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Revolutionary Reader 










As my work has been a labor of love, I therefore affection- 
ately dedicate this book to the Daughters of the 
American Revolution of Georgia. 

September 4, 1913. 

Atlanta, Georgia. 

My Dear Mrs. Foster : To say that I am delighted with 
your Revolutionary Reader is to state the sheer truth in 
very mild terms. It is a marvel to me how you could gather 
together so many charmingly written articles, each of them 
illustrative of some dramatic phase of the great struggle 
for independence. There is much in this book of local 
interest to each section. There is literally nothing which 
does not carry with it an appeal of the most profound 
interest to the general reader, whether in Georgia or New 
England. You have ignored no part of the map. I con- 
gratulate you upon your wonderful success in the prepara- 
tion of your Revolutionary Reader. It is marvelously rich 
in contents and broadly American in spirit. 
Sincerely your friend, 

September 8, 1913. 


711 Peachtree Street. 

I like very much your plan of a Revolutionary reader. 
1 hope it will be adopted by the school boards of the various 
states as a supplementary reader so that it may have a wide 

Yours sincerely, 



America 11 

Washington's Name 12 

Washington's Inauguration 13 

Important Characters of the Revolutionary Period in Ameri- 
can History 14 

Battle of Alamance 20 

Battle of Lexington 22 

Signers of Declaration .... 35 

Life at Valley Forge 37 

Old Williamsburg 46 

Song of the Revolution 52 

A True Story of the Revolution 53 

Georgia Poem 55 

Forts of Georgia 56 

James Edward Oglethorpe 59 

The Condition of Georgia During the Revolution 61 

Fort Rutledge of the Revolution 65 

The Efforts of LaFayette for the Cause of American 

Independence 72 

James Jackson 77 

Experiences of Joab Home 79 

Historical Sketch of Margaret Katherine Barry 81 

Art and Artists of the Revolution 84 

Uncle Sam Explained Again 87 

An Episode of the War of the Revolution 88 

State Flowers 93 

Georgia State History, Naming of the Counties 95 

An Historic Tree 100 

Independence Day , 101 

Kitty 102 

Battle of Kettle Creek 108 

A Daring Exploit of Grace and Rachael Martin Ill 

A Revolutionary Puzzle 112 

South Carolina in the Revolution 112 

Lyman Hall 118 

A Romance of Revolutionary Times 120 


Fort Motte, South Carolina 121 

Peter Strozier 123 

Independence Day 125 

Sarah Gilliam Williamson 127 

A Colonial Hiding Place 129 

A Hero of the Revolution 131 

John Paul Jones 132 

The Real Georgia Cracker 135 

The Dying Soldier 136 

When Benjamin Franklin Scored 139 

A Revolutionary Baptising 139 

George Walton 140 

Thomas Jefferson 143 

Orators of the American Revolution 150 

The Flag of Our Country (Poem) 154 

The Old Virginia Gentleman 155 

When Washington Was Wed (Poem) 160 

Rhode Island in the American Revolution 162 

Georgia and Her Heroes in the Revolution 168 

United States Treasury Seal 173 

Willie Was Saved 174 

Virginia Revolutionary Forts 175 

Uncrowned Queens and Kings as Shown Through Humorous 

Incidents of the Revolution 185 

A Colonial Story 192 

Molly Pitcher for Hall of Fame 195 

Revolutionary Relics 196 

Tragedy of the Revolution Overlooked by Historians 197 

John Martin 204 

John Stark, Revolutionary Soldier 206 

Benjamin Franklin 209 

Captain Mugf ord 211 

Governor John Clark 214 

Party Relations in England and Their Effect on the American 

Revolution 221 

Early Means of Transportation by Land and Water 228 

Colonel Benjamin Hawkins 236 

Governor Jared Irwin 240 

Education of Men and Women of the American Revolution. . 243 

Nancy Hart 252 

Battle of Kings Mountain (Poem) 255 

William Cleghorn 257 



The Blue Laws of Old Virginia 259 

Elijah Clark 264 

Francis Marion 266 

Light Horse Harry 274 

Our Legacy (Poem) 276 

The Ride of Mary Slocumb 277 

The Hobson Sisters 284 

Washington's March Through Somersett County, N. J 289 

Hannah Arnett 293 

Button Gwinnett 298 

Forced by Pirates to Walk The Plank 300 

Georgia Women of Early Days 301 

Robert Sallette 308 

General LaFayette's Visit to Macon 312 

Yes ! Tomorrow's Flag Day (Poem) 317 

Flag Day 319 

End of the Revolution . 328 

Indian Legends 

Counties of Georgia Bearing Indian Names 330 

Story of Early Indian Days 331 

Chief Van House 332 

Indian Tale 334 

William White and Daniel Boone 336 

The Legend of Lovers' Leap 337 

Indian Mound 344 

Storiette of States Derived from Indian Names 346 

Cherokee Alphabet 348 

The Boy and His Arrow 351 

Indian Spring, Georgia 353 

Tracing The Mclntosh Trail 367 

Georgia School Song 369 



Fraunces Tavern 11 

Ruins of Old Fort at Frederica 58 

Monument to Gen. Oglethorpe 60 

Indian Treaty Tree 98 

The Old Liberty Bell 130 

Carpenter's Hall 170 

Monument Site of Old Cornwallis 266 

Birthplace of Old Glory 318 

Chief Vann House 330 

Map of Mclntosh Trail 366 

Map of Georgia, Showing Colonial, Revolutionary and 

Indian War Period Forts, Battle Fields and Treaty Spots 370 


Since it is customary to write a preface, should any one 
attempt the somewhat hazardous task of compiling a book, 
it is my wish, as the editor, in sending this book forth (to 
live or die according to its merits) to take advantage of 
this custom to offer a short explanation as to its mission. 
It is not to be expected that a volume, containing so many 
facts gathered from numerous sources, will be entirely free 
from criticism. The securing of material for compiling this 
book was first planned through my endeavors to stimulate 
greater enthusiasm in revolutionary history, biography of 
revolutionary period, Indian legends, etc., by having 
storiettes read at the various meetings of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution, and in this way not only creating 
interest in Chapter work, but accumulating much valuable 
heretofore unpublished data pertaining to this important 
period in American history; with a view of having same 
printed in book form, suitable for our public schools, to be 
known as a Revolutionary Reader. 

At first it was my intention only to accept for this reader 
unpublished storiettes relating to Georgia history, but 
realizing this work could not be completed under this plan, 
during my term of office as State Regent, I decided to use 
material selected from other reliable sources, and en- 
deavored to make it as broad and general in scope as pos- 
sible that it might better fulfill its purpose. 

To the Daughters of the American Revolution of Georgia 
this book is dedicated. Its production has been a labor of 
love, and should its pages be the medium through which 
American patriotism may be encouraged and perpetuated I 
shall feel many times repaid for the effort. 

To the Chapters of the Daughters of American Revolu- 
tion of Georgia for storiettes furnished, to the newspapers 
for clippings, to the American Monthly Magazine for 
articles, to Miss Annie M. Lane, Miss Helen Prescott, Mr. 
Lucian Knight and Professor Derry, I wish to express my 
deep appreciation for material help given. 




1. My Country, 'tis of thee, 
Sweet land of liberty, 

Of thee I sing; 
Land where our fathers died, 
Land of the pilgrims' pride, 
From every mountain side 

Let freedom ring. 

2. My native Country, thee, 
Land of the noble free, 

Thy name I love; 
I love thy rocks and rills, 
Thy woods and templed hills, 
My heart with rapture thrills, 

Like that above. 

3. Let music swell the breeze, 
And ring from all the trees, 

Sweet Freedom's song; 
Let mortal tongues awake, 
Let all that breathe partake, 
Let rocks their silence break, 

The sound prolong. 

4. Our Father's God, to Thee, 
Author of liberty, 

To Thee we sing; 
Long may our land be bright, 

With Freedom's holy light, 
Protect us with Thy might, 

Great God, our King! 



At the celebration of Washington's Birthday, Maury 
Public School, District of Columbia, Miss Helen T. Doocy 
recited the following beautiful poem written specially for 
her by Mr. Michael Scanlon : 

Let nations grown old in the annals of glory 

Retrace their red marches of conquest and tears, 
And glean with deft hands, from the pages of story 

The names which emblazon their centuried years 
Bring them forth, ev'ry deed which their prowess bequeathed 

Unto them caught up from the echoes of fame ; 
Yet thus, round their brows all their victories wreathed, 

They'll pale in the light of our Washington's Name ! 

Oh, ye who snatched fame from the nation's disasters 

And fired your ambitions at glory's red springs, 
To bask, for an hour, in the smiles of your masters, 

And flash down life's current, the bubbles of kings, 
Stand forth with your blood-purchased trappings upon you, 

The need of your treason, the price of your shame, 
And mark how the baubles which tyranny won you 

Will pale in the light of our Washington's Name ! 

Parade your proud trophies and pile up your arches, 

And flaunt your blood banner, oh, trumpet -tongued War ! 
But ruin and woe mark the lines of your marches, 

While Liberty, captive, is chained to your car; 
But, lo ! in the west there flasht out to defend her 

A sword which was sheened in humanity's flame, 
And Virtue, secure, glass'd her form in its splendor 

The splendor which haloes our Washington's Name ! 

The kings whose dread names have led captive the ages 

Now sink in the sands of their passion and lust; 
Their blood-roll of carnage in history's pages 

Is closed, and their names will go down to the dust. 
But long as a banner to Freedom is flying 

No shadow can rest on his sunshine of fame, 
For glory has crowned him with beauty undying, 

And time will but brighten our Washington's Name ! 
American Monthly Magazine. 



On April 30, 1789, at Federal Hall, George Washington 
was duly inaugurated first President of the United States, 
and the great experiment of self-government on these 
Western shores was fairly begun. 

The beginning was most auspicious. Than Washington 
no finer man ever stood at the forefront of a nation's life. 
Of Washington America is eminently proud, and of 
Washington America has the right to be proud, for the 
' ' Father of His Country ' ' was, in every sense of the word, 
a whole man. Time has somewhat disturbed the halo that 
for a long while held the place about the great man's head. 
It has been proven that Washington was human, and all 
the more thanks for that. But after the closest scrutiny, 
from every part of the world, for a century and a quarter, 
it is still to be proven that anything mean, or mercenary, or 
dishonorable or unpatriotic ever came near the head or 
heart of our first President. 

Washington loved his country with a whole heart. 
He was a patriot to the core. His first, last and only 
ambition was to do what he could to promote the high 
ends to which the Republic was dedicated. Politics, as 
defined by Aristotle, is the "science of government." 
Washington was not a learned man, and probably knew 
very little of Aristotle, but his head was clear and his 
heart was pure, and he, too, felt that politics was the science 
of government, and that the result of the government 
should be the "greatest good to the greatest number" of 
his fellow citizens. 

From that high and sacred conviction Washington 
never once swerved, and when he quit his exalted office he 
did so with clean hands and unsmirched fame, leaving 
behind him a name which is probably the most illustrious 
in the annals of the race. 


Rapid and phenomenal has been the progress of Wash- 
ington's country! It seems like a dream rather than the 
soundest of historical facts. The Romans, after fighting 
''tooth and nail" for 300 years, found themselves with a 
territory no larger than that comprised within the limits 
of Greater New York. In 124 years the Americans are the 
owners of a territory in comparison with which the Roman 
Empire, when at the height of its glory, was but a small 
affair a territory wherein are operant the greatest indus- 
trial, economic, moral and political forces that this old 
planet ever witnessed. 


To make a subject interesting and beneficial to us we 
must have a personal interest in it. This is brought about 
in three ways : It touches our pride, if it be our country ; 
it excites our curosity as to what it really is, if it be history ; 
and we desire to know what part our ancestors took in it, 
if it be war. 

So, we see the period of the Revolutionary war possesses 
all three of these elements ; and was in reality the beginning 
of true American life "America for Americans." 

Prior to this time (during the Colonial period) America 
was under the dominion of the lords proprietors covering 
the years of 1663 to 1729 and royal governors from 1729 
to 1775 the appointees of the English sovereign, and 
whose rule was for self-aggrandizement. The very word 
"Revolutionary" proclaims oppression, for where there is 
justice shown by the ruler to the subjects there is no revolt, 
nor will there ever be. 

"We usually think of the battle of Lexington (April 19, 
1775,) as being the bugle note that culminated in the 
Declaration of Independence and reached its final grand 
chord at Yorktown, October 19, 1781 ; but on the 16th 


of May, 1771, some citizens of North Carolina, finding the 
extortions and exactions of the royal governor, Tryon, more 
than they could or would bear, took up arms in self-defense 
and fought on the Alamance Eiver what was in reality the 
first battle of the Revolution. 

The citizens ' loss was thirty-six men, while the governor 
lost almost sixty of his royal troops. This battle of the 
Alamance was the seed sown that budded in the Declaration 
of Mecklenburg in 1775, and came to full flower in the 
Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. 

There were stages in this flower of American liberty 
to which we will give a cursory glance. 

The determination of the colonies not to purchase 
British goods had a marked effect on England. Commercial 
depression followed, and public opinion soon demanded 
some concession to the Americans. 

All taxes were remitted or repealed except that upon 
tea ; when there followed the most exciting, if not the most 
enjoyable party in the world's history the "Boston Tea 
Party," which occurred on the evening of December 16, 

This was followed in March, 1774, by the Boston Port 
Bill, the first in the series of retaliation by England for 
the "Tea Party." 

At the instigation of Virginia a new convention of the 
colonies was called to meet September, 1774, to consider 
"the grievances of the people." This was the second 
Colonial and the first Continental congress to meet in 
America, and occurred September 5, 1774, at Philadelphia. 
All the colonies were represented, except Georgia, whose 
governor would not allow it. 

They then adjourned to meet May 10, 1775, after 
having passed a declaration of rights, framed an address 
to the king and people of England, and recommended the 
suspension of all commercial relations with the mother 


The British minister, William Pitt, wrote of that con- 
gress: "For solidity of reasoning, force of sagacity and 
wisdom of conclusion, no nation or body of men can stand 
in preference to the general congress of Philadelphia. ' ' 

Henceforth the Colonists were knoAvn as "Continen- 
tals," in contradistinction to the "Royalists" or "Tories," 
who were the adherents of the crown. 

No period of our history holds more for the student, 
young or old, than this of the Revolutionary war, or 
possesses greater charm when once taken up. 

No man or woman can be as good a citizen without some 
knowledge of this most interesting subject, nor enjoy so 
fully their grand country! 

Some one has pertinently said "history is innumerable 
biographies ; ' ' and what child or grown person is there who 
does not enjoy being told of some ' ' great person ? ' ' Every 
man, private, military or civil officer, who took part in the 
Revolutionary war was great! 

It is not generally known that the executive power of 
the state rested in those troublesome times in the county 
committees ; but it was they who executed all the orders of 
the Continental Congress. 

The provincial council was for the whoje state; the 
district committee for the safety of each district, and the 
county and town committees for each county and town. 

It was through the thought, loyalty and enduring 
bravery of the men who constituted these committees, that 
we of today have a constitution that gives us "life, liberty 
and the pursuit of happiness ' ' in whatever manner pleases 
us, so long as it does not trespass on another's well being. 

We do not give half the honor we should to our ancestry, 
who have done so much for us ! We zealously seek and pre- 
serve the pedigrees of our horses, cows and chickens, and 
really do not know whether we come from a mushroom or a 
monkey ! 

When we think of it, it is a much more honorable and 
greater thing to be a Son or Daughter of the American 


Revolution, than to be a prince or princess, for one comes 
through noble deeds done by thinking, justice-loving men, 
and the other through an accident of birth. Let us 
examine a little into a few of these "biographies" and see 
wherein their greatness lies, that they like righteous Abel, 
"though dead yet speak." 

The number seven stands for completeness and per- 
fection let us see if seven imaginary questions can be 
answered by their lives. 

James Edward Oglethorpe was born in 1696, and died 
in 1785 two years after the Revolutionary war. He 
planted the Colony of Georgia, in which the oppressed found 
refuge. He had served in the army of Prince Eugene of 
Savoy in the war with the Turks. He founded the city of 
Savannah, Georgia. He exported to England the first silk 
made in the colonies, of which the queen had a dress made. 
King George II gave him a seal representing a family of 
silk worms, with their motto: "Not for ourselves but for 
others." He forbade the importation of rum into the 
colony. He refused the command of the British forces 
sent in 1775 to reduce, or subdue the American Colonies. 
In this life told in seven questions, or rather answered, we 
find much a religious man, a soldier, an architect (of a 
city), one versed in commerce, a wise legislator and a man 
who had the respect of the king the head of England. 

The next in chronological order is Benjamin Franklin 
(for whom our little city is named), born in 1706, died in 
1790. He discovered the identity of lightning and elec- 
tricity, and invented the lightning rods. He was an early 
printer who edited and published "Poor Richard's 
Almanac." Of him it was said, "He snatched the light- 
ning from heaven and the sceptre from tyrants." 

He founded the first circulating library in America. 
His portrait is seen to-day on every one-cent postage 
stamp. He was America's ambassador to France during 
the Revolutionary war. 


He said after signing the Declaration of Independence, 
"We must all hang together or we shall all hang 
separately. ' ' 

In him, we find an inventor and discoverer, an editor 
and author, a benefactor, a politician and statesman, and 
one whose face we daily see on account of his greatness. 

George Washington was born 1732, and died 1799. He 
was the first president of the United States "The Father 
of His Country," the commander-in-chief of the American 
forces in the Revolutionary war. He was the hero of 
Valley Forge, and the one to receive the surrender of Corn- 
wallis at Yorktown. 

He was the president of the convention that framed the 
United States constitution. The one of whom it was said, 
"He was the first in war, the first in peace, and the first 
in the hearts of his countrymen. " It is his and his only 
birthday America celebrates as a national holiday. Of him 
Lord Byron said, "The first, the last, and the best, the 
Cincinnatus of the West." How much do seven short 
paragraphs tell! 

Patrick Henry was born in 1736, died 1799, the same 
year that Washington "passed away;" and like his, this 
life can speak for itself. He was the most famous orator 
of the Revolution. He said, "give me liberty or give me 
death!" He also said, "We must fight. An appeal to 
arms and to the god of battles is all that is left us. I 
repeat it, sir, we must fight." Another saying of his was, 
"Caesar had his Brutus, Charles I his Cromwell, and 
George III may profit by their example." Again, "The 
people, and only the people, have a right to tax the people. ' ' 
He won in the famous Parson's case, the epithet of "The 
Orator of Nature." He was the first governor of the 
Colony of Virginia after it became a state. 

John Hancock was born in 1737, and died 1793. He 
first signed the Declaration of Independence. He was a 
rich Boston merchant as well as a Revolutionary leader. 
He was chosen president of the Continental congress in 


1775. He and Samuel Adams were the two especially ex- 
cepted from pardon offered the "rebels" by the English. 

As president of congress he signed the commission of 
George "Washington as commander-in-chief of the army. 

When he signed the Declaration of Independence he 
said, "The British ministry can read that name without 
spectacles ; let them double their reward. ' ' He was elected 
the first governor of the state of Massachusetts in 1780. 

Anthony Wayne was born in 1745, and died in 1796. 
He was often called "Mad Anthony" on account of his 
intrepidity. He was the hero of Stony Point. He built a 
fort on the spot of St. Glair's defeat and named it Fort 
Recovery. He was made commander-in-chief of the Army 
of the Northwest in 1792. He gained a great victory over 
the Miami Indians in Ohio in 1794. He, as a Revolutionary 
general, banished whiskey from his camp calling it ' ' ardent 
poison" from whence came the expression "ardent 
spirits" when applied to stimulants. Major Andre com- 
posed a poem about him called the ' ' Cow Chase, ' ' showing 
how he captured supplies for the Americans. 

Alexander Hamilton was born in 1757, and died in 
1804. He was aide-de-camp to Washington in 1777 the 
most trying year of the entire Revolutionary war. He 
succeeded Washington as commander-in-chief of the United 
States army. He was the first secretary of the treasury 
of the United States. He founded the financial system of 
the United States. He was the Revolutionary statesman 
who said, "Reformers make opinions, and opinions make 
parties" a true aphorism to-day. He is known as the 
"prince of politicians, or America's greatest political 
genius." His brilliant career was cut short at the age of 
43 by Aaron Burr whose life is summed up in two sad, 
bitter lines : 

"His country's curse, his children's shame; 
Outcast of virtue, peace and fame." 


Although John Paul Jones was not a Revolutionary 
soldier on the land, yet he was "the Washington of the 

He was born in 1747 and died 1792. He was the first 
to hoist an American naval flag on board an American 
frigate. He fought the first naval engagement under the 
United States' national ensign or flag. 

He commanded the Bon Homme Richard in the great 
sea fight with the Serapis in the English Channel. 

He said, after the commander of the Serapis had been 
knighted, "if I should have the good fortune to meet him 
again, I will make a lord of him. ' ' He was presented with 
a sword by Louis XVI for his services against the English. 
He was appointed rear-admiral of the Russian fleet by 
Catherine II. 

These are but a few of the many men who did so 
valiantly their part during the Revolutionary period. 

State Vice-Regent, D. A. R. 

(A talk made to the public school teachers of Williamson 
County at the request of the superintendent of instruction in 
Franklin, Tennessee, January 13, 1906.) American Monthly 


At the battle of Alamance, N. C., fought May 16, 1771, 
was shed the first blood of the great struggle which was to 
result in the establishment of American independence. 

All honor to Lexington, where the ' ' embattled farmers ' ' 
fired shots that were "heard around the world," but let it 
not be forgotten that other farmers, almost four years be- 
fore the day of Lexington, opened the fight of which Lex- 
ington was only the continuation. 

The principles for which the North Carolina farmers 
fought at Alamance were identified with those for which 


Massachusetts farmers fought at Lexington. Of the Mas- 
sachusetts patriots nineteen were killed and wounded, 
while of the Carolina patriots over 200 lay killed or crip- 
pled upon the field and six, later on, died upon the scaffold, 
yet, while all the world has heard of Lexington, not one 
person in a thousand knows anything to speak of about 

William Tryon, the royal Governor of North Carolina, 
was so mean that they called him the "Wolf." In the 
name of his royal master and for the furtherance of his own 
greedy instincts Tryon oppressed the people of his province 
to the point where they were obliged to do one or two 
things resist him or become slaves. They resolved to 
resist and formed themselves into an organization known 
as "Regulators," a body of as pure patriots as ever shoul- 
dered a gun. 

Having protested time and again against the unlawful 
taxation under which they groaned, they finally quit groan- 
ing, raised the cry of freedom and rose in arms against 
Tryon and King George. 

To the number of 2,000 or 3,000 the Regulators, only 
partly armed and without organization, met the forces of 
the royal Governor at Alamance. 

"Lay down your guns or I will fire!" shouted the 
British commander. ' ' Fire and be damned ! ' ' shouted back 
the leader of the Regulators. At once the battle opened, 
and, of course, the Regulators were defeated and dispersed. 
But old Tryon received the lesson he had so long needed 
that, while Americans could be shot down on the battlefield, 
they could not be made tamely to submit to the high-handed 
oppression of King George and his creatures. 



On the afternoon of the day on which the Provincial 
Congress of Massachusetts adjourned, General Gage took 
the light infantry and grenadiers off duty and secretly 
prepared an expedition to destroy the colony's stores at 
Concord. The attempt had for several weeks been expec- 
ted, and signals were concerted to announce the first move- 
ment of troops for the country. Samuel Adams and Han- 
cock, who had not yet left Lexington for Philadelphia, 
received a timely message from Warren, and in conse- 
quence the Committee of Safety moved a part of the public 
stores and secreted the cannon. 

On Tuesday, the eighteenth of April, ten or more 
British sergeants in disguise dispersed themselves through 
Cambridge and farther west to intercept all communica- 
tion. In the following night the grenadiers and light 
infantry, not less than eight hundred in number, the flower 
of the army at Boston, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Smith, crossed in the boats of the transport ships from the 
foot of the Common at East Cambridge. 

Gage directed that no one else should leave the town, 
but Warren had, at ten o'clock, dispatched William Dawes 
through Roxbury and Paul Revere by way of Charlestown 
to Lexington. 

Revere stopped only to engage a friend to raise the con- 
certed signals, and two friends rowed him across the 
Charles River five minutes before the sentinels received 
the order to prevent it. All was still, as suited the hour. 
The Somerset, man-of-war, was winding with the young 
flood ; the waning moon just peered above a clear horizon, 
while from a couple of lanterns in the tower of the North 
Church the beacon streamed to the neighboring towns as 
fast as light could travel. 

A little beyond Charlestown Neck Revere was intercep- 
ted by two British officers on horseback, but being well 
mounted he turned suddenly and escaped by the road to 


Medford. In that town he waked the captain and Minute 
Men, and continued to rouse almost every house on the 
way to Lexington, making the memorable ride of Paul 
Revere. The troops had not advanced far when the firing 
of guns and ringing of bells announced that their expedi- 
tion had been heralded, and Smith sent back for a rein- 

Early on the nineteenth of April the message from 
Warren reached Adams and Hancock, who at once divined 
the object of the expedition. Revere, therefore, and Dawes, 
joined by Samuel Fresco tt, "a high Son of Liberty" from 
Concord, rode forward, calling up the inhabitants as they 
passed along, till in Lincoln they fell upon a party of 
British officers. Revere and Dawes were seized and taken 
back to Lexington, where they were released, but Prescott 
leaped over a low stone wall and galloped on for Concord. 

There, at about two hours after midnight, a peal from 
the bell of the meeting house brought together the inhabi- 
tants of the place, young and old, with their firelocks, ready 
to make good the resolute words of their town debates. 
Among the most alert was William Emerson, the minister, 
with gun in hand, his powder horn and pouch of balls slung 
over his shoulder. By his sermons and his prayers his 
flock learned to hold the defense of their liberties a part 
of their covenant with God. His presence with arms 
strengthened their sense of duty. 

From daybreak to sunrise, the summons ran from house 
to house through Acton. Express messengers and the call 
of Minute Men spread widely the alarm. How children 
trembled as they were scared out of sleep by the cries! 
How women, with heaving breasts, bravely seconded their 
husbands ! How the countrymen, forced suddenly to arm, 
without guides or counsellors, took instant counsel of their 
courage ! The mighty chorus of voices rose from the scat- 
tered farmhouses, and, as it were, from the ashes of the 
dead. "Come forth, champions of liberty; now free your 
country ; protect your sons and daughters, your wives and 


homesteads; rescue the houses of the God of your fathers, 
the franchises handed down from your ancestors." Now 
all is at stake ; the battle is for all. 

Lexington, in 1775, may have had seven hundred 
inhabitants. Their minister was the learned and fervent 
Jonas Clark, the bold inditer of patriotic state papers, that 
may yet be read on their town records. In December, 1772, 
they had instructed their representative to demand "a 
radical and lasting redress of their grievances, for not 
through their neglect should the people be enslaved." A 
year later they spurned the use of tea. In 1774, at various 
town meetings, they voted "to increase their stock of 
ammunition," "to encourage military discipline, and to 
put themselves in a posture of defense against their 
enemies." In December they distributed to "the train 
band and alarm list" arms and ammunition and resolved 
to "supply the training soldiers with bayonets." 

At two in the morning, under the eye of the minister, 
and of Hancock and Adams, Lexington Common was alive 
with the Minute Men. The roll was called and, of militia 
and alarm men, about one hundred and thirty answered to 
their names. The captain, John Parker, ordered everyone 
to load with powder and ball, but to take care not to be 
the first to fire. Messengers sent to look for the British 
regulars reported that there were no signs of their 
approach. A watch was therefore set, and the company 
dismissed with orders to come together at beat of drum. 

The last stars were vanishing from night when the 
foremost party, led by Pitcairn, a major of marines, was 
discovered advancing quickly and in silence. Alarm guns 
were fired and the drums beat, not a call to village husband- 
men only, but the reveille of humanity. Less than seventy, 
perhaps less than sixty, obeyed the summons, and, in sight 
of half as many boys and unarmed men, were paraded in 
two ranks a few rods north of the meeting house. 

The British van, hearing the drum and the alarm guns, 
halted to load; the remaining companies came up, and, at 


half an hour before sunrise, the advance party hurried 
forward at double quick time, almost upon a run, closely 
followed by the grenadiers. Pitcairn rode in front and 
when within five or six rods of the Minute Men, cried out : 
"Disperse, ye villains! Ye rebels, disperse! Lay down 
your arms! Why don't you lay down your arms and 
disperse?" The main part of the countrymen stood 
motionless in the ranks, witnesses against aggression, too 
few to resist, too brave to fly. At this Pitcairn discharged 
a pistol, and with a loud voice cried "Fire!" The order 
was followed first by a few guns, which did no execution, 
and then by a close and deadly discharge of musketry. 

Jonas Parker, the strongest and best wrestler in Lexing- 
ton, had promised never to run from British troops, and 
he kept his vow. A wound brought him on his knees. 
Having discharged his gun he was preparing to load it 
again when he was stabbed by a bayonet and lay on the 
post which he took at the morning's drum beat. So fell 
Isaac Muzzey, and so died the aged Robert Munroe, who 
in 1758 had been an ensign at Louisburg. Jonathan 
Harrington, Jr., was struck in front of his own house on the 
north of the common. His wife was at the window as he 
fell. With blood gushing from his breast, he rose in her 
sight, tottered, fell again, then crawled on hands and knees 
toward his dwelling ; she ran to meet him, but only reached 
him as he expired on their threshold. Caleb Harrington, 
who had gone into the meeting house for powder, was shot 
as he came out. Samuel Hadley arid John Brown were 
pursued and killed after they had left the green. Asabel 
Porter, of Woburn, who had been taken prisoner by the 
British on the march, endeavoring to escape, was shot 
within a few rods of the common. Seven men of Lexington 
were killed, nine wounded, a quarter part of all who stood 
in arms on the green. 

There on the green lay in death the gray-haired and 
the young; the grassy field was red "with the innocent 


blood of their brethren slain," crying unto God for 
vengeance from the ground. 

These are the village heroes who were more than of 
noble blood, proving by their spirit that they were of a 
race divine. They gave their lives in testimony to the 
rights of mankind, bequeathing to their country an assur- 
ance of success in the mighty struggle which they began. 
The expanding millions of their countrymen renew and 
multiply their praise from generation to generation. They 
fulfilled their duty not from an accidental impulse of the 
moment; their action was the ripened fruit of Providence 
and of time. 

Heedless of his own danger, Samuel Adams, with the 
voice of a prophet, exclaimed : ' ' Oh, what a glorious morn- 
ing is this ! ' ' for he saw his country 's independence hasten- 
ing on, and, like Columbus in the tempest, knew that the 
storm bore him more swiftly toward the undiscovered land. 

The British troops drew up on the village green, fired a 
volley, huzzaed thrice by way of triumph, and after a halt 
of less than thirty minutes, marched on for Concord. 
There, in the morning hours, children and women fled for 
shelter to the hills and the woods and men were hiding what 
was left of cannon and military stores. 

The Minute Men and militia formed on the usual 
parade, over which the congregation of the town for near 
a century and a half had passed to public worship, the free- 
men to every town meeting, and lately the patriot members 
of the Provincial Congress twice a day to their little senate 
house. Near that spot Winthrop, the father of Massachu- 
setts, had given counsel; and Eliot, the apostle of the 
Indians, had spoken words of benignity and wisdom. The 
people of Concord, of whom about two hundred appeared 
in arms on that day, derived their energy from their sense 
of the divine power. 

The alarm company of the place Allied near the Liberty 
Pole on the hill, to the right of the lexington road, in the 
front of the meeting house. They went to the perilous 


duties of the day "with seriousness and acknowledgment 
of God," as though they were to engage in acts of worship. 
The minute company of Lincoln, and a few men from 
Acton, pressed in at an early hour ; but the British, as they 
approached, were seen to be four times as numerous as the 
Americans. The latter, therefore, retreated, first to an 
eminence eighty rods farther north, then across Concord 
River, by the North Bridge, till just beyond it, by a back 
road, they gained high ground about a mile from the 
center of the town. There they waited for aid. 

About seven o'clock, under brilliant sunshine, the 
British marched with rapid step into Concord, the light 
infantry along the hills and the grenadiers in the lower 

At daybreak the Minute Men of Acton crowded at the 
drum-beat to the house of Isaac Davis, their captain, who 
"made haste to be ready." Just thirty years old, the 
father of four little ones, stately in person, a man of few 
words, earnest even to solemnity, he parted from his wife, 
saying: "Take good care of the children," and while she 
gazed after him with resignation he led off his company. 

Between nine and ten the number of Americans on the 
rising ground above Concord Bridge had increased to more 
than four hundred. Of these, there were twenty-five men 
from Bedford, with Jonathan Wilson for their captain; 
others were from Westford, among them Thaxter, a 
preacher; others from Littleton, from Carlisle, and from 
Chelmsford. The Acton company came last and formed 
on the right; the whole was a gathering not so much of 
officers and soldiers as of brothers and equals, of whom 
every one was a man well known in his village, observed 
in the meeting houses on Sundays, familiar at town meet- 
ings and respected as a freeholder or a freeholder's son. 

Near the base of the hill Concord River flows languidly 
in a winding channel and was approached by a causeway 
over the wet ground of its left bank. The by-road from 
the hill on which the Americans had rallied ran southerly 


till it met the causeway at right angles. The Americans 
saw before them, within gunshot, British troops holding 
possession of their bridge, and in the distance a still larger 
number occupying their town, which, from the rising 
smoke, seemed to have been set on fire. 

The Americans had as yet received only uncertain 
rumors of the morning's events at Lexington. At the sight 
of fire in the village the impulse seized them ' ' to march into 
the town for its defense." But were they not subjects of 
the British king? Had not the troops come out in 
obedience to acknowledged authorities? Was resistance 
practicable? Was it justifiable? By whom could it be 
authorized? No union had been formed, no independence 
proclaimed, no war declared. The husbandmen and 
mechanics who then stood on the hillock by Concord River 
were called on to act and their action would be war or 
peace, submission or independence. Had they doubted, 
they must have despaired. Prudent statesmanship would 
have asked for time to ponder. Wise philosophy would 
have lost from hesitation the glory of opening a new era 
for mankind. The small bands at Concord acted and God 
was with them. 

"I never heard from any person the least expression 
of a wish for a separation, ' ' Franklin, not long before, had 
said to Chatham. In October, 1774, Washington wrote: 
"No such thing as independence is desired by any thinking 
man in America." " Before the nineteenth of April, 
1775," relates Jefferson, "I never heard a whisper of a 
disposition to separate from Great Britain." Just thirty- 
seven days had passed since John Adams published in 
Boston, "That there are any who pant after independence 
is the greatest slander on the province. ' ' 

The American Revolution grew out of the souls of the 
people and was an inevitable result of a living affection 
for freedom, which set in motion harmonious effort as 
certainly as the beating of the heart sends warmth and 
color through the system. 


The officers, meeting in front of their men, spoke a few 
words with one another and went back to their places. 
Barrett, the colonel, on horseback in the rear, then gave 
the order to advance, but not to fire unless attacked. The 
calm features of Isaac Davis, of Acton, became changed; 
the town schoolmaster of Concord, who was present, could 
never afterwards find words strong enough to express how 
deeply his face reddened at the word of command. "I 
have not a man that is afraid to go," said Davis, looking 
at the men of Acton, and, drawing his sword, he cried: 
"March!" His company, being on the right, led the way 
toward the bridge, he himself at their head, and by his 
side Major John Buttrick, of Concord, with John Robinson, 
of Westford, lieutenant-colonel in Prescott's regiment, but 
on this day a volunteer without command. 

These three men walked together in front, followed by 
Minute Men and militia in double file, training arms. 
They went down the hillock, entered the by-road, came to 
its angle with the main road and there turned into the 
causeway that led straight to the bridge. The British be- 
gan to take up the planks; to prevent it the Americans 
quickened their step. At this the British fired one or two 
shots up the river; then another, by which Luther Blan- 
chard and Jonas Brown were wounded. A volley followed, 
and Isaac Davis and Abner Hosmer fell dead. Three 
hours before, Davis had bid his wife farewell. That after- 
noon he was carried home and laid in her bedroom. His 
countenance was pleasant in death. The bodies of two 
others of his company, who were slain that day, were 
brought to her house, and the three were followed to the 
village graveyard by a concourse of neighbors from miles 
around. Heaven gave her length of days in the land 
which his self-devotion assisted to redeem. She lived to 
see her country reach the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific; 
Avhen it was grown great in numbers, wealth and power, the 
United States in Congress bethought themselves to pay 


honors to her husband 's martyrdom and comfort her under 
the double burden of sorrow and of more than ninety years. 

As the British fired, Emerson, who was looking on 
from an upper window in his house near the bridge, was 
for one moment uneasy lest the fire should not be returned. 
It was only for a moment ; Buttrick, leaping in the air and 
at the same time partially turning around, cried aloud: 
"Fire, fellow soldiers! for God's sake, fire!" and the cry 
"fire! fire! fire!" ran from lip to lip. Two of the British 
fell, several were wounded, and in two minutes all was 
hushed. The British retreated in disorder toward their 
main body; the countrymen were left in possession of the 
bridge. This is the world renowned "Battle of Concord," 
more eventful than Agincourt or Blenheim. 

The Americans stood astonished at what they had done. 
They made no pursuit and did no further harm, except that 
one wounded soldier, attempting to arise if to escape, was 
struck on the head by a young man with a hatchet. The 
party at Barrett's might have been cut off, but was not 
molested. As the Sudbury company, commanded by the 
brave Nixon, passed near the South Bridge, Josiah Haynes, 
then eighty years of age, deacon of the Sudbury Church, 
urged an attack on the British party stationed there; his 
advice was rejected by his fellow soldiers as premature, 
but the company in which he served proved among the 
most alert during the rest of the day. 

In the town of Concord, Smith, for half an hour, 
showed by marches and counter-marches his uncertainty 
of purpose. At last, about noon, he left the town, to retreat 
the way he came, along the hilly road that wound through 
forests and thickets. The Minute Men and militia who had 
taken part in the fight ran over the hills opposite the 
battle field into the east quarter of the town, crossed the 
pasture known as the "Great Fields," and placed them- 
selves in ambush a little to the eastward of the village, near 
the junction of the Bedford road. There they were re- 


inforced by men from all around and at that point the 
chase of the English began. 

Among the foremost were the Minute Men of Reading, 
led by John Brooks and accompanied by Foster, the 
minister of Littleton, as a volunteer. The company of 
Billerica, whose inhabitants, in their just indignation at 
Nesbit and his soldiers, had openly resolved to "use a 
different style from that of petition and complaint" came 
down from the north, while the East Sudbury company 
appeared on the south. A little below the Bedford road 
at Merriam's corner the British faced about, but after a 
sharp encounter, in which several of them were killed, they 
resumed their retreat. 

At the high land in Lincoln the old road bent toward 
the north, just where great trees on the west and thickets 
on the east offered cover to the pursuers. The men from 
Wodburn came up in great numbers and well armed. 
Along these defiles fell eight of the British. Here Pitcairn 
for safety was forced to quit his horse, which was taken 
with his pistols in their holsters. A little farther on Jona- 
than Wilson, captain of the Bedford Minute Men, too 
zealous to keep on his guard, was killed by a flanking 
party. At another defile in Lincoln, the Minute Men at 
Lexington, commanded by John Parker, renewed the fight. 
Every piece of wood, every rock by the wayside, served as 
a lurking place. Scarce ten of the Americans were at any 
time seen together, yet the hills seemed to the British to 
swarm with "rebels," as if they had dropped from the 
clouds, and "the road was lined" by an unintermitted fire 
from behind stone walls and trees. 

At first the invaders moved in order ; as they drew near 
Lexington, their flanking parties became ineffective from 
weariness; the wounded were scarce able to get forward. 
In the west of Lexington, as the British were rising Fiske 's 
hill, a sharp contest ensued. It was at the eastern foot of 
the same hill that James Hayward, of Acton, encountered 
a regular, and both at the same moment fired ; the regular 


dropped dead; Hay ward was mortally wounded. A little 
farther on fell the octogenarian, Josiah Haynes, who had 
kept pace with the swiftest in the pursuit. 

The British troops, "greatly exhausted and fatigued 
and having expended almost all of their ammunition," 
began to run rather than retreat in order. The officers 
vainly attempted to stop their flight. "They were driven 
before the Americans like sheep." At last, about two in 
the afternoon, after they had hurried through the middle 
of the town, about a mile below the field of the morning's 
bloodshed, the officers made their way to the front and by 
menaces of death began to form them under a very heavy 

At that moment Lord Percy came in sight with the first 
brigade, consisting of Welsh Fusileers, the Fourth, the 
Forty-seventh and the Thirty-eighth Regiments, in all 
about twelve hundred men, with two field pieces. Insolent, 
as usual, they marched out of Boston to the tune of 
Yankee Doodle, but they grew alarmed at finding every 
house on the road deserted. 

While the cannon kept the Americans at bay, Percy 
formed his detachment into a square, enclosing the fugi- 
tives, who lay down for rest on the ground, "their tongues 
hanging out of their mouths like those of dogs after a 
chase. ' ' 

After the juncture of the fugitives with Percy, the 
troops under his command amounted to fully two-thirds 
of the British Army in Boston, and yet they must fly before 
the Americans speedily and fleetly, or be overwhelmed. 
Two wagons, sent out to them with supplies, were waylaid 
and captured by Payson, the minister of Chelsea. From 
far and wide Minute Men were gathering. The men of 
Dedham, even the old men, received their minister's 
blessing and went forth, in such numbers that scarce one 
male between sixteen and seventy was left at home. That 
morning William Prescott mustered his regiment, and 
though Pepperell was so remote that he could not be in 


season for the pursuit, he hastened down with five com- 
panies of guards. Before noon a messenger rode at full 
speed into Worcester, crying: "To arms!" A fresh horse 
was brought and the tidings went on, while the Minute 
Men of that town, after joining hurriedly on the common 
in a fervent prayer from their minister, kept on the march 
till they reached Cambridge. 

Aware of his perilous position, Percy, resting but half 
an hour, renewed his retreat. 

Beyond Lexington the troops were attacked by men 
chiefly from Essex and the lower towns. The fire from the 
rebels slackened till they approached West Cambridge, 
where Joseph Warren and William Heath, both of the 
committee of safety, the latter a provincial general officer, 
gave for a moment some appearance of organization to the 
pursuit, and the fight grew sharper and more determined. 
Here the company from Danvers, which made a breastwork 
of a pile of shingles, lost eight men, caught between the 
enemy's flank guard and main body. Here, too, a musket 
ball grazed the hair of Joseph Warren, whose heart beat 
to arms, so that he was ever in the place of greatest danger. 
The British became more and more "exasperated" and 
indulged themselves in savage cruelty. In one house they 
found two aged, helpless, unarmed men and butchered 
them both without mercy, stabbing them, breaking their 
skulls and dashing out their brains. Hannah Adams, wife 
of Deacon Joseph Adams, of Cambridge, lay in child-bed 
with a babe of a week old, but was forced to crawl with her 
infant in her arms and almost naked to a corn shed, while 
the soldiers set her house on fire. Of the Americans there 
were never more than four hundred together at any time ; 
but, as some grew tired or used up their ammunition, others 
took their places, and though there was not much concert 
or discipline and no attack with masses, the pursuit never 

Below West Cambridge the militia from Dorchester, 
Roxbury and Brookline came up. Of these, Isaac Gardner, 


of the latter place, one on whom the colony rested many 
hopes, fell about a mile west of Harvard College. The 
field pieces began to lose their terror, so that the Ameri- 
cans pressed upon the rear of the fugitives, whose retreat 
was as rapid as it possibly could be. A little after sunset 
the survivors escaped across Charlestown Neck. 

The troops of Percy had marched thirty miles in ten 
hours ; the party of Smith in six hours had retreated twenty 
miles ; the guns of the ship-of-war and the menace to burn 
the town of Charlestown saved them from annoyance dur- 
ing the rest on Bunker Hill and while they were ferried 
across Charles River. 

On that day forty-nine Americans were killed, thirty- 
four wounded and five missing. The loss of the British in 
killed, wounded and missing was two hundred and seventy- 
three. Among the wounded were many officers ; Smith was 
hurt severely. Many more were disabled by fatigue. 

"The night preceding the outrages at Lexington there 
were not fifty people in the whole colony that ever expected 
any blood would be shed in the contest"; the night after, 
the king's governor and the king's army found themselves 
closely beleaguered in Boston. 

''The next news from England must be conciliatory, 
or the connection between us ends," said Warren. "This 
month," so wrote William Emerson, of Concord, late 
chaplain to the Provincial Congress, chronicled in a blank 
leaf of his almanac, "is remarkable for the greatest events 
of the present age." "From the nineteenth of April, 
1775," said Clark, of Lexington, on its first anniversary, 
"will be dated the liberty of the American world." 

NOTE. The principal part of this account of the Battle of 
Lexington is taken from Banecroft's history. American Monthly 



(Poem that embraces the names of the famous Americans.) 

It will not be denied that the men who, on July 4, 1776, 
pledged "their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor" 
in behalf of our national liberty deserve the most profound 
reverence from every American citizen. By arranging in 
rhyme the names of the signers according to the colonies 
from which they were delegated it will assist the youthful 
learner in remembering the names of those fathers of 
American Independence. 


The Massachusetts delegation 

That signed our glorious Declaration 

Where Hancock, Gerry, Robert Paine, 

The great John Adams, and again 

Another Adams, Samuel by name. 


New Hampshire, called the "Granite State," 
Sent Whipple, Bartlett, Thornton great, 
Alike in counsel and debate. 


Rhode Island's delegates, we see, 
Were Stephen Hopkins and Ellery. 


Connecticut, excelled by none, 

With Wolcott, Williams and Huntington. 


New York as delegates employed 
Lewis Morris and William Floyd, 
With Francis Lewis and Livingston, 
Who died before the war was done. 


New Jersey to the congress sent 

Her honored college president, 

John Witherspoon, with Stockton, Clark, 

Hart, Hopkinson all men of mark. 



Though Pennsylvania need not blush 
For Morris, Morton, Wilson, Rush, 
And though most men might seem as dross 
To Cylmer, Taylor, Smith and Ross, 
To Franklin each his tribute brings 
Who neither lightning feared, nor kings. 


The men from Delaware indeed 
As true as steel in utmost need 
Were Rodney, with MeKean and Read. 


"My Maryland" is proud to own 
Her Carroll, Paca, Chase and Stone. 


On old Virginia's roll we see 
The gifted Richard Henry Lee, 
And, just as earnest to be free. 
His brother, Francis Lightfoot Lee, 
And Wythe and Nelson, patriots true, 
With Harrison and Braxton, too; 
But of them all, there was not one 
As great as Thomas Jefferson. 


North Carolina's chosen men 
We know were Hooper, Hewes and Penn. 


And South Carolina's vote was one 
By Hey ward, Lynch and Middleton. 


From Georgia came Gwinnett and Hall 
And Walton, too, the last of all 
Who signed our precious Declaration 
The pride and glory of the nation. 




I have chosen to look up particulars concerning the 
daily life of the soldier at Valley Forge in the awful winter 
of 1777-8. And as no historian can picture the life of any 
period so vividly as it may be described by those who were 
participants in that life, or eye witnesses of it, I have 
gathered the materials for this paper from diaries of those 
who were there, from accounts by men whose friends were 
in the camp, from letters sent to and from the camp, and 
from the orderly book of a general who kept a strict report 
of the daily orders issued by the Commander-in-chief, from 
the fall campaign of 1777, to the late spring of 1778. 

It is unnecessary to reiterate what all of us know, that 
the winter of '77-8 was the blackest time of the war of 
Independence, and it was made so, not only by the machi- 
nations of the enemies of Washington who were striving to 
displace him as Commander-in-Chief, but by the unparal- 
leled severity of the winter and the dearth of the com- 
monest necessaries of life. The sombreness of the picture 
is emphasized by contrast with the brightness and gaiety 
that characterized the life in Philadelphia during that 
same winter when the British troops occupied the city. 
There a succession of brilliant festivities was going on, the 
gaieties culminating in the meschianza that most gorgeous 
spectacle ever given by an army to its retiring officer, when 
Peggy Shippen and Sallie Chew danced the night away 
with the scarlet-coated officers of the British army, while 
fathers and brothers were suffering on the hills above the 

Why did Washington elect to put his army in winter- 
quarters? He himself answers the question, which was 
asked by congress who objected to the army's going into 
winter quarters at all. The campaign, which had seen the 
battles of the Brandywine and of Germantown, was over; 
the British were in possession of Philadelphia; the army 


was fatigued and there was little chance of recuperation 
from sources already heavily drained. Hence a winter's 
rest was necessary. And Washington's own words, as he 
issued the orders for the day on December 23d, tell us why 
Valley Forge was chosen. 

"The General wishes it was in his power to conduct the troops 
into the best winter quarters; but where are those to be found? 
Should we retire into the interior portions of the country, we 
should find them crowded with virtuous citizens who, sacrificing 
their all, have left Philadelphia, and fled hither for protection. 
To their distress, humanity forbids us to add. This is not all. 
We should leave a vast extent of fertile country to be despoiled 
and ravaged by the enemy. These and other considerations 
make it necessary to take such a position (as this), and influenced 
by these considerations he persuades himself that officers and 
soldiers, with one heart and one mind, will resolve to surmount 
every difficulty with the fortitude and patience becoming their 
profession and the Sacred Cause in which they are engaged. He 
himself, will share in the hardships, and partake of every incon- 

And with this resolve on his part, kept faithfully 
through the long weeks, the bitter winter was begun. 

It was on December 12th that a bridge of wagons was 
made across the Schuylkill and the army, already sick and 
broken down, moved over. On that day, Dr. Waldo, a 
surgeon from Connecticut made this entry in his diary: 

"Sunset. We are ordered to march over the river. I'm sick 
eat nothing no whiskey no baggage. Lord-Lord-Lord." 

A few days later he makes this entry : 

"The army, who have been surprisingly healthy hitherto, now 
begin to grow sickly. They still show alacrity and contentment 
not to be expected from so young troops. 

"I am sick, discontented, out of humor. Poor food, hard 
lodging cold weather fatigue nasty clothes nasty cooking 
smoked out of my senses, vomit half my time the Devil's in it. 
I can't endure it. 


"Here comes a bowl of soup full of burnt leaves and dirt.' 
Away with it, boys. I'll live like the chameleon upon air. 'Pooh^ 
pooh,' says Patience. You talk like a fool. See the poor soldier 
with what cheerfulness he meets his foes and encounters hardships. 
If bare of foot he labors through mud and cold, with a song 
extolling war and Washington. If his food is bad he eats it with 
contentment and whistles it into digestion. There comes a 
soldier his bare feet are seen through his worn out shoes. His 
legs are nearly naked from his tattered remains of an old pair of 
stockings his shirt hanging in strings, his hair dishevelled 
his face meagre his whole appearance pictures a person for- 
saken and discouraged. He comes and cries with despair I am 
sick. My feet are lame my legs are sore my body covered with 
tormenting itch my clothes worn out my constitution broken. 
I fail fast. I shall soon be no more. And all the reward I shall 
get will be 'Poor Will is dead." 

On the 21st of December this entry appears : 

"A general cry through the camp this evening: 'no meat no 
meat.' The distant vales echo back 'no meat.' 'What have you 
for dinner, Boys?' 'Nothing but fire cake and water, sir! At 
night. 'Gentlemen, supper is ready.' 'What is your supper, 
ladsf 'Fire-cake and water Sir.' " 

Again on December 22d : 

"Lay excessive cold and uncomfortable last night. My eyes 
started out of their orbits like a rabbit's eyes, occasioned by a 
great cold and smoke. Huts go slowly. Cold and smoke make 
us fret. I don't know anything that vexes a man's soul more 
than hot smoke continually blowing into one's eyes, and when 
he attempts to avoid it, he is met by a cold and freezing wind." 

On December 25th, Xmas, this entry : 

"Still in tents. The sick suffer much in tents. We give them 
mutton and grog and capital medicine it is once in a while." 

January 1st: 

"I am alive. I am well. Huts go on briskly." 

I have quoted thus lengthily from this diary, which 
gives, perhaps, the most vivid picture we possess of that 


dark period, simply because it touches upon almost all that 
concerns the life of the soldiers that winter, upon their 
dwellings, their food, their health, their courage. 

The Doctor repeatedly speaks of the huts which were 
to shelter the men. In the order issued by Washington 
to his generals early in December, directions were given 
concerning the construction of these dwellings. According 
to these directions, the major-generals, accompanied by 
the engineers, were to fix on the proper spot for hutting. 
The sunside of the hills was chosen, and here they construc- 
ted long rows of log huts, and made numerous stockades 
and bristling pikes for defence along the line of the trench. 
For these purposes and for their fuel they cut off an 
entire forest of timber. Can't you hear the steady crash of 
the ax held by hands benumbed with the cold, as blow, by 
blow, they felled the trees on the hillside, eager to erect the 
crude huts which were to give better shelter than the tents 
in which they were yet shivering and choking ? In cutting 
their fire wood, the soldiers were directed to save such parts 
of each tree as would do for building, reserving 16 or 18 
feet of trunk for logs to rear their huts. "The quarter- 
master-general, (so says the order of December 20th) is to 
delay no time, but procure large quantities of straw, either 
for covering the huts or for beds." This last item would 
suggest the meagreness of the furnishing. Throughout the 
entire winter the soldier could look for few of the barest 
necessities of life. An order from headquarters directed 
that each hut should be provided with a pail. Dishes were 
a rarity. Each soldier carried his knife in his pocket, while 
one horn spoon, a pewter dish, and a horn tumbler into 
which whiskey rarely entered, did duty for a whole mess. 
The eagerness to possess a single dish is illustrated by an 
anecdote which has come down in my own family, if I may 
presume to narrate it. My Revolutionary ancestor was a 
manufacturer of pottery. In the leisure hours of this 
bitter time at Valley Forge, he built a kiln and burnt some 
pottery. Just as it was time to open the ovens, a band of 


soldiers rushed upon them, tearing them down, and trium- 
phantly marched off with their prize, leaving Captain 
Piercy as destitute of dishes as before. 

As for the food that was meant to sustain the defenders 
of our liberty, the diary I have quoted, together with Wash- 
ington 's daily orders, gives us sufficient information to 
enable us to judge of its meagreness. Often their food 
was salted herring so decayed that it had to be dug 'en 
masse' from the barrels. Du Poncean, a young officer, aid 
to Baron Steuben, related to a friend, a few years after the 
war, some facts of stirring interest. "They bore," he says, 
"with fortitude and patience. Sometimes, you might see the 
soldiers pop their heads out from their huts and call in an 
undertone 'no bread, no soldier;' but a single word from 
their officer would still their complaint." Baron Steuben 's 
cook left him at Valley Forge, saying that when there was 
nothing to cook, any one might turn the spit. 

The commander-in-chief, partaking of the hardships of 
his brave men, was accustomed to sit down with his invited 
officers to a scanty piece of meat, with some hard bread and 
a few potatoes. At his house, called Moore Hall, they 
drank the prosperity of the nation in humble toddy, and 
the luxurious dessert consisted of a dish of hazel nuts. 

Even in those scenes, Mrs. Washington, as was her 
practice in the winter campaign, had joined her husband, 
and always at the head of the table maintained a mild and 
dignified, yet cheerful manner. She busied herself all 
day long, with errands of grace, and when she passed along 
the lines, she would hear the fervent cry, ' ' God bless Lady 

I need not go into details concerning the lack of 
clothing the diary I have quoted is sufficiently suggestive. 
An officer said, some years after the war, that many were 
without shoes, and while acting as sentinels, had doffed 
their hats to stand in, to save their feet from freezing. 
Deserters to the British army for even among the loyal 
American troops there were some to be found who could 


not stand up against cold and hunger and disease and the 
inducement held out by the enemy to deserters would 
enter Philadelphia shoeless and almost nakedi around 
their body an old, dirty blanket, fastened by a leather belt 
around the waist. 

One does not wonder that disease was rampant, that 
orders had to be issued from headquarters for the proper 
treatment of the itch; for inoculation against smallpox, 
for the care of those suffering from dysentery which was 
widespread in the camp. On January 8, an order was 
issued from the commander-in-chief to the effect that men 
rendered unfit for duty by the itch be looked after by the 
surgeon and properly disposed in huts where they could 
be annointed for the disease. Hospital provisions were 
made for the sick. Huts, 15 by 25 and 9 feet high, with 
windows in each end, were built, two for each brigade. 
They were placed at or near the center, and not more than 
100 yards from the bridge. But such were the ravages of 
the disease that long trenches in the vale below the hill 
were dug, and filled in with the dead. 

To turn to the activities of the camp, its duties, privi- 
leges, and amusements, and even its crimes. Until some- 
what late in the spring, when Baron Steuben arrived at 
Valley Forge, there was little system observed in the drill- 
ing of the several brigades. Yet each day's military duty 
was religiously attended to, that there might, at least, be 
some preparation for defence in case of an attack from the 
superior force at Philadelphia. The duties of both rank 
and file were strictly laid down by Washington, and any 
dereliction was punished with military strictness. 

In the commands issued on February 8, the order of 
the day is plainly indicated. I give the words from 
Orderly book : 

"Reveille sounded at daybreak troop at 8 retreat at sunset 
tattoo at 9. Drummers call to beat at the right of first line 
and answer through that line. Then through the second and 
corp of artillery, beginning at the left. Reserve shall follow 


the second line immediately upon this. Three rolls, to begin, 
and run through in like manner as the call. Then all the drums 
of the army at the heads of their respective corps shall go 
through the regular beats, ceasing upon the right which will be 
a sign for the whole to cease." 

Don't you imagine that you hear the rise and fall of 
the notes as they echoed and re-echoed over the frozen hills 
and thrilled the hearts that beat beneath the rags in the 
cold winter morning ? 

The daily drill on parade, the picket duty, the domestic 
duties incumbent upon the men in the absence of the 
women, the leisure hours, then taps, and the day 's tale was 

I should like to tell you of the markets established, for 
two days each, at three separate points on the outskirts of 
the camp, where for prices fixed by a schedule to prevent 
extortion, the soldiers, fortunate enough to possess some 
money might add to their meagre supplies some comforts 
in food or clothing. I should like to tell of the sutlers that 
followed each brigade, and the strict rules that governed 
their dealings with the army, of the funerals, the simple 
ceremonies of which were fixed by orders from head- 
quarters; of the gaming among the soldiers, which vice 
Washington so thoroughly abhorred that he forbade, under 
strictest penalties, indulgence in even harmless games of 
cards and dice. I should like to tell of the thanksgiving 
days appointed by congress for some signal victory of the 
northern army, or for the blessing of the French alliance, 
on which days the camp was exempt from ordinary duty 
and after divine service the day was given over to the men 
Or I should like to tell of Friday the "Flag day" when 
a flag of truce was carried into Philadelphia and letters 
were sent to loved ones, and answers brought back con- 
taining disheartening news of the gaieties then going on, 
or encouraging accounts of the sacrifices of mothers and 
daughters in the cause of liberty. And finally I should 
like to tell you of the court martials, through the reports 


of which we get such a vivid picture of the intimate life 
of the time: of the trial by court martial of Anthony 
Wayne, who was acquitted of the charge of conduct un- 
becoming an officer; of the trial of a common soldier for 
stealing a blanket from a fellow soldier, and the punish- 
ment by 100 lashes on his bare back ; of the trial of a Mary 
Johnson who plotted to desert the camp and who, between 
the lined up ranks of the brigade, was drummed out of 
camp; of the trial of John Riley for desertion, and his 
execution on parade ground, with the full brigade in 
attendance ; of the dramatic punishment of an officer found 
guilty of robbery and absenting himself, with a private, 
without leave, and who was sentenced to have his sword 
broken over his head on grand parade at guard mount. I 
should like to tell, too, of the foraging parties sent out to 
scour the country for food and straw; and the frequent 
skirmishes with detachments of the enemy ; of the depreda- 
tions made by the soldiers on the surrounding farmers, 
which depredations were so deplored by Washington and 
which tried so his great soul I wanted to speak of the great- 
ness of the Commander-in-Chief in the face of all he had to 
contend with the continued depredations of his men; the 
repeated abuse of privilege; the frequent disobedience of 
orders; the unavoidably filthy condition of the camp; the 
suffering of the soldiers ; the peril from a powerful enemy, 
all sufficient to make a soul of less generous mould 
succumb to fate, yet serving only in Washington's case 
to make him put firmer trust in an Almighty Power and in 
the justice of his cause. 

At the opening of the spring a greater activity pre- 
vailed in the camp. With the coming of Baron Steuben, 
the army w r as uniformly drilled in the tactics of European 
warfare. With the new appropriation of congress, new 
uniforms were possible and gave a more military appear- 
ance to the army. It was no longer necessary, therefore, 
for Washington to issue orders that the men must appear 
on parade with beards shaven and faces clean, though 


their garments were of great variety and ragged. And 
with the coming of the spring, and of greater comforts in 
consequence, Washington, in recognition of the suffering, 
fidelity and patriotism of his troops took occasion to com- 
mend them in these words : 

"The Commarider-in-Chief takes this occasion to return his 
thanks to the officers and soldiers of this army for that persevering 
fidelity and zeal which they have uniformly manifested in all their 
conduct. Their fortitude not only under the common hardships 
incident to a military life, but also, under the additional suffering 
to which the peculiar situation of these states has exposed them, 
clearly proves them to be men worthy the enviable privilege of 
contending for the rights of human nature the freedom and 
independence of the country. The recent instance of uncom- 
plaining patience during the late scarcity of provisions in camp 
is a fresh proof that they possess in eminent degree the spirits of 
soldiers and the magnanimity of patriots. The few who disgraced 
themselves by murmuring, it is hoped, have repented such un- 
manly behaviour and have resolved to emulate the noble example 
of their associates 'Soldiers, American Soldiers, will despise the 
meanness of repining at such trifling strokes of adversity, trifling 
indeed when compared with the transcendent prize which will 
undoubtedly crown their patience and perseverance. 

"Glory and freedom, peace and plenty, the admiration of the 
world, the love of their country and the gratitude of prosterity." 
-American Monthty Magazine. 



The screeching of the steam whistle at the Williams- 
burg station seemed a curious anachronism, a noisy, push- 
ing impertinence, a strident voice of latter-day vulgar 
haste. But when the big engine had rolled away, puffing 
and blowing and screaming as if in mischievous and irrever- 
ent effort to disturb the archaic dreams of the fast-asleep 
town, the "exceeding peace" which always dwells in Wil- 
liamsburg, fell upon our hilarious spirits. We wandered 
about the streets with hushed voices and reverent eyes. 
The throbbing pulse of the gay, stirring, rebellious heart of 
the old capital of Virginia had been still for a century. 

On entering Bruton church, the eye is first attracted 
on the right of the chancel to the novel sight of the gover- 
nor's seat, high canopied and richly upholstered in crim- 
son and gilt. The high-backed chair is railed off from 
the "common folk," and the name Alexander Spotswood 
in gold lettering runs around the top of the canopy. At 
once you realize that this was indeed the court church of 
the vice-regal court at Williamsburg, and that you are in 
old Colonial Virginia. The lines ' ' He rode with Spotswood 
and Spotswood men," the knights of the "Golden Horse 
Shoe," run through the brain, and the knightly figure of 
Raleigh, the chivalric founder of the colony, and brave 
John Smith and a score of others, heroes of that elder day, 
come from out the shadowy past, and hover about one. 
You look at the quaint old pulpit, on the left of the church, 
with its high-sounding board, and then glance down at 
the pew on your right, which bears the name of George 
Washington, and opposite the plate on the pew reads 
Thomas Jefferson, and next are James Madison and the 
seven signers of the Declaration of Independance, and 
Peyton Randolph and Patrick Henry and the doughty 
members of the house of burgesses who worshiped here, 


and whose liberty-loving spirits fired the world with their 
brave protests against tyranny. When you read these 
names, suddenly the church seems full of the men who 
bore them, and you are surrounded by that goodly company 
of heroes who made Virginia and America, the cradle of 
liberty. The magic spell is upon you. You turn cold and 
burning hot with high enthusiasm and the glory of the 
vision. You are roused from your trance by the pleasant 
voice of the young minister, Mr. John Wing, who is saying : 
"Now we will go down into the crypt." 

There are treasures in the crypt indeed. We follow in 
a dazed fashion, and are shown the Jamestown communion 
service; the communion silver bearing the coat-of-arms of 
King George III; the ancient communion silver of the 
College of William and Mary; the Colonial prayer book, 
with the prayer for the president pasted over the prayer 
for King George III; a parish register of 1662, the pre- 
Revolutionary Bible; coins found while excavating in the 
church, and brass head-tack letters and figures by which 
some of the graves in the aisles and chancel were indentified. 
We are told that the date of parish was 1632, first brick 
church, 1674-83; present church 1710-15. Precious and 
deeply interesting, but I imagined that I could hear the 
tread of that ' ' knightly company ' ' upstairs, who let neither 
silver nor gold nor the glitter of the vice-regal court at 
Williamsburg seduce them from their love of liberty, nor 
dull their hatred of tyranny in its slightest exercise. Ah ! 
there were giants in those days among those Virginia 
pioneers, in whose veins ran the hot blood of the cavalier, 
who loved truth and hated a lie, who loved life and despised 
danger, and feared not death nor "king nor kaiser," 
descendants of the valiant Jamestown colonists to whom 
Nathaniel Bacon cried one hundred years before : ' ' Come 
on, my hearts of gold ! ' ' 

The tombstones in the aisle and chancel of the church 
include the tombs of two Colonial governors Francis Fau- 
quier and Edmund Jennings and the graves of the great- 


grandfather, the grandfather and grandmother of Mrs. 
Martha Washington. After reading the quaint inscription 
on the marble mural tablet in memory of Colonel Daniel 
Parke and the inscriptions on the bronze mural tablets 
memorial to Virginia churchmen and patriots, we climb to 
' ' Lord Dunmore 's gallery, ' ' where, tradition says, the boys 
of William and Mary College used to be locked in for their 
soul's edification until service was over, and where we sat 
in Thomas Jefferson's accustomed place, from whence he 
looked down upon the heads of the members of the house 
of burgesses and the Colonial vestrymen of distinguished 
memory. Is it any wonder that in such environment the 
boy's dreamy aspirations crystallized into the high resolve 
of becoming a patriot and statesman ? For in those stormy 
days preceding the Revolution this little Bruton parish 
church was a very Pantheon of living heroes. 

Fiske, the New England historian, says that "the five 
men who more than any others have shaped the future of 
American history were Washington, Jefferson, Madison, 
Marshall and Hamilton." All but Hamilton were Virgin- 
ians and worshipers at Bruton church, and two of them 
were students of the College of William and Mary. Dis- 
tinction unrivaled for the state, the church, the college. 

And now we walk into the church yard, under venerable 
trees, among crumbling grave stones and see the Poca- 
hontas baptismal font and the tombs of the Custis children 
and Colonial Governor Knott. 

We are shown the home of George Wythe, the signer of 
the Declaration, the teacher of Jefferson, Monroe and Mar- 
shall. Great teacher of greater pupils! Inspirer of high 
thoughts and immortal deeds! One of the students at 
William and Mary, Jefferson, wrote the declaration, three 
were presidents, and another, John Marshall, was Chief 
Justice of the United States. The headquarters of Wash- 
ington, the site of the first theater in America, 1732, the 
Ancient Palace green on the right hand of which is the 
fictional home of Audrey, and several ancient colonial 


homes are pointed out to us. If any vestige remains of 
the old Releigh tavern, whose "Apollo" room was famous 
as the gathering place of the burgesses, who, after their 
dismissal in 1769 asked an agreement not to use or import 
any article upon which a tax is laid it was not shown to 

The old powder horn or powder magazine, a curious 
hexagonal building, has been admirably restored and stands 
as a reminder of that dramatic scene in Virginia history 
in 1775 when, after Lord Dunmore had removed the powder 
from the magazine into one of the vessels in the James, 
fearing an uprising of the colonists, Patrick Henry, with 
an armed force from Hanover, stalked into the governor's 
presence and demanded the return of the powder or its 
equivalent in money. Lord Dunmore, looking into those 
dauntless eyes, beholds the dauntless soul of the "Fire- 
brand of the Revolution" behind them, and yields at once 
and pays down 330 sterling. Patrick Henry, with 
splendid audacity, seizes a pen and signs the receipt, 
' ' Patrick Henry, Jr. ' ' making himself alone responsible for 
this act of high treason, and then, that there may be no 
doubt as to his signature, he has it attested by two dis- 
tinguished gentlemen. What heroic daring! What im- 
passioned love of liberty! While Peyton, Randolph and 
Richard Henry Lee counsel caution, Patrick Henry acts 
and becomes the inspired genius of the revolution, fusing 
the disunited and hesitating colonies into a nation by the 
white heat of his burning passion for freedom. 

First in importance of all the historic places in Wil- 
liamsburg is the venerable college of William and Mary. 
Founded in 1693, next to Harvard the oldest college in the 
United States, it soon became the ' ' intellectual center of the 
colony of Chesapeake Bay, ' ' the alma mater of the patriots 
who fought for the life of the young republic and of the 
statesmen who formed its constitution and guided its course 
in its infant years. It has furnished to our country fifteen 
senators and seventy representatives in congress; thirty- 


seven judges, and Chief Justice Marshall; "seventeen 
governors of states and three presidents of the United 
States Jefferson, Monroe and Tyler. James JBlair, a 
Scotchman, was its first president and remained so for fifty 
years. The ivy-clad buildings of the old college nestle 
among ancient trees on a wide campus, and so venerable 
is the look of the place that the new hall seems a modern 
intruder, though of quiet and well-mannered architecture. 
The quiet air of scholarly seclusion reminds one of Oxford. 
It was commencement day, and we found the buildings 
decorated with white and yellow, the college colors. The 
chapel, with its oil paintings of presidents, donors and 
patriots, and the library with its rare volumes and price- 
less old documents and portraits and engravings, are full 
of interest. A marble statue of one of the old governors 
Botetourt, I believe stands in the silence of the centuries 
in front of the old college. 

"Yas'm ris de place, de house er buggesses, dey call 
it, 'cause de big bugs of ole Virginny sot dere er making 
laws. 'Fo de Lawd, marm, dey wuz big bugs ; quality folks, 
quality folks." And John Randolph, our colored coach- 
man, waved his hand with a proud air of ownership, as if 
he were displaying lofty halls with mahogany stairs and 
marble pillars, instead of the mortar and brick foundation, 
in its bare outline, of the old capitol, or House of 

"Walk right in, suh. Bring de ladies dis way, boss," 
John Randolph urged, in a tone of lordly hospitality. 
"Right hyah is the charmber (room) whar Marse Patrick 
Henry made dat great speech agin de king old Marse 
King George or bossin' uv de colonies. He wuz er 
standing on dis very spot, and he lif ' up his voice like a 
lion and he sez, sez he " 

"What did he say?" as the old man paused. 

Striking a dramatic attitude, the gray-haired old 
Virginia darky rolled out in sonorous voice, with impas- 
sioned gesture: 


"Tarquin and Caesar had each his Brutus, Charles the 
First his Cromwell and George the Third " "Treason! 
treason!" said the speaker of the house. "May profit by 
their example. If that be treason, make the most of it." 

In spite of John Randolph's oratory, RothermeFs paint- 
ing came before me, and I could see the Virginia cavaliers 
gazing at the speaker with startled, breathless look, while 
the colonial dames with their powdered hair and stiff 
brocade leaned eagerly forward in the gallery to catch each 
note of the immortal voice; and in the doorway stood 
Thomas Jefferson, the slim young student of William and 
Mary College, electrified by the fiery eloquence, "such as 
I had never heard from any other man," he said: "he 
appeared to me to speak as Homer wrote." 

