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Full text of "The revolutionary forefathers of Morris County : an address delivered at Morristown, N.J., July 4th, 1876"

NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 



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CENTENNIAL. 1876. 



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OF 



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Rev. JOSEPH F. TUTTLE, D. D., 



Pbehide-st of Wabash Colx-eg-e. Indiana. 



Jul? ^th, 1876. 

BENJ. H. VOGT, PBOrTER — THE IRON ERA OFFICE. 

DOVER, N. J. 



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iviorris County, 

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t 

AN ADD1:EK.S delivered AT | 

I 

MORRIo.. X,, X,. ..., JULY 4tli, 1876 | 



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M>412 



THE ORATION. 



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The bero and the s'arine have been severely 
condemned and yet men continue to worship 
the one and bow at th« other In so doing 
they mean no wrong, but meirly espress the 
sentiment of admiration we- feel for a great 
deed and the one who performed it, and the 
sentiment of reverence which we experience 
for the place in which a great deed has been 
performod and a great man has been. 

We may in oar philosophy jeer at llr. Gar- 
lyle's notion of hero-worship, and feel grieved 
as We see onr fellow men bowing at their shrines 
of what ever kind. 

And yet the greatest philosopher uncovers 
his head at the tomb of Washingtoa and the 
most devout Protestant is thrilled with rever- 
ence >e he stands under the tree where Lather 
rested, or at the swpulctier which holds his dost. 

ilr. Webster in his speech at Valley Forge 
said "there is a power in local association. All 
acknowledge it and all feel it. Those places 
natnrally inspire na with emotioa which in the 
coarse of tiuman history have become connected 
with great and interesting events." 

On this one hundredth anniversary of our 
nation we experience sentiments, which are 
among the best ever felt in the human bre.ist. 
Wo think of the original colonies, in themselves 
weak, and this weakness increased by their 
independence and jealousy of each other ; of 
tho contrast between tliom ind the great 
power th.it coerced theia — they weak, it the 
strongest on «arlh ; of the conviction which 
leadiog men in England had before the collis- 
ion that " notwithstanding their boasted aSec- 
tion for Great Britain the Americana will one 
day set up for independence" — a CDUviction 
which such men as Franklin regarded as the 
portentious prophecy of bloody battle, and they 
therefore m all sincerity hastened to assure 
the people and rulers at home that "Americans 
can entertain no such idea unless you grossly 
abuse them," and that "a union of the Ameri- 
can colonies was impos^sible uniess they be 
driyen to it by ihe most grievous tyranny and 
oppression ;" of the scenes in many a private 
home and many a council chamber, as well as 
in the more pubUc assembly, whether of legis- 
lators or people, in which with unutterable 
forebodings and agony and yet with heroic 
courage the best and truest men in this cooa-' 



^- '-I- ' 



try weighed every principle, determined the 
character of every act affecting them, and at 
last announcing their independence fought for 
it through years of darkness and blood ; of the 
special incidents of that long straggle and the 
great men that acted on the conspicuous ■ 
theatre in the presence of all civilized nations. 
Concord, Bunker Hill, Trenton, Torktown, bat- 
tles which were the offspring of Independenc* 
Hall and the Declaration -the Adams, Patrick 
Henry, Thomas Jefferaom, and the greatest of 
them all Washington. I say, we thjnk of these 
great acts and great men and with more fervent 
devotion than ever we pronounce the words, 
" OcR CocxTEy," and we jield our homage to 
the men who gave us a country and we devout ly 
bow as at a shrine at the spots where they 
achieved the deeds which give them immortal 
renown. ' 

But whilst to'day wa indulge in these remi- 
niscences of our national glory —these great in- 
cidents and persons that find place in general 
history— let ours be the humble task of re- 
connting some incidents which are part of the 
history of ilorns countv during that period 
which to-day is in every thought. 

And her* I find myself bes(?t with a peculiar 
embarrassmeut which is twth like and uahke 
that of the great French pulpit orator when he 
preached m the cathedral of the French capi- 
tal. Like him whon he preached sermons al- 
ready printed and in the hands of his hearers, 
all that I know of our local hisXory t)as bean in 
Tour bands for years ; and unlike him in the 
eloquence with which he si«"ept away the em- 
barrassment, I in my humble gift of speech 
mutt yield to it with an appeal to my hearers 
for their indulgence. In former years gather- 
ing many a fact of our Revolutionary hiatory 
from lips that arv now dead, and fn.im sources 
so scattered in archives, libraries and garrets 
that many of them now are beyond my own 
reach, I have not hoarded them, but without 
money and without pnco have given them ftee- 
ly to the press, the historian and the orator. 
Some of these facts, so precious to me as their 
preserver, in one case with no recognition of 
their source, are found in a general history of 
this country ; in another a graceful pen so pre- 
sented^them on his glowing pages, and so 
"kiudiy^dofiuetl^ their source that in their new 



