John Corporal 
Shattuck, Stephen Sergeant 
Shepard, Amos Lieut. 
Shepard, John 
Shepard, Thomas (Wounded at 

Kip's Bay, N. Y., Sept. 15, 

1776) 

Sheppard, Samuel 
Sheppard, Stephen 
Sherman, Adonijah (Prisoner at 

New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 



io8 



List of Men 



Sherman, Edmond Sergeant 
Sherman, Gold 

Sherman, Isaac Lieut. -Colonel 
Sherman, John Paymaster and 

Lieut. 

Sherman, Roger 
Sherman, William Major 
Shipman, Benoni Captain 
Shipman, Elias 
Sill, Jeff 

Simpson, Robert 
Smith, Ambrose 
Smith, son of Asa (Died in the 

Continental Service) 
Smith, Benjamin 
Smith, Caleb 
Smith, Daniel, Jr. 
Smith, Edmund (Wounded at New 

Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Smith, Edward (Wounded at New 

Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Smith, Jabez 
Smith, James 

Smith, Jeremiah Corporal 
Smith, Jesse Sergeant 
Smith, John 
Smith, Jonathan 
Smith, Joseph Sergeant 
Smith, Laban 
Smith, Lamberton, Jr. 
Smith, Patterson 
Smith, Samuel, Jr. 
Smith, Stephen 
Smith, Thadieus 
Smith, Thomas 
Smith, Titus 
Smith, Worham 
Spaulding, John 
Sperry, Army 
Sperry, Chauncey 
Sperry, David 
Sperry, Ebenezer 
Sperry, Eliakim 
Sperry, Elihu 
Sperry, Enoch 

Sperry, Joel (Died March 13,1778) 
Sperry, Joseph 
Sperry, Simeon 



Squire, Daniel 

Squire, Samuel 

Squire, Samuel Stent 

Stacy, Nathaniel (Prisoner on Lake 

Champlain at loss of Arnold's 

fleet until 1779) 
Steaphens, Aaron 
Steaphens (Stevens), William 
Stiles, Ezra 

Stillwell, Elias Captain 
Stillwell, John 
St. John, Justin 
Stockwell, Abel 
Storer, William 
Street, Nicholas, Rev. 

Strong, Sergeant 

Sugden, Abraham 
Sweany, Edmond 

Tack, Andrew 
Talmadge, Daniel, Jr. 
Talmadge, Josiah 
Talmadge, Thomas William 
Taylor, David Drummer 
Teal, Jacob (Died July 19, 1777) 
Terry, Nathaniel Colonel 
Teuky (?) Jared 
Tharp, Jacob 3rd Sergeant 
Tharp, Joel 
Thomas, Caleb 
Thomas, Ephraim 
Thomas, James 
Thomas, John 
Thomas, John Corporal 
Thomas, Samuel 
Thompson, Augur 
Thompson, Elijah 
Thompson, James 
Thompson, Jeduthan (Killed at 
New Haven, July 5 and 6, 

1779) 

Thompson, Joseph Colonel 
Thompson, Moses 
Thompson, Samuel 
Thompson, Stephen 
Thompson, Thaddeus 
Thorp, David Corporal 
Thorp, Moses 



List of Men 



109 



Thorpe, Abner 

Thorpe, Adam (Killed at New 

Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Thorpe, Jacob (Killed on " Beacon 

Hill" at invasion of New Haven, 

July 5, 1779) 
Thorpe, Joel 
Thorpe, Timothy 
Throop, John R. Lieut. 
Tiley, Edward ist Lieut. 
Tincker (Tinker), Amos 
Todd, Asa (Killed at New Haven, 

July 5, 1779) 
Todd, Ebenezer 
Todd, Enos 

Todd, Gideon ist Sergeant 
Todd, Hezekiah 
Todd, Jesse 

Todd, Justus (Died Nov. 6, 1779) 
Todd, Michael 
Todd, Teal Corporal 
Todd, Thaddeus 
Todd, Titus 
Todd, Yale 
Tolles, Clark 
Tolles, Elnathan 
Tomlinson, Robert 
Tophand, Ezekiel 
Towner, Moses (?) (Died Aug. 14 

1777) 

Townsend, Elias 

Townsend, Isaac (Prisoner at New 
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 

Townsend, John (Prisoner at New 
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 

Townsend, Samuel 

Townsend, Solomon 

Townsend, Timothy 

Trickey, Jared 

Trowbridge, Caleb Captain (Pris- 
oner at Battle of L. I., Aug 27, 
1776) 

Trowbridge, David 

Trowbridge, John Lieut. 