"But why didn't you say 'Give me liberty or give me 
death,' Uncle John?" asked the young interrogation point 
of the party. 

' ' 'Cause Marse Patrick never said dem words here, 
chile. He spoke 'em in old St. John's Church up in Rich- 
mond ten year arterwards. I gin you his Williamsburg 
speech, his fust great speech. ' ' And the darky orator and 
historian smiled with that superior wisdom which we had 
seen illumminate the dark Italian features of Antonio 
Griffenreid, the famous sexton of old St. John's as he 
enlightened the ignorance of a party of sightseers Atlanta 



We love the men and women, too, 

Who fought and worked and brought us through 

Our glorious revolution; 
Hard was the struggle, brave the fight, 
That won for them the sovereign right 

To frame a Constitution. 


This Constitution made us free 
In this proud land of liberty 

The best in all creation 
And we'll stand by it while we live; 
Whatever we may have we'll give 

For its perpetuation. 

Our Country is the fairest one 
Kissed by the ever rolling sun 

We glory in our nation ; 

And we will see that it shall be 
The happy land of liberty, 

Through time's continuation. 

Francis H. Orme. 

This song has been adopted as a State song by the 
Daughters of the American Revolution of Georgia, and as 
a national song by the Continental Congress 1906. 



Archibald Bullock Chapter, D. A. E., Montezuma, Oa. 

This is a story of how a woman 's wit and tact saved her 
husband's life from the hands of the Tories, in the dark 
days of the Revolution. 

It was in South Carolina, the British General, Corn- 
wallis, had ordered any American sympathizer caught, to 
be hung or shot at sight. Numberless outrages had been 
done and the feeling was intensely bitter against the Tories, 
or Royalists, as they called themselves. Especially so was 
it in the section of the country where lived Elizabeth 
Robert. Her husband was fighting with Marion, the 
"Swamp Fox," in another part of the state and the only 
protector for herself and two young children was a faith- 
ful slave called "Daddy Cyrus." Here on her plantation 
Elizabeth spent her days living quietly enough. However, 
she was no idler, but rather a most thrifty housewife and 
her muscadine wine excelled any other and was known far 
and wide for its delicious flavor. 

Now, John Robert grew restless, as the days passed 
and no word came from his wife, so obtaining leave of 
absence from General Marion, he quietly slipped through 
the lines, and by a devious route, appeared one dark night 
at the door of his home. But some foreign eye had noted 
the unusual happiness and excitement in the "big house" 
as it was called, and in a short while it was surrounded, and 
Capt. John was a prisoner in the hands of the Tories. 
Mary, with tears, pleaded for her husband's life, but to no 
purpose, and dawn was to see his dead body hanging from 
the limb of a huge oak near by. Tears availing nothing, 
Elizabeth 's quick brain began to teem with plans for John 's 

Slipping down to "Daddy Cyrus' " cabin, she told him 
of her plan of rescue, then back to her house she ran, her 


absence not having been noted. Then bringing all her 
womanly beauty, graciousness and charm to bear upon the 
Tories, she inticed them into the dining room, leaving her 
husband tightly bound to the tree where he was to meet 
his death, and then from her mahogany sideboard, she 
served to them her famous muscadine wine. Drink after 
drink, she offered them, while her smiles and gay repartee 
allured them. More more and yet more, until their 
befuddled wits were completely gone. 

Then faithful old "Daddy Cyrus" waiting, watching, 
guarding, with his sharp knife, cut the bonds of his "Young 
Marster, ' ' and into the darkness Capt. John was gone back 
to his comrades with a hurried kiss from the lips of his 
wife who had saved him. 

The Tories were persuaded that the wine was the cause 
of their hazy belief of the capture of Capt. John Robert, 
and no harm was done to Elizabeth. 



Poem composed by Mrs. C. M. O'Hara and read before 
David Meriwether Chapter, Greenville, Ga., Georgia day, 

Georgia, the baby of the original thirteen, 

Not, however, youngest in importance, I ween, 

Was born to the colonies in seventeen thirty-two, 

To help those in prison their lives to renew. 

What Oglethorpe planned for this child of his heart 

Was that rum and slaves of it should not be a part, 

But this wayward child would have her own way, 

In spite of her mistakes she has made up to date, 

Georgia is called of the South the Empire State. 

She was the fifth of her sisters in secession to say, 

"The Union she'd leave" when there was not fair play. 

This child of famous men has sent her portion 

From the "marshes of Glynn" to the Pacific Ocean. 

Near Savannah, where Oglethorpe first planted his foot, 

Ebenezer, the first orphanage, has taken firm root. 

Another distinction, too, fair Georgia can claim 

Is the first college for women, Wesleyan by name. 

Towering intellects she reared in her Toombs and her Hills; 

She can boast of her factories and her mills; 

She has kept pace with her sisters in every movement 

That tends to her children's uplift and improvement. 

Now in heathen lands, across the deep waters, 

Performing deeds of mercy are Georgia's sons and daughters. 




Prize Essay of Girls' High School, Atlanta, Georgia, for 

the loving cup offered by Joseph Habersham Chapter, 

Daughters of the American Revolution. 

The forts of Georgia, though for the most part hur- 
riedly and roughly built for protection against Indian, 
Spaniards, Englishman, or Federal, have nevertheless been 
the scenes of the bravest defenses, of the most courageous 
deeds. In them probably more than anywhere else, the 
men of Georgia have shown their hardy spirits and dis- 
tressing trials. Never has a Georgia fort been surrendered 
except from absolute necessity, though its protectors were 
weak from starvation. 

The first of the long list of five hundred forts that have 
been erected in Georgia is Fort Charles, on the northeastern 
coast of Georgia. It was built about 1562 by the direction 
of John Ribault, who with a party of Huguenots had come 
from France with the approval of Admiral Coligny, the 
Protestant leader at that time. Two years later the fort 
was abandoned, and there is now no sign to point out the 
spot where it once stood. 


Fort Argyle was the next fort on Georgia soil. It was 
built by Oglethorpe in 1733 for the protection of his 
Savannah colony. Then followed a wonderful series of 
forts, when you consider the few people in Georgia at that 
time and the dangers of traveling on account of the Indians. 
But Oglethorpe, braving all perils in the next four or five 
years had established Forts Thunderbolt, near Savannah; 
St. Simon, on St. Simon's Island; Frederick, at Frederica, 
on the same island; Fort William and Fort Andrews, on 
Cumberland Island, besides several other unimportant ones 
such as the fort on Jekyl Island and those along the Alta- 


maha. These forts, especially Fort William and Fort 
Andrews, served as a great protection from the Indians 
and the Spaniards; but as time went on, the Spaniards 
ceased invading the country, the Indians were forced west- 
ward, and the forts fell into disuse. Indeed by the opening 
of the Revolution, scarcely a vestige remained of these once 
important forts. 

For some years preceding the Revolution the white 
settlers on the frontier had much trouble with the Indians, 
and they began to build forts inland to the westward. In 
1774, at Fort Sherrill's, about three hundred men, women 
and children were massacred. These dreadful massacres 
continued all during the Revolution at the instigation of 
the British, and added to the many other troubles of the 
Georgians the expense of keeping up these frontier forts. 

At the opening of the Revolution, though the forts were 
in sad repair, nevertheless there was a great rush of the 
Royalists and of the Rebels to get possession of them. The 
Royalists were at first the more successful. Augusta with 
Forts Grierson and Cornwallis, Savannah with Forts 
Argyle and Halifax, Fort Barrington on the Altamaha, 
and the recently erected Fort Morris south of Sunbury, 
were all soon in the hands of the British. These positions 
were all strong and well fortified. The Rebels were not 
nearly so fortunate, The forts they held were mostly 
ruins. Fort Mclntosh on the Satilla River was the first of 
their possessions to be beseiged by the British. Captain 
Richard Winn held the fort with all his powers of endur- 
ance against Colonel Fuser, but, with his reinforcements 
cut off, he was soon obliged to surrender. 


Soon, however, the opportunity of the patriots came. 
1781 was the beginning of the change in affairs. Having 
seized Fort Carr and Fort Howe as the center of operations, 
the Americans proceeded against Augusta. Colonel Grier- 
son, who was in charge of the fort that bore his name, 


soon surrendered here, but Colonel Brown was obstinate 
and strong in his position at Fort Cornwallis. In the 
end, after an eighteen days' siege, he, too, acknowledged 
himself beaten. 

After varying vicissitudes, the British were finally 
forced to give up all their strongholds, and thus the Revolu- 
tionary forts played their part in history. 

During the years that followed there would have been 
no necessity for any forts in Georgia had it not been for 
the Indians, especially during the war of 1812, in which 
the Indians were incited by the British to give trouble. 
Until 1836 the forts in most general use against the In- 
dians were Forts Hawkins, Mims, Scott and Mitchell. 

With the passing of the Indian troubles the Georgia 
forts were left to absolute ruin, and, when in 1861 the Civil 
War burst upon the country, there was great need to 
fortify the land against the enemy. Accordingly, Fort 
Pulaski, on Cockspur Island, not far from Savannah, was 
strongly fortified at the cost of $80,000, and Colonel Olm- 
stead with 350 men was placed in command. Receiving 
word from the enemy to surrender the fort, he answered, 
"I am here to defend the fort, not to surrender it"; but 
in 1862 the brave commander was obliged to surrender his 


Fort McAllister, though not so strong as Fort Pulaski, 
being only an earthwork with sand parapets, was notwith- 
standing an equally important position. Admiral du Pont 
in 1863 was sent to seize it, but the expedition failed; in 
1864, General Hazen's division of General Sherman's army 
took this fort from Major George W. Anderson. In his 
letter north, General Sherman praised Georgia's sons for 
their brave resistance. The surrender of Fort McAllister 
led in a few days to the surrender of Savannah and the 
quick ending of the war. 

After the Civil War, forts were again neglected and 
even the new forts began to decay. Throughout Georgia 


today are to be seen her picturesque, ivy-grown forts, and 
these are a source of never-failing interest to visitors. 

The only regular military post now in Georgia is the 
beautiful Fort McPherson. This fort covering about two 
hundred and thirty-six acres, is four miles from Atlanta. 
It was established by the United States government in 1867 
with the name of McPherson 's Barracks ; it has a postoffice 
and telegraph station. It has never yet been called into 
service. Let us hope that it will be many days before Fort 
McPherson adds its historic story to those of Georgia's 
ether forts. 


James Oglethorpe came of a very old family in England. 
His father, Sir Theophilus, was a soldier under James II, 
and went into banishment with him. Just before the 
abdication of James II, James Oglethorpe, the seventh 
child and fourth son, was born. At sixteen he entered the 
University at Oxford, when he was twenty-two, entered the 
British Army as Ensign, and was soon made Lieutenant of 
the Queen 's Life Guards. His soldier life was spent largely 
on the continent. He became heir to the estate in Surrey 
and was shortly after elected to the British Parliament, of 
which body he remained a member for thirty-two years. 
He was an active member of the House of Commons, a 
Deputy Governor of the Royal African Society and a 
gentleman of high position and independent means, and 
withal a man of genuine piety. He conceived the plan of 
establishing a colony in America, which should be a refuge 
for poor people. 

The following description of Oglethorpe is by Rev. 
Thomas B. Gregory : 

"February 12, 1733, Oglethorpe and his Colonists scaled 
the Yamacraw bluffs on the Savannah River and began 
laying the foundations of the State of Georgia. 


"The Empire State of the South had its origin in the 
noblest impulses that swell the human heart. Its founder, 
the accomplished and philanthropic Oglethorpe, witnessing 
about him in the old world the inhumanity of man to man, 
seeing the prisons full of impecunious debtors, and the 
highways thronged with the victims of religious fanaticism 
and spite, resolved that he would find in the new world 
an asylum for the unfortunate ones where they should be 
no more oppressed by the rich or dragooned by the bigoted. 

The colony started out beautifully. The men who had 
been pining in English jails because they could not pay the 
exactions of their hard-hearted creditors, and the Salzbur- 
gers and others, who, in Austria and Germany, had been 
made to feel the terrors of religious fanaticism, were glad 
to be free, and they were only too willing to accept the 
founder's will that there would be no slavery in Georgia. 
The institution got a foothold much later on, but it was not 
the fault of the original colonists. 

Beautiful, too, were the initial relationships between the 
colonists and the red men. Old To-mo-chi-chi, the Chief of 
the surrounding Indians, presenting Oglethorpe with a 
Buffalo skin ornamented with the picture of an eagle, said 
to him : ' I give you this which I want you to accept. The 
eagle means speed and the buffalo strength. The English 
are swift as the bird and strong as the beast, since like the 
one, they flew over the seas to the uttermost parts of the 
earth, and, like the other, they are strong and nothing can 
resist them. The feathers of the eagle are soft and means 
love ; the buffalo skin is warm and means protection. Then 
I hope the English will love and protect our little families. ' 
Alas! the time was to come when the white man would 
forget To-mo-chi-chi 's present and the spirit with which it 
was made. 

In 1743 Oglethorpe left Georgia forever, after having 
given it the best that there was in his head and heart for 
ten years. In 1752 Georgia became a royal province, and 
remained such until the breaking out of the Revolution in 


1775, through which she helped her sister colonies to fight 
their way to victory, when she took her place among the 
"old thirteen" free and independent states. 


When the American Colonies of Great Britain deter- 
mined to rebel at the stubborn demands of the mother 
country, Georgia had least cause to join the revolutionary 

This colony was by fifty years the youngest of the 
"original thirteen," and had been specially favored by 
England. She was the largest, but the weakest, of all the 
provinces. The landless of other countries and of other 
colonies had come in large numbers to obtain a home where 
they might own the soil they tilled. At the beginning of the 
Revolution the total population of Georgia was about 
20,000 whites and 17,000 blacks. 

Georgia was now exporting rice, indigo, and skins to 
Europe, and lumber, horses, and provisions to the "West 
Indies. Tobacco was cultivated with great success by the 
settlers, and all necessaries of life were easily raised on her 

The province boasted of one weekly newspaper, called 
the "Georgia Gazette," which was published every Thurs- 
day at Savannah. 

Since 1760 the colony had prospered greatly under Sir 
James Wright, who was one of the most capable and 
devoted of the British provincial governors. There were 
few local grievances, and many of the people did not wish 
to defy the home authority. 

But they realized that this restful condition could not 
long continue, for they occupied an exceedingly dangerous 
position. The sea coast was easily seized by the British, 
and they were also exposed to the attacks of the British in 


Florida, as well as the many savage tribes of Indians on 
the north and west. 

Thus threatened on all sides, Georgia thought it best to 
join her sister colonies, that she might have protection. 

The news of the battle of Lexington removed all hesita- 
tion, and united the people of Georgia in the determination 
to assert their rights. Georgia rallied her mountaineer 
riflemen to the cause of liberty. 

Right manfully did her raw, untrained volunteers re- 
spond to the burning, eloquent appeal of Patrick Henry, 
the Virginian. His speech awoke the sleeping pride of the 
South, and aroused her sons to action. 

Georgia strove to equip her little band of patriots, but 
she had but few resources. Congress gave her all the aid pos- 
sible, but soldiers and funds were required everywhere, 
and Georgia's share was very small. Her sole dependence 
for protection was her 3,000 raw militia. There were 
40,000 Indians to the north and west with 10,000 warriors ! 

The British bought the friendship of the Indians with 
presents which the colonists could not afford. 

From the first of this war Georgia kept her representa- 
tives in the Continental Congress, which met to form 
plans for mutual protection and defense. In these dark 
days men thought little of government, nor was much 
required. Liberty and food and clothing for their families 
were the principals for which the patriots were now 

Many deserters of the American cause took refuge in 
Florida. These were called Tories. Many of them were 
lawless men, and continually harassed the colonists of 
South Georgia. They joined the British and Indians, and 
made plundering expeditions, sweeping down on the 
defenseless people, burning the houses, ruining the fields, 
and committing the most atrocious crimes. 

Up to this time, Georgia had often sent food supplies 
to her countrymen in the north, but now food became so 


scarce that the governor forbade the exportation of any 
kind of provisions. 

Colonel Brown, who vowed to wreak vengeance on 
every American citizen, now fulfilled his vow to the utter- 
most. His murderous bands made their raids in every 
direction ; no mercy was shown to anyone who befriended a 

It seems that the spirit of resistance in the hearts of the 
people of Georgia would have been crushed by these long 
continued atrocities. But they never left the field, although 
often forced to abandon their homes and sometimes even 
to leave the state. 

What better example of the hardihood of the pioneer 
women of Georgia than in the story of Nancy Hart, a 
remarkable woman who lived in Elbert County at this 

When many of the women and children who lived in 
her neighborhood left their homes to escape the cruelty of 
Brown's raiders, Nancy Hart remained at home to protect 
her little property. 

How we all love the story of how this rough, simple 
mountaineer woman outwitted the band of British red 
coats who demanded food at her cabin. 

While she served the meal, she cleverly managed to 
keep their attention diverted while she signaled for aid, 
and hid their arms, which they had stacked in a corner. 
Then, when she was discovered, she covered them with a 
musket, and, true to her word, shot down the first who 
stepped forward. 

Thus did the women of Georgia meet the dangers to 
which they were exposed in these perilous times. 

When Augusta had been abandoned by the British, 
many of the inhabitants who had refugeed, returned, hop- 
ing for better times. Colonels Elizah Clarke and John 
Dooly untiringly guarded the frontiers, which were con- 
tinually threatened by the Tories and Indians. Their zeal 


encouraged the people, and kept the spirit of liberty awake 
in the hearts of the sorely-tried patriots. 

But their sufferings were not yet over. Savannah must 
yet be taken from the British. In the long, weary struggle, 
the brave revolutionists were greatly aided by the French. 

The bombardment of Savannah lasted five days. The 
unfortunate inhabitants suffered greatly. Houses were 
riddled by shot and shell. Helpless women, children, and 
old men were forced to seek safety in damp cellars, and 
even then, many were killed by shots intended for the 

How sad to think of the many precious lives lost in 
that bloody fray, and the hopes crushed in the hearts 
of the survivors ! 

The British still held Savannah, the French sailed 
away, and the American army retreated northward, leaving 
Georgia to the enemy. 

The death blow had been dealt to the hopes of Georgia. 
The Tories, exulting in the humiliation of the state, now 
made raids in every direction, insulting, robbing, and 
persecuting, the discouraged patriots barbarously. They 
seized whatever they coveted, clothing, jewels, plate, fur- 
niture or negroes. They even beat little children to force 
them to tell where valuables were hidden. 

No mercy was shown to old men who had stayed at 
home to protect their families. They and their families 
were driven from the state. All means of conveyance being 
taken away, even the women and children were forced to 
make the journey on foot. But the majority of our people 
were so poor that they were obliged to remain at home, 
and endure trials more grievous than before. 

The conduct of British soldiers in Savannah was such 
that Whig families residing there found it almost un- 
endurable. But the women bore these hardships with a 
fortitude becoming the wives of patriots. 

At last, three years after the seige of Savannah, 
Georgia was free of the hated British. Gradually the 


people returned to their former homes and vocations. But 
what a sad home-coming ! War had laid its desolating hand 
upon the face of the country. 

The state was full of widows and orphans, fully one 
half of all the available property of her people was swept 
away, the fields were uncultivated, and there was no money 
to repair losses. Her boundaries were not well defined, 
and large tracts of land in her limits were still held by the 
Indians. Truly, the condition of Georgia was deplorable ! 

But there was no repining, for the patriots, rejoicing in 
their liberty, cheerfully set to work to lay the foundations 
of future prosperity. Gladly they had given their all as 
the price of Liberty ! Etowah Chapter. 



When the Calhoun plantation (in South Carolina), 
upon which Clemson College is now located, was purchased 
in 1826, it was called ' ' Clergy Hall. ' ' It received this name 
because the original mansion was built by the Rev. James 
Mcllhenny who resided there with his son-in-law, the Rev. 
James Murphy. An old Revolutionary fort known in 
history as Fort Rutledge was upon this estate, crowning a 
hill overlooking the Seneca River and when Mr. Calhoun 
took possession of the place, he changed its name to "Fort 
Hill. ' ' Although fifty years had elapsed since the fort was 
built and doubtless there were few remains of it to be seen 
at that time, still many were living who remembered it 
well, and the hill upon which it stood was known from the 
earliest settlement of the country by the name of "Fort 

One of the most beautiful drives on the Clemson 
property is the road to Fort Rutledge which is about a mile 
from the college. This road winds through rich cornfields 


of bottom land; it then rises gently to the top of a long 
level ridge which slopes precipitously down to the fields on 
one hand and the Seneca River on the other; trees and 
shrubs thickly clothe the sides of this ridge and beautiful 
and extended views can be seen in every direction. Looking 
to the east, Clemson College, seated upon an opposite hill, 
with its many buildings and the dwellings of the com- 
munity presents an ideal picture of loveliness ; on the north, 
the Blue Ridge mountains, forty miles away, are clearly 
seen with several lofty ranges ; to the west and south, the 
eye follows the river winding through smiling valleys, the 
cultivated fields green with promise which is always ful- 

This boldly commanding ridge, overlooking the sur- 
rounding country, was well adapted for an outlook during 
the conflicts between the Indians and the early settlers. 
The Seneca Indians had one of their largest towns on the 
river at the base of the hill, extending for four miles on 
both sides, the hundreds of acres of inexhaustible bottom 
land supplying them bountifully with corn even with the 
crudest methods of cultivation. 

Nothing remains of the old fort to-day but the aban- 
doned well, which has been filled and is marked by a tangled 
growth of weeds and shrubs, and the cellar of the old 
lookout tower or five sided bastion ; this is faced with brick 
and the shape can be seen distinctly. 

One of the early battles of the Revolution was fought 
near Fort Hill at Seneca town at its base. This town was 
one of note among the Indians and up to this day arrow 
heads and other implements of war or household use may be 
found upon its site. For generations the Indians preserved 
a strong attachment for this spot and up to the time that 
the college began its active work, "Bushy Head," an 
Indian Chief from the Cherokee reservation in North 
Carolina, would lead a band here every summer. 

The story of the battle here is taken from official reports 
and from McCrady's "History of South Carolina." 


During the spring of 1776, the Tory leaders, Stuart and 
Cameron, had informed the Cherokees that a British fleet 
was coming to attack Charleston and as soon as they heard 
of its arrival they must fall upon the up-country pioneer 
settlements and destroy them. With the British to fight 
in the south and the combined Tories and Indians in the 
north it was believed that the province would soon be 
subjugated. The news came to the Indians on the eve of 
July 1st and at the dawn of day they were on the warpath 
slaying every white person they could capture, without 
distinction of age or sex. At this time the Hamptons were 
massacred with many other families. 

Mr. Francis Salvador lived on Corn-acre or Coronaca 
creek in Ninety-six district. He was one of the few mem- 
bers of the provincial congress from the up-country, a man 
of much ability, enthusiasm and patriotism. When the 
dreadful tidings of the Indian uprising reached him that 
day, he mounted his horse and galloped to the home of 
Major Andrew Williamson, twenty-eight miles away; he 
found that officer already aroused to the horrors of the 
situation and busily endeavoring to collect forces. But the 
settlers were terror stricken, several hundred had been 
murdered and the survivors had but one thought and that 
was to get their families safely into the nearest forts. He 
waited two days and only forty men had volunteered. 
With this small band Major Williamson with Mr. Salvador 
started on the 3rd of July for the Indian villages resolved 
to punish them severely. But when the settlers had pro- 
vided for the safety of their wives and children, many of 
them hurried to join him and on the 5th there were 110 
men with him, on the 8th his band increased to 222 and on 
the 16th they numbered 450; re-inf or cements came from 
Charlestown and also from Georgia and on the 22nd of 
July he was at the head of 1,150 men. Meanwhile he had 
been advancing from his home towards the Cherokee 
country and was encamped on Baker's creek, a few miles 
above Moffattsville. Here his scouts brought him the news 


that Alexander Cameron, thirteen white men and a band 
of Indians were camped on Oconore Creek about thirty 
miles away, and Williamson determined to surprise and 
capture them before they could hear of his proximity. He 
therefore selected with care three hundred and thirty horse- 
men, the brave Mr. Salvador accompanying him and started 
about six o'clock on the evening of July 31st planning to 
surprise the enemy before day. About two in the morning 
of the first day of August they drew near the town of 
Essenecca (or Seneca) . A party of his men who had visited 
the place two days before had reported to him that the 
town was thoroughly evacuated; trusting to this report he 
carelessly neglected to send out advance scouts, rode into 
an ambush and was surprised and completely routed by the 
Indians at this town. Quoting Major Williamson's report 
of the event : 

"The enemy either having discovered my inarch or laid 
themselves in ambush with a design to cut off my spies or party I 
had sent out, had taken possession of the first houses in Seneca, 
and posted themselves behind a long fence on an eminence close 
to the road where we were to march, and to prevent being dis- 
covered had filled up the openings between the rails, with corn 
blades, etc. They suffered the guides and advance guard to pass, 
when a gun from the house was discharged (meant I suppose as a 
signal for those placed behind the fence, who a few seconds after- 
wards poured in a heavy fire upon my men), which being unex- 
pected, staggered my advance party. Here Mr. Salvador received 
three wounds and fell by my side; my horse was shot down under 
me but I received no hurt. Lieut. Farar of Capt. Prince's Com- 
pany immediately supplied me with his. I desired him to take 
care of Mr. Salvador, but before he could find him in the dark, 
the enemy unfortunately got his scalp which was the only one 
taken. Capt. Smith, son of the late Capt. Aaron Smith, saw the 
Indian, but thought it was his servant taking care of his master 
or could have prevented it. He died about half-after two o'clock 
in the morning, forty-five minutes after he received the wounds, 
sensible to the last. When I came up to him after dislodging the 
enemy, and speaking to him, he asked whether I had beat the 
enemy, I told him yes, he said he was glad of it, and shook me 


by the hand, and bade me farewell and said he would die in a 
few minutes. Two men died in the morning, and six more who 
were badly wounded I have since sent down to the settlements 
and given directions to Dr. DeLaTowe and Eussell to attend them. 
I remained on the ground till daybreak and burnt the houses on 
this side of the river and afterwards crossed the river; the same 
day reduced Seneca entirely to ashes." 

An Extract from another report gives further particu- 
lars : 

"The Indian spies had observed the Major's march and 
alarmed their camp; upon which about thirty Indians and as 
many white men went to Seneca and placed themselves in ambush. 
The Indians had one killed and three wounded. 

"Seneca, four miles long on each side of the river with six 
thousand bushels of corn, &c, burned August 1st. 

"Sugar Town and Keowee, Aug. 4th." 

The account given by McCrady in his History of South 
Carolina is a little more unfavorable than Major William- 

"Major Williamson's forces, completely surprised, broke away 
and fled in the greatest confusion. The enemy kept up a constant 
fire which the retreating militia returned at random, as dangerous 
to their friends who were willing to advance against the enemy 
as it was to the enemy themselves. Fortunately Lieutenant 
Colonel Hammond rallied a party of about twenty men, and, 
making an unexpected charge, repulsed the savage foe and 
escaped. The Indians lost but one man killed and three wounded; 
of Major Williamson's party three died from their wounds and 
fourteen were badly injured. When daylight arrived he burnt 
that part of Esseneca town which was on the eastern side of the 
Keowee River, and later Col. Hammond crossed the river burnt, 
that on the western side as well and destroyed all the provisions, 
computed at six thousand bushels of Indian corn, besides peas 
and other articles. The object of overtaking Cameron and his 
associates having been thus defeated Williamson retreated and 
joined his camp at Twenty-three Mile Creek." 

The loss of Mr. Salvador was greatly deplored by the 
province. He was a man of prominence, intelligence and 


worth and his services to the American cause would have 
been most valuable. An interesting sketch of his life may 
be found in Elzas "History of Jews of South Carolina," 
written by Mr. A. S. Salley. 

On the 8th of August, 1776, Williamson marched with 
640 men upon the Indian towns. They destroyed Ostatoy, 
Tugaloo, Tomassee, Chehohee and Eustash ; every bit of the 
corn was burned and the Indians were forced to live upon 
roots and berries, etc. The expedition was most successful 
and completely retrieved the defeat at Seneca. McCrady 
states that about this time Major Williamson was appointed 
colonel of the Ninety-six Regiment and upon Colonel Wil- 
liamson's return to his camp he found that numbers of his 
men had gone home, forced to do so from fatigue, want of 
clothes, and other necessaries and that many who had 
remained were in equal distress. He was obliged therefore 
to grant furloughs ordering them to rejoin him at Esseneca 
on the 28th to which place he marched on the 16th with 
about six hundred men. Here he erected a fort, which in 
honor of the president of South Carolina, he called Fort 

Upon the breaking out of this war application had been 
made to North Carolina and Virginia to co-operate with 
the forces of South Carolina in this region. Each of these 
states complied and raised a body of troops. The first 
under General Rutherford, to act in conjunction with the 
South Carolinians on this side the mountains, and the other 
under Colonel Christie, to act against the over-hill Chero- 
kees. But Colonel Williamson had destroyed all the lower 
settlements before the North Carolinians under General 
Rutherford took the field. 

Colonel Williamson now having increased his force to 
2,300 men, broke up the camp at Esseneca; leaving 300 
men as a guard to the inhabitants and as a garrison to 
Fort Rutledge he marched with about 2,000 men to co- 
operate with General Rutherford. 


History tells us that the campaign was successful; the 
Indians received lessons they never forgot; in less than 
three months the Cherokees lost 2,000 and humbled and 
broken in spirit; they sued for peace on any terms. A 
treaty of pacification was signed and the Indians yielded 
to South Carolina a large tract of land embracing the 
counties of Anderson, Pickens, Oconee and Greenville. 

So this is the story of the building and holding of Fort 
Rutledge. The remains of the old fort are well worth 
preserving for its foundations were laid in a period of 
storm and stress and suffering ; its rude walls frowned upon 
the Indians early in the Revolution; its watch tower kept 
guard so that the settler 's family in his humble cabin might 
rest in peace ; with its little garrison of three hundred men 
it did its work well and effectually intimidated the enemies 
of the province in this part of the country. 

After the Revolutionary war it was abandoned and 
gradually fell into ruins and decay but the name "Fort 
Hill" has always clung to it and the site never has been 
forgotten. American Monthly, 1907. 



Gloversville High School, Gloversville, N. Y. 

Probably no other foreigner accomplished so much or 
sympathized so deeply with the cause of American Inde- 
pendence as did the Marquis de Lafayette. A French 
nobleman by birth, an heir to an immense estate at thirteen, 
married to one of the most beautiful ladies of the French 
Court, he chose a life of privation and hardship, to one of 
luxury and idleness. The love of liberty, inherent in his 
soul, made him a champion of the cause which seemed the 
last chance for liberty to obtain a foothold upon the earth. 
From the time the situation of the English American 
colonies was made known in France, in 1776, until they 
became a free and independent nation, he gave himself, 
heart and soul, to their cause. He served them both by his 
personal qualities and by his active efforts, as a French 
nobleman, and as an American soldier and general. 

The qualities by which Lafayette most aided this 
country in its great conflict, were his love of liberty, 
enthusiasm, generosity and loyalty. His love of liberty 
first made him interested in the struggle of the American 
Colonies with their Mother Country, and this same love of 
liberty kept him enthused in the cause, and gave him the 
strength and courage to depart from his home, his friends 
and his country. Indeed it was the root of the other 
qualities by which he did us service. 

When once his enthusiasm was aroused, nothing could 
diminish it. When he heard that the credit of the "insur- 
gents" was so low that they couldn't possibly provide him 
a ship, he said in that case they needed him all the more, 
and he bought one with his own money. It was enthusiasm 
that led him to the front in the battle of Brandywine. It 
was enthusiasm that made him ride seventy miles and back, 


for the French fleet when it was needed so sorely. Of 
course, was not his motto ''cur mm?" 

In all his dealings with this country, he showed his 
generosity and disinterest. What was it if not generosity, 
when at his own expense, he fitted out the ship that brought 
him and the other officers to this country? How many 
times during the war did he clothe his soldiers and supply 
their wants when the country couldn't? He proved his 
disinterested devotion to the satisfaction of Congress, when 
he offered to serve as a volunteer without pay and at his 
own expense. Gladly did he forego the comforts and 
pleasures to which education and rank entitled him, and 
bear with the soldiers every hardship and privation. When, 
chiefly through his influence, France agreed to send aid to 
America, and offered him a commission, he refused it so 
as not to arouse jealousy among other Frenchmen. Was 
not this unselfish love of liberty of the plainest type ? 

His most striking characteristic, and I think the one by 
which he did us the most service, was his loyalty. It 
strengthened Washington to have one man upon whom he 
could rely so completely. When Gates was trying to stir 
up trouble against him and had appointed Lafayette to 
take charge of an invasion into Canada over which he had 
no control, he urged him to accept, because it would be 
safer with him than any one else. Lafayette did accept 
and he carried it out in such a way that Gates' scheme 
failed completely. At the Battle of Monmouth, too, when 
Washington sent Charles Lee to command over him, he 
showed his loyalty to Washington by submitting quietly 
and doing all he could to bring a victory out of a defeat. 
But what counted most, perhaps, was the faithfulness with 
which he carried out every order no matter how small and 

Lafayette also aided this country by his active efforts as 
a French nobleman. He induced France and Spain to 
join in preparing a fleet against the British, and it was not 
his fault that Spain kept putting it off until too late he 


made the effort. He did succeed in raising the popularity 
of the Colonies in France, and in securing six thousand 
troops under Rochambeau, a fleet under d'Estaing and 
supplies for our soldiers. After the French forces arrived, 
he was very useful in keeping harmony between the armies, 
because of his influence over his own countrymen as well as 

Lafayette was one of the most faithful soldiers as well as 
one of the best generals, this country had during the Revo- 
lutionary War. From the time he offered himself as a 
volunteer, until the war was over he served the country 
faithfully and well. At the very beginning of his career 
in this country, he became "Washington's aide-de-camp, and 
as such learned a great deal of the latter 's methods of fight- 
ing. In this capacity he was in the thick of the battle of 
Brandywine and did much, by his ready daring to encour- 
age the soldiers. Before a wound, which he received in this 
battle, had entirely healed, and while he was out to recon- 
noitre, he came unexpectedly upon a large body of Hes- 
sians. He attacked boldly, and they, believing they were 
fighting all of Greene's men, retreated. Thus he was ever 
ready with his wit and daring. 

Throughout the long dreary months when the army 
was wintering at Valley Forge, Lafayette suffered with the 
soldiers and helped alleviate the misery as best he could. 
It was during this winter that Gates and Conway made the 
conspiracy to put "Washington out of power and to put 
Gates in his stead. To accomplish this, they wished to 
secure Lafayette's help, so they contrived to put him at the 
head of an expedition into Canada, with Conway second in 
command. Upon Washington's entreaty he accepted the 
commission, but under such conditions that they knew 
beforehand that their scheme was a failure. When he 
arrived at Albany, he saw that nothing was ready for an 
invasion of Canada, and that the affair could be nothing 
but a disappointment to America and Europe, and a 


humiliation to himself, nevertheless he made the most of his 
time by improving the forts and pacifying the Indians. 

When the British left Philadelphia, "Washington 
wished to follow and force a battle, and, when General Lee 
laid down his command, put Lafayette in charge. Hardly 
had the latter started, when Charles Lee asked for the com- 
mand again. Washington could not recall Lafayette, yet he 
wished to pacify Lee, so he trusted to Lafayette's affection 
for himself, and sent Lee ahead with two extra divisions, 
when, as senior officer, he would take charge of the whole. 
Lafayette retired, sensibly, and did all he could to rally the 
battle that Lee was conducting so poorly. Finally he sent 
for Washington the only man that could save the day. 

The only real opportunity Lafayette had, of showing 
his generalship, was in the southern campaign of 1781, 
when he was placed in charge of a thousand light infantry 
and ordered to check the raids of the British. By a rapid 
march he forestalled Philips, who was threatening valuable 
stores at Richmond, and harrassed him all the way to the 
Chickahominy River. Then, while he was separating the 
stores, Cornwallis, joined by Philips, took a stand between 
him and Albermarle where he had placed a large part of 
the stores. While Cornwallis was preparing to fight, 
Lafayette, keeping in mind the admonition of Washington 
not to endanger his troops, escaped to Albermarle by an 
unusued road. After this Cornwallis gave up hopes of 
trapping "that boy," as he called Lafayette, and fortified 
himself at Yorktown. 

When Lafayette had been given the defense of Vir- 
ginia, his soldiers, hungry and destitute, were on the point 
of desertion. With ready tact he had supplied, from his 
own pocket, the direst necessities, and then had given them 
an opportunity of going north. Of course, when placed on 
their honor, they followed him with good will. Having 
received orders from Washington, not to let Cornwallis 
escape, he took his stand on Malvern Hill, a good strategic 
position, to await the coming of Washington and Rocham- 


beau. When the siege was on and the only possible escape 
for Cornwallis was through North Carolina, this, Lafayette 
closed and his light infantry also captured one of the 
redoubts the British had fixed. The Siege of Yorktown 
ended his services for the independence of this country; 
the war was over and he was needed no more. 

The results of Lafayette's efforts for the cause of 
American Independence can hardly be estimated. They 
say enthusiasm is contagious and it seemed so in his case, 
for his very enthusiasm for the cause won others to it and 
gave it greater popularity in Europe than it would other- 
wise have had. In this country he improved the condition 
of the soldiers by his ready generosity, and raised the 
spirit of the army by his own example of disinterested 
patriotism. He gave Washington what he most needed, at 
that time, a friend whom he could trust implicitly, and 
by his loyalty did his share towards keeping the army 
undivided. The forces he secured from France encouraged 
our soldiers and the supplies did a good deal towards satis- 
fying their discontent. By inducing France to acknowl- 
edge the United States of America, he did us one of the 
greatest services possible. We were then one of the world 's 
nations, and our credit went up accordingly. It isn 't likely 
that the results of his efforts as an American soldier and 
general, can ever be fully ascertained. He did so many 
little things just when they seemed to be so needed, that it 
is impossible to sum up their results. All we can say is 
that he did his best for the cause of American Independ- 
ence. Report of Sons of the Revolution 1911-12. 



General James Jackson was born in Morton Hampstead, 
in the beautiful English County of Devonshire. His father, 
James Jackson, died when he was a boy and left rather a 
large family. He heard much talk of the American Colonies 
and had a great desire to go and live in them. His mother 
and grandfather would not consent, and once he attempted 
to sail, hidden in the hold of a vessel, but was brought back. 
Seeing his determination to go, sooner or later, and 
influenced by John Wereat, a leading Whig, the family 
finally consented. Sailing at his earliest opportunity, he 
landed in Georgia ; and at the age of fifteen began the study 
of law in the office of an eminent lawyer in Savannah. 

In 1775, in the beginning of Revolutionary Days, he was 
one of the first lads to shoulder a musket for the cause of 
freedom. He distinguished himself in several skirmishes 
near Savannah. In 1776, Colonel Baker conducted an 
attack upon Tybee Island, where some of the enemy from 
Vessels-of-War were living, and they destroyed the build- 
ings, and drove the enemy to their ships. In this attack, 
Jackson distinguished himself, winning therewith honors 
from the governor, and the thanks and admiration of the 

He served throughout the Revolutionary War, and 
when Savannah surrendered, Gen Anthony Wayne, ordered 
that the keys of Savannah be given to Jackson, because of 
his gallant service to his state and country, and because "he 
was the first American soldier to tread the soil of a town, 
from which the arms of a tryant had too long kept its 
lawful possessor." 

At the close of the Revolutionary War, James Jackson 
began the practice of law in Savannah. 

Like Joseph, in the Bible story, he remembered and 
longed for his youngest brother ; so he sent a request to his 
parents that his brother Henry be permitted to come to 
America, promising to educate him and care for him as a 


son, but in his stead the family sent his brother, Abram. 
He kept his brother and gave him advantages, but again 
sent for Henry. The latter came and James Jackson 
educated him, and at his death left him a child's share of 
his property. This Henry was for years professor at the 
Georgia State University, and was interpreter to William 
H. Crawford, when the latter was minister to France. His 
son was General Henry R. Jackson, of Savannah, who was 
a poet and a distinguished officer in both the Mexican and 
Confederate "Wars. 

General James Jackson had a brother, John, who was 
in the British Navy and was killed during the Revolution- 
ary War. 

In one of her letters to James, his mother wrote how 
much she wished she could see him, and said: "It is a 
great and a deep water that divides us and when I think 
of it my thoughts turn to my poor John." You see John 
had been buried at sea, and it was not an easy matter in 
those days for James to visit across the ocean, when it took 
weeks to make the journey. 

General Jackson held many offices and was one of 
Georgia's greatest governors. He defeated the Yazoo 
Fraud, resigning his place in the National Senate, and 
going from there to the Legislature of his State in order 
to do it. He is the only man in the history of our 
country who ever gave up being a Senator to go to the 

It has been said that if Jackson's heart were cut out 
after his death, on it would have been found the beloved 
word, "Georgia." 

He died in Washington years after, again a Senator, 
and is buried in the Congressional burial ground. His 
epitaph was written by his friend John Randolph, and is 
as follows: 

"In the memory of Major-General James Jackson of Georgia, 
who deserved and enjoyed the confidence of a grateful country,' 


a soldier of the Revolution, he was the determined foe of foreign 
tyranny, the scourge and terror of corruption at home." 

James Jackson's maternal grandfather never forgave 
him for fighting against England in the Revolutionary 
War, and in his will left to his grandson, James, only 
money enough to buy a silver cup. CAROLINE PATTERSON, 
Mary Hammond Washington Chapter, D. A. R. 


Compiled by one of his descendants, MRS. B. M. DAVIDSON, 
Stone Castle Chapter D. A. R., Dawson Ga, 

Away back in the misty past, Isaac Home, of Scotland, 
crossed the Atlantic and settled in Edgecomb County, 
North Carolina, on the Tar River. Isaac Home's name 
figures in the early history of North Carolina. He was one 
of the first commissioners appointed to establish the boun- 
dary lines between the counties of the States. He was a 
wealthy planter, but the greater portion of his property 
was destroyed by the Tories. He was killed at "Gates 
defeat." Isaac Home had three sons: William, Henry, 
Joab. This story is of the youngest son, Joab, a gallant 
Revolutionary soldier under General Francis Marion. 

Joab Home met and wooed an English girl, Nancy 
Ricks. They encountered parental objections to their 
marriage on account of their youth, sixteen and fourteen, 
respectively, but love won and so the union was consumated. 
Their parents never forgave them, and refused to aid them 
in any way. We can hardly imagine what hardships they 
endured; but with his beautiful young wife to encourage 
him he was determined to surmount all difficulties. Hear- 
ing of the rich lands of Georgia, they decided to emigrate. 
Joab had one mule, and he procured a "hogshead" through 
which he ran a piece of scantling to serve as an axle, to 
this axle shafts were attached; his mule was hitched to 
this wonderful contrivance, their clothes put inside the 
rolling hogshead, and thus the journey to Georgia was 


God had blessed their union with the gift of a little 
child, but the exposure resulting from this mode of travel 
was more than the little one could with-stand. A little 
grave by the road side marked the first mile stone of real 
sorrow in their lives. Finally, they reached their destina- 
tion in Burke County, Georgia, on the Ogeechee River, and 
began their new life in a new country. This country was 
almost a wilderness at that time. The first preparation for 
a home was a bush arbor, with a real Georgia bed-stead, and 
fresh straw for a mattress ; but it was not long before they 
had as comfortable a home as could be found in those days. 

Trading seemed to be one of Joab 's characteristics. He 
had two hats, a "Sunday" and an "every day hat," the 
Sunday hat he traded for a wash-pot. Nancy, his wife, 
would trade her jewelry, which she had brought from her 
girl-hood home, for household necessities. Six children 
blessed their union, four girls and two boys. Later they 
moved to Pulaski County, near Hawkinsville, Ga. The 
evening of their life was spent in prosperity, a sure reward 
for such endurance, labor and love. 

Nancy (Ricks) Home died at the age of sixty- three, on 
their plantation in Pulaski County. 

Joab moved, with his son Eli, who married Sarah Ander- 
son of Hawkinsville, to west Florida, on the Yellow River ; 
there he lived to the ripe old age of eighty-seven. Many a 
night would he sit by the fire-side and entertain his chil- 
dren and friends by relating experiences of other days. 
He could truly say, with Columbus: "For the years will 
give back what the years with-held, and the balance swing 
level in the end. ' ' 

Joab Home is buried in Stewart cemetery, on Yellow 
River, west Florida. The following is a copy of the epitaph 
on his tomb : 

"In Memory of Joab Home 

Member of the Revolution 

Born Dec. 301753 

Died July 281840." 

"Blow, gentle gale, and bear my soul away to Canaan's Land." 





Kate Barry, an important character during the Revolu- 
tionary War, was noted as a scout, and once during her 
husband's absence was flogged by the Tories to make her 
disclose the whereabouts of her husband, and his company 
of Rangers. Her husband, Captain Andrew Barry, was a 
magistrate under King George III, and continued to exer- 
cise that office till the Revolution began. He was also a 
Captain in Colonial period, but at the beginning of the War 
for Independence, 1776, was recommissioned Captain of 
South Carolina Rangers by Governor Rutledge, and was a 
daring and brilliant officer during the whole war. 

He was at Musgroves' Mill, Cowpens, Cedar Springs, 
and many other engagements, and was severely wounded 
during the battle of Musgroves' Mill, 18th August, 1780, 
but with the tender care of his wife Kate Barry, who was 
always close by for scout duty, he was soon restored to 

Captain Andrew Barry was also a religious man, and 
was one of the first elders elected by Nazareth Presbyterian 
Church in Spantanburg County, S. C., in which capacity 
he served the church 'till his death, June 17th, 1811. His 
name appears in the book, "Heitman's Historical Register 
of the Officers of the Continental Army." 

The Richard Barry who signed the Mecklenburg Decla- 
ration of Independence was of this family. 

It is written of Kate Barry that she knew no fear, and 
where duty pointed she dared to go, and where her love and 
affections centered, she would risk any and all dangers to 
guard and protect those whom she loved. Kate Barry was 
as remarkable for piety as for patriotism, she came of a 
religious family, and not only are there stories of deeds of 
kindness and sympathy, well authenticated, handed down 
in family traditions, but her sister, Rosa Moore, wife of 


Richard Barry, was also noted as a ministering angel at the 
beside of the dying ; and her prayers in hours of trial and 
bereavement made indelible impressions. 

During the "War of the Revolution Kate Barry acted as 
a voluntary scout for the patriot Whigs of South Carolina, 
and was so efficient that the patriot bands were seldom sur- 
prised by the British. She was the idol of her husband's 
company of Rangers, any one of whom would have 
risked his own life to save hers. 

After the war ended Major Crawford approached Cap- 
tain Andrew Barry, and said: "It is your duty to kill 
Elliott, the Tory who struck Kate Barry one cut with a 
whip to intimidate her and make her disclose where the 
patriots were encamped; but if you will not, then I will 
kill him, for no man shall live who struck Kate Barry." 
Then eleven men, including Captain Barry and Major 
Crawford, went out in search of Elliott, whom they found 
at a neighborhood gathering. So soon as they were seen 
approaching, Elliott fled into the house, and sought con- 
cealment under a bed. The doors were closed, and after 
parleying with Captain Barry, and his friends, Elliott's 
friends agreed that Captain Barry alone, but unarmed, 
might enter the house, and see Elliott, with the promise 
that Barry would not kill him, which he might easily have 
done, as Barry is described by Dr. Howe in his "History 
of the Presbyterian Church in South Carolina," as a 
handsome man, six feet and one inch in height and of 
powerful muscular strength. Barry entered the house, and 
the doors were again closed, and Elliott came out from 
under the bed, when Captain Barry at once seized a three- 
legged stool, with which he struck Elliott to the floor, ex- 
claiming : ' ' I am now satisfied, I will not take his life. ' ' 

"When General Greene, after Gates' defeat at Camden, 
was placed in command of the Army of the Southern 
Department, he sent General Morgan into South Carolina 
to assemble the scattered patriots, preparatory to reclaim- 
ing South Carolina, which after Gates' defeat, and Buford's 


annihilation at the Waxhaws, lay bleeding at the feet of 
the British Lion. It was then that Kate Barry in her 
voluntary capacity as scout for General Morgan, of whose 
command her husband's company of Rangers was a part, 
hunted up patriot bands and hurried them forward to 
Morgan. In a short time General Morgan found himself 
with sufficient force added to his little army of four hun- 
dred regulars to give battle to Tarleton at the Cowpens. 
To hurry up the South Carolina Rangers she swam her 
horse across rivers, evaded the Tories, and encountered a 
thousand dangers, but succeeded in recruiting Morgan's 
little army with sufficient patriotic force to bring off the 
best fought battle of the Revolution, and at a time when 
all seemed lost to the patriot cause, and so followed 
Carolina's redemption. 

Who knows but Kate Barry's prayers were answered 
when Broad River so suddenly rose from a descending 
freshet, and cut off Cornwallis' pursuing army after the 
Battle of the Cowpens. The same downflowing freshet 
happened at Yadkin, Morgan making good his retreat to 
Grane near Guilford Court House. 

Kate Barry was a daughter of Col. Charles Moore, who 
was born in Scotland in 1727, and who went into Ireland 
from Scotland with the Duke of Hamilton, his relative, as 
family tradition says Col. Charles Moore's mother was a 

Charles Moore was a college graduate, and a prominent 
teacher at the time he removed to Carolina, and is described 
as such in a deed for land now on file of record in North 
Carolina, but what important part he took in the War of 
the Revolution is not positively known; further than that 
his son, Captain Thomas Moore, distinguished himself at 
Cowpens, and was afterwards a General in the War of 1812. 
But Col. Charles Moore's six sons-in-law all acted promin- 
ent parts on the side of the patriots in the War of the Revo- 
lution, viz: Captain Andrew Barry, husband of Margaret 
Katherine Moore; Col. Jno. Lawson, husband of Alice 


Moore; Judge Richard Barry, husband of Rosa Moore; 
Rev. R. M. Cunningham, D. D., husband of Elizabeth 

Moore ; Capt. Robt. Hanna, 'husband of Moore. He 

was on the staff of General Sumter at the Battle of Black- 
stock ; Matthew Patton, husband of the two last sisters was 
a noted soldier, but his rank is not known, except that he 
was a staff officer. 

Written by Mary S. Irwin Wood (Mrs. James S. Wood) 
Regent of Savannah Chapter, a descendent of Captain Andrew 
Barr yand Kate Barry from records and authenticated family 
traditions, and read at June meeting of the Savannah Chapter 
D. A. R. 1913, by her daughter Miss Rosalind Lawson Wood, by 
request sent to Elijah Clark Chapter D. A. R., Athens, G-a., to 
be read by Mrs. Augusta Wood DuBose, adso a descendant of 
Kate Barry and her husband, Captain Andrew Barry. 


During the reign of George III, in the town of Boston, 
with only eighteen thousand inhabitants, there hung in the 
library of Harvard University a copy of "A Cardinal" 
by Van Dycke. The New England states were opposed to 
art as a principle, but showed signs of literary and artistic 
activity at this time. Exhibitions were unknown, the 
painters were "traveling artists" who went over the 
country painting portraits on sign boards, stage coaches, 
and fire engines, for practice and also a living. John 
Singleton Copeley, in Boston, was the only American artist 
who did meritorious work. Before he came under foreign 
influences, he wielded his brush with great dexterity, ' ' The 
Death of the Earl of Chatham" in the National Gallery in 
London, being one of his famous pictures. The grouping 
of the portrait figures is skillfully arranged. To our art, 
the portraits he painted in Boston are of importance. The 
lesson thus taught led us into the interior of the royalist 
era, with carved furniture, showy curtains, peopled with 


well-to-do men and women, lavishly robed, that suggests the 
customs as well as the people of the Revolutionary period, 
Benjamin West, a contemporary of Copely, had nothing in 
common with the development of American art. He left 
at an early age for England, where he climbed the pinnacle 
of social, if not artistic success. He was a personal friend 
of the king, was employed as his historical painter, succeed- 
ing 'Sir Joshua Reynolds as president of the royal academy. 
One of his pictures quite noted was "Christ Rejected." 
' ' Death on the Pale Horse, ' ' the size of the canvas he used 
was 200 by 264 feet. His daring innovation of dressing the 
characters showed the costumes of the time and country in 
which they lived. It was his picturesque personality more 
than his art that attracts us to-day. In his native town., 
Philadelphia, it is said the Cherokee Indians taught him the 
secret of preparing color. This was the first city in the 
Union where opportunities for art growth and a moderate 
patronage presented themselves. Charles Wilson Peale, a 
man rather versatile, also a painter of some merit, estab- 
lished the first "Art Gallery," a museum of historical 
portraits, in his residence in Philadelphia. 

John Trumbull was a different type, was not so richly 
endowed by natural gifts. Every accomplishment meant 
strenuous study, yet he is dear to us for his glorification of 
revolutionary history. ' ' The Battle of Bunker Hill, " " The 
Death of Montgomery ' ' and ' ' the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, " are familiar. The growth of art was handicapped, 
more than benefited America was now an independent 
nation. The Royalists who could afford the luxury of art 
left this country. Now three men stepped forth who bore 
upon their brush tips the honor and progress of American 
art, Thomas Sully, John Vanderlyn and Washington Alls- 
ton. The first mentioned became rapidly the most fashion- 
able portrait painter of the day. His sweet faces, with 
robes draped gracefully, show great progress and execu- 
tion. Sully was represented at the Philadelphia Academy 


by one hundred and sixteen pictures. It is said he painted 
a full length portrait of Queen Victoria. 

Vanderlyn lived in Rome painting. Washington 
Allston painted on his enormous canvas "Belchazzer's 
Feast." "The Angel Liberating St. Peter from Prison "- 
is one of decided merit. Gilbert Stuart was not a follower 
of the others, had a distinct and forceful individuality, the 
striking details of his work being brilliance in coloring and 
the natural life-like posing. He was the first American 
master of painting. His early sketches were lost. At the 
age of thirteen he received commission to paint two por- 
traits. Two years later he went to Scotland. His stay 
there was short, he pined for home, secured passage and 
returned, later going to London in 1775, suffering privation. 
Afterwards a pupil under West for five years, his success 
was immediate; people of wit and fashion thronged his 
studio. He tasked himself to six sitters a day. Then devot- 
ed himself to society, living in great splendor. During 
this period he painted Louis the Sixteenth, George III, and 
Prince of Wales. Now his position was assured, he indulged 
himself in refusing many sitters, money failed to tempt 
him, only those who appealed to his artistic taste or afforded 
the best opportunity for a good picture. He was willing 
to give up all the golden opportunities Europe presented 
that he might have the privilege and satisfaction of paint- 
ing the one man, whose heroic qualities fascinated him most. 
In 1792 he returned to the City of Brotherly Love, estab- 
lishing his studio here, painted three portraits of Wash- 
ington, unlike Peale, who made in all fourteen of Wash- 
ington from life, painting him in the prime of his vigour. 
Stuart depicts the late autumn of his life, a face in which 
the lines of character are softened, a face chastened by 
responsibilities, it is the face, who has conquered himself 
as well as others ; he represents him indeed as ' ' The Father 
of His Country." He said, "I copy the works of God, 
leave clothes to the tailor, and mantua maker. ' ' 


In Washington he found sentiments, grace and charac- 
ter. In the story of art, Gilbert Stuart holds a unique, and 
dignified position. "The Course of Nature is but the Art 
of God." Thomas Cole was a landscape painter. The 
sketches he painted in the Catskills the banks, woods, 
rocks and the Cascades gained recognition. He was an 
ardent student of English literature, influenced by Sir 
Walter Scott. In truth, was more of a poet than painter. 
His noted pictures were ' ' The Voyage of Childhood, " ' ' The 
Course of Empire," consisting of five canvasses, first rep- 
resenting "A Nation's Rise, Progress, Decline and Fall." 
These are at the Historical Society of New York. The last 
picture of the serial, entitled ' ' Desolation, ' ' has rarely been 
surpassed in solemn majesty, and depth of thought. 
Miss Emily G. Morrow, American Monthly Magazine. 


Troy, New York, is said to be the place where the name 
"Uncle Sam" originated. After the declaration of war 
with England by the colonies a New York contractor, Elbert 
Anderson, visited Troy and made it his headquarters for 
the purchase of provisions for the Continental army. The 
supplies were duly inspected before shipment. One of the 
inspectors was Samuel Wilson, brother of Ebenezer, also an 
inspector and known as Uncle Sam to the workmen whom 
he superintended. 

The casks in which the beef and pork were packed were 
marked with the initials of Elbert Anderson, the contractor, 
and the United States, thus: "E. A. U. S." says the New 
York Sun. The first pair of initials were of course familiar 
to the men, but "U. S." mystified them. The fact was that 
the name United States was then so new to these country- 
men that its initials were a complete puzzle. They turned 
to the nearest explanation, a humorous one and intended as 
a joke on their boss. If ' ' E. A. " stood for Elbert Anderson, 


then they opined "U. S." must stand for " Uncle Sam" 
Wilson. The joke spread to the Continental army, which 
carried it to every part of the country. 


In 1781 South Carolina was completely overrun by the 
British. The English colonists were divided, the majority 
being in favor of the Revolution, but there were a goodly 
number of loyal men among them who conscientiously 
espoused the cause of the Mother country and these were 
called Tories. Those who took part in the Revolution were 
called Whigs. Lancaster County was their stronghold. 
They were mostly descendants of the Scotch-Irish. Among 
these was Charles Mackey, their acknowledged leader. 

The Whigs had always made Lancaster too hot for the 
Tories, but the advent of the British with Tarleton at their 
head, turned the tide of war, and now the Tories with 
Tarleton drove the Whigs from Lancaster across the 
Catawba and the Pedee Rivers to join General Marion. 

Charles Mackey, as the leader of his band, had made 
himself very obnoxious to the Tories and they impatiently 
waited the time for vengeance. He was a man of medium 
size, very active and energetic, a fine horseman, a splendid 
shot, hot headed, impulsive, often running unnecessary 
risks and doing dare-devil deeds. No work was too hazard- 
ous for him. His wife, Lydia Mackey, was a woman of 
good common sense, with a clear head and fine judgment. 
In her coolness and self-possession she was far superior to 
her husband. 

They had a family of young children, and Charles 
Mackey had not heard from them or seen any of them in 
several weeks. Their home was not more than two and a 
half miles from Tarleton 's camp, on the Hanging, Rock 
Creek. He knew it would be hazardous for him to return 


to his home so near Tarleston 's camp ; but his auxiety be- 
came so great that he could no longer remain in doubt, so 
he cautiously made his way home where he jiinwisely 
loitered for a week, and during this time he had the 
temerity to enter Tarleton 's lines more than once in search 
of information which was most valuable to his country's 

His home had patches of corn and potatoes on either side 
of a lane leading to the front of the house, while at the rear 
was a large kitchen-garden extending back to a great 
swamp, which was almost impenetrable to man or beast. 
This swamp was surrounded by a quagmire from ten to 
thirty feet wide. It was entered by jumping from tussock 
to tussock of moss covered clumps of mold, a foot or two in 
diameter and rising six to eight inches above the black 
jelly-like mire which shook in every direction when passing 
over it. A plank or fence-rail served as a temporary draw- 
bridge, which was pulled into the swamp after passing 

When the country was infested by Tories, Charles 
Mackey spent his days in this swamp if not out scouting. 
At night he ventured home. He had good watch dogs and 
they gave the alarm whenever any one approached, whether 
by night or day. If at night, he would immediately lift a 
loose plank in the floor of his bed room, drop through to 
the ground, and out in the rear and run thirty or forty 
yards across the garden with his gun in hand and disappear 
in the swamp, pulling his fence rail draw-bridge after him. 
There was no approach to the house from the rear, and his 
retreat was always effected with impunity. 

Once when he was at home, on the eve of leaving with 
some valuable information for the American General, his 
faithful watch dog failed to give warning of the approach 
of strangers and the first notice of their presence was their 
shouting "Hallo" in front of the house. Mrs. Mackey 
jumped out of bed, threw open the window shutters, stuck 
her head out, surveyed carefully tbe half dozen armed men, 


and said : ' ' Who is there ! " ' ' Friends, ' ' they replied. ' ' Is 
Charlie Mackey at home ? ' ' She promptly answered ' ' No. ' ' 
In the mean time Charlie had raised the loose plank in the 
floor, and was ready to make for the swamp in the rear, 
when, stopping for a moment to make sure of the character 
of his visitors, he heard the spokesman say: "Well, we are 
sorry indeed, for there was a big fight yesterday on Lynch 's 
Creek, between General Marion and the British, and we 
routed the Redcoats completely. We have been sent to 
General Davie at Lansford with orders to unite with 
General Marion at Flat Rock as soon as possible, and then 
to attack Tarleton. We do not know the way to Lansford 
and came to get Charlie to pilot us." Mrs. Mackey, calm 
and collected, said she was sorry her husband was not at 
home. But her husband was just the reverse, hot headed 
and impetuous. This sudden news of victory after so many 
reverses excited him, and he madly rushed out into the 
midst of the mounted men, hurrahing for Marion and 
Davie, and shouting vengeance on the Redcoats and Tories, 
and he began shaking hands enthusiastically with the boys 
and asking particulars about the fight, when the ring- 
leader cooly said: "Well, Charlie, old fellow, we have set 
many traps for you, but never baited them right until now. 
You are our prisoner." And they marched him off just 
as he was, without hat or coat and without allowing him 
a moment to say a parting word to his poor wife. They 
took him to Col. Tarleton 's headquarters where he was tried 
by court-martial and sentenced to death as a spy. 

The next day, Mrs. Mackey, not knowing what had 
happened to him, gathered some fruits and eggs, and with a 
basket well filled made her way to Col. Tarleton 's. The 
Colonel was on parade, but a young officer asked her to be 
seated. He said: "You have something for sale, I pre- 
sume?" She replied that she had fruit and eggs. He 
gladly took what she had and paid for them. She then 
said her basket of fruit was only a pretext to get to Col. 
Tarleton 's headquarters. That she was anxious to see him 


in person on business of great importance. She then 
explained to him the capture of her husband and that she 
wished to get him released if he were still alive, though she 
did not know but what they had hung him to the first tree 
they had come to. 

The officer told her the Colonel was on parade and would 
not return for two hours. Mrs. Mackey was a comely 
woman of superior intelligence and soon interested the 
young officer in her sad condition. He expressed for her 
the deepest sympathy and told her that her husband was 
near by under guard ; that he had been tried and sentenced 
to death, and he feared there was no hope for him, as the 
evidence against him by the Tories was of the most positive 
kind. He told her Col. Tarleton was as cruel and unfeel- 
ing as he was brave, and that he would promise her any- 
thing to get rid of her, but would fulfill nothing. " How- 
ever" said he, "I will prepare the necessary document for 
your husband's release, filling in the blanks so that it will 
only be necessary to get Col. Tarleton 's signature, but I 
again frankly say that it is almost hopeless. ' ' 

At twelve o'clock Tarleton rode up, dismounted, and 
entered the adjoining tent. As he passed along the young 
officer said, "You must wait until he dines; another horse 
will be brought and when he comes up to mount you can 
approach him, but not till then. ' ' 

At the expected time the tall, handsome, clean-shaven 
Colonel came out of his tent, and as he neared his charger, 
he was confronted by the heroic Lydia Mackey, who in a 
few words made known the object of her visit. He quickly 
replied that he was in a hurry and could not at that time 
stop to consider her case. She said the case was urgent; 
that her husband had been condemned to death and he 
alone had the power to save him. He replied : ' ' Very well, 
my good woman, when I return later in the day I will 
inquire into the matter. ' ' Saying this he placed his foot in 
the stirrup and sprang up, but before he could throw his 
right leg over the saddle, Mrs. Mackey caught him by the 


coat and jerked him down. He turned upon her with a 
scowl, as she implored him to grant her request. He was 
greatly discomfited and angrily said he woudd inquire into 
the case on his return. He then attempted again to mount, 
when she dragged him down the second time, begging him 
in eloquent terms to spare the life of her husband. "Tut, 
tut, my good woman," said he, boiling with rage, "do you 
know what you are doing? be gone, I say I will attend to 
this matter at my convenience and not sooner. ' ' So saying 
he attempted the third time to mount, and so the third time 
Lydia Mackey jerked him to the ground. Holding by the 
sword's scabbard, and falling on her knees, she cried: 
"Draw your sword and slay me, or give me the life of my 
husband, for I will never let you go until you kill me or 
sign this document," which she drew from her bosom and 
held up before his face. 

Tarleton, trembling with rage, turned to the young 
officer who stood close by intently watching the scene, and 
said: "Captain, where is this woman's husband?" He 
answered: "Under guard in yonder tent." "Order him 
to be brought here, ' ' and soon Charlie Mackey stood before 
the valiant Tarleton. "Sir" said he, "you have been con- 
victed of bearing arms against His Majesty's government; 
worse, you have been convicted of being a spy. You have 
dared to enter my lines in disguise as a spy, and you cannot 
deny it, but for the sake of your wife I will give you a 
full pardon on condition that you will take an oath never 
again to bear arms against the King's government." 

"Sir," said Charlie Mackey, in the firmest tones, "I 
cannot accept pardon on these terms. It must be uncon- 
ditional or I must die, ' ' and poor Lydia Mackey cried out, 
"I, too, must die." On her knees she plead with such 
fervor and eloquence that Tarleton seemed lost for a mo- 
ment and hesitated; then turning to the young Captain 
he said with quivering lips and a voice choking with 
emotion : 


" Cap tain, for God's sake sign my name to this paper, 
and let this woman go." 

With this, Mrs. Mackey sank to the ground exhausted, 
and Col. Tarleton rode off, doubtless happier for having 
spared the life of the heroic Lydia 's husband. 

The history of the American Revolution can hardly 
present a more interesting tableau than that of Lydia 
Mackey begging the life of her husband at the hands of the 
brave and bloody Tarleton, and it is probable that the 
i( Lydia Mackey victory" was the first ever gained over the 
heart of this redoubtable commander, and it is very certain 
that Charles Mackey was the only condemned prisoner 
ever liberated by him without taking the oath of allegienco 
to the Mother Country. MRS. F. H. OKME, Atlanta 
Chapter, D. A. E. 


In most instances, the state floral emblems have been 
adopted by the vote of the pupils of the public schools of 
their respective states. 

Alabama, goldenrod. 
Arizona, suwarso. 
Arkansas, apple blossoms. 
California, California poppy. 
Colorado, columbine. 
Connecticut, mountain laurel. 
Delaware, peach blossoms. 
Florida, Japan camellia. 
Georgia, Cherokee rose. 
Idaho, syringa. 
Illinois, rose. 
Indiana, corn. 
Iowa, wild rose. 
Kansas, sunflower. 
Louisiana, magnolia. 
Maine, pine cone. 
Michigan, apple blossom. 


Minnesota, moccasin flower. 

Mississippi, magnolia. 

Missouri, goldenrod. 

Montana, bitter-root. 

Nebraska, goldenrod. 

New Jersey, sugar maple. 

Nevada, sage brush. 

New York, moss rose. 

New Mexico, crimson rambler rose. 

North Carolina, chrysanthemum. 

North Dakota, goldenrod. 

Ohio, buckeye. 

Oklahoma, mistletoe. 

Oregon, Oregon grape. 

Rhode Island, violet. 

South Carolina, Carolina palmetto. 

South Dakota, pasque flora. 

Texas, blue bonnet. 

Utah, sago lily. 

Vermont, red clover. 

Washington, rhododendron. 

Wisconsin, violet. 



When I was a little girl, our fad was the possession of 
a charmstring. This was a string of buttons, obtained by 
coaxing from our elders or barter with each other, and con- 
stantly added to until some of them reached the length of 
several yards. With delightful pride we told over the list 
of our treasures. "This button," one would say, "came 
from Cousin Mary's wedding dress; this my Uncle John 
gave me ; this was sent to me from China by my aunt who 
is a missionary in Canton ; and this bright brass one was on 
my father 's uniform during the war. ' ' Much of family life 
and many loving associations were thus strung together for 
the little maiden. In some such way, but in a larger sense, 
our state has used the naming of its counties as a cord of 
gold on which to hang traditions of its past, memories of 
its heroes, and reverences for those who helped us when help 
was needed. 

A group of seven counties embalms the names of the 
Indian tribes who owned our hills and valleys before us, 
who hunted the deer with flintheaded arrows where now 
our cities stand, and threaded their trails in silent forests 
where today our cotton fields are spread. They are Catoosa, 
Chattahoochee, Chattooga, Cherokee, Coweta, Muscogee, 
Oconee how musically the syllables fall upon the ear. It 
is like a chime of silver bells. 

Four counties may be set together as commemorating 
large events in history. Columbia, Oglethorpe, Liberty, 
and Union. The first of these was named for the dauntless 
sailor who, possessed with the faith which cared naught for 
all other men's unbelief and rising above poverty, discour- 
agement, and mutiny, held his way westward over unknown 
seas to find his prophetic vision a reality. Oglethorpe bears 
the name of the brave soldier, courteous gentleman, and 
broadminded philanthropist, who founded a colony for op- 


pressed debtors to give them a new chance in life. Liberty 
County has a pretty little story of its own. A band of 
Massachusetts Puritans, seeking a milder climate, settled 
first in South Carolina, and not being fully satisfied, came 
on to St. John's Parish, Georgia. Their distinguished devo- 
tion to the cause of liberty in the perilous days of 1776- 
1783 gained for them that name when the parishes were 
changed into counties. Union County was so named be- 
cause its citizens claimed to be known as Union men, when 
the rest of the state stood for state rights.* 

Another group of seven counties bears the name of 
English statesmen who spoke for us in the halls of Parlia- 
ment and withstood the tyranny of king and nation in 
dealing with their brothers of America. They were the 
fiery-tongued orator Edmund Burke, the commoners Glynn 
and Wilkes, the Duke of Richmond, and the Earls of Chat- 
ham, Camden, and Efimgham. 

Three other foreigners, lovers of liberty, drew sword 
and fought in our battles, side by side with our struggling 
heroes. Georgia has honored herself by naming counties for 
Baron DeKalb, Count Pulaski, and General LaFayette. 

Next comes the long muster-call of heroes whose names 
are written on the roll of fame as having fought for the 
freedom of their country men whose names recall Bunker 
Hill and Valley Forge, King's Mountain and Guilford 
Court House, and all the grim experiences of a nation 
struggling for existence. Georgia has named counties for 
Baker, Bryan, Butts, Clarke, (Gen. Elijah, who fought the 
Tories in our own state), Clinch, Early, Greene, (Gen. 
Nathaniel, who settled on his grant of land in Georgia after 
the war,) Jasper, (the brave sergeant who leaped over the 
parapet to rescue the flag at Fort Moultrie,) Laurens, Lee 
(Light Horse Harry, father of the grand General of the 
Civil War,) Lincoln, Macon, Marion (the Swamp Fox of 
South Carolina,) Meri wether, Montgomery, Morgan, New- 

*But Georgia was at that time intensely Union, although 
helieving in State rights. 


ton, Putnam, Screven, Stewart, Sumter, Twiggs, Taliaferro, 
Warren (killed at the battle of Bunker Hill,) Wayne (Mad 
Anthony,) Wilkerson, Paulding, White, Mclntosh grand 
and glorious names that break upon the ear like a trumpet 
call, inspiring to deeds worthy to be ranked with theirs. 
The last of these names, Melntosh, was given in honor of a 
whole family which had contributed many sons to freedom 's 

Seven presidents of the United States have given names 
to our counties. They are Washington, Jefferson, Madison, 
Monroe, Polk, Taylor and Pierce. 