•i 



REVOLUTIONARY FOREFATHERS 



bo?i»ty I almost forgot they were ever mine; 
anil in still another case the tongue of the Sen- 
ator repeated them so eloqueutly and with 
such generous coniraentt?(tion— I crave pardon 
for the weakness— that though a thousand 
miles away as I read his words, my blood 
tingled as with wine. Thanks to the historian, 
the journalist and the Senator for their appre- 
ciation of khid incomplete, yet genuine, labor 
of lore amid the reminiscences of men and 
things a hundred years ago in this goodly 
county of Morns I 

And yet this does not help me to-day and 
here very much, for whether I speak of our own 
heroic men and women, or of those patriots 
who dwelt here during two winters in house, 
oabin or tent, or of the things grave, or the 
things not so grave, that were done among these 
hills so long ago, a hundred of my hearers will 
either nod or shake their heads in approval or 
dissent as if they knew these things a great 
deal better than the speaker himself, which no 
doubt they do since they have his knowledge 
and their own! 

You see, my friends, how much I need your 
forbearance, and how kind it will be in the 
wisest of you to look as though you never had 
beard of these things as I repeat them to-day! 
And, moreover, even if yoa do hear these things 
for the hundredth time, pray remember that 
Yankee Doodle, Hail Columbia, and the Declara- 
tion, are quite old and familiar, and yet old as 
they are how they cau.^e the blood to leap ! 
Though they had seen the old flag a thousand 
times, "the boys in blue" wept and shouted as 
they saw it run up at Fort Donaldson and Port 
Koyal ! • ■ 

How different the Morris County of 1776 and 
the Morris County of 1876 1 It is true its moun- 
tains then as now were grand to look at, tlio 
conspicuous watch-towers whence our fathers 
saw the enemy and gave the alarm, and yet 
these mountains then stood in the midst of a 
sparsely settled wilderness in which were scat- 
tered a few towns and villages with far fewer 
acres under cultivation than in our day. Its 
churches were few, the principal being the 
Presbyterian churches at Morristown, Hano- 
ver, Bottle Hill, Rockaway, Mendham, Black 
River "(or Chester), Parsippany, Succasunna, 
the Congregational Church at Chester, the 
Baptist church at Morristown, and the Dutch 
churches and OldBoonton and Pompton Plains. 
Its schools were few. The late Dr. Condit says 
that the majority of those who learned the most 
common English branches did so in night 
schools taught either by the preacher or some 
itinerant Irish scholar. The roads were bad 
and the wheeled vehicles so scarce that at the 
funeral of a light horseman oa Morris Plains 
after the war, as an eye witness once told me, 



there was only a single wagon of any sort pres-' 
ent, that being the one that carried the re- 
mains to the grave. Dr. Johues the pastor, 
tlie attending physician, the bearers, the momTi- 



ers, and the friends were either afoot or on 
horse back. Nor in this respect was this funer- 
al of ihe light horseman very different from the 
more oretentions funeral of the Spanish Am- 
bassador who died at Ulorristown the second 
winter the army was in this pla e. 

The ijianners and occupations of the- pegp.'e 
were simple. The fleece, the flax, the spinning 
wheel and the house-loom were found in every 
mansion, and the most eloquent men at the 
bar and in the pulpit, as also the most beauti- 
ful women, and brave men who made this coun- 
ty so glorious in those days, wore garments 
which the women had made of cloth which 
themselves had manufactured. They were 
hardy, simple, frugal, bravo and good, and 
when the conflict eVme it required as little to 
keep both men and women in fightirg condi- 
tion as it did the soldiers of the Great Froderic. 
The contrasts between the, beginning and the 
end of the century in these as also in many other 
respects are remarkable, and one cannot but be 
inspired by it not only to glory in the splendor 
of our county as it now is, but in the sturdy 
simplicity o f the people of our county as it then 
was. 

The strength of the county as a military po- 
sition has often been noted. Ou the south, not 
far beyond the Morris boundary line, is Wash- 
ington Rock, on a bold range of mountains well 
adapted for observing the movements of the 
enemy in the direction of New Brunswick, as 
also for repelling an attack. Coming north- 
ward we have Long Hill, the Short HilLs. 
and Newark Jiouutain, on which are 
many points which on a ck-ar da.y com- 
mand a wide view of the .Passaic and Hack- 
ensack valleys, together with that sweep of 
countiy which includes the Bloomfield, New- 
ark, E lizabeth, Rahway, Amboy, Bergen, the 
Neversink Highlands, the Narrows, and, but 
for Bergen Hill, New York itself. One does not 
need to be a Jerseyman to admire such a view 
as he gets from the Short Hills, Eagle Rock, or 
the rugged ledges of rock just north of the 
toll-gate on the mountain back of Montclair. 
But it is not of the beauty of this regioa, but 
its strength, that I now speak. An enemy ob- 
served is half vanquished; and from these 
watch towers, which guarded the approaches to 
Moiris county, especially the one on the Short 
Hills, near " the Hobart Notch," night and day 
se ntinels were casting jealous glances to de- 
tect the slightest sign of an enemy. It is also 
sure that loyal men, scattered over every part 
of the country between these Highlands and 
New York, were on the alert, and their courier* 