Trowbridge, Rutherford 

Trowbridge, Samuel 

Trumbull, Benjamin, Rev. Chap- 
lain 



Trumbull, John Colonel (Buried 
at Yale Art School) 

Trumbull, Joseph Captain 

Tulley, Christopher 

Turner, Caleb 

Turner, Enoch (Wounded at Sara- 
toga, Sept. 19, 1777) 

Turner, Gordain 

Tuttle, Aaron (Wounded at Sara- 
toga, Oct. 7, 1777) 

Tuttle, Abel 

Tuttle, Abraham 

Tuttle, Caleb 

Tuttle, Charles 

Tuttle, Clement 

Tuttle, Dan 

Tuttle, Elisha (Killed at New Ha- 
ven, July 5, 1779) 

Tuttle, Hezekiah Drummer 

Tuttle, Ithimar Ensign 

Tuttle, Jabez (Missing Oct. 4, 1777) 

Tuttle, Japhet 

Tuttle, Jared 

Tuttle, Jonathan 

Tuttle, Joseph (Prisoner at New 
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 

Tuttle, Josiah (Prisoner at New 
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 

Tuttle, Lemuel 

Tuttle, Reuben ist Corporal 

Tuttle, Samuel (Prisoner at New 
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 

Tuttle, Solomon 

Tuttle, Stephen 

Tuttle, Titus Sergeant 

Tuttle, William 

Tyler, John 

Verguson, John 

Wakeley, Abel 
Walter, William 
Warner, Amos 
Warner, Ebenezer 
Warner, Hezekiah 
Warren, James 
Wate, William 
Webster, David 



no 



List of Men 



Webster, Noah Captain 

Webster, Oliver 

Wheden, Daniel 

White, Dyer 

White, John, Jr. 

White, Jonathan Sergeant-Maj. 

White, Samuel (Killed July 6, 

1781) 

White, Samuel, Jr. 
Whiting, John 
Whitney, (Prisoner at New 

Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779) 
Wild, Jonathan 
Wilds, Jonathan Lieut. 
Williams, Hector 
Willmot, Daniel Sergeant 
Wilmot, Samuel Captain 
Wilmot, Timothy 
Wilmot, Walter 
Wilson, John 

Winters, Thomas Corporal 
Wise, William Fife-Major 
Woodin, Samuel (Killed at New 

Haven, July 5, 1779) 



Woodin, Silas (Killed at New Ha- 
ven, July 5, 1779) 

Wooding, Israel (Wounded and 
prisoner at New Haven, July 5 
and 6, 1779) 

Wooding, Jeremiah 

Woods, Elisha (Died Aug. 23, 
1781) 

Woods, Justus 

Woods, Samuel 

Woodward, Hezekiah 

Woodward, John, Jr. 

Woodward, John, Sr. 

Woodward, Joseph 

Woodward, Peter Lieut. 

Woodward, Stephen 

Woolcott, Benejah 

Woolcott, Elijah 

Wooster, David Brig.-GeneraJ 
(Died May 2, 1777) 

Wooster, Thomas Captain 

Wright, Benjamin 

Zander, Gad 



List of Men 



in 



CONNECTICUT STATE AND CONTINENTAL VESSELS 

AS COMPLETE AS AVAILABLE OFFICIAL RECORDS 
SHOW. 



Brig-of-War "Defence.'' 
John McCleave Master 



Frigate ' ' Confederacy. ' ' 
David Phipps Lieut. 



Galley " Whiting." 

John McCleave Captain Ebenezer Peck and Lieut. 

Israel Bishop ist Lieut. Wm. Plummer Master 



Frigate " 

Aitkins, Robert Seaman 
Badger, Freeman Barber 
Caverle, Samuel Tailor 
Cook, Moses Seaman 
Daggett, John Boy 
Forbes, Elisha Landman 
French, Bo wars Landman 
Hanson, Christian Landman 
House, John Boy 
Huggins, John 
Jeffery, James 

Loveland, Trueman Landman 
Nicholson, Will Baird Landman 
Oliver, Stephen Seaman 
Oliver, Thomas Landman 
Peck, Henry Landman 
Peterson, Daniel Landman (Ne- 
gro) 



Trumbull. " 

Fresher, William Landman 
Sabin, Jonathan Midshipman 
Setchell, Jonathan Landman 
Smith, Jonathan Landman 
Sperry, Eber Seaman 
Sperry, Jabin Seaman 
Sperry, Philo Seaman 
Storer, Nehemiah 
Stubbs, John Seaman 
Thomson, John Seaman 
Turner, William Seaman 
Upham, Robert Quartermaster 
Ward, James Seaman 
Warren, Nathaniel Landman 
West, William Seaman 
White, Elisha Landman 
Wise, Samuel Landman 



Sloop "Tiger." 
Jones, Daniel Commander 



Vessel Not Specified. 
Goldsmith, Ephraim Captain 
(Killed off Valcour's Island, Oct., 1776) 



ii2 List of Men 

CASUALTIES 
(SO FAR AS KNOWN). 



