OF NEW HAVEN
THE SUBJECT OF
ADDRESSES AND PAPERS
DELIVERED BEFORE THE
General David Humphreys Branch. No. i
A limited edition has been published, and
copies may be had for two dollars per volume,
postage paid, by remitting that amount to
SEYMOUR C. LOOMIS,
Chairman Publication Committee,
69 Church Street,
New Haven, Conn.
Catalogue of the Officers and Members of
Gen. David Humphreys Branch
Since its Organization
NEW HAVEN, CONN.
Published by the
General David Humphreys Branch, No. i
Sons of the American Revolution
-. OF NEW HAVEN
THE SUBJECT OF
ADDRESSES AND PAPERS
DELIVERED BEFORE THE
General David Humphreys Branch, No. i
Sons of the American Revolution
List of Men so far as they are Known from the Territory
Embraced in the Town of New Haven, Connecticut, who
Served in the Continental Army and Militia and on Continental
and State Vessels and Privateers, and those who Rendered
other Patriotic Services during the War of the Revolution, and
a Record of Known Casualties; together with the Location
of Known Graves in and about New Haven of Patriots of
Catalogue of the Officers and Members of
Gen. David Humphreys Branch
Since its Organization
NEW HAVEN, CONN.
Published by the
General David Humphreys Branch, No. i
Sons of the American Revolution
GENERAL DAVID HUMPHREYS BRANCH, No. i
OF THE CONNECTICUT SOCIETY
SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
THE PRICE, LEE & ADKINS Co..
NEW HAVEN, CONN.
BY VOTE OF THE GENERAL DAVID HUMPHREYS BRANCH,
NUMBER ONE, CONNECTICUT SOCIETY, SONS OF THE AMERICAN
REVOLUTION, PASSED FEBRUARY FIRST, NINETEEN HUNDRED
AND TEN, THIS VOLUME WAS AUTHORIZED. ARRANGED AND
EDITED BY A SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION APPOINTED
FOR THAT PURPOSE.
SEYMOUR C. LOOMIS, Ex-Officio,
GEORGE F. BURGESS,
GEORGE H. FORD,
EARNEST C. SIMPSON,
WILLIAM S. WELLS.
JAMES HILLHOUSE 7
SERVICES IN HONOR OF EZRA STILES 17
EZRA STILES 19
THE DEFENSE OF NEW HAVEN 31
DAVID WOOSTER 39
COL. JOHN TRUMBULL, THE PATRIOT AND ARTIST 47
NOAH WEBSTER 55
GEN. DAVID HUMPHREYS 59
THE EARLY CAREER OF BENEDICT ARNOLD 73
BUNKER HILL DAY 91
LIST OF MEN FROM NEW HAVEN KNOWN TO HAVE SERVED
THE REVOLUTION CAUSE 97
KNOWN CASUALTIES 112
KNOWN PRISONERS 114
LOCATION OF KNOWN GRAVES, IN AND ABOUT NEW HAVEN,
OF SOLDIERS AND PATRIOTS 115
LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE GEN. DAVID HUM-
PHREYS BRANCH SINCE ITS ORGANIZATION 119
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
HON. JAMES HILLHOUSE 7
EZRA STILES, LL.D 17
NEW HAVEN GREEN IN THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 31
SKETCH OF THE INVASION OF NEW HAVEN, JULY STH, 1779,
DRAWN BY PRESIDENT STILES 33
MAJOR-GEN. DAVID WOOSTER 39
THE GEN; DAVID WOOSTER HOUSE 43
COL. JOHN TRUMBULL 47
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, JULY 4TH, 1776 51
THE NOAH WEBSTER HOUSE 55
AUTOGRAPHIC LETTER OF GEN. WASHINGTON, INTRODUCING
COL. HUMPHREYS TO BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, UNITED
STATES MINISTER TO FRANCE, DATED JUNE 2, 1784.... 65
THE BENEDICT ARNOLD HOUSE 73
THE DEATH OF GENERAL WARREN AT THE BATTLE OF
BUNKER HILL 91
HON. JAMES HILLHOUSE.
BY GEORGE HARE FORD.
Address delivered before the Gen. David Humphreys Branch, Connecticut Society.
Sons of the American Revolution, 1902.
James Hillhouse was descended from an ancient and
noble family in the North of Ireland, near Londonderry,
where their estates 250 years ago were large and important
and various members of the family were distinguished
by having received degrees from the famous University
of Glasglow in Scotland. The Hillhouse name appears
among the signatures of an address to William and Mary,
and one of the family was Mayor of Londonderry.
The original American Hillhouse, Reverend James,
came to this country and settled in New Hampshire in 1719;
afterwards at Montville (meaning Hillhouse) between New
London and Norwich. Cotton Mather refers to him as,
"The hopeful young minister lately arrived in America."
His son, James Abraham, the foster father of the subject of
our sketch, graduated from Yale in 1749, and became a dis-
tinguished lawyer in New Haven. He built and resided
in the large and stately old mansion, now known as Grove
Having no children, and his brother William (the
father of our James) having many sons, James was adopted
by his Uncle, and at the age of seven was installed in the
old big but childless home, corner of Whitney Avenue and
Grove Street, where he resided the greater part of his life.
He inherited his Uncle's or foster father's fortune and the
Aunt's property. The combined real estate he thus acquired
covers a large section beyond Grove Street towards Whit-
neyville, including Prospect Hill, an extensive part of which
is now owned by Yale University.
8 James Hillhouse
The father, William, was a striking character in the
Connecticut Legislature, where he served during one hun-
dred and six semi-annual sessions. The picturesque descrip-
tion of the man as left by his grandson, James A. Hill-
house, the poet (son of James), who resided in the Hill-
house mansion in Sachem's Woods, is as follows :
"Venerable image of the olden days, stupendous shoe buckles,
long gold headed cane kept only for great occasions, conspicuous
watch fob ; high and classical forehead, heavy eyebrows, lifted only
long enough to express an opinion and then relapsing. As the oldest
man on the Governor's Council, he sat at his right. At his leave tak-
ing and retirement at 80 years there was not a dry eye among the
Council Board. At this advanced age it was his custom to journey
to and from Hartford on horseback; and he was Major of the second
regiment of Cavalry. On Christmas Day it was his custom to roast
an ox and distribute it to the needy. Applications were received with
care and discretion, the individual representing then what our ' Board
of Charities' on a more extended scale stands for to-day."
Young James was in Hopkins Grammar School in 1771
with Roger Sherman and David Wooster. He was promi-
nent in advocating and encouraging a movement toward
the formation of the city of New Haven which culminated
in 1784. He was a student in Yale in 1773. President
Dwight, father of the President Dwight of our day, then a
tutor, saw in him the elements of his after greatness, took
great interest in the stripling, and it is said that Hillhouse
referred in after life with great emotion to President Dwight
as his great benefactor. While in college his name appears
with that of Nathan Hale as one of the actors in the
Linonian Society plays.
The uncle and foster father died in 1775. Anticipating
the ambitions of his foster son and nephew, he forbade him
to leave his studies and embrace the cause of the Continen-
tal Army, which at that time was engaging the attention of
many of the young men. They afterwards became famous
in the contest following.
Upon the records of the first meeting for the organiza-
tion of the Second Company of Governor's Foot Guard in
1774, as well as upon the application of the State Legisla-
James Hillhouse 9
ture for a charter, the following winter, appears the name of
James Hillhouse. There was a division of opinion in those
days, on the political situation, and when a few months
later the news of the Lexington alarm reached New Haven,
and this company, of which he was a member, under Bene-
dict Arnold, applied for permission to march to Cambridge,
the authorities opposed it and refused not only the applica-
tion but ammunition. Arnold and his command, however,
took the keys, secured the ammunition and marched to Lex-
ington under the name of the New Haven Cadets. Not being
permitted to use the charter name, three weeks afterward all
but twenty returned to New Haven. Arnold remained,
receiving an appointment to another command in the army.
Hillhouse was entrusted by Governor Trumbull to pro-
mote the enlistment of a Brigade in "A stirring appeal,"
"to all friends of American freemen, urging them to go
forward without hire or reward and never lay down their
arms until they have driven every invader from the land."
The year 1779 found him the third commander of the
Second Company of Governor's Foot Guard; and on the
morning of the 5th of July when the British landed on our
shore, summoning his own men and such volunteers as had
presented themselves, including a body of students with
President Daggett of Yale at their head, he marched his
command across the causeway and meadows at the West
River Bridge and attacked the advance guard of the Eng-
lish Army. It was in this engagement that Adjutant Camp-
bell was shot and killed, on Milford Hill, by a soldier
named Johnson, in Hillhouse's command.
The records, plans or map of that campaign show Hill-
house and his band of 1 50 followers as resisting an army of
1,500 men under Gen. Tyron, and in close contact with the
enemy, delaying them for hours, and enabling the citizens of
the town to remove and secrete much of their valuable
property and prepare for further resistance. Gen. Garth
with his forces having entered the city from the east side,
Madame Hillhouse, who was known as an adherent of the
io James Hillhouse
King and Church of England, by extending hospitality to
the British officers, preserved the Hillhouse home from
destruction ; but when they discovered that her adopted son
and nephew was leading the resistance on the other side of
the town, the situation for her was most perilous. She ad-
mitted the fact, however, but assured them that the house
and property were hers and that she could not control the
impetuosity and ardor of the young man.
It may be interesting here to note that Aaron Burr on
the 5th and 6th of July while visiting in New Haven, or-
ganized and commanded, temporarily, a body of men that
assisted in the resistance.
The courageous act of Captain Hillhouse in leading the
young men of New Haven in defence of their homes con-
firmed their confidence in his ability and increased admira-
tion of his character, and the following year he was elected
to the State Legislature and re-elected until called to a seat
in the Council of the Governor, and the next year there-
after, at the age of 32, he was elected to the second Congress
of the United States.
He was re-elected to the third and fourth Congress;
then chosen to complete the unexpired term of Oliver Ells-
worth, who had resigned his seat in the Senate for the
Chief-Justiceship of the Supreme Court of the United
States, and was returned to the Senate for the second, third
and fourth time, making a continuous service of nearly 20
years in Congress. Upon the election of Thomas Jefferson
as President, he was chosen presiding officer of the
In Congress he was called the "Sachem" from his
strong Indian complexion and features, and his favorite
toast was: "Let us bury the hatchet;" and he was jok-
ingly accused of always having a hatchet concealed under
his papers. From this title of "Sachem" was derived the
name of Sachem Street and Sachem's Woods, which cross
and finish that beautiful avenue, Hillhouse Avenue, the pride
of our city, which is crowned with the dignified Hillhouse
James Hillhouse n
mansion (where the latter days of Hillhouse were
spent), and at the foot of which stands our master
piece of simple and refined art, The New Haven His-
torical Society Edifice (the gift of Henry F. English),
so appropriately set on the site of the old Robert Newman
barn, where was held the first formal and official gather-
ing of the members of the Davenport-Eaton colony, and
where the "fundamental agreement" was discussed,
adopted and signed in November, 1638. This avenue was
laid out by Hillhouse in 1792, 105 feet wide through the
Hillhouse farm ; afterwards it became as now lined on either
side by the homes of wealth and learning of this collegiate
city ; and with its majestic elms forming a tree arched aisle
of world-wide fame. No one contributed more than James
Hillhouse to making this the "City of Elms," and he
originated that idea and devoted years of his life to bringing
the small trees from off his farm between this city and Meri-
den, and planting them in rows along our streets, setting
out many of the trees with his own hands, assisted by a boy
who held the trees, or drove the stakes, while Hillhouse
shoveled in the dirt. That boy afterwards lent additional
lustre to the name of Yale College and the "City of Elms" :
he became Yale's President, Jeremiah Day !
Hillhouse's first efforts in this direction, it is said, were
directed to Temple Street, and when Senator Wade Hamp-
ton of South Carolina visited New Haven, he arrived before
he was anticipated, and found Senator Hillhouse working
the road with well trained oxen. Hampton was much
interested in the work that was in process and spoke to the
negro Tom, who was driving the oxen, remarking: "See,
Tom, how those oxen work ! They know more than you do."
"Oh, Mas'r," said the negro in reply, "Dem oxen has had a
Yankee bringin' up."
His endeavors in planting the trees were discouraged by
his neighbors and ridiculed, as philanthropic efforts of good
citizens frequently are, and frequently have been, one man
remarking to him: "Hillhouse, you will never live long
12 James Hillhouse
enough to see those trees amount to anything." His reply
was : "If I don't someone else will." This was characteristic
of his whole life: "He lived for others."
He had a voice in getting names to the new streets laid
out after the defining of the original nine squares. It was
always a regret with him that he did not insist in carrying
the streets running east straight through to Mill River.
Through his efforts and under his direction and that of
his associate, Pierpont Edwards, the public square, or
New Haven Green was leveled and enclosed with a fence at
a cost of $2,000.00, which was paid for by private subscrip-
tion and without expense to the City; and the fence,
although of wood, remained for the first half of the nine-
teenth century, and then was sold to the town of Milford to
be utilized around their square. The present fence was
erected in 1846.
The inviting and encouraging of strangers to locate at
New Haven was not overlooked; this endeavor corre-
sponded to the work now undertaken by the Committee on
New Enterprises of the New Haven Chamber of Com-
merce, though the work to-day is much wider in its
scope. As far back as 1784, immediately after the charter
of the City was secured, at a City Meeting held in the
Statehouse, Hillhouse was appointed chairman of a com-
mittee on Hospitality, "To welcome and assist all strangers
coming to reside in New Haven, and cultivate their ac-
quaintance, so that their residence may be rendered as agree-
able and eligible as possible." A few years later he advo-
cated the removal of graves from the back of Center
Church, and the purchase of the tract on Grove Street for a
cemetery, "To be laid out in family lots with larger and
better arrangement for the accommodation of families ; and
by its retired situation calculated to impress the mind with
the solemnity becoming the repository of the dead." Pre-
vious to this time it had been the custom to bury the dead in
the rear of the church or the churchyard. Mainly through
his efforts he interested thirty others and purchased the plot
James Hillhouse 13
on Grove Street and established the Grove Street Cemetery,
the wisdom and judgment of which work is recognized and
appreciated by a grateful community today. This is said to
have been, the first public cemetery in the world laid out in
family lots, the Pere LaChaise in Paris which was among
the first of European cemeteries of this character not being
opened until 1804, or eight years later. At that time, the
new departure was an exceedingly unpopular measure and
it was used against him as a weapon in political campaigns
for twenty years afterward.
About 1815, the New Haven Register took the lead in
appealing to the people for a Constitutional Convention. In
the summer of 1818 the last vigorous effort was made and
the Federal candidate opposing the Register candidate was
James Hillhouse. The fierceness of the opposition may be
discerned in a paragraph copied from one of the papers
issued during the Campaign in which he is referred to as
"A most desperate and ferocious prosecutor of the most
desperate and ferocious deeds. God forbid that the
destroyers of the sepulchres of our fathers should ever
receive the suffrage of our sons." How history repeats its-
self, for the strongest advocate for a Constitutional Con-
vention the past few years has been the New Haven
Register! And again after a period of over eighty years
its representative is sent to a Constitutional Convention.
Yet, we can congratulate ourselves that in the twentieth
century the choice of Colonel Osborn was practically a
unanimous one, and exempt from the usual unfortunate
strife that attends the election for a public office.
Hillhouse's thought and foresight are explained in the
following quotation from a speech of his while in Congress.
" The office of President is the only one in our government clothed
with such powers as might endanger liberty, and I am not without
apprehension, that at some future period they may be exerted to over-
throw the liberties of our country."
14 James Hillhouse
He thus describes an election going on at that time :
" In whatever direction we turn our eyes, we behold the people
arranging themselves for the purpose of commencing the electioneering
campaign for the next President and Vice President. All the passions
and feelings of the human heart are brought into the most active
operation. The electioneering spirit finds its way to every fireside,
pervades our domestic circles, and threatens to destroy the enjoyment
of social harmony. The candidates may have no agency in the busi-
ness. They may be the involuntary objects of such competition with-
out directing or controlling the storm. The fault is in the mode of
election, in settling people to choose a King. The evil is increasing
and will increase until it shall terminate in Civil War and despotism."
This declaration naturally excited much comment. But
how pertinent the prophecy as we, who enter the twentieth
century find on reviewing his predictions and how far they
have been realized.
Hillhouse was called upon by his fellow citizens upon
all occasions of ceremony for some form of public service.
He delivered an oration in honor of General Lafayette at a
Memorial service held in 1834. As early as 1782, he was
elected Treasurer of Yale College. The college at that
time being in need of funds, his diplomacy was demon-
strated in his suggesting that the Governor and Lieuten-
ant Governor of the State be made members of the Corpora-
tion of the college ; and an appropriation of $40,000.00 was
secured from the State and expended under his direction,
from time to time, for new and much needed buildings. He
continued in this office, uninterrupted, for 50 years, until
his death in 1832, which long service in itself was a most
remarkable record in the history of any one man or any one
The original grant of Northern Ohio to the State of
Connecticut known as the Connecticut Reserve, including
the land on which the City of Cleveland now stands,
amounting in all to 3,300,000 acres, had been sold to a com-
pany of capitalists by the State, the proceeds from the in-
terest derived to be applied to the support of the public
schools, the fund being known as the first School Fund. In
James Hillhouse 15
1809 the Fund seemed in danger of being lost entirely to the
State. The Legislature of that year abolished the Board of
Managers, and turned to Hillhouse as the only man who
could solve the difficulty, creating for him the office of
School Fund Commissioner. To accept this office he re-
signed from the United States Senate and devoted fifteen
years of his life to this work, and without litigation or ex-
penses for counsel he restored the Fund to safety, increas-
ing its value from $1,000,000 to $1,700,000. To accom-
plish this, it is said that he sometimes travelled 50 to
75 miles per day in a sulky or on horseback with his famous
horse "Young Jim." Once followed by two ruffians at
night with $20,000.00 in his possession, he went at full
speed for 30 miles, saving the amount, but permanent
injury resulted to his faithful horse. Every boy and girl in
Connecticut who enjoys the advantages of public school
education is indebted to James Hillhouse for saving and
preserving the School Fund. Livermore in his Republic of
New Haven speaks of him as the foremost citizen of his
His pastor, Rev. Doctor Bacon, describes him, as "Tall,
long limbed, light in motion and light in step; firm, he
seems like some Indian chief of poetry or romance, as
Massasoit or King Philip of our early history, as fancy pic-
tures them." Dr. Bacon refers to him as the indefatigable
nursing father of the school fund of Connecticut and
throughout a long and eventful life, a beautiful example of
the public spirited citizen." In all his 50 years of participa-
tion in public affairs, there was scarcely an effort made for
local improvement in which he was not a leader of the
Hillhouse was a man untiring in his labors, hopeful
under all difficulties, unmoved by the temptations that sur-
round a public life; firm, intelligent, thoughtful, sweet and
kindly, he proved courageous and patient, full of good, wise
and noble impulses. Captain James Hillhouse was a man
the like of whom does not appear in every generation.
1 6 James Hillhouse
His zeal and energy were expended in efforts to benefit
his time, and that to follow. Always disinterested and free
from personal motives he seemed to have no thought of
personal glory, financial or political. His unceasing ex-
ertion for his town, his city and his country were the result
of labors that knew no weariness.
"But in those hours when others rest,
Kept public cares upon his breast."
In December, 1832, while engaged in reading his college
correspondence he arose and went to his bedroom, lying
down quietly on his bed ; shortly afterwards his son having
occasion to speak to him went to his room, but the old man
was asleep : quietly and gently the Angel of Death had
touched this honored old man, who from early youth to old
age had been an active laborer in every concerted effort to
advance New Haven to its present proud position. It was
truly said at his funeral "He aimed at the public good, and
lived for his country."
The virtues of our forefathers do not belong entirely to
the ages of the past, but they are ours by inheritance; and
while the stage coach and the flint-lock are superseded and
any attempt to reinstall them would be like efforts to call
back the candlelight and the spinning wheel, charming but
not practical, yet the patriotism and unselfishness of these
notable men of former days can be admired and appreciated
as well in this century as two centuries ago. Therefore, do
we not honor ourselves as Sons of the American Revolu-
tion in recalling their deeds and perpetuating the memories
of such a soldier and such a patriot of local and national
fame as James Hillhouse.
EZRA STILES, LL.D.
President of Yale College 1778-1 795-
SERVICES IN HONOR OF EZRA STILES
GROVE STREET CEMETERY
IN NEW HAVEN
Introducing the speaker, Hon. Simeon E. Baldwin, Chief Justice of Connecti-
cut, upon the occasion of the exercises held at the grave of Ezra Stiles, on June 14.
1908, Seymour C. Loomis, President of the Branch, made the following remarks on
Ezra Stiles, the Patriot.
Not all who served the Revolutionary cause carried
a musket or a sword. Among the patriots were those,
who by their example, writings, public speeches and their
counsel, nobly and effectively promoted and served their
country's welfare. One of the few, who were elected hon-
orary members of the Society of the Cincinnati, when
that organization was first formed, was Ezra Stiles. He
was born at North Haven in 1727, and descended from
the Stileses of Windsor. He was the President of Yale
College during the principal part of the Revolutionary
war, having been chosen in 1777, inaugurated in 1778,
and continued in office until his death in 1795. The col-
lege, though relatively of equal influence as at present,
consisted then of only one hundred and thirty-two under-
graduates, and its faculty beside the president, of a pro-
fessor of divinity, Naphtali Daggett, a professor of mathe-
matics and natural philosophy and three tutors.
President Stiles was in office at the time New Haven
was invaded by Try on in 1779, and assisted much by his
counsel and exhortations in its defense. He was of deli-
cate health and unable to withstand much physical hard-
ship, but his heart and his mind were true to his country.
He was the friend and adviser of Gov. Trumbull. He
had studied for the law, which he practiced for about
two years; then entered the ministry and was settled at
Newport in Rhode Island. He refused to be considered
1 8 Services in Honor of Ezra Stiles
a candidate for the presidency of Yale College when the
subject was mentioned to him at the time President
Daggett was elected in 1766, though he was induced to
accept it eleven years later.
He was educated in science, and was one of the first
to conduct, when a tutor, a series of electrical experiments
with a machine, which had been given to Yale by Dr.
Franklin. During his whole life he exemplified by his
teaching and example a tolerance in religion and politics
which was rare for that period. One of his closest friends
was a Jewish rabbi. Stiles was, however, well grounded
in his own beliefs. He was opposed to the custom, which
prevailed before the Revolution among the ministers of
the Church of England, of preaching a sermon on each
thirtieth of January in commemoration of the martyrdom
(as they then called it) of King Charles I. He objected
strongly to such an observance in this country and claimed
that it should rather be celebrated as an anniversary of
joy and thankfulness that a tyrant had been made to
yield to the * 'sovereignty of the people." He wrote a
biography of the exiled Judges Whalley, Goffe and Dix-
well, which did much to excite the people of New Eng-
land to revolt from the British Rule. His diary kept
during that critical period is of priceless value to the his-
torian. But of all his achievements the greatest was that
he put Yale College on the solid foundation, and what
has now become the traditional principle of the university,
of conducting its affairs in harmony with the people of
the state and of training men for the public service.
BY SIMEON E. BALDWIN, LL.D.
Address delivered in the old cemetery in New Haven before the Gen. David
Humphreys Branch of the Sons of the American Revolution, June i4th, 1908.
