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THE 



Revolutionary Soldiers I 

J :i.!ii!!»fj 



Redding, Conned:icut 



W. E. GRUMMAN 




Class r \ ^jjX- 

Book Lfi^^ikjS- 

CopyrightN' 



COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT. 



THE 

Revolutionary Soldiers 



OF 



REDDING, 

Connefticut, 



And The 



Record of their Services; 



WITH 



Mention of Others who Rendered Service or 
Suffered Loss at the hands of the Enemy during 

the Struggle for S^ntJcpenticnce, 1775-1783; 

together with some Account of the Loyalists 
of the Town and Vicinity; their Organiza- 
tion, their Efforts and Sacrifices in Behalf of 
the Cause of their King, and their Ultimate Fate. 

By 
WILLIAM EDGAR GRUMMAN. 





HJRTFORD PRESS: 

The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, 

1904. 



LIBRAKYof congress] 


Two Copresi 


Haceivcu 


DEC 21 


liJU4 


. Copyritm entry ( 


Jhof 2<J 


19^^ 


CUSS a 


XXc. Nui 


COPY B. 1 



1 0^ 



Copyright, 1904 
By William E. Grumman. 



Age Jollozving age Jh all these events relate. 
Till Timers old empire yield to dejHned Jate ; 
Hijioric truth our guardian chiejs proclaim 
Their xoorth, their actions, and their deathlejs fame. 

Joel Barlow: The Prospeit of Peace. 



CONTENTS. 



Alarm, Fairfield, 






93 


" New Haven, 






92 


" Norwalk, 






93 


American Union Lodge, 






86 


" " " Banquets, 






88,89 


Brandywine, Battle of the, . 






68 


British Orders, Reports, &c., 






51 


Regts in Danbury Raid, 






41 


Burgoyne's Expedition, 






66 


Camp, Departure from, 






91 


Company Rolls, 




20, 


36, 72 


Compo, Fighting at. . 






49 


Danbury, Burning of, 






46 


Raid, . . 






36 


Declaration of Colonial Rights, 






13 


Independence, 






29 


Evacuation of Long Island, 






32 


Fourth Conn. Militia, Service of. 




47, 


71, 95 


Ft. Washington, Capture of. 






34 


Gallows Hill, Executions on. 






84 


Germantown, Battle of. 






70 


Hanging Rock, Fight at. 






97 


Horseneck, 






85 


Long Island Campaign, 






28 


Longlots, The, 






10 


Loyalists Disarmed; 






27 


Treatment of. 






13 


Ludlow, Roger, 






9 


Monmouth, Battle of, 






77 


Patriot Soldiers at Danbury, 






60 


Quebec, Assault on. 






26 


Redding, Committee of Observation 






15 


Encampment at. 






78 


" Loyalist Association, 






14 


Petition of, 






75 


Settlement of. 






II 


Retreat from New York, 






32 


Returns, Killed and Wounded, 






56,57 


Stores Destroyed, 






55 


Ridgefield, Fight at. 






47 


Saratoga, Battle of. 






69,72 


Second Conn. Brigade, Mutiny of. 




» 


81 


Stamp Act, 






12 


St. Johns, Siege of. 






21 


Sugar House, The, 






63 


Tories, Exile of. 






104 


Town Votes, 27, 36, 50, 68, 75, 76, 


80, 92, 


35, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, I 


03, 104 


Valley Forge, 






74 


White Plains, Battle of. 






33 


" " Flag of Truce, 






33 


Wooster, Death of, 






47 


Yorktown, Siege of. 






lOI 



TO THE READER. 

This volume is presented to the public with diffidence and the fear 
that its contents may not withstand the test of literary criticism. But 
the fear of criticism is not unknown to writers of greater ability, and 
the compiler is satisfied that his work must prove interesting to those 
for whom it was written. 

Had such a work been undertaken a half century ago, far more 
interesting and satisfactory results could have been obtained. The 
Revolutionary soldiers had passed to rest, but the generation which 
succeeded them was still largely represented among men. Vast stores 
of Revolutionary anecdote were known to the immediate descendants 
of our patriot sires, but these people and their traditions are alike rap- 
idly passing away. In their day, also, much historical material in manu- 
script or other documentary form is known to have existed, great part 
of which found its way through the hands of thrifty housewives to the 
sacks of the peddler's wagon, and as we contemplate this melancholy 
fact, it is impossible to repress a feeling of resentment toward that 
economical generation which bartered history for tinware. In this 
and other ways many valuable records have passed out of existence. 
Flame and the careless hand and uncertain memory of man have lost 
us much that would now be treasured with reverent care. But we must 
be content with what we have, thankful that so much has been rescued 
from oblivion, and hopeful that patient research or fortunate discovery 
may yet add something more to our knowledge of that interesting 
period of our country's history. 

In the preparation of this work, the writer has availed himself of all 
tlie material within reach, and offers the result of his labors with the 
hope that its perusal may lead his readers to a better knowledge of 
some of the men and events of the Revolutionary period, and instil 
into their minds a more earnest desire to preserve and perpetuate that 
liberty which was proclaimed " throughout all the land, to all the 
inhabitants thereof." 

An enumeration of the sources from which the material contained 
in this book has been derived would form a very considerable addition 
to a task which the writer is glad to regard as completed ; he therefore 
does not attempt it. It seems proper, however, to express here his 
obligations to certain individuals whose kind assistance, through the 
medium of suggestion, advice, or other means, has led to the discovery 
of valuable material ; notably, to the librarians of the Lenox Library of 
New York and of the Connecticut State and Historical Libraries ; to 



8 TO THE READER. 

Mr. John N. Nickerson, town clerk of Redding, for free access to the 
town records; to Mr. Charles Burr Todd for permission to quote from 
his works, and to numerous friends, not less valued because unnamed 
whose contributions have enabled the author to more fully complete 
records which add much to the interest of the volume. 

A brief index has been added to the historical section. From the 
arrangement of the biographical portion of the work, an index is there 
considered unnecessary. 

The illustrations in this work have been procured with considerable 
difficulty. The cut of Putnam's headquarters, taken from Barber's 
Connecticut Historical Collection," was obtained through the courtesy 
of Mr. Albert C. Bates, librarian of the Historical Society; the photo- 
graphs of Rev. Mr. Bartlett, the guardhouse, and Gallows Hill were 
secured by Mr. F. E. Readman, photographer, of Norwalk, Conn., and 
SIX halftones are the work of the Hartford Engraving Company. 
Ihe Illustrations of the entrance and monument at Putnam Memorial 
Camp were kindly loaned by Mr. George A. Parker, of the Camp 
Commission. 

For the British orders, reports, returns, and correspondence the 
author ,s principally indebted to Messrs. B. F. Stevens and Brown of 
London, England. 



MiLITARY HISTORY. 

Almighty Freedom ! give my venturous song 
Tile force, tlie charm that to thy voice belong. 
'Tis thine to shape my course, to light my way, 
To nerve my country with the patriot lay. 
To teach all men where all their interest lies ; 
How rulers may be just and nations wise. 
Strong in thy strength I bend no suppliant knee; 
Invoke no miracle, no muse but thee. 

Joel Barlow — The Coluinbiad, Book I. 

I. 

EARLY HISTORY — EVENTS PRECEDING THE REVOLU- 
TION—BEGINNING OF HOSTILITIES — THE NORTH- 
ERN CAMPAIGN. 

The history of New England is the story of the growth of 
independence. The desire for hberty was the motive which 
led to its permanent colonization. " To enjoy religious liberty 
was the known end of the first comers' great adventure into 
this wilderness." The courage with which these early settlers 
braved the dangers of their wilderness home shows the value 
they set upon this freedom, since neither peril nor misfortune 
could force them to return to a land where independent opinion 
was denied them. The forms of government which they in- 
stituted among themselves, the vigor and determination with 
which they resisted foreign aggression and monarchical despot- 
ism, exhibit their devotion to the cause of civil liberty. Among 
all classes in this new land grew the desire for the enjoyment 
of freedom in larger measure than they had ever known before. 
The contentions which arose for the absolute ownership of 
the soil, for the privilege of self-government, for representation 
in the national councils, and the increasing desire for social 
privileges, educational advantages, and opportunities for ad- 
vancement, were contributory to the causes of the great strug- 
gle which taught " rulers to be jttst and nations wise." What 
part was borne in this conflict by the men who dwelt among 
our rugged hills, these pages may reveal. 

It is to Roger Ludlow, among the leaders who planted the 



lO EARLY HISTORY. 

seed of independence in New England's rock-bound soil, that 
we are indebted for the particular effort at colonization which 
finally resulted in the settlement of Redding and the develop- 
ment of its history. A gentleman by birth, a lawyer by pro- 
fession, he came early to New England, and soon made his 
influence felt in the shaping of public afifairs. Removing from 
]\'Iassachusetts Bay, he became prominent in the public service 
of the colony of Connecticut, was one of the leaders in the set- 
tlement at Windsor, and in 1639 we find him a spectator of 
the struggle that ensued when the troops under Capt. John 
Mason drove the Pequots into their last stronghold in the 
recesses of the Sasqua swamp. In the following year, com- 
missioned to plant a settlement at Pequonnock, he passed 
beyond his appointed destination, and on the fertile plains of 
Uncoway, near the scene of the " swamp fight," he founded 
the town of Fairfield. Here he made his home for fifteen 
years, standing high in the councils of town and colony, and 
aiding the growth of the community of which he was the 
fovmder. At the end of this period, with political ambitions 
disappointed, embroiled in dissensions which grew out of the 
delusion of witchcraft, and sufifering financial reverses, he 
turned his steps away from the fair town he had founded, and 
disappeared into the mists of history. But, under other able 
leaders, the settlement grew in power, numbers, and influence, 
pressed back the boundaries of the red man's domain, and ex- 
tended its territory, its commerce, and its importance. Jealous 
of their hard-won freedom, and desirous that neither king nor 
peer should establish overlordship among them, the settlers 
hastened to acquire the best title they could to the lands they 
occupied, and to parcel out among themselves all new lands 
to which they could obtain access. Individual grants, large 
and small, were matters of frequent record, one of the most 
remarkable of these being that curious division of territory 
known as " the Longlots " — strips of land less than one hun- 
dred rods in width, but running back twelve or fifteen miles 
into the country. By degrees the settlement expanded till, 
meeting the confines of other comn:iunities on either hand, it 
began slowly to reach out toward the higher grounds to the 
northward. As it moved on, the wigwam of the savage was 
displaced by the solitary log-house of the settler, which in 



EARLY HISTORY. II 

time was surrounded by other dwellings, and hamlets appeared 
where pathless forests had grown. The church and the school- 
house took their places as factors in the moral and material 
advancement of the people as, step by step, civilization ad- 
vanced along the highlands, and the spirit of liberty kept pace 
beside it. 

The first indication of settlement in that section which at 
length became the town of Redding is found in the record of 
a large grant of land to a single individual, follov/ed by other 
grants or sales to eager speculators. Then we have a glimpse 
of its tiny settlement of three widely-separated habitations, 
their only highway a forest path. Later, a rude church ap- 
pears, which, during the Revolution, was the scene of other 
than devotional exercises, serving the purpose of a town hall 
as well. By the middle of the eighteenth century Redding 
had become a parish numbering upward of one thousand souls, 
and an agitation for township privileges resulted, in 1767, in 
its erection into a separate town. 

Before the separation from the parent town took place, 
trouble between the colonies and the royal government had 
developed and had already assumed serious proportions. 
These difficulties had long been accumulating. For years the 
colonists had warily guarded their rights and privileges against 
attempted encroachments and aggressions, resorting to dip- 
lomacy and conciliatory measures when such could be success- 
fully employed, and to open opposition only when all other 
means had failed. At various periods of their history they 
had been compelled to resist the efforts of royal despots for 
the subversion of their liberties, and from the days of Cromwell 
such attempts were a constant menace to them. Yet through 
all, they remained steadfast in their allegiance to the crown, 
rendering at all times such aid as lay in their power. During 
the several wars witli France, which extended to the American 
continent, the colonies contributed both men and means to 
aid the armies of England. The effort to lay upon the colonies 
the burden of wars which they had not provoked was regarded 
by them as a flagrant injustice, and after the conclusion of the 
last French war the attempt to tax the Americans to pay the 
expenses of the conflict roused the mdignation of the people. 
Blood they had spilled and treasure they had spent to main- 



12 BEGINNING OF HOSTILITIES. 

tain the honor and supremacy of the mother country, and they 
had reaped ingratitude. The passage of the Stamp Act in 
1765 roused public feeling to fever Heat. Public officials 
charged with the enforcement of the act were forced to resign. 
Its repeal but temporarily delayed the gathering storm. The 
imposition, in 1767, of a tax on tea and other imports, and 
the attempt to collect revenue thereon, caused the anger of 
the people to break out afresh. But this time the British 
ministry was determined to enforce its authority, and the 
Americans were as firmly resolved on resistance. Seizures 
of property and other acts of British officials led to open hos- 
tility ; collisions occurred between the English soldiery which 
had been sent to America and the joeople of the towns where 
they were quartered ; blood was shed, and an implacable hatred 
aroused in the breasts of the colonists. The partial repeal of 
the duties failed to allay the excitement. The nocturnal ex- 
cursion of the " Boston Tea Party " exasperated the ministry, 
which, in reprisal, closed the port of Boston through the agency 
of the Port Bill, thus cutting off all supplies for that city by 
water. Immediately the colonists took up the cause of their 
Boston brethren, and resolutions of sympathy and approval 
of their conduct were voted, and supplies were forwarded 
from all sections. Words of encouragement, and aid of a 
more substantial nature, were the contributions of many of the 
Connecticut towns. 

From this time forward the hOvStility engendered by the 
acts of the home government became more pronounced and 
active, involving not only the military representatives of the 
crown, but also the civil authorities acting under royal com- 
mission and the large minority whose interests inclined them 
to the support of the royal cause, to which they were resolved 
to adhere, while regretting the policy which brought about 
such a critical state of affairs. To these was opposed an ele- 
ment bent on governmental reform, in a mood to defy all 
authority, and to visit its displeasure by violent methods upon 
those who opposed the popular will.. Intermingled with these 
classes was a considerable number of citizens whose opinions 
were not yet definitely formed, and whom circumstances might 
sway to either side. As the crisis approached, the rage of the 
populace was specially visited upon those who upheld the 



EVENTS OF 1775- 1 3 

course of the royal government. Resort was had to acts of 
violence. The tories were mobbed, plundered, intimidated, 
tarred and feathered, carted about the public streets as a public 
spectacle. Such acts, though indefensible, are inseparable 
from the conditions accompanying a great popular upheaval, 
and have had their counterparts in more recent history. Pri- 
vate malice and a spirit of mischief, as well as patriotic fervor 
and popular indignation, furnished pretexts for these unlawful 
proceedings. To prevent such outrages Congress had com- 
mitted the care of tories and suspected persons to the various 
committees of inspection and observation, but these were not 
alvvavs efficient in the performance of their duties. 

Redding was not free from this species of disorder. Here, 
as elsewhere, were the elements necessary for its production : 
the firm loyalist, the inflexible patriot, the lawless character. 
To what extent the animosities bred by the political discords 
of previous }ears had been carried is not shown, but the begin- 
ning of the year 1775 inaugurated a miniature reign of terror 
for the tories of this vicinity. The proceedings of the Con- 
tinental Congress of September 5, 1774, furnished the occasion 
for a m.ovement on the part of the tories which led to the most 
unhappy results. The Congress adopted a declaration of rights, 
claiming the enjoyment of life, liberty, and property as natural 
rights, and the common law of England as the heritage of the 
colonists; declared the people bound by no law to which they 
had not consented through their own representatives ; asserted 
the right of local government by colonial assemblies, and the 
right to trial by juries selected from the people; denied to 
Parliament all power of taxation; protested against the quar- 
tering of standing armies upon the colonies without tlieir con- 
sent ; denounced eleven recent parliamentary acts ; and formed 
an " American Association," pledging its members to entire 
commercial non-intercourse with Great Britain and its de- 
pendencies, or with any American colony which failed to up- 
hold the association, until all obnoxious legislation should be 
repealed. Committees were to be appointed in every locality 
throughout the colonies to detect violators of the association, 
with whom all dealings were to be broken off. The " Declara- 
tion of Colonial Rights " came very near being a declaration 
of independence. 



14 READING LOYALIST ASSOCIATION. 

These proceedings were looked upon with anxiety and 
alarm by loyahsts everywhere, who saw the peace and security 
of the country, as well as their own personal interests, jeopard- 
ized thereby. They at once formed loyalist associations, pro- 
testing against the resolves of the patriot Congress. A con- 
siderable number of the tories of Fairfield County organized 
under the name of the " Reading Loyalist Association," and 
in February, 1775, caused a series of resolutions to be pub- 
lished in James Rivington's Gazetteer at New York, publicly 
declaring their sentiments relative to the proceedings of Con- 
gress and the acts of the American Association. Their story 
can be most fitly and fully presented by the republication of 
the original documents, as given in Force's " American Ar- 
chives " : 

READING (CONN.) ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Rivington : In the present critical situation of publick affairs, 
we the subscribers, Freeholders and Inhabitants of the town of Reading, 
and the adjoining parts, in the County of Fairfield, and Colony of 
Connecticut, think it necessary, (through the columns of your Paper) 
to assure the publick that we are open enemies to any change in the 
present happy Constitution ; and highly disapprove of all measures in 
any degree calculated to promote confusion and disorder ; for which 
purpose, and in order to avoid the general censure incurred by a great 
part of this Colony from the mode of conduct here adopted for the 
purpose of opposing the British Government, we have entered into the 
following Resolves and Agreements, viz : 

First. Resolved, That while we enjoy the privileges and immuni- 
ties of the English Constitution, we will render all due obedience to his 
most gracious Majesty King George the Third, and that a firm depend- 
ence on the mother country is essential to our political safety and 
happiness. 

Second. Resolved, That the privileges and immunities of this Con- 
stitution are yet (in a good degree) continued to all his Majesty's 
American subjects, except those who, we conceive, have justly for- 
feited their title thereto. 

Third. Resolved, That we suppose the Continental Congress was 
constituted for the purpose of restoring harmony between Great 
Britain and her Colonies, and removing the displeasure of his Majesty 
towards his American subjects, whereas, on the contrary, some of their 
Resolutions appear to us immediately calculated to widen the present 
unhappy breach, counteract the first principles of civil society, and in 
a great degree abridge the privileges of their constituents. 

Fourth. Resolved, That notwithstanding we will in all circum- 
stances, conduct with prudence and moderation, we consider it an indis- 
pensable duty we owe to our King and Constitution, our country and 



READING LOYALIST ASSOCIATION. 



15 



posterity, to defend, maintain, and preserve, at the risk of our lives and 
properties, the prerogative of the crown, and the privileges of the sub- 
ject from all attacks by any rebellious body of men, any Committees of 
Inspection, Correspondence, &c. 

[Signed by one hundred and forty one Inhabitants, whose names are 
to be seen at the Printer's.] 

Immediately upon the publication of this document the 
patriots of Redding set themselves to work to discover the 
signers of the instrument. This does not seem to have been 
a matter of great difficulty, for presently a list of the Redding 
subscribers was made public. 



READING (CONN.) COMMITTEE. 

Whereas, there was a certain number of Resolves published in James 
Rivington's Gazetteer, of the 22,^ of February, 1775, and said by said 
Rivington to be signed by one hundred and forty one Freeholders and 
Inhabitants of the Town of Reading, and the adjacent parts, in the 
County of Fairfield, and Colony of Connecticut; and whereas said 
Resolves are injurious to the rights of this. Colonj-, and breathe a spirit 
of enmity and opposition to the rights and liberties of all America, and 
are in direct opposition to the Association of the Continental Congress ; 
and notwithstanding said Resolutions were come into with a (seeming) 
view to secure the said signers some extraordinary privileges and 
immunities, yet either through negligence in the Printer, or upon 
design of the subscribers, said signed names are not made publick : 
And now, if there be any advantage in adopting those principles, we are 
willing they should be entitled thereto; and for which end, and for 
the more effectual carrying into execution said Association we have 
taken some pains, and by the assistance of him who carried said 
Resolves to said Printer, we have obtained the whole of said names. 
But as we mean not to publish the names of any except those that 
belong to said Reading, their names are as follows, viz : 



David Knap 
Andrev/ Knap 
Daniel Lyon 
Nehemiah Seely, Jun. 
Stephen Lacy 
James Adams 
Zaccheus Morehouse 
Ephraim Whitlock 
Jabez Lyon 
Prince Hawse 
Andrew Patchen 
Ezekiel Hill 
David Manrow 



Daniel Morehouse 
Ephraim Deforest 
Lazarus Beach 
Seth Hull 
Hezekiah Piatt 
Zebulon Piatt 
Timothy Piatt 
Lazarus Wheeler 
Joshua Hall 
Jonathan Knap 
James Gray 
Peter Lyon 
John Drew 



Jonathan Meeker 
Samuel Hawley 
Jonathan Mallery, Jr. 
John Seymour 
Jesse Bearslee 
Darling Gyer 
Ebenezer Williams 
Paul Bartram 
John Gyer 
Abel Burr 
Shubael Bennet 
John Picket 
John Picket, Jun. 



i6 



READING LOYALIST ASSOCIATION. 



John Lyon James Morgan 

John Mallery Nathaniel Gyer 

John Raymond Asa Norton 

Eli Lyon Eleazur Olmsted 

Enos Wheeler Isaac Bimnell 

David Crowfoot Thaddeus Gyer 

Thomas Munson William Manrow 

Nehemiah Seely Joseph Gyer 

Charles McNeil John Sherwood 

Stephen Betts Simeon Munger 

Ephraim Meeker Joseph Burr 
John Layne 

N. B. There are only forty-two Freeholders in the above number : 
there are several minors, &c., to make the above number of seventy- 
four, that belong to said Reading, and we hereby hold them up to 
publick view, as opposers to the Association of said Congress. 

Signed by order of the Committee of Observation for said Town of 
Reading. 

Ebenezer Couch, Chairman. 



Obed Hendrix 
Isaac Piatt 
Enos Lee 
John Lee 
Nathaniel Barlow 
Asael Patchen 
Benjamin Sturgis 
Ebenezer Sturgis 
William Lee 
Seth Banks 
David Turney 
John Sandford 



Something like taunt and sarcasm is apparent in this cir- 
cular of the Redding committee. Whether such was its intent, 
such was evidently its effect. After consultation, the loyalists 
resolved to make a stand, and, through the medium they had 
previously employed, boldly declared their entire membership. 
The answer to the committee appeared in Rivington's paper: 

Mr. Rivington : You are desired by many staunch friends of the 

King and the Constitution, in this Colony, to insert the names of the 

subscribers to the Reading Association, as published in the Gazetteer, 

on the 23"^ of February. ■ 

John Lyon. 



Capt. Joshua Hall 
Capt. James Morgan 
Lieut. Daniel Lyon 
Lieut. Peter Lyon 
Ensign Sam Hawley 
David Knap 
Stephen Betts 
Timothy Piatt 
Joseph Lyon 
Lazarus Beach 
Seth Hull 
John San ford 
James Gray, Jun. 
John Lyon 



John Drew 
John Mallery 
John Mallery, Jun. 
Ephraim Meeker 
Ephraim Deforest 
James Adams 
Joseph Burr 
Hezekiah Piatt 
Zebulon Piatt 
Jesse Bardslee 
Jonathan Knap 
Simeon Munger 
Prince Hawes 
John Seymour 



John Hall 
Moses Knap 
Neil McNeil 
Barnard Kane 
C. McNeil 
Jabez Lyon 
Calvin Wheeler 
Lazarus Wheeler 
Enos Wheeler 
Stephen Lacy 
Dr. Asa Norton 
Jonathan Meaker 
John Lane 
Neh. Seely, Jun. 



READING LOYALIST ASSOCIATION. 



17 



Zaccheus Morehouse 
Ephraim Whitlock 
Andrew Patchen 
Ezekiel Hill 
Daniel Morehouse 
William Caldwell 
Ebenezer Lyon 
Peter Thorn 
Peter Jackson 
David Munro 
Jabez Adams 
John Bartram 
Andrew Knap 
David Turny 
Gersham Bulkley 
John Raymond 
Eli Lyon 
Nathaniel Guyer 
Ephraim Robbins 
Isaac Bunnell 
Darling Guyer 
David Crofut 
Thomas Munson 
Jonathan Lyon 
Gersham Lyon, Jun 
Jesse Lyon 
Thomas Lyon 
Stephen Couch 
Ebenezer Williams 
Paul Bartram 
John Guyer 
Abel Burr 
Abel Burr, Jun. 
Shubael Bennet 



Eleazer Olmsted 
Obed Hendrix 
Abner Gilbert 
Isaac Piatt 
Jonathan Burr 
William Manrow 
Enos Lee 
Silas Lee 
John Lee 
Nathaniel Lee 
Joseph Fairchild 
Nathaniel Barlow 
Thaddeus Guyer 
Joseph Guyer 
Asael Patchen 
Ben. Sturges 
John Sherwood 
Ebenezer Sturges 
William Lee 
Seth Banks 
John Byington Jun. 
John Pickwit 
John Pickwit, Jun. 
Abel Piatt 
Joseph Piatt 
Neb. St. John 
Israel Rowland 
Silas Griffin 
William Bradley 
William Hambleton 
James Rowell, 
Joseph Edwards, Jun. 
C. Fairchild 
J. Morehouse 



Isaac Drew 
Peter Drew 
Benjamin Williams 
Samuel Judd Jun. 
James Gray 
Nehemiah Whitlock 
Samuel Judd 
Ezra Kellogg 
Jabez Taylor Jun. 
Silas Taylor 
Jonathan Judd 
Benjamin Bailey 
William Judd 
Hezekiah Whitlock 
Samuel Hoyt, Jun. 
James Hoyt 
Samuel Bailey 
Michael Benedict 
Comfort Barnum 
Ezra Percy 
Nathaniel Picket 
Elijah Barnum 
Ebenezer Whitlock 
James Davis 
Solomon Cutis 
Daniel Cascis 
Nehemiah Seely 
Peter Bulkley 
Ebenezer Mills 
John Drew 
Nathan Mallery Jun. 
Josiah Piatt 



N. B. Obadiah Piatt having been proscribed in Mr. Gaines Paper, 
on a suspicion of subscribing the Association, the publick may be 
assured the above is the very list delivered to the Printers and that 
Obadiah Piatt's name was not inserted in it. 

There are no signers to this piece under twenty-one years of age. 

Then the storm broke. The members of the association 
being- piibhcly known, were now committed to the support of 
the royal government or to the necessity of submitting to the 
demands of the dominant party. Men of various shades of 
opinion were among the signers of the resolves : ardent loyal- 
ists, conservative citizens, timid individuals seeking the safe 



l8 TREATMENT OF LOYALISTS. 

side, for absolute unanimity is not to be found in any com- 
bination of men. Each had placed his own interpretation on 
the document he signed, and affixed his name with whatever 
mental reservations he chose to make. 

Many of the loyalist associators were induced, by means 
more readily guessed than known, to refrain from active oppo- 
sition to the patriots ; the course of events soon brought some 
of them into complete accord with the opponents of the home 
government; but upon the heads of those who persisted in 
upholding the royal authority the wrath of the people fell with 
unmitigated severity. Just what was done with these unfor- 
tunate persons may be inferred from statements made in a 
preceding paragraph, or learned from personal records in 
another part of this volume. The severity of their treatment 
exceeded their powers of endurance. The harassed tories 
fled to the forest, and, hidden in caves and thickets, watched 
and waited for an opportunity to place themselves under royal 
protection. No other refuge could they find, for the British 
army was far away, soon to be besieged in Boston, and finally 
to be forced out of the country altogether, and it was many 
months before the arrival of royal troops at New York brought 
the prospect of deliverance. Even then, escape to the British 
lines was an undertaking of extreme difficulty and peril, for 
the vigilant patriots guarded every avenue of retreat. The 
lines of the American army barred passage by land to New 
York, and the patriots seem early to have secured all the water 
craft on the northern coast of Long Island Sound, so that 
flight by water was only rendered possible by the aid of ex- 
peditions from the opposite shore. Nevertheless, many of the 
Redding loyalists got away during the course of the \var, took 
refuge within the British lines, and even bore arms against 
their former neighbors. 

Such was the state of affairs in the town of Redding when 
the fateful 19th of April, 1775, dawned upon the American 
colonies, and the country was electrified by the news of the 
affair at Lexington. The legislature was immediately con- 
vened, and authorized the embodiment of one-fourth of the 
militia, to be formed into six regiments of about one thousand 
men each. Soon the war-drums were calling the people to 
arms, and, while they were preparing for the field, news came 



BUNKER HILL. 



19 



of the bloodless capture of Ticonderoga, with its immense 
stores of war material, including nearly two hvmdred cannon 
of various kinds and calibres, one hundred stand of arms, and 
large quantities of ammunition and commissary stores. This 
exploit, planned, organized, led and executed by Connecticut 
men, and paid for out of the Connecticut treasury, stood out 
in strong contrast to the expedition against Concord, where 
the king's troops had spilled so much of their blood to disable 
a few cannon and destroy sixty barrels of flour. Then, while 
public excitement was at its highest pitch, came the terrific 
climax of Bunker Hill, where the martial pride and power of 
Great Britain were humbled by a few hundred undisciplined 
and toil-weary farmers, and a profitless victory secured to 
the royal arms only after an unparalleled slaughter. 

No Redding man, so far as known, received his baptism of 
fire in that blaze of battle, which strewed the slopes of Bunker 
Hill with the forms of gallant men. But they heard the story 
— our soldiers and our people — of the midnight assembly 
of troops and the march to the hill ; of the hours of toil in the 
darkness, unsuspected by the enemy in town or fleet till day- 
light revealed their work, when the roar of cannon, the tramp 
of assembling battalions, the sight of housetops and hillsides 
crowded with eager, anxious spectators, nerved the tired pat- 
riots for the coming ordeal of battle, toiling on, weary, thirsty, 
hungry, while the British soldiery crossed the river, formed in 
splendid array, ate their noonday meal at leisure — the last 
for so many of them — as shot and shell flew incessantly over 
their heads, then rose to their places in line, and advanced upon 
that weak defense, only to fall by hundreds before a withering 
blast of musketry, or be hurled in headlong haste back upon 
the river; and how, at last, they won the hill, not by superior 
numbers, or courage, or discipline, or leadership, but solely 
because the ammunition of the defenders was exhausted, and 
more could not be had. But the encounter intensified the spirit 
of resistance, bred contempt of the military prestige of Britain, 
and inspired the soldiers of the colonies with the hope of bril- 
liant achievement. In this spirit, doubtless, the soldiers of 
our town went forward to the task assigned them. An invasion 
of Canada had been projected, with the intention of gaining 
the British posts in that region, and of bringing over its in- 



20 



THE NORTHERN CAMPAIGN. 



habitants to the support of the colonies. For this purpose 
some three thousand troops were mobiUzed, consisting of one 
reg-iment from New York and two from Connecticut. The 
Fifth Connecticut, commanded by Col. David Waterbury, con- 
tained a company recruited from Redding and vicinity, and 
led by a Redding officer, Captain Zalmon Read. The roll of 
this company carries nearly one hundred names, about one- 
third of which are easily recognizable as those of Redding men. 



TENTH COMPANY, FIFTH REGIMENT CONNECTICUT LINE. 



Capt. Zalmon Read 
Lieut. Ezekiel Sanford 
Lieut. David Peet 
Ensign Benj. Nichols 
Aaron Hull 
Gideon Peet 
Aaron Barlow 
Daniel Silliman 
Daniel Couch 
Aaron Sanford 
Samuel Barlow 
Jabez Burr 
Reuben Peet 
Abijah Gregory 
Stephen Hurlbut 
Ebenezer Burr 
Daniel Robinson 
Abraham Adams 
Andrew Patchen 
Charles White 
Daniel Gorhani 
Daniel Bartlet 
David Sturges 
Daniel Read 
Daniel Blackman 
David Hubble 
David Minot 
David Pembleton 
Daniel Piatt 
Elijah Sears 
Eliphalet Hubbard 



Francis Hutenac 
Gershom Salmon 
George Perry 
Henry Hopkins 
Jeremiah Batterson 
John Parsons 
Jesse Rowland 
Jos. Dickson 
Jery Jarsbon 
Jery Riand 
John Blackman 
Jonathan Ford 
Joshua Jackson 
Jedediah Wells 
Israel Clifford 
Enoch Towner 
Stephen Hall 
Israel Barnum 
Jasper Jones 
Joseph Merrit 
Martin Patchen 
Matthew Hall 
Nathan Rumsay 
Phineas Squier 
Ruben Nichols 
Samuel Gilbert 
Sturges Lines 
Solomon Green 
William Bunet 
Zibe Westcote 
Jack Sherwood 



John Squier 
David Fairchild 
Daniel Osborn 
Ephraim Butler 
Elias Brisby 
Ezbun Hubble 
John Byington 
Jos. Whitlock 
John Jones 
John Blackman Jr. 
Jos. Jackson 
Isaac Fairchild 
James Judson 
John Fairchild 
Nathan Coley 
Samuel Gould 
Stephen Meeker 
Asael Turrell 
David Bennet 
Elijah Elmore 
Ebenezer Gilbert 
Ebenezer French 
Jediah Rigs 
Morris Griffin 
Nathan Blackman 
Ruben Chapman 
Samuel French 
Seth Bulkly 
Eliphalet Russell 
John Alabin 
Benjamin Seeley 
[Rec. Ct. Men in Rev.] 



The Fifth was a large regiment, over one thousand strong, 
and in the latter part of June marched to New York. On the 



SIEGE OF ST. JOHNS. 



21 



26th it embarked on transport vessels, and proceeded up the 
Hudson, arriving at Albany on the 28th, after a run of about 
twenty-eight hours. On the 29th the troops began their north- 
ward march. Their immediate destination was St. Johns, 
a fortified post on the Sorel River, the outlet of Lake Cham- 
plain. Until the nth of August they were journeying toward 
Skeensboro, on the headwaters of the lake. On this march 
the men had their first experience of the discomforts of soldier 
life ; the road to Skeensboro was wet and slippery, the night 
of August loth was extremely wet, and the troops sheltered 
themselves as best they could under hemlock boughs. About 
10 A. M. of the following day they reached Skeensboro, where 
boats were found in readiness to carry them to Ticonderoga 
and, immediately embarking, arrived at the fort the same day. 
Here they found temporary shelter till the 13th, when the 
tents and baggage, which had been sent by way of Lake 
George, arrived, and the men went into camp and enjoyed a 
season of repose. 

The troops composing the expedition consisted, at this time, 
of the 1st and 5th Connecticut regiments. Lamb's artillery, and 
some New York battalions, Connecticut furnishing much the 
larger proportion of men. Li its material, the army included 
many of the sturdy, free-spirited sons of New England ; a 
willing, but not well-disciplined body, neither showy nor or- 
derly. There was probably little attempt at uniformity in dress 
and equipment ; men and muskets were the chief requirements 
of the campaign. The army early manifested the military 
vices. The Rev. Benjamin Trumbull, who accompanied the 
expedition as chaplain, later wrote of it : " Perhaps there 
never was a more ill-governed, profane, and wicked army, 
among a people of such advantages, on earth." 

At six o'clock in the morning of Monday, August 28th, 
the whole army embarked for St. Johns. After a halt of three 
or four days at Crown Point, the expedition was again on its 
way. At noon on September 4th Gen. Schuyler, who com- 
manded the Northern Department, gave final orders for the 
forward movement, and at seven o'clock in the evening the 
troops reached Isle Aux Noix, and a reconnoitering party was 
sent out toward St. Johns. September 6th a body of about 
one thousand men (of whom two hundred were New York 



22 SIEGE OF ST. JOHNS. 

troops, and the remainder were from Col. Waterbury's regi- 
ment) was sent forward to commence the investment of St. 
Johns. This detachment arrived before the fort at 2 p. m., 
drew the enemy's fire, and adroitly landed in such a manner 
as to avoid an ambuscade which had been prepared for it. 
Having- made good their landing, the froops were formed for 
battle and advanced toward the fort, wdien their left flank was 
suddenly assailed by a body of Canadians and Indians, placed 
in ambush at that point. Wheeling to the left, the Americans 
charged the enemy wath great spirit and firmness, driving their 
opponents from the field. After this action the troops fell back 
to the water's edge and threw up a light breastwork within 
range of the enemy's shells, which were plentifully thrown 
among them. 

Gen. Schuyler, having now developed the enemy's strength, 
satisfied that the place could not be carried by assault, and 
having no artillery at hand, fell back the next day to Isle Aux 
Noix, to make preparations for a siege. On the loth he re- 
embarked his army, three days later ordered his cannon on 
board, and appointed the 15th as the date for moving down 
the river. Then occurred a breach between the commander and 
his troops. Schuyler asked for volunteers to undertake the 
capture of the enemy's naval force, which was regarded as 
the chief impediment to success, particularly a large schooner, 
well manned, and well provided with cannon. This proposition 
was regarded with disfavor and suspicion by the New England 
troops, who had no love for the New Yorkers, manifested a 
strong dislike for Schuyler, arid showed an extreme partiality 
for their own leaders. They believed that Schuyler feared 
the enemy's strength on land and water, and that he sought 
in this way to fix the responsibility of failure on them, either 
through their refusal to undertake the enterprise, or their de- 
feat in the attempt. To his request, therefore, the troops made 
answer that they w^ere all volunteers, ready and willing to 
undertake any practicable and reasonable enterprise. 

A council of war was held on the 15th, at which it appeared 
to be the general opinion that the enemy were too strong to be 
successfully engaged. Despondency prevailed, and the expedi- 
tion seemed doomed to failure, when a letter wa^ received from 
Major Livingston, announcing his success in another quarter 



SIEGE OF ST. JOHNS. 23 

and promising the cooperation of three thousand Canadians. 
This put some heart into the leaders, and it was resolved to 
prosecute the siege. Col. Waterbury and Major Douglas, with 
a detail of three hundred and twenty men, were to undertake 
the capture of the enemy's schooner. Sunday, September 17th, 
the whole army, numbering now about fourteen hundred men, 
again set out for St. Johns, and encamped behind breastworks 
in front of the forts on the evening of the same day. On the 
following morning Major John Brown had a skirmish with 
the enemy. Col. Bedel was sent to his assistance with five 
hundred men, who, as they passed the forts, were fired upon 
by a body of the enemy, which issued from the works, but 
quickly retreated to cover. The American forces now took 
their positions, and maintained them throughout the siege. 
Clearing ground, erecting breastworks and batteries, recon- 
noitering, skirmishing, recruiting, kept the patriots fully occu- 
pied from this time forward. St. Johns was invested on all 
sides. Four hundred men, detailed for siege duty, were en- 
camped south of the forts, three hundred and thirty were 
assigned to the water craft, and six hundred were posted at 
points on the north. The siege was now fully under way, but 
the inclemency of the season and the unhealthful location of 
the camps added greatly to the difficulties of the task. The 
ground on which the troops were encamped was low, wet, and 
miry ; the company streets were muddy, the tents flooded ; 
bushes, barks, and swamp-flags were used by the soldiers to 
serve as bedding and flooring for the tents. 

On the 25th of September (the day on which Col. Ethan 
Allen and his party were captured in their ill-starred attempt 
upon Montreal) the American batteries opened fire upon St. 
Johns, and a heavy bombardment was kept up all day, the 
forts returning the fire with vigor. From this time till October 
3d the weather was cold, wet. and stormy ; the troops suffered 
greatly from exposure; the ground of the encampment was 
exceedingly muddy and wet; the men, chilled and miserable, 
were succumbing to disease ; discouraging news of reverses 
in other quarters added to the gloom ; the ardor of the Cana- 
dian allies began to cool ; their Indian auxiliaries were seen 
to pass within the enemy's lines; and, to crown all, the stock 
of provisions began to fail. Deeper grew the gloom in the 



24 SIEGE OF ST. JOHNS. 

patriot camp, as their hopes seemed about to be extinguislied 
by the total faihire of the expedition. 

Nevertheless, the siege continued. October 4th some Cana- 
dians were erecting a breastwork on the east side of the lake 
when they were attacked by a body of regulars from the fort, 
whom they defeated. The next day there arrived from Ticon- 
deroga a gun known* as " the Old Sow," which, being placed 
in position, threw seven shells into the fort, which replied 
promptly by throwing twenty-four in return. About the 
middle of the month another council of war was called, at 
which it was resolved to erect another battery on the east side 
of the lake, to annoy the forts and destroy the enemy's ship- 
ping. Montgomery (now in command) did not approve of 
the proposed battery, but the decision of his officers proved to 
be a wise one, for the guns of this work eventually destroyed 
the enemy's schooner and crippled their naval power beyond 
repair. 

Schuyler, meantime, had returned to Albany for troops 
and supplies, and further encouragement was derived from 
the news of the surrender of Cham.bly, a post on the Sorel 
north of St. Johns. Three days later (21st) the prisoners 
taken there were marched past the forts ; on the 26th Gen. 
Wooster arrived ; another battery was established northwest 
of the fort ; the watercraft, carrying cannon and heavy bag- 
gage, dropped down the river to the north of the fort during 
the night. Several days were spent in mounting cannon and 
preparing for action, the Connecticut troops being detailed 
for artillery service. When all preparations had been made, 
the east and west batteries opened fire between 9 and 10 a. m. 
of Wednesday, November ist, and a terrific bombardment 
closed the siege. An incessant and terrible fire was kept up 
for six hours, during which time one thousand cannon-balls 
and more than one hundred shells were thrown into the 
enemy's works. In the evening a flag of truce was sent into 
the fort, with proposals for its surrender. The British com- 
mander sought to delay his decision, and on the next day 
another flag was sent in, with some French prisoners taken 
at Chambly. After compelling these men to swear upon the 
Holy Evangels to the truth of their statements. Major Preston 
became convinced of the futility of further resistance, and 



SIEGE OF ST. JOHNS. 2$ 

decided to enter into negotiations for tlie surrender of the 
post and garrison under his command. 

By the terms of the surrender the garrison were to lay 
down their arms with the honors of war, and to remain pris- 
oners till the close of hostilities or until exchanged. The 
total number of troops surrendered was 528 ; all the vessels of 
the enemy, with war material, stores, and thirty-nine brass 
and iron cannon, were also made trophies of war. The dis- 
tressing siege of fifty days was at an end, and the first opera- 
tion in the proposed conquest of Canada was completed. The 
soldiers suft'ered more from fatigue and inclement weather 
than from the casualties of battle. Although the cannon of 
the forts had thrown 2,500 shell and an equal quantity of ball, 
only twenty men had been killed on the American side during 
the entire siege ; upwards of two hundred, however, were now 
on the sick list. 

Immediately after the surrender, preparations for an ad- 
vance on Montreal were begun. November 5th the Con- 
necticut regiments turned in a quantity of damaged arms, and 
about four hundred of the captured muskets, good, serviceable 
weapons, with bayonets and cartridge boxes, were issued to 
them. On the 6th marching orders were published, and 
Waterbury's regiment moved out of camp at 11 a. m., and 
v/as soon facing the discomforts of bad weather and heavy 
roads. The other troops followed. The day was cloudy and 
heavy ; toward night it rained hard : the roads were muddy, 
and the level country about them flooded with water. The 9th 
was a " weather-breeder," and on and after the following day 
snow, rain, and the blustering November wind were the con- 
stant accompaniments of the march. On Alonday, November 
13th, the troops marched into IMontreal, suft'ering greatly 
from the hardships and exposures of the journey. Their term 
of service was soon to expire, and as the great object of the 
expedition was by no means yet attained, reenlistments were 
solicited by the commanding generals. But the soldiers were 
mostly sick of war — for the time, at least — as well as 
physically exhausted, and the prospect of returning to their 
distant firesides and anxious friends was too alluring to be 
resisted. A few of the hardiest undertook further service, 
however, and as Redding was represented among them, we 
3 



26 ASSAULT ON QUEBEC. 

shall follow their fortunes further. The greater part of the 
Connecticut troops were discharged on the 28th of Novemhcr, 
and made their way back at last to their distant homes. 

This detailed account of the military operations around 
St. Johns is given for the reason that this was the first move- 
ment in which Redding soldiers participated. The general 
historian, because of the fruitless results of the Canadian cam- 
paign, makes very brief mention of it. 

Meantime Arnold had been making his terrible wilderness 
march through the wilds of Maine, and on November 9th had 
appeared before Quebec. On the ist of December Montgom- 
ery joined him with about three hundred men. The combined 
forces numbered less than one thousand. With these the 
American commanders undertook the reduction of Quebec. 
Their artillery being too light for siege operations, an assault 
was resolved vipon. It was attempted on the last day of the 
year, in the midst of a furious snowstorm. The attack was 
made in four divisions. Montgomery, with the New York 
militia and part of the New England troops, moved northeast 
from Wolfe's Cove, passing between Cape Diamond and the 
river, in the face of a strong wind which blew snow and hail 
into the faces of his men, and along a narrow and slippery 
path, where a false step might precipitate a man into the abyss 
below. The faces of the men were covered with ice; they 
could see but a few feet ahead ; commands could not be heard 
in the howling blast. Montgomery advanced with a small 
body of men, most of his command struggling through the 
drifts with scaling ladders, a half mile in the rear. The first 
barrier was found unguarded ; from the second they received 
a discharge of grapeshot which killed Montgomery and twelve 
others. Repeated volleys of bullets and grape drove back the 
besiegers, who presently abandoned the attack. Arnold ad- 
vanced promptly, under equal risks, to a similar experience. 
The storm beat furiously upon his column, whirling great 
drifts of snow into the path, and at the first barrier the general 
received a wound in the leg which incapacitated him for fur- 
ther efifort. After four hours of stubborn fighting, Arnold's 
command was surrendered by its leader. Captain Daniel Mor- 
gan. The other columns accomplished nothing of value, and 
were captured after slight resistance. One-half of Arnold's 



ASSAULT ON QUEBEC. 27 

force became prisoners of war, and, retreating from this field 
of misfortune, he took refuge behind breastworks of snow 
in the vicinity of Quebec, and there passed the remainder of 
the winter. The arrival of British reinforcements compelled 
the evacuation of Canada by the American forces in the follow- 
ing spring, and the disheartened remnant of the army of the 
Northern Campaign made its final retreat. Soldiers of Red- 
ding were among those wdio endured the bitterest privations 
of this ill-starred expedition, and it is noticeable that few of 
them ever re-entered the Continental service, though many 
afterward fought manfully in defense of their native soil. 

During this campaign, while so many patriot soldiers were 
absent from the town, the tories seem to have entertained 
thoughts of resistance. They armed themselves, and had, 
perhaps, some secret organization, but the patriots, alert and 
active, marched through the countryside under the command 
of Lt.-Col. Ichabod Lewis, disarmed the loyalists, and exacted 
from them a promise to remain strictly neutral during the con- 
flict. Reference to this affair is found in the town records, 
under date of December 13, 1775: 

" Voted, that this Town pay by way of Town Rate to Peter Fair- 
child Thirteen Pounds LawfuU money for victuals, drink and Horse 
Keeping, when Col. Ichabod Lewis &c &c &c came to Redding and 
Disarm'd the Tories." 



II. 

THE LONG ISLAND CAMPAIGN. 

If the failure of the Canadian expedition brought sadness 
to the people of Redding, as it did to the other towns of the 
colony, the events of the year 1776 were destined to intensify- 
that feeling. Washington had taken command of the Ameri- 
can army at Cambridge in July, 1775, and under his masterly 
management military operations had been conducted with such 
vigor and success that by the middle of March, 1776, the 
British w^ere literally squeezed out of Boston. Before this 
event Washington had foreseen the necessity for protecting 
New York, and as early as January, 1776, had called for troops 
to go to the defense of that city. Accordingly, two Connecti- 
cut regiments, under Colonels David Waterbury and Andrew 
Ward, were embodied, and Waterbury's marched into New 
York before the end of the month. In its ranks was Capt. 
Zalmon Read, again leading a company under his old com- 
mander. The regiment remained in service about two months, 
mainly engaged in the labor of erecting fortifications under 
the direction of Gen. Putnam. March i8th, as the British 
were leaving Boston, Washington made a second requisition 
for troops, under which two more regiments were to be raised 
in Connecticut for the defense of New York, eighteen hundred 
men being drafted from the militia for this purpose. The 
regiments were to consist of ten companies each, with ninety 
men to a company. Fairfield County contributed the troops 
for a regiment to be commanded by Col. Gold Selleck Silli- 
man, three hundred and sixty men being taken from the Fourth 
Connecticut militia, whose territorial district comprised the 
towns of Fairfield, Stratford, and Redding. No roster of 
this regiment has been found, but Redding men undoubtedly 
served in it. In May another battalion, raised for the general 
defense of the state, was placed under the command of Col. 
Philip Burr Bradley — of it we shall hear further. 

On leaving Boston, Howe, the British commander, had 
sailed away to Halifax, where he remained long enough to 
recuperate his exhausted troops, and to obtain reinforcements 



I 



THE LONG ISLAND CAMPAIGN. 29 

from England antl the continent. In Jnnc it became known 
that he was coming back after his revenge, and renewed efforts 
were made to raise troops to oppose him. Six battahons were 
ordered to be recruited in Connecticut for this purpose. These, 
with Bradley's Battalion, were brigaded together during the 
Long Island campaign under Gen. James Wadsworth. Silli- 
man's was designated the First, and Capt. Read was one of 
its company officers. 

On the loth of June, 1776, Howe left Halifax, and on the 
2d of July his sails whitened the waters of the lower bay of 
New York. Taking possession of Staten Island he leisurely 
prepared for an attack. Meanwhile, the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was published to the country, and was received with 
joyous acclamations by the patriots throughout the colonies. 
With public speeches, bell-ringing, and bonfires the people 
hailed the event, and, no doubt. Redding bore its part in the 
general rejoicing. 

The army of Howe consisted of about twenty-four thousand 
of the best troops of Europe. In addition to the seasoned 
veterans of the E'oston campaign, there were many other of 
the finest regiments in the British army and a large contingent 
of Elessians — those new allies whose services the king of 
Great Britain had purchased to assist in the subjugation of 
his rebellious colonies. Having perfected his plans and prepa- 
rations, Howe decided to attack the American position on 
Long Island. On the 22d of August he sent over an advance 
guard, which landed without opposition, and was followed by 
other forces, till fifteen thousand infantry, forty pieces of ar- 
tillery, and a regiment of dragoons were safely established 
on the island. Leaving one division under Maj.-Gen. Grant 
encamped at Gravesend, near the point of debarkation, he 
posted another, under Cornwallis, at Flatbush. before the 
center of the x\merican lines, and a third, luider Clinton, at 
Flatlands in rear of Cornwallis ; and, by a series of skirmishes, 
in which infantry and artillery participated, developed the 
American positions along the Brooklyn hills. 

The campaign, from the very outset, progressed unfavor- 
ably for the patriots. Washington's poorly-equipped and 
mostly undisciplined army was ill-fitted for the task it was to 
undertake. Out of the twentv-eight thousand men comnosine 



30 THE LONG ISLAND CAMPAIGN. 

it at the outset of the campaign, so many were sick that less 
than twenty thousand remained fit for duty. New York island 
was well fortified, but the works at Brooklyn were still un- 
completed. The weather was extremely sultry — thunder- 
storms of exceptional violence raged ; several men were killed 
by lightning in Washington's camps. 

When at last it was known that the British had landed in 
force on Long Island, Washington advanced his troops and 
strengthened his defenses to resist them. On the morning of 
the 23d he sent over to Brooklyn a reinforcement of six regi- 
ments, Silliman's battalion, upwards of four hundred strong, 
being one of the first to cross. It was ordered down into a 
wooded hill near Red Hook, to prevent any further landing 
at that point ; but on the 25th it is found posted a half mile in 
front of Flatbush, within range of the enemy's cannon, which 
were playing vigorously on some parts of the American line ; 
this regiment, however, does not appear to have suflrered seri- 
ously from the enemy's fire. 

Maj.-Gen. John Sullivan commanded on the Brooklyn front 
at this time, but before the opening of the battle was super- 
seded in the chief command by Gen. Putnam. The works 
under his charge extended from northeast to southwest out- 
side the little village of Brooklyn, while farther out a range 
of wooded hills stretched in the same direction, for a distance 
of five or six miles, between the Narrows and Jamaica. Two 
roads crossed these hills, a third passed round their western 
base, while a fourth, curving from east to north, led to Jamaica. 
Before this range lay the British encampment, and along its 
crest and in the passes commanding the roads the American 
troops were posted. Along this line Washington determined 
to oppose the enemy's advance, and gave orders that the passes 
should be defended to the uttermost. Several skirmishes oc- 
curred druing the five days that the British lay in front of 
the hills, but no decisive movement was made till the 27th. 
On the 25th two brigades of Hessians, under the veteran Gen- 
eral De Heister, were brought over and stationed at Flatbush. 
On the 26th the troops of Cornwallis were secretly withdrawn 
to Flatlands, and at 9 p. m. the combined forces of Clinton and 
Cornwallis took up their march along the Jamaica road. At 
2 A. M. of the 27th Grant's column advanced along the western 



BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND. 31 

road, attacked and routed the x\merican detachment at the 
pass, and pressed on to engage the troops of Sterhng, who 
commanded on that part of the field. The battle now began 
in earnest, and the American forces made a gallant resistance. 
De Heister attacked the position in front of Flatbush, which 
was defended by an inferior force under Gen. Sullivan, while 
the British flanking column, pushing forward on the Jamaica 
road, captured a patrol which was looking the other way, 
gained Sullivan's rear, and interposed between his troops and 
the Brooklxn lines. Attacked in front and rear, Sullivan's 
men resisted bravely, but ineffectually ; a portion succeeded 
in escaping to the lines, while the remainder were cut to pieces 
or captured. The Hessians, having been told that their an- 
tagonists were a savage 'race of beings, who would give no 
quarter, used their bayonets on many of the unfortunate sol- 
diers whom they overtook, in many instances pinning the 
hapless riflemen to the trees — :i deed described as a "fine 
sight " by a British lieutenant v. ho witnessed it. Sullivan 
himself was taken prisoner after resistance had ceased, and 
the enemy moved westward to intercept the retreat of Sterling, 
who had successfully contended against Grant's column till 
the sounds of battle in his rear warned him that he must fall 
back. Hemmed in by his victorious enemy, the American 
general made a desperate eft'ort to escape, but was finally over- 
powered and captured with more than a thousand of his men. 
Col. Silliman's regiment somehow extricated itself from the 
conflict, and is next heard of in position somewhere on the left 
of the Brooklyn lines. About five thousand of the nine thou- 
sand provincial troops on the island were engaged in the 
battle. 