John Andrews ; died July 1 1 , 1777. 

David Atwater Dr.; killed in Danbury Raid, Apr. 25-28, 1777. 

John Baldwin; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 

Reuben Ball; killed or prisoner Oct. n, 1780. 

Thomas Barnes ; died in service. 

Daniel Barns; died March 30, 1778. 

Abraham Bassett; died in service. 

Nathan Beers Lieut; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 

Isaac Bishop; died in service. 

Aaron Bradley Fife; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 

Cuff Capeny; mustered dead. 

Joshua Carter; died date unknown. 

Richard Clark; died June i, 1778. 

Ebenezer Daggett Ensign, died Nov. 20, 1781. 

Philander Denslow Corporal; died Jan. 2, 1778. 

Joseph Dorman; killed July 5, 1779. 

Benjamin English Captain; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Alexander Fulton; missing August, 1777. 

John Gilbert Captain; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 

Michael Gilbert; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 

Goldsmith, Ephraim Captain; killed off Valcour's Island, Oct., 1776. 

Gideon Goodrich; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 

White Griswold; missing Oct. 4, 1777. 

John Holibert; died Feb. 26, 1780. 

Caleb Hotchkiss; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 

Ezekiel Hotchkiss Sergeant; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 

John Hotchkiss; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 

Zophar Jacobs; died in service. 

John Kennedy; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 

Eli Leanard; mustered dead, June, 1778. 

Timothy Luddington; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 

Timothy Mansfield; killed Oct. 14, 1781. 

Amos Mix; wounded and died, May 28, 1781. 

Timothy Mix Lieutenant; died on prison ship, New York, in 1778. 

Peter Moss; died Nov. 24, 1778. 

John O'Briant; died April 22, 1783. 

Elisha Painter Major; died Jan. 13, 1781. 

Isaac Pardee; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Eldad Parker; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Jeremiah Parmelee Captain; died March 24, 1778. 

Pomp (A Negro); killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Thomas Roberts; died Dec. 20, 1777. 



List of Men 113 

Jotham Royce; died Dec. i, 1781. 

Aaron Russell (A lad) ; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Joel Sanford; died in action, Feb. 8, 1782. 

Son of Asa Smith ; died in the Continental Service. 

Joel Sperry; died March 13, 1778. 

Jacob Teal; died July 19, 1777. 

Jeduthan Thompson; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Adam Thorpe ; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Jacob Thorpe; killed on "Beacon Hill" at invasion of New Haven, 

July 5, 1779. 

Asa Todd; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 
Justis Todd; died Nov. 6, 1779. 
Moses (?) Towner; died Aug. 14, 1777. 
Elisha Tuttle ; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 
Jabez Tuttle; missing Oct. 4, 1777. 
Samuel White; killed July 6, 1781. 
Samuel Woodin ; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 
Silas Woodin; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779. 
Elisha Woods; died Aug. 23, 1781. 
David Wooster Brig. -Gen. ; wounded at Danbury Raid and died May 

2, 1777. 

WOUNDED. 

David Austin, Jr.; wounded July 5, and 6, 1779. 
Jeremiah Austin; wounded July 5 and 6, 1779. 
John Austin; wounded July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Atwater (Negro Slave) ; wounded July 5 and 6, 1 779. 

James Bassett; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 
Timothy Bassett; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 
Aner Bradley; wounded in Danbury Raid, Apr. 25-28, 1777. 
Naphtali Daggett, Rev.; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 
Nathaniel Dummer; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 
Elizur Goodrich, Jr. ; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 
Timothy Gorham; wounded in Danbury Raid, Apr. 25-28, 1777. 
Philo Hodge; wounded. 

Benjamin Howard; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 
Caleb Mix Captain ; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 
Thomas Mix; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 
Chandler Pardee; wounded and prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 

1779. 

Abraham Pinto; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 
Thomas Shepard; wounded at Kip's Bay, N. Y., Sept. 15, 1776. 
Edmund Smith; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 
Edward Smith; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 
Enoch Turner; wounded at Saratoga, Sept. 19, 1777. 
Aaron Tuttle; wounded at Saratoga, Oct. 7, 1777. 
Israel Wooding; wounded and prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 

1779. 



ii4 List of Men 

PRISONERS. 

Samuel Barney; prisoner. 

Elijah Bradley; prisoner. 