There are three classes of men, whose memory we would
honor to-day: Those who fought in the Revolution the
largest class; those who conducted the civil affairs of the
country during the Revolution, a much smaller class;
those who prepared the way for the Revolution, and made
possible its success. To this last class the smallest of all
the prophets of Independence, belonged Ezra Stiles, of
whom I have been asked to speak to you this afternoon.
A minister of religion, the son of a minister, and the
grandson of a minister, his profession was one of peace.
But he was not one of those to whom peace at any price
seems worth the having. There are things in this world,
rights to be won, duties to be fulfilled, where the motto
must be, Peaceably if we can, forcibly if we must.
Thirty years before the Declaration of Independence,
when graduating from Yale, he defended in debate the
proposition that divine law gives no hereditary title to a
In 1760, when settled as a minister in Newport, he
delivered a sermon there, on a day of public thanksgiving
for the surrender of Montreal to the British, which com-
pleted the conquest of Canada. How, he asked, did Ameri-
can political institutions compare with those of Europe?
We were planting an empire of better laws and religion
and, he added:
"It is probable that in time there will be formed a provincial con-
federacy and a common council standing on full provincial suffrage ;
and this may in time terminate in an imperial diet, where the imperial
dominion will subsist, as it ought, in election."
20 Ezra Stiles
The time of which he spoke was soon to come. On
August 1 4th, 1765, came the uprising at Boston against the
Stamp Act. For many years afterwards the anniversary of
the event was celebrated. There were annual gatherings to
commemorate it, as he notes in his diary, at the Liberty
Tree in Dorchester. But a greater anniversary was to take
its place ; that of the solemn uprising of all the thirteen col-
onies, to declare their full independence of the British
I have mentioned his diary. This exists in manuscript
in the library of Yale University, and the larger part of it
was printed a few years ago in its series of Bicentennial
publications. It covers a long period of years, and shows
from the beginning to the end the spirit of the ardent patriot,
the cultivated scholar, and the keen observer of all that
makes the history of the time.
He was for a long time pastor of a church in Newport,
and on coming there found that a memorial day was cele-
brated in one of the other churches, of a very different
character from that of the Boston affair of 1765.
The thirtieth of January had always been observed in the
Episcopal church at that place, as the anniversary of the
death of Charles I. In 1770 the service was omitted, and
Stiles says in his diary, that if the day were to be observed,
it ought to be, not in sorrow for a martyred King, but as a
Thanksgiving that one nation on earth had so much forti-
tude and public justice as to make a royal tyrant bow to the
sovereignty of the people, and sentence him to a well
In the same spirit, he copies in his diary (I, 649) the
epitaph on the cannon marking the grave of John Brad-
shaw, President of the Court of Regicides :
Ere thou pass, contemplate this Canon,
Not regardless be told
That near its Base lies deposited the Dust of
Who nobly superior to all selfish Regards
Ezra Stiles 21
Despising alike the pageantry of Court Splendor,
The Blast of Calumny & the Terrors of royal Vengeance,
Presided in the illustrious Band of Heroes and Patriots
Who fairly and openly adjudged
Tyrant of England,
To a public and exemplary Death :
Thereby presenting to the amazed World,
And transmitting down thro' applauding ages
The most glorious Example
of unshaken Virtue, Love of Freedom and
Ever exhibited on the blood-stained Theatre
of human action.
Pass not till thou hast blessed his Memory
And never never forget
THAT REBELLION TO TYRANNY
[S OBEDIENCE TO GOD. "
In March, 1770, Newport set up a Liberty Tree, to
mark the anniversary of the repeal of the Stamp Act
(March 18, 1766).
In 1772, Dr. Stiles wrote to a friend in England, that
the system of that country as to colony administration was
leading directly to the establishment of a glorious empire
here; and in 1774, in a similar letter, declared that no man
in America believed that our increasing millions would
always submit to despotism. Revolution might come and
if it did its success was "indubitable."
All his ministerial brethren were by no means of his
June 30, 1774, was made by the Rhode Island Assembly
a day of Public Fasting and Prayer, on account of the
closing of the port of Boston by the British ministry. The
shops of Newport were shut and Dr. Stiles preached a ser-
mon appropriate to the day ; but in a neighboring church, he
says in his diary, the clergyman took for his text "Fast not
as the hypocrites do," and preached a "High Tory sermon
against Boston and New England, as a turbulent, ungov-
In the following September, when Gen. Gage seized the
22 Ezra Stiles
powder in the Charlestown arsenal, 30,000 men, says his
diary, started for Boston from different parts of New Eng-
land. This shows, he adds, that New Englanders "are
ready to fight for their Liberties."
He was confident of success. Great Britain, he thought,
could not stand up against a commercial war with us. Her
whole foreign commerce was then but five million pounds
a year, of which over three million was with her American
Of the Continental Congress of 1774, he wrote that it
was a "regular, legal, patriotic body wherein two millions
were as justly and truly represented, as ever any body of
mankind were before. It held up a light to the world to
shew to all enslaved empires how they may put their lives
in their hands and rise to liberty."
The battle of Lexington soon came. The news, he
writes, reached New Haven on Friday night "and on Lord's
day morning the company of cadets marched from New
Haven via Hartford for Boston." *
In July, 1775, he writes:
" From this time I consider the Twelve United Colonies of America
as having now taken the form of a republic. The old forms of pro-
vincial Govt's may subsist a little longer, but their efficacy will diminish,
while the Continental Congress will grow in authority & rise into su-
In July, 1778, Dr. Stiles was made President of Yale,
and one of his first acts was to lecture to all the students on
the nature of the government of the eleven United States
which had then adopted constitutions for themselves,
whether before or since "the glorious Act of Independency."
On July 5, 1779, when the British invaded New Haven t
Dr. Stiles sent his son Ezra with the College company of
students to defend the approaches to the city, while he him-
self rode from one military post to another, uttering, we
* It may not be generally known that half of the building in which Captain Benedict
Arnold, who led the party, kept his drug store is still standing. It is on George street,
in the rear of the Wood block.
t A sketch drawn by Pres. Stiles showing the forces of the invaders, their
places of landing and lines of march is reproduced opposite page 33 of this volume.
Ezra Stiles 23
may be sure, words of patriotic encouragement and sym-
On July 4, 1780, Dr. Stiles, with the other clergy of the
town, made part of a company "of Patriots" who dined to-
gether at the "Coffee House" in this city. His diary has
this brief description of it : "After dinner thirteen patriotic
toasts were given. * * * At the third, the ministers
The Fourth of July was celebrated then at New Haven
with less noise, and more solemnity than now. The diary
gives this account of the day in 1787.
"4. Anniversary of Independence celebrated in New Haven.
Between XI & XII a Procession was formed from the Court House
(by Desire of the Committee for Celebration) by the Scholars preceded
by the two City Sheriffs, then the Citizens, Common Council-Men,
Aldermen (Mayor* abs. at Philad a . Convention) & the Clergy viz.
Mess" Whittr, Street, Wales, Edw ds , Holmes, Austin & myself. Be-
ing seated in the Meetinghouse, I being desired by the Committee
presided, gave XVIII th Ps. Watts: then I made a Prayer of Thanks-
giv& 20; then sang Ps. 73. Then havs been previously desired to
do so covered my head with my Hat,f and called up the Orator viz.
David Daggett Esq.J who made an excellent Anniversary Oration of
fourty Minutes. Closed with an Anthem. Dined with about 100
Gent, in the State House. "
In 1788 the entry was as follows :
" 4. Anniversary celebrated in New Haven. A Procession formed
at the Long Wharf of a Commixture of all Descriptions, accords to
the Idea conceived at Boston at their Rejoycing last Winter. A Sower
headed the Procession succeded by 3 pair of Oxen & one holds a Plow ;
then Reapers, Rakers, Shoemakers, Sadlers, Cabinet Makers, Black-
smiths, Goldsmiths &c. then a Whale Boat manned & rows a federal
ship, Cap* & Sailors, Citizens, Merch* 8 , Scholars of the several Schools,
Masters, Tutors of the College, 7 Ministers, City Sheriffs, High Sheriff,
Common Council Men, Aldermen, Mayor Mr. Sherman, the Committee
of the Day & Orator. The Procession moved at Eleven o'clock &
march thro' State street up as high as Elm street, thro' that to College
street then round thro' Chapel street, by the College into the Green -
* Roger Sherman, who was then in attendance at the Convention which was framing
the Constitution of the United States.
tThe academic custom for a College President when performing some solemn act
at a public function.
J Afterwards Chief Justice of Connecticut, and U. S. Senator.
24 Ezra Stiles
the Head reached round the Green to the Brick Meetinghouse Door
when the other End was at the College, or a Length of about an hun-
dred or 120 Rods. The whole March was near one Mile & three Quar-
ters. Entered the Meet&h. at Noon or XI. 59.
XI h 59. A.M. Entered Anthem singing.
XII. 2. Salute by discharge of XIII Canon in a Park around
Liberty Pole, the Federal Flag flying.
XII. 9. Declaration of Independ. 1776. Read by Mr. Meigs.
20. Hymn 67 th Watts sung.
XII. 26. to XII. 54. Prayer by Dr. Wales.
55. Singing 21 Psalm.
i. 6. to 1.39. Oration by Mr. Baldwin.*
Contribution for the poor.
1.47. Federal Hymn composed by Tutor Bidwell.
1.56. Blessing by myself. Thus the exercises continued about
two hours in the Meetshouse.
We then broke up & went to the State House, where about 150
Gentlemen dined together & drank 13 Toasts under the Discharge of
Canon. At the fourth Toast which was Gen. Washington, the Min-
isters retired and smoked a pipe in the Council Chamber. Reverend
Mess" Dana, Street, Trumbull, Edw d8 , Wales, Austin, & myself were
present. Afterw ds the Ministers walked & drank Tea at my House, "f
It is hard for us to appreciate at this distance of time
the horrors which attached to the war of the Revolution, on
account of the participation of the Indians in the invasions
of the British forces. His diary J notes that in January,
1782, soon after the successful expedition of our troops
against the Six Nations, in which many packs of peltry
were captured, there were found among them eight of human
scalps. They were the fruit of the preceding three years of
Indian ravages on the frontiers of New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania and Virginia, and had been made up, says
Stiles, to send to the Governor of Quebec, to be forwarded
thence to London. One pack contained two hundred and
eleven scalps of girls ; another one hundred and ninety-three
scalps of boys; another one hundred and two of men,
eighteen of whom had been burned alive.
*Simeon Baldwin, afterward a judge of the Supreme Court of Errors, and Mayor of
Ezra Stiles 25
In 1783, Dr. Stiles delivered the election sermon at
Hartford. This, you recollect, was an annual affair. The
General Assembly always attended, and it was followed by
a public dinner, at the expense of the State. Dr. Stiles took
for his subject the Treaty of Peace with its acknowledg-
ment of our independence and sovereignty, and painted in
strong colors a great future for the United States. The dis-
course awakened wide attention both here and in England,
and a sumptuous edition was soon published in London.
The title is significant of the author's thought : "The United
States elevated to Glory and Power."
The Indian trading-post known as St. Louis, founded
by the French in 1764, though on Spanish territory, con-
tinued for many years to be practically under French con-
trol. Spain, in 1789, endeavored to vindicate her title and
strengthen her hold upon Western America by inviting
accessions from the United States. Dr. Stiles, with his
customary largeness of view, comments upon these facts
thus, in his diary for August 27, 1789:
"The King of Spain has this year begun a City on the West side of
Mississippi, at the Mouth of Missouri. And published a Proclam* to
invite Settlers from the English in the United States, with great Immu-
nities & Privileges allows free Lib? of Conscience in Religion gives
400 Acres to a Family & Cow & farm Utensils & ten years freedom from
Taxes, i. This will make a large Draught of Settlers from Kentucky
&c. 2. They will seed the Territy W. of Mississippi with English
Blood even to future increase Millions. 3. Extend the English Lan-
guage over all n. America. 4. Tho' at present under Spanish Gov* &
may continue so an age or two, yet upon the first Quarrel between
Spain & us they will either come to us, or erect themselves into an inde-
pend. Republic. 5. They will be the means of introducing more liberal
ideas among the Mexican Span ds & this Communic a will shew them
the Way to free themselves from the Tyranny of European Masters, &
bring on a Revolution in Spanish America. 6. This Precedent will
make way for the Protestant Religion in Mexico & old Spain. 7. Open
the Navig* of Mississippi to us."*
Most of these forecasts have been fulfilled. There was
a rush of immigration from our Southwestern territory.
26 Ezra Stiles
The change of title soon to come from Spain to France could
not check the seeding of the Mississippi valley with English
blood. It came into the United States. The navigation of
the Mississippi became free. Revolutions in Spanish Amer-
ica followed, and now all America is under republican gov-
ernment, either in name or fact.
These opinions were not shared by many of his contem-
poraries, and among those of them who took a narrower
view I may include one no less eminent than the Revolution-
ary hero, under whose name you are associated. In his ora-
tion before the Society of Cincinnati in 1804, General Hum-
phreys, in alluding to our purchase of the Louisiana terri-
tory, remarked that it was "the first national act towards an
unnecessary enlargement of empire," and that the Mississ-
ippi river was a boundary which appeared to have been
designed by nature as our Westward barrier.
Dr. Stiles watched the progress of the French Revolu-
tion with the greatest interest. There, on a wider field than
here, the drama of Revolution was to be exhibited. In
August, 1791, he notes in his diary the news, just received,
of the arrest and return to Paris of the royal family, on
June 21, and observes of it:
"A grand & important Event, w c will either involve a Civil War,
or more firmly establsh the Supremacy & Authory of the National
Assembly. It will do the latter, & convince all the Sovereigns of
Europe the Vanity of withstandg the general & popular Revolutions
of a Nation of enlightened Subjects."*
Dr. Stiles was throughout his life deeply interested in
all that pertained to civil government, both in theory and
practice. While a minister at West Haven, he pursued for
three years the study of law, and was then admitted to the
bar in this county, where he practiced for two years. He
read the leading institutional work on Roman Law in the
original Latin. In political philosophy, he recognized
Machiavelli as a profound teacher, and perhaps gave him
in. 4 a8.
Ezra Stiles 27
too much credit, in view of his advocacy of a policy of dis-
simulation. "To-day," says the diary in 1786, "I have been
reading in the Works of that great Politician, Civilian and
Patriot the learned and excellent Machiavel, and am par-
ticularly well pleased with his Letter Apr. i, 1537 at the
Beginning of the Reformation. He appears to be a true
Christian and a hearty Friend to the civil and religious
Liberties and Rights, not of Florence and Italy only, but of
all Mankind. Our Members of Congress have been much
conversant in his Writings, and imbibed much Light and
Wisdom from them." *
Another of the leading works of his day on political
science he held in high regard. This was Montesquieu's
Spirit of the Laws, which had been published in 1748. It
had a profound influence on our own constitutional institu-
tions. Voltaire said of it, that when the human race had
lost their charters of liberty, Montesquieu re-discovered and
restored them. This work was made a text-book in Prince-
ton College very soon after the Revolution. President Stiles
followed this example, and taught it to the Senior Class
here, beginning in 1789.
In 1793, he added to his course in Political Science with
the Senior Class instruction in Vattel's Law of Nature and
Nothing of interest in the events of the day escaped the
notice of Dr. Stiles. The progress of invention he watched
with especial care. Under date of November 21, 1794, we
find this note in his diary, which shows that the method of
making paper from wood is no novelty.
"Mr. Goodrich, last Week from Rutland, Verm 1 , brought me a
Verm 1 Newspaper of Ins 1 made at New Haven Verm 1 of the inner
Rind of Bass Wood. This is the first paper of Bass Bark, and it is the
first Copy or sheet of this kind of paper ever printed. It will make
common ordinary but not superfine Paper. This bark will cost not
one third so much as Rags, so in this Manufact, Two Thirds saved, "f
28 Ezra Stiles
Dr. Stiles in his theology was what the phrase of the
day denominated as "latitudinarian ;" but would have
been counted to-day among the ultra-conservatives of his
He had quite close relations with a number of learned
Jews. One of them, a Mr. Lopez of Newport, died, and
his diary thus notes the event :
"He was my intimate Friend & Acquaintance! Oh! how often
have I wished that sincere pious & candid mind could have perceived
the Evidences of Xty, perceived the Truth as it is in Jesus Christ,
known that Jesus was the Messiah predicted by Moses & the Prophets!
The amiable & excellent Characters of a Lopez, of a Manasseh Ben
Israel, of a Socrates, & a Gangenelli, would almost persuade us to hope
that their Excellency was infused by Heaven, and that the virtuous &
good of all Nations & religions, notwithstands their Delusions, may
be brou't together in Paradise on the Xtian System, finding Grace
with the all benevolent & adorable Emmanuel who with his expiring
breath & in his deepest agonies, prayed for those who knew not what
Three years later another of his old friends died Gov.
Hopkins of Providence, He quotes in his diary from an
" extra " published by the Providence Gazette, to announce
the event, in which it is observed that the Governor con-
templated religion "as a divine System formed by the
Universal Parent, connecting rational Beings in a common
Interest, & conducting them to unbounded Felicity.
Hence an universal Benevolence adorned his Virtues, and
a full Persuasion of the unbounded Goodness of the Deity
brightened the Prospects of his future Happiness. In
Life he rose sup. to the follies, & in Death to the fears of
an ignorant, licentious World. He expected with Pa-
tience, & met with philosophic & pious Intrepidity, the
the fatal Messenger Death, & with rapturous Extasy em-
braced the Glories of Immortality." "I," adds the Presi-
dent, "well knew Gov. Hopkins. He was a man of a
penetrating astutious Genius, full of Subtlety, deep
Cunning, intriguing & enterprising. He read much esp y
in History & Government; by Read g , Convers a & Observ*
Ezra Stiles 29
acquired a great Fund of political Knowledge. He was
rather a Quaker, hav g a seat in the Meeting, but it has
been said these thirty years by his most intimate Ac-
quaint* that he was a Deist, and of this I made no doubt
from my own frequent Convers a with him. He was a
Man of a Noble fortitude & Resolution. He was a glorious
Patriot! (but Jesus will say unto him I know you not.) "*
What is called the " historical criticism" of the bible
is thought by many to be a thing of late date in this coun-
try. Dr. Stiles was by no means unfamiliar with it, or
out of sympathy with its aims. In 1786 we find him read-
ing in French a book entitled " Conjectures on the original
memorials of which Moses apparently made use in com-
posing the Book of Genesis. "
But time forbids further reference to the details of
this good man's life. They are open to the eye of all, as
given from day to day by his own pen. There is no one
among the citizens of Connecticut of the eighteenth cen-
tury whose character can be known to us as closely as his.
Samuel Johnson is a familiar figure to succeeding gen-
erations, because he had a skilful biographer. His writ-
ings are little read; but Boswell's Life of him is in every
library. Rousseau's writings are now little read ; but not
so his autobiography; St. Augustine's, but not so his
"Confessions." So Stiles' diary gives us the material
for judging the man, even more accurately than could
His body was laid to rest on the Green, and there, I
presume, this monument, by which we are now assembled,
was first erected.
No interment took place in this cemetery until 1797,
two years after his death.
The monuments were removed here from the Green in
1821. A public religious service was held in the Center
Church on June 26th of that year, when Abraham Bishop
30 Ezra Stiles
delivered a funeral address, immediately after which a
committee of which James Hillhouse the greatest beau-
tifier of New Haven was chairman, accompanied by the
President and Faculty of the College, conveyed the monu-
ments of the College officers and students who were buried
on the Green to this lot. That in memory of President
Stiles, erected by the University, summarizes his character
in stately Latin phrase, which may be translated thus :
Endowed with a lofty mind,
imbued with universal erudition ;
of the most gracious urbanity,
of approved morals
charity, faith, evangelical piety,
in the duties of
father, friend, teacher,
minister of the church, man ;
to his family most dear;
in the church dignified with great respect;
through all lands held in honor,
he lived :
amid the tears of all
May 12, 1795
NEW HAVEN GREEN IN THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD.
From a drawing in possession of the New Haven Colony Historical Society.
THE DEFENSE OF NEW HAVEN
RESISTANCE MADE AGAINST INVADING
TROOPS ALONG THE WEST SHORE,
BY GEORGE HARE FORD.
Delivered before the Connecticut Society, Sons of American Revolution, at a
summer outing at the West Shore, September, 1908.
Historical and ever memorable events on this Connecti-
cut Coast and along this Connecticut shore a century and a
quarter ago, suggest the occasion and the spot for this
gathering in a social way of men whose ancestors were as-
sociated as friends and patriots in that American conflict,
1775 to '8 1, which brought about the establishment of this,
now the second nation on the face of the earth. A natural
pride inspires us as we contemplate this fact, and a spec-
ial pleasure pervades the members of this patriotic society
as we gather and greet each other, reiterate and rehearse
historic incidents, and assist to transmit for generations fol-
lowing the magnificent heritage secured to us through those
anxious and perilous times by the deeds of our forefathers.
The grandeur of their achievements can not be too highly
The Revolutionary battles of Connecticut, while not
numerous, were important. The population of the state
then consisted of one hundred and forty thousand white
and five thousand colored. Four thousand patriots had
marched to Lexington; thirty-eight thousand were enrolled
in the Continental army, a larger number than from any
32 The Defense of New Haven
other state, except Massachusetts. Connecticut had fur-
nished largety of manufactured supplies and munitions of
war, and fitted out frequent expeditions by land and water,
causing great annoyance to the British. An attempt had
been made to negotiate, and Governor Trumbull had re-
plied in no uncertain words. Commanding General Sir
Henry Clinton, with headquarters at the city of New York,
had evidently planned, after capturing Stony Point and
other strongholds on the Hudson, for a similar campaign
along the Connecticut shore.
It was in the summer of 1779, the British in control of
Long Island and the Sound, that General William Tryon,
then Colonial Governor of New York, in command of 5,000
well equipped troops, embarked on forty-eight ships with
Sir George Collier, Commander-in-Chief of the British
Naval forces of America, composing the largest fleet that
entered Long Island Sound during the Revolution, and set
sail for conquest along this coast. It was supposed at first
that they were bound for New London or Newport, and not
until they had passed Stratford Point, did the people of this
locality realize that New Haven was their possible destina-
New Haven was one of the principal seaports of the
State, one of the State capitals, the seat of Yale college, and
had the credit of furnishing the first and only uniformed
company, officered and equipped at Lexington. The thrift of
its founders as represented by Eaton, the noted merchant,
and the pious Davenport was emphatically stamped upon the
community, giving the city a degree of importance to the
Saturday nights were kept sacred in the colony instead of
Sunday night according to the old New England custom.
It was on the eve of Sunday, July 4th, the third anniversary
of the Declaration of Independence. New Haven had never
celebrated this great event as many of the larger cities and
towns had already done. A gathering was held in the old
Center Church at sundown to complete elaborate arrange-
avnny tAe Ifbr offtte /fevo/ution
>'</ 4-/y/eces Cannon.
/nras/on of rfe* Haven MS&/779
0rd by ft+tMuit Shto. 'f
SKETCH OF THE BRITISH INVASION OF NEW HAVEN, JULY STH, 1779.
Drawn by President Stiles.
The Defense of New Haven 33
ments for a celebration of the event the following day.
General Wooster was mourned and Arnold was eulogized.
Orations and ceremonies were to take place with a banquet
in the evening when toasts would be drunk and patriotic
sentiments expressed. The adjoining towns had been in-
vited to participate in the ceremonies. Everybody was en-
thusiastic and satisfied that the day would be a great success.
Colonel Hezekiah Sabin was to be the Grand Marshal.