The governors of Georgia have been a notable line, 
strong men of iron will, believers in state's rights and up- 
holders of the dignity of the commonwealth. More than 
once they have withstood the national government. The 
list of them includes some names famous for other services 
to the state in the Revolution and the Civil War as well as 
in the halls of Congress. Those for whom counties are named 
are: Bulloch, Early, Elbert, Emanuel, Gilmer, Gwinnett, 
Habersham, Hall, Heard, Houston, Irwin, Jackson (soldier 
and statesman,) Jenkins (who saved the executive seal of 
state at the close of the Civil War and kept it until military 
rule was over and it could be returned to a governor legally 
elected by the people,) Johnson, Lumpkin, Mitchell, Rabun, 
Schley, Stephens (giant soul in a frail body, whose unheed- 
ed counsels as Vice-president of the Southern Confederacy 
might have prevented much of the bitterness that followed,) 
Talbot, Telfair, Towns, Troup, Walton, Forsyth, and Tatt- 
nall. Wisely and well they guided the ship of state and 
left a priceless heritage of precedent to their successors. 

Georgia has named fourteen counties for statesmen of 
national fame Calhoun, Clay, Webster (these three made 
the great triumvirate whose eloquence shook the land in 
times when nullification and democracy were the questions 
of the day,) Bibb, Franklin, Brooks, Carroll, Douglas, 
Hancock (one of the first to lift his voice against British 
oppression in Massachusetts,) Henry (the immortal orator 


of Virginia,) Lowndes, McDuffie, Murray, and Randolph 
(quaint, eloquent, sarcastic John Randolph of Roanoke.) 

Of her own sons whose voices have thundered in the 
halls of Congress, or guided her councils at home, Georgia 
has named counties for Abraham Baldwin (who first 
planned the state university,) Ben Hill (of the trumpet 
tongue, who first dared to reply to northern slanders, to 
speak the truth about Andersonville, to show that we had 
not food, clothing and medicine for our own soldiers and 
that we did the best we could for the unfortunate prisoners 
who fell into our hands ; claiming the respect of the nation 
and the world for the maligned Southern Confederacy.) 
Berrien, Clayton, Cobb, Colquitt, Crawford, (William H., 
our candidate for the presidency,) Crisp, Campbell, Charl- 
ton, Dawson, Dougherty, Floyd, Haralson, Jones, Miller, 
Spanding, Turner, Walker, and Ware. 

Six of our counties bear the names of men who spent 
their lives fighting the Indians. They are Appling, Coffee, 
Butts, Wilcox, Thomas, and Dade. Of the first of these the 
story is told that, in recognition of his services, the state 
voted him a sword with an appropriate inscription. Before 
it was ready for presentation the brave young soldier died. 
As he left no heir, the sword was kept in the state house at 
Milledgeville until that memorial autumn of 1864, when it 
disappeared. Some soldier of Sherman 's army thus became 
richer and the State of Georgia poorer by a handsome 

The Mexican War left us the names of Echols, Faniiin, 
Quitman, and Worth. Other brave soldiers of the state 
who have been thus honored are Glascock, Milton, Pickens, 
and Pike. 

The Civil War gave to us the names of Bartow and 
Toombs. Francis C. Bartow said: "I go to illustrate Geor- 
gia," and fell on the field of the First Battle of Maiiassas. 
General Robert Toombs escaped from Georgia on his mare, 
Grey Alice, when every road and ferry was guarded by 
soldiers watching for him, made his way to England, and 



lived there until it was safe for him to return, remaining to 
the end of his life an ' ' unreconstructed rebel. ' ' 

Four counties, Dodge, lift, Gordon, and Upson, are 
named for captains of industry. The United States Navy 
gave us the name of Decatur. Banks and Terrell are called 
for two beloved physicians who made their names blessed 
in the homes of the people for the alleviation of pain and 
the saving of life. In both cases the name was chosen for 
the county by the citizens, in loving recognition of the 
physician's services. 

The Lost Cause left with us the name of its one presi- 
dent, and we who are glad that it is the Lost Cause, that 
slavery is no longer an institution in our midst and that 
Georgia takes her rightful place in the sisterhood of states, 
nevertheless claim the right to cherish our memories, to 
welcome Dixie with the rebel yell, to cover our graves with 
flowers on the twenty-sixth of April, to look back through a 
mist of tears to Gettysburg and Appomattox, and to call 
one of our counties Jeff Davis. 

The noble preacher, Whitfield, who helped to establish 
the Bethesda Orphan 's Home, gave his name to one county ; 
and Henry Grady, silver-tongued and golden-hearted orator 
who helped to heal the wounds of war and drew together 
the North and the South into renewed brotherhood, is 
remembered in the name of another. Rockdale is so called 
from its granite rocks and wooded dales. One is named for 
Robert Fulton, the inventor, one for Harris, a prominent 
jurist, and last of all, Georgia has named one county for a 
woman red-headed, cross-eyed, Tory-hating, liberty-loving 
Nancy Hart. 


MRS. R. C. LITTLE, Fielding Lewis Chapter. 

More than a hundred years ago, a tiny acorn, dripped 
by some frisky squirrel or flitting bird, fell to the ground, 
where it lay unheeded and unknown. Pelted by winter 
storms, it sank deep into the soft earth where it was 
nourished and fed, sending out rootlets to take firm hold 
of the kind mother who had sheltered it. 

Soon the summer's sun called it from its underground 
bed and still clinging with its thread-like roots, it pushed 
up a green head and looked around the beautiful scenes of 
woodland, mountain and sky. 

Pleased with what it saw, it lifted its head brighter and 
higher until it became a mighty oak, a monarch of the forest. 
Birds and squirrels made their homes in it and beneath its 
shade rested the weary. 

All the country around belonged to and was inhabited 
by the Cherokee Indians, of all known tribes the most 
civilized and enlightened. No doubt their papooses swung 
on the branches of this magnificent tree and played under 
its wide spreading arms. 

With the coming of the white man, a town grew up 
lovely Marietta, still nestling amid the shadows of Kenne- 
saw, and the Indians were asked to leave their happy homes, 
and go to strange lands further West. Bewildered and 
uncomprehending, they were unwilling to go, and groups of 
them were often seen beneath this same mighty oak mighty 
even them, conferring with the whites, and discussing by 
signs and gestures, the momentous question. When, finally, 
they were persuaded to accept the proposition of the gov- 
ernment, they met in council beneath their favorite tree 
and signed the treaty, by which they agreed to leave their 
beautiful North Georgia homes forever. 

Within the memory of the oldest inhabitants, the grand 
oak became historic. It is still standing, and has showed no 


signs of age, until a fiery bolt found its lofty height and 
scathed it far down its trunk. 

It stands in the yard of Mrs. H. G. Cole, and is, not- 
withstanding its somewhat crippled condition, the admira- 
tion of all beholders. Its girth near the ground is some- 
what over eight feet, and seven feet from the ground it 
measures considerably more than twelve feet around. 

Mrs. Cole, though not aged herself, has seen four genera- 
tions of her own family disporting beneath this noble tree, 
and should it fall because of age and decay, she and her 
children would miss and mourn it as a dear lost friend. 


Original poem by Mrs. C. M. O'Hara, Greenville, Ga., 
read on the Fourth of July, 1912, at the meeting of David 
Meriwether Chapter: 

It has been one hundred and thirty-six years 

Since our forefathers laid aside all fears 

Of the mother country, and boldly said: 

The price of liberty in blood should be paid. 

The Continental Congress in Philadelphia met 

And resolved that we should independence get, 

Thomas Jefferson wrote a long declaration, 

Which England said was a sad desecration. 

So our mother tried to exercise her right 

To tax her children and foi'bidding the fight. 

The battles of Lexington, Bunker Hill and others 

Showed England that we were no longer brothers, 

After the first gun of the revolution was heard 

The Americans lost fear of King George the third; 

They determined with Franklin together to stand 

And hold fast at any cost the cherished land. 

Over a century has passed, the patriots are dust, 

In the homes of many daughters their good swords rust, 

But the celebration of Independence on the Fourth of July 

In the hearts of Americans we trust will never die. 



Written for the Xavier Chapter of the D. A. R., Rome, Ga. 

"Ah ! woman in this world of ours, 

What boon can be compared to thee ? 
How slow would drag life's weary hours, 
Though man's proud brow were bound in flowers, 

And his the wealth of land and sea, 
If destined to exist alone 
And, ne'er call woman's heart his own." 



All day long there had been a vague unrest in the old 
colonial home, all day the leaves had quivered on the banks 
of the Mataponi River; the waves were restless, the dog in 
his kennel howled fitfully ; the birds and the chickens sought 
their roosts quiveringly, whimsically, and when night had 
let her sable curtain down, a lurid glare shot athwart the 
sky, in a strange curved comet-like shape. It was the 
Indian summer, October in her glory of golden-rods, 
sumachs, and the asters in the wood. But, hist! hark! 
what breaks upon the autumn stillness and the quiet of the 
colonial household on the Mataponi, ? 

It was the cannon at the siege of Yorktown, forty miles 
away. The French fleet were making blazing half circles 
on the sky seen from their fortifications even thus far below. 

Through the long night the boom ! boom ! boom ! con- 
tinued, the simple, loyal folks knowing nothing of the 

At last, wearied and spent, with a prayer to the All 
Father to save America, they sought their welcome couches. 
Among them was Kitty, the idolized daughter of the family. 

Soft ! step easy ! as we push aside the chintz curtains of 
her four-poster and gaze upon the child, to exclaim: How 
innocent is youth ! Her seventeen years lie upon her pink 


cheeks, and shimmering curly tresses as lightly as a hum- 
ning bird in the heart of roses. Her lithesome form makes a 
deep indenture in the thick featherbed, the gay patchwork 
quilt half reveals, and half conceals the grace of rounded 
arm and neck and breast, a sigh escapes her coral lips, one 
hand is thrust beneath the pillow, she dreams ! 

On the chair her quilted podusouy and long stays are 
carelessly thrown. Her Louis Seize slippers with red heels 
are on the floor, and the old clock on the stair is ticking, 
ticking, ticking. 

Kitty is dreaming. Of what? The greatest moment in 
our national history. Dream on sweet maid, closer, closer 
point the hands; it nears three o'clock Oct. 19, 1781. A 
wild cry, and the whole household is awake. 

Swift running to and fro, 

Smiles, tears, shouts, "glory," "glory," "God be 
praised. ' ' 

Such the sounds that faintly reach the dreaming senses 
of our Kitty. And then her father with a kiss and hug 
pulls her out of bed with "Awake lass! awake! awake! 
Cornwallis has surrendered." 

In her night gown from her latticed window Kitty saw 
the courier galloping through the little hamlet ; pausing at 
her father's gate to give the message of our conquest over 
the British, and then galloping on towards the North, for 
he was on the direct route from Yorktown to Philadelphia 
where Congress was in session. 

By the time Kitty had pompadoured her hair, and 
donned her paviered print gown, all the parish bells were 
ringing for joy. From Georgia to Maine bells were sound- 
ing; peals of liberty and peace filled the air with prayers 
and praise and service to God took up the glad hour and 
over and over the refrain was sung "Cornwallis is taken! 
Cornwallis is taken. ' ' 

Ah, dear Kitty, and quaint little tableau of the long ago, 
five generations coming and going, in whose veins beats 
your loyal blood still listen and tremble and glow with 


pride at your legend of the siege of Yorktown, and better 
still, sweetest of all the long agone ancestors more than five 
nations, indeed every nation honors and makes low 
obeisance to the stars and the stripes. ' ' Old glory ! long may 
she wave o'er the land of the free and the home of the 


"Thinkest thou existence doth depend on time? 
It doth; but actions are our epochs." 

In 1784 or 85, Mr. Carlton, who had his home on the 
Mataponi River, moved with his family to Georgia. 

After Cornwallis had delivered his sword to Washing- 
ton, a little group of emigrants might have been seen at 
Yorktown ; among them the families of Edmund Byne and 
Robert Carlton. 

Out in the blue harbour the nifty little brig "Nancy" 
lay, all sails spread ready to embark to Savannah, Ga. 

These two above named gentlemen, took passage with 
their families, servants and household goods, and they were 
said to be persons of sincere, and devoted piety, full of 
hope and courage. They expected to reach Savannah in 
three days. 

However, contrary winds set in, and the brig daring 
not hug the treacherous coasts of the Carolinas sped far out 
to sea amid a terrific storm. She drifted for weeks at the 
mercy of the waves, until the passengers almost despaired 
of seeing land. If in our prologue, we saw a pretty, and 
partly imaginary picture of Katherine Carlton, known as 
Kitty, for she it is now eighteen years of age, we see her 
again and in true historical facts receive her account of 
long ago, of the peril. Thus reads her account : ' ' One time 
it seemed as if the end had come. 'Twas night. The 
passengers were lying in their berths enduring as well as 
they could the dangers of the hour, when suddenly the ship 
careened, seemingly falling on its side. It was then the 
voice of one of those pious men was heard amidst the howl- 


ing winds 'Lord help us up,' and straightway the ship was 
set upright and the danger was passed. ' ' 

The little party after landing on our beautiful south 
Georgia coast, sweet with golden jasmines, and long moss 
on the beautiful braided live oak, proceeded up the country, 
in true emigrant fashion, in wagons. 

Imagination, that merry, fantastic jade, will not let my 
pen be steady. A thousand pictures obtrude. Kitty, her 
head so curly, eyes so dark and soft, thrust from out the 
wagons canvassed top, or again her snowy fingers playing 
in the cool waters of a running brook, when the team stops 
to feed and drink. Then Mr. Carlton, brave, resolute and 
the camp fire, the smell of broiled bacon, the dog on trail 
of a rabbit, the straw for seats, and weird firelight, and 
above all, the eternal stars of heaven. 

But we must hasten, though the chronicle, which is 
reliable, states that it took five weeks to reach their desti- 
nation in Burke County. 

As they approached the Northern border of "Wilkes 
County, the trees grew taller, and the red oak, the white 
oak, burch, and maple, the crimson honeysuckle, and wild 
violets and muscadine vines took the place of yellow jas- 
mine, and moss and whispering pines. 

It was indeed a forest primeval, a virgin soil, and a 
new land. So on the last day of their tiresome journey, 
early one morning, they came to a creek. There was no 
bridge, and it was plain that the stream had to be forded. 

The wagons were moving slowly along. Katherine and 
her sister walking in front. A discussion arose: ''What 
about the girls ? Here ! come Kitty ! " or " Stop, Kitty ! don 't 
take off your slippers ; you can 't wade. ' ' About that time 
up rode a gallant revolutionary soldier named Captain John 
Freeman, who boldly said " I '11 take Kitty ' ' and in a trice 
he had the fair young lady behind him on his own horse, 
and the limpid waters of our clear Georgia stream were 
laying its flanks as he proceeded across the stream. 



"The wagons have all forded the brook as it flows, and then the 

rear guard stays 

To pick the purple grapes that are hanging from the boughs." 

Edward Everett Hale. 

While our heroine is riding along in the dewy morn of 
the day, and at the same time enjoying the beauties of 
nature and no doubt with her lithe young body leaning 
against the Captain, causing his heart to beat a double 
quick, we will go on with our narrative. 

Captain John Freeman was a native Georgian, a Revo- 
lutionary soldier, he was present at the siege of Charles- 
town and Savannah, a participant in the battles of Cowpens, 
King's Mountain and Guilford Court House, at the battle 
of Kettle Creek, and also at the capture of Augusta in 

In most of his adventures in the Revolutionary war, 
Captain Freeman had with him a colored boy named Am- 
brose, who lived to a very great age and was well known to 
the younger generation as "Uncle Ambrose." He had his 
own cabin in Athens, Georgia. Incidents in regard to him 
were handed by tradition. He had on his left arm the scar 
of a sabre cut, made by British dragoons when General 
Tarleton's men were attacking and endeavoring to get 
away with the American trooper 's horses that had been left 
at the camp, and which it was in part, the duty of the boy 
Ambrose to keep. The British dragoons had possession of 
the horses for awhile and Ambrose a prisoner also, but by a 
rapid retaliation the horses and servants were recovered. 
Old Ambrose used to tell about having been present at th(> 
siege of Savannah, when Count Pulaski, one of the Ameri- 
can Generals, was killed. He said that he was back in the 
edge of the pine, or timber when the American army 
charged on the British fort and breastworks. He described 
Pulaski as mounted on a spirited horse, with a great white 
plume in his hat, and how gallantly he led the Americans 
in their advance. He saw Pulaski when he fell from the 


horse, and was present at the point to which he was 
brought back, mortally wounded. 


"Blessed with that charmed certainty to please 
How oft her eyes read his; 
Her gentle mind, to his thoughts, his wishes, inclined." 


As might be guessed, in a few short months after cross- 
ing the creek together on horse-back, Captain John Free- 
man led Kathrine Carlton to the altar. 

In regard to her after-life, she was a wonder for those 
times, a great reader and a fine housekeeper, a fine recon- 
teur; yet with all, the soul of hospitality. She had a 
healthy, strong mind; was imperious in her bearing, a 
devoted member of the church, a power in her family, and 

Captain Freeman was a wealthy man, and took her at 
times in a carriage to the Mountains of North Carolina on a 
pleasure trip. 

She bore him one child, Rebecca, of a temperamental 
nature, and of deep piety like her mother. This child was 
the author of many lovely poems. 

Captain Freeman did not live to be very old. After 
his death Mrs. Freeman met losses which she bravely bore, 
Rebecca married Shaler Hillyer and from this union sprang 
all the Georgia Hillyers. And to this day "Grandma 
Freeman" is almost a sainted word in the family, so strong 
was her character and so deep her love for others. She 
lived to be eighty-nine years old. In her bedroom was an 
old time tall clock that Captain Freeman had brought over 
from England when he brought his blue china dishes. As 
she drew her last breath, a beloved niece looked at the clock 
but it had stopped. That clock is still owned by one of her 
descendants, and it is not a legend but a fact, that when 
anything important happens, in the family, if it is running, 
it stops, if it is not running, it strikes. 


But to return to the Bynes : to show that we are journey- 
ing on to meet those who are journeying on to meet us. 

Mr. Bynes' daughter Annie, she who came in the brig 
"Nancy" with Mr. Carlton, married a Mr. Harris, their 
daughter married Mr. Hansell, and his granddaughter, the 
beautiful golden haired Leila, a noted belle and beauty, of 
Atlanta, Georgia, married a Mr. Llewelynn P. Hillyer, of 
Macon, Georgia, the great grandson of Kitty Carlton. 

If the writer may be pardoned for saying so, she is the 
granddaughter of Junius Hillyer, the grandson of Kitty 
Carlton ; and she also pleads guilty to the soft impeachment 
of having married Hamilton Harris, a relative of the Byne 
family, too. 

Two shall be born the whole wide apart and time and 
tide will finally bring them together. Affinity, congeniality, 
fate! What? 

Hurrah for the brave little sailing vessel, the nifty, 
white winged brig, ' ' The Nancy. ' ' 


No battle of Revolutionary times was more instrumental 
in making the surrender of Cornwallis, at Yorktown, pos- 
sible than was the battle of Kettle Creek. As it was at that 
period of the war the only American victory in the far 
South, and though it seemed unimportant, it was a promi- 
nent factor in holding the militia together and stimulating 
them to fight to ultimate victory. 

After the battle of Monmouth, the largest engagement 
in the North closed, the scene drifted to the South. Georgia 
was practically subdued by the British in January, 1779. 
General Provost, commanding the British in South Caro- 
lina, and Commodore Parker and Lieut. Campbell, on the 
sea, had captured Savannah and being so encouraged, made 
plans to aid the Tories in crushing all patriots who dared 
to resist. 


On February 14th, 1779, at War Hill, Wilkes County, 
Georgia, the battle of Kettle Creek was fought. Between 
four hundred and five hundred Americans were in this 
engagement under Col. Pickens, against seven hundred men 
under Col. Boyd, a British officer, who was secretly em- 
ployed by the British to organize a band of Tories in South 
Carolina and who was on his way to join the British Army 
and had planned to take Augusta on his route. 

Col. Boyd was mortally wounded in this battle. As soon 
as Col. Pickens heard of it he immediately visited his 
opponent and offered him any assistance within his power. 
The dying man left with him keepsakes and letters which 
were promptly delivered to his wife after his death. 

In Vol. II, "Wm. Bacon Stevens ' History of Georgia, New 
York, 1847, Bishop Stevens gives the following account of 
this battle : 

"The enemy having effected a passage into Georgia, Pickens 
and Dooly, now joined by Col. Clarke, resolved to follow; and 
they accordingly crossed the Savannah on February 12, 1779, 
and camped the following night within four miles of the enemy 
Forming the line of march in the order of battle, the Americans 
now prepared once more, at a great disadvantage of numbers, to 
contest with the Tories for the supremacy of upper Georgia. 
Much depended on this battle. If Boyd should be successful i-i 
driving back the Americans under such men as Pickens and 
Dooly and Clarke, he might rest assured that no further molesta- 
tion, at least for a very long time,' would follow, and all would 
yield to the British power, while on the other hand should the 
Americans be successful, it would not only crush the Tory power, 
already so galling to the people, but protect them from further 
insult, and give a stimulus to American courage, which a long 
series of disasters made essential. It was a moment big with 
the fate of upper Georgia. 

"Boyd, with a carelesness evincing great lack of military 
skill and prudence, had halted on the morning of the 14th of 
February, 1779, at a farm house near Kettle Creek, in Wilkes 
County, having no suspicion of the near approach of the Ameri- 
cans, and his army was dispersed in various directions, some killing 
and gathering stock, others engaged in cooking and in different 


operations. Having reconnoitered the enemy's position, the 
Americans, under Pickens, advanced in three divisions; the right 
under Col. Dooly, the left under Col. Clarke and the center led 
by the Commander himself, with orders not to fire a gun until 
within at least thirty paces. As the center, led by Pickens, 
marched to the attack, Boyd met them at the head of a select 
party, his line being protected by a fence filled with fallen timber, 
which gave him a great advantage over the troops in front. 
Observing this half formed abatis, Pickens filed off to a rising 
ground on his right, and thence gaining the flank of Boyd rushed 
upon him with great bravery, the enemy fleeing when they saw 
their leader shot down before them. He was sustained in this 
charge by Dooly and Clarke, and the enemy after fighting with 
great bravery, retired across the creek, but were rallied by Major 
Spurgen on a hill beyond, where the battle was again renewed 
with fierceness. But Col. Clarke, with about fifty Georgians, 
having discovered a path leading to a ford, pushed through it, 
though in doing so he encountered a severe fire and had his horse 
shot down under him, and by a circuitous route rose upon the hill 
in the rear of Spurgen, opening a deadly fire. The enemy hemmed 
in on both sides, fled, and were hotly pursued by the victors, until 
the conquest was complete. For an hour and a half, under great 
disadvantage and against a force almost double, had the Americans 
maintained the now unequal contest, and though once or twice it 
seemed as if they must give way, especially when the Tories had 
gained the hill and were reinforced under Spurgen; yet the 
masterly stroke of Clarke, with his few brave Georgians, turned 
the scale, and victory, bloody indeed, but complete, was ours." 



At the beginning of the War of the American Revolu- 
tion, Abram and Elizabeth Martin were living in Ninety 
Six District, now Edgefield County, South Carolina, with 
their nine children. Seven of their eight sons were old 
enough to enter the army, and were noted for their gallan- 
try and patriotic zeal. The wives of the two eldest sons, 
Grace Waring and Rachael Clay, during the absence of 
their husbands, remained with their mother-in-law. 

One evening the news reached them that a courier bear- 
ing important despatches was to pass that night along the 
road guarded by two British officers. Grace and Rachael 
determined to waylay the party and obtain possession of 
the papers. Disguised in their husbands' clothes, and well 
provided with arms, they hid in the bushes at a point on the 
road where the escort must pass. Darkness favored their 
plans and when the courier and his guards approached they 
were completely taken by surprise by the suddenness of the 
attack. They had no choice but to surrender. The young 
women took their papers, released the soldiers on parole, 
and hastened home to send the important documents to 
General Greene by a trusty messenger. 

The paroled officers returned by the road they had come 
and stopping at the home of the Martins, asked accommoda- 
tions for the night. The hostess asked the reason for their 
prompt return. They replied by showing their paroles, and 
saying they had been taken prisoners by two Rebel lads. 
The ladies rallied them on their lack of courage and asked 
if they were unarmed. They said they were armed but were 
suddenly taken off their guard. 

They went on their way the next morning without a 
suspicion that they owed their capture to the women whose 
hospitality they had claimed. Grace L. Martin, Piedmont 
Continental Chapter, D. A. R. 



These old rhymes were written in the early part of the 
Revolutionary War about 1776. If read as written they 
are a tribute to the king and his army, but if read down- 
ward on either side of the comma, they indicate an unmis- 
takable spirit of rebellion to both king and parliament. 
The author is unknown : 

Hark, hark, the trumpet sounds, the din of war's alarms 

O'er seas and solid grounds, doth call us all to arms 

Who for King George doth stand, their honors shall soon shine 

Their ruin is at hand, who with the congress join. 

The acts of parliament, in them I might delight, 

I hate their cursed intent, who for the congress fight 

The Tories of the day, they are my daily toast, 

They soon will sneak away, who independence boast, 

Who nonresistant hold, they have my hand and heart 

May they for slaves be sold, who act the Whiggish part, 

On Mansfield, North and Bute, may daily blessings pour, 

Confusion and dispute, on congress evermore; 

To North and British Lord, may honors still be done, 

I wish to block and cord, to General Washington. 


(Prize essay written by Miss Leota George of Sandy 
Springs in competition for the medal offered by Cateechee 
Chapter, D. A. R., to English class in Anderson College, 
S. C.) 

South Carolina had a large share in winning American 
independence. Several decisive battles were fought on her 
soil. For the struggle she furnished far-sighted statesmen, 
brilliant leaders for the battlefield, and troops of patriotic, 
devoted men. Her daughters brought to the conflict im- 
measurable aid, comfort and influence. The men of South 
Carolina saved their own state and were able to give invalu- 
able aid to their countrymen in other sections. 


South Carolina had been settled by the Huguenots, Eng- 
lish, Scotch-Irish, Welsh and Germans people from the 
sturdiest and most progressive countries of the world. 
Their experiences in their new environment tended to make 
them independent and self-reliant. Their years of hard- 
ships and strifes only served to make them more vigorous. 
They increased rapidly in population and built up an active 
trade. South Carolina became one of the most prosperous 
of the colonies. The colonists of the lower country were 
people of learning and culture. The settlers of the middle 
and upper country were energetic, patriotic, and noble. 
There was no aristocracy. There were quite a number of 
able clergymen, skilled physicians, and well trained lawyers 
among the South Carolinians. They had wealth without 
luxury. They suffered no religious restraint. Every cir- 
cumstance helped to develop them into a distinctive, inde- 
pendent people. 

The injustice and selfishness of British authority at 
once aroused the anger of these spirited settlers. The 
Stamp Act met with general opposition. South Carolina at 
once protested against this unjust law and would not allow 
the stamps to be sold. After the repeal of the Stamp Act 
Great Britain made a second attempt to obtain money from 
the colonists by placing a tax upon glass, wine, oil, paper, 
painter's colors and tea. The vigorous objections of the 
colonists caused her to withdraw the tax from everything 
except tea. But the colonists were unwilling to accept any- 
thing but full justice from the hands of Great Britain. 

The South Carolinians had many determined and active 
leaders in their opposition to British tyranny and in the 
avowal of their rights to govern themselves. Christopher 
Gadsen, William Henry Drayton, Arthur Middleton and 
David Ramsay impressed upon the people the necessity of 
fighting for their liberty and urged them to prepare for a 
war with England. Christopher Gadsen, Thomas Lynch, 
John Rutledge, Arthur Middleton and Edward Rutledge 
were chosen by the South Carolinians to represent them at 


the first continental congress at Philadelphia in 1774. These 
men had had a prominent part in that meeting. The broad- 
minded, far-sighted Christopher Gadsen was the first man 
to see that independence must eventually come. At this 
meeting he was the first to suggest absolute independence. 
"William Henry Drayton concluded one of his speeches in 
South Carolina with this excellent advice: "Let us offer 
ourselves to be used as instruments of God in this work in 
order that South Carolina may become a great, a free, a 
pious and a happy people." 

On March 26, 1776, the provincial congress adopted a 
new Constitution and South Carolina became a free and 
independent state. She was the first of the thirteen colonies 
to set up a government of her own. John Rutledge was 
made president and Henry vice-president. 

The first battle of the Revolution was fought November 
12, 1775, when two British war vessels made an unsuccess- 
ful attack on a South Carolina vessel. The British suffered 
their first complete defeat in America at Charles Town, 
June 28, 1776. Under Sir Peter Parker the enemy attacked 
Ft. Moultrie. Under the blue Carolina flag with its cres- 
cent and the word "Liberty," upon it, the patriots, with 
Col. Moultrie as leader, courageously resisted the attack. 
In this battle the immortal Jasper braved the enemy's fire 
in rescuing the fallen flag and replacing it upon the fort. 
The splendid victory at Ft. Moultrie gave more confidence 
to the colonists and inspired them with new zeal. The 
colonists under William Thompson defeated the British in 
a second attempt to take Charles Town in June, 1776. 

For about two years following this battle the British 
army abandoned their attempt to conquer South Carolina. 
However, she was far from being peaceful during this 
period. Her settlers were not a homogeneous people. No 
bond of sympathy united them in fighting for a common 
cause. Bands of Tories had formed in the interior and were 
as difficult to overcome as the British themselves. Under 
Fletchall and Cunningham they committed many bloody 


outrages and did an incalculable amount of harm. They 
stirred up strife among the Indians and acquired their aid 
in fighting the patriots. Some of the severest struggles of 
the Revolution took place between the opposing factions in 
South Carolina. Andrew Williamson, James Williams and 
Andrew Pickens were active in defending the upland, 
country against the Tories and Indians. 

In April and May of 1780 the British under Gen. Clin- 
ton again attacked Charles Town. For three months four 
thousand ill-fed, ill-clad, and undisciplined patriots with- 
stood the attacks of twelve thousand of the best of the 
British troops. Finally, the South Carolinians were forced 
to surrender. Fast following this defeat came pillage, de- 
vastations and repeated disasters. In the upper country 
the British under cruel Tarleton followed up their victories 
with bloody outrages. Clinton left Cornwallis in command 
of the British forces in the south. The cruelties of this 
officer greatly aroused the anger of the Carolinians. Sum- 
ter, Marion and Pickens suddenly appeared upon the scene 
of battle. They rallied the scattered forces and began their 
peculiar mode of warfare. By means of the ingenuity and 
indomitable courage of Sumter, the spirited ' ' Game Cock, ' ' 
the enemy was harassed and numerous little victories were 
won from them. These successes were a great encourage- 
ment to the Carolinians. Sumter, aided by patriot bands 
under John Thomas, Thomas Brandon and Edward Hamp- 
ton, succeeded in driving the British out of northern Caro- 

About this time, Gates and DeKalb were sent to the 
relief of the South. On account of the poor generalship of 
Gates the Americans were defeated at Camden, August 16, 
1780, by the enemy under the command of Cornwallis. 
Francis Marion, the elusive ' ' Swamp Fox, ' ' made repeated 
attacks upon the British forces and with the help of Sumter, 
Harden and McDonald, again gained control of the upper 
country. On October 7, 1780, Sumter 's men led by Lacey, 


Williams, and Hill helped to win a battle from the enemy 
under Ferguson at Kings Mountain. 

In January, 1781, Gen. Daniel Morgan of Virginia, aid- 
ed by Andrew Pickens with his body of riflemen, won a com- 
plete victory over the British at Cowpens. Gen. Greene had 
brought some troops into South Carolina. The combined 
forces of Sumter, Pickens, Marion, Lee and Greene gradual- 
ly drove the British into Charles Town. Charles Town was 
evacuated December 14, 1782. 

South Carolina 's activities were not confined to her own 
borders. On several occasions she had sent troops to Geor- 
gia to help defend this feeble colony. The South Caroli- 
nians had captured a supply of powder in the early part of 
the war and sent it north to Washington at the critical 
point where his supply had given out. It was a South 
Carolinian who had secured aid from France for the 
patriots. This was exceedingly important since the French 
army and fleet played an important part in the capture oi 
Cornwallis at Yorktown. 

In the great fight for independence South Carolina did 
her share of the fighting and more than this. Besides fur- 
nishing brilliant leaders and brave soldiers for the battle- 
field, she produced eloquent orators and wise statesmen to 
help manage the affairs of the colonists during this trying 
period. Among the foremost of her statesmen was Henry 
Laurens. In 1777 he succeeded John Hancock as president 
of the continental congress. He proved himself an efficient 
and wise officer. On his way to seek aid from the Dutch 
he was captured by the British and imprisoned in the 
Tower of London. At the close of the war he was exchanged 
for Cornwallis. He then went to Paris, where he was one 
of the commissioners who signed the treaty of peace be- 
tween Great Britain and the United States. 

John Laurens, a son of Henry Laurens, was also promi- 
nent in the management of the civil affairs of the colonists. 
It was he who secured aid from France. Never has anyone 
been sent from America to Europe on so important mission. 


By his tact and unusual abilities he succeeded in the task in 
which Franklin had failed. 

Christopher Gadsen, Arthur Middleton, William Henry 
Drayton, and David Ramsey were the great orators of 
South Carolina during the Revolution period. At the be- 
ginning of the war they accomplished much by inspiring 
their fellow-countrymen with patriotism and courage. 

John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and 
Thomas Pinckney had much to do with managing the affairs 
of the province during the war. The distinguished generals, 
Sumter, Pickens, Marion and Hampton rendered valuable 
service as statesmen services which are apt to be over- 
looked on account of these men being such efficient partisan 
officers. The men who signed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence for South Carolina were Thomas Heyward, 
Thomas Lynch, Arthur Middleton and Edward Rutledge. 

South Carolina's women were as loyal, devoted, and 
heroic as her men. They supplied the soldiers with many 
comforts by knitting and weaving garments for them. In 
some instances they took an active part in the struggle. 
Mrs. Thomas and Mrs. Dillard made perilous rides to warn 
the patriots of impending attacks of the enemy. "We will 
long remember the patriotic spirit and self-sacrifice ex- 
hibited by Mrs. Motte when she showed the Americans how 
to set fire to her own house in which the British were 
fortified. Mrs. Bratton nursed some wounded British sol- 
diers who had threatened to kill her the day before. Our 
state has sufficient cause to be proud of her noble women 
of the Revolution. 

The difficulties under which South Carolina labored 
throughout the long struggle only add to her glory and 
honor. Next to Georgia she was the feeblest of the colonies. 
At the beginning of the war she had only ten thousand 
available men. There were heavy drains upon her limited 
resources. Much of the ammunition used during the war 
was captured from the British. Reaping hooks and mowing 
scythes were used for weapons when the supply of guns was 


inadequate. Saws were taken from sawmills to be made 
into swords. Lead was removed from the housetops and 
churches to be run into bullets. The soldiers had not half 
enough tents, camp kettles, and canteens. Clothes, food 
and medicines were often lacking. Added to all this were 
the strifes created by the insurgent Royalists and Indians. 
When we view the remarkable successes of the South Caro- 
linians in the light of all these conditions, we can but agree 
with the great historian Bancroft in his opinion that "the 
sons of South Carolina suffered more, dared more and 
achieved more than the men of any other state." 


Lyman Hall, one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, was born in Wallingford, Conn., April 12, 
1724. He was the son of Hon. John Hall and Mary Street. 
In 1747 Lyman Hall was graduated from Yale College in a 
class of twenty-eight members. He then studied Theology. 

In the twenty-eighth year of his age he moved to Dor- 
chester, S. C., and for many years ministered to the needs 
of those sturdy people. 

Many of these settlers removed to Liberty County, 
Georgia. Along with the second stream of immigration 
came Lyman Hall. 

When the storm of the Revolution began to lower, Dr. 
Hall promptly took sides with the patriots and to them he 
was a tower of strength. Dr. Hall was chariman of the 
meeting at Midway, February 9th, 1775, which sent dele- 
gates to the meeting at Charleston. He was elected to rep- 
resent the people of St. John's Parish in the Continental 
Congress, March 21, 1775. 

When the Declaration of Independence was signed, 
Lyman Hall, Button Gwinnett and George Walton, in be- 
half of the inhabitants of Georgia, affixed their names to 
the famous document. 


When the British troops overran Georgia, the property 
of those who had espoused the patriot cause was confiscated 
and destroyed, and Dr. Hall's residence at Sunbury and 
his plantation near Midway were despoiled. With his fam- 
ily he removed to the North where he resided till 1782, 
when he returned to Georgia and settled in Savannah. 

In 1783 Dr. Hall was elected Governor of Georgia and 
his administration was one of the most important in the 
history of the State. After the expiration of his term of 
office as Governor, he returned to Savannah and again took 
up the practice of medicine. He removed to Burke County 
in 1790 and settled upon a fine plantation near Shell Bluff. 
Here he died, October 19, 1790, at the age of sixty-seven, 
and was buried in a brick vault on a bold bluff overlooking 
the river. 

In 1848 his remains were removed to Augusta and 
placed with those of George Walton beneath the monument 
erected by patriotic citizens in front of the Court House. 

In person, Dr. Hall was six feet tall and finely propor- 
tioned. He was a man of great courage and discretion, and 
withal gentle and easy in manner. 

He was fitted to guide the ship of State in the storm of 
the Revolution, and though he never bore arms, or won dis- 
tinction as an orator, the people felt safe with his hand at 
the helm. The State of Georgia has fittingly perpetuated 
his memory by naming one of its counties for him, and, so 
long as liberty and patriotism shall live, so long shall the 
name of Lyman Hall be remembered. Compiled from 
"Men of Mark of Georgia." 



About 1768, the only son of Sir John Stirling, of Scot- 
land, was sent to one of the West India Islands to look after 
some property. If he needed money he was to write home 
for it, putting a private mark on his letters. A serious 
illness caused him to forget the private mark, so no atten- 
tion was paid to his letters with request for money. So he 
found himself stranded among strangers without money 
and without health. 

A kindly sea captain, whom he met, offered to take him 
in his vessel to Connecticut without money. He gladly 
accepted the offer and sailed for a more healthful climate. 
Shortly after he left the West Indies, letters were received 
there from his father inquiring for him. The answer was 
sent to the father that his son had been very ill, and as he 
had disappeared they supposed he was dead. In the mean- 
time young Stirling had gone to Stratford, Connecticut, 
where he taught school as a means of support. He soon 
fell in love with one of his pupils, pretty Glorianna Folsom, 
the beauty and belle of the village. Her father was a pros- 
perous farmer. They were married in 1772. After the 
birth of their first child, a young minister, who was going 
to Scotland to be ordained, offered to hunt up his family 
if he would give him the necessary proofs of his identity. 
He did so, though reluctantly and hopelessly. The minister 
sailed for Scotland and soon found the family who were in 
deep mourning for the son they had supposed dead. They 
were overjoyed to hear he was alive, and at once wrote him 
to come home by the first vessel, not waiting for his wife 
and child to get ready ; that they would send for them later. 
He did so, and his sudden departure caused the gossips to 
decide that Glorianna and her little daughters (for the 
second one was born after he left) had been deserted. It 
may have seemed a long period, but after he had had time 
to prepare a home for her and a quantity of beautiful 
clothing, he sent a ship to New York for her and she was 


requested to embark immediately. She found everything 
provided for her comfort and convenience and a servant 
to wait on her. They lived near Stirling Castle and after- 
wards in Edinborough and young Stirling succeeded to the 
honors and estates of the Baronet in due time. 

Glorianna was a woman of remarkable character as well 
as beauty, and was the mother of eighteen children. 
Grace Martin, Piedmont Continental Chapter, D. A. R. 


"As unto the bow the cord is, 
So unto the man is woman, 
Tho' she bends him she obeys him, 
Tho' she draws him, yet she follows, 
Useless each without the other." 

We have in our county of Orangeburg an historic spot 
which rightly in name is a monument to the self-sacrifice 
and heroism of Mrs. Rebecca Motte, the wife of Col. Isaac 

This family had moved from Charleston to St. Matthew 's 
Parish and owned a beautiful plantation home on the Con- 
garee river, about where the present town of Fort Motte 

As Nathaniel Greene, aided by the partisan leaders, 
drove the British from post to post back into Charleston, 
the British fortified Motte 's, the chief part of the post 
being Mrs. Rebecca Motte 's home. The family had been 
driven out by the British and were living in the neighbor- 

Lee's and Marion's men built a mound of earth, which 
is still to be seen, from which the riflemen could command 
the inside of the fort, but the house protected the enemy 
still. It was found necessary to burn it. 

They informed Mrs. Motte that they would probably 
have to burn her home, which stood in the center of the 


fort; she begged them that they would not consider her 
house of any consequence in the general cause and with 
great patriotism and firmness presented them with a bow 
and quiver of arrows and showing them how to set fire to 
the house, requested that they should burn it quickly. 

By this means the "Whigs threw fire on the roof, com- 
pelling the garrison commanded by Lieutenant McPherson 
to surrender or be roasted. Mrs. Motte was extremely 
rejoiced when she saw the garrison surrender. 

Lee 's and Marion 's men extinguished the flames and the 
house was afterwards rebuilt. 

Some authorities say that the bow and arrows were a 
present sent Mrs. Motte from India, others that they were 
borrowed of a negro boy. However this may be the mound 
of earth is all that is now visible as a reminder of Mrs. 
Motte 's sacrifice. 

The place where the house stood is at present a cotton 
field and owned by Mrs. A. T. Darby. 

Time, the eradicator, will eventually wipe out the mound 
and all that will commemorate this brave deed will be the 
name, "Fort Motte," on the written page. MRS. BESSIE 
GOGGANS OWEN, Vice-Regent Moultrie Chapter, in Ameri- 
can Monthly. 



About the year 1748, Peter Strozier, the hero of our 
story, was born in Germany. We know nothing of his 
childhood or early life, but in manhood we know him as 
our worthy ancestor and find him bravely fighting for 
American independence. He was married to Margaret 
Dozier in his native land and he, with four brothers, came 
to America about the time of the out-break of the Revolu- 
tionary War and settled in Virginia. 

To the call of the country that he had come to share its 
reverses as well as its prosperity, and in the spirit of liberty 
he was ready to draw the sword when the iron heel of op- 
pression was set upon its cherished rights. 

During the seven years of faithful service he gave to his 
country, his wife and five children were left alone in a 
country home, where their lives were in constant danger. 
But God, in His all wise providence had sent into their 
home an orphan boy who was left to care, as best he could, 
for the family. This orphan boy, whose name was Captain 
Paddy Carr, was reared by our worthy ancestor, and dur- 
ing his life his gratitude never waned for his benefactor 
and benefactress. In the meantime Captain Carr moved 
the family to Georgia but found the condition of affairs 
even worse than in Virginia. The Tories at this time held 
full sway in Georgia and in no other state were they so 
wicked and cruel. The people were divided into two 
parties, the Tories and the Patriots. The Tories were those 
who took the oath of allegience to the King, and those who 
refused to take the oath and would rather suffer and fight 
for American Independence, were called Patriots. So the 
Tories and Patriots hated each other with a bitter hatred. 
While these Patriots, brave and liberty loving men, were 
ficrhting for their independence, the Tories were left un- 
molested in their homes. The Patriots were forced to leave 
their property and helpless families to the mercy of the 
British and Tories. The Tories were far worse than the 
British. They formed themselves into companies, roving 


over the country, committing all kinds of outrages ; robbing 
and burning houses, throwing old grayheaded fathers and 
grandfathers into prison and driving helpless wives and 
children from their homes, showing mercy to no one who 
favored the American cause. 

One venerable great grandmother, Margaret Strozier, 
fell a victim to a band of these Tories, who robbed and 
burned her home and drove her away. She walked with 
five children to South Carolina. When the young Patriot, 
Captain Carr, heard of the robbery and burning, his fiery 
blood boiled in his veins and he swore vengeance on all 
Tories. Henceforth he lost no opportunity to avenge the 
wrong done to the woman who was the only mother God 
had given him, and to children who were his only brothers 
and sisters. Tradition tells us that at the point of his own 
gun, he captured at one time five Tories and held them 
until his Company came up, and to them he showed no 

Having gone through the Revolutionary War, which 
closed in 1782, Peter Strozier, with his family, settled in 
Wilkes County, Georgia. Tradition also tells us that he 
was a man of noble traits, with great force and dignity of 
character. His last days were passed under a silver-lined 
cloud, and in the old county of Wilkes he lies buried today. 
After his death, his wife, Margaret Dozier Strozier, who had 
shared with him the sufferings and hardships of the cruel 
war, moved to Meriwether County, Georgia, with her son 
Reuben Strozier, and she lies buried in the old family grave- 
yard about four miles west of Greenville, Georgia, near the 
old Strozier homestead. 

We can say by tradition, from generation to generation, 
that there sleep today no truer, no purer, no nobler ones 
than Peter and Margaret Strozier. How we love and 
cherish the memory of our fore-fathers! So will genera- 
tions, after generations, and may we never tire in our 
efforts to preserve the records of the lives and struggles of 
those who fought and bled and died for our freedom. 



Oh, happy Independence Day, 
We love thy honored name, 

Dear happy Independence Day 
Is with us once again. 

Over a hundred years ago, 
This day first won its fame, 

And tho' the long years come and go, 
"Tis remembered just the same. 

We are a band of people true, 

We love our native home, 
Its environments, its skies of blue, 

From it we'll never roam. 

Let us forget the soldiers never, 

Who battle to be free, 
Who fought King George's army, 

From far across the sea. 

They left their dear beloved home 

To chase the cruel foe, 
O'er deserted battle fields to roam 

Midst suffering, pain and woe. 

Those soldiers now are sleeping 

To chase the cruel foe, 
O'er deserted battle fields to roam 

Midst suffering pain and woe. 

Those soldiers now are sleeping 
On plain, and hill, and shore, 

Their titles we are keeping, 
But they'll be here no more. 

When wars wild note was sounded 
When the cry for freedom came, 

England's hosts had landed 
To win her glorious fame. 


Alas, the British finally knew 
They could no longer stay, 

They left our brave and daring few 
And quickly sailed away. 

Alas, those dreadful day are gone, 
No one remains to tell, 

Of struggles made, and burdens bore, 
For the land we love so well. 

We love the mother country yet, 
Her name we still adore, 

Her kindness we can ne'r forget, 
But we'll be bound no more. 

Oh, happy Independence Day 
How dear to us the name! 

Oh, happy Independence Day 
Is with us once again. 

By Mamie Crosby. 



The most remarkable woman who lived in Georgia 
during the Revolutionary War, perhaps, was Sarah Gilliam 
Williamson. Considering her loyalty to the cause of the 
colonies, her courage in managing the plantation and large 
number of negro slaves during the absence of her husband 
in the army, her sufferings at the hands of the enemy, 
together with the success of her descendants, she stands 
ahead of any of the Georgia women of her day. 

Sarah Gilliam was born in Virginia about the year 1735. 
Her father was William Gilliam, and her mother Mary 
Jarrett, the sister of Rev. Devereau Jarrett, the distin- 
guished Episcopal minister. 

Sarah Gilliam married Micajah Williamson, a young 
man of Scotch-Irish parentage. In 1768 the young couple 
moved to Wilkes County, Georgia, and settled on a fine 
body of land. It was while living here in peace and 
abundance, with their growing family around them, that 
the difference between the mother country and the colonies 

Sarah Williamson and her husband both warmly 
espoused the cause of the colonies, and when hostilities 
commenced a Georgia regiment took the field with Elijah 
Clarke as Colonel, and Macajah Williamson as Lieutenant- 
Colonel. Micajah Williamson was present in all the con- 
flicts of this regiment and in the battle of Kettle Creek Col. 
Clarke gave him full credit for his part in winning the 

Many scenes of this nature were enacted in the neighbor- 
hood of Sarah Williamson's home, and this fearless woman 
not only witnessed the conflicts, but sometimes participated 
in them. Her husband was twice wounded and to him she 
gave the care of a devoted wife, nursing him back to health 
and to the service of his country. 

Year after year during this long struggle Sarah Wil- 
liamson bravely assumed the part of both the man and the 
woman. Under her excellent management the plantation 


was cultivated, supplies were furnished the army, and 
spinning wheels were kept busy making clothes for husband, 
children and slaves. Thus she toiled in the face of ever- 
present danger, threatened always with hostile Indians, 
cruel Tories and British soldiers. 

Finally, one day the dreaded Tories, incensed at her 
husband's activity in the cause of the colonies, made a raid 
on the home and after taking all they wanted, destroyed by 
fire every building on the plantation, and their fiendish 
hearts not being yet satisfied with the suffering of this 
loyal woman, they hung her eldest son, a handsome youth, 
in the presence of his mother. 

Her courage undaunted by this great calamity, Sarah 
Williamson had the faithful slaves gather up the remaining 
live stock running at large in the woods, and with her 
entire household went as a refugee to the mountains of 
North Carolina, where they remained until the close of the 
war, when they returned to the plantation. 

A few years later the family moved to "Washington, 
Georgia. Here again it became necessary for her to manage 
for the family when her husband was commissioned 
Major- General of Georgia troops and led an army against 
the hostile Cherokee Indians. Peace was made, however, 
before a battle was fought. 

Now Sarah Williamson began to reap the reward her 
love, sacrifice, energy and labor had won. Her five sons 
grew to be successful men, her six daughters to be refined, 
educated and beautiful women, who became the wives of 
prominent men. One daughter married John Clarke who 
became Governor of Georgia. 

To this Georgia mother belongs the distinguished honor 
of being the first American woman to furnish from her 
descendants two Justices of the Supreme Court of the 
United States; Justice John A. Campbell of Alabama was 
her grandson, and Justice L. Q. C. Lamar of Georgia and 
Mississippi was her great grandson. RUBY FELDER RAY, 
State Historian, D. A. R. 



In sailing up the Hudson River, about one hundred 
miles above New York, you will discover on the west side a 
rather broad estuary, named by the old Dutch settlers, the 
Katterskill Creek. 

This creek flows through a cleft in the mountains, known 
in the quaint language of the Dutch as the Katterskill 

This clove, nature's pass through the mountains, was 
well known, and used by the tribes of the Six Nations, and 
especially by the vindictive, and blood thirsty Mohawks, as 
an easy trail by which they would descend upon the peace- 
loving and thrifty Dutch settlers ; kill all the men who had 
not fled for refuge to the strong stone houses which were 
specially built for defence ; capture the women and children, 
and kill all the live stock. 

On the peninsula between the river and the creek, the 
latter being wide and deep enough to float the magnificent 
steamers which ply between Albany and New York, stood 
the colonial mansion to which your attention is called. 

This mansion, for it was a splendid structure for those 
days, and the term would not be a misnomer in these, was 
built in 1763 by a Madam Dies, a Dutch matron, who after- 
wards married an English army officer. This man was so 
infatuated with his Dutch "vrow," and her wealth, that he 
deserted the colors, and would hide from search parties in 
the place to be hereinafter described. 

The house was built of the gray sand stone found in 
that region, and was two stories high, with a capacious 
cellar, and an immense garret. The walls were nearly three 
feet thick, set in cement, which became so hard that when 
the day of destruction came a few years ago, the workmen 
were unable to tear the walls apart, but had to blow them 
down with dynamite. One hundred and fifty years had 
that cement been setting, and it was as hard as the stone 


In the cellar was a well to provide water in case of siege 
by the Indians, and heat was obtained by huge fire places 
in each of the eight large rooms, the smoke from which was 
carried off by two giant chimneys, and on one of these 
chimneys hangs the tale which is the excuse for this article. 

Madam Dies, true to her name, was gathered to her 
fathers, and her craven husband went to the place prepared, 
for those who desert their colors. 

Leaving no direct heirs, the house with its ten acres of 
grounds, and known from its elegance and size as "Dies 
Folly" passed into other hands, and finally, early in the 
nineteenth century, was purchased by Major Ephriam 
Beach, and remained in the family for nearly one hundred 
years, until destroyed by the exigencies of business. 

The huge chimneys reared their massive proportions 
in the center of each side of the house, and Major Beach, 
wishing to rearrange the interior of his dwelling, tore 
down the one on the north side. As it was being taken 
down, brick by brick, they came to where it passed through 
the garret, and there the workmen discovered a secret 
recess capable of holding several people. 

It was cunningly conceived with the entrance so ar- 
ranged as to exactly resemble the brick composing the 
chimney, and an enemy might hunt for days and fail to 
discover the secret hiding place. It was evidently intended 
as a concealed refuge in case the house should be captured 
by the Indians, but so far as known was never used for 
that purpose, the village never being attacked after the 
house was built. Some dishes and a water jar which were 
found in the hidden chamber, served to prove that the 
husband of Madam Dies used it to conceal himself from the 
British soldiers when they were hunting him, but apart 
from that undignified proceeding it was never used. 

The house was well known to be haunted, and there 
are many well authenticated ghost stories told in connec- 
tion with it ; but the spooks were a decent and well behaved 


"Proclaim liberty throughout all the land, unto all 
the inhabitants thereof." 


lot, and never disturbed the writer, who spent many years 
within its substantial walls. 

The daughter of the writer was the last of my children 
born therein, and she never saw even a fairy Godmother, 
although both of her grandmothers hovered around her 

The writer, Edward Cunningham Beach, is a grandson of 
Major Ephriam Beach, herein mentioned and the baby daughter 
in aforesaid is Mrs. Barrett Cothran, of Atlanta, Georgia. 
Council Safety Chapter, D. A. R. 


The descendants of Grace (Pittman) Me Arthur still tell 
to their children the story of Philip Pittman, her father, 
as it has been handed down from father to son. 

Philip was born July 7, 1765. He was one of eleven 
children of John and Mary Pittman. His father served in 
the Revolution, as Matross in Capt. Harman Davis' Com- 
pany, 4th Artillery Regiment of South Carolina, com- 
manded by Col. Barnard Beckman. 

Though too young, probably, to enlist, the revolutionary 
fires burned so brightly in the young patriots breast that he 
was ready to give his life to his country even though he 
might not carry sabre or musket. 

As the story goes, Philip was overtaken by Tories at* 
one time while he was making his way over the country 
with provisions for his father John and some comrades. 

Thinking this an easy way to find out the whereabouts 
of the Patriot army the Tories commanded the boy to tell 
where his father was, but they reckoned without their host. 

The boy stoutly refused to tell, and even though strung 
up and hung to a near by limb until almost too near dead 
to talk, he still refused. Whereupon the officer, moved 
perhaps by the extreme youth of the boy, ripped out an 

oath and ordered him cut down, remarking that the 

rascal would die before he would tell. 


Philip did not die, but lived to grow to manhood, 
enlisted in the war and served as one of Georgia's soldiers 
line in the Revolutionary War. 

He was three times married, raised a large family of 
children whose allegiance to their country was only equaled 
by that of their father. Philip died in south-west Georgia, 
July 14, 1849. MRS. J. D. TWEEDY, (Lula McArthur), 
Dawson, Ga., Dorothy Walton Chapter, D. A. R. 


What American or French girl or boy does not like to 
hear of that ' ' wizard ' ' of the sea, John Paul Jones ! That 
"Pirate," as he was called by the English minister in Hol- 
land, when Jones took his captured psizes there, but he 
was no more a Pirate than you or I. The word Pirate 
means one who is at war with mankind, and John Paul 
was holding an honest position in an honorable service and 
fighting only the enemies of his adopted country America. 

He was born July 6th, 1747, at Arbigland, Scotland, of 
poor and obscure parents, his father being a gardener, but 
the right material was in him to make a great man and he 
won for himself a world-wide fame as a leading figure in 
the American Navy. The only conquerer to whom he ever 
lowered his colors was death. 

At twelve years of age he was apprenticed, then went 
to sea on the "Friendship" to visit his brother William 
Paul, in Virginia. While in North Carolina, in 1773, he 
changed his surname to Jones for the love he bore to a 
family of that name living there. To show what one can 
do when he tries and has faith in himself, I will tell you 
that Jones was a poor sailor at twelve, officer at seventeen, 
Naval Lieutenant at twenty-eight, Captain at twenty-nine, 
Commodore at thirty-two, at forty-one a Vice-Admiral in 
the Imperial Navy of Russia, at forty-three a prominent 
figure in the French Revolution, and died at the age of 


forty-five, deeply deplored by Napoleon, who expected to 
do great things in conjunction with him. 

Jones loved France and France loved him, and with 
him and France we were able to gain our liberty from the 
British yoke. He loved America because he loved liberty, 
and he put all his grand titles aside when making his last 
will and testament to sign himself, ' ' I, John Paul Jones, an 
American citizen." Such men as Washington, Franklin, 
Hamilton and LaFayette, were his staunch friends. Kings 
and Queens delighted to do him favor. Louis XVI 
knighted him and presented him with a sword of honor. 
Catherine, of Russia, made him an Admiral and loaded him 
with honors. These are only a few of his distinguished 

In personal appearance he was slender and swarthy, 
with black hair and eyes ; always well dressed, graceful and 
courtly. He was as much at home at the most aristocratic 
courts of Europe as when treading the deck of a man-of- 
war. He was grave by nature, but quite witty. 

A kinder heart never beat in the breast of any man. 

He hoisted the first American Flag that ever flew from 
an American war vessel, on his ship, the ' ' Ranger, ' ' and at 
the same time Congress decided to accept the present form 
of the flag, it made him Captain of the "Ranger," hence 
his remark: "The flag and I are twins; born at the same 
hour, from the same womb of destiny ; we cannot be parted 
in life or death." 

February 14th, 1778, the French naval commander, Lea 
Motte Piquet, saluted for the first time from a foreign 
power the Stars and Stripes, gave thirteen and received 
nine guns. 

Just a word right here about the flag, so dear to us: 

When Betsy Ross made our flag, she objected to the 
six pointed stars that General Washington wanted, because 
the English used it, but told him it would be more ap- 
propriate to use the five pointed star that the French and 


Dutch used, as they were friendly to the colonies ; and she 
had her way. 

I have'nt space to tell of the many victories of Jones, 
but one of the greatest was when he captured the ' ' Serapis ' ' 
from the British, September 23, 1779. His own little weak; 
vessel, the "Bonhomme Richard" went down with the flag 
flying, but just before it sank, his antagonist thought he 
was about to give up the fight, and asked him "if he had 
struck his flag ? ' ' He answered, ' ' I 've just begun to fight. ' ' 
So he won the battle and captured the prize. 

Jones died July 18, 1792, in Paris, of dropsy of the 
chest. He was buried in the old St. Louis cemetery, in the 
northeastern part of Paris, and lay there one hundred and 
thirteen years before he was brought back to the United 
States. General Horace Porter is the man who, after six 
long years of search, finally found his body in the old 
cemetery, which by this time was the dumping ground for 
horses and dogs. 

The body had been put in a leaden coffin, carefully 
packed with straw and hay, and then filled with alcohol to 
preserve it. Rear Admiral C. D. Sigsbee, was sent to 
France to bring the remains of the hero home. 

Knowing Jones' love for our flag, the Daughters of the 
American Revolution Society presented Admiral Sigsbee 
with a beautiful silk flag, June 15th, 1905, to be used in 
connection with the return of Jones' remains. Afterward 
it was hung in Continental Hall, Washington, D. C. 

On July 25, 1915, the body of Jones was placed in a 
brick vault, Naval Academy grounds, Annapolis, with 
religious and military ceremonies. On April 29, 1906, 
commemorative ceremonies were held in the Armory of the 
Naval Academy, Annapolis, and then the casket was put in 
Bancroft Hall. Here all that is mortal of the conquerer of 
the "Serapis" lies, and in the battles of life when the odds 
seem against us, may we be able to exclaim with him, "I've 
just begun to fight." MRS. W. E. WIMPY, Piedmont Con- 
tinental Chapter, D. A. R. 



There was a man named Oglethorpe, 
Who didn't like old England's laws; 

So he got into his little ship, 
And sailed it straight across. 

He swung around Carolina's point 

And landed at a Bluff; 
And when he found the soil so rich, 

He said "tis good enough." 

He named the place Savannah, 

And then laid off a town, 
You ought to seed the taters, 
That grew thar in the ground. 

He planted cotton, rice and corn, 

And then a patch of backer: 
That was the first beginning, 

Of the Real Georgia Cracker. 

Then he got some mules and plows, 

And sat the boys to hoeing; 
Ever since they stirred the soil, 

The Georgia Cracker has been growing. 

But now where once those taters grew, 
Mount twenty tall church steeples; 

And the place he named Savannah, 
Dwell nigh a hundred thousand people. 

Will stand a living factor; 
While angels guard it overhead, 

God bless the Georgia Cracker. 
In Chippewa his monument, 

Jesup, Ga. L. G. Lucas. 



Many years ago there lived in Virginia a little boy whose 
name was John Davenport. His father was a farmer who 
planted and raised large crops of tobacco in the fields about 
his home. His parents were good and wise people, and 
carefully brought up and trained their children. John was 
a good boy. He was honest, truthful, obedient, bold and 
strong. If he had any thing to do, either in work or play, 
he did it well. He grew up like other boys of his day. He 
went to school and made many friends among his play- 
mates by his manly conduct. 

There lived in the same county in Virginia another 
little boy of strong and sterling character whose name was 
Harry Burnley. These two little boys were near neighbors 
and great friends, and they played and hunted and fished 
together all during their early boyhood days. 

When John Davenport was quite a young man he met 
and married Lucy Barksdale, a girl of great merit and 
beauty who was just sixteen years old at the time of their 
marriage in 1772. 

This couple spent many happy days together ; children 
came to gladden their home ; and life looked rosy and bright 
before them. As these peaceful and happy days were glid- 
ing by in their Virginia home a tempest was gathering a 
great war cloud which was destined to bring much sorrow 
to this happy pair. 

England, the mother country, who at first dealt kindly 
and justly with the colonists, had begun to be unkind to 
them and to tax them unjustly. These oppressive and 
burdensome taxes the colonists refused to pay. England 
sent over trained soldiers to the American colonies to en- 
force obedience to her unjust laws. The colonists were 
weak, and had no trained soldiers ; but they raised an army 
and determined to fight for their liberties. So war began. 


After the Declaration of Independence by the patriots 
on July 4th, 1776, John Davenport, ever true to his country 
and his convictions of right and wrong, though regretting 
to leave his beautiful young wife and his happy children, 
took up arms to fight for liberty. Harry Burnley went 
with him to fight for the same noble cause. They were both 
brave soldiers and fought in most of the prominent battles 
of the Revolutionary war. They were mess-mates and 
bunk-mates throughout the war. 

On the night of March 14th, 1781, while the two oppos-- 
ing armies were encamped near Greensboro, at Guilford 
Court House, North Carolina, and stood ready to join in 
bloody battle the next day, these two devoted friends were 
sitting by their camp fire, talking of the coming battle and 
thinking of their loved ones at home. John Davenport 
seemed sad and much depressed. Harry Burnley noticed 
his depression and asked him why he was no downcast. He 
said, " Harry, somehow I feel that I will be killed in battle 
tomorrow. I almost know it." Harry Burnley tried to 
dissipate his gloomy forebodings and cheer him up, by 
laughing at him and by making light of presentiments and 
by tusseling with him, but all without success. Determined 
to cheer up his friend, Harry finally said, "John, if you 
are killed tomorrow, I am going back home and marry your 
widow, ' ' Harry being an unmarried man. 

On the next day the cruel battle was fought. The 
ground was covered with dead and dying men, soldiers on 
both sides, covered with blood and dust. One of these 
soldiers was John Davenport. He had been wounded and 
would die ; and he was suffering from both pain and thirst. 
When the battle was over, his devoted friend hurried to his 
side and found him mortally wounded. "When he found 
him, skulkers were stripping him of the silver buckles which 
he wore.* 

* These skulkers in their hurry to get away left five silver 
buckles and epaulettes which were exhibited at the Exposition 
in New Orleans some years ago. 


He was tenderly nursed by his life-long friend during 
the few hours that he lived. Realizing that the end was 
near, John Davenport said to his friend, ''Harry, I am 
dying ; and you remember last night you said to me in jest 
that if I lost my life today, that you were going home and 
marry Lucy. You have been my best friend, you are a 
noble and good man, and I now ask you in earnest to do as 
you said you would in jest go back home after the war is 
over, marry my wife, and take care of her and my five little 
children. ' ' 

About one year after the death of John Davenport, 
Harry Burnley and Mrs. Lucy Davenport were married. 
Several years later they moved to Warren County, Georgia, 
where they lived and died and were buried. Mrs. Lucy 
Davenport Burnley was the mother of fourteen children, 
five by her first marriage and nine by her second. Among 
her descendants are to be found very many noble men and 
women in America distinguished as writers, lawyers and 
educators, and in every walk of life. Many of her sons 
and grandsons have sacrificed their lives for their country. 



Long after the victories of Washington over the French 
and the English had made his name familiar to all Europe, 
Benjamin Franklin was a guest at a dinner given in honor 
of the French and English Ambassadors. The Ambassador 
from England arose and drank a toast to his native land : 
"To England the sun whose bright beams enlighten and 
fructify the remotest corners of the earth.' 

The French Ambassador, filled with his own national 
pride, but too polite to dispute the previous toast, offered 
the following: "To France the moon whose mild, steady, 
and cheering rays are the delight of all nations, consoling 
them in darkness and making their dreariness beautiful. ' ' 

Then arose "Old Ben Franklin," and said in his slow 
but dignified way: "To George Washington the Joshua 
who commanded the sun and the moon to stand still, and 
they obeyed him." 


After the cold winter at Valley Forge, Captain Charles 
Cameron was sent home to Augusta County, Virginia, to 
recruit his Company. On his way back to the Continental 
Army, he and his men captured a Tory on the right bank of 
the Potomac River and decided to convert him, by baptism, 
into a loyal Patriot. Taking him down to the river bank 
they plunged him in. 

Once "Hurrah for King George !" came from the stru- 
gling Tory as he arose from the water. 

Twice "Hurrah for King George! Long live King 
George ! ' ' The Tory was again on top. 

Three times "Hurrah for King George! Long live 
King George! King George forever!" 

The men looked helplessly at their Captain. "Loose 
him," were the orders, "and let him go. He is uncon- 



The youngest of the three signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, from Georgia, was George Walton, who was 
born in Prince Edward County, Virginia, in 1749. He be- 
came an orphan when quite young and his guardian did 
not care to be burdened with his education, so he was given 
to a carpenter as an apprentice and put to hard work. 
After his days work he would light a fire of fat pine and 
study until the wee small hours of the night, thus gaining 
an education most boys would let go ; by. The good 
carpenter, seeing him so industriously inclined and anxious 
for an education, allowed him to keep the money he earned 
and helped him all he could and at last relieved him of 
his apprenticeship, and he then decided to come to Georgia. 
At twenty years of age he went (by private conveyance) to 
Savannah, which was then a small town of only a few 
thousand people. He studied law in the office of Henry 
Young and was soon admitted to the bar. 

In June, 1775, a call signed by George Walton, Noble 
W. Jones, Archibald Bullock and John Houston, was issued 
asking people to meet at Liberty Pole to take measures to 
bring about a union of Georgia with her sister colonies 
in the cause of freedom. The meeting was a success, a 
council of Safety Chapter organized, of which George 
Walton was a member, the Union Flag was raised at the 
Liberty Pole, and patriotic speeches were made. 

In July, 1775, a Congress of Representatives from all 
over Georgia was held in Savannah. This Congress has 
been called " Georgia's first Secession Convention" for it 
declared the colony was no longer bound by the acts of 
England, since the mother country was acting unjustly and 
oppressively. George Walton was present and though only 
twenty-six years old, he was recognized as one of the most 
influential representatives of the convention. 

In December, 1775, George Walton became President of 
the Council of Safety and practically had charge of the 


colony. He was sent as a delegate to the Continental Con- 
gress in Philadelphia in 1776. The war had begun and 
the country was much excited. It was decided that Inde- 
pendence was the only proper course, so July 4th, 1776, 
the Declaration of Independence was signed by all dele- 

In 1777, George Walton married Dorothy Chamber; 
1779 he was Governor of Georgia, then he went back to 
Philadelphia as a member of Congress, where he stayed 
until October, 1781. In December, 1778, he became Colonel 
in the First Regiment of Foot Militia for the defence of 
Georgia. The British were then bent on capturing Savan- 
nah. Col. Walton with one hundred men was posted on the 
South Common to guard the approach to Great Ogeeche 
Ferry. General Robert Howe was in command of the 
American forces, and Colonel Walton had informed him of 
a pass through the swamp by which the enemy could attack 
them in rear, but General Howe paid no attention to this. 
The result was this pass being left unguarded, the British 
made their way to the rear of the American forces and fell 
upon them with great disaster. Col. Walton was shot in 
the thigh, the bone being broken ; and falling from his 
horse, was captured by the British. The enemy entered 
Savannah and held that city captive. Col. Walton was 
taken prisoner to Sunbury, where he was well cared for 
until his recovery. He never, however, regained complete 
use of his leg, for he limped the rest of his life. He was 
exchanged for a Captain of the British Navy and 
proceeded to Augusta. Soon after his return to Augusta 
he was made Governor of Georgia, but the state being so 
over-run by British, he had little to do. 

Peace came to the colonists in 1782, and the British 
withdrew from Savannah. America was free and the 
states independent in 1783. George Walton was made 
Chief Justice of Georgia, and for seven years was a beloved 
judge in all parts of Georgia. In 1789 he was again made 
Governor of Georgia for a term of one year. While he 


was governor he received a copy of the Constitution of the 
United States which had been framed by the delegates from 
all the states. 

In 1795 and 1796, George Walton was sent as a Senator 
to the Congress of the United States. For many years, 
and up to the time of his death he was judge of the middle 
circuit of Georgia. During the latter part of his life, his 
home was near Augusta at a beautiful country place named 
Meadow Garden. The house is still standing, and was 
bought by the Daughters of the American Revolution, and 
is being preserved by them as a memorial to George Walton. 
He died February 2nd, 1804, at Meadow Garden, in the 
fifty-fifth year of his life. He was buried several miles 
from Augusta, at Rosney, here his body rested until 1848, 
when it was reinterred, being brought to Augusta and 
placed under the monument on Greene Street, in front of 
court house, the body of Lyman Hall being placed there at 
the same time. The grave of Button Gwinnett could not be 
found; so only two of the signers of the Declaration rest 
under this stately memorial. 

Few men have received as many honors as George 
Walton. He was six times elected representative to Con- 
gress, twice Governor of Georgia, once a Senator of the 
United States, four times Judge of the Superior Court, 
once the Chief Justice of the state. He was a Commissioner 
to treat with the Indians, often in the State Legislature, 
a member of nearly every important committee on public 
affairs during his life. His name occurs in the State's 
Annals for over thirty years of eventful and formative 
history. Compiled from "Men of Mark of Georgia." 



In writing of a man like Jefferson, whose name has been 
a household word since the birth of the Nation, it is well- 
nigh impossible to avoid being commonplace ; so that in the 
beginning, I ask you indulgence, if in reviewing his life, 
I should recount facts that are as familiar to you as the 

Yet, in studying that life, I find such a richness of 
achievement, such an abundance of attainment, such a 
world of interest, that I am at a loss how to prepare a paper 
that will not require an extra session for its reading. 

Thomas Jefferson was the eldest child of a seemingly 
strange union ; the father, an uneducated pioneer, surveyor, 
and Indian fighter, living in the mountains of Virginia 
the mother, Jane Randolph, coming from the best blood of 
that blue blooded commonwealth. I think we need dig no 
further around Jefferson's family tree in order to under- 
stand how a gentleman of education, culture, and aristo- 
cratic instincts could affect a dress so different from men 
of his class, and could so deeply and sincerely love the 
masses as to spend his life in their behalf. And this he 
certainly did. He worked, thought, planned, and accom- 
plished for them yet, throughout his life, his associations 
were always with the upper classes. 