A 



OF MOERIS COUNTY. 



ilways ready to ritle swiftly westward to the 
hflla of Jlorris to carry tbo alarm. On theao 
iilevatcd places were signal s?uns and the bea- 
C',)D3 rtady to be kindled. On Kimball Moan- 
rain, DenviUe Mountain, Green Pond Moun- 
tain, and even on the spur of the Catskill 
range dividing Orange county from New Jer- 
sey, Wert other stations like that on the Short 
Hills; 8o that, let the enemy n3ver so secretly 
cross to Staten Island, and thence to Eliza- 
liethto-wa Point, or in the winter cross the 
meadows to Xewark, as ihey often did, the eye of 
novao sentinel, either on the hills or the plains, 
detected the movement, which the flying cou- 
rier, the lond-moatbed cannsn or the ominous 
beacon flaming its warning from mountain to 
monniaiii, conveyed to a patriotic people, who 
thfcmselves were ever on the watch and ready 
to respond. On several occasions the enemy 
in""ved across the river from New Brunswick, 
or, crossing the Raritan, reached Elizabeth- 
town, Lyon's Farm, Connecticut Farms, and 
twice Springfield, within cannon shot of "the 
Old Sow," as the signal gun was called, and 
the beacon on the Short Hills. 

But such were . the advintages for watching 
tbe enemy and alarming the people, and such 
■*lso the natural strength of its mountain ram- 
p:irts, that the enemy were always met by large 
bodies of as brave men as ever bore a firelock 
to the defence of altar and home. The enemy 
supposed himself unobserved, but invariably 
found himself confronted by a foe that seemed 
to him to spring out of the very ground or to 
drop'iown from the clouds. There were sev- 
eral '"Dducfe'lients which led the enemy greatly 
to desire the possession of, or at least a closer 
acquaintance with, the county of Morris. It 
was well k nowu that Col. Jacob Ford", Jr., who.se 
widow was Washington's hostess the second 
' winter, had built a powder mill on the Whip- 
• (Kioy river, which was making considerable 
amounts of "good merchantable powder," the 
.1 mount of which Col. Benoni Hatha'vay was 
I careful to esaggeiate by what might be called 
" Quaker powder" kegs," that were filled, not 
with powder, but with sand, and these, under 
careful guard, were conveyed to the magazine I 
There was not only the well-guarded Powder 

i Magazine in some safe place, but the general 
ni agaz'.ne on the south side of Morris Green, 
w hose treasures of food and clothing and other 
articles for the army were in fact never enough 
to be of any great value, yet Colonel Hatha- 
way so managed the deposits made there that 
they seemed to aU but the initiated very form- 
idable. 
A di.zen miles north of Morristown werescv- 
9ral forges that were furnishing iron for the 
»cmy for horse shoes, wagon tiro aiid other 
purposes. And at Mt. Hope and Hibemia, each 



about four miles from ' thft village of 
Rockaway, were two blast furnaces. The 
former was the property of -John Ja- 
cob Faesch, a pairiotic German, and 
!he other belonged to General Lord Stiriinjr, 
and nnder the management first of Jos. Holf, 
and after bis death of his brothei Charles, ?on« 
of Charles Hoff, of Hunterdon. .A.t both these 
furnaces la-^-^e quantities of shot ^cd shell ware 
cast for the irmy, and at Hibemia Hoff made 
repeated attempts to cast cannon, and in one 
of bis letters to Lord Stirling says he "did 
cast one very good one, only it was slightly de- 
fective at the breech." " ■ 

These mannfactories of array munitions were 
3 upplementcd by large breadth.'* of arable land, 
a considerable part of which was of eicellent 
qaality, and which all together produced an 
immense amonnt of the provisions needed by 
armies. And not only so. but the acres of Mor- 
ris were the key to the richer acres of Sussex. 
Indeed, it is difficult to exaggerate the impor- 
tance of our county in all these respects, and 
when we add the fact that it was a perpetual 
th rcatening to the enemy who made New York 
their base, we can see why so many attempts 
were made by the enemy to penetrate it. 

Some of ihe attempts were by Tojics, led by 
Claudius Smith, who once threatened Mt.Hope 
and who actually robbed Robert Ogden be- 
tween Sparta and Hamburg, Charles Hoff at 
Hibemia, and Robert Erskine at Ringwood. 
The most imposing attempt to visit Mortis 
county was in 1780, under Knyphausen, and he 
reached Springfield, where he was suddenly 
confronted by a part of Washington's army 
then in motion for the Hudson and great num- 
bers of the Morris minute msn. Dr. Ashbel 
Green says his father. Parson Green, witnessed 
the fight from the adjoining hills, and rumor 
says Parson Caldwell did not stick to the hills, 
but mingled in the fray, which gains some no- 
toriety from bis distributing the hymn books 
of the neighboring chnrch, accompanied with 
thb exhortation to "put Watts into them," be- 
lieving that the best hymn of Watts would 
cjake a good wad in a patriotic gun I Here, 
too, it was that Benoni Ha^haway's wrath was 
so excited because his commander ordered his 
troops to the top of " a Hy Monntain" ii stead 
of against the enemy. 