The Governor's Foot Guard of Lexington fame were to
lead the procession under their beloved and distinguished
commander, James Hillhouse, afterwards representative in
Congress, United States Senator, Mayor, and fifty years
Treasurer of Yale University. By his persistency in plant-
ing elm trees here the name of our Elm City was acquired.
"At 10 :oo o'clock p. m. on the Lord's Day, July 4th," as
President Stiles in his diary informs us, "advice was re-
ceived that a great fleet was off Westfield, now Bridgeport.
I pleaded for militia immediately, but did not believe that
the enemy intended to land."
The diary continues : "July 5th, Monday morning, one
and one-half a. m., fleet had anchored off New Haven,
alarm guns, bells rang, beat to arms in earnest. At day
light, with telescope on steeple, clearly saw the boats putting
off from the ships and landing troops."
History tells us, the expedition sailed under the follow-
ing instructions from Sir Henry Clinton: "New Haven is
the only port in which the rebels have vessels, except New
London. Begin at New Haven. The country is populous and
there are many friends there, Likewise land at Stratford
Point and Milford, capturing cattle; your next object Fair-
field." The landing was made along the beach between
where to-day is the summer residence of our esteemed
citizen Max Adler and Savin Point. Up the old road
from the shore to the West Haven Green (that you passed
in coming here) the left division of the invading army
marched under command of General George Garth. Here
they halted for rations and breakfast. They then resumed
34 The Defense of New Haven
their march three divisions of ten companies each, and (Bar-
ber in his "History of Antiquities of New Haven" says)
"The marching of these troops along the road and summit
of Milford hill, with their scarlet uniforms and well bur-
nished arms flashing in the sun-beams, was described by eye
witnesses as the most imposing military display they ever
Although no great battle was fought on this sultry July
morning, the warfare of Lexington and Concord was re-
peated by unorganized groups of patriots from behind stone
walls, fences and bushes. Milford Hill was reached before
any organized resistance was made. Here Adjutant Camp-
bell of the British Army was killed, and President Daggett
of Yale University was taken prisoner, while carrying on an
individual warfare in advance of our main column.
The combined patriot forces were hastily marshalled
under Col. Sabin, senior officer in command, Capt. Hill-
house and others, including Aaron Burr, afterwards Vice-
President of the United States, visiting in the vicinity, who
took command of a section of the defense. But they were
insufficient to arrest the advance of the invading army. Re-
treating across and burning West Bridge, they planted field
pieces in charge of Capt. Bradley, and their fire was so ef-
fective as to prevent the British from crossing at this point.
Unable to enter the town here as anticipated, the British
troops kept on through Allingtown up to Hotchkisstown
(now Westville, the home of our registrar), and the defense
at West River was transferred to along the opposite side
of the river at this point. Despite vigorous resistance, the
city was entered by the enemy.
The story of the two days occupancy of the town, the
plundering of the houses and experiences of residents has
been so often told, and the legend of every detail being so
highly familiar to and cherished by our people, it need not be
detailed fully here. President Stiles in his diary says that
"one-third of the population armed and went to meet the
enemy. A quarter moved out of town, and the rest, Tories
The Defense of New Haven 35
and timid Whigs, remained unmoved." The town was full
of confusion and alarm. Important papers and valuables
were removed or secreted and buried. The women and chil-
dren as far as possible, were sent to East and West Rocks.
Many instances of heroism may be recalled. Perhaps
the most conspicuous man of the day was the Acting Presi-
dent of Yale, Napthali Daggett, who, mounted on his black
mare and with a fowling piece across the pummel of the sad-
dle, rode to the front followed by an enthusiastic company of
Yale students. Far in advance of the command, he planted
himself in a clump of bushes on Milford hill and opened a
warfare on his own account. Unable to successfully resist
the enemy, Col. Sabin had ordered a retreat, but Daggett in
his enthusiasm, declined to leave the spot, and kept on
blazing away until the head of the line was within a few
yards of his ambush. A detail was sent to capture him, and
the officer in charge addressing Daggett in the following
language : "What are you doing, you old fool, firing on
his majesty's troops?" "Exercising the rights of war, sir,"
was his reply, and off went the fowling piece again. Sur-
rendered and taken prisoner, he afterwards died of the in-
juries he received.
Captain John Gilbert, at the head of a company from
Hamden, reaching Broadway, was commanded by a British
officer to surrender, and replied by shooting the officer. Gil-
bert was immediately bayoneted by the British soldiers.
Many of the names upon our rolls are to be found on the
muster rolls of the defenders of the town, and are entitled
by lineal descent to especially commemorate the events of
that day. Among the killed and wounded appear the names
of Hotchkiss, Gilbert, English, Bradley, Daggett, Beers,
Atwater, Mix and others prominent in the local branch of
Patriotic women cast bullets and supplied them to our
troops. Others, by their skilled and ready Yankee inge-
nuity, prevented disaster and thought too quickly for the
now rum befuddled brains of the enemy, thereby saving
36 The Defense of New Haven
property and lives. Tories, too, assisted in the crisis by
their hospitality and assurance of loyalty to the King, im-
pressing upon the officers how much the Royal cause would
suffer if the town was burned. Gen. Garth, taken to the
top of the Court House, and surveying the situation from
the roof, remarked it was "too beautiful a town to burn."
But plunder and destruction prevailed. Valuables of every
description were taken or demolished.
An interesting story in connection with Deacon Ball of
Center Church, who lived at the corner of Chapel and High
streets, where the Yale Art School now stands. He was the
custodian of the solid silver Communion Cups, and secreted
them by lifting his little eight year old daughter up the
chimney sufficiently high to put them on a ledge. They
were not discovered by the enemy and are still in use at
The old historic New Haven Green occupied by the
main forces, was then surrounded by dwelling houses. The
only one remaining, so far as I know, is the Pierpont resi-
dence on Elm Street, between the Graduates Club house and
the Governor Ingersoll house at Temple Street. The Pier-
pont house is in a good state of preservation, and is owned
and occupied by Anson Phelps Stokes, Jr., Secretary of
Yale University. This house was used as a hospital during
the Invasion. Where the Tontine Hotel now stands was
Ogden's Coffee House. Ogden was a Tory who became so
unpopular by entertaining the British that he and his
family were soon obliged to move from the city.
"Being a prosperous commercial town, a large number
of New Haven's inhabitants were wealthy. Many were
engaged in West India trade, and there was scarcely a house
that did not have in its cellar a barrel of old Santa Cruz
rum. The soldiers soon discovered this, and from the great
supply of liquor, became more or less intoxicated," as already
intimated. But organized and unorganized bodies of patriots
were swiftly gathering from surrounding towns. General
Andrew Ward with three regiments of Continentals was
The Defense of New Haven 37
fast approaching from the east. The English generals,
unable to control their men, began to be alarmed, and fear-
ing they might be surrounded and their retreat cut off,
cautiously withdrew their forces and re-embarked in the
night to the surprise of the patriots and inhabitants of the
town, and on the morning of the third day New Haven was
no longer in possession of the hostile forces, and had es-
caped the disaster that attended the raids upon Fairfield and
Norwalk two days later by the same forces, when all the
public buildings, churches, school houses, mills and four
hundred and seventy-one dwelling houses in those places
Had not a successful resistance been made at New Ha-
ven and our forces rallied with such strength as to make the
foe's retreat desirable, this important port in possession of
the British would have been a most serious embarrassment
to the whole Continental army, and the result would have
been far reaching.
This brief reference to the events that occurred in this
vicinity, may impress us with the interest that should be at-
tached to and maintained in connection with historic spots.
The East and West shores of New Haven harbor were made
historical in connection with the American Revolution. In
1895 this Society gathered upon Beacon Hill, Fort Wooster
Park, on the East, and placed a tablet in memory of the
American patriots who resisted the invading troops on that
side. Today we gather upon the West Shore, not to place a
tablet, but in a social way, in a sort of family reunion, and
incidentally to review some of the events that occurred
along the West coast that lies at our feet.
A Defenders' Monument Association has been formed,
under the auspices of the New Haven Colony Historical
Society, for the purpose of erecting a suitable memorial
where the cannon were placed to command West Bridge
and the most important resistance was made. The Mem-
orial group selected is typical of those who took part in the
defense as regards age and social condition. One represents
38 The Defense of New Haven
the citizen soldier, a merchant of local aristocracy in half
Continental uniform ; one, a well-to-do farmer, the other, a
young student at Yale, and all in heroic size. The group is
spirited and artistic. When completed it will be the most
notable and impressive Revolutionary memorial erected
in our State.
The actors on the scene we have contemplated have
gone, but the spirit that animated them to battle for their
liberties and their homes is the same that has inspired men to
heroic deeds since the dawn of civilization. The members
of this Society especially represent the heroes of that period
of our country's history.
As England cherishes the fame of her Wellington and
Waterloo, France her Napoleon and his conquests, as Ger-
many reveres Frederick the Great, at rest at Sans Souci,
and America her Washington, Bunker Hill and Yorktown,
so along similar lines may we not most justly honor these
men of lesser fame, who in their time, by their valor and
their deeds as occasion offered, contributed their share to
the grand result, American Liberty and American Pros-
MAJOR-GENERAL DAVID WOOSTER.
From a portrait in his early life.
BY A. HEATON ROBERTSON.
Delivered in Grove Street Cemetery at the Monument to General Wooster, at the
annual meeting ot the Branch, June 26, 1910.
When one sees the mighty river, bearing on its bosom
the wealth of nations and lapping with its wavelets the
mighty machinations of man, he is apt to forget the
springs and the rivulets without which it would have
no existence. So, too, at the present day, to one, as he
looks upon this country of ours, stretching from ocean
to ocean, and covered with enterprises more varied and
undertakings more gigantic than any land, peopled by
representatives of every nation under the sun, forming
one cosmopolitan whole, with active brain and cunning
hand excelled by none, he is likewise apt to forget those
men who years ago made possible this country and that
emancipation of the human race which never has been
equalled since the dawn of history. Among the men of
Connecticut who contributed to all that we and humanity
enjoy to-day, the name of David Wooster stands out
as one of the beacon lights of its history.
David Wooster was born in that part of the town of
Stratford, Connecticut, which is now Huntington, about
opposite the town of Derby, on the 2d day of March,
1710. He came to New Haven and entered Yale College
about 1734 or 1735, an d graduated in a class of fifteen
in 1738, three years later receiving his degree of M.A.
from the same institution. Immediately after gradua-
tion, in 1739, at the breaking out of the war between
England and Spain, he entered the army as lieutenant
of light infantry, but I find no record that he ever saw
any active service under this commission.
40 David Wooster
The Connecticut Assembly, at its session in 1739-40,
authorized the building of a sloop of war of about one
hundred tons, the war between England and France
having broken out afresh, to protect the coast of the
colony, and in May, 1741, David Wooster was appointed
lieutenant of this sloop. In 1742, he was advanced to
the position of captain in the -infant navy of the Con-
necticut colony, in which capacity he served for over
two years, in guarding our coast. In February, 1745,
the Connecticut Assembly passed a resolution, after
much debate, for the raising of five hundred men to take
part in an expedition with the other colonies against
Cape Breton, particularly seeking the destruction of
Louisburg, the strongest fortress on the American con-
tinent, and at that time garrisoned by French regulars.
Wooster was appointed Captain of one of the companies
of this levy, resigned his commission in the Colonial
navy, and took a very active part in the siege of Louis-
burg, in the regiment of Col. Burr of Connecticut and
under the general command of Sir William Pepperell,
the hero of Louisburg.
So useful and distinguished were his services, that
to him was assigned the honor of conducting part of the
prisoners to France for exchange. At the siege of Louis-
burg for the first time the Colonial army met the disci-
plined troops of Europe and showed to the world that
they were not inferior. After exchanging his prisoners,
David Wooster went to England, where he was received
with no little attention at Court, and was made a Cap-
tain in the regular service of Great Britain, and stationed
at New Haven on recruiting service.
He married, March 6, 1745, Mary Clapp, the daughter
of President Clapp of Yale College, by whom he had four
children, two of whom married Thomas, who grad-
uated at Yale in 1768, who also served as an officer in
the Revolutionary War, and Mary, who married the Rev.
John O. Ogden, an Episcopal clergyman. Mrs. Ogden
David Wooster 41
had three children, who died unmarried. Thomas had
seven children, one of whom, Charles, was a rear admiral
in the Chilian navy. He was married and left one son,
Charles Francis Wooster, a lieutenant in the United States
army, who died unmarried in 1855, and was the last lineal
descendant of Gen. David Wooster, the other children
of Thomas having died without children. There are some
descendants living of the brothers of Gen. Wooster 's
father, among whom was Col. William B. Wooster of
Derby. Mr. C. B. Wooster of New Haven is also one of
On the declaration of peace between France and Eng-
land, David Wooster retired and lived in New Haven
on half pay as an officer of the British army, at the same
time being engaged in mercantile pursuits, in partner-
ship with his classmate, Aaron Day, and afterwards alone.
During this period of semi-peace, he founded Hiram
Lodge, the first lodge of Freemasons in the State of Con-
necticut, and was its Grand Master. Wooster Lodge of
New Haven was named in his honor. He lived part of
the time on George Street and later on Wooster Street,
New Haven, which was named for him, as were also
Wooster Square, and Fort Wooster on East Haven heights.
In March, 1756, when the Connecticut Assembly (war
having broken out again between England and France)
raised 2,500 men to send against Crown Point, he was
appointed Colonel of the Second Regiment and served
in the campaign which, owing to the incompetency of
the English leaders, proved a failure. In 1757, he repre-
sented New Haven in the General Assembly. In 1759,
at the request of Pitt, the Prime Minister of England,
whose letter was read to the General Assembly, 5,000
men were raised to serve in the campaign against Canada,
under Amherst. Wooster served as Colonel, and some of
the time in command of the Connecticut brigade, during
1759 and 1760 in the attack on Ticonderoga, and other
battles in the northern campaign.
42 David Wooster
On the declaration of peace, in 1761, he returned to
New Haven, and carried on a successful business as a
merchant, serving some of the time as Collector of Cus-
toms of the port of New Haven, and he accumulated
considerable property for those days.
Immediately on the breaking out of the Revolutionary
War, he resigned his commission in the British army,
and at the special session of the General Assembly, which
was called on the news of the battle of Lexington, he was
commissioned Major-General of the Colony forces, the
resolution reading, "from his proved abilities, well-known
courage and great experience." He was present on the
expedition that invaded Canada in 1775, led by General
Montgomery, Wooster being one who affixed his name to
the bond of indemnity given to raise money to equip
Connecticut troops. His troops were assembled on the
Green in New Haven, previous to setting out on the
expedition. Of this assembly, Deacon Nathan Beers of
New Haven, himself an officer in the Revolution, said:
"The last time I saw General Wooster was in June, 1775; he was
at the head of his regiment, which was then embodied on the Green,
in front of where the Center Church now stands. They were ready
for a march, with their arms glittering and their knapsacks on their
backs. General Wooster had already dispatched a messenger for his
minister, the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, with a request that he would
meet the regiment and pray with them before their departure. He
then conducted his men in military order into the meeting house, and
seated himself in his own pew awaiting the return of the messenger.
He was speedily informed that the clergyman was absent from home.
Colonel Wooster immediately stepped into the deacon's seat in front
of the pulpit, and calling his men to attend to prayers, offered up a
humble petition for his beloved country, for himself, and the men
under his command, and for the success of the cause in which they
were engaged. His prayers were offered with the fervent zeal of an
apostle, and in such pathetic language that it drew tears from many
an eye and affected many a heart. When he had closed, he left the
house with his men, in the same order they had entered it, and the
regiment took up its line of march for New York. With such a
prayer on his lips, he entered the Revolution."
Wooster was present at the capture of Fort
Chambly, where he showed distinguished ability; also at
THE GEN. DAVID WOOSTER HOUSE.
Formerly on south side of George Street facing College Street.
David Wooster 43
the taking of Montreal, and at the attack on Quebec, and
on the death of Montgomery in the latter attack, the
chief command in Canada fell upon Wooster, under most
disheartening conditions. His relations with General
Schuyler, the second in command, were most unfortu-
nate, and charges were preferred against him for incom-
petency and his patriotism was doubted. He had, in the
June previous, been appointed by Congress as one of the
eight Brigadier Generals in the Continental Army. The
charges were investigated by Congress and discharged
as groundless and unjust, but Wooster never forgot the
manner in which he was treated. The Committee re-
ported in August, 1776, that " no thing censurable or
blameworthy appears against Brigadier General Wooster,"
and this report was accepted. Connecticut showed that
her confidence in Wooster's ability and patriotism was
in no way diminished, for in October, 1776, after the
report of Congress, he was again appointed, by the Gen-
eral Assembly, Major General and Commander-in-Chief
of the Connecticut militia, and was assigned to the duty
of protecting the southwestern portion of Connecticut,
which was threatened by the British troops.
In the spring of 1 777, Sir William Howe having learned
that military stores were deposited at or near Daribury,
Connecticut, he sent General Tryon, who was at that
time Governor of New York and a general in the British
army, with a detachment of 2,000 men to march on to
Danbury and capture or destroy the military stores.
Tryon landed at Saugatuck or Westport harbor in April,
and marched on towards Danbury. Wooster was in
New Haven at the time, and hearing of it, went imme-
diately, unattended by troops, to Danbury, to take the
chief command, leaving orders that the militia should
follow him. He found General Silliman in command of
a few troops, and he at once took command. His forces
consisted of a few hundred undisciplined men and less
than one hundred continental troops. Tryon, with little
44 David Wooster
or no opposition, had reached Danbury and destroyed
the stores before the arrival of Wooster, and had started
on his return. Wooster, at the head of some 200 men,
immediately pursued him, and coming upon him near
Ridgefield made a vigorous attack, which was successful.
Still following up the enemy, he made another attack,
and his men giving way, in the act of turning to urge
them on, he was struck in the small of the back by a
bullet and his backbone broken, April 27th, 1777. He
was removed to Danbury, where he died on the 2d of
May, 1777, in the 67th year of his age. It was the inten-
tion to bury him at New Haven, but owing to the condi-
tion of his body, mortification having set in before his
death, he was buried at Ridgefield. When the surgeon,
Dr. Turner, after examining General Wooster, informed
him that his wound was mortal, he received the news
with the calmness of a Christian and a soldier. He desired
that Mrs. Wooster be sent for. After being delirious for
three days and suffering great agony, he passed peace-
fully away, momentarily recognizing Mrs. Wooster.
Congress resolved the next month that a monument
costing $500 be erected to his memory "as an acknowl-
edgment of his merit and services." This money was
never expended, but in 1854, a monument was erected
in Ridgefield to his memory, by contributions from the
state, the masons and the citizens of Danbury. The cost
of the monument was over $3,000. The General Assem-
bly appropriated $1,500, the Masonic Lodge $1,000 and
the citizens of Danbury the remainder. It was unveiled
on the 27th of April, 1854, with military, masonic and
civic ceremonies. The military was represented by the
New Haven Blues, the Hartford Light Guard, the Bridge-
port Washington Guard, the Bridgeport Montgomery
Guard, the Bridgeport Governor Rifle Co., and the Stam-
ford Light Guard. The Freemasons were represented
by Chancellor Walworth, the Grand master of the Grand
Lodge of New York. There were also representatives
David Wooster 45
from the Grand Lodges of Rhode Island, Connecticut,
Georgia and South Carolina. The orator of the day was
Hon. H. C. Deming of Hartford, who wore upon his per-
son Wooster 's sash, which he had on at the time he was
On the monument is this inscription :
First Maj. Gen. of the Conn. Troops, in the Army of the Revolution;
Brig. Gen. of the United Colonies; born at Stratford, March 2, 1710-11.
Wounded at Ridgefield, April 27,1777, while defending the liberties
of America, and nobly died at Danbury, May 2d, 1777. Of his country,
Wooster said: 'My life has ever been devoted to her service, from my
youth up, though never before in a cause like this: a cause for which
I would most cheerfully risk nay, lay down my life.' "
On the other side, the Masonic inscription is as follows :
"Brother David Wooster,
impressed while a stranger in a foreign land, with the necessity of
some tie that should unite all mankind in a UNIVERSAL BROTHER-
HOOD, he returned to his native country, and procured from the
Provincial Grand Lodge of Massachusetts a Charter, and first intro-
duced into Connecticut that light which has warmed the widow's
heart, and illumined the orphan's pathway. Under the Charter of
1750, Hiram Lodge No. i, of New Haven, was organized, of which
he was first Worshipful Master. Grateful for his services as the Master
Builder of the oldest Temple, for his fidelity as a Brother, and his
renown as a patriot and a soldier, the Free and Accepted Masons have
united with his native State and the citizens of Danbury, in' rearing
and consecrating this Monument to his memory. Erected at Danbury,
A. L. 5854, A. D. 1854. DAVID CLARK, Grand Master."
Wooster not only devoted his life and services to the
cause of the American Revolution, but expended also all
his private means, so that his widow was left penniless
at the time of his death. In stature, he was tall and slim,
courteous and dignified in manner, a man with a high
sense of public duty, a consistent Christian and a devoted
husband and father. The first President Dwight of Yale
said of General Wooster:
"General Wooster was a brave, generous-minded man, respectable
for his understanding and for his conduct both in public and private
life, ardent in his friendships and his patriotism, diffusive in his char-
ities and steadfast in his principles; he was long a professor of religion
and adorned the profession by an irreproachable and exemplary life."
46 David Wooster
Truly it can be said of Wooster that he lived and died
"For God, for country and for Yale." For God, by his
conspicuous piety and religious principles, and his en-
deavors and death in the cause of the rights of humanity.
"To every man upon this earth
Death cometh soon or late,
And how can man die better
Than facing fearful odds,
For the ashes of his fathers
And the temples of his gods?"
For Yale, to illustrate by his life and death, as so many
of Yale's sons have done, that an education does not
unfit men, as claimed by the cheap demagogues, for
business, for patriotism, or for duty in any walk of life,
but rather, as a divine fire, urges them on to win dis-
tinction in business, finance, statesmanship and martial
Traduced and maligned by his enemies, he proved by
his life and death their utter falsity. The life of Wooster
and those who fought to establish our national indepen-
dence and to make possible all that this country has
accomplished for the world and humanity, should ever
be to us, their sons, and to all, of whatever race or con-
dition, who enjoy the fruits of their hardships and sacri-
fices, an inspiration to keep the fires of liberty and patri-
otism burning. Yea, more than an inspiration a duty
to keep the fires of liberty ever bright and to see that our
patriotism is pure and without alloy, so that when this
life is ended and our little day is done, we can meet them
face to face in God's great to-morrow, with the satisfac-
tion of having done our duty in whatever sphere we are
called to labor.
Sanford's History of Connecticut; Hollister's History of Connecticut; Atwater's
History of the City of New Haven; Yale Biographies and Annals, Dexter; Connecticut
Colonial Records; Dwighfs Travels in New England and New York; Proceedings at
the Completion of the Wooster Monument, with Oration by H. C. Deming, and New
Haven Palladium; Barber's Connecticut Historical Collections.
COLONEL JOHN TRUMBULL.
COL. JOHN TRUMBULL-THE PATRIOT
BY SEYMOUR C. LOOMIS.