He began life in 1743, in the small village of Shadwell, 
Va., where he spent his childhood and youth among the 
freedom of the hills. Afterwards, whenever he escaped 
from public duty, it was to retire to this same neighborhood, 
for it was on one of his ancestral hills that Monticello was 

Thanks to his mother, he was carefully educated at Wil- 
liam and Mary College, from which he graduated at the 
age of eighteen. The Brittanica draws the following picture 
of him as a young man: 

"He was an expert musician, a good dancer, a dashing 
rider, proficient in all manly exercises; a hard student; 


tall, straight, slim, with hazel eyes, sandy hair, delicate 
skin, ruddy complexion; frank, earnest, sympathetic, 
cordial, full of confidence in men, and sanguine in his 
views of life. ' ' Is not that a pleasing portrait ? 

Being the eldest son, his father's death, while he was 
at college, left him heir to his estate of nineteen hundred 
acres, so that he could live very comfortably. Jefferson 
lived in a day when a man's wealth was measured in great 
part by the land he owned. It is indicative of his thrift and 
energy that his nineteen hundred acres soon grew to five 
thousand "all paid for," we are told. Indeed, he was 
strictly honest in paying his debts. 

He was a born farmer, and to the end of his life retained 
his love for that mode of existence. 

However, he chose the law for his profession. That he 
did not have to watch his practice grow through a long 
season of painful probation is shown by the record of sixty- 
eight cases before the chief court of the Province during 
the first year after his admission to the Bar, and nearly 
twice that many the second year. 

Although, as I said, he loved a farmer's life, he was 
allowed little leisure to follow it, serving in succession as 
member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, member of 
Congress, Governor of Virginia, member of Congress again, 
Minister to France, Secretary of State, Vice-President, and 

Perhaps many other men have served the public for as 
long a term, but I challenge historj^ to find another who 
has accomplished so much for his country. 

From the founding of Jamestown to the present day, no 
man, Washington not excepted, has had the influence over 
the nation that Jefferson wielded. 

To have been the author of the great Declaration, it 
would seem, were fame enough for one American, but for 
him that was only the beginning. Independence achieved, 
he set about making his own state really free and intro- 
duced into the Virginia Legislature bill after bill which 


cut off the exeresences of a monarchial system, lingering in 
the practices of a new-born nation. These bills were not 
all carried when he proposed them, by any means, but hear 
what, in the end they gave to Virginia, and remember that 
these things came through the efforts of one man : religious 
freedom, the fight for which began in '76 and continued 
till 1785 ; the system of entails broken up ; the importation 
of slaves prohibited, and primo-geniture discontinued. 

Jefferson was not a fluent speaker, but a clear thinker. 
Besides this, he had a great antipathy to appearing in 
print. Therefore, when it was necessary to say or do any- 
thing, he had only to tell somebody what to say or do, and 
the thing was accomplished. 

Leicester Ford, who has compiled a very thorough Life 
of Jefferson, says that "he influenced American thought 
more than any other person, yet boasted that he never 
wrote for the press. By means of others, he promulgated 
that mars of doctrine, nowhere formulated, known as The 
Jeffersonian Principles." The doctrine that goes by the 
name of Monroe was probably his also. 

That the principles of the Democratic Party have 
remained unchanged from his day to ours only shows the 
clearness and correctness of his logic. Not only is this true, 
but he thoroughly and conscientiously believed in the 
things he taught, the theory of States Bights being a child 
of his own brain. 

During his two terms as President, and throughout the 
remainder of his life, such was the faith of his party in 
his wisdom, foresight, and political integrity, that he had 
only to express a wish, and it became, unquestioned, the law 
of the land. 

After his retirement, his party proposed no measure 
until a visit was first made to the "Sage of Monticello," 
and his opinion obtained. 

President followed President, Jefferson became old and 
infirm, but to the day of his death, he was undisputed 
leader of the American nation. 


Did he not deserve the name of seer ? Years before the 
Revolution, he warned the people against slavery, declaring 
that "nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate 
than that these people are to be free." He owned the 
slaves that came to him from his father and his wife, but is 
said never to have purchased any. 

Among the things accomplished during his presidency 
are the extermination of the Mediterranean pirates, the 
exploration of the West, public debt diminished, emigration 
of Indians beyond the Mississippi promoted, and the 
wonderful Louisiana purchase. 

Though his second term was clouded by constant war 
in Europe, and the continued depredations on American 
commerce, at its close, he was urged to serve for the third 
term, the Legislatures of five States requesting it, showing 
that he was not held responsible for the condition of affairs. 

His was a many sided nature. Great statesman that he 
was, great political scientist, his ability did not stop there. 
His interest in commerce, agriculture, literature, history, 
music, education, and the natural sciences was unbounded, 
and his private collections, perhaps, were unexcelled at that 

No man has done more for the cause of education among 
us than he. He it was who proposed a bill for "the free 
training of all free children, male and female. ' ' This was 
ten years before the admission of girls to the common 
schools of Boston. His reason for wanting good schools in 
Virginia was unique he said he objected to being a beggar 
for the crumbs that fell from the tables of the North. He 
pleaded for nonsectarian schools, and was, therefore, 
called by many atheistic. 

This was one of the obstacles that he had to overcome 
in his fight for the University of Virginia. Princeton was 
then sectarian William and Mary was controlled by the 
Episcopal Church. The result of all this thought and 
desire exists for us today in the University of Virginia 
the first real University in America. 


Thomas Nelson Page says, "No stranger story of self 
sacrifice and devotion to a high ideal in the face of trials, 
which to lesser genius might have appeared insurmount- 
able, and of disappointments which to less courage must 
have proved fatal, has ever been written than that which 
recounts the devotion of the last twenty years of the life of 
Thomas Jefferson to the establishment of a great univer- 
sity. " The corner stone of Central College, which was 
afterwards enlarged to the University of Virginia, was 
laid in 1816 by President Monroe, in the presence of 
Jefferson and Madison, ex-presidents. 

Not only did Jefferson see the need for this school, and 
work to carry it through, but he actually drew the plans 
for the buildings, modelling them after those of ancient 
Greece and Rome. 

Page says, to quote from the same author and, if you 
want to read an interesting book, read his ' ' Old Dominion ' ' 
"If any pile of buildings in the world is fitted by its 
beauty to be the abode of philosophy it is this. * * * * The 
University has excelled in scholastic results any similar 
institution in the country. She has a larger representa- 
tion in Congress than any other, a larger representation on 
the bench and a larger representation in the medical de- 
partments of both army and navy. This has been accom- 
plished on an income less than that of many second rate 
colleges. ' ' 

This result, and the high standard prevailing in the 
University today, have more than justified Jefferson for 
all his labor. His constant refrain was, "We are working 
for posterity. ' ' 

The project was in his brain five years before he began 
work on it. One of his proudest titles is "Father of the 
University of Virginia." 

Jefferson's writings consist mostly of letters and ad- 
dresses, besides "A Summary View of the Rights of 
British America, ' ' written before the Revolution, circulated 


in England, and attributed to Burke, and the well known 
and valuable ' ' Notes on Virginia. ' ' 

He loved his home and his family, and seems to have 
been peculiarly blessed in them. He married a rich young 
widow Martha Skelton though it does not appear that 
he did so because she was rich. 

Of several children only two grew to maturity, and 
only one survived him. His wife lived just ten years after 
their marriage, and almost with her last breath begged him 
not to give her children a step-mother. He made and kept 
the promise. 

I know I have given a rose-colored account of him, yet 
some shadow belongs to the portrayal. No one could do the 
things that he did and not have enemies. Particularly do 
politicians not handle each other with gloves. Jefferson 
has been called all the ugly names in man's vocabulary, 
but very little, if any, real evidence can be adduced to 
support any of this. 

With all his gifts, he was unfitted to lead a people in 
the trying time of war; consequently, his governorship of 
Virginia, occurring during the Revolution, and his second 
term as President were not eminently successful. No one 
can deny the bitter emnity between him and Hamilton any 
more than any one can prove that the former was more to 
blame than the latter. Admit that he was often theoretical 
and visionary, yet the work he accomplished proves that 
he was even more practical and farsighted. 

That he was not free from idiosyncrasies is shown by 
the manner in which he went to his first inauguration, and 
the fact that he always dressed as a farmer never as a 

All this was to prove his steadfastness of faith in 
democratic ways and institutions. He would not indulge 
in making a formal speech at the opening of Congress, but 
wrote and sent his "message" by hand a practice followed 
by every President since, with the exception of President 
Wilson, 1913. 


In all things he was a strict constructionist. But none 
of these things can detract much from the name and fame 
of a man who has put such foundation stones in our civiliza- 

I have drawn my data mostly from the writings of one 
who holds the opposite political tenets yet I find it record- 
ed that "Jefferson's personal animosities were few" that 
he couldn't long hold anger in his heart that "to this day 
the multitude cherish and revere his memory, and in so 
doing, pay a just debt of gratitude to a friend, who not 
only served them, as many have done, but who honored and 
respected them, as very few have done." 

His hospitality and the public desire to see him were 
so great that his home was for many years a kind of un- 
profitable hotel, because everything was free of charge. It 
was always full, and sometimes his housekeeper had to 
provide fifty beds. This great expense, added to some 
security debts, left him a poor man. In fact, he was in 
need, but when the public found it out, money came in 
in sufficient quantities to enable him to continue his mode 
of life. 

Like Shakespeare, he wrote his own epitaph, any one 
item of which would entitle him to the love of posterity: 
"Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, Author of the Declara- 
tion of American Independence, of the Statute of Virginia, 
lor religious freedom, and Father of the University of 
Virginia. ' ' 

I fear I have been tedious, I know I have been trite 
yet I beg you to read for yourselves the history and letters 
of this great man. 

That his death occurred on the 4th day of July, 1826, 
just fifty years from the day when the wonderful Declara- 
tion was made, and coincident with that of his former col- 
league, another ex-president, seems a fitting close to a most 
remarkable career. 



Miss SUSIE GENTRY, Vice State Regent, Tennessee. 

Time, the artificer, makes men, as well as things, for 
their day and use. 

The Revolution was the evolution of an idea one 
inherent in all humanity Liberty! 

First, was the thought of a home, the most sacred and 
best of man's sanctuaries. These pioneer Colonists, fleeing 
from religious persecution, debt and poverty, often came 
to an untrodden wilderness of limitless forest and plain, to 
form a local habitation and a name. 

After the establishment of the home, education and its 
application followed, through the teaching and oratory of 
the pulpit to the white man and Indian. Next in order was 
self-government. The Revolutionary period was productive 
not only of the general and soldier, but the statesman and 
orator, who set forth the "grievances of the people" in 
most glowing and convincing terms. The term "orator" 
has two specific meanings in common language, one who 
delivers an oration, a public speaker; and technically, one 
who prays for relief, a petitioner. The orators of the Revo- 
lutionary period were both in one. The true orator is the 
poet of the practical. He must be an enthusiast ; he must 
be sincere ; he must be fearless, and as simple as a child ; he 
must be warm and earnest, able to play upon the emotions, 
as a skillful musician his instrument that responds to his 
every touch, be it ever so light and delicate. So shall his 
words descend upon the people like cloven tongues of fire, 
inspiring, sanctifying, beautifying and convincing; for an 
orator 's words are designed for immediate effect. 

When the "Stamp Act" was repealed, March 18, 1766, 
Jonathan Mayhew delivered a thrilling speech, known as 
"A Patriot's Thanksgiving," in which he said: "The 
repeal has restored things to order. The course of 
justice is no longer obstructed. All lovers of liberty have 


reason to rejoice. Blessed revolution ! How great are our 
obligations to the Supreme Governor of the world ! ' ' 

Even the conservatives, Benjamin Franklin and George 
Washington, take of the promethean fire of patriotism ; it is 
seen in Franklin's writings, in Washington's "Farewell 
Address" his masterpiece of prophetic admonition, de- 
livered in the style and diction of a gifted orator. A long 
and faithful career of usefulness, and the very human 
touch he had gained as a soldier and general, particularly 
during that terrible year of 1777, developed the hitherto 
unknown gift. 

Of the men who composed the Second Colonial and 
First Continental Congress, which met at Philadelphia, 
September 5, 1774, William Pitt said in his speech to the 
House of Lords: "History has always been my favorite 
study, and in the celebrated writings of antiquity I have 
often admired the patriotism of Greece and Rome, but, my 
lords, T must avow that in the master states of the world I 
know not a people or senate who can stand in preference to 
the delegates of America assembled in general congress at 

. Samuel Adams was one of the foremost orators and 
patriots of America, and was of Massachusetts' famous 
bouquet James Otis, Joseph Warren, Josiah Quincy, John 
pnd John Quincy Adams and left his work on the history 
of America as a signer of the Declaration of Independence. 

James Otis, rext in chronological order, was a bold, 
commanding orator, and the first to speak against the taxing 
of the colonies. He was called "the silver-tongued orator" 
and "a flame of fire." His death was as unusual as his 
gift he was killed by a stroke of lightning May, 1772. 

Joseph Warren and Josiah Quincy were both men of 
great talents and power, Warren was elected twice to 
deliver the oration in commemoration of the massacre of 
the fifth of March; he rendered efficient service by both 
his writing and addresses; and was distinguished as a 


physician, especially in the treatment of smallpox. He was 
killed while fighting as a volunteer at Bunker Hill. 

Josiah Quincy's powers as an orator were of a very 
high order. It is sad to think that he died the very day 
he reached his native land, after a voyage to Europe in the 
interest of the colonies. One does not wonder that John 
Adams possessed influence, when in voting for the Declara- 
tion of Independence he exclaimed : ' ' Sink or swim, live of 
die, survive or perish, I give my heart and hand to tliis 
vote ; ' ' nor that the son of such a father was called ' ' The 
Old Man Eloquent." and the "Champion of the Rights of 
Petition," who thought "no man's vote lost which is cast 
for the right." 

John Adams is the one man who remembered liberty 
and the people, for when he died July 4, 1826, his last words 
were, "It is the glorious Fourth of July ! God bless it 
God bless you all ! " 

From this cursory glance of the orators of Massachu- 
setts, we can well understand how, like the "alabaster 
box" of old, the perfume of their noble deeds for the cause 
of right still lingers. 

Alexander Hamilton was an orator that accomplished 
much for the colonies with his forceful, facile and brilliant 
pen, as did Madison and Jay, in the ' ' Federalist. ' ' Patrick 
Henry, the red feather, of the Revolutionary period, as is 
E. "W. Carmack of to-day is by the South regarded the 
Magna Stella of that marvelous galaxy of stars. It is prob- 
able that his oratory was not as much a product of nature 
as was thought at the time when it was so effective. It was 
somewhat an inheritance, as he was the great-nephew of 
the Scotch historian Robertson, and the nephew of William 
Winston who was regarded as an eloquent speaker in his 

Patrick, after six weeks study of law, we are told, con- 
menced the practice of law (having the incumbrance of a 
family and poverty) and with what success, all the world 
knows. It was in the celebrated "Parson's case" that he 


won his spurs, and the epithet of ' ' the orator of Nature ; ' ' 
also his election to the House of Burgesses, of Virginia. 
Nine years after he made his famous speech in which he 
told George III he might profit by the examples of Ceasar 
and Charles I, he delivered his greatest effort of oratory 
in which he said, ' ' I know not what course others may take, 
but give me liberty, or give me death ! ' ' 

Thomas Jefferson was the father of that instrument, 
the Declaration of Independence 1 that gives us "life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness, " in so far as we tres- 
pass not on the moral and civil rights of our neighbor 
and was persuasive and eloquent, as well as an acute poli- 
tician. He was the acknowledged head of his party; and 
his work was of the uttermost importance to both the 
colonies and states. No one politician and orator has left a 
more indelible impression upon succeeding generations than 

Thomas Paine also did his quota as an orator and 
writer; and great were the results accomplished by his 
"Common Sense" and the first "Crisis." Paine was not 
only a writer and orator, but a soldier. Under General 
Nathaniel Greene he rendered such efficient and valuable 
service that he was called the "hero of Fort Mifflin." 
Although he was an Englishman, who came to America and 
espoused the cause of the Continentals, the English nation 
are glad to own him. William Cobbett (the English 
statesman) says "whoever wrote the Declaration, Paine was 
its author." 

Paine was one of the most noted orators, if we remember 
that an ' ' orator is one who prays for relief a petitioner, ' ' 
whether it be viva voce or with the pen. We wish it were 
possible in the time allotted to us to give extracts from the 
speeches and writings of these orators of the Revolution. 
How grateful we should be, and what a debt of gratitude 
we owe each of them, for their labors that have long since 
received the encomium from God and man "well done, 
thou good and faithful servant. ' ' American Monthly. 



The flag of our country, how proudly it waves 
In the darkness of night, in the light of the sun, 

In silence it watches our patriots' graves, 
In splendor it tells of their victories won! 

It waves, as it waved in the brave days of old, 
An emblem of glory, of hope, and of life; 

A pledge to the world in each star and each fold 
Of a love that endures through all danger and strife. 

Of love that is deep as the sea 'neath its blue; 

Of a love that is pure as the light of each star; 
0, flag of our country, the brave and the true 

Await thee, and greet thee, and bless thee afar! 

The flag of our country, the flag of the free, 
The hope of the weary, the joy of the sad, 

May our eyes at the last, still thy bright promise see 
That each slave shall know thee, arise and be glad ! 

The flag of our country, the flag of our love, 

Our hearts are aflame with thy red, white and blue; 

May thy glory increase while thy stars shine above, 
To thy promise and pledge may the children be true. 

0, the red, white and blue ! 0, the flag of the free ! 

Sweet liberty calls to the nations afar, 
Thy glory illumines the land and the sea, 

0, flag of our country, earth's beautiful star! 
Metta Thompson in American Monthly. 



Many of you have no doubt heard or read the famous 
lecture of Dr. Bagley, entitled "Bacon and Greens," and 
chuckled over his vivid description of "The Old Virginia 
Gentleman." You may be interested in knowing that a 
portrait of the Hon. James Steptoe, of Federal Hill, Bed- 
ford County, Virginia, painted by Harvey Mitchell in 1826, 
was the inspiration of this interesting lecture. 

This ' ' Old Virginia Gentleman ' ' was a worthy represen- 
tative of the House of Steptoe, whose forefathers played 
an important part in the history of the ' ' Old World. ' ' The 
progenitor of this interesting family was Anthony Steptoe, 
the third son of Sir Philip Steptoe, of England. Anthony 
and his wife, Lucy, came to the Colony in 1676, and located 
in Lancaster County, Virginia, and they were the great 
grandparents of Hon. James Steptoe. 

' ' The Old Virginia Gentleman ' ' was one of four broth- 
ers, George, James, Thomas, and William; they had four 
half sisters, Elizabeth and Ann Steptoe; Mary and Anne 
Aylett; and two step-sisters, Elizabeth and Ann Aylett; 
thus the families of Steptoe and Aylett are often con- 

Col. James Steptoe, M. D., of "Homany Hall," West- 
moreland County, Virginia, was born in the year of 1710, 
and died in 1778. He was a distinguished physician, and 
held many positions of honor and trust in affairs of Church 
and State. He married firstly Hannah Ashton, and second- 
ly Elizabeth Aylett, the widow of Col. William Aylett and 
a daughter of Col. George Eskridge. The descendants of 
Colonel Steptoe and Colonel Aylett are often confounded. 

Col. Aylett married first Ann Ashton, a sister of Colonel 
Step toe's first wife, and had two daughters, Elizabeth and 
Ann. Elizabeth Aylett married William Booth, and Ann 
married William Augustin Washington (a half-brother of 
our beloved Gen. George Washington). Colonel Aylett 
married secondly Elizabeth Eskridge, and had two daugh- 


ters, Mary and Anne ; Mary married Thomas Ludwell Lee, 
of "Bell Vieu;" and Anne married Richard Henry Lee, of 

Col. James Steptoe had two daughters by his first mar- 
riage, Elizabeth and Ann; Elizabeth married first Philip 
Ludwell Lee, of "Stratford," and secondly Philip Richard 
Fendall; and Ann married first Willoughby Allerton, and 
secondly Col. Samuel Washington, a younger brother of 
Gen. George Washington. Of the four sons of Col. James 
Steptoe, George and Thomas never married ; William mar- 
ried Elizabeth Robinson, and they resided at the old 
Robinson homestead, "Herwich. " The Hon. James Step- 
toe, the original "The Old Virginia Gentleman," was born 
in the year of 1750, at "Homany Hall," Westmoreland 
County, Virginia. He was educated at William and Mary 
College, and while there was a fellow student of Thomas 
Jefferson. They formed a close friendship, which continued 
throughout life. It was through the influence of Jefferson 
that James Steptoe was appointed to an office under Secre- 
tary Nelson, after which he was transferred in 1772, at the 
early age of 22, to the clerkship of the District Court at 
New London, in Bedford Co., Va. This position he held 
until his death in 1826, having served fifty-four years. He 
married Frances Galloway, a daughter of Col. James Gallo- 
way, of Bedford County. 

The Hon. James Steptoe built the mansion house known 
as ' ' Federal Hill, ' ' and it was here that he spent his useful 
life surrounded by his family, and noted for his sincerity 
and hospitality. This mansion was situated three miles 
from "Poplar Forest," the abode of his friend, Thomas 
Jefferson, who loved to seek seclusion there during his 
intervals of rest from public service. 

Upon one occasion when Gen. Andrew Jackson, on his 
way to Washington just after the battle of New Orleans, 
had stopped to dine with his friend, James Steptoe, he met 
Thomas Jefferson just at the gateway. The two great men 
dismounted from their horses and exchanged salutations 


with each other and with their host, who awaited them with- 
in upon the lawn. Mr. Jefferson, with his courtly manner, 
waving his hand, stood back for "Old Hickory" to pass 
before him; but that gallant soldier, bowing low, said: 
"Surely, Mr. Jefferson does not think that I would go be- 
fore an ex-President of the United States." To which Mr. 
Jefferson graciously replied: "It would ill become me to 
take precedence of the hero of New Orleans. ' ' Thus these 
two distinguished men stood bowing and scraping to each 
other in the roadway in true "Gaston and Alfonse style," 
while Mr. Steptoe waited for them with, I am sure, amused 
impatience ; until at length General Jackson threw his arms 
about Mr. Jefferson and gently lifted him quite over the 
threshold, and then the General's aide and the other gentry 
coming up, we may be sure they had a jolly good time a 
"feast of reason and a flow of soul," not forgetting Mrs. 
Steptoe 's bountiful dinner served on the famous Steptoe 
silver, a veritable feast of "wines on the leas," which to 
read about makes us long more than ever for a return of 
those good old times. 

But once a shadow fell upon the friendship of Mr. 
Jefferson and Mr. Steptoe, as clouds will fall upon human 
friendships. James Steptoe had another valued friend, 
Major Gibbon, a gallant officer of the Revolutionary army, 
who had led the forlorn hope at the battle of Stony Point. 
This old hero had been given the appointment of collector 
of customs at Richmond, but had been removed by Jefferson 
because it had been represented to him that Major Gibbon 
was 011 familiar terms with Aaron Burr, who was then on 
trial at Richmond for acts charged against him as treason- 
able. Soon after the removal of Major Gibbon Mr. Jefferson 
was on one of his visits at Poplar Forest, but his old friend, 
James Steptoe, who was usually the first to welcome him, 
the illustrious visitor, to his summer home, neither went in 
person nor sent a message of salutation to his life-long 
friend. Days lengthened into weeks, and still he made no 
sign, and at length Mr. Jefferson, on a bright summer morn- 


ing, rode over to Mr. Step toe's and dismounted from his 
horse at the gate, and on entering the yard found Mr. 
Steptoe walking to and fro on his porch, apparently uncon- 
scious of his guest's arrival. 

Mr. Jefferson advanced with outstretched hand and 
cordial smile, but Mr. Steptoe gazed cold and stern upon his 
visitor, returning no look or word of kindness for the 
offered greeting of the President, who thus addressed him : 
' ' Why, James Steptoe, how is this ? I have been for weeks 
within a stone 's throw of you, and though you have usually 
been the first to welcome me home, your face is now turned 
from me, and you give me no welcome to your house. ' ' To 
this Mr. Steptoe coolly replied: "Mr. Jefferson, I have been 
disappointed in you, sir, you are not the man I took you 
to be. You know as well as I do that Maj. James Gibbon 
was a brave, a meritorious officer in the Revolutionary 
army, that he served under Aaron Burr, who was also a 
gallant soldier, and his officers were greatly attached to him. 
Now when Colonel Burr has been brought to Richmond 
for trial, committed to prison and every indignity heaped 
upon him, and just because Major Gibbon has supplied his 
old commander with some necessaries and comforts, you, 
from hatred of Burr, have wreaked your vengeance on 
Gibbon and deprived a faithful old soldier of an office 
which was his only means of support." "Why, Steptoe, 
is that all?" said Jefferson, "I assure you the matter had 
not been so presented to me before. But the same hand that 
removed Major Gibbon can replace him, and justice shall 
be done him at once." "Then you are, indeed, my friend, 
and welcome as ever to my home and heart," cried James 

James Steptoe 's land and silver are gone, his bones have 
turned to dust; and ere long his name may be forgotten, 
but let us now honor the man who would refuse the prof- 
fered hand of the President of the United States, when 
that hand was stained by an unworthy act. Would there 
were more men of such mettle in our day ! 


James Steptoe was not only noted for his hospitality 
and justness, but also for his charity. Driving along in his 
coach and four, he passed the house of a certain widow, 
Mrs. Chaffee. Upon noticing a crowd gathered around, he 
sent his coachman, Ben, to inquire the cause. Hearing that 
the poor woman was being sold out for debt he descended 
from his carriage, stopped the auction, paid the mortgage, 
and added one more noble act of charity to his record. 

James Steptoe was beloved by everyone, and especially 
so by his slaves, whom he had taught different trades that 
they might support themselves after his death when, by 
his will, they were all set free. A handsome monument in 
the old family burying ground in Bedford County, bears 
this inscription, "James Steptoe, born 1750, died 1826, for 
fifty-four years the Clerk of Bedford County. ' ' 

The office of clerk of the Court of Bedford County has 
been held by the Steptoe family in its lineal and collateral 
branches for more than a hundred years. 

The character of James Steptoe may be described in a 
few words, integrity, independence, and the strictest form 
of republican simplicity. Though descended, as has been 
shown, from a long line of the better class of English 
gentry, he never alluded to it himself; in fact, it was not 
known in his family until after his death, when they learned 
it through his correspondence. He was a man who held 
very decided opinions on all subjects, and would at times 
express them as to men and public affairs in very strong 
language, being strong in his friendships and equally strong 
in his dislikes. As a clerk, he was everything that could be 
desired, polite and obliging, as all Old Virginia Gentlemen 
are; careful and attentive in the business of his office and 
in court, and ever ready at all times to give information 
and advice to those who needed it. 

The Hon. James Steptoe and his wife, Frances Galloway, 
were the parents of five sons and four daughters, as follows : 
Major James, who succeeded his father as Clerk of Bedford, 
and who married Catherine Mitchell; Dr. William, of 


Lynchburg, who married first Nancy Brown, and second 
Mary Dillon; George, of Bedford County, who married 
Maria Thomas; Robert, of Bedford County, who married 
Elizabeth Leftwich; Thomas, who inherited the old home, 
married Louise C. Yancy ; Elizabeth Prentise, who married 
Hon. Charles Johnston, of Richmond, Va. ; Frances, who 
married Henry S. Langhorne, of Lynchburg, Va. ; Sallie, 
who married William Massie, of Nelson County, Virginia ; 
Lucy, who married Robert Penn, of Bedford County, 
Virginia. James Step toe's descendants are scattered 
throughout the United States, and are among our most 
distinguished citizens. He has also descendants in England. 
The old portrait by Harvey Mitchell is now owned by 
the Rt. Rev. James Steptoe Johnston, Bishop of Western 
Texas ; and a fine copy of the same is owned by Mrs. Wil- 
liam Waldorf Astor, of Cliveden-on-the-Thames, England, 
EDNA JONES COLLIER, in American Monthly. 


Who does not wish that he might have been there, 
When Martha Custis came down the stair 
In silk brocade and with powdered hair, 
On that long ago Saturday clear and fine, 
A. D. Seventeen fifty-nine? 

Out from St. Peter's belfry old, 
Twelve strokes sounded distinct and bold, 
So in history the tale is told, 
When Dr. Mossen, preacher of zest, 
Long since gone to his last long rest, 
There in the Custis drawing room, 
New world house, with an old world bloom, 
Spake out the words that made them one, 
Martha Custis and Washington. 
Trembling a little and pale withal, 
She faced her lover so straight and tall, 
Oh, happiest lady beneath the sun ! 
Given as bride to George Washington. 


Brave was the groom and fair the bride, 

Standing expectant side by side, 

But how little they knew or guessed 

What the future for them possessed; 

How the joys of a wedded life 

Would be mingled with horrors of blood and strife; 

How in triumph together they'd stand, 

Covered with plaudits loud and grand, 

Yes covered with glory together they'd won, 

Martha Custis and Washington. 

Where is the gown in which she was wed? 
Brocade, woven with silver thread? 
Where are the pearls that graced her head? 
Where are her high-heeled silken shoon 
That stepped in time to the wedding tune? 
Where are her ruffles of fine point lace? 
Gone all gone with their old world grace. 
But the world remembers them every one, 
And blesses the lady of Washington. 

It is difficult to give the proper credit for the above 
poem. Mrs. "Walter J. Sears, New York City Chapter, 
found a few beautiful lines, author unknown, added some 
lines herself, and then sent the whole to "Will Carlton," 
who revised and added to them. Mrs. Sears recited the 
poem at the celebration of Washington's wedding day by 
the New York City Chapter, D. A. R., in January, 1909. 



The American colonies, though subjects of Great 
Britain, stoutly resisted the payment of revenues of 
customs; not because they doubted the justice, but they 
did object to the intolerant manner of demanding the 
revenues. Rhode Island, the smallest of the thirteen 
colonies, was destined to take an important part in this 
resistance which brought about the American Revolution. 

The English parliament, in 1733, passed the famous 
"Sugar Act" which laid a heavy tax upon West India 
products imported into the northern colonies. Rhode 
Island protested, declaring that only in this way could she 
be paid for her exports to the West Indies and thus be able 
to purchase from England. The other colonies also ob- 
jected and Richard Partridge, the appointed agent to look 
after the interests of the Rhode Island colony, conducted 
this affair for all the colonies. In his letter he declared 
that the act deprived the colonists of their rights as Eng- 
lishmen, in laying taxes upon them without their consent 
or representation. Thus, thirty-seven years before the 
Declaration of Independence, the war-cry of the Revolu- 
tion was first sounded and by the Quaker agent of Rhode 

In 1764 a new "Sugar Act" was passed. Parliament 
hoped that a reduction from six pence to three pence would 
conciliate the colonies. Neither the "Sugar Act" nor the 
proposed "Stamp Act" was accepted. The colonists still 
contended such an act and its acceptance to be inconsistent 
with the rights of British subjects. A special session of the 
Rhode Island assembly was convened. A committee of cor- 
respondence was appointed to confer with the other 
colonies and the agent was directed "to do anything in his 
power, either alone or joining with the agents of other 
governors to procure a repeal of this act and to prevent 
the passage of any act that should impose taxes inconsistent 


with the rights of British subjects." Thus did Rhode 
Island expressly deny the right of Parliament to pass such 
an act and also declare her intention to preserve her privi- 
leges inviolate. She also invited the other colonies to 
devise a plan of union for the maintenance of the liberties 
of all. 

The following year the "Stamp Act" was passed and 
disturbances followed. The assembly convened and 
through a committee prepared six resolutions more concise 
and emphatic than any passed by the other colonies, in 
which they declared the plantation absolved from all 
allegiance to the King unless these "obnoxious taxes" 
were repealed. Bold measures ! But they show the spirit 
of the colony. Johnston, the stamp-collector for Rhode 
Island, resigned, declaring he would not execute his office 
against "the will of our Sovereign Lord, the People." In 
Newport three prominent men who had spoken in defence 
of the action of Parliament were hung in effigy in front 
of the court house. At evening the effigies were taken down 
and burned. The revenue officers, fearing for their lives, 
took refuge on a British man-of-war lying in the harbor 
and refused to return until the royal governor would 
guarantee their safety. The assembly appointed two men 
to represent Rhode Island in the convention about to as- 
semble in New York. This convention, after a session of 
nearly three weeks, adopted a declaration of the rights and 
grievances of the colonies. The Rhode Island delegates 
reported the assembly and a day of public thanksgiving 
was appointed for a blessing upon the endeavors of this 
colony to preserve its valuable privileges. The day before 
the "Stamp Act" was to take effect all the royal governors 
took the oath to sustain it, except Samuel Ward, governor 
of Rhode Island, who stoutly refused. 

The fatal day dawned. Not a stamp was to be seen. 
Commerce was crushed. Justice was delayed. Not a 
statute could be enforced. The leading merchants of Amer- 


ica agreed to support home manufacturers and to this end 
pledged themselves to eat no more lamb or mutton. 

The following year, January, 1766, the papers of remon 
strance had reached England; and Parliament turned its 
attention to American affairs. The struggle was long and 
stormy; but the "Stamp Act" was repealed, with the 
saving clause that "Parliament had full right to bind the 
colonies in all cases whatsoever." 

Meanwhile, patriotic societies were being formed in 
all the colonies under the name of "Sons of Liberty." 
Rhode Island has the peculiar honor of organizing a 
similar society: "Daughters of Liberty." By invitation 
eighteen young ladies assembled at the house of Dr. 
Ephriam Bowen, in Providence, and spent the day in 
spinning. They agreed to purchase no goods of British 
manufacture until the "Stamp Act" should be repealed 
and cheerfully agreed to dispense with tea. This society 
rapidly increased and became popular throughout Rhode 

England kept her faith but a little while and then 
proposed to raise a revenue by imposing duties on glass, 
lead, paint and paper, and a tax of three pence a pound on 
tea. This aroused fresh indignation throughout the 
colonies. In Virginia the house of burgesses passed a series 
of resolutions that in them was vested the sole right of 
taxing the colony. Copies were sent to every colonial 
assembly. The Rhode Island assembly cordially approved. 

The next month the British armed sloop Liberty, cruis- 
ing in Narraganset Bay in search of contraband traders, 
needlessly annoyed all the coasting vessels that came in 
her way. Two Connecticut vessels suspected of smuggling 
were taken into Newport. A quarrel ensued between the 
captain of one of the vessels and the captain of the Liberty. 
The yankee captain was badly treated and his boat fired 
upon. The same evening the British captain went ashore, 
was captured by Newport citizens and compelled to sum- 
mon all his crew ashore except the first officer. The people 


then boarded the Liberty, sent the officer on shore, then cast 
the cable and grounded the Liberty at the Point. There 
they cut away the masts, scuttled the vessel, carried the 
boats to the upper end of the town and burned them. This 
occurred July, 1769, and was "the first overt act of 
violence offered to the British authorities in America." 

But armed vessels continued their molestations. The 
Rhode Island colony was not asleep but awaiting a favor 
able opportunity which came at last and the capture of the 
Oaspce was planned and accomplished. Rewards were 
offered for the apprehension of the perpetrators of this 
deed, but without effect. Some of Rhode Island's most 
honored citizens were engaged in the affair and some of the 
younger participants are said to have boasted of the deed 
before the smoke from the burning vessel had ceased to 
darken the sky. The capture of the Gaspee in June, 1772, 
was the first bold blow, in all the colonies for freedom. 
There was shed the first blood in the war for Independence. 
The Revolution had begun. 

Then followed resolutions from Virginia that all the 
towns should unite for mutual protection. Rhode Island 
went a step farther and proposed a continental congress, 
and thus has the distinguished honor of making the first 
explicit movement for a general congress, and a few weeks 
later she was the first to appoint delegates to this congress. 

The "Boston Port Bill" followed, and Massachusetts 
records tell of the money and supplies sent from Rhode 
Island to Boston 's suffering people. England ordered that 
no more arms were to be sent to America. Rhode Island 
began at once to manufacture fire arms. Sixty heavy can- 
non were cast, and home-made muskets were furnished to 
the chartered military companies. "When the day arrived 
upon which Congress had decreed that the use of tea should 
be suspended, three hundred pounds of tea were burned 
in Market Square, Providence, while the "Sons of Liberty" 
went through the town with a pot of black paint and a 
paint-brush and painted out the word "Tea" on every 


sign-board. This was February 1, 1775. The fight at Lex- 
ington followed on the 19th of April. Two weeks after 
this battle the Rhode Island assembly suspended Gov 
Walton, the last colonial governor of Rhode Island. He 
repeatedly asked to be restored and was as often refused. 
At the end of six months he was deposed. This was a bold 
act, but men who could attack and capture a man-of-war 
were not afraid to depose from office one single man who 
was resolved to destroy them. 

The British war-ship Rose was a constant menace to the 
vessels in Rhode Island waters. Altercations ensued. Cap- 
tain Abraham Whipple, who headed the expedition to burn 
the Gaspee, discharged the first gun at any part of the 
British navy in the American Revolution. Two armed 
vessels were ordered for the protection of Rhode Island 
waters ; and this was the beginning of the American navy. 

Passing over much of interest we come to the last im- 
portant act of Rhode Island colonial assembly: an act to 
abjure allegiance to the British crown. It was a declara- 
tion of independence and it was made on May 4, 1776, just 
two months before the Declaration of Independence, signed 
at Philadelphia. This act closed the colonial period and 
established Rhode Island as an independent state. The 
records of the assembly had always closed with "God save 
the King!" This was changed to "God save the United 
Colonies!" The smallest of the colonies had defied the 
empire of Great Britain and declared herself an independ- 
ent state ! 

Dark days followed. The British army occupied New- 
port. By command of congress, Rhode Island had sent her 
two battalions to New York, thus rendering herself defense- 
less. The militia was organized to protect the sea-coast. 
I may not linger to tell of the capture of Gen. Prescott ; of 
the unsuccessful attempt to dislodge the British, nor of the 
battle of Rhode Island, in which Col. Christopher Greene 
with his famous regiment of blacks distinguished himself, 
and which Lafayette afterwards declared was the best- 


planned battle of the war. For three years the English 
army held this fair island and left it a scene of desolation. 
Newport never recovered. Her commerce was destroyed. 
Her ships never returned. 

Meanwhile momentous events were occurring at the seat 
of war. Philadelphia was threatened and the continental 
congress had been moved to Baltimore. Washington, with 
less than twenty-three hundred men, recrossed the Dele- 
ware at night. The men he placed in two divisions, one 
under General Greene, the other under Gen. Sullivan, and 
successfully attacked the Hessians at Trenton capturing 
nine hundred prisoners (Dec. 26th, 1776). 

Washington recrossed the Delaware into Pennsylvania 
with his prisoners and spoils that very night. On January 
1st, 1777, with 5,000 men he again crossed the Delaware and 
took post at Trenton. The next day Cornwalli's appeared 
before Washington's position with a much larger forces. 
Only a creek separated the two armies. The Rhode Island 
brigade distinguished itself at the successful holding of the 
bridge and received the thanks of Washington. That night 
Washington withdrew, leaving his camp fires burning. 
Next morning, January 3rd, 1777, Cornwallis was amazed 
to find Washington gone and still more astaunded, as he 
heard in the direction of Princeton the guns of the Ameri- 
cans, who won that day another decisive victory. 

We must not dwell upon the record of Gen. Nathaniel 
Greene. His campaign in South Carolina was brilliant. 
He has been called the saviour of the South. It was he, a 
Rhode Island general, who, because of his military skill, 
stood second only to Washington. 

At the closing event of the war, the siege of Yorktown, 
a Rhode Island regiment under Capt. Stephen Olney, head- 
ed the advancing column. Sword in hand the leaders broke 
through the first obstructions. Some of the eager assail- 
ants entered the ditch. Among these was Capt. Olney who, 
as soon as a few of his men collected, forced his way be- 
tween the palisades, leaped upon the parapet and called in 


a voice that rose above the din of battle "Capt. Olney's 
company form here!" A gunshot wound in the arm, a 
bayonet thrust in the thigh and a terrible wound in the 
abdomen which he was obliged to cover with one hand, 
while he parried the bayonets with the other, answered 
the defiant shout. Capt. Olney was borne from the field, 
but not until he had given the direction to "form in 
order." In ten minutes after the first fire the fort was 
taken. Three days later Cornwallis accepted terms of sur- 
render, which were formally carried out on October 19th, 
1781. The war was over. The gallantry of Olney was lauded 
by Lafayette in general orders and more handsomely recog- 
nized in his correspondence. But the historian, thus far, 
has failed to record the fact, noted by Arnold, that the 
first sword that flashed in triumph above the captured 
heights of Yorktown was a Rhode Island Sword! ANNA 
B. MANCHESTER in American Monthly Magazine. 


At the outbreak of the Revolution Georgia was the 
youngest of the colonies. Although there had been some 
unsatisfactory relations with the mother country, there 
had been no unfriendly relations until the passage of the 
famous Stamp Act. On account of the liberal laws granted 
by England and the fatherly care of General James Ogle- 
thorpe, the Colony of Georgia had least cause to rebel. 
But she could not stand aside and see her sister colonies 
persecuted without protesting. 

In September, 1769, a meeting of merchants in Savan- 
nah protested against the Stamp Act. Jonathan Bryan 
presided over this meeting, and was asked by the royal 
governor, Sir James Wright, to resign his seat in the 
governor's council for having done so. About the same 
time Noble W. Jones was elected Speaker of the Assembly. 


Governor Wright refused to sanction the choice because 
Noble W. Jones was a Liberty Boy. These two acts of the 
governor angered the people and made them more deter- 
mined to resist. Noble W. Jones has been called "the 
morning star of liberty, ' ' on account of his activity in the 
cause of liberty at this time. A band of patriots met in 
August, 1774, and condemned the Boston Port Bill. Six 
hundred barrels of rice were purchased and sent to the 
suffering people of Boston. 

About the same time a Provincial Congress was called 
to choose delegates to the first Continental Congress to 
meet soon in Philadelphia, but through the activity of the 
royal governor, only five of the twelve parishes were repre- 
sented. No representatives were sent because this meeting 
did not represent a majority of the people. St. John's 
parish, the hotbed of the rebellion, sent Lyman Hall to 
represent that parish alone in the Continental Congress. 
On account of the patriotic and independent spirit of its 
people, and this prompt and courageous movement, the 
legislature in after years conferred the name of Liberty 
County 011 the consolidated parishes of St. John, St. 
Andrew and St. James. 

After the news of Lexington arrived great excitement 
prevailed. On the night of May 1, 1775, a party of six men 
led by Joseph Habersham broke open the powder magazine 
and took out all the ammunition. Some of this powder 
was sent to Massachusetts and used at the Battle of Bunker 
Hill. The people proceeded to take charge of the govern- 
ment. A Council of Safety and Provincial Assembly were 

The patriots captured a British schooner containing 
fourteen thousand barrels of powder. This captured 
schooner was the first ship to be commissioned by the 
American nation. The Council of Safety ordered the 
arrest of Governor Wright. Joseph Habersham with six 
men easily did this, but the governor soon escaped. The 
incident is famous because John Milledge and Edward 


Telfair, known as two of the best loved of Georgia gover- 
nors in after years, were members of this brave band. 
Joseph Habersham himself became famous afterwards, be- 
ing Postmaster-General in Washington 's cabinet. 

While these events were taking place the second Con- 
tinental Congress was framing the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. George Walton, Button Gwinnett, and Lyman 
Hall signed that great document for Georgia. Button 
Gwinnett did not live to see Georgia's independence estab- 
lished, but Lyman Hall and George Walton saw her take 
her place in the union. They were honored with the high- 
est offices of the state. There were many other men who 
became famous on account of their activities for the cause 
of liberty at this time. Chief among these were Lachlan 
Mclntosh, of whom Washington said, "I esteem him an 
officer of great merit and worth:" Archibald Bulloch, 
James Jackson, David Emanuel, John Adam Treutlen, 
Samuel Elbert, John Baker, John Wereat, and John 

With the exception of a few unsuccessful expeditions 
against Florida there was no fighting in Georgia until 
December, 1778. The people hoped that the war would be 
fought elsewhere, but such was not to be. General Prevost 
who commanded the British in Florida was ordered to 
invade Georgia from the South. Colonel Campbell was 
sent by General Howe with three thousand five hundred 
troops to attack Savannah. Colonel Campbell landed 
December 27, 1778, and by a skillful flank movement 
drove a small army of nine hundred patriots from their 
intrenchments near Savannah and pursued them with such 
terrible slaughter that barely four hundred escaped. Many 
were run down with the bayonet in the streets of Savan- 
nah, almost within sight of their families. James Jackson 
and John Milledge, both of whom were afterward governor 
of Georgia, were among the numbe. that escaped and 
while going through South Carolina to join General 
Lincoln's army they were arrested by the Americans who 

Chestnut, Between 3d and 4th Streets. 

The First Continental Congress Assembled Here 
September 5, 1774, 


thought they were English spies. Preparations were made 
for hanging them when an American officer came up who 
recognized them, and they were set free. It was certainly 
a blessing to the state that these men did not suffer an 
ignorinous death for they rendered invaluable service in 
after years by fighting the Yazoo Fraud. 

The force of British from Florida captured Fort Morris 
and united with the British force at Savannah. This com- 
bined force pressed on toward Augusta. Ebenezer was 
captured. A force of patriots under the command of 
Colonels John Twiggs, Benjamin and "William Few, de- 
feated the British advance guard under the notorious 
Tories, Browne, and McGirth, but the Americans' efforts 
were in vain and Augusta fell without a struggle. 

The cause of liberty was crushed for a while. The royal 
governor was restored to power, England could say that 
she had conquered one of her rebellious colonies at least. 
But the spirit of liberty was not dead. Colonels Elijah 
Clarke and John Dooly of Georgia, with Pickens of South 
Carolina, nearly annihilated a band of plundering Tories 
at Kettle Creek. This aroused the Georgians with renewed 
vigor. The British hearing that a French fleet was coming 
to attack Savannah, began to withdraw to that place. The 
British outpost at Sunbury was ordered to retreat to 
Savannah. Colonel White with six men captured the entire 
garrison of one hundred and forty men through strategy. 

When the French fleet under Count d'Estaing arrived, 
General Lincoln brought the Continental Army to assist 
in the recapture of the city. The combined French and 
American force beseiged the city for three weeks all in vain. 
Finally it was decided to attempt to take the place by 
assault which resulted disastrously to the American cause. 
The French and Americans were driven back having lost 
over eleven hundred men, among them the Polish patriot, 
Pulaski, and Sergeant Jasper, the hero of Fort Moultrie. 
The French fleet sailed away and General Lincoln retreated 


to Charleston leaving Georgia once more completely in the 
hands of the British. 

Tories went through the state committing all kinds of 
outrages. Colonel John Dooly was murdered in the presence 
of his family by a band of Tories. The next day the same 
murderous Tories visited Nancy Hart, a friend of Colonel 
John Dooly. Nancy overheard them talking of the deed 
and she began to think of vengeance. She slid several of 
their guns through the cracks of the log cabin before the 
Tories saw her. When the Tories noticed her she pointed 
one toward them. One Tory advanced toward her and 
was shot down. The others afraid, dared not move. Mean- 
while Nancy's daughter signaled for Nancy's husband who 
was in command of a band of patriots that carried on 
guerilla warfare in the neighborhood and on their arrival 
the Tories were taken out and hung. Nancy Hart is the 
only woman for whom a county has been named in Georgia. 

After the fall of Charleston in 1780, Augusta was again 
occupied by the British. Colonel Elijah Clarke collected 
a force to recapture the place. His first attempt was un- 
successful September 14-18, 1780. He retreated leaving 
thirty wounded men behind. The cruel Colonel Browne 
hung thirteen and. turned the others over to his Indian allies 
to be tortured. It is worthy of note that John Clarke, son 
of Elijah Clarke, was fighting with his father at this battle 
although he was only sixteen years old. He afterwards 
became governor of Georgia and founder of the Clarke 
party in Georgia. "Light Horse Harry" Lee, father of 
Robert E. Lee, and General Pickens brought reinforce- 
ments to Clarke and the combined force again besieged 
Augusta with renewed vigor May 15th, June 5th, 1781. 
After much hard fighting Colonel Browne was forced to 
surrender June 5th, 1781. On account of his cruelties he 
had to be protected from violence by a special escort. 

The British were gradually forced back into Savannah. 
When Cornwallis surrendered, only four places were in 
their possession in Georgia. In January, 1782, "Mad" 


Anthony Wayne came to Georgia to drive the British out. 
He routed Colonel Browne, who had collected a band of 
Tories and Indians at Ogeechee Ferry, after his exchange. 
The British were hemmed in Savannah. Finally in May, 
1782, orders came to the royal governor from the king to 
surrender Savannah and return to England. Major James 
Jackson was selected by General Wayne to receive the keys 
of the city. They were formally presented by Governor 
Wright and Major Jackson marched in at the head of his 
troops. The city was again in the hands of the state after 
having been occupied by the British for three and one-half 
years. The great struggle was over. Georgia was weakest 
of the colonies and none had felt the hard hand of war any 
more than she. The heroic deeds of her sons during that 
awful struggle are sources of pride to every true Georgian. 
Prize Essay by JULIUS MILTON, Nathanial Abney 


The design of the seal of the treasury of the United 
States in all its essential features is older than the national 
government. From the days of the confederation of the 
colonies down through the history of the republic the Latin 
motto on the seal has been "The Seal of the Treasury of 
North America." These facts have just been developed, 
says the Newark News, by an investigation by the treasury 
department tracing the history of the seal. The Continen- 
tal Congress ordered its construction Sept. 26, 1778, ap- 
pointing John Witherspoon, Gouverno Morris and R. H. 
Lee a committee on design. There is no record of the 
report of the committee, but impressions of the seal have 
been found as early as 1782. 

The original seal was continued in use until 1849, when, 
worn out, it was replaced by a new cut, made by Edward 
Stabler of Montgomery county, Md. He was directed to 
make a facsimile of the old seal, but there were some neg- 


ligible differences. The symbols, however, are the same. 
There are the 13 stars, representing the 13 colonies; the 
scales as the emblem of justice and keys, in secular heraldry 
denoting an office of state. 


We had a Sane Fourth I was not 
Allowed to fire a single shot; 
If I'd 'a made a cracker pop 
I'd a' been hauled in by th' cop. 
If me or any of th' boys 
Had dared to make a bit o' noise 
They would 'a slapped us all in jail 
An' held us there till we gave bail, 
An' so our Fourth, I will explain 
Was absolutely safe an' sane. 

Pa's feelin' better 't least no worse, 
I heard him tell th' new trained nurse, 
He played golf nearly all th' day 
With Mister Jones and Mister Shea 
Until 'bout half past three o'clock 
An' then he had an awful shock, 
Th' sun was boilin' hot, an' he 
Was playin' hard as hard could be, 
An' he got sunstruck, but he'll be 
Up in two weeks, or mebbe three. 

Ma's conshus now. They think her arm 
Ain't re'lly suffered serious harm, 
Except it's broke. An' where her face 
Got cut will heal without a trace, 
Ma went out ridin' with th' Greens 
"To view th' restful country scenes." 
A tire blew up an' they upset 
They didn't have no landin' net! 
Th' doctor says that sleep an' rest 
For her will prob'ly be th' best. 


My sister's better, too, although 

They had to work an hour or so 

To bring her to she purt' near drowned 

An' looked like dead when she was found. 

She went to row with Mr. Groke 

An' he he says 'twas for a joke 

He rocked th' boat an' they fell out, 

An' people run from miles about 

To save their lives. She was a sight 

When they brought her back home last night. 

I wasn't hurt though, I'll explain, 
Because my Fourth was Safe an' Sane. 
Wilbur D. Nesbit. 


In a mental vision of that galaxy of stars which em- 
blazon our national flag, that bright constellation the 
thirteen original states, we pause to select the one star 
which shines with purest ray serene, and as we gaze upon 
the grand pageant from New Hampshire to Georgia and 
recall the mighty things achieved by the self-sacrificing 
devotion of their illustrious statesmen and generals with 
the united efforts of every patriot, it is with admiration for 
all that we point with reverence to that star which stands 
for her who cradled the nation, that infant colony at 
Jamestown in Virginia, who made defense first against the 
tomahawk of the Indians, growing stronger and stronger 
with an innate love for truth and justice, 'till we hear the 
cry "Give me liberty or give me death," which resounded 
from the White Mountains of New Hampshire to the sunny 
lands of Georgia, and is echoed there in her legend, "Wis- 
dom, justice and moderation." 

You, our sisters, the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion of South Carolina, whose state is strong in state craft 


and brave as the bravest, and whose star shines as a beacon 
light in the constellation of states, to those who would 
infringe on the rights of others, you call to us, in your 
study of the defences of the revolutionary period, to show 
our "Landmarks," the signs of our ancestor's devotion to 
patriotism, that you with us, may reverence their loyalty 
and with pride cherish every evidence of their struggle for 
liberty, remembering always that "he who builded the 
house is greater than the house." We would tell you of 
facts in the military annals of Virginia, deeds of prowess, 
more enduring than memorials of stone, which have become 
the sacred heritage of us all, but to these, at this time, our 
attention is not to be given. And if we fail to show but a 
few of her strongholds, you must remember that within 
the present bounds of Virginia there were few important 
positions held against assault, and her "Northwestern 
Territory" was far away from the main contest. Her 
troops were kept moving from place to place, their defences 
often were not forts, but earthworks, hastily constructed, 
often trees, houses, fences, etc. For instance the first 
revolutionary battle fought on Virginia soil was at Hamp- 
ton, a little town between the York and James rivers. 

'The Virginians sunk obstacles in the water for protection, 
but during the night the British destroyed them and turned their 
guns upon the town. In this fight we had no fire-arms but rifles 
to oppose the cannons of the English, so when the attack began 
the riflemen had to conceal themselves behind such meagre de- 
fences as I have mentioned, houses, fences, trees, etc., opening 
fire upon the British vessels. The men at the guns were killed and 
not a sailor touched a sail without being shot. Confusion was 
upon the British decks, and in dismay they tried to draw off and 
make escape into the bay, but without success; some of the 
vessels were captured, many men were taken prisoners, and the 
whole fleet would have been captured but for the report that a 
large body of the British were advancing from another direction." 

Small was the defense, but great was the result at this 
first battle of the Revolution on Virginia soil. 



"After the attack on Hampton, Lord Dunmore determined 
to make an assault on Norfolk. He erected a fort at Great 
Bridge where it crosses a branch of the Elizabeth river. This 
bridge was of importansce as it commanded the entrance of 
Norfolk. The Virginians held a small village near by. At these 
points the armies were encamped for several days ready for the 
moment to begin the fight. In order to precipitate a contest, the 
Virginians had recourse to a stratagem. A negro boy belonging 
to Major Marshall was sent to Lord Dunmore. He represented 
himself as a deserter and reported that the Virginians had only 
three hundred 'shirt men/ a term used to distinguish the patriot, 
whose only uniform was a graceful hunting shirt, which after- 
wards became so celebrated in the Revolution. Believing the 
story, Lord Dunmore gave vent to his exultation, as he thought he 
saw before him the opportunity of wreaking his vengeance upon 
the Virginians. He mustered his whole force and gave the order 
for marching out in the night and forcing the breastworks of 
his hated foe. In order to stimulate his troops to desperate 
deeds, he told them that the Virginians were no better than 
savages, and were wanting in courage and determination, that in 
all probability they would not stand fire at all, but if by any 
chance they were permitted to triumph, the English need expect 
no quarter, and they would be scalped according to the rules of 
savage warfare. Early in the morning of December 9th, 1775, 
the Virginians beheld the enemy advancing towards their breast- 
works. They were commanded by Capt. Fordyce, a brave officer, 
Waving his cap over his head, he led his men in the face of a 
terrible fire, which ran along the American line, directly up to thfe 
breastworks. He received a shot in the knee and fell forward, 
but jumping up as if he had only stumbled, in a moment he fell 
again pierced by fourteen bullets. His death threw everything 
into confusion. The next officer was mortally wounded, other 
officers were prostrate with wounds, and many privates had fallen. 
In this desperate situation a retreat towards their fort at Norfolk 
was the only resource left to the English. They were not allowed 
to escape without a vigorous pursuit. It was conducted by 
brave Col. Stevens, who captured many prisoners and ten pieces 
of cannon. The loss of the British was one hundred and two 
killed and wounded. The only damage to our men was a wound 
in the finger of one of them." 


The British had built a fort for their defence, the Vir- 
ginians had breastworks. 


"During the Revolution Sovereign Virginia erected Fort Nel- 
son to resist Lord Dunmore, should he ever attempt to return to 
the harbor of Norfolk and Portsmouth. It was named for the 
patriot Governor Nelson, who gave his private fortune to aid the 
credit of Virginia, and risked his life and sacrificed his health on 
the battlefields of the American Republic. On account of its 
location it was never the scene of any bloody battle, but like the 
'Old Guard,' it was held in reserve for the emergencies of war. 
On the 9th of May, 1779, a great British fleet, under Admiral Sir 
George Collier entered Hampton Roads, sailed up Elizabeth river, 
and landed three thousand royal soldiers under General Matthews 
in Norfolk County, where Fort Norfolk now stands, to flank this 
fortification and capture its garrison composed of only 150 sol- 
diers. Maj. Matthews, the American commander, frustrated the 
designs of the British general by evacuating the fort, and retired 
to the northward. On the llth of May, the British took posses- 
sion of the two towns, and gave free hand to pillage and destruc- 
tion. Sir George Collier, after satisfying his wrath sailed back 
to New York. Varying fortunes befell Fort Nelson during the 
remainder of the war until the evacuation by Benedict Arnold, 
after which no British grenadier ever paced its ramparts. After 
the close of the Revolution, it was rebuilt and for many years 
was garrisoned by regular soldiers of the United States; but 
since, abandoned as a fortification, it has been a beautiful park 
and a home for sick officers and sailors of our navy. 

"The garrison of Fort Nelson, under the glorious stars and 
stripes, on the 22nd of June, 1813, stood to their shotted guns, to 
meet the British invaders, who were defeated at Crany Island, 
by our Capt. Arthur Emerson and other gallant heroes. Here 
thousands of soldiers marched in response to the call of Virginia 
in 1861." 

In the naval park at Portsmouth, the site of Fort Nel- 
son, there is a monument whose granite body embraces a 
real Revolutionary cannon. This gun was selected from 
a number of guns known to be of the period of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. It is believed that one, at least, of these 


was mounted at Crany Island for the defense of Ports- 
mouth and Norfolk. The honor of erecting this monument 
is due to the ladies of the Fort Nelson Chapter of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution and to Admiral P. 
F. Harrington of the United States Navy, and also Medical 
Director R. C. Person of the navy. It is said that with 
proper care this gun will last centuries and ' ' It will carry 
down to distant generations a memorial of the patriots of 
the American Revolution, a mark of the formation of a 
nation and the token of the later patriots, the Daughters 
of the American Revolution, to whose efforts is due this 
important national service to which the gun has been 
dedicated. ' ' 

After these first assaults, for about three years of the 
war, there was almost no fighting in Virginia, but during 
that term she was furnishing her full quota of men, money 
and inspiration to the cause, with devoted loyalty, assisting 
in the north and in the south, wherever an attack was made. 
Directing her attention to the main army she built no de- 
fences of any importance on her own territory east of the 
Alleghanies. "The British success in the north and fol- 
lowed by still more decided victories in the south. Thus 
later the English began to look forward, with certainty, to 
the conquest of the entire country, and as Virginia was 
regarded as the heart of the rebellion, it was decided to 
carry their victorious arms into the state, as the surest way 
of bringing the war to a speedy conclusion." We had no 
time, then, for building forts, and when we recall the 
traitor Arnold's advance on Richmond, with the two days 
he spent there destroying public and private property 
his taking of Petersburg, burning the tobacco and vessels 
lying at the wharves, with Col. Tarleton's raids, scouring 
the country of every thing; in fact all of Cornwallis' 
reign of terror, which was soon to end in that imposing 
scene at Yorktown, we realize truly that ' ' the battle is not 
to the strong, nor the race to the swift," but that a 
country's bulwark often are not forts and strong towers, 


but her courageous heart, and her staunch friends, such 
men as Lafayette, De Rochambeau, De Grasse and Steuben, 
who with Washington, led the allied Americans and French 
forces at Yorktown, and besieged the British fortifica- 
tion, the surrender of which virtually closed the Revolu- 
tionary War on the 19th of October, 1781. The place is 
sacred, their devotion reverenced. 


"While the communities of the sea coast were yet in a fever 
heat from the uprising against the stamp act, the first explorers 
were toiling painfully to Kentucky, and the first settlers were 
building their palisaded hamlets on the banks of the Wautauga. 
The year that saw the first Continental Congress saw also the 
short grim tragedy of Lord Duninore's war. The battles of the 
Revolution were fought while Boone and his comrades were laying 
the foundation of their Commonwealth. Hitherto the two chains 
of events had been only remotely connected, but in 1776, the year 
of the Declaration of Independence, the struggle between the king 
and his rebelb'ous subjects shook the whole land and the men of 
the western border were drawn headlong into the full current of 
the Revolutionary war. From that moment our politics became 
national, and the fate of each portion of our country was thence- 
forth in some sort dependent upon the welfare of every other. 
Each section had its own work to do; the east won independence 
while the west began to conquer the continent, yet the deeds of 
each were of vital consequence to the other. The Continentals 
gave the west its freedom, and took in return, for themselves and 
their children, a share of the land that had been conquered and 
held by the scanty bands of tall backwoodsmen." 

Kentucky had been settled chiefly through Daniel 
Boone 's instrumentality in the year that saw the first 
fighting of the Revolution, and had been added to Virginia 
by the strenuous endeavorers of Major George Rogers 
Clark of Albermarle, Virginia, whose far seeing and ambi- 
tious soul prompted him to use it as a base from which to 
conquer the vast region northwest of the Ohio. ' ' The country 
beyond the Ohio was not like Kentucky, a tenantless and 


debatable hunting ground. It was the seat of powerful 
and warlike Indian confederacies, and of cluster of ancient 
French hamlets which had been founded generations before 
Kentucky pioneers were born. It also contained forts that 
were garrisoned and held by the soldiers of the British 
king. " It is true that Virginia claimed this territory under 
the original grant in her charter, but it was almost an 
unknown and foreign land, and could only be held by force. 
Clark's scheming brain and bold heart had long been plan- 
ning its conquest. He looked about to see from whence 
came the cause of the Indian atrocities on the whole Ameri- 
can frontier, and like Washington he saw that those Indian 
movements were impelled by some outside force. He dis- 
covered that the British forts of Detroit, Kaskaskia and St. 
Vincent were the centers from which the Indians obtained 
their ammunition and arms to devastate the country. He 
resolved to take these forts. "He knew that it would be 
impossible to raise a force to capture these forts from the 
scanty garrisoned forts and villages of Kentucky, though 
he knew of a few picked men peculiarly suited to his pur- 
pose, but fully realized that he would have to go to Vir- 
ginia for the body of his forces. Accordingly, he decided 
to lay the case before Patrick Henry, the governor of Vir- 
ginia. Henry's ardent soul quickly caught the flame from 
Clark's fiery enthusiasm, but the peril of sending an ex- 
pedition to such a wild and distant country was so great, 
and Virginia's forces so exhausted that he could do little 
beyond lending Clark the weight of his name and influence. 
Finally though, Henry authorized him to raise seven com- 
panies, each of fifty men, who were to act as militia, and to 
be paid as such. He also advanced him a sum of twelve 
hundred pounds and gave him an order on the authorities 
at Pittsburg for boats, supplies and ammunition; while 
three of the most prominent gentlemen of Virginia, Thomas 
Jefferson, George Mason and George Wythe, agreed, in 
writing, to do their part to induce the legislature to grant 
to each of the adventurers three hundred acres of the con- 


quered land, if they were successful. Clark was given the 
commission of colonel with the instruction to raise his men 
from the frontier counties west of the Blue Ridge, so as not 
to weaken the sea coast region in their struggle against the 
British." To this instruction he did not strictly adhere. 
There was a company of soldiers from Bedford County, 
Virginia, under his command, a list of whose names are on 
our county records. Two of these are connections of the 
mother of Mrs. R. B. Clayton, the regent of the Peaks of 
Otter Chapter of Virginia Daughters, which facts enhance 
our pride and interest in the capture of the western forts 
by Colonel Clark, which perhaps, prevented a vast and 
beautiful region of our country from being a part of a 
then foreign and hostile empire. 


"Port Kaskaskia, an old French fort of western Illinois, 
situated on Kaskaskia River, and garrisoned by the British was, 
at the time of its capture in splendid repair with a well drilled 
militia and spies constantly on the lookout. Rochenblave, the 
commandant of the fort, had two or three times as many men as 
Col. Clark, and would have made a vigorous fight if he had not 
been taken by surprise. Clark's force after the toil and hardships 
of much traveling across rivers and tangled pathless forests, was 
much reduced, and it was only his audacity and the noiseless 
speed of his movements, that gave him a chance of success with 
the odds so heavily against him. He ferried his men across the 
stream under cover of darkness and profound silence. Inside the 
forts, lights were lit, and through the windows came the sound of 
violins. The officers of the fort had given a ball, the young men 
and girls were dancing, revelling within, while the sentinels had 
left their posts. One of the men whom Clark had captured, on 
his approach to the fort, showed him a postern gate by the river 
side, through which he entered the fort, having placed his men 
about the entrance. Advancing to the great hall, where the revel 
was held he leaned silently, with folded arms, against the door 
post, looking at the dancers. An Indian lying on the floor of the 
entry suddenly sprang to his feet uttering the unearthly war 
whoop. The dancing ceased, the women screamed, while the men 
ran towards the door, but Clark standing unmoved and with 


unchanged face, grimly bade them continue their dancing, but to 
remember that they now danced under Virginia and not Great 
Britain. At the same time his men seized the officers, including 
the commandant, Rochenblave, who was sent a prisoner to Wil- 
liamsburg, Virginia." 

Among his papers falling into the hands of Colonel 
Clark, were the instructions which he had from time to time 
received from the British Governor of Quebec and Detroit, 
urging him to stimulate the Indians to war by the proffer 
of large bounties for the scalps of the Americans. This 
shows of what importance the capture of this fort was at 
that period, a defence against the scalping knife of the In- 
dians as well as the power of the British tyrant. 


After the capture of Kaskaskia, without the shedding 
of a drop of blood, Clark pushed on to the taking of fort 
Cohokia, where the French, as soon as they were made to 
know that France had acknowledged the independence of 
America, shouted for freedom and the Americans. Clark 
then marched to fort Vincennes which, without the firing of 
a gun, surrendered, and the garrison took the oath of alle- 
giance to Virginia July 19th, 1778. Very soon after this 
the British under Governor Hamilton, left Detroit and 
recaptured Vincennes, only to be forced by Clark to sur- 
render it a second time in February, 1779, and to yield 
himself a prisoner of war. The taking of this fort the 
second time was a most remarkable achievement. 

"Clark took, without artillery, a heavy stockaded fort, pro- 
tected by cannon and swivels and garrisoned by trained soldiers 
Much credit belongs to Clark's men but most belongs to their, 
leader. The boldness of his plan and the resolute skill with which 
he followed it out, his perseverance through the intense hardship 
of the midwinter march of two hundred miles, through swamps 
and swollen rivers, with lack of force, the address with which he 
kept the French and Indians neutral, and the masterful way in 
which he controlled his own men, together with the ability and 
courage he displayed in the actual attack, combined to make his 


feat the most memorable of all the deeds done west of the 
Alleghenies in the Revolutionary war. It was likewise the most 
important in its results, for had he been defeated in the capture 
of these forts we would not only have lost Illinois but in all 
probability Kentucky also." 

As it was ' ' he planted the flag of the Old Dominion over 
the whole of the northwestern territory, and when peace 
came the British boundary line was forced to the big lakes 
instead of coming down to the Ohio, and the State of Vir- 
ginia had a clear title to this vast domain, out of which 
were carved the states of Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, 
Michigan and a part of Minnesota." Virginia's share in 
the history of the nation has been gallant and leading, but 
the Revolutionary war was emphatically fought by Ameri- 
cans for America ; no part could have won without the help 
of the whole, and every victory was thus a victory for all 
in which all alike can take pride American Monthly 





One by one the years have dropped into the abyss of 
the past, since the close of the war for American Inde- 
pendence. Time has spread his brooding wings over the 
gulf and much of the horror and of the pathos of that 
tremendous struggle is now veiled from us; yet we are 
still perhaps too prone to remember only the dreadful in 
the events of the war, too anxious to recall only the dark 
days, leaving out the traces of cheerfulness which even 
in those troublous times, were experienced here and there ; 
for there were many incidents connected with the American 
Revolution which were in lighter vein ; incidents which did 
not, it is true, abolish the gloom and the suffering, but 
which lightened the sombreness and shed rays of glimmer- 
ing light through the shade. 

It has always seemed to me almost incredible, that the 
Colonists could have found anything to laugh at during 
those awful years. They were threatened with absolute loss 
of liberty as a country; they were menaced by starvation, 
and they were obliged to pass through the rigors of the 
winters, without proper food or clothing. The sanctity of 
their homes was invaded by the grim monster of war, who 
was no respecter of persons, and to whose voracious palate 
all persons were equally attractive. 

If the British won their cause, the Colonists had 
nothing better to which to look forward than slavery and 
injustice; if the colonists won theirs, they must face the 
future poorly equipped in every way. The waste of their 
country must be repaired, their desolate homes must be 
rebuilt; their business, which was crushed, must be re- 
stored, they must begin from the beginning. "Whatever 
the result, the outlook was dark. As the days went on, 
the husbands and fathers were obliged to forsake their 
plows, and go, perhaps with but a moment's warning, to 


bloody fields of battle. Poorly clothed, they fought in 
their shirt sleeves and with their feet bare, their bloody 
foot prints often standing out as symbols of the struggle. 
The women must remain at home, to plow and sow and 
reap. The American soldiers must have spent many sleep- 
less nights thinking of their unprotected ones at home, 
alone and defenceless. How could there be anything of 
humor connected with the struggle? And yet, while the 
American Revolution can in no sense of the word be said to 
have had its humorous side, yet there was much of humor 
connected with many Revolutionary occurrences, the stories 
of which have lived until the present time and have gained 
perhaps in their humorous aspect since the close of the 
great struggle. 

One of the first incidents of the war, which I have found 
to savor of the humorous, was the meeting of General 
John Burgoyne and the Irish patriot immediately after 
the surrender of the British General. All through the 
march of the General, to Saratoga, he had boasted of the 
of the calamities which he would bring upon the 
Americans. Pompously up and down his quarters he 
would strut, composing high sounding sentences and lis- 
tening to the fine roll of his voice, revelling in his verbos- 
ity and smiling with satisfaction at his thoughts which 
he deemed so great. The manifestos which he issued so 
frequently, were words, words, words, and these reiterated 
over and over again, the direful things which would en- 
compass the Americans, did they not surrender with all 
haste and with becoming deference. He made himself 
ridiculous by the manifestos, but he did not realize this 
until he made his way through the streets of Albany, a 
conquered rather than a conquering hero, and met a funny 
little Irishman, who had evidently studied the harangues 
of the General to good purpose. 

On the march through the Albany streets, Burgoyne 
was surrounded by men, women and children, who would 
fain look upon the face of this pompous British General. 


Suddenly in the crowded part of the street, there bobbed 
up in front of him, a blue-eyed, red-haired Celt, his bright 
eyes dancing with mirth and his tongue ready with the 
wit of his mother country. "Make way there, ye spal- 
peens," he shouted, "sure don't ye see the great Ginral 
Burgyne a comin' along? Sthand back fer the great 
Ginral. Wud yees be standin ' in the way of the conquerer ? 
If ye don't sthand back and give the great man room, 
shure I'll murther ivy mither's son of ye." 