It was here also that Timothv TutMe. with a 
company of men, making theif way through a 
rye field, poured a deadly volley into a detach- 
ment of the enem\ taking dinner. The pepper' 
made their soup too hot for comfort, and they 
left it in a hurry. And here, too, it was that 
an American oEBccr was badly woundrd, and 
one of his men, named Mitchell, ran ia be- 
tween the confronting armie.^ and on his own 
strong shoulders carried his capt;un to a placi; 



REVOLUTIUN'AKY FUREFATHEKS 



of uafoty. As his a.Hwas pereeived t'fro enemy 
died a voUoy at^him, conceruinyj wbich be aft- 
erwards remarked, with amusiog MimpUcity, "I 
TOW I waa skoared !" 

And hero I may quote a coni)Ie of verses from 
aa old newspaper of the day to shoW how I he 
«aia effort of KnypUaasea to reach Morris 
coanly was regarded by the men who drove 
him back : 

" Old Knip 
And old Clip v 

Went to the Jersey sbors 
The rebel rogues to beat ; 
But at Yankee Farms 
They took the alarms 
At little harms, 
And quickly did retreat . 

Then after two days' wonder 
Marched boldly to Springfield town, 
And sure they'd knock the rebels down; 

But a.s their ioes 

Gave them some blows, 

They, like the wind. 

Soon changed their miud. 

And in a crack 

Retarn«d back 

From not one third their number I" 

The remarkable fact remains that the enemy 
DbTer reached our county, except now and then 
a marauding party from Orange county, like 
those led by Claudius Smith and the Babc-ocks. 

I have mentioued the rapidity with which 
the alarms of Invasion were cirvulatcd through 
the county,' and the readiness with which Mor- 
ris county men hurried to the place of danger. 
There wore two oiganizatious in the county 
which had much to do with this splendid fact. 
The first of these was what was known as the 
"association of Whigs." 

Among the papers of the late Colonel Joseph 
Jaekson, of Rockaway, I found the original pa- 
per containing the articles of " the association 
of Whiga in Pequanac Township, 1776," with 
one hundred and seventy-seven autograph sig- 
naturcij, except a score or so made their 
■'marks." Tlie articles rehearse the reasons 
for thus associatmj; in the somewhat lofty and 
intense style of the day, and 'declare that "we 
are firmly determined, by all means in our 
power, to guard against the disorders and con- 
fusions to which the peculiar circumstances of 
the times may expose us. And we do also fur- 
ther asuociato aud agree, as far as shall bo con- 
sistent with the measures adopted iur the pre- 
ijervation of American freedom, to support the 
magistrates and other civil oflScers in the exe- 
cution of their duty, agreeable to the lawa of 
this colony, aud to observe the directions of our 
committee acting." 



Tho Committee of Safety for Pequanoc cou- 
aiated of Robert Gaston, Moses Tuttle, Ste- 
phen Jackson, Abram Kitchel and Job Allcu. 
Each of tnese had a paper like the one quoted. 
and circulated it. The one hero referred to 
was in the hands of btephea Jackson, and per- 
haps as many more names wore on the papei-n 
held by the other members of the committee; 

In each township of the county this organi- 
zation existed in such sirengtb as to inelmlr 
most of the loyal men. 

Besides this there was an organization known 
as "the minute men," who were re^larly en- 
roUea and officered, and they wei'w pledged to 
be always ready to assemble at some preco;i- 
certed rendezvous. In critical limes the min- 
ute men took their guus and ammunition with 
them eveiv-where, even to tho church. .Thiri 
httla fact is the hinge of an anecdote 1 hai; 
from Mis. Euriic& Pierson. She described Gen . 
Wm. Winds as a powerful and imperious man, 
a devout Christian, who took his part in tuc- 
lay services of the old church at ilockaway 
when there was no minister,' uttering all ordi- 
nary petitions in quiet tones ; but when Ue 
prayed tor the country raising his voice lilt it 
sounded like thunder. Although he had botfi 
a leading officer in the armv, after his retire- 
ment he became a minute man, always carry- 
ing bis wagon whip and his gun into tb*:- 
church. One Sunday during sermon he ap- 
plied the whip to an unruly boy, and ou 
another Sunday a courier dashed. up to tht: 
church door, shouting the alarm that the e-ie- 
my was marching towards the Short Hills. 

Of course in a trice the meetiug adjourned 
in cop.fusiou. not waitiug for benediction. 
Gen. Winds seized his gun, aud rushing out of 
the house ordered the miuute men into iiue ; 
but, lo aud bt-'hotd ! not. a man had his guu ! 
"Then," said Mrs. Pierson, "Gen. Wiuds ravcd 
ind stormed at the men so loud thit you might 
have heard him at the Short Hills'." You may 
remember that Dr. Ashbel Green speaks ot 
Winds' voice as " stentorophoric. It was ar- 
'ticolate as well as loud, aud it exceeded in 
power aud efficiency every other humin voice 
that I ever heard." And yet, caught uuarmeiJ 
that time, the general rule was the contrary. 
Whenever the signal gun was heard or the om- 
inous tongue of fl.ime shot up from the beacon 
hills, or the clattering hoofs of the courier's 
horse over the roads by day or by 
night to tell the people of the invading en- 
emy, these minute men were in an incredibly 
short time on their way to tho appointed places 
of meeting. 