An address delivered on the annual decoration day of the Gen. David Humphreys
Branch, S. A. R., June 27th, 1909, in the Yale Art School, where the Trumbull Gallery
is now located and Col. Trumbull and his wife are buried. On this occasion also, a
Revolutionary Soldier's Marker, located on the outside of the building over the grave,
There are few persons connected with the American
Revolution, who have left a greater impress upon suc-
ceeding generations than Col. John Trumbull, of Con-
necticut. He was a graduate of Harvard, a patron and
benefactor of Yale, an aide of General Washington, an
exile from his country, confined in a British prison, an
artist devoted to recording in immortal colors the stir-
ring and commanding scenes which surrounded the
natal days of our government, and a man whose courtly
ways and noble instincts place him in the foreground
among those other men of the colonies who threw off
the yoke of allegiance to Great Britain in 1776.
John Trumbull, born June 6, 1756, was the son of
Jonathan Trumbull, of Lebanon, Connecticut, the only
colonial governor at the outbreak of the war, who re-
tained his office during the years that followed. Gov-
ernor Trumbull was the confidential friend and adviser
of General Washington, by whom he was called "Brother
Jonathan," an appellation now commonly used to mean
the American People. The Trumbulls of New England
were well known for their integrity, breadth of view,
sound sense and mental capacity. These were the char-
acteristics inherited from a line extending back to Scot-
land. To these natural traits were added the education
and training gained in the schools of theory and of ex-
perience in active public life. Governor Trumbull and
48 Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist
his three sons Joseph, Jonathan, Jr., and John were all
prominent revolutionists from the beginning and took
a leading part in the prosecution of the war. A fourth
son, David, also served his country at the time but in
a less prominent way. John, the youngest of the three,
graduated at the age of seventeen from Harvard in
1773, as his father had previously done in 1727. He
enlisted immediately after the Lexington alarm and in
April, 1775, marched with others from his native town,
to the defense of Boston. General Washington upon
assuming command was attracted to Trumbull by a plan
of Boston and the surrounding country, which Trumbull
had made at considerable peril to himself. Shortly after
this incident he was appointed second aide-de-camp
upon the general's staff, the first being Thomas Mifflin,
of Philadelphia, afterwards President of Congress in
1783, at the time Washington resigned his commission.
Trumbull remained as aide for a short time only,
and then was chosen major of a brigade at Roxbury,
where the excellence of his service was noticed by
Adjutant-General Gates, by whom on the 28th of
June, 1776, he was appointed deputy adjutant-general
with the rank of colonel. He accepted this position and
entered heartily into the campaign. There was, how-
ever, an unwarranted delay on the part of Congress in for-
warding to Trumbull his commission. After long waiting
it was finally received, but to his great surprise and dis-
appointment, it was found to have been dated in Sep-
tember, when the appointment was made in June. This
discrepancy in the dates permitted several other men,
whose terms of service had been shorter, to outrank
Trumbull in military standing. Then followed a series
of letters by Trumbull and his friends to the Conti-
nental Congress. The treatment accorded to him is
illustrated in a remark by Hancock when Col. Trumbull
was under consideration, the substance of which was,
that "the Trumbull family has already been well pro-
Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist 49
vided for," alluding to the high positions held by his
father and two brothers. John answered this remark
laconically, "We are sure of four halters if we do not
succeed." He tried to have the commission corrected but
was met by language too sharp and bitter for his high
sense of honor to countenance, whereupon he resigned
and thus ended his official military career. This was
on February 22, 1777, about two years after his
enlistment in April, 1775.
Having been refused his commission on account of
jealousy, which, alas, is still present too often in official
life, he returned to his native town of Lebanon to resume
the art with which by nature he was so richly endowed.
Later he resolved to go to Europe and study under Ben-
jamin West, the distinguished American artist. Before
leaving, however, he could not resist the call to assist
General Sullivan and the French fleet under D'Estaing
in recovering possession of Rhode Island. He embarked
for Europe in May, 1780, where he arrived after a favor-
able voyage of about five weeks. In Paris he visited
Dr. Franklin, John Adams and John Quincy Adams, and
also Mr. Strange, the eminent engraver. Then he set
out for London, where he took up his permanent resi-
dence upon the understanding with the British govern-
ment that he should not be molested for his previous
acts of revolution in New England provided he avoided
in England all political intervention. He kept his part
of the contract, but the retaliatory spirit of the men then
in power in the British government could not withstand
the temptation of persecuting Trumbull after the fate
of Major Andr had come to their knowledge in the fall
of 1780. Trumbull was seized for treason, thrown into
prison, and was closely confined for seven months.
His time, however, was not lost, for he was allowed
to work with his pencil and brush, and among other
results was a copy of a "Correggio," which now hangs
in the Trumbull gallery in New Haven. During his in-
50 Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist
carceration he also became well acquainted with many
of the leaders of the liberal party, particularly with
Fox and Burke. Even at this distant day we can see
this fine specimen of American youth, of broad mental
and physical calibre, confined in a London jail, visited
by those men of the mother country who saw in the
American colonies the beginnings of a great nation,
whose customs and heritages were, as were their own,
Anglo-Saxon, whose speech was the same and whose
cause was, in their opinion, just. These men saved
Trumbull and, eventually, their influence in England
prevented further warfare after the surrender of Corn-
wallis, and led to the final evacuation of New York.
Under the terms of his release from prison Trumbull
was obliged to leave England within thirty days. He
did so at once and went to the continent. Under direc-
tions from his father, the governor, he tried to negotiate
in Holland a loan for Connecticut, but was unable to
accomplish it. John Adams also failed at the same time
to effect one for the nation. Trumbull then sailed for
America, where he arrived in January, 1782, after a most
perilous voyage, the details of which are strikingly set
forth in his "Reminiscences." Upon reaching Lebanon
he was taken seriously ill, and his life was endangered.
It was autumn before he recovered. He then went to
the army to superintend the faithful execution of the
supply contract, and was thus engaged when the pre-
liminary articles of peace were signed.
After the war was over he was ready for a permanent
occupation. His friends made business offers, which
would doubtless have proved of great pecuniary profit
to him, but he felt obliged to decline them, although he
was entirely without financial resources. He was irre-
sistibly led to his art. His father rather objected, and
seeing that commercial life was not agreeable, tried to
persuade him to enter the profession of the law, but
Trumbull remained steadfast, and in December, 1783,
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE JULY 4TH, 1776.
From the original painting in the Trumbull Gallery, Yale School of Fine Arts.
Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist 51
sailed again for London. Upon arrival there he went
at once to his old patron and teacher, West, at whose
house he applied himself by day, and at the academy,
It was then that he formed a fixed purpose that his
art should be of some benefit to his country, and to em-
ploy in her behalf the talent which he possessed. He
became firm in his determination to record on canvas in
a way which should thrill the hearts of men, and yet be
faithful to the matters and facts involved, the history
of the events which he had known, and some of which
his own eyes had witnessed. First, we have the "Death
of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill,"* and
of "General Montgomery at the Attack on Quebec."
Then followed the "Declaration of Independence," which
was done at enormous expense of time, because of
TrumbuH's requirement of himself that each figure in
his historical paintings should be a true likeness of the
person represented. It was no easy task to arrange the
composition, but to obtain individual sittings from the
forty-eight different men, who had signed that immortal
document, and who had then become scattered over
this country and Europe, was at that time a large
undertaking. Some had died. Theirs were omitted be-
cause Trumbull required a correct portrait. Jefferson's
was done in Paris, Adams' in London, that of Rutledge
in Charleston, and so on. The groupings, the color, the
perspective and the spirit in each face, prove that the
artist's work was commensurate with the importance
of the subject. It is called TrumbuH's masterpiece, and
with the "Battle of Bunker Hill," and "Death of Mont-
gomery" hangs with most of his other best works in the
Trumbull gallery in the Yale School of the Fine Arts,
in accordance with the terms of a contract made by
Trumbull with Yale College in 1831, under which he was
to turn over to the college his paintings, in consideration
* A reproduction of this picture appears facing page 91 of this volume.
52 Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist
of an annuity of one thousand dollars a year. This he
drew for twelve years until his death in 1843. The con-
sideration was not the equivalent in value of the paint-
ings, and Trumbull intended it to be, as it in fact was,
a gift to Yale, taking to himself the small annuity only
because it was needed for his own subsistence.
Among his other paintings are the "Sortie from Gib-
raltar," representing the gallant conduct and death of
the Spanish commander in 1781, the "Surrender of Corn-
wallis" at Yorktown, "The Surrender of Burgoyne" at
Saratoga, "Washington Resigning His Commission"
at Annapolis, "The Battle of Princeton," and the "Cap-
ture of the Hessians" at Trenton. The portraits of Gen-
eral Washington and of Alexander Hamilton in the Yale
gallery are remarkable; especially the one of Hamilton
which, it is said, reflects the spirit of that statesman
better than any other in existence. We may also men-
tion the portraits of his father, Governor Jonathan
Trumbull, Captain Thomas Seymour, President Dwight
the elder, and Oliver Ellsworth, which are at New Haven;
also the portraits of Washington, Chief Justice Jay,
Governor Clinton and General Hamilton now in the
common council room at the City Hall in New York
City. Engravings of his "Declaration" and others of his
earlier paintings were made by Miiller of Stuttgart and
were subscribed for by the leading men of this country
and of Europe.
Trumbull' s choicest works were done prior to 1796,
that is, before the forty-first year of his age. At that
time he became a member of the commission appointed
for the execution of the seventh article of the treaty
negotiated by Mr. Jay between England and the United
States. That article related to claims for damage done
to American commerce because of illegal captures by
British cruisers. Trumbull's residence and growing influ-
ence abroad made him peculiarly qualified for that office,
Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist 53
and he felt he must accept it. The work of the commis-
sion was not finished until 1804.
In 1800 he married, and the portrait of his wife is
now in the New Haven gallery. After her death in 1824,
he said of her, "she was the perfect personification of
truth and sincerity, wise to counsel, kind to console
by far the most important and better moral half of me,
and withal beautiful beyond the usual beauty of women."
In 1816 he was requested by Congress and by Presi-
dent Madison, who made the choice of subjects, to paint for
the National Capitol the "Declaration of Independence,"
the "Surrender of Burgoyne," the "Surrender of Corn-
wallis" and "Washington Resigning His Commission."
They are copies from the ones now in the New Haven
gallery but of much larger size. The originals are about
twenty inches by thirty inches and the copies twelve
feet by eighteen feet, and the figures life size. He was
eight years in painting them and received thirty-two
thousand dollars from the government, and finally hung
them by his own hand in the rotunda of the National
Capitol, where they still remain. Replicas subsequently
painted by him may also be found in the Wadsworth
Athenaeum at Hartford and in the State House at Annap-
olis and elsewhere. While the copies and replicas are
interesting from an historical standpoint, they lack the
highly artistic qualities possessed by the originals.
Trumbull was instrumental in founding the Academy
of Fine Arts in New York and was its president from
1816 to 1825. He spent his last years in New Haven
with the elder Prof. Silliman, who lived at the northwest
corner of Hillhouse Avenue and what was then called
New Street, now Trumbull Street, named in his honor.
The house has since been moved to the rear part of
Prof. Silliman's lot, and faces Trumbull Street. Trum-
bull died on November loth, 1843, in New York City,
where he was on a visit. His body was brought to New
Haven and buried beside his wife under the old Trum-
54 Col. John Trumbull The Patriot and Artist
bull gallery, which then stood in the middle of the pres-
ent university campus, and was afterwards used for the
president's and treasurer's office. In 1864, the art school
building was erected and the remains of Trumbull and
his wife were interred under that structure. A suitable
tablet in the basement and an inscription on the outer
wall mark his grave, whereon it is truly stated that he
was a Patriot and Artist. He gave his best life work to
the college and through it to the country at large.
THE NOAH WEBSTER HOUSE.
On the Southwest Corner of Temple and Grove Streets, now Standing.
BY GEORGE HARE FORD.
Address delivered at the grave of Noah Webster in the Grove Street Cemetery,
New Haven, June fifteenth, 1902.
All nations have their honored rolls of soldiers and
patriots whose fame they perpetuate by monuments and by
recounting their achievements. In France, homage is regu-
larly paid to the piety and heroism of the Maid of Orleans.
England bids her sculptors carve for Westminster Abbey the
images of her great men. On the heathered hills of Scot-
land, the sword of Wallace is yet a bright tradition. On
the soft blue waters of the Lake of Lucerne stands the
chapel of William Tell, and in each July on the anniversary
of his revolt, boat loads of representatives of the Allied
Cantons, with the banner of the republic hanging from the
bow, visit the sacred spot and chant their National Hymns.
America decorates the graves of those who established its
government and of those likewise who maintained its
honor and integrity, and by whispers from the past, the
nation tells how precious are the memories of her founders
The General David Humphreys Branch, Sons of the
American Revolution, are conspicuously honored in having
on their roster the names of so many eminent men of both
local fame and national renown, conspicuous not only for
their revolutionary service, but known to the world at large
for their learning and ability. In the Grove Street Ceme-
tery the bronze emblem of this society has been placed upon
the graves of 125 soldiers and patriots of our war for
independence who served their country then, and whom we
honor now each year by assembling on the Sunday preced-
ing Bunker Hill Day, recalling at the grave of some dis-
tinguished patriot, his services and placing our wreath with
ceremony on his grave; and detailing members of the so-
56 Noah Webster
ciety to perform the latter service upon the graves of all our
Noah Webster was a descendant of John Webster, of
Warwickshire, England, who came to this country in 1635
and was one of the original settlers of Connecticut at Hart-
ford. He took part in the Pequot war, was a member of
the Colonial Council and the fourth Governor of the State of
Connecticut. On his mother's side Noah Webster descended
from William Bradford, one of the founders and the second
Governor of the Plymouth colony. One year previous to
the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, he came to New
Haven and entered Yale College. On the following April,
almost before the echoing notes of Paul Revere's alarm
had faded away and the Second Company Governor's Foot
Guard had marched to Lexington, "there was speedily or-
ganized in New Haven," as Blake tells us, "two companies
of house-holders, one company of artillery, and one com-
pany of Yale students," in which enterprise Noah Webster
took a most active part. The first duty of the battalion, it is
proudly recorded, was that of acting as escort to General
Washington, when he was on his way in July, 1775, to take
command of the Continental Army. Reviewing these
youthful soldiers on the New Haven Green with his staff
officer, General Washington made a brief address and com-
plimented them upon their efficiency and patriotism, and
was then escorted by them to the limit of the city with Noah
Webster at the head of the column.
When the western part of Connecticut was thrown into
confusion by Burgoyne's expedition, Webster left his col-
lege course and entered the Continental Army in the detach-
ment under the command of his father, Capt. Webster. In
this campaign all the male members of this family, four in
number, were in the army. Notwithstanding this interrup-
tion, he completed his studies and graduated in 1778, with
others of Revolutionary and public fame, such as Joel Bar-
low, Minister to the Court of France, Oliver Wolcott, Secre-
tary of the Treasury under Washington, and afterwards
Noah Webster 57
Governor of the State of Connecticut, and others who in
later years served their country with great distinction and
It is said that when Webster returned home from grad-
uation his father gave him $8.00 in Continental cur-
rency and advised him that he must rely upon his own
exertions in the future. To secure his education for the bar,
he accomplished a famous work, "Webster's Spelling Book,"
which was the stepping stone to his most distinguished
achievement, presenting it to the inspection of the members
of the Continental Congress, who stamped upon it their ap-
proval and encouraged him to further efforts by awarding
him a copyright for its protection, while Governor Trumbull
of Connecticut risked more than the whole amount of his
property for its publication.
It was while prosecuting the study of law, that Webster
began from time to time to note down every word whose
meaning he did not properly understand which led him to
conceive the scheme of preparing and publishing a new
dictionary to supply the place of the famous English dic-
tionary by Johnson, which had been in use for seventy years
with scarcely any improvement. Comprehension of the far
reaching result attained may be realized when we contem-
plate that the many editions of Webster's dictionary, a few
years since reached into millions of copies of this great
Not long since the principal bookseller in London was
asked for the best English dictionary and the work of Noah
Webster was handed the enquirer with the reply "that, sir,
is the only real dictionary we have of the English language,
although it was prepared by an American." One eminent
historian has said "it is a noble monument of the industry
and research of the author and an honor to his country."
By most of the present generation, Dr. Webster is
looked upon chiefly as a learned collegian, and the reputa-
tion of his grammar and dictionary encourages the im-
pression that his time was devoted to books and studies
58 Noah Webster
only. On the contrary he was active in many other capaci-
ties. He was an alderman of the city of New Haven, repre-
sented his town in the Legislature, was a Judge in the State
Courts, and in 1808 was an active member of the Chamber
of Commerce. He prepared a memorial of 4,000 words to
President Jefferson in reference to fostering the growth of
manufacturing in this country, with a view to rendering the
people independent of foreign nations. Agitating the water
question, he was appointed chairman of a committee to build
the first aqueduct in New Haven and he entered with zeal
into all matters of public welfare relating to government,
schools and commerce. His advice was sought on a great
variety of subjects. He gave freely of his efforts from his
pen. It is said that he made to Washington the first distinct
proposal for a new constitution and that his works did more
to allay popular discontent and support the authority of
Congress than that of any other man. He wrote upon a
greater variety of topics than any other author in the United
States, especially upon such subjects as the foundation of
government, the laws of the nation, the science of banking,
the history of the country, the progress of disease, the varia-
tions of the climate, and on agriculture, education, religion
In .personal appearance and presence he was distin-
guished by dignified ease, affability and politeness with
refinement manifest in all his expression of feeling. He was
annoyed at notice of his observances of all the nicer proprie-
ties of life, and was direct, frank and open, but never allow*
ing any sentiment to escape him on any occasion that was
not most courteous and refined.
He lived in this community, in the house now standing
on the corner of Temple and Grove streets, where he died
at the age of eighty-five, and he was buried in the Grove
It can be truly said of him "That he was known and
read of all men."
GENERAL DAVID HUMPHREYS
BY ALONZO NORTON LEWIS, M.A.
The following, found with the manuscript after the death of Rev. Mr. Lewis, is
"This sketch of General Humphreys was read before the 'General David Hum-
phreys' Branch of the Sons of the American Revolution' in 1893. In February, 1895 .
the writer was asked to furnish a copy for publication. Having mislaid (or destroyed)
the manuscript, he has been obliged to reproduce it.
It seems strange that no Life of General Humphreys has ever been written.* The
writer lays no claim to originality in this sketch, having compiled most of the material
from an excellent History of the Humphreys Family by Frederick Humphreys, M.D.
A. N. LEWIS,
Member of the S. A. R. and
Chaplain of the Society of the
Cincinnati in Connecticut.
New Haven, February 13, 1895."
The Humphreys family may be traced back to the
Norman Conquest. Among the brave warriors who
followed William the Conqueror from Normandy in 1066,
we find Sir Robert de Umprevillet Knight, "his Kins-
man," Lord of Tours and Vian: Humphrey de Carteret,
whose son Regnaud de Carteret accompanied Duke
Robert to the Holy Land. Humphrey, Lord of Rohan,
who seems to have been related to the Conqueror, and
whose descendants were Hereditary Constables of Eng-
land, and subsequently Earls of Hereford, Essex and
Northampton. There were also Humfrey of Tilleul, the
Warden of Hasting's Castle, io66-'67; Humfrey, the
King's Seneschal, t killed in the storming of the Castle
at Le Maur, 1073; and Humfrey the Priest, who was
living in the neighborhood of Battle Abbey prior to 1087.
* After Rev. Mr. Lewis wrote the above, a sketch of General Humphreys' life was
prepared by Rev. Edwin S. Lines, and has been printed in the second volume issued
by the Branch. See "Exercises at Unveiling of Tablet on Beacon Hill," etc., page 45.
t Humphreysville was rightly named.
J Marshal, steward, or major-domo.
60 General David Humphreys
In the "Doomsday Book," one of the most ancient
records of England, the name "Hunfridus" frequently
Members of the Humphrey family were engaged in
the Crusades. Peter d' Amfreville, 1197; Le Sire
d' Umfraville, and L. S. D'Omfrei, 1091.
In i34o-'9o Humphrey coats of arms (then spelled
Humfrey) were in existence and duly recorded.
The cross bottony, or "budded cross," is used as the
crest, or as the central figure, in several of the Humphrey
arms. These Crusader crosses were the marks of distinc-
tion awarded or allowed to the Knights who had borne
arms in the "Holy Wars," or wars for the recovery of
the Holy Sepulcher. The escallop shell upon a coat of
arms also indicates a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The
bezants were heavy gold coins of the value of 15 pounds
sterling ($75.00) which were used for the ransom of
Christian captives taken by the infidels in the Holy Wars,
and held in captivity, and indicate the large use of this
money (by the Humphreys) for this purpose.
The predominant mental trait of the family is self-
reliance, to the extreme of rashness, or the neglect of
ordinary prudence in their ventures. The Humphreys
have always responded "prodigally" to a call to arms.
Other traits noted are readiness of acquisition, and
ready adaptation to circumstances. They learn readily
and retain easily; succeed as professional men, not so
well as tradesmen. Says Dr. Frederick Humphreys, "I
have known none as mere mechanics. They sometimes
learn trades, but never work at them."
Another characteristic is an artistic temperament,
indicated in a delicate, almost feminine cast of features;
and facility of language. Almost all the Humphreys
are good talkers, story-tellers and speakers.
General David Humphreys 61
Goodness of heart is another characteristic. "It has
been stamped," says Judge Barbour of Hartford, "upon
the countenance, giving what has been called the 'Hum-
phrey look.' '
The Humphreys are a prolific stock. Large families
are the rule, especially in the olden time. The men are
tall, of a clear countenance and large of stature, unless
their mothers are of small stock. The women are noted
for vivacity, intelligence and pleasing address, their sons
often manifesting, in a remarkable degree, the prominent
The name has been spelled various ways. Amfre-
ville, Anfray, Anfrie, Homfray (French, homme vrai,
i. e., true man), Hunffreys (Welch), Humfrey, Humph-
rys, Humphery, Hunpheirs, Humphreys, Humphry, Hun-
fridus, Hunfredus, Humfroi, Homfrey, Hunfrey, Hum-
frauvils, Humfrestone (Humphry's town?) and Hum-
phrey: Onfray, D' Omfrei: Umfrauvill, Umfreville,
Umfraville, Umfravill, Umphraville, Umfray, Umphrey,
Umphrastown (Humphrey's town?) and Umfrevile.
General David Humphreys, LL.D., F.R.S., was born
July loth, 1752, at Derby, Connecticut. As a boy he was
decidedly "bookish," "passionately so," says the author
to whom I am indebted for much of the material of this
sketch. He was fitted, under the tuition of his father,
for Yale College, which he entered in 1767; graduating
in 1771 with distinguished honors, at the early age of
nineteen. Dr. Daggett was the President, whose regime
exhibits the most brilliant display of eminent names
furnished by the Catalogue of Yale. Trumbull, Dwight,
Humphreys, and a little later, Barlow. With the caustic
satire of Trumbull, the noble songs of Dwight and the
elaborate effusions of Barlow, were mingled the patri-
otic effusions of Humphreys.
62 General David Humphreys
After his graduation (1771), he resided for a short
time (as instructor) in the distinguished and courtly
family of Col. Phillips of Phillips Manor, West Chester
Co., N. Y. At the breaking out of the Revolution he
entered the army, in his 24th year, as Captain, and was
speedily promoted Major in General Israel Putnam's
Brigade. Soon after, he became aide-de-camp to Put-
nam, a confidential position which was a high compli-
ment to the young soldier, and considered a very im-
I^rtant one, both in field and cabinet service. In this
capacity he was present in the memorable retreat from
New York after the Battle of Long Island, August 27th,
1776, and at the affair of Harlem Heights.