History does not record how the boasting Briton re- 
ceived the onslaught of the Irishman, but we can readily 
imagine that his face lengthened a little, as he heard the 
laughs on every side. Still it is quite possible that he did 
not see the joke until the following week. Someway, that 
march of Burgoyne and his army, always struck me as 
humorous to a certain extent. While there was the sad- 
ness caused by the loss of many lives, and while the battle 
of Saratoga was one of the great battles of the world, still 
Burgoyne himself, with his verbosity and his pomposity, 
was so ludicrous a figure oft times, that he gave a humorous 
tinge to the entire campaign. 

The saying of General Starke at Bennington which has 
come down to us with such pleasing patriotism : ' ' Here 
come the Red Coats and we must beat them to-day, or 
Mollie Starke is a widow, "was not a humorous saying, nor 
was the battle of Bennington a humorous incident. But 
Bill Nye, the immortal, has written something exceedingly 
funny concerning both. Nye said, "This little remark of 
Starke 's made an instantaneous hit, and when they counted 
up their prisoners at night they found they had six hun- 
dred souls and a Hessian." Nye's description of Bur- 
goyne 's surrender is well worth repeating. He wrote : "A 
council was now held in Burgoyne 's tent and on the ques- 
tion of renewing the fight, stood six to six, when an eigh- 
teen pound hot shot went through the tent, knocking a 
stylograph pen out of Burgoyne 's hand. Almost at once 
he decided to surrender, and the entire army of 6999 men 


was surrendered, together with arms, portable bath tubs 
and leather hat boxes. ' ' 

Nearly all of our American soldiers were brave; that 
goes without saying. One of the bravest of these was 
Lieutenant Manning. His deeds of prowess were many 
and great. He was hero in one extremely humorous inci- 
dent at the battle of Eutaw. After the British line had 
been broken, the "Old Buffs" started to run. This par- 
ticular regiment was as boastful as General Burgoyne. 
Manning knew this and he was delighted to follow hard 
after them with his platoon. Excited in his pursuit he did 
not notice that he was getting away from his men, until he 
found himself surrounded by British soldiers and not an 
American in sight. Something must be done at once and 
Manning was the man to do it. He siezed a British officer 
standing near, and much to that officer's amazement he not 
only felt himself violently handled, but he heard the sten- 
torian voice of the American shouting "You are my 
prisoner. ' ' His sword was wrested from his grasp, and he 
was made a human shield for this preposterously impudent 
American. But instead of making a break for liberty, he 
began to relate his various titles to Manning. ' ' I am sir, ' ' 
he said, "Sir Henry Barry, Deputy Adjutant General of 
the British Army, Captain in the 52d Regiment, Secretary 
to the Commandant of Charleston." 

' ' Enough Sir, ' ' said Manning, ' ' You are just the man I 
have been looking for. Fear nothing; you shall screen me 
from danger and I will take special care of you, ' ' which he 
did, holding the astonished man of title in front of him, 
until he reached the Americans and handed him over as a 

Colonel Peter Horry was another brave man of the 
south. He was afflicted by an impediment in his speech 
and at one time the impediment nearly worked disaster for 
him. He was ordered to await in ambuscade vrith his 
regiment for a British detachment, and he soon had them 
completely within his power; but when he tried to com- 


mand his men to fire, his speech failed him. In vain he 
corrugated his brows and twisted his jaws ; the word would 
not come out. "Fi, fi, fi, fi," he shouted, but could get no 
further. Finally in his desperation he howled, "shoot, 
blank you, shoot. You know very well what I would say. 
Shoot and be blanked to you." Horry was a determined 
character. At one time in battle a brother officer called to 

"I am wounded, Colonel." "Think no more of it, 
Baxter, but stand to your post," called back Horry. "But 
I can't stand, Colonel, I am wounded a second time." 
"Then lie down, Baxter, but quit not your post." "Col- 
onel," cried the suffering man, "they have shot me again, 
and if I remain longer here I shall be shot to pieces. " "Be 
it so Baxter," returned Horry, "but stir not." 

The part that women took in the Revolution has been 
sung by poets and made the nucleus of writers' efforts for 
a hundred years and more. Those Revolutionary women 
had brawn as well as brain. They were able to defend their 
homes from the depredations of the Royalists; they could 
bid the Indian begone, not only by word of mouth but at 
the musket's end. They could plow and sow and reap; 
they could care for their families and they could take up 
arms in liberty's cause if the need arose. Oh, those women 
of the American Revolution ! What a history of bravery 
and fortitude and endurance they bequeathed to their 
descendants ! There is some humor, too, in the stories left 
to us in record of their heroism. 

It was the fashion among certain circles of Whig 
women, during the dark days of the Revolution, to wear 
deep mourning as an indication of their feelings. The 
black typified the darkness of the times and was worn by 
the town ladies who could afford it. One of these ladies, a 
Mrs. Brewton, was walking along Broad street in Charles- 
ton one morning, when she was joined by an insolently 
familiar British officer. At that very moment, the crepe 
flounce on her dress was accidently torn off. She quickly 


picked it up and passing just at that time the house of the 
absent Governor, John Rutledge, she sprang up the steps 
before the astonished eyes of the officer and decked the 
door with crepe, saying in ringing tones, "Where are you, 
dearest Governor? Surely the magnanimous Britons will 
not deem it a crime if I cause your house as well as your 
friends to mourn your absence." Colonel Moncrief, the 
English engineer, was occupying the house at the time, 
and his feelings were hurt at the action of Mrs. Brewton, 
as were those of the officer who had been with her, and 
she was arrested a few hours afterward and sent to Phila- 

One of the most marked women of the Revolution, a 
woman who figured in many a ludicrous as well as serious 
incident, was Nancy Hart, of Georgia. Nancy had a fright- 
ful temper, a big ungainly body, and she suffered from a 
most marked obliquity of sight. In fact Nancy was so 
cross-eyed, that her own children never could tell when 
their mother was looking at them and were perhaps better 
behaved on that very account. One time a party of Tories 
entered her modest home on food intent. They had taken 
the precaution of providing food for themselves, shooting 
Nancy's last remaining gobbler. Mrs. Hart had her head 
muffled up and no one had noticed her cross-eyes. The 
soldiers stacked their arms within reach and Nancy passed 
between them and the table, assiduous in her attention 
to the diners. The party had a jug, of course, and when 
they were becoming right merry, Nancy suddenly tore the 
mufflers from her head and snatching up one of the guns, 
swore that she would kill every last man who tried to get 
his gun or who delayed in getting out of the cabin. The 
men looked at Nancy's eyes and each man thinking she 
was aiming at him only, made a hasty and determined 
exit. But the terrible woman killed three Tories that day 
with her own hands. One day Nancy was boiling soap. 
As she industriously stirred, one of her eyes caught a 
glimpse of a Tory peeking through a chink in the cabin. 


Stirring busily away, Nancy kept one eye on the soap and 
the other on the chink. When the spy again appeared she 
let drive full at the chink, a good big ladle full of hot 
soap. A scream satisfied her that she had hit the mark, 
and she finished her soap-making with great satisfaction. 
This woman was termed by one of the patriots : " A honey 
of a patriot, but the devil of a wife. ' ' 

The Revolutionary woman's resources were indeed 
great, and the strategy she employed was as satisfactory 
as it was many times humorous. A Whig woman of New 
York State, a Mrs. Fisher, was one morning surprised by 
the hurried entrance of a Whig neighbor, who begged of 
her to conceal him as the Tories were pursuing him. Just 
outside her door was an ash heap four or five feet high. 
Seizing a shovel, Mrs. Fisher immediately excavated a 
place in the ashes and buried her friend in it. But first she 
had taken precaution to place a number of quills one in 
the other and extend them from the prisoner 's mouth to the 
air, that he might breathe, and there he remained snugly 
ensconced until the Tories had come and gone, and even 
though they ran over the ash heap, they never suspected 
what lay beneath it. 

Equally resourceful was that woman of the Revolu- 
tion, who when her husband was pursued by Tories, 
hustled him down cellar and into a meat barrel partially 
filled with brine and meat. The Tories went into the cellar 
and even peered into the barrel, but they did not discover 
the man, who at the risk of terribly inflamed eyes, ducked 
his head beneath the brine, when he heard the soldiers' 
hands on the head of the barrel. Inflamed eyes were 
easier to bear than imprisonment in the hands of the 

Bill Nye's description of the close of the war is as 
humorous as it is correct. Nye wrote: "The country was 
free and independent, but oh, how ignorant it was about 
the science of government. The author does not wish to be 
personal when he states that the country at that time did 


not know enough about affairs to carry water for a circus 
elephant. It was heavily in debt, with no power to raise 
money. New England refused to pay tribute to King 
George and he in turn directed his hired men to overturn 
the government; but a felon broke out on his thumb and 
before he could put it down, the crisis was averted and the 
country saved." 

And so it goes; the sad and the humorous are blended 
on every side in life's struggles either in war or peace. 
Fortunate is the man or woman who can halt a little by the 
wayside and for a few moments laugh dull care away. 
Compiled from Federation Magazine. 


A long time ago, before the hand of progress had 
stamped the land with a net work of steel, or commerce 
and trade had blackened the skies of blue, John Hamilton 
and Tabitha Thweatt were married. There was no cutting 
of Dutchess satin or charmeuse draped with shadow lace, 
for it took time in those days to prepare for a wedding. 
Silk worms had to be raised, thread spun and woven into 
cloth before the bride's clothes could be fashioned. Wait- 
ing was no bar to happiness; the bride-to-be sang merrily 
while spinning or weaving at her loom and as the shuttles 
went in and out her day dreams were inter-mingled with 
the weaving of her wedding garments. 

In the year of our Lord, 1770, the making of silk in the 
colonies was a new industry and when Mistress Tabitha 
decided on silk for her wedding dress she had to plant mul- 
berry twigs and wait for them to grow. She had to pick 
the leaves to feed the worms until they wrapped themselves 
in their silken cocoons and as soon as the cocoons would 
web they were baked to keep them from cutting the raw 
silk. It took one hundred cocoons to make one strand of 
silk. After all these preparations this colonial girl 's dream 


of a silken wedding gown grew into a realization. She not 
only raised the silk worms, but spun the silk that they 
had webbed and wove it into shimmering cloth, from which 
her wedding gown was made. She also knit her wedding 
stockings of silk; but only one pair of silk went into her 
trousseau for the rest were knit of cotton. 

The family records say that this couple had no worldly 
goods except what their own hands had wrought. They 
were God-fearing people of the Puritan type. He felled 
the trees and sawed them into logs out of which their home 
was constructed. The logs that went toward the building 
of their home were mortised and pinned together with 
wooden pegs. The floors were puncheon flat slabs split 
from whole tree trunks and the doors and windows were 
made of oak and were swung on great wooden hinges. 
The chimney was of "stick and dirt" and across the broad 
fire place hung the crane from which were suspended the 
cooking utensils. 

John Hamilton was a member of one of Virginia 's most 
distinguished families. He possessed an iron will that 
defied adversity; he blazed the way through his state and 
was brave enough to "hew down forests and live on 
crumbs. ' ' Mistress Tabitha was a help-meet to her pioneer 
husband. She not only cooked his meals but carried them 
to him when he worked in the field. He had the honor, 
and in those days it was indeed an honor, to be elected as a 
representative from his state to Congress. The frugal and 
beautiful Tabitha accompanied him to Washington. Her 
preparation for the replenishing of her ward-robe was 
quite as elaborate as those formerly made for her wedding. 
With deft hands she carded from the snowy cotton piles 
of rolls that were spun into thread and she wove many 
yards of cloth from which she made her underwear. From 
carefully carded bats of cotton she spun many spindles of 
fine smooth thread that was woven into fine cream cotton 
goods, some of which were dyed with copperas. Some was 
spread day and night on the grass where the dew would 


fall to bleach it. From the bleached cotton this industrious 
woman made her dresses and the snowy whiteness of some 
of her gowns was the envy of her neighbors. She also 
carried in her little hair trunk to Washington, not only 
many well made cotton garments, but was the proud pos- 
sessor of one black silk dress and two black silk aprons. 
The dress was afterward described as being so heavy that 
it could ' ' stand alone. ' ' Mistress Tabitha, although a little 
overworked, was not too weary after reaching Washington 
to attend the Presidential ball and dance the minuet with 
the gallant Washington and the noted LaFayette. 

John and Tabitha Hamilton had eleven children. All 
were born in Virginia except one, who came after they 
moved to Hancock County, near Sparta, Georgia, in 1791. 
Their home was destroyed twice by the Tories and once 
by a Tornado. Mr. Hamilton had just completed a nice 
dwelling for his family when the memorable tornado and 
cyclone passed over that portion of Georgia in April, 1805. 
All of the family except Jack and Everard were away from 
home. There was but one small house left on the place, 
their new house having been blown away, none of it left 
standing. Some of the doors were found six miles off in 
an adjoining county. Clothing, books and papers were 
carried promiscuously away. Jack was much bruised, 
having been struck by many things. His booksack was 
blown away, and his "Ovid" was found forty miles over 
in Baldwin County and returned to him. This book is now 
in possession of one of his descendants. Everard was car- 
ried into the air and lodged in a swamp about a quarter of 
a mile away, where he was caught up by the whirl wind. 
Madame Hamilton took this misfortune as coming from 
God and helped her husband to collect anew his scattered 
fortune. Later we read of them as living on their planta- 
tion surrounded by their servants, who ministered to their 
comforts and attended their broad fields. 

In reading about the women who lived in the early days 
of Georgia, their splendid lives stand as a beacon to the 


reckless and extravagant ones of today. They not only 
spun the thread and wove the cloth used in their homes, 
but they made all of the clothes their children wore, and 
reared them to be God-fearing men and women. They 
visited their neighbors for thirty miles away and extended 
a glad welcome and cordial hospitality for any and every 
guest. One with impunity may ask the question: "Are 
they pleased with their descendants, these women of 
Georgia's pioneer days?" MRS. J. L. WALKER, Lyman 
Hall Chapter, D. A. R. 


The movement to place in the hall of fame a bust of 
Molly Pitcher, the only woman sergeant in the United 
States army, has the enthusiastic support of former Sena- 
tor Chauncey M. Depew. 

It was in the important movements of the year 1778 
that at the battle of Mommouth Molly Pitcher was carrying 
water to her husband, who was a gunner of a battery at 
one piece of artillery. He was disabled and the lieutenant 
proposed to remove the piece out of danger, when Molly 
said, "I can do everything my husband could," and she 
performed her husband's duties at his old gun better than 
he could have done. 

The next morning she was taken before General Wash- 
ington, her wonderful act was reported and its influence 
upon the outcome of the battle, which was a victory, and 
Washington made her at once a sergeant in the army to 
stand on the rolls in that rank as long as she would. 

It seems appropriate now for us to place among the 
immortals and in the hall of fame this only woman ser- 
geant of the United States army, who won her title fight- 
ing for her country upon the field of battle. National 



Great grandmother's spinning wheel stands in the hall, 

That is her portrait there; 
Great grandfather's sword hangs near on the wall, 

What do you girlies care, 
That in seventeen hundred and seventy-six, 

One bitter winter's night, 
When the air was full of sleet and snow, 

And the kitchen fire burned bright. 

He stood with a face so thoughtful and sad 

With his hand on her hair, 
"Asenath, I start at the break of day," 

Oh, that bride was so fair! 
But country was dearer than home and wife, 

Proudly she lifted her head, 
"Go, David, and stay till is ended the strife, 
God keep you, dear," she said. 

Toward the loom in the kitchen she drew, 

She had finished that day, 
A beautiful blanket of brown and blue, 

"Was it plaided this way?" 
It was just like this but faded and worn, 

And full of holes and stain, 
When our soldier grandsire came back one morn, 

To wife and child again. 

When his eyes were dim and her hair was white, 

Waiting the Master's call, 
She finished this blanket one winter's night, 

That hangs here on the wall. 
And dreaming of fifty years before, 

When she stood by that wheel, 
And that cradle creaked on the kitchen floor, 

By that swift and reel. 
There's a rare old plate with a portrait in blue, 

Of England's George the Third, 


A porringer small and a stain shoe, 

That five brave hearts has stirred, 
There's an ancient gun all covered with rust, 

A clock, a bible worn, 
"Fox Book of Martyrs" and "Holy Wars," 

A brass tipped powder horn. 

Great grandfather sat in that old arm chair, 

Grandmother rocked by his side, 
Till the Master called through the sweet June air, 

They both went out with the tide. 
Florence I. W. Burnham in American Monthly Magazine. 



Before the William Thompson Chapter, D. A. R., in- 
vaded this neck of the moral vineyard and put its delicate, 
historical fingers upon the tendrils of local happenings, 
there was no blare of trumpets over a foul and bloody deed 
which occurred near the "Metts Cross-Roads, " in this 
county, during the Revolutionary war. But the gruesome 
case was never without intense interest to those concerned 
in the episodes of a past age. The strange and mysterious 
always throws an additional halo over our heroes. This 
feeling is intensified, in this case, by virtue of the fact that 
the same blood which ran in the veins of the victim of the 
"cross-roads plot," now pulsates in the arteries of many 
lineal, living descendants who are part and parcel of Cal- 
houn County's sturdy citizenship. 

The malignant, cruel and cowardly feature of this das- 
tardly crime, garbed in a plausible and hypocritical cloak, 
make it unique, even in the gory annals of criminal warfare 
and harks our memories back to the murder of Duncan, 
King of Scotland. Here, as there, we have no doubt, but 
that souls grew faint over the details of the foul conspiracy 


and ' ' their seated hearts knocked at their ribs ' ' until spur- 
red to the "sticking place" by the evil eloquence of some 
overpowering and unnatural genius, like unto Lady Mac- 
beth. John Adams Treutlen (for that was the name of 
our hero) is in his grave. 

"After life's fitful fever, he sleeps well, 
Treason has done his worst ; nor steel nor poison, 
Malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing, 
Can touch him further." 

That is true. The cold pen of a true chronicler, how- 
ever, must again allude to the utter negligence and gross 
indifference of an earlier age to a proper appreciation of 
significant events. That a noted Governor of Georgia 
should be brutally done to death by revengeful Tories be- 
cause of the intense Whig fires which consumed his very 
soul; that children, and children's children, should grow 
up around the scene of his untimely taking-off, and still his 
home and his grave should be, today, unidentified spots on 
the map of Calhoun County force us to exclaim with Mark 
Antony: "But yesterday the word of Caesar might have 
stood against the world. Now lies he there and none so 
poor to do him reverence. ' ' 

The salient facts in the life of Treutlen are interesting. 
Born in Berectsgaden, 1726, as a German Salzburger, he 
was brought to this country in a boat load of Salzburgers 
that landed at Savannah in 1734. If early impressions 
count for anything, there is no wonder that the spirit of 
liberty and independence sank deep into the very inmost 
recesses of his soul. His father, along with thousands of 
other German Protestants, was exiled by a fanatical decree 
of Archbishop Leopold, which drove out from his domain 
all who would not accept the Catholic faith. It was this 
Salzburger strain and religion which was unterrified and 
unwashed, amid the raging tempests of an angry sea, while 
others aboard, including John Wesley, trembled for life, 
and confessed to a livelier awakening to the rejuvenating 
and sustaining power of God upon frail humanity. 


Some 25 miles from Savannah these brave and devout 
pilgrims, after singing a psalm "set up a rock and in the 
spirit of the pious Samuel, named the place Ebenezer 
(stone of help) 'for hitherto hath the Lord helped us.' ' 
Amid these crude but inspiring surroundings the young 
Treutlen received a splendid education, for that day, under 
the strict tutelage of his scholarly Lutheran pastors, Bol- 
zius and Gronau. Thus it was that, when the red gloom of 
impending war was already visible on the distant horizon, 
and the Provincials had gathered at Savannah to take steps 
against the high-handed measures of England, John Adam 
Treutlen answered the roll-call from the Ebenezer country 
and was one of its leading and most aggressive spirits. 
Thus it was that, in the teeth of strong Tory influence and 
friends he espoused the patriot cause with all the ardor of 
a Knight Templar, thus becoming the chief object of 
Loyalist hatred and vengeance, his property being con- 
fiscated, and his home, with many of its treasures, burned 
to ashes. 

Elected first Governor of Georgia under an independ- 
ent Constitution by the Legislature, in 1777, there was not 
as yet the fearful carnage and bloody battles which were 
still to come, and which were to make the South and its 
manhood a synonym for courage and endurance the world 
over. It is true that the immortal conflict on Sullivan's 
Island had been fought and won, but Clinton and Parker, 
still hopeful under drooping plumes, had shifted the scene 
to the North. 

The "blue bloods" of the Palmetto State with the 
exception of Charleston's brave firebrand, (Christopher 
Gadsden, were still praying for that peace, borne of wealth, 
intelligence and luxurious ease. Georgia, now perched 
upon the top-most round of empire pre-eminence was 
then weak in its swaddling clothes and viewed only as a 
promising child to be brought up in the aristocratic South 
Carolina Sunday School. With a cool and calculating 
diplomacy which smacked somewhat suggestively of the 


rising Talleyrand, we are told that the gentle ripples on the 
waters little betokened the torpedoes which were being laid 
beneath. Bludgeons, not the velvety hand of artful dip- 
lomacy, were calculated to narcotize the grim-visaged ruler 
of the satrapy across the Savannah, as all accounts agree 
that Truetlen was a somewhat "stormy petrel," a sort of 
pocket edition of Oliver Cromwell, the greatest civilized 
dictator that the world has ever produced who could 
rout a parliament of sitting members, lock the door and 
put the key in his pocket. 

And so it came to pass that, when the Governor heard of 
the so-called "Machiavellian scheme" to annex his little 
kingdom to the great Palmetto Commonwealth, by a coup 
d'etat, he pounded the floor viciously with his "condemna- 
tory hoof" and shot a fiery proclamation over the official 
mahogany, denouncing the conspiracy in bitter vein and 
offering a heavy reward for the chief emissary Drayton. 
When the Georgia patriot Government fell in 1779, Treut- 
len, along with hundreds of others, took British protection 
and fled to St. Matthews Parish, in the present County of 
Calhoun; and the road he travelled was a thornier path 
than that from Jerusalem to Jerico with 

"Injuns on the upper way, 
And death upon the lower." 

It is not for me to split fine hairs over the principle 
involved in conditional agreements during the days of war, 
when every man is showing his teeth and reaching at the 
throat of his enemy. Suffice to say, that he chafed under 
the Tory bit and would have none of it. A born fighter and 
a man of rugged individuality, it was impossible for him 
to hug both sides of any fence. A dictator by instinct (and 
by Georgia statute,) well educated, and fresh from the 
Gubernatorial eiderdown he would naturally bring around 
his head swarms of bitter enemies, in times of war, and he 
was a marked man. He met his doom on a dreary night 
in 1780 under peculiarly atrocious conditions. 


It is said that a small band of vindictive Tories went 
to his home during that fateful evening, and enticed him- 
out, on a treacherous plea of surrender on certain plausible 
conditions. As he emerged from his door, he was seized, 
and not only brutally butchered, but, (all traditions agree,) 
literally hacked to pieces. The exact spot where the frag- 
ments of his dismembered body were buried will probably 
never be known. But there is every reason to believe that 
his bones rest in the vicinity of his home, from the fact that 
his tenure of life in this section was short; that he was 
without relatives beyond his family circle, and those rel- 
atives continued to live in the neighborhood. The mere 
fact that a Governor of Georgia could come here and be 
brutally and foully murdered by Tories, in the heat of war 
passions, and not a line recorded about it, in any South 
Carolina history or newspaper bearing upon that period, 
should open our eyes to the danger of swallowing the 
spurious pill offered to us by the Emily Geiger extermina- 

But for the Georgia records and a straight line of 
descendants, hereabouts, the Treutlen individuality and 
tradition would be tabooed as a "myth" and fabrication 
from beginning to end. Through the laudable efforts of 
the local D. A. R. and particularly its regent, Mrs. F. C. 
Cain a "marker" has been promised from the quarter- 
master general's office, "Washington, D. C. It will stand in 
the vicinity of the ' ' Metts Crossroads ' ' and will remind the 
passerby of as true and loyal a Whig as lived during those 
perilous days. 

Treutlen 's general appearance, even in repose, as ex- 
hibited in an old photograph now in the possession of a de- 
scendant, is interesting. The orthodox military coat, un- 
bottoned and spread abroad over his shoulders, brings into 
bold relief a ' ' dicky ' ' shirt front, emerging into a high and 
ferocious collar, which nestles snugly and smugly under his 
lower jaws. There is a profuse shock of hair, futilely bom- 
barding an obstinate "cow-lick," the whole showing little 


or no subserviency to comb and brush. His large, piercing 
eyes, fringed by shaggy brows, with a drooping upper lid, 
produces a sad, if not sinister, aspect. The nose has a Ro- 
man slant, which meets a bold, intellectual forehead in an 
almost unbroken line. Marked cheek bones and a thin face 
ease down, more or less hastily, to a sharp and angular 
chin. A pair of thin lips, closely plastered to each other, 
bespeak firm determination; and his whole contour im- 
presses one, forcibly, that he was not a safe man to take too 
many liberties with. 

As intimated at the outset, there is an interesting rami- 
fication of descendants from the Treutlen family, many of 
whom are still living in Calhoun County. Some have 
gained prominence in Alabama, Washington, D. C., and 
other places, but I will note only those of local (and some, 
at least, of state- wide) interest. There were three sons 
and three daughters : John Adam Treutlen, Jr., Christian, 
Depew, Mary, Elizabeth and Hannah. Mary married 
Edward Dudley. From this union was born Mary Dudley, 
who married Adam Amaker, February 10, 1820, and from 
the latter was born Adam Perry Amaker, who married 
Augusta Zimmerman, and they, in turn, were the parents 
of Perry and T. A. Amaker, now living the former of 
Denver, Col., and the latter a leading business man of St. 
Matthews. Amanda Amaker (alive) married Major Whit- 
marsh Seabrook Murray, of Edisto Island, who recently 
died here. They moved to this place after the war and 
leave many descendants. 

Elizabeth Treutlen, another daughter, married William 
Kennedy and from them descended John W. Kennedy, who 
resided here for years, and now at Tyron, N. C. His only 
daughter, Vernon, married Dr. A. McQueen Salley, origi- 
nally of Orangeburg, and a son of the present sheriff of 
that county, now of Saluda, N. C. John Adam Treutlen, 
Jr., married Margaret Miller. Their son, Gabriel, married 
Ann Connor and to them was born Caroline Treutlen, who 
married Jacob Dantzler. Their son, Col. 0. M. Dantzler, 


of Confederate war fame, was the father of O. M. Dantzler, 
the popular sheriff of Calhoun County, who recently died ; 
Fred and Thos. W., of St. Matthews; Mortimer O., of 
Orangeburg and Charles G., an eminent jurist (deceased.) 

Rachael Treutlen, daughter of John Adam Treutlen, Jr, 
married the Rev. J. J. Wannamaker, of St. Matthews* 
From this union were born Mary Ann (who first married 
Joel Butler and later William Reeves) and W. W. Wan- 
namaker, deceased, who for many years was a leading 
physician of this community, and who married Adelia 
Keitt. To the last couple was born Agelina, who married 
the Rev. Artemus B. Watson, a well known minister of the 
Methodist Church, who died recently. Their son, Whit- 
field W. Watson, married May, daughter of the Hon. 
Samuel J. Dibble, and a daughter Adele Watson, deceased, 
married A. C. Hane, Fort Motte. Other children of Dr. W. 
W. Wannamaker were: John Keitt, who married Chloe 
Watson, both dead. He bequeathed $20,000 for a Methodist 
Church here. W. W. Wannamaker, a successful farmer of 
this community, who married Lou Banks, deceased. A son 
bears the honored patronymic of ''Treutlen." Mary B. 
Wannamaker, deceased, who married Dr. W. T. C. Bates, 
of St. Matthews, the well known ex-State Treasurer. 

Emma C., a daughter of Rev. J. J. Wannamaker, mar- 
ried Dr. W. L. Pou, an eminent physician of St. Matthews, 
now 84 years old, and who has been actively practicing his 
profession for over 60 years. A daughter of Dr. and Mrs. 
Pou, Emma, deceased, married A. K. Smoke, a prominent 
and influential citizen of this town, while Blanche, another 
daughter, is living, and the joy and pride of her aged par- 
ents. A son of Rev. J. J. Wannamaker and Rachael Treut- 
len, his wife, was Capt. Francis M., deceased, a noted lawyer 
in his day, who married Eleanor Bellinger, of Bamberg. 
From the last couple were born the following: Jennie B., 
who married J. B. Tyler, of Georgia, both dead ; Mary B., 
deceased, who married J. H. Henagan, of St. Matthews: 
Rachael Treutlen, who married H. A. Raysor, a successful 


merchant and prominent citizen of St. Matthews; J. S. 
Kottowe, a leading banker and merchant of St. Matthews, 
who married Lillian Salley, of Orangeburg; Francis M., 
who married the writer; William H., professor of German 
in Trinity College, N. C., who married Isabella Stringf el- 
low, of Chester, and Olin M., professor of English in the 
Alabama Polytechnic College at Auburn, who married 
Katherine Hume, of New Haven, Conn. 


When quite a little boy in his home in Caroline 
County, Virginia, John Martin adopted as his motto: "I 
will do my best. ' ' It helped him even in childhood to have 
this motto, for whenever he had any diffcult task to per- 
form, either at home or school, he remembered his motto 
and did his best. 

In his veins flowed the blood of a noble ancestry and 
many sterling merited qualities helped him in the forma- 
tion of a manly character. 

He was born in 1751, amid turbulent scenes in Virginia, 
for the Indians were frequently incited by the French to 
commit deeds of violence and cruelty upon the English 
colonists, and in consequence of this, his early impressions 
were of preparations for war. At a tender age John wit- 
nessed the departure of his father, Abner Martin, to join 
Colonel Washington on his way to Fort Duquesne. He saw 
him buckle on his sword and sabre and mount his charger 
and set his face towards the Ohio Valley. And after that 
parting he experienced some of the horrors of war, for in 
the silent hour of night, the stealthy tread of the Indian 
noiselessly approached the Martin plantation and applied 
the torch to the barns and outhouses, and morning found 
them in ruins. He shared the general feeling of uneasi- 
ness and insecurity that had settled down upon the home 
circle in consequence of his father's absence, and his grand- 
father's illness. His mother at this time was for him his 


tower of strength, and his ark of safety, for she it was who 
devised means for their protection and safety. As he grew 
older and thought upon these stirring scenes, no wonder that 
his martial spirit was stirred within him and that he 
resolved ' ' some day I '11 go too, and I can if I do my best, ' ' 
and he did. 

About 1768, the Martin family removed from Virginia 
to South Carolina and settled at Edgefield. The sons were 
sent to Virginia to be educated, and it was there that John 
formed a close personal friendship for George Washington, 
which ripened with the coming years. When the war for 
American Independence was declared, John Martin, and 
his seven brothers, all officers, had his life 's desire fulfilled, 
and following the footsteps of his father saw service in the 
defence of his country. He also served with distinction in 
the state legislature and afterward was made General in 
command of the South Carolina state troops. He married 
Elizabeth, the daughter of Colonel Nathaniel Terry, of 
Virginia. Many years later General John Martin was on 
a visit to his son Marshall Martin, in Meriwether County, 
Georgia at the time when Georgia was called upon to fur- 
nish her quota of troops for the war of 1812. John Martin 
was then 70 years old and still the fires of patriotism were 
not extinguished nor the love of battle front subdued. 

The talk of another war with England made him forget 
his years, and his infirmities, and as his son Marshall re- 
counted the probabilities of renewed encounters, and spoke 
of his own enlistment, the old "war horse sniffing the battle 
from afar," exclaimed excitedly, "My son let me go in your 

Afteh this visit John Martin returned to his Edgefield 
home, where he died in 1820. 

Boys and girls who would develop fine character must 
have high ideals even in childhood. "Sow a thought and 
you reap a habit, sow a habit and you reap a character, 
sow a character and you reap a destiny" M. M. PARK, 
David Meriwether Chapter, D. A. B., Greenville. 



The victory of the little band of patriots at Bennington 
early in the Revolutionary War made John Stark famous, 
and shortly afterward he was christened "Old Benning- 
ton, ' ' first by the soldiers and then by the American colon- 
ists generally. At the time of the victory Stark was close 
to fifty years of age, and had had a long and distinguished 
career as an Indian fighter. 

In early life John Stark was a New Hampshire farmer, 
and in that state he was born of Irish parents, and there he 
died in 1822, at the advanced age of 94. His farm was 
located in the wildest part of the forest country of New 
Hampshire, and Indian fighting was a hobby with him. 
Several years prior to the Revolution he and his little band 
of frontiersmen had succeeded in driving the Indians from 
their neighborhood, so that they were no longer troubled 
with them. Then for several years Stark settled down to 
the enjoyment of farm life. At this vocation he continued 
until tidings reached him of the battle of Lexington. 

Promptly upon the receipt of this news he mounted his 
horse, and at the head of several hundred of his neighbors, 
set out to join the Colonial Army at Cambridge. Upon his 
arrival there he was appointed a colonel, and in one day he 
had organized a regiment of 800 hardy backswoodsmen. 

Then came the memorable Bunker Hill day. Stark and 
his men were stationed a few miles away from the scene of 
this conflict, but in full sight of both Bunker and Breed's 
hills. Seeing that a battle was inevitable, he waited for 
no orders, but set out at once for the ground, which he 
reached just before the conflict began. He led his men 
into the fight saying : ' ' Boys aim at their waistbands, ' ' an 
order that has become historical. 

In the heat of this action a soldier came to Stark with 
the report that his son, a youth of 16, who was with him on 
the field had been killed. 


' ' This is not the moment to talk of private affairs, ' ' was 
the grim reply ; ' ' go back to your post. ' ' 

As it proved, the report was false, and young Stark 
served as a staff officer through the war. 

After the patriots were compelled to evacuate Boston, 
Stark marched with his regiment to New York, but was 
shortly directed to take part in the ill-starred expedition 
against Canada. The retreating army reached Ticonderoga 
on the 7th of July. Here on the following day the Declara- 
tion of Independence reached the soldiers in the field and 
Col. Stark had the satisfaction, on the scene of his former 
exploits, to hear the proclamation read to his cheering 

Then Gen. Stark proceeded south to assist Washington 
and to gain his full share of applause in the battle of 
Trenton. In March, 1777, he returned to his native state to 
recruit the ranks of his regiment, and while there news 
came to him that a new list of promotions had been made 
in which his name was omitted, while younger officers had 
been advanced in rank. This injustice he bitterly resented 
and resigned from the army and retired to his farm. 

But Stark was still the patriot and when the informa- 
tion reached him that the enemy were moving south from 
Canada, and that Gen. St. Clair had retreated and that 
Ticonderoga had been captured, New Hampshire flew to 
arms and called for Stark to command her troops. 

Stark was at Bennington when he learned that a detach- 
ment of six hundred men under Col. Baum had been dis- 
patched by Burgoyne on a foraging expedition in that 
section, sending a party of Indians in advance on a scout- 
ing raid. Upon learning of this Stark sent out expresses 
to call in the militia of the nighborhood, he marched out to 
meet Baum, who entrenched himself in a strong position 
about six miles from Bennington. 

This was on the 14th of August. A few miles out he 
met Lieut.-Col. Gregg retreating, with the enemy close at 
hand. Stark at once halted and drew up his men in order 


of battle. The enemy, seeing this, at once stopped also and 
entrenched themselves. Thus the armies remained for two 
days, contenting themselves with skirmishing, in which the 
Americans had much the best of the game. Baum's In- 
dians began to desert, saying that "the woods were filled 
with Yankees." 

On the morning of the sixteenth Stark prepared for 
an attack. Before advancing he addressed his men with 
that brief but telling address which has made his name 
historic : ' ' There are the red coats ; we must beat them to- 
day or to-night Molly Stark sleeps a widow. ' ' 

They beat them and "Molly" had the satisfaction of 
long enjoying the fame that came to John, instead of 
wearing the widow's weeds. The victory was decisive and 
by a band of raw militia, poorly armed and without dis- 
cipline, but led by one of the most fearless men of the 

Of the one thousand British soldiers engaged in this 
fight, not more than a hundred escaped, and it was this 
victory of "Old Bennington" which led ultimately to the 
surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga. Col. Baum, who was 
mortally wounded, said of the provisionals, "They fought 
more like hell-hounds than like soldiers." Washington 
spoke of the engagement as "the great stroke struck by 
Gen. Stark near Bennington." and Baroness Riedessel, then 
in the British camp, wrote : ' ' This unfortunate event para- 
lyzed our operations. ' ' 

"Old Bennington" was a splendid type of the class 
of men who gave success to the American Revolution. 
Congress, after Bennington, hastened to repair its former 
action by appointing Stark a brigadier-general, and he 
continued in the army till the end of the war. He lived 
to see the country firmly established, and when he died in 
1822 he was buried on the banks of the Merrimae River at 



Benjamin Franklin was an ordinary man with an ex- 
traordinary supply of common sense who flourished in the 
eighteenth century and is still regarded as one of the 
finest of American products. 

Franklin was born in Boston, but was one of the few 
Boston wise men to succeed in getting away from that 
city. His family was not distinguished and when he left 
Boston, after having run a newspaper with more brilliance 
than success, no committee of city officials appeared to bid 
him goodbye. 

Franklin arrived in Philadelphia with enough money 
left to buy two rolls of bread and paraded the town wear- 
ing one loaf under his arm and eating the other. This 
successfully quarantined him from Philadelphia society 
and he was enabled to put all his time into the printing 
business with such success that he was sent to London in 
1824 by the governor to get a printing outfit. He worked 
for eighteen months in a London printing house and was 
probably the most eminent employee that London Journal- 
ism ever had, though England has not yet waked up to 
this fact. 

Franklin then returned to Philadelphia and purchased 
The Gazette, which he began to edit with such success that 
he frequently had to spend all day making change for eager 
subscribers. It might be well to mention here that at this 
time he was only 23 years old, having been born January 
17, 1706, and having been a full-fledged editor at the age 
of 15. Genius often consists in getting an early start and 
keeping started. 

At the age of 26 Franklin's "Poor Richard's Alma- 
nac, ' ' the sayings of a wise old man, had the largest circula- 
tion of anything printed in the Colonies, and people sought 
his advice on everything from love to chicken raising. At 


the age of 31 he was a member of the Pennsylvania Assem- 
bly. At 40 he had diagnosed lightning and had exhibited 
the first electricity ever in captivity in a bottle, having 
caught it with a kite string and a key. He had also charted 
the course of North American storms, and explained the 
gulf stream. 

Franklin helped the Colonies to declare their independ- 
ence and secured the treaty of alliance with France. At 
79 he was elected governor of Pennsylvania. At 82 he 
helped write the Constitution of the United States. He 
also devised the American postal system. He died at the 
age of 84, and Philadelphia is prouder of his tombstone 
than she is of the Liberty Bell. 

Through all his long and busy life Franklin never had 
time to dress up and adopt the social usages of his day. 
But this did not prevent him from dazzling the exquisite 
court of France at its most brilliant and useless period. He 
was one of the few men who gave to the earth more wisdom 
than he absorbed from it, but he never was a bonanza for 
the tailors. Had he spent his youth keeping four tailors 
and three haberdashers in affluence, Franklin relics would 
probably not command the high price which they now do. 



Had Great Britain made peace with the American 
colonies after the British army had been driven from 
Boston, James Mugford would be a popular hero today. 
But Great Britain continued the war for eight long years, 
and so many heroes were made that the name of Jamea 
Mugford, "the world forgetting, and by the world for- 
got," was lost. 

Mugford died in 1776. He and his 27 companions were 
attacked by 200 British marines. They fought most all 
night, and the British were whipped, but the gallant cap- 
tain was killed by a pike thrust. 

The British under General Gage evacuated Boston, in 
March, 1776. The British fleet remained behind in Boston 
to blockade the port. General "Washington hurried to New 
York with the main Colonial army to dispute the proposed 
British landing there. General Artemas "Ward was left 
in command of a pretty sizeable American army around 
Boston; but Washington had taken all the powder and 
most of the guns. 

The Americans were at the mercy of the British ships, 
only the British didn't know it. General Ward zealously 
guarded the fact that his powder supply was nil, and 
planned to fill his magazines at the invader's expense. 

Accordingly two small ships, the schooners Hancock 
and Franklin, were outfitted and ordered to sea for the 
purpose of capturing a supply ship. Captain Samuel 
Tucker commanded the Hancock. James Mugford, a citi- 
zen of Marblehead, Mass., was appointed master of the 
Franklin. His vessel carried a crew of 21, including him- 

On May 7 Captain Tucker captured two brigs laden 
with valuable supplies ; but no powder. He took his prized 
to Lynn. General Ward communicated with Captain Mug- 


ford and explained to him the desperate straits the army 
was fronting. 

"I'll get some powder," said the short-spoken Marble* 
head. And he did. 

The British ship Hope, carrying war munitions for the 
British, was due. It had powder for the Beet. Captain 
Mugford heard of its expected arrival and put to sea. 

Almost within sight of the British fleet he met the Hope 
and captured it. But how to land the prize? He didn't 
have men enough to take it to Lynn or any other port very 
distant. The British fleet lay between him and the Ameri- 
can army in Boston. 

Captain Mugford chose to run the British blockade 
and fight the whole fleet of a dozen ships or more, if neces- 
sary. He put a few of his best men aboard the Hope and 
made the British crew sail it. Then, in the Franklin, he 
arrogantly sailed toward the British fleet and dropped a 
few cannon balls its way. 

The British were astounded. What could this crazy 
skipper mean by attacking a fleet with one dinky little 
schooner ? They would teach him a lesson. The whole fleet 
maneuvered round to blow the Franklin off the bay. Mean- 
while the Hope sneaked in the harbor, and then Captain 
Mugford outsailed the British fleet and got in himself. In 
the hold of the Hope the Americans found 75 tons of pow- 
der and other war stores needed just then more than men 
or gold. Mugford had made good his word. 

Very naturally the British were angry. The admiral 
issued an order that James Mugford was to be captured by 
any hook or crook and promptly killed. Somebody told 
Captain Mugford about the order. 

' ' Oh, piffle ! " he said, or something like that. " I '11 run 
by his derned old fleet every day in the week and twice on 
Sunday if I want." 

The Sunday following, May 19, 1776, Captain Mugford, 
in the Franklin, with 21 men, and Captain Cunningham, in 
the privateer Lady Washington, a vessel carrying seven 


men and a few small swivel guns, started to puncture 
the British blockade again. They would have succeeded, 
but the Franklin grounded. A flotilla of small boats from 
the fleet, carrying 200 well-armed men, started for the 
attack. Captain Cunningham refused to leave his com- 
panion, so both he and Captain Mugford prepared for 

It was a fiercely fought contest and lasted the better 
part of the night. On May 20 General Ward made the fol- 
lowing report of the engagement: 

"Captain Mugford was very fiercely attacked by 12 or 
13 boats full of men, but he and his men exerted themselves 
with remarkable bravery, beat off the enemy, sunk several 
of their boats and killed a number of their men ; it is sup- 
posed they lost 60 or 70. The intrepid Captain Mugford 
fell a little before the enemy left his schooner. He was 
run through with a lance while he was cutting off the hands 
of the pirates as they were attempting to board him, and 
it is said that with his own hands he cut off five pairs of 
theirs. No other man was killed or wounded on the 
Franklin. Kansas City Star. 



Among the historical sketches penned by Miss Annie M. 
Lane for the American Journal of History, that touching 
the life of Governor John Clarke, received the highest 
award, and through the kindness of the author we are per- 
mitted to reproduce it. 

"Why are the dead not dead? Who can undo 
What time has done ? Who can win back the wind ? 
Beckon lost music from a broken lute 1 ? 
Renew the redness of a last year's rose? 
Or dig the sunken sun-set from the deep 1 ?" 

I sometimes think there are more interesting things and 
people under the ground than above it, yet we who are 
above it do not want to go below it to get acquainted with 
them, but if we can find out anything from the outside we 
enjoy it. In a previous article, I said there was no spot in 
Georgia so full of buried romance as Wilkes County, and 
no manuscript so fascinating as the musty and yellow old 
records of a hundred years ago, which lie unmolested in 
our courthouse, especially those of 1777. 

One cannot but feel after reading these books that he 
has been face to face with the grand old gentlemen of Revo- 
lutionary days : the men who walked our streets with their 
ruffled shirts three-cornered hats and dangling swords 
yet so different are they in personality and character that 
the weaving together of their lives makes to me a grand and 
beautiful fabric, "a tapestry or reminiscent threads." 
Some rich, some dark and sombre in shade, making a 
background so fitting for the crimson and purple and gold 
for the conspicuous, inflaming color of impetuous 
natures, toned down with characters as white and cool as 
the snowflakes which fall upon our Southern violets. 

You have but to close your eyes to the scene of today 
to recall ex-Governor Talbot, Governor Matthews, General 
Clarke, together with Jesse Mercer, Mr. Springer and 


Duncan C. Campbell, who were familiar figures once upon 
the streets of Washington. 

In the painting of character sketches we would not do 
the individual justice if we did not remember his environ- 
ments, and above all his inherited nature, for are we not 
all bound by heredity ? My last sketch was of Jesse Mercer, 
now it is of John Clarke. How striking the contrast. The 
life of Jesse Mercer was as quiet and majestic as was his 
nature. John Clarke just three years his senior, born and 
reared at no great distance had a life of adventure. He was 
the son of our stalwart General Elijah Clarke and his wife, 
Hannah, and was the youngest soldier whose name appears 
upon the roster of Kettle Creek, being 13 years of age. 
(Battle of Kettle Creek, 1779, John Clarke, born 1766.) 

I will refer you to history to convince you of how his 
whole nature was fired by the blood within his veins, in- 
herited from both mother and father. He came of fighting 
stock in a fighting age ! In "White's Historical Collections 
of Georgia," there is an account of the life of Hannah 
Clarke, who survived her husband, Elijah Clarke, twenty 
years, dying at the age of 90 (in 1829.) The burning of 
her house by a party of British and Tories is recorded, and 
the turning out of herself and children while General 
Clarke was away. 

When General Clarke was so desperately wounded at 
Long Cane in Carolina, she started to him and was robbed 
of the horse on which she was riding. On one campaign 
she accompanied him and when she was moving from a 
place of danger, the horse on which she and two of her 
younger children were riding was shot from under her. 
Later, she was at the siege of Augusta. All this time 
General Elijah Clarke's right hand man was young John. 
Being reared in the army, this boy became wild and in- 
petuous; by nature he was intense, so when cupid's dart 
entered his heart it was inflamed as deeply with love as 
it had been with hatred for the British. His love story ends 


with Meredith's words, "Whom first we love, we seldom 

About four miles from the hill on which the little battle 
of Kettle Creek was fought, there lived an orphan girl, 
the stepdaughter of Artnial Weaver, and the youngest sis- 
ter of Sabina Chivers, who married Jesse Mercer. John 
Clarke loved this girl, but there was opposition to the un- 
ion. But as yet not knowing the meaning of the word 
defeat, he induced her to elope with him. 

It was his thought to take her to the home of a friend 
of his father's, Daniel Marshall, near Kiokee, but the 
weather was severe, and a snowstorm set in. They were 
compelled to stop at a farm house where lived the mother 
of Major Freeman (related to Dr. S. G. Hillyer.) Miss 
Chivers was taken ill that night with congestion of the 
lungs, and died. In the absence of flowers the good woman 
of the house adorned the dead girl with bunches of holly, 
entwined them in her beautiful black hair and placed them 
in her clasped hands. The grave they covered with the 
same beautiful crimson and green holly, upon which the 
snow recently fell. This was the first real sorrow in the 
life of John Clarke, and many were to follow. 

To some the years come and go like beautiful dreams, 
and life seems only as a fairy tale that is told, yet there 
are natures for which this cannot be. Some hands reach 
forth too eagerly to cull life's sweet, fair flowers, and often 
grasp hidden thorns. Feet that go with quick, fearless 
steps are most apt to be wounded by jutting stones, and 
alas! John Clarke found them where 'er he went through 
life 's bright sunlight or its shaded paths, these cruel, sharp 
piercing thorns; those hard, cold, hurting stones. 

We next see John Clarke just before he enters into 
his political life. From ' ' The History of Wilkes County, ' ' 
in our library, I copy the following, viz: "Micajah Wil- 
liamson kept a licensed tavern in the town of Washington 
on record, we find that he sold with meals, drinks as fol- 
lows: Good Jamaica spirits, per gill, 2d; good Madeira 


wine, per bottle, 4s 8d; all white wines, per bottle, 3s 6d; 
port, per bottle, Is 9d ; good whiskey and brandy, per gill, 
6d & C. & C. at that time a shilling was really 22c., a penny 
7-5 of a cent." 

In front of this tavern was a large picture of George 
Washington hanging as a swinging sign. John Clarke used 
to come to town, and like most men of his day got 
drunk. They all did not "cut up," however, as he did on 
such occasions. He went into stores and smashed things 
generally, as tradition says, but he always came back and 
paid for them like a gentleman. Once he came into town 
intoxicated and galloped down Court street and fired 
through the picture of General Washington before the 
tavern door. This was brought up against him later when 
he was a candidate for governor, but his friends denied it. 

Soon after this he married the oldest daughter of 
Micajah Williamson, while Duncan C. Campbell married 
the youngest. 

The stirring events which followed we have all learned 
in history, how the state was divided into two factions, the 
Clarkeites and those for Crawford and Troup. The state 
was so evenly divided that the fight was fierce. The com- 
mon people and owners of small farms were for Clarke, the 
"gentry" and well-to-do educated folk for Crawford, and 
sent him to the United States Senate. Clarke and Craw- 
ford from youth had been antagonistic. Clarke, while un- 
educated, was brilliantly intelligent, but deeply sensitive. 
Crawford was polished and of courtly bearing, a man of 
education, but was very overbearing. Had he lived today 
our public school boy would say "he was always nagging 
at Clarke. " Be that as it may, it was nip and tuck between 
them in the gubernational campaign. Clarke fought a duel 
with Crawford at High Shoals, and shattered his wrist. 
Later he tried to get Crawford to meet him again, but he 
persistently refused. One ugly thing to me was the horse- 
whipping of Judge Tate by Governor Clarke on the streets 
of Milledgeville, then the capital. This did Clarke no good. 


General Clarke twice defeated Mr. Troup for governor. 
Troup was at last elected, defeating Matthew Talbot, who 
was on Clarke's side in 1823. General Clarke was defeated 
by Talbot himself. There is never an article written about 
Clarke that his bad spelling is not referred to. Not long 
ago I read in a magazine published in Georgia that Clarke 
spelled coffee "kaughphy." This is not true, that honor 
belongs to Matthews, another one of the familiar figures 
once on the streets of Washington. Even the best educated 
of our Revolutionary heroes did not spell correctly as we 
call it, from George "Washington down. 

I rather enjoy their license for I think English spelling 
is a tyrannical imposition. After the defeat of Clarke the 
tide was against him. Many untrue things were said about 
him and they cut him deeply. He was misunderstood 
often, and in chagrin he left the state. 

Rise, Muse, in the wrath of thy rapture divine, 
And sweep with a finger of fame every line 
Till it tremble and burn as thine own glances burn 
Through the vision thou kindlest wherein I discern 
All the unconcious cruelty hid in the heart 
Of mankind; all the limitless grief we impart 
Unawares to each other; the limitless wrong 
We inflict without need, as we hurry along 
In this boisterous pastime of life. 

Beneath the rough exterior there never beat a kinder 
heart than that in the breast of John Clarke. Although he 
had the brusque manner of a soldier of Revolutionary days, 
with those he loved he was as tender and gentle as a child. 
On one occasion soon after his first election to the governor- 
ship of Georgia there was a banquet given in his honor. 
The decorations on the white linen of the table were wreaths 
of holly, thought to be very beautiful and tasty. When the 
governor entered with his friends he stopped stock still in 
the doorway turning deathly pale. He ordered every piece 
of holly dashed from the window. The occurrence was 
spread far and wide all over the state and criticism ran 


high, and even his friends disapproved of the uncivil act 
of one in his high station. He never made an explanation 
until years afterwards. 

Memories with him did not die, though beneath the 
ashes of the silent past. If he might call them dead, and 
bury them, it seems they only slept, and ere he knew, at but 
a word, a breath, the softest sigh, they woke once more 
and moved here as he thought they would not evermore. 
Clarke owned large tracts of land in Wilkes county (be- 
fore it was cut up into other counties.) One deed is made 
to Wylie Pope in 1806. He reserves twenty feet where his 
two children are buried, Elijah Clarke and George Walton 
Clarke. Leaving Georgia he settled in Washington county, 
Florida, on the shores of the beautiful "Old Saint An- 
drews. ' ' Here he entertained his friends and here he spent 
the last ten years of his life within the sound of the rest- 
less, surging waters of the gulf. October 12th, 1832, Gov- 
ernor Clarke passed from this life, and eight days later his 
wife joined him in the Great Beyond. They were buried 
near the seashore in a beautiful grove of live oaks, and a 
marble shaft erected over them bears the following inscrip- 

Here reposes the remains of 

John Clarke 
Late Governor of Georgia 


Nancy Clarke 
His Wife 


John Clarke 
Born Feb. 28th, 1760 
Died October 12th, 1832 
As an officer he was vigilant and brave 
As a statesman energetic and faithful 
As a father and friend devoted and sincere. 


This monument was erected hy their surviving children, Ann 
Campbell and Wylie P. Clarke. 


Not far from the monument are two little graves with 
flat slabs and the following inscription : 

Erected to the memory of John W. and Ann W. Campbell. 

Ann Hand 

Born January 24th, 1823 
Died Sept. 3rd, 1829 

Marcus Edwin 

Born Feb. 25th, 1831 

Died Feb. 3rd, 1833 

"Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven.'" 

Seventy-five years have passed and the once beautiful 
spot is now desecrated. The oaks are cut, the toombstones 
are broken, and the grave of Georgia's governor is tres- 
passed upon in a shameful manner. However, overshadow- 
ing his tomb, and keeping guard is a holly tree in all its 
beauty, filled with long waving wreathes of Spanish moss, 
and no doubt it whispers to the passing breeze that hurries 
on to ocean, the story of a lost love! 

Aye, what is it all if this life be all 

But a draught to its dregs of a cup of gall, 

A bitter round of rayless years, 

A saddened dole of wormwood tears, 

A sorrowful plaint of the Spirit's thrall 

The graves, the shroud, the funeral pall 

This is the sum, if this life be all. 



(A paper read before the Ralph Humphreys Chapter, Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, of Jackson, Mississippi, by Dr. 
James Elliott Walmsley, professor of history in Millsaps College.) 

George Eliot says somewhere that all beginnings are 
make-believes. Especially is this statement found true in 
attempting to trace the origin of the American Revolution. 
Every cause assigned is at once seen to be the effect of some 
more remote cause, until one might go back step by step 
to the liberty-loving ancestors of the early Saxons in their 
forest home of Northern Germany. Without undertaking 
any work so elaborate it is the purpose of this study to 
show the effects of one of these causes. 

All free governments have developed parties, but as the 
word is used at present true political parties in England 
did not arise till after the wars of the Puritans and Cava- 
liers in the seventeenth century. The men who migrated 
to America, with the exception of the aristocratic element 
that located largely in the South between 1640 and 1660, 
were of the party who believed in restricting the power of 
the king, and were opposed by the party who professed im- 
plicit faith in the divine right of kings. By the time of the 
accession of William of Orange the former party was recog- 
nized by the name of Whigs, while the loyal devotees of 
regal infallibility were called Tories. 

The first king of the Hanover line, George I, was seated 
on his throne through a successful piece of Whig politics, so 
admirably described by Thackeray in Henry Esmond, and 
his government was conducted by a Whig minister, Robert 
Walpole, assisted by a Whig cabinet. The power remained 
in the hands of a few families, and this condition, which 
amounted to an aristocratic rule of "Old Whigs, " lasted 
down to the accession of George III, in 1760. The new 
king, who was destined to be the last king in America, was 
not like his father and grandfather, a German-speaking 


prince who knew nothing of England and her people, but 
one who gloried in the name Briton. Brought up by his 
mother with the fixed idea he should never forget that he 
was king, his ambition was to restore the autocratic power 
of William I. or Henry II. To attain this end he set him- 
self to overthrow the Whig party and so recall to favor 
the Tories, who had by this time given up their dreams of 
' ' Bonnie Prince Charlie ' ' and Stuart restorations. 

This misguided monarch, who was a model of Christian 
character in private life, but who in the words of a great 
English historian, wrought more lasting evil to his country 
than any other man in its history, determined first to over- 
throw William Pitt, the elder, the greatest statesman that 
the English speaking race has ever produced that man 
who sat in his room in London and planned campaigns in 
the snow covered mountains of Silesia and the impassable 
swamps of Prussia, on the banks of the Hugli in India and 
on the Plain of Abraham in Canada, in the spicy islands 
of the East Indies and the stormy waters of the Atlantic, 
who brought England from the depths of lowest dejection 
to a point where the gifted Horace Walpole could say in 
1759, ''We must inquire each morning what new victory 
we should celebrate." This great man was overthrown 
by the king in 1761, and there came into power the extreme 
Tory wing, known as the "king's friends," whose only rule 
of political guidance was the royal wish. These men, led by 
the Earl of Bute, followed the king on one of the wildest, 
maddest courses that English partisan politics has known. 

At this point we must pause and examine the constitu- 
tion of the British Empire. England, Scotland, and Wales 
were governed by their own Parliament, but so defective 
was the method of representation that villages which had 
formerly flourished but had now fallen into decay or even 
like Old Sarum, were buried under the waves of the North 
Sea, still returned their two members to Parliament, while 
important cities like Manchester, Leeds, and Birmingham, 
which had grown up in the last hundred years, were en- 


tirely unrepresented. The Whigs in England, as least the 
New Whigs, the progressive element, were contending for 
the same principle of representation that inspired the 
Americans. In addition to the home-land, England ruled, 
as colonies, Ireland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands, 
sea fortresses, such as Gibraltar and Malta, Asiatic posses- 
sions, including in India an empire twenty times as popu- 
lous as the ruling country, Canada, Jamaica, the Barba- 
does, the Thirteen Colonies, etc. Our own thirteen colonies, 
which were not united among themselves and which were 
not different in the eyes of an Englishman from any other 
of the colonies, formed a small part geographically of the 
empire and had for their peculiar distinction only the 
larger proportion of English residents. 

Furthermore, the modern idea of governing colonies for 
the welfare of the colonies had not yet been invented. A 
colony was considered as a farm or any other wealth pro- 
ducing piece of property. Adam Smith's epoch-making 
work, "The Wealth of Nations," the first serious attempt 
to discuss Political Economy, was not published till 1776, 
and in his chapter on colonies he for the first time proposed 
the doctrine of removing restrictions and > allowing to 
colonies free trade and free government. It is significant 
of the contentions of this article that Adam Smith's book 
was at once read and quoted in Parliament by the leaders 
of the Whigs, especial attention being given to it by the 
young William Pitt, who was described by an enthusiastic 
Whig as "not a chip of the old block but the old block 

With this preliminary statement we can take up the 
course of party relations. One of the first distinctively 
party acts of George's reign was the Stamp Act passed 
against the active opposition of the Whigs ; and the down- 
fall of the Grenville ministry and the accession of the 
Marquis of Rockingham, the Whig prime minister, marked 
by the repeal of this act in 1766. In the next year, how- 
ever, the Rockingham ministry fell, and Townshend, the 


moving spirit in the succeeding administration, carried 
through the series of acts that led directly to the Boston 
Tea Party and its momentous results. 

Finally when George III, who openly proclaimed him- 
self a Tory, succeeded in becoming supreme in the govern- 
ment, he called into office, in 1770, Lord George North, 
who for twelve years was the king's tool in carrying out a 
policy which he disliked. It was only his ' ' lazy good nature 
and Tory principles, ' ' which led him to defer to the king 's 
judgment and advocate the doctrine, in a far different 
sense from the present meaning of the words, that "the 
king can do no wrong. ' ' From this day it was natural that 
the Whigs in opposition should oppose the government 
measures and should identify the cause of free government 
in America with that in England and that every New 
Whig should become an enthusiastic supporter of the 
American contentions. In fact George and the Tory party 
realized that if the American theory of taxation condi- 
tioned on representation prevailed it would be necessary 
to yield to the demand of the New Whigs for reform in 
the representation in England. 

This fact explains some intricate points in the politics 
of the time. It shows for instance why we fought a war 
with England and then in securing a treaty of peace con- 
spired with our enemy, England, to wrest more favorable 
terms from our ally, France. We fought a Tory England, 
but Lord North's ministry fell when the news of Yorktown 
came, and we made a treaty of peace with a whig England, 
and the Whigs were our friends. The Whigs in Parlia- 
ment spoke of the American army as ' ' our army, ' ' Charles 
Fox spoke of Washington's defeat as the "terrible news 
from Long Island," and Wraxall says that the famous 
buff and blue colors of the Whig party were adopted from 
the Continental uniform. Even the "Sons of Liberty" 
took their name from a phrase struck out by Colonel Barre, 
the comrade of Wolfe at Quebec, in the heat of a parlia- 
mentary debate. 


Illustrations of this important point might be multi- 
plied, but it may be better to take up more minutely the 
career of one man and show how the conflict of Whig and 
Tory politics affected the actual outcome of the struggle. 
Lord George Howe was the only British officer who was 
ever really loved by the Americans, and there is to-day in 
Westminister Abbey a statue erected to his memory by the 
people of Massachusetts. After his death at Ticonderoga 
in 1758 his mother issued an address to the electors of 
Nottingham asking that they elect her youngest son Wil- 
liam to Parliament in his place. William Howe, known in 
American history as General Howe, considered himself as 
the successor of his brother and as the especial friend of 
the Americans. When war was threatened in 1774 he told 
his constituents that on principle the Americans were 
right and that if he were appointed to go out against them 
he would as a loyal Whig refuse. Of course this was a 
reckless statement, for an officer in the army can not 
choose whom he will fight. He was put in supreme com- 
mand in America when General Gage was recalled, but was 
directed by his government to carry the olive branch in 
one hand. That he obeyed this command, which was to his 
own liking, even too literally, is easily established. 

There is one almost unwritten chapter in American 
history which I would like to leave in oblivion, but candor 
demands its settlement. Our people were not as a whole 
enthusiastic over the war, in many sections a majority were 
opposed to it, those who favored it were too often half- 
hearted in their support. Had the men of America in 1776 
enlisted and served in the same proportion in which the 
men of the Southern States did in 1861, when fighting for 
their "independence," Washington would have had at all 
times over 60,000 in his army. As a matter of fact there 
never were as many as 25,000 in active service at any one 
time, the average number was about 4,000, and at certain 
critical times he had not over 1,000. General Knox's offi- 
cial figures of 252,000 are confessedly inaccurate, and by 


including each separate short enlistment make up the total 
enlistment for the six years, sometimes counting the same 
man as often as five times. At the very time when Wash- 
ington's men were starving and freezing at Valley Forge 
the country people were hauling provisions past the camp 
and selling them to the British in Philadelphia. 

Much more might be said, but enough for a disagree- 
able subject. No careful historian to-day will deny that 
considering the lack of support given to Washington and 
his army, the Revolution could have been crushed in the 
first year, long before the French alliance was a possibility, 
had the English shown one-half the ability of the adminis- 
tration in the recent South African War. Among the 
causes assignable for this state of incompetence the political 
situation deserves more attention than it has hitherto been 

No one has ever explained Howe's inexcusable careless- 
ness in letting Washington escape after Long Island, no 
one can explain his foolish inactivity during the succeed- 
ing winter, except by the fact that Howe was a Whig, his 
sympathies were with the Americans, the Whigs had said 
repeatedly that the Americans could hold out against a 
good army and it seemed now that they were helping ful- 
fill their own prophecy. 

It is rarely stated in our American histories that Howe 
was investigated by a committee of Parliament after his 
evacuation of Philadelphia, that he was severely condemned 
for not assisting Burgoyne and for not capturing Wash- 
ington's starving handful of men at Valley Forge, that 
Joseph Galloway, the noted American loyalist, who was a 
member of the first Continental Congress, openly accused 
him of being in league with a large section of Whigs to let 
the Revolution go by default and to give America its 
independence, and that immediately after his return to 
England he resumed his seat in Parliament and spoke and 
worked in opposition to the king and in behalf of the 


The case of General Howe is typical and can be dupli- 
cated in the other departments of the government. The 
leading Tory ministers claimed that the rebellion would 
have failed but for the sympathy in the House of Commons, 
and this charge was made in the very House itself. 

It would be a gross exaggeration to say that our Revo- 
lution was merely the result of a party quarrel in England, 
but the unfortunate party attitude of King George III. 
certainly was one of the most potent causes of trouble, and 
the progress of the war reacted most strongly on the party 
situation in England. When William Pitt, the younger, 
at the age of twenty-five took into his hands the premier- 
ship of England in December 1783, he did it as the repre- 
sentative of the English people, and the revolution which 
began in this country was completed in the English Parlia- 
ment. Up to 1776 the history of America and England 
flowed in the same channel, Shakespeare, Chaucer, and 
Pitt are ours as much as England's, and it should always 
be remembered that just when the countries were in the 
act of separating the system of George III. was shaken off 
and shattered by the free people of the two great Anglo- 
Saxon powers, and the Whig statesmen of England could 
join with their party friends in America in welcoming a 
new self-governing people to the council of nations. 
American Monthly Magazine. 



The facilities for conveniently carrying persons or 
property from one place to another affects in a measure the 
physical welfare of every human being, and all progressive 
nations desire to secure the advantages to be derived from 
the best systems of transportation. This country of ours 
has tried many experiments and been rapidly benefited in 
the results obtained. It hardly seems to us possible, in 
this day of improved and rapid travel, that the entire 
system of transportation is still in the transition state, and 
in some parts of the country the very expedients which we 
have tried, improved upon and cast away, are at present in 
use. But our topic deals with other days than these, and 
we must hasten back to the beginning of things here in 

According to Indian tradition, it is believed that within 
a brief period prior to the discovery of America by Colum- 
bus, the Indians had travelled over a large portion of the 
country between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and were 
familiar with the topographical features of the continent. 
Their frequent wars and their long continuance in the 
hunter state, made them necessarily a migratory race and 
their pathways were the first trails for the white settlers 
when they came. When we travel over crooked roads and 
even crooked streets in our towns, how many of us stop to 
think that we are travelling the same road as blazed out for 
us by an Indian or trodden down for us by an early set- 
tler's straying cow? 

As the Indian, as a guide through the almost impene- 
trable forests was of great aid to the early settlers, so also 
was the canoe of the Indian a great service. Of course the 
white man crossed the ocean in larger boats, but when it 
came to travelling from point to point, after reaching 
America, the lighter craft of the Indians was the only 
possible means of water travel, for the numerous falls or 


rapids, and the frequent portages between distinct water 
systems, made the use of a heavy boat impossible. These 
canoes were of birch bark, buffalo skin, stretched over 
wooden frames, or even large trees felled, the trunk cut 
into sections and split, then hollowed out by burning first 
and the ashes scooped out with the hands or pieces of shell, 
until the sides and bottom were reduced to the utmost thin- 
ness consistent with buoyancy and security. The method 
of propelling these canoes was usually by paddle, but some 
had sails. The size varied from twelve feet to forty feet 
in length, and they were capable of carrying from two to 
forty men. Of course the larger canoes were used princi- 
pally for state occasions, military purposes, or when large 
stores of supplies were to be transported. 

One old historian tells of the way the sails were used. 
The Indian stood in the bow of the canoe and with his 
hands held up two corners of his blanket, and the other two 
corners were either fastened to his ankles or simply placed 
under each foot, while in the stern of the canoe, the squaw 
sat and steered. The scheme was an ingenious one and 
must have been a grateful change to the poor squaw, who 
otherwise would have had to propel the canoe by means of 
the paddle. 

Of the Indian canoe Longfellow says: 

The forest's life was in it, 
All its mystery and its magic, 
All the lightness of the birch tree, 
All the toughness of the cedar; 
All the larches supple sinews. 
And it floated on the river 
Like a yellow leaf in Autumn, 
Like a yellow water lily 

On account of the dense forests and the difficulty 
experienced in penetrating them, the early settlements 
were upon the banks of streams and consequently the 
water channels and seaports, for communication between 
the various settlements, as well as with the mother country, 


were a necessity and the very first legislation with regard 
to transportation related to boats, canoes and landings. It 
was a long time before any internal development of the 
land took place, because these waterways formed the main 
reliance for all movements of persons or property. Each 
of the thirteen original colonies had one or more seaports 
and the main current of trade, during the colonial period, 
and in fact up to much later times, was between these 
ports and the interior districts on the one hand, and the 
outer world and the ocean on the other. Commerce between 
the colonies was limited and all movements from one colony 
to another were by various kinds of sea going vessels. All 
the boats subsequently built by the European settlers 
showed the influence of the Indian canoe. The raft was 
another method of the Indian for transporting property, 
and from this grew the various kinds of floatboats. The 
raft itself is still in use but more as a means of transport- 
ing the lumber of which it is composed than as a means for 
carrying other freight. 

For land travel, when the Indians had burdens to carry 
they did it by means of the burden strap, an arrangement 
of leather bands which fitted around the forehead and was 
lashed to a litter borne upon the back. It was usually 
about fifteen feet in length and braided into a belt in the 
center, three or four inches wide. This carrying of bur- 
dens upon the back is the one method of transportation 
which combines the greatest amount of human effort with 
the least practical effect. But it was at the time the only 
method available and formed one of the most serious 
privations and discomforts of savage life. 

It is recorded in the case of a white man, who helped 
the Indians in one of their wars, early in 1600, that he was 
wounded and could not walk. Thereupon he was placed 
in a basket of wicker work, doubled up, and fastened with 
cords until he could scarcely move, and so carried upon the 
backs of Indians for several days. 


In winter we are told they had some sort of primitive 
sledges, and they used dogs in some sections. Then, of 
course, they had the snow shoe, which, to them, was a rapid 
way of travelling, but when the poor white explorers or 
captives travelled with the Indians on winter expeditions, 
they suffered sharply until they caught the hang of it. 
Chilblains were not the worst of the suffering, for the tie 
over the instep and the loops over the toes caused friction, 
and bleeding, frozen feet were the result. 

When the white man came, he, in time, brought horses 
and these were much appreciated by the Indians, who seem- 
ed to know intuitively how to manage and use them. In 
place of carrying burdens upon his own back, the red man 
fastened one end of his tent poles to the horse and fastened 
upon them the skins which composed his tent, and allowed 
the poles to trail upon the ground. This support furnished 
a method of transporting baggage, household effects and 
even women and children vastly superior to the old way. 

The old trails of the red man, over which for many 
years they had traveled with their peculiar but rapid walk, 
now furnished bridle paths for the white man and his 
horse, and many of those bridle paths are today in use. Of 
course, the first sturdy settlers walked these trails as did 
the Indians, and we have the history of one journey of 
Governor Winthrop, when he was carried, at least over 
streams, "pick-a-pack" upon the back of an Indian. This 
is a very human, if undignified, picture of the worthy 

An early explorer in Virginia said that had she ''but 
horses and kine and were inhabited with English, no realm 
in Christendom were comparable to it. ' ' As these blessings 
were all added to Virginia in course of time, we must 
believe her the fairest of colonies. As the Indians were too 
poor to buy the carefully guarded horses of the early set- 
tlers, and could not steal them, they were compelled to wait 
until races of wild horses were developed from the horses 
brought to Florida, Mexico and California by the Span- 


iards. The better grade of horse was used by the warrior 
and for travel, but the poorer horses for the drudgery and 
were quite naturally called "squaw ponies." In the early 
days before the carriage was introduced, wounded or sick 
persons were carried upon stretchers between two horses. 