Thomas Burrell; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Elijah Forbes Captain; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Son of Freeman Huse; prisoner in Great Britain in 1777. 

John Mix Captain; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Amos Morris; prisoner in 1780. 

Eleazer Oswald Lieut.-Col. ; prisoner at Quebec, Dec. 31, 1775; ex- 
changed Jan. lo, 1777. 

Chandler Pardee; wounded and prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 
1779. 

Hezekiah Sabin Lieut.-Col.; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 
1779. 

Jairus Sanford; prisoner. 

Adonijah Sherman ; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Nathaniel Stacy ; prisoner from loss of Arnold's fleet on Lake Champlain, 
until 1779. 

Isaac Townsend; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

John Townsend; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Caleb Trowbridge Capt. ; prisoner Battle of L. I., Aug. 27, 1776. 

Joseph Tuttle; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Josiah Tuttle; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Samuel Tuttle; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Whitney; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779. 

Israel Wooding; wounded and prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 
1779. 



ROSTER 



OF 



Soldiers and Patriots Whose Graves are 

Known to Be in New Haven, and 

Surrounding Towns. 



GROVE STREET CEMETERY. 



Sylvan Ave., Six Graves. 

Joseph P. Hotchkiss, . . 
Ezekiel Hayes, .... 
Medad Atwater, .... 

Caleb Hotchkiss 

Amos Gilbert, .... 
Nathan Oaks, .... 



LOT 
12 

14 

16 

18 
38 



Cypress Ave., Twenty-six 
Graves. 

LOT 

Hezekiah Sabin, . . ,- 3 

Stephen Hotchkiss, ... 5 
Daniel Bishop, . . . . 1 1 
John Hotchkiss, . '.... . n 
Joshua Hotchkiss, . . .13 

Levi Ives, 18 

Hezekiah Augur, .... 21 

John Mix, 22 

Naphtali Daggett, . . .24 
Henry Daggett, .... 24 
Nathan Dummer, . . . .29 

Dyer White, 30 

Jonathan Fitch, . . . .34 

John Scott, 35 

Ezra Lines, 39 

Lent Hotchkiss 41 

Amos Doolittle, .... 42 
David Phipps, .... 44 
Joseph Gorman, . . . . 46 
Phineas Bradley, .... 47 
Capt. Robert Brown, ... 48 
Ebenezer Huggins, . . . 52 



Ebenezer Peck, 
Samuel B. Marshall, 
John Miles, 
Augur Thompson, 



LOT 

55 
56 
60 
62 



Maple Ave., Twenty Graves. 

LOT 

Ezra Stiles, i 

Timothy Dwight, ... 2 
Pierpont Edwards, ... 4 
Jonathan Mix, ... * 9 
Isaac Townsend, . ... 14 
Aeneas Munson, . . . . 16 
John Spaulding, . . . . 16 
Thaddeus Beecher, . ... 1 8 
Nathan Beers, ... .22 
Nathan Beers, . . . .24 
Samuel Bishop, . . . . 29 
Roger Sherman, .... 32 
James Hillhouse, . . . . 35 
Elijah Thompson, . . .36 
David Bunce, . . . .38 

David Wooster 40 

Deacon Abel Burritt, . . 42 
Joseph Darling, .... 45 
Aeneas Monson, .... 46 
Miles McCleave, .... 48 

Linden Ave., Seventeen 
Graves. 

LOT 

James Dana, 2 

Marcus Merriman, ... 4 



n6 



Roster 



GROVE STREET CEMETERY Continued. 



Linden Ave., Seventeen 
Graves Continued. 



LOT 



James Merriman, . , 

Nathaniel Fitch, .... 7 

Ezra Ford 8 

William Munson, , . 9 
Timothy Townsend, . . .13 

John Townsend, . . . . 13 

Azel Kimberly, ... . 18 

Jonas Prentice, . . . . 19 

Jabez Smith, . . . f . 19 

Elias Stillwell, ... . . . 27 

Thaddeus Ailing, . . . . 30 

James Prescott, . . . . 31 

Thomas Green, . . . . 37 

Isaac Gilbert, . . . ... 50 

Jeremiah Parmelee, . . .57 

Central Ave., Nineteen Graves. 

LOT 

Eli Mygatt, ..... i 
Stephen Herrick, .... 9 
John Davis, ... . . 24 
Benjamin English, . . 2<5 
Elijah Forbes, . . . . 31 
William Wise, . '. . . 32 

Joel Northrop 35 

Abraham Tuttle, .... 36 
Peter Johnson, .... 3 7 
Timothy Mix, .... 40 
Timothy Mix, .... 40 
William Noyes, .... 41 
Hezekiah Parmelee, . . .41 
David Osborn, .... 45 
John Trowbridge, . . -47 
Luther Collins, .... 47 
Laban Smith, . . . . 55 
William Storer, .... 66 
Samuel Hicks 71 

Magnolia Ave., Four Graves. 