The remnant of the forces which defended the exterior lines 
having fallen back upon the main body, Washington, who had 
come upon the ground during the battle, made dispositions 
for defense. The British advanced close up to the American 
lines and began to throw up intrenchmcnts under cover of a 
feint of attack, cannon and musketry again coming into play. 
In this work Silliman's men must have come into reasonably 
close quarters with the enemy, though no general engagement 
took place. The patriot soldiers stood in the trenches during 
the 28th and 29th under storms of rain, accompanied by 



32 



RETREAT FROM NEW YORK. 



thunder and lig-htning ; worn out with the fatigue and excite- 
ment of battle, their arms and ammunition rendered unserv- 
iceable by the rain. The American commander-in-chief, at 
first inclined to risk a decisive engagement, was finally con- 
vinced of the danger of his situation, and the evacuation of 
the island was agreed on in a council of war. During the 
night of the 29tli the retreat began, and. in the face of many 
difficulties, all the troops were at last transported to New 
York in safety. A heavy fog providentially screened from 
the view of the enemy the embarkation of the rearguard, which 
pushed off from the shore just as the fog was rising, George 
Washington being the last man to set foot in the last boat. 
Quite as much by good generalship as by good fortune, he had 
saved both a good cause and a poor army. 

After reaching New York the troops were stationed at the 
various defensive points, and preparations were made for 
another grapple with the enemy, Silliman's battalion was 
posted near the East River, probably in its original position 
in the earthworks near the southern end of the island. The 
British fleet now cooperated with the army for the investment 
of the city and the capture of Washington's forces. First, 
several vessels passed the obstructions in the North River, 
under fire of the forts and batteries,' took soundings, and re- 
turned unharmed. Then troops were transported up the I'^ast 
River, also under fire, without injury. By September 15th 
the British were once more prepared for an aggressive move- 
ment. Before noon of that day five ships of war were drawn 
up before Kip's Bay, and, under cover of a terrific cannonade, 
a landing party reached the shore. The bombardment from 
the vessels so demoralized the American troops stationed at 
that point that they were seized with panic and fled in the 
utmost confusion, despite the efforts of Washington and other 
officers to rally them. They were Connecticut men, but re- 
flected no credit on their state that day. The enemy landed 
in force, and Washington was compelled to withdraw his 
troops to Harlem. Putnam's division, at the lower end of 
the city, was in great danger of being cut off and captured, 
but under the fortunate guidance of Aaron Burr, and by a 
combination of speed and secrecy in its movements, was 
enabled to evade the British and reach the main bodv at 



BATTLE OF WHITE PLAINS. 



33 



Harlcin in safety. Near Bloomingdale the retreating troops 
encountered a detachment of the enemy, hut SilHman's bat- 
talion, which covered the retreat of the division, formed in 
line and drove the assailants away. 

A temporary check, given to the enemy on Harlem Heights 
the next day, in some degree restored the spirits of the army, 
but before a month had passed Washington's position became 
untenable. British vessels passed up the North River on 
October 9th, beyond the right flank of the American army, 
and three days later the greater part of Howe's troops were 
carried by water to Throgg's Neck, on the Westchester shore 
of the Sound. Washington concentrated his army at White 
Plains, entrenched, and waited for the British advance. On 
the 28th the royal army arrived, and before noon had engaged 
some advance parties of the Americans, among whom was a 
portion of Silliman's battalion. The principal part of the 
engagement was fought at Chatterton Hill, on the American 
left. Four thousand British and Hessians advanced up the 
steep face of the hill, and were driven back in confusion by a 
shower of bullets. The action bid fair to become a repetition 
of that at Bunker Hill, but the enemy changed their point of 
attack, the ever-unreliable militia gave way, and the British 
carried the position. 

And now, as the opposing forces rested on their arms after 
the action, there occurred an incident of singular and pathetic 
interest. A flag of truce passes between the lines and, under 
its protection, two ofiicers meet in the open field and engage 
in earnest conversation, and, could we hear the words they 
speak, we need not marvel if the name of a woman, tenderly 
spoken, passes often between them, for the sturdy young- 
loyalist, who has sacrificed home and happiness for the cause 
of his king, is her husband, and the grim-visaged patriot cap- 
tain — her father. 

Howe, fearing the strength of Washington's new position, 
remained inactive during the following day, waiting for rein- 
forcements. The next day it rained, and Howe, for this reason 
prevented from advancing, delayed the attack. When day 
again dawned he prepared to advance, but his antagonist was 
gone. Washington had once more wisely decided not to risk 
an engagement, and, leaving a few pickets to repjenish his 



34 



CAPTURE OF FORT WASHINGTON. 



watchfires, had quietly withdrawn to the heights of North 
Castle, two miles farther back, whither Howe did not think it 
advisable to follow him. He accordingly abandoned the pur- 
suit, and turned his attention to the task of gaining complete 
possession of New York island. 

Fort Washington was now the only post on the island in the 
possession of the Americans. It was a strong work, occupying, 
with its outworks, an elevation of considerable height and 
length near the north end of the island and along the shore 
of the Hudson. Col. Robert Magaw, the commander of the 
fort, a brave and capable officer, was of the opinion that the 
work could be held against the enemy; Greene and other 
officers were of the same opinion. Washington, though ques- 
tioning the advisability of maintaining the position, and doubt- 
ful of the ability of his men to hold it, deferred their with- 
drawal till the near approach of the British rendered retreat 
impracticable. The fort was garrisoned principally by Penn- 
sylvania troops, but in addition to these were a hundred artil- 
lerymen, Rawlings' Maryland Rifle Battalion, Knowlton's 
Rangers, and several companies of Bradley's Battalion, Wads- 
worth's Brigade, about two hundred and fifty strong. One 
of these companies was commanded by Capt. Elijah Abel of 
Fairfield, and there were several Redding men in its ranks._ 
The entire garrison numbered about three thousand men. 
Howe invested the works, and on the 15th of November sent 
a summons to surrender. Col. Magaw refused, declaring his 
intention to defend the post to the last extremity. On the i6th 
the British moved to the attack in four columns. The Hes- 
sians, under Rail and Knyphausen, attacked on the north, 
where Rawlings' riflemen were posted ; Matthews and Corn- 
wallis, with the light infantry and grenadiers, approached 
from the east ; Col. Sterling, with the 42d Highlanders, made 
a diversion on the south ; and a strong corps under Lord Percy 
assaulted from the west. The Hessians faced a destructive 
fire, as they forced their way through thickets and abatis, and, 
stung by the determined resistance they encountered, plied their 
favorite weapon freely, while, on the opposite heights at Fort 
Lee, surrounded by the anxious faces of Greene, Putnam, 
Knox, and other officers, George Washington stood and cried 
like a child as he saw his soldiers fall beneath the bavonets of 



CAPTURE OF FORT WASHINGTON. 35 

the Hessian grenadiers. The British forces gracluall_\- closed 
in on their opponents, driving them into the interior of the 
works, where they were so crowded together that further re- 
sistance hecame impossible. Colonel Magaw, realizing the 
hopelessness of his situation, surrendered the fort, with about 
twenty-eight hundred men. The American loss in killed and 
wounded was about one hundred and fifty, that of the British 
forces four hundred and fifty, two-thirds of the casualties 
being among the Hessians, who evidently bore the brunt of 
the fighting. 

At the end of the campaign the Americans had lost every 
post for which they had contended, while the British were 
firmly established in New York, not to leave it till the flag of 
England was lowered at the peace of 1783. Washington with- 
drew his rapidly diminishing forces to New Jersey, and the 
darkness of despair fell upon the hopes of the patriots, through 
which no ray of light penetrated till the twin stars of Trenton 
and Princeton lit the gloom. Then the patriots again took 
courage, and came forward to renew the struggle for freedom. 
Again Washington appealed to Congress for the establishment 
of a regular army, and this time his entreaties did not pass 
unheeded. 



III. 

THE DANBURY RAID. 

CoN\'iNCED at last, by bitter experience, that success was 
impossible with raw levies under short-term enlistments. Con- 
gress finally authorized the establishment of a regular army, 
of which Connecticut was to furnish eight regiments of in- 
fantry, enlisted generally for the term of three years or the war. 
Recruiting immediately began throughout the state, and Red- 
ding cheerfully undertook her share of patriotic duty : 

"April 2, 1777. — Voted that Whereas this meeting has Appointed 
Mefsrs W'" Hawley Zalmon Read, Thadeus Benedict David Jackson, 
Gershom Morehouse Stephen Betts Jr. W™ Heron and Dani Mallery 
a Comtee iQ iiire a Number of Soldiers to Serve in the Continental 
Army that the Sum or Sums the said Comi^ss promise to or do pay to 
those Soldiers that do Inlist themselves as Soldiers to serve in said 
Army a bounty Over and above what the Governments bounty is shall 
be paid by way of Town Rate and the Selectmen are Ordered and 
Desired to make a Rate to Collect the Money by said Com^ee paid or 
promised to Soldiers by them Inlisted for the Service afore said Also 
vote that Mefsrs Hezekiah Sanford Seth Sanford Dan" Mallery Sam" 
Smith W"" Hawley Stephen Betts Jur Jonathan Couch Stephen Gold 
and Hezekiah Read be a Com^f^ to take Care of the famalies of those 
Soldiers that are in the Service of their Country Agreeable to the Gov- 
enor and Council of Safety their Resolve." 

Again Redding soldiers were enrolled in defense of their 
country, and most of them were assigned to the Fifth regi- 
ment of the new establishment. One company of this regiment 
was commanded by Capt. Ezekiel Sanford of Redding, who 
had served as lieutenant under Capt. Read in previous cam- 
paigns. About a dozen Redding men appear on the company 
roll : 

Capt. Ezekiel Sanford Holmes, Samuel Burrett, Israel 

SERGE.\NTS. Starr, William Butler, John 

Fowler, Elisha musician. Burns, James 

Mann, Samuel ', French, Trueman Burlock, David 

Street, John pkiv.\tes. Bidwell, Ashbell 

coRi'OKALS. Adams, Abraham Ben, Solomon 

Baker, Bartholomew Bixby, Elias Barnes, Jonathan 

Gilbert, Joel Butler, Ephraim Brown, Patrick 

Hopkins, Henry Burrett, Abijah Brown, Luke 



THE DANBURY RAID. 



17 



Bronson, Asa 
Condrick, John 
Chilman, Thomas 
Cornelius, Toto 
Coley, Nathan 
Canfield, Daniel 
Collins, Dennis 
Clark, Walter 
Downs, Benjamin 
Fleet, William 
Fisher, Christopher 
Freeman, David 
Green, James 
Gorham, Ned 
Goodwin, Jonathan 
Hughes, Thomas 
Hawley, Joseph 
Hayes, John 
Hendricks, Nathan 
Hale, Joseph 
Hitchcock, John 
Jones, John 
June, Justice 



Jacklin, Ebenezer 
Knap, Aaron 
Kellis, Peter 
Kelly (or Kellsce) John 
Keeler, Henry 
Mitchell, William 
Meeker, Stephen 
Mead, Jeremiah 
McGregory, John 
Nickerson, Eliphas 
Newton, William 
Nash, Ebenezer 
Patchin, Ebenezer 
Parsons, Bartholomew 
Phelps, Elijah 
Perwiggin, Solomon 
Peters, Thomas (or 

Solomon) 
Piatt, Joseph 
Roberts, John 
Robinson, Nathaniel 
Rowland, Jack 
Remington, Stephen 



Renn, Solomon 
Rockwell, John 
Sears, Joseph 
Sturges, Augustus 
Starr, John 
Sprout, John 
Scott, Moses 
Soomer, Shubal 
Scott, Peter 
Tuttle, Peter 
Trueman, David 
Thomas, Gregory 
Williams, Jabez '' 
Williams, John 
Whitney, Ezekiel 
Weeks, Micajah 
Wood, Simeon 
Wawson, Thomas 
Williams, Henry 
Whitney, Thomas 
Wheeler, Ephraim 
Whitney, Josiah A. 



[Rec. Ct. Men in Rev.] 



The recruits for the Second and Fifth regiments of the 
Continental Line were ordered to rendezvous at Danbiu'v. At 
this place a large magazine of military stores was also estab- 
lished, with smaller ones in the immediate vicinity. British 
spies, circulating through the country, reported this fact to 
the British commander at New York, and a movement was at 
once projected to effect the destruction of these stores, and 
thereby add another discouraging reverse to the list of disas- 
ters already suffered by the patriot cause. The first indication 
of activity in this direction is found in the following order: 

" Head Quarters, New York. April 2qP^, 1777. 

Governor Tryon having been pleased to offer his Services to Com- 
mand the Provincial Troops in this Province, is appointed to that Com- 
mand, with the Rank of Major Gen^ of Provincial Forces, and is to be 
obey'd as such. 

Capt° Wemyss of the 40''^ Reg^ is appointed Aide de Camp to Major 
Geni Tryon, and is to be observed as such. 

Lieut Bird i6t'i Reg*^ is appointed Supernumerary Aide de Camp, 
to Major Gen' Tryon, and is to be observed as such." 

Soon after, all was in readiness, and the embarkation of the 



38 THE DAN BURY RAID. 

forces began. The commander-in-chief then issued an order 
placing' Gen. Tryon in command of the expedition : 

" Head Quarters, 22^ April, 1777. 
Major Gen' Tryon is appointed to Command the Troops, embarked 
this day upon an Expedition; All reports to be made to him, and all 
Troops ordered to join that Armament, will put themselves under 
his Command." 

Admiral Howe's report to the Secretary of the Admiralty 
shows how the force was transported, and indicates the meas- 
ures that were taken to deceive the patriots regarding the ob- 
jective point of the expedition : 

'■ Number 28. 

V Eagle Off New York 

April the 23'i 1777. 
Sir 

The General determining on an Attempt to destroy a very con- 
siderable magazine said to be formed by the Rebels in the Province of 
Connecticut, several Regimeirts were embarked in twelve Transports 
the 2ist Instant to be landed on the Coast of that Province, as Gov- 
ernor Tryon, who commands the Detachment, should require. 

I have committed the Conduct of the Naval Department to Captain 
Duncan of the Eagle. He is embarked in the Senegal, and has the 
Swan also under his Command: Those Sloops being deemed of suf- 
licient Force, and most proper for the intended Operation. 

A Diversion was thought fit to be made at the same time, up the 
North River. Twelve Transports in which a small Corps of Troops 
are embarked, attended by the Ambuscade, Mermaid, Daphne, Rose 
and Dependance Galley, have been appointed for that Service. 

The two Detachments sailed to proceed according to their respective 
Destinations yesterday. 

I am, with great Consideration, 
Sir, 

Your most obedient 

humble servant, 

Howe. 
Philip Stephens Esq' 

Secretary of the Admiralty." 

"And to Lord George Germain Gen. Howe gives further 
details of the number and object of the expeditionary forces: 

'■■ No. 51 Duplicate 

New York, 24*1^ April, 1777. 
My Lord, 

A detached Corps of Troops consisting of 1800 Rank and File, 
having embarked in Transports, proceeded from home yesterday, with 



THE DAN BURY RAID. 



39 



six Field Pieces, under the Command of Governor Tryon, who has 
accepted of the Rank of Major General of Provincials. The Design is 
to destroy a large Magazine of Provisions and Military Stores formed 
by the Enemy at Danbury in Connecticut. Brigadier General Agnew 
and Sir William Erskine are upon this service, the Naval Part of which 
is under the Conduct of Captain Duncan, Commander of His Majesty's 
Ship Eagle. It is proposed that the Debarkation should be made at or 
near Norwalk, which is Twenty Miles to the southward of Danbury, 
and I hope to have the Honor of reporting to your Lordship the Success 
of this Expedition in my next Dispatch." 

Meantime the fleet of two sloops-of-war and twelve flat- 
boats, bearing- eighteen hundred troops, six pieces of artillery, 
and the necessary complement of horses, besides general 
ofificers, seamen, etc., had weighed anchor and proceeded up 
the Sound. The people of the Connecticut shore towns appear 
to have had no knowledge of the approach of an enem}^ and 
were evidently taken by surprise. Rumors of hostile move- 
ments had been rife for some time, but do not seem to have 
aroused anxiety. Bad weather may have obscured the passage 
of the fleet ; anyway, there is no indication that the patriots 
were on their guard. 

On the evening of the 25th the point selected for landing 
was reached, and the passage to the shore was immediately 
commenced. Gen. Tryon's orders, here inserted, show how 
the landing was to be performed : 

" Senegal, April 23'', 1777. 

Major Gen' Tryon's Orders. 

Capt. Wemyss of the 40*'^ Reg*^ is appointed to Act as Adjut* (ien' 
to the Corps under his Command. 

The Troops to land in three divisions. — 

The first, consisting of the 4*1' & 15th Reg's under the Command of 
Lieu*^ Col° Bird, who is to occupy the most advantageous Ground to 
cover the landing. 

The 2^ consisting of the 22,'^ & 27^1 Reg'^ under the Command of 
Lieut Col" Maxwell. 

The 3'i consisting of the 44"^ & 64"! Regts under the Command of 
Major Hope. 

General Agnew will be pleased to disembark, any time after the ist 
division has made good their landing, & give the other divisions such 
directions in regard to their forming as he may think necessary. 

Two Pieces of Artillery to be landed with the i^t division, & the 
Remainder to follow afterwards as soon as possible. 

As soon as the i^' Division has made good their landing, the Dra- 
goons & Artillery to dissembark. 



40 



THE DANBURV RAID. 



It is recommended to the Officers, to keep their Men, as silent as 
possible. 

The Troops to carry on Shore with them. One Days Provision 
dressed, four days bread, a proportionable quantity of Salt (which the 
Men are to be carefull off,) and two days allowance of Rum, which the 
Conis Officers of Regt^ will take care, to have mixed with Water. 

So soon as the whole is landed, the Corps to form two Brigades. 
The 1st consisting of the 4tf', 15"' & 23'^ Reg*^ to be Commanded by Gen' 
Agnew. 

The 2<J consisting of the 27th 44tii & 64"^ to be Connnanded by Lieu' 
Colo Maxwell. 

As the Com'' in Chief was pleased in his Order of the 21st inst, 
expressly to forbid Plundering; It would make Gen' Tryon very 
unhappy, should the Troops give him any occasion, to carry them into 
execution, which the nature & importance of the present Service will 
require him to do : He therefore places his full confidence that the 
Spirit of Honor which has so eminently distinguished the respective 
Corps now under his Comm<i ^-ii|_ ^jth the known Attention of the 
Officers, sufficiently incite them to a strict obedience to the said Order. 

No Boat is to be suffered to go on Shore, till the Troops land, with- 
out leave from Gen' Tryon or Capfi Duncan. 

All Horses that can be procured at landing, to be brought imme- 
diately to Gen' Tryon." 

As thev disembark, it will be interesting to take note of 
the leaders and organizations composing the expedition. 

William Tryon, royal governor of New York, major-gen- 
eral of loyalist provincials, and commander of this expedition, 
was a soldier by profession, and an officer in the regular estab- 
lishment of the British army. He was at this time about fifty- 
two years of age. He had been lieutenant-governor and 
governor of the province of North Carolina, where he had 
shown much ability in the management of affairs, having 
suppressed with great severity the uprising of the " Regula- 
tors " in 1 77 1. His military operations in the vicinity of New- 
York were conducted with judgment and skill. Opinions vary 
as to his personal character. ]\v some he is represented as 
honorable, courageous, and humane ; these qualities do not 
always appear in his actions, as recorded in the accounts of 
his military expeditions. We shall meet him on several other 
occasions on the Connecticut coast. 

Major-General Sir William Erskine, quartermaster-general 
of the British army, was an officer who had fought at Fontenoy 
in his earlier years, and had commanded a brigade at the battle 
of Long Island. He accompanied Tryon's expedition in the 



THE DAN BURY RAID. 41 

double capacity of quartermaster-general and second in com- 
mand. 

Brigadier-General James Agnew came to America as a 
lieutenant-colonel in 1775, and led a brigade in the fighting on 
Long Island. He superintended the disembarkation of troops 
at Compo, and commanded the first brigade of Tryon's ex- 
pedition. We shall hear of him once more. 

Of the regimental organizations composing the expedition, 
the 4th, or King's Own Regiment of Foot, was the first to 
disembark. This was one of the oldest regiments in the British 
service, having been organized in 1680. When the troubles 
between the colonies and the mother country began to develop 
into open hostility, the 4th was selected for service in North 
America, and sailed for Boston April 17, 1774. A portion of 
the regiment was at Concord and Lexington ; it lost about 
fifty men at Bunker Hill, and participated in the battles around 
New York. 

The 15th Foot, later designated the Yorkshire East Riding 
Regiment, was formed in 1685. It came to America early in 
1776, and served through the Long Island campaign. 

The 23d Foot, or Royal Welsh Fusiliers, was recruited in 
1689 in Wales and the adjoining counties. It was sent to 
America in 1773, and landed at New York, but in the following 
year was ordered to Boston to strengthen the garrison under 
General Gage. 

Four companies of this regiment were in the afifair at Lex- 
ington, where the British troops sufifered so severely, returning, 
it is said, " having their tongues hanging out of their mouths 
like dogs after a chase." The remaining companies formed 
part of the rescuing column under Lord Percy. The regiment 
sufifered heavily at Bunker Hill, the grenadier company having 
but five men left out of a total of forty-nine who went into 
action, and it is also stated that but one commissioned officer 
of the battalion survived. In the actions of the campaign of 
1776, on Long Island and around New York, the 23d bore a 
part, and, at its close, went into winter quarters on New York 
island. Its colonel was Major-General Sir William Howe, 
commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, 
but the officer who led it in the Danbury Raid is not known. 
The Fusiliers afterward fought at the Brandywine, German- 
4 



42 



THE DAN BURY RAID. 



town, Monmouth, New Haven, Fairfield, Norwalk, the siege 
of Charleston, S. C, Camden, Guilford Court House, and 
finally surrendered at Yorktown. 

This regiment possessed a pet — or, as it would now be 
called, a mascot — which was nothing less than that pug- 
nacious creature a goat ; a goat with gilded horns, and a 
battle record of its own, for tradition says that the animal 
accompanied the regiment up the slopes of Bunker Hill, and 
came down again unscathed. It is not known to have been 
with the Tryon expedition, and was probably left behind at 
New York with the impedimenta of the regiment. It is, at 
least, pleasant to think that this wicked and dreadful goat 
was not permitted to forage upon our terror-stricken towns- 
people. 

A detachment of the 17th Light Dragoons, twelve in num- 
ber, next claims our attention. This small body of men was 
probably employed mainly for scouting purposes. The country 
was at that time more heavily wooded than now, the roads 
poor, and the whole territory traversed by the expedition of 
a rough and broken character, unsuited to the maneuvers of 
cavalry, so that the movements of such troops were mainly 
restricted to rapid advances upon*points where some temporary 
advantage might be gained. The appearance of these men 
was worthy of note, as in uniform, equipment, and discipline 
they represented the flower of the British army. Information 
gleaned from various sources indicates that the dress and 
equipment of each horseman was as here described : Upon his 
head a metallic cap, sword-proof, surmounted by a cone, from 
which a long, chestnut-colored plume fell to his shoulders. 
Upon the front of the cap was a' death's head, under which 
was inscribed the words " Or Glory." A red coat, faced with 
white, with an epaulette on each shoulder, buckskin breeches 
of a bright yellow, black knee boots, and spurs completed the 
costume. A long sword swung at his side, and a carbine was 
carried, muzzle down, in a socket at his stirrup. These troops 
were models of discipline and military splendor, and, mounted 
on handsome chargers, sixteen hands high, presented a most 
formidable appearance. 

The 27th Foot, or Enniskillens, as it was called, was evi- 
dentlv an Irish battalion. 



THE DAN BURY RAID. 4^ 

The 44th was later known in England as the East Essex 
Regiment. 

The 64th Foot was a grenadier regiment, wearing high 
grenadier caps and red coats faced with black. 

Six pieces of the 4th Royal Artillery also accompanied the 
expedition. 

Another organization, of which no mention is made in 
Tryon's orders, and which seems to have been in some degree 
an independent body, acting mainly under the orders of its 
colonel, also formed part of this expedition. This was the 
Prince of Wales' American Volunteers, a recently-recruited 
loyalist regiment, of especial interest to the readers of this 
volume, as it contained a considerable number of Redding 
tories, and, indeed, was largely, if not entirely, composed of 
Fairfield County loyalists. Its commander was Montfort 
Browne, of whom it is known that he had been the royal 
governor of the Bahamas, had been taken prisoner at some 
early period of the war, and was exchanged for Major-General 
Lord Sterling, an American officer captured at the battle of 
Long Island. Special inducements were offered to loyalists 
to join this corps, as shown by an advertisement in one of the 
royalist papers of New York, under date of March 3, 1777: 

" The Royal and Hon. Brigade of the Prince of Wales Loyal Amer. 
Volunteers quartered at the famous and plentiful town of Flushing. 
Recruits taken also at W™ Betts, sign of the Gen. Amherst, Jamaica. 
£$ bounty and 100 acres of land on the Mississippi, for 3 yrs. or during 
the rebellion. Present pay and free quarters. Clothing, arms and 
accouterments supplied." 

This body was very popular with the loyalists, and, says 
one writer, " twenty in a drove would come from New England 
to enlist in Brown's corps." 

By ten o'clock at night all were ashore, and the advance 
immediately began. According to the British accounts, their 
march was entirely unopposed from the beginning, but an 
American authority states that soon after their landing a com- 
pany of militia came over the crest of a hill in their front, 
fired a single volley, and disappeared. But this volley evi- 
dently did no damage, and the British march was practically 
unopposed. Moving northward on the route to Danbury, they 
continued the march into the parish of Weston, in the north- 



44 THE DAN BURY RAID. 

western part of the township of Fairfield, where a halt of 
several hours appears to have been made, evidently for the 
purpose of resting the troops. 

A wave of terror preceded their advance. As the news 
that a large British force was actually advancing through the 
country was spread abroad by swift messengers, the house- 
holders, panic-stricken, roused their families from slumber 
and sought safety in flight. To right and left and far in ad- 
vance of the British column, men loaded their household goods 
upon carts and wagons, and removed them, with their wives 
and children, to points of supposed security. The excitement 
must have been intense, and the efforts of citizens to insure 
the safety of their families and possessions doubtless added 
greatly to the difficulty of rallying troops for defense. Many 
of the inhabitants elected to remain where they were, trusting 
to fortune and the good will of their loyalist friends to insure 
them protection against violence. 

Meantime, messengers had been sent in all directions, sum- 
moning the militia of the district to take up arms in defense 
of their homes. Generals Wooster and Arnold, at New Haven, 
receiving intelligence of the invasion, gathered a small escort 
and pushed westward, picking up various militia companies 
as they advanced. To the northward, also, the militia began 
to collect and close in upon the British line of march. Capt. 
Zalmon Read's company, reconnoitering in the direction of the 
enemy, ran unexpectedly upon the advancing British column 
near Couch's Rock in Weston, and was obliged to beat a 
hasty retreat, several members of the company falling into 
the enemy's hands. 

The British continued their march, arresting committee 
men and other officials wherever found, and securing as pris- 
oners all males capable of bearing arms, though unarmed, 
some of them being youths of quite tender years. This added 
a new fear to the terrors of invasion, and resulted in the re- 
moval of a number of children, of about the age of twelve 
years, to a place of refuge in the Den Woods, where they 
were provisioned by their anxious friends till the invaders had 
left our shores. Arrived at Redding Ridge, a halt of two 
hours was made. The troops appear to have refrained from 
jnllage and violence, but the loyalist soldiers, as they passed 



THE DAN BURY RAID. 



45 



through the vicinity of their old homes, jeered their wliig 
neighbors, and roundly abused them for not taking service in 
the cause of their king. In this manner the expedition pro- 
ceeded on its way, and about two o'clock in the afternoon of 
the 26th arrived in sight of Danbury, and the long, red col- 
umn, deploying into line of battle, swung forward upon the 
doomed town. 

The inhabitants of Danbury were evidently in the same 
state of distraction and excitement as their neighbors of the 
lower towns ; many were fleeing from their homes, and no 
effective measures for resisting the enemy's progress appear 
to have been undertaken. The military stores were guarded 
by some of Col. Charles Burrell's regiment (14th militia); 
the local militia took up arms ; the fifty Continentals who had 
assembled at the rendezvous, though nominally regulars, were 
no better than militia, and only valuable according to their 
previous experience in war ; and the entire available force was 
much too feeble to cope with the strong and well-disciplined 
British column. Some show of resistance was made, however, 
there was fighting in streets and houses, and a number of the 
citizens of Danbury were killed or wounded. The resistance 
was soon overcome, the American forces withdrew to the 
adjacent hills, and the British were left in full possession of 
the town and the military stores. 

These stores, the primary object of the expedition, the 
enemy proceeded without delay to destroy. No means of 
transporting any portion of them to the shipping being avail- 
able (for the inhabitants of Danbury had impressed all teams 
and vehicles for the removal of their goods and families), their 
destruction became a military necessity. First placing their 
prisoners in one of the churches, under strong guard, the sol- 
diers burst open the storehouses and scattered their contents 
about the streets. Thousands of barrels of beef, pork, flour, 
biscuits, sugar, molasses, and other food stuffs, together with 
large quantities of camp equipage, clothing, etc.. were con- 
signed to the flames. A large quantity of rum and wine was 
also consumed, not all of it, however, by fire. The soldiers 
indulged freely in liquor, and its effects soon became evident 
in carousals, disorderly conduct, and, final!}', in the stupor 
of intoxication. 



46 



THE DAN BURY RAID. 



" The fat from the stores," said an eye witness, " was, in 
some places, over shoe-deep in the streets." A quantity of tar 
and tallow was included in this material, and when fire was 
communicated to the mass a tremendous conflagration resulted. 
Some buildings ignited, and others are said to. have been set 
on fire, and soon a considerable portion of the town was in 
flames. In this hapless condition, with rain falling, stores and 
buildings burning, and drunken soldiers carousing in their 
streets, the terrorized inhabitants of Danbury passed the night. 

While these events were transpiring the forces of Wooster 
and Arnold were assembling and pressing forward in pursuit. 
A rainstorm had set in, causing considerable delay and diffi- 
culty in rallying the ill-disciplined militia of the invaded region. 
The American troops did not reach Redding Ridge till eight 
o'clock in the evening, six hours after the British had reached 
their destination. They numbered some five hundred men, 
under Gen. Silliman, with a few pieces of artillery, and some 
light horse accompanying Generals Wooster and Arnold. The 
latter officer seems to have anticipated intercepting the British 
advance somewhere in this vicinity, and was deeply chagrined 
at the news of the enemy's success in reaching their objective 
point ; the vehement and sulphurous language in which he 
gave vent to his feelings smote painfully upon the ears of 
his astonished listeners. The column presently moved toward 
Bethel and, having reached that point, bivouacked as best it 
might in the driving northeast storm, in sight of the confla- 
gration at Danbury. 

With the dawn of the Sabbath morning General Tryon, 
having accomplished the main purpose of the expedition, made 
immediate preparations for the evacuation of Danbury. His 
troops fell into line and, with the prisoners under safe escort, 
moved out over Ridgebury Hill on their return to the place 
of embarkation, leaving the smouldering ruins of Danbury 
behind them. Wooster, with two hundred men, followed 
immediately upon the British rear, while Arnold and Silliman, 
with five hundred more, moved by another route toward Ridge- 
field. What road Arnold took is not known — his most feasi- 
ble course was to push through the deep defile of the Sugar 
Hollow, whence a rapid march would enable him to gain the 
head of Ridgefield street, while the enemy were delayed by 



THE DAN BURY RAID. 



47 



the work of destroying stores and by the menaces of Wooster's 
corps. 

As the British moved on, they discovered and destroyed 
other stores, as stated, and presently found themselves coming 
into close quarters with their opponents. Upon every eminence 
they found a body of troops posted to contest their advance. 
At nine o'clock they halted for breakfast, and this oppor- 
tunity was evidently improved by Wooster for the purpose of 
striking a blow. Leading his men forward, he struck the 
British rear with such impetuosity as to throw it into confusion, 
taking forty men prisoners. At eleven o'clock, as the enemy 
were nearing Ridgefield, Wooster again led his troops to the 
attack, but received a ball in his spine as he turned to encourage 
his men, and fell mortally wounded. Unwinding his sash 
from his body, the soldiers placed him upon it, and bore him 
from the field. His men fell back in disorder, but were rallied 
by the aid-de-camp, Capt. Stephen Rowe Bradley, and with- 
drawn from further pursuit. The pressure upon the British 
rear being relieved, Tryon's troops advanced to attack the 
force under Arnold, now entrenched in their front. 

Upon arriving at Ridgefield, xA.rnold's troops had con- 
structed across the north end of the village street a barricade 
composed of such materials as could be hastily gathered, behind 
which about two hundred men were posted, the remainder 
being stationed on the flanks, and in this position anxiously 
awaited the British advance. It came at noon — a heavy 
column of attack, protected by strong flank guards, with artil- 
lery posted in front and rear. The artillery opened on the 
American position, the barrier was soon forced, and the British 
infantry poured through. Hand-to-hand fighting ensued. The 
conflict was short and sanguinary, and marked by thrilling 
personal encounters. Arnold's horse was killed by the fire 
of a British platoon, but he escaped unharmed, after killing a 
soldier who advanced to shoot or capture him. Lieut. -Col. 
Abraham Gould, commanding the Fourth Connecticut Militia, 
was killed on horseback, his sword wet with the blood of his 
enemies. The action was soon over, the Americans were forced 
back on all sides, the street was cleared by the British artillery, 
and the king's troops were masters of the field. 

Some mournful scenes are noted in connection with this 



48 THE DAN BURY RAID. 

field of carnage. The dying' Wooster was borne to Danbury, 
where he hngered in agony till the 2d of Ma3\ A funeral party 
moved southward from the battle field, escorting the lifeless 
body of Lt.-Col. Gould, secured upon the back of the faithful 
charger which had borne him to a soldier's death in the heat 
of battle. Eight Americans and sixteen British soldiers were 
buried in a small field on the right of the American position, 
and there were other graves of fallen foemen at other points 
where fighting took place. 

The British encamped for the night near the scene of con- 
flict, and both sides rested on their arms preparatory to a re- 
newal of the struggle on the morrow. The situation of Tryon's 
force was now becoming critical. From all sides the militia 
of Fairfield, New Haven, Litchfield, and Westchester counties 
was closing in upon him ; his losses had been considerable ; he 
was encumbered with prisoners ; his troops were becoming 
exhausted with the strain of conflict, and his ammunition was 
running low. Absolute rest was not permitted to his men — 
there was firing during the night. On the morning of the 
28th the British resumed their march, constantly harassed by 
a running fire as they moved doggedly onward toward the 
landing-place. This was a medicine that the British soldier 
never took kindly to. To pour heavy volleys in the direction 
of the enemy and to receive the. same in return was the mode 
of fighting to which he had been trained. But to be constantly 
peppered by antagonists who took advantage of every rock, 
tree, or other bit of cover, and whose bullets were aimed with 
uncomfortable precision, was disconcerting even to Britain's 
bravest defenders. The retreat to the shipping was a repetition 
of that from Lexington two years before. The British were 
constantly annoyed by skirmish fire, and several determined 
efforts were made to stop their progress. Arnold stationed 
some troops with artillery near Saugatuck Bridge, but the 
enemy avoided the encounter by fording the river some dis- 
tance above and passing the bridge on the double-quick before 
the Americans could strike a blow. The columns of Arnold 
and Silliman now placed themselves on each side of their foes, 
and a running fight ensued, " lasting for about three hours." 

Arnold next posted some troops at Compo Hill, throwing 
up slight breastworks to impede the advance of the enemy, 



THE DAN BURY RAID. 49 

who, when they arrived, found themselves confronted, a Brit- 
ish writer says, by more than three times their number. This 
is probably an exaggeration, but the entire militia was now 
evidently all up, and a last determined effort was made to 
cut off the British retreat. The enemy, however, by a vigorous 
charge, repulsed the American forces with great loss, and 
commenced their embarkation. Arnold rallied his men and 
made a furious onset upon the enemy's rearguard, which he 
threw into confusion, but the regiment of Fusiliers faced 
about, fired an effective volley, and, aided by the rearguard, 
which rallied, again charged with the bayonet, inflicting such 
painful loss upon the i\mericans that no further effort was 
made to prevent the embarking of troops. A body of marines, 
it is said, was landed from the vessels to cover the retreat, 
and the British returned in safety to their fleet, carrying their 
prisoners with them. Arrived on board, the soldiers flung 
themselves upon the decks, where they lay, utterly exhausted, 
as the vessels bore away for the opposite shore. 

The raid was ended ! The wearied patriots buried their 
dead, and dispersed ; the inhabitants who had sought safety in 
flight returned to their homes ; the frightened children came 
out of the tangled thickets of the Den, and returned to the 
arms of their joyful mothers ; crowds, curious and eager, 
visited the various fields of conflict, whose scenes and memories 
remained a theme of wondering discussion for many a long 
day. The results of the raid were most unfortunate for the 
American cause ; the losses in military stores, property, and 
life were very considerable and very dispiriting to the patriots. 
On the other hand, the British soldiery had been sorely pressed, 
and afterward admitted that they had been more severely 
handled than at Concord and Lexington, and but for their 
superior discipline and the military skill of their leaders would 
probably have been captured. And it is much to be regretted 
that on this occasion our troops were not commanded by a 
general more renowned for strategical ability than for desper- 
ate valor. Equally is it to be deplored that our troops did not 
possess the staying power to successfully resist that charge at 
Compo, " which had become absolutely necessary, from a want 
of ammunition." The capture of this entire British column 
would have gone far to compensate for the injury it had in- 
flicted. 



CO THE DAN BURY RAID. 

Now that the tempest had passed the people set to work to 
repair its ravages. Several prominent men had been carried 
off by the British from the towns through which they passed, 
and to make good their losses and provide for future exigen- 
cies the citizens of Redding met and voted : 

" May 5, 1777. — David Jackson, Seth Sanford, Thad"s Benedict and 
John Gray Chosen Select Men in Addition to and to Supply the places 
of Stephen Betts and James Rogers, that were taken Prifoners by the 
Enemy in their Expedition to Danbury." 



IV 

BRITISH CORRESPONDENCE AND RETURNS. — LIST OF 
PATRIOT SOLDIERS, PRISONERS, ETC.— THE SUGAR 
HOUSE. 

Having returned from his expedition with a whole skin and 
an accompHshed purpose, Gen. Tryon might now unbuckle his 
sword-belt, call for pen and inkhorn, and due report make to 
his superior officers. This last he proceeded to do, as did 
others connected with the army and the home government, and 
the whole correspondence is here presented in chronological 
order, showing how the expedition and its results were re- 
garded by the British authorities : 

[Capt. Hutchinson to Lord Percy.] 

" On board the Mercury Packet, 
Long Island Sound, April 30, 1777. 
My Lord, 

Having on Monday evening last, on my way through the Sound, 
fallen in with major-general Tryon's detachment, which he was then 
re-embarking at Norwalk bay, I was induced to go on board the Sene- 
gal to receive the general's commands, and if possible to learn, for 
your lordship's information, the success of so important an expedition. 
The fleet being under way by the time I got on board, the general had 
just time to desire me to inform your lordship that he had succeeded 
beyond his expectations, having completely destroyed two principal 
magazines belonging to the rebels at Danbury and Ridgefield, consist- 
ing of provisions and other military stores, such as rum, tents, wag- 
gons, harness, made up ammunition, hospital medicines, and cloathing; 
and that with the loss of very few rrten. That he had met with very 
little opposition on his way to Danbury, but on his return was attacked 
by Arnold at the head of a large body of rebels from Peek's Kill, who 
harrassed his march exceedingly almost the whole way from Ridge- 
field to near the water-side ; but that he at last made a successful 
charge with his bayonets on their main body, by which he destroyed a 
considerable number, and drove the rest into the utmost confusion, 
which enabled him to resume his march, and to re-embark his troops, 
horses, artillery and wounded men, without further molestation. That 
he had not then been able to collect the dififerent returns, but from the 
best 9,ccounts he could get, believed his loss did not exceed 50 men 
killed and wounded, that he had no officers killed, and only a few 
wounded. He added, that he was much indebted to the spirit and 
bravery of his troops, and particularly so to major Stewart, who had 



52 



BRITISH CORRESPONDENCE. 



distinguished himself in a most conspicuous manner on the occasion. 
This too I had afterwards explained by general Agnew and his major 
of brigade Lesslie, who informed me that Stewart, with about ten or 
twelve men only, rushed forward into the enemy's line, and by his 
example, animated the rest of our troops to make a general charge, 
which by that time was become absolutely necessary from a want of 
ammunition, &c. 

The rebels, it seems, had contrived in the space of half an hour, 
with their usual industry, to cover themselves with a kind of breast- 
work, on the ground over which our troops must pass. Lesslie said 
that there could not be less than 4000 barrels of beef and pork, 3000 
barrels of flour, and above 50 puncheons of rum, destroyed in the whole, 
besides the other articles of camp stores and cloathing above mentioned. 
That a great part of these were found in the churches at Danbury and 
Ridgefield, some in houses, and some in the woods ; but that the whole 
was discovered, and either staved or burnt, together with the above 
mentioned towns. Major Lesslie likewise said, that he thought there 
were above 300 of the rebels destroyed ; which indeed seemed to be the 
general opinion. General Woorster, he said, was certainly mortally 
wounded; that Arnold escaped very narrowly with the loss of his horse, 
which was killed. Everybody said, he behaved that day with uncom- 
mon resolution, as to personal bravery, but did not give him much credit 
for his judgment as a general. I heard that about 170 prisoners were 
brought on board, but do not recollect at what place, or in what manner 
they were taken, being only about ten minutes on board, I could not 
possibly collect as many particulars as I wished. 

General Agnew has got a slight wound in the shoulder, and I was 
told that major Hope, capt. Thorne, and lieut. Hastings, were slightly 
wounded, and a captain in Brown's corps, who was said to be the only 
one in danger. I was told that general Tryon had returned that corps 
public thanks for their gallant behaviour. 

General Tryon's detachment consisted of about 2000 men from the 
4th, 15th, 23d, 27th, 44th, and 64th regiments ; and brigadier-general 
Brown's corps, with twelve of the 17th light dragoons, and six light 
field pieces. They landed on Friday the 25th of April at Norwalk 
Bay, and proceeded first to Danbury, from which they returned by way 
of Ridgefield, and re-embarked on Monday afternoon, the 28th. And 
it being general Tryon's orders to return as soon as this service was 
performed, they sailed immediately for New York. 

Captain Duncan, of the Eagle, had the command of the naval de- 
partment, having with him the Senegal and Swan sloops of war. No 
accident of any kind happened to any of the shipping. 

This, my lord, is the substance of the information I had time to 
collect. 

G. Hutchinson, Aid de camp." 



BRITISH CORRESPONDENCE. 53 

(Gov. Tryon to Lord George Germain. [0"Callaghan: Doc. Hist. N. Y.]) 

" New York, 2 May, 1777. 
My Lord, 

The bearer, M"" Laight, is a good and faithful subject, which testi- 
mony he desired, I would give your Lord?. The success of the Enter- 
prize in Connecticut under my command, I must leave to General S"" 
W"' Moore [Howe?] to particularize. I shall only observe, that my 
obligations to Sir W™ Erskine are beyond the measure of praise on the 
occasion ; without him I should have been much embarrassed if nothing 
worse, and with his aid I met with no difficulties, but what the spirit 
and activity of both Officers and Soldiers honorably surmounted — 
Submitting myself to your LordPs patronage I am very respectfully 
Your LordP,s obed"^ humble serv' 

W" Tryon " 

[General Orders.] 

" Head Quarters, New York, May 2, 1777. 

The Commander in Chief returns his thanks to Maj"" General Tryon, 
to the Gen' Officers, and to all the other Officers under his Command, 
on the late Expedition ; the regularity of the Men, reflects credit upon 
the discipline of the Army, and does them great honor. 

The spirited charge of the Troops with their Bayonets upon the 
Enemy, covered with Walls & Fences, previous to the embarkation, 
sufficiently proves the evident superiority of His Majesty's Troops, and 
afifords the greatest Satisfaction to his Excellency." 

[Vice-.\dmiral Lord Howe to Philip Stephens, Esq. Sec'y Admiralty.] 

'• Eagle Of¥ New York 

May the iS*-'^ 1777- 
Sir, 

I informed you in my last of the 23'^ of April, that a Detachment of 
the Army had been embarked by the General's Appointment, to be 
landed on the Coast of Connecticut, for destroying a very considerable 
Magazine formed by the Rebels at Danbury in that Province. 

The Service being critical, and the Navigation intricate, I committed 
the Conduct of it to Captain Duncan: The Captains MoUoy and Clay- 
ton commanding the Flat-Boats under his Orders. And I have the 
pleasure of being able to report that the several parts of the Service 
were executed with much Skill and Judgment. 

The Arrival of the Detachment being unexpected, no Opposition 
was made to the Landing near Norwalk. When the Troops were 
formed on their Return to the Shore, preparatory to their Re-embarka- 
tion, after the most complete -Success in the intended purpose, the 
Rebels advanced with an apparent Design to charge them. But being 



54 



BRITISH CORRESPONDENCE. 



thereupon attacked and dispersed the Detachment was taken off with- 
out further Interruption. 

I am, with great Consideration, 
Sir, 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

Howe. 
Philip Stephens, Esq., 

Secretary of the Admiralty." 

[Sir \Vm Howe to Lord George Germain.] 

" New York 22^ May 1777. 
My Lord 

In my Letter of 24'^ April No. 51, I mentioned an Embarkation of 
Troops detached under the Command of Major Geri^ral Tryon, for the 
Destruction of one of the Enemy's Magazines of Provisions and Stores 
collected at Danbury in Connecticut. I have now the Honor of report- 
ing to your Lordship the Success of that Expedition, and, to enclose a 
Return of the Stores destroyed. 

The Troops landed without Opposition in the Afternoon of the 2$^^ 
April, about four Miles to the Eastward of Norwalk, and twenty from 
Danbury. 

In the Afternoon of the 26^^ the Detachment reached Danbury, 
meeting only small Parties of the Enemy on the march ; but General 
Tryon having Intelligence that the whole Force of the Country was 
collecting, to take every Advantage of the strong Ground he was to 
pass on his Return to the shipping, and finding it impossible to procure 
Carriages to bring off any Part of the Stores, they were effectually 
destroyed, in the Execution of which the Village was unavoidably 
burnt. 

On the 27'^ in the morning the Troops quitted Danbury and met 
with little Opposition until they came near to Ridgefield, which was 
occupied by General Arnold, who had thrown up Entrenchments to 
dispute the Passage, while General Wooster hung upon the Rear with 
a separate Corps : The Village was forced and the Enemy drove back 
on all Sides. 

General Tryon lay that night at Ridgefield, and renewed his March 
on the morning of the 28*^'. The Enemy having been reinforced with 
Troops and Cannon, disputed every advantageous Situation, keeping 
at the same Time smaller Parties to harrass the Rear, until the General 
had formed his Detachment upon a Height within Cannon shot of the 
Shipping, when the Enemy advancing, seemingly with an Intention to 
attack him, he ordered the Troops to charge with their Bayonets, which 
was executed with such Impetuosity that the Rebels were totally put 
to Flight, and the Detachment embarked without further Molestation. 

The enclosed Returns set forth the Loss sustained by the King's 



RETURNS. ^c 

Troops and that of the Eenemy from the best Information, but I have 
the Satisfaction to inform your Lordship our wounded Officers are in 
the fairest Way of Recovery. 

I have the Honor to be 

Your Lordships 

most obedient 
humble Servant 

W. Howe. 
Right Hon*''® Lord George Germain &ca &ca &ca " 

Return of the Stores, Ordnance, Provisions &ca, as nearly as could 
be ascertained, found at the Rebels Stores, and destroyed by the Kings 
Troops at Danbury &ca, in Connecticut, April 27^^ ^777- 

A quantity of Ordnance Stores, with Iron &ca 
Four Thousand Barrels of Beef and Pork 
One Thousand barrels of Flour 
One hundred large Teirces of Biscuit 
Eighty nine Barrels of Rice 
One hundred and twenty Puncheons of Rum 

Several large Stores of Wheat, Oats, and Indian Corn in bulk, the 
quantity therefore could not possibly be ascertained. 
Thirty Pipes of Wine 
One hundred Hogsheads of Sugar 
Fifty Ditt° of Molasses 
Twenty Casks of Coffee 

Fifteen large Casks filled with Medicines of all Kinds 
Ten Barrels of Salt Petre. 

One Thousand and Twenty Tents and Marquies. 
A Number of Iron boilers, 
A large quantity of Hospital Bedding &ca. 
Engineer, Pioneer and Carpenters Tools 
A Printing Press complete 
Tar, Tallow &ca. 
Five thousand pair of Shoes and Stockings 

At a Mill between Ridgeberry and Ridgefield. 
One hundred barrels Flour, and a quantity of Indian Corn. 

At the Bridge over the West Branch of Norwalk River and in the 
Woods contiguous. 
One hundred Hogsheads of Rum 
Several Chests of Arms 
Paper Cartridges 
Field Forges 
Three hundred Tents. 



56 



RETURNS. 



Return of the Kllled, Wounded, and Missing of the following 
Corps on the 27"' & 28"' April upon the Expedition under the Command 
of Major General Tryon. 





Killed 




Wounded 


Missing 












01 












« 






































ki 






































lU 


<0 










(U 


U 


c 

6 
be 


u 

feO 


Ul 

c 
■5 

1 

u 


n 


0) 

a 


Q 


n 


So 


a 



c 

3 


be 


U 

Q 


E 

c 


0) 

&,o 


m 

a 
'5 
a 



U! 

c 
1) 


c 

si 
;-< 


E 

01 

3 
u 
Q 


E 

g 

05 


4th .. . 
















I 




I 




15 












/2 


15th . . . 












8 




I 




I 




15 












2 


23d .... 


' 










5 








I 




18 












10 


27th . . . 












I 




I 








10 












6 


44th . . . 












3 








3 




12 










I 


4 


64th . . . 
















I, 








II 














Prince of 






































Wales's 
American 


[■ 








I 


6 




2 




3 




u 


•• 










3 


Voluntiers 


) 





































Total . . 










I 


23 


3 


6 


3 


9 




92 










I 


27 
















Killed 


Wounded 


Missii 










Ig 








M 






01 






01 




























Royal'"Artiller 


Y 


4) 


(0 




U) 

1> 


£ 


OS 


01 

1) 


01 


<4 








Ul 


u 





2 


0) 





01 


(U 





































«1 


•a 
< 


11 




■a 
< 


t-l 




•0 

< 
















Tot£ 


il . 








2 


3 


I 




I 


•• 





4'h Reg' 
4*11 Reg* . . . Capt" Thorne Wounded 

(^ \ Capt° Ditmas d° 

' Lieut Hastings 12"' reg' acts as Volunteer d" 
[ Major Conran d" 

27* ■] Capt" Rutherford d" 

• ( Ens" Minchin d° 

^ ( 2^ Lieut Price d° 

' Volunteer Vale d» 

44*'> Major Hope d" 

64th j Capf> Calder d" 

( Ens" Mercer d» 

Prince of Wales's i Col" Brown d" 

American \ Capt° Lyman d» 

Voluntiers ( Capt° Seon d" 

Capt" Simon Eraser as Volunf D» 

W Howe 



BRITISH CORRESPONDENCE. 



57 



Return of the Rebels, Killed iS: Wounded, on the 27th & 28^'' April 
1777 in Connecticut by tlie Detachment under the Command of Major 

General Tryon. 

Killed 
General Wooster 
Colonel Goold 

Colonel Lamb of the Artillery 
Colonel Henman 

Doctor Atwater a Man of considerable Influence 
Captain Cooe 
Lieu* Thompson 
100 Private 

Wounded 
Colonel Whiting 
Captain Benjamin 
Lieu* Cooe 
250 Private 

Taken 
50 Private including several Committee Men. 

[Gov. ]\Iontfort Browne to Lord [Geo. Germain?].] 

" No. 4. 

New York May the 3it 1777. 
My Lord. 

I have now the honor to transmit to your Lordship duplicate of my 
last letter No. 3, dated April the i' 1777, which I hope has long since 
reached your Lordships hands. 

Scarce anything since that period has happened worth Communicat- 
ing, except our Expedition to Danbury, which tho' a most fateiguing 
one, has been successful beyond our most sanguine expectations ; — 
The immense quantitys of Provisions, and Stores of all kinds, which 
were destroy'd in that Town, and its Environs, have been astonishing; 
The Magazines were in short filled with every necessary for the sup- 
port of the Rebel Army, that could be thought of, and the loss and dis- 
appointment it must be to them at the opening of their Campaign must 
be irreparable, and not to be rated. As the Commander in Chief has 
undoubtedly forwarded your Lordship by this opportunity, the par- 
ticulars of the stores, ordnance and provision taken and destroy'd, it 
will be useless to repeat them. 