The early means of transportation on land, in the 
colonies, was by horseback, for either persons or property, 
and this was the universal method of travel until nearly the 
beginning of the 19th century. It was a common custom for 
the post rider to also act as a squire of dames, and some- 
times he would have in charge four or six women travelling 
on horseback from one town to another. It was to the 
north that the carriage came first, and in the early days 
only the very wealthy families had them. And with the 
coming of the carriage, the colonists realized that they 
needed something better than an Indian trail or bridle 
path, and the agitation for good roads had its birth. One 
can form some idea of what the co-called roads must have 
been in 1704, when we read that the mail from Philadel- 
phia to New York ' ' is now a week behind and not yet com 'd 
in." The mail after 1673 was carried by horseback be- 
tween New York and Boston, but as late as 1730, the post- 
master was advertising for applications from persons who 
desired to perform the foot post to Albany that winter. 
The route was largely up the Hudson river on skates. In 
1788 it took four days for mail to go through from New 
York to Boston in good weather in winter much longer. 

The commerce between the settlements on the coast and 
those in southwestern Pennsylvania and western Virginia 
was carried on by pack horse. The people in these districts 
sent their peltry and furs by pack horse to the coast and 
there exchanged them for such articles as they needed in 
their homes and for work upon their farms. Several fami- 
lies would form an association, a master-driver would be 
chosen and the caravan move on its slow way to the settle- 
ment east of the mountains. Afterwards this pack horse 
system was continued by common carrier organizations. 


The earliest legislation in reference to highways was in 
the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1639, providing for super- 
visors, and the relaying of the roads so as to be more con- 
venient for travel, with authority to ' ' lay out the highways 
where they may be most convenient, notwithstanding any 
man 's property, or any corne ground, so as it occasion not 
the pulling down of any man's house, or laying open any 
garden or orchard." The law in force in Pennsylvania, 
prior to the grant to Penn was part of the system estab- 
lished for the New York Colony in 1664. In 1700 a revis- 
ion of existing road laws was made, giving control of 
county roads to county officials, but the king 's highway and 
public roads to be controlled by governor and council. 

The fact appears that while the early roads in the 
American colonies were bad, England had few, if any, good 
roads, and the improvement, when begun, was so rapid that 
driving for pleasure was introduced here long before it 
was known in England. In fact, the idea was carried back 
to England by officers who fought in the Revolution. 

When stage coaches were started in the colonies in 1718, 
from Boston to Rhode Island, there was no wagon road 
over this route, it not being built until 1721. It was a 
common thing for the passengers of the early stage coaches 
to have to get out, and help lift or push the stage coach out 
of the mud, and the objection raised to this was the reason 
for the introduction of the corduroy road. If one has had 
the doubtful pleasure of riding over a short portion of such 
road, one knows that it was a question whether long 
stretches of it and being shaken around in the coach like 
peas in a pod, was much improvement over being dumped 
out into the mud, while the coach was lifted out of the 
mire with which the old roads were padded. With the 
development of stage routes, came bridges, ferries, turn- 
pikes and national roads. As the passengers and light 
baggage were carried by stage, the freight traffic was car- 
ried on by the old time teamsters, with their huge wagons, 
with six or eight horses attached to each, and moving along 


the turnpikes, traveling together for company and protec- 
tion. These turnpikes presented a bustling appearance, 
with the dashing stage coaches, parties on horseback, the 
long trains of teamsters' huge wagons, and the many 
taverns that lined these thoroughfares. The passenger on 
the stage coach had time to study nature and his sur- 
roundings as he passed along, and to be fortunate enough 
to secure the box seat with the stage driver and hear, as 
one rode along, the gossip of the route, made a joy one does 
not experience in our days of rapid travel. 

Following the institution of national roads and staging, 
came the introduction of canals and artificial waterways, 
as a means of transportation for freight in the carrying 
on of commerce. A short canal, for the transporting of 
stone, was built in Orange County, New York, as early as 
1750. The first public canal company was the James River 
Company, incorporated in 1785. From that time on there 
have been vast improvements in methods and much of our 
freight is moved by means of the large canals all over our 

The next development in transportation facilities was 
the railroad, the first of which was the "Experiment" rail- 
road built to carry stone to Bunker Hill Monument. Oliver 
Evans, in 1772, began to experiment upon the construction 
of a steam carriage to run upon the ground, but it re- 
mained for John Stevens to combine the steam carriage and 
the railway. The first rail cars, or coaches, were run by 
horse power. It is interesting to read Mr. Evans' predic- 
tion, which is as follows : 

"I do verily believe that the time will come when car- 
riages propelled by steam will be in general use, as well 
for the transportation of passengers as goods, travelling at 
the rate of fifteen miles an hour, or three hundred miles 
per day." In 1813 he predicted that the time would come 
when a traveller could leave Washington in the morning, 
breakfast at Baltimore, dine at Philadelphia and sup at 


New York, all in the same day, travelling " almost as fast 
as birds fly, fifteen to twenty-miles an hour." 

In 1811, Robert Fulton, journeying by stage to Pitts- 
burgh, said, ' ' The day will come, gentlemen, I may not live 
to see it, though some of you who are younger will prob- 
ably when carriages will be drawn over these mountains 
by steam engines at a rate more rapid than that of a 
stage on the smoothest turnpike." 

A howl of protest went up from the old stage drivers 
when the railroad was projected, but as every public 
necessity had its will, the railroads had come to stay. 
There were many accidents on these primitive roads, and 
these were made the most of by the opposition. One old 
stager said, ' ' You got upset in a stage coach, and there you 
were. You got upset in a rail car and where are you ? ' ' 

From trail in the days of the Indians to T-rail of recent 
years seems a slow, tedious advance, but as some one has 

"When we reflect upon the obstinate opposition that 
has been made by a great majority to every step towards 
improvement ; from bad roads to turnpikes, from turnpikes 
to canals, from canal to railways for horse carriages, 
it is too much to expect the monstrous leap from bad roads 
to railways for steam carriages at once. One step in a gene- 
ration is all we can hope for." CLARA D. PATTERSON, 
East on, Pen nsyliwnia. 


BY MRS. J. L. WALKER, Waycross. 

Colonel Hawkins, patriot, soldier, United States senator 
and Indian agent, was born August 15, 1754, in the county 
of Butts, now Warren County, North Carolina. He was 
the son of Colonel Philemon and Delia Hawkins. He at- 
tended Princeton College until his senior year when the 
institution was closed on account of the Revolutionary 

His knowledge of the French language led Washington 
to press him into service as a member of his staff to act as 
intrepreter with the French allies. He was one of the 
founders of the Society of Cincinnati in 1783. 

He was a gallant Revolutionary soldier, having partici- 
pated in several important engagements, among the number 
the Battle of Monmouth. After North Carolina ratified the 
federal constitution he was elected United States Senator 
from that state, taking his seat in 1790. At the close of his 
term in the senate he was appointed agent of the three 
great Indian tribes east of the Mississippi and entered 
upon his duties in the part of Georgia now known as Craw- 
ford County, but at that time called "The Agency 
Reserve. ' ' 

This place became an important trading post and was 
selected by Colonel Hawkins as a convenient locality for the 
transaction of duties that devolved upon him. He infused 
progression, activity and thrift into the little village. Mills, 
workshops, and comfortable homes appeared on every side. 

"Colonel Hawkins brought his own slaves from his old 
home in North Carolina, and under the right conceded to 
his office, he opened and cultivated a large plantation at 
the agency, making immense crops of corn and other pro- 
visions. ' ' 

"While he lived his cattle brand was rigidly respected 
by the red men; although soon as his death, if reports be 


true, the Creeks, oblivious of former obligations, stole num- 
bers of his cows and hogs. ' ' 

To him does the state of Georgia owe a debt of special 
gratitude. He not only risked his life for the state of his 
adoption, but preserved the history of the Creek country, 
some of which is most valuable and interesting. 

The French general, Moreau, who in exile, was his 
guest for some time, was so much impressed with his char- 
acter and labors, that he pronounced him one of the most 
remarkable men he met in America. 

Colonel Hawkins possessed great adaptability and 
through his beneficence he acquired the respect of the 
Indians. It is said he gained their love and bound them to 
him by "ties as loyal and touching as those of old feudal 
allegiance and devotion." 

He was closely associated with Generals Floyd, Black- 
shear and John Mclntosh, and Governors Troup, Mitchell 
and Early. 

The Indians of Chehaw were closely allied to Colonel 
Hawkins. They frequently furnished him with valuable 
information in regard to the treachery of the British and 
the unfriendly Indians. 

It has been conceded to some of our patriots that they 
were great in war. Benjamin Hawkins was not only great 
in war, but, like Washington, was great in peace. It was he 
who most strongly advocated terminating the War of 1812. 
He knew well how to approach the ' ' children of the forest. ' ' 
The simple and diplomatic way in which he addressed the 
Indians is displayed in his quaint letter to the Ammic-cul-le, 
who lived at the Indian town of Chehaw : 

"The time is come when we are to compel our enemies 
to be at peace, that we may be able to sit down and take 
care of our families and property without being disturbed 
by their threatening and plundering of us. 

"General Blackshear is with you to protect and secure 
the friendly Indians on your river, and to aid in punish- 
ing the mischief-makers. Go you to him ; see him ; take him 


by the hand, and two of you must keep him. You must 
point out sixty of your young warriors, under two chiefs, 
to be with, and act under the orders of the general till you 
see me. He will supply them with provisions and some 

"You must be very particular about spies. You know 
all the friendly Indians, and all who are hostile. If any 
spies come about you of the hostiles, point them out to the 
general. And your warriors, acting with the general must 
be as quick and particular as his white soldiers to appre- 
hend or put to death any enemy you meet with. Your 
warriors will receive the same pay as the soldiers in the 
service of the United States. 

' ' Tell your women and children not to be afraid, that 
friends have come for their protection, and that I am at 
the head of the Creek warriors. 

"I am your friend and the friend of your nation." 

Colonel Hawkins was closely identified in the negotia- 
tion of the Treaty of Peace and Friendship with the In- 
dians. His name, together with George Clymer and 
Andrew Pickens, was signed as commissioners on the part 
of the United States to the Treaty held at Coleraine, in 
Camden County, Georgia, March 18, 1797. 

A treaty of limits between the United States and the 
Creek nation of Indians, was held near Milledgeville, at 
Fort "Wilkinson, on the part of the United States. The 
signers were Benjamin Hawkins and Andrew Pickens. 
This treaty was signed by forty chiefs and warriors. Treaty 
with the Creeks at the agency, near Flint River, on Nov- 
ember 3, 1794, signed by Hopoie Micco and other Indians, 
also bore Hawkins' signature. 

"In 1802 Colonel Hawkins recommended the establish- 
ing of a fort and trading post on the Old Ocmulgee Fields. ' ' 
The right to establish such a post was obtained by the Fort 
Wilkinson treaty. Colonel Hawkins selected a site on an 
eminence near the river, where the city of Macon now 


stands. A tract of one hundred acres of land was set apart 
for the use of the post. 

Fort Hawkins was built in 1806 and was garrisoned by 
troops from Fort Wilkinson early in the following year. 
The fort was named in honor of Benjamin Hawkins, one 
of the few honors bestowed upon him by the state he had 
so ably served. "This fort was considered one of the most 
formidable on the frontier. Two block houses, each twenty- 
eight feet square with two stories and a basement were 
built with heavy mortised logs. This place was provided 
with port holes for both cannon and musketry, and stood 
at the southeast and northwest corner of a strong stock- 
ade. During the war of 1812 the fort was a strong point 
for the mobilization of troops." 

Colonel Hawkins died at the i agency in Crawford 
County, June 6, 1816, and was "buried on a wooded bluff 
overlooking the Flint River." The little graveyard that 
served as a last resting place for those who lived around 
the agency has long since been abandoned. The unmarked 
grave of a patriot is there, sleeping unhonored amid the 
tangled vines and weeds. 



Jared Irwin was born in Mecklenburg, N. C., in 1750, 
about two years after his parents arrived from Ireland. 
They emigrated from Mecklenburg County, N. C., and 
came to Burke County, Georgia, when Jared was seven 
years old. Years afterward Jared moved to Washington 

He was a faithful soldier in the Indian wars, serving 
as a Brigadier-General in the Georgia Militia. In the 
Revolutionary War he served as Captain and afterwards as 
Colonel, fighting in the siege of Savannah and Augusta 
and in the battles of Camden, S. C., Briar Creek, Georgia, 
Black Swamp, and others. 

Just after the first siege of Augusta, in 1780, Colonel 
Williamson was placed in command of Colonel Clarke's 
forces and on April 16th, 1781, he led them to Augusta 
and fortified his camp within twelve hundred yards of the 
British works. Here Captain Dun, and Captain Irwin 
with the Burke County men, joined him, where they 
guarded every approach to Augusta for nearly four weeks, 
never for a moment relaxing their vigilance, but waiting 
impatiently for the promised assistance 'from General 

At last, the militia, destitute of almost every necessity 
of life, wearied of their hard service, and giving up all 
hope of aid, determined to return to their homes. The 
encouragement of Colonel Jackson roused their drooping 
spirits, inspired them with hope and courage, and saved 
them from tarnishing the laurels they had already won. 
The militia afterwards nobly did their part in all the 
fights around Augusta. 

Jared with his three brothers John, William, <and 
Alexander, built a fort in Washington County known as 
Fort Irwin, which was used as a defence against the 
British and with his private money he equipped his com- 
pany of soldiers for the war. 


Jane, the Governor's youngest child, received a claim 
through our great members, Alexander H. Stephens and 
Robt. Toombs, in the United States Congress, to the amount 
of ten thousand dollars for money expended by her father 
in the defence of his section of the country in time of the 
Revolutionary War. 

Jared Irwin represented Washington County in the 
Legislature and was President of the State Senate at 
different times from 1790 to 1818. He was in the Con- 
vention for revising our Constitution in 1789, and was 
president of the body which revised it in 1798. At the 
close of the war of Independence he was a member of the 
Legislature that convened under our present form of 

In 1796, the Legislature assembled in Louisville, then 
the Capitol of eGorgia, and on the second day of the ses- 
sion, January 17th, he was elected Governor. The Legis- 
lature at once took up the Yazoo Act over which the State 
was greatly excited. 

A committee of investigation pronounced it not binding 
on the State on account of the fraud used to obtain it. 
James Jackson introduced a bill known as the ''Rescind- 
ing Act." This was at once passed by both houses and 
signed by Gov. Irwin, Feby. 13th, 1796. 

It was resolved to burn the papers of the Yazoo Act 
and thus purge the records of everything relating to it. 
So on Feby. 15th, 1796, wood was piled in front of the 
State House, and, in the presence of Gov. Irwin and both 
branches of the Legislature, fire was kindled by the use of 
a lens and the records and documents were burned "with a 
consuming fire from heaven. ' ' 

After the death of General James Jackson, United 
States Senator, Governor Milledge was elected to fill his 
place by the Legislature at an extra session held in June, 
1806, and in September following tendered his resignation 
as Governor. In this way, Jared Irwin, President of the 
Senate, again became Governor, and when the Legislature 


met in November he was elected to that office for a full 
term, thus filling the Governor's chair from the 23rd of 
September, 1806, to the 7th of November, 1809. 

His administration as Governor was distinguished for 
justice and impartiality. The spotless purity of his 
character, his affable disposition, his widespread benevol- 
ence and hospitality, made him the object of general affec- 
tion. To the poor and distressed he was benefactor and 

In every position of public life, as a soldier, a statesman 
and a patriot, the public good was the object and the 
end of his ambition, and his death was lamented as a 
national calamity. 

Governor Irwin married Isabella Erwin, his cousin, and 
they had four children, Thomas, John, Elizabeth and Jane. 
Thomas was among the nine in the first class that graduated 
from the University of Georgia on Thursday, May 31st, 
1804, and had a speaker's place at Commencement. Jane 
the youngest child, lived and died an old maid ; she said she 
would not marry for fear that the Irwin name might run 
out. She was spirited, a good talker, and affable in her 
manner, a patriotic, whole-souled, noble woman. 

Governor Irwin died on March 1st., 1818, at the age 
of sixty-eight and was buried at his home at Union Hill, 
in Washington County. 

In 1856 there was an appropriation by the Georgia 
Legislature to erect a monument to his memory; and in 
1860, a Committee consisting of Colonel R. L. Warthen, 
Captain S. A. H. Jones and Colonel J. W. Rudisill, was 
appointed to select a site for same. It was decided to 
erect the monument in Sandersville, Ga., the county site 
of Washington County ; and here it still stands on Court 
House square a shaft of pure white marble a gift from 
the State to the memory of her noble son who gave his life, 
love and ability to his beloved Georgia, "Empire State of 
the South." Governor Jared Irwin Chapter, D. A. R. 




Regent Berks County, Reading Pa., Chapter and Honorary 
Vice-President General, T>. A. R. 

Again you are assembled to do honor to the memory of 
George Washington, Commander-in-Chief of the Continen- 
tal armies during the war for Independence, this being the 
one hundred and severity-ninth anniversary of his birth. 

The first steps to the establishment of a school of 
systematic education of young men was "William and Mary 
College, of Williamsburgh, the capital of Virginia, in 1617, 
twenty-six years before the foundation of Harvard in 
Massachusetts. But the character of the former was not 
granted until 1693, or fifty years after. The first common 
school established by legislation in America was in Massa- 
chusetts, in 1645, but the first town school was opened at 
Hartford, Conn., before 1642, and I feel proud to say I 
graduated from this same school over two hundred years 
later, then known as the Hartford Latin Grammar School 
and later Hartford Boy's and Girls' High School. 

The only established schools of higher learning io 
America after William and Mary in Virginia and Harvard 
in Massachusetts for the education of young men later 
prominent in the Revolution were : St. John 's, Annapolis, 
Md., 1696; Yale, New Haven, Conn., 1701; University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1740; Princeton, N. J., 1746: 
Washington and Lee, Lexington, Va., 1749; Columbia, 
New York, 1754. 

Only the sons of men of means could avail themselves 
of these advantages. Therefore the great mass of those 
who became more or less prominent picked up whatever 
they knew as best they could. In Virginia, Patrick Henry, 
Washington and others had the limited opportunity and 
means of the old "Field or Plantation School" which was 


the only road to the rudest forms of knowledge. These were 
generally taught by men of fair education, but adventurous 
life, who were paid by the planters within a radius of eight 
or ten miles. 

A notorious pedagogue, by the suggestive name Hobby, 
celebrated in Virginia annals for the brisk coercive switch- 
ing of the backs of his ' ' boys ' ' as the most effective road to 
knowledge, is made famous in history as the rudimentary 
educator of the great man whose beginning of life 's journey 
dates from this day. Washington's parents having remov- 
ed from the place of his birth when a child resided within a 
journey of thirteen miles of the despotic jurisdiction of 
Hobby, and thither the boy walked or rode daily except 
Sundays in all kinds of weather, even being obliged to row 
across the Rappahannock River to Fredericksburg, where 
this vigorous applier of the ferrule held forth. 

At eleven years, the death of Washington's father put 
an end to even this limited supply of "schooling." But 
the young man fortunately had a mother who was one of 
the few educated women of that period. We learn from a 
primitive record that Mary Ball, the name of Washington 's 
mother, was educated by a young man graduated from 
Oxford, England, and sent over to be assistant to the 
rector of the Episcopal parish in which she lived. At the 
age of fifteen she could read, write and spell. In a letter 
preserved she wrote to a young lady friend: "He (her 
tutor) teaches Sister Susie and me and Madame Carter's 
boy and two girls. I am now learning pretty fast. ' ' 

It was Governor Berkeley who, in a letter to his friends 
in England, boastingly "thanked God that there were no 
schools and printing in Virginia." 

Washington was always methodical, and what he under- 
took was done well. This trait he inherited from his 
mother, as she was a woman worthy of imitation. From 
her stern disciplinary character and pious convictions her 
son learned self-control and all the characteristics of ad- 


dress and balance, which carried him through the most 
intricate and discouraging experiences of his career. 

The tastes of Washington in childhood were instinct- 
ively military; all his amusements pointed that way. At 
twenty-one his first mission to the French at le Boeuf , fixed 
his career as a fearless man of action. The rescue of Brad- 
dock 's Regulars from destruction by the savages was his 
baptism of fire; the rest, a manifestation of human great- 
ness put the stamp of military prowess upon him. Virginia 
furnished more of the leaders of the first rank in the contest 
with the Crown than any other one colony, and yet some of 
the men who contributed most to the incisive work of the 
conflict had few opportunities of education. 

For instance, Patrick Henry, who electrified the issue 
in his famous epigram which struck the fulminate of the 
combat for independence : ' ' Caesar had his Brutus, Charles 
the First his Cromwell and George the Third" (Treason, 
treason being shouted), rejoined, "if this be treason, make 
the most of it." This same authority, being criticised by 
aristocratic loyalists for his lack of education, replied: 
"Naiteral pairts are more acount than all the book lairn- 
ing on the airth. " 

Thomas Jefferson, on the other hand, was a man of 
higher education. The private schoolhouse ten feet square 
on the Tuckahoe plantation, thirteen miles west of Rich- 
mond, in which Thomas Jefferson and his kinsman, Thomas 
Marr Randolph, were educated, in part by a private tutor, 
was in a good state of preservation when I had the pleasure 
of visiting Tuckahoe at the time of the international review 
at Hampton Roads. 

What we today call free school education began in a 
simple form under the Quakers of Philadelphia in the 
earliest years of the Provincial government of Penn, the 
first proprietary. Thomas Holme in bad rhyme and not 
much better grammar tells about these schools in 1696. In 
what the Germans would call the hinterland the school was 
at a low ebb. There being no towns there were no facilities 


to get enough scholars together to make the pay of a teacher 
worth the while. The Germans, the dominant element, 
when educated at all, were under the tuition of teachers of 
parochial schools of the evangelical denominations and sects 
of their own, frequently pastors or missionaries in the lan- 
guage of the Fatherland. In Pennsylvania among the 
emigrants who came over in colonies there was a preacher 
and a schoolmaster. This was particularly so among the 
Dutch, Swedes and Germans. The English Quakers began 
schools in Philadelphia very soon after the foundation of 
that town. In the interior schools were rare as the settle- 
ments were scattered. 

Reading was not founded until 1748, therefore educa- 
tion had not made headway at the time when the men 
prominent in Berks affairs during the Revolution were at 
the educational age. Yet those who figured during that 
period in prominent places held their own with any of their 
city contemporaries. Among the people generally, accord- 
ing to the oath of allegiance list, handwriting was evidently 
not widespread, judging from the number of ''his (cross) 
mark," substituted for signatures in 1777-1778. 

In 1714 Christopher Dock, a German, opened a school at 
Skippach, below what is now Pottstown, about thirty miles 
from this large assemblage of educated young ladies. Chris- 
topher Dock was a man of real learning, unexcelled by any 
outside of Pennsylvania in his time. His "Schule Ord- 
nung" written in 1750 and printed by Christopher Sauer, 
of Germantown, 1770, was the first treatise on education 
produced in type in the American colonies. The leaders in 
the German emigration prior to the American Revolution 
were often men of the highest scholastic training. 

In New England began the earliest systematic prelimi- 
naries and expansion in the line of schooling. It has the 
honor, as I have shown, of founding the second institution 
of higher learning which survives today. James Otis, 
Samuel and John Adams, foremost agitators on the legal 
technicalities of opposition to England, were the best types 


of the output of New England's educational opportunities 
of the times. 

It is one of the greatest tributes to our forefathers that 
with these limited and more frequently rude means of get- 
ting an education there should have been so many examples 
of brain and culture to meet the educational requirements 
of the conflict with the British Crown, the preparation of 
documents which stood the most critical scrutiny, and as 
well the preparation and negotiating of correspondence, 
conventions and treaties to compare favorably with the 
most advanced university educated statesmen of the Old 

What I have said applies to men, but what about the 
young women of the same period? Except in the few 
largest towns where some enterprising woman was cour- 
ageous enough of her own volition to establish a school 
for young ladies, the education of women was not con- 
sidered of importance. The Moravians were the first and 
most notable exceptions. The seminary at Bethlehem, 
almost in sight of where we are now gathered, was famous 
in Revolutionary days. 

In New York and Philadelphia there was an occasional 
fashionable "school" for young ladies. 

Abigail Smith, who became wife of John Adams, one of 
the earliest agitators and leaders of the contest, one of the 
committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence, 
first Vice-President and second President of the United 
States, was a woman of education. Being the daughter of 
a Congregational preacher and having a taste for books, her 
father devoted much care to her instruction. 

As John Adams, on account of his radical patriotism 
was the man the British authorities most feared, and were 
looking for, the letters of Mrs. Adams to her husband and 
his replies are valuable contributions to American history. 

They were perfect in writing, spelling, grammar and 
composition. I may add, though, of a date long after, his- 
tory is indebted to her letters to her daughter for the only 


eye witness account we have of the trials and tribulations 
of the journey of the President's family from Philadelphia 
to Washington, in the fall of 1800, then the new seat of 
government, getting lost in the woods and taking possession 
of the unfinished President's palace, as it was called, with- 
out firewood during bleak November days and nights with 
no looking glasses, lamps, nor anything else to make a 
President's wife comfortable. 

As a rule, young women were not educated in books, but 
taught to sew, knit, spin, weave, cook, wash, iron and per- 
form all other household requirements. Her value in the 
scale of life was in proportion as she was skilled in the 
duties of a housewife. This was the real type of woman- 
hood in those days, and should always be, with a cultivated 
mind added. 

When we read of their heroic maintenance of the home, 
care and training of children, management of the farm, 
sale of its products and often facing hardships in keeping 
the wolf from the door, while husbands, sons and brothers 
were fighting for liberty and independence, we care not 
whether they could read, write, spell, cast up accounts or 
not, but think of their woman's contribution to the success 
of the contest. 

It is positive that the fathers of the Revolution would 
not have been successful but for the women, perhaps un- 
educated in books but competent and self-sacrificing in 
maintaining the home, while the men were fighting for 
liberty and free exercise of all its enjoyments. If this great 
nation is a testimonial of what women without the aid of 
books contributed in laying the foundation, what must now 
be expected of women having every advantage of educa- 
tion from kindergarten and primary schools to the woman 's 
college ? 

I might mention sixteen colleges now exclusively de- 
voted to the education of young women in New York, Mas- 
sachusetts, Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina, South 


Carolina, Georgia, Ohio, and Illinois with a roll of eight 
thousand young women students. 

The first seniority is Mount Holyoke, Mass., founded 
in 1837, having 755 scholars; the largest is Smith College, 
Northampton, Mass., 1,620 young women; next "Wellesley, 
Mass., 1,375, and Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, 1,125. To 
show the difference between now and the days of our revo- 
lutionary fathers, the school houses were built of logs, one 
story high, with bark roofs and puncheon or dirt floors, 
which on account of incessant tramping usually became 
covered several inches deep with dust. The teacher sat in 
the center of the room. 

In the log walls around were driven wooden pegs upon 
which were laid boards that formed the desks. The seats 
were rough stools or logs. All sat with backs to the teacher. 
The windows to admit light were fitted with white paper 
greased with lard instead of glass. The boy scholars wore 
leather or dried skin aprons and buckskin tunics and leg- 
gins, when they could not get woven materials. And the 
girls, coarsely woven flax or wool bodices, skirts, kerchiefs, 
and aprons and footwear of wood, coarse leather, not a 
few going barefoot. 

The writing equipment in Revolutionary days consisted 
of ink which was of home manufacture from an ink powder, 
quills and a pen knife, cutting pens from goose quills being 
an art. The rest of the materials were paper, pumice, a 
rule, wax, and black sand, shaken from a pepper box ar- 
rangement, instead of blotting paper. 

The earliest method of teaching before school text-books 
were known was by what was termed the hornbook, a tablet 
of wood about 5 by 2 inches upon which was fastened a 
paper sheet containing the alphabet in capitals and small 
letters acros sthe top and simple syllables like, ab, ad, etc. ; 
below and underneath the whole the Lord's Prayer. The 
paper containing this course of study was covered with a 
sheet of transparent horn fastened around the edges. At the 
lower edge was a small handle with a hole through it and a 


string to go around the neck. By this means the advant- 
ages of a colonial education stayed by the scholars if they 
wished to avail of them or not. 

These hornbooks were made of oak, bound with metal 
for common folks, but for the rich of iron and metal, often 
silver. Some were wrought in silk needle work. Their 
popularity is shown by their advertisement for sale in the 
Pennsylvania Gazette, December, 1760, and New York 
Gazette, May, the same year. Battledore book was another 
name. Another style was the printed cardboard battle- 
dore, about fifteen inches long and folded over like a pocket 

The primer succeeded the hornbooks, the New England 
Primer being one of the earliest. It is recorded that three 
millions of these were sold, so great was the desire for 
education in times preceding the Revolution. These little 
books were five by three inches and contained 80 pages. 
They gave short tables of easy spelling up to six syllables ; 
also some alphabetical religion in verse, as 

K for King Charles the good, 
No man of blood. 

In the Revolutionary days this was transposed to 

K jfor Kings and queens, 
Both have beens. 

Z appears to have been a poser in this alphabetical array 
of rhythmic religion, rendered 

Zaccheus he 
Did climb a tree 
His Lord to see. 

The hours of study were eight a day. 

There were also text-book writers in those early times. 

Among the titles one reads : " A delysious syrup newly 
claryfied for young scholars yt thurste for ye swete lycore 
of Latin speche." Another: "A young Lady's Accident 
or a short and easy introduction to English Grammar de- 
signed principally for the use of young learners, more 


especially for those of the fair sex though proper for 
either. ' ' Fifty-seven pages. It had a great sale. 

It was the style of the time to set books of instruction 
in doggerel verse, even spelling, grammar and arithmetic. 
The latter was taught by means of "sum books," simply 
"sums" copied by the learner from an original furnished 
by the teacher. 

Alphabet lessons were similar to the alphabet blocks 
children play with to-day, generally beginning with verses 
from the Bible. An interesting fact is that we find the 
child's prayer, "Now I lay me down to sleep," in the New 
England Primer catechism as far back as 1737. A more 
beautiful tribute could not be paid to this invocation of 
childhood than the thought of the generations of American 
children who were thus taught in their everyday lessons 
their dependence upon the Supreme Being. 

Some of the most interesting contributions we have to 
the literature of the Revolutionary period are the letters 
of the educated women of the time. They are the more 
pleasing because they relate to the affairs of home and 
social life. 

You, of this age of education of women are expected to 
exert a large share in their extension and enjoyment. 
American Monthly Magazine. 



Many people believe that Nancy Hart was a myth. But 
not so. In the "Life and Times of William H. Crawford," 
by J. E. D. Shipp, of Americus, the story is reproduced, as 
the Hart family lived not far from the home of the Craw- 
fords. Col. Shipp says: 

On the north side of Broad River at a point about 
twelve miles from the present city of Elberton, Ga., and 
fourteen from historic Petersburg, in what is now Elbert 
County, was situated the log house in which Benjamin Hart 
and his wife, Nancy Morgan Hart, lived at the commence- 
ment of the Revolution. The spot is easily located to this 
day as being near Dye's and "Will's ferries, and on the op- 
posite side of the river from which Governor Matthews 
settled in 1784, near a small and romantic stream known as 
"War Woman's Creek. " This was the name given to it by 
the Indians in honor of Nancy Hart, whom they admired 
and feared. Her home was near the entrance of the stream 
into the river. 

The State records show that Benjamin Hart drew 400 
acres of land on Broad River, and afterwards another body 
of land in Burke county. He was a brother to the celebra- 
ted Col. Thomas Hart of Kentucky, who was the father of 
the wife of Henry Clay. He was a well-to-do farmer, and 
was compelled to take his stock and negroes to the swamp 
to protect them and his own life from the unrestrained 
Tories. As captain of a small company of 'Partisans,' he 
would sally forth from his hiding place only whenever 
there was a chance of striking the enemy an effective blow. 

The Tories generally spared the women, but killed the 
men, though unarmed. Nancy Hart, alone with six boys 
Morgan, John, Thomas, Benjamin, Lemuel and Mark 
and her two girls, Sally and Keziah, presents a unique 
case of patriotic fervor, courage and independence of 
character. Rough, six feet tall, spare, bigboned and ex- 
ceedingly strong, she was highspirited, energetic and 


shrewd. The "Whigs loved her the Liberty boys called 
her "Aunt Nancy." The Tories hated her. 

When General Elijah Clark moved the women and 
children away from Broad River settlement to a place of 
safety in Kentucky most of them were anxious to go, but 
Nancy refused, and remained alone with her children after 
her Whig neighbors had departed. Her house was a meet- 
ing place for her husband's company. She aided as a spy 
and kept him informed of the movements of the enemy. 
She always went to the mill alone and was an expert 
equestrienne. One day while on her rounds she was met by 
a band of Tories with the British colors striped on their 
hats. They knew her and demanded her "pass." She 
shook her fist at them and replied : ' ' This is my pass ; touch 
me if you dare. ' ' 

Tories lived on the opposite side of the river from her, 
and she had many trials with them. Some are noted. One 
night "Aunt Nancy" was boiling a pot of lye soap in the 
big fireplace of her stack chimney. Suddenly she noticed a 
pair of eyes and a bearded face at a crack between the logs. 
Pretending not to see the prowler, she went on stirring the 
soap and chatting with the children. Biding her time, she 
deftly threw a ladleful of the boiling soap into the face of 
the intruder, whom, blinded and roaring, Nancy bound fast 
and the next morning marched him across the river, wading 
the ford, and delivered him to Colonel Clark. She had many 
encounters, capturing Tories and taking them to the com- 

But of all her acts of heroism this one eclipses all others. 
From the detachment of British soldiers sent out from 
Augusta, and which murdered Colonel Dooly, there were 
five who diverged to the east and crossed Broad River to 
examine the neighborhood and paid a visit to Nancy Hart. 
They unceremoniously entered her cabin. Being hungry, 
they ordered her to cook food for them. She replied that 
the Tories and the villains had put it out of her power to 
feed them, as she had nothing. ' ' That old gobler out there 


is all I have left. ' ' The leader of the party shot down the 
turkey, brought it in and ordered Nancy to prepare it 
without delay. She and her children went to work at the 
task. Finally she heard her unwelcome guests boasting of 
killing Col. Dooly. Then she appeared in good humor and 
exchanged rude jests with them. Pleased with her free- 
dom they invited her to partake of their liquor, which she 
accepted with jocose thanks. While the turkey was cooking 
Nancy sent her eldest daughter to the spring for water, 
with directions to blow the conch shell, which sound her 
father would interpret. The Tories became merry over the 
liquor, pouring it from the jug with laughter, as they 
hurried up Nancy, anticipating a good feast. They were 
at ease. They stacked their arms within easy reach, and 
Nancy would ocasionally pass between the men and their 
muskets. The Tories again called for water and Nancy 
again sent the daughter to the spring for water and to 
blow the signal for Captain Hart. Nancy was thinking 
fast. Through a crack between the logs she slipped out- 
side two of the five guns. When the third was being put 
out she was discovered, and the men sprank to their feet. 
In an instant Nancy brought the musket to her shoulder, 
declaring she would kill the first man that moved. Ap- 
palled by her audacity and fury, the men for a moment 
stood still ; then one of them made a quick movement to 
advance on her. She shot him dead. Instantly seizing the 
other musket at her side she leveled it, keeping the others 
at bay. By this time the daughter returned from the 
spring and took the other gun out of the house, saying: 
' ' Father and the company will soon be here. ' ' This alarm- 
ed the Tories and they proposed a general rush. So Nancy 
fired and brought down another man dead at her feet. The 
daughter handed her another gun and Nancy, moving to 
the doorway, demanded surrender of the three living. 
"Yes, we will surrender, and let's shake hands on the 
strength of it." But Nancy did not shake hands. When 
Captain Hart and company arrived Nancy would not let 


them shoot, saying: "These prisoners have surrendered to 
me ; they have murdered Colonel Dooly. I heard them say 
so." And George Dooly, brother of Colonel Dooly, and 
McCorkle followed and saw that the captured murderers 
were hanged. 

John Hart, second son of Nancy, became an influential 
citizen of Athens. Nancy lived with him after the death 
of Capt. Hart. In 1787, when the two Virginia preachers, 
Thomas Humphries and John Majors, were holding a great 
campmeeting in Wilkes County, Nancy became a staunch 
adherent of the new faith and joined the church Wesley 's. 
She finally moved to Kentucky, where her relatives, the 
Morgans, lived. Hart County was named for her, and the 
town of Hartford, which in 1810 was the county seat of 



They heard the guns a-roaring, 

They sounded far and wide; 
They saw the rebels coming, 

Up every mountain side. 

The mountaineers, no longer tame, 
From every hill and thicket came, 
They rushed up every mountain side 
To plunge into the swelling tide. 

Ferguson knew, both good and well, 
He would have to fight, on hill or dell, 
But the number of rebels, he could not tell. 
They were advancing, and walking fast, 
When now they blew a long, shrill blast. 
A smoke now covered the battlefield 
With deaf ning sound, of warlike peal. 


The British flag was waving high, 
When through the smoke there came a cry 
A cry from amidst the cloud did ring 
From men that fought for England's king. 

The English flag, they took it down, 
Their leader was dead, and on the ground, 
And panic stricken, they were found. 

The rebels raged and charged again 
And captured more than a thousand men; 
They raised their flag up at top mast, 
They saw and knew they were gaining fast. 

The thunder roared, the lightning flashed, 
And through the cloud some horsemen dashed, 
The field was high, but there was mud, 
For it was wet and red with blood. 

It was a short, but bloody fight, 
It filled the Tories all with fright 
They whipped the Tories, that was right. 

The battlefield with blood was red, 

And covered with wounded and with dead. 

They smote and fell, who raised a hand, 

To wipe the rebels from the land. 

The Americans won that glorious fight 

That put them all to thinking right, 

They believed they should soon make their laws 

And God was with their righteous cause. 



In the spring of 1728, a handful of sturdy Scotchmen 
started from Chelmart, Scotland, for America, "The Land 
of the Free and the Home of the Brave." Among these 
were the parents of the boy William Cleghorn, whose true 
story is herein narrated. 

He was a frail lad and partly for the love of the sea 
and partly for his health, he enlisted in the Navy. We find 
him enrolled at Brunswick, N. C., September 8th, 1748, as a 
member of Capt. Samuel Corbin's Company. He proved a 
daring sailor, yet he was not so interested in the Navy but 
that he had time to fall desperately in love with sweet 
Thankful Dexter, of Falmouth. 

Now, Thankful 's father was a man of wealth, great 
wealth, for those days, and a son-in-law, with nothing to 
recommend him but good looks and a fine record as a 
daring sailor, did not appeal to him, but demure, sweet 
Thankful had a will of her own. She saw that young Wil- 
liam was worthy of any woman's love, so never for an 
instant did she even think of giving him up. 

As time went on our hero began to be a power in the 
colonies. He was interested in everything pertaining to 
their welfare. He soon began to prosper financially, and 
on February 12, 1782, we find recorded that he gave secur- 
ity for twenty thousand ($20,000.00) dollars, and took 
command of the ten-gun ship "Virginia." Rickerton, the 
historian, tells us in his history that our hero was "one of 
the earliest and most intelligent ship masters" but "all 
the world loves a lover," and I started to tell you chiefly 
about his love affair. 

Thankful was always dreaming of William's bright, 
cheery face, and we may be sure she lost no apportunity to 
say to her worldly, bustling father, ' ' Didn 't I tell you so ? " 
every time William brought new honors upon himself. 

As time went on this energetic young man conceived the 
idea of building a sloop, which he did and named it the 


"Betsy." We wonder why he did not call it "The Thank- 
ful" but perhaps Thankful had something to say about 

"William loaded the "Betsy" with an immense cargo of 
oil and sailed around Cape Horn. This was the very first 
voyage ever made around the Cape, and can you not 
imagine how proud young William Cleghorn was? And 
can you not almost hear Thankful telling her father about 
the wonderful journey around Cape Horn? 

The father was now convinced that William was not 
only valiant in war and a persistent lover, but that he was 
an excellent business man as well, so he withdrew his 
objections and Thankful Dexter became the happy wife of 
William Cleghorn. 

We can almost see the radiant Thankful in her home- 
spun gown and pertly poke bonnet, and the erect happy 
William with the air of a conquerer, coming side by side 
from the little church, through the narrow paths of 
Martha's Vineyard, to the home all ready for the happy 
couple, for William was now a well-to-do young man. 

We must not take them all through life's journey, for 
this is to be a child's story, but alas for human joys, while 
on a visit to Boston in 1793, William Cleghorn was stricken 
with appoplexy and very suddenly passed away. 

When you go to Boston, go out to the old Granary 
Cemetery, so well known by lovers of history, and inclosed 
in an iron railing you see a white stone standing alone. 
Draw near and read the inscription and you will see that 
there lies your hero, William, for on the stone you read : 

Captain William Cleghorn 


New Bedford. 
Who died in a fit of appoplexy on a visit to this town, 

February 24, 1793, in the 60th year of his age. 
"Here lies entombed beneath the tufted clod, 
A man beloved, the noblest of God. 
With friendly throbs the heart shall beat no more, 
Closed the gay scene, the pomp of life is o'er." 


In the record of his will we find the following, which 
will show you how our ancestors made their wills : 

Two mahogony tables, I square table, 16 leather bottom 
chairs, 1 mahogony desk, 7 looking glasses, 1 set of china 
(42 pieces), 1 coffee set (30 pieces), 34 linen sheets, 25 
pair pillow cases, 1 pew in First Congregational Meeting 
House, 1 pew in Second Congregational House, etc., etc., 
besides a long list of notes and other properties. 

This is very different from the wills of today, isn't it? 
I presume we have many boys as brave and true as Wil- 
liam, and many girls as dear and sweet as Thankful, and 
perhaps one hundred years from now other boys and girls 
will be reading about some of you. So let us live in such 
a way that we may have our story written and enjoyed as 
is this true story of Thankful Dexter and William Cleg- 
ter, D. A. R., Rome, Ga. 


Usually in discussion of blue laws, those very Draconian 
regulations which have so aroused the ire or the respect of 
moderns, depending upon which way they look at it, the 
debaters confine themselves mostly to New England Puritan 
forms, or those of New York, Pennsylvania or New Jersey. 

In the days the Puritans formulated the blue laws, 
Virginia was looked upon as the home of high living and 
frivolity. Even to this day few would look for such 
measures among that old aristocratic colony. 

As a matter of fact, the Virginians of the seventeenth 
century, had a habit of enacting indigo-tinted laws, and 
likewise enforcing them, which might have made the Puri- 
tans sit up late at night to beat them. 

Aside from the stern and vindictive intolerance which 
finds utterance in the acts of the Virginia Assembly be- 
tween the years 1662 and 1680, the most striking element in 


them is the tremendous premium placed upon spying and 
informing. In most every case in which such a reward is 
possible the law encouraged the man to spy upon his neigh- 

If the Virginia husbands agreed with Kipling that "a 
woman is only a woman, but a good cigar is a smoke, ' ' the 
following act must have been the occasion of much domestic 

"If a married woman shall slander a person the woman shall 
be punished by ducking, and if the damages shall be adjudged 
more than 500 pounds of tobacco her husband shall pay, or the 
woman receive a ducking for every 500 pounds so adjudged 
against her husband if he refused to pay the tobacco." 

Unless a man was well stocked with the divine weed it 
was worth while to attend church with promptness and 
regularity : 

"Enacted that the Lord's Day be kept holy and no journeys or 
work done thereon, and all persons inhabiting in this country 
shall resort every Sunday to church and abide there quietly and 
orderly during the common prayers and preaching, upon the 
penalty of being fined fifty pounds of tobacco." 

Devices for public instruction and amusement were not 
to be neglected with impunity, even by the courts of the 
colony, as witness the following : 

"The Court in every county shall set up near the courthouse, 
in a public and convenient place, a pillory, a pair of stocks, a 
whipping post and a ducking stool. Otherwise the Court shall be 
fined 5,000 pounds of tobacco." 

There is no record of the Court ever having been 
mulcted of tobacco for depriving the people of the oppor- 
tunity to watch the sufferings of their friends and neigh- 

Severe laws were directed against Quakers. Prior legis- 
lation had attempted to put a damper on being any kind of 
a "separatist," which meant any fellow who didn't agree 
with the Established Church. Evidently a little further 


law on the subject was thought necessary, for in 1663 the 
Virginia Assembly passed the following act : 

"Any person inhabiting this country, and entertaining a 
Quaker in or near his house, shall, for every time of such enter- 
tainment, be fined 5,000 pounds of tobacco, half to the county, 
half to the informer." 

Even Virginia hospitality might well have paused in 
the face of such a flying start toward bankruptcy. 

That a stowaway might prove costly is demonstrated 
by the following : 

"Every master of a vessel that shall bring any Quakers to 
reside here after July 1 of this year shall be fined 5,000 pounds 
of tobacco, to be levied by distress and sale of his goods, and he 
then shall be made to carry him, her or them out of the country 

Evidently a little thing like a couple of years in servi- 
tude did not deter the lovers of pork chops from appro- 
priating their neighbors' swine, for in 1679 the Assembly 
delivered themselves of the following act : 

"The first offense of hog stealing shall be punished according 
to the former law; upon a second offense the offender shall stand 
for two hours in the pillory and shall lose his ears, and for the 
third offense shall be tried by the laws of England as in case of 

As the English law of the period usually prescribed 
hanging for a twice convicted felon, it is presumed that the 
third dose of justice proved an efficient remedy. 

Not only in the stringency of their laws did the gray 
cavaliers of the Old Dominion run neck and neck with the 
grim-visaged gentry of Plymouth Rock, but the doubtful 
honor of being the last to relinquish the gentle art of witch- 
craft persecution probably belongs to them as well. 

The witchbaiters around Salem and throughout New 
England generally ceased to a considerable extent their 
punishment for alleged witchcraft before the eighteenth 
century, but the Virginian records show the arrest and per- 


Becution of Grace Sherwood, of Princess Anne County, for 
witchcraft in 1706. 

For six months this young woman was imprisoned, be^ 
ing brought time and again before the court in an effort to 
convict her. Finding no evidence in her actions to justify 
the persecution, the Attorney-General caused the Sheriff of 
the county to impanel a jury of women to examine Grace 
Sherwood physically and instructed them to find something 
to indicate that she was a witch. This the women failed to 
do and they were threatened with contempt of court for 
their failure. 

Everything else having failed, it was decided to put 
Miss Sherwood to the water test, which consisted in tying 
her hands and feet and throwing her overboard in the 
nearest lake or river. If she sank she was innocent, but if 
by her struggles she managed to keep afloat for a few 
moments, she was guilty of witchcraft. 

The full account of this trial is preserved by the Vir- 
ginia Historical Society, and the last two court orders in 
the case are of interest as marking the close of witchcraft 
persecution in the colonies. 

"Whereas, Grace Sherwood, being suspected of witchcraft, 
have a long time waited for a fit opportunity for a further ex- 
amination, & by her consent & approbacon of ye court, it is 
ordered that ye sheriff take all such convenient assistance of 
boats and men and shall be by him thought fit to meet at Jno. 
Harpers plantation, in order to take ye Grace Sherwood forth- 
with and BUTT her into the water above a man's debth & try 
her how she swims therein, always having care of her life to pre- 
serve her from drowning, & as soon as she comes out that he 
request as many antient and knowing women as possible he can 
to search her carefully for all spottes & marks about her body 
not usuall on others, & that as they find the same to make report 
on oath to ye truth thereof to ye court, and further it is ordered 
that some woman be requested to shift and search her before she 
goes into ye water, that she carry nothing about her to cause 
further suspicion." 


On the afternoon of July 10, 1706, the court and county 
officers and populace assembled on John Harper's plan- 
tation, and the arrangements being completed, Grace Sher- 
wood was carrid out to a narby inlet of Lynnhaven Bay. 
The official court reporter tells quaintly the rest of the 
story : 

"Whereas, on complaint of Luke Hill in behalf of her 
Magisty, that now is against Grace Sherwood for a person suspec 
ted of witchcraft, & having had sundry evidences sworn against 
her, proving manny cercumstances, & which, she could not make 
any excuse or little or nothing to say in her own behalf, only 
seeming too rely on what ye court should do, and thereupon con- 
sented to be tried in ye water, & likewise to be serched againe 
with expermints; being tried, and she swimming when therein & 
bound, contray to custom and ye judgments of all ye spectators, 
& afterwards being searched by five antient women who have all 
declared on oath that she is not like them; all of which cercum- 
stances ye court weighing in their consideraoon, do therefore 
order that ye sheriff take ye said Grace Sherwood into his custody 
& comit her body to ye common goal of this county, there to 
secure her by irons, or otherwise there to remain till such time as 
he shall be otherwise directed." 

The woman was finally turned free, and thus ended the 
last legal prosecution for witchcraft in the colony. 



BY MRS. JOHN H. MORGAN, Regent Brunswick Chapter, 
T). A. R. 

It is to be regretted that our historians have given so 
little space to one of our Georgia patriots of the Revolu- 
tion Elijah Clarke. One of our greatest national needs is 
that of commemorating the memories of our men who 
"did greatly," who fought, suffered and endured for our 
national independence. This is one of the prime objects 
of the existence of the Society of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution; "To perpetuate the memory of the 
Spirit of the men who achieved American Independenct. " 

Among the many contributed to this great cause by 
Georgia, was Elijah Clarke. After the fall of Georgia, for 
the time being, many of our most distinguished men be- 
came voluntary exiles among their "brethren" in the 
West. Among tn"e most prominent of these was Colonel 
Clarke; one to whom our liberty and the justness of the 
cause was dear. 

He did not give up hope; for his heart was filled with 
the desire to return and renew the contest. He employed 
his entire time in the preparation of a sufficient force that 
would enable him to return when the opportunity should 
present itself. 

Augusta was the key to the northern part of the state, 
and its possession was of great importance to our patriots. 
Upon hearing that the time for the arrival of the annual 
Indian presents was near, the desire to recover Augusta 
became, to Colonel Clarke, irresistible. He immediately set 
about collecting troops and his arguments were so success- 
ful that in a very short time five hundred enthusiastic 
warriors and men from the hills were assembled and 
marched to Augusta. 

Upon their arrival, the division under Major Taylor 
attacked the Indian camp on Hawks Gully, thereby draw- 


ing the British under Colonel Thomas Brown to the sup- 
port of the Indian allies, leaving the south and west of the 
city unguarded. Colonel Clarke entered at the points, with 
the remainder of his army, captured the garrison and 
finally, driving out Colonel Brown, occupied the town. 

The British under Colonel Brown, after being driven 
out of Augusta, took refuge in a strong house called Sey- 
mour's White House, which they had fortified. 

Colonel Clarke besieged them and was on the point of 
capturing them, after a four days siege, when Col. Cruger, 
coming with another British force compelled Clarke to 

Lord Cornwallis ordered Colonel Ferguson to intercept 
Colonel Clarke. Just as Col. Ferguson started to carry 
out these orders, he heard that a new enemy was approach- 
ing, for the very purpose of doing just what Colonel 
Clarke had failed to do. This force consisted of rifle 
militia and had been drawn from Kentucky, the western 
country of Virginia and North Carolina, and was under the 
command of the famous independent colonels, Campbell, 
Cleveland, Williams, Sevier and Shelby. Upon hearing of 
Clarke's repulse and of Ferguson's orders to intercept 
Clarke, they gave up their enterprise on Colonel Brown, 
and turned against Ferguson ; which ended in a crushing 
defeat for the British and the destruction of Colonel Fer- 
guson at King's Mountain. 

"Although Clarke failed in the reduction of Augusta, 
his attempt led to the destruction of Ferguson; and with 
it to the present relief of North Carolina." Such is the 
testimony of "Light Horse" Harry Lee, his companion in 
arms, and the father of our beloved General Robert B. 

General Clarke, as he became, was brave and patriotic, 
and his services during the Revolution were valuable to the 
country, and deserve the recognition of his state. He died 
December 15th, 1799 one day after the death of Wash- 


"Poor is the nation that boasts no heroes, but beggared 
is that country that having them, forgets. ' ' 

General Clarke was one of Georgia's heroes. Let us 
honor him. 


The subject of this sketch is General Francis Marion 
and a pleasant duty it is to revive the memory of this 
almost forgotten hero who was one of the most famous 
warriors of the American Revolution. General Nathaniel 
Greene had often been heard to say that the page of his- 
tory had never furnished his equal. 

He was born near Georgetown, South Carolina, of 
French parents, who were refugees to this country after 
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. From them he 
inherited that love of liberty which had caused them to 
forsake home and friends and commence a new life among 
strangers that they might enjoy freedom of thought and 
guson at King's Mountain. 

He manifested early in life a love of adventure. His 
first warlike experience was against the Indians. He served 
as a Lieutenant of volunteers. In his encounters with the 
savages he showed such courage and skill that he soon be- 
came famous, and to his credit, it must be said, he was 
always humane and just. 

When war was declared against England and troops 
had to be raised, Marion received a Captain's commission. 
He went forth to raise a company. Money was lacking and 
he had to depend entirely on volunteers. He very soon, 
however, succeeded in getting his complement of men and 
was unexcelled in his dealings with these raw recruits. He 
could enter into their feelings and appreciate their con- 
duct. He did not exact impossibilities of them and he was 
celebrated for what was called his patience with the militia. 

No service was ever more strictly voluntary than that 
of those who constituted the company known as "Marion's 



Men" and he led them to perform deeds of valor which 
seem almost incredible. There was an air of mysterious 
daring in what he undertook, which gave a charm to the 
life his followers led, while they had the most perfect con- 
fidence in their leader. Insubordination was rare among 
his men on account of their devotion to him. If it did 
occur he usually visited it by dismissal from his band. 
This ignorminy was dreaded more than any other mode of 
punishment. He seldom resorted to the military methods of 
severe discipline. His band was composed largely of the 
planters, and some of them were boys who lived in the sec- 
tion of the country where his daring exploits harrassed so 
severely the British. These men were devoted to field 
sports and were consequently fine riders and marksmen. 

Marion and his men are connected ;with the most 
romantic adventures of the Revolution, equal to any we have 
read of in song or story. The writer has often listened 
with intense interest to the accounts given by her grand- 
father of the recitals of his party. William Pope, who was 
one of "Marion's Men," tells of the many hazardous under- 
takings against the British and Tories. The famous rides 
at night when they would leave their hidden places in the 
swamps, or some forest so densely wooded that they alone 
knew the trails by which they found their way in and out ; 
how they would start on one of their swift rides to inter- 
cept the passing of British troops from one post to another 
or attack an army wagon train with provisions and ammu- 
nition, etc. The descent of Marion and his men would be 
so sudden that the enemy would be completely demoralized. 

Marion kept bands of scouts constantly watching the 
enemy and by this means he was enabled to give our army 
most valuable information. 

At one time our hero and his men learning of the en- 
campment of some British troops near a river, started out 
to attack them at midnight. They had to ride many miles 
to reach the river and in crossing the bridge the noise of 
the horses aroused the sentinels of the enemy and they 


were prepared for resistance. The fight which ensued was 
a fierce one, but ever after that experience, when Marion 
found it necessary to cross a bridge, he made the men dis- 
mount and spread their blankets over the bridge to muffle 
the sound of the horses feet. It was a rule with him never 
to use a bridge when he could ford a river, and he burned all 
bridges for which he had no use. These long rapid rides 
were exhausting to man and beasts. They returned as 
rapidly as they went forth and when they reached their 
place of safety, they would secure their horses, throw them- 
selves on the ground with only a blanket and a saddle for 
a pillow and sleep so soundly they would be unconscious of 
the falling rain and often awaken in the morning to find 
themselves surrounded by water. Amid all these scenes of 
hardship there were times when this band of devoted 
patriots indulged in revelry, as they were safely gathered 
around the camp fires among the lofty moss-draped cypress 
trees and gum trees of the swamps to enjoy the captured 
supplies from the enemy's commissary stores, which en- 
abled them to supply themselves with clothing, arms 
and ammunition. Thus they largely provided for their own 
subsistence by their daring prowess. 

The British established a line of military posts in South 
Carolina extending from Georgetown to Charleston. They 
found it exceedingly difficult to hold any communication, 
for Marion's scouts were always on the lookout to report 
their movements. Colonel Watson, of the enemy, attemp- 
ted to take a regiment from one post to another. He was 
so harrassed by the sharpshooting of ' ' Marion 's Men ' ' who 
lay in ambush along his route, that he sent a letter by flag of 
truce to Marion reproaching him for fighting like a savage 
and invited him to come out in open field and fight like a 
gentleman. But Marion was too shrewd to put in open 
field his comparatively small band, with their peculiar mode 
of warfare, against a far greater number of finely drilled 
regulars of the enemy and Colonel Watson had to retreat 
and encamp his men in the first open field he could find 


Marion had a number of interviews by flag of truce with 
British officers. One of the most noted is the one in which 
he entertained the officer at dinner. After business affairs 
had been settled General Marion invited the officer to dine 
with him and he accepted. Marion ordered dinner. The 
officer looked around with curosity as he saw no prepara- 
tions for dinner and his surprise was great when the cook 
placed before him on a piece of bark a few sweet potatoes 
which had been roasted in the fire near by. The officer 
remarked to Marion that he supposed his supplies had 
fallen short, endeavoring to relieve Marion of any embar- 
rassment he thought he might feel in offering him such 
meager fare, but Marion replied that he considered himself 
fortunate, as he had a guest that day, he had that much 
to offer him. The officer was amazed and profoundly im- 
pressed with what he had seen. He returned to his com- 
mand with such feelings of admiration and respect for men 
who endured so cheerfully such privations and so many 
hardships for the sake of liberty, that he said it was use- 
less to fight such men, that they were entitled to liberty and 
he would not continue to fight against them. He resigned 
his commission in the army. 

The enemy at this time had absolute command of this 
portion of South Carolina excepting as they were dis- 
turbed by Marion. He shifted from swamp to swamp and 
thicket to thicket and never relaxed his struggle for liberty. 
So harrassed were the enemy by him, they determined a 
number of times to make a special effort to capture him or 
drive him out of the state. All in vain. Marion was too 
alert and often met them with more promptness than they 

Colonel Tarleton, a British officer, with a reputation 
for great activity undertook one of these expeditions 
against Marion and narrowly escaped being captured him- 
self. He retreated from his attack exclaiming to his men 
"Come on boys, we will go back, there is no catching this 


' Swamp Fox '. ' ' By this same name he was ever afterward 
called by his followers. 

When Gen. Nathaniel Greene took command of the 
Southern Army, he wrote to General Marion and begged 
him to remain in his independent position and keep the 
army supplied with intelligence, in which important part 
he rendered most active service, also in the battles of 
Georgetown, Ninety Six, Charleston, Savannah and others. 
So highly appreciated by the Government was the brave 
and valuable part performed by Marion and his men, that 
Congress passed a series of resolutions expressing the 
gratitude of the country to them. 

Governor Rutledge appointed him Brigadier-General. 
In addition to the usual military rank, extraordinary 
powers were conferred upon him, such as were only granted 
to extraordinary men. 

In the circumstances of life, there was a remarkable 
resemblance between him and the great Washington. They 
were both volunteers in the service of their country. They 
learned the military art in Indian warfare. They were 
both soldiers so vigilant that no enemy could ever surprise 
them and so equal in undaunted valor that nothing could 
disturb them, and even in the private incidents of their 
lives, the resemblance between these two great men was 
closer than common. They were both born in the same 
year, both lost fathers early in life, both married excellent, 
wealthy wives, both left widows and both died childless. 

In reviewing the life of Gen. Marion, we find patient 
courage, firmness in danger, resolution in adversity, hardy 
endurance amid suffering and want. He lived that liberty 
might not die and never relinquished his sword until the 
close of the war. He then retired to his plantation near 
Eutaw, where he died. His last words were : ' ' Thank God, 
since I have come to man 's estate, I have never intentionally 
done wrong to any man. ' ' 


Marion 's remains are in the church yard at Belle Isle in 
the parish of St. John's Berkely. Over them is a marble 
slab upon which is the following inscription : 

" Sacred to the memory of Brigadier-General Francis 
Marion, who departed this life on the twenty-ninth of 
February, 1795, in the sixty-third year of his age, deeply 
regretted by all of his fellow citizens. History will recall 
his worth and rising generations will embalm his memory 
as one of the most distinguished patriots and heroes of 
the American Revolution ; who elevated his native country 
to honor and independence and accrued to her the bless- 
ings and liberty of peace. ' ' This tribute of veneration and 
gratitude is erected in commemoration of the noble and 
distinguished virtues of the citizen and of the gallant ex- 
ploits of the soldier who lived without fear and died with- 
out reproach. 

This brief and imperfect sketch of one of the most 
noted military men of his day has led to the reflection that 
many of the most valiant leaders of the Revolution are 
comparatively little known among the rising generation. 
The old histories written in the early part of this century 
which recorded their brilliant deeds and virtues, are out 
of print, a few to be found in old libraries, and the old 
readers which were used in the schools forty and fifty years 
ago were full of the accounts of their achievements, which 
thrilled the hearts of the students and stimulated in them 
a love of country, as only such deeds of valor could inspire. 
But today these heroes who taught us such lessons of 
patriotism have passed away forgotten, others scarcely a 
memory. Ought it to be so ? 

As our society is for the purpose of advancing the cause 
of patriotism, no effort on the part of its members would 
do more to bring this about than for some of them situated 
in different parts of our country to unite in collecting 
material for a new reader for the use of schools in which 
the deeds of these revolutionary patriots would be once 


more revived and made conspicuous to those who should 
ever hold them in grateful veneration. 

This thought is one that might advantageously engage 
the attention of some national publisher who might employ 
compilers from different localities of our country for this 

Among the ' ' Readers ' ' alluded to, was a tribute to Gen. 
Marion and his men, which was at the same time a graphic 
account of their lives and services. It was written by one 
of our favorable national poets, William Cullen Bryant, and 
was a favorite selection for declamation among American 
juvenile orators many years ago. It has disappeared from 
the modern editions of "Readers," but would fitly embel- 
lish a new "American Speaker," a book which would be 
popular throughout our land in these days of Sons and 
Daughters of the Revolution. 

This suggestion will be enhanced by the reproduction 
of the ringing lines with which this article will close : 


Our band is few, but true and tried, 

Our leader frank and bold; 
The British soldier trembles 

When Marion's name is told. 
Our fortress is the good green wood, 

Our tent the cypress tree; 
We know the forest 'round us, 

As Seamen know the sea; 
We know its wall of thorny vines, 

Its glades of reedy grass; 
It's safe and silent islands 

Within the dark morass. 

Woe to the British soldiery, 
That little dread us near; 

On them shall light at midnight 
A strange and sudden fear; 

When waking to their tents on fire, 
They grasp their arms in vain, 


And they who stand to face us 

Are beat to earth again, 
And they who fly in terror deem 

A mighty host behind 
And hear the tramp of thousands 

Upon the hollow wind. 

Then sweet the hour that brings release 

From dangers and from toil; 
We talk the battle over 

And share the battle spoil. 
The woodland rings with laugh and shout 

As if a hunt were up, 
And woodland flowers are gathered 

To crown the soldiers' cup. 
With merry sounds we mock the wind 

That in the pine top grieves, 
And slumber long and sweetly 

On beds of oaken leaves. 

Well knows the fair and friendly moon, 

The band that Marion leads; 
The glitter of their rifles, 

The scampering of their steeds. 
'Tis life to guide the fiery barb, 

Across the moonlit plain ; 
'Tis life to feel the night wind 

That lifts his tossing mane. 
A moment in the British camp, 

A moment and away; 
Back to the pathless forest, 

Before the peep of day. 

Grave men there are by broad Santee, 

Grave men with hoary hairs. 
Their hearts are all with Marion, 

Tor Marion are their prayers ; 
And lovely ladies greet our band 

With kindliest welcoming, 
With smiles like those of summer, 

And with tears like those of spring. 


For them we wear these trusty arms 

And lay them down no more, 
Till we have driven the Briton 

Forever from our shore. 

Mrs. F. H. Orme, Atlanta Chapter, D. A. R. 


The Lee family was illustrious both in England and 
America. They clearly trace their ancestry to the Norman 
Conquest, Launcelot Lee being the founder of the family. 
The Lees were prominent in English history down to the 
colonization of this country. Robert E. Lee is descended 
from Richard Lee, a younger son of the Earl of Litchfield, 
who was sent to this country in 1641 during the reign of 
Charles I. He came as colonial secretary under Sir Wil- 
liam Berkeley. He was loyal to the royal party during the 
struggle between the Cavaliers and Roundheads. Richard 
Lee, second son of the Richard mentioned above, was born 
in Virginia in 1646 and educated in England and studied 
law. He took an active part in colonial legislation. His 
son, Thomas, was the first to establish himself in West- 
moreland County. He was very prominent in the early 
history of the state. The fine mansion of Stratford was 
built for him by the East India company, and several of 
the prominent Lees were born in that home. Henry Lee, 
the son of Richard Lee, filled no prominent place in colonial 
history. He married a Miss Bland and had three children, 
the second son being Henry, who married a Miss Grymes 
in 1753. He left six sons and five daughters, the third son 
being Henry, the ancestor of R. E. Lee. He went to Prince- 
ton and was preparing to study law when hostilities with 
England changed his plans. When quite young he raised a 
company of cavalry and soon after the battle of Lexington 
joined Washington's forces. He soon became noted as an 
able leader and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel and had command of "Lee's Legion," consisting 


of infantry and cavalry. He was actively engaged in the 
service to the close of the war and was conspicuous in this 
state for some time. Owing to his rapid movements he was 
known as "Light Horse Harry." About 1781 he married 
his cousin, a daughter of Colonel Philip Ludwell Lee, of 
Stratford. Four children were born to them, all of whom 
died except one son. The wife died in 1790. He was elec- 
ted to congress and afterwards was governor of Virginia. 
He next married Miss Anne Hill Carter, daughter of 
Charles Carter, of Shirley. He again entered political life 
and was elected to the general assembly. The children of his 
second marriage were Charles Carter, Sidney Smith, 
Robert E., Anne and Mildred. Robert Edward Lee was 
born in the Stratford mansion in which two signers of the 
Declaration of Independence were born. In 1811 Henry 
Lee moved to Alexandria to educate his children. Here 
he was made major-general during the war of 1812. He 
was the author of "First in war, first in peace, first in the 
hearts of his countrymen," when pronouncing a eulogy on 
Washington. His health failed in 1817 and he was induced 
to make a trip to the West Indies, but finding that he was 
not benefited, he returned and landed on the coast of Geor- 
gia, where he enjoyed the hospitality of a daughter of his 
old friend, General Nathaniel Greene, who was living in 
the family residence on Cumberland Island. After linger- 
ing a short time he died and was buried there, March 
25, 1818. 

General A. C. Long wrote the memoirs of R. E. Lee. 
He publishes an incident which occurred in 1862, when 
Lee was sent to this state to examine our lines and means 
of defense. General Long accompanied him. When they 
reached Savannah General Lee secured a vessel and went 
to Cumberland Island. He had the boat anchored and the 
two went on shore. They entered the old Greene mansion, 
which was in bad condition. Going through that to the 
rear, General Lee went alone to an old neglected cemetery. 
After that he returned with a flower in his hand, but never 


spoke a word about the visit to his father's grave. In 
silence he showed his reverence ; with his usual modesty he 
refrained from speaking about it. From that old cemetery 
on Cumberland Island the body of "Light Horse Harry" 
Lee, ninety-five years after his death, was carried back to 
his old Virginia home and laid in its final resting place. 


Our brave Forefathers : give them place 
In Hall of Fame the Nation's heart; 

They met the foe, aye face to face: 
Each man a hero, did his part 

Invincible to fear, and wrought 
For us and ours, beyond his thought. 

fair Republic: pride and boast 

Of children who cannot forget 
From lake to gulf, from coast to coast 

Where waves the Flag with colors set 
In patriot blood, which ne'er shall fade 

That Flag is ows, its price they paid. 

We, daughters of a loyal line, 

Would weave their deathless deeds in song, 
With memory's fairest flowers entwine 

Sweet garlands which shall linger long, 
Who die for Grod and Country share 
Immortal honors other-where. 

Hannah A. Foster in American Monthly Magazine 



In the prologue to "The Princess," Tennyson makes 
one of the group of collegemates assembled during the 
holiday season at Vivian Place find in an old chronicle the 
story of a brave woman whom a wild king besieged. But 
she armed 

"Her own fair head, and sallying through the gate, 
Had beat her foes with slaughter from the walls." 

"When this story was read to the ladies present, one of 
the men asked: "Where lives there such a woman now?" 
To which 

"Quick answer'd Lilia 'There are thousands now 
Such women, but convention beats them down.' " 

On the first day of February, 1776, General McDonald, 
chief of the McDonald clan in the Cape Fear region, issued 
a proclamation, calling upon all true and loyal Highlanders 
to join his standard at Cross Creek, now Fayetteville, and 
prepare to assist General Clinton and Governor Martin in 
maintaining the king's authority in the province of North 
Carolina. About fifteen or sixteen hundred of them obeyed 
the summons. From Cross Creek they marched down the 
Cape Fear River until they came to Moore's creek, where 
they were met on February 27th by a Whig force about a 
thousand strong under the command of Richard Caswell, 
The following from a letter from Caswell to Cornelius 
Harnett shows the result of the meeting: 

"I have the pleasure to acquaint you that we had an engage- 
ment with the Tories, at Widow Moore's creek bridge, on the 27th 
current. Our army was about one thousand strong, consisting of 
the Newbern Battalion of Minute Men, the militia from Craven, 
Johnston, Dobbs and Wake, and a detachment of the Wilmington 
Battalion of Minute Men, which we found encamped at Moore's 
Creek the night before the battle, under the command of Colonel 
Lillington. The Tories by common report were three thousand, 
but General MacDonald, whom we have prisoner, says there were 


about fifteen or sixteen hundred; he was unwell that day and not 
in the battle. Captain McLeod, who seemed to be principal com- 
mander, and Captain John Campbell, are among the slain." 

This was the first pitched battle of the Revolution won 
by the Whigs; the only victories of an earlier date being 
the capture of Forts Ticonderoga and Crown Point on 
May 10, 1775. It would be difficult to overestimate the im- 
portance of the victory. Besides the capture of about 900 
prisoners and 2,000 stands of arms of which the Americans 
stood in great need, the crushing of the Tory spirit and the 
corresponding rise of the Whig spirit, meant untold 
strength to the cause of freedom. 

But it is not the political nor the military result of this 
battle with which this story is to deal. With the foregoing 
as an introduction, it is interesting now to turn to the story 
of the heroine of Moore's creek, Mary Slocumb. 

Mary Slocumb was the young wife of Ezekiel Slocumb, 
of Wayne County. He afterwards became a prominent 
member of the house of commons, serving in the session of 
1812 to 1818. She was but yet a girl when her husband 
rode away from home to join Caswell in crushing McDonald 
and the enemies of liberty. The men of that section, more 
than eighty strong, rode away one calm Sunday morning, 
under the lead of Slocumb. Before the long ride was 
begun, his young wife went out with the colonel to inspect 
the men. She says that she looked at them well, and could 
see that every man meant mischief. No doubt it was a 
sturdy, stern and determined band that rode away that day 
to battle for their rights. These men rode away in high 
spirits, some to a glorious death, some to a glorious victory ; 
none to defeat or dishonor. 

It is easy to imagine what a long, lonely day the young 
wife had at home that quiet Sabbath day; it is easy to 
imagine where her thoughts were ; it is easy to imagine how 
she concealed the anxiety of her heart under the assumed 
cheerfulness of her face. "I slept soundly and quietly that 
night, ' ' she says, ' ' and worked hard all the next day ; but 


I kept thinking where they had got to, how far, where and 
how many of the regulars and Tories they would meet; 
and I could not keep from that study." 