LOT 

Eli Denslow, 14 

Joshua Newhall, .... 29 
Elijah Osborn, . . . .31 
Samuel Gorham, . . . .35 



Laurel Ave., Six Graves. 

LOT 

John Johnson, .... 5 
Hanover Barney, . . . n 
Harthem Ramsdell, . . .27 
Samuel Hull, . . . . . 29 
Daniel Colburn, . . . . 31 
Mastin Parrott, .... 45 



Locust Ave., One Grave. 



LOT 



Jabez Brown, 18 



Cedar Ave., Four Graves. 

LOT 

David Humphreys, ... 5 
William Lyon, .... 9 
Capt. Abraham Bradley, . 16 
Noah Webster, .... 24 



Spruce Ave., Five Graves. 

Stephen Ailing, . . , 
Ebenezer Allen, . 
Jonathan Austin, 
William Mansfield, 
John Bulford, 



LOT 

IO 
12 
22 

13 
10 



Sycamore Ave., Nine Graves. 

LOT 

Samuel Bassett, .... 4 
David Dorman, . . rear of 8 
Coe Hendrick, . . rear of 10 
Joseph Kirk Monson, rear of n 
Asa Huntington, . . . . 12 
Jonathan Osborn, . . .65 

John Peck, 65 

Caleb Miller 74 

Thomas Bills, .... 76 



Holley Ave., Two Graves. 

Israel Bishop, .... 
Samuel Barney, .... 



LOT 
B 

43 



Roster 117 

GROVE STREET CEMETERY Continued. 
West Wall, Four Graves. David Judson. 

David Atwater, 

John Gilbert, North Wall, One Grave. 

Elijah Austin, Gold Sherman. 

At Yale Art School, Col. John Trumbull. 

Fair Haven Cemetery, Hezekiah Tuttle, Evelyn Pierpont and 
Jairus Sanford. 

Evergreen Cemetery, Capt. John Gilbert. 

West Haven Cemetery, James Reynolds, Jeduthan Thompson and 
Thomas Painter. 

The head stones and remains of many of the Soldiers and Patriots were removed 
from the New Haven Green to the Grove Street Cemetery about 1822. 

The grave of Adjutant Campbell of the British Army is on Milford Hill. He was 
killed on July sth, 1779, during the invasion of New Haven. 

ANSONIA CEMETERY. 

Samuel Allen, Samuel Hull, 

Dr. Elijah Baldwin, Capt. David Morris, 

Timothy Baldwin, Capt. Isaac Smith, 

John Beers, Capt. William Clark Whitney, 

John Betts, Capt. Henry Whitney. 
John Howd, 

DERBY CEMETERY. 

Reuben Baldwin, Moses Hotchkiss, 

Dr. Silas Baldwin, Lieut. (4th) Joseph Hull, 

Thaddeus Baldwin, Maj. Elijah Humphreys, 

Capt. Timothy Baldwin, Rev. Daniel Humphreys, 

Amos Bassett, John Humphreys, 

Benjamin Bassett, David Johnson, 

Enos Bradley, Isaac Johnson, 

John Coe, Capt. Nathaniel Johnson, 

John Davis, Joseph Pickett, 

David DeForest, Capt. Nathan Pierson, 

Charles French, John Prindle, 

Francis French, Capt. Joseph Riggs, 

Jedediah Harger (Harjer), Capt. Joseph Riggs, Jr., 

Samuel Hawkins, Samuel Sherwood, 

David Hitchcock, Abraham Smith, 

Jonathan Hitchcock, Capt. Isaac Smith, 

Moses Hitchcock, Josiah Smith, 

Col. Daniel Holbrook, Major Nathan Smith, 

Capt. Thomas Horsey, Daniel Tomlinson, 

Dea. Eliphalet Hotchkiss, Capt. John Tomlinson, 

Levi Hotchkiss, Capt. Reuben Tucker. 

MILFORD CEMETERY. 
John Buckingham, Benjamin Gillette. 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 

OF 

GEN. DAVID HUMPHREYS BRANCH, NO. i, 

CONNECTICUT SOCIETY, 
SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 

SINCE ITS ORGANIZATION. 



The General David Humphreys Branch, Connecticut 
Society Sons of the American Revolution, has the dis- 
tinction of being the first local branch formed as an 
auxiliary to a State Society, and was organized on May 
22nd, 1891. Its officers since then and their terms of 
service have been as follows : 

PRESIDENTS. 