I Commanded my own Corps, and can truly say, upon the faith and 
honor of a Governor, that their undaunted behaviour and resolution, 
astonished every officer on the expedition, they could scarce be 
restrained, often advancing musket shot before any other Corps; but 
nothing was more pleasing, or could more evidently prove the purity 
and uncorruptness of thier principles, than that of paying not the least 
attention or partiallity to thier own Rebel Relations and Neighbours, who 
they met in Numbers of Both Sexes, and to whom they express'd upon 
all occasions, a resentment, for not joining in fighting for the best of 

5 



58 BRITISH CORRESPONDENCE. 

Kings. — I had Two Captains wounded (one Mortally) and Sixteen 
non Commission'd Officers and Privates Killed and Wounded. I had 
the Misfortune of being amongst the number of the latter, having 
receiv'd a ball in my left Thigh, of which, thank God, I am nearly 
recovered. 

The honor my Corps has gain'd on this Expedition has been Echoed 
from the lowest rank to the highest : and Sir William Erskine and 
Major General Tryon have been so good as to report thier Behaviour 
to the Commander in Chief in such pathetic Terms, as induced his Ex- 
cellency to return all the Officers, and Men thanks in the most Public 
manner, for their iindaunted Courage, and Spirited Behavour ; And 
has done me the honor to appoint me to the Rank of Brigadier General, 
which, as I had the honor to inform your Lordship in my last, I con- 
sider as a mere Bagatelle, as I am Commanded by Brigadier General 
De Lancy and Skinner. I therefore once more take the Liberty to rec- 
ommend to your Lordships Consideration my request in my Letter 
No. 3 which will lay me under inexpressable obligation. — 
June io"i 

Since having wrote the foregoing, I have the honor to acquaint your 
Lordship that I have just had it from undoubted authority from Con- 
necticut, that the Rebells upon a supposition that our little Army, was 
to march from Danbury to the White Plains, had actually destroy'd 
several Magazines on that road, full of Provisions, Ammunition and 
Stores Considered equal in Quantity with those demolished at Danbury. 

My Corps are all encamped at Kingsbridge Ready at a moments 
notice to follow the Commander in Chief, who tis said will take the 
feild without delay. 

I have the Honor to be with the Greatest Respect, 

My Lord, 
Your Lordships 
most obedient and 
most devoted Serv*^ 
MoNTFORT Browne " 

[Col. Guy Johnson to Lord Geo. Germain.] 
[O'Callaghan: Doc. Hist. N. Y.] 

" No. 5. 

New York June 8'^ 1777. 
My Lord, 

In my letter of April last (No. 4) I mentioned briefly the state of 
matters at that time; a few days after a person whom I employed to 
carry messages to the Indians and obtain an account of the rebel garri- 
sons returned, with a full state of the strength and circumstances of 
the Forts from Ticonderoga to Albany, which he obtained thro' his 
address under an assumed character, & likewise gave a particular 
account of a large magazine of military stores and provisions collected 
at Danbury in Connecticut ; which I communicated to S"" W™ Howe, 
who soon after sent a body of troops there, that effectually destroyed 
the whole, as he has doubtless acquainted your Lordship. . . ." 



^ 



BRITISH CORRESPONDENCE. 



59 



[Gov. Tryon to Lord Geo. Germain.] 
[O'Callaghan: Doc. Hist. N. Y.] 

" New York, 9, June 1777. 
My Lord, 

As the success of the late expedition to Connecticut to destroy the 
rebel stores at Danbury has been transmitted by the Commander in 
Chief, I only beg leave to assure your Lord?, every praise is due to the 
persevering courage and spirited behaviour of both Officers and Men, 
on that service S^" W™ Erskine was of important service in his double 
capacity, as Brigadier and Quarter Master General. I hold him in 
such honorable esteem and regard, and confess his Military abilities so 
superior to my own, that were I allowed to make a request to his Maj^y 
in his behalf, it should be that he might succeed to the command of a 
Regiment before me, as much as I wish for that honour myself. 

I am. My Lord, most respectfully 

Your obedient servant 

W^ Tryon M : G." 



"(No. 14.) 
Sir, 



[l^ord Geo. Germain to Sir Wm. Howe.] 

Whitehall June 2otii 1777. 



I have had the Satisfaction to hear of the Success of the Expedi- 
tion to Danbury, by means of Lord Percy, who communicated to me a 
letter which he received from his Aid de Camp Captain Hutchinson 
dated 28ti> April, and which has been inserted in the Gazette. 

I am &c^ 

Geo : Germain." 
" The Honorable 
Sir William Howe. 

[Lord Geo. Germain to Sir Wm. Howe.] 

"(No. 15.) 

Whitehall 6^^ August 1777. 
Sir 

You will have learned from my Dispatch of the ao'^^ June that the 
News of the Success of the detachment under the Command of Major 
General Tryon, had reached England, before the Arrival of your Let- 
ter of 22<i May. 

Your Account of that Expedition nevertheless gave the King great 
Satisfaction; as it was accompanied with Assurances that His Majesty's 
Troops had sustained a comparatively small Loss and that the wounded 
Officers were in a fair way of Recovery. 

The King was pleased to repeat the Approbation which he formerly 
expressed of your manifest Attention to the Service in setting on foot 
an Expedition which was so well timed and so peculiarly calculated 
for distressing the Enemy; and His Majesty highly approves of the 
manner in which it has been executed. . . . 

I have the honor to be &c^ 

Geo: Germain." 



6o 



PATRIOT SOLDIERS. 



A LIST OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS AND OTHERS WHO 
PARTICIPATED IN THE DANBURY RAID, APRIL 25-28, 
1777. 

Nezi' Haven. 



Maj. Gen. David Wooster, 



Brig. Gen. Benedict Arnold, 

Dr. David Atwater, 
Anan Bradley, 
Timothy Gorham, 
Philo Hodge, 



Commanded the American troops in the 
pursuit of Tryon. Mortally wounded 
at Ridgefield, Apl. 27, died at Dan- 
bury, May 2, 1777. 

Took command of the American forces 
after the fall of Wooster. 

Killed. 

Wounded. 

Wounded. 

(West Haven.) Wounded at Compo, 
Apl. 28. 



Brig. Gen. Gold Selleck 
Silliman, 

Lt. Col. Abraham Gould, 

Lt. Col. David Dimon, 
Lt. Lewis Goodsell, 

Zachariah Lacey, 
Benjamin Meeker, 



Levi Bradley, 



Fairfield. 

Commanded the Conn. Militia in the 

Tryon Raid. 
Comd'g 4*^ Conn. Militia. Killed at 

Ridgefield, Apl. 27. 
6''*^ Regt. Conn. Continental Line. 
Capt. Ebenezer Hill's Co., 4*^^ Conn. 

Militia. 
A private soldier. 
A civilian. Taken prisoner. Carried to 

New York, and spent eighteen months 

in the Sugar House. 
A soldier engaged at Ridgefield. 



Capt. Ebenezer Coe, 



Lt. Ephraim Middlebrook, 

Lt. William Thompson, 
Lt. Stephen Wells, 

William Nichols, 

Josiah Peck, 

Ens. Judson Burton, 



Stratford. 

Seriously wounded at Ridgefield, Apl. 

27. Right eye shot out, part of right 

ear shot ofif, bayonet stab in right hand 

and side. Recovered, and lived to old 

age. 
Comd'g Co. Killed at Ridgefield, Apl. 

27. 
Killed at Ridgefield, Apl. 27. 
4^^ Co. of alarm list, 4*-^ Conn. Militia. 

Wounded at Ridgefield, Apl. 27. 
(Bridgeport.) Saw Gen. Wooster when 

he fell. 
Capt. Wheeler's co.. Col. Whiting's Regt. 

(4ti> Conn. Militia). 
13*'' Regt. Conn. Militia. 



PATRIOT SOLDIERS. 



6i 



Capt. Abraham Brinsniade. 
Stiles Judson. 
William Hall. 
Lewis Fairchild. 
Robert Hawley, 

Capt. Nathan Seeley. 

Sergt. Samuel Gold, 
Stephen Fairchild, 
Daniel Bartram, 
Benjamin Lines, 



Jacob Patchen, 



Ebenezer Patchen. 
Jeremiah Sanford, 



Daniel Chapman, 
Daniel Collins Bartlett. 



Lt. Hezekiah Davenport, 
David Stevens, 
John Holmes, 
David Waterbury, 



Benjamin Weed, 
Capt. Jesse Bell. 
Thaddeus Bell, 



Capt. Thomas Starr, 
A negro, 



Ens. Ozias Goodwin. 
Oliver Dickinson. 
Solomon Buell, 



Capt. Ebenezer Coe's Co. ; 4*^^ Conn. 
Militia. Wounded. 

Redding. 

Wounded at Ridgefield, Apl. 27. 

Wounded at Ridgefield, Apl. 27. 

Served with the militia in Tryon's Raid. 

A non-combatant, 16 yrs. old. Taken 
prisoner, but was released by Gov. 
Tryon, on account of his youth. 

Taken prisoner, but, says tradition, "be- 
ing young, strong, and active, soon 
made his escape." 

A lad of 19. Taken prisoner, carried to 
New York, and died in the Sugar 
House. 

Taken prisoner and died in the Sugar 
House. 

Stamford. 

Killed at Ridgefield, Apl. 27. 

Killed at Ridgefield, Apl. 27. 

Was in the Danbury fight. 

Was in the pursuit of the British after 
the burning of Danbury. Saw Woos- 
ter shot, and saw Arnold leave his 
fallen horse, taking his pistols with 
him. 

Wounded at Ridgefield, Apr. 27. 

(Darien.) 

Danbtiry. 

Wounded. 

Property of Sam Smith, Esq., of Red- 
ding. Killed at Danbury, Apl. 26. 

LitchHeld. 



Wounded in both thighs. 



62 



PATRIOT SOLDIERS. 



Ridgefield. 

^th Regt. Conn. Continental Line. 
Witnessed the fight at Ridgefield. 

Woodbury. 

Severely wounded. 
Taken prisoner. 
Taken prisoner. 

Nezv Fairfield. 

5th Regt. Conn. Light Horse. 
In Col. J. P. Cooke's Regt. (16*1 Mili- 
tia). Wounded. 

A boy of 16. Son of Elias. Left home 
against his father's command, and 
blazed away at the British from behind 
a stone wall. His father chastised him 
for his disobedience. 

PVallingford. 
Col. Thaddeus Cook, lo^'i Regt. Conn. Militia. 

Capt. Stephen Rowe Bradley, (Cheshire.) Aid to Gen. Wooster. 
Aaron Ives, Wounded in the leg at Compo, and lost 

his horse-equipments and rations. 
Joash Hall, Fought at Compo, where his horse was 

shot under him. 
Stephen Parker, (Cheshire.) 



Col. Philip Burr Bradley, 
Jeremiah Keeler, 



Thomas Torrance, 
Simeon Minor, 
Timothy Minor, 



Capt. Thomas Bull, 
Daniel Bull, 

Elias Gray. 
William Gray, 



Paul Peck, 
Levi Watson, 



Jere Burwell. 
Benjamin Piatt, 



Torrington. 
Hunter and scout. Volunteer. Killed 

near Danbury. 
Was at Danbury when it was burned. 

Milford. 

Severely wounded. ^ 



Lt. Peter Mills. 
Nathan Skiff, 2^. 

Lt. Col. Josiah Starr, 
Isaac Baldwin, 
Col. Charles Burrall, Canaan, 
Col. Joseph Crane, 
Maj. Thaddeus Crane, No. 
Salem, N. Y., 



Kent. 

Nezv Milford. 

/'•iRegt. Conn. Continental Line. 
Was in the fight at Danbury. 
14"^ Regt. Conn. Militia. 
N. Y. Militia. 

2d Westchester Co. Regt. Wounded. 



THE SUGAR HOUSE. 



63 



Lebbeus Mead, 



Capt. Daniel Gillett, 
Capt. Edward Rogers, Corn- 
wall. 
Nicholas Darrow, Middle- 
town. 
Daniel Sloper, Soutliington, 
Abner Bradley, Watertown, 
Theophilus Mead, Norwalk, 
William Edmond, Newtown, 
Joseph Parker, 

Lt. Samuel Elmore, Sharon, 
Lt. Col. Giles Russell, Ston- 
ington. 

Col. Jedidiah Huntington, 
Norwich, 

Lewis Fairchild, Guilford, 

John Crane, Durham, 

James Lockwood, New Ca- 
naan. 



Capt. Seeley's Co., Col. Cortland's Regt. 
(N. Y.). Badly wounded at Compo, 
Apl. 28. 

Volunteer. 



Sheldon's Regt. Light Horse. 
Wounded at Compo, Apl. 28. 
Wounded near Ridgefield. 
Volunteer. Wounded in the thigh. 
Suffered excessive fatigue at the burn- 
ing of Danbury. 
Killed at Compo, Apl. 28. 

^th Regt. Conn. Continental Line. 
Wounded at Danbury. 

1st Regt. Conn. Continental Line. 
Captured at Danbury; died in prison. 
Wounded. 



Besides the losses noted above, the British claimed to have 
killed Col. Lamb, and placed Col. Whiting and Capt. Benjamin 
among the wounded. This list, comprising about one-seventh 
of the number supposed to have been with Wooster and Arnold, 
gives a good idea of the casualties of battle. In addition, more 
than forty Americans were taken prisoners, carried to New 
York, and confined in the Sugar House. This building, which 
adjoined the yard of Trinity Church, was used, throughout the 
Revolution, for the confinement of military prisoners, and 
within its walls many a hapless patriot endured imtold suffer- 
ings during the period of his imprisonment. From this dread 
prison-house, almost as soon as they reached it, these unfor- 
tunate men sent back an appeal for assistance to their sorrow- 
stricken friends : 

" By a letter sent by Col. Hart, dated New York. May 2, 1777, 
directed to Squire Sanford and signed by James Rogers, it appears that 
the following persons, who were taken prisoners in the expedition at 
Danbury, and carried to New York, were, Daniel Chapman, Jabez 
Frost, Daniel Sanford, Timothy Parsons, David Fairchild, Daniel 



64 



THE SUGAR HOUSE. 



Meeker, Russel Bartlet, James Rogers, Oliver Sanford, Nathaniel 
Squire, Ezekiel Fairchild, Stephen Betts, Jonas Piatt and Thomas 
Couch of Redding, John Bartram, Matthew Benedict, Benjamin Sperry, 
John Porter, Jonathan Starr, William Roberts, Jacob Gray, Aaron Gray 
Knap, of Danbury; Benjamin Meeker, John Olmsted, John Dimon, 
Benjamin Banks, David Burr, Peter Blackman, Ephraim Burr, Nathan 
Beers, Caleb Disbrow, Levi Disbrow, and Peter Williams, of the town 
of Fairfield, Israel Chapman of Salem ; James Crawford and Newton 
Crawford of Pound Ridge; Simeon Minor, of Woodbury; Benjamin 
Keeler of Wilton, John Wright of Norwich; Job Slocum of Oblong; 
James and Benjamin Northrup and John Smith of Ridgefield; in whose 
behalf Mr. Rogers wrote the letter, in which they requested their 
friends in Connecticut, to send to them by Col. Hart, all the hard money 
they could collect, who had agreed to advertise when he should return 
to New York, and where the money should be left for said prisoners; 
each man's money to be put up by itself, with his name on it." [Hin- 
man: War Am. Rev.] 

It is doubtful whether this money ever benefited the pris- 
oners, if, indeed, they ever received it. The British provost- 
marshal, Capt. William Cunningham, was an inhuman monster, 
who treated his miserable captives with the most revolting 
cruelty. Under his charge, men of all ranks were confined to- 
gether without distinction of character ; citizens of high stand- 
ing and respectability were thrown, without cause, into the> 
same loathsome dungeon with felons of the lowest grade ; the 
friends of prisoners were forbidden all access to them ; corre- 
spondence was prohibited, lest their condition become publicly 
known ; the grossest insults were offered them ; sick soldiers, 
and even officers, were beaten by this barbarous wretch, whose 
power over them was unlimited. No hospital was provided 
for the sick ; no physician was permitted to be in attendance, 
and great numbers necessarily died of disease. The weekly 
ration of the prisoners was two pounds of hard biscuit, and the 
same quantity of raw pork, which had to be eaten uncooked. 
Water was only obtainable from a polluted well. Cunningham 
reduced the quantity of provisions, exchanged good food for 
bad, and caused arsenic to be introduced into the bread of the 
captives. At the bacchanalian feasts which he gave to his per- 
sonal friends, the prisoners were paraded, to be pointed out and 
abused by the drunken scoundrel at whose mercy they were 
placed. Followed by a villainous negro armed with a coil of 
rope, he made frequent tours of the prison, threatening death 



THE SUGAR HOUSE. 



65 



by the noose to any who incurred his displeasure, and scrupled 
not to carry out his threat, for scores of helpless victims were 
strangled by Cunningham and his demoniac assistant in the 
yard of the prison during the hours of night, without trial and 
without the knowdedge of the too-negligent authorities. This 
murder of helpless beings might have continued indefinitely had 
not some wretched women who lived in that vicinity, moved 
by the piteous cries for mercy which disturbed their midnight 
hours, personally appealed to General Howe to prevent the 
horrid practice. Some amelioration of the sufferings of pris- 
oners was thereby secured, but throughout the war the memory 
of the Sugar House was associated with never-to-be-forgotten 
horrors. 

From this inferno the citizens captured during the Raid 
appear to have happily secured their release after a compara- 
tively brief term of imprisonment. Of the fifteen inhabitants 
of Redding who were carried to New York, six died in prison 
and seven others are known to have returned before the close 
of the Saratoga campaign. Probably all the survivors were 
released at the same time, but by what means did they so for- 
tunately escape the fate which awaited those who remained in 
the Sugar House ? Were they exchanged for some of the pris- 
oners taken by Gen. Wooster in his attack on the British rear-, 
guard on Ridgebury Hill ? By no other supposition can the 
writer explain their happy escape from a fate as horrible as 
brave men ever met at any period of our country's history. 



V 

THE SARATOGA CAMPAIGN. — OPERATIONS IN PENNSYL- 
VANIA. — GERMANTOWN, VALLEY FORGE, AND MON- 
MOUTH. 

The events of the succeeding months of the year 1777 fol- 
lowed each other in bewildering succession: an effort wdll be 
made to present them in the order in which they occurred. 

The British government, whose army had obtained an al- 
most unbroken series of successes in the campaign of the pre- 
vious year, now conceived the idea of inaugurating a double 
campaign, which, it was hoped, would result in the complete 
overthrow of the American forces and the collapse of the re- 
bellion. A force was to be sent to capture Philadelphia — an- 
other, marching southward from Canada along the great water- 
ways of the colony of New York, was to join the British army 
at the mouth of the Hudson. The first movement would divide 
and weaken the army of Washington and place the Jerseys 
under British control ; the second would isolate rebellious New 
England — hitherto the chief source of resistance — from the 
other colonies. It was believed that should these operations 
prove successful, armed opposition could not long endure. 

Accordingly, Sir John Burgoyne, then in England, was 
placed at the head of a new army of English and German troops 
and sailed with them for America. Arriving at Montreal, he 
organized his forces for active service, and on the morning of 
the 8th of June set forth at the head of a splendid column of 
soldiery, consisting of thirty-seven hundred English regulars, 
three thousand German troops of the line, about five hundred 
artillerymen with forty guns, and some two hundred and fifty 
provincials, constituting, in efficiency and equipment for serv- 
ice, one of the best armies ever seen in America. Across the 
level prairie toward the banks of the Sorel, through the rugged 
uplands beside the rapids which interrupt the course of that 
river, and penetrating the tangled forest which lay beyond, the 
army continued its march along the western boundary of Lake 
Champlain, under increasing difficulties of transportation and 
subsistence. Meantime the second part of the British plan of 



CAMPAIGNS OF 1777. ^J 

campaign was put into execution. On the 13th of June Howe 
started across New Jersey from liis camp on Staten Island, in 
an endeavor to bring Washington to battle under conditions 
favorable to British success. Failing in this attempt (for 
Washington proved too wary), Howe returned to his camp to 
make preparations for approaching Philadelphia by water. 
Jvme 1 8th Burgoyne was near Crown Point, engaging the serv- 
ices of four hundred warriors of the Five Nations. He then 
proceeded to Ticonderoga, appearing before that stronghold on 
July I St, on which date Howe was embarking his troops for the 
expedition against Philadelphia. The garrison of Ticonderoga, 
thirty-five hundred strong, under Gen. St. Clair, was compelled 
to evacuate the fortress and retired in haste, hotly pursued by 
the British advance corps. At Hubbardton, on July 7th, three 
regiments of St. Clair's force were overtaken, defeated, and 
dispersed. Burgoyne pushed on, though under increasing dif- 
ficulties, compelling the Americans to abandon all their ad- 
vanced posts. 

The plan of Burgoyne's expedition included a diversion into 
the Mohawk valley ; for this purpose Col. St. Leger, with a 
force of Tories and Indians, was detailed and appeared before 
Fort Stanwix, the extreme left of the American defensive line, 
on the 3d of August. He met with a gallant resistance, and, 
being unable to make any impression on the works, sat down to 
a siege. Meanwhile Burgoyne's slow progress was exhausting 
his supplies, and his troops were becoming disheartened by the 
unusual toils and fatigues of the march. Detachments under 
Colonels Baum and Breyman, sent toward the American right 
to obtain recruits, horses, forage, and supplies, were cut to 
pieces at Bennington on the i6th by Green Mountain militia 
under Stark and Warner. This disaster, the first serious re- 
verse which Burgoyne had suffered, cost him the support of 
his Indian allies, who now melted away. This w^as little to be 
regretted, however, as they would not observe the rules of 
civilized warfare, and the atrocities which they committed in- 
censed the inhabitants of the region through which they passed. 
Soon after the afifair at Bennington the approach of an Ameri- 
can relief column under Arnold compelled St. Leger to raise 
the siege of Fort Stanwix. and he retreated precipitately on 
Aug. 22d with the loss of his stores and camp equipage. It was 



68 CAMPAIGNS OF 1777. 

on this day that the fleet of Howe entered the Chesapeake. The 
British commander had at first attempted the passage bv way 
of the Delaware, but, finding the river well protected and ob- 
structed, made a detour into Chesapeake Bay and landed at 
the Head of Elk on Aug. 27th. Here he disembarked and ad- 
vanced cautiously toward Philadelphia, finding the armv of 
Washington concentrated in his front. The hostile forces met 
at Chadd's Ford, on the Brandywine, on the nth of Septem- 
ber ; the Americans were defeated and fell back to Philadel- 
phia, which they presently evacuated, and the British entered 
the city in triumph, thus bringing one part of the British mili- 
tary programme to a successful termination. 

With Burgoyne, however, matters were taking a much less 
favorable course. As previously stated, his progress through 
the untrodden wilderness had been so slow that his supplies 
gave out and were replenished with difficulty ; the unremitting 
toils and fatigues of the march disheartened his troops ; disci- 
pline relaxed, and desertions were numerous. Advancing for 
short distances every day, and halting every night, Burgoyne 
at last reached the Hudson River, and, crossing his army on 
the 13th of September, encamped near Saratoga. 

The disposition of the American forces at this time was : 
Washington, with the main army, in Pennsylvania ; Putnam, 
with a weak force, in charge of the defenses of the Highlands ; 
Gates, with six thousand men, confronting Burgoyne at Sara- 
toga. The region in which the two armies were about to en- 
gage in deadly conflict was a hilly section, covered with forests 
interspersed with cultivated clearings. 

The Connecticut militia, soon to be ordered to the Hudson, 
were at this time much in need of camp equipage and quarter- 
master's supplies, and a requisition had been made upon the 
towns for certain necessary articles. For the purpose of pro- 
viding these, the townsmen of Redding met and voted : 

" Sept. 18, 1777. — ... Also voted at said meeting that the In- 
junction or Request from his Excellency the Governor and Council ol 
Safety be Complied with and that David Sanford David Starr Dan'^ 
Mallery Nehemiah Hull Afahel Fitch, Nath" Barlow Theop"s Hull 
John Hull Eben'' Andrews Zalmon Read Ephraim Robbins and Stephen 
Betts be a Com'^e to procure and get Dubble the Articles (if they can) 
mentioned in the Governor's said Request and that the said Com*^^^ be 
paid by the Town the Extrodanary Charges the said Articles may Cost 
more than they are set at in the said Request." 



BATTLE OF SARATOGA. 



69 



After which, it may be safely assumed, they discussed with 
interest and animation the state of miHtary affairs in New 
York and Pennsylvania. More exciting was this day on the 
banks of the Hudson, for the two armies had now arrived 
within striking distance of each other, and a preliminary 
skirmish took place. On the 19th Burgoyne left his camp and 
advanced his troops to the front in three divisions. After a 
march of some hours' duration he found himself confronted by 
the Americans in force, and a desperate conflict ensued. The 
British, supported by their artillery, occupied the crest of a 
ridge thinly wooded with pines. The Americans were pro- 
tected by a thick forest, in which the use of artillery was im- 
practicable, but some of their riflemen took post in the trees 
in the edge of the woods and harassed the enemy with a deadly 
fire. Between the two armies lay an open field, across which 
the opposing battalions charged repeatedly without decided ad- 
vantage to either side. At every charge the British artillery 
fell into the hands of the Americans, but before it could be 
dragged oft' or turned upon the enemy the British troops rallied, 
charged in their turn, and drove the American forces back to 
the cover of the forest. From three o'clock till seven of that 
September afternoon the conflict raged with unabated fury. 
The approach of night put an end to the struggle, and the 
British, in a much exhausted condition, were left in possession 
of the field. The carnage had been fearful — 500 British and 
300 American soldiers had fallen, and the field was strewn with 
the wreck of battle — broken arms, scattered equipments, dis- 
mounted cannon, damaged ammunition wagons, dead horses, 
and slain men in heaps where the fight had been fiercest, while 
in the tree-tops the bodies of several lifeless American marks- 
men who had been killed by the sure aim of loyalist riflemen 
hung from the limbs and swayed in the wind. At the field 
hospitals in rear of the lines heart-rending scenes of sufifering 
were occurring. Probably no important engagement of the 
American Revolution was more fiercely contested than this 
action on Bemis Heights on the 19th of September, 1777. Con- 
necticut had two regiments engaged in this battle, commanded 
by Colonels Cook and Latimer. 

The British army entrenched on the field of battle, the 
Americans, emboldened by their success in withstanding the 



7© CAMPAIGNS OF 1777. 

forces of Britain, prepared for still more aggressive operations. 
The results of the battle were regarded as highly favorable to 
the patriot arms, and the men of New England, elated with 
success, and alive to the danger of failure, poured into the camp 
of Gates, more than doubling the size of his army, and eager 
to take part in the final overthrow of their enemies. Detach- 
ments sent to the northward captured Burgoyne's outposts up 
to the very walls of Ticonderoga, and the British commander, 
hemmed in on all sides, encumbered with sick and wounded, 
and cut off from further supplies, was reduced to the desperate 
extremity of cutting his way, either forward or back, through 
the ranks of an exultant and powerful enemy, flushed with 
success and confident of victory, with an army reduced to 
barely four thousand effective men. Entrenched on the field 
of conflict, the British leader waited vainly for the arrival of a 
relief force from New York, his army growing weaker, while 
that of Gates daily increased in numbers. 

After the battle of the Brandywine, Washington sent to 
Putnam for a reinforcement of twelve hundred men, and four 
Connecticut regiments were detached and sent to aid him, 
among them the Fifth, Col. Bradley's regiment, with Capt. 
Ezekiel Sanford and other Redding men in its ranks. After 
the arrival of this force, Washington proceeded to carry out a 
movement which, had it resulted favorably for the American 
arms, would have added new laurels to the fame of the com- 
mander-in-chief and might have hastened the termination of 
the war. Having learned that a portion of the British army 
was detached for special service along the Delaware below 
Philadelphia, Washington determined to attack the main body 
at Germantown while it was thus temporarily weakened. Di- 
viding his forces into four columns — two of Continentals, who 
were to attack in front, and two of militia, who were to gain the 
enemy's flanks — Washington put them in motion on the 3d 
of October, and after marching nearly all night came suddenly 
upon the British encampment at sunrise of the 4th. The sur- 
prise was complete, and the enemy were at first thrown into 
disorder. Unfortunately, a heavy fog prevailed, which ren- 
dered it difficult to locate the British positions or to keep the 
attacking divisions in touch with each other. The enemy's 
light infantry occupied a stone house in .the line of the Amer- 



-.1^: ,.■ ,--^^ 





C 



^'7^rcf. 



^ l.lJ^'^ a^^L 



CAMPAIGNS OF 1777. 



71 



ican advance and succeeded in delaying their opponents till the 
British recovered from the shock of surprise and rallied for 
effective defense. It was near or about the Chew house (as 
it was called) that the Fifth Connecticut was principally en- 
gaged. The British, rallying from their confusion, took the 
offensive and drove the Americans in turn. After a sharp con- 
test Washington's troops retreated to camp, hotly pursued by 
the British for several miles. The losses on each side were 
considerable, that of the British being about 600 [Gen. Agnew, 
of Danbury fame, being among the killed], while the Ameri- 
cans lost 1,000, of whom 400 were taken prisoners. Though 
unsuccessful in its execution, this movement taught the British 
to entertain greater respect for Washington's abilities as a 
commander and to observe greater caution in guarding against 
attacks. 

On the very next day after the action at Germantown, 
sounds of battle were again heard on the banks of the Hudson. 
Clinton at last began a diversion for the relief of Burgoyne 
and an expedition sent up into the Highlands succeeded in cap- 
turing Forts Clinton and Montgomery after a sharp fight. The 
river was now practically under the control of the British — it 
only remained necessary to send forward a sufficient force to 
relieve Burgoyne at Saratoga. Putnam's force was too small 
to offer any serious resistance. Reinforcements, however, 
were sent to his aid. The militia of western Connecticut was 
ordered to his relief, and on the same day that the Highland 
forts fell into the hands of the enemy some of these troops were 
on the march to the North River. Among these forces w^as 
the Fourth Connecticut militia, which has been previously re- 
ferred to in these pages. The peculiarities of the militia or- 
ganization of that period were well illustrated in the formation 
of this regiment. No less than sixteen different company or- 
ganizations reported for duty under one regimental com- 
mander, these bodies ranging in number from squads of five to 
respectable companies of thirty-five or forty men. Redding 
had two companies in this regiment under Captains Gray and 
Morehouse. The company rolls are given in full : 



72 



BATTLE OF SARATOGA. 



CAPTAIN 

Captain John Gray 
Lieutenant Nehemiah Hull 
Ensign Aaron Barlow 
Sergt. Philip Burret 
" George Perry 
David Osborn 
Corpl. Ezekiel Burr 
" Francis Andress 
" Sani'i Fairchild 
" Justus Bates 
Private Elijah Couch 
Ezra Hull 
Jesse Coley 
David Sanford 
Stephen Burr 
Stephen Fairchild 
David Sturges 



GRAYS COMPANY. 

Private Jonas Piatt 
Zalmon Read 
Jeremiah Batterson 
Wil-^ Hait 
Asahel Salmon 
John Hull Jr 
Ezra Sanford 
John Hull 
Elijah Morehouse 
Dan" Mallery 
Thomas Sherwood 
Gershom Salmon 
Joseph Griffen 
Seth Meeker 
Jonathan Andress 
Stephen Adams 
Zalmon Hull 



CAPTAIN MOREHOUSE S COMPANY. 



Captain Gershom Morehouse 
Lieutenant W™ Hawley 
Ensign Seth Sanford 
Sargent Gershom Coley 
Corpl Samuel Gold 

Stephen Bets 

James Hull 

Aron Sanford 



Ephreni Robins 
Asal Peech (Fitch?) 
Nathan Burr 
Daniel Barlet 
Jaby Grigery 
Aron Morhous 
Isaac Gorham 

[Rec. Ct. Men in Rev.] 



The regiment numbered about 360 men all told, and was 
mainly employed in transporting stores from Peekskill to Fish- 
kill, at which point Putnam concentrated his forces. 

We return now to Burgoyne, whose desperate situation 
rendered immediate action necessary, and two days after the 
fall of the Highland forts, when relief was preparing for him, 
he attempted a reconnoissance in force, in the vain hope of 
opening some avenue of escape. The effort was made on 
October 7th, with fifteen hundred picked troops, but no sooner 
had these appeared outside their works than they were furi- 
ously attacked by the American forces. The conflict soon in- 
volved the entire British line, and was fought out with the 
utmost obstinacy, neither side giving way ; breaches in the 
ranks were filled with fresh combatants, and the contest con- 
tinued with unremitting vigor. Suddenly a general officer 
appeared on the field, rode swiftly to the American front, and. 



BATTLE OF SARATOGA. 



73 



placing himself in advance of the line, led the ])rovincials to 
a decisive charge. It was Arnold — fiery, impetuous, un- 
daunted as ever — the Arnold of Quebec, and Lake Champlain, 
and Ridgefield. Riding from point to point, he encouraged 
and animated the soldiers by voice and example, leading now 
one brigade, now another, in a furious charge on the enemy's 
line, which finally broke in disorder and retreated to the works. 
Arnold, still fighting furiously, fell wounded at last, his horse 
shot under him, before the intrenchments of the German 
brigade. The British were driven to cover, and the Americans 
gained and kept possession of a part of the works, in spite of 
desperate efforts to dislodge them. Burgoyne could no longer 
maintain his position, and secretly withdrew in the night to a 
stronger post in the rear. But stronger grew the cordon of 
his enemies, and more desperate his own situation. No news 
could be obtained from New York, though relief was even 
then on the way, and a council of war advised surrender. Un- 
conditional surrender, at first demanded by Gates, was refused, 
but, knowing that a British column was approaching, the Ameri- 
can commander agreed that the defeated troops should march 
out with the honors of war, lay down their arms, and be con- 
ducted to Boston, there to embark for England, not to serve 
further against the United States unless regularly exchanged. 
On these terms 5,642 prisoners, with 42 pieces of ordnance, 
7,000 muskets, clothing for the same number of men, camp 
equipage and stores, fell into the hands of the victors, and on 
October i6th the invasion of Burgoyne reached its unhappy 
termination. Unhappy only to the vanquished host and its 
sympathizers, for great was the rejoicing among the colonists 
when the news came that an entire British army had suc- 
cumbed to patriot valor. The conquered troops marched to 
Boston, but the terms of surrender were not respected by Con- 
gress, and the prisoners were finally sent to Virginia, remaining 
there till the close of the war, many of them being afterward 
absorbed into the citizenship of the new republic. 

The forces of Gates returned to their homes amid general 
rejoicing, bearing with them the spoils of the campaign. The 
militia which had been sent to the aid of Putnam was also dis- 
charged, and on the 30th of October the Fourth Regiment was 
on its homeward march. A number of men from this regiment 
6 



74 VALLEY FORGE. 

returned before that date, some having- absented themselves 
without leave, a breach of discipHne quite too common among 
tlie militia during the war. In consequence of this defection, 
the last seven men on the roll of Captain Gray's company were 
returned as " deserters." They did not go to the enemy, but 
went back to their homes and families, and several of them 
are known to have rendered further service to their countrv. 

The army of Washington, unable to make any further 
demonstration against the enemy, was now placed in winter 
quarters at Valley Forge, twenty miles from Philadelphia. 
Eleven thousand soldiers were quartered in huts in this en- 
campment, and strong detachments were stationed at various 
points around Philadelphia, confining the British pretty closely 
to the vicinity of the city. As winter came on the condition of 
the two armies appeared in marked contrast — the British, 
comfortably housed in the city, were plentifully supplied by 
the inhabitants of the surrounding country, paying for this 
service in gold ; the Americans obtained provisions and supplies 
only with the greatest difficulty, ofifering a depreciated cur- 
rency in payment, and were finally reduced to the necessit}- of 
taking cattle and corn wherever they could. In spite of their 
utmost exertions, famine often prevailed in camp, and the 
clothing of the troops became so completely worn out that they 
were reduced to the severest straits for sufficient covering to 
protect their chilled and famished bodies. Soldiers detailed 
for guard were obliged to borrow the garments of their com- 
rades before they could go on duty. Shoes were wanting; 
many were barefoot, and tracked the snow with blood from 
their frozen feet, and the need of clothing was so extreme that 
an eyewitness declares that there was " many a good lad 
with nothing to cover jiim from his hips to his toes but his 
blanket." The winter was unusually severe, and many soldiers 
were frostbitten, but they endured these privations with pa- 
tience and fortitude. The Fifth Connecticut regiment was 
among the troops who endured the rigors of that terrible 
season, which wore away at last, though the suffering it caused 
did not wholly pass with the bitterness of winter. 

At home, the people were trying to do their duty toward 
the helpless families whose bread-winners were shivering 
around the comfortless campfires, as our records set forth : 



THE PETITION. 



75 



"Dec. 22, 1777. — Micajali Starr Hezckiah Read David Jackson 
Timothy Sanford David Sanford Nehemiah Hull Seth Meeker and 
Joseph Banks were Appointed a Comtee to take care of Soldiers Fam- 
alys in this Town. 

Aaron Barlow Capt. Z. Read Stephen Betts Benjm Darling and 
Gershom Morehouse were Chosen Comtee of Inspection." 

In the spring came the joyful news of the alhance with 
France, and the patriots found occasion for rejoicing amid 
their privations, for the fleets and armies of the French king 
were coming to their assistance. The ragged, famished, and 
frostbitten army at Valley Forge fell into line, fired a volley, 
and gave hearty cheers and heartfelt thanks when the welcome 
announcement was made. The spirits of the people rallied 
again ; renewed efforts were made to supply the troops with 
clothing and provisions, and to obtain recruits. Requisitions 
for the filling up of town quotas had been made — that of 
Redding was set so high as to call forth a remonstrance to the 
legislature, setting forth fully the reasons for noncompliance 
with the demand. 

PETITION OF THE TOWN OF REDDING. 

" February, 1778. 
To the Honorable Gen. Assembly, sitting in Feb. 1778, by adjournment, 
at Hartford. 

The petition of the civil authority and selectmen of the town of 
Redding, in Fairfield Co., humbly sheweth — That the town of Red- 
ding is laboring at present, under so many misfortunes and liabilities, 
peculiar to ourselves, that are not common to the other towns of this 
State, makes it almost, if not altogether impossible for us to raise the 
proportion of men for the continental army as set to us by your 
Honors : we hope that we are and have always been willing to do our 
equal part in maintaining the common cause of America, and have ex- 
erted ourselves therein, always to the utmost of our abilities ; yet we, 
your petitioners, think it our indispensable duty, which we owe to our- 
selves and our brethren of this town, to inform your Honors, that 
since the commencement of the present war, that no less than 49 able- 
bodied, effective men, all inhabitants of this town, have been so in- 
humanly wicked and infatuated as to leave their friends, and most of 
them their families, and join the ministerial army, enemies of this and 
the other United States of America, where they still remain ; and also 
out of those who were made prisoners by said enemy in their expedition 
to Danbury, six persons, inhabitants as aforesaid, died ; and we your peti- 
tioners, would farther inform your Honors, that we have now enlisted 
and engaged in the service during the present war, nine men more as 



•j^ THE PETITION. 

artificers, which has greatly thinned the inhabitants of this, so small a 
town, all which inconveniences and misfortunes we labor under, over 
and above what we share in common with the other towns of this 
State ; wherefore we flatter ourselves that had your Honors been duly 
notified of our peculiar circumstances, your Honors would not, (con- 
sidering the smallness of our town, and the many families we have to 
support, whose estates are confiscated,) have set our proportion of men 
to be raised so high, as at present it is set. We, your Honors' petition- 
ers, therefore, pray your Honors to take our case and particular circum- 
stances into your wise consideration, and in your great goodness, grant 
us relief in the premises, and set our proportion of men to be raised, 
according to the number of our present able-bodied, eflfective men ; and 
your petitioners as in duty bound, shall ever pray. 

49 gone to the enemy, 6 dead prisoners, 9 artificers — total, 64. 
Redding, Feb. 13, 1778. 
(Signed) 

Lemuel Sanford, William Hawley, Justices of 

the Peace. 
Hezekiah Sanford, William Heron, John Gray, 
Thaddeus Benedict, Selectmen. 
These certify that that there are but 112 able-bodied, effective men, 
in both our train-bands or companies, liable to do duty out of the State, 
and that there has enlisted into the continental army out of Redding, 28 
men. 

Redding, Feb. 13, 1778. 
Certified per 

John Gray, captain of the alarm-list, and trainband." 
[Hinman: War Am. Rev.] 

Redding continued to show her willingness to provide for 
the brave soldiers who were battling for Hberty, and to care 
for the families of her defenders, as the records attest: 

" March 23, 1778. — Mefsrs David Jackson Zalmon Read and Eph™ 
Robbins Chosen a Com^ee to provide Clothing for the Army &c." 

"May 8, 1778. — Afahel Fitch Appointed to take Care and provide 
as the Law directs of Nathan Coley's Famaly. 

Dr A. Fitch and Capt. Z. Read Chosen a Com^ee to Provide Shirts 
Shoes and Stockins &c for the Continental Soldiers. 

Voted that the Selectmen tax a Bill to pay the Com^^e for Clothing 
for their trouble in Procuring said Shirts &c." 

On the 8th of June the fleet of D'Estaing appeared off the 
American coast, and the British commanders, alarmed for the 
safety of New York, their most important stronghold, with- 
drew the fleet from the Delaware and the army from Phila- 
delphia. Sir William Howe had been relieved at his own re- 



BATTLE OF MONMOUTH. 77 

quest, and the chief command devolved on Sir Henry Clinton. 
He abandoned Philadelphia late in June, and, crossing into 
New Jerse}', pushed toward New York, but, encumbered by a 
heavy wagon train, his progress was slow. Washington left 
camp with his whole army and started in swift pursuit. On 
the 28th of June, a day of sweltering heat, he overtook the 
British near Monmouth Court-House, and ordered an im- 
mediate attack. Gen. Charles Lee, who commanded the Ameri- 
can advance, professing to misunderstand Washington's orders, 
failed to secure the advantage which presented itself, marched 
and countermarched his troops in the hot sun till numbers fell 
from exhaustion, and finally allowed his men to retreat in 
disorder before the counter-attack of Clinton. Washington, 
arriving upon the field at this juncture, checked the retreat, 
reprimanded Lee, transferred the command of the right wing 
to Greene, and the day was saved, though not with the ex- 
pected results. Clinton made his escape to Staten Island, and 
Philadelphia and the Jerseys were again in the hands of the 
Americans. The battle losses were considerable: those of the 
American forces were estimated at two hundred, those of the 
British at three hundred. This by no means represents the 
total loss of the enemy, for during the march across the Jerseys 
upward of fifteen hundred British and Hessian soldiers decided 
to return to the wives and sweethearts they had left in and 
around Philadelphia, where they later reappeared as men of 
family and citizens of the American nation. The extreme heat 
of the day increased the fatalities of the action, some soldiers 
dying from sunstroke ; others, suffering from the insupportable 
heat, drank water to excess, from the effects of which they 
perished. 



VL 

ENCAMPMENT AT REDDING — THE MUTINY — THE EXE- 
CUTIONS—AMERICAN UNION LODGE. 

The British, having evacuated Philadelphia, were now re- 
stricted to the cities of New York and Newport, leaving the 
surrounding country practically clear of hostile forces. At 
New York they were heavily reinforced, in anticipation of 
attack. Washington moved h-is troops across the Hudson and 
took post at White Plains, where he concentrated the largest 
army he had ever commanded, consisting of fifteen brigades 
of infantry, four battalions of artillery, four regiments of 
cavalry, and several detachments of state troops, and spent 
the remainder of the season in futile efforts to obtain sufficient 
supplies and munitions of war to warrant an attempt on New 
York. No doubt he would have been more than pleased to 
drive the British out of the stronghold from which they had 
expelled him two years before, but this satisfaction was denied 
him. At no time was he sufficiently prepared or strong enough 
to make an attack — Congress and the states but poorly sec- 
onded his efforts. An abortive attempt to drive the British out 
of Newport only added to his disappointment, and the season 
wore away without advantage to the American arms. On the 
approach of winter, Washington broke up his camp at White 
Plains, and moved the various divisions to points in the ad- 
joining states, where they could be more easily subsisted, and 
more readily aid in suppressing the activities of the tories. The 
Connecticut Division, under Putnam, with Poor's New Hamp- 
shire Brigade, the infantry of Hazen, and Sheldon's Light 
Dragoons were ordered to Redding, and at 7 a. m. of the 23d 
of October part of these troops were on the march for New 
Milford, under command of Maj.-Gen. McDougall. On the 
25th the troops reached New Milford, where they encamped 
till November 19th, probably awaiting the completion of their 
new quarters in Redding. The sawmills of the town were 
busily engaged in cutting the lumber from which the rude 
huts were made, and the people waited in joyful anticipation 
the coming of the soldiers, for now no British column would 




PUTNAM'S HEADQUARTERS AT REDDING. 




RESIDENCE OF MR. EPHRAIM BARLOW. 
Said to have been used as a guardhouse in the Revolution. 



THE ENCAMPMENT. 79 

venture into their territory, no restless tory would dare to 
desert his family and fly to the standard of King George. And 
they came at last, — rough, hardy, war-seasoned veterans ; 
heroes of Bunker Hill ; men who had learned lessons of ad- 
versity in the Long Island campaign ; victors of Saratoga ; 
soldiers who had fought at Germantown, had endured the 
rigors of Valley Forge, and the heat of Monmouth ; men who 
had made history, and were yet to make more. The canton- 
ments were perhaps not quite ready for them. It is stated that 
Huntington's brigade encamped near the center of the town; 
Parsons' on the Ridge — evidently a temporary arrangement, 
for presently the Connecticut Division was concentrated in 
the wooded valley which lies between Lonetown and the Ridge ; 
the New Hampshire brigade lay about a mile further west, 
in a similar location, while farther away, in the deep, wide 
valley of the headwaters of the Saugatuck, the light infantry 
and cavalry were hutted for the winter, a mile in rear of Put- 
nam's headquarters, which were located on a by-road on the 
northern slope of Umpawaug Hill. Another house, near by, 
on the Boston post-road, is said to have been used as a guard- 
house. In this position Putnam was able to support the gar- 
rison of the Highlands, guard the coast of the Sound, and 
repress the activities of the tories, who were again becoming 
troublesome, probably incited by British emissaries. One 
means of stimulating their zeal is shown in a notice which ap- 
peared in a New York newspaper under date of June 29, 1778: 

"All gentlemen volunteers able and willing to serve his Majesty King 
George III. in that respectable regiment called the Prince of Wales 
Royal Amer. Vols., com'd by his Excellency Brig. Gen. Brown, will 
hear of the particular advantages of that corps by repairing to Lt. Col. 
Pattison at his camp on Lloyd's Neck, where they will receive a com- 
plete suit of new clothes, arms, accoutrements, &c., and one guinea more 
than his Majesty's most gracious bounty. 'Tis more than probable those 
who enlist will for some months be able to earn 15s to 20=^ per day." 

With this addition of several thousand men to its popula- 
tion. Redding entered upon the liveliest and most interesting 
period of its history. As the brown leaves whirled through 
the forest, and the November winds sighed and whistled 
through the bare branches, the soldiers settled down to the 
life and work of the camp. There were drills, parades, reviews, 



8o THE MUTINY. 

outpost duty, and all the routine of soldier life, which drew 
crowds of curious and admiring- onlookers. (3ff dutv the sol- 
diers amused themselves in such ways as soldiers are wont to 
do. Ima£2^ination easily conjures up a vision of the sports 
and pastimes, the games at cards, the rough jokes and horse- 
play, which contributed to the entertainment of that winter 
of camp life. Many amusing incidents occurred, worthy of 
permanent preservation. One such is here presented : 

A resident of the vicinity, says tradition, had a contract for 
supplying rum to the soldiers. He was well patronized, and, 
as the liquor diminished in quantity, he supplied the deficiency 
by the addition of water. Finally the much-diluted beverage 
froze, and the cheat was discovered. The enraged soldiers 
seized the ofifender, bound him securely astride of a field-piece, 
and then — fired the field-piece. It may be safely assumed 
that no further adulteration of spirits was attempted that 
winter. More tragic was the ending of a^snow^balling frolic, 
in which a negro soldier was struck in the head by an icy mis- 
sile and killed. As the American negro was not then the man 
and brother he has since become, it is likely that the affair was 
dismissed with little consideration. 

Those members of the Continental Line who had enlisted 
from Redding were now reunited to their families, many of 
whom were in need of aid. For the relief of these, our towns- 
people (at a meeting adjourned from December 17th to the 
following Wednesday at i p. m.) provided that: 

"The Com*^^ to provide for Soldiers Fami[lies] Were Nehemiah 
Hull for Nathan Coley's Elijah Burr for Stephen Meeker's Eben"" 
Couch for Elias Bixby Elnathan Sanford [for] Henry Hopkins Na- 
than Burr for Nehemiah Sherwood Zal Read for Jeremiah Ryans and 
W"" Hawley for Sam" Remong." 

Meantime, trouble was brewing in the camp of the Con- 
necticut Division. Winter had set in, cold and stern ; the troops 
were poorly clothed, poorly fed, insufficiently covered and 
sheltered ; the depreciated currency in which they were paid 
was practically worthless; and many of them had needy fami- 
lies at home. Promises made them had not been fulfilled, and 
their privations naturally bred discontent. Four of the Con- 
necticut regiments — Durkee's and Russell's (late Chandler's) 



THE MUTINY. 8 1 

of the First Brigade, and Bradley's and^Swift's of the Second — 
had spent the previous winter at Valley Forge, and had little 
inclination to repeat the experience. Dissatisfaction increased 
as the rigors of the season grew more severe, and murmurs 
of discontent at last gave place to the clamorous voice of open 
mutiny. On the morning of December 30th the troops of the 
Second Brigade, defying the authority of their officers, left 
their quarters, paraded under command of the company ser- 
geants, and avowed their intention of marching to Hartford 
(over fifty miles away), where the legislature was then in 
session, there to demand redress of grievances at the point of 
the bayonet, if need be. When this news was hurriedly con- 
veyed to headquarters there was a hasty mounting of steeds, 
and Putnam and his staff flew down into the valley and over 
the rugged hills to the encampment. As the general rode 
across the hills, he must have been earnestly thinking. The 
situation was not one which admitted of coercive measures — 
the whole division was disaffected and ripe for revolt, and the 
trouble might readily extend to the remainder of his command. 
It was an occasion for the use of diplomacy and a test of per- 
sonal influence. Arrived at the camp-ground, he found all 
in a state of excitement, but the mutinous brigade was still 
in line, the order to march not yet given. As the general rode 
along the line he was received with the honors due his rank: 
the drums ruffled ; at the sharp word of command every musket 
was brought to a present ; then, as " Order-Hr clock " was 
heard, the butts of the muskets dropped to earth, and the sol- 
diers listened with attention and respect to the voice of their 
commander. Demanding to know by whose orders the troops 
were paraded, he was informed that the soldiers, suffering 
from the inclemency of the season, deficient in clothing and 
blankets, paid in a worthless currency or scarcely paid at all, 
and exasperated by the non-fulfillment of promises made them, 
were about to seek redress at the hands of the state authorities. 
Putnam, facing the line, thus earnestly addressed them : 

"My brave lads, whither are you going? Do you intend to desert 
your officers, and to invite the enemy to follow you into the country? 
Whose cause have you been fighting and suffering so long in — is it not 
your own? Have you no property, no parents, wives or children? You 
have behaved like men so far — all the world is full of your' praises — 



g > THE MUTINY. 

.nd posterity will stand astonished at your deeds: but not if you spoil 
lat last. Don't you consider how much the country is distressed by 

the war and that /our officers have not been any better paxd than your- 
e V sT' But we all expect better times, and that the country w,U do us 

ample justice. Let us all stand by one another, then, and fight it ou 

likfbrive soldiers. Think what a shame it would be for Connecticut 

men to run away from their officers." 

Then, turning to the acting major of brigade, Putnam di- 
rected him to march the troops to their respective parades and 
lodge their arms. The magnetism of the general s presence 
and manner, the regard of the soldiers for a popular com- 
mander, and the habit of discipline, produced the desired effect. 
The men shouldered their firelocks and marched to their quar- 
ters with promptitude and apparent good humor, and the im- 
mediate danger was past. The principal ringleader in_ the 
affair was confined in the quarterguard, from whence, at night, 
he attempted to escape, but was shot dead by the sentry on 
duty, who had himself been one of the mutineers. 

Although the mutiny was thus easily suppressed, the sol- 
diers do not appear to have fared much better, and though they 
refrained from further insubordination, the embers of discon- 
tent glowed fitfully. A tragedy was impending and soon it 
was at hand. Among the annoyances with which Putnam 
had to contend during this eventful winter was the facility with 
which tory spies penetrated his lines and made themselves 
familiar with the state of affairs in the American camp. A o 
desertions depleted his ranks, and the general determined that 
an example s'hould be made of the first spy or deserter who 
fell into his hands. Early in February ^^g-^^-- ^"^^J 
the outposts brought to headquarters one Edward Jones >^ho 
was claimed, had been a resident of the vicinity, had gone 
over to the enemy, and come out as a spy. A court-ma tia 
was convened on the 4th, before which J-es testified tlu.t he 
was a Welshman by birth, ever loyal to his ^-^ ^ ^ f J^ ^^^^^ 
been a resident of Ridgefield till the beginmng of he war 
whence he had fled to the British for protection; that he had 
been appointed a butcher for the British camp -d had b n 
sent into Westchester County to purchase beef cattle fo the 
US of the king's troops. Upon trial, the court-martial de- 
c red him guiltv on all the charges preferred against him, and 







^^'*"f 





THE COURT-MARTIAL. 83 

he was sentenced to sufifer death. Two days after, another 
court-martial was held to consider the case of John Smith, a 
young soldier of the First Connecticut Regiment, who had been 
captured in the attempt to desert and had boldly declared his 
intention of going to the enemy at the first opportunity. Him 
the court-martial also condemned to death, and both pris- 
oners were confined in the guardhouse at headquarters to 
await their doom. When that would come they knew not; 
they only knew that before the hour of noon on some fateful 
day they would cease to be. During this interim the curious 
people of the countryside thronged to the guardhouse, eager 
to see the doomed men ; some of them, to their disgrace be it 
said, to revile and taunt and jeer the miserable wretches who 
lay there under the shadow of death. So great was the an- 
noyance to the prisoners from this cause that Putnam was 
obliged to issue an order forbidding the inhuman practice. 