Going to bed in this anxious state of mind, her sleep was 
disturbed by a terrible dream. She seemed to see lying on 
the ground, surrounded by the dead and wounded, a body, 
motionless, bloody, ghostly, wrapped in her husband's 
cloak. With a cry of alarm she sprang to her feet into the 
middle of the room. So vivid was the impression that it 
remained with her even after she awakened from sleep 
and in rushing forward to the place where the vision ap- 
peared, she ran into the side of the house. The light was 
dim ; all around was quiet arid peaceful, but her heart kept 
up a great commotion. "If ever I felt fear," she says, "it 
was at that moment. ' ' The more she reflected on the vision 
the more vivid and more fearful it became, until at last she 
could bear the suspense no longer and starting up she 
said aloud: 

' ' I must go to him. ' ' 

In the stable was her favorite and own particular horse, 
"as fleet and easy a nag is ever traveled." In an instant, 
leaving her baby and the house in the care of the nurse, 
she rushed out to the barn, saddled her mare, and in less 
time than it takes to tell it, was flying down the road at 
full speed. 

The night air was cool; the spirit of the race was in 
the nag; and mile after mile was quickly left behind, as 
the sound of her rapidly falling hoofs fell clear and distinct 
in the quiet night air. All alone, urged onward by love and 
fear, this brave little woman swept on through the dark 
night, dashing over bridges, whirling through dark woods, 
flashing past farm houses, until when the sun began to 
appear in the east thirty miles lay between her and her 
quiet home. Shortly after sunrise she passed a group of 
women and children anxiously awaiting news from the 
troops. From these she learned the exact route taken by 
Caswell and with only a few minutes' stop she was again 


skimming over the ground. There was no flagging in her 
spirits, nor those of the mare. On the contrary, the excite- 
ment became more and more intense the nearer they got to 
the end of their journey. It seemed as if the woman had 
infused her spirits into the horse. 

The sun was well up when a new excitement was added 
to the race she heard a sound like thunder rolling and 
rumbling in the distance. She pulled her mare up sud- 
denly. What was it? Though she had never heard the 
sound before, she knew it must be the roar of the cannon ; 
and as she thought of what it meant, the blood coursed 
more rapidly than ever through her veins; she was more 
than ever impatient to be on the scene, and away she dashed 
again. But then a thought rushed into her mind that for 
a moment made her feel very foolish to be here so far 
away from home and child, on what might after all be but 
a fool's errand. 

"What a fool I am," she thought. "My husband could 
not be dead last night, if the battle is only fighting now. ' ' 

But she had come too far now to turn back and so she 
pressed on faster than before. As she drew nearer, she 
could hear the roar of the deadly muskets, the fatal rifles, 
and the triumphant shouts of the victors. But from which 
side did they come ? Did those shouts mean the defeat of 
her husband ; or did they mean his triumph ? This was the 
most trying moment of all this terrible suspense. If it 
was his victory, then he would rejoice to have her share 
his glory; if his defeat, then he would need her to soothe 
his sufferings ; so on she pressed to share Math him weal or 
woe. Crossing the Wilmington road a few hundred yards 
below the bridge, she saw a clump of trees under which 
were lying perhaps twenty wounded men. What was this 
she saw? Her blood froze in her veins; her heart leapt to 
her mouth, for there was the vision realized. The scene 
before her she know it as well as if she had seen it a 
thousand times ; the spot, the trees, the position of the men, 
the groans of the wounded, and her sight fell upon a body 


lying in the midst of the group, her brain became dizzy, 
and the world seemed whirling around her at the rate of 
ten thousand miles a second there lay a body, motionless, 
bloody, ghostly, wrapped in her husband's cloak. Her 
whole soul became centered in that one spot. "How I 
passed from my saddle to this place I never knew," she 
said afterwards ; but in some way she succeeded in reaching 
the body, and mechanically uncovered the head. She saw 
before her an unrecognizable face crusted with dust and 
blood from a gash across the temple. What a relief to her" 
aching heart was the strange voice which begged her for a 
drink of water! Her senses came back to her at once so 
she was able to minister to the sufferer's wants. She gave 
him a swallow as she held the drooping head in her lap ; and 
with what remained of the water, bathed the dirt and gore 
from the face. From the ghastly crust came the pale face 
of one of her neighbors, Frank Cogdell. Under the gentle 
care of his nurse, he revived enough to speak, and when 
she attempted to dress the wound on the head, he managed 
to gasp out: 

"It's not that; it's the hole in my leg that's killing me." 
Lifting the wounded leg from the puddle of blood in 
which it lay she gently cut away the trousers and stock- 
ings and found a shot hole through the fleshy part of the 
limb. What nerve it must have taken for this young girl, 
unused to such work, alone, without help or advice, to go 
through with the painful ordeal. But she was of the stuff 
of which North Carolina moulds her heroes, and she did 
not flinch from her duty. Gathering a handful of heart 
leaves, the only thing in sight suitable for binding the 
wound, she tied these tight to the hole and the bleeding 
stopped. No sooner had she completed this pressing duty, 
than she turned to others of the unfortunate men who lay 
in pain and need and, as she says, "dressed the wounds of 
many a brave fellow who did good fighting long after that 
day." During all this time, the first anxiety for her hus- 
band relieved, she had not had time to make inquiries after 


him, but with true heroism devoted herself to the more 
pressing duties of the moment. While she was busily 
engaged in bringing home to these poor fellows the bless- 
ings of a woman's care, General Caswell rode up. With 
great surprise at seeing Mrs. Slocumb, he raised his hat and 
was about to address her with a compliment, when she 
interrupted him with the question : 

' ' Where is my husband ? ' ' 

"Where he ought to be, madam; in pursuit of the 
enemy. But pray, how came you here?" 

"Oh," she replied, carelessly, "I thought you would 
need nurses as well as soldiers. See ! I have dressed many 
of these good fellows. " Then pointing to Frank Cogdell, 
she continued, "Here is one who would have died before 
any of you men could have helped him." As she spoke 
she lifted Frank's head in her arms and gave him a drink 
of water. When she raised her head, there before her stood 
her astonished husband, "as bloody as a butcher and as 
muddy as a ditcher." 

"Why, Mary," he exclaimed, "what are you doing 
there, hugging Frank Codgell, the greatest reprobate in 
the army?" 

"I don't care," she cried. "Frank is a brave fellow, a 
good soldier and a true friend of congress. ' ' 

"True, true, every word of it," exclaimed Caswell, who 
stood by much amused at the scene. "You are right, 
madam," with a bow that would have shamed Chesterfield 

Mrs. Slocumb says she could not tell her husband what 
had brought her there. "I was so happy," she says, "and 
so were all. It was a glorious victory; I came just at the 
height of the enjoyment. I knew my husband was sur- 
prised, but I could see that he was not displeased with me. ' ' 

It was of course long into the night before the excite- 
ment sudsided. The news spread like wild fire, and the 
Whigs all over the country heard it with rejoicing and 
thanksgiving ; and everywhere the news of the victory was 


heard, went also the story of the heroine, her brave ride, 
her heaven-sent aid, her soothing care of the wounded and 
suffering. Many a soldier breathed a prayer of thanks 
for the vision which came to her and for her courageous 
response. But the prettiest side of the story is the simple 
and unaffected way in which she looked upon her act. 
Nothing of force or beauty can be added to her own simple 
and touching words about her return home. After staying 
in camp long enough to offer intercession in behalf of the 
unfortunate prisoners and to receive assurance from 
Caswell that they would be well treated, she prepared to 
start home. "In the middle of the night," she says simply, 
without thinking apparently of her course, "I again 
mounted my mare, and started home. Caswell and my hus- 
band wanted me to stay till next morning and they would 
send a party with me, but no ! I wanted to see my child, 
and told them they could send no party that could keep up 
with me. What a happy ride I had back ! and with what 
joy did I embrace my child as he ran to meet me!" 

This is a story full of meaning and significance to him 
who loves his state ; who admires her noble women, and 
brave men; who glories in her heroic deeds and great 
achievements. As long as the old North State can produce 
such women as Mary Slocumb, she need entertain no fears 
as to what her men will be. R. D. W. CONNOR, Wilming- 
ton, N. C., in American Monthly Magazine. 



"Come in girls, I'll find her. She just knows every- 
thing about everybody's grand parents. Oh, Grand- 
mother!" called Agnes, as she ushered the bevy of girls 
about her own age into the cherry sitting room, one Octo- 
ber afternoon, and ran to tell her grandmother of her 

It did not require a second call for Mrs. Martin to 
respond, and in her quaint way she cordially greeted her 
youthful quests, well known to her and her grand-daugh- 
ter's friends, "Elizabeth," "Mary" and "Lucy Kent." 

When the customary salutations and courteous inquiries 
had been exchanged, Lucy Kent, anxious to make known 
the object of their visit, explained: 

"Agnes said you knew everything about everybody's 
ancestors, and our teacher told us today that we must bring 
in tomorrow our lines of descent, as far back as we could 
trace ; also tell any family tradition or any incident in the 
lives of our ancestors in connection with the war of the 
Revolution, especially, she said, anything the women did." 

' ' I don 't see how the women could have done anything, 
when it was all fighting. ' ' added Mary, as if in apology. 

And I said, "Grandmother, you could tell us, because 
I had heard you go over it all, way back to Adam," said 
Agnes reassuringly. 

"Not quite so far back, my dear, yet I can give each 
of you some interesting accounts of your ancestors, but the 
story would have to be a long one and you might weary of 
it, ' ' said Mrs. Martin hesitatingly. 

"Oh do, Grandmother," pleaded Agnes. 

"But Wednesday is my day for darning the stockings, 

"Oh, we'll darn the stockings, so do begin," exclaimed 
several voices in chorus, and a rush was made for the 
sewing basket, and then the little girls sat demurely, wait- 


ing to hear the promised story, industriously plying the 
needle, and filling the holes with the thread. 

"This portrait that you see here on the wall," began 
Mrs. Martin, pointing to the one in front of them, "is the 
grandmother of my grandmother. She is one of the Hob- 
son sisters and you, Anges, are seventh in direct line of 
descent from her through the Bacons and Carrs and Wares. 
It is a singular coincidence that you and your little friends 
here, all come from this same family of Hobson. 'Birds 
of a feather flocking together,' " chuckled the old lady, 
evidently pleased to see the friendship existing between the 
children in this generation, who were representatives of 
one of the best Georgia families and of the staunchest and 
truest supporters of the cause of American Independence. 
"These Hobsons, " continued she, "were daughters 
and sons of Nicholas Hobson, of Lunenburg County, Vir- 
ginia, son of Matthew Hobson, of Henrico. As you already 
know, Georgia was largely settled by colonists from Vir- 
ginia. It is not surprising to find the younger members of 
the Hobson family removing later to Georgia, for young 
folks are always looking for the best place to locate, and 
this is what the husbands and wives in the Hobson family 
did, moved to Georgia and located at Augusta. ' ' 

"But you were telling about the portrait," interposed 
Mary. ' ' Is she Agnes Hobson ? ' ' 

"Yes, Agnes Hobson, born July 4th, 1740, and wife of 
William Bacon, born January 29, 1732, who was a Revolu- 
tionary soldier, and a member of the Provincial Congress 
1775, as was also his brother John Bacon. Agnes had 
sisters Elizabeth, Sarah, Obedience, Mary and Margaret, 
and brothers Matthew, William, Nicholas and John Hob- 
son. Ten children in the Hobson family, in the home in 
Lunenburg County, Virginia. My! what fine men and 
women, with the love of country, and the sacredness of the 
cause of freedom instilled in their hearts from infancy." 
"Well, what did Agnes Hobson do?" questioned Mary. 


' ' I was just about to tell you Mary, men and women are 
great and are heroic when they can rise to meet the occas- 
ion which necessity presents. So at this particular crisis 
in the affairs during the war of the Revolution, it became 
necessary to convey a message from Colonel Clark, in Geor- 
gia, to General Nathaniel Greene, who was then in South 
Carolina. In 1781, the British being in possession of Au- 
gusta, General Greene determined to march into South 
Carolina, and Colonel Clark and McCall proceeded to 
co-operate by annoying the British posts in Georgia. Gen- 
eral Clark determined in May to attack. This information 
must be conveyed to General Greene at once. As the enemy 's 
line would have to be crossed, it would not be possible to 
send the despatch by a man with the hope that he would 
ever reach General Greene alive. He would not only be 
held as a prisoner, but searched and probably hung. In 
those days petticoats were flags of truce. So, here was a 
woman's opportunity. But what woman would? In those 
days the country's affairs were freely and intelligently 
discussed by men and women, and there were no braver 
women than the Hobsons. Nothing daunted, Agnes volun- 
teered to convey the despatch. Her brother-in-law, 
Nathaniel Bacon, had gone to South Carolina to assist 
Colonel Pickens who was maneuvering between Augusta 
and Ninety Six. Nathaniel was a Captain in Pickens' 
Brigade. She would reach him and through him convey 
this message to General Greene's headquarters. With the 
papers safely folded in her bosom she plunged into the 
swollen current of the Savannah River, and borne by her 
trusty horse, reached the Carolina shore in safety. Reach- 
ing her destination and fulfilling her mission, she recrossed 
the enemy's line, performing the act of a courier, swim- 
ming on horse back the Savannah River, and riding many, 
many miles unattended, because a woman's service was 
needed at this crisis in the war for American Independ- 


' ' Did you say one of these Hobson sisters was my ances- 
tor, and did she do anything heroic ? ' ' asked Mary inspired 
by this recital. 

"Oh, yes" answered Mrs. Martin, "This was Elizabeth, 
the wife of Capt. Sherwood Bugg. There is a love story 

"A love story" inquired Lucy Kent, "How interesting 
it grows ! Please tell us this one. ' ' 

Grandmother, pleased at her interested audience, con- 
tinued her story of the Hobson sisters. 

"Elizabeth Hobson, wife of Capt. Sherwood Bugg, 
(Legionary Corps, Jackson Legion) came with her husband 
and her brothers John and Matthew Hobsoii to Richmond 
County, Georgia, 1765-67. John died soon after his arrival 
in Georgia. Matthew married Miss Burke. He also lived 
in Augusta, was a Revolutionary soldier and an ardent 
patriot. It was at his house that the Executive Council 
met after the capture of Savannah by the British. It is 
said that General Washington was the guest of Matthew 
Hobson during his stay in Augusta, while on his triumphant 
tour through Georgia and the South." 

"Elizabeth Hobson was no less a heroine than was her 
sister Agnes, nor less a patriot than were her brothers 
Matthew, William and Nicholas. Her house on her planta- 
tion, near Augusta, Beech Island, she converted into a 
refuge and hospital for the patriots and Continental Sol- 
diers, where they were cared for and nursed back to health. 
Among these patriots were Colonels Clark and McCall, and 
Major Carter, who in spite of the care bestowed upon him 
died there from his wounds. Another, Colonel John Jones, 
of Burke County, received the tenderest treatment at the 
home of Mrs. Bugg. Colonel Jones had received eight 
sabre cuts on the head and was desperately wounded at 
Earle Fort, on the Pacolet River, during the night attack 
by the British and Tories. During his illness at Beech 
Island, his brother Abraham Jones and sister Sallie Jones 
came to visit him. The acquaintance thus brought about 


between the Jones and Bugg families, culminated later in 
the marriage of two couples. Sarah Ann Jones married 
young Shirwood Bugg, and following their example Abram 
Jones married Sally Bugg. From these descended the 
Phinizys and Hamiltons and Jones and Lamars, from 
whom you, Elizabeth and Mary and Lucy Kent are de- 
scended. ' ' 

"You said, grandmother, that 'Ned Brace' of 'The 
Georgia Scenes, ' came from the Hobson sisters, ' ' reminded 
Agnes, anxious that nothing be left untold. 

"So he did; 'Ned Brace,' who was Edmund Bacon, was 
a grandson of Obedience Hobson, who married John Bacon. 
I spoke of him in the beginning as the brother of William 
Bacon, who married Agnes Hobson, and there is a sweet 
story tradition which tells of Obedience. On one occasion 
she was approached by a British officer, who had reason to 
believe that Obedience knew the whereabouts of her hus- 
band, John Bacon. 'Do you know where he is?' sternly 
demanded the officer as he leveled his gun at her head. 
'Yes,' replied Obedience, not daring to tell a lie." 

" 'Where?' thundered the officer. Gaining strength 
at each stage of their interview, Obedience lifted her head 
and replied defiantly : 

"I have hid him in my heart and you will have to 
kill me to find him. ' ' 

"Then, there was another sister, Sarah, who married 
William Fox. The old people used to speak of them as 
'Sister Bacon' and 'Sister Bugg' and 'Sister Fox.' 
Margaret married a Telfair and Mary Married William 
Bilbo. Nicholas Hobson married Miss de Graffenried and 
William, well, my memory fails me now, but I suppose 
I have given you tradition and incident sufficient for to- 
morrow's lesson, so far as you are personally interested." 

"Oh, yes, and thank you so much" exclaimed each of 
the circle of friends, and with affectionate goodbyes their 
pleasant interview ended. SALLIE MARSHALL MARTIN 
HARRISON, Oglethorpe Chapter, Columbus, Ga. 




The battle of Trenton thoroughly aroused General 
Howe, who at once collected 7,000 men at Princeton. 
Washington had but 5,000 men. On January 3 the battle 
of Princeton took place and the Americans were again 
victorious, but the men were so completely exhausted that 
Washington was forced reluctantly to abandon his project 
of capturing the stores at New Brunswick and to seek 
the hill country, where his men might obtain the rest and 
refreshment they so much needed. 

Reforming his columns, the General passed along the 
King's Highway to Van-Tillburgh 's Inn, at Kingston, 
which was standing not many years ago. Here, turning to 
the left on the narrow Rocky Hill road, he marched his 
way-worn men down the valley of the Millstone. 

Arrayed in the Continental blue and buff as he sat on 
his horse with all that martial dignity peculiar to himself, 
Washington came as a conqueror, welcomed by the enthusi- 
astic populace. 

Much of interest appertaining to this march to Morris- 
town is to be learned from the manuscript diary of Captain 
Thomas Rodney of the Dover Light Infantry, which is pre- 
served by his descendants. 

When the van of the American army reached the bridge 
which spanned the Millstone in front of the residence of 
Christopher Hoagland, near Griggstown, the British 
cavalry appeared in considerable force on the opposite 
bank. The condition of Washington's men was such that 
he desired neither~to pursue nor be pursued, so he ordered 
the bridge broken up. This being done the enemy was 
forced to retire, which would lead one to suppose that the 
depth of the river was much greater then than now. Com- 
missaries were sent forward to notify the inhabitants of 


the approach of the troops and to direct that food be pre- 
pared for their refreshment. The home of Abraham Van 
Doren, like many others, was the scene of great excitement 
and special activity that day. I quote from a paper read 
before the Somerset County Historical Society several years 
ago by his great-grandson, Rev. Wm. H. Van Doren: 
"Abraham Van Doren was a most prosperous and promi- 
nent member of the community. He owned the grist mill 
which did a large business between Trenton and New 
Brunswick. Besides the mill he owned the store (ruins of 
which are still standing), a feed mill, a saw mill, a carding 
mill and power loom, a cider mill and distillery, a cooper- 
age, a work and wagon shop, two blacksmith shops and a 
lath mill, besides six or seven hundred acres of land. The 
mills and store houses were filled with flour, grain, whiskey 
and lumber, awaiting a favorable opportunity of shipment 
to New York. The general 'killing,' as it was called, had 
just been finished. The beeves and hogs and other animals 
designed for the next year's use had just been laid down, 
so that, what had never before occurred in the history of 
the settlement, there was now a whole year's labor stored 
up, a Providential supply for a great necessity which 110 
human wisdom could have foreseen. Before noon the whole 
hamlet of Millville, as Griggstown was then called, was 
ablaze with excitement and activity. Soon the old Dutch 
ovens were roaring hot and bread and pone, shortcake, 
mince and other pies, beef, ham and pork, sausage and 
poultry, were cooking and roasting to feed the General and 
his staff. Not the officers alone, but the whole rank and 
file of the army was coming and right royally they 
feasted. ' ' There are many interesting traditions which are 
cherished in the Van Doren family relating to this visit of 
Washington and his army. 

As soon as the troops had been fed and had an hour or 
two of rest, Washington found that Cornwallis, enraged 
that he had been so tricked as to allow his foe to escape 
while he slept, and fearing for his military stores at New 


Brunswick, had put his whole army in motion. So hur- 
riedly calling his men to "fall in," Washington hastened 
with them to Somerset Court House, now Millstone. It was 
about dusk and here they encamped for the night. Wash- 
ington and some of his staff quartered at the residence of 
John Van Doren, which is this house. Here also still stands 
the old barn where the General's horse was stabled. Until 
recently the house was occupied by a great-grandson of 
the man who was the proud host for one night of the 
Father of our Country. This family, too, have many 
interesting traditions of this memorable visit. We note that 
two men by the name of Van Doren, within twenty-four 
hours, were honored by being permitted to entertain the 
commander-in-chief of the Continental army. 

The main body of the army encamped for the night near 
the present Dutch Church parsonage, in close proximity to 
the Court House, which was afterward burned. Early the 
following morning the column was again pushing north- 
ward, crossing the Raritan at Van Veghten's bridge, now 
Finderne. Not far from this bridge stood the old First 
Dutch Church of the Raritan on the ground donated by 
Michael Van Veghten, whose tombstone is still standing in 
the little "God's Acre," which surrounded the edifice. 
This building, like the Court House, was burned with all 
the priceless records by General Simcoe's men. 

Rodney states that Washington was again tempted to 
march to New Brunswick, still having in mind the rich 
stores there which would be of such inestimable value to 
him. However, again out of consideration for his troops, 
he abandoned the project. After crossing at Finderne they 
marched up the river to the old road turning west, just 
north of Bernard Meyers' house to Tunison's Tavern, now 
the "Somerset" in Somerville, field to the right, passed up 
Grove Street and continued over the hills to Pluckemin. 
The sick and wounded were cared for in the village while 
the Lutheran Church was used as a temporary prison for 
the captured men. 


It was at this time that Leslie, the young British officer 
who had been wounded and so tenderly cared for by Dr. 
Rush of Philadelphia, having died, was laid to rest with full 
military honors. Many of us have seen the stone in the 
church yard at Pluckemin which marks his resting place. 

Sunday, January 5, 1777, was a great day for Plucke- 
min. News of Washington 's presence, and that of his army, 
quickly spread throughout the surrounding country, and 
we can well imagine the eagerness with which the people 
flocked in to get the latest news of the war and perchance 
of their loved ones. The Mathew Lane house is said to be 
the house where the General was quartered. 

Early on the morning of January 6 Pluckemin lost, sud- 
denly as it had gained, the distinction of being the head- 
quarters of the army. 

Rested and refreshed, it was probably the most peace- 
ful and satisfactory march experienced since leaving Hack- 
ensack three months before with Cornwallis at their heels. 

Secure now from pursuit the little army in good heart 
travelled slowly along the narrow road called the Great 
Road from Inman's Ferry, New Brunswick, passing Bed- 
minster Church to Bedminster. Some authorities say they 
then crossed the north branch of the Raritan at Van der 
Veer's Mills, but Mr. Joshua Doughty, of Somerville, who 
seldom makes an assertion which he cannot prove by the 
records, tells me that they did not cross the river at that 
point, but filed to the right, going through "Muggy Hol- 
low," the road which Lord Sterling used in going from 
his place to the sea shore at Amboy; then passing through 
Liberty Corner and Basking Ridge, with frequent halts, 
they climbed the Bernards hills to Vealtown, Bernards- 
ville, and on to New Vernon, and just as the sun was sink- 
ing in the west reached Morristown. After a weary pil- 
grimage they were for the time being safe in winter quar- 
ters. American Monthly Magazine. 



The days were dark and hopeless, the hearts of our 
forefathers were heavy and cast down. Deep, dark des- 
pondency had settled upon them. Defeat after defeat had 
followed our army until it was demoralized, and despair 
had taken possession of them. Lord Cornwallis, after his 
victory at Fort Lee, had marched his army to Elizabeth- 
town, New Jersey, and there encamped. This was in that 
memorable December, 1776. The Howe brothers had 
already issued their celebrated proclamation, that offered 
protection to all that would seek refuge under the British 
flag within sixty days and declare themselves British sub- 
jects, and take an oath binding themselves to not take up 
arms against the mother country or induce others to do so. 

In one of the many spacious homes of the town, there 
had assembled a goodly number of the foremost men of the 
time to discuss the feasibility of accepting the proffered 
proclamation. We are much inclined to the belief that en- 
thusiasm, bravery, indomitable courage and patriotism 
were attributes that took possession of our forefathers and 
held on to them until they became canonized beatitudes, 
upon which the sires alone had a corner, but we find on 
close scrutiny that there were times when manly hearts 
wavered, and to courage was added a prefix, and this was 
one of them. 

For hours the council went on, the arguments were 
sincere, grave but faltering. Some thought that the time 
had fully come to accept the clemency offered others shook 
their heads, but the talk went on until every soul in the 
room had become of one mind, courage, bravery, patriotism, 
hope, honor, all were swept away by the flood-tide of dis- 

There was one listener from whom the council had 
not heard. In an adjoining room sat Hannah Arnett, the 


wife of the host. She had listened to the debate, and when 
the final vote was reached she could no longer constrain 
herself. She sprang to her feet and, throwing open the 
parlor door, in her majesty confronted that group of 

Picture a large room with a low ceiling, furnished with 
the heavily-carved furniture of those days, dimly lighted 
by wax candles, and a fire in the huge fire-place. Around a 
table sat a group of anxious disheartened-looking men. Be- 
fore them stood the fair dame in the antique costume of 
the day. Imagination will picture her stately bearing as 
she entered into their august presence. The indignant 
scorn upon her lips, the flash of her blue eyes, her com- 
manding figure and dignified presence brought every man 
to his feet. 

Consternation and amazement for the moment ruled 
supreme. The husband advanced toward her, shocked and 
chagrined that his wife had so forgotten herself; that she 
should come into the midst of a meeting where politics and 
the questions of the hour were being discussed. He would 
shield her now. The reproof he would give later on, and 
so he was quickly at her side, and whispering, said to her : 

"Hannah! Hannah! this is no place for you. We do 
not want you here just now. ' ' 

He would have led her from the room. 

She was a mild, amiable woman, and was never known 
to do aught against her husband's wishes, but if she saw 
him now she made no sign, but turned upon the astonished 
group : 

' ' Have you made your decision, gentlemen ? ' ' she asked. 
' ' I stand before you to know ; have you chosen the part of 
men or traitors ? ' ' 

R was a direct question, but the answer was full of 
sophistry, explanation, and excuse. 

' ' The case was hopeless, the army was starving, half 
clothed and undisciplined, repulses everywhere. We are 


ruined and can stand out no longer against England and 
her unlimited resources. ' ' 

Mrs. Arnett, in dignified silence, listened until they 
had finished, and then she asked: "But what if we should 
live after all?" 

"Hannah! Hannah!" said her husband in distress. 
"Do you not see that these are no questions for you? We 
are doing what is best for you for all. Women have no 
share in these topics. Go to your spinning-wheel and leave 
us to settle affairs. My good little wife, you are making 
yourself ridiculous. Do not expose yourself in this way 
before our friends." 

Every word he uttered was to her as naught. Not a 
word had she heard; not a quiver of the lip or tremor of 
an eyelash. But in the same strangely sweet voice she 
asked : ' ' Can you tell me if, after all, God does not let the 
right perish, if America should win in the conflict, after 
you had thrown yourself on British clemency, where will 
you be then ? ' ' 

' ' Then, ' ' said one, ' ' we should have to leave the country. 
But that is too absurd to think of in the condition our 
country and our army are. ' ' 

"Brother," said Mrs. Arnett, "you have forgotten one 
thing which England has not, and which we have one 
thing which outweighs all England's treasures, and that is 
the right. God is on our side, and every volly of our 
muskets is an echo of His voice. We are poor, and weak, 
and few, but God is fighting for us; we entered into this 
struggle with pure hearts and prayerful lips; we had 
counted the cost and were willing to pay the price, were 
it in our own heart 's blood. And now because for a time the 
day is going against us, you would give up all, and sneak 
back like cravens to kiss the feet that have trampled upon 
us. And you call yourselves men the sons of those who 
gave up home and fortune and fatherland to make for 
themselves and for dear liberty a resting place in the 
wilderness? Oh, shame upon you cowards !" 


"Gentlemen," said Arnett, with an anxious look on his 
face. "I beg you to excuse this most unseemly interrup- 
tion to our council. My wife is beside herself, I think. 
You all know her, and know it is not her wont to meddle 
in politics, or to bawl and bluster. Tomorrow she will see her 
folly, but now I pray your patience." 

Her words had already begun to leaven the little man- 
hood remaining in their bosoms, but not a word was spoken. 
She had turned the light of her soul upon them, and in the 
reflection they saw photographed their own littleness of 
purpose or want of manly resolve. 

She still talked on : " Take your protection if you will ; 
proclaim yourselves traitors and cowards, false to your 
God ! but horrible will be the judgment you will bring upon 
your heads and the heads of those that love you. I tell you 
that England will never conquer. I know it, and feel it in 
every fibre of my heart. Has God led us so far to desert 
now? Will He who led our fathers across the stormy, 
wintry sea forsake their children, who have put their trust 
in Him ? For me, I stay with my country, and my hand 
shall never touch the hand nor my heart cleave to the heart 
of him who shames her." 

While these words were falling from her lips she stood 
before them like a tower of strength, and, turning toward 
her husband, she gave him a withering look that sent a 
shock through every fibre of his body. Continuing, she 
said : ' ' Isaac, we have lived together for twenty years, and 
through all of them I have been to you a true and loving 
wife ; but I am the child of God and my country, and if you 
do this shameful thing I will never own you again as my 
husband. ' ' 

"My dear wife!" answered Isaac, excitedly, "you do 
not know what you are saying. Leave me for such a thing 
as this!" 

"For such a thing as this?" 

"What greater cause could there be?" answered the 
injured wife. ' ' I married a good man and true, a faithful 


friend, and it needs no divorce to sever me from a traitor 
and a coward. If you take your protection you lose your 
wife, and I I lose my husband and my home." 

The scornful words, uttered in such earnestness; the 
pathetic tones in which these last words were spoken ; the 
tears that dimmed her sad blue eyes, appealed to the heart 
of every man before her. They were not cowards all 
through, but the panic sweeping over the land had caught 
them also. 

The leaven of courage, manliness and resolution had 
begun its work. Before these men left the home of Hannah 
Arnett that night every man had resolved to spurn the 
offered amnesty, and had taken a solemn oath to stand by 
their country through good days and bad, until freedom 
was written over the face of this fair land. 

There are names of men who fought for their country 
and won distinction afterward, who were in this secret 
council, but the name of Hannah Arnett figures on no roll 
of honor. 

Where will the ' ' Sons and Daughters of the Revolution ' ' 
place Hannah Arnett ? American Monthly Magazine. 



Georgia was the youngest of the thirteen original 
colonies. At the Provincial Congress which convened in 
Savannah, January 20, 1776, there were elected five dele- 
gates to the Continental Congress, namely: Dr. Lyman 
Hall, Button Gwinnett, George Walton, Archibald Bulloch, 
and John Houston. Of these Button Gwinnett, Dr. Lyman 
Hall, and George Walton were present at the session of the 
National Assembly, which convened in Philadelphia on 
May 20th, and pledged Georgia with the United Colonies 
on July 4, 1776, by affixing their signatures to the Declar- 
ation of Independence. 

Button Gwinnett, the subject of this sketch, was said 
to have been born in England about 1732. He was a 
merchant in Bristol, England, from which place he emi- 
grated to America in 1770, located in Charleston, S. C., 
and in 1772 moved to Savannah, Georgia, at which time 
he bought a large part of St. Catharine's Island, and en- 
gaged in farming. He died tragically on May 27, 1777, as 
a result of a pistol shot wound in a duel with General 
Lachlan Mclntosh, near Savannah on the morning of May 
16, 1777. 

The records give only limited information, and from 
careful investigation, at times it appears that the state- 
ments do not bear out the correct facts with regard to the 
biography of Button Gwinnett. In Harper 's ' ' Cyclopaedia 
of United States History," Page 190, Vol. 4, the state- 
ment is made that Gwinnett was "cautious and doubtful, 
and took no part in political affairs until after the Revo- 
lutionary War was begun. ' ' Also that Mclntosh challenged 
Gwinnett for a duel. Subsequent acts would not indicate 
that the first statement conforms to his real temperament, 
and it appears from the best obtainable data that Gwinnett 
issued the challenge to Mclntosh. It is true that having 
been a resident of America only a few years, he was in 
some doubt at first as to whether he would support the 


colonies, or throw his influence against them, but he was a 
man of strong convictions, ambitious, and possessed of 
great force of character, and his brief political career was 
meteoric. Unfortunately his strong prejudices and desire 
for political preferment led to the tragedy of his premature 

He located in Georgia in 1772, was elected a delegate to 
the Provincial Congress, which convened in Savannah, 
January 20, 1776, and by this congress was made a delegate 
to the Continental Congress, which convened in Philadel- 
phia, May 20, 1776. July 4, 1776, he signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence. He became a member of the Council 
of Safety, and was an important factor in framing the 
first Constitution of Georgia. 

Archibald Bulloch, who was the first President and 
Commander-in-Chief of Georgia, died suddenly in Feb. 
1777. Button Gwinnett, on March 4th, was elected to fill 
this vacancy until a Governor could be duly elected. Col. 
Lachlan Mclntosh had been promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier-General, and was placed in charge of the Militia 
of Georgia. Button Gwinnett was envious of this promo- 
tion of General Mclntosh, and through jealousy and 
revenge he so interfered with the military affairs as to 
seriously jeopardize discipline, and create insubordination 
towards General Mclntosh as Commander-in-Chief. Per- 
sonally ambitious, Gwinnett planned an expedition against 
Florida, and further humiliated and insulted General Mc- 
Tntosh by ignoring him as Banking Military Officer of 
Georgia, and took command of the expedition himself. It 
is a matter of historical record that the expedition was a 
complete failure. 

John Adams Treutland was elected Governor over 
Gwinnett. Mclntosh had become a warm supporter of 
Treutland, and openly denounced Button Gwinnett as a 
scoundrel. As a result, Gwinnett challenged Mclntosh for 
a duel, which was promptly accepted, and fought with 
pistols at a distance of eight feet, near Savannah, May 16, 


1777. At the first shot both were wounded, Gwinnett's leg 
being broken and he fell. It is said he asked his seconds 
ta raise him that he might shoot again, but his request was 
denied, and he was taken from the field. The weather was 
very warm, and septic fever soon developed, which proved 
fatal on the 27th of May following. 

Thus ended the meteoric life of Button Gwinnett, who, 
within the short space of less than two years, sprang from 
obscurity into prominence, and whose life was brought to 
a sudden and tragic end at the hands of another, and whose 
grave today is in some obscure and unknown spot. 


Theodosia Burr, wife of Governor Alston of South 
Carolina, was considered a beautiful and unusually brave 
woman of Revolutionary days. It is of her that this legend 
is told. 

After her father's defeat as candidate for Governor of 
New York, in 1804, she left Charleston by water route to 
offer her sympathy and love during his trying ordeal. The 
ship of which she was a passenger was captured by pirates 
with murderous intent. Theodosia Burr was forced to 
walk a plank backward into the watery deep, her eyes were 
tightly blind-folded with a handkerchief and in this grue- 
some manner she met her death. 

Later on in years an old pirate confessed upon his 
death bed that this beautiful daughter of Aaron Burr, 
whom he had helped put to death, walked the plank with 
the greatest composure ; never once did she give vent to her 
feelings. This was the news conveyed to her parents after 
years of fruitless search for their beloved daughter, 
Theodosia Burr. EDNA ARNOLD COPELAND, Stephen Heard 
Chapter, Elberton, Ga. 



When the full meed of recognition to which she is 
entitled, is given by the historian to the part which woman 
played in the founding and evolution of the colony of Geor- 
gia into one of the sovereign states of the American union 
when her part in the bloody tale of the achievement of 
American Independence is fully told and final justice done 
on history's page to the hardships which she suffered in 
freedom's name, to her marvellous courage, to her forti- 
tude, to her patience, to her self-denial and heroic sacrifice, 
then will the poet find new themes for epic song, the artist 
fresh riches for his easel, the romancer a new field for his- 
torical fiction and every patriotic American a deeper vener- 
ation for the flag whose primal baptism was of blood so 
precious and heroic. 

As a curtain-raiser to the story of the heroines of the 
Revolution, two notable women of colonial days appear 
and claim the tribute of more than a passing mention by 
reason of the picturesque place which they occupy in the 
early history of the province, and because of the unique 
and momentous service which they rendered to the colony 
of Georgia. 

When General Oglethorpe, dreaming of an empire of 
the west, attempted to secure a treaty with the aborigines 
and permission to plant his colony on the virgin soil of 
Georgia, it was a woman 's hand that unlocked the door and 
bade him enter. It was a woman's diplomatic tact and 
ascendant influence with the Indian tribes that accom- 
plished the cession of Georgia. Mary Musgrove, an Indian, 
the wife of a Carolina planter, negotiated with Tomi- 
chichi, the Yamacraw Chief, for the sale of the terri- 
tory whose boundaries ran from the Savannah to the Alta- 
maha and westward to the mythical " South Seas," a 
body of lands so vast that the Georgia of to-day is but a 
minor part of the territory originally ceded. 


Thus we find that the first real estate agent that ever 
closed a ' ' deal ' ' the biggest that ever was or ever will be 
in Georgia was a woman, and the first Georgia manufac- 
turer was a woman as well Mary Camuse, the wife of 
Lewis Camuse. 

From the business tact, enterprise and industry of Mary 
Camuse resulted the first recorded exportation to England 
of the first manufactured article which left our shores, 
forty-five pounds, two ounces avoirdupois weight of silk, 
cultivated and woven by her hand. 

A glance at the minutes of the trustees of the colony 
reveals this quaint and interesting entry : 

"August 7th, 1742. Resolved, That it is recommended to the 
common council, to give Mrs. Camuse a gratuity for every 
person who shall be certified to be properly instructed by her 
in the art of winding silk." 

The art of wearing silk, with grace and elegance, could, 
I feel assured, be taught to any one who might seek to 
profit thereby, by the stately matrons whose names adorn 
the roster of the Atlanta Chapter of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, but the art of winding silk, such as 
the trustees encouraged by their bounty, is, I very much 
fear, at this time in Georgia what we might call one of the 
"lost arts." 

Passing from Mrs. Musgrove and Mrs. Camuse to the 
Georgia women of the Revolution, I beg leave to state that 
I have sought in this paper to give only such names and 
incidents as are authenticated by historical reference or by 
well established tradition. I am by no means assured that 
the list is full, indeed, I am strongly inclined to the 
opinion that it is largely incomplete, notwithstanding the 
somewhat exhaustive research which has been made in 
ancient archives and time-worn histories. 

It is generally accepted that the most conspicuous 
figure among the Georgia women of the Revolution is the 
famous Amazon of Elbert County, the redoubtable Nancy 
Hart. She was undoubtedly the foremost fighter from the 


ranks of the colonial dames North or South, and her brave 
and thrilling exploits were indubitably of a rank and 
character to entitle her to an exalted place in the American 
temple of fame. 

The portrait of Nancy Hart while in repose, is that of a 
formidable warrior when in action, she must have been a 
female Apollyon, dire and terrible, a veritable incarnation 
of slaughter and threatenings. Six feet in height, cross- 
eyed, ungainly in figure, redheaded, big hands, big feet, 
broad mouth, massive jaw, sharp of tongue and rude in 
speech, she was a picture before which a Redcoat, a Tory, 
or a bachelor, well might quail. "She was a honey of a 
patriot but the devil of a wife," is the reading of the 
record the tribute of a neighbor who lived in the bloody 
times which made her known to fame. 

It is related that in later years, a resolution was in- 
troduced in the legislature of Georgia providing for an 
equestrian statue of General Jackson representing his 
horse in the act of plunging forward, the warrior pointing 
his sword with martial eagerness towards the foe to be 
placed in the capitol of Georgia. A patriotic member of the 
body arose in the assembly and protested that he would 
not vote for the resolution unless the legislature should 
likewise authorize a painting of Nancy Hart fording the 
Broad River with a tory prisoner, bare-headed and bare 
armed, her dress tucked up, her jaws set, her big hands 
suggestively pointing the musket at her cringing captive. 

It does seem a matter for regret that some such recog- 
nition is not given by the State to the daring and valor of 
this Georgia heroine. The history of no other nation can 
boast of a braver or more invincible woman, and it should 
be a matter of state pride among Georgians to honor her 
memory and commemorate with painter's brush, or sculp- 
tor's chisel, her splendid and heroic achievements in the 
cause of American Independence. 

The fame which Nancy Hart achieved as a fighting 
patriot is perhaps equaled by Jane Latouche Cuyler as the 


political heroine in Georgia, of the Revolution. This 
picturesque and remarkable woman was the widow of Tele- 
mon Cuyler, a wealthy mariner. She lived at the corner 
of Bull and Broughton streets in Savannah. Mrs. Cuyler 
was of French descent and inherited the fiery and mercurial 
temperament of her Gallic ancestors. She is accorded the 
distinction of being the first patriot at Savannah to don a 
liberty cap, which she persistently wore, to the grim dis- 
pleasure, and despite the intimidating attitude, of the 
crown governor, Sir James Wright. Political meetings 
were held by the patriots at Mrs. Cuyler 's house and it is 
said, that at one of these assemblies, a resolution was passed 
which afterwards formed the basis of the action of the 
Provisional Congress in declaring Georgia's adherence to 
the revolting colonies and her purpose to join with them 
in armed resistance to the authority of the English crown. 

At the fall of Savannah, she was taken to Charleston 
under an escort of Continental troops and after Charleston 
had surrendered to Sir Henry Clinton, the Commissary 
General of Georgia is said to have caused her to be trans- 
ported to Philadelphia, where her expenses were paid by 
the commonwealth of Georgia in recognition of her valu- 
able services to the patriots' cause. So active was her 
participation in fanning the flame of revolution and in 
fomenting armed resistance to the encroachments of the 
Crown that Sir James Wright is stated to have offered a 
reward for her capture and delivery to the British authori- 
ties. She died in New Jersey after the Revolution, having 
lived, however, to see the independence of the colonies for 
which she had striven with such fervor and eclat, brought 
to a happy and successful issue. 

After the fall of Savannah, the Continental prisoners 
were crowded by the British on board ships lying at anchor 
in the Savannah River. These ships were veritable pest 
houses and many of the prisoners died of infection and for 
the want of proper sustenance. Mrs. Mordecai Shefthall 
made it her mission to go out in boats provisioned and 


manned by her negroes to make the rounds of these floating 
prisons and administer such aid and bring such deli- 
cacies as she could command to the imprisoned patriots. 
This brave and noble woman endeared herself to the Con- 
tinental captives and in consequence of these missions of 
mercy and her brave solicitude for the unfortunate pris- 
oners, she acquired the beautiful soubriquet of "the Angel 
of the Prison Ships." 

Yet another woman who administered to the wants and 
necessities of these unfortunate soldiers was Mrs. Minis. 
General Shefthall himself a Captain, records two impor- 
tant ministrations which she rendered to his succor and 
comfort. He says: "In this situation I remained for two 
days, without a morsel to eat, when a Hessian officer named 
Zaltman, finding that I could talk his language, removed 
me to his room and sympathized with me on my situation. 
He permitted me to send to Mrs. Minis, who sent me some 
victuals. ' ' 

But an equally important service more of a luxury 
perhaps than a necessity, but a most delightful luxury to a 
gentleman followed, when on application to Col. Innis, 
General Shefthall, records: "I got his leave to go to Mrs. 
Minis for a shirt she had taken to wash for me, as it was 
the only one I had left, except the one on my back, and 
that was given to me by Captain Kappel, as the British 
soldiers had plundered both mine and my son 's clothes. ' ' 

In the time allotted for this paper, I have not the op- 
portunity to discuss at length the character and adventures 
of Mrs. Johnathan Bryan who, amidst constant danger from 
marauding Tory bands, successfully operated and managed 
her husband's plantation while he was fighting for the 
cause of liberty ; nor to deal with the exciting and romantio 
career of Sarah Swinton Mclntosh, nor to depict the quaint 
personality of Winnifred Mclntosh, Spinster, the brave and 
loyal sister of the dashing ' ' Rory ' ' ; nor to draw the picture 
of Mrs. John Dooly, the tragic murder of whose husband 
by the Tories is said to have fired the soul of Nancy Hart 


with the fierce flame of vengeance against the brutal Royal- 
ists, who with fire and sword lay waste the unprotected 
homes of the patriots. 

I, therefore, close this crude and hasty sketch with a 
romance of the Revolution, a tale which must appeal to 
every heart because of its human interest, its bloody setting, 
its gratifying sequel and by reason of the fact that one of 
your own members is a lineal descendant of the heroine of 
this pleasing and delightful romance of love and war. 

My story is a note from the life of Sarah Ann Jones who 
was sent from Burke County, Georgia, to Savannah to a 
boarding school for young ladies kept by gentlewomen in 
sympathy with the Royalist faction of the colony. So far 
did the school management display its royalist sentiment 
that the school girls were coerced into knitting socks and 
making shirts for the enemy during the hours for play and 
recess, and were sternly instructed to be true and loyal 
servants to the King. This coercion only made the colonial 
girls more devoted secretly to the cause of liberty, and 
when Savannah fell into the hands of the British, the times 
were past when educational advantages could be con- 
sidered and our little school friend was sent for, and 
brought home, where it was thought she could find a safer 
asylum. With three brothers in the army, and all her 
heart with them, she was happy to be at home. But she 
was destined to do more for the cause of liberty than fell 
to the lot of every quiet maiden of those eventful days. She 
was sent for not a great while after her return home to go 
at once to Beech Island, near Augusta, to the plantation 
of Mrs. Sherwood Bugg to help nurse her brother, Captain 
John Jones, who had been severely wounded and who had 
been brought there, along with many other wounded sol- 
diers, to be nursed back to life again by every kindly 
ministration known to the helpful women of these stirring 


And so she went and helped to nurse her brother, and 
there the long, anxious days were crowned by a budding 

Captain Jones was able again to enter the fight for 
freedom, and then it was that his lovely young sister, 
Sarah Ann Jones, found time for seeing much of the 
youngest son of her hostess, Sherwood Bugg, Jr. Love 
soon bound the young soldier with silken strands, their 
troth was plighted and with the consent of both families 
their marriage was arranged for. Nothing marred their 
plans and the young couple settled after their marriage, 
on land in Columbia County, Georgia, granted their fami- 
lies for services rendered during the struggle of 1776 when 
young girls and mere boys (too young for regular soldiers) 
found an opportunity for working for the cause of their 
country as nobly as ever did the soldiers of the line. 

Today in a little home of one of your members are to be 
found two very plain, solid, old mahogany tables that span 
these years reaching back to the Revolution, that belonged 
to this young couple a fitting table on which to pen a 
love letter and the best exponent of the character of Revolu- 
tionary times, serving not one, but five generations, and 
even now in daily use. 

This little romance lends additional charm to the beauty 
and strength of these old tables, and today, they tell us of 
the force and nobility of earlier days and a simpler life. 
JAMES WADDY AUSTIN. Read before Atlanta Chapter by 
Mrs. Joseph Morgan. 



In studying the lives of noted individuals, we find the 
written history of them in many ways so very different. 

Some are always before the eyes of the public. They 
seem to know just how to arrange, that their words and 
deeds are known and read of all men. 

Then there are others, perhaps as worthy or perchance 
even more so, who are reticent and modest, and the very 
simplicity of their lives causes them to shrink from the 
lime-light, the glare of the torch and the noise of the 
trumpet of victory, preferring rather the inner-conscious- 
ness of having done well that which was committed unto 

Apart from either of these classes, we find a few who 
are unconstrained, who take destiny into their own hands, 
rough hewing as they will, and are indifferent alike to 
either public censure or applause. In this last division, 
we would have to place our patriot, Robert Sallette. 

"Neither history nor tradition gives us the place of his 
birth or the date of his death, yet it is known that he 
played a more important part in the struggle in the Colony 
than any one man who had no trooops at his command." 
Like Melchizedek, he seems to have had no beginning or 
ending or length of days. It is known that his grave lies 
in the noted old cemetery at Midway, Georgia along with 
many famous revolutionary heroes. 

Sallette 's bravery was beyond dispute, even to reckless- 
ness. His hatred of the Tories and all subjects of the King 
was so bitter, that it caused a price to be set upon his head. 
Most of us are familiar with the traditions which the his- 
torian, Harris, tells of in his "Stories of Georgia," where 
"A Tory of some means offered a reward of one hundred 
guineas to any one who would bring him the head of 
Sallette. ' ' The Tory had never seen Sallette, but his alarm 
was such, that he offered a reward large enough to tempt 
some one to assassinate the daring partisan. "When Sallette 


heard of the reward, he disguised himself as a farmer, 
placed a pumpkin in a bag and took it to the home of the 
Tory. He was invited in and deposited the bag on the 
floor beside him, the pumpkin striking the boards with a 
thump. ''I have brought you the head of Robert Sallette," 
he said. "I hear that you have offered a reward of one 
hundred guineas for it." 

"Where is it," asked the Tory. 

' ' I have it with me, ' ' replied Sallette, shaking the loose 
end of the bag. "Count me out the money and take the 

The Tory neither doubting nor suspecting counted out 
the money and placed it on the table. 

' ' Now show me the head, ' ' said he. 

Sallette removed his hat, tapped himself on the fore- 
head and said, "Here is the head of Robert Sallette." 

The Tory was so frightened that he jumped from the 
room and Sallette pocketed the money and departed. 

An old inhabitant of Liberty County tells that once two 
Tory robbers had gone to some worthy man's house in the 
lower part of the county and demanded his money. When 
he refused, they put a rope .around his neck. Bob Sallette 
seems to have appeared on the scene and saw what was 
taking place across the field. Sallette rushed up on horse 
back, yelling with all his might, ' ' Come on, boys, here they 
are." The Tories, thinking they were outnumbered and 
would be captured, ran away. Sallette took the man in 
trouble on horseback with him and they made their escape. 

Sallette was not wanting in humor, as we see in the 
little encounter he had with the advance guard of the 

Observing that a dead man, who was a remarkably large 
man, had on a pair of good boots, Sallette determined to 
get them. While pulling them off, his companion called for 
him to get away quickly, or he would be killed. "I must 
have the boots, I need them, I want them for little John 


Way. ' ' This was fun in the midst of tragedy, as Mr. "Way 
was a remarkably small man. 

It will be remembered that at a very early period, the 
citizens of St. John's Parish (now the County of Liberty) 
took a very firm stand in favor of independence. The 
early, open, and determined resistance, of this parish did 
not escape the notice of the enemy, and accordingly it was 
made to feel the full measure of royal vengeance. Added to 
this, Sallette must have had some special cause for the 
bitter animosity and hatred he felt for all Britishers. It 
was thought (as his name would indicate) that he descend- 
ed from the French Acadians, who had previously suffered 
much, and often, at the hands of the Britishers, hence his 
motto, which was, "never forgive a Tory." If one was 
ever liberated he made it his business to follow him and, 
if possible, take his life. 

Sallette was a roving character, belonging to no par- 
ticular command. He fought valiantly and zealously, but 
always in his own peculiar way and style. He didn't seem 
to especially value his own life and, never, the life of his 

Once he dressed as a Britisher and dined with a party 
of them. While toasting and merry-making he suddenly 
drew his sword and killing the man on either side of him, 
he jumped on his horse and rode off unhurt, though he 
stood not on the order of his going. 

We can well understand that with such a daring spirit 
and cool calculating brain he was greatly feared by the 

Evidently his thinking was independent, for his style of 
warfare and sudden actions kept the enemy uncertain 
where he would next appear. Often during a battle he 
would leave his command and go to the rear of the enemy 
and kill a number before he would be discovered. 

When Major Baker defeated a body of Tories at the 
White House near Sunbury, among the enemies slain was 


Lieutenant Grey, whose head was almost severed from his 
body by a stroke of Robert Sallette's sabre. 

Sallette, the scout, was a personal friend of Major 
Fraser of the Revolutionary War. Tradition has it that 
these two men did valiant and effective service in running 
out the Tories. 

One story is, that these two met a couple of Tories in 
the road at the ford of Taylor's Creek and the Tories were 
never afterwards seen or heard of, which was characteristic 
of his manner of dealing with the enemy. 

We know that often when General Marion of South 
Carolina wanted some special work done he sent to Liberty 
County, Georgia, for the distinguished and intrepid scout, 
Robert Sallette. 

This daring scout performed many deeds to free this 
land from English oppression and to enable us to sing : 

My country 'tis of thee, 

Sweet land of liberty 

********* ***** 

Long may our land be bright, 
With freedom's holy light, 
Protect us by thy might, 
Great God, our King. 


The Nation's Guest Arrangements for his Reception. 

(From the Georgia Messenger, Macon, Ga, March 23, 1825.) 

A signal gun will be fired as soon as the General and 
his suite arrive, on the hill at the old fort. The ladies and 
gentlemen will proceed to form themselves immediately in 
two lines on Bridge Street, near the ferry, under the 
direction of the Town Marshal, and A. Mandell, J. S. Chil- 
ders, G. B. Wardlaw, E. McCall, R. McCall and Isaiah 
Chain, Marshals for the day; the arrangements to be as 
follows: First, the Commissioners of the town and Com- 
mittee of Arrangements on horseback; second, the ladies; 
third, the citizens generally. He will be received by the 
Commissioners and Committee near the ferry, where he 
will be addressed by James S. Frierson, Esq., in behalf of 
the citizens. 


At 12 o'clock yesterday a signal announced his ap- 
proach, when the ladies and gentlemen proceeded to form 
lines on Bridge Street near the ferry. Owing to the rap- 
idity with which he now travels, he was entirely unattended 
by any military escort. The only persons with him were his 
son and secretary, and two of the Governor's aids, Cols. 
Thaddeus G. Holt and Henry G. Lamar. He dismounted 
from his carriage and crossed the river, where he was 
received by the Committee and Commissioners. On ascend- 
ing the bluff he was welcomed to our town in behalf of the 
citizens by James S. Frierson, Esq., who said : 

"General Lafayette. Sir: I am deputed by the citizens of 
Macon and its vicinity to welcome you to this place. 

"To tell you, sir, that you were the early, steadfast and con- 
stant friend of this republic in her revolutionary contest, would 
be only to say what had been acknowledged by the past and 
present generation. 


"But that glorious struggle in which your destinies were 
pledged in common with the illustrious characters of that day, 
has eventually proved that a system of government, now in the 
history of the world, a confederative representative democracy, 
is the best guarantee for the liberties of a great people, is now 
confirmed by the experience of thirty-six years. 

"The first State, sir, which you will enter after leaving this, 
and those you are now to visit are prominent testimonials of this 
sublime truth, unknown in the Revolutionary struggle; a barren 
wilderness where the foot of civilized man had scarcely trod, in 
this short period had grown in numbers nearly equalling the 
original States, entertaining the same political views, the same 
veneration for your person and character that we do; you will 
there be greeted with the same hospitality that you have met here. 

"With hearts full of gratitude for your past service, with 
the earnest and intense interest for your future welfare and 
prosperity, we all unite in wishing that the evening of your days 
may be spent in that calm tranquility and repose of which you 
were deprived in your earlier life." 

To which the General replied in substance: 

"That he was thankful for the manner in which the citizens 
of Macon were placed to receive him; that he perfectly accorded 
in the opinion that a representative Democracy was the best cal- 
culated to secure the liberties of the people, and requested that 
the people of Macon would rceeive his thanks for the manner in 
which they had been pleased to treat him." 

A procession then formed and he was conducted to his 
quarters at the Macon Hotel. During the moving of the 
procession a national salute was fired. Soon after his 
arrival he was waited upon by the ladies, who were in- 
dividually introduced to him ; after which every citizen 
who wished was introduced, to whom General Lafayette 
gave a cordial grasp of the hand. 

He was then waited on at his quarters by the brethren 
of Macon Lodge, No. 34, and was addressed as follows by 
Worshipful Ambrose Baber, Master of the Lodge : 

"Brother and General Lafayette: In our humble capacity as 
brothers of the mystic union, we welcome you to our infant 


village. No triumphal arch, no tinsel show of earthly grandeur 
greeted your entry. We offer you a triumph more lasting and 
noble the triumph of gratitude. 

"Admonished by that resplendent luminary which rules and 
governs the day, and imparts an equal lustre on all mankind twice 
in every year, that we have all once been and must again be upon 
a level, we have ventured to hail your arrival among us, and to 
offer you a welcome in unalloyed gratitude, the spontaneous 
effusion of our hearts. 

"Illustrious benefactor of mankind. What a train of associa- 
tions does thy eventful life excite. Companion and associate of 
our immortal Washington. Thine efficient arm hath prostrated 
oppressive tyranny succored, and relieved distressed and agon- 
ized humanity, and established a nation in the full enjoyment of 
freedom. The glittering offerings of princes could not dissuade, 
nor the appalling frowns of royalty deter you from a life of 
benevolent usefulness. The assassins of sanguinary demagogues 
nor the loathsome cells of the dungeon mar or destroy your feel- 
ings of philanthropy. Unaltered and unchanged didst thou 
remain amidst the calamities and vicissitudes which harrassed 
thine own distracted country. 

"Behold thy compensation. The gratitude of ten millions of 
freemen, the applause and admiration of every nation. Even the 
wilderness smiles with joy and the savage is gladdened at thy 

"Amidst this jubilee of feeling, permit me to offer you again 
the grateful rejoicings of my associates and brethren of the 
society of Free Masons, in beholding you among us. Royal 
tyranny may condemn, ignorance may reproach and blaspheme 
the holy mysteries of our institution; yet with Lafayette for 
her support the science of Massonry will continue ti illumine and 
harmonize mankind to endless ages. Gratitude must have fled 
from the breast of man, humanity lose its refuge on earth, and 
memory lose its seat ere the virtuous deeds of the generous, 
amiable, distinguished and exemplary Lafayette shall be forgotten. 

To which the General replied in an animated manner: 

"The very grateful reception I have met among my brethren 
demands of me an expression of my most sincere and affection- 
ate acknowledgements. Permit me to declare to you particularly, 


and the brethren of your Lodge, an unfeigned obligation for 
the very flattering regard you have been pleased to express for 

"The science of Free Masonry, to which I have for many 
years been an humble votary, is wonderfully calculated to alle- 
viate the many distresses and calamities to which mankind are 
exposed in their variegated and manifold duties in society, and 
when I recur to those scenes, to which you have been pleased so 
delicately to allude, I am constrained to acknowledge how much 
I have been cheered, sustained and animated in the various vicis- 
situdes of my life, by the holy precepts and examples of our 

"That you and your Lodge may be blessed with prosperity 
and harmony, that the rising town of Macon may continue in 
its advancement, that Masonry may flourish, and the citizens 
enjoy all the social and intellectual blessings it so eminently 
inculcates, I pray you, sir, with the rest of my brethren to accept 
as my most sincere and ardent wish." 

He remained in town but about two hours and a half, 
during which time, he in company with a large number of 
our citizens, partook of an excellent dinner prepared by 
Mr. Stovall. After dinner the following toast was given by 
Edward D. Tracy, Esq. : 

"Our illustrious guest the friend of our country, of liberty, 
and of man." 

To which the General replied, and gave : 

"The town of Macon may its prosperity continue to be one 
of the strongest arguments in favor of republican institutions." 

Very soon after dinner he bade an affectionate adieu to 
the gentlemen and ladies around him and resumed his 
carriage, at which time another national salute was fired. 
He was accompanied by the Committee, Commissioners of 
the town and a number of our citizens, on horseback, 
several miles on his way. It is understood he intended to 
lodge at the Agency; making the whole distance traveled 
during the day about sixty miles. 



South Carolina was the first place in the United States 
in which they both landed, and at no very distant spots 
the one near Georgetown, and the other at Charlestown. 
Lafayette, a Frenchman, came by the way of France. 
Both have most materially contributed to the independence 
of the New World the one in North, the other in South 
America; and what is most singular, at the very period in 
which the one is receiving the homage of national gratitude 
in the former the other has succeeded in his efforts for 
the cause of freedom in the latter place. 

Among the persons who received Gen. Lafayette at Col- 
umbia, was Judge Waites, who is the only survivor of the 
party that first received him at landing on the soil of South 
Carolina, at Gen. Huger's in Georgetown. 



(Tomorrow, June 14, is Flag Day in the United States.) 

When Freedom, from her mountain height, 

Unfurled her standard to the air, 
She tore the azure robe of night 

And set the stars of glory there. 
She mingled with the gorgeous dyes 
The milky baldric of the skies, 
And striped its pure celestial white 
With streaklings of the morning light; 
Then from his mansion in the sun 
She called her eagle to bear down, 
And gave into his mighty hand 
The symbol of her chosen land. 

Majestic monarch of the cloud, 

Who rear'st aloft thy regal form 
To hear the tempest trumpings loud 
And see the lightning lances driven, 

When strive the warriors of the storm 
,And rolls the thunder drum of heaven ; 
Child of the sun, to thee 'tis given 

To guard the banner of the free, 
To hover in the sulphur smoke, 
To ward away the battle stroke, 
And bid its blendings shine afar, 
Like rainbows on the cloud of war, 

The harbingers of Victory. 

Flag of the brave, thy folds shall fly, 
The sigh of hope and triumph high, 
When speaks the signal trumpet tone, 
And the long line comes gleaming on. 
Ere yet the life-blood, warm and wet, 
Has dimmed the glistening bayonet, 
Each soldier eye shall brightly turn 
To where thy sky-born glories burn, 
And as his springing steps advance, 
Catch war and vengeance from the glance ; 


And when the cannon mouthings loud 
Heave in wild wreaths the battle shroud, 
And gory sabres rise and fall, 

And cowering foes shall shrink beneath 
Each gallant arm that strikes Tjelow 

That lovely messenger of death. 

Flag of the seas, on oceans wave 
Thy stars shall glitter o'er the brave; 
When death, careering in the gale, 
Sweeps darkly round the bellied sail, 
And frighted waves rush wildly back 
Before the broadside's reeling rack, 
Each dying wanderer of the sea 
Shall look at once to heaven and thee, 
And smile to see thy splendors fly 
Iii triumph o'er his closing eye. 

Flag of the free heart's hope and home, 
By angel hands to valor given, 
The stars have lit the welkin dome, 

And all thy hues were born in heaven. 
Forever float that standard sheet! 

Where breathes a foe but falls before us, 
With Freedom's soil beneath our feet, 

And Freedom's banner streaming o'er us? 


It was here that Betsy Ross designed and made the 
first American flag- the original Old Glory. 



Hats off! This is The Flag's birthday. The banner of 
blue, crimson and white, is one hundred and thirty-six 
years old, 1913. Honor the colors today. The flag repre- 
sents more than just stars and stripes. It represents the 
history of the Great Republic from its cradle to this very 
moment : 

"Sea fights and land fights, grim and great, 
Fought to make and save the State; 
Weary marches and sinking ships, 
Cheers of victory on dying lips. 

Sign of a nation, great and strong, 
To ward her people from foreign wrong. 
Pride and glory and honor all 
Live in the colors, to stand or fall." 

Throughout the country the D. A. R. 's are celebrating 
this great anniversary of our flag. Honor the flag. It 
belongs to every American citizen, whether we live under 
Northern or Southern skies, whether the American spirit is 
enthroned over civilization struggles with its problems 
upon the shores of the Pacific, or turns to problems as grave 
on this side. 

And we are conquering the world under the emblem of 
Old Glory. The world turns to us as the maker of Peace, 
the mightiest since civilization's dawning, for genuine 
rule those ' ' common people, ' ' of whom Lincoln said, ' ' The 
Lord must love them, he made so many." 

The first flag hoisted on American soil about which we 
have any authentic record, was that seen by the earliest 
voyagers to our coasts. They found that the North Ameri- 
can Indians carried a pole covered with wing feathers of 
the eagle as a standard. 

Columbus, when he landed, October 12th, 1492, on the 
island of San Salvador, unfurled upon the shores of the 


new world the first European banners. The son of Colum- 
bus records that his father, dressed in scarlet, came ashore 
with the royal standard of Isabella emblazoned with the 
arms of Castile and Leon. He planted this standard to- 
gether with its companion, a white flag with a green cross, 
on this small island. In the pictures of the ships of the 
time of Columbus these flags may be seen streaming from 
the ship 's mast. 

In 1499, the Eastern coast of South America was ex- 
plored by the Florentine, Amerieus Vespucius. About the 
same time the Cabots planted the banners of England and 
of St. Mark of Venice on the North American shores. 

The Red Cross of St. George was first raised on Ameri- 
can shores at Jamestown, Virginia, in May 1607 and when 
the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock in 1620 there floated 
from the mast of the Mayflower also the red cross of St. 
George. Our Pacific coast had been visited in the preceding 
century by Francis Drake, in his voyage around the world. 
Into the New York Harbor sailed Hudson with the Dutch 
flag, a tri-color, orange, white and blue. This banner, with 
the letters W. I. C., floated over Manhattan Island, pro- 
claiming the rights of the Dutch West India Company. 
About the same time the Swedes floated their royal banner 
in the sunlight on the banks of the Delaware. This colony 
from the frozen north of Europe was so charmed with our 
country that to Cape Horn they gave the name of Paradise 
Point, and called their little settlement Christiana, after 
their far-away Queen. 

During the period of our history known as Colonial and 
Provincial, the English flag was used from Maine to Geor- 
gia, with various devices and mottoes. Some flags were all 
red, with horizontal stripes, or red and blue stripes. Others 
were red, blue, white or yellow. The flags so frequently 
mentioned in the newspapers of 1774, were the ordinary 
English ensigns, bearing the Union Jack. These almost 
always bore a patriotic motto like "Liberty," "Liberty 
and Property," and "Liberty and Union." 


So I could go on and dwell on the different flags, but I 
must hurry to our own, our native flag. 

It is not generally known, and comes as a surprise to 
many, that the stars and stripes is one of the oldest National 
flags in existence, France being next; and England's pres- 
ent flag was not adopted until 1801. 

The anniversary of the adoption of the Stars and 
Stripes by the Continental Congress, June 14th, 1777, 
should be observed by every American citizen. 

In the year 1775, Congress appointed a Committee, of 
which Franklin was chairman, to consider and devise a 
national flag. This resulted in the adoption of the ' ' King 's 
colors, ' ' so called, as a union or corner stone, while thirteen 
stripes of alternate red and white stood as at present. 
This flag was publicly accepted, recognized and saluted at 
Washington's headquarters in Cambridge, Mass., January 
2, 1776, from which fact it was often called the "Cam- 
bridge Flag," though sometimes the "Flag of the Union." 

After the Declaration of Independence this flag lost its 
point, as nobody except the Tories wanted to see "King's 
colors." So in the Spring of 1777, Congress appointed 
another committee to design another suitable flag. George 
Washington and Robert Morris were members of the com- 
mittee. So Washington and Robert Morris called upon 
Mrs. Elizabeth Ross, 239 Arch Street, Philadelphia, and 
from a pencil drawing of General Washington 's, Mrs. Ross 
made the first flag. She suggested six pointed stars instead 
of five as Washington suggested and sketched. He accepted 
her suggestion, and so the flag was made. 

Most interesting is the fact that the making of the 
American flag is largely woman 's work. That the manufac- 
ture of flags has grown to be a large industry is proven by 
the fact that every year enough flags, great and small, are 
made to give one to every man, woman and child in the 
United States. Betsy Ross made flags for the government 
for many years; after her death, in 1836, her daughter, 
Mrs. Clarissa Wilson, succeeded to the business. Miss 


Sarah Wilson, great granddaughter of Betsey Ross, still 
makes duplicates of the original flag. 

The great battle ships that are steaming around the 
world, flying our flag under circumstances that have made 
the nation assume a new importance in the eyes of millions 
who never before knew much about us, have the proper flag. 
It would never do for the American Government to fly an 
incorrect American Flag. It is a huge task to replace all 
the banners used. These are the facts, that keep busy 
hands at work, guiding the electrically driven sewing 
machines that take 3600 stitches a minute. Even though 
the machine that cuts the stars for the silk and wool bunt- 
ing flags can create three thousand an hour, its operators 
have plenty to do. The stripes are cut from great rolls of 
colored bunting or silk, sometimes by skilled operatives, 
and again by machinery. The unions are cut in the same 
way. The stars are first pinned on the unions, and then 
sewed by machinery. That is, so far as the bunting flags 
are concerned. The silk flags are wholly hand work, even 
to the cutting out of the stars. The latter are embroidered 
on the blue field and then all the extra cloth is deftly 
scissored away. 

The major number of small flags is printed. This is 
accomplished by the aid of the engraver and presses some- 
thing like those on which newspapers are printed. Even 
in this mechanical work, women are found to be more 
serviceable than men. It always has been their field, and 
seems likely to so remain. There has been almost as much 
of an evolutionary process in the manufacture, as in the 
arrangement of the American flag. 

On the same day that Congress adopted the stars and 
stripes, John Paul Jones received command of the Ranger, 
in Portsmouth. He immediately displayed the new flag 
at the main top, probably being the first person to hoist 
these colors over a United States warship. Jones is said 
to have remarked, pointing to the flag, "That flag and I 
are twins ; we cannot part in life or in death. So long as 


we will float, we will float together; if we must sink, we 
shall go down as one. ' ' 

The first recognition of our flag was by the flag of 
France. The first display over military forces took place 
on August 2, 1777, at Fort Stanwix, afterward Schuyler, 
New York. The fort was besieged by the British ; its garri- 
son had no colors, so they manufactured a standard of the 
approved pattern. They cut up their shirts as white 
material ; for stars and stripes, an officer 's coat supplied the 
blue ; and small sections of red flannel undergarments fur- 
nished the third color. It is said that the flag thus pieced 
together was greeted with great enthusiasm and warmly 

The following September the stars and stripes were 
first displayed in battle at Brandywine. They first waved 
over a captured port at Nassau in the succeeding January. 
It was first borne around the world by Capt. John Ken- 
drick, of the Ship Columbia, sailing from Boston in 1787. 
It had first been displayed in China, three years before, by 
Captain John Green, of the Empress. When the first ship 
appeared flying the Stars and Stripes, the new flag excited 
much interest and curiosity among the people of Canton. 
A strange new ship had arrived in port, they said, bearing 
a flag as beautiful as a flower, and everybody wanted to see 
the flower-flag ship. By this name of Flower-Flag the 
Chinese continued for many years to speak of our ensign, 
and its poetic beauty has often appealed to our own people. 
The sobriquet which appeals most strongly to the nation 
as a whole seems to be that of "Old Glory." Captain 
Stephen Driver was the first man to christen our flag ' ' Old 
Glory." He was born at Salem, Mass., March 17, 1803. 
Just before he sailed on the brig Charles Doggett, in the 
year 1831, he was presented with a large American flag. 
As it was hoisted he called it "Old Glory" and this was 
the name he evermore used for it. This flag was always 
with the Captain on the sea and when he retired, he carried 
it home with him to Nashville, Tenn. His fondness for his 


flag was widely known, as also his being a Union man. 
During the late unpleasantness his neighbors desired to 
get hold of this particular flag but they searched his house 
and all in vain. The Captain had made a comforter out of 
it, having quilted the Old Glory with his own hands. He 
made his comforter his bed fellow. When peace was re- 
stored, he took the flag to the Capitol Building in Nash- 
ville. As he saw it on top of the building he exclaimed, 
"Now that Old Glory is up there, gentlemen, I am ready 
to die." He died in Nashville in 1886. 