HENRY B. HARRISON 1891-1893 

SAMUEL E. MERWIN, JR 1894-1897 

FRANKLIN H. HART 18981899 

GEORGE H. FORD 1900-1903 

WILSON H. LEE 19041905 

GEORGE B. MARTIN 1906-1907 

SEYMOUR C. LOOMIS 1908-1910 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

NATHAN EASTERBROOK, JR 1891-1893 

FRANKLIN H. HART 1894-1897 

CORNELIUS S. MOREHOUSE 1898-1899 

FRANK C. BUSHNELL 1900 

EVERETT E. LORD 1901 

WILSON H. LEE 1902-1903 

BENJAMIN R. ENGLISH 19041905 

SEYMOUR C. LOOMIS 1906-1907 

WILLIAM S. WELLS 1908-1910 



120 Officers and Members 



SECRETARIES. 

DWIGHT E. BOWERS 1891-1892 

GEORGE CHADWICK STOCK 1893 

WILLIAM E. CHANDLER 1894-1904 

WILLIAM D. SCRANTON 1905-1910 

TREASURERS. 

DWIGHT E. BOWERS 1891 

JOHN C. HOLLISTER 1892-1900 

WILLIAM E. CHANDLER 1901-1904 

WILLIAM D. SCRANTON 1905-1910 

CHAPLAINS. 

REV. DRYDEN W. PHELPS 1891-1892 

REV. EDWIN S. LINES 1893-1904 

REV. DRYDEN W. PHELPS 1905 

REV. EDWIN S. LINES 1906-1908 

REV. ANSON PHELPS STOKES 1909-1910 

HISTORIANS. 

REV. ALONZO M. LEWIS 1891 

ALBERT McC. MATHEWSON 1.892 

SAMUEL E. BARNEY 1893-1897 

HOWARD C. VIBBERT 1898-1902 

REV. DRYDEN W. PHELPS 1903-1905 

CHARLES E. P. SANFORD 1906-1908 

EDWARD E. BRADLEY 1909-1910 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEEMEN. 

WILLIAM E. CHANDLER 1891-1894 

EVERETT E. LORD 1891-1893 

L. WHEELER BEECHER 1891, 1894-1897 

GEORGE R. CHAMBERLAIN 18921895 

GEORGE H. FORD 1893-1899 

BENJAMIN R. ENGLISH 1895-1901 

WILSON H. LEE 1897-1903 

FREDERICK S. WARD 1899-1904 

FRANK A. CORBIN 1902-1905 

AMOS F. BARNES 1903-1906 

JOHN N. CHAMPION 1904-1907 

GEORGE A. ALLING 1905-1908 

WILLIAM O. PARDEE 1906-1910 

ALBERT McC. MATHEWSON 1907-1910 

CHARLES E. BURTON 1908-1910 



Officers and Members 



121 



MEMBERS. 



Those whose names are printed in italics are deceased. 
An asterisk (*) preceding the name indicates that the member 
resigned. 



*ABBE, GEORGE E. 
ALLING, DAVID R. 
ALLING, EDWARD B. 
ALLING, GEORGE A. 
ALLIS, TERENCE S. 
* ANDREWS, FREDERICK F. 
ATWATER, EDWARD B. 
ATWATER, EDWARD I. 
Atwater, Frederick 5. 
*ATWATER, HARRY E. 
Atwater, William J. 
ATWOOD, WILLIAM H. 
AVERY, EDWARD P. 

BAKER, ELLIS B. 
Baldwin, Henry 
BARLOW, CHARLES C. 
BARNES, AMOS F. 
Barnes, T. Atwater 
*BARNUM, GEORGE S. 
*BARNUM, STARR H. 
BASSETT, GEORGE J. 
Beecher, Ebenezer B. 
Beecher, Edward C. 
BEECHER, L. WHEELER 
*BEERS, CARL E. 
*BEERS, HENRY E. 
BIGELOW, FRANK L. 
BIRD, CLINTON H. 
Blakeslee, Charles H. 
BOSTWICK, FREDERICK 
BOSTWICK, LEONARD 
Bouton, William H. 
Bowers, Dwight E. 
BOYD, EDWARD E. 
BRADLEY, EDWARD E. 
BRADLEY, FREDERICK T. 
BRADLEY, GEORGE T. 
Bradley, William J. 