I recall an illustration which may show this 
whole movement of tho minute men in a beau- 
tiful manner. In MenJham there was a minute 
man named Bishop. Jh& battle of Springfield 



) 



OF ilOKKIa C'VLlxTi. 



occnrred June 2:3, 1^0. The havvu-st was aoa- 
«ual]y early that summer, aad this man that 
uiurning was harvesting hia ^heat when tbe 
8<iund of the si.mial giia was faintly bt.arJ. 
They listeued, ind again, the soaud came boom- 
ing over the hills. " I must go," said the far- 
'mer. " Tou bad b3^tcr take <nrc of your 
wheat," said his farm band. Agaio the sound 
of the gun pealed out clear in the air, aud 
Bishop exclaimed, '• I can't stand it. Take 
uare of the graia the best way you c;;a. I am 
off to the rescue '" And in a few minutes was 
on his way to iCornstOivn. And bo says that 
aa he went there was not a road or lane or f ath 
along which he did not find troops of men who, 
liVe himself, were bunjing to the front. 
— VTe have only to recall " the association of 
Whigs," with their CumLQittees of safety," and 
the organization 6f " minuto men," which 
were formed m evei-y part of the county, to un- 
derstand hrt'.v it was that our Morris yeomc-a 
were always jeady to resist any attempt of the 
^nemy^ to invade the county. In fact, tbey were 
resolved that the enemy should never reach 
tbe county if thc:y could prevent it. Tlioir spirit 
was expressed in the familiar reply of Wiads 
to the young EjgHsh olScei. who came to Chat- 
ham bridge to exchange some prison-jrs. Said 
the young Enghshman, '' We mean to diau in 
Morris town some day." "If you do dine in 
Morristown some day," retorted Winds in not 
th* most refined language, "you will sup in 
hell the same evening!" 

We cannot understand tbe remarkable effect- 
iveness of the people of this couuty during that 
long war without recalling the fact that all the 
resources of the county were coucectrated and 
iiandled by tbe "Assjtciation of Wbigs," and the 
■'Minute Men." 

There is another influence to 1>€ added and in 
the grouping I certainly mean no disrespect to 
either party. I Quw refer to the women and tbe 
clergy of Morris County. lathe wars of civil- 
ized nations both these will bt* found a power- 
ful agency, but in some wars their influence 
has been very positive and direct. It was so 
in the war of tbe Revolution and pre-eminently 
so in this county. At the very bcgmuing of 
the conflict ifr. Jefferson asserted the necessity 
of enlisting the religious sentiment of ttie coun- 
try by appointing fast days and iuducing the 
ministers to preach on tbe great issues of the 
day. He admitted that he could see no other 
way to break up the apathy and hopelessness 
which were destroying the popular courage so 
aecessrry at such a crisis. 

It is a very interesting fact that a skeptical 
statesman' .should have sagaciously perceived 
and recommended such an agency. At once 
tbe force thus invoked did that which it was 
already doiog, but now with the authoritative 



endorsement of the highe.«;t character. The 
muiisters of the several chnrcees — preemineoc 

I among fhcm— it ia not iavidious to say Congre- 
gational and Presbyterian — on fast days, and in 
their ordinary services dwelt oa the very themes 
which had evoked the eloquence of Joffersou in 
the Declaration, of Henry, and Lt^e, and Adams, 
and Rut'edge in legislative halls, and of others* 
not less mighty in their appoala to the peo- 
ple. It is not saying too much >o declare thai 
when we consider that with all :he rsvervnce in 
which ia thisa days they were hold as God's 
ambass-idor'?, and the high character they pos- 
sessed as m.;a of learning, pur:;y and public 
spirit, their appeals carried gr-^c<sr weight with 
vast multitudes tha.n any word.-i -zi the mere pol- 
tician or statesman. In that day far more thaa 
in this tbe mini.'<ter was clothed with a sort of 
divine authority, and when the American clergry 
from ■ the pulpit denounced the tyranny of 
Great Britain and commanded their hearers to 
go to the rescue of their '"poor bleeding coun- 
try," it was in a measure as if God himself had 
s{)okeu by them. 