Public sentiment was, perhaps, not altogether adverse to 
these unfortunates: the Rev. Mr. Bartlett interceded with 
Putnam in behalf of Smith, requesting that the prisoner be 
remanded till his case could be laid before Washington, but 
to no purpose — the general was inexorable, and the awful 
tragedy proceeded to its close. On the morning of February 
i6th the last scene was enacted on the slope of that eminence 
which was thenceforth to bear the name of Gallows Hill. The 
camps were astir that day, and the Connecticut troops marched 
from their cantonments to the place of execution, accompanied 
by the New Hampshire brigade. The spot where the two un- 
fortunates expiated their fault is indicated as a tiny plateau 
on the western slope of the hill, at a point where three roads 
meet, making a Y-shaped junction. Along the northern road 
the three brigades marched to their positions at the execution 
ground, where the people of the vicinity were gathered ; and 
those who looked to the westward must have seen the prisoners 
and their escort moving down the slope of Umpawaug, and 
from the valley-camp below caught the glint of Hazen's bayo- 
nets and the flashing sabers of Sheldon's dragoons. When the 
columns had united, the troops were drawn up in line flanking 
the fatal spot, in full view of the condemned men a.nd the in- 
struments of death. A gallows twenty feet high had been 
erected, and a firing party waited to perform its dreadful duty. 



84 THE EXECUTIONS. 

The execution was in all its phases a painful one, the memory 
of which was probably never effaced from the minds of those 
who witnessed it. A pra^'er was offered by the Rev. Mr. 
Bartlett, and the boy Smith was led forw'ard to his doom. 
Placed with his back to the steep slope of the hill, he received 
the volley of the firing party from muskets held so near that 
his clothing was set on fire by the discharge. Three bullets 
penetrated his breast; he fell forward upon his face, and im- 
mediately turned convulsively upon his back. Signs of life still 
remaining, another soldier was ordered forward, and, pointing 
his musket at the lad's head, sent a bullet through his brain. 
The lifeless body was lifted into a rude coffin, an officer with 
a drawn sword took his place beside it, and then, set in motion 
by the stern word of command, a long line of soldiery filed 
past, each man gazing down upon the mangled, bleeding form, 
its clothing still smouldering as the line moved on. 

The unfortunate loyalist next met his fate. Sadly protest- 
ing his innocence, he bade farewell to earth and man, and 
ascended the ladder. At this moment it was made known that 
the man upon whom the duty of hangman devolved, disliking 
his gruesome task, had disappeared, and was nowhere to be 
found. Enraged at this interruption of the course of justice, 
Putnam ordered Jones to jump from the ladder. This he 
declined to do, protesting with earnestness and even with dig- 
nity against the execution of his terrible sentence ; but Putnam, 
refusing to hear him further, ordered the ladder to be turned 
over, and the unhappy loyalist was launched into eternity. 
Stern, terrible, awe-inspiring was the spectacle presented on 
that bleak hillside : one lifeless form dangling from the gibbet, 
another lying, shattered and bloodstained, upon the cold and 
barren earth. What emotions of fear and pity and horror, 
excited by the events of that awful day, haunted the recollec- 
tions of the witnesses, after the shades of night fell upon the 
tragedy, and the stars shone down upon the new-made graves ! 
Whether these men merited their fate, whether the exhibition 
of mercy might not have added luster to an honored name, 
may long be questioned, but the immediate and needed lesson 
was taught, that across the pathway of spy and traitor lay the 
shadow of doom. Quiet reigned in the camps for the remain- 
der of the season, as the soldiers settled down to the routine 



THE HORSENECK FIGHT. 



85 



of duty, no more to rebel against the stern decrees of justice 
and military discipline. 

Lest an imputation of inhumanity should rest on the char- 
acter of Putnam because of his active participation in this 
affair, let it be remembered that military necessity is always 
stern, often demanding the sacrifice of life for the good of a 
cause. These men had been condemned to death by a military 
tribunal ; honestly believing them guilty, Putnam was resolved 
that their sentence should be carried into effect, that the evils 
which menaced his army might be checked. That he should 
personally have compelled the execution of that sentence was 
characteristic of the energy and decision of the man, who was 
ever ready to go forward though others faltered. 

Ten days after this event Putnam was himself in peril of 
his life. He had gone to Horseneck to inspect the outpost 
there, when Gov. Tryon, with six regiments, numbering fif- 
teen hundred men (almost as heavy a column as he led at Dan- 
bury), advanced from New York with the intention of sur- 
prising the post and destroying the salt works there. His 
presence was detected by a small guard at New Rochelle, which 
skirmished with the advance, retiring toward its main body. 
On the approach of the British, Putnam drew up his force (one 
hundred and fifty men, with two iron field-pieces) on high 
ground near the Greenwich church, but realizing the tre- 
mendous odds against him, and seeing the enemy advancing 
for a charge, he ordered his troops to retire through a swamp 
to another eminence in its rear, turned his own horse as the 
British dragoons charged toward him, and dashed down a 
steep declivity at full speed. No trooper of the British dra- 
goons was horseman enough to follow him, and he avoided 
further pursuit, as well as the enemy's bullets, one of which 
pierced his hat. Escaping to Stamford, he rallied his troops, 
received reinforcements, and pursued Tryon on his return to 
New York, capturing fifty of the enemy, an ammunition 
vv^agon, etc. It was Putnam's last battle — he was never under 
fire again. The camps and the town were enlivened by the 
story of this exploit, and the minds of men turned from the 
gloomy and depressing recollections of the preceding months 
to thoughts of active service and a renewal of the struggle 
for libertv. 



86 AMERICAN UNION LODGE. 

More cheerfully, too, ran the course of affairs in the town 
as the winter passed away. An event which added greatly to 
the social pleasures of the period, and drew public attention 
from unpleasant retrospect, was the organization of a Masonic 
Lodge among the officers of the line, and some interesting 
ceremonies in connection therewith. The lodge originated 
in this wise : 

During the siege of Boston the meetings of the Grand 
Lodge of the Masonic fraternity were suspended, and a com- 
mission was granted by John Rowe (the successor of Gen. 
Joseph Warren as Grand Master) to Col. Joel Clark of the 
Connecticut troops to establish a lodge within the army, which 
was to hold its meetings wherever convenient, as the army 
moved from place to place. This lodge was to be designated 
" The American Union Lodge." It was accordingly organized, 
but the change of base to New York, and the stirring events 
which followed, seem to have prevented further meetings. Its 
master, Colonel Clark, died after the Long Island campaign, 
and the lodge appears to have lapsed until the encampment at 
Redding brought the Connecticut officers together, with leisure 
to renew their fraternal relations. For this purpose, and 
perhaps with a view to distract public attention from the pain- 
ful and depressing experiences of the winter, the lodge was 
convened early in February, in conformity to the following 
notice : 

State of Connecticut, viz : 
- Reading, February 7^^, 1779. 

On the application of a number of gentlemen, brethren of the Ancient 
and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Mafons, to the members 
of American Union Lodge, held by authority, under the Right Wor- 
fhipful John Rowe, Efq., Grand Mafter of all Mafons in North America, 
where no Special Grand Mafter is appointed, requefting that the laid 
American Union Lodge may be convened, for the purpose of re-eftab- 
lishing the Ancient Craft in the same. Agreeable to which a fummons 
was iffued, defiring the members of the American Union Lodge to meet 
at Widow Sanford's, near Reading Old Meeting Houfe, on Mondaj', 
the is'ii of inft, February, at 4 o'clock, Past M., and an invitation lent 
to the others, the brethren of the Ancient and Honorable Society of 
Free and Accepted Mafons, to attend at 5 o'clock, Past M. 

Jonathan Heart, 
Secretary American Union Lodge. 

Feb. 10*'', Anno Mundi, 5779. 



AMERICAN UNION LODGE. g; 

According-ly, the first meeting was held at Mrs. Sanford's 
on February 15th, four members of the lodge being present, 
and four candidates were received into membership. Gen. 
Samuel Holden Parsons of the First Connecticut Brigade was 
elected master to succeed the late Col. Clark, and the lodge 
proceeded to a consideration of the by-laws. At the third 
meeting, February 24th, a committee was appointed to amend 
these by-laws, which reported back on March loth, presenting 
their revision in twenty-eight articles, several of which have 
special interest: 

"Art. 3. Every brother proposing a candidate . . . shall de- 
posit as advance four dollars tovi^ard his making. . . . 

Art. 6. Every brother made in this Lodge shall pay ten dollars for 
his making. . . . 

Art. 9. Every member shall pay into the hands of the Secretary 
one shilling . . . for every night's attendance, to be paid quarterly. 

Art. 10. Every brother visiting this Lodge shall pay one shilling 
every night he visits, except the first. . . . 

Art. II. Any visiting brother who shall desire to become a mem- 
ber of this Lodge . . . .shall pay nine shillings. 

Art. 26. That every brother (being a member of this Lodge, who 
shall be passed a Fellow Craft, shall pay twelve shillings, and fifteen 
for being raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason; and that 
any brother (not a member), shall, for being passed, pay twenty- four 
shillings, and thirty-six for being raised to the sublime degree of a 
Master Mason." 

• Art. 28. . . . And whereas, from the present depreciation of our 
money, it will be impossible to maintain the dignity of the Lodge by the 
premiums arising from the By-Laws, it is ordered by a unanimous vote 
of this Lodge that the fees for a new-made brother be thirty doflars ; 
passing a brother (being a member), six dollars, and raising, seven 
dollars and one-half; and all other perquisites, so far as relates to 
gentlemen of the army, be raised three fold to what is prescribed in the 
By-Laws. . . . 

Further propositions, initiations, and conferring of degrees 
closed the work of the evening. 

March 17th the lodge, now grown to sixteen members, held 
its fifth meeting, and, after further increasing its membership, 
appointed a committee " to prepare a feast on Wednesday, 
the 7th of April next." 

Another meeting was held at 4 p. m. March 22d, when 

" Some particular business requiring it, voted, that an Entered Ap- 
prentice Lodge be held on Thursday, the 25'^ of inst. March, at 2 o'clock 



88 AMERICAN UNION LODGE. 

p. M. : that Bro. Belding Sill and Little prepare a dinner, and invite the 
brethren of the Ancient Society, who are not members of this Lodge, 
to dine with us : that Bro. Redfield wait on the Hon. Bro. Putnam with 
the desire of the Lodge to attend : that Mrs. Sanford, her daughter and 
niece ; Mrs. Marshall and Heart be also invited to dine with us on 
Thursday. 

Lodge closed without day." 

So. on the appointed day, the lodge convened, and, after 
admitting several candidates as entered apprentices, it " closed 
for a space," and the special program of the day was carried 
out: 

" Procession began at half-past four o'clock in the following order : 

1. Bro. Whitney to clear the way. 

2. The Wardens, with their wands. 

3. The youngest brother, with the bag. 

4. Brethren by Juniority. 

5. The Worshipful Master, with the Treasurer on his right hand, 
supporting the sword of justice, and the Secretary on his left hand, sup- 
porting the bible, square and compasses. 

6. Music, playing the " Entered Apprentice March." 

Proceeded to Esq. Hawley's, where Br. Little delivered a few senti- 
ments on Friendship — the Rev. Dr. Evans and a number of gentlemen 
and ladies being present. After dinner the following songs and toasts 
were given, interspersed with music, for the entertainment of the com- 
pany. 

Songs. Toasts. Mtisic. 

Hail America. General Washington. Grand March. 

HT iThe memory of Warren.) ^ , ..^ , 

Montgomery. Iat ^ o iir . )- Dead March. 

/ Montgomery & Wooster. ) 

French Ladies Lament. Relief of the Widows Country Jig. 

and Orphans. 
Mason's Daughter. Ladies of America. Mason's Daughter. 

On, on, my dear Union, Harmony & 

Brethren. Peace. 

Huntsmen. Social Enjoyment. 

My Dog and Gun. Contentment. 

The festivities of the occasion were concluded with a speech by Br. 
Waldo. 

At half past 7 o'clock the procession began in returning to the Lodge 
room, in reverse order from the afternoon procession. Music playing 
" The Mason's Daughter." 

The Lodge being opened, the W. Master returned his thanks to the 
officers and brethren for their faithful attendance in labor, and in trans- 
acting the business of the day with the greatest decorum and harmony. 
Voted. That the Lodge have a grateful sense of the honor paid 



AMERICAN UNION LODGE. 



89 



them by the Rev. Dr. Evans, and other gentlemen and ladies in attend- 
ing the exercises of the day. 

Voted. That the thanks of the Lodge be presented to Bro. Little 
and Waldo for the honor conferred on the Lodge by their addresses. 

Lodge closed in good time, without date." 

Note the early hour.s at which our Revohitionary fathers 
opened and closed their social and public ftnictions. No late 
banquets or small-hour festivities for them. At the next 
meeting of the lodge, held at 4 p. m., March 31st, it was 

"Voted. That Bro. Little, Belding and Sill, as heretofore voted, pro- 
ceed in preparing a feast on Wednesday, the 7"^ of April : that Bro. 
Redfield wait on Bro. Putnam and his two Aids-de-Camp with the de- 
sire of this Body that they dine with us : that Bro. Heart wait on the 
Rev. Dr. Evans with the desire of the Lodge that he dine with us, and 
also that he favor the assembly with a discourse on such subject as he 
shall think proper. Also voted, that the Rev. Mr. Bartlett, his wife, 
Mrs. Sanford, her daughter and niece, Esq. Hawley, his wife and 
daughter, the widow Fairchild, widow Sanford, Mrs. Marshall, Mrs. 
Heart, Miss Curtis and Col. Meigs be invited to dine with us : that 
Bro. Belding present them with notice in the name of the Lodge. 
Voted, that dinner be served at 2 o'clock." 

In accordance with the above vote, one of Redding's most 
remarkable social occasions was ttshered in on the following 
Wednesday. The proceedings of the whole day are given, and 
the reader is invited to share in the festivities and witness the 
workings of the lodge : 

"April 7th, 1779. 10 o'clock a. m. 

Master's Lodge, per adjournment. Present — The Hon. Bro. Par- 
sons, W. M. : Heart, S. W. ; Marshall, T. W. : Belding, Treas. : Grosve- 
nor, Sec'ry : Whitney and Peck, Tylers. Members — Bros. Hoit, Red- 
field, Lawrence, Champion, Mix, Watrous, Waldo, Little, Sill, Judson, 
Clark. Visitors — Bros. Dearborn, Hosmer, Monson, Fogg. 

Entered Apprentice Lodge opened, when Lieut. Samuel Richards, 
Paymaster of the Third Connecticut Battalion, having been proposed, 
balloted for and accepted to be made a Mason, was made an Entered 
Apprentice. 

It having been voted to dine at three o'clock, at half-past one the 
procession began, as follovi'S. 

1. Br. Whitney, Outside Tyler. 

2. The Wardens, with White Rods. 

3. The Youngest Brother, with the Bag. 

4. The Brethren, by Juniority. 



go AMERICAN UNION LODGE. 

5. The W. Master, with his Rod : the Treasurer on his right hand, 
supporting the Sword of Justice: the Secretary on his left, supporting 
the Bible, Square and Compasses. 

6. Br. Peck, the Inside Tyler. 

Music advanced, playing the " Entered Apprentice March." 

The W. Master and Brethren having seated themselves, together 
with a number of respectable inhabitants, gentlemen and ladies, the 
Rev. Doct. Evans delivered a discourse suitable to the occasion. 

After dinner, the W. Master called on Bro. Monson and others for 
songs and sentiments, when the company were favored with the follow- 
ing, each song and toast being enlivened with appropriate music : 
Song by Br. Munson — Watery Gods. Toast — Health of Congress. 

Music — Grenadier's March. 
Song by Br. Munson — Elegy on General Wolfe. Toast — Warren, 

Montgomery and Wooster. Music — Dead March. 
Mason's Song by Br. Redfield. Toast — The Good and Just. Music — 

Prince Eugene. 
Song by Br. Munson — Colin and Phebe. Toast — The Ladies of 

America. Music — Country Jig. 
Song on Masonry, by Br. Marshall. Toast — Arts and Sciences. Music 

— Splendor of the morning. 
Song by Brs. Munson and Marshall — The Tempest. With Jack the 
Seaman, to conclude. 

At six o'clock the procession returned to the Lodge room, and the 
Lodge being open, it was 

Voted, that the thanks of the Lodge be presented in writing to the 
Rev. Doct. Evans, for his polite address and sentiments delivered this 
day, and that Bro. Waldo wait on him with the same: also, that Bro. 
Waldo present our thanks to the Rev. Mr. Bartlet, and to the other 
gentlemen and ladies who favored the Lodge with their company at 
dinner. 

Voted. That Bro. Whitney and Peck act as inside and outside 
Tylers, and share equally the profits of tyling this Lodge. 

Ensign W™ Higgins, Qr. Master to the Third Connecticut Battalion, 
and Doct. John Simpson, Surgeon to the Fifth Battalion, were proposed 
by Brs. Watrous and Redfield to be made Masons." 

Here ends the record of the day and of a social occasion 
which enhvened the spirits of our townspeople. At the next 
meeting of the lodge a bill for the two feasts was rendered, 
amounting in all to £152 i6s. 2d., probably reckoned in a de- 
preciated currency. 

Four days after the banquet, orders were received to pro- 
pare for the field, and from this time attention was concen- 
trated on the expected movement of the troops. It was several 
weeks later, however, that they took their departure. Mean- 



DEPARTURE OF TROOPS. 



91 



while, the lodge held five sessions, the last three on May 3d, 
5th, and 7th, resulting- in very considerable additions to the 
fraternity. 

How the inhabitants had passed the winter may be con- 
sidered, before taking final leave of our soldier friends. The 
townspeople had received the troops, on their arrival in camp, 
with enthusiastic welcome, anticipating protection from hostile 
incursions, immunity from annoyance by restless tories, and 
pleasure from the exhibition of military display ; but the gloom 
and discontent which so rapidly overspread the camps, the 
excitement occasioned by the mutiny, and the horrors of the 
military executions, dispelled to a great extent their cherished 
hopes and illusions. Added to this was the fact that the sol- 
diers, suffering from want of food, and driven to the necessity 
of foraging for a supply, went out on marauding expeditions, 
and indiscriminately appropriated the property of both Whig 
and Tory, driving off and butchering live stock, and com- 
mitting other depredations under conditions which made it 
almost impossible to detect the perpetrators or secure their 
conviction when known. To such straits were the farmers of 
the region driven, to insure the safety of their possessions, 
that many were obliged to resort to the expedient of housing 
their live stock in the cellars of their own dwellings. Under 
these circumstances we may easily imagine and appreciate the 
earnestness with which our people prayed to be delivered from 
their friends, and, as final marching orders arrived in the 
latter part of May, we can understand the intense satisfaction 
with which the people sped their parting guests, and almost 
hear the sigh of relief that went up as the last glittering bayo- 
net disappeared behind the western hills. Yet, though human 
friendship may have cooled, nature gave kindly recognition 
of this soldiers' farewell. Leafless trees and gray skies had 
witnessed and shrill winds heralded their advent, but they 
marched out of camp and off for the Hudson through the 
beauty and freshness of May. 

The troops did not all leave camp at the same time. Ha- 
zen's regiment, on the 21st of March, received orders to go 
to Springfield ; the New Hampshire brigade, which arrived in 
Redding December 2d, left on April loth ; the Connecticut 
division went out between the 24th and 30th of May, probably 
accompanied by the dragoons. 



VII. 

THE ALARMS OF 1779 — TOWN MEETINGS — YORKTOWN — 
END OF TFIE WAR. 

After the departure of the troops pubhc attention turned 
to other affairs. One question which engaged the thoughts 
of our people related to the depreciation of the currency. This 
depreciation was one of the chief hindrances to a successful 
prosecution of the war; it had been one of the causes of the 
mutiny; the officers of the army had been inconvenienced by 
it in camp and in lodge; the people were equally distressed by 
it. An effort was made to devise means for a restoration of 
its value, and accordingly 

"At a Town Meeting held in Redding On the 28 Day of June Anno 
D. 1779 Mr. Abraham Fairchild Moderator Voted that this Meeting 
will exert themselves in every proper Method to restore Our Depre- 
ciated paper Currency to its Original value And that it is the Oppinion 
of this Meeting that a County Convention be Called as soon as may be 
to Consider and Resolve what Methods had best be taken to eflfect a 
Restoration of said Currency And that Mefsrs Lem" Sanford Ju"" 
Stephen Betts and W™ Heron be a Comt'^^ to represent this Town at 
said Convention when Called. 

A true Copy of Record 

Test John Couch Town Clerk." 

The removal of Putnam's troops left the country once 
more exposed to the incursions of the enemy, and it was not 
long before the British availed themselves of an opportunity 
to harass the colony. American privateers, fitted out at New 
Haven, had done considerable damage to the British naval 
armament, and in July an expedition was sent, under the chief 
command of Gen. Tryon, to reduce the place. On the 5th a 
fleet of forty-eight vessels, under command of Sir George 
Collier, anchored off West Haven. They had on board three 
thousand troops, of which about fifteen hundred, under Gen. 
Garth, landed on West Haven point and advanced upon the 
town. The alarm was given, and, as at Danbury, the people 
were thrown into great confusion and distress, many families 
retiring from the town in haste. Preparations for defense 
were not neglected, however, and Garth's division met with a 



THE NEW HAVEN ALARM. 



93 



very determined and effective resistance, wliicli c^reatl}- im- 
peded his progress. Tryon, landing- with the remainder of his 
force on the opposite side of the harbor, found himself as 
stontly opposed. Both detachments were bravely resisted 
throughout the day, but finally gained the town. Expresses 
were sent out, and for miles around the militia rallied and 
commenced its march to\vard New Haven. By the next morn- 
ing it became evident to the enemy tliat they would soon ]".e 
attacked by overwhelming odds, and Garth v/ithdrew from 
the west side of the town, joined Tryon. and the combined 
forces retired to the shipping. The American troops came 
pouring into the town, but their quarry had flown, and the 
militia gained no glory that day. In the fighting of the pre- 
vious day the British lost seventy-five in killed, wounded, and 
missing; the American loss was forty-six, of whom one-half 
were killed. Capt. Gray's company marched in this alarm, Init 
is not known to have engaged the enemy. 

On the 7th Tryon's fleet weighed anchor and sailed to 
Fairfield, where the troops disembarked on the morning of the 
8th. The militia of the vicinit3^ though ill-prepared to oppose 
Tryon's force, kept up a constant skirmish fire throughout 
the da}', and the British, to punish the troops which harassed 
them and to cover their own retreat, set fire to the town. The 
courthouse, with five hundred barrels of rice, two churches, 
two hundred dwelling houses, fifty-five barns, fifteen stores, 
and fifteen shops were consumed by the flames. A tremendous 
thunderstorm, rising just as night came on, added to the lior- 
rors of the conflagration. 

On the morning of the 9th the royal troops reembarked, 
proceeded to Green's Farms, and, landing there. Ijurned the 
church, fifteen houses, eleven barns, and several stores, appar- 
ently meeting with little opposition, and reembarking in safety. 

Crossing to Huntington Bay, Tryon rested till the nth, 
when he recrossed the Sound, and, landing his division at the 
Cow Pasture, on the east side of Norwalk Flarbor, between the 
hours of 8 and 9 p. m., waited for Garth's division (which was 
put ashore at Old Well, on the opposite side of the harbor) to 
advance to the upper end of the town and form a junction ^^'ith 
his own command. Reinforced by a body of loyalists about 
3 A. M., Tryon moved onward into the town, from which the 



94 



THE NORIVALK ALARM. 



inhabitants had fled during the night. Near Grumman's Hill, 
at the south end of the village, he attacked an American out- 
post, consisting of fifty Continentals and about twice as many 
militia, under Capt. Stephen Betts. These troops were forced 
to retire before superior numbers, with a loss of four men 
killed. It was now 4 a. m., and Tryon, halting his column, 
made his temporary headquarters on Grumman's Hill, from 
which he witnessed the movements of the troops and the de- 
struction of the town. 

Garth, on the opposite side of the harbor, made slower 
progress, being more successfully resisted. The American 
militia (among whom were Capt. John Gray's men) threw 
themselves into the houses and kept up a constant and harass-' 
ing fire upon the enemy's advance guards, maintaining their 
resistance for five hours. Garth crossed the bridge at 9 a. m. 
and forced his way to the northern end of the village, driving 
the Americans from the heights at that point, and capturing a 
cannon. Meanwhile, the town was set on fire : both churches 
and all the houses, except six, were burned. [Eighty houses, 
eighty-seven barns, seventeen shops, four mills, five vessels, 
and the churches, value $116,000, is the loss estimated.] The 
British commenced their retreat about noon, evidently desirous 
of getting out of the way, for their losses had been considerable 
— 20 killed, 96 wounded, 32 missing, a total of 148. nearly 
double the casualties at New Haven, and barely twenty-five less 
than the loss in the Danbury Raid. The Americans are said 
to have suffered severely ; to what extent has not been ascer- 
tained. In this afifair the Royal Welsh Fusiliers were again 
introduced to their old antagonists of two years before. Ac- 
companied by a considerable body of loyalist refugees, Tryon 
reembarked his troops and sailed away, to revisit the shores 
of Connecticut no more. 

Capt. Gray's company had turned out in all these alarms ; 
had marched through the heat and dust to the defense of New 
Haven ; had immediately returned for the relief of Fairfield, 
and had been engaged with the enemy at Norwalk ; being 
under arms and in active service for nearly a week. 

After quiet had been in some degree restored to the com- 
munity, attention was turned to the condition of soldiers in the 
field, and an effort was made to ])rovide suitable clothing for 
them: 



TOWN VOTES. 95 

"July 30, 1779. — Micajah Starr Thad Benedict and Stephen Betts 
Chosen a Comtee to provide Clothing for the Continental Soldiers now 
in the Army. Voted a Rate of two Shillings on the pound to pay for 
said Clothing the above Comt^^ to Collect said Rate and to be Collected 
by the first day of August next. 

Adjd to Aug. 9, and Chose Eleaz'" Smith Rufsel Bartlett Simon 
Couch and Isaac Hillard a Com*ee to Provide Winter Clothing for said 
Soldiers." 

In Augtist another alarm drew the entire Fourth Militia 
under arms, and the regiment marched to Gregory's Parish, 
Putnam County, New York, where it remained on duty three 
weeks. The cause of this movement is unknown. 

Later in the season a British fleet passed up the Sound, 
and, when opposite Black Rock, fired several shots at the coast- 
guard, but no landing was attempted, and this appears to 
have been the last warlike demonstration on this part of the 
Connecticut coast. 

Later in the year the people again addressed themselves -to 
the solution of monetary diffict^lties and to the work of pro- 
viding for soldiers and their families: 

"Sept. 2, 1779. — .*\.djd to next Tuesday. Voted that this meeting 
do desire and impower the Com"^^^ of Inspection in this Town to Cor- 
respond with the Several Towns in this County respecting any matters 
that may have a tendency to appreciate the money." 

"Dec. 21, 1779. — Adjd meeting. David Starr Ju"", Ezekiel Burr, 
NeheJi Hull, Eleazer Smith, Step" Jackson, & Dan'i Lyon a Comt^e to 
lake care of Soldiers Families Voted that the Comtee foj- the winter 
clothing shall receive the money that the Com'*'*' for the summer 
clothing have received of the State and account to the Selectmen for 
the same." 

The state also gave some aid toward putting the town in 
a condition for defense. The legislature, in session during 
November of this year : 

"Resolved, That the Selectmen of Redding receive 150 lb. musquet- 
powder belonging to this State in the care of Eben'" Blackman of Rip- 
ton, they to be accountable." 

[Rec. St. Ct. 1—439-] 

iVlso, at the session of January, 1780, the legislature de- 
cided that 

" Upon the memorial of the civil authority, selectmen and committee 
of inspection of the town of Reading, shewing to the Assembly that in 



96 



TOWN VOTES. 



the year 1776, in obedience to the requisition of the committee of the 
General Assembly specially appointed to examine persons in said Read- 
ing &c., inimical to the State, &c., large accounts of cost and expendi- 
ture arose in apprehending and guarding such inimical persons, &c., to 
the amount of £159 Q 5., L. money, for allowance and payment thereof, 
as per memorial on lile : Resolved by this Assembly that the said sum 
of £159 9 5. L. money, be allowed and paid to the memorialists in satis- 
faction of the said costs and charges ; and the Treasurer is hereby 
ordered to pay the same accordingly." 

[Rec. St. Ct.. 2 — 497.] 

The remaining- years of the war were notable, in the his- 
tory of the town, for the large number of town meetings that 
were held, and votes that were passed, relating to military 
affairs. The records of these forni a sufficient local history of 
the period, and are presented without comment: 

" Jan. 28, 1780. — Capt. Ezekiel Sanford is chosen one of the Com^ee 
to take care of the Soldiers families. 

Voted that the town will pay to Capt. Ezekiel Sanford all that he 
shall suffer more than any of the Comt«e (appointed last year to provide 
for Soldiers families belonging to this town) has or shall do on account 
of his providing for the family of Bartholomew Baker the sum allowed 
to a private soldier as the sd Baker is a Soldier counted for this town 
and his family has not been provided for as the famalies of the other 
Soldiers has. 

Att sd meeting Nath" Barlow is chosen a Com^ee i,i the room of 
Nehh Hull to provide for Nathan Coley's family a Soldier belonging to 
this town. 

Att sd meeting Oliver Sanford is chosen a Com'^^ in the room of 
Dan'i Lyon to provide for Ep"" Wheeler Ju"" family a Soldier belonging 
to this town." 

"Feb. 3, 1780 — Adjd meeting. Deacon Joseph Banks appointed to 
provide for Ep"^ Wheeler Ju'" family in the roof [room?] of Oliver 
Sanford." 

"March 13. 1780 — Micajah Starr, Aaron Hull, Nath" J3urr, David 
Sanford, Gers^ Coley, Phillip Burrit, John Gray, Tim^ Hull, Step" 
Gould, John Byinton, Ep°i Robbins, Simon Couch, And^ Hill, W" 
Heron, Francis Andrefs, Elijah Burr & Ezekiel Fairchild were chosen 
Inspectors of Provisions." 

" June 23, 1780. — Voted by this meeting that they will appoint a 
Comtee of nine to procure and hire nine Soldiers to inlist into the Con- 
necticut line in the Continental army for the town of Redding. Com'^''^ 
appntd are Step" Betts Ezi Sanford, Davjd Jackson, Nath" Barlow, 
Asahel Fitch, Hez'^ Read, Elijah Burr, Ep"" Robbins & Hez^ Sanford. 

Voted that this meeting do desire the afores'd Com^ee to use their 
utmost diligence to hire nine al)1e-bodied effective men to inlist, as 



FIGHT AT HANGING ROCK. 97 

aforesd — during the war, or three years or six months, and that they 
engage them such sum or sums of money in any specie or such quantity 
of provisions of any kind as they shall judge reasonahle and just and 
that the town do hereby obligate and bind themselves to save the sd 
Com^^e or either of them harmless on account of the engagement or en- 
gagements they or either of them shall make for the purpose aforesd." 

"June 26,' 1780. Mon. — Adjd meeting. — Voted that this meeting 
do instruct their Com^ee to give to each Soldier they inlist for six 
months ten bushels of wheat pr month, or the value thereof in hard 
money when paid, besides they shall receive the bounty tiie State offers, 
but the town shall receive their wages. 

Voted this meeting will give the same encouragement to those who 
shall be draughted for the purpose aforesd that they have already 
ofifered to those who do enlist, provided those draughted do inlist soon 
after they are draughted." 

The tide of war had drifted away to the southward this 
year, and from tliat quarter came the famihar reports of defeat 
and disaster, to which our people had grown so much accus- 
tomed. Nevertheless, news of occasional successes cheered 
them, and intelligence of this sort, which may have, reached 
them in July, must have caused considerable sensation in 
Redding. Col. Thomas Sumter, the famous partisan leader, 
in one of his swift descents upon the British garrisons in South 
Carolina, fell suddenly upon the post at Hanging Rock, occu- 
pied by a body of troops previously introduced to us under 
the high-sounding title of " the Royal and Honorable Brigade 
of the Prince of Wales' Loyal American Volunteers." " The 
gamecock of the Catawba " fully sustained his reputation in 
this affair — when the fight w^as over, the Prince of Wales' 
American regiment was practically annihilated, a forlorn squad 
of nine being all that remained of a battalion which had gone 
into action two hundred and seventy-eight strong. Although 
this news may have been received 'with jubilation by the 
patriots of Redding, it doubtless caused mourning in many 
loyalist families, who grieved for friends who would return 
no more. 

Another startling sensation came to our people in Septem- 
ber, when news of the treachery of Arnold was received, and 
men who had fought beside him at Ridgefield execrated the 
name of him who had so bravely led them there ■ — no longer 
Arnold the hero, but forevermore Arnold the traitor. But our 
people lost no faith in their cause, evincing, as our records 



98 TOIVN VOTES. 

attest, a steadfast determination to prosecute the war till in- 
dependence should he achieved. 

" Nov. 20, 1780. — -Voted that the town will raise a tax on provisions 
to supply their quota of provisions for the Connecticut line in the Con- 
tinental army and that a rate bill be made apportioning to each indi- 
vidual his proportion of each kind of provisions to be raised (viz.) 
flour, beef and pork according to his list for the year 1779 and that 
Mefrs David Jackson, John Couch & Asahel Fitch be a Com^*^^ to make 
sd rate bill. 

At sd meeting Capts W"" Hawley, John Gray, Gershom Morehouse, 
& Ezekiel Sanford were appointed to be a Com'^e to ascertain the num- 
ber of men this town has now in the Continental army." 

" Nov. 28, 1780. — Geo. Perry was apptd to receive the flour collected 
by .the town for the use of the army &c and sworn to a faithful dis- 
charge of his trust. At sd meeting Russell Bartlett apptd to receive the 
beef and pork as aforesd and sworn as aforesd Voted that one of the 
Comt^<^ appointed to ascertain the num.ber of Soldiers this town now 
has in the Continental army do repair to Camp for that purpose and 
that he shall receive a reasonable reward from the town therefor. 

At sd meeting Capt. John Gray, Step^ Betts Esq Thad Benedict 
David Jackson & Lem'i Sanford Esq. w^re appointed a Com*^®^ to class 
the Inhabitants according to a Statute law in that case provided, and 
that they make twelve classes unless they think fit to alter that number 
by receiving farther Information about the number of Soldiers this 
[town] must raise." 

" Mon. Dec 25, 1780. — Isaac Gorham, and Simon Couch appointed 
a Com'"^" to provide for Soldiers Families." 

"Wed. Dec. 27. 1780. — E5enj'- Hambleton appointed one of the 
Comt«=<^ to take care of Soldiers Families — Voted that John Gray, 
Will"' Heron, and Will™ Hawley be a Com'^e to examine and inquire 
how much time the Soldiers that were raised for the laft six Months 
for y^ Continental Army, served, and report make to y'' next T 
Meeting." 

"Jan. 8, 1781. — Voted that David King, Henry Lyon, Ezekiel Hill, 
James Barlow, and Will"' Manrow, be allowed (for the men that they 
procured to inlift into the Connecticut Line of the Continental Army, 
the six months preceding the firft of Inft January) the encouragement 
Voted at a Town Meeting in June laft for thofe who should inlift into 
sd service — Voted that it is the oppinion of this Meeting that Eben"" 
Sturges did not comply with the Vote of the Town Respecting The Six 
Months Men." 

"Jan. 29, 1781.. — Voted that Sam'' Hawley be a Com'^*' to provide 
for the Family of Rufsel Chapel a Soldier in the Connecticut Line of 
the Continental Army for y^ present year. 

Voted that Nehemiah Hull be a Com'<'<' to provide for y« Family of 
Nathan Coley a Soldier in the Connecticut Line of y® Continental Army 
for ye Present Year, in the Room of Benj" Hambleton." 



TOIFN VOTES. 



99 



" Mon. Feb. 5, 1781. — Adj'd meeting. — Voted that the meeting will 
not abate y^ Afsefsments as Afsefs'd by the Civil Authority and Select 
Men (for the purpose of hiring men to serve in the Connecticut Line 
of the Continental Army during the War) on Enos Lee, James Mor- 
gan, Hezekiah Piatt, Dan^' Lyon, Abigail Lyon, widow of Peter Lyon 
DeC^ Sarah Phinney David Knap, Jas Gray, Abigail Morehoufe Wid^^ 
of Zacheus Morehoufe DeC^, Ezekiel Hill, And^' Fairchild, Sarah 
Widow of Abel Burr Dec'\ Who have each of them a Son or Sons, or 
a Son or Sons in Law gone over to the Enemy of the LTnited States — 
Each of y^ above named Perfons had a separate Vote." 

"Feb. 19, 1781. — Voted that the following Perfons in y*" gt'* Clafs 
(viz) — James Morgan, Jeise Banks, Hezekiah Piatt, & Zebulon Piatt, 
who have refufed to pay their equal proportion according to their Lifts 
towards hiring a man to serve in y*5 Connecticut Line of the Continental 
Army for three Years shall each be afsefsed double their proportion to 
Mr Isaac Gorliam for the ufe of sd Class And that Mr John Byinton 
be a Collector to Collect the same." 

"March 28, 1781. — Voted that Captain Gershom Morehoufe and 
Lieut Nehemiah Hull, be a Comt*"*" to Collect the Tents belonging to 
this Town, by the next meeting. 

Voted that Mefs''s Lemll Sanford, Ezekiel Sanford, & Jn^ Gray, be a 
Comt^e to vindicate our claims to y^ Continental Soldiers — " 

" Fri. April 6, 1781. — Voted that Peter Sanford and Ezekiel Burr be 
a Com*''^ to supply Henry Hopkins family, who is a Soldier in the Con- 
tinental Army & Ezekiel Sanford, Jno Gray & Eben"" Andrews, appointed 
to supply Jno. Lines family for the prefent Year — Voted a Tax of two 
Pence on the Pound on the Lift of A.D. 1780 to purchase Soldiers Cloth- 
ing, and that Elijah Burr, Eben"" Andrews, and Ephraim Robbins be 
Collectors to Collect the Same — " 

"April 16, 1781. — Voted that Mefs'^ Seth Sanford, John Gray, James 
Rogers, Stephen Betts, and Micajah Starr, be a Com^<^<^ to put the In- 
habitants of this Town in eight Clafses according to their several Lists 
in order to raife seven Soldiers, and one light Florfeman to serve for one 
year as Coaft Guards — 

Voted that Mef'^ Will'" Heron, Micajah Starr, James Rogers, Aaron 
Barlow & Sam" Mallery be a Comi^^^ to correfpond with the several 
Towns in Fairfield County to know whether they will unite with this 
town in prefenting a Petition that was red in this meeting refpecting 
our money, and some other Public affairs, and make Report to the next 
meeting." 

"April 30, 1781. — Voted that y'^ 6"^ Clafs (for procuring men to serve 
in the Guards at Horfe Neck till y® firft day of March next) shall pro- 
cure a light Florfeman and Horfe, and that the Town shall pay said 
Clafs all it shall coft them more to procure a man and Horfe than it 
shall coft the other seven Clafses on a medium.'' 

" May 28, T781. — Voted that the firft Clafs in this Town for procur- 
ing Recruits for the Connecticut Line of the Continental Army for their 



LofC, 



lOo THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 

neglecting to procure a Recrnit — (within the time limited by Law) for 
said service shall pay into the Treafury of this Town double what it 
has Coft y^ other Clafses in this Town on an average to hire their Re- 
cruits. — ■" 

" June 25, 1781. — i\Iefs'"=5 Jno Gray, and Aaron Barlow appointed a 
Com'^'=^ to enquire in such ways as they shall think proper to know how 
many Soldiers we have in the Continental Army and Report make to 
the next Meeting." 

It was also decided at this meeting that the tax on the list of 1780 
was " to be paid in Silver, or Gold, or Beef as stated by Law." 

" June 29, 1781. — Seth Sanford, Eben'' Andrews, and Stephen Betts, 
appointed a Com^ee ^q i^jj-e three Soldiers for the Continental Army till 
y^ last day of December next." 

■'July 4, 1781. — Voted a Rate of three pence on y^ Pound on the 
Lift 1781 to pay the laft Years six Months men : to be paid in Silver or 
Gold or Wheat at six Shillings P Bushel to be collected and paid to the 
Select Men by the lo'^'^ day of July Inft. — Ebenezer Andrews chosen 
collector." 

Meantime, affairs in the field were progressing toward the 
cuhnination of the struggle. Washington's army was still 
in the vicinity of New York, while Greene and other leaders 
were meeting with varying fortunes in Virginia and the Caro- 
linas. A corps of light infantry, made up chiefly of light com- 
panies from the New England regiments, had been organized 
and placed under the command of Lafayette, who was charged 
with the defense of Virginia. This corps was armed, uni- 
formed, and equipped by Lafayette himself. His opponent was 
Cornwallis, recently reinforced and sanguine of victory over 
his youthful antagonist. In the operations conducted by these 
two armies they traversed fields which, eighty years later, 
were trodden by hosts greater than any the Revolutionary sol- 
dier ever saw, and reddened by a carnage more dreadful than 
any he dreamed of. Meantime, news had arrived of the ap- 
proach of a fleet and army from France, and Clinton, fearing 
for the safety of New York, ordered a portion of Cornwallis' 
command to return to that city. This order he soon after 
countermanded, instructing Cornwallis to retain all his troops 
and to take up a fortified position at some point which would 
afford hiin, in case of necessity, a secure retreat. Cornwallis 
decided upon Yorktown as the proper position for this pur- 
pose, and here, by the 22d of August, he had strongly in- 
trenched himself. Lafayette, seeing his antagonist now in a 



SIEGE OF YORKTOWN. loi 

position where a blow might he struck at him with a prospect 
of success, chily reported the fact to the American commander- 
in-chief, and Washington, reahzing that a long-desired oppor- 
tunity was at hand, prepared his troops for a march, while 
ostensibly continuing operations for an attack on New York, 
and, before Clinton could penetrate his design, was far on his 
way to tlie southward. A French army under Rochambeau. 
a French fleet under De Grasse, cooperated in the movement. 
When Clinton realized that Washington was really on his 
way to Virginia he sent Arnold to make a counter-demon- 
stration against New London, and presently the country was 
horrified by the news of the slaughter at Fort Griswold. But 
the main design was not affected by this diversion, and on the 
2Qth of September an army of sixteen thousand men encircled 
Yorktown. and a French fleet blocked the river. On the 6th 
of October the heavy guns arrived, and the siege was pushed 
with vigor. The same night the first parallel was dug within 
six hundred yards of the enemy's line. On the 9th the bat- 
teries opened, and fired without intermission, causing constant 
and heavy loss within the British works. On the nth a second 
parallel was established at the distance of three hundred yards, 
and on the evening of the 14th two advanced redoubts of the 
British line of defense were carried, one by American light 
troops under Lafayette, the other by French grenadiers. On 
the i6th the British made a sortie upon the French lines, spik- 
ing eleven guns and inflicting a loss of about one hundred 
men on their adversaries. The cannon were soon rendered 
fit for service again, and the situation of Cornwallis grew more 
desperate than before. Flis w^orks were hammered down by 
an incessant fire, his guns knocked out of action, and his am- 
munition nearly expended ; the houses of the town were honey- 
combed by flying projectiles, and the streets w^ere strewed 
with dead men and horses half-buried under mounds of dirt 
thrown up by plunging shot or bursting shell. The British 
commander's last hope lay in a possible escape from the town 
by cutting his way through the French lines at Gloucester, on 
the opposite side of the river. The attempt was made on the 
night of the i6th ; a portion of the army was embarked in 
boats, but a violent storm arose, compelling the return of the 
troops and frustrating the design. On the following morning 



102 SIEGE OF YORKTOWN. 

the American batteries opened with renewed vigor, and the 
British general sent a flag to Washington, requesting a sus- 
pension of hostilities for the purpose of arranging terms of 
surrender. A cessation of fire for two hours was granted, 
commissioners were appointed to arrange terms of submission, 
and articles of capitulation were signed by Cornwallis on the 
morning of the 19th. The allied troops, having removed from 
their persons the grime and stain of battle, paraded in two 
lines, the Americans on the right, the French on the left of 
the road along which, at two o'clock that afternoon, the British 
garrison of Yorktown marched out to pile its arms upon the 
field of surrender. A great concourse of people, inhabitants 
of the surrounding country, also witnessed the submission of 
the British troops. The scene was a memorable one. The 
army of Cornwallis marched out in full dress, but with ir- 
regular step, and ranks imperfectly aligned. At the place of 
surrender many of them threw their weapons sullenly upon 
the ground, and, after casting off their equipments, all were 
marched back into Yorktown. After this had taken place, 
swift couriers were seen galloping from the battle field, bearing 
the news of the great victory, spreading from town to town a 
jubilant cry which rolled northward across the broad Potomac 
and the tranquil Delaware, the plains of the Jerseys and the 
camps on the Hudson, and onward through the towns and 
hamlets of New England, re-echoing in its passage among our 
own quiet hills, "Cornwallis is taken! Cornwallis is taken!" 
The casualties among the allied troops amounted to "j 
killed, 200 wounded. The British loss was 156 killed, 326 
wounded, 70 missing ; 7,247 men laid down their arms ; 75 
brass, 169 iron cannon, 7,794 muskets, and 28 standards be- 
came trophies of war. From the British military chest was 
obtained the sum of £2.113 6s. Many vessels of war, trans- 
ports, etc., carrying 900 men, surrendered to the French ad- 
miral. The vanquished troops marched into captivity. The 
Americans returned to the camps on the Hudson, where a day 
of rejoicing was observed in honor of the victory, and military 
affairs relapsed into the condition in which they had been 
before the movement upon Yorktown took place. Though 
efforts were made toward an attempt on New York, the same 
causes that had previously delayed action were operative still. 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. 



103 



and the American army lay in comparative quiet along the 
Hudson. Other influences than those of military activity, how- 
ever, were bringing the great conflict to its close. The re- 
sources of England were practically exhausted, and the end 
was almost in view. 

At home, our people were solicitous as ever for the welfare 
of our soldiers and the good of the cause. There was little 
more to be done, but to the very last that little was conscien- 
tiously performed. 

"Dec. 26, 1781. — Seth Hull chofen to take care of Jabez Williams 
a Soldiers Family. David Sanford for Isaac Olmfteds Family. Isaac 
Gorham to provide for James Thomfons Family. David Starr to pro- 
vide for Henry Hopkins Family." 

" Feb. 28, 1782. — Voted that this Town will raife their Quota of Sol- 
diers to fill the Regi™*^ of State Troops by Clafsing the Inhabitants. 
That Mefs''s David Jackson, Ja^ Rogers, and Will"^ Heron be a Com"^ 
for the above purpofe the abovesd Coni*'^ appointed to warn the Clafses 
to come together according to Law. Capt. John Gray Capt Ezek' San- 
ford and Ja^ Rogers appointed a Conitte to wait on the County Com"^ 
at Stephen Betts Esq"" the 4^^ Day of March next, in order to vindicate 
our claims to the Continental Soldiers. The laft mentioned Com"^ to 
vindicate the Towns Claims to the last Years State Troops, when y*' 
County Com"^ shall attend for that purpofe. 

And^ Fairchild appointed a Com"e to supply Sam" Raymond's 
Family : a Soldier in the Continental Army — 

Elijah Burr appointed a Com"^ to supply Henry Hopkins Family: 
a Soldier &c." 

April 19th, 1783, eight }ears after the battle of Lexington, 
a cessation of hostilities was proclaimed to the army and the 
country. It was evident there would be no more fighting, and 
that independence would be established. This was a sad blow 
to the loyalists who had taken up arms in the British service, 
who now saw ruin, through the loss of their landed property, 
staring them in the face. In the hope of making peace with 
the victors, and of reclaiming their possessions, many of them 
returned to their former abodes and sought to regain their 
forfeited rights. Some former residents of Redding came 
back to the town for this purpose — who they were is not 
definitely known — and a portion of them were probably al- 
lowed to remain ; to what agency they owed this favor is not 
clear, though it was doubtless due in part to the intercession 
of patriot relatives. Others, who had made themselves more 



104 



CLOSE OF THE WAR. 



obnoxious, were forever exiled from their old homes. This 
action is indicated, in the town records, by the last entry relat- 
ing to Revolutionary affairs. 

"Aug. II, 1783. — Put to Voute whether it is tlie minds of this 
Meeting that y^ Select Men of this Town be defired to remove out of 
this Town all thofe Perfons that have been over to and Joined the 
Enemy, and returned into this Town, and that they pursue the bufinefs 
as faft as they conveniently can, according to Law pafsed in the af- 
firmative." 

Melancholy was the fate of these men, who had risked and 
lost all in the conflict, but sadder seems the lot of those women 
— innocent and helpless victims of the strife — who, sacrificing 
all the ties of home and kindred, loyally followed their hus- 
bands into exile, and, in a harsher clime and a strange land, 
took up the burdens and endured the hardships of pioneer life. 
The British government granted lands in New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia to the loyalist exiles, and thither they betook 
themselves after the peace, beginning a new life in the wilder- 
ness, out of which in process of time they carved towns and 
cities, and peopled the region with their descendants. 

On the 3d of September, 1783, a definitive treaty of peace 
was signed, and the war was at an end. The army which, 
through eight long years, and under so many adverse condi- 
tions, had steadfastly battled in the cause of freedom, was no 
longer needed, and nothing remained but to disband it. There 
was not much of it to disband. Various re-formations, con- 
solidations, etc., and especially the near prospect of peace, had 
largely reduced the military establishment. The Connecticut 
regiments, for example, having become much reduced in 
numbers before the expiration of their first enlistment, were 
reorganized by consolidation toward the end of 1780, the eight 
regiments being reduced to five. The officers of the last three 
regiments were rendered supernumerary, and the men were 
distributed among the remaining battalions. Under this ar- 
rangement the Fifth and Seventh were consolidated and desig- 
nated the Second, in which most of the Redding men afterward 
served. After the return from Yorktov/n many furloughs 
were granted, and on January i, 1783, the five regiments were 
reduced to three, on which footing the Connecticut contingent 
remained till Tune, when all soldiers enlisted for the war were 



EVACUATION OF NEW YORK. 



105 



discharged, and the remainder were included in a single bat- 
talion, which was retained in service till the general disband- 
ment. On the i8th of October Congress ordered the dissolu- 
tion of the forces, and the unpaid and discontented soldiers 
of the republic, parading for the last time, turned sorrowfully 
away from the last camp ground of the American Revolution. 
A small force was detained at Newburgh, which probably 
formed part of the column vsdiich entered New York upon its 
evacuation by the armies of King George. 

The 25th of November, 1783, was the date set for the 
evacuation of the city by the liritish. Joy filled the hearts of 
the populace as regiment after regiment paraded, and, wheeling 
into column, took up their march for the Battery, wdiere they 
embarked. Close upon their departure followed a column of 
Americans, amid the acclamations of the people. Arriving at 
the Battery, they found the British flag nailed to the flagstaff, 
the halyards removed, and the pole slushed with grease, to 
prevent the removal of the ensign. An American sailor at 
last succeeded, though with great difficulty, in climbing the 
staff, rove new halyards, and, ere the British shipping had 
finished its parting salute, the banner of England fluttered to 
the ground and the stars and stripes flew in its place. 

Another incident of the evacuation must have afforded ex- 
treme satisfaction to those who had partaken of the hospitali- 
ties of the Sugar House : Before the British troops evacuated 
the lower part of the town a patriotic innkeeper displayed the 
American flag at his doorway. The emblem caught the eye 
of Cunningham, the provost-marshal, who angrily ordered it 
to be torn down, but as no one obeyed his command, advanced 
to seize it himself. At this moment the tavern door opened 
and Cunningham was confronted by the innkeeper's wife, 
armed with a broom, with which she so vigorously belabored 
him that he was glad to seek refuge in ignominious flight, amid 
the jeers and laughter of the spectators. So, with his British 
brethren, he sailed away, to meet at last the very fate to which 
he had consigned so many others, for he was hung for forgery, 
in the city of London, on the loth of August, 1791. 



7i 



I06 THE END. 

And now, the long strife ended, the Revolutionary soldiers 
of Redding returned to their homes and to the arts of peace. 
They saw their country emerge from the darkness and de- 
spondency which closed the Revolutionary period into a newer, 
better, stronger, and more prosperous condition, under the 
great leader whom they had followed in the long contest with 
Britain. They witnessed the unfolding of their country's 
greatness, as, with the passing years, new men, new measures, 
and new conditions rose into public view. To them came 
changes, also, as the years rolled by. Some, severing the ties 
of home and kindred, sought better fortune in newer lands. 
To the green hills of Vermont, the valley of the Mohawk, and 
the new lands beyond the Ohio, they wended their way, and 
saw their native hills no more. Others, remaining in their 
ancestral homes, lived active, prosperous lives amid the rising 
generations till age and infirmity chained them to their fire- 
sides, where the Death Angel found them and gathered them, 
one by one, to their fathers. The memory of their deeds, and 
even of their names, faded from human recollection, or was 
traceable only in the uncertain light of public record or family 
tradition. Here and there a long-roofed, weatherbeaten habi- 
tation, its monumental stone chimney still defying the storms 
of time, guards the hearthstone beside whose cheerful firelight 
the Revolutionary soldier told to his wondering listeners tales 
of great deeds and glorious days. These, and the graves upon 
the hillsides, are the last visible memorials of the men who 
bore well their humble part in the great work of securing, for 
all men and for all time, a heritage of freedom. Much that is 
herein recorded concerning them would, ere long, have been 
wholly lost, had not the spirit of patriotism aroused the desire 
to rescue, from the fast-closing darkness of oblivion, whatever 
could be gleaned of their deeds and of their fate. Such labor 
has been here attempted ; whether satisfactorily performed, 
the reader may judge. Out of all that store of experience 
which fell to the lot of our Revolutionary fathers, cmly this 
slender chronicle remains to preserve for coming generations 
some knowledge of what they accomplished and endured 
during the struggle for liberty ; of the scenes they witnessed, 
the fields on which they fought, and what they contributed to 
that spirit of heroic self-sacrifice and patient endurance which 
shone amid the strife and stress, the terror and the glory, of 
" the times that tried men's souls." 