BRONSON, ROBERT A. 
BROOKER, CHARLES F. 
BROOKS, ANSEL J. 
BROOKS, JOHN W. 
BRUSSTAR, BENJAMIN F. 
Bulford, John H. 
*BULL, WILLIAM E. 
BURGESS, GEORGE F. 
BURTON, CHARLES E. 
BURTON, GEORGE L. 
BURTON, GEORGE R. 
BURTON, Louis R. 
BURROUGHS, FREDERICK C. 
*BURWELL, ROBERT N. 
Bushnell, Asa C. 
BUSHNELL, ERICSON F. 
BUSHNELL, FRANK C. 
BUSHNELL, PHILO A. 
BUSHNELL, WINTHROP G. 
BUTLER, SYDNEY P. 

*CAMP, HENRY E. 
Chamberlain, George R. 
Chamberlin, James H. P. 
CHAMPION, JOHN N. 
CHANDLER, WILLIAM E. 
CHAPMAN, ROBERT W. 
CHATTERTON, F. JOSEPH 
*CLARK, CLARENCE L. 
CLARK, EDWARD L. 
*CLARK, HERMAN D. 
*COBURN, JOHN S. 
Coe, Edward T. 
Cogswell, Frederick H. 
CORBIN, ALGERNON B. 
CORBIN, FRANK A. 
*COWLES, FREDERICK L. 
CRANE, GEORGE W. 
*CRIPPEN, DANIEL W. 



122 



Officers and Members 



CROSS, MORELLE F. 
*CROUSE, GEORGE N. 
CUNNINGHAM, JOSEPH B. 

DAVIS, RICHARD G. 
DEMING, Lucius P. 
Dewell, James D. 
*DEWELL, JAMES D., JR., 
Dibble, Ezra B. 
Downes, William E. 

EARLE, ARTHUR W. 
*EASTERBROOK, FREDERICK J. 
EASTERBROOK, NATHAN, JR., 
Eaton, Daniel C. 
Ely, William H. 
ENGLISH, BENJAMIN R. 
English, James E. 
EWING, CHESTER W. 

FARLEE, GEORGE R. 
FARNSWORTH, FREDERICK B. 
*FARREN, MERRITT A. 
Farren, Roswell B. 
Farren, Willis H. 
*FERRY, EDWIN S. 
*FIELD, FREDERICK W. 
*FITCH, NATHAN B. 
FOOTE, ELLSWORTH I. 
FORD, GEORGE H. 
Ford, William E. 
Fowler, Charles H. 
Fox, EDWARD L. 
Fox, Simeon J. 

*GALPIN, WILLIAM A. 
GARDNER, ROBERT S. 
Gilbert, Levi C. 
*GILBERT, WALTER R. 
*GILBERT, WILLIAM T. 
GOUGH, CHARLES H. 
GREELEY, EDWIN S. 
GRISWOLD, CHARLES 

HALLOCK, EDWIN 
HARMON, EDWARD F. 
Harrison, Henry B. 



HART, CHARLES E. 
HART, FRANKLIN H. 
*HART, WILLIAM A. 
HAYES, NATHANIEL J. 
HEATON, JOHN EDWARD 
*HENDEE, EDWARD D. 
HENDRICK, ALBERT C. 
HEWITT, ELISHA 
HEWITT, HARRISON 
*HILTON, CHARLES H. 
HOADLEY, CARLETON E. 
HOLDEN, FREDERICK H. 
Hollister, John C. 
*HOLT, ALFRED 
HOPSON, WILLIAM F. 
*HOSMER, FREDERICK A. 

HOTCHKISS, HOBART L. 

HOTCHKISS, NORTON R. 
HOWARTH, JAMES A. 
*HUBBARD, GEORGE A. 
HULL, JOHN A. 
*HYDE, SAMUEL D. 

*!NGERSOLL, CHARLES A. 

Jackson, Frederick A. 
*JEWETT, WILLIAM H. 
*JOHNSON, CHARLES F. 
JONES, DANIEL A. 

KENDALL, NATHANIEL W. 
KENNEDY, JOHN B. 
*KENNEY, JOHN W. 
*KENNEY, WILLIAM S. 
KEYES, GEORGE A. 

*KlMBERLEY, ENOS S. 

*LAMBERT, WILBUR C. 
LEE, WILSON H. 
Leeds, John H. 
LINES, EDWIN S. 
Lines, John M. 
LittUjohn, Percy D. 
*LOCKWOOD, EDGAR 
LOOMIS, SEYMOUR C. 
LORD, EVERETT E. 
*LOVEJOY, JOHN F. 
*LYMAN, HENRY A. 