Major Humphreys was Brigade Major of the ist
Connecticut Brigade on Hudson Highlands in the au-
tumn of 1777, when the British captured Forts Clinton
and Montgomery. He was also aide for a time to Gen.
Greene. Early in 1780 he was appointed aide and Mili-
tary Secretary to Gen. Washington, with the rank of
Lieut. -Colonel, and soon after became a member of the
General's military family, remaining until the end of the
War, enjoying his full confidence, and sharing the toils
of his arduous duties. He alludes to his association with
three distinguished generals in his "Poem on the Happi-
ness of America."
"I, too, perhaps, should Heav'n prolong my date,
The oft-repeated tale shall oft relate ;
Shall tell the feelings in the first alarms,
Of some bold enterprise th' unequalled charms ;
Shall tell from whom I learned the martial art,
With what high chiefs I played my early part ;
With Parsons* first, whose eye, with piercing ken,
Reads thro' their hearts the characters of men;
Then how I aided, in the following scene,
Death-daring Putnam then immortal Greene
Then how great Washington my youth approved,
In rank preferr'd, and as a parent loved;
(For each fine feeling in his bosom blends
The first of heroes, sages, patriots, friends^
* Brig. Gen'l Parsons of Connecticut.
General David Humphreys 63
With him what hours on warlike plains I spent,
Beneath the shadow of th' imperial tent;
With him how oft I went the nightly round,
Thro' moving hosts, or slept on tented ground;
From him how oft (nor far below the first*
In high behests and confidential trust)
From him how oft I bore the dread commands,
Which destin'd for the fight the eager bands:
With him how oft I pass'd the eventful day,
Rode by his side, as down the long array,
His awful voice the columns taught to form,
To point the thunder, and to pour the storm."
He proved himself an efficient and worthy officer on
the Staff of the Commander-in-Chief, and especially at
the siege of Yorktown, where he had a separate com-
mand. When Lord Cornwallis surrendered, October 19,
1781, Col. Humphreys had the distinguished honor of
receiving the English colors, and as a mark of approba-
tion, bearing them from Washington to Congress, with
copies of the returns of prisoners, arms, ordnance, and
25 stands of colors surrendered, with a letter from the
Commander-in-Chief commending the bearer to the con-
sideration of the Government, f
Congress ordered "an elegant sword to be presented,
in the name of the United States in Congress, to Col.
Humphreys, to whose care the standards taken under
the capitulation of York (sic) were committed, as a
testimony of their opinion of his fidelity: and that the
Board of War take order therein." In 1786 this order
was carried into effect, and the sword presented by Gen.
Knox, then Secretary of War, accompanied by a highly
In November, 1782, he was commissioned Lieuten-
ant-Colonel, the commission to bear date from the 23d
of June, 17 , when he was appointed aide-de-camp
While in the service Col. Humphreys had given his
* First was then pronounced "fust."
t Col. Humphreys had a picture executed in Spain, portraying his delivery of the
trophies of Yorktown to Congress.
64 General David Humphreys
name and influence to the establishment of a company
of colored infantry which was attached to Col. Meigs',
afterwards Col. Butler's, Regiment of the Connecticut
Line, of which he continued nominal Captain during the
War. Jethro Martin, a colored servant (slave?) of Col.
Humphreys, received a pension for many years on ac-
count of his military service.
In May, 1782, we find the names of David Humphreys,
Aide-de-Camp, and Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., Secretary,
officially endorsed upon a copy of Gen. Washington's
reply to a letter of Col. Nicola, proposing the establish-
ment of a Kingdom, and suggesting the title of King to
the illustrious Commander-in-Chief .
Preliminaries of peace between the United States and
Great Britain having been settled in November, 1782,
hostilities were suspended. In December, 1783, Washing-
ton resigned his commission at Annapolis, being attended
on that occasion by Col. Humphreys, who by special
request accompanied him to Mount Vernon. His friend
Barlow alludes to this event in his " Vision of Columbus."
"While Freedom's cause his patriot bosom warms,
In lore of nations skilled, and brave in arms,
See Humphreys glorious from the field retire,
Sheathe the glad sword, and string the sounding lyre
That lyre, which erst, in hours of dark despair,
Roused the sad realms to urge th' unfinished war:
O'er fallen friends, with all the strength of woe,
His heart-felt sighs in moving numbers flow.
His country's wrongs, her duties, dangers, praise,
Fire his full soul, and animate his lays.
Immortal Washington with joy shall own
So fond a favorite and so great a son."
In May, 1784, Col. Humphreys was elected by Con-
gress Secretary to the "Commission for Negotiating Treaties
of Commerce with Foreign Powers," the Committee being
John Adams, then Minister to Holland, Benjamin Frank-
lin, Minister to France, and Thomas Jefferson, whom he
accompanied in July of the same year to Europe. Gen.
Kosciusko, also, was his compagnon du voyage.
FACSIMILE OF WASHINGTON'S AUTOGRAPHIC LETTER INTRODUCING
COL. HUMPHREYS TO BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, UNITED
STATES MINISTER TO FRANCE.
The text of the letter is as follows:
Mout Vernon 2d June 1784.
Congress having been pleased to appoint Colo Humphreys Secretary to
the Commissioners, for framing Commercial Treaties in Europe; I take the liberty of
introducing him to you.
This Gentleman was several years in my family as an Aid de Camp. His zeal in
the cause of his Country his good sense, prudence, and attachment to me, rendered
him dear to me; and I persuade myself you will find no confidence wch you may think
proper to repose in him, misplaced. He possesses an excellent heart, good natural &
acquired ability and sterling integrity to which may be added sobriety, & an
A full conviction of his possessing all these good qualities, makes me less scrupu-
lous of recommending him to your patronage and friendship. He will repeat to you
the assurances of perfect esteem, regard, & consideration, with which I have the
honor to be,
Yr. Most Obedt. & very Hble. Ser.,
General David Humphreys 65
Col. Humphreys bore with him a highly complimentary
letter of introduction from Washington to Minister
At the close of two years of negotiation, he returned
to America, and at once visited his old Commander at
In the Autumn of 1786, when the Shay Rebellion
broke out, Col. Humphreys was elected a member of the
General Assembly from Derby, and October 2oth of the
same year was appointed by that body to command the
3d U. S. Infantry. This Regiment was raised, in compli-
ance with a requisition of Congress, "on account of an
Indian War," its real object being disguised from motives
of policy. Col. Humphreys fixed upon Hartford as his
headquarters, where he renewed his intimacy with John
Trumbull and Joel Barlow. With these two friends and
Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, he was soon engaged in writing
the "Anarchiad," a satirical poem in 24 numbers, and
from this association one of the "four bards with Scripture
names,"* were satirized in London. The Shay Rebellion
being suppressed early the following year, the Regiment
was reduced, April ist, 1787, and Col. Humphreys was
again invited to the hearth of Washington.
In the Fall of 1789 he was appointed by Congress a
Commissioner to treat with the Creek Indians on the
frontiers of the Southern States, his associates being
Cyrus Griffin and Gen. Benj. Lincoln.
In 1791 he was commissioned first Minister from the
United States to Portugal, and served in that capacity
for several years. He concluded treaties with Algiers
and Tripoli, after his return from the United States,
where he went to make a personal representation on the
subject of the Barbary aggressions. Many American
citizens were rescued from captivity, and our commerce
secured from further spoliations.
* John, David, Joel and Lemuel. They were also called the "Hartford Wits."
66 General David Humphreys
In 1797 he was transferred to the Court of Madrid
as Minister to Spain, where he remained until 1802, when
he returned to his native land.
The following extract from the "Farewell" of the
Abbe O'Moore, written January i, 1802, gives'a foreigner's
opinion as to his moral worth :
"Humphreys has strength of character to bear,
Unmoved, all fortunes in a lofty sphere;
Beneath his feet repulsive pride to throw,
And stoop with dignity to those below.
But if his country bids, in arduous hour,
He, bold, asserts his ministerial power;
And mildly stubborn, ev'n before a throne,
Supports his nation's honor and his own."
He married in Lisbon, in 1797, Ann Frances Bulkley,
daughter of John Bulkley, an English banker residing
in that city. Her annual income is said to have been
^30,000. She is described as "a lady of refinement, and
of a fine, motherly disposition." Their places of residence
were Boston, New Haven and Derby, Col. Humphreys
being frequently called to his native town by business
In June, 1796, Col. Humphreys received the following
letter from* Washington, which shows that the Father of
his Country had a vein of humor in his composition:
"Whenever you shall think, with the poet or philosopher, that
'the post of honour is a private station,' and may be disposed to
enjoy yourself in my shades I do not mean the shades below, where,
if you put it off long, I may be reclining, I can only repeat, that
you will meet with the same cordial reception at Mount Vernon that
you have always found at that place; and that I am, and always
Your sincere friend,
And affectionate servant,
The man who could inspire such a friendship in the
heart of such a man as Washington must have been
something more than common.
General David Humphreys 67
While a resident of Lisbon, Colonel Humphreys'
attention had been turned to the importance of a more
general introduction of manufactures into the United
In order to improve the breed of sheep in this country,
he contracted "with a person of the most respectable
character" to deliver to him, at Lisbon, one hundred
Spanish merino sheep, "composed of 25 rams and 75 ewes,
from one to two years old." They were conducted with
proper passports across the country of Portugal by three
Spanish shepherds, and escorted by a small band of
Portuguese soldiers. On the loth of April, 1802, they
were embarked in the Tagus, on board the ship Persever-
ance, of 250 tons, Caleb Coggeshall master. In about
fifty days 21 rams and 70 ewes were landed in Derby,
Conn., they having been shifted at New York on board
of a sloop destined to that landing. The nine which died
were principally killed in consequence of bruises received
by the violent rolling of the vessel on the Banks of New-
In recognition of this service the Massachusetts Agri-
cultural Society presented Col. Humphreys with an ele-
gant gold medal.
The introduction of the Spanish sheep caused a great
excitement. Col. Humphreys discouraged all specula-
tion, selling the herd at cost, or less, to the most enter-
prising farmers. His advice and entreaties, however,
were unheeded, and soon the price rose from one hundred
to four hundred dollars, mounting from that to $1,000,
$1,500 and $2,000 per head. A few were sold as high as
$2,500 and $3,000! Many honest men suffered great loss
in the speculation, but no blame could be attached to
Col. Humphrey s.t
* From an address by Col. Humphreys before the Mass. Agricultural Society.
t These were the first merinoes ever brought to America.
68 General David Humphreys
In 1803 Col. Humphreys began his distinguished
career as a manufacturer, purchasing a tract of land,
the water power, two fulling mills, a clothier's shop, etc.,
on the Naugatuck River, at the Derby Falls. These mills
had been used for the dressing of cloth, the spinning and
weaving of the wool being done at the homes of the inhab-
itants. Machinery for the weaving of the cloth, and
skilled mechanics were brought from Europe; cottages
were erected for the operatives, and a school established
on this property, the name of the village being called
Humphreys ville,* in compliment to its founder.
He succeeded so well in this beneficent and philan-
thropic enterprise, the production of fine broadcloth,
that, in 1808, he had the reputation of producing the
best quality of that kind of goods in America. So cele-
brated had "Humphreys' cloth" become, that in Novem-
ber, 1808, President Jefferson, desirous of appearing at
the White House, on New Year's Day, with a suit of
clothes of American manufacture, sent to the Collector
of Customs at New Haven the following order: "Home-
spun is become the spirit of the times. I think it an useful
one, and therefore that it is a duty to encourage it by
example. f The best fine cloth made in the United States,
I am told, is at the manufactory of Col. Humphreys.
Send enough for a suit."
In 1808-09 the Philadelphia Domestic Society offered
a premium of $50 for the best piece of broadcloth 20
yards long and six quarters wide. Col. Humphreys took
the prize. Coats were made therefrom for Presidents
Jefferson and Madison, and the Heads of Departments;
also for Capt. Isaac Hull, afterward Commander of the
frigate Constitution. The price of this cloth was $12
Mr. John Winterbotham of England, father of the
* Since unjustly changed to Seymour.
t Would Jefferson have been a "Free Trader" in 1895?
General David Humphreys 69
authoress, Mrs. Ann S. Stephens, was associated with
Col. Humphreys in his manufacturing enterprise at
Mrs. Stephens, in the History of Derby, gives a
graphic description of Col. Humphreys, from which we
"Col. H. kept up in his appearance and habits all the traditions
that have come down to us from the Revolution. I remember him,
at first dimly, in a blue coat and large gold (or what appeared to be
gold) buttons, a buff vest, and laced ruffles around his wrists and in
his bosom. His complexion was soft and blooming like that of a child,
and his gray hair, swept back from his forehead, was gathered in a
cue behind, and tied with a black or red ribbon. His white and plump
hands I recollect well, for wherever he met me they were sure to ruffle
up my curls, and sometimes my temper, which was frequently tran-
quilized with some light silver coin ranging anywhere from a four-
pence half -penny to a half dollar."
She goes on to say that Col. H. took great interest
in the discipline and education of the apprentice-boys
employed in his factory. Seventy-three of these boys
were from the New York almshouse, and from the neigh-
boring villages. For these he established Sunday and
evening schools with competent teachers, and indulged
his military tastes by uniforming them, at no light ex-
pense to himself, as a militia company, drilling them
himself. "Lady" Humphreys made and beautifully
embroidered an elegant silk flag for the company, which
is still preserved, its inscription being as follows:
1 ' Humphreysville.
JAM NOVA PROGENIES,
PERSEVERANDA PACTA, SEMPER SERRANDA,
Of course there were rogues among the boys, and
when thefts or small vices were discovered, the offender
was given his choice to be rendered up to the civil au-
thorities, or tried and punished by a court organized on
the premises. Almost invariably they elected the latter.
The Colonel, in his business enterprise, did not forget
70 General David Humphreys
his literary propensities that had connected him with
Barlow and Trumbull at Yale College. He wrote a great
deal for the benefit and amusement of the operatives;
and the Christmas holidays were often celebrated with
private theatricals, at which an original play (written by
the Colonel) would be performed by the most talented
work-people, and in which he himself, more than once,
took a prominent part. These representations were
attended by the best people of the neighborhood and
adjoining towns. In fact he omitted nothing that could
arouse the ambition or promote the intellectual improve-
ment of the operatives, and this he did after a grand
military fashion. His large size increased his fine com-
manding appearance, as he was six feet two inches in
height, and weighed about 230 pounds. He was a great
stickler for etiquette, so much so as to have drawn upon
himself the ridicule and lampoons of those who failed to
appreciate his keen sense of propriety and decorum.
He was representative from Derby to the State Legis-
lature five sessions, in 1812, '13 and '14, when his public
career appears to have terminated.
He was associated, as Member or Fellow, with sev-
eral literary institutions, both in this country and Europe,
and received from three American colleges the honorary
degree of Doctor of Laws.
His last years were spent principally in Boston and
New Haven, his death occurring very suddenly, at the latter
place, February 2ist, 1818, at the age of sixty-five years.
He had been suffering, for a few days, from an apparently
slight indisposition. With his usual courtesy he handed
a lady friend to her carriage, standing, hat in hand, until
her departure, then returned to his apartments at the
hotel,* lay down on the sofa, and expired.
His monument stands in the northwestern part of
the ancient New Haven cemetery. It is a granite obelisk
about twelve feet in height. The following inscriptions
* The Tontine (?).
General David Humphreys 71
are upon two bronze tablets which are inserted in the
east and west sides of the pedestal. The epitaph was
written by his early and faithful friend, Judge John Trum-
bull, the poet.
DAVID HUMPHREYS, LL.D.
Acad. Scient. Philad. Mass, et Connect.
et in Anglia Aquae Solis, et Regiae Societat,
Patriae et Libertatis amore accensus,
Juvenis vitam Reipub. integram consecravit,
patriam armis tuebatur,
consiliis auxit, literis exorvavit,
apud exteras gentes concordia stabilivit.
(On the reverse side)
In bello gerendo
maximi ducis Washington administer et adjutor;
in exercitu patrio Chiliarchus;
in Republica Connecticutensi
militum evocatorum Imperator;
ad Aulam Lusitan. et Hispan. Legatas,
Iberia re versus natale solum
vellere vere aureo ditavit.
In Historia et Poesi scriptor eximius;
in Artibus et Scientiis excolendis,
quae vel decori vel usui inserviunt,
optimus ipse et patronus et exemplar.
Omnibus demum officiis expletis,
cursug; vitae feliciter peraeto, fato cessit,
Die XXI. Februar. Anno Domini MDCCCXVIII,
cum annos vixisset LXV.
David Humphreys, Doctor of Laws, Member of the Academy
of Sciences of Philadelphia, Massachusetts and Connecticut: of the
Bath (Agricultural) Society, and of the Royal Society of London.
Fired with the love of country and of liberty, he consecrated his youth
wholly to the service of the Republic, which he defended by his arms,
aided by his counsels, adorned by his learning, and preserved in har-
mony with foreign nations.
In the field he was the companion and aide of the great Wash-
ington, a Colonel in the army of his country, and commander of the
Veteran Volunteers of Connecticut. He went as Ambassador to the
Courts of Portugal and Spain, and returning, enriched his native
land with the true Golden Fleece. He was a distinguished Historian
and Poet; a model and Patron of Science, and of the ornamental
and useful arts.
After a full discharge of every duty and a life well spent, he died
on the 2ist day of February, 1818, aged 65 years."
72 General David Humphreys
The literary works of General Humphreys, both in
prose and verse, which were numerous, may be found in
an octavo volume entitled "The Miscellaneous Works of
David Humphreys, Late Minister Plenipotentiary from
the U. S. to the Court of Madrid/' Several editions of
his writings were published both in Europe and America.
REV. MR. LEWIS ADDED THIS ADDENDA TO His SKETCH:
"There ought to be erected to the memory of Gen. Humphreys a public monument
worthy of his fame and services. The citizens of his native town, whose name was
changed from Humphreysville to Seymour, ought to do this as an act of justice.
In his Valedictory Address to the Society of the Cincinnati in Connecticut, July
4, 1804, Gen. Humphreys said in substance: 'In sixty years slavery in the United
States will practically disappear.' In 1863 (59 years after this prophecy) President
Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation."
THE BENEDICT ARNOLD HOUSE.
Formerly on the north side of Water Street about midway between Union and Olive Streets.
THE EARLY CAREER
OF BENEDICT ARNOLD
BY GEORGE HARE FORD.
Read before the General David Humphreys Branch, Connecticut Society, Sons
of the American Revolution, and the members of the Second Company Governor's
Foot Guard, at their Armory, November, 1907.
It is not inappropriate that here in this Armory occupied
by a command that has been continually in existence since
the Revolutionary period, we consider the early career of
Benedict Arnold, who was elected its first Captain, March
Although of Connecticut birth, and a New Haven
citizen, his career belongs to the whole country, and next
to the immortal Washington, probably no American name
has been more conspicuous for soldierly ability and heroism,
though in his later life it was tarnished with disgrace and
In the old historical churchyard at Newport, adjoining
the aristocratic Trinity edifice, the Arnold plot is prominent
to-day. The stones, in a good state of preservation, record
the genealogy of the family for generations, for the Ar-
nolds were among the first settlers and proprietors of Rhode
William Arnold came with Roger Williams, suc-
ceeded him as President of the colony under the first
charter, and was for fifteen years governor of the colony
under the second charter. He had three sons, Benedict,
Thomas and Stephen. This Benedict was the grandfather
of Captain, Colonel, Brigadier, and afterwards Major-
General Benedict Arnold. Benedict, General Arnold's
74 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold
father, moved to Norwich, Connecticut, in 1730, and en-
gaged in commerce with England and the West Indies ; was
the owner of vessels, acquired a competency, and became a
merchant; served as Collector, Selectman and militia Cap-
tain. He married a Mrs. King, a widow, who is said to
have been eminent for her amiable qualities and Christian
virtues, and highly connected.
His BOYHOOD DAYS.
Half way between Norwich and the upper town, in a
fine old colonial residence, Arnold was born January 3rd,
1740 (Sparks Biography, 1835), although some historians
give the date January I4th, 1741. The most trustworthy
authorities indicate the former date as correct. He was
reared in the atmosphere and associations of such men as
Jonathan Trumbull, General Jabez Huntington, aide to
Washington; Samuel Huntington, president of Congress,
and others, whose influence helped to develop in young
Arnold character that was powerful, patriotic and lasting.
As a boy it is recorded that his courage was remarkable,
that among his playmates he was an athletic despot, a ring-
leader in every bit of mischief, performing feats of daring,
such as firing field pieces with fire brands in his hands, cele-
brating events by building bonfires from valuable casks,
boxes, and any available material, and offering to fight any
authority who attempted to interrupt his pranks. His con-
duct then is said to have caused perpetual, anxiety to his
Under date of April I2th, 1754, attending school at
Canterbury, she wrote him as follows :
44 Keep a strict watch over your thoughts, words and actions. Be
dutiful to your superiors, obliging to your equals, and affable to in-
feriors, if any there be. Always choose that your companions be your
betters, that by their good examples you may learn.
Your affectionate mother,
The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 75
Apprenticed while a lad to his uncles, Lathrop Brothers,
druggists (said to have been distinguished in their day for
worth of character and extensive business relations), indif-
ferent to the good or ill opinion of others, continuing his
feats of rashness and daring, he soon wearied of his duties,
and at sixteen enlisted as a soldier, without the knowledge
of his family. His mother was so distressed that, through
influential friends, she succeeded in getting him released
from the army, and brought back, but he soon ran away
again, re-enlisted, and was stationed at Ticonderoga and
different places on the Canadian frontier. Employed in
garrison duty only, and seeing no prospect of gratifying
his ambition for bold adventures, he returned to Norwich
and the position he had left.
MOVES TO NEW HAVEN.
With a capital of $2,000, furnished him by his former
employers, he moved to New Haven and opened an apothe-
cary shop at the corner of George and Church Sts. He soon
added general merchandise, and prospered to such an ex-
tent that his later place on Water Street became, in his
time, what might be termed a big department store of
to-day. With its profits he purchased and built vessels, ex-
tended his trade by sailing them to the West Indies, became
a navigator himself and traveled as far north in the
country as Canada, purchasing horses and cattle for his
shipments, and rapidly moving to the front as a merchant,
and becoming prominent in public affairs.
The late Thomas R. Trowbridge, Sr., writes in New
Haven Historical Society papers, giving the names of the
owners of New Haven vessels, that about this period more
than one hundred New Haven ships were engaged in trade
and commerce with Europe and the West Indies, Arnold
owning the Fortune, Charming Sally, and Three Brothers.
He was absent on a voyage at the time of the Boston
massacre, 1770, and on hearing the news upon his return,
76 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold
his indignation was great, his utterances and arguments
were outspoken, and his patriotism conspicuous and inspir-
ing to his fellow citizens.
He was a foremost man in the community, and when
he was chosen Commander of the Second Company, Gov-
ernor's Foot Guard, good citizens of every calling appeared
in the ranks. To be a private in his command was an
honor ; to be an officer, a mark of high distinction.
MARCH TO CAMBRIDGE.
The story of the assembling of his command upon the
New Haven Green in April, 1775, upon the arrival of the
news of the battle of Lexington; the opposition that he
received from his superior commander, General Wooster,
who advised him to wait for proper orders ; his impetuous
reply, "None but Almighty God shall prevent my march;"
his demand upon the New Haven selectmen for the keys to
the powder house, and upon their refusal, his second
demand that if they did not yield, he would take his
ammunition by force; his ardor as a leader, with his com-
pany hastening forward by rapid march to Cambridge, are
details too well known to be dwelt on here.