The ministers m Morris County daring that 
period were chiefly Presbyterian and Dutch 
Reformed. The leading Presbyterian miuis- 
ters were Joboes at 3Iorristown, Grooa at Han- 
over, Kennedy at Baskingridge— a part of 
which was in this county— Lewis and bis sul- 
cessor Joline at Mendham, Horton, .\aron 
Richards and Bradford at Bottle Hill, Woicl- 
huU at Chester, and Josepii Grover at Pax^ip- 
pany, David B2[dwin, Congregational, at Ches- 
ter, and Dominie Myers at Pomp ton Plains. 
There were other ministers in the county, but 
rhave named the principal ones. Of these we 
may singlu out Jobn<:s and Greeu aa f.nr sam- 
ples of them all. The eulogv which .Albert 
Bamei pronounced on Dr. Timothy .Johnes is 
lully sustained by the facts. An ahie and 

.sometimes a truly eloquent preacher, he was 
a remarkable pastor, and his ability in that 
respect was tasked to the utmost during the 
two years the American army was in Morris 
County. If anyone d )ubt3 this statement let 
him examine the "Morristown Bill of Mortali- 
ty," which la simply a record of fdn9r.\ls which 
he himself had attended. In the year 1777 he 
attended 205 fumrals, of which more than half 
were caused by small pox, putrid eore throat, 
and malignant dysentery. During a part of 
tho time his church was occupied as a Enspita! 
for the sick. Tbe same was true of the church- 
es at Succasunna and Hanover. The latter 
was used for "a small pox hospital for patients 
who took the disease in the naturtl wav." 
Tlio fact that the Morristown church was occu- 
pied as a hospital accounts for the other oft- 
lold f*ct that Washington once rcceivod the 
communion elements trov V- ^ '-■■ ^ a: a 






UEVOLUTIONARY F OEEFATIIEIIS 



^rtcrituerital 3<^rvice heM in k s^ove at the rear 
of the Doctor's own house. The atury has been 
diacvedited by snrue, but I have lieanl it from 
too many who w.^ri' living wheu it occurred to 
loubt its truth. 

Dr. Johnes threw himsKlf with the greatest 
*rdor into the cause of his couutrymen, and 
ilia influence was widely felt over the country. 

The Kev. Jacob Green— "Parson Green'" as 
he waa commonly called— was a marked man. 
One of the most thorough and absiduous pas- 
tors he was also an able preacher. Besides this 
he had an extensive practice aa a physician, fud 
unable to educate his children otbcrwiso he 
opened and managed a classical school with 
tho aid of a tutor. He did not a little also in 
other kinds of seculai business, such as milling 
and distilling, and as if those were not tnough 
to use up his energy he drove quite a law busi- 
ness, wrote articles on political economy for 
the newspapers, served in the Legislature, and 
was for a considerable time Yice President of 
the College of New Jersey. .Ho was held in the 
greatf-st reverence and died in the midst of his 
labors which had been extended in the one par- 
ish ever a period of forty-four years. 

In the pulpit, the houae, the newspaper, and 
in all places 3Ir. Green espoused the cause ot 
Independence with the greatest zeal. Such was 
, his known influence in the parish and county 
as a citizen, a minister and a physician, that 
before he issued orders to inoculate his soldiers 
Washington invited this country parson to a 
consultation about this important measure. 
('onvinced by Washington of its neces.-iity, both 
Green and Johnes— and no doubt Kennedy, 
Woodhull and the othei Morris county minis- 
ters — took the matter in hand to inoculate their 
own people. They arranged hospitals and dic- 
tated every plan with a precision and positive- 
ness that was not to be disobeyed by their par- 
ishioners, and such was the weight of this au- 
thority that it is said very few of the members 
of these chnrehes disregarded it, and that few 
of them died of the foul disease. Of the 68 
funerals from this disease attended by Dr. 
Johnes only six were members of his church, 
and these died before the local arrangements 
for inoculation were perfected. 

I mention thi^ as a sign of the authority of 
these ministers, and to show what an influence 
they exerted in favor of the cause of American 
Independence. How they wrought in the good 
cause is matter of record. The Associated 
Whigs and the Minute Men of Morris heard 
many "a powerful prayer and discourse" from 
these ministers to make them of good courage. 

With these men we must associate the women 
of Morris County. There were some tories in 
the county. Thomas Millcgo, the sheriff elect, 
was one, and he was not the only one. There 



wore some in Tocka way Valley who impudent- 
ly declared their ejcpectation that tho British 
would triumph, in which 'Vent they had ar- 
ranged which of the farms belonging to tho 
Whigs thi^y would take as their nhare of th*^ 
spoils! But so shrewdly and bravely did Mrs. 
Miller concentrate tho WbigH of that regioji 
through meetings held in lier own house as to 
defeat the raa:als and clear them out. 

So often has the story of the Morris Connlr 
women been told that I fear any reference to it 
may seem tedious to you. It was- no uncom- 
nuin thing for these women to cultivate tho 
fields and harvest' the crops whilst the mf-a 
were away to the war. On nif^re than one occa- 
sion not a dozen men, old or young, were left 
in the Whippany neighborhood. The same was 
true in many other neigliborhoods. Anna 
Kitcbel was a fair representative of all the Mor- 
ris County women, in both scorning "a British 
protection" when her husband and Jour broth- 
ers were in the American arn;y, and in keeping 
the great pot full of food for the patri' * -■ ' 
dicrs. 