Officers and Members 



123 



MACDONALD, THEODORE H. 
MAGILL, CLAUDE A. 
MANN, B. HARTLEY 
MARTIN, GEORGE B. 
MASON, FRANK H. 
MATHEWSON, A. MCCLELLAN 
*McCnjNG, LEE 
MCNEIL, CHARLES F. 
McQueen, John B. 
Mersick, Charles S. 
MERWIN, JOHN N. 
Merwin, Samuel E. 
METCALF, WILLIAM H. 
Miller, Eugene S. 
*Mix, CHARLES W. 
Mix, ELI 
*Mix, WILLIS L. 
Monson, Frank A. 
MONTGOMERY, PHELPS 
Morehouse, Cornelius^. 
Morgan, L. L. 
MORGAN, WILLIAM E. 
Morse, Gardner 
MOSELEY, WILLIAM M. 
Moses, George N. 
MOULTON, EDWARD S. 

Newcombe, George F. 
NEWTON, HENRY G. 
NICHOLS, CHARLES H. 
NORCROSS, J. ARNOLD 
NORTH, JOHN C. 

Osborn, Allen M. 
OSBORN, ARTHUR D. 
OSBORN, NORRIS G. 

PARDEE, WILLIAM O. 
*PARISH, JAMES H. 
PEASE, SALMON G. 
PECK, GEORGE W. 
Peck, Joel W. S. 
PECK, MILO LEWIS 
Phelps, Alfred W. 
PHELPS, DRYDEN W. 
PHILLIPS, ANDREW W. 
PICKETT, CHARLES W. 
PICKETT, EDWIN S. 



Pickett, Rufus 5. 
Platt, John H. 
Pond, Jonathan W. 
POND, PHILIP 
POND, WALTER 
PRESTON, WILLIAM H. 
PRINCE, CHRISTOPHER E. 
PRINCE, WILLIAM F. 
*PUNDERSON, SAMUEL F. 

*QUINLEY, GURDON W. 

*RANDALL, HERBERT 
REMBERT, JOHN R. 
RITTER, WALLACE S. 
ROBERTSON, A. HEATON 
ROOT, EDWARD P. 
Ross, GEORGE C. 
RYDER, ELY M. T. 

SANFORD, CHARLES E. P. 
*SAVAGE, EDWARD J. 
SCRANTON, CHARLES W. 
SCRANTON, WILLIAM D. 
SEWARD, FRANK 
SEWARD, HERBERT F. 
SEYMOUR, GEORGE D. 
SHELDON, CHARLES A. 
*SILL, EDWIN E. 
SIMPSON, EARNEST C. 
*SKIFF, FREDERICK W. 
SMITH, ANDREW H. 
SMITH, HARRY A. 
SMITH, HENRY M. 
Smith, Samuel M. M. 
SNOW, CHARLES P. 
SNOW, HERBERT W. 
SNOW, LEVI T. 
Southworth, Frank A. 
Spencer, A. L. 
Spencer, Francis E. 
SPERRY, NEHEMIAH D. 
STANLEY, WILLIAM F. 
STEELE, H. MERRIMAN 
STETSON, JAMES E. 
STERRETT, HARRY L. 
STEVENS, CARLETON H. 
*STOCK, GEORGE C. 



124 



Officers and Members 



STODDARD, FRANK E. 
STOKES, ANSON PHELPS 
STREET, FREDERICK B. 
Strong, Horace H. 
SWIFT, EDWARD S. 

TAYLOR, EDWARD 
THOMAS, EDGAR 
THOMPSON, AUGUSTUS S. 
THOMPSON, CLARENCE E. 
THOMPSON, CLARENCE E., JR. 
Thompson, E. Foote 
Thompson, Harry D. 
THOMPSON, PAUL S. 
Thompson, Sherwood S. 
*TILDEN, ROY E. M. 
TOWNSEND, JOHN W. 
TOWNSEND, JOSEPH H. 
TREAT, ALBERT B. 
TROWBRIDGE, FRANCIS B. 
TROWBRIDGE, FREDERICK L. 
TROWBRIDGE, RUTHERFORD 



Trowbridge, Thomas R. 
*TRUMBULL, WILLIAM 
TUTTLE, WILLIAM P. 

*VEADER, DANIEL H. 
VIBBERT, HOWARD C. 

WALKER, CHARLES M. 
Walker, James 
WARD, FREDERICK S. 
WARNER, HENRY A. 
WARREN, HERBERT C. 
WEAVER, E. HARRIS 
WEED, HARRISON H. 
WEED, I. DsWirr 
WELLS, WILLIAM S. 
WHITNEY, ELI 
WOODRUFF, ARTHUR E. 
WOODRUFF, ROLLIN S. 
*WRIGHT, WILLIAM A. 

YEOMANS, CHARLES S. 
YORK, SAMUEL A. 



* 

I 

' 



THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ 

This book is due on the last DATE stamped below. 



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