The compact that he drew up, and compelled each man
to sign, stipulated that they would conduct themselves
decently and orderly to their countrymen and each other,
avoid drunkenness, gaming, profanity, and every vice, obey
their officers, and that upon the decision of a majority, any
person guilty of offence should be dismissed from the
Historians all concede that the Revolutionary campaign
of Connecticut forces began under Benedict Arnold and his
command, and it is said to have been a proud day for the
city and state when the company took up the line of march
to Cambridge with banners bearing the arms of the colony,
and drum heads painted with the crest and motto of the
The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 77
COMMISSIONED A COLONEL.
The import of the engagements at Concord and Lexing-
ton over, and plans for a campaign were considered. Many
of his company returned home, but Arnold remained, and
proposed to the Massachusetts authorities a scheme for the
capture of Ticonderoga. From his experience and famili-
arity with the locality, he offered to take the lead in the
enterprise. In thirty days he was commissioned as a
colonel in the service of Massachusetts and commander-in-
chief of four hundred men to proceed on this expedition to
take this fort. He was authorized to procure stores and
provisions for his command.
His temperament admitted no delay. Three days after
receiving his commission he arrived in Stockbridge, near
the frontier of Massachusetts. Forty miles distant at Ben-
nington he met an unorganized body of Green Mountain
boys under Ethan Allen, who had also conceived the idea
of capturing Ticonderoga. Arnold showed his commission,
and claimed the command of the joint expedition, but the
Green Mountain boys were too much attached to their com-
mander to permit any one to supersede him, and for once
the discretion of Arnold got the better of his ambition, and
he consented to a compromise, and joined the party as a
volunteer, maintaining his rank, but not the chief command.
"In the name of the great Jehovah and the Continental
Congress" the fort was captured by the combined forces,
Ethan Allen, the commander, entering the fort at the head
of his men, and Arnold passing at his left hand, the love of
glory, common to both, being gratified.
Although wounded in pride, Arnold again assuming
that no other person was vested with authority equal to his,
attempted to assume command, but was again defeated.
78 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold
But it was not his nature to be idle. In four days (and
here his maritime experience became useful) he commanded
a vessel and with fifty volunteers went down Lake Cham-
plain, surprised the garrison at St. John's, captured valuable
stores, one sloop and four boats, and burned five others.
Hence he became commander of the first naval engagement
between the Americans and the British.
Thus in an eight-day campaign under Allen and Arnold,
the formidable outposts of Ticonderoga and Crown Point,
renowned in former wars, fell into the hands of the Ameri-
Meantime, preparations were being made to bring some
vessels from Montreal in an expedition to proceed up Lake
Champlain to take the forts. This gave Arnold an oppor-
tunity for separating from Allen, and he was made com-
mander of the North on the lake. With headquarters on
the king's sloop which he had captured, he proceeded to
equip his vessels with guns, mortars and stores, and com-
missioned a captain for each vessel.
In June of this same year he expressed to Congress the
belief that the whole of Canada might be taken with two
thousand men, and offered to head this expedition, and be
responsible for consequences. He was personally acquainted
with the country, and, in his mercantile pursuits, had made
friends in Montreal and Quebec.
ADMIRAL OF A FLEET.
Arnold was then acting in the double capacity of com-
mander of the fortress at Crown Point, and admiral of his
little fleet, and paid from his own pocket hundreds of
pounds, and contracted debts on his own personal credit. It
is stated that his presumption and arrogance at this time be-
came a subject of censure. Protests against the assump-
tion of so large an authority resulted in the appointment of
a committee from Connecticut and Massachusetts to con-
The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 79
sider the situation. Meanwhile General Washington had
taken command of the army at Cambridge, and Congress
had decided upon the invasion of Canada, to be made under
General Schuyler, and Arnold was selected to conduct the
expedition, receiving from Washington the commission of
colonel in the Continental service.
PROMOTED TO BRIGADIER-GENERAL.
In September, 1775, six months after his election as cap-
tain of the Foot Guard, he left Boston for Quebec, with his
company of men, including volunteers under Colonel Aaron
Burr, afterwards Vice President of the United States. The
route was over the mountains, across the rivers and marshes
of Maine and New Hampshire, an uninhabited country,
hauling barges with them ; cold weather and snow overtook
them; clothing in rags, limbs torn by briers, provisions
scarce, and blankets worn out, hemlock boughs supplying
them shelter, fish and roots their chief diet. "Marvelous,"
says Carrington, "was the endurance of these men." As
though in his element, Arnold's courage never abated, his
confidence of success never failed him. He was animated
by the thought that they would surprise Quebec and suc-
ceed in the conquest of Canada. When he saw the towers
of Quebec from the top of Mt. Bigelow, less than three
days' rations remained after thirty-two days' march through
the wilderness without meeting a human being.
At daylight, on the morning of November 9th, the
drums in the city of Quebec beat "To arms," when Arnold's
men appeared upon the river shore. By the aid of thirty
bark canoes he had transferred his seven hundred and fifty
men across the river, with many unserviceable muskets,
ruined cartridges, and an average of five pounds only of
ammunition per man.
On Christmas Day, 1775, at the officers' council, it was
resolved to make an attack as soon as possible, the little
army having formed a junction with Montgomery, who
80 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold
had the chief command. On the 3ist day of December an
attack was made under the most adverse circumstances.
The breath of the men covered their faces with ice, the
ground was hard and slippery. Amid a whirl of grapeshot
Montgomery was killed; Arnold moved on, becoming the
ranking commander. His right knee was shattered by a
musket ball, and he was carried to the rear. The assault
However, Congress, on receiving the news of the attack
on Quebec, promoted Arnold to the rank of brigadier-gen-
eral, in recognition of his gallant conduct and extraordi-
nary ability. With his shadow of an army he maintained a
blockade through that tedious winter.
In the spring of the following year General Wooster ar-
rived in Quebec, and, being of superior rank, succeeded
Arnold in command. A coldness and reserve sprang up be-
tween them, and Arnold, with his detachment, retired to
Montreal, which he held at great risk until the last moment.
In evacuating Montreal, after his men were safely em-
barked, Arnold, with his aide-de-camp, rode two miles to
reconnoitre, then returned, stripped the horses, shot them
and pushed off the boat with his own hands, thus indulging
in the vanity of being the last man to embark from the
A quarrel having arisen among members of his com-
mand, Arnold went to Albany to report Seizing supplies
at Montreal for sustenance, the goods were taken in such a
hurry that lists of the articles, and form of delivery, were
not complete, and they were placed in charge of Col. Hazen,
who from personal hostility to Arnold neglected to properly
care for them, and the blame fell on Arnold as the mover
in the enterprise. He, in return, threw the blame on Hazen,
which resulted in a court martial for Col. Hazen. The
court martial refused to accept the testimony of one of
The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 81
Arnold's principal witnesses, decided in favor of Hazen,
and demanded an apology from Arnold, who promptly
refused, with a letter in which he criticized the Court of
Inquiry. The matter was referred to General Gates, who
had succeeded Schuyler as commander-in-chief of the north.
Gates endorsed the conduct of Arnold, stating that "the
country must not be deprived of that most excellent officer's
services at this important moment."
Although the court acquitted Hazen, Arnold's military
popularity sustained him in his prestige as an officer. This
transaction was the first important link in the chain of
events which finally led to Arnold's ruin.
BATTLE OF PLATTSBURG.
About this time the British conceived the plan of reach-
ing New York by Lake Champlain. Arnold was appointed
in command of the fleet on the lakes, and on October nth,
1776, occurred the most obstinate naval battle in Revolu-
tionary history, off Plattsburg. Overcome by superior
numbers, Arnold ordered his fleet on shore, and as soon as
the vessels were aground, set them on fire and ordered his
forces to leap in the water, and wade to the beach, which
done he formed them on the bank to prevent the approach
of the small boats of the enemy, he being the last to leave
his own galley, and then not until the fire had made such
progress that it could not be extinguished. Not being in con-
dition to oppose the enemy, he proceeded through the woods
to Crown Point and Ticonderoga. At this time, though
disliked by many in the army from a spirit of jealousy and
rivalry, he was admired by the people at large for his daring
achievements. Now ordered to reinforce General Wash-
ington in New Jersey, he arrived a week preceding the
battle of Trenton, and was immediately dispatched to Rhode
Island, January, 1777.
82 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold
OFFICERS APPOINTED OVER HIM.
About this time an incident happened which made him
begin to talk of the ingratitude of his country, and had an
important bearing on his future. Congress, operating on
the same principle as to-day of dividing patronage, created
five new major-generals, without including Arnold, then
the senior brigadier, in the list. All of them were juniors
in rank. He was astonished and indignant, but concealed
his emotions with more moderation than might have been
expected from such an impetuous disposition. Washington
was surprised, feared the ill effects, and wrote Arnold a
soothing letter, begging him to take no hasty steps, express-
ing his conviction that there was some mistake which would
be, in due time, rectified, adding assurances of his own
admiration and friendship. Arnold replied immediately, but
with symptoms of strong feeling. "Congress undoubtedly
has a right," said he, "of promoting those who, from their
abilities and their long and arduous service, it esteems the
most deserving, but the promoting of junior officers to the
rank of major-generals, I view in a civil way as requesting
my resignation. I have sacrificed my business interests,
ease, and happiness in our cause, I have repeatedly fought
and bled, and am ready at all times to risk my life. My
commission was conferred unsolicited, and received with
pleasure, only as a means of serving my country. With
equal pleasure I resign, when I can no longer serve with
VALOR AT DANBURY.
His business gone, his wife dead, and family scattered
in his absence, his property pledged ; disgusted and dis-
heartened on his way home via Philadelphia where he de-
manded of Congress his rights, he arrived in Connecticut at
the time the British expedition under General Tryon landed
at Compo, near Fairfield. Generals Silliman and Wooster
had collected about six hundred men, only one hundred
The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 83
being Continental troops, the others volunteers. Arnold
joined them near Redding, marched to Bethel, and learned
in the middle of the night that the town of Danbury had
been destroyed. Wooster with two hundred men marched
to harass the enemy in the rear, Arnold and Silliman, with
the other division, taking a different route, with a design of
intercepting their retreat. Wooster overtook the enemy's
rear and attacked them, placing himself at the front to
encourage his men, and had just called out, "Come on, my
boys, never mind those random shots," when he received
the wound that proved mortal.
Arnold reached Ridgefield, took a position and erected a
barricade of carts, logs and earth across the road to prevent
the British from passing. With only five hundred men
against the two thousand, Arnold was obliged to retreat, but
was the last man to leave the scene. Entangled with his
struggling horse, which had been shot under him, one of
the redcoats rushed forward with a fixed bayonet to kill
him, shouting, "Surrender! You are my prisoner!" "Not
yet," said the intrepid Arnold, and drawing his pistol, he
shot the would-be captor dead, and escaped under heavy fire
unharmed. This was only another exhibition of his cool
and steady courage in moments of extreme danger. Con-
gress made good his horse with the following words of
approval : "In the name of this Congress, as a token of their
approbation for his gallant conduct in the action against the
enemy in their late enterprise at Danbury."
At Compo Beach the next day Arnold rallied his men
and made a gallant defense. Here twenty-two patriots were
killed and Arnold's horse was shot through the neck. At
this spot a patriotic memorial is soon to be erected.
The news of all these exploits by Arnold reached Con-
gress quickly, and without delay Arnold was promoted to
the rank of Major-General, but the date of his commission
84 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold
was left below the five major-generals who had been ap-
pointed over him. He was then assigned to the command
of the army then on the Delaware above Trenton in the
neighborhood of Philadelphia.
Meanwhile Arnold's accounts, in which he claimed to
have surrendered his entire fortune, had been referred to a
committee who failed to report. His temper and patience
exhausted, he tendered his resignation, but in words pro-
fessing an ardent love for his country. Just at this crisis,
Burgoyne loomed up. Washington needed Arnold above
all others, and the same day the letter of resignation was
sent to Congress, General Washington recommended that
Arnold be immediately sent to the Northern army. "He is
active, judicious and brave," said Washington. Flattered
by this reference, Arnold suspended his demand for resigna-
tion, leaving it with Congress, and volunteered to serve
again an act of magnanimity that invites praise and
St. Clair, one of the five major-generals promoted over
him, was in command, but Arnold waived all considera-
tions, and served under him, declaring that he would do his
duty in the ranks.
His BRAVERY AT SARATOGA.
It is stated by historians that Gates in the battle of
Saratoga was absent from the field, and under the influence
of intoxicants in his quarters. At a consultation of the
officers, it was stated that progress was slow. Arnold ex-
claimed, "I will soon put an end to it," and started out at a
full gallop. After the battle was over, while Arnold had
been on the field, and at the head of every attack, Gates, in
a communication to Congress, said nothing about Arnold
or his division. High words and harsh language are said
to have passed between the two generals. Gates was over-
bearing, and Arnold was impetuous, and it resulted in his
The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 85
being relieved of his command. At the second battle of
Behmis Heights a few weeks later, Arnold had no com-
mand, but in a high state of excitement, rode about the field,
seeking the hottest parts, and issuing independent com-
mands wherever he went. Being the highest officer in rank
on the field, his orders were always obeyed, and he set an
example to his troops by leading them on. But accounts
agree that though rash, he was in the most exposed posi-
tions animating his troops and urging them forward; and
that the brilliant manoeuvers were the inspiration of
Arnold. His horse fell dead under him, and his wounded
leg was crushed, but the assault was complete, and the day
was crowned with victory. It was an anomalous fact
that an officer with no command was the leader. The
glory Arnold here received added fresh lustre to his military
fame, while these new victories resulted in securing our
alliance with France.
Enemies ascribed his wild enthusiasm to intoxication,
but those who assisted him on the field were satisfied that
this was not true. Others said he took opium, but this was
unsustained. Gates was not upon the field during either
of these battles.
Arnold, disabled by his wound, was removed to Albany,
where he was confined to his room throughout the winter.
Early in the spring he returned to New Haven borne upon a
litter. He was received with many demonstrations of
respect. Citizens went out to meet him on the road, and his
arrival was announced by a salute of thirteen guns. While
enroute he remained over night with Amos Bostwick, great-
grandfather of Capt. Bostwick of the First Company Foot
While here in New Haven he received from Washing-
ton a set of epaulets, and a sword knot, with a letter stating
they were presented as testimony of sincere regard and ap-
probation for his conduct.
86 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold
AT VALLEY FORGE.
In May Arnold rejoined the army then at Valley Forge.
Washington had determined to appoint him commander at
Philadelphia as soon as the British evacuated. But soon
after assuming charge in Philadelphia he became involved
in difficulties with the local authorities, and was charged
that his military command had been oppressive, and un-
worthy of his rank and station, and an investigation was
ordered and was impending.
BEFRIENDS THE ORPHAN CHILDREN OF GEN. WARREN.
About this time Arnold was taking a great interest in
the orphan children of General Warren, who fell at Bunker
Hill, and urged Congress, without success, for the $7,000
pay and pension due them. In a letter to Mr. Hancock of
Massachusetts he writes, "I enclose $500 at once," and he
directed that Richard be clothed and sent to the best schools
in Boston. He writes, "I will provide for them in a suitable
manner to their birth, and the grateful sentiments I shall
ever feel to the memory of my friend."
Becoming apparently weary of military life, he formed
a project for obtaining a grant of land in New York state
and establishing a settlement. The New York delegation
in Congress wrote a joint letter on the subject to Governor
George Clinton as follows : "To you, Sir, and to our state,
General Arnold can require no recommendations. A series
of distinguished services entitle him to respect and favor."
Upon the charges made against him by the council at
Philadelphia, he received a mild reprimand from Congress,
based, however, only on a technical violation of rules. His
petition to Congress for a settlement of his accounts was
not recognized. Matters were in a state of perplexity, with
every prospect of an unsatisfactory termination.
The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 87
MARRIES Miss SHIPPEN.
When Philadelphia was evacuated, many families re-
mained, who kept up close relations with the British of-
ficers. Among them was the family of Mr. Edwin Shippen,
afterwards Chief Justice of the state of Pennsylvania. The
youngest daughter, a beautiful girl of eighteen, gay, attrac-
tive and ambitious, was flattered and admired by the British
officers. Arnold was not long in Philadelphia before he
was smitten by this charming lady, and sought and won her
hand. He was a man of fine, commanding presence and was
living in splendor with military display. At their marriage,
Arnold (although still suffering from the wounds received
at Quebec and Saratoga), in his brilliant uniform, leaning
upon the shoulder of an aide-de-camp during the ceremony,
gave brilliancy and halo to the occasion. This alliance
brought him in social contact with the element which had
no sympathy with the cause of liberty. He asked Congress,
without success, for four months' pay out of four years
now due him, that he might purchase horses and equipment,
and take the field.
His LAST COMMAND.
The British being established in New York, it was the
plan of Washington and Lafayette to proceed to the attack
against Sir Henry Clinton and his forces. On August 3rd,
1780, Arnold was assigned to the command at West Point
and its dependencies, from Fishkill to King's Ferry.
Here let the curtain fall and the drama close without the
stage setting or the players in the last act. Since the days
of Judas Iscariot, in the history of our race Nemesis has
provided every great nation and occasion with a strong man
who proved weak. It is perhaps necessary in the develop-
ment of a great nation that such characters should exist to
teach others the right. If God, in his wise Providence, had
seen fit to have called Arnold off the stage at the height of
his glory won in the conflicts at Ticonderoga, Crown Point,
88 The Early Career of Benedict Arnold
Quebec, Saratoga or Compo Beach, history would have
given him a place second to that of Washington, for no
general of the Revolution had been engaged in more con-
flicts on land and sea, or battled more intensely for the cause
of liberty than did Benedict Arnold, and during the first five
years of the Revolutionary struggles he was considered a
most ardent patriot, a daring, ambitious and competent
soldier. There was no danger he would not face, no project
he would not undertake. Hopeful of success, he usually
acquired it. In what often seemed a forlorn hope, by his
persistency, dash, energy and recklessness, success was se-
cured. The combination of circumstances in his career was
peculiar. It always seemed to happen that some one else
was in command in his important engagements. His
enemies and rivals prevented Congress from giving him the
recognition he earned, or reimbursing him for his patriotic
expenditures. His social relations, by his second marriage,
brought him in contact with the Tories, and the British,
unable to capture him on the field of battle, accomplished it
In 1804 Morgan and his associate editors, Samuel Hart
and Jonathan Trumbull, in "The History of Connecticut
as a Colony and as a State," say of Arnold that "He was
proud, passionate, uncontrolled, and rather of a self-seeking
nature, quickly responding to affection or resentment, gen-
erous to the weak, but not conciliatory to companions,
facts which brought on the final tragedy. Arnold was a
good man to have for a master, and a magnificently useful
one to have for a subordinate ; but he was not a comfortable
yokemate, and it is hard to believe that the train of hates
and resentments which followed him were wholly without
his fault. Yet again and again he acted with exemplary
patience and the utmost magnanimity."
In 1 80 1 he died in England, grieving at the conscious-
ness of his great wrong doing. His last words were
pathetic : "Bring me the epaulets and sword knots Wash-
The Early Career of Benedict Arnold 89
ington gave me, and let me lie in my old American uniform.
God forgive me for ever putting on any other."
In the Trophy Room at West Point, arranged at in-
tervals on the walls, are tablets in bronze, placed in memory
of the distinguished officers of the American Revolution,
recording their name, age, rank, and deeds. As we
approach one we read these words, "To the memory 'of
Major-General ." A slash across the tablet tells the
rest. What American who reads it cannot recall, with re-
gret, the name and record that might have adorned that
tablet, but for the frailties of human nature.
THE DEATH OF GENERAL WARREN AT THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL.
Painted by Col. John Trumbull.
From the original painting in the Trumbull Gallery, Yale School of Fine Arts.
BUNKER HILL DAY
BY WILLIAM S. WELLS.
A portion of an address at the grave of General Humphreys, on June 17, 1906,
which was the initiative to the compilation of the list of names, so far as could be
ascertained, of men from New Haven who served in the War of the Revolution,
included in this volum.e.
Assemblages of people such as this are prompted by
a common interest; from a sentiment; or to discharge
a duty. They make the motive of their meeting visibly
manifest by ceremony, or by language expressive of the
thoughts uppermost in their minds. The ceremony we
are performing to-day is not new to us, for we meet again
from a natural affinity, from the prompting of patriotism
and pride in being the descendants of those who fought
to establish our Government. The world would be
poor indeed without its graves and memories of its hal-
lowed dead. The final resting place of anyone who has
done a noble deed is a living influence upon the world.
The sepulchers of the dead speak to the living, and this
day especially do the graves of those receive reverent
attention who fought in the War for Independence, either
in the field, on the sea, or in the halls of legislation. We
stand now, my friends, in the presence of a power that
is strongly felt; the power and influence of the resting
places of patriots. This is an hour for the expression
of the sentiments that have brought us here, and when
we assemble to do honor to all, we usually select one who
was particularly conspicuous, and a representative of
all in their motive of service, such as the patriot about
whose sepulcher we are now gathered.*
* Then followed a brief review of the life and services of General David Humphreys ,
more fully given by Rev. Alonzo N. Lewis in this volume and by Right Rev. E. S. Lines,
D.D., in a former volume published by this Branch.
92 Bunker Hill Day
One hundred and thirty-one years ago to-day was
the i yth of June, 1775. What a notable anniversary
for us to observe, and those to follow; the anniversary
of the day on which occurred the battle of Bunker Hill.
What astounding developments for this country and the
world have grown out of the great event of that day. The
magic words, Bunker Hill, are fixed in our earliest recol-
lections, and have inspired the youth and manhood of
America to the highest sentiments of patriotism and to
valiant deeds. Two months before this battle occurred
the unexpected collision at Lexington. But when the
sun had set on the night of June i7th, 1775, the day of
possible reconciliation with Great Britain had passed;
the die had been cast for weal or for woe to this country,
and largely for the future welfare of mankind. The
issue was whether we should continue to be subservient
to the inconsiderate and oppressive crown of England
or the alternative to strike to become a free people. Our
forefathers stood on the threshold of an uncertain but
mighty future. Bunker Hill decided the course to be
taken, and the battles on land and sea that followed
were fought to a glorious conclusion. Through the ages
Bunker Hill will be repeated in our schools, and in our
homes, and by poets and orators as in the past one hun-
dred and thirty years, and will continue to be a most
forceful influence to arouse the pride of our people to a
jealous guardianship of that which has been bequeathed
unto them. Bunker Hill is a synonym for patriotism,
and for that vital spark which kept alive the spirit of
our forefathers for eight long years that tried men's
souls and is still burning in the hearts of all who have
consideration for the stability of our Republic.
It was not until the Star Spangled Banner was raised
to the breezes that liberty was unfettered, and a ray of
light flashed over the earth to cheer the oppressed and
downtrodden of the nations of the world. But in the
formation of this Union of States compromises were
Bunker Hill Day 93
forced to be made that did not leave our flag as fully
the emblem of freedom as it should have been. The
enforced compromise with slavery and state rights to
satisfy discordant sectional elements to effect a consoli-
dation of the Colonies into states, brought its result as
foreseen at the time by some, and it came in the great
War of the Rebellion of 1861-1865. But the spirit of
the men of Lexington, Bunker Hill, Valley Forge and
Yorktown, and those who fought on the sea, was still
alive through the intervening years to 1861, when under
the leadership of the immortal Lincoln, a terrible sacri-
fice was forced upon us and the flag washed of the stains
that had been left upon it. This contest enabled our
country to be reunited on a firmer basis, and on which
it would, no doubt, originally have been founded, could
those who formed the colonies into states have had a
vision of the future. We washed out the stains in the
Civil War but at a terrible cost and now our flag has
grown so conspicuous in influence, power and dominion
that to-day the sun never sets upon it. It is respected,
honored and feared wherever it floats as representing the
greatest nation of the world, which was primarily estab-
lished by the men from whom we came, and whose mem-
ory we honor, and to whom we pay tribute to-day.