Yes, Fhe spoke for a thousand like htr?elf 
when she said so proudly to the Deacon who 
urged her to get a protection, "If the God of 
battles will not take eare of us we will fare with 
the rest!" Brave Anna KitcLel! and ovor in 
Mendham the second winter the ai-my was 
repeatedly reduced to the vei-y verge of starva- 
tion, and with roads blocked up with snow for 
miles, so that at one time a correspondent of a 
Philade-pliia paper says tlirre was "an enfon-ed 
fiist of three days in the camp." The poor TcUiiv. s 
were only saved by their own personal appeals 
to the farmers of the county. Ct>l. Drake once 
told me that for months that winter not a 
rooster waa heard to crow in the region S) 
closely had they been killed and the balauif 
were only kept si-.te in tlie cellars! And the 
hungry, bare-footed and thinly clad soldiers 
went to the Morris County kitchens, and 
Hannah Carey, the wife of David Thompson, 
— she once scalded an impudent tory— spoke for 
all the women who presided over these Morri.s 
County kitchens, as she ladled out the food 
from her great pot, "Eat away, men, yon arc 
welcome because you are fighting for the 
country ; and it is a good cause yon arc engaged 
in!" Brave Hannah Thompson! br.ave Anna 
Ki tchel ! brave women of Morris County I The 
men fought well for the countrj- and so did 
the women I 

In tho New York Observf r recently appeared 
a spirited anecdote of a 5Irs. Hannah Arnctt of 
Elizabethtown, who heard her husband and 
several other dispirited patriots discussing the 
question of giving up the effort to national 
indcp endencc. When she .«aw the fatal conclu- 
sion to which they weie >Irifting she burst into 



X 



OF MOREIS COUNTY. 



room, and iir spite of the remonstrancst* of 
jr husband, rebuteJ thoirweakcowirdice and 
.aid to hinj, "What greater cir.ae crrald there 
rt' than thatofconntry. I married a gond man 
ladtrue, a faithful Iriencl, and loya! Chridtian 
ntlemao, bat it needs nodivorce to sever me 
,r< Qi a traitor and a coward. If you take the 
afamous British protection which a treacherous 
■iifiry of your coun try offers you— yon loae your 
Tife and I— I lose my husband and my liome!" 
Hannah Arnett spoke for the patriot women of 
America! and she was as grand aa any of them ! 

The burdens of the war fell very heavily on 
New Jersey. It was "the battle field-of the 
Ri'volution." The presence of the armies in 
j-ursuit, retreat o r battle, put th&counties below 
liifi Qiountaics in a chrcnic distress. Indeed 
iiii'h were tiie hardships endured at the hands 
of the enemy in these lowland counties, that 
the people held m the greatest detastation "the 
Kad coats and the Hessians." From their 
presence the Morris County people were free, 
and jet it should not be forgotten that the ' 
a'most intolerable burdens, consequent on the j 
jjiesence of the American army two winters, ( 
f»'ii on them. Durmg the winter and spring of I 
1777— the army reached Iforriitown about the ! 
7tf! of January, 1777— the soldiers were billeted | 
Ml the families of Morristown or Hanover, 
B'lrtle Hill, and other parts of the county. 
Twelve men were quartered on Parson Green, 
sixteen on Anna K)tchels' hu.sbaud U?al. a 
/»core on Aaron, Kitchel, and so throughout the 
;a:niiEj5 diatricl. To these famihew it was al- 
:n( St niinou.s, since all they had whs eaten up 
:q the service, :-*o that when the army marched 
ijS'it left tlie ugion as bare as if it had been 
.HWfpt by a plague of locusts. , 

■j To this we muse add the almost inconceiva- 
/ !i!_- terror and hardship of the enforced universal 
' i:ii.culation of the people because the soldiers 
were inoculated. The late Rev. Samuel L. 
T\ittie, of Madison, so carefully investigated 
Miis matter in that parish that he fonud out 
where the small-pox hospitals were and some 
;,'r3TG yards where our soldiers were buried. 
Dr. .Ashbel Green in his autobiography says 
that the Hanover church was a hospital for 
rho.se who had the disease the natural way, and 
ID Itarlully picturesque language be describes 
• he horrors of the scenes he had witnessed in 
(hat old church. It is true that it was a singu- 
lar fact (hat scarcely one who was inocnlated 
<Iicd, whilst scarcely one who took the disease 
in the natural way got well. But in either 
ca.sc the horrors of this loathsome disease laid 
fiu our Morn's i'iti'^-^hm; --He a burden whose 
wdight must have 1^^^ ^^Ling. And thus 
yon ace a hungry and &'ji^s«««iy in those homes 
>f our ancestors the first winter. 