SOLDIERS' ^[ONUMENT, PUTNAM PARK. 



REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS AND 
PATRIOTS OF REDDING. 

["Posterity delights in details." — John Adams. \ 

Soldiers of Redding- fought on a dozen battle fields of the 
American Revolution. Brief descriptions of the actions in 
which they participated are given in the preceding pages. In 
several of these a considerable number of Redding men stood 
shoulder to shoulder in defense of their country. But one 
is known to have been at Saratoga — tradition vaguely indi- 
cates others — but it is hardly to be doubted that the town 
was well represented there. While no remarkable instances of 
personal heroism or great achievement enrich these pages, 
there are many records of duty faithfully performed, in which 
we may feel an honest pride. 

The records following were compiled with care, and are 
believed to be correct. Many are as complete as it is now pos- 
sible to make them, containing details of the military career 
and subsequent life of the individual never before collected. 
Wherever possible, family lines have been traced back to the 
emigrant progenitor, leaving to descendants the task of keeping 
in touch with their ancestry. The name of the soldier's wife, 
whenever ascertained, has also been included, partly as a 
means of more ready identification by descendants, partly 
because it seems fitting to preserve here the memory of those 
women who shared in some degree the anxieties and perils of 
the Revolutionary period. 

The same course, as far as practicable, was pursued in the 
compilation of the loyalist records. 



Correspondence is solicited relative to corrections and additions, and those pos- 
sessing additional facts are requested to note them on the blank pages of the book as 
a means of preservation. 

[Note. — A superior figure at the right of a regimental number indicates the 
period of formation, as " sthl " means 5th regt. of the first formation, 1777-1781-; 
" 5th2," 5th regt. of the second formation, 1781-1783; " 2(33," 2d regt. of the third 
formation, Jan. -June, 1783. This distinction is rendered necessary because of the 
renumbering of regiments in successive reorganizations of the Continental Line.] 



io8 

ADAMS, ABRAHAM. 1746- 

Abraham Adams was a meml^er of Capt. Zalmon Read's com- 
pany, in the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, commanded by Col. David 
Waterbury, which served around New York and in the Northern 
Department in 1775, and took part in the operations at St. Johns 
and Montreal: he was discharged from this service Nov. 28, 1775. 
He next served as private in Capt. Ezekiel Sanford's company, 
5th Regt. Conn Continental Line (formation of 1777-81), Col. 
Philip B. Bradley commanding; enlisted Sept. 27, 1777, for 8 
months; discharged Jan. 9, 1778. He was pensioned mider the 
Act of June 7, 1832, for 13 months actual service in the Conn, 
troops, and received an annual allowance of $43.33 from March 
4, 183 1. 

Lineage : Abraham^, ^, Abraham-, Edward Adams^ of 

Fairfield, 1650. 

ADAMS, HEZEKIAH. 1 764-1819. 

Born Aug. 14, 1764. 

This man was among the youngest of those who offered their 
services in defense of their country. He was too young to go into 
the ranks as a soldier, but joined the army as a teamster, " and on 
one occasion drove a wagon loaded with Spanish milled dollars 
to Baltimore." — [Todd's History of Redding.] 

Married Betty Parsons, Sept. 11, 1788. 

Died Dec. 25, 1819. Buried in Lonetown Cemetery. 

Lineage: Joseph^ Abraham^. -, Abraham^, Edward 

Adams^ of Fairfield, 1650. 

ADAMS, STEPHEN. 1762- 

Born July 15, 1762. Brother of Hezekiah. 

Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Regt. Conn Militia, 
Lt.-Col. Jonathan Dimon commanding, in the Fishkill Campaign, 
Oct. 5-25,* 1777. Enlisted for the war in Capt. James Horton's 
company, Lt.-Col. Jeduthan Baldwin's Regt. of Artificers, Mass. 
Line ; never returned. The name " Stephen Adams " appears in 
the list of prisoners who were confined on board the British prison- 
ship " Jersey." 

ANDREWS, EBENEZER. 

Sept. 18, 1777, Ebenezer Andrews was appointed one of a com- 
mittee to procure articles requested by the Governor and Council 
of Safety for the use of the militia sent to reinforce Putnam on 
the Hudson. April 6, 1781, he was one of a committee of three 
appointed to supply the family of John Lines, a soldier, for that 



109 

year. April i6, 17S1, he was appointed collector of a tax levied 
for the purchase of clothing for the soldiers in the field. June 29, 
1781, he was one of a committee of three appointed to hire three 
soldiers to serve till the end of the year. July 4, 1781, he was 
made collector of a tax levied for the purpose of paying the six- 
months soldiers of 1780. 

It is not clear whether this was Ebenezer born 1720, or his son, 
born 1752. 

ANDREWS, FRANCIS. 1754- 

Corporal, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn Militia, in the 
Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-24, 1777. Appointed an Inspector of 
Provisions, March 13, 1780. The duty of inspectors was to pre- 
vent supplies from being carried out of the town. 

Lineage: Ebenezer'*, 1720, Ensign John^', John^, Francis An- 
drews^ of Hartford and Fairfield, 1660. 

[Name generally spelled "Andress " in the records.] 

ANDREWS, JONATHAN. [Andress.] 

Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fish- 
kill Campaign, Oct. 5-15,* 1777- 

ANDREWS, PETER. 1757- 

Brother of Francis. 

Private, Capt. Elijah Abel's company, Bradley's Battalion, 
Wadsworth's Brigade, enlisted June 21, 1776; taken prisoner at 
Ft. Washington Nov. 16, 1776. 

ANDREWS, SETH. 

Drafted by Capt. John Gray for one month to guard the shore 
of Long Island Sound, serving under Capt. Thomas Nash in Oc- 
tober, 1779, at the time of the skirmish when a cannon shot from 
the British fleet passed near Capt. Nash. 

BAKER, BARTHOLOMEW. 

Private, Capt. Elijah Abel's company, Bradley's Battalion, 
Wadsworth's Brigade, June ii-Dec. 25, 1776. Corporal, Capt. 
Ezekiel Sanford's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Continental Line; 
enlisted March 4, 1777, for 3 years. Reduced to private Novem- 
ber, 1777; discharged March 4, 1780. 

Jan. 28, 1780, Capt. Ezekiel Sanford was appointed by the town 
to provide for Baker's family. 

The marriage of Bartholomew Baker of Redding" to Sarah 
Fenn, Dec. 29, 1778, is recorded in the church records of the 
parish of Judea (now Washington, Conn.). 



no 

BANKS, JOSEPH. 1713-1802. 

Dec. 22, 1777, Joseph Banks was appointed one of a committee 
to take care of soldiers' families. Feb. 3, 1780, he was appointed 
to provide for the family of Ephraim Wheeler. Jr., one of the 
soldiers of the town. 

Mr. Banks was a deacon of the Congregational Church at 
Redding from Oct. 13, 1776, to his death, July 8, 1802. Buried in 
Sanfordtown Cemetery. 

BARLOW, AARON. 1750-1800. 

Born Feb. 11, 1750. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
in the Northern Campaign; discharged Nov. 28, 1775. Ensign, 
Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fishkill Campaign, 
Oct. 5-19, 1777- Appointed member Committee of Inspection Dec. 
22, 1777. April 16, 1781, he was appointed on a Committee of 
Correspondence with reference to the state of the currency. From 
April, 1780, he served 9 months as lieutenant in the company of 
Capt. Jesse Bell, in Col. Bezaleel Beebe's Regt. of State Troops, on 
the Westchester front, in May, 1781, he was lieutenant of the 
coast-guard at Greens Farms. June 25, 1781, he, with Capt. Gray, 
was chosen a committee to ascertain what number of soldiers the 
town had in the Continental Army. 

Mr. Barlow is described as " a man of ability, tall of stature, 
of an imposing bearing." [Todd.] He settled on a farm at the 
foot of the northern slope of Umpawaug Llill ; the house in which 
he lived still stands near the banks of the Saugatuck River. His 
occupation was that of blacksmith and iron-founder. In conjunc- 
tion with his brother Joel he established an iron foundry in Weston 
— probably the present Valley Forge. He was a deputy sheriff 
of Fairfield County for a time, and served four terms in the Conn. 
Legislature as a representative from Redding: October, 1792; May- 
October, 1794; May, 1795. Continuing in the military service of 
the state he rose through the grades of captain and major, and was 
Lieut.-Col. Commandant of the 4th Conn. Militia from 1794 to 
1799. He went to Norfolk, Va., and died there of yellow fever 
in 1800. He was a pensioner. 

Married Rebecca Sanford Dec. 17, 1772. 

Lineage: SamueP, 1710-1773, Samuel^, John% John-. John Bar- 
low^, of Fairfield, 1640. 

[Todd's Hist, of Redding; Schenck's Hist, of Fairfield.] 

BARLOW, JAMES. 

Probably son of Samuel Barlow'^ by his first wife. Eunice Brad- 
ley ; born Jan. 29, 1739. 



Ill 

lu 1780 he procured recruits for the Continental Army. See 
Dte of the town, Jan. 8. 1781. 

33ARLOW, JOEL. 1754-1812. 

Joel Barlow, fourth son of Samuel Barlow^ and his second 
wife, Esther Hull, w-as born in Redding (then a parish of Fair- 
field), March 24, 1754, in a house that stood on the Boston road, 
nearly a mile west of Nob Crook Hill. Elis father was a 
farmer in moderate circumstances, who evidently desired to give 
his son the best education he could afford. Joel's training began, 
therefore, under the tuition of the Rev. Nathaniel Bartlett, pastor 
of the Congregational Church at Redding, and in 1773, his father 
placed him at Moor's preparatory school in Hanover, New Hamp- 
shire. His entry into this school is chronicled in the diary of the 
Rev. Eleazer Wheelock, under date of Sept. 14, 1773: 

"Mr. Samuel Barlow of Reading, Mass. [?], brings his son 
Joel to school. The said son is to officiate as waiter on table at 
meal time, and also to be at the beck of Miss Elizabeth, only in 
play time and vacations to perform such errands and incidental 
service as she shall have occasion for in her business, and in consider- 
ation of her services and his, to have his board, viz: eating, drink- 
ing, washing, firewood, candles, study-room, and tuition." [Hist. 
Dartmouth Cxjllege.] Miss Elizabeth Burr, mentioned above, came 
from Fairfield. Conn., to be with Joel, and to " superintend the 
cooking in commons, and manage the prudentials of it." In part, 
therefore, Joel Barlow " w^orked his way " to obtain an education. 

Samuel Barlow died Dec. 20, 1773, leaving, it is believed, a suf- 
ficient estate to enable his son to complete his education. The 
young man therefore remained at school, entered the Freshman 
class at Dartmouth College, and there continued his studies till 
November, 1774, when, circumstances requiring that he should be 
nearer home, he was recommended to President Daggett at Yale, 
and removed to New Haven, where he completed his academic 
course. Here he made the acquaintance of several young men 
with whom he was afterward associated in the field of literature. 
Among these were David Humphreys, afterward aid to Washing- 
ton; Timothy Dwight. in later years president of Yale; Noah 
Webster, the compiler of the Dictionary; John Trumbull, the 
author of " McFingal " ; Abraham Baldwin, later senator from 
Georgia; and others, who, in after time, became distinguished in 
public life or in literary pursuits. 

When the Revolution broke out Barlow was of age, and the 
sympathies of his family being with the patriot cause, he shared 
in the enthusiasm and military ardor of the day. Two of his 



112 

brothers served in the Xorthern Army in 1775, and the death of 
his mother, Aug. 28th of that year, severed the ties of home and 
left him free to follow a career of his own choosing. However, 
he did not abandon his college course, but joined the militia of 
the state as a volunteer, and is said to have spent his vacations in 
camp learning the duties of a soldier and participating in several 
skirmishes. It is stated that when the college sessions were tem- 
porarily suspended during the operations on Long Island and 
around New York, he joined the forces under Gen. Washington, 
and fought bravely at the battle of White Plains, Oct. 28, 1776. 
After this he appears to have pursued his studies without interrup- 
tion until his graduation in 1778, when he received the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, delivering on this occasion an original poem en- 
titled " The Prospect of Peace." 

After leaving college he applied himself for a time to the study 
of law, probably making his home with his brothers temporarily. 
He was in Redding during the encampment of the troops there in 
1779, but does not appear to have been connected with the army 
in any capacity at this time. At the solicitation of friends (of 
whom Humphreys and Baldwin were particularly interested in 
his behalf), he laid aside the study of the law and took up that of 
theology, with a view of obtaining a chaplaincy in the army. After 
six weeks of preparation in the summer of 1780 he received a 
license to preach, and was appointed chaplain of the Fourth Mass. 
Brigade, commanded by Col. Bailey. He joined his command Sep- 
tember 2d, and entered upon his duties. His fourth discourse be- 
fore the brigade, October ist, he describes as " a flaming political 
sermon, occasioned by the treachery of Arnold." On the following 
day he was present at the execution of Major Andre. 

As a preacher he is said to have been much respected, though 
his earlier efforts evidently provoked some criticism. Dr. Thacher, 
who met him about this time, says in his " Military Journal " : "I 
have just been introduced to three young clerg)'men from Con- 
necticut, Mr. Lockwood, Mr. Ely, and Mr. Joel Barlow; the latter 
is a chaplain in the Connecticut (?) line, and is said to possess 
a poetical genius. Being present when he made a prayer in public 
it was remarked that his performance was very ordinary, and it 
was replied that the gentleman had not been much accustomed to 
public performances, and that he was more calculated to attain to 
eminence in the art of poetry than in the clerical profession." 

It was as a poet that Joel Barlow most desired to be known 
among men. In connection with Dwight he wrote many patriotic 
songs while in camp, which were sung by the soldiers about their 
camp-fires, inspiring them with devotion for the cause in which 



113 

they fought. But a greater work than this was shaping itself in his 
mind. He had long contemplated the making of a great epic poem, 
which should be an enduring monument to the glories of his native 
land. He had been influenced to accept a chaplaincy for the ad- 
vancement of this purpose, for this position afforded him inde- 
pendence and leisure amid scenes which lent inspiration to his 
muse. To this work he gave thought amid the duties of his office, 
and laid the foundation of the production which he completed a 
few years later. 

Barlow remained in the army till the close of the war, being 
nearly all this time in the camps on the Highlands, engaged in his 
clerical duties, and in the writing of his poem. The most im- 
portant event of his career during this period was probably his 
marriage to Miss Ruth Baldwin, daughter of Michael Baldwin of 
New Haven, on the 26th of January, 1781. After the final dis- 
bandment of the army in December, 1783, he retired to private life, 
and fixed his residence at Hartford, Conn., where he began in 
earnest his literary career. He wrote much for the public press, 
and, conjointly with Elisha Babcock, a printer of Springfield, Mass., 
established a paper called " The American Mercury,'' with which 
he was connected till November, 1785. During this period he was 
a member of a most notable company of literary men, widely 
known as " the Hartford Wits," whose brilliant satires not only 
created widespread interest and amusement, but also influenced the 
politics of the day. After severing his connection with his paper. 
Barlow again devoted himself to the study of law, and was admit- 
ted to the bar at Fairfield in April, 1786. Unwilling, however, 
to make "use of the methods too commonly employed at that time 
for the attainment of success in the profession, he abandoned this 
pursuit and turned again to his literary occupations. In 1785, 
at the request of the General' Association of the Congregational 
churches of Connecticut, he had undertaken a revision of the Book 
of Psalmody, familiarly known as " Watts' Hymns," which had 
been in general use for half a century. His version was received 
with approval by the churches, and was used by them for a number 
of years. In the spring of 1787 appeared the work on which he 
had labored so long and earnestly : " The Vision of Columbus." 
It met with immediate and widespread success, passed through 
several editions in America, and was republished in France, and 
even in England. 

The poet had now achieved literary success, and his course in 
life seemed fully determined. But at this juncture an event oc- 
curred which changed the tenor of his existence and eventually 



114 

advanced him to a station which was, perhaps, heyond his most 
sanguine anticipations. 

The Continental Congress had, during the Revohition, promised 
as a hounty to those who should enlist in the military service of 
the Republic grants of land, in addition to pay and other emolu- 
ments. This promise, however, had never been redeemed, and 
after the opening for settlement of the country north and west of 
the Ohio, a number of officers, who had been entitled to land 
bounties, conceived the idea of purchasing from the government 
large tracts of the Ohio territory and re-selling to immigrant 
settlers from abroad. Associations were formed for this purpose 
— the Ohio Company in 1786, the Scioto Land Company in the 
following year. The directors of the latter organization, looking 
about for a suitable person to represent their interests abroad, 
selected Joel Barlow as their foreign agent, secured his acceptance 
of the position, and in the spring of 1788 he sailed for France to 
begin his labors in the interest of the Scioto Company. It is un- 
necessary here to detail the history of that unfortunate enterprise. 
That history forms a curious story of financial mismanagement 
and nonfulfillment of promises. It is enough to say that the 
lamentable failure of this speculation appears to have been due, 
not to dishonest intentions on the part of its promoters, but largely 
to a want of the sagacity and business experience necessary for 
the safe conduct of so great an undertaking. Financial em- 
barrassments ensued, unforeseen difficulties checked the progress 
of the work, dissatisfaction grew; recriminations followed; the 
affairs of the company became hopelessly involved. Barlow 
eventually resigned his agency and withdrew from the enterprise, 
from which he had derived no special advantage, and which, un- 
fortunately, had been the means of embittering some of his as- 
sociates against him. 

His mission as land agent having failed. Barlow once more 
turned to his pen for a livelihood. He passed his time between 
London and Paris, and in the latter city became well known in 
literary and social life. In the politics of the period he took a 
deep interest, and became a member of the Girondist, or moderate 
Republican party. But the outbreak of the French Revolution, 
with the fearful excesses which characterized it, made life unsafe 
in Paris, and in 1791 Barlow withdrew to London, where in the 
following year he produced his "Advice to the Privileged Orders," 
and a poem entitled " The Conspiracy of Kings," both of these 
works attracting universal attention. The first-named was an 
attack on the feudal system, the religious establishments, the mili- 
tary, judicial, and financial systems of European nations, was 



115 

warmly approved by the opponents of the political policy of Great 
Britain, and was suppressed by the British government. 

About this period Barlow was joined by his wife, and return- 
ing to Paris he again took an active part in French politics, be- 
came a citizen of France, and accepted a candidacy as deputy for 
Savoy. While on a visit to this province he produced his pastoral 
poem " Hasty Pudding," which outlived in popularity all his other 
works. 

The result of the election being unfavorable to him. Barlow 
again retired from political life, and devoted himself to business 
enterprises, in which he proved successful and accumulated a con- 
siderable fortune, which, in 1796, he estimated at $126,000. Hardly 
had he reached this condition of competence and success than he 
was again called to a post of responsibility and honor, this time in 
the service of his native country. Piracy had become rampant 
on the 'northern coast of Africa, American vessels had been cap- 
tured and plundered, and more than 150 American sailors were 
prisoners in the hands of the Dey of Algiers. The United States 
government desired to conclude a treaty of peace with the Dey 
and secure the liberation of the prisoners, and Joel Barlow was 
induced to accept the mission. He remained in Algiers for a year 
and a half, and with great difficulty succeeded in effecting treaties 
with both Algiers and Tunis, and setting the unfortunate captives 
at liberty. This was not accomplished without' personal danger, 
and Barlow gladly concluded his negotiations in July, 1797, and 
returned to Paris, having accomplished one of the most difiicult 
missions it was ever the lot of an envoy to undertake. 

For several years after his return from the Algerine mission 
Barlow devoted himself chiefly ,to conmiercial and literary pur- 
suits. His principal work in the field of literature consisted in 
the expansion of his " Vision of Columbus '" into a larger work, 
which he entitled " The Columbiad " ; a translation of Volney's 
" Ruins of Empire," and the collection of historical material. In 
the politics of the period he took a renewed interest and exerted 
such influence as he could to avert the threatened outbreak of 
hostilities between France and the United States in 1798. He was 
the friend, patron, and adviser of Robert Fulton in his initial ex- 
periments in steam and submarine navigation. The young in- 
ventor was received as a member of Barlow's family, and treated 
with such consideration as might have been shown to a son. 

In May, 1805, after eighteen years absence from his native 
land, Mr. Barlow bid adieu to the country of his adoption, and 
accompanied by his wife, set sail for America. After his arrival 
he spent some time in a tour of carriage travel, and then located 



ii6 

permanently in the city of Washington, D. C, where he purchased 
a fine estate, which he improved and beautified, and to which he 
gave the name of " Kalorama." Here he settled down with the 
intention of passing the remainder of his days in his favorite pur- 
suits, and of devoting his abilities to the welfare of his fellow men. 
He published an edition of " The Columbiad," began work on a 
history of the United States, and drew up a prospectus for a 
national university; a bill for the incorporation of the institution 
was introduced in the Senate in 1806, but was never acted upon. 

The years spent at Kalorama were the last the poet was ever 
to know of the comforts of home and the happiness of domestic 
life. Meantime, the hand of fate was shaping those events which 
were destined to draw him from his retirement for a final service 
to his native country, and to the end of his career. The difficulties 
which had grown out of the belligerent relations of France and 
England had so affected American interests that it was considered 
necessary to send a special envoy to France to effect a treaty with 
Napoleon for the protection of American commerce. President 
Madison selected Joel Barlow as the proper person to represent 
the Republic in this difficult mission, and the appointment was 
tendered him accordingly. He accepted the trust with reluctance 
and a melancholy foreboding of his fate, and sailed from Annapolis 
Aug. I, 181 1, in the Frigate Constitution^ bearing his credentials 
as Minister Plenipotentiary to France, and accompanied by his 
wife and his nephew, Thomas Barlow. After his arrival in Paris 
he spent months in vain efforts to conclude negotiations with 
Napoleon, who was occupied during this period with the plan and 
execution of the invasion of Russia, destined to result so dis- 
astrously. It was not till October, 1812, that all preliminaries were 
at last adjusted, and a meeting with Napoleon was appointed to 
take place in the city of Wilna, in Poland. Mr. Barlow, accom- 
panied by his nephew, set out on his journey of nearly 650 leagues, 
in the inclement winter season, to complete his mission. Arrived 
at his destination he waited in vain for the promised interview, 
for the French army was soon in the full tide of retreat from the 
terrible disaster of the Beresina, and Napoleon fled in disguise 
towards Paris, whither the deeply-disappointed envoy sought to 
follow him, but had not proceeded far on his journey when he 
was seized with an acute inflammation of the lungs, which com- 
pelled a halt at the village of Zarnowica, near Cracow, where, 
after five days' illness, he died, Dec. 24, 181 2. As it was impos- 
sible to remove his body he was buried at that place, and his sor- 
rowing companions returned to Paris, bearing the news of his 
melancholy fate. 



117 

The tidings of Mr. Barlow's death were received with profound 
regret in both Europe and America. The leading journals of 
France, the Republican press of the United States, and the dead 
man's personal friends and admirers in both countries eulogized 
his career, and united in expressions of sorrow over his untimely 
decease. His mission remained unfulfilled, and his disconsolate 
widow recrossed the wide Atlantic, and returned to her desolate 
home, where she lived in retirement till her own death, May 29, 
1818. 

The memory of Joel Barlow faded from the minds of men, but 
the work that he had done left its impress on the course of human 
affairs. In literature, statesmanship, and education his ideas are 
perpetuated and are embodied in the institutions of our country. 

No personal description of Mr. Barlow is known to exist, but 
several portraits of him are preserved, one of which, from a paint- 
ing by Chappell, is reproduced herewith, as giving the best gen- 
eral idea of the personality of the man. He was particular in the 
observance of correct personal habits, neat in apparel, and atten- 
tive to the forms of polite behavior. His private character was 
unblemished, and he had a deep dislike of aristocratic pretension, 
and of conditions tending to social inequality. 

" In private life," says Everest, " Mr. Barlow was highly es- 
teemed for his amiable temperament and many social excellences. 
His manners were generally grave and dignified, and he possessed 
little facility for general conversation, but with his intimate 
friends he was easy and familiar, and upon topics which interested 
him he discoursed with much animation. His mind was rather of 
a philosophical than a poetical cast, and better adapted to those 
studies which require patient investigation and profound thought 
than to the lighter and more fanciful labors of the muse. Still, 
as a poet, he held no humble place among the authors of his day, 
while as an ardent patriot, a sincere philanthropist, a zealous 
republican, and a friend and patron of science and art, he must 
ever stand among the most distinguished men of his age and 
country." 

In 1809 the University of Georgia conferred upon Mr. Barlow 
the degree of Doctor of Laws. He was a member of the Mass. 
Society of the Cincinnati. 

[Chas. B. Todd's " Life and Letters of Joel Barlow " ; Todd's 
'' History of Redding " ; Schenck's " History of Fairfield " ; Ever- 
est's " Poets of Connecticut " ; Duyckinck's " National Portrait Gal- 
lery " ; Drake's and Allen's " Biographical Dictionaries."] 

BARLOW, NATHANIEL. 1745-1782. 
Born May 13, 1745- Bro. of Aaron. 



ii8 

He was a signer of tHe Redding Loyalist Association, but evi- 
dently espoused the patriot cause early in the war. Sept. i8, 1777, 
the town appointed him one of the committee empowered to pro- 
cure the articles (camp equipage for the use of the militia to be 
sent to the Hudson) requested by the Governor and Council of 
Safety. Jan. 28, 1780, he was appointed by the town to care for 
the family of Nathan Coley in place of Nehemiah Hull. At the 
town meeting of June 23, 1780, he was appointed one of a com- 
mittee of nine to hire nine soldiers for the Conn. Line of the 
Continental Army. 

Married Jane Bradley. 

Died Dec. 26, 1782. Buried in the Old Burying Ground. 

BARLOW, SAMUEL. 1752- 1776. 

Born April 3, 1752. Bro. of Aaron. 

Served in Capt. Zalnion Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
in the Campaign in the Northern Department, and was discharged 
Nov. 28, 1775. On the way home he became extremely ill, and 
lay at the house of one David Mulford, in Poughkeepsie, cared for 
by his brother Aaron, who served in the same company with him, 
and by his brother Nathaniel, who came on from Redding to meet 
him. He was attended by different physicians, but died after an 
illness of several weeks. Bills for medical attendance, medicines, 
and other expenses (here reproduced), were paid by Nathaniel, 
who was afterward reimbursed from the colony treasury. 

THE ESTATE OF SAMUEL BARLOW, DEC. BILL. 

Late a Soldier in Cap*^ Zalmon Reads Company, Col. Waterbury's 
Reg"^ who Sickned and Died at Poughkeepsie on his way Home from 
Northern Army 

To Sundry Doctor's Bills who did for him in his long and very 
Expensive Sicknefs, settled and paid by his Brother Nathaniel Barlow, 
who tended him in his Sicknefs, viz — 

To Doctor Tappen's Bill viz — 
1775 Deer i^tu To Visit. Pulv. Rhei. 
Spt. N. D. ! ij 
& Vt £0: t6: 6 

17th To Sp. Cots S" 6/— 

Elix Asth 5 r 2/6 o : 8 : 6 
To Ing<^ Drink 3/6 
2 Blis 3/ Pr 
Cons g/ o: 14: o 

21 To Visit Bord gal 
16/ Emp Epis*^ 
2/ Pr Cons g/ 1:5:0 

26 To Visit Pr Cort 

§ 6 Spen 1 : 4: o 

4: 8 



119 

17/6 Jan"" 7th To Doctor Hearsted's 
Bill for sundry 
Medicines & visits 
to said Barlow 2: 10: 9 

To Doctor John Bard's Bill viz — 
1776 Jan 7th To I Visit 5/ To 
6 Doses of Pec- 
toral Pills 6/ 0:11:0 
To 2 Paray Draughts o : 3 : o 
17th To I Visit re- 
peated 5/ — To 
Cordial restorat 
drops 5 ij -2/9 o: 7: 9 
I9"> To I Visit re- 
peated 5/ — To 
12 Restorative 
Powders 12/ o: 17: o 
23d To I ditto ditto 5/ 
To 2 purging 
Draughts 3/ App 
Bolus 1/ o: 9: o 

2: 7: 9 

Nathl Barlow — New York Money £9 : 6: 6 — 6: 19: 10^ 
Reading June i2t'» 1776. 

Then appeard Nathaniel Barlow the above Subscriber and 
made oath to the above mentioned sums — 

before me 

W™ Hawley Jus* Pac^ 

Receivd June ig^^ 1776, an Order on Colony Treasurer in full of the 
above amt receivd for the Estate of the Dec*^ 

P Hezekiah Sanford. 
To Nathaniel Barlow's Bill, viz 
To Cash paid David Mulford's Bill for the following expenses for 
Samuel Barlow Dec'' late a Soldier in Capt. Zalmon Reads Company viz 
To lying Sick at my House 7^/2 Weeks Ex- 

tream Sick and Died @ 20/ Pr Week 7 : 10 

To Tenders Bill and Board, 2 of them, 7^2 

Weeks @ 16/ Pr Week 6: 

To Sundry Medicines 11: 6 

To Funeral Charges i6j 

New York Money 14: 17: 6 

— ir: 3: ij^ 
David Mulford 

Reading — Fairfield County May 6'^'^ 1776. 

Personally appeared Nathaniel Barlow and 

made oath that he had paid the above Acct to the above named David 

Mulford 

Sworn before me — Lem'l Sanford Jus Pac^ 

May 23, 1776. Received an order on Colony Treasurer for Eleven 
pounds three Shillings one penny 3^ — in full of the above Acct 

P Seth Sanford 



120 

A passage from " The Columbiad " seems to make special refer- 
ence to Samuel Barlow, and to indicate that this young soldier was 
strongly attached to General IMontgomery. 

"And thou, my earliest friend, mj^ Brother dear, 

Thy fall untimely still renews my tear. 

In youthful sports, in toils, in taste allied, 

My kind companion and my faithful guide 

When death's dread summons, from our infant eyes. 

Had call'd our last loved parent to the skies. 

Tho' young in arms, and still obscure thy name, 

Thy bosom panted for the deeds of fame. 

Beneath Montgomery's eye, when by thy steel 

In northern wilds the frequent savage fell. 

Fired by his voice, and foremost at his call, 

To mount the breach or scale the flamy wall. 

Thy daring hand had many a laurel gain'd 

If years 'had ripened what thy fancy feign'd. 

Lamented Youth ! when thy great leader bled, 

Thro' the same v/ound thy parting spirit fled 

Join'd the long train, the self-devoted band, 

The gods, the saviors of their native land." 

An inscription on the tombstone of Samuel Barlow, Sr., states 
that " His Son, Mr. Samuel Barlow, refigned his breath in the 
service of his country 

he died and was buried at Rynbeck on return-s from the victory 
of St. Johns & Montreal Jan. 26, AD. 1776, aged 23 years. 

Thus age and youth without distinction fall 
Death is the common lot prepared for all." 

BARTLETT, DANIEL COLLINS. 1755-1837. 

Son of Rev. Nathaniel Bartlett. 

On a Sabbath morning at the outbreak of the Revolution Daniel 
Bartlett's father brought him his own sword, newly ground, and 
bade him go and defend his country. Daniel enlisted in Capt. 
Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, served in the 
Northern Department, and was present at the capture of St. Johns 
in November, 1775; was discharged from service on the 28th of 
that month, and then accompanied the unsuccessful expedition led 
by Gen. Montgomery against Quebec. He was present at the 
burning of Danbury in April, 1777, and served as a private in Capt. 
Gershom Morehouse's company, 4th Conn. Militia, in the Campaign 
at Fishkill, October 5-24, of the same year. 

Daniel C. Bartlett was married to Esther Read, daughter of 
Col. John Read of Redding, Jan. 7, 1778, and after her death in 




REV. NATHANIEL BARTLKTT 



121 



i8o9 removed to Amcnia, Dutchess Co., N. Y., the farm on which 
he settled remaining in possession of his descendants till 1901. 
Tradition describes him as a man of small stature. He died Dec. 
13, 1837, and is buried in the old cemetery near the village of 
Amcnia. 

BARTLETT. REV. NATHANIEL. 1727-1810. 

Born April 22, 1727. 

The Rev. Nathaniel Bartlett, second pastor of the Congrega- 
tional Church at Redding, was a native of North Guilford, Conn., 
and graduated from Yale College in 1749. He came to Redding 
in 1753, was ordained pastor of the church March 21st of that year, 
and presided over his charge for 57 years. Throughout the Revo- 
lution he sustained the reputation of an ardent, earnest, and fearless 
patriot. The incident related above clearly indicates the quality 
of his patriotism. Other traditions of him bear testimony to his 
courage and his fidelity to the cause of his country. During the 
struggle the resident tories manifested a special animosity toward 
him and frequently threatened his life, so that he was obliged to 
go well armed when making his parochial visits. He built a bin 
in the garret of his house, in which his youngest son Jonathan 
discovered a number of kegs of powder, which Mr. Bartlett had 
stored there for the use of his fellow-patriots in'case of emergency. 
He officiated at various times as chaplain to the troops stationed at 
Redding. 

Mr. Bartlett was married June 13, 1753. to Eunice Russell of 
Branford, Conn. In addition to his pastoral duties he instructed 
many of the youth of the town in academic studies. Among his 
pupils was Joel Barlow. The church and town records show that 
he performed the marriage ceremony for about 150 couples during 
his pastorate. He was widely known and respected as a minister 
and as an educator, and to the last days of his long life labored 
earnestly and faithfully for the spirittial and temporal welfare of 
his flock. Passing away on the 11 th of January, 1810, he was laid 
to rest in the Old Burying Ground near the church in which he 
had so long officiated. His firm faith in immortality is expressed 
in the text inscribed upon the tall white slab which marks his 
grave : 

" I am the resurrection and the life ; he that believeth in me, though 
he were dead, yet shall he live." 

Lineage: DanieP, Daniel-, Lieut. Geo. Bartlett^, of Guilford, 
164 1 ; Branford, 1649. 



122 

BARTLETT, RUSSELL. 1754-1828. 

Son of Rev. Nathaniel Bartlett. 

May 9. 1775, he enlisted as fifer in the 6th company (Capt. 
Noble Benedict) of the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, served in the 
Northern Department, and was discharged Dec. 11, 1775. April 
26, 1777, he was captured by the troops of Tryon's expedition and 
taken to Danbury, where the prisoners were temporarily confined 
in a church, from whose windows Russell Bartlett saw the house 
of his father-in-law consigned to the flames. He was carried to 
New York, confined in the Sugar House, and after experiencing a 
measure of its privations and horrors, was at last released and 
returned home. June 22, 1778, he was elected constable for the 
town of Redding. Aug. 9, 1779, he was appointed one of a com- 
mittee to procure clothing for the soldiers of the town then 
serving in the Continental Army. Nov. 28, 1780, he was appointed 
to receive the beef and pork collected for the army, and sworn to 
a faithful discharge of his trust. 

Mr. Bartlett was a man of fine figure and upright character. 
He married Rachel Taylor of Danbury, Feb. 28, 1776, removed 
after the war to Cooperstown, Otsego Co., N. Y., and settled on 
a farm in the adjoining town of Hartwick, where he died Nov. 
21, 1828. He is buried in his family lot in the village cemetery 
at Cooperstown, near the grave of the novelist James Fenimore 
Cooper. Upon his tombstone is inscribed this tribute to his char- 
acter : 

'"A man who, with those of worth, loved honesty, was well agreed." 

BARTRAM, DANIEL. 

Served with the militia in Tryon's Raid, April, 1777, and is 
thought to be the man of that name who served in Maj. Ezra 
Starr's Regt. of Light Horse, under Capt. Hull at Fairfield in 
1780, till Jan. I, 1 78 1. 

BARTRAM, ISAAC. 1758-1844. 

Private, Capt. James Horton's company, Lt.-Col. Jeduthan 
Baldwin's Regt. of Artificers, Mass. Line; enlisted from Danbury, 
Aug. 22, 1777, for 3 years. He was pensioned tmder the Act of 
March 18, 1818, as a private of the Mass. Line, was granted an 
annual allowance of $96, and received a total of' $1,531.06 up to 
1833-4. His name was placed on the pension roll May 20, 1819, 
the pension dating from March 24, 1818. The date of his death 
is given as Sept. 13, 1843. His grave in the Lonetown Cemetery 
is marked by a large boulder, on which is inscribed : 



123 

ISAAC BARTRAM 

An Artificer in the Revolution. 

Born in Redding, 1758. 

Died in Redding, 1844. 

BARTRAM, JAMES. 1738- 

Borii at Fairfield, Conn., April 18, 1738. 

Enlisted from Fairfield in June, 1776, as private in the ist 
Battalion, Wadsworth's Brigade, Col. Gold Selleck Silliman com- 
manding, and served 6 months in the company of Capt. Zalmon 
Read. During this period he was engaged in the actions at Flat- 
bush (L. I.), Aug. 27, Ilarlem Sept. 15, and White Plains Oct. 
28, 1776. In the spring of 1779 he served 3 months in the i6th 
Conn. Militia, Col. Nehemiah Beardsley commanding, in the com- 
pany of Capt. Daniel Hickok, as a private. He applied for a 
pension Aug. 11, 1832, then residing at Danbury, and vv^as granted 
an allowance of $25 per year from March 4, 1831, his name being 
placed on the roll Nov. 6, 1832. Three pension payments — $75 — 
are recorded as paid to him by 1834. 

BATES, EZRA. 1758- 

Born in Redding March 11, 1758. 

Enlisted from Redding in June, 1776, as a private in Capt. 
Zalmon Read's company, ist Battalion Wadsworth's Brigade, Col. 
Gold Selleck Silliman commanding, served 6 months, and was 
engaged in the Battle of White Plains, Oct. 28, 1776, re-entered 
.service in October, 1778, and served 6 months as teamster under 
Micajah Starr and William Stone, conductors of teams. In 1780 
he served 9 months as private in Capt. [Jesse] Bell's company, in 
the Regt. of State Troops commanded by Col. Bezaleel Beebe. 
This regiment was posted at Horseneck, and had frequent skir- 
mishes with the enemy on the Westchester front. In the spring of 
1782 he enlisted as private in the company of Capt. Jonathan 
Heart, ist Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Lt.-Col. Thomas. Gros- 
venor commanding, and served 8 months and 16 days. The rec- 
ords give the dates of his enlistment and discharge as xApril 26, 
1 782- Jan. I, 1783. He applied for a pension July 30, 1832 (then 
living in Redding), and his claim was allowed. His name w^as 
placed on the roll April 30, 1833; he received $80 per year from 
March 4, 1831, and $240 were paid him by 1834. 

BATES, JUSTUS. 1746-1827. 

Corporal, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fish- 
kill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. 

Died Aug. 8, 1827. Buried at Umpawaug. 



124 

BATTERSOX, JEREMIAH. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
in the Northern Department, discharged Nov. 28, 1775. Private, 
Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. MiHtia, Fishkill Campaign, 
Oct. 5-30, 1777. 

Married Betty Chigston of Redding Nov. 12, 1777. 

Has descendants in female lines only. 

BATTERSON, STEPHEN. 1761-1847. 

Born Sept. 20, 1761, at Fairfield, Conn. Son of George Bat- 
terson. who also served in the Revolution in the same regiment 
and company with his son. Stephen enlisted for the war from 
Fairfield Aug. 9, 1777, in the 7th Regt. Conn. Continental Line. 
Col. Heman Swift commanding, as a private in the company of 
Capt. Albert Chapman. He participated in the Battle of German- 
town, Oct. 4. 1777, and the storming of Stony Point, July 15, 1779. 
The 5th and 7th Regts. were consolidated in 1781 and designated 
the 2d, commanded by Col. Heman Swift, and Stephen Batterson 
served in this regiment under Capt. Thomas Converse. He was 
enrolled in the Light Infantry Battalion commanded by Col. Alex- 
ander Hamilton in the company of Capt. Thaddeus Weed, in 
which he served at the southward, and took part in the siege of 
Yorktown, September-October, 1781. Pay rolls show that he was 
paid from Jan. ist to Dec. 31st of that year, one of his pay re- 
ceipts being for the sum of $6 60/90. He continued in the 2d 
Regt., under Col. Swift, from January to June, 1783, in the com- 
pany commanded by Capt. Wm. Richards. He was discharged 
in the Highlands, N. Y., June 7, 1783, and honored with the badge 
of merit for six years faithful service. This badge was an honor- 
ary distinction conferred upon noncommissioned officers and sol- 
diers for six years continuous faithful service, and is described 
as '' a narrow piece of cloth of an angular form, to be fixed to 
the left arm on the uniform coats," of the same color as the fac- 
ings. April 7, 1 818, Mr. Batterson applied for a pension and 
received an allowance of $96 a year from date of application, as a 
private of the Conn. Line, under Act of March 18, 1818. His 
name was placed on the roll Feb. 4, 1819; he was dropped from the 
rolls by the Act of May i, 1820, and restored Nov. 19, 1823. He 
received $987.20 in pension payments previous to 1831. 

Mr. Batterson married Sarah Wardwell at Norwalk Oct. 20. 
1784, settled in Wilton, but removed to Redding, where he was 
enrolled as a voter April 7, 1817. He was a weaver by occupation, 
and died of dropsy in Redding Aug. 31. 1847. "^^'^.s probably twice 



125 

married, his wife "Ame " being buried beside him at Umpawaug. 
Lineage : George-, James Batterson, Sr.^ 

BELDING, MOSES. 

This soldier's family received supplies frou) the town in 1780. 
His record is unknown. 

BELNAP, JESSE. 

Jesse Belnap, a soldier, and Eunice Hall were married April 
28, 1779, while Putnam's troops were in Redding. His military 
record is unknown. 

BENEDICT, THADDEUS. 1749-1799. 
* Born Aug. 14, 1749. 

Graduated at Yale College. 1773; removed to Redding; \yas 
probate clerk, 1776; April 2, 1777, v/as appointed on a committee 
to hire soldiers for the Continental Army, and on May 5 of that 
year was chosen one of the additional selectmen to supply the 
places of those captured in the Danbury Raid, and was reappointed 
to this ofifice Feb. 13, 1778. July 30, 1779, he was appointed on a 
committee to procure clothing for the Continental soldiers belong- 
ing to the town, and on Nov. 28, 1780, on a committee to class the 
inhabitants for the purpose of obtaining recruits. He served as 
agent for the care and disposal of confiscated estates; was justice 
of the peace from 1783 to 1795, and represented Redding in the 
General Assembly for six sessions — May, 1783-84-90 ; May-October, 
1794; May, 1795. He was one of the most celebrated lawyers of 
his day, having a very large and extensive practice, reports of 
cases showing that he practiced in every county in the state. His 
law ofifice stood under a tree in front of his house at Redding 
Centre. This tree — a magnificent specimen of the American 
elm — is still standing. 

July 12, 1775, Mr. Benedict was married to Deborah, daughter 
of Col. John Read of Redding. He finally removed to Bridgeport. 
He died in Redding, but is not buried there. 

Lineage: Thaddeus^, 1727-1805; Thomas", 1694-1776; James-, 
164 — 1717; Thomas Benedict^, 1617-1689. 

[Benedict Genealogy.] 

BENNET, DANIEL. 

Served in Lt.-Col. Samuel Canfield's Militia Regt. at West 
Point, September, 1781. Is perhaps the drummer of that name 
who served in the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, Col. Waterbury, 5th com- 
pany, Capt. Matthew Mead, from May 12 to Dec. 13, 1775; and in 



126 

Col. Samuel Elmore"s Regt., under Capt. Albert Chapman, " at Ft. 
Schuyler alias Ft. Stanwix " in 1776. 

BETTS, STEPHEN. 1751-1826. 

Stephen Bctts was a signer of the Redding Loyalist Associa- 
tion, but became an ardent patriot and an active supporter of the 
cause of the colonies. He was selectman in 1777, and was sur- 
prised and taken prisoner in his own house by Tryon's troops 
on April 26th and carried to New York, but was released and re- 
turned home, going out as a private in Capt. Gershom Morehouse's 
company, 4th Conn. Militia, in the Campaign at Fishkill, October 
5tli to 24th of that year. Dec. 22, 1777, he was appointed a member 
of the Committee of Inspection. The duty of this committee was 
to prevent supplies from being transported through or out of the 
town. Mr. Betts bore the title of lieutenant, probably in the east- 
side company. He represented the town at four sessions of the 
General Assembly — May-October, 1782; May-October, 1783. 

Died Jan. 24, 1826. Buried in Christ Church Yard, Redding 
Ridge. 

BIXBY, ELIAS. 1740-1827. 

Served 8 months as private in the loth company, Capt. Zalmon 
Read, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, Col. David Waterbury commanding, 
in the Northern Department; discharged Nov. 28, 1775. (Name 
appears as " Elias Brisby " in the roll of the company.) En- 
listed for the war, Dec. 20, 1776, in the 5th Regt. Conn. Continental 
Line, Col. Philip B. Bradley commanding, in the company of Capt. 
Ezekiel Sanford; promoted corporal Nov. i, 1778, sergeant March 
3, 1779; discharged Dec. 20, 1779. During this period he was 
enrolled in the light infantry company of Capt. John St. John, 
detached from the 5th Regt. to form part of the light regiment 
commanded by Col. Return J. Meigs in the assault on Stony Point 
July 15, 1779. He was a pensioner under the Act of March 18, 
1818, then residing in Oneida Co. in the state of New York; re- 
ceiving an annual allowance of $96; his name was placed on the 
roll June 30, 1818, the pension dating from April loth of that year, 
and after receiving $182.63 i'"' pension payments he was dropped 
from the rolls under the Act of Mji.y i, 1820, but was restored 
April 21, 1823, with the former allowance, under which he re- 
ceived $359.30 to the date of his death, Jan. 18, 1827. 

The marriage of " Elias Bigsby & Grace Sterling, April 28, 
1771," is found in the records of the Congregational Church of 
Wilton, Conn. 



127 

BROTHWELL, BENJAMIN. 

This man served five terms; enlisting February, 1777, he s'erved 
as private one month under Sergt. Sterling; April, 1777, 8 months 
under Capt. Thorp; April, 1780, 8 months with Lieut. Silliman ; 
June, 1781, was hired by Redding and served 5 months in Lt.-Col. 
Samuel Canfield's Militia Regt. at West Point as corporal in the 
company of Capt. Stiles; April, 1782, 8 months as corporal under 
Capt. Lacey. Applied for pension July 23, 1832; had a yearly al- 
lowance of $84, dating from March 4, 1831. On roll Jan. 23, 1833: 
received $252 to 1834. Was still living in 1840, in Fairfield, aged 
81 ; probably the soldier who is buried in Mountain Grove Ceme- 
tery, Bridgeport. 

BROWN, JOHN, 

Enlisted for the war in Capt. Stephen Osborn's company, Lt.- 
Col. Jeduthan Baldwin's Regt. of Artificers, Feb. 21, 1778; deserted 
June, 1777 (?). 

BURR, ELIJAH. 1743- 

Dec. 17, 1778, he was appointed to provide for the family of 
Stephen Meeker, a soldier in the Continental Army. March 13. 
1780, he was appointed one of the Inspectors of Provisions. June 
23, 1780, he was made one of a committee of nine to hire nine 
soldiers for the Continental Army. April 6, 1781, he was made 
collector of a tax for the purchase of clothing for the soldiers. 
Feb. 28, 1782, he was appointed to provide for the family of Henry 
Hopkins, a soldier. 

Lineage : Jabez*, Daniel-', DanieP, Jehu^ Burr of Fairfield, 
1 600- 1 670.* 

BURR, EZEKIEL. 1755- 

Born March 23, 1755.* Bro. of Elijah. 

Served as corporal in Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. 
Militia, in the Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. Dec. 21, 1779, 
appointed on a committee to take care of soldiers' families. April 
6, 1781, appointed to provide for Henry Hopkins' family. 

BURR, JABEZ. 1752-1S25. 

Bro. of Elijah. 

He was a private in the Revolution, serving in Capt. Zalmon 
Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, in the Northern Depart- 
ment; discharged Oct. 3, 1775. He fought at the Battle of White 
Plains Oct. 28. 1776. and a year later was present at the surrender 
of Burgoyne. 



128 

Mr. P.urr removed to Fairfield, I'^ranklin Co.. \'t., in 1786, and 
died 'there June 28. 1825. 

BURR, XATHAX. 1745- 

Born Jan. i, 1745.* Bro. of Elijah. 

Enlisted April 16, 1776. as a private in Capt. Jeremiah Parme- 
lee's company. Col. Samuel Elmore's Regt. Re-engaged with Capt. 
Satterlee. Is recorded as sick in hospital while in the army. Dur- 
ing his term of service it is said his wife gathered the crops on his 
farm. Dec. 17, 1778, he was appointed to provide for the family 
of Nehemiah Sherwood, a soldier. He removed from Redding to 
Pawling, Dutchess Co., N. Y., and bought and settled on a farm 
of 225 acres. 

BURR, STEPHEN. 1757- 

Born Jan. 16. 1757.* Bro. of Elijah. 

Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fish- 
kill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. 

[*C. B. Todd's Burr Genealogy : " The Burr Family " ; Todd's Hist. 

of Redding.] 

BURRETT, PHILIP. 

Sergeant, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fish- 
kill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. Appointed Inspector of Provisions 
March 13, 1780. 

BYINGTON, JOHN. 1740-1S34. 

He was a signer of the Redding Loyalist Association, but early 
joined the patriots, and served in the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, in the 
company of Capt. Zalnion Read, in the Northern Department ; 
discharged Oct. 15, 1775. Enlisted Aug. 13, 1776, in Capt. Elijah 
Abel's company, Bradley's Battalion, Wadsworth's Brigade; served 
at Fort Washington; discharged Dec. 25, 1776. While the Ameri- 
can troops lay at Redding, in the winter of 1778-79, he served as 
conductor of teams. March 13, 1780, he was appointed an In- 
spector of Provisions, and on Feb. .19, 17S1, was appointed to 
collect a double assessment levied on certain delinquents who had 
refused to pay their proportion toward hiring a man for the Conn. 
Line. He was pension'ed under the Act of 1818, as a private of the 
Conn. Line, and was granted an annual allowance of $96 ; his 
name was placed on the roll Jan. 26, 1819, his pension dating from 
May 25, 1818, from which time he received $170.83, and was then 
dropped from the rolls, his service not being Continental. 

Married Sarah Gray Nov. 16, 1763. 

Died Jan. 26, 1834. Buried at Umpawaug. 



129 

CHAPMAN, DANIEL. 1743- 

Taken prisoner by the British in the Danbury Raid, April 26, 
1777, and carried to New York, where he died in the Sugar House. 
His father, Capt. Phineas Chapman of Greens Farms, a veteran 
of the French and Indian War, was also captured in the raid, but 
lived to return from his captivity. 

Married Mary Andrews Jan. V2, 1773. 

Lineage: Capt. Phineas^ 1716-1782; Rev. DanieP, 1689-1741 ; 
Dea. Nathaniel, 1653-1726; Robert Chapman^ of Saybrook, 1616- 
1687. [Chapman Gen.] 

CHAPEL, RUSSEL. 

This soldier was married in Redding to Sarah Osborn by Rev. 
Mr. Bartlett Oct. 3, 1779. He is probably Russell Chapel of Nor-^ 
wich, who sefved one day in the Lexington Alarm, was a private 
in Col. S. H. Parsons' Regt., 6th Conn. Line, under Capt. Edward 
Mott, from May 5 to Sept. 12, 1775; and next enlisted for the war, 
Jan. I, 1777, in the 4th Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. John 
Durkee, in 'the company of Capt. John McGregier, in which he 
held the rank of sergeant till Jan. i, 1781, when he was reduced, 
perhaps through consolidation of regiments. He was in service 
through 1 781 (being paid from January ist to December 31st of 
that year), in the ist Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. John 
Durkee, in the company of Capt. Robert Warner. Date of final 
expiration of service unknown. 

COBURN, EDWARD. 

This man is believed to be Edward Coburn of Windham, who 
enlisted in the 3d Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. Samuel 
Wyllys, Feb. 28, 1777, for the term of 3 years, and served as a 
private under Capts. Wills Clift and Henry Champion, being dis- 
charged Feb. 18, 1780. He was afterward hired to serve on the 
quota of the town of Redding, and on July 16, 1781, joined Water- 
bury's State Brigade, serving as sergeant in the company of Capt. 
James Stoddard. 

COLEY, GERSHOM. 

Sergeant. Capt. Gershom Morehouse's company, 4th Conn. 
Militia, Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-24, 1777. March 13, 1780, 
chosen an Inspector of Provisions. 

COLEY, JESSE. 

Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fish- 
kill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. 



130 

COLEY, NATHx\N. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn Line, 
in the Northern Department; discharged Oct. 15, 1775. Enlisted 
for the war in the sth^ Regt. Conn. Continental Line, 1777-81, Col. 
Philip B. Bradley commanding, in the company of Capt. Ezekiel 
Sanford, April 19, 1777. Promoted corporal Nov. i, 1778; ser- 
geant, April I, 1780; died April 18, 1781. The tov^^n provided for 
his family during his term of service. 

COUCH, ABRAHAM. 