We cannot too highly extol the services of our great
General Washington and his faithful officers and soldiers
for their trying campaigns in the Revolutionary War,
but on such occasions as this, and others in reference
to the patriots of the War of Independence, the value
of the services of the gallant seamen of those days is
not often brought into conspicuous review. When the
War of the Revolution broke out the Colonies had no
supplies or the means of procuring them, and the revolt
would have been a lamentable failure at the outset ex-
cept for the work of the cruisers and privateers. Gen-
eral Washington early foresaw this, and depended largely
for success upon captured supplies and the interception
94 Bunker Hill Day
and capture of reinforcements for the British Army and
well did these able and fearless seamen do their duty.
Recently we brought the body of that great com-
mander, Paul Jones, in solemn reverence to our shores,
resurrected from obscurity in the forgotten cemetery in
Paris. We gave it a most honored sepulcher, and at
whose mausoleum the nation bowed its head in gratitude
and admiration of his great services to our land. His
name is associated with the most ardent patriotism,
audacity and courage, and his resting place will be for-
ever a shrine of devotion for all Americans. We cannot
overestimate the value of the brave seamen of those
days, and their reward has often been unwisely or thought-
lessly withheld. We should also bear in mind that the
first bloodshed in the War of Independence was on the
water in the harbor of Providence on June lyth, 1772,
one hundred and thirty-four years ago to-day, four years
before the Battle of Bunker Hill, in the destruction of
the British man-of-war "Gaspe," and mortally wound-
ing her captain. It is a remarkable coincidence that
this date is not only the anniversary of the Battle of
Bunker Hill, but also the anniversary of the first stroke
towards the establishment of this great republic of the
United States of America.
Certainly the names of Paul Jones, Nicholas Biddle,
John Barry, James Nicholson and others who braved
the dangers of the sea and fought so heroically without
a line of retreat except to find watery graves, are equal
in laudation to those whose services we cannot too highly
extol in the weary marches by day and by night, who
suffered untold trials and privations in the army under
command of our sainted Washington.
What an admirable work the people of New Haven
did when they reared yonder monument in East Rock
Park, erected to the memory of those whose lives were
sacrificed to establish our nation and those who fought
in the war of 1861-1865 to make it more secure. On the
Bunker Hill Day 95
monument on bronze tablets is the roll of honor con-
taining names of five hundred and twenty-six men from
New Haven who lost their lives in the War of the Rebel-
lion, and a space is provided for the names of those who
lost their lives in the War of the Revolution, that of
1812 and the Mexican War. Are not we, the Sons of
the American Revolution, a little remiss in our obli-
gations ; should not the names of those from New Haven
who fought and died at Bunker Hill, at Valley Forge,
in the defense of New Haven and in many other battles,
all of which led to final victory at Yorktown, also be
recorded in the vacant panel assigned for them on this
monument? Should not the names of those who carried
the flag so triumphantly over the seas, that was first
raised by Paul Jones to the mast of the ' 'Ranger" in
1777, and who found watery graves, also be placed on
this shaft beside those who fought and died under Grant,
Sherman, Sheridan, Foote and Farragut? Have we not,
my compatriots, left some duty undone : for the names
of those who died to form the Government are surely
inseparably linked with those who lost their lives to
preserve it and add to its greatness.
Books and history are not read by all, but this mon-
ument is a visible language standing majestically in its
purity of white on the highest summit surrounding New
Haven, on which all can read of the bravery and patri-
otism of those whose names it bears, or to whose honor
it was erected. It is a silent sentinel; a witness of the
past. It is also by its commanding position and dignity
of appearance a teacher and guardian of American patri-
otism for the future. Behold it, in its crowning position,
kissing the first beams of day above the fields, hills and
meadows, busy factories, institutions of learning, and
our harbor dotted with vessels in commerce or of pleas-
ure, and looking out over happy homes and far over the
surrounding country blessed with peace and prosperity.
It is a thank-offering of gratitude and tells the traveler
96 Bunker Hill Day
far out to sea the story of the sacrifice for the establish-
ment of our Government, and the mistakes in the begin-
ning washed away by the blood of her faithful sons. * * *
Our duty on this occasion so far as we can do it has
been fulfilled. We always feel better when a duty is dis-
charged, and as we go hence for another year, may we
carry into our daily lives those sentiments for each other
and reverence for our ancestors as we have done for
years past. May the blessings vouchsafed to us as a
nation by the patriotism, bravery and sacrifices of our
forefathers continue to live for a better influence, not only
in our own lives, but that we may also in some measure
be able to impart to others the same devotional, lofty
and patriotic sentiments which have brought us together
LIST OF MEN
From the territory embraced in the Town of New
Haven, Connecticut, who are known to have
Served in the Continental Army and Militia
and Connecticut State and Continental Vessels
and Privateers, and those who Rendered other
Patriotic Service during the War of the Revo-
lution 1775-1783, together with a Record of
WILLIAM S. WELLS, ( late) 2nd Asst. Engineer, U. S. Navy.
If any errors or omissions in the lists are discovered by anyone, a report to
that effect together with the source of information will be welcomed by the officers of
this Branch, S. A. R.
At the Annual Meeting of General David Humphreys
Branch No. i, Connecticut Society of the Sons of the
American Revolution, held at New Haven, Conn., on the
evening of May 2nd, 1907, the following motion was passed
Voted: That the President appoint a committee to take into con-
sideration the suggestion of Compatriot Win. S. Wells in reference to
placing the names, as near as they can be ascertained, of the soldiers
and sailors from New Haven upon the panel which is provided
for this purpose on East Rock Monument of those who lost their lives
in the War of the Revolution.
The president appointed the following committee : Wm.
S. Wells, Gen. E. S. Greeley and Everett E. Lord. In pur-
suance of the above resolution, and in the progress of the
work the committee concluded to include all the names as
nearly as they could be ascertained from reliable data of
98 List of Men
those who served in the War of the Revolution as soldiers
and those who served on cruisers and privateers, and those
who rendered patriotic service during the war, together
with a list of casualties. At the period of the Revolu-
tionary War, North Haven, East Haven, West Haven,
Orange, Hamden, Mt. Carmel, Woodbridge, Bethany and
Westville were included in the district embraced in the juris-
diction of New Haven. The records of the men who served
in the Revolutionary War are fragmentary, and from lack
of such condensed records, some men from the district em-
braced in New Haven are possibly not included in the list
which follows. From lack of records this is probable of
those who served on ships-of-war, cruisers and privateers.
It was also found that the same names were frequently
repeated in different organizations from re-enlistments, and
to avoid repetition the following compilation gives the
highest recorded rank attained by officers ; and those whose
names only are given were presumably in the ranks or ren-
dered special patriotic service.
Authorities consulted for the names given were:
Connecticut Men in the War of the Revolution; Connecticut His-
torical Society, Vols. VIII and XII ; Records of Connecticut Society
of the Sons of the American Revolution ; Historical Collections of John
W. Barbour; Town Committees of Safety, etc., published in Atwater's
History of New Haven; Various Town Histories, and other sources;
Compatriot George H. Ford and Mr. Sheldon B. Thorpe of North
Haven rendered valuable assistance.
The number of names of soldiers, sailors and patriots
given is 998, of which 41 served in the Navy, and on Cruis-
ers and Privateers, and names of the latter are in a separate
The number of casualties ascertained (killed, died of
wounds or disease, and missing) is 61 ; wounded 23 ; pris-
List of Men\
Akin, James Sergeant
Alcock (Ancock), David Sergeant
Ailing, Caleb Corporal
Ailing, Charles Clerk
Ailing, Edward Beardsley
Ailing, Stephen Lieut.
Allyn (Ailing), Ichabod
Allyn (Ailing), William
Ammit (Emmit), John
Andrews, Jedediah Captain
Andrews, John (Died July n,
Arnold, Benedict Major-Gen.
Atwater, (Negro Slave)
(Wounded July 5 and 6, 1779)
Atwater, David, Dr. (Killed in
Danbury Raid, April 25-28,
Atwater, David, Jr.
Austin, Aaron Paymaster
Austin, David, Jr. (Wounded July
5 and 6, 1779)
Austin, Jeremiah (Wounded July
5 and 6, 1779)
Austin John (Wounded July 5 and
Bains, Solomon Sergeant
Baker, Bristol (Blister)
Baker, Edward Sergeant
Baldwin, John (Killed at New
Haven, July 5, 1779)
Ball, Caleb Ball
Ball, Reuben (Killed or prisoner
Oct. n, 1780)
Barnes, Joshua, Jr.
Barnes, Solomon Corporal
Barnes, Thomas (Died in service)
Barney, Samuel (Prisoner)
Barns, Daniel (Died March 30,
Barns, Jacob (?)
Barns, Solomon Sergeant
List of Men
Bassett, Abraham (Died in ser-
Bassett, James (Wounded at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Bassett, Timothy (Wounded at
New Haven, July 5 and 6,1779)
Beach (Beeck), Asa
Beardsley, Ebenezer Surgeon
Beecher, Isaac, Jr.
Beers, Beacon Capt. and Pay-
Beers, Nathan Lieut. (Killed at
New Haven, July 5, 1779)
Beers, Nathan, Jr.
Benham, John Corporal
Bigelow, Paul (?)
Bird, Samuel Lieut.
Bishop, Daniel Lieut.
Bishop, David Lieut.
Bishop, Isaac (Died in service)
Bishop, Samuel, Jr.
Blackman, Samuel, Jr. ist Lieut.
Blakeslee, Caleb Musician
Booth, Elisha Ensign
Booth, Walter Corporal
Bradley, Aaron Fife (Killed at
New Haven, July 5, 1779)
Bradley, Abner ist Lieut.
Bradley, Aner Lieut. (Wounded
in Danbury Raid, April 2528,
Bradley, Elijah (Prisonei)
List of Men
Bradley, Joel Lieut.
Bradley, Joel, Jr.
Bradley, Josiah Captain
Bradley, Phineas Captain
Bradley, Timothy Captain
Brewster, James Lieut.
Brockett, Benjamin Sergeant
Brockett, Jacob Captain
Brockett, Jacob, 2nd
Broton, James Adkin
Brown, Henry Corporal
Brown, Henry Sergeant
Brown, Jonathan Captain
Buckminster, Joseph, Rev.
Burrell, Thomas (Prisoner at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Burritt, Abel Captain
Capeny, Cuff (Mustered dead)
Carter, Joshua (Died, date un-
Chidsey, Abraham, Jr.
Chidsey, Isaac, ist.
Chidsey, Isaac, 2nd
Chidsey, James Sergeant
Chidsey, Levi Corporal
Clark, George Ensign
Clark, David Sergeant
Clark, Hugh (?)
Clark, Richard (Died June i, 1778)
Cook, George Fife
Cook, William Sergeant
Cooper, Samuel Drummer
Cooper, Thomas 4th Corporal
List of Men
Cunningham, Henry Lieut.
Daggett, Ebenezer Ensign (Died
Nov. 20, 1781)
Daggett, Henry Lieut.
Daggett, Naphtali, Rev. (Wound-
ed at New Haven,' July 5 and 6,
Daniel (McDaniel, Antony), An-
Danielson, John, Jr. Corporal
Dayton, Ebenezer Captain
Dayton, Jonathan, Jr.
DeGrove, John Sergeant
Denison, John, Jr.
Denslow, Philander Corporal
(Died Jan. 2, 1778)
Dickerman, Hezekiah 2nd Cor-
Dorman, Joseph (Killed July 5,
Dummer, Nathaniel (Wounded at
New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Dummer, Nathan, Jr.
Dwight, Timothy Chaplain
Eagleston, David \ ?
Eggleston, David J
Emmit (Ammit), John
English, Benjamin Captain
(Killed at New Haven, July 5
and 6, 1779)
Fitch, Jonathan Colonel
Fitch, Nathaniel 5th Comman-
Foot, Isaac Sergeant
Forbes, Elijah Captain (Prisoner
at New Haven, July 5 and 6,
Ford, Moses Corporal
Ford, Stephen Captain
Ford, Stephen Private
List of Men
Fulton, Alexander (Missing Aug.,
Gilbert, Ebenezer M.
Gilbert, John Captain (Killed at
New Haven, July 5, 1779)
Gilbert, Joseph Corporal
Gilbert, Michael (Killed at New
Haven, July 5, 1779)
Gilbert, Moses Corporal
Gillis, John Lieut.
Goodrich, Elizur, Jr. (Wounded at
New Haven, July 5 and 6,1779)
Goodrich, Gideon (Killed at New
Haven, July 5, 1779)
Goodyear, Jesse Captain
Goodyear, Theophilus Corporal
Gorham (Goralm), Joseph
Gorham, Timothy (Wounded in
Danbury Raid, April 25-28,
Gortsey, John Corporal
Griswold, White (Missing Oct. 4,
Harden (Harding), Frederick
Heaton, James, Jr.
Heaton, Nathaniel, Jr.
Hendrick, Coe (Army and Navy)
Hill, Jared Lieut.
Hill, John Corporal
Hillhouse, James Captain
Hitchcock, Jacob 4th Sergeant
Hodge, Philo (Wounded)
Holibert, John (Died Feb. 26,
^ of Men
Hotchkiss, Caleb (Killed at New
Haven, July 5, 1779)
Hotchkiss, Ezekiel Sergeant
(Killed at New Haven, July 5,
Hotchkiss, Joel Captain
Hotchkiss, John (Killed at New
Haven, July 5, 1779)
Hotchkiss, Joseph P.
How, Ezra Corporal
Howard, Benjamin (Wounded at
New Haven, July 5 and 6,
Howell, Nicholas Corporal
Howell, Thomas Commissary
Hubbard, John, Jr.
Hughes, Henry Freeman
Hunt, John Corporal
Huse, Son of Freeman (Now
(1777) prisoner in Great Brit-
Ives, Ailing (Allen) 26. Ser-
Ives, Levi Surgeon's Mate
Jacobs, Zophar (Died in service)
Jocelin (Joslin), John
Johnson, Abraham Corporal
Johnson, Peter Lieut.
Jones, Timothy, Jr.
Jones, William Fife
Kennedy, John (Killed at New
Haven, July 5, 1779)
Kimberly, Azel 3rd Lieut.
Leanard, Eli (Mustered deadjune,
List of Men
Leavenworth, Eli Major
Leavenworth, Jesse ist Lieut.
Lines (Lynds), John
Lockwood, James (Sec. to General
Lord, Jabesh \ ?
Lord, Jabez /
Lounbuary, David Corporal
Luddington, Timothy (Killed at
New Haven, July 5, 1779)
Lyon, William Colonel
McDaniel, Antony (Daniel, An-
Mallery, Amos Sergeant
Mallery, Isaac Corporal
Mansfield, Charles Fife
Mansfield, James Kiersted
Mansfield, Joseph Captain
Mansfield, Samuel Captain
Mansfield, Timothy (Killed Oct.
Marshall, Samuel B.
Melone (Meloney), Daniel
Miles, Elnathan Sergeant
Miles, John Lieut.
Mix, Amos (Wounded and died
May, 28, 1781)
Mix, Caleb Captain (Wounded at
New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Mix, John Captain (Prisoner at
New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Mix, Jonathan, Jr. Captain
Mix, Thomas (Wounded at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Mix, Timothy Lieut. (Died on
prison ship, New York, in 1778)
Molthrop, Elihu Sergeant
Monson, Joseph Kirk
Morris, Amos Captain (Prisoner,
Morris, Amos, Jr.
List of Men
Moss, Peter (Died Nov. 24, 1778)
Moulthrop, John Captain
Moulthrop (Mothrop), Joseph
Munson, JEneas Surgeon's Mate
Munson, ^Eneas, Jr.
Munson, Basil Captain
Munson, John, Jr
Munson, Joseph Captain
Munson, Theophilus Captain
Munson, William Captain
O'Briant, John (Died April 22,
Osborn, Samuel Ensign
Oswald, Eleazer Lieut.-Colonel
(Prisoner at Quebec, Dec. 31,
1775, exchanged Jan. 10, 1777)
Painter, Elisha Major (Died Jan
Painter, Thomas (Buried in West
Pardee, Chandler (Wounded and
prisoner at New Haven, July 5
and 6, 1779)
Pardee, Isaac (Killed at New Ha-
ven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Parker, Eldad (Killed at New Ha-
ven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Parkes, Edmond Corporal
Parmelee, Jeremiah Captain
(Died March 24, 1778)
Patten, Israel Lieut.
Patterson, William Fife-Major
Peck, John Lieut.
Peck, Titus Lieut.
Phipps, Daniel Goff
Pierpont, Evelyn 2nd Lieut.
List of Men
Pinto, Abraham (Wounded at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Pinto, Solomon Ensign
Pinto, William (Volunteer in 1779
Pointer or Painter, Deliverance
Pomp (A Negro) (Killed at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Potter, Amos 2nd Lieut.
Potter, Israel Lieut.
Potter, Thomas, Jr.
Prentice, Jonas Colonel
Punderson, Ahimaz Sergeant
Ray, Levi 3rd Corporal
Reynolds, James (Buried in West
Roberts, Thomas (Died Dec. 20,
Robertson (Robinson), Jared
Robertson, Samuel Quartermas-
Robinson, Samuel Quartermas-
ter and Lieut.
Rogers, Sharp (Sharper)
Rowland, Uriah Quartermaster
Royce, Jotham (Died Dec. i,
Russell, Aaron (A lad) (Killed at
New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Russell, Edward, Jr.
Sabin, Hezekiah Lieut.-Colonel
(Prisoner at New Haven, July
5 and 6, 1779)
Sailes (Sales), James
Sanford, Elihu Sergeant
Sanford, Elihu, 2nd
Sanford, Jairus (Prisoner) (Buried
in Fair Haven Cemetery)
Sanford, Joel (Died in action, Feb.
Sanford, Thomas Sergeant
Scott, John Corporal
Shattuck, Stephen Sergeant
Shepard, Amos Lieut.
Shepard, Thomas (Wounded at
Kip's Bay, N. Y., Sept. 15,
Sherman, Adonijah (Prisoner at
New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
List of Men
Sherman, Edmond Sergeant
Sherman, Isaac Lieut. -Colonel
Sherman, John Paymaster and
Sherman, William Major
Shipman, Benoni Captain
Smith, son of Asa (Died in the
Smith, Daniel, Jr.
Smith, Edmund (Wounded at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Smith, Edward (Wounded at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Smith, Jeremiah Corporal
Smith, Jesse Sergeant
Smith, Joseph Sergeant
Smith, Lamberton, Jr.
Smith, Samuel, Jr.
Sperry, Joel (Died March 13,1778)
Squire, Samuel Stent
Stacy, Nathaniel (Prisoner on Lake
Champlain at loss of Arnold's
fleet until 1779)
Steaphens (Stevens), William
Stillwell, Elias Captain
St. John, Justin
Street, Nicholas, Rev.
Talmadge, Daniel, Jr.
Talmadge, Thomas William
Taylor, David Drummer
Teal, Jacob (Died July 19, 1777)
Terry, Nathaniel Colonel
Teuky (?) Jared
Tharp, Jacob 3rd Sergeant
Thomas, John Corporal
Thompson, Jeduthan (Killed at
New Haven, July 5 and 6,
Thompson, Joseph Colonel
Thorp, David Corporal
List of Men
Thorpe, Adam (Killed at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Thorpe, Jacob (Killed on " Beacon
Hill" at invasion of New Haven,
July 5, 1779)
Throop, John R. Lieut.
Tiley, Edward ist Lieut.
Tincker (Tinker), Amos
Todd, Asa (Killed at New Haven,
July 5, 1779)
Todd, Gideon ist Sergeant
Todd, Justus (Died Nov. 6, 1779)
Todd, Teal Corporal
Towner, Moses (?) (Died Aug. 14
Townsend, Isaac (Prisoner at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Townsend, John (Prisoner at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Trowbridge, Caleb Captain (Pris-
oner at Battle of L. I., Aug 27,
Trowbridge, John Lieut.
Trumbull, Benjamin, Rev. Chap-
Trumbull, John Colonel (Buried
at Yale Art School)
Trumbull, Joseph Captain
Turner, Enoch (Wounded at Sara-
toga, Sept. 19, 1777)
Tuttle, Aaron (Wounded at Sara-
toga, Oct. 7, 1777)
Tuttle, Elisha (Killed at New Ha-
ven, July 5, 1779)
Tuttle, Hezekiah Drummer
Tuttle, Ithimar Ensign
Tuttle, Jabez (Missing Oct. 4, 1777)
Tuttle, Joseph (Prisoner at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Tuttle, Josiah (Prisoner at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Tuttle, Reuben ist Corporal
Tuttle, Samuel (Prisoner at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Tuttle, Titus Sergeant
List of Men
Webster, Noah Captain
White, John, Jr.
White, Jonathan Sergeant-Maj.
White, Samuel (Killed July 6,
White, Samuel, Jr.
Whitney, (Prisoner at New
Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779)
Wilds, Jonathan Lieut.
Willmot, Daniel Sergeant
Wilmot, Samuel Captain
Winters, Thomas Corporal
Wise, William Fife-Major
Woodin, Samuel (Killed at New
Haven, July 5, 1779)
Woodin, Silas (Killed at New Ha-
ven, July 5, 1779)
Wooding, Israel (Wounded and
prisoner at New Haven, July 5
and 6, 1779)
Woods, Elisha (Died Aug. 23,
Woodward, John, Jr.
Woodward, John, Sr.
Woodward, Peter Lieut.
Wooster, David Brig.-GeneraJ
(Died May 2, 1777)
Wooster, Thomas Captain
List of Men
CONNECTICUT STATE AND CONTINENTAL VESSELS
AS COMPLETE AS AVAILABLE OFFICIAL RECORDS
John McCleave Master
Frigate ' ' Confederacy. ' '
David Phipps Lieut.
Galley " Whiting."
John McCleave Captain Ebenezer Peck and Lieut.
Israel Bishop ist Lieut. Wm. Plummer Master
Aitkins, Robert Seaman
Badger, Freeman Barber
Caverle, Samuel Tailor
Cook, Moses Seaman
Daggett, John Boy
Forbes, Elisha Landman
French, Bo wars Landman
Hanson, Christian Landman
House, John Boy
Loveland, Trueman Landman
Nicholson, Will Baird Landman
Oliver, Stephen Seaman
Oliver, Thomas Landman
Peck, Henry Landman
Peterson, Daniel Landman (Ne-
Fresher, William Landman
Sabin, Jonathan Midshipman
Setchell, Jonathan Landman
Smith, Jonathan Landman
Sperry, Eber Seaman
Sperry, Jabin Seaman
Sperry, Philo Seaman
Stubbs, John Seaman
Thomson, John Seaman
Turner, William Seaman
Upham, Robert Quartermaster
Ward, James Seaman
Warren, Nathaniel Landman
West, William Seaman
White, Elisha Landman
Wise, Samuel Landman
Jones, Daniel Commander
Vessel Not Specified.