Of th e second winter I have already spoken, 
but refer to it again to ronrad you of the dct 
that during that almost unparalleled winter 
when gaunt famine hung over the Amfcricaa 
camps, and when the paths and roads about 
them were marked with blood from the feet of 
the ill-shod soldiers, the forests of Morris 
county gave timber for cabins and wood for 
fuel, their bams yielded Jorage to the army 
horses, the yards furnished meat and, the 
granaries and cellars gavo forth food for the 
soldiers. There is no arithmetic or book-keep- 
ing that can announce the value of these con- 
tributions at such a crisis, and yet so gener- 
ously and unseliishly did our fore- fathers 
respond tothiscail of their country That it is 
said that receipts for the supplies wore declined 
by most and that a very small fraction of the 
whole value was covered by the receipts. In a 
word the magnificent fact rises before us to-day 
that the Morris county people of the Revolution 
did what they did with such ample charity in 
both those dreadful winters substantially with- 
out reward. They gave their men to fight, 
their women to sufffcr,'and their property to be 
consumed for country and liberty withouf 
money and .without price. Nominally what 
they had was worth fabulous prices in a cur- 
rency rendered worthless by over-issue and 
counterfeiting, but they seemed for the time 
to forget the ordinary uses of monej' and to 
open to the patriot soldiers all vherr stores to 
make ibrm strong to fight the great fight that 
was to win for them a country. 

Of course I have not told all that crowds upon 
the memory of tho.se heroic linieji. but it is 
time to Jlrrost this discourse alrcaay priotrarfed 
unduly. We are not to forget ihe more con 
spicucus names and deeds which belong to our 
Revotutionaty history and which atter a cen- 
tury shine out like slars at night in the clear 
sky. They will not bo forgotten. From a thou- 
sand platforms thzik praises will be rehearsed 
this day, whilst the booming cannon and the 
pealing bells, and the glad shouts of our people 
shall proclaim how we prize the great men and 
deeds of that heroic penod. 

Wo have followed to-day a humbler impul-'e 
and recalled the fore-fathers of our own couxty 
in the Revolution. We have orn henxa, and 
our shrines are where thty wrought tor their 
country. Each old parish has Ha her<ifS, and 
each old church was the shrine at which brave 
men and women bowed in God's fear, con.sccrat • 
ing their all to their coUntiy. And surely no 
desctndant of theiu can stand on the Short 
Hills at the point where the unskcping scr- 
tiaels of the old county stood a hundred yeir^ 
ago, nor wander along the Lrantica Yallcy, or 
over Kimball Mountain where American sol- 
diers suffered and Morrw county men ac'l 



8 



REVOLUTIONAilY FOREFATHE RS 



woDieo sustained them, nor tread tLe lawns 
that environ the old Ford mansion and etiter 
its hoaored balU whcic once dwelt Washington 
in the midst of a circle of illuatrious men with- 
out profound emotion. 

These are our shrines, and as from these 
points we look over the magnificent county of 
which we are 30 proud, we are not to forget 
that our aucestors did what they could to save 
it from the enemy and make it a place in his- 
tory. But this picture of the patriotism, the 
trials and the triumphs of our Morris county 
ancestors fairly represents the people in other 
'iouutics ot New Jersey aud the other States of 
the Union. It was the peopK^ who asserted the 
principles ot the Declaration. If they had not 
felt as tbev did, and labored and suffered as 
they did, if they had not laid themselves and 
their children, their estates, the increase of 
their herds and their flocks, the golden wealth 
of their fields and graua-ies, indeed their all on 
the altar of their country, if from thousands 
of family altars, closets and pulpits, the people 
had not sent their cries to God for their coun- 
try, even Washington could not have gained 
U3 what we now have, a couxruT ! We love 
our country and it is worthy of our love. Let 
us not cease to i)rai3e God who gave the men 
of '76 wisdom, courage and fortitude which led 
to results that are so couspicuovis to-day. 

The Republic has survived a hundred years. 
It has passed through some tremendous perils, 
and I fear the perils are not all past. I speak 
not as a partisan to-day, but as an American 



as I assort the convicti jn that amidst the sha; i 
ing foundations of systems and belK-fs aii' 
nations in every part ot the" civilized world i 
wilUbc well for evsry Araoricau patriot t 
fortify his heart, nut by rufi.rring to the exaiupi' 
of Greek and liuman hcroos, but by recallin, 
the names of those who signed the Declaration 
and foui^ht our battles and through great an' 
heroic suffi;rings wrought out for U3 lliC'K" 
triumphs which are now crablazoQed in resuJi 
vastly grander than t"iey ever dreamed of. 

.\nd in these glories of our Centennial yt;u' 
let us proudly remember that in the acliief^- 
nient of these glories the men and women Wh<i 
a hundred years ago lived in llorris county 
bore an honorable part, and see to it that t!j<-y 
are forever held in grateful remembrance. 

Fellow citizens of Mon-is county, I have tilli^ 
thrust out my hand at random and gathcn d 
into a garland a fcw of the names and deeds i-t 
the patriot fathers who a hundred years agi. 
bore their part in the great struggle fo; 
mclepeudence among the grand old hills ff 
Morris. Such as it is on this Centennial ith ' 
July in the spirit of a true loyalty both to ou. 
common country and to our honored county I 
bring this garland from afar as the sign of tl.i- 
love I have both to our county and our coun try . 
And as the fore fathers were wont on all Surt-; 
of documents and occasions to say, so let mt 
close these remarks with their oft repeated 
prayer, 

" God save Atutrica I" 




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