Enlisted March i, 1777, for 3 years, in the 2di Regt. Conn. 
Continental Line, 1777-81, under Col. Chas. Webb, as a musician, 
and served as fifer in the company of Capt. John Mills. Trans- 
ferred to Capt. Bezaleel Beebe's company March i, 1778; dis- 
charged March i, 1780. Afterward enlisted as private in the short 
levies on the 2d2 Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. Heman Swift 
commanding, and served 9 months as a private in the company of 
Capt. Ten Eyck. Appears to have been a resident of Fairfield 
during this period, but in later years lived in Redding, where he 
was known as a devout member of the Methodist Church. He 
applied for a pension April 8, 1818, then living in Redding, and 
was granted an annual allowance of $96, receiving pension pay- 
ments amounting to $1,095.72. He died probably about 1830. 

COUCH, DANIEL. 

Served in the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, Capt. Zalmon Read's com- 
pany, in the Northern Department; discharged July 4, 1775- 

COUCH, DANIEL, JR. 

Enlisted from Redding in the 4th- Regt. Conn. Continental Line, 
Col. Zebulon Butler commanding, Jan. i, 1781, and received a 
bounty of £30. 

COUCH, EBENEZER. 1709-1797. 

Chairman of the Redding Committee of Observation in 1775. 
Dec. 17. 1778, he was chosen to provide for Elias Bixby's family. 

Died March 23, 1797. 

COUCH, ELIJAH. 

Served in Maj. John Skinner's Regt. of Light Horse, Capt. 
Ezekiel Hill's company, at New York, from June 11 to Aug. 3, 
1776. Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, 
Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. 



131 

COUCH, JOHN. 

Town Clerk of Redding during the Revolution. Believed to 
have served in 1776. Nov. 20, 1780, he was appointed on a com- 
mittee of three to make out a tax rate for the purpose of supply- 
ing provisions for the Conn. Line of the Continental Army. 

COUCH, JONATHAN. 

April 2, 1777, he was appointed on a committee of nine to take 
care of the families of soldiers in the service of the country. 

COUCH, SIMON. 1 752-1829. 

He is said to have loaded his goods on a cart on the approach 
of Tryon's troops in April, 1777, and fled from Fairfield to Red- 
ding, where he located. He was a lieutenant in 1778; July 30, 

1779, he was appointed one of a committee to provide winter cloth- 
ing for the Continental soldiers of the town; March 13, 1780. 
Inspector of Provisions; Dec. 25, 1780, on a committee to care for 
soldiers" families. In 1781, he was authorized to procure recruits 
for the Continental Army. 

Died April 16, 1829. Buried at Umpawaug. 

COUCH, THOMAS. 

Marched from the town of Fairfield for the relief of New York 
in 1775, serving 7 days as clerk of his company. May 11, 1775, 
he enlisted in the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, Col. David Waterbury, 
4th company, Capt. David Dimon, as a private soldier. Was ad- 
vanced to sergeant June 21st, quarter-master (sergeant ?) July 
nth; discharged Dec. 11, 1775. He accompanied Gen. Mont- 
gomery's expedition to Quebec ; Q.-M. sergeant, 4th Conn. Militia, 
under Lt.-Col. Jonathan Dimon. Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-31, 
1777. Came to Redding about the time of the Danbury Raid. 
April, 1777. 

Died in Redding, 181 7. 

COUCH. THOMAS NASH. 1758-1821. 
Record unknown. 
Died Jan. 3, 1821. Buried in Christ Church Yard. 

DARLING, BENJAMIN. 1739-1820. 

Member of the Committee of Inspection, Dec. 22, 1777. 
Died Sept. 26. 1820. Buried at Umpawaug. 

DARROW, WILLIAM. 

William Darrow, a soldier, married Ruth Bartram March 9, 

1780. Military record unknown. 



132 

DAVIS, LIEUT. JOHN. 

Commanded the 9th company, 4th Conn. Militia, in 1776, suc- 
ceeding Capt. Zalmon Read when that officer entered the State 
Troops. Lieut. Davis died that year. 

DAVIS, JOHN. 1756-1840. 

Born in Redding Dec. 20, 1756. Probably son of Lieut. John 
Davis. 

Enlisted Jvme, 1776, and served 6 months as private in Capt. 
Zalmon Read's company, ist Battalion, Wadsworth's Brigade, under 
Col. Gold Selleck Silliman, in the Long Island Campaign ; 6 weeks 
in the spring of 1777, under Capt. Hull; 6 weeks in the summer of 
1778, under Capt. Nichols, in the regiment commanded by Col. 
Noadiah Hooker; enlisted June, 1779, and served 6 weeks under 
Capt. Hull; 3 months in 1780, in Capt. John Gray's company, Lt.- 
Col. Samuel Canfield's regiment; and in September, 1780, served 
I month under Lieut. Hoyt, in Col. Wells' regiment, always as a 
private soldier. He continued in the militia service after the war, 
in the 4th Regt. ; was ensign in 1786; lieutenant in 1789; and after- 
ward captain. Was pensioned under the Act of 1832; his applica- 
tion being dated Dec. 6; his name was placed on the roll Aug. 6, 
1833; his yearly pension was $50.68, dating from March 4, 1831, 
and he received $152.04 by 1834. 

Married Eunice Gray Oct. 21, 1779. 

Died Oct. 15, 1840. Buried at Umpawaug. His widow re- 
ceived a pension. 

DERVEN, WILLIAM. [Dewen ?] 

Enlisted Aug. 24, 1781. for the term of 6 months, in the short- 
term levies of the 4th2 Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. Zebulon 
Butler commanding; discharged Jan. i, 1782. 

DICKENSON, LOCKWOOD. 

Served in the 3d Troop 2d Light Dragoons, under Col. Elisha 
Sheldon. " Private. Enlisted Sept. 14, '80. Residence, Redding. 
Occupation, Farmer. Stature, 5 ft. jVz inches. Complexion, dark ; 
eyes, blue; hair, brown. Killed March 14, '82." 

DIXON, JAMES. 

A private of the 4th- Regt. Conn. Continental Line, under Col. 
Zebulon Butler. In 1781 he enlisted for the war, and served in the 
Light Infantry under Lafayette, in the company of Capt. Samuel 
A. Barker, and was paid for service from January ist to Decem- 
ber 31st of that year. After the consolidation of regiments in 1783 



133 

he completed his service in the 2d^ Regt. Conn. Continental Line, 
under Col. Heman Swift, in the company of Capt. Samuel Com- 
stock, and received £30 bounty. 

DREW, CAPT. JOHN. 1724-1819. 

Conductor of teams to the American troops encamped at Red- 
ding in the winter of 1778-79. His sons went over to the enemy. 
[See Loyalists.] 

Died March 9, 1819. Buried in Christ Church Yard. 

EVARTS, DANIEL. 

Daniel Evarts, a soldier, was married to Mary Rov^land March 
30, 1779, while Putnam's troops were in Redding. His military 
record is unknown.; • ; v . ■ P iv- ■ 

"^ 

FAIRCHILD, ABRAHAM. 

Frequently appears as moderator at Revolutionary town meet- 
ings. He had six sons in the service, who are named below. 

FAIRCHILD, ANDREW. 

Feb. 5, 1 78 1, the town refused to abate an assessment levied 
upon him for the purpose of hiring troops for the Continental 
Army, as he had relatives who had gone over to the enemy. Feb. 
28, 1782, he was appointed a committee to supply the family of 
Samuel Raymond, a soldier. 

FAIRCHILD, DAVID. 1753-1777. 

Born June 5, 1753. 

Served in the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, Capt. Zalmon Read's com- 
pany, in the Northern Department; discharged Oct. 22, 1775. 
Taken prisoner in the Danbury Raid, April 26, 1777, confined in 
Trinity Church, N. Y., and died a prisoner. May i6th. 

FAIRCHILD, EZEKIEL. 

Born Oct. 26, 1746. 

Taken prisoner in the Danbury Raid, April 26, 1777, and car- 
ried to New York. Chosen Inspector of Provisions March 13, 
1780. 

FAIRCHILD, ISAAC. 

Born March 4, 1751. 

Served in the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, Capt. Zalmon Read's com- 
pany, in the Northern Department; discharged Oct. 22, 1775. 



^U^Oj 



^34 

FAIRCHILD, JOHN.- 

Served in the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, Capt. Zalmon Read's com- 
pany, in the Northern Department; discharged Oct. 15, 1775. 
Private, Bradley's Battalion, Wadsworth's Brigade, Capt. Elijah 
Abel's company; enlisted Aug. 13, 1776, for the general defense 
of the state; discharged Dec. 25. 1776. 

FAIRCHILD, SAMUEL. 1755-1812. 

Born July 9, 1755. 

Corporal, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fish- 
kill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. 

Died May 6, 1812. Buried at Umpawaug. 

FAIRCHILD, STEPHEN. 

Born March 7, 1758. 

Wounded at Ridgefield April 27, 1777. Private, Capt. John 
Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fishkill Campaign, " for the 
general defence," Oct. 5-30, 1777. 

FITCH, DR. ASAHEL. 1737-1793. 

Surgeon's mate, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, Col. David Waterbury 
commanding, in the Northern Department, 1775. Sept. 18, 1777, 
he was appointed on the committee to procure articles requested 
by the Governor and Council of Safety. October 5th of that year 
he marched as a private in the company of Capt. Gershom More- 
house, 4th Conn. Militia, in the Campaign at Fishkill; discharged 
October 20th. May 8, 1778, he was appointed to provide for 
Nathan Coley's family, and on the same date was chosen, with Capt. 
Read, a committee to provide shirts, shoes, and stockings for the 
Continental soldiers. June 23, 1780, he was made a member of 
the committee of nine appointed to hire nine soldiers for the Conn. 
Line of the Continental Army. Nov. 20, 1780, he was one of the 
committee appointed to make a rate bill for the purpose of supply- 
ing provisions for the Conn. Line of the Continental Army. 

Died March 31, 1793. Buried in the Old Burying Ground. 

FOSTER, JOHN. 

A pensioner of this name is said to have lived near the lower 
limekiln in Umpawaug district. 

FOSTER, CAPT. JONAH. 

Capt. Jonah Foster was of Ridgefield, and one of the prominent 
Revolutionary characters of that town. He commanded a com- 
pany of the alarm list in the i6th Conn. Militia, under Col. Nehe- 



135 

miah Beardsley, and was in service during the year 1779, marching 
in the New Haven Alarm July 5th. In 1781 he was authorized 
to procure recruits for the Continental Army. He removed to 
Redding near the close of the war, and was made a freeman of the 
town in September, 1782. He afterwards returned to Ridgefield, 
where he died in 1815. 

FOSTER, TIMOTHY. 

Served in Lt.-Col. Samuel Canfield's jNIilitia Regt. at West 
Point September, 1781. 

FREEMAN, JACK. 

A colored soldier, known as " Major " Jack Freeman, once lived 
in the town. Perhaps he is the man who served in Capt. Edward 
Bulkley's company, in the 3d2 Regt. Conn. Continental Line. 

FROST, JABEZ. 

Taken prisoner in the Danbury Raid, April 26, 1777. and car- 
ried to New York. 

GIBBONS, JAMES. 

James Gibbons, a soldier in Putnam's division, and Ann Sulli- 
van were married Feb. 7, 1779, while the troops were in Redding. 
His military record is unknown. 

GILBERT, GILES. 

Giles Gilbert, an artificer in the army, and Deborah Hall were 
married May 23, 1779, about the time the troops left Redding. 
Possibly he was Giles Gilbert of Lyme, who served 8 days in the 
Lexington Alarm under Capt. Joseph Jewett, and at the siege of 
Boston from May 9 to Sept. 22, 1775, in the 2d Regt. Conn. Line, 
commanded by Col. Joseph Spencer. 

GOLD, SAMUEL. 

Enlisted April, 1775, as private in the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
under Col. David Waterbury, in the company of Capt. Zalmon Read ; 
served in the Northern Campaign, and was present at the siege 
of St. Johns; discharged Oct. 15, 1775. In January, 1776, he was 
a sergeant under Capt. Isaac Flilliard, and served 3 months, in 
what regiment is unknown. Sergeant, Capt. Elijah Abel's com- 
pany, Bradley's Battalion, Wadsworth's Brigade; served 9 months 
from April, 1776; discharged Jan. 7, 1777. Served in the Danbury 
Raid and was wounded at Ridgefield April 2j, 1777. Served as 
corporal in Capt. Gershom Morehouse's company, 4th Conn. Militia, 



136 

in the Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-24, 1777. He also served as 
sergeant one week in Jul}-, 1779, and one month in the fall of that 
year, probably in the alarms and coast-guard service. 

Married Sarah Piatt April 8, 1778. 

Died Feb. 9. 1829. His widow was pensioned under an applica- 
tion dated July 22, 1837, she being then 80 years of age. 

GOLD, STEPHEN. 

The name of Stephen Gold appears on the roll of the company 
which marched from Fairfield for the relief of Boston in May, 
1775, under the command of Capt. David Dimon. April 2, 1777. 
he was appointed a member of the committee to care for soldiers' 
families ; was a lieutenant in the 3d Regt. Conn. Light Llorse, 
commanded by Maj. Daniel Starr, in service in 1779, and on 
March 13. 17S0, was chosen an Inspector of Provisions. 

GORHAM, ISAAC. 1730-1798. 

Appears to have served as assessor of a tax levied for re- 
cruiting purposes under vote of Feb. 19, 1781. Dec. 26, 1781, he 
was appointed to provide for the family of James Thompson, a 
soldier. 

Died July 4, 1798. Buried in the Old Burying Ground. 

Isaac Gorham, buried at Sanfordtov/n, perhaps son of the above, 
was probably the man who served as private in Capt. Gershom 
Morehouse's company, 4th Conn. Militia, in the Fishkill Cam- 
paign, Oct. 5-10, 1777. 

GRAY. CAPT. JOHN. 1734-1793. 

Capt. John Gray was a native of Redding, where he was born 
Feb. 17, 1734. He was early identified with the political affairs 
of the town, his name frequently appearing in the earlier records 
in connection with educational matters. In 1776 he was a member 
of Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 4th Conn. Militia, and upon the 
death of Lieut. John Davis, who commanded the company after 
Capt. Read joined the State Troops, John Gray was appointed 
captain and served till Capt. Read's return. The company served 
under Capt. Read in the Danbury Raid, April, 1777, was at West- 
chester in September following, and marched in the Fishkill Cam- 
paign under Capt. Gray, Oct. 5th to 31st. The Legislature of 
January, 1778, confirmed Capt. Gray's appointment as command- 
ing officer of the com.pany : " This Assembly do establish John 
Gray to be captain of the ninth company or trainband in the 4th 
regiment in this State," — and he retained the command till the 
end of the war. While under his leadership the company was 



137 

stationed at Fairfield in June. 1779, marched in the New Haven 
Alarm, July 5th, was at Fairfield July 7th to oppose Tryon's troops, 
and was in action with the enemy at Norwalk July nth. Capt. 
Gray also served as captain in a militia regiment commanded by 
Lt.-Col. Samuel Canfield, ordered to cooperate with Count 
D'Estaing in 1779, and was in service with this regiment in 1780. 
He also commanded the coast-guards at Fairfield for short periods 
in 1779 and 1781, and held a number of town appointments during 
the war. May 2, 1777, he was chosen selectman to supply the place 
of officials captured in the Danbury Raid; March 13, 1780, appointed 
an Inspector of Provisions ; also served under the following com- 
mittee appointments: Nov. 20, 1780, to ascertain the number of 
Redding soldiers then in service; Nov. 28, 1780, to class the inhabi- 
tants for recruiting purposes; Dec. 27, 1780, to ascertain the length 
of time served by the soldiers; March 28, 1781, to vindicate claims 
to Continental soldiers; April 6, 1781, to supply the family of 
John Lines, a soldier; June 25, 17S1, to ascertain the number of 
Redding soldiers then in service; Feb. 28, 1782, to vindicate claims 
to the Continental soldiers and State Troops. He was again 
chosen selectman Dec. 12, 1782, being one of those on whom de- 
volved the duty " to remove out of this town all those persons who 
have been over to and joined the enemy and returned into this 
town," as voted Aug. 11, 1783. 

Capt. Gray was an active patriot and trustworthy officer, and 
rendered faithful and valuable service in his military capacity. 
He married Ruhamah Barlow, half-sister of Joel Barlow, Aug. 7, 
1759. Died Oct. 25, 1793, and is buried in the Old Burying Ground. 

Lineage: John*, 1708-1755; Jacob^, Jacob^, Henry Gray^, of 
Fairfield, 1640. 

GREGORY, JABEZ. 

Private, Capt. Gershom Morehouse's company, 4th Conn. Mi- 
litia, Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. 

GRIFFIN, JOSEPH. 

Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fish- 
kill Campaign, Oct. 5-1 5,"^ ^777- Dec. 24, 1777, he enlisted as 
private for the term of 3 years, in Lt.-Col. Jeduthan Baldwin's 
Regt. of Artificers, in the company of Capt. Jarius Wilcox. 

GRIFFIN, MORRIS. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
in the Northern Department ; discharged Sept. 23, 1775. Served 



as seaman on the brig " Defence,"' under Capt. Seth Harding, from 
March 21 to June 22, 1776. 

HAMBLETON, BENJAMIN. [Hamilton.] 

Dec. 27, 1780, appointed one of the committee to take care of 
soldiers' families. 

HAWLEY, CAPT. WILLIAM. 1738-1797. 

William Hawley was an influential citizen of Redding, who 
rendered efficient service in various capacities during the war. 
His military appointments were: April, 1775, ist Lieut. loth com- 
pany, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, vice Peter Fairchild, resigned ; but 
Mr. Hawley declined the office, being a member of the Legislature 
that year, and Ezekiel Sanford served as lieutenant of the com- 
pany instead. May, 1776, 2d Lieut, of Capt. Elijah Abel's company 
in the State Troops; advanced to ist Lieut, in June following; Oc- 
tober, 1776, ist Lieut, in one of the eight battalions then being 
raised; Lieut., Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 4th Conn. Militia, 
stationed at Fairfield, April 8-22, 1777; Lieut., Capt. Gershom 
Morehouse's company, 4th Conn. Militia, in the Fishkill Campaign, 
Oct. 5-27, 1777, and at this time was appointed Commissary of the 
Fourth Militia Brigade, with instructions " to provide tents, pots, 
and kettles, canteens and other utensils for the militia of this state 
now in service with the army under the command of Gen. Putnam," 
and in December following was detailed to collect and forward 
clothing for the Continental troops. He held the rank of captain 
in 1780. 

He served on the following committees under appointment by 
the town: April 2, 1777, to provide for soldiers' families; Nov. 
20, 1780, to ascertain the number of Redding soldiers then in serv- 
ice; Nov. 27, 1780, to ascertain the length of time served by the 
soldiers. In 1778, he was elected one of the selectmen of the town. 

He was justice of the peace in 1775-6-7, and represented the 
town in the General Assembly at the sessions of May-October, 
1774, the regular and special sessions of March, May, July, Octo- 
ber, and December, 1775; October, 1779; January, April, May, 
1780; October, 1781 ; at the May session of 1775 was appointed 
one of the auditors of the colony accounts, and in October, 1779, 
was made a member of the committee appointed to estimate the 
losses of the inhabitants of Fairfield in the British invasion of the 
preceding July. 

William Hawley married Lydia Nash July 12, 1758, in Greens 
Farms (Westport, Conn.). Died Feb. 16, 1797, and is buried in 
the Old Burying Ground. 



139 

HENDRICK, JOSIAH. 

Private, 4th- Regt. Conn. Continental Line, under (.^ol. Zel)ulon 
Butler; enlisted Jan. i, 1781, for 3 years. Received £30 bounty. 

HENDRIX, OBED. 

He was a signer of the Redding Loyalist Association — the only 
other record of him is found in the subjoined proceedings: 

" Whereas John Gray of Redding in Fairfield [County] Capt of a 
Military Company in the 4th Regt of Militia in the State of Connecti- 
cut, did Inform the Judge of Fairfield County that pursuant to Orders 
from Jon'ii Dimon, Lieu* Col° of said Regt, he did or^ the 7th Day of 
July A D : 1779, duly, warn & order Obed Hendrix, of said Redding, 
a Soldier in & Belonging to said Company, to March to Fairfield, to 
join the Troops there Collecting to Oppose the Enemy & that said Hen- 
drix Entirely Neglected & Refused to March As aforesaid, nor made 
Satisfaction for said Neglect as P Writ on file Dated Decem^ i^t A D : 
1779 — 

The Def was Called at this Court, & made Default of Appearance, 
& Thereupon this Court having Considered that the Def shall pay as 
a fine to the Trealurer of the Town of Redding the fum of One Hun- 
dred & Twenty Pounds Lawful Money for his said Neglect, & Alfo Cost 
of Prosecution taxed at Twenty Five Pounds 10/ — & that Exc" 
be Gran<5 : &c. 

Exc" Gran'J Jan^ 6t^ 1780." 

" On the Petition of Obed Hendrix of Redding in Fairfield County 
Shewing to this Court, that the Gov^ & Company of the State of Con- 
necticut brought their action against him the Petit'", before the Adj'd 
County Court held at Fairfield in & for Fairfield County on the ist 
Tuesday of Jany 17S0 — for Military Delinquency in that the Petif 
Neglecting & Refusing to March to Fairfield afores<J in the month of 
July last, to Repel the Invafions of the Enemy & that said Court, did 
render Judgment on Default of Appearance for the Sum of £120 Lawful 
Money Delinquency in the Month of July 1779, & £25 — 10 Cost of 
Suit. & theron Granted Execution — all which may appear by the files 
& Records of said County Court, & the Petif further shews that the 
weather at the sitting of said JanJ' Adj'd County Court was lo severe 
and Stormy, & the Road filled with Snow, that it was Altogether Ln- 
polsible for the Petif to get to said Court to Answer to said action — 
by means whereof said Judgment was Rendered against him — Praying 
that this Court would Order & Decree that the aforesaid Judgment 
be set aside, and Ex'^'i be Called in, & said Action be Revived & the 
Petif put in the fame Situation, as before said Judgment was Ren- 
dered against him in said Judgment as aforesaid. As P Petition on 
file Dated March 8'", 1780. 

Thereupon this Court having Considered the Matter Alledged in 
said Petition, Are of Opinion that the same be granted to the Peti- 
tioner — And this Court do Order & Decree that said Judgment, prayed 



140 

for as aforesaid, be set aside & Excn Called in, & a New Trial Granted 
on faid Action, & the Petit'' be put in the fame Situation as before said 
Juds^ment was Rendered against him As aforesaid." 

" Fairfield Adj'd C. Ct. i^' Tuesday of March, 1780. 

Whereas John Gray of Redding in Fairfield County Capt of a Mili- 
tary Company in the 4th Regt of Militia in the State of Connecticut, 
did Inform the Judge of Fairfield County Court yt pursuant to Orders 
Rec** from Jon^i^ Dimon Esq'' Lieu*^ Col° of said Regt, he did on the 
7"^ Day of July A D : 1779, duly, warn & Order Obed Hendrix of said 
Redding, a Soldier in & Belonging to said Company to March to Fair- 
field, to join the Troops there Collecting to oppose the Enemy, & that 
said Hendrix Entirely Neglected & Refused to March As aforesaid. 
Nor since made Satisfaction for said Neglect As P Writ on file Dated 
Dec ist' 1779 P Adjournm' 

The Deft was Called at this Court & Appeared to make Answer to 
said Information, & Thereupon this Court, having Considered thereof 
Are of Opinion that the Def is Not Guilty of the Matters Alledged in 
said Information & this Court do Order that the Def be Difmifsed 
without paying Cost 

Order Given for Cost." 

HILL, ANDREW. 

Chosen an Inspector of Provisions March 13, 1780. 

HILL, EZEKIEL. 

A signer of the Redding Loyalist Association. In 1780 he 
procured recruits for the Continental Army. Feb. 5, 1781, the 
town refused to abate the assessment levied upon him for the 
purpose of hiring men to serve in the Conn. Line of the Conti- 
nental Army, as he had a son or son-in-law gone over to the enemy. 

HILLARD, ISAAC. [Hilliard.] 

Appointed Lieut, in the ist Battalion of State Troops under Col. 
Samuel Whiting, Capt. Daniel Hecock's company, to serve from 
November, 1776, to March, 1777. 

Aug. 9, 1779, the town appointed him a member of a committee 
to provide winter clothing for the Continental soldiers then serving 
in the army. 

HILLIARD. THURSTON. 

Enlisted for the war Feb. 2, 1778, as private in Capt. James Hor- 
ton's company, Lt.-Col. Jeduthan Baldwin's Regt. of Artificers, 
Mass. Line. Wounded at Yorktown by splintered timber. He re- 
received a pension of $20 per annum as a private of the Revolution- 
ary Army, his pension commenced Sept. 4, 1794. and was continued 



141 

vmdcr the law of April 20, 1796. His name appears in the pension 
list of 1813, with the same allowance, and he is recorded as an 
invalid pensioner under the Act of 1818. So far as traced his 
pension does not appear ever to have been increased. 
Married Eunice Jackson June t, 1790. 

HILLIARD, WILLIAM. 

Served 15 days as private in the company of Capt. James Booth, 
4th Conn. Militia, in April, 1777. Enlisted for the war as private 
in Capt. Jarius Wilcox's company, Lt.-Col. Jcduthan Baldwin's 
Regt. of Artificers, Mass. Line, Nov. 25, 1777. 

HOPKINS, HENRY. 

Henry Hopkins, " a stranger," was married to Mary Burr of 
Redding July 26, 1763, and was probably a resident of the town 
from that period. He served in the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, under 
Col. David Waterbury, in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, in the 
Northern Department, and was discharged Nov. 28, 1775; re- 
entered the service March 10, lyjy, as corporal in the company 
of Capt. Ezekiel Sanford, 5th^ Regt. Conn. Continental Line, under 
Col. Philip B. Bradley, was reduced Sept. i, 1779, and discharged 
March 10, 1780. He re-enlisted Jan. i, 1781, for 3 years, receiving 
£30 bounty, and on June i, 1782, was a member of Capt. Kimber- 
ley's company in the 2d- Regt. Conn. Continental Line. He con- 
tinued in service in Col. Heman Swift's Regt., final formation. 
June-December, 1783, his time expiring Jan. i, 1784. He is known 
to have served during every year of the war. His family received 
supplies from the town during his absence in the army. 

HOYT, W^ILLIAM. [Hoit, Hait'.J 

Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fish- 
kill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. Private, Capt. Jarius Wilcox's 
company, Lt.-Col. Jeduthan Baldwin's Regt. of Artificers, Mass. 
Line; enlisted Jan. i, 1778, for 3 years. 

HULL, AARON. 

March 13, 1780, he was chosen an Inspector of Provisions. 

HULL, EZRA. 1756-1837. 

Born in Redding April 5, 1756. 

Served 4 months from November, 1775, in Capt. Zalmon Read's 
company, Col. David Waterbury's Regt., at New York in 1776; 
3 months from March, 1776, in Col. Gold Selleck Silliman's Regt. 
in the company of Capt. Thorp: August, 1776, one month in the 



142 

same company and regiment under Lt.-Col. John Chandler; March, 
1777, one month under Capt. Bates; served in the Danbury Raid, 
April, 1777; private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, 
Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777; June, 1780, one month under 
Capt. Olmsted; and 9 months from Fcbruar}'^, 1781, under Capt. 
Nash, probably in coast-guard service. 

Married Molly Bradley June 10, 1810. 

Pensioned under the Act of June 7, 1832. as private Conn. 
Continental Line; application dated Jan. 7, 1834; name placed on 
pension roll March 25, 1833; pension dated from March 4, 1831 ; 
annual allowance $40; received $120 as first payment. 

Died March 5, 1837. Buried at Umpawaug. His widow re- 
ceived a pension. ' 

HULL, JAMES. 

Private, Capt. Gershom Morehouse's company, 4th Conn. 
Militia, Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-23, 1777. 

HULL, JOHN. 

Sept. 18, 1777, he was appointed a member of the committee 
chosen by the town to procure articles requested by the Governor 
and Council of Safety, and served as a private in the company 
of Capt. John Gray, 4th Conn. Militia, in the Fishkill Campaign, 
Oct. 5-19, 1777- He was in team service all the winter and spring 
of 1778-79, while the troops were at Redding, carrying provisions 
under contract, part of the time by the day and part by the job. 

HULL. JOHN, JR. 1759-1838. 

Son of the preceding. 

Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fish- 
kill Campaign, Oct. 5-19, 1777- 

Married Sarah Fairchild Feb. 22, 1782. 

Died April 7, 1838. Buried in Sanfordtown Cemetery. 

HULL, LIEUT. NEHEMIAH. 

Sept. 18, 1777, he was appointed a member of the committee 
chosen to procure articles requested by the Governor and Council 
of Safety. He served as Lieut, in the company of Capt. John 
Gray, 4th Conn. Militia, in the Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-19, 1777, 
and was formally appointed to that office by the Legislature of 
January, 1778: "This Assembly do establish Nehemiah Hull to 
be Lieutenant of the 9th company or trainband of the 4th regiment 
in this State." Dec. 22, 1777, he was chosen a member of the com- 
mittee appointed to provide for the families of soldiers in the field. 



143 

and was reappointed on this committee Dec. 21, 1779. Dec. 17, 
1778, he was specially deputed to provide for Nathan Coley's 
family, was relieved from this duty Jan. 21, 1780, and reappointed 
Jan. 29, 1781. March 28, 1781, he was detailed (with Capt. More- 
house) to collect the tents belonging- to the town. 

HULL, SETH. 1733-1795. 

A member of the Reading Loyalist Association. Dec. 26, 1781, 
the town appointed him to take care of the family of Jabez Wil- 
liams, a soldier. 

Died April 5, 1795. Buried in Christ Church Yard. 

HULL, THEOPHILUS. 1725-1785. 

Sept. 18, 1777, he was chosen a member of the committee ap- 
pointed to procure articles requested by the Governor and Council 
of Safety. 

Died Dec. 5, 17S5. Buried in the Old Burying Ground. 

HULL, TIMOTHY. 1726- 1800. 
Born Sept. 4, 1726. 

March 17, 1780, he was chosen rn Inspector of Provisions. 
Married Anne Gray Dec. 14, 1749. 
Died April 29, 1800. Buried in Sanfordtown Cemetery. 

HULL, ZALMON. 1759-1839. 

Served as private in Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. 
Militia, in the Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-15,* 1777- Said to have 
been a teamster. 

Died May 18. 1839. Buried at Umpawaug. 

HURLBERT, SHADRACK. 1758-1850. 

Born May 10, 1758, at Farmington, Conn. His father was a 
physician, which profession, it is stated, Shadrack was unwilling 
to adopt, preferring to learn the business of boot and shoe making, 
though in later life he gained a knowledge of medicine and became 
a skillful physician. He lived at the home of his father until the 
beginning of the Revolution, and in 1776 enlisted as fifer in the 
Third Battalion of Wadsworth's Brigade, commanded by Col. 
Comfort Sage, in the company of Capt. Edward Eells, and served 
six months (in which period the regiment served on Long Island, 
was in the retreat from New York, September 15th, and fought at 
White Plains October 28th), after which he returned to his home 
and remained there till the following year, when he was drafted 
into the regiment of militia commanded by Col. Thomas Belden, 



144 

and served as fifer in the company of Capt. Jared Shepherd from 
March 28 to May 19, 1777, at Peekskill, N. Y. He was a man of 
delicate constitution, and playing the fife caused hemorrhages of 
the lungs, compelling him to obtain a discharge from the service. 
But, according to the records, he re-enlisted as private in the regi- 
ment of Artificers commanded by Lt.-Col. Jeduthan Baldwin and 
served in the company of Capt. Gamaliel Painter from Sept. 23, 
1777, to Aug. 7, 1779. During a portion of his military service 
he was stationed at Danbury and Redding, Conn. In the latter 
town he married Huldah Whitlock, and was a resident there about 
three years, when he removed to Richmond, Mass., and in No- 
vember, 1789, joined the Society of Shakers, of which he was 
a prominent and highly-respected member till his death. " He is 
said to have been a very intelligent, polite, and worthy man, and 
his society was sought by many distinguished persons, who con- 
sidered themselves honored by his acquaintance." 

An officer of the Society of Shakers who had lived in the same 
family with Dr. Hurlbert for thirty years gives this testimonial of 
his character and worth : 

" He was esteemed by all our Society, and bj- all his acquaintance 
out of the Society, as a very remarkable man. He was bound to excel 
in everything he undertook: his musical talents were of the highest 
order; as a physician there was no one that stood higher in public 
estimation ; as a shoemaker, there was no one in this section who 
could bear any comparison ; as a gardener, he had not an equal : every- 
thing was kept in the most perfect order ; neatness stamped everything 
he turned his hand to." [Hulbert Gen.] 

Dr. Hurlbert died Feb. 12, 1850. 

Lineage : Dr. Josiah', Jonathan", .Samuel-, Thomas Hurlbert^, 
1635- 

HUTENAC, FRANCIS. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
under Col. David Waterbury, in the Northern Campaign ; dis- 
charged Nov. 28, 1775. 

This man was married to Naomi Stuart, in the parish of Wilton, 
Nov. 20-5, 1776, and is believed to have resided for a time in 
Redding. 

JACKSON, DAVID. 

April 2, 1777, David Jackson was made a member of the com- 
mittee appointed to hire soldiers for the Continental Army ; on 
Mtiy 5th following was chosen an additional selectman, and was 
afterwards appointed on the following committees: Dec. 22, 1777, 



145 

to take care of soldiers' families; March 23, 1778, to procure cloth- 
ing for the army, etc.; June 23, 1780, to hire nine soldiers for the 
Conn. Line of the Continental Army; Nov. 20, 1780, to make a 
rate bill for the purpose of supplying provisions for the Conn. Line 
of the Continental Army; Nov. 28, 1780, and Feb. 28, 1782, to 
class inhabitants for recruiting purposes. 

JACKSON, JOSEPH. 

Served in Capt. Zahnon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
under Col. David Waterbury. in the Northern Campaign; dis- 
charged Oct. 26, 1775. Also served in the levies of the 8th Regt. 
Conn. Continental Line from July 5 to Dec. 3, 1780. 

Joseph Jackson, Jr. (probably this soldier), and Mary Edmond 
were married in Redding Sept. 30, 1779. 

JACKSON, STEPHEN. 1751-1841. 

Dec. 21, 1779, he was chosen a member of the committee ap- 
pointed to take care of soldiers' families. 

Member of the General Assembly October, 1798; May-October, 
1799; May, 1800. 

Died May 8, 1841. Buried at Umpawaug. 

JENKINS, CALVIN. 

Enlisted from Redding April i, 1778, as a musician in the com- 
pany of Capt. Eli Catlin, Sth^ Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. 
Philip B. Bradley commanding, and served to the end of the war. 
He was a pensioner under the Act of March 18, 1818, and was 
granted an annual allowance of $96 under an application dated 
April 8, 1818. His name was placed on the pension roll November 
nth of that year, and he received $1,527.16 in pension payments 
up to 1834. The Calvin Jenkins buried at Lonetown appears to 
be this pensioner. 

KING, DAVID. 

In 1780 he obtained recruits for the Continental Army. See 
vote of the town, Jan. 8, 1781. 

LINES, BENJAMIN. 

A lad of 16 years, captured in the Danbury Raid, April, 1777, 
but released by Gov. Tryon on account of his youth. 

LINES, DAVID. 

Served in the militia regiment commanded by Lt.-Col. Samuel 
Canfield at West Point, September, 1781. 



146 

LINES, JOHN. 

Received £30 bounty, 1781-82. Probably served in 2d Regt. 
Conn. Continental Line. A committee of three was appointed to 
supply his family in 1781. 

LITTLE, WILLIAM. 

William Little, steward to Gen. Parsons, was married in Red- 
ding to Phebe Marchant May 4, 1779. Probably of Preston, Conn., 
with the following record: Served 3 days in the Lexington 
Alarm, under Col. Israel Putnam, in the company of Capt. Zebulon 
Ingalls. Private, ist^ Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. Jedediah 
Huntington commanding, in the company of Capt. James Eldridge ; 
enlisted Feb. i, 1777, for 3 years; discharged Feb. i, 1780. Pen- 
sioner under the Act of 1818. 

LYON, DANIEL. 

Dec. 21, 1779, he was appointed on the committee to take care 
of soldiers' families, but was released Jan. 28, 1780. 

MAIN, EZEKIEL. 

Served in the short levies of the 9th Regt. Conn. Continental 
Line, under Col. S. B. Webb, from Aug. 26 to Dec. 16, 1779. 

MALLERY, DANIEL. 1725-1805. 

April 2, 1777, he was appointed a member of the committee 
chosen to hire soldiers for the Continental Army, and of the com- 
mittee chosen to take care of the families of soldiers in the service. 
Sept. 18, 1777, on the committee appointed to procure articles re- 
quested by the Governor and Council of Safety. 

Daniel Mallery, Jr., evidently his son, is probably the man who 
served in Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, in the 
Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-14, 1777, and in the regiment commanded 
by Lt.-Col. Samuel Canfield, in the company of Capt. David Leaven- 
worth, guarding Horseneck in i779- 

Mr. Mallery was a deacon of the Congregational Church at 
Redding. 

Died July 18, 1805. Buried at Umpawaug. 

MALLERY, JOHN. 

A member of the Reading Loyalist Association. 

" Whereas John Gray Capt. of a Military Company in the 4th Regt 
of Militia in the State of Connecticut, did Inform the Judge of Fair- 
field County Court, that pursuant to Orders Rec<i from Jontii Dimon 
Esqr Lieut Colo of said Rgt he did on the 7^^ Day of July 1779, duly. 



147 

warn & order John Mallery of Redding in said County a Soldier in 
& Belonging to said Company to March to Fairfield to join the Troops 
' there Collecting to oppose the Enemy : & that said Mallery did Entirely 
Neglect & refuse to March As aforesaid, Nor hath since made Satis- 
faction for said Neglect — As P Writ on file Dated DeC i«t A. D: 1779 

P Adjournment 

The Deft Appeared at this Court to Answer to said Information, 
& being put to plead, pled Not Guilty, & for trial put himself on the 
Court. Thereupon this Court having Considered y« matters Alledged 
in said Information are of Opinion that the Def' is Not Guilty; & this 
Court do Order that the Def be Difmifsed without paying Cost of 
Profecution which is taxed at Two Pounds 4/ — Lawful Money in 

Silver at 6/8 P Ounce 

Order Given for Cost." 

MALLERY, SAMUEL. 

April 16, 1781, appointed on a Committee of Correspondence 
relative to monetary and other public affairs. 

MANROW, WILLIAM. 

A signer of the Reading Loyalist Association. In 1780 he pro- 
cured recruits for the Continental Army. See vote of the town, 
Jan. 8, 1781. 

MARCH ANT, CHAUNCEY. 

Served in the 7th Regt. Conn. Line, under Col. Chas. Webb, in 
the company commanded by Capt. Ebenezer Hill, in the Northern 
Campaign, from July 19 to Dec. 23, 1775, and in Col. Philip B. 
Bradley's Battalion, W^adsworth's Brigade, Capt. Elijah Abel's 
company, from Aug. 13 to Dec. 25, 1776. 

A weaver by trade. Died Aug. 25, 1804. 

MARCHANT, GURDON. 

Enlisted March 10, 1778, for the term of 3 years as private in 
Capt. James Horton's company, Lt.-Col. Jeduthan Baldwin's Regt. 
of Artificers, Mass. Line. 

MARCHANT, JOEL. 1762-1844. 

Born in Redding May i, 1762. 

Served in Col. Philip B. Bradley's Battalion, Wadsworth's 
Brigade; enlisted July 3, 1776, and was taken prisoner at Ft. 
Washington November i6th. Served 6 months as a private in 
1778, regiment and commander not stated, and 2 months more in 
the same year under Capt. Lewis Goodsell, probably in the 4th 
Conn. Militia. In 1779 he served 3 months in the company of 



148 



Capt. John Gray, 4th Conn. Militia, and was wounded in action at 
Norwalk July nth. In the same year he served 2 months under 
Capt. Jesse Bell in a regiment commanded by Col. Bezaleel Beebe, 
and in 1780 served nine months in the regiment which Col. Beebe 
commanded .at Horseneck. 

Joel Merchant applied for a pension Aug. i, 1832, as a private 
of Conn. Militia, receiving an annual allowance of $35. His name 
was placed on the roll Aug. 13, 1833, the pension dating from 
March 4, 1831. He died March 24, 1844, and was buried at Um- 
pawaug. His widow, Molly (Sanford) Merchant, to whom he 
was married March 17, 1790. received a pension for his services 
till her death in 1858. 

MARCHANT, JOHN. 

Served in the 7th Regt. Conn. Line, under Col. Chas. Webb, 
in the company of Capt. Ebenezer Hill, from July 10 to Dec. 23, 
1775. Corporal, Capt. Elijah Abel's company. Col. Philip B. 
Bradley's Battalion, Wadsworth's Brigade,' June 21-Dec. 25, 1776. 

MEEKER, DANIEL. 

Taken prisoner in the Danbury Raid, April 26, 1777, and car- 
ried to New York. Is believed to have spent eighteen months in 
the Sugar House. 

MEEKER, SETH. 1749-1829. 

Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, in the 
Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-15,* ^777- Dec. 22, 1777, he was ap- 
pointed on the committee to take care of soldiers' families. 

Married, ist, Elinor Bixby, March 14, 1770; 2d. Millicent Davis, 
March 14, 1775. 

Died Feb. 5, 1829. Buried at Umpawaug. 

MEEKER, STEPHEN. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
under Col. David Waterbury, in the Northern Department; dis- 
charged Oct. 15, 1775. Enlisted for the war as private in the 5th^ 
Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. Philip B. Bradley commanding, 
in the company of Capt. Ezekiel Sanford; omitted [from the 
rolls?] May, 1778; appears in a list of soldiers "discharged or 
deserted" previous to January, 1780; reappears in a list of soldiers 
belonging to the company of Capt. Parsons of the 2di Regt. Conn. 
Continental Line, commanded by Col. Zebulon Butler; was a 
sergeant in this regiment in June, 1780, when it was under the 
command of Col. Chas. Webl) : the 2d and 9th were consolidated 



149 

in 1781 and designated the 3d. under conmiand of Col. Samuel B. 
Webb, and Stephen Meeker was enrolled from this regiment into 
the Light Infantry Battalion commanded by the Marquis dc 
Lafayette, in Capt. Roger Welles' company, was promoted corporal 
Feb. I, 1 78 1, sergeant July i, reduced Aug. 15, 1781. His com- 
pany formed part of the column of Maj. Gimat, which stormed 
a redoubt at Yorktown. His service evidently terminated in the 
3d Regt. under Capt. Roger Welles. 

Dec. 17, 1778, the town appointed Elijah Burr to take care of 
Stephen Meeker's family. 

MERRIT, EBENEZER. 1762-1826. 

Enlisted in team service in October, 1778. and served 4 months 
under Capt. Samuel Taylor; re-enlisted April i, 1779, for one 
year, in the company of Capt. Eliphalet Thorp, Col. Samuel Whit- 
ing's regiment (4th Conn. Militia?) served till October, 1779, then 
hired a substitute for the balance of the term, and enlisted for 8 
months in the 8th^ Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. Isaac Sher- 
man commanding, and served in the company of Capt. Paul Brig- 
ham from Oct. I, 1779, to Jan. 15. 1780. 

MONROE, DANIEL. 

Private, 5thi Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. Philip B. 
Bradley commanding, in the company of Capt. Samuel Hait ; en- 
listed Feb. 2, 1777, for the war. Also mentioned as serving in 
Capt. Taylor's Light Infantry company, 2d Regt. Conn. Conti- 
nental Line, Col. Heman Swift commanding, in February, 1783. 
The date of his enlistmeilt is given in the company roll as Dec. 
30, 1776. 

MOREHOUSE, AARON. 1759-1833. 

Born in Redding June 2, 1759. Son of Capt. Gershom More- 
house. 

Nov. I, 1775, at the age of 16, he enlisted as fifer in Capt. Zal- 
mon Read's company, and served 5 months in the regiment which 
went to New York in 1776 under Col. David Waterbury. June i, 
1776, he again enlisted as fifer under Capt. Read, in the ist Bat- 
talion, Wadsworth's Brigade, Col. Gold Selleck Silliman com- 
manding; and was at the Battle of Long Island, in the fighting at 
Flatbush and Red Hook, Aug. 27th; was also with his regiment 
when it covered the retreat from New York City September 15th. 
He afterward served six terms as private in the 4th Conn. Militia : 
three weeks in April, 1777, and six weeks in September of that 
year, under Capt. John Gray ; marched in his father's company in 

h ^s ■■ 



ISO 

the Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-30; served three weeks in August, 
1779, three in September, 1781, and three more at a time not 
stated, all under Capt. Gray. 

He married Urana Starr Aug. 19, 1787. " His home was in 
Redding Center, where he cultivated a large farm, and for thirty- 
years was a Deputy Sheriff of Fairfield County, an office of much 
note, responsibility, and honor in his day." [Morehouse Family 
Hist.] Removing to Newtown, Conn., he became a pensioner 
under the Act of June 7, 1832, receiving an annual allowance of 
$54.89 under an application dated July 27, 1832; his name was 
placed on the roll Sept. 14, 1833, the pension dating from March 4, 
1831 ; and he received $137.23 to the date of his death, Dec. 3, 1833. 
He is buried in Christ Church Yard. 

MOREHOUSE, BILLY. 

Son of Capt. Gershom Morehouse. 

" Whereas John Gray Capt. of a Military Company in the 4*^^ Rgt 
of Militia in the State of Connecticut, did Inform the Judge of Fair- 
field County Court, that pursuant to Orders from Jon*'^ Dimon Lieut 
Colo of said Regt he did on the 7'^ Day of July A D : 1779, duly warn 
& Order Billy Morehoufe of Redding in said County, a Soldier in & 
Belonging to said Company to March to Fairfield, to Join the Troops 
there Collecting to Oppose the Enemy, and that said Morehouse En- 
tirely, Neglected & Refused to March as aforesaid, Nor made Satis- 
faction for said Neglect As Pr Writ on file. Dated Oct^ 16*1 A D 
1779 — 

The Deft Appeared at this Court, to Answer to faid Information 

and Plead Not Guilty to the Court thereto. Thereupon the Court having 

Considered the Evidence, are of Opinion that the Def is Not Guilty 

of the Matters Alledged Against him in said Information, & this Court, 

do order that he be Difmifs"! without paying Cost, which is allowed to 

be £38: 8 : Lawful Money — 

Order Given for Cost." 

MOREHOUSE, ELIJAH. 

Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Alilitia, in the 
Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-16, 1777. 

MOREHOUSE, CAPT. GERSHOM. 1727-1805. 

Born Nov. 25, 1727. 

Gershom Morehouse enlisted in the army of the Revolution as a 
private, was appointed ist Lieut, of Capt. Jesse Bell's company, 
1st Battalion, Wadsworth's Brigade, 1776, under Col. Samuel 
Whiting, and was afterward promoted to a captaincy. He com- 
manded a company at the Battle of White Plains, Oct. 28, 1776, 



151 

and after the action went out under a flag of truce to confer with 
his son-in-law — a captain in the British troops. Later he was a 
captain in the 4th Conn. Militia, and led a company of fourteen 
men in the Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-31, 1777. He was appointed 
a member of the Committee of Inspection Dec. 22, 1777; Nov. 20, 
1780, was appointed on the committee chosen to ascertain the 
number of soldiers the town had in the Continental Army; March 
28, 1781, to collect the tents belonging to the town. 

Married Anne Sanford Jan. 18, 1749. 

Died Jan. 22, 1805. Buried in the Old Burying Ground. 

MORGAN, JOSEPH. 

" Whereas John Gray Capt. of a Military Company in the 4th Regt. 
of Militia in the State of Connecticut, did Inform the Judge of Fair- 
field County Court, that pursuant to Oi^ders from Jonathan Dimon 
Esq'" Lieu* Col° of said Regt. he did on the 7^^ Day of July 1779 — duly 
warn & order Joseph Morgan of Redding in said County, a Soldier in 
& Belonging to said Company to March to Fairfield, to join the troops 
there Collecting to Oppose the Enemy, & that said Morgan, Entirely, 
Neglected & Refused to March As aforesaid. Nor hath since made 
Satisfaction for said Neglect — As P Writ on file Dated Dece^ i^t, 1779 
P Adjournment 

The Deft Appeared at this Court to Answer to sd Information & 
Thereupon this Court having taken the Matter into Consideration & 
Considered thereof. Are of Opinion & do Order that the Def* be Dif- 
mifsed without paying Cost, which is taxed at Two pounds 9/6 Lawful 
Money in Silver @ 6/8 P Ounce. 

Order Given for Cost." 

OLMSTEAD, ISAAC. 

This soldier seems to have belonged outside of Redding at the 
beginning of his military career. His first enlistment was perhaps 
from Ridgefield as a private in the company of Capt. Gamaliel 
Northrup, ist Battalion, Wadsworth's Brigade, commanded by 
Col. Gold Selieck Silliman, 1776. He was married in Redding 
April 15, 1779, to Mary Persons, probably being in service with 
Putnam's division at that time, though no record is found. In the 
formation of 1781-83 he was a corporal in the 2d Regt. Conn. 
Continental Line, Col. Heman Swift commanding, in the company 
of Capt. Thaddeus Weed, receiving £30 bounty for this enlistment. 
From this regiment he was enrolled in the Light Infantry Battalion 
commanded by Col. Alexander Hamilton, serving under Capt. 
Thaddeus Weed. A pay receipt for $7 30/90 given at this time 
probably represents his monthly pay as corporal. Fie continued 
in the 2d Regt. in the formation of January-June, 1783, as corporal 



152 

in the company of Capt. Elijah Chapman, and was in the final 
formation of 1783, under Col. Swift, also as corporal, his time ex- 
piring in May, 1784, though he was probably mustered out in De- 
cember, 17S3. He is credited to both Redding and Norwalk. 

Dec. 26, 1781, David Sanford was appointed to take care of 
Isaac Olmsted's family. 

OSBORN, DAVID. 

Sergeant, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, in the 
Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. 

PARSONS, ABRAHAM. ] 764-1852. 

Born Feb. 20, 1764. Son of Timothy Parsons. 

Enlisted in the Revolutionary Army at an early age ; served at 
White Plains, and met Gen. Washington face to face while doing 
guard duty at that place ; served also in other parts of Westchester 
Co., N. Y. ; was in the fight at Horseneck, under command of 
Gen. Putnam, Feb. 25, 1779; was a private in Capt. Chas. Smith's 
company, Waterbury's State Brigade, in 1781. At the close of the 
war he gave up his gun, taking a receipt for it ; this receipt he 
preserved, and it was afterward accepted as proof of service, for 
which he was granted an annual pension of $40, under the Act of 
June 7, 1832, as a private in the Continental service. The pension 
dated from March 4, 183 1 ; his name was placed on the roll March 
25, 1833, and he received $120 up to 1834. Part of his allowance 
was paid in Mexican dollars. 

Mr. Parsons married Urana Starr at Yonkers, N. Y., March 
25, 1792. He was a farmer by occupation; the house in which he 
lived stood in a depression at the top of Gallows Hill. " He was 
a well-educated man, clear in his memory to the day of his death. 
His powers of description were very marked. He could repeat 
pages of Joel Barlow's poems and Paradise Lost. He was full of 
anecdotes of Gen. Putnam and other commanding officers who were 
at camp," and often described vividly his experiences there, detail- 
ing the terrible privations endured by the troops in the winter of 
1778-9, and pointed out to his descendants the scenes of noteworthy 
incidents which occurred at the camp-ground. Mr. Parsons lived 
to the ripe age of 88 years and 25 days, and was revered by his 
descendants as " a good and wise man in his day and time." 

Died at Ridgefield, Conn., March 16, 1852. Is supposed to have 
been buried at Umpawaug, but the grave is not marked. 

PARSONS, DANIEL. 

Born March 30, 1762. Son of Timothy Parsons. 

Daniel Parsons served five terms as a private soldier in the 



153 

Revolution; In 1778 one month under the connnand of Col. 
Meigs; another month, probably in the same year, where or with 
whom not stated; from July, 1779, two months in Capt. Daniel 
("lodfrey's company, 4th Conn. Militia, under Lt.-Col. Jonathan 
Dimon. and was engaged in the action at Xorwalk July nth; 
from September, 1780, two months, place and commander not 
stated; and two months in 1781 under Capt. Godfrey, probably in 
the 4th Conn. Militia. 

He lived on the western slope of Gallows Hill. The house is 
still standing, though in a ruinous condition. He removed to 
Veteran, Tioga Co., N. Y., and applied for a pension Sept. 4, 1832; 
was granted an annual allowance of $26.66, and received $53.32 
up to 1834. 

Married Eunice Bartram March 15. 1783. 

PARSONS, JONATHAX. 1751-1818. [Persons.] 

Believed to be the " John Parsons " of Capt. Zalmon Read's 
company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, Col. David Waterbury, in the 
Northern Department; discharged Nov. 28, 1775. Enlisted April 
10, 1777, for the war; taken prisoner July 2, 1777; returned Au- 
gust, 1778; discharged April 4, 1781. 

Tradition says that Jonathan Persons, who is buried at Um- 
])a\vaug, was once a prisoner in the hands of the British. Died 
Sept. 7, 1818. 

PARSONS, TIMOTHY. 1732-1810. 

Born in Norwalk, Conn., Nov. 7, 1732. 

Taken prisoner by the British April 26, 1777, in the Danbury 
Raid, and carried to New York. When captured, a fine musket, 
which he highly valued, was taken from him by a British grena- 
dier, who broke it in pieces on the stones, declaring it should waste 
no more rebel bullets. [Todd's Hist, of Redding.] 