The original flag made by Betsy Ross remained un- 
changed until 1795. At this time, two new states had been 
added to the Union, Vermont and Kentucky, and it became 
evident some recognition of these States should appear upon 
the flag. Accordingly the number of stars was changed 
from thirteen to fifteen, though much opposition was shown 
to this change. 

For twenty-three years the flag of thirteen stripes was 
the national standard. Under this banner, the United States 
fought and won three wars to maintain her existence. They 
were the wars with France in 1799, with the Barbary 
States in 1801, and with England in 1812. This was the 
"Star Spangled Banner" in honor of which Francis Scott 
Key composed our national song. A large national flag 
is kept floating over the grave of Francis Scott Key and is 
never taken down except to be replaced by a new one. This 
was the flag under which the good ship Constitution sailed. 

In the year 1818, the number of States had increased 
to twenty, and five were in no way represented in the flag. 
Congress finally decided to have thirteen stripes, and a 
provision that for every State added to the Union a new 
star should appear in the galaxy upon the blue field, and 
that this star should appear upon the Fourth of July 
next following the admission of the new State. By this 
happy arrangement, the flag typifies at once the country 
as it was when first it became independent and as it is today. 
There is no law as to the method of arrangement for the 


stars, but the Army and Navy regulated this to suit them- 

We think of ourselves as a new country, yet oddly 
enough our flag is one of the oldest in the world today. 
That of Denmark is the oldest European standard, dating 
back to 1219. Next is the Swiss flag, which was adopted in 
the seventeenth century. 

In 1911, to the Army of the United States there were 
furnished 1207, storm and recruiting flags, 342 post flags, 
31 garrison flags; the year previous, 1076 storm and 355 
post flags. These sewed together would nearly, if not 
entirely, reached around the United States. Each battle ship 
of the American Navy is entitled to 250 flags every three 
years, though many are renewed oftener than this. The 
cost of the flags for each battle ship is about twenty-five 
hundred dollars, nothing small in this bill of Uncle Sam's 
for equipment, especially when you remember he has 
twenty-seven first and second class battleships in commis- 
sion, to say nothing of the cruisers, torpedo boats, torpedo 
boat destroyers, submarine monitors, gun boats, supply 
ships, training and receiving ships, about seventy in all. 

For the naval flags the United States uses up about 
forty-three thousand dollars worth of material every year ; 
pays seventeen thousand dollars for wages, and produces 
an average of about sixty thousand flags of four hundred 
and eight different patterns. The material of which the flag 
is made must stand severe tests, for there are storms to be 
weathered and a sixty mile gale can whip average cloth to 
tatters. A strip of bunting two inches wide must have a 
strength of sixty-five pounds when proved on the testing 
machine. Two inches of filling must stand forty-five 
pounds. The bunting is American made and all wool and 
nineteen inches wide. It is washed for twenty-four hours 
in soap and fresh water and next day given a like treat- 
ment with salt water. Then for ten days it is exposed to 
the weather, thirty hours of sunshine being stipulated. The 


largest United States flag, 36 x 19, costs the government 
only forty dollars. 

There is a statute law which prohibits the use of our 
flag for advertising purposes or decorating. 

Where better can you realize the beauty of the 
American flag, and that which it represents, than when you 
see it flying over school houses or play grounds? The re- 
spect paid by the school children to the flag by rising and 
standing and with right hand raised to a line with their 
forehead while they pledge allegiance to their flag is most 
appropriate, but the pledge that appeals to me most is that 
for the children of the primary schools, which is, "I give 
my head and my heart to God and my country, one lan- 
guage and one flag. ' ' 

When you see the hands of ten, nay, twenty, nationali- 
ties raised, while foreign tones mingle with those of our 
children expressing allegiance to one flag, where better 
can you realize the beauty of "Old Glory?" And though 
your word, your flag, your tiny nosegay may fall into the 
hands of just a 

"Little dirty fellow, in a dirty part of town, 
Where the windy panes are sooty and the roofs are tumble down ; 
Where the snow falls back in winter, and the melting, sultry heat, 
Comes like pestilence in the summer through the narrow dirty 

you are giving into his hands the flag you would have him 
love, and in later years honor and defend. 

The Sons of the Revolution print these regulations: 

"The flag should not be hoisted before sunrise, nor allowed to 
remain up after sunset. 

"At sunset spectotors should stand at attention and uncover 
during the playing of 'Star Spangled Banner.' Military men are 
required to do so by regulation. 

"When the national colors are passing on parade, or in review, 
the spectator should, if walking, halt; if sitting, arise and stand 
at attention, and uncover. 


"In placing the flag at half staff, it should first be hoisted to 
the top of the staff and then lowered to position, and preliminary 
to lowering from half staff it should be first raised to the top." 

There is one general rule for the care of the flag which 
should always be remembered. "Treat the flag of your 
country with respect this is the fundamental idea. What- 
ever is disrespectful is forbidden in dealing with symbols 
of national existence. Do not let it be torn; if it should 
become snagged or torn accidentally, mend it at once. Do 
not let the flag be used in any way dishonorable. ' ' 

I once heard of a flag used to cover the floor of a stage 
when an officer of the navy present took up the flag, saying : 
"I will never allow anyone to stand on the flag while I 
am present." 

The national flag is raised on school buildings on all 
national or state holidays and on anniversaries of memor- 
able events in our country's history. Most all schools now 
know the Star Spangled Banner and when it is brought 
forward every pupil rises and gives a military salute and 
distinctly repeats: "I pledge allegiance to my flag and to 
the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, 
with liberty and justice to all." 

The eye of the home-comer catches sight of the large 
American flag which floats from a steel pole 300 feet high 
at Mt. Claire, New Jersey, before even he sees the Statue of 

Here's our love to you, flag of the free and flag of the tried and 

Here's our love to your streaming stripes and your stars in a 

field of blue; 
Native or foreign, we're children all of the land over which you 


And native or foreign, we love the land for which it were sweet 
to die. 


On June 14, 1777, in old Independence Hall, Philadel- 
phia, Congress adopted the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the flag of the thirteen United States be 
thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thir- 
teen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation, 
the stars to be arranged in a circle. 

It was thirty-seven years before the Song to Immortal- 
ity, the name of our Star Spangled Banner, was written. 


The last battle of the Revolutionary war was fought at 
Blue Lick, Kentucky, August 20, 1782. 

England died hard, and in ways that were far from 
being in strict keeping with international law tried to post- 
pone the final surrender as long as she could. It was in 
consequence of such tactics that the battle of Blue Lick 
was fought. 

On the 16th of August, 1782, a force of several hundred 
Canadians and "Wyandotte Indians laid siege to Bryan's 
Station, some five miles from the present city of Lexington, 
the capital of the famous Blue Grass region. 

The next day a party of 180 frontiersmen, commanded 
by Daniel Boone, John Todd and Stephen Trigg, hastened 
to the rescue, notwithstanding the fact that they were 
greatly outnumbered by the enemy. 

Upon reaching the near neighborhood of the station 
a council of war was held to determine upon the line of 
attack. Boone 's advice was to march silently up the river 
and fall upon the rear of the enemy, while, at the same 
time, the main attack should be delivered in front. 

Unfortunately, this sensible advice was spoiled by the 
rash action of a major named McGray, who dashed his 
horse into the river, shouting: "Let all who are not cow- 


ards follow me. ' ' Of course, McGray 's action was madness, 
but it was a madness that became instantly contagious, 
and soon most of the men were fording the stream hard 
after the rash major. 

Crossing without molestation they reached the top of the 
ridge, when their troubles began in dead earnest. From 
front and flanks they received a deadly fire from the In- 
dians and their Canadian allies. They had been ambushed, 
and the invisible foe shot them down like dogs. 

Outnumbered three to one, and presently quite sur- 
rounded, they fought like the brave men they were until 
they realized that to remain longer was to be annihilated, 
whereupon they broke through the fiery cordon and escaped 
as best they could. 

Sixty-seven Kentuckians were killed outright and many 
of the wounded were afterward massacred. The loss of the 
Canadians and Wyandottes was never known, as they car- 
ried away their killed and wounded. 

But the redmen made no more trouble for Kentucky. 
The treaty of peace deprived them of their British backing, 
and the United States was left to deal with them after its 
own way. The memory of the brave fight that was put up 
by the handful of frontiersmen lingered with them, and, 
with no hope of help from England, they gave the Ken- 
tuckians a grand letting alone. 

Such, in brief, is the story of the last battle of the war 
of the Revolution. Beginning away up in Massachusetts, 
the great struggle ended at Blue Lick, Kentucky, a region 
that was an unknown wilderness when the struggle began. 


Indian Legends 


Seven of the counties in Georgia have been named to 
perpetuate the memory of the first American, the Indian. 
Of peculiar interest is the derivation and meaning of the 
names of these counties. 

Catoosa: Gatusi in Cherokee language and means 

Chattahoochee : ( Creek : Chatu ' ' rock ' ' hutchas ' ' mark, ' ' 
"design": "pictured rocks"). A former Lower Creek 
town on the upper waters of Chattahoochee River to which 
it gave its name ; seemingly in the present Harris County, 
Georgia. So called from some pictured rocks at that point. 

Chatooga: (Also Chatuga, a corruption of the Cherokee 
Tsatugi, possibly meaning ' ' he drank by sips, " or "he has 
crossed the stream and come out on the other side," but 
more likely of foreign origin). 

Cherokee: The tribal name is a corruption of Tsalagi 
or Tsaragi, the name by which they commonly called them- 
selves, and which may be derived from the Choctaw Chiluk- 
ki, "cave people," in allusion to the numerous caves in 
their mountain country. 

Coweta: (Kawita). The name of the leading tribe 
among the Lower Creeks, whose home was at one time on 
the Ocmulgee, and later on the western side of Chattahoo- 
chee below the falls. According to one old Creek tradition 
the name means ' ' those who follow us, ' ' and was given them 
by the Kasihta Indians, another Creek tribe who tradition- 
ally marched in advance when the Creeks invaded Alabama 
and Georgia. 

Muscogee : (Muscogee, properly Maskoki) meaning un- 
known. Its derivation has been attributed to an Algon- 


quian terra signifying "swamp" or "open marshy land." 
Muscogee is the name by which the dominant tribe of the 
Creek confedracy knows itself and is known to other 

Oconee : Was the name of a tribe which anciently 
lived on Oconee River, but subsequently moved first to 
the east bank of the Chattahoochee and later to Florida 
where it found a nucleus of the people later known as 
Seminoles. Oconee, their chief town, was situated, accord- 
ing to Hawkins, about four miles below Milledgeville. 
Weekachumpa, their chief, known to the English as Long 
King, and one of his warriors were among the Indians 
assembled to welcome Oglethorpe when he arrived in Geor- 
gia in 1732. Compiled by MRS. J. S. LOWREY. 


A pretty story of early times in America is that of the 
restoration of a little girl to her parents by the Indians. It 
is quoted from Currey 's ' ' Story of Old Fort Dearborn, ' ' by 
the New York Post. The child, who was nine years old at 
the time of her capture in western Pennsylvania, was well 
treated, came to regard the chief and his mother with love 
and reverence, learned their language and customs, and 
almost forgot her own. At the end of four years, this chief 
was invited by a colonel who was very popular with the 
red men to bring the girl to a council fire at Ft. Niagara. 
He accepted the invitation upon condition that there should 
be no effort to reclaim the child. When the boat in which 
the chief and his captive had crossed the Niagara River 
touched the bank, the girl sprang into the arms of her wait- 
ing mother. The chief was deeply moved. "She shall go," 
he said. "The mother must have her child again. I will 
go back alone." In the words of her daughter-in-law, 
who wrote of this period many years afterward : 

"With one silent gesture of farewell he turned and 
stepped on board the boat. No arguments or entreaties 


could induce him to remain at the council; but having 
gained the other side of the Niagara, he mounted his horse, 
and with his young men was soon lost in the depths of the 
sheltered forests. ' ' 

The girl became the wife of John Kinzie, "Chicago's 


At the foot of one of the highest peaks of Cohuttah 
Mountains in North Georgia, there stood, one late autumn 
day, an Indian girl, the daughter of a Cherokee Chief, and 
her half-breed lover. 

As they talked she told him how the young men of 
her tribe hated him and how they taunted her about her 
pale faced lover, and told her he would be cruel and false 
to her. The old chiefs had told her of the great white 
chief, DeSoto, who had built the fort on this very mountain 
where they stood, when he rested in his journey from the 
Indian village, Chiaha (the place where the city of Rome, 
Ga., now stands) . They told her how cruelly his followers 
had treated her people, tearing down their wigwams, 
desecrating their graves, in their search for Tau-lan-neca 
(yellow money) and they warned her that he belonged to 
that same cruel race. 

He answered her, his heart swelling with love for his 
father's people, that they were not false and cruel but kind 
and good. He told her of his recent trip to "Washington 
where he had gone as interpreter for their great Chief, 
Ridge, who loved the white people. He said they had seen 
the great white father and he had talked kindly to them 
and had advised them to sell their lands to the white peo- 
ple who would pay them well for it and would give them 
lands just as beautiful in the far west, which would be 
theirs as long as ' ' grass grew and water ran. ' ' 

He told her that if her people should be guided by 
Chief Ridge, and go to this far away land, he, too, would 


go with them and try to make her happy among her own 
people. If they did not go he would stay among them and 
build her a house like the white people lived in, a house 
good and strong that would last as long as their love, which 
would be forever. (It seems a prophecy for it is still 

He kept his promise to her and the house he dreamed 
of was built. What a marvelous thing it was to those 
savage people to watch the building of this house, with its 
carved mantels that reach to the ceiling, and the wonderful 
spiral stairway that excites the admiration of the skilled 
workmen of today and the hinges of the doors of beaten 

This palefaeed lover little dreamed of what the future 
held in store, that he (David Vann) should become a chief 
of his Nation and go again to Washington with Chief Ridge 
and bring back to their tribe the purchase money for their 
lands, how dissensions had arisen among them in regard 
to the division of the money, how he buried the money 
near his home and how the wife that loved him begged him 
not to tell her where he buried it for fear the Indians would 
come and torture her and make her tell where it was buried. 

Little did he dream that he and Chief Ridge would be 
basely murdered by the Indians. 

This house has never been known by any other name but 
the Chief Van house. It is impossible to find out the exact 
time it was built, as there were no white people living here 
at that time. White, in his Georgia Statistics, says that 
when the Moravian Mission was started in Spring Place 
that Chief Van gave them the land for their buildings near 
his house and sent his children to their school. That was 
in 1802, so the house had been built before that date. 

Judge George Glenn in a published article has told of 
Chief Van's later life, his marriage to an Indian princess, 
his visits to Washington, his receiving and burying the 
gold, and his murder by the Indians, all of which is 


The material for the house was said to have been car- 
ried on the backs of Indian ponies from Savannah, Ga., 
but other accounts say that Chief Van taught the Indians 
to make and burn the brick there. 

Thus ends the romance, mingled truth, and tradition, 
but the house in fairly good repair is still standing in 
Spring Place, Ga., today. This little town was the only 
place of any size at that time. In the jail at this place 
John Howard Payne was imprisoned, accused of being a 
spy. The jail is still standing. MRS. WARREN DAVIS, His- 
torian, John Milledge Chapter, D. A. R., Dalton, Ga. 


"Grandfather, tell me about the Indians," said little 
Annie Daniel, as she climbed upon the arm of a large 
rocking chair in which Mr. Abel Daniel was sitting, dream- 
ing of the past with its many varied experiences. The per- 
son thus addressed had even now reached his fourscore 
years and ten, yet his mind was keenly alert, his carriage 
erect and his immaculate dress revaled the "Gentlemen 
of the old school." "Washington County, Georgia, was 
proud to claim so distinguished a son, so valiant a hero and 
such a cultured gentleman. Capt. Daniel had survived 
three noted wars; the "War of 1812," the Indian and the 
Mexican, in all of which he had been a true soldier and 
had won honor for his home and native state. His gallant 
service in the wars with the British and the Mexicans 
interested the grown people. How he helped General 
Gaines and his men capture the little village in Clay 
County on the banks of the Chattahoochee, which is now 
called Fort Gaines and drive the Indians back into Florida, 
always delighted the young boys and his lullabies sung in 
the Indian language pleased little Annie, but tonight she 
begged for a real Indian story. 

"Well, dear, I shall tell you of one which relates to my 
own life and is really a great part of it, ' ' said grandfather. 


"After helping to expel the Indians from our borders, I 
decided to go live with them for a time in order to learn 
their crafts and become better acquainted with a people 
whom I believed to be honest and loyal." 

''Having crossed the border and tied my handkerchief 
to a leafy branch and waived it aloft as a flag of truce, 
they quickly responded and gave me a most cordial wel- 
come. During the seven years of my stay with them, I was 
known as the 'White Man' arid treated as some superior 
being. The best of all they possessed was at my command 
and they counted nothing too dear that would add to my 
pleasure. I was made a sharer in all their hunting and 
fishing sports, having been presented with one of their 
very best ponies. 

' ' All went well until one day I discovered that the Chief 
was plotting a marriage between me and his beautiful 
daughter. As a marriage dowry he would present us with 
several barrels of specie, thus showing in what esteem he 
held me. I could never think of marrying this Indian 
maiden so I at once began to plan my escape. The next 
day I rode my pony as far as possible, taking my gun along 
as a pretense of hunting, but returned the following day 
with my game. After letting my pony rest a day I started 
out a second time to test her strength still further. This 
time I stayed two days and two nights and decided my pony 
was equal to any undertaking. After a second rest we 
started out the third time and made a safe flight across the 
line to my own people. 

"Before reaching the old homestead a neighbor had in- 
formed me of my father's death and my mother's total 
blindness. The dear old soul was seated on the porch as I 
rode up ; near her was a water bucket over which was hang- 
ing a long handled gourd. Just as her feeble hands 
reached out for the gourd, I handed it to her, saying: 
'Here it is, mother.' She recognized my voice as that of 
her baby boy and fainted away. From that day I never 
left my aged mother, but tried to make amends for the sor- 


row my wanderings must have caused, by attending to her 
every want and making her last days as comfortable, happy 
and free from care as ever a loving child could. 

''My Indian pony was treasured as a relic of the years 
spent with the Indians and my fortunate escape from the 
hand of his daughter. 

"But my little girl is getting sleepy, so kiss grandfather 
good night, and he'll tell you more another time." MRS. 
ANNIE (DANIEL) CLIFTON, Stone Castle Chapter, D. A. R. 


In 1750, William White and Daniel Boone settled at 
what is now known as Bull Bradley Springs in Tennessee. 
The Indian trail from the Hiwassee town Northward, pass- 
ed near this home. 

One evening, two of the boys, aged ten and twelve, 
went out into the forest to cut and prepare wood for the 
night. When darkness came on and the boys did not 
return, a search was made and their axe was found leaning 
against a small hickory tree which the boys must have been 
cutting down when they stopped their work. Signs of In- 
dians were discovered. These were followed next morning 
and were found to lead into the Indian trail. There 
seemed to have been a large party of the Indians going 
Northward. The pursuers failed to overtake the Indians 
and despite all their efforts were unable to rescue the boys. 

Years afterward an officer in Wisconsin had published, 
for the benefit of any relatives of the parties concerned, 
that two white men, past middle age, had been found with 
one of the Northwest tribes. These men had forgotten all 
knowledge of the English language. They remembered that 
they had been captured by Indians while engaged in cutting 
wood and that their captors had brought them many miles, 
but in what direction they were uncertain. 


This description, though meager, made all certain that 
these men were no others than the lost sons of William 
White. They had become so thoroughly ' ' Indianized ' ' that 
they refused to leave the tribe and come back to their 

.On the day of the boys' capture, William White was 
getting out a rock for a hearth. These rocks were cut from 
a single stone, and were called ' ' Hath-stones. " When no 
trace of his boys could be found, Mr. White went on with 
his hearth making, laying the "hath-stone" in its place, 
and on it he carved the date of their capture. The stone 
is still to be seen in a hearth in the home now located where 
White's house stood. The date and names are plainly 
visible. Some of White's descendants still reside in the 
historical home. ROBERTA G. TURNER, Xavier Chapter, D. 
A. R., Rome, Ga. 


One mile above the city of Columbus, Georgia, the Chat- 
tahoochee's turbid waters dash, fret and foam in angry 
surges over and among a group of giant bowlders forming 
what was called by the Red Men of the forest, "Tumbling 

From the eastern bank of the river rises a rugged, per- 
pendicular cliff to a lofty height, which is covered almost 
to its verge by majestic trees, vines and shrubs of a semi- 
tropical growth. This is crowned by a colossal bowlder of 
dark granite, and from its summit is one of the most magni- 
ficent and picturesque views of river scenery that nature 
has produced. 

This is "Lover's Leap," famous in song and story; 
where the "Young Eagle" of the Cowetas clasped to his 
brave heart the bright "Morning Star" of the Cussetas and 
leaped into the deep, restless waters below. 


The Alabama hills, forming a long, undulating chain, 
and covered with verdant beauty, arise across the river, 
which, below the precipice, flows gently onward until it 
reaches the city limits, where the waters again dash with 
insane fury over clustering bowlders and form the Coweta 
Falls, which are there arrested and utilized by the pale- 
faced stranger to turn thousands of looms and spindles for 
his own use and profit. 

A short distance below the Leap is the "Silver Wam- 
pum," a lovely stream of pellucid water, which rises 
beneath a clump of sweet-scented bays and magnolias, and 
flows and quivers in sunlight and moonlight, like a silver 
girdle, along its green and flowerdecked banks, until it 
reaches a rocky bed, where it falls by a succession of cas- 
cades, which form an exquisite fringe to the "Wampum" 
before dropping into the Chattahoochee. 

There the beautiful "Morning Star" would often sit 
indulging in love dreams, as she beaded the gay moccasins, 
bags and wampums, while the "Young Eagle" followed 
the chase. There he would bring her the first fruits and 
flowers of the season. 

From some warmer climate unknown to his rivals he 
would often procure boughs of the fragrant calycanthus, 
queenly magnolias and sweet-smelling jasmines, and secret- 
ly adorn this sylvan retreat in anticipation of her com- 
ing, long before the native buds began to expand their 
beauty. Frequently she would be startled in her blissful 
reveries by the rolled petal of a magnolia falling like a 
great snow-flake at her feet. 

This she recognized as a private dispatch from "The 
Young Eagle," Cohamoteker (blow gun) to apprise her 
of his approach and hastily arising she would eagerly await 
his coming. 

At a later date, when duty required her attentions at 
the wigwam, she would frequently find rare products of the 
chase suspended without. This was always prepared with 
unusual care, and relished by her father, the chief, who 


was too old to indulge often in his favorite pastime, and 
was somewhat dependent upon his braves for many luxuries 
of that kind. 

Consequently, he did not question the source from which 
they came, but when particularly pleased with his repast he 
would say: 

"Yaho Hadjo (Crazy Wolf) is good. In his wigwam 
will be found the richest venison and rarest birds of the 
air. He is a worthy mate for the Morning Star ! ' ' 

When a child she had been betrothed to Young Eagle, 
the noble son of the Coweta chief. Their love had grown 
with their growth and strengthened with their strength, 
until it had reached an intensity where death appeared 
preferable to a life apart. 

A rivalry had suddenly sprung up between the two 
tribes, who had so long smoked the calumet of peace to- 
gether. The pledged word of the veterans was broken, and 
a feud more deadly than that of the Montagues and Capu- 
lets then existed between the brave Cowetas and Cussetas, 
who were of equal prowess. 

The aged chief of the latter could no longer follow the 
warpath with the alacrity of his youth, but by the council 
fire all did reverence to his eloquence, and were ready to 
rally at his battle-cry. 

His lion-hearted sons, the pride of a war-like sire, had 
gone in the vigor of their early manhood to the Spirit Land 
and the chieftain stood alone, like a giant oak of the 
forest, stately and grand in age and decay, with the once 
vigorous branches all leafless and dead save one, which 
still flourished in pristine beauty. 

His daughter, with her starry eyes and step as fleet and 
graceful as a wild fawn, was the idol of his heart. In 
childhood he had called her "Minechee" (smart, active.) 
As she grew in stature and beauty, twining herself more 
closely around his heart, he called her ' ' The Morning Star. ' ' 
for she would arise with the birds, and often waken him 


from slumber with songs and merry laughter while prepar- 
ing for his comfort. 

By the latter name she was known among the tribe. 

''The Morning Star is up and shames the laggard to 
the chase! He should have been over the hills and far 
away. ' ' 

The young warriors likened her to some ideal being, 
who basked in the smile of the Great Spirit, and wor- 
shiped her with truly loyal hearts. If we could raise the 
curtain of time, and read the thoughts that agitated the 
dusky bosoms of those fearless young braves, it would be 
evident that the affection and attention lavished on their 
old chief was partially due to their admiration for the 
bright and beautiful Morning Star. 

Among her many suitors was Yaho Hadjo, who had 
cunningly ingratiated himself into her father's favor, and 
had long vainly sought the hand and heart of the bright- 
eyed maiden. In his fierce wrath, he had secretly vowed 
vengeance against a more successful rival. Under the garb 
of friendship and loyalty to his chief, he had secured a 
firm footing in his wigwam, and thus constituted himself 
a spy on the actions of the unsuspecting daughter. 

She had waited long and patiently, hoping that time 
would soften the feud and remove every impediment to 
her union with the peerless Young Eagle, while he had en- 
deavored to conciliate his tribe by every possible means 
that a brave warrior could to restore peace to the nation. 

Alas! jealousy, that hydra-headed monster, had com- 
pletely enslaved the heart of Yaho Hadjo, and at its bid- 
ding he continued to secretly add fresh fuel to each expir- 
ing flame until it had reached enormous proportions, and 
open hostilities seemed inevitable. 

The lovers no longer dared to meet by day, but beside 
the Silver Wampum, when the Great Spirit marshalled his 
starry hosts through the blue vaulted sky, they met to re- 
new vows of eternal love. 


The stealthy footsteps of Yaho Hadjo had followed the 
Morning Star to the trysting place, and his watchful eye 
had witnessed the tender meeting with the Young Eagle. 

The plans of the jealous rival were immediately formed 
with characteristic craftiness. He then cautiously retraced 
his steps and sought the presence of his chief. 

Into his ear the wily creature whispered a malignant 
falsehood of broken faith, treachery and a contemplated 
raid by the Cowetas upon the Cussetas. 

The old warrior's anger was instantly aroused. With 
all the venom of his nature rankling in his savage heart, 
he arose to give the war-whoop to his sleeping braves. 

But Yaho Hadjo urged extreme caution, saying the 
Young Eagle was the ruling spirit and instigator of the 
intended diabolical assault, and was perhaps now prowling 
around like a hungry fox with a hope of capturing the 
Morning Star. A better and surer plan would be to offer 
privately a handsome reward for the person or scalp of the 
Young Eagle. 

By that means the villainous savage thought to have 
his unsuspecting rival cruelly assassinated and his body 
secretly disposed of without arousing any suspicion of the 
dark deed among the Cowetas. 

He doubted not the success of his cowardly undertak- 
ing; and then, without opposition, he would secure the 
beautiful maiden for his squaw. 

He dared not insinuate to the chief that his daughter 
would have been a willing captive, for he had confidence 
in her integrity, and knew she would never forsake him to 
link her fate with his enemy. She had made a promise 
to this effect, and the Morning Star never dealt falsely. 

At the conclusion of Yaho Had jo's heartless suggestion, 
the old man bowed his head in troubled thought for a brief 
period, and then rising to his full stature, he said : 

"Yes, yes; it is best! Go say to my young warriors 
that he who brings the chief the person or scalp from the 
dead head of the daring Young Eagle of the base Cowetas, 


shall wear on his brave heart the Morning Star of the 
Cussetas. ' ' 

Yaho Hadjo hastened to arouse a few sleeping braves 
from their couches and they hurried forth rapidly but 
noiselessly to the Silver Wampum. 

The unsuspecting lovers were totally oblivious of sur- 
rounding danger, and loth to separate, they lingered for a 
last farewell and final embrace, when stealthy footsteps 
were heard approaching. 

They gave a startled glance around and beheld Yaho 
Hadjo and his followers with uplifted tomahawks rushing 
madly upon them. 

Minchee threw her arms wildly around her lover. 

For a brief second the assailants halted, not daring to 
strike the daughter of their chief. 

The Young Eagle clasped her firmly to his bosom and 
bounded away with the speed of an antelope, he knew not 

Onward, over rocks and dells he flew with his precious 
burden, her arms thrown protectingly around and above 
him. Upon the narrow defile to the fearful precipice he 
bore her and then suddenly halted. He thought to release 
her there, believing she could return safely to her father, 
but she grappled to him as though her slight arms were 
hooks of steel. 

The hot breath of the hated rival was felt upon his 
cheek, and his tomahawk flashed like a meteor above him. 

The Young Eagle gave the would-be assassin one proud, 
defiant glance, and folding the Morning Star in a closer 
embrace, he leaped into the foaming torrent below. 

Yaho Had jo's uplifted weapon fell forward with a 
sudden impetus which forced him headlong down the lofty 
pinnacle, among the sharp, rugged bowlders, where his 
body was afterwards found a mangled, lifeless corpse. 

The remaining warriors were transfixed with horror 
and dismay as they gazed wildly into the furious river. 


To attempt a rescue would have been folly and madness, 
as no breathing creature could have survived the fall. 

Slowly and sadly they then retraced their steps and 
silently entered the presence of the childless patriarch. 

Alarmed by the expression of their grief-stricken faces 
he exclaimed: 

"Where is Yaho Had jo? Why does the Morning Star 
linger in the forest ? ' ' 

The boldest of them dropped his head and answered 
slowly and hoarsely: 

"The Great Spirit has taken her from us to brighten 
his own beautiful land. She will come no more to gladden 
our hearts. The Morning Star will never beam on the 
hunter's pathway again!" 

The chief listened in silence, but evidently did not com- 
prehend. An explanation was sternly demanded. 

At length the sad story was told with all of its tender 
and heart-rending details. 

He realized at last his total bereavement, and acknowl- 
edged it was the result of Yaho Hadjo's jealousy and 
falsehood. Fierce and vindictive was the malediction 
pronounced upon the cowardly murderer. 

A dead calm followed; then rising and clasping his 
hands high above his head, he stood for a moment like a 
splendid bronze statue of despair, and in singularly 
pathetic tones exclaimed: 

"Minechee! Minechee! Bright Morning Star! Sole 
treasure of my aged heart ! Gone, gone, forever, and I am 
desolate ! ' ' 

He gave one long, low, piercing wail and tottering as a 
tree beneath the final stroke of the woodman's axe, he fell 
prostrate to the earth. 

His companions exerted themselves in behalf of the 
stricken chieftain and partially succeeded in restoring him 
to consciousness, but he refused to be comforted and de- 
clined all nourishment. 


After a prolonged interval of silence, he arose, quitted 
their presence and slowly descended the hill to a ravine 
in the bluffs and seated himself. 

He signified a desire to be alone. He wished to humble 
himself before the Great Spirit, that he might take pity 
on him. Finding he could not be persuaded to leave the 
place, his braves stretched a mat above his bowed head and 
placing food and water within reach they left him alone 
in his sorrow. 

A few days after they found him occupying the same 
position, but cold and lifeless. MRS. MARY COOK. 


On the outskirts of Blakely, County Seat of Early 
County, and commanding a view of a beautiful stretch of 
landscape, rises the famous old Indian Mound, supposed 
to have been made by the Creek Indians, who hunted and 
fished and roved so happily through the tall pines and 
magnolias, the great oaks and low marshes. While tradi- 
tion associates this particular mound with the Creeks and 
Cherokees, it has been argued by scientists that it must 
have been built by a race of people who preceded the In- 
dians and were partly civilized; however, that may be, 
the visitor to Early has missed a rare bit of romance and 
historic thought, who fails to see the Indian Mound, 
reminiscent as it is of the sacredness of a brave race, now 
almost extinct. 

The Mound is fully seventy-five feet high and is almost 
five hundred feet in circumference. It is covered with 
large trees of oak and the same dense foliage of bamboo, 
pine and cedar as that which grows so profusely over the 
surrounding country as far as the eye can reach. The 
picturesque and fertile valleys below have now become a 
favorite place for pleasure seekers each spring, for picnic 
grounds and camping, and the Indian Mound cannot fail to 


impress the most heedless as it rises mysteriously and 
majestic. Parties in search of buried treasures have 
penetrated the Mound to a depth of fifty feet, but nothing 
has ever been found except human bones. Then later 
scientists have sunk a shaft in the very center of this 
Mound to a great depth and have reached a mass of bones 
five feet in thickness. Nothing to throw light upon the 
builders of this huge old relic has ever been unearthed but 
bones, and the people of the County, with interested 
visitors, have nearly all associated the site with the Indians 
who inhabited so thickly this part of Georgia before Early 
County was created. 

Early County was created by Legislature, October 1818, 
and included then the Counties of Baker, Calhoun, Decatur, 
Miller, Mitchell and Dougherty. It was named in honor 
of George Peter Early, Chief Executive of Georgia in 1813. 
Governor Early, previous to the purchase of these lands 
from the Indians, had rendered great service to the white 
settlers here in protecting them from the Indians, in both 
their treaties with the Indians and in protection to their 
lives. In gratitude for this service Early County was 

While it has never been positively decided whether the 
Mound Builders or the Indians are the original makers of 
Indian Mound, it stands a grim memorial of a dead and 
gone race, worthy of a visit, with its great trees yellow 
with age, and weeds and moss overgrown, the only epitaphs 
to the mystery within its depths. MRS. WALTER THOMAS, 
Regent, Governor Peter Early Chapter, D. A. R. 



So many States are derived from Indian names, so I 
write this storiette, using all that have Indian origin. 

Illinois Tribe of Red Men. 
Alabama Here we rest. 
Arizona Small Springs. 
Arkanses Bend in the Smoky Water. 
Connecticut (Long River. 
Idaho Gun of the Mountain. 
Indiana Indian's Land. 
Iowa Beautiful Land. 
Kansas Smoky Water. 
Kentucky At the head of the river. 
Massachusetts Place of Blue Hills. 
Michigan Fish Wier. 
Mississippi Great Father of Water. 
Mississippi Great Father of Water. 
Missouri 1 Muddy (River). 
Nebraska Water Valley. 
North and South Dakota, allies : 
Ohio Beautiful River. 
Oklahoma Home of the Red Men. 
Tennessee River with a Great Bend. 
Texas ^Friends. 
Utah Ute. 

Wisconsin Gathering of the waters. 
Wyoming Great Plains. 

Once upon a time a tribe of Red Men (Illinois) set out 
to find a Plan of the Blue Hills (Massachusetts.) Their 
canoes were safely launched in the Long River (Connecti- 
cut). At the Bend in the Smoky Water (Arkansas) they 
were surprised to see a canoe coming their way and that 
it was guided by a maid Minnehaha, the beautiful daughter 
of Uakomis of the Ute (Utah) Tribe of Indians. "Young 
maid" said the gallant Chief Hiawatha, "Is this where the 
Indians Land?" (Indiana). "Yes," replied the maid, 


"This Water Valley (Nebraska) is the home of the Red 
Men" (Oklahoma). Then spoke the Chief, who had at 
once been attracted to the Maid:- "This is indeed a Beauti- 
ful Land (Iowa) and I dare say you are the Gem of the 
Mountain" (Idaho). The maid smiled and said: "I hope 
we will be friends" (Texas.) "Let us row to the Head of 
the River" (Kentucky). As they drifted near the bank 
they decided to tarry by the Beautiful River (Ohio). 
"Here we rest" (Alabama), said Hiawatha and whispered 
words of love. As they returned to the other members of 
their tribe, who had pitched their tents on the mountain 
side by some Small Springs (Arizona) each man looked up 
as the two approached and read the happiness that was 
theirs, by their smiling faces. "We will return" said 
Hiawatha, ' ' to Nakomis and his Allies, of the Great Plains 
near the River" (Missouri), "the Great Father of Waters 
(Mississippi), and there on the Banks of the Sky-Tinted 
Water (Minnesota) we will pitch our Wigwam near the 
Fish Wier (Michigan) and there watch the gathering of the 
Waters (Wisconsin) and live in peace and happiness until 
we journey to our Happy Hunting Ground. ' ' MRS. WILL 
CHIDSEY, Rome, Ga., Xavier Chapter, D. A. R. 



The invention of the Cherokee alphabet by Sequoia, or 
George Guess, in 1815, was the most remarkable achieve- 
ment in the history of the Indian tribes of America. 

Sequoia was in appearance and habits, a full Cherokee, 
though he was the grandson of a white man. He was born 
in Tennessee about 1765, and he lived at one time near 
Chiaha, now Rome, Georgia, but for some years before the 
Cherokees were moved to the West, he lived at Alpine, in 
Chattooga County, on what was later known as the Samuel 
Force plantation. 

This American Cadmus was an illiterate Cherokee In- 
dian. He could neither write or speak English, and in his 
invention of the alphabet he had to depend entirely on his 
own native resources. 

He was led to think on the subject of writing the Chero- 
kee language, by a conversation which took place one eve- 
ning at Santa. Some young men were remarking on the 
superior talents of the white people. They saw that the 
whites could "put a talk" on paper and send it to any 
distance, and it would be understood by those who received 
it. This seemed strange to the Indians, but Sequoia de- 
clared he could do it himself ; and picking up a flat stone, 
he scratched on it with a pin, and after a few minutes read 
to his friends a sentence which he had written, by making 
a mark for each word. This produced only a laugh among 
his companions. But the inventive powers of Sequoia's 
mind were now aroused to action, and nothing short of 
being able to write the Cherokee language would satisfy 
him. In examining the language he found that it is com- 
posed of the various combinations of about ninety mono- 
sylables and for each of these sylables he formed a charac- 
ter. Some of the characters were taken from an English 
spelling book, some are English letters turned upside down, 


some are his own invention; each character in the Chero- 
kee alphabet stands for a monosylable. 

From the structure of the Cherokee dialect, the syllabic 
alphabet is also in the nature of a grammar, so that those 
who know the language by ear, and master the alphabet, 
can at once read and write. Owing to the extreme sim- 
plicity of this system, it can be acquired in a few days. 

After more than two year's work his system was com- 
pleted. Explaining to his friends his new invention, he 
said, "we can now have speaking papers as well as white 
men. ' ' 

But he found great difficulty in persuading his people 
to learn it ; nor could he succeed, until he went to Arkansas 
and taught a few persons there, one of whom wrote a letter 
to a friend in Chiaha and sent it by Sequoia, who read it 
to the people. This excited much curiosity. Here was 
"talk in the Cherokee language," come from Arkansas 
sealed in a paper. This convinced many, and the newly 
discovered art was seized with avidity by the people of the 
tribe, and, from the extreme simplicity of the plan, the 
use of it soon became general. Any one, on fixing in his 
memory the names and forms of the letters, immediately 
possessed the art of reading and writing. This could be 
acquired in one day. 

The Cherokees, (who, as a people, had always been 
illiterate) were, in the course of a few months, able to read 
and write in their own language. They accomplished this 
without going to school. 

The Cherokee Council adopted this alphabet in 1821, 
and in a short time the bible and other books were printed 
in the language, and a newspaper, The Cherokee Phoenix, 
devoted entirely to the interests of the Indians, was pub- 
lished, in 1826, at New Echota, the capitol of the Cherokee 
Nation, situated about five miles west of Calhoun, in 
Gordon County, Georgia. 

This paper was edited by Chief Elias Bondinot, one of 
the signers of the New Echota Treaty. 


Sequoia spent much of his time with his kindred who 
had already gone to the West, and a few years after the 
final removal of the Cherokees from Georgia, he was 
instrumental in establishing several newspapers in their 
new home. 

This Indian remains today the only man, in the long 
history of the aborigines, who has done anything for the 
real and lasting benefit of the race. His Cherokee alphabet 
is in general use by every Indian tribe in America. 

Scientists have honored him by naming the largest tree 
that grows in California the Sequoia Gigantia. This name 
was given to the big red wood tree by Dr. Eulicher, the 
famous Hungarian botanist, who was born 1804 and died 
1849. The tree is native to California and is the largest 
known, often measuring thirty to thirty-six feet in diame- 
ter, height from two hundred to four hundred feet, bark is 
often fifteen inches thick. 

In 1908, a specimen of the Sequoia Gigantia came in a 
letter from California. The tiny sprig was five inches high 
and one-eighth of an inch in diameter, and was planted on 
Myrtle Hill cemetery in Rome, Georgia. It is now (1913) 
about thirty inches high and one inch in diameter. 

The Sequoia Gigantia is an evergreen monument to the 
American Cadmus, a one-time resident of Rome, Georgia. 

In his honor, Oklahoma has named a County Sequoyah. 



The Barbadoes or Winward Islands have long been the 
territory of Great Britain and her colonies were planted 
there as early as on the main land of America. 

Early in the eighteenth century dissatisfaction arose 
concerning taxes and other injustices, and some of these 
colonists removed to the continent, chiefly to Virginia and 
the Carolinas. Among these was Edmond Reid, with his 
family, landing at Norfolk, Virginia. He brought with 
him quite a number of slaves. These slaves were remark- 
able in many ways. They must have been part Carib; 
they had thin lips, straight noses and arched feet. They 
were erect and alert. Some of these slaves in the fourth 
generation came to my mother and were above the ordinary 
African and were so dark they evidently had no Caucasian 

John Reid, son of Edmond Reid, married Elizabeth 
Steppe, and served in the Revolution. James, the son of 
John and Elizabeth, was born during the Revolution, 
February 21st, 1778. Archery was a great sport in those 
days, handed down no doubt from our British ancestry 
and kept alive by the bows and arrows of the Indians, 
some of whom were still among the neighbors in the colonies. 
At twelve years of age James Reid was shooting arrows, 
and as an experiment shot one up straight toward the sky. 
Quickly it went up, but more quickly, with accelerated 
speed it returned and pierced the eye of the little archer. 
Painfully the arrow (in this case a pin point) was taken 
from the eye. Youth and a fine constitution combined to 
heal the wound without disfigurement of the eye, and so 
he seemed to have two perfect eyes, while one was sight- 

Our young Republic was just beginning to try her pow- 
ers when England provoked the war of 1812. James Reid, 
now in the prime of manhood, enlisted when the British 
threatened New Orleans. As many others did, he left his 


wife and two little ones at home under the protection of 

A few days after his return from the war, on a summer 
day, a pain came to the eye pierced so long ago by the 
arrow. The local physician was sent for, but his lotions and 
applications failed to give relief. At that time no surgeon, 
except those perhaps in France, understood surgery of the 
eye. So nature took her course, seemingly a cruel, dreadful 
course. The suffering man could neither sleep nor eat and 
finally could not stay in the house. He went out under the 
trees in the grove and when unable to stand rolled around 
on the grass in great agony. His wife and children and 
servants followed him with cold water and pillows a sor- 
rowing and helpless procession. After several days and 
nights the abscess in his eye bursted and gave instant 
relief. All the fluids of the eye escaped leaving it sightless 
and shrunken, and so it remained ever after. I never see 
a shrunken eye but what I recall the old man, so spirited, 
so cheery, so kind, our own grandfather who passed away 
many years ago MRS. R. H. HARDAWAY, Regent, Sarah 
Dickinson Chapter, D. A. R. 




In 1792, when the country in this vicinity was clothed 
in its swaddlings of nature, and the red man and wild 
beasts alone trod the hills and valleys west of the Ocmulgee, 
a solitary huntsman was wending his way north, south of 
the Towaliga, about where the public road to Forsyth is 
now being turnpiked. The party was a model of his class 
large, muscular, completely equipped, a frame strong in 
its every development, and a general contour which indica- 
ted that he knew nothing of fear, and dreaded not the 
dangers of the wilderness in which he was traveling. A 
deep melancholy on his face, the flashing of his dark eyes, 
and an occasional sight, evidenced he carried an "iron in 
his soul," and was actuated by a purpose that knew no 
turning. This was Gabriel Dunlap a Georgian. His 
object in thus absenting himself from society will be seen 

Dunlap was a careful and wary hunter, and in this 
hitherto untrodden field was specially on the alert. He 
knew that dangers lurked around, and was cautious at 
every step. While thus walking and watching, he was 
startled by the war whoop of the savages, which seemed to 
burst from every ambush around him. He knew his retreat 
was cut off, for a hundred savages emerged from the thick- 
ets lining the Towaliga. Therefore, but one course was left 
to be pursued that of taking a due north direction. Leav- 
ing the river and crossing the hills, he ran without any 
purpose beyond making his escape. And thus he ran for 
miles as the yells of his pursuers would subside, hope 
bracing him up, again depressed by the reiteration of the 
voices of his enemies. At length, when almost ready to 
fall from exhaustion and thirst his vitals scorched as with 
fire hope whispered "a little farther." And soon, over- 
joyed and exhausted, he was able to spring into a canebrake 


dark as night, where he slept unconscious of anything that 
occurred around him. 


When he awoke, yet half dreaming, Dunlap gazed about 
him some time before he could "realize the situation." 
With great effort he arose, staggered forward, but fell 
against a larger stone, and here, to his delight, he heard 
the trickling of water. Quickly he sought to slake 
his burning thirst, and soon found, and enjoyed, what 
seemed ice water in a canebrake in August. He drank until 
every desire for water was satisfied, yet none of the un- 
pleasant feelings that often follow such indulgence were 
experienced. On the contrary, he felt new life and vigor, 
and set out to place a greater distance between himself and 
his enemies. His only safe course he knew, was to travel 
in a northerly direction, and, after imbibing another 
copious draught from the welcome fountain, he set out, 
toiling through the cane that covered the bottom. When he 
was about reaching the northern edge of this dense retreat, 
a well known signal greeted his ear. To this he responded. 
His response was replied to by another signal, when he 
quickly emerged from the brake, ascended the hill, and on 
approaching a large oak then standing on the site of the 
present Elder Hotel, was greeted thus: 

"Hallo, Gabe! whar did you cum from? Have you 
been squattin ' in the thicket yonder ? ' ' 

"I'll be smashed," answered Dunlap, "If here aint 
Jube Cochran. And, Jube, I'm gladder to see you than 
if I had knocked out a panther's eye with old Betsey here, 
and without picking her flint, on a two hundred yard line. 
Cause why I'm lost and aint nowhar ef you aint some 
place. ' ' 

And next the two friends met with a hearty shake 
of hands and a union of warm hearts, such as convention- 
alities and civilization have long since driven from the 
brightest spot in Georgia. The huntsmen refreshed the 
inner man, recounted their several recent adventures, and 


then sought a place of rest, which they soon found among 
the rocks skirting the river. 

Here they slept until midnight, when the report of a 
gun aroused them. Snuffing danger in the breeze, they at 
once not only became watchful, but sought to discover the 
whereabouts of their daring neighbor; and finally, in the 
darkness, almost ran against two human forms, whether 
paleface or Indian they could not make out, when Cochran 
hailed : 


"Watson," was the reply, and soon there was another 
happy greeting; when all four of the party (one a small 
boy named Ben Fitzpatrick) walked to the top of the hill 
between two creeks, and again rested until day break, recit- 
ing the customary yarns of the border. 

Douglas Watson was about eighteen years of age, six 
feet in height, and boasted of possessing a well developed 
muscular frame. His companion, Fitzpatrick, was an or- 
phan boy, who had the temerity common to adventurous 
youth to follow Watson in these wilds. 

Seated by their camp fire Dunlap explained to Watson 
the invigorating effect the water in the canebrake, at the 
foot of the hills, had had upon him in his fainting con- 
dition the day previous, when the whole party again sought 
the cooling spring, and, after search, found it. This was 
Indian Spring, and this was the first party of whites who 
are known to have drunk of its water. At this gathering 
Watson admitted to his comrades that about a month 
previous he had found the spring, but in consequence of 
its smelling like gunpowder he fled the vicinity. 

Watson and Cochran were scouts, sent out by the Gov- 
ernment in the Spring of 1792. Fitzpatrick was the 
shadow of Watson ; and Dunlap divulged to his new friends 
his history and mission while they lingered around the 



To be brief : Twelve years previous, during an Indian 
raid in Bibb County, a little friend a ward of his father 
was stolen and carried away. Then and there, ere the 
triumphant yells of the foe were silenced, he had registered 
an oath in Heaven, which was baptized by the falling rain, 
never again to seek peace until he found it in the rescue 
of "Bright Eyes" his lost Nora. Since that hour his 
home had been between the Towaliga and Ocmulgee, and 
his whole exertion was to find the lost one and restore her 
to her friends. 


In the morning the party left the Spring, traveling 
down stream, but in a few moments the shoals were reached. 
Here was another mystery, which to Watson appeared more 
wonderful than did the gunpowder spring. They had 
traveled down stream; of this they were certain; yet they 
encountered an opposite current, and were amazed. Fitz- 
patrick, however, soon explored the vicinity and discovered 
the meeting of the waters near the Spring. Here two 
creeks, running in almost opposite directions, met fraternal- 
ly and formed the Big Sandy, which then flowed in an 
easterly direction until it united with the Ocmulgee. 

Crossing at the foot of the shoals, the party started 
down the stream, hunting and traveling leisurely. Noon 
found them at a little spring near the present site of Tan- 
ner's bridge, where they halted, kindled a fire, and prepared 
to cook the choice bits of game they had secured. Here 
they were again doomed to be disappointed; for suddenly 
their foe burst upon them in overwhelming numbers. The 
odds were fearful, but rather than surrender which would 
have been death the contest was entered upon. 

Many heroes whose names emblazon the pages of history 
never exhibited the coolness and calculating courage of 
Ben Fitzpatrick in his first battle. He stood fearlessly by 
the side of his companions, fighting bravely until Cochran 
fell senseless, having been struck by the war club of an In- 


dian. As the Indian stooped to scalp his victim, Ben 
plunged his hunting knife to his heart, and, when the brave 
uttered his death yell, the boy attempted to remove his 
wounded comrade. At this moment young Watson handed 
Ben his gun, gathered up Cochran, and crying out "Now 
is our time, Ben," ran through the creek into the dark 
swamp beyond. 

They were now safe, for deep darkness had fallen, and 
their enemies feared to pursue them. Cochran recovered 
during the night, but diligent search failed to ascertain 
anything as to the fate of Dunlap; and, warned by the 
signal smokes of the enemy, the trio started early next 
morning for the nearest block-house east of the Ocmulgee. 


But Dunlap was not lost. He was shot through the 
left shoulder when the attack was first made, fainted and 
fell, and was scalped and left for dead. He lay hours, until 
nightfall half waking, half sleeping and dreaming. Sud- 
denly he felt a soft hand bathing his fevered head. He knew 
this kindness came not from savage hands, nor from the 
rough goodness of a fellow huntsman, for the sweetness of 
an angel's breath fanned his face. Pain was forgotten, 
yet he was afraid to move lest the charm should be broken 
and the vision vanish. Half unconscious, he whispered, as 
if by inspiration, "Nora." And the guardian angel hover- 
ed about him proved to be the Nora for whom he had been 
searching. She suppressed an involuntary scream as she 
recognized the object of her compassion, and, laying her 
hand on the face of her old friend, in a trembling voice 

" Oh ! my more than brother, have we met at last, after 
so many long and weary years of separation, each of which 
has seemed an eternity ? ' ' 

The recognition was mutual, but the meeting was too 
happy, too full of sacred joy, to be intruded upon. The 
wounds of Dunlap were carefully bound up by Nora, after 
the fashion of her companions from girlhood, and they at 


once removed as far as possible from the vicinity of the 
fight. They were not discovered the next morning and then 
commenced a long and weary journey homeward, which 
extended through many days. At last they saw the curling 
smoke arising from their native cabin. Here the long lost 
were greeted with joy, and at an early day there was a 
wedding Dunlap and Nora were united, and at once set- 
tled down to the realities of life. 

In 1796, fearing other molestations from the savages, 
who were then hostile to the whites, the Dunlap family sold 
their lands in Bibb and removed to Liberty County, Geor- 
gia, where, at the present time, many of their children's 
children may be found occupying high social positions. 


The boy, Ben Fitzpatrick, grew up to manhood in com- 
pany with his friend, Watson. Subsequently he removed 
to Montgomery, Ala., where he died a short time since. His 
career in his adopted State was an honored one, he having 
served in both branches of the National Congress and as 
Governor of the State. Governor Fitzpatrick was a cousin 
of Mrs. Cynthia Varner, of Indian Spring. After the In- 
dians, were removed from this section, Douglas Watson 
settled in Monroe County, where he resided until his de- 
cease, which occurred a few years^ago. Of the career of 
Cochran we have been unable to obtain any data. 

The foregoing history of the discovery of Indian Spring 
by the whites is not all fiction. It is an "o'er true tale." 
"Duggie" Watson, the hero of the foregoing pages he 
who feared the smell of gunpowder when he first looked 
upon the halfhidden spring, and fled has often repeated 
the history as we have given it in our hearing. 


The Indians entertained a superstition that it would be 
unwise for any of their tribe to make a permanent resi- 
dence near this "Healing water" because the noise and 
gambols of the squaws and papooses would drive the spell. 


from the water. Thus, as late as 1800, the visits of the raca 
to the Spring, though frequently made, were only tem- 
porary, and for a special purpose in each instance. The 
tents of the red man were always found on the adjacent 
hills, filled with invalids who were brought to be cured, 
and again returned to the war path or their hunting 
grounds. About the date named, Gen. "Wm. Mclntosh, a 
half breed, and a cousin of Gov. Troup, erected a cabin for 
his own use, and afterwards spent the summers here with 
his family. This broke the spell; and subsequently a Mr. 
Ollison erected a double-cabin, which was dignified with the 
title of hotel and for years was the only house of accomo- 
dation afforded visitors. The same gentleman afterwards 
erected a small corn mill, which stood near or on the site 
of the new mill now being completed by Col. H. J. Lamar. 
These were the only improvements made until after the 
treaty of 1821, and are remembered by a number of our 
old citizens. The Mclntosh cabin and the mill, were des- 
troyed by fire; what became of the hotel which stood upon 
the site of the north end of the Varner House, we cannot 

The "spell" was broken, and both races pitched their 
tents around the Spring annually for a number of years, 
mingling without open hostility. Watson and Fitzpatrick 
continued to act as scouts for the Government, making the 
Mclntosh cabin headquarters. Among the visitors were 
Messrs. Dred and Jonathan Phillips, of Jasper county, 
who brought a friend that had been afflicted with rheuma- 
tism, and unable to walk for years. A short stay served to 
restore the affllicted to his original health, when the party 
returned to their homes. While here the Phillips brothers 
observed the excellent condition of the Indian stock, which 
was attributed to the superabundance of cane then covering 
the extensive bottoms, and, as a speculation, brought over 
a large drove of cattle to pasture, which was left in the 
canebrake, but occasionally visited to be salted and in- 


spected. Subsequently this movement was interfered with, 
as we shall show. 


The rival factions of the Creeks were severally headed 
by Melntosh and Napothlehatchie the latter termed Big 
Warrior. Another leader with the Big Warrior clan was 
Hopoethleyoholo, who was said to have been the most bril- 
liant orator of the tribe. Through his influence the largest 
number of the tribe joined Big Warrior, and he subse- 
quently took an active part in opposing the treaties of 1821 
and 1825, concluded at Indian Spring. Notwithstanding 
the factions were bitterly opposed to each other, we have 
no record of any outbreak occurring until 1807. The Phil- 
lips brothers were also left undisturbed in their pursuit. 
The first disturbance occurred in June, 1807, when Big 
Warrior, with a party of his braves, entered the stables of 
Melntosh at night and stole all his horses. The same party 
also carried off the Phillips cattle. When advised of their 
loss, the Phillips brothers gathered their neighbors, and, 
on being joined by Watson and Fitzpatrick, pursued and 
overtook the plunderers about seventy miles lower down the 
Ocmulgee. After a desperate conflict the stock was recov- 
ered and Hopoethleyoholo made prisoner. This brave re- 
fused to smoke the pipe of peace with his captors, and 
actually spat in the face of the leader of the whites, who 
tendered the symbol of peace. This act aroused the ire of 
the whites, who were with difficulty persuaded by 
Watson to spare his life. The discussion among the whites 
was suddenly disturbed by Big Warrior, who rushed in 
with his followers, who had been reinforced, and recaptured 
the favorite orator. During this second brief struggle 
Dred Phillips was shot through the fleshy part of the left 
arm. The cattle were then driven back to the canebrakes 
of the Big Sandy, and again apparent quiet was the rule. 

But the fires of hatred were only smothered in the 
breast of Big Warrior. Watson and his companions were 
conversant with the machinations of the unfriendly chief, 


and anticipated an outbreak against both the whites and 
Mclntosh party, but no opportunity occurred, and all re- 
mained quiet until the war of 1812 was inaugurated. In 
this war the Mclntosh party which had been gradually 
gaining strength joined with the forces of the State and 
Government, and Big Warrior united with the public 
enemy. The struggle in Georgia during the war was bitter, 
and involved the loss of many whites as well as friendly 
Indians, and a heavy expense to the State. Upon the 
declaration of peace between Great Britain and the United 
States, peace again reigned in Georgia. 

At the close of the war the whites again began to re- 
sort to the Spring, and the sick were gathered from all 
quarters. The fame of the waters spread, and the wonder- 
ful cures effected appeared more like the result of magic 
than the effects of one of nature's great restorers. In 1816, 
Mrs. C. H. Varner, who yet lives in our midst, spent some 
time here ; and the scenes of primitive beauty and interest 
she then looked upon, and also the incidents that occurred, 
are distinctly remembered by the venerable lady, as if it 
were but yesterday. Gen. John W. Gordon first visited the 
Spring in 1819, and continued to spend a large portion 
of his time here every year until his death. During the 
sojourns of this gentleman at Indian Spring, he contributed 
largely to the improvements that were made ; and especial- 
ly was his generosity, through a long series of years, ex- 
hibited for the benefit of the needy and afflicted. At his 
decease he left numbers at Indian Springs who will ever 
bless his memory for the fruits of the seeds of kindness he 
was constantly in the habit of sowing. 

Among the early visitors was the veritable "Simon 
Suggs," who subsequently became distinguished as a wit 
and humorist. Douglass Walton, in his capacity of Gov- 
ernment scout, continued to make his headquarters here. 
In 1819, Mr. Jesse Jolley, Mr. John Lemon, and Mrs. Free- 
man, with her husband and family, located in Butts. The 


three first named are still living, and are among the most 
honored citizens of the county. 


Prior to 1721, efforts were made by the Government to 
secure possession of the lands in Georgia lying west of 
the Ocmulgee. The Mclntosh party favored such a treaty, 
while Big "Warrior and his adherents opposed it. After 
many consultations between the two parties, favorable con- 
clusions were arrived at, and the pipe of peace was passed. 
Big Warrior alone broke the faith thus cemented around the 
council-fires of his tribe ; Mclntosh was again faithful, and 
in 1821, he concluded a treaty with the agents of the 
government, by which the hunting grounds between the 
Ocmulgee and Flint Rivers were forever ceded away, ex- 
cepting a portion of the Ward plantation and six hundred 
and forty acres around the Spring. These reservations were 
made by Mclntosh for himself. The first embraced a large 
body of fertile land and the second the Spring, the medical 
properties of which Mclntosh well understood. This treaty 
was ratified in Washington, March 2d, 1821. 

This action of Mclntosh and his adherents aroused an- 
other feud between the rival wings of the tribe, which ended 
in a fierce battle. A heavy loss was sustained on both sides, 
the Mclntosh party suffering most severely. Big Warrior 
was slain, and thus his party were left without a leader. A 
little later the orator chief and Mclntosh met and smoked 
the calumet. How faithless the first named could prove to 
this solemn covenant will be shown. In 1823, General Mc- 
lntosh and Joel Bailey erected the main building of the 
Indian Spring Hotel, and opened it for the reception of 
visitors. This building is still yearly occupied for the 
purposes originally intended. About the same date other 
improvements were made, and Indian Spring became a 
favorite resort at that day. The visits of the whites 
increased rapidly, and they sought to secure residences, or 
camped out ; while the Indians, now peaceable, also flocked 
to the "Healing Water," 


By an agreement, all parties met at Indian Spring to 
consider a second treaty, early in February, 1825. The 
Government agents were protected by United States troops, 
and large forces of the opposing Indian factions were pres- 
ent. The negotiations were conducted in the hotel, and 
concluded February 7th, 1825. Under this treaty all the 
Indian possessions in Georgia were ceded to the whites, and 
an early removal of the tribe arranged for. 

The agency of General Mclntosh in bringing about this 
treaty resulted in his death within a few months. When 
it was announced that the treaty was concluded, Hopoethle- 
yoholo seized the occasion to give vent to his long pent-up 
wrath. The Indians of both the old factions were present 
in large numbers. All were excited. At last the orator 
chief mounted the large rock yet seen at the south end of 
the Varner House, and gave vent to his feelings and pur- 
poses in the following characteristic talk: 

''Brothers, the Great Spirit has met here with his 
painted children of the woods and their paleface brethren. 
I see his golden locks in the sunbeams ; he fans the warrior 's 
brow with his wings and whispers sweet music in the 
winds ; the beetle joins his hymn and the mocking bird his 
song. You are charmed ! Brothers, you have been deceiv- 
ed! A snake has been coiled in the shade and you are 
running into his open mouth, deceived by the double- 
tongue of the paleface chief (Mclntosh), and drunk with 
the fire-water of the paleface. Brothers, the hunting 
grounds of our fathers have been stolen by our chief and 
sold to the paleface. Whose gold is in his pouch? 
Brothers, our grounds are gone, and the plow of the pale- 
face will soon turn up the bones of our fathers. Brothers, 
are you tame? Will you submit? Hopoethleyoholo says 
no!" Then turning to Mclntosh, who was standing with 
the commissioners at a window a few feet distant, he 
continued: "As for you, double-tongued snake, whom I see 
through the window of the paleface, before many moons 


have waned your own blood shall wash out the memory of 
this hated treaty. Brothers, I have spoken. ' ' 

By this treaty the Spring became the property of the 
State and the ceded land was laid out in lots in 1826, the 
Commonwealth reserving ten acres arond the Spring for the 
benefit of her citizens then and thereafter. The act estab- 
lishing Butts County was passed in 1826. The village of 
Indian Spring was incorporated by legislative enactment in 
1837, and in 1866, a second act changed the name to Mc- 
Intosh and extended the limits of the incorporation. 


General Mclntosh and family removed to his planta- 
tion on the Chattahoochee, and evidently rested secure. 
But the avenger was on the war path, and the distinguished 
chieftain, who had rendered the whites such signal service, 
was doomed. 

In compliance with the advice of Hopoethleyoholo, a 
secret council was held, at which one hundred braves were 
selected to secure the vengeance desired, and these, headed 
by the wily orator, set out westward. When near his resi- 
dence, Mclntosh and his son-in-law, Hawkins, were seen by 
their hidden foe riding together. "They could then have 
been easily killed," says White's Statistics, "but their lives 
were spared for the moment to preserve a consistency so 
common in all plans of the Indians. They had determined 
to kill Mclntosh in his own yard, in the presence of his 
family, and to let his blood run upon the soil of that 
reservation which had been secured to him by the treaty. ' ' 
From the same authority we learn Mclntosh rode home 
unconscious of danger, while the savages prepared for their 
work. Lightwood was procured to fire the buildings. 
About three o'clock the premises were surrounded, and it 
was not until the torch had been applied to the outbuildings 
that the sleepers were aroused. Chilly Mclntosh, the chief's 
son who is yet living escaped through a window of one 
of the outhouses, and, running the gauntlet, swam the 
river. General Mclntosh, upon discovering his assailants, 


barricaded the door arid stood near it when it was forced. 
He fired on them, and at that moment one of his steadfast 
friends, Toma Tustinugse, fell upon the threshold riddled 
with balls. The chief then retreated to the second story, 
with four guns in his hand, which he continued to discharge 
from a window. He fought with great courage, and, aware 
that his end was near, determined to sell his life as dearly 
as possible. He was at this time the only occupant of the 
burning house ; for his two wives, Peggy and Susannah, 
who had been dragged into the yard, were heard imploring 
the savages not to burn him up, but to get him out of the 
house, and shoot him, as he was a brave man and an Indian 
like themselves. Mclntosh came down to the first floor, 
where he fell pierced with many balls. He was then seized 
and dragged into the yard. While lying there, the blood 
gushing from his wounds, he raised himself on one arm and 
surveyed his murderers with looks of defiance, and it was 
while so doing he was stabbed to the heart by an Ocfuskee 
Indian. The chief was scalped and the buildings plunder- 
ed and burned. The party then sought for Hawkins, 
whom they also killed. His body was thrown into the 


The family of General Mclntosh spent the summer of 
1826, at Indian Spring, where his two youngest daughters, 
who had been highly educated, spent their time in associat- 
ing alternately with the dusky maidens of their tribe and 
their palefaced sisters. During the visit one of the 
sisters created a decided sensation by eloping with an In- 
dian lover. A gentleman now residing in the vicinity who 
at that time was a little boy, whose parents were camped 
at the Spring, was at the Mclntosh cabin then situated on 
the lot north of the Varner Hotel when the occurrence 
took place. There were hundreds of Indians camped on 
the adjacent hills the friendly party on the south side 
of the creek and the adherents of Hypoethleyoholo on the 
north bank. The lover was a leading chief of the latter 


party, and the match was bitterly opposed by the Mclntosh 
family and their adherents who keenly remembered the 
sad events of the previous year ; but the young lovers, who 
had long since determined upon their course, cared not for 
opposition and well arranged their plans. 

On a bright Sunday morning our little white friend 
now an aged and respected citizen was swinging in the 
cabin with the two girls when an unusual commotion in 
the yard attracted the attention of all, and they rushed to 
the door. The young girl's favorite pony was hitched out- 
side. Coming up the hill from the creek was seen the 
determined lover, mounted, and accompanied by a score of 
his braves. On seeing him approach, his intended rushed 
into the cabin, and, amidst the tears and vehement protes- 
tations of her mother and sister, who were weeping bitterly, 
she rapidly cast off the habiliments of civilization and ar- 
rayed herself in a complete Indian costume. This accomp- 
lished, she turned to her weeping friends, and after much 
talk in the language of her tribe, she embraced them with- 
out shedding a tear, and rushed out, kissing her little 
friend, who was gazing upon the scene with wonder. The 
lover and his escort were drawn up near the gate; not a 
word was said, and the girl sprang upon her pony and 
took her place in the line behind her intended. Silently 
the party then moved down the hill, crossed the creek, and 
were soon out of sight. They were legally married at 
Lawrenceville, Gwinnett County, Georgia, and the union 
was a happy and prosperous one. Jackson, (Go,.,} Argus. 



The Mclntosh trail begins as far west as Talladega, Ala., 
and perhaps further, going eastward 3 miles above Senoia, 
in Coweta County, Georgia, where it diverges, one trail 
going to Augusta and the other via Indian Springs to 
Macon. Mrs. Yeandle has traced the trail from Augusta to 
Senoia. Perhaps some daughter will trace it to Macon 
from its point of divergence. I am tracing it west from 
the neighborhood of Senoia to Talladega, Ala. The trail 
runs about 3 miles north of Senoia, and near there Mc- 
lntosh built a fort, the ruins of which may still be seen. 
Senoia was given the name of a princess of the Cowetas. 
Her name is about all that remains of her, her history being 
buried in oblivion. The trail runs north of Turin, crosses 
Hegg Creek near the home of the Rev. Mr. Rees, then 
through Sharpsburg, north of Raymond, following part of 
the old Mclntosh road entering Newnan on the southeast, 
down Greenville street across Mrs. Atkinson's lot to La- 
Grange street, across Miss Long's lot and a livery stable 
lot into Spring street. The direct route is here uncertain, 
because of home-building, but it crosses the Central Rail- 
road into Roy Pork, on to an unusual road called Rocky 
road, which leads over a creek to the Chattahoochee, where 
it crosses the river west of the Mclntosh reserve. The 
reserve is a square mile in a sharp bend of the river, and 
on both sides of 'the Chattahoochee, being partly in Carroll 
County and party in Coweta, and at this bend the river 
runs for some distance west instead of south. On the 
Carroll side the Chief Mclntosh had his home, and there 
he was murdered by his race, in 1826. And there he is 
buried. The trail now runs almost due west across the 
southern part of Carroll County, Georgia, and across the 
northern parts of Clay and Randolph Counties, Alabama, 
into Talladega County, to the town of Talladega. This 
part of the trail is more certain than elsewhere, because the 
pioneers blazed the trail, cutting three notches into the 


numerous trees of the unbroken forest. Over this trail 
Andrew Jackson marched his troops against the British in 
1812-13-14-15, Mclntosh and his force going with him. The 
forests have gone down before the fields, and here is per- 
haps the finest white yeomanry in Georgia. It is considered 
that they produce the finest short staple cotton in the world. 
Schools and churches abound and the population is fast 
advancing in culture. But to take up the trail again: It 
leaves the reserve, going through Lowell, thence to Tyrus 
by Mexico campground ; then one-half mile north of Black 
Jack mountain through Buchanan town into Alabama, one- 
half mile north of Gratan postoffice by Bethel campground. 
Then crossing the little Tallapoosa on Saxon's bridge near 
Saxon's mill, on the Big Tallapoosa, where it crosses at 
Ridley's bridge through Chillafinnee, then goes on north of 
Ironton to Talladega, Alabama. Perhaps this trail goes 
further west than Talladega, but an effort to trace it has 
failed so far. Our Chapter still hopes to find whether it 
continues. No doubt the whole country was a network of 
trails, and this must antedate the time of Mclntosh. It 
must go back to the days when the Indians had no beasts 
of burden. MRS. R. H. HARDAWAY, Newnan, Ga. 




Blest is thy land, fair Georgia; 
From the mountains to the sea. 
The purpose of whose founders was 
The opprest from wrongs to free. 


Then hail to thee, our Georgia! 

For of the "Old Thirteen" 
No brighter star shone ever, 
Or ever shall be seen. 


"Not for themselves, but others," 
Was the way their motto ran; 
And in the path of mercy 
Did they early lead the van. 


Our fathers sought the "new world," 
With a motive grand and high, 

And faith in God hath ever 
Led our hopes unto the sky. 


And so on strong foundations, 
We see stately columns rise, 

As symbols of those virtues, 
That our Georgia people prize. 


A soldier guards the portals 
While a sunburst from above, 

Illumines arch and pillars 

With God's all protecting love. 


God grant our solons Wisdom, 
Let strict Justice hold the scale 

And Moderation guide the hand, 
That must make the law prevail. 
By J. T. Derry. 


Many of the states have a state song for the school children. 
Georgia has never yet had one. There are efforts being made to 
supply this deficiency. 

The founders of the colony of Georgia had a threefold purpose : 

First To provide a home for the honest debtor class of Great 
Britain, so that in the new world they might have a new chance. 

Second To offer to persecuted sects of Europe a refuge form 

Third -To oppose a barrier against Spanish aggression upon 
the colony of South Carolina. 

The raising of silk and indigo were to be the chief industries 
of the new colony. The trustees were to make for themselves no 
profit out of their enterprises. Hence on one side of the seal 
adopted for the colony of Georgia by the trustees was a represen- 
tation of silk worms busy at their work and the motto was: "Non 
sibi, Sed Aliis," which means, "Not for themselves, but for others." 

When Georgia became a state a seal was adopted on the 
front side of which are represented three columns, marked : 
"Wisdom, Justice, Moderation," which support the arch of the 
constitution. On arch and pillar shine the rays of the rising sun. 
A soldier with drawn sword guards the approaches. 

With these two seals, one of the colony and the other of the 
state as the inspiration, the above song has been suggested, the 
words being by Professor J. T. Derry and the music by Mrs. 
Albert T. Spalding, both of Atlanta, Ga.