Goldsmith, Ephraim Captain
(Killed off Valcour's Island, Oct., 1776)
ii2 List of Men
(SO FAR AS KNOWN).
John Andrews ; died July 1 1 , 1777.
David Atwater Dr.; killed in Danbury Raid, Apr. 25-28, 1777.
John Baldwin; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Reuben Ball; killed or prisoner Oct. n, 1780.
Thomas Barnes ; died in service.
Daniel Barns; died March 30, 1778.
Abraham Bassett; died in service.
Nathan Beers Lieut; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Isaac Bishop; died in service.
Aaron Bradley Fife; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Cuff Capeny; mustered dead.
Joshua Carter; died date unknown.
Richard Clark; died June i, 1778.
Ebenezer Daggett Ensign, died Nov. 20, 1781.
Philander Denslow Corporal; died Jan. 2, 1778.
Joseph Dorman; killed July 5, 1779.
Benjamin English Captain; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Alexander Fulton; missing August, 1777.
John Gilbert Captain; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Michael Gilbert; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Goldsmith, Ephraim Captain; killed off Valcour's Island, Oct., 1776.
Gideon Goodrich; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
White Griswold; missing Oct. 4, 1777.
John Holibert; died Feb. 26, 1780.
Caleb Hotchkiss; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Ezekiel Hotchkiss Sergeant; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
John Hotchkiss; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Zophar Jacobs; died in service.
John Kennedy; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Eli Leanard; mustered dead, June, 1778.
Timothy Luddington; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Timothy Mansfield; killed Oct. 14, 1781.
Amos Mix; wounded and died, May 28, 1781.
Timothy Mix Lieutenant; died on prison ship, New York, in 1778.
Peter Moss; died Nov. 24, 1778.
John O'Briant; died April 22, 1783.
Elisha Painter Major; died Jan. 13, 1781.
Isaac Pardee; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Eldad Parker; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Jeremiah Parmelee Captain; died March 24, 1778.
Pomp (A Negro); killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Thomas Roberts; died Dec. 20, 1777.
List of Men 113
Jotham Royce; died Dec. i, 1781.
Aaron Russell (A lad) ; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Joel Sanford; died in action, Feb. 8, 1782.
Son of Asa Smith ; died in the Continental Service.
Joel Sperry; died March 13, 1778.
Jacob Teal; died July 19, 1777.
Jeduthan Thompson; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Adam Thorpe ; killed at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Jacob Thorpe; killed on "Beacon Hill" at invasion of New Haven,
July 5, 1779.
Asa Todd; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Justis Todd; died Nov. 6, 1779.
Moses (?) Towner; died Aug. 14, 1777.
Elisha Tuttle ; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Jabez Tuttle; missing Oct. 4, 1777.
Samuel White; killed July 6, 1781.
Samuel Woodin ; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Silas Woodin; killed at New Haven, July 5, 1779.
Elisha Woods; died Aug. 23, 1781.
David Wooster Brig. -Gen. ; wounded at Danbury Raid and died May
David Austin, Jr.; wounded July 5, and 6, 1779.
Jeremiah Austin; wounded July 5 and 6, 1779.
John Austin; wounded July 5 and 6, 1779.
Atwater (Negro Slave) ; wounded July 5 and 6, 1 779.
James Bassett; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Timothy Bassett; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Aner Bradley; wounded in Danbury Raid, Apr. 25-28, 1777.
Naphtali Daggett, Rev.; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Nathaniel Dummer; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Elizur Goodrich, Jr. ; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Timothy Gorham; wounded in Danbury Raid, Apr. 25-28, 1777.
Philo Hodge; wounded.
Benjamin Howard; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Caleb Mix Captain ; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Thomas Mix; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Chandler Pardee; wounded and prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6,
Abraham Pinto; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Thomas Shepard; wounded at Kip's Bay, N. Y., Sept. 15, 1776.
Edmund Smith; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Edward Smith; wounded at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Enoch Turner; wounded at Saratoga, Sept. 19, 1777.
Aaron Tuttle; wounded at Saratoga, Oct. 7, 1777.
Israel Wooding; wounded and prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6,
ii4 List of Men
Samuel Barney; prisoner.
Elijah Bradley; prisoner.
Thomas Burrell; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Elijah Forbes Captain; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Son of Freeman Huse; prisoner in Great Britain in 1777.
John Mix Captain; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Amos Morris; prisoner in 1780.
Eleazer Oswald Lieut.-Col. ; prisoner at Quebec, Dec. 31, 1775; ex-
changed Jan. lo, 1777.
Chandler Pardee; wounded and prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6,
Hezekiah Sabin Lieut.-Col.; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6,
Jairus Sanford; prisoner.
Adonijah Sherman ; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Nathaniel Stacy ; prisoner from loss of Arnold's fleet on Lake Champlain,
Isaac Townsend; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
John Townsend; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Caleb Trowbridge Capt. ; prisoner Battle of L. I., Aug. 27, 1776.
Joseph Tuttle; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Josiah Tuttle; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Samuel Tuttle; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Whitney; prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6, 1779.
Israel Wooding; wounded and prisoner at New Haven, July 5 and 6,
Soldiers and Patriots Whose Graves are
Known to Be in New Haven, and
GROVE STREET CEMETERY.
Sylvan Ave., Six Graves.
Joseph P. Hotchkiss, . .
Ezekiel Hayes, ....
Medad Atwater, ....
Amos Gilbert, ....
Nathan Oaks, ....
Cypress Ave., Twenty-six
Hezekiah Sabin, . . ,- 3
Stephen Hotchkiss, ... 5
Daniel Bishop, . . . . 1 1
John Hotchkiss, . '.... . n
Joshua Hotchkiss, . . .13
Levi Ives, 18
Hezekiah Augur, .... 21
John Mix, 22
Naphtali Daggett, . . .24
Henry Daggett, .... 24
Nathan Dummer, . . . .29
Dyer White, 30
Jonathan Fitch, . . . .34
John Scott, 35
Ezra Lines, 39
Lent Hotchkiss 41
Amos Doolittle, .... 42
David Phipps, .... 44
Joseph Gorman, . . . . 46
Phineas Bradley, .... 47
Capt. Robert Brown, ... 48
Ebenezer Huggins, . . . 52
Samuel B. Marshall,
Maple Ave., Twenty Graves.
Ezra Stiles, i
Timothy Dwight, ... 2
Pierpont Edwards, ... 4
Jonathan Mix, ... * 9
Isaac Townsend, . ... 14
Aeneas Munson, . . . . 16
John Spaulding, . . . . 16
Thaddeus Beecher, . ... 1 8
Nathan Beers, ... .22
Nathan Beers, . . . .24
Samuel Bishop, . . . . 29
Roger Sherman, .... 32
James Hillhouse, . . . . 35
Elijah Thompson, . . .36
David Bunce, . . . .38
David Wooster 40
Deacon Abel Burritt, . . 42
Joseph Darling, .... 45
Aeneas Monson, .... 46
Miles McCleave, .... 48
Linden Ave., Seventeen
James Dana, 2
Marcus Merriman, ... 4
GROVE STREET CEMETERY Continued.
Linden Ave., Seventeen
James Merriman, . ,
Nathaniel Fitch, .... 7
Ezra Ford 8
William Munson, , . 9
Timothy Townsend, . . .13
John Townsend, . . . . 13
Azel Kimberly, ... . 18
Jonas Prentice, . . . . 19
Jabez Smith, . . . f . 19
Elias Stillwell, ... . . . 27
Thaddeus Ailing, . . . . 30
James Prescott, . . . . 31
Thomas Green, . . . . 37
Isaac Gilbert, . . . ... 50
Jeremiah Parmelee, . . .57
Central Ave., Nineteen Graves.
Eli Mygatt, ..... i
Stephen Herrick, .... 9
John Davis, ... . . 24
Benjamin English, . . 2<5
Elijah Forbes, . . . . 31
William Wise, . '. . . 32
Joel Northrop 35
Abraham Tuttle, .... 36
Peter Johnson, .... 3 7
Timothy Mix, .... 40
Timothy Mix, .... 40
William Noyes, .... 41
Hezekiah Parmelee, . . .41
David Osborn, .... 45
John Trowbridge, . . -47
Luther Collins, .... 47
Laban Smith, . . . . 55
William Storer, .... 66
Samuel Hicks 71
Magnolia Ave., Four Graves.
Eli Denslow, 14
Joshua Newhall, .... 29
Elijah Osborn, . . . .31
Samuel Gorham, . . . .35
Laurel Ave., Six Graves.
John Johnson, .... 5
Hanover Barney, . . . n
Harthem Ramsdell, . . .27
Samuel Hull, . . . . . 29
Daniel Colburn, . . . . 31
Mastin Parrott, .... 45
Locust Ave., One Grave.
Jabez Brown, 18
Cedar Ave., Four Graves.
David Humphreys, ... 5
William Lyon, .... 9
Capt. Abraham Bradley, . 16
Noah Webster, .... 24
Spruce Ave., Five Graves.
Stephen Ailing, . . ,
Ebenezer Allen, .
Sycamore Ave., Nine Graves.
Samuel Bassett, .... 4
David Dorman, . . rear of 8
Coe Hendrick, . . rear of 10
Joseph Kirk Monson, rear of n
Asa Huntington, . . . . 12
Jonathan Osborn, . . .65
John Peck, 65
Caleb Miller 74
Thomas Bills, .... 76
Holley Ave., Two Graves.
Israel Bishop, ....
Samuel Barney, ....
GROVE STREET CEMETERY Continued.
West Wall, Four Graves. David Judson.
John Gilbert, North Wall, One Grave.
Elijah Austin, Gold Sherman.
At Yale Art School, Col. John Trumbull.
Fair Haven Cemetery, Hezekiah Tuttle, Evelyn Pierpont and
Evergreen Cemetery, Capt. John Gilbert.
West Haven Cemetery, James Reynolds, Jeduthan Thompson and
The head stones and remains of many of the Soldiers and Patriots were removed
from the New Haven Green to the Grove Street Cemetery about 1822.
The grave of Adjutant Campbell of the British Army is on Milford Hill. He was
killed on July sth, 1779, during the invasion of New Haven.
Samuel Allen, Samuel Hull,
Dr. Elijah Baldwin, Capt. David Morris,
Timothy Baldwin, Capt. Isaac Smith,
John Beers, Capt. William Clark Whitney,
John Betts, Capt. Henry Whitney.
Reuben Baldwin, Moses Hotchkiss,
Dr. Silas Baldwin, Lieut. (4th) Joseph Hull,
Thaddeus Baldwin, Maj. Elijah Humphreys,
Capt. Timothy Baldwin, Rev. Daniel Humphreys,
Amos Bassett, John Humphreys,
Benjamin Bassett, David Johnson,
Enos Bradley, Isaac Johnson,
John Coe, Capt. Nathaniel Johnson,
John Davis, Joseph Pickett,
David DeForest, Capt. Nathan Pierson,
Charles French, John Prindle,
Francis French, Capt. Joseph Riggs,
Jedediah Harger (Harjer), Capt. Joseph Riggs, Jr.,
Samuel Hawkins, Samuel Sherwood,
David Hitchcock, Abraham Smith,
Jonathan Hitchcock, Capt. Isaac Smith,
Moses Hitchcock, Josiah Smith,
Col. Daniel Holbrook, Major Nathan Smith,
Capt. Thomas Horsey, Daniel Tomlinson,
Dea. Eliphalet Hotchkiss, Capt. John Tomlinson,
Levi Hotchkiss, Capt. Reuben Tucker.
John Buckingham, Benjamin Gillette.
OFFICERS AND MEMBERS
GEN. DAVID HUMPHREYS BRANCH, NO. i,
SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION,
SINCE ITS ORGANIZATION.
The General David Humphreys Branch, Connecticut
Society Sons of the American Revolution, has the dis-
tinction of being the first local branch formed as an
auxiliary to a State Society, and was organized on May
22nd, 1891. Its officers since then and their terms of
service have been as follows :
HENRY B. HARRISON 1891-1893
SAMUEL E. MERWIN, JR 1894-1897
FRANKLIN H. HART 18981899
GEORGE H. FORD 1900-1903
WILSON H. LEE 19041905
GEORGE B. MARTIN 1906-1907
SEYMOUR C. LOOMIS 1908-1910
NATHAN EASTERBROOK, JR 1891-1893
FRANKLIN H. HART 1894-1897
CORNELIUS S. MOREHOUSE 1898-1899
FRANK C. BUSHNELL 1900
EVERETT E. LORD 1901
WILSON H. LEE 1902-1903
BENJAMIN R. ENGLISH 19041905
SEYMOUR C. LOOMIS 1906-1907
WILLIAM S. WELLS 1908-1910
120 Officers and Members
DWIGHT E. BOWERS 1891-1892
GEORGE CHADWICK STOCK 1893
WILLIAM E. CHANDLER 1894-1904
WILLIAM D. SCRANTON 1905-1910
DWIGHT E. BOWERS 1891
JOHN C. HOLLISTER 1892-1900
WILLIAM E. CHANDLER 1901-1904
WILLIAM D. SCRANTON 1905-1910
REV. DRYDEN W. PHELPS 1891-1892
REV. EDWIN S. LINES 1893-1904
REV. DRYDEN W. PHELPS 1905
REV. EDWIN S. LINES 1906-1908
REV. ANSON PHELPS STOKES 1909-1910
REV. ALONZO M. LEWIS 1891
ALBERT McC. MATHEWSON 1.892
SAMUEL E. BARNEY 1893-1897
HOWARD C. VIBBERT 1898-1902
REV. DRYDEN W. PHELPS 1903-1905
CHARLES E. P. SANFORD 1906-1908
EDWARD E. BRADLEY 1909-1910
WILLIAM E. CHANDLER 1891-1894
EVERETT E. LORD 1891-1893
L. WHEELER BEECHER 1891, 1894-1897
GEORGE R. CHAMBERLAIN 18921895
GEORGE H. FORD 1893-1899
BENJAMIN R. ENGLISH 1895-1901
WILSON H. LEE 1897-1903
FREDERICK S. WARD 1899-1904
FRANK A. CORBIN 1902-1905
AMOS F. BARNES 1903-1906
JOHN N. CHAMPION 1904-1907
GEORGE A. ALLING 1905-1908
WILLIAM O. PARDEE 1906-1910
ALBERT McC. MATHEWSON 1907-1910
CHARLES E. BURTON 1908-1910
Officers and Members
Those whose names are printed in italics are deceased.
An asterisk (*) preceding the name indicates that the member
*ABBE, GEORGE E.
ALLING, DAVID R.
ALLING, EDWARD B.
ALLING, GEORGE A.
ALLIS, TERENCE S.
* ANDREWS, FREDERICK F.
ATWATER, EDWARD B.
ATWATER, EDWARD I.
Atwater, Frederick 5.
*ATWATER, HARRY E.
Atwater, William J.
ATWOOD, WILLIAM H.
AVERY, EDWARD P.
BAKER, ELLIS B.
BARLOW, CHARLES C.
BARNES, AMOS F.
Barnes, T. Atwater
*BARNUM, GEORGE S.
*BARNUM, STARR H.
BASSETT, GEORGE J.
Beecher, Ebenezer B.
Beecher, Edward C.
BEECHER, L. WHEELER
*BEERS, CARL E.
*BEERS, HENRY E.
BIGELOW, FRANK L.
BIRD, CLINTON H.
Blakeslee, Charles H.
Bouton, William H.
Bowers, Dwight E.
BOYD, EDWARD E.
BRADLEY, EDWARD E.
BRADLEY, FREDERICK T.
BRADLEY, GEORGE T.
Bradley, William J.
BRONSON, ROBERT A.
BROOKER, CHARLES F.
BROOKS, ANSEL J.
BROOKS, JOHN W.
BRUSSTAR, BENJAMIN F.
Bulford, John H.
*BULL, WILLIAM E.
BURGESS, GEORGE F.
BURTON, CHARLES E.
BURTON, GEORGE L.
BURTON, GEORGE R.
BURTON, Louis R.
BURROUGHS, FREDERICK C.
*BURWELL, ROBERT N.
Bushnell, Asa C.
BUSHNELL, ERICSON F.
BUSHNELL, FRANK C.
BUSHNELL, PHILO A.
BUSHNELL, WINTHROP G.
BUTLER, SYDNEY P.
*CAMP, HENRY E.
Chamberlain, George R.
Chamberlin, James H. P.
CHAMPION, JOHN N.
CHANDLER, WILLIAM E.
CHAPMAN, ROBERT W.
CHATTERTON, F. JOSEPH
*CLARK, CLARENCE L.
CLARK, EDWARD L.
*CLARK, HERMAN D.
*COBURN, JOHN S.
Coe, Edward T.
Cogswell, Frederick H.
CORBIN, ALGERNON B.
CORBIN, FRANK A.
*COWLES, FREDERICK L.
CRANE, GEORGE W.
*CRIPPEN, DANIEL W.
Officers and Members
CROSS, MORELLE F.
*CROUSE, GEORGE N.
CUNNINGHAM, JOSEPH B.
DAVIS, RICHARD G.
DEMING, Lucius P.
Dewell, James D.
*DEWELL, JAMES D., JR.,
Dibble, Ezra B.
Downes, William E.
EARLE, ARTHUR W.
*EASTERBROOK, FREDERICK J.
EASTERBROOK, NATHAN, JR.,
Eaton, Daniel C.
Ely, William H.
ENGLISH, BENJAMIN R.
English, James E.
EWING, CHESTER W.
FARLEE, GEORGE R.
FARNSWORTH, FREDERICK B.
*FARREN, MERRITT A.
Farren, Roswell B.
Farren, Willis H.
*FERRY, EDWIN S.
*FIELD, FREDERICK W.
*FITCH, NATHAN B.
FOOTE, ELLSWORTH I.
FORD, GEORGE H.
Ford, William E.
Fowler, Charles H.
Fox, EDWARD L.
Fox, Simeon J.
*GALPIN, WILLIAM A.
GARDNER, ROBERT S.
Gilbert, Levi C.
*GILBERT, WALTER R.
*GILBERT, WILLIAM T.
GOUGH, CHARLES H.
GREELEY, EDWIN S.
HARMON, EDWARD F.
Harrison, Henry B.
HART, CHARLES E.
HART, FRANKLIN H.
*HART, WILLIAM A.
HAYES, NATHANIEL J.
HEATON, JOHN EDWARD
*HENDEE, EDWARD D.
HENDRICK, ALBERT C.
*HILTON, CHARLES H.
HOADLEY, CARLETON E.
HOLDEN, FREDERICK H.
Hollister, John C.
HOPSON, WILLIAM F.
*HOSMER, FREDERICK A.
HOTCHKISS, HOBART L.
HOTCHKISS, NORTON R.
HOWARTH, JAMES A.
*HUBBARD, GEORGE A.
HULL, JOHN A.
*HYDE, SAMUEL D.
*!NGERSOLL, CHARLES A.
Jackson, Frederick A.
*JEWETT, WILLIAM H.
*JOHNSON, CHARLES F.
JONES, DANIEL A.
KENDALL, NATHANIEL W.
KENNEDY, JOHN B.
*KENNEY, JOHN W.
*KENNEY, WILLIAM S.
KEYES, GEORGE A.
*KlMBERLEY, ENOS S.
*LAMBERT, WILBUR C.
LEE, WILSON H.
Leeds, John H.
LINES, EDWIN S.
Lines, John M.
LittUjohn, Percy D.
LOOMIS, SEYMOUR C.
LORD, EVERETT E.
*LOVEJOY, JOHN F.
*LYMAN, HENRY A.
Officers and Members
MACDONALD, THEODORE H.
MAGILL, CLAUDE A.
MANN, B. HARTLEY
MARTIN, GEORGE B.
MASON, FRANK H.
MATHEWSON, A. MCCLELLAN
MCNEIL, CHARLES F.
McQueen, John B.
Mersick, Charles S.
MERWIN, JOHN N.
Merwin, Samuel E.
METCALF, WILLIAM H.
Miller, Eugene S.
*Mix, CHARLES W.
*Mix, WILLIS L.
Monson, Frank A.
Morgan, L. L.
MORGAN, WILLIAM E.
MOSELEY, WILLIAM M.
Moses, George N.
MOULTON, EDWARD S.
Newcombe, George F.
NEWTON, HENRY G.
NICHOLS, CHARLES H.
NORCROSS, J. ARNOLD
NORTH, JOHN C.
Osborn, Allen M.
OSBORN, ARTHUR D.
OSBORN, NORRIS G.
PARDEE, WILLIAM O.
*PARISH, JAMES H.
PEASE, SALMON G.
PECK, GEORGE W.
Peck, Joel W. S.
PECK, MILO LEWIS
Phelps, Alfred W.
PHELPS, DRYDEN W.
PHILLIPS, ANDREW W.
PICKETT, CHARLES W.
PICKETT, EDWIN S.
Pickett, Rufus 5.
Platt, John H.
Pond, Jonathan W.
PRESTON, WILLIAM H.
PRINCE, CHRISTOPHER E.
PRINCE, WILLIAM F.
*PUNDERSON, SAMUEL F.
*QUINLEY, GURDON W.
REMBERT, JOHN R.
RITTER, WALLACE S.
ROBERTSON, A. HEATON
ROOT, EDWARD P.
Ross, GEORGE C.
RYDER, ELY M. T.
SANFORD, CHARLES E. P.
*SAVAGE, EDWARD J.
SCRANTON, CHARLES W.
SCRANTON, WILLIAM D.
SEWARD, HERBERT F.
SEYMOUR, GEORGE D.
SHELDON, CHARLES A.
*SILL, EDWIN E.
SIMPSON, EARNEST C.
*SKIFF, FREDERICK W.
SMITH, ANDREW H.
SMITH, HARRY A.
SMITH, HENRY M.
Smith, Samuel M. M.
SNOW, CHARLES P.
SNOW, HERBERT W.
SNOW, LEVI T.
Southworth, Frank A.
Spencer, A. L.
Spencer, Francis E.
SPERRY, NEHEMIAH D.
STANLEY, WILLIAM F.
STEELE, H. MERRIMAN
STETSON, JAMES E.
STERRETT, HARRY L.
STEVENS, CARLETON H.
*STOCK, GEORGE C.
Officers and Members
STODDARD, FRANK E.
STOKES, ANSON PHELPS
STREET, FREDERICK B.
Strong, Horace H.
SWIFT, EDWARD S.
THOMPSON, AUGUSTUS S.
THOMPSON, CLARENCE E.
THOMPSON, CLARENCE E., JR.
Thompson, E. Foote
Thompson, Harry D.
THOMPSON, PAUL S.
Thompson, Sherwood S.
*TILDEN, ROY E. M.
TOWNSEND, JOHN W.
TOWNSEND, JOSEPH H.
TREAT, ALBERT B.
TROWBRIDGE, FRANCIS B.
TROWBRIDGE, FREDERICK L.
Trowbridge, Thomas R.
TUTTLE, WILLIAM P.
*VEADER, DANIEL H.
VIBBERT, HOWARD C.
WALKER, CHARLES M.
WARD, FREDERICK S.
WARNER, HENRY A.
WARREN, HERBERT C.
WEAVER, E. HARRIS
WEED, HARRISON H.
WEED, I. DsWirr
WELLS, WILLIAM S.
WOODRUFF, ARTHUR E.
WOODRUFF, ROLLIN S.
*WRIGHT, WILLIAM A.
YEOMANS, CHARLES S.
YORK, SAMUEL A.
THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ
This book is due on the last DATE stamped below.