In the possession of one of Timothy Parsons' descendants is 
a leaf taken from an old account book, on which he had recorded 
several remarkable occurrences of his life. Here, in quaint phrase- 
ology and curious orthography, he briefly relates his painful ex- 
perience of capture and captivity : 

Eapel 26 Day the yeier 1777 than 
I was taken By the ragalor light 
Hoas and Card to DanBary form 
DanBary to Richfeald form thance 
A Bourd of the Chip to Coumpo 
Thance Carad to new Youk their 
■ opout in prisen the fust Day of 
May than Capt Uial the 11 Day 
of Joun oupon exstemes Chart 
Lounancc and underwent much — 



154 

[The last line illegible.] 
Married Elizabeth Couch March 9, 1756. 
Died Nov. 30, i8io. Buried at Umpawaug. 
Lineage: Thomas Person^, Stephen Person, Jr.-, Stephen 
Pierson^. [Pierson Gen.] 

PATCHEX, ANDREW. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
under Col. David Waterbury, in the Northern Department ; dis- 
charged Nov. 28, 1775. 

PATCHEN, EBENEZER. 

Private, Capt. Ezekiel Sanford's company, 5th Regt. Conn. 
Continental Line, 1777-81, Col. Philip B. Bradley commanding; 
enlisted Jan. 11, 1777, for 3 years; discharged Jan. 4, 1780. Is 
said to have fought in the action at Ridgefield April 27, 1777, and 
to have saved the life of Arnold by presenting his musket at the 
breast of a British soldier who was about to fire upon the general. 

PATCHEN, JACOB. 

Born Nov. 11, 1759. 

Taken prisoner in the Danbury Raid, April 26, 1777, but escaped. 
Enlisted Jan. i, 1781, for 3 years as a private in the 4th2 Regt. 
Conn. Continental Line, under Col. Zebulon Butler, and served in 
the company of Capt. Asa Lay from March i, 1781, to Dec. 31, 
1783, receiving £30 bounty. He became a pensioner under the 
Act of March 18, 1818, as a private of the Continental Line, with 
an annual allowance of $96; his name was placed on the roll April 
30, 1819, his pension dating from March 25, 1818, .at which time 
he was a resident of Redding, and he received $1,530.83 in pension 
payments up to 1834. 

Married Abigail Meeker Feb. 26, 1787. 

PATCHEN, A1ARTL\. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
Col. David Waterbury commanding, in the Northern Department ; 
discharged Nov. 28, 1775. March 11, 1776, he enlisted as seaman 
on the brig " Defence," Capt. Seth Harding commander, and was 
in service as late as November 15th of that year. 

PERRY, GEORGE. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
under Col. David Waterbury, in the Northern Department; dis- 
charged Nov. 28, 1775. Sergeant, Capt. John Gray's company, 



155 

4th Conn. Militia, in the Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-24, 1777. Nov. 
2S, 1780, he was appointed to receive the flour collected by the 
town for the use of the army, etc., and was sworn to a faithful 
discharge of his trust. 

PERRY, ISAAC. 

To Daniel Perry Jun"" Bill — viz — 
For sundry Expences in getting Home from the Northern camp, 
Isaac Perry a Lame Soldier in Capt. Zalmon Read's Company Col. 
Waterbury's Regt. viz 

To my Time and Trouble 2/ — To Horse Hire 15 miles 2/6 

Dan' Perry ■ — ■ Jun"" 
Reading, i\Iay 2'^. 1776 — 

Then the above Subscriber Daniel Perry Jun'", made Oath to the 
Truth of the above Acc*^ — 

before me W"^ Hawley, Justice of Peace. 
June I, 1776. — Receivd an Order on Colony Treasurer for Four 
Shillings and Six pence in full of the above Acc"^ for Daniel Perry 

Jun'- 

P. Seth Sanford. 

PLATT, ISAAC. 1754-1824. 

This name is on the roll of the Reading Loyalist Association. 
Dec. 25, 1777, Isaac Piatt enlisted for the war in the regiment of 
Artificers commanded by Lt.-Col. Jeduthan Baldwin, in the com- 
pany of Capt. James Horton, but served under Capt. Elijah 
Painter to June 9, 1783. Lie was a pensioner under the Act of 
March 18, 1818, making application April 7th of that year, from 
Redding. His name was placed on the roll Nov. 11, 1818, allow- 
ance $96, receiving $627.30 up to the date of his death, Oct. 19, 
1824. 

PLATT, JONAS. 

Taken prisoner in the Danbury Raid, April 26, 1777, and car- 
ried to New York; private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. 
Militia, Fishkill Campaign, Oct, 5-30, 1777; was a recruit for the 
Continental Army in 17S0, to serve 3 months, for which he re- 
ceived a bounty. 

PLATT, JOSEPH. 

This name also appears on the list of signers of the Reading 
Loyalist Association. Joseph Piatt enlisted (probably from Dan- 
bury), as a private, June 2. 1777, for 8 months, in the 5th Regt. 
Conn. Continental Line, Col. Philip B. Bradley commanding, and 
served 7 months 7 days in the company of Capt. Ezekiel Sanford; 
discharged Jan. 9, 1778. 



156 

Married Lydia Wilson at Ridgefield, Conn., Jan. 7, 1774, and 
died Feb. 19, 1792. His widow applied for a pension Jan. 31, 
1837, being then 83 years old and living at Danbury. The pension 
was granted. 

PLATT, SAMUEL. 

Enlisted as private Dec. 24, 1777, for 3 years, in Lt.-Col. Jedu- 
than Baldwin's Regt. of Artificers, Mass. Line, and served in the 
company commanded by Capt. James Horton. Was a pensioner 
under the Act of 1818. 

PLATT, ZEBULON. 

A signer of the Reading Loyalist Association. 

" Whereas John Gray of Redding in Fairfield County Capt. of a 
Military Company in the 4th Regt of Militia in the State of Connec- 
ticut, did Inform the Judge of Fairfield County Court, that pursuant 
to Orders from the Col° Comd* of y^ Brigade, he the said Capt did 
on the 3, Day of June 1779, Duly, warn & Order his said Company 
to Muster & March to the North River in the State of New York, & 
Join the troops there afsembled, to Defend Against the Enemies of 
the United States of America & that Zebulon Piatt of s. Redding, a 
Soldier in & Belonging to said Company, Utterly Neglected & Re- 
fused to jMuster & March As aforesaid, Nor made Satisfaction for 
said Neglect As P Writ on file Dated August 2-]^^^ A D: 1779 — P 
Continuance 

The Def Appeared to answer to said Complaint, at this Court, & 
plead Not Guilty, & Thereupon this Court having Considered y^ Evi- 
dence Are of Opinion that the Def is Not Guilty of the Matters 
Alledged against him in said Information & this Court do order yt he 
pay Cost of Profecution Allowed to be £30 Lawful ]\Ioney 

Cost paid to John Davenport, Atty " 

" Whereas John Gray of Redding in Fairfield County Capt of a 
Military Company in the 4*"^ Regt of Militia in the State of Connec- 
ticut — did Inform the Judge of Fairfield County Court, that pur- 
suant to Orders Received from Jonth Dimon Esq Lieu' Col° of said 
Regt he did on the 7'^ Day of July A D: 1779, duly, warn & order 
Zebulon Piatt of said Redding, a Soldier in & Belonging to said 
Company, to March to Fairfield, to Join the Troops there Collecting 
to Oppose the Enemy, & that said Piatt Entirely Neglected & Refused 
to March as Aforesaid, nor made Satisfaction for said Neglect as pr 
Writ on file Dated Octobr 16'^ A D: 1779 — 

The Def Appeared at this Court to Answer to said Information 
& plead Not Guilty thereto. Thereupon this Court having Examined 
the Evidence & Considered thereof Are of Opinion that the Deft is 
Not Guilty of the Matters Alledged Against [him] in said Informa- 
tion, & the Court have further Considered that Def^ be Difmifsed 
without paying Cost which is taxi at £38: — 18 — 

Order Given for Cost." 



157 

Feb. 19, 1781, the town donbled the assessment levied on 
Zebulon Piatt for the purpose of hiring a man to serve in the Conn. 
Line of the Continental Army, he having refused to pay his pro- 
portion. 

PLUMMER, DxWID. 

Received £30 bounty, 1781-82, enlisting from Redding. 

READ, HE:ZEKIAH. 

April 2 and Dec. 22, 1777, Hezekiah Read was appointed on the 
committee to take care of soldiers" families. Dec. 22. 1780, he was 
appointed on the committee chosen to hire nine soldiers for the 
Conn. Line of the Continental Army. 

READ, COL. JOHN. 1701-1786. 

Col. John Read, son of John and grandson of William Read, 
was the proprietor of the Read Manor in Lonetown. He repre- 
sented Redding in the General Assembly of October, 1767; May, 
1769; October. 1770; May, 1771-72-73; and was a Justice of the 
Peace in the latter year. At the commencement of the Revolution he 
was colonel of the 4th Conn. Militia, which he had commanded 
since ] 757, but being too old for active service, — he w^as then 74 
years of age, — resigned his command and retired to civil life. 
He continued, however, to render such service as he was capable 
of during the war. The Legislature of March, 1775, appointed 
him a member of a committee delegated to ascertain whether per- 
sons holding commissions under the state had been active in pro- 
moting the resolutions adopted by the towns of Ridgefield and 
Newtown, disapproving and protesting against the measures of 
the Continental Congress. Lie was Justice of the Peace from 
1775 to 1780 (perhaps longer), and in this capacity was called on 
to institute legal proceedings against the property of the resident 
Tories. 

Died Oct. 30. 1786. Buried in the Read Burying Ground. 

READ, CAPT. ZALMOX. 1739-1801. 

Son of Col. John Read. 

Li May, 1775, Zalmon Read was commissioned captain of the 
toth company 5th Regt. Conn. Line, under Col. David Waterbury, 
and served through the Campaign in the Northern Department, 
being discharged Nov. 28, 1775. In the following year he marched 
to the defense of New York as captain of the 2d company ist 
Battalion, Wadsworth's Brigade, Conn State Troops, Col. Gold 
Selleck Silliman commanding, and led his men in the retreat from 
New York. In March, 1777, he is found in command of a com- 



158 

pany of the 4th Conn. Militia (in which he had been captain 
previous to entering the State Troops), which was then stationed 
at Fairfield, and with which he served in the Danbury Raid in 
April following, some of his men being captured by the enemy. 
In October, 1777, he appears to have rendered special service in 
the Fishkill Campaign, mention being made of " Zalmon Read and 
2 subalterns " on duty October 9-17. No further service in the 
field is recorded. He was a member of the following committees 
under appointment b)^ the town: April 2, 1777, to hire soldiers 
for the Continental Army; Sept. 18, 1777, to procure articles re- 
quested by the Governor and Council of Safety; Dec. 22. 1777, 
member Committee of Inspection; March 23, 1778, to provide 
clothing for the army; May 8, 1778, to provide shirts, shoes, and 
stockings for the soldiers in the Continental Army; Dec. 17, 1778, 
to provide for Jeremiah Ryan's family. 

Died Jan. 15, 1801. Buried in the Read Burying Ground. 

READ, ENSIGN ZALMON. 1759-1846. 

Born in Redding April 28, 1759. Son of Capt. Zalmon Read. 

This is probably the Zalmon Read who served as private in 
Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, in the Fishkill 
Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. He continued in the service, in what 
organization is unknown. Jan. i, 1781, he received a commission 
from Gen. Parsons as ensign, serving in the company of Capt. 
Lemuel Clift, in the ist Regt. Conn. Continental Line, 1781-83, 
under Col. John Durkee. He enlisted for two years, and was 
stationed in the Highlands till the disbandment of the army. Be- 
fore Washington's departure for Yorktown the garrison of the 
Highlands marched to Peekskill under Gen. Heath, and a recon- 
noisance was made toward New York, resulting in a skirmish at 
Kingsbridge July 3, 1781, at which Ensign Read was present. He 
also participated in the day of rejoicing which was observed in 
the American camp after the news of Cornwallis' surrender was 
received. Afterward he went home on furlough, and was dis- 
charged by the special order of Gen. Washington dismissing all 
officers on furlough, Nov. 4, 1783. He was pensioned under the 
Act of June 7, 1832, as ensign in the Continental Line, his annual 
allowance, $240, dating from March 4, 1831. His name was placed 
on the roll Feb. 19, 1834, and he received pension payments amount- 
ing to $725, due on the latter date. 

Mr. Read was made a freeman of Redding April 7, 17S3. 

Married, ist, Huldah Gray, November, 1780; 2d. Haiuiah, 
daughter of Benjamin Bassett of Great Hill. Derby, October, 181 1. 

Died Oct. 3, 1846. Buried in the Read Burying Ground. 



159 

REM(3NG, SAMUEL. 

This name seems to be a corruption of " Raymond," and is 
sometimes so spelled in the records. The soldier's record appears 
to be as follows : Served in Capt. Samnel Keeler's company, 
Bradley's Battalion. Wadsworth's Brigade, at New York in 1776, 
and was taken prisoner at Ft. Washington November i6th. En- 
listed April I, 1778, as private in the company of Capt. John Mills, 
2d Regt. Conn. Continental Line, 1777-81, and the record states 
that he deserted Feb. 18, 1778 (?), rejoined, and again deserted 
Oct. 15, 1779, and was mustered out in May, 1780. Sept. 8, 1780. 
he joined the Corps of Sappers and Miners, was presumably at 
Yorktown September-October, 1781. and in the service in 1782-83. 

Dec. 17. 1778, VVm. Hawley was appointed to supply Remong's 
family. Feb. 28, 1782. Andrew Fairchild was appointed for this 
purpose. 

Married Philena Bates Xov. 3, 1777. 

ROBBINS, EPHRAIM. 

Ephraim Robbins was of Kilbngly, and married Sarah Couch 
of Redding June 20, 1769. His name is on the roll of the Reading 
Loyalist Association, but he seems to have joined the patriots at 
an early period of the war. Sept. 18, 1777, he was made a member 
of the committee chosen to obtain articles requested by the Gov- 
ernor and Council of Safety. He served in the company of Capt. 
Gershom Morehouse in the Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-24, 1777. 
March 23, 1778, he was chosen a member of the committee ap- 
pointed to procure clothing for the army, etc. Lie removed from 
the town after this date, but returned before March 13, 1780, on 
which date he was appointed an Inspector of Provisions, and on 
the 23d of June following was ,made a ment',er of the committee 
appointed to hire nine soldiers for the Conn. Line of the Conti- 
nental Army. April 6, 1781, he was appoint'- 1 collector of a tax 
levied for the purpose of purchasing clothing; for the soldiers. 
In 1780 he held the office of Deputy Sheriff. He is said to have 
again removed from the town — to what place is not known. 

ROGERS, JAMES, ESQ. 1741-1823. 

James Rogers was a worthy and respected citizen of Redding, 
who represented the town in the General Assembly at the sessions 
of May-October, 1773. and January, 1774. He was a selectman 
of the town at the time of the Danbury Raid, and was taken 
prisoner by the British April 26, 1777, and carried to New York, 
where he shared with his fellow-prisoners the privations of the 
Sugar House. In April, 1780, the Assembly appointed him a 



i6o 

Purchasing Commissary, to procure fresh and salted beef, pork, 
flour, and other articles, for the use of the army, within the limits 
of the towns of Danbury, Ridgefield, Redding, and Newtown. 
April i6, 1781, the town appointed him on a committee of corre- 
spondence relative to monetary and other affairs. Feb. 28, 1782, 
he was placed on a committee to class the inhabitants for recruiting 
purposes, and also on another to vindicate claims to Continental 
soldiers and State Troops. After the war he represented the 
town in the General Asseml)Iy of May-October, 1796. 

Married Eleanor Wakeman March 30, 1762. 

Died April 19, 1823. Buried in the Old Burying Ground. 

ROGERS, ENSIGN JOSEPH. 

Born Oct. 31, 1762. Son of Esq. James Rogers. 

Jan. 4, 1781, he was appointed ensign, and served in the 2d^ 
Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. Heman Swift commanding, in 
the company of Capt. Stephen Billings, and was in service from the 
spring of 1781 to the end of the war, retiring wnth the army in 
June, 1783. He was pensioned under the Act of 1818, making 
application April nth of that year, being then a resident of Put- 
nam Co., X. Y. He was a member of the Conn. Society of the 
Cincinnati. 

RUMSEY, JEREMIAH. 

Enlisted from Redding April 26, 1782, probably for 8 months, 
and served in the 2d- Regt. Conn. Continental Eine to Jan. i, 1783. 

RUMSEY, JOHN. 

Private, 7th Regt. Conn. Line, Col. Chas. Webb commanding, 
in the company of Capt. Ebenezer Hill, July lo-Dec. 23, 1775; 
enlisted May 21, 1777, for the war, in the 7th Regt. Conn. Conti- 
nental Line, under Col. Heman Swift, as private in the company 
of Capt. Albert Chapman; credited to Ridgefield; served in the 2d 
Regt. in the formation of 1783, in the company of Capt. Wm. 
Richards; credited to Redding. He was a pensioner under the 
Act of 1818, residing in Vermont. 

RUMSEY, NATHAN. 

Served in the 5th Regt. Conn. Line, under Col. David Water- 
bury, in the company of Capt. Zalmon Read, in the Northern De- 
partment; discharged Nov. 28, 1775. Enlisted from Redding May 
21. 1777, for the war, in the 7th Regt. Conn. Continental Line, 
Col. Heman Swift conmianding, as private in the company of 
Capt. Albert Chapman; deserted Aug. 1, 1780; rejoined. 



i6i 

RYAN, JEREMIAPI. 

Served in Capt. Zalnion Read's company, 5th Rcgt. Conn. Line, 
under Col. David Waterbur)', in the Northern Department; dis- 
charged Nov. 28, 1775. Enlisted April 16. 1776, as private in the 
company of Capt. Albert Chapman, Col. Samuel Elmore's Regt., 
and served at Ft. Schuyler; April 29, 1777, enlisted in the 2d Regt. 
Continental Artillery, under Col. John Lamb, and served as bom- 
bardier into 1780-81. Appears to have been known to his com- 
rades as " Green Jimmy." 

SALMON, ASAHEL. 1757-1848. 

Enlisted in April. 1776, in the company of Capt. Steenrod, Col. 
McDougal's Regt. of N. Y. troops, and served 10 months. During 
the latter part of this term he served in Col. Chas. Webb's Regt. 
(19th Continental), under Capt. Joseph Hoyt, and may be the 
man who served in Maj. John Skinner's Regt. of Light Horse 
(militia) at N. Y. June ii-Aug. 3, 1776. He next served as 
private in Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, in the 
Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777. Was present at the execution 
of Jones and Smith on Gallows Hill Feb. t6, 1779, at that time 
holding the rank of sergeant, probably in Capt. Gray's company. 
Li April, 1780, he enlisted as corporal in Col. Bezaleel Beebe's 
Regt. of State Troops, and served 9 months in the company of 
Capt. Jesse Bell. This regiment was stationed at Horseneck and 
frequently skirmished with the enemy on the Westchester front. 
From February, 1781, to June 10, 1783, he served in the 4th- Regt. 
Conn. Continental Line, commanded by Col. Zebulon Butler, in 
the company of Capt. David Starr. He continued in the militia 
service after the war, and rose to the rank of Lt.-Col. Com- 
mandant of the 4th Conn. Militia, holding this office from 1806 to 
181 1, being the last Revolutionary soldier who commanded the 
regiment. 

Col. Salmon was a pensioner under the Act of 1818, having an 
annual allowance of $96 from the date of application, April 8, 
1818, his name being placed on the pension roll Nov. I3tli of that 
year, and he received $1,527.96 in pension payments up to 1834. He 
was a tanner and shoemaker by trade, and became a freeman of 
Redding in April 1789. 

Married Anne Wood Sept. 5, 1786. Is supposed to be buried 
beside his wife in the Old Burying Ground, but the grave is un- 
marked. 

SALMON, GERSHOM. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
under Col. David Waterbury, in the Northern Department ; dis- 



l62 

charged Nov. 28, 1775. Private, Capt. John Gray's company. 4th 
Conn. Mihtia, Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-14,* 1777. 

SALMON, REUBEN. 

Private Reuben Sahnon of the ist Battalion (Col. G. S. Silli- 
man's), Wadsworth's Brigade, missing in the retreat from New 
York, Sept. 15, 1776, is believed to have been a Redding soldier. 

SANFORD, AARON. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
imder Col. David Waterbury, in the Northern Department; dis- 
charged Nov. 28, 1775. Served in the company of Capt. Gershom 
Morehouse, 4th Conn. Militia, in the Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-12, 
^777- 

SANFORD. DANIEL. 

It has been found impossil)le to identify this man. A Daniel 
Sanford was ensign in Capt. Daniel Hickok's company, in the ist 
Battalion of State Troops, commanded by Col. Samuel Whiting 
at Westchester in the early spring of 1777. He next appears as 
ensign in the 4th Conn. Militia, under Col. Whiting, stationed at 
Fairfield and Stratford, March ^-2.2, 1777. A Daniel Sanford was 
captured in the Danbury Raid in April, 1777, and carried to New 
York. One Daniel Sanford was elected deputy for Redding to 
the General Assembly of May, 1777, perhaps the same who died 
July 5, 1777, and is buried in the Old Burying Ground. Possibly 
the officer was made prisoner, and may have been brother of 
Jeremiah, also a prisoner, and Iwth perhaps sons of the deputy. 
No clue has been found to this mystery. 

SANFORD, DAVID. 1739- 1787. 

In, June, 1776, David Sanford was a private in the 4th Conn. 
Militia, commanded by Lt.-Col. Abraham Gould, in the company of 
Lieut. John Davis, and went to the defense of New York in that 
year, probably in one of the battalions of State Troops, was present 
at White Plains October 28th, and was brought home sick No- 
vember 1st, having served 4 months. He served one week in the 
Danbury Raid, and took part in the action at Ridgefield April 27, 
1777, and in the pursuit to the enemy's shipping. In September 
and October of the same year he was for some six weeks in the 
command of Capt. John Gray, serving October 5th to 30th in the 
Fishkill Campaign, at Fishkill, Peekskill, and Redhook. In April, 
1779, he was again in the service for two weeks and four days 
under Lt.-Col. Jonathan Dinion of the 4th. at what ])oint is not 



1 63 

stated; in July, 1779, he served one week in the alarms at Fairfield 
and Xorwalk ; was in service on alarms two terms of two days each 
during the summer, and in September following was in service 14 
days at Gregory's Parish, N. Y. During the war he was a member 
of several committees appointed by the town: Sept. 18, 1777, to 
procure articles requested by the Governor and Council of Safety ; 
Dec. 22, 1777. to take care of soldiers' families; March 13, 1780, 
Inspector of Provisions; Dec. 21. 1781, to care for Isaac Olmsted's 
family. 

Married Abiah Xov. 20-22. 1769. 

Died June 15. 1787. Buried at Umpawaug. 

His widow, who was living in Redding in 1840. aged 95, received 
a pension for his services under an application dated Dec. 19, 1836. 

SANFORD. EBENEZER. 176 [-18.17. 

In 1779 Ebenezer Sanford served 2 months under Capt. John 
Gray and Lieut. Taylor in the coast-guard at Greens Farms, as 
substitute for Elias Sanford. During the same year he served 
twice on alarms at Xorwalk and once at Gregory's Parish, X^. Y. 
In 1780 he enlisted from Redding in Col. Bezaleel Beebe's Regt. of 
State Troops, in the company of Capt. Jesse Bell, and served 9 
months at Horseneck, the regiment being engaged in frequent 
skirmishes with the British on the lines where its duty was per- 
formed. 

Mr. Sanford was pensioned under the Act of June 7, 1832, 
his annual pension of $30.55 dating from March 4, 1831, the first 
])aymcnt, $91.65, being remitted to him March 18. 1834, when his 
name was placed on the roll. 

SAXFORD, ELXATHAX. 

December, 1778. he was appointed to provide for the family 
of Henry Hopkins, a soldier. 

SAXFORD, CAPT. EZEKIEL. 1743-1808. 

In May, 1775, Ezekiel Sanford was commissioned lieutenant 
in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, Col. David 
Waterbury commanding, and served in the X^orthern Department, 
being discharged Xov. 28, 1775. He again served as first lieuten- 
ant under Capt. Zalmon Read, in the ist Battalion, Wadsworth's 
Brigade (Col. G. S. Silliman), in the operations around Xew York 
in 1776. Jan. i. 1777, he was commissioned captain in the 5th^ 
Regt. Conn. Continental Line. Col. Philip B. Bradley commanding, 
and served till ]\farch 17, 1778, when he resigned. In January, 
1780. he was appointed captain in the second regiment raised for 



164 

the defense of the state, but declined. He was appointed on 
several town committees: Jan. 28, 1780, to take care of soldiers' 
families; June 23, 1780, to hire nine soldiers for the Conn. Line 
of the Continental Army; Nov. 20, 1780, to ascertain the number 
of soldiers the town then had in the Continental Army; March 28, 
1781, to vindicate claims to Continental soldiers; April 6, 1781, to 
supply John Lines' family: Feb. 28, 1782, to vindicate claims to 
Continental soldiers and State Troops. He was a pensioner under 
the law of June 7, 1785, as a captain of the Revolutionary Army, 
his pension dating from ]\Iarch 4, 1789. His annual allowance 
was $60, under which he received payments amounting to $1,140 
up to the time of his death. 

Ten years after the close of the Revolution Capt. Sanford 
brought suit against the town of Redding relative to certain claims 
made by himself as a pensioner. This suit evidently caused con- 
siderable local excitement, which lasted for nearly a twelvemonth. 
The nature of these claims is unknown — the captain's pension 
papers, which might furnish some clue to the mystery, were prob- 
ably destroyed during the British invasion of Washington in 1814; 
the court records of the period have disappeared, and the town 
records, which are here given in full, contain no hint of the special 
reasons for which this action was brought. 

"March 11, 1793. — The inhabitants of the Town of Redding are 
hereby warned to meet at the meeting houfe in sd Redding on tuelday 
the 26"! day of inftant March at two o'clock- — afternoon in order to 
collect the minds of the people in refpect to an inveftigation of the 
claims of Capt. Ezekiel Sanford as a Pensioner. Also regarding a 
suit brought by sd Sanford against the town of Redding in the County 
Court of Fairlield County." 

"March 26, 1793 — Mefsrs W"' Heron, Ja« Rogers, David Jackson, 
Aaron Barlow and Peter Sanford chofen a Comt^e jq investigate the 
propriety of the claims of Capt. Ezekiel Sanford as a pensioner, and 
report make to this or some future Town meeting. 

Mefsrs Thaddcus Benedict, W™ Heron, Lem" Sanford, S. Sam 
Smith, and James Rogers appointed a Comt«e ^q correfpond with the 
Towns in this County refpecting the claims of the pentioners in sd 
Towns and proceed as they may think proper." 

"Dec. II, 1793. — S. Sam Smith appointed agent to defend the town 
in the suit against Capt. Ezekiel Sanford." 

"Feb. 3, 1794. — Voted that W"" Hawley l)e appointed witli S. Sam 
Smith agent to carry on the Lawfuit against Capt. E;cckicl Sanford, 
and that they may settle with said Sanford, if it can be done without 
any further lost to the Town." 

Capt. Sanford died March 8. 1808. Buried at L^mpawaug. 



165 

SANFORD, EZRA. 

Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, Fish- 
kill Campaign, Oct. 5-24, 1777. 

SANFORD, HEZEKIAH. 

April 2, 1777, appointed on the committee to take care of 
soldiers' families; June 23, 1780, on committee to hire nine soldiers 
for the Conn. Line of the Continental Army ; Representative for 
Redding in the General Assembly at the sessions of October, 1771 ; 
May-October, 1772; May, 1773. 1776, 1784, 1785; October, 1786; 
and continuously from May. 1791, to October, 1793. inclusive — 
fourteen sessions. 

SAXFORD. JAME.S. 175S-1842. 

Born in Redding Nov. 13, 1758. Son of John Sanford, the 
Loyalist. 

Before attaining his majority James Sanford, it is said, ran 
away from home and joined Putnam's division, then in camp at 
Redding, enlisting Dec. i, 1778, as a teamster, and served four 
months under Capt. John Drew, conductor of teams for Poor's 
Brigade. He was present at the execution of Jones and Smith 
on Gallows Hill Feb. 16, 1779. He continued in team service till 
April, 1779, when he went with the army to New York state, and 
was in team service with his team at a camp called " Soldier's 
Fortune," near Fishkill, serving under Capt. Simson, conductor 
of teams or baggage wagons, till June 5, 1779, when he was dis- 
charged. The total period of this service was 6 months and 5 
days. In September. 1779, he was drafted by Capt. John Gray 
for a tour of duty in Greens Farms, guarding the shore of Long 
Island Sound, under Capt. Thomas Nash of Fairfield, and remained 
in service there till November i6th — a term of six weeks in all. 
During this period a skirmish took place between some British 
vessels and the forces under Capt. Nash, in which that officer 
narrowly escaped death by a cannon shot. August, 1780, he was 
again drafted to guard the fort at Black Rock, where he served 
two months under Capt. Isaac Jarvis, commandant of the fort, 
and Lieut. John Odell. He was again drafted by Capt. John Gray, 
in May. 1 781, to guard the shore of Long Island Sound, and served 
two months, part of the time under Capt. John Gray and part 
under Capt. Thomas Nash. Throughout his entire service he 
remained a private soldier. 

Mr. Sanford was a lifelong resident of Redding, where he was 
much respected, and was familiarly known to the inhabitants as 
" Squire Jim." He was a pensioner in 1840. 



i6o 

SANFORD, JEREMIAH. 1758-1777. 

Son of Daniel Sanford. Taken prisoner by the British in the 
Danbury Raid, April, 1777, and carried to New York, where the 
young man died in captivity June 28th following, in the 19th year 
of his age. 

SANFORD, LEMUEL. 1740-1803. 

Lemuel Sanford was among the foremost of the Revolutionary 
patriots of Redding. He early became prominent in the political 
life of his town and colony, stood high in the estimation of his 
fellow-citizens, and acceptably filled every position of honor and 
trust to which their suffrages advanced him. His popularity is 
evidenced by the exceptional length of his legislative career, for 
he represented Redding at twenty-two sessions of the General 
Assembly, covering a period of twenty years : May-October, 
1770-71; October, 1773, 1774, 1775. 1776; May, 1777; February, 
May, October, 1778; January-May, 1779; October, 1780, 1782, 
1783, 1784; May, 1787, 1788; October, 1788, 1789. He was a 
Justice of the Peace during the years 1774-5-6-7-8-9, and was also 
a member of the Committee of Supply, the duties of this position 
keeping him actively employed in Fairfield and Danbury during 
the greater part of the war. Llis committee service was consider- 
able, his legislative appointments being: May, 1777, to estimate 
the losses of the inhabitants of Danbury caused by Tryon's Raid : 
also to ascertain the property rights of the residents of that town, 
their public records having been destroyed; to report losses at 
Ridgefield (and at this time, also, was personally authorized to 
open subscriptions to a war loan in Redding) ; February, 1778, 
to inquire into the losses of the inhabitants of Fairfield ; May, 1778, 
to visit Norwalk and ascertain the extent of losses at that place ; 
May, 1781, added to a committee appointed under "an Act to 
prevent Robberies and Plunders, from open and secret Enemies." 
Town committees: June 28, 1779. town delegate to a County Con- 
vention to consider the state of the currency; Nov. 28, 1780, to class 
inhabitants for recruiting purposes; March 28, 1781, to vindicate 
claims to the Continental soldiers; Feb. 28, 1782, to vindicate 
claims to Continental and State Troops. He afterward became a 
judge of the County Court, and died suddenly at Danbury in the 
performance of the duties of his position March 12, 1803. 

Married Mary Russell of North P.ranford, Conn., Sept. 20. 
1768. 

Buried in the Old Burying Ground. 

Lineage: Lemuel, 1699-1780; EzekieP, EzekieH, Thomas^ 
Anthony-, Raulf Sanford', of Stowe, England. 



</ 



16/ 

[Todd's Hist, of Redding; Schenck's Hist, of Fairfield; Beach- 
Sanford Family Hist.] 

SANFORD, OLIVER. 

Born Sept. I7, 1741. Brother of John Sanford, the Loyalist. 

Taken prisoner by the British in the Danbury Raid and 
carried to New York. Jan. 28, 1780, chosen to provide for the 
family of Ephraim Wheeler, Jr.. a soldier, but was excused Feb- 
ruary 3d. 

SANFORD, PETER. 1754-1827. 

Supposed to have been a soldier; record unknown. Captain 
of militia after the war. Representative for Redding in the Gen- 
eral Assembly October, 1801-4-5 — three sessions. Fell from his 
horse while crossing the ford at the north end of Pine Mountain 
and was drowned, Nov. 20, 1827. Buried at Umpawaug. 

SANFORD. SETH. 

Deputy for Redding in the General Assembly of May, 1776. 
April 2, 1777, appointed by the town on the committee to take care 
of soldiers' families; May 5, 1777, appointed additional selectman 
to supply vacancy caused by capture of officials in the Danbury 
Raid; ensign, Capt. Gershom Morehouse's company, 4th Conn. 
Militia, in the Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-30, 1777; again deputy 
for Redding in the General Assembly at the sessions of January- 
October, 1778; January-lNIay, 1779; October, 1780; on town com- 
mittees: April 16, 1781, to class inhabitants for recruiting pur- 
poses; June 29, 1781, to hire three soldiers for the Continental 
Army. 

Married Rebecca Burr April 25, 1759; Abiah April 25, 

1778; Abigail Aug. 3, 1781. 

SANFORD, STEPHEN. 1743-1776. 

Died Oct. 6, 1776, in which year it is thought he served in the 
army. Buried in the Old Burying Ground. 

SANFORD, TIMOTHY. 

Dec. 22, 1777, on committee appointed to take care of soldiers' 
families. 

SEELYE, STEPHEN. 

Served in Lt.-Col. Samuel Canfield's Militia Regt. at West 
Point September, 1781. Deserted. 



i68 

SHERWOOD, JEHIEL. 

Ensign, 9th company (Capt. John Gray's), 4th Conn. IMilitia, 
January, 1780. 

SHERWOOD, NEHEAHAH. 

Born in Redding Aug. 24, 1761. 

This .soldier served as a private under these enlistments; 177H, 
2 months with Capt. Bennett; July, 1778, 2 months under Capt. 
Olmsted; April, 1779, 2 months under Capt. Couch; April, 1780, 8 
months with Capt. Russell; April, 1781, 2 months; July, 1781, 4 
months; December, 1781, 3 months under Capt. Olmsted. He was 
pensioned under an application dated Oct. 16, 1832. 

SHERWOOD, THOMAS. 

Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th Conn. Militia, in the 
Fishkill Campaign, Oct. 5-16, 1777. 

SMITH, ELEAZER. 

Aug. 9, 1779, appointed on the committee to provide winter 
clothing for the Continental soldiers. Dec. 21, 1779, on commit- 
tee to take care of soldiers' families. 

SMITH, ERASTUS. 

" Whereas John GrAy of Redding in Fairfield County Capt. of a 
Military Company in the 4^^ Regt. of Militia in the State of Connec- 
ticut did Inform the Judge of Fairfield County Court that pursuant 
to Brigade Orders Dated June i^t A D : 1779, he the said Capt did on 
the 3 Day of June aforesaid duly warn & Order his said Company 
to muster & March to the North River, at or Near Peekskill, in the 
State of New York, & Join the Troops there afsembled for the de- 
fence of the United States of America, & that Erastus Smith of said 
Redding, a Soldier in & Belonging to said Company. Utterly Neg- 
lected & Refused to Muster & March as aforesaid. Nor made Satis- 
faction for said Neglect. As P Writ on file Dated Septemi" 27*^ 
1779. — The Def- Appeared at this Court, to Answer to said Informa- 
tion — and plead Not Guilty. Thereupon this Court having exam- 
ined the Evidence & Considered thereof, Are of Opinion that the 
Deft is Not Guilty of the Matters Alledged Against him, in said 
Information, & this Court do Order that he pay Cost of Profecution 

Allowed to be £22: 16 : o — 

Coft p to J. Davenport, Attorney." 

SMITH, SAMUEL, ESQ. 

April 2, 1777, on committee to take care of the families of 
soldiers in the service of the country. 



169 

SPRINGER, JOHN. 

Enlisted from Redding in the 2d- Regt. Conn. Continental Line, 
under Col. Heman Swift, and received £30 boimty, but deserted 
June 26, 1781. 

SPRINGER, WHALA. 

Enlisted from Redding Feb. 7, 1781, for 3 years, as a private 
in the 2d" Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. Heman Swift com- 
manding, and received £30 bounty. He was at first in the company 
of Capt. Caleb Baldwin; in the formation of January-June, 1783, 
under Capt. Stephen Potter, and completed his service in the 
" final formation," his time expiring Feb. 7, 1784. 

SQUIRE, NATHANIEL. 

Taken prisoner by the British in the Danbury Raid, April 26, 
1777, and carried to New York; perhaps the same man who served 
in the expedition to Norwalk, Fairfield, and Stamford, in Capt. 
\Vm. G. Hubbell's company, i6th Conn. Militia, under Col. Nehe- 
miah Beardsley, in July, 1779, and afterward enlisted from New 
Fairfield in Lt.-Col. Samuel Canfield's Militia Regt. at West Point 
September, 1781. 

STARR, DAVID. 1724-1810. 

Born Dec. 7, O. S., 1724, at Danbury, Conn. 

Removed to Redding about 1772; Sept. 8, 1777, he was ap- 
pointed on the committee to procure articles requested by the Gov- 
ernor and Council of Safety; Dec. 26, 1781, he was appointed to 
provide for the family of Flenry Hopkins, a soldier. 

Died Feb. 11, 1810; is said to be buried in Redding, but the 
grave is unknown. 

Lineage: Beniamin^ Josiah^, Thomas-, Dr. Comfort Starr^. 
[Starr Gen.] 

STARR, DAVID, JR. 1755-1814. 

Born at Danbury, Conn., Dec. 2, 1755. Son of the preceding. 

Dec. 21, 1779, on committee to take care of soldiers' families. 

Married Lucy Sanford Oct. 8, 1778. About 1812 removed to 
Thompson. Sullivan Co., N. Y. Died 1814. [Starr Gen.] 

STARR, MICAJAH. 1746-1820. 

Born April 2, 1746, at Danbury, Conn. 

Removed to Redding about 1777; he and his wife were ad- 
mitted to the Congregational Church there by letter that year; he 
became an active patriot ; was conductor of teams, probably to 



I70 

Putnam's division, in 1778: July 30, 1779, he was appointed on the 
committee to provide clothing for the Continental soldiers then 
in the army. March 13, 1780, chosen an Inspector of Provisions; 
April 16, 1781, on committee to class inhabitants for recruiting 
purposes, also on a committee of correspondence relative to mone- 
tary and other public affairs. Emigrated to Tompkins Co., N. Y., 
about 1793-4. where he engaged in farming and became a Baptist 
minister. 

Died March 2, 1820. 

Lineage: Jonathan^ John^. Josiah^. Thomas-, Dr. Comfort 
Starr^. [Starr Gen.] 

STURGES, DAVID. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
under Col. David Waterbury, in the Northern Department; dis- 
charged Nov. 28, 1775. Private, Capt. John Gray's company, 4th 
Conn. Militia, Fishkill Campaign, Oct 5-30, 1777. 

THOMPSON, JAMES. 

It is difficult to distinguish the particular service rendered by 
this soldier from that of others of the same name. He enlisted 
from Redding in 1781-82, and received £30 bounty. 

THORP, LYMAN. 

Private, Capt. James Horton's company, Lt.-Col. Jeduthan 
Baldwin's Regt. of Artificers; enlisted Dec. 23, 1777, for 3 years. 
Buried in Sanfordtown Cemetery. 

UNKNOWN. 

A negro slave belonging to Esq. Sam. Smith of Redding was 
killed in the fighting at Danbury April 26, 1777. The peculiar 
circumstances of his death are set forth in the affidavits given 
herewith : 

"Jan. 1778. 
Ebenezer White, of Danbury, of lawful r.ge, testifies and says that 
on or about the 26th day of April, 1777, at evening, there being a 
number of gentlemen at his house belonging to the British army, 
amongst which was one whom he understood was the Earl of Falk- 
land's son, who told him (the deponent) that he was the first that 
entered Maj. Starr's house, and found a number of men in the house, 
among whom were two negroes, all of whom they instantly killed 
and set fire to the house; and gave this for a reason why they did so, 
that it was their constant practice, when they found people shut up 
in a house and tiring upon them, to kill them, and to burn the house; 



171 

and further the deponent saith, that the said young gentleman told 
him that one of the negroes, after he had run him through, rose up 
and attempted to shoot him, and that he the said Earl of Falkland's 
son cut his head off himself ; which negro, the deponent understood 
since was the property of Mr. Samuel Smith of Redding; and further 
the deponent saith not. 

Danbury, January 26, 1778. 

The Rev. Mr. Ebenezer White, the above deponent, person- 
ally appearing, made oath to the truth of the above written deposition. 
Sworn to before me, Thaddeus Benedict, Justice of the Peace. 
Ebenezer Weed, of Danbury, of lawful age, testifies and says, that 
on or about the 26^^ day of April, 1777, he being at home across the 
road, opposite to Maj. Daniel Starr's house, he saw a negro at the 
house, which he knew to be the property of Mr. Samuel Smith, of 
Redding, about a half hour, as near as he can judge, before the Brit- 
ish troops came to said house ; and further the deponent saith, that in 
the evening of said day, he heard a man belonging to the British 
army, say that they had killed one dam'd black with the whites, in 
said Starr's house, and further the deponent saith not. 

Danbury, June 26, 1778. 

Sworn before Thaddeus Benedict, Justice of the Peace, 
Anna Weed, of Danbury. of lawful age. testilies and says, that on 
or about the 26*'' day of April, 1777, she being at home across the 
road opposite to Maj. Starr's house, she saw a negro at said house, 
which she understood was the property of Mr. Samuel Smith, of 
Redding, but a short time before the British troops came to said 
house, and further the Deponent saith she heard one of the British 
soldiers say, here is a dam'd black in the house, what shall we do 
with him? another answered, damn him, kill him, and immediately 
the house was in flames, and further the deponent saith not. 

Danbury. January 26, 1778. 

Sworn to before Thaddeus Benedict, Justice of the Peace." 

[Hinman's " Conn, in the War of the American Revolution."'] 

WARRUPS. TOM. 

Grandson of Chickens \\ arrups, chief of an Indian tribe which 
lived in the southern part of Lonetown. In 1776 Tom served in 
the Long Island Campaign in the company of Capt. Edward Rogers 
of Cornwall, and proved himself to be a courageous and daring 
soldier. He was with Putnam's division at Redding in the winter 
of 1778-9, rendering valuable service in the capacity of guide and 
scout. In the many predatory expeditions led against the property 
of the inhabitants in the vicinity of the camp he w^as an acknowl- 
edged leader. He had the red man's weakness for the white 
man"s firewater, which often brought him to disgrace, and was the 
means of subjecting him to the punishment of the " wooden horse," 



172 

which consisted in being ridden on a rail in front of his regiment. 
His home was for many years located in or near the southwestern 
angle of the town, but in his later years he removed with the 
members of his tribe to the town of Kent, in Litchfield Co., where 
he died. 

[Todd's Hist, of Redding: Gold's Hist, of Cornwall.] 

WEEKS, MICAJAH. 1750-1826. 

This soldier was in the Continental service in 1776; Jan. 3 or 
31, 1777, he enlisted from Ridgefield (but on the quota of Redding) 
for 3 years or the war, in the 5th^ Regt. Conn. Continental Line, 
Col. Philip B. Bradley commanding, as a private in the company 
of Capt. Ezekiel Sanf ord ; promoted corporal July, 1780; sergeant, 
August 15th following. After the consolidation of regiments he 
continued in service in the 26.^ Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. 
Heman Swift commanding, as sergeant in the company of Capt. 
Joseph Allyn Wright; and in 1783 served in the same regiment 
under Capt. Peter Robertson. 

His battle record was remarkable: he fought at Trenton Dec. 
25.. 1776; at Princeton, Jan. 2, 1777; Germantown, Oct. 4, 1777; 
Monmouth, June 28, 1778; Stony Point, July 15, 1779; and York- 
town, September-October, 1781 ; and probably wintered at Valley 
Forge. A most faithful soldier, his term of service covering five 
years. 

He removed to Delaware Co., N. Y., and was pensioned under 
an application dated May 2, 1818, with an allowance of $96; his 
name was placed on the roll March 25, 1819, the pension dating 
from May 22, 1818; and he received $753.54 in pension payments 
up to the time of his death, March 27, 1826. 

Married Bathsheba Barber Jan. 20, 1790; she died Aug. 30, 1834. 

WHEELER, EPHRAIM (JR.) 

Enlisted May 12, 1777, for the war, in the 5th Regt. Conn. 
Continental Line, 1777-1781, Col. Philip B. Bradley commanding, 
and served as a private in the company of Capt. Ezekiel Sanford; 
deserted Nov. 23, 1777; rejoined April, 1779; deserted Feb. 10, 
1780. 

Daniel Lyon in December, 1779, Oliver Sanford in January, 
1780, and Deacon Joseph Banks in February, 1780, were in turn 
appointed to provide for Ephraim Wheeler's family. He was 
probably son of Ephraim Wheeler (1716-1806), who is buried in 
Christ Church Yard, and whose tombstone records the remarkable 
fact of his " having lived with his wife 67 years, and had 10 chil- 
dren, 52 grand children, 108 great grand children, & i great great 
grand child." 



173 

WHITE, CHARLES. 

Served in Capt. Zalmon Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, 
under Col. David Waterbury, in the Northern Department ; dis- 
charged Nov. 28, 1775. Afterward belonged to the militia, as 
appears by the record here given : 

" Whereas John Gray of Redding in Fairfield County, Capt. of a 
Military Company in the 4"^ Regt. of Militia in the State of Connec- 
ticut, did Inform the Judge of Fairfield County Court, that pursuant 
to Brigade Orders Dated June i^' 1779 he the said Capt did on the ^^ 
Day of June aforesaid, duly warn & Order his said Company to 
Muster & March, to Peekskill in the State of New York, & Join the 
Troops there Afsembling, for the defence of the United States of 
America, & that Charles White of said Redding, a Soldier in & 
Belonging to said Company, Utterlj'- Neglected & Refused to Muster 
as Aforesaid Nor made Satisfaction for said Neglect — as P Writ 
on file Dated August 27th A D: 1779 — 

The said White was Called at this Court, & made Default of Ap- 
pearance Thereupon this Court, have Considered that he pay for his 
said Neglect, Cost of Prosecution taxed at Eighteen Pounds 12/ — 
that Exe" be Gran<i &c — 

Exc" Gran*5 Sepf" 30*'', 1779." 

WILLIAMS, JABEZ. 

Enlisted for the war as a private in Capt. Ezekiel Sanford's 
company, 5thi Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. Philip B. Bradley 
commanding; two dates of enlistment are given: Dec. 19, 1776; 
Jan. 6, 1777; the last probably date of muster-in; continued in 
service in the 26.^ Regt. Conn. Continental Line, Col. Heman 
Swift commanding, in the company of Capt. Joseph Allyn Wright; 
was in service through 1781 ; served in the same regiment in the 
formation of January-June, 1783, in the company of Capt. Peter 
Robertson. Removed from Redding to New Milford, Conn., about 
1784. 

WILSON, ISAAC. 

Enlisted for the war March 7, 1779; served as private in the 
2d Regt. Conn. Continental Line, formation of January- June, 1783, 
Col. Heman Swift, commanding, in the company of Capt. Elijah 
Chapman. 

YOUNGS, CHRISTOPHER. 

Received £30 bounty, 1781-82. No further record. 



LOYALISTS OF REDDING AND 
VICINITY. 

MEMBERS OF THE REDDING LOYALIST ASSOCIA- 
TION AND OTHERS. 

' Not residents of Redding. 

2 Not members of the Association. 

ADAMS. TABEZ.i 

ADAMS, JAMES. 

BAILEY, BENJAMIN.i 

BAILEY, SAMUEL.i 

BAILEY, JONATHAN.! 

BANKS, JESSE. 

He (with several others named hereafter) refused to pay his 
proportion toward hiring a man to serve in the Conn. Line, and 
was assessed double that proportion by way of fine. [See vote 
of the town Feb. 19, 1781.] 

BANKS, SETH. 

BARDSLEE. JESSE. [Bearslee.] 

BARLOW, NATHANIEL. See Rev. Soldiers. 

BARNUM, COMFORT.i [Barnham.] 

BARNUM, ELIJAH.i 

BARTRAM, JOHN. 1731- 

BARTRAM, PAUL. 1736- 

BATES, JOSEPH.2 

He fled to Long Island in 1776. 



175 

BEACH, REV. JOHN/ 1700-1782. 

John Beach, son of Isaac and Hannah Beach, and for fifty 
years rector of Christ Clnirch, Redding Ridge, was born in Strat- 
ford, Conn., Oct. 6. 1700. He was educated for the ministry, 
graduated from Yale College in 1721, and began his labors as an 
Independent (Congregational) minister at Newtown, Conn., but 
becoming finally converted to the doctrines of the Church of 
England, he crossed the Atlantic in April, 1732, for the purpose of 
being ordained to the priesthood of that denomination, bearing 
with him a letter to the Bishop of London from the Rev. Samuel 
Johnson of West Haven, Conn., who commends Mr. Beach therein 
as " a very ingenuous and studious person, and a truly serious and 
conscientious Christian " — an opinion amply confirmed by Mr. 
Beach's, subsequent career. Having been duly ordained, he re- 
turned to America and took charge of the Episcopal parishes of 
Redding and Newtown, as a missionary of the Church of England. 
He resided in Redding till the death of his first wife in 1756, when 
he removed to Newtown, but continued his labors at Redding 
Ridge, and necessarily spent much time there. He also min- 
istered to congregations in Ridgefield, New Milford, and Litch- 
field, and his influence was felt through a wide section of country 
and among large numbers of his fellow men, in matters both 
spiritual and political. In the bitter sectarian controversies which 
raged among the religious denominations of that period Mr. 
Beach bore an important part, his intellectual power, unyielding 
firmness, and combative force combining to make him one of the 
most able controversialists of his day. When the political horizon 
darkened he steadfastly upheld the constituted authority, admonish- 
ing his parishioners and fellow citizens to abstain from all acts of 
sedition, violence, or rebellion, and to seek redress of evils by 
lawful means ; and when the fateful storm of war at last broke 
over his native land, with unchangeable determination he continued 
in his allegiance to the mother country and the vows of his faith, 
and though already beyond the allotted span of life, devoted the 
remainder of his time, strength, and ability to the service of his 
people and his God. When the Tory organizations were disarmed 
and suppressed in the autumn of 1775 Mr. Beach was one of those 
who signed the agreement not to take up arms for the British, nor 
to discourage enlistments into the American Army. This compact 
he seems to have faithfully observed, and at no time does he appear 
to have counseled reprisals or warlike acts, save that in the use 
of the liturgy of his church he prayed for the king and the over- 
throw of the king's enemies. This observance public sentiment 
and public authority had alike sternly interdicted, with such effect 



176 

that nearly all the Episcopal churches in the colony closed their 
doors, their clergy not daring to incur the penalty of public ven- 
geance through the use of the forbidden supplications. Mr. Beach 
alone continued to read the proscribed petitions, and for the pur- 
pose of compelling submission to the popular will, the authorities 
of Redding addressed to him the following letter of remonstrance 
and warning: 

■' Redding, Feb. 12'^^ 1778. 

Rev. Sir, We have no disposition to restrain or limit you or 
others in matters of conscience. But understanding that you in your 
Public Worship still continue to pray that the King of Great Britain 
may be strengthened to vanquish, and overcome all his enemies, which 
manner of praying must be thought to be a great insult upon the Law, 
Authority, and People of this State, as you and others can but know 
that the King of England has put the People of these United States 
from under his protection, Declared them Rebels, and is now at open 
war with said State, and consequently we are his enemies. 

Likewise you must have understood that the American States 
have declared themselves independent of any Foreign Power. — Now 
Sir, in order that we may have peace and quietness at home among 
ourselves, we desire that for the future you would omit praying in 
Public that King George the third, or any other foreign Prince or 
Power, may vanqui.sh, etc. the People of this Land. 

Your compliance herewith may prevent you trouble. 

We are Rev'' Sir, with due Respect your Obedient Humble 

Servants. 

To the Rev'^ John Beach. 

T ■• j Lem' Sanford 

Justices ■{ 

< W™ Hawley 

(' Hez'^ Sanford 

^^^^'^^ I Seth Sanford 

"^^" ■{ Thad Benedict 

15°,.. ! Joh" Gray 
Reddmg [ ^y„ ^^j.^,^„ 

This warning passed unheeded, however, and the sterner meas- 
ures that were employed to bring Mr. Beach to terms were doubt- 
less used without the sanction of civil authority. At Newtown a 
bod)' of soldiers entered his church during service, threatening 
to shoot him if he read the prayers for the king, but with an un- 
faltering voice the aged Loyalist offered up the obnoxious petitions, 
and the soldiers, struck with admiration for his remarkable cour- 
age, .stacked their arms, and remained through the service. At 
Redding Ridge a bullet was fired into the church as he stood in 
the pulpit, to the great consternation of all but the intended victim, 
who calmed his excited flock with the words : '" Fear not those 
which kill the body, but have not power to kill the soul " — and 



177 

continued the service as though nothing had happened. On an- 
other occasion it is said he was seized by a party of armed enemies, 
who conducted him to the foot of a hill, and bade him kneel and 
pray for himself, as they were resolved to kill him; whereupon he 
knelt, and prayed so fervently — not for himself but for them — 
that they stole in shame and silence from the spot, leaving him 
unharmed and unconquered. Though these anecdotes are clouded 
by the uncertainties of tradition there is much evidence tending 
to shov,' that they are substantially true. They accord with simi- 
lar accounts of lawless violence and stern coercive measures em- 
ployed at that time. 

Viewed apart from partisan prejudice, the character of Rev. 
John Beach was worthy of respect and admiration. Firm, con- 
scientious, and courageous, he adhered consistently to his convic- 
tions of right and duty, undeterred by popular opposition, personal 
danger, or the infirmities of age. He was a man of feeble consti- 
tution, the victim of a lifelong malady ; gentle and amiable in 
everyday life, forceful in controversy, lion-hearted in the face of 
danger. That he did not suffer more severely at the hands of his 
enemies was probably due, not alone to his invincible courage, 
but also to a sense of pity for his physical weakness, and of 
respect for his advanced age and holy ofiice, and his death on 
March 19, 1782, doubtless saved him from that exile which fell to 
the lot of so many of his loyalist brethren. The words ascribed 
as his last utterance were an epitome of his character and career : 
" I have fought a good fight." 

Had John Beach cast his lot with the patriots his influence 
would have attracted many of his loyalist friends, would have 
prevented much bitterness of feeling, and have averted the wreck 
of happy homes, the grief of exile. A more strongly imited public 
sentiment would thus have enabled the patriots to offer a stronger 
resistance to British aggression. On the other hand, had he 
exerted himself actively in behalf of the royal cause it is likely 
that serious collisions would have occurred between the opposing 
factions in Fairfield County, with the possible result of placing 
the territory west of the Housatonic under British domination. 
No other loyalist in that section appears to have imited both 
capacity and opportunity for leadership. His policy of passive 
resistance, adopted by many of his friends, preserved to them the 
peaceable possession of their homes, and reduced the danger of 
armed opposition to the patriot cause, being to that extent beneficial 
to both sides in the great controversy. 

As a spiritual leader Mr. Beach will long be held in reverence. 
Mural tablets, commemorative of his worth and labors, have been 



178 

placed in the churches over which he presided, the tablet at Red- 
ding Ridge containing a bullet taken from the sounding board of 
the church many years after the shooting elsewhere described, 
while in the churchyard at Newtown a stone uplifts this legend 
to the gaze of the passerby : 

" Here lyeth interred the earthly remains of the Rev"^ John Beach, 
A. M., late Missionary from the Venerable Society for the propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in foreign parts, who exchanged this life for im- 
mortality on the 19"' day of March. 1782, in the 82^ year of his age 
& 61^*^ year of his ministry. 

The sweet remembrance of the just 

Shall flourish when he sleeps in dust. 
Reader, let this tablet abide." 

[Beardsley's " History of the Episcopal Church in Connecti- 
cut " ; Todd's " History of Redding " ; Beach-Sanford Genealogy.] 

BEACH, LAZARUS. 1736-1800. 

Fourth son of the Rev. John Beach. Born Sept. 20, 1736. 

He was active in behalf of the royal authority, was arrested 
and confined in the eastern part of the state, as the following 
records show : 

■■ Lazarus Beach, Andrew Fairchild, Nathan Lee, Enos Lee, Abel 
Burr of Reading, and Thomas Allen of New Town in the county of 
Fairfield, being tory convicts and sent by order of law to be confined 
in the town of Mansfield, to prevent any mischievous practices of 
theirs, having made their escape and being taken up and remanded 
back to his Flonor the Governor and this Council to be dealt with &c : 
Resolved and ordered by the Governor and his Council aforesaid, that 
the said Lazarus Beach, Andrew Fairchild, Nathan Lee, Enos Lee, 
and Abel Burr be committed to the keeper of the goal in Windham 
within said prison to be safely kept untill they come out thence by 
due order of the General Assembly or the Governor and his Council 
of Safety, and that they pay cost of their being apprehended and 
being remanded &c. allowed to be £25 : 3 : o :, dinners ii^ : £25: 14:0 
mittimus granted Jany 28"', ^777-" fRec. State Conn., v. i ; p. 163. 
Gov. & C. S. Jan. 28, 1777.] 

"I'otcd, That Andrew Fairchild, Abel Burr, Lazarus Beach, Na- 
than Lee, Enos Lee and Thomas Allen, persons judged to be inimical 
to the United States and now confined in Windham county goal, be 
discharged from said goal on their parole, on their paying all the cost 
that was taxed against them by the Governor and Council of Safety 
as charged in the mittimus by which they were committed, viz £25 : 
14 : o, and all cost that have since arisen and may arise in releasing 
them ; the said Fairchild, Burr, Beach and Allen, to return to Mans- 
field there to abide under the direction of the committee of inspection 



179 

of that town agreeable to a former assignment of them to that town 
by said Governor and Council till duly released. Nathan Lee and 
Enos Lee are permitted to return home on their giving bonds for 
their good behaviour, and the sheriff of Windham county is directed 
to take said parole and bonds, and receive the money for all said 
costs and to discharge said prisoners accordingly and to pay said 
i25 : 14 : o to the Treasurer of this State, taking his receipts, lodging 
one with the Secretary, and to pay the other costs out of the other 
money to whoever due and make return to this Board of his doings 
in the premises: and written orders are sent to the sheriff for the 
above purposes." 

[Rec. State Conn. v. i. p 171 Gov. & C. S. Feb. 10, 1777] 

Mr. Beach resided in Redding after the war, and died there 
Jan. 20, 1800. 

I Beach-Sanford Genealogy.] 

BENEDICT, MICHAEL.i 

BENNET. SHUBAEL. 

BETTS. STEPHEN. 1751-1821. See Rev. Soldiers. . 

BRADLEY. WILLIAM.^ 

BULKLEY, GERSHOM.^ 

BULKLEY. PETER. 

BUNNEL, ISAAC. 

BURR, ABEL. 1728-1779. 
Born Sept. 8, 1728.* 
Lineage: Joseph'*, DanieP, DanieP, Jehu Burr\ of Fairfield.* 

BURR, ABEL, JR. 1751- 

Born Dec. 19, 175 1,* son of the preceding. Went over to the 
enemy and probably remained with them till the close of the war. 
See vote of the town Feb. 5, 1781. See also Beach,, Lazarus. 

BURR, JONATHAN.^ 

BURR. JOSEPH. 1733- 

Born Oct. 22, 1733.* Brother of Abel, Sr. 

Mr. Burr went over to the enemy, and his property was duly 
confiscated, the various forms of legal process being illustrated in 
the records given herewith : 



i8o 

" On Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding, in 
Fairfield County, Shewing to the Special County Court held at Fair- 
held in & for said County on the 6"' Day of August, 1777 — That there 
is Real Estate Lying in said Redding which Belongs to Joseph Burr 
of said Redding who has put and Continues to hold and Screen him- 
self under the Protection of the Ministerial Army &c — A Writ was 
Ifsued by Order of said Court Dated August 7^^, 1777 — To Seize and 
to hold said Estate and to be Dealt with According to Law — The 
said Burr was Called at this Court and made Default of Appearance. 
Thereupon this Court have now Considered the Evidence Relative to 
said Burr's Screening himself As aforesaid Do order that the Real 
Estate of said Burr According to the Otificer's Return on said Writ 
be Leafed out for the ufe and Benefit of this State — and for that 
purpose this Court has appointed — Thad^ Benedict Esq"" of Redding." 

■' Fairfield Adj'd County Court 2'^ Tuesday Decem"" 1777. 
On Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in Fair- 
field County — Shewing to Lemuel Sanford Esq"" Justice of the peace 
for said County That There is Goods Chatties and Effects in said 
Redding which Belongs to Joseph Burr of said Redding who has put 
and Continues to hold and Screen himself under the protection of the 
Ministerial Army &c — said Justice Ifsued out a Writ Dated Aug^t^ 
14th 1777 — to Seize and to hold said Estate and to be Dealt with 
According to Law — The said Burr was Called at this Court — made 
Default of Appearance — This Court having Considered the Evidences 
Relative to said Burr's Screening himself As aforesaid — Do Order 
that the Goods and Effects According to the Officer's Return on said 
Writ of said Burr be Forfeited to the use and Benefit of this State 
and that they be sold According to Law — and that Exc" be 
Granted &c. 

Excn Gran'J Dec. lo''* I777-" 

" Whereas the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in Fairfield 
County did Inform John Read Esq'' Justice of the Peace for said 
County that there is Estate in Redding and Fairfield in said County 
that Belongs to Joseph Burr late of said Redding who has gone over 
to, Joined with and Screened himself under the Protection of the 
Ministerial Army &c, said Burr was Summoned to Appear at this 
Court to shew reafon why his said Estate should not be Declared 
Forfeit &c As Pr Writ on file Dated October 15"! 1778 — said Burr 
was called at this Court & made Default of Appearance Thereupon 
this Court having Considered the Evidence Relative to faid Burr's 
Screening himself As aforesaid Do order that the Estate of said Burr 
be & the same is hereby Forfeited to and for the ufe & Benefit of this 
State, and that the fame be Further Dealt with According to Law." 

[*Chas. B. Todd's Burr Genealogy. '" The Burr Family."] 
BYINGTON, JOHN, JR. See Rev. Soldiers. 



i8i 

CALDWELL, WILLL^M.i 

In 1782 he was enrolled as a Loyalist Associator to settle at 
Shelburne, N. S., the following year. 

CASCIS, DAXIEL.i 

CLARKE, NEHEMIAH." 1739-1825. 

Nehemiah Clarke was a physician who appears to have located 
in Hartford, Conn., dnring the troublous period which preceded 
the outbreak of the Revolution. He had established an extensive 
practice and a comfortable home, but his avowed attachment to 
the cause of the crown brought upon him the vengeance of the 
Whigs with consequent misfortune. 

The Second or South Ecclesiastical Society of Hartford owned, 
among other properties, a piece of land located on the west side 
of the " great road " leading from Hartford to Wethersfield, and 
near the center of the first-named town, in quantity three roods 
and nine rods. This tract the South Society leased to Capt. Aaron 
Bull of Hartford for the term of 999 years, and Capt. Bull leased 
the south half of this lot to Dr. Clarke for the consideration of one 
penny and the term of 900 years. — "Always Provided Neverthe- 
lefs, and it is upon this Condition, that if the said Nehemiah Clark 
his Heirs Executors adminiftrators and afsigns Shall they or 
Either of them fail to pay unto him the said Aaron Bull or to the 
Committee of Said Society for the ufe of Said Society the Sum of 
Forty Two Shillings Lawful money on the firft Monday of June 
annually in each and every Year During Said Term as a Reafon- 
able Rent now agreed upon by the parties to be paid for the ufe 
of the Premifes and which the said Aaron stands Obligated to Pay 
and Discharge then the foregoing writing and Indenture of Lease 
and every Article & Covenant therein shall upon such failure on 
the part of him the Said Nehemiah his heirs &c be null and Void 
and of none Effect and Said Leafed Premifes Shall revert and 
Remain as tho" nothing had been done or pretended to be done, by 
the prefent writing or Instrument." [See Hartford Town Rec- 
ords, V. 13, p. 494.] It was under the operation of this clause, 
evidently, that Dr. Clarke lost the valuable property he was now 
about to acquire. 

L^pon the above-named lot the doctor built a house containing 
four rooms on each floor, also a barn, store, and other buildings, 
at a total cost of £560. His medical practice brought him in an 
average income of £400 a year ; he had a good home and an inter- 
esting family, and his prospects in life were most flattering, but 



l82 

his sentiments in favor of the British government, and his opposi- 
tion to the measures of Congress, made him so obnoxious to the 
patriots that in 1774, soon after the destruction of the tea in 
Boston Harbor, he found it advisable to remove from Hartford to 
Redding, where the Tories were more numerous, and where he 
hoped the poHtical atmosphere would prove more congenial. 

In February, 1775, he returned to Hartford to adjust some 
business relative to his estates there, but was seized by a mob and 
treated with such severity that his life was despaired of by able 
physicians, and after his recovery he made his escape with diffi- 
culty and returned to Redding. But soon after his arrival there 
he was again seized, he says, by " a numerous banditti." and thrown 
into a guard-house, from which he could not extricate himself 
except by signing a bond of £1,000 not to go over to the British. 
This does not appear to have protected him from further molesta- 
tion, for from the loth of May, 1776, he was obliged to hide in the 
woods, or otherwise secrete himself, to avoid the violence of the 
people. In this manner he waited for an opportunity to escape 
to the British lines, in which attempt he finally succeeded, though 
at great personal risk, in December, 1776, leaving his wife and five 
children unprovided for in the hands of his enemies. 

Having reached the British camp on Long Island he joined the 
army, and first served as lieutenant in Col. Browne's Regt. (Prince 
of Wales American Volunteers), in a company commanded by his 
brother. Later he was appointed Surgeon's Mate in Col. Hart- 
choy's Regt., and in 1777 was promoted Surgeon to Col. Emerick's 
Chasseurs, in which he served till 1779, when the corps was drafted, 
and he was transferred to the Quartermaster-General's Depart- 
ment, where he served as surgeon till the peace of 1783. In Sep- 
tember of that year he removed to St. John, New Brunswick, of 
which .city he was one of the grantees. 

After Dr. Clarke's flight from Hartford the South Society 
seized his property in "that city (probably for nonpayment of rent, 
as specified in the lease), and leased or sold it to one Dr. Gibson, 
who had been Clarke's tenant one year. The doctor estimated his 
losses in Hartford at £1,285 including buildings, household furni- 
ture, chaise, medical practice, etc., etc. In Redding he lost £125 
worth of furniture, which, he said, was taken from him by a rebel 
general. He presented claims to the British government for 
£722: 16, on which he was allowed £240, and also received half- 
pay as a surgeon. He died at Douglas, New Brunswick, at the 
age of eighty-six. 

COUCH, STEPHEN.i 



i83 

CROFUT, DAVID. [Crowfoot.] 

CUTIS. SOLOMON.i [Curtis?] 

DAVIS. JAMES. 

This member of the Association is thought to be the same of 
whom tradition relates that he was a Tory of Redding, that he 
fled to the enemy, and that his estate was confiscated. No records 
found. 

DEFOREST. EPHRAIM. 1740-1827. 

Ephraim Deforest, son of David and grandson of Isaac De- 
forest, was probably born in Wilton (then a parish of Norwalk). 
and was married to Sarah Betts of Norwalk by the Rev. Nathaniel 
Bartlett Oct. 25, 1764. This date probably marks the period at 
which he settled in Redding. He was a tanner and shoemaker by 
trade, and bought land in Redding from Abel Cady in 1771 and of 
James Adams in 1775. He established tan-works on the premises, 
and gave employment to several persons. He espoused the cause 
of the king, and for his loyalty was obliged to abandon his pos- 
sessions in November, 1776, and fly for protection to the British 
lines at New York, suffering the loss of his property in conse- 
quence. He was appointed ensign in Gov. Browne's Regt. (Prince 
of Wales American Volunteers), and acted as guide to Gov. 
Tryon in the expedition against Danbury, in April, 1777, after 
which he returned to Long Island and worked at his trade for 
a while, then served upwards of two years at Morrisania in De- 
lancey's Brigade, in the battalion commanded by Col. James De- 
lancey. Later on Deforest was a lieutenant under Col. Upham, 
stationed at Lloyd's Neck. He was twice taken prisoner during 
the war and suffered considerably on those occasions. He came 
in the first fleet from New York in 1783, with his wife and three 
children, and settled at Maugerville, Nova Scotia. His land and 
stock in Redding was confiscated, the land being sold to a man 
named Piatt. His losses on house, barn, shop, 15 acres of land at 
Redding, stock, and furniture he estimated at £271 : 3. He pre- 
sented claims amounting to £204, and was allowed £70 in satisfac- 
tion thereof. 

The following documents show the legal process employed in 
the seizure and disposal of Deforest's property : 

"On Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in 
Fairfield County Shewing the adjd County Court held at Fairiield 
in & for said County on the i*^' Tuesday of March 1777 — That there 
is Real Estate Lying in said Redding which Belongs to Ephraim De- 



1 84 

forest of said Redding who has put and Continues to hold and Screen 
himself under the protection of the Ministerial Army &c — A Writ 
was Ifsued by order of said Court to Seize and to hold said Estate, 
and to be dealt with According to Law the said Deforest was Called 
at this Court & made Default of Appearance — This Court having 
Considered the Evidences Relative to said Deforest's Screening him- 
self as aforesaid — Do order & Direct that the Real Estate of said 
Deforest — According to the officer's Return on said Writ be Leased 
out for the use & Benefit of this State and for that purpose this Court 
has appointed Thad^ Benedict — Redding." 

Deforest soon after appeared in Redding — not, however, in 
response to a citation of the court. As guide to Tryon's column 
he probably visited his old home for the last time. Later in the 
year a writ was issued against his moveable property, as here 
shown : 

■' On Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in 
Fairfield County, Shewing to Lemuel Sanford Esq'" — Justice of the 
peace for said County that there is Goods Chatties & Effects in sd 
Redding which belongs to Ephraim Deforest of' said Redding— who 
has put & Continues to hold and Screen himself under the protection 
of the Ministerial Army &c — a writ was Ifsued out by said Justice 
to Seize and to hold said Estate — and to be Dealt with According 
to Law — the said Deforest was Called at this Court and made Default 
of Appearance — This Court having Considered the Evidence Relative 
to said Deforest's Screening himself as aforesaid to order and Direct 
that the Goods & Effects of said Deforest According to the Officer's 
Return on said \Vrit be Forfeited to the ufe and Benefit of this State 
— and that they be sold According to Law — and that Exc° be 
Granted &c — 

Exc" Granted Dec"" lo"' 1777." 

While Putnam's division lay at Redding late in the following 
year the final forfeiture of Deforest's estate was decreed: 

■■ 3"' Tues. Nov. 1778. — Whereas the Selectmen of the Town of 
Redding in Fairfield County did Inform John Read Esq'' J P for sd 
Co. that there is Estate in said Redding which belongs to Ephraim 
Deforest of said Redding who has gone over to, Joined with & 
Screened himself under the Protection of the Ministerial Army &c — 
said Deforest was summoned to Appear At this Court to shew Reafon 
why his said Estate should not be declared Forfeit &c as P Writ on 
file Dated Oct. 15, 1778 — said Deforest was Called at this Court & 
made Default of Appearance. Thereupon the Court having Consid- 
ered the Evidence Relative to said Deforest's Screening himself As 
aforesaid Do order that the Estate of said Deforest be & the same 
is hereby declared Forfeit to & for the ufe & Benefit of this State & 
that the same be further Dealt with According to Law." 



•«5, 

DREW, ISAAC. 1752- 

Born June 15, 1752. 

"I Tues. Mch. 1778. — Whereas the Selectmen of the Town of 
Redding in Fairfield County did Inform the Adjourned County Court 
held at Fairfield in & for said County on the i^' Tuesday of January 
1778 — That there is Real Estate in said Redding which Belongs to 
Isaac Drew of Said Redding who has put & Continues to hold & 
Screen himself Under the Protection of the Ministerial Army &c — 
A Writ was Ifsued out by Order of Said Court to Seize & to hold 
said Estate & to be Dealt with According to Law, As P Writ on tile 
Dated i6"» Day of Jan''!' A D 177S. The said Drew was Called at 
this Court, and made Default of Appearance. This Court having 
Considered the Evidence Relative to said Drews Screening himself as 
aforesaid, Do order & Direct that the Real Estate of said Drew Ac- 
cording to the Officers Return on said Writ be Leafed out for the ufe 
& Benefit of this State, and for that purpose the Court has appointed 
Thad^ Benedict, Esq"" of said Redding. — 

Warrant Ifsued March 25ti\ 1778." 

No other record found. Isaac Drew may have returned and 
submitted to the state government. 

DREW, JOHN, JR. 1749- : 

Born Dec. 16, 1749. 

This man refused to perform military duty in the summer of 
1779, as here shown: 

" Whereas John Gray of Redding in Fairfield County Capt of a 
Military Company in the 4"' Reg*- of Militia in the State of Connec- 
ticut, did inform the Judge of Fairfield County Court, that pursuant 
to Brigade Orders dated the i^t^ Day of June 1779, he the said Capt 
did on the 3'^ Day of said June, duly warn, & Order his said Company, 
to March to Peekskill in the State of New York, to Defend against 
the Enemies of the United States of America & that John Drew Jun'' 
of said Redding, a Soldier in and belonging to said Company Utterly 
Neglected & Refused to March As aforesaid. Nor made Satisfaction 
for said Neglect — as P Writ on file Dated August 27th A D: 1779 — 

The said Drew was Called at this Court, & made Default of Ap- 
pearance. Thereupon it is Considered by this Court, that the Delin- 
quent shall pay as a fine to the Treasurer of the Town of Redding 
Aforesaid. the Sum of One Hundred & Twenty Pounds Lawful Money 
As a fine for his said Neglect and Alfo Cost of Prosecution taxt at 
Eighteen Pounds 12/ — and that Exc" be granted &c 



Excn Gran'5 


Septem'' 


30th 


1779 


Renewed 


Nov. 


23 


1779 


Renewed 


April 


12, 


1780 


Renewed 


Sept. 


8, 


17S0 


Renewed 


Nov. 


29, 


1780 


Renewed 


Feb'y 


8th 


1781 


Renewed 


April 


18, 


1 781 


Renewed 


June 


28, 


1 781 


Renewed 


March 


16, 


1782 


12 









1 86 

DREW, PETER. 1754- 
Born April 22, 1754. 

EDWARDS, JOSEPH, JR.i 

FAIRCHILD, ANDREW.- See Beach, Lazarus. 

FAIRCHILD, C.i 

FAIRCHILD, JOSEPH.i 

FAIRCHILD, PETER.2 

Peter Fairchild (by such facts as can be ascertained concern- 
ing him) appears to have been a prominent citizen, who, at first 
secretly and afterward openly, favored the royal cause. He repre- 
sented Redding in the Legislature of 1774, and in April of the 
following year was commissioned first lieutenant of Capt. Zalnion 
Read's company, 5th Regt. Conn. Line, but resigned. He fur- 
nished food, forage, etc., when the troops under Col. Ichabod 
Lewis came to Redding and disarmed the Tories. See vote of the 
town Dec. 13, 1775. Probably his real sentiments became public 
soon after. His name appears no more in the public records. 
Sabine describes him as " a noted Tory," who fled to Long Island 
in 1776, eluding all attempts to capture him. He was perhaps the 
man who late in 1776 served as captain in the Queen's Rangers 
(Loyalist) under Col. Robert Rogers. 

GILBERT, ABNER.i 

GRAY, JAMES. 

Mr. Gray was doubtless one of those who joined the Tryon 
Expedition in April, 1777, in the belief that the colonies would be 
conquered. He returned, however, in time to save his property 
from confiscation. 

" On Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in 
Fairfield County shewing to the Special County Court held at Fair- 
field in and for said County on the 5^^^ Day of August 1777 — thai 
their is Real Estate Lying in said Redding which Belongs to James 
Gray of said [Redding] who has put & Continues to hold & Screen 
under the Protection of the Ministerial Army &c — said Court Ifsued 
out a Writ Dated August 7*-^ 1777 — 10 Seize and to hold s<i Estate 
& to be Dealt with According to Law. y*^ said Gray was Called at 
this Court and made Default of Appearance — Whereupon this Court 
having Considered the Evidence Relative to said Gray's Screening 



i87 

himself as aforesaid, Do order that the Real Estate of said Gray 
According to the Officers Return on said Writ be Leafed out for the 
ufe and Benefit of this State, and for that purpose this Court has 
appointed Thaddeus Benedict — Redding." 

" Whereas the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in Fairfield 
County did Inform John Read Esq'" Justice of the Peace for said 
County, that there is Estate in sd Redding that Belongs to James 
Gray of said Redding who has Gone over to. Joined with & Continues 
to hold & Screen himself under the Protection of the Ministerial 
Army &c — the faid Gray was Summoned to Appear at this Court 
to show Reafon why his said Estate should not be declared Forfeit &c 
As P Writ on file Dated October 15th A D 1778 P Adjournment. 
The said Gray Appeared at this Court to answer to said Complaint. 
This Court having Examined the Evidence Relative to said Gray's 
Screening himself as aforesaid and Considered thereof Give Judg- 
ment that said Gray is Not Guilty, and that his Estate be Not Forfeited 
to & for the use & Benefit of this State — and this Court do Order 
that he be Dilmifsed without paying Cost." — 

Feb. 5, 1 78 1, the town voted not to abate the assessments of 
Mr. Gray and others which had been levied for the purpose of 
hiring soldiers for the Continental Army. 

GRAY, JAMES, JR. 

Son of the preceding. He v/ent over to the enemy, and prob- 
ably remained till the close of the war. See vote of the town 
Feb. 5. 1781. 

GRIFFIN, SILAS.i 

GUYER, DARLING. [Gyer.] 

GUYER, JOHN. 

GUYER. JOSEPH. 

„^^_^ (LAZARUS.i^) _ ^ ^ 

GUYI.R. j j,jATHAN. \ ^^y""' ' ^^'''^ 

One of these men is mentioned as a " skipper," who assisted a 
number of disaffected persons to escape from Connecticut, having 
set seven men ashore at Fort Neck Point, L. I., in which act he was 
discovered by Gilbert Jones, one of the Oyster Bay Committee, 
who vv'as watching his movements through a spyglass. These men 
were located at Blue Point, L. I., and both were finally captured 
with a companion, in a clam boat near Silas Carman's Landing, 
Oyster Bay, were examined before Joshua Ketcham and Benjamin 



i88 

Birdsall on May 26, 1776, officially charged with " treasonable 
practices against the United States of America " ; on May 29th 
were forwarded by Lieut. John HoUiday from Far Rockaway to 
the custody of Gen. Greene, and on July i8th following were sent 
to Litchfield jail. They were probably related to the Redding 
family, evidently residing in some one of our shore towns, and may 
have crossed over from the mainland and engaged in the work of 
aiding refugees to escape to the British lines. Perhaps some of 
our own Tory friends were among their passengers. 

GUYER, NATHANIEL. 

" Whereas John Gray of Red-ding in Fairfield Co. Capt. of the g''^ 
Military Co. in the 4*"^ Regt. of Militia in this State did Inform the 
Judge of Fairfield County Court, that pursuant to Brigade Orders, 
Dated June i, 1779, — he the said Capt. did on the 3 Day of June 1779, 
duly warn and order his said Company to March to Peekskill in the 
State of New York, for the defense of the United American States 
and y* Nath^i Guyer, of said Redding, a Soldier in & Belonging to 
said Company, Utterly Neglected & Refused to March According to 
said Order, nor made satisfaction for said neglect — As P Writ on 
file Dated Aug. 27''! 1779. The said Guyer Appeared at this Court 
to Answer unto said Information, & being put to plead plead Not 
Guilty & for trial put himself on the Court. 

This Court having considered thereof Are of Opinion that the De- 
linquent is Not Guilty of the Matters Alledged against [him] in said 
Information — & thereupon this Court do Order that he pay Cost of 
Prosecution Allowed to be £26 — 8 Lawful Money." — 

GUYER, THADDEUS. 

HALL. JOHN. 

HALL. CAPT. JOSHUA. 

HAMBLETON, WILLIAM.^ 

HAWES, PRINCE. 

He fled to Long Island in 1776. and the fact was communicated 
to Gen. Washington. 

HAWLEY, ENSIGN SAMUEL. 

Samuel Hawley was appointed ensign of the east side company 
or trainband [nth company, 4th Regt. Militia], in October, 1773. 
When detachments were ordered from the various companies for 
the defense of New York in 1776 Ensign Hawley and the superior 
officers of his company endeavored to prevent the draft, with 



i8g 

results disastrous to themselves. [See Hill, Capt. Daniel.] In 

April, 1777, Hawley went over to the enemy, probably with the 

Tryon Expedition, but returned the same year, as shown by his 
memorial to the Legislature : 

"Upon the memorial of Samuel llawley, of Redding in the county 
of Fairfield, showing to this Assembly that he is now a prisoner in 
said county, held to answ'Cr for crimes against the State, and that 
under the influence of a belief that the country would be subdued, he, 
in April last, left the country and went to the enemy, but being after- 
wards perswaded that his conduct was unjustifyable and on or about 
the ipt'^ of November last he was induced by the proclamation of the 
Hont'ie Geni Putnam, issued the I7"i of November, offering a pardon 
to such as should return to their habitation to return home, and 
thereupon he did return home and resign himself up to authority, 
and took the oath of fidelity, and praying for a pardon of his offence, as 
per memorial on file : Resolved by this Assembly, that said Samuel 
Hawley be released from his present confinement on his paying the 
costs of his prosecution, and that he be discharged, and he is hereby 
pardoned and discharged from any further prosecution for said of- 
fence." 

[Rec. State Conn, v i., p. 508: G. A. Jan. 177S.] 

HENDRIX, OBED. See Rev. Soldiers. 

HERON, WILLIAM.2 1742-1819. 

Mystery enshrouds the character and career of William Heron. 
He was a native of Ireland, a man of education (it is supposed he 
was a student of Trinity College, Dublin), of aristocratic preten- 
sions, and with political ambitions, which were certainly gratified 
to a reasonable degree. He was a teacher at Greenfield Hill, 
a surveyor of county highways, and a long-time resident of Red- 
ding, where he probably settled several years previous to the out- 
break of hostilities. He soon became a factor in the political life 
of the town, filled local offices, and during the Revolution rendered 
service in various capacities under the following appointments : 
April 2, 1777, on a committee to hire soldiers for the Continental 
Army; June 28, 1779, delegate to a county convention to consider 
monetary affairs; March 13, 1780, chosen an Inspector of Pro- 
visions; Dec. 27, 1780, on a committee appointed to ascertain the 
length of time served by soldiers of the town; April 16, 1781, on 
a Committee of Correspondence relative to monetary and other 
affairs; Feb. 28, 1782, on committee to class inhabitants for re- 
cruiting purposes — these were all town appointments. Also, he 
represented the town in the General Assembly for four sessions 
during the war: May, 1778, October, 1779; January, 1780 (ad- 



igo 

journed session) ; May, 1781 ; and at the session of October, 1779, 
was made a member of the committee appointed to estimate losses 
incurred by the inhabitants of Norwalk during the preceding July. 
At the adjourned session of January, 1780, he was appointed a 
member of the committee designated to investigate certain irregu- 
larities existing in the departments of the Quartermaster-General 
and Commissary-General. Besides this, it is stated he served with 
credit in the field as a volunteer. After the war his political 
prestige greatly increased, and he again represented the town at 
the sessions of October, 1784;. May, 1785; October, 1786, to May, 
1790, inclusive; October, 1795; May-October, 1796 — a total serv- 
ice of seventeen sessions during eighteen years. None of his 
fellow townsmen — excepting his powerful political antagonist. 
Judge Lemuel Sanford — enjoyed the legislative honor .so many 
times. 

Such a record indicates both popularity and patriotism, but 
other facts present this man's character in an unfavorable light. 
By many of his fellow citizens he was regarded as a secret Tory, 
and he was openly accused of trafficking with the enemy, though 
no satisfactory proof of the charge appears to have been produced. 
The doubt of his integrity outlasted his day, and he is now his- 
torically represented as a Tory, and in recent years has been 
branded as a double-dyed traitor, who served both sides, betrayed 
and sold the secrets of each to the other, and was actively engaged 
in a scheme to corrupt one of the prominent officers of the Ameri- 
can Army. He was frequently within the British lines under 
flags of truce, and evidently had ample opportunities for learning 
(and divulging, if he so desired), the secrets of either side. 

Sabine says of him, that on Sept. 4, 1780, he went into the 
British lines under a flag, and while there gave information to the 
royal officers, being at this very time in the office of public accounts 
and possessing the confidence of the Whigs. In this information, 
which was apparently quite voluminous, Heron is represented as 
stating that he " was ever an enemy to the declaration of inde- 
pendence, but he said nothing, except to the most trusty Loyalists," 
and further, that he was favorably known to the officers of the 
Continental Army, " and is not suspected." , 

Mr. C. B. Todd makes Heron the acknowledged leader of the 
Redding Tories, and an open champion of the royal cause. But 
when we consider the severity with which the active Tories were 
treated such an attitude seems impossible. Had he been an avowed 
Tory he could not have commanded public confidence, nor enjoyed 
public favor, but must have submitted to enforced retirement, or 
ultimately suffered exile. However favorable to the royal cause 



191 

his sentiments may have been he always maintained a judicious 
silence in regard to them, and never entirely lost the confidence of 
the Whigs. 

The discovery, in 1882. of "A Record of Private Intelligence," 
kept at the headquarters of General Sir Henry Clinton, the British 
commander at New York in 1781, brought to light certain letters 
which passed from William Heron to Major Oliver Delancey, the 
British adjutant-general. Upon the contents of these letters is 
based the charge of treachery and double-dealing advanced in the 
paper of Mr. J. G. Woodward, read before the Connecticut His- 
torical Society in 1896. The aiithor's conclusions, as drawn from 
the evidence before him, are that Heron was a perfidious creature, 
who, while still active in the councils of the patriots, was, for 
purposes of personal gain, acting as a paid spy in the British 
service, and attempting to extort money from the royal authorities 
in a pretended effort to bring over to the British side a prominent 
American officer. Gen. S. H. Parsons of the Conn. Line. 

A letter from Gen. Parsons to Gen. Washington, dated April 
6, 1782 (quoted by Mr. Woodward), gives us what is probably the 
most faithful portraiture of Heron we are ever likely to have, as 
well as the best evidence that can I)C produced in his behalf. Gen. 
Parsons wrote : . . . I forgot to mention the name of Mr. 
William Heron of Redding, who lias for several years had oppor- 
tunities of informing himself of the state of the enemy, their de- 
signs, and intentions, with more certainty and precision than most 
men who have been employed. . . . He is a native of Ireland, 
a man of very large knowledge, and a great share of natural sa- 
gacity, united with a sound judgment; but of as unmeaning a 
countenance as any person in my acquaintance. With this appear- 
ance he is as little suspected as any man can be. An officer in the 
department of the adjutant-general is a countryman and very 
intimate acquaintance of Mr. Pleron, through which channel he 
has been able frequently to obtain important and very interesting 
intelligence. . . . Pie has frequently brought me the most ac- 
curate descriptions of the posts occupied by the enemy, and more 
rational accounts of their numbers, strength, and designs than I 
have been able to obtain in any other way. 

As to his character, I know him to be a consistent, national 
Whig; he is always in the field in every alarm, and has in every 
trial proved himself a man of bravery. He has a family and a 
considerable interest in the state, and from the beginning of the 
war has invariably followed the measures of the country. . . . 
In opposition to this, his enemies suggest that he carries on illicit 
trade with the enemy, but I have lived two years [ ?] the next door 



192 

to him, and am fully convinced he has never had a single article 
of any kind for sale during that time. ... I know many per- 
sons of more exalted character are also accused, none more than 
Governor Trumbull, nor with less reason. I believe the governor 
and Mr. Heron as clear of this business as I am, and I know 
myself to be totally free from everything which has the least con- 
nection with that commerce." 

Whether Heron was actually the Judas-like character repre- 
sented may never be satisfactorily determined. The evidence pre- 
sented does not seem sufficient to enable us to form a just estimate 
of his personal integrity. Although his correspondence with De- 
lancey appears to convict him of a dishonorable purpose, it is not 
wholly improbable that it was conducted in furtherance of some 
plan for ingratiating himself more thoroughly into the confidence 
of the British authorities. 

But it is at least made clear that Heron was a secret service 
agent in the employ of civil or military authority — engaged in an 
occupation in which the means employed, whatever they may be, 
are generally considered to be justified by the end desired; in 
which, also, it is often necessary that the spy shall successfully 
mislead his friends, in order that he may the more completely 
deceive his enemies ; and in which, as an inevitable consequence, 
he must fall under suspicion among such of his own party as are 
unacquainted with his true character and motives. Stispicion 
is rife in times of war, and others besides Heron, engaged in 
similar service, were branded with a stigma which it was often 
found difficult to remove. A few cases may be cited in illustration : 

Sergcant-Major Champe of Lee's Legion, at the request of his 
commanding officer, deserted from the American camp, and at the 
imminent peril of his life, made his way into the British lines for 
the purpose of effecting the capture of Arnold, and no doubt as 
to his intended treachery existed in the minds of his comrades 
until his unexpected return to camp and duty dispelled that belief. 
Sergeant Daniel Bissell of Windsor, sent within the British lines 
for the purpose of gaining information and officially proclaimed a 
deserter in furtherance of his qbjcct, was unable either to fully 
carry out his instructions or to return to the American camp, and 
was obliged to enroll himself in the enemy's service and remain 
virtually a prisoner for thirteen months. ^Vlthough his character 
was afterward fully vindicated, he suffered annoyance in after 
years from imputations of disloyalty. Enoch Crosby of Danbury, 
one of the most active of the patriot spies, was doubted by both 
parties. Heron, though less exposed, was not more fortunate in 
disarming suspicion. 



193 

Further inquiry of this man's personality reveals little. Doubt- 
less he possessed natural qualifications for his peculiar task — a 
talent for intrigue, a deeply secretive nature. The " unmeaning- 
countenance " never betrayed the secrets it masked. The oft- 
repeated remark attributed to him — " We must keep down the 
underbrush " — applied to his humbler fellow men, reveals his 
aristocratic tendency, and the probable source of much unfriendli- 
ness toward him, which would naturally tend to keep alive reports 
unfavorable to his reputation. A desire for worldly gain is also 
indicated — he was a thrifty citizen. He was respected by the 
best people of the community ; one of his daughters married a son 
of his old opponent Judge Sanford. Whether he cleared his name 
from imputations of dishonor, or, disdaining concessions to popular 
opinion, left his case to the judgment of posterity cannot be told, 
but it may be an appeal from the biased judgriient of his country- 
men to the bar of eternal justice that is graven beneath his name 
on the tall slab which marks his resting-place in Christ Church 
Yard: 

In Memory of 
William Heron Esq. 
who was born in the City of Cork, Ireland, 1742, 
• and died Jan. 8, 1819. 

" I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that 
he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth." 

Ample material for the study of the career of Heron and other 
secret service agents of the Revolution may be found in Sabine's 
"American Loyalists," Thacher's " Military Journal," Todd's " His- 
tory of Redding," Bailey's " History of Danbury," Stiles' "Ancient 
Windsor," J. G. Woodward's " Examination of the Charge of 
Treason against Gen. S. H. Parsons," Spencer's Hist, of the U. S., 
v. 2, bk. 3, p. 102. 

HILL, Cx\PT. DANIEL. 1726-1805. 

Born Jan. 26, 1726. Son-in-law of Rev. John Beach. 

Capt. Daniel Hill commanded the nth (east side) company of 
the 4th Militia Regt. at the beginning of the Revolution, and, with 
his subaltern officers, endeavored to prevent the detaching of 
troops from his command for the defense of New York in 1776. 
The charge against these officers is annexed : 

" Whereas information has been given to the Assembly that Capt. 
Daniel Hill, Lieut. Peter Lyon, and Ensign Samuel Hawley, all of the 
I I'll company in the fourth regiment in this Colony under the com- 
mand of Gold Selleck Silliman Esq'", colonel of said regiment, have 



194 

instead of forwarding, as it was their duty to do endeavored to obstruct 
and embarrass, and have in fact neglected and refused to obey certain 
orders given out to said officers by said colonel in pursuance of orders 
from the Governor, the Captain General, sometime in March last, for 
the purpose of inlisting or detaching a certain number in said company 
to march for New York, which orders said officers have severally 
contemptuously disobeyed and greatly obstructed the execution thereof : 
Whereupon this Assembly order and decree, that a precept be issued 
forth by the Secretary of this Colony immediately, to arrest the bodies 
of them the said Daniel Hill, Peter Lyon and Samuel Hawley re- 
spectively, and them have before this Assembly to answer to the said 
information and further dealt with as to justice appertains, and that 
Colo. Silliman with other proper evidences be also cited to appear." 

[Rec. State Conn. 1777, v. i, p. 427.] 

The records further state : 

" Upon the complaint of General Syllyman against sundry military 
companies and military officers in the county of Fairfield for dis- 
obedience &c ... it is resolved by this Assembly . . . that the 
east military company in the town of Redding be and the same is 
hereby dissolved, and annexed to the west military company in said 
town . . . and that Daniel Hill of Reading . . . also pay the 
cost arisen in the premises alowed to be two pounds one shilling and 
six pence. . . . and that execution issue for the same." 

[Rec. State Conn. 1777 — v i, p 427.] 

Being in this manner deprived of both rank and command Capt. 
Hill offered no further resistance to the patriots but remained a 
passive spectator of events till the close of the war. He died July 
II, 1805, and is buried in Christ Church Yard. 

HILL, ERSKINE.i 

HILL, EZEKIEL. See vote of the town Jan. 8, 1781. 

HOYT, JAMES.i 

HOYT, SAMUEL, JR.i 

JACKSON, PETER.^ 

JARVIS, SAMUEL.2 

" Mr. Samuel Jarvis of Redding, Conn, came to Amenia in the 
latter part of the century. . . . He was of an English family of 
good standing, many of whom adhered to the royal side in the Revo- 
lution. It was a brother of Mr. Jarvis, who led the British into 
Danbury when they burnt it, and who, after the war, went to Canada, 
and entered into the service of the crown." 

[Early History of Amenia, N. Y.] 



195 
JUDD, TOXATHAN.i 
TUDD, SAMUEL.i Father of the others. 
JUDD, SAMUEL, JR.i 
JUDD. WILLIAM.^ 

KANE, BARNARD.i 

Entered the ser^'ice of the crown and became a captain in the 
New York Volunteers. 

KEELER, BARNHARD.2 1761-1827. 

A British soldier, said to have deserted from Tryon's column 
in the Danbury Expedition. Generally spoken of as a Hessian, 
though no Hessians arc known to have accompanied the British. 
He settled in Redding, married Sarah Clugston Jan. i, 1793, and 
left descendants. Known to" later generations as "Uncle Barney" 
Keeler. Died March 5, 1827. Buried at Umpawaug. 

KELLOGG. EZRA.i 

KNAPP, ANDREW. 

KNAPP, DAVID. See town vote Feb. 5, 1781. 

KNAPP, DAVID (JR.?). 

Thought to be the son of the preceding. In 1782 Knapp was 
at New York, a Loyalist Associator enrolled for settlement at 
Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in the following year, with a family of 
two persons. At the peace he went from New York to Shelburne, 
where the crown granted him 50 acres of land, one town and one 
water lot. His losses sustained in consequence of his loyalty were 
estimated at £230. 

KNAPP, JONATHAN. 

Fled to Long Island in 1776. 

KNAPP, MOSES.^ 

LACY, STEPHEN. 

This man fled to Long Island in 1776, and the fact was com- 
municated to Washington. 

LAYNE, JOHN. [Lane.] 



196 

LEE, ENOS. See vote of the town Feb. 5, 1781. 
Died April 25, 1796. 

LEE, ENOS (JR.) See Beach, Lazarus. See also town vote 
Feb. 5, 1 781. 
[It is not definitely known which of the above signed the As- 
sociation.] 

LEE. JOHN. 1749-1813. 

Was appointed administrator of his father's estate (about 
1796). Probably living in Redding at that time. Died Feb. 22, 
1813, at Roxbury, N. Y. 

LEE, NATHAN. See Beach, Lazarus. 

LEE, NATHANIEL. May be identical with Nathan. 

LEE, NEHEMIAH.i 

LEE, SILAS. 

LEE, WILLIAM. 

LYON, AARON. 2 

Fled to Long Island in 1776 and the fact was conniiunicated to 
Washington. 

LYON, LIEUT. DANIEL. See vote of the town Feb. 5, 1781. 

LYON, DANIEL, 3d.i 2 

Fled to Long Island in 1776 and the fact was communicated to 
Washington. 

LYON, EBENEZER.i 

LYON, ELI. 

LYON, EZEKIEL. 

Fled to Long Island in 1776 and the fact was communicated to 
Washington. 

LYOX, GERSHOM. JR.i 

LYON, JABEZ. 

Died Oct. 20, 1777. 



197 
LYON, JESSE.i 

LYON, JOHN. 

John Lyon was a farmer who owned about lOO acres of land in 
Redding, part of which he had inherited from his father. Upon 
this property he had two houses, one of which was rented for £4 
a year. He had also a half-interest in a schooner, and appears to 
have been an energetic and successful business man. In his 
memorial to the British government he states that from the first 
he favored the royal authority, and exerted himself to the utmost 
in its behalf, even at the hazard of his life ; and at an early period 
was under banishment through fear of the rebels to whom he made 
himself obnoxious by signing the " Reading Resolves " against 
Congress and Committees, which document he personally carried 
to Rivington, the king's printer at New York, at the request of 
other signers of the instrument, who authorized its publication. 
As early as March, 1775, he was seized by a mob, ill-treated, and 
robbed. It was perhaps at this time that his merchandise at Mill 
River, valued at £500, was also seized, but this he afterward re- 
covered. He was finally obliged to fly to the British lines for 
protection, reaching them in May or June, 1776, being the first 
man from Redding to join the British. He entered the military 
service of the crown and served as a volunteer one year, assisted 
in raising the Loyalist regiment known as the King's Rangers, 
under warrant from Col. Robert Rogers, the commander of the 
regiment; obtained 22 recruits for this corps in Fairfield County, 
and also acted as guide during the war. Major Upham testified 
to his services and loyalty. At the peace he left New York with 
the first fleet, embarking in the transport Union April 11, 1783. 
with his wife and two sons, Reuben and John, Jr., and settled at 
Kingston, Nova Scotia, on a small bay out of Bellisle Bay. He 
was a vestryman of the first Episcopal church established in 
Kingston. 

For several months after Lyon's disappearance from Redding 
no legal action was taken against him, but within a year entries 
of proceedings began to appear in the files of the County Court : 

Fairfield. April County Court A D 1777. 
" On an Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding 
to the Adj. County Court held at Fairfield on the first Tuesday of 
March A D 1777 — Showing that there is real Estate lying in Redding 
that Belongs to John Lyon of said Redding who has put & continues 
to hold & screen himself under the protection of the Ministerial Army 
said Adj"! County Court ordered a Writ According to Law to seize 



198 

& hold said Real Estate as P Writ dated March lot*^ 1777 may appear. 
The delinquent Lyon was called at this Court and made default of 
appearance. Whereupon this Court having considered the Evidences 
relative to the sd Lyon screening himself as aforesaid, do order & 
direct that the Real Estate of the said Lyon according to the Consta- 
ble's return on said Writ be leased for the benefit of this State and 
for that purpose Mr. Ephraim Robbins of sd Redding is appointed 
by this Court." 

This was immediately followed by sei.zurc of goods and chattels : 

" On an information of the Selectmen of the town of Redding in 
Fairfield County, Shewing to Lemuel Sanford Justice of the Peace 
for said County that there are goods Chatties and eflfects in sd Red- 
ding that belong to John Lyon of said Redding who has joined the 
Ministerial Army & screened himself under them, said Justice issued 
this Writ according to Law to seize & hold the goods chattels & 
effects of the sd Lyon as Pr writ & Complaint dated March 28t'i A D 
1777. Said Lyon was called at this court and made default of ap- 
pearance. This Court having heard the evidences relative to the sd 
Lyon's screening himself as aforesaid, & Considered thereof, do order 
& direct that the Goods Chatties & eflfects of the sd Lyon according to 
the Constable's return on said Writ & Complaint be forfeited to the 
Use and benefit of this State and y' they be fold according to law. 

Execution granted, Apl 18, 1777." 

Forfeiture of estate was decreed about a year and a half later: 

" Whereas the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in Fairfield 
County did Inform John Read Sq'" Justice of the Peace for said 
County that there is Estate in said Redding which belongs to John 
Lyon of said Redding who has Joined — put & continues to hold 
himself under the protection of the Ministerial Army &c — said Lyon 
was summoned to appear at this Court to shew Reafon why his said 
Estate should not be Declared Forfeit &c As Pr Writ on file Dated 
Ocf 13"^ A D 1778 P Adjournment — the faid Lyon was called at 
this Court & made Deft of Appearance. Thereupon this Court hav- 
ing Considered the Evidence Relative to the sd Lyon's Joining him- 
self as aforesaid do order that the Estate of said Lyon be & the same 
is hereby declared Forfeit to & for the ufe and Benefit of this State, 
& that the same be Further Dealt with According to Law." 

The estate was sold accordingly. Stephen Betts bought part. 
W^illiam Heron bought one of the houses. 

Lyon's losses in lands, houses, stock, furniture, shipping inter- 
ests, etc., he estimated at £1,790:14:6. He presented claims to 
about this amount and was allowed £290 in satisfaction thereof. 

LYON, JONATHAN.! 



199 

LYON, JOSEPH.i 

Joseph Lyon, a brother of John, was a farmer and a resident of 
Fairfield, but owned about 150 acres of land in Redding, which 
was confiscated because of his adherence to the royal cause. Of 
this about 35 acres was left him by his father's will in 1750; the 
remainder he purchased at various times from Henry Lyon, Peter 
Lyon, Hez. and Isaac Osborne, and David Whitlock. He was 
always a warm friend of Great Britain, and refused to sign an 
association with the Whigs, and was therefore publicly advertised 
as an enemy to America, as were all others who refused to sign. 
In 1775 he signed a protest against the proceedings of Congress, 
pledging himself to oppose such proceedings. In consequence of 
his acts of loyalty he was much persecuted ; was at one time very 
ill-treated by a mob, and was obliged to secrete himself. On one 
occasion he, with Ephraim Deforest, was hidden in the woods for 
thirty-three days, and while in hiding Lyon built a cave for per- 
secuted Loyalists. He found no opportunity to escape to the 
British lines till April, 1777, when Tryon's Expedition marched 
through the town, and he joined it, and returned with it to New 
York, where he entered the regiment known as the Associated 
Loyalists, served as guide under General Tryon at Fairfield 
(1779?), and on several occasions afterward as volunteer at 
Lloyd's Neck. In April, 1783, he removed to Kingston, N. S., 
in the transport Union, and was appointed one of the wardens of 
the first Episcopal church established in that settlement. His land 
in Redding was ad-s»ertised and sold, and his total losses in lands, 
stock, tools, and furniture he estimated at £1,150. for which claim 
the British government allowed him £524. 

LYON, LIEUT. PETER. 

Lieut. Peter Lyon was one of the officers of the east side mili- 
tary company who endeavored to prevent the detaching of soldiers 
for the defense of New York in 1776. He vv'ent over to the enemy, 
and proceedings were begun against his estate : 

" On Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in 
Fairfield County showing the Adj'd County Court held at Fairfield 
in and for said County the i^^ Tuesday of March 1777 — That tlieir 
is Real Estate Lying in Redding which Belongs to Peter Lyon of 
said Redding who has put and Continues to hold and Screen himself 
imder the Protection of the Ministerial Army &c — A Writ was Ifsued 
out by order of said Court to Seize and to hold said Estate, and to be 
dealt with According to Law — the said Lyon was Called at this 
Court and made Default of Appearance — This Court having Con- 
sidered the Evidence Relative to said Lyon's Screening himself As 



200 

aforesaid — Do Order that the Real Estate of said Lyon According 
to the Officer's Return on said writ be leafed out for the ufe and 
Benefit of this State — and for that purpose this Court has appointed 
Thads Benedict — Redding." 

Execution was then granted on his chattels : 

" On Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in 
Fairfield County Shewing to Lemuel Sanford Esq'" Justice of the 
peace for said County that there is Goods Chatties and Eflfects in said 
Redding which belongs to Peter Lyon of said Redding — who has 
put and Continues to hold & Screen himself under the Protection of 
the Ministerial Army &c — said Justice Ifsued his Writ Dated March 
28^11 1777 — To Seize & to hold said Estate — and to be Dealt with 
According to Law — The said Lyon was Called at this Court, and 
made Default of Appearance — This Court having Considered the 
Evidence Relative to said Lyon's Screening himself As aforesaid — 
Do order and Direct that the Goods & Effects of the said Lyon, Ac- 
cording to the Officer's Return on said Writ be forfeited to the ufe 
and Benefit of this State, and that they be sold According to Law^ — 
and that Exec" be granted &c — 

Exec" Gran^^ Dec. lo'^ 1777." 

No record of forfeiture of real estate is found. Lieut. Lyon 
died (perhaps in the British service) some time previous to Feb. 
5, 1 78 1, at which time the town refused to abate the assessment 
for recruiting ptirposes levied upon the property of his widow. 

LYON, THOMAS.i 

MALLERY, JOHN. See Rev. Soldiers. 

MALLERY, JONATHAN, JR. 

Lyon's list of signers has " John Jr." — perhaps identical with 
" Jonathan, Jr." 

MALLERY, NATHAN, JR.^ 

MANROW, DAVID. [Munroe.] 

MANROW, WILLIAM. See Rev. Soldiers. 

McNEIL, CHARLES. 

Went over to the enemy and served as Captain-Lieutenant in 
the Prince of Wales American Volunteers. 

McNEIL, NEIL. 

The name of Neil McNeil frequently appears in the court 
records in actions for book debt, brought against him by one 



201 

Manuel Myers of New York. He was perhaps a merchant, whose 
trade suffered because of the state of the times and his political 
afifiliations. Is probably the same man who led a company of 
Loyalists to Annapolis, N. S., and settled there. 

MEEKER, EPHRAIM. 

MEEKER, JONATHAN. 1733-1813. 

Died Jan. 17, 1813. Buried in Christ Church Yard. 

MILLS, EBENEZER.i 

MOREHOUSE, DANIEL. 1758-1835. 

This man is believed to be the same of whom Sabine says : 
" He became an officer in the Queen's Rangers, and retired at the 
close of the war on half pay. He went to New Brunswick, and 
was a magistrate, and a major in the militia. He died in the 
County of York, in 1835, aged "/jr 

MOREHOUSE, JOHN.^ 1751-1839. 

Probably the man who " settled in Nova Scotia, and at his 
decease was one of the oldest magistrates in the colony. He died 
on Digby Neck, in 1839." [Sabine.] 

MORGAN, CAPT. JAMES. See town votes Feb. 5-19, 1781. 

MUNGER, CAPT. SIMEON. 1752-1833. 

Simeon Munger was evidently an estimable citizen, whose 
sentiments, though favorable to the crown, were not actively dis- 
played during the Revolution. After its close he became popular 
in public life, and represented the town in the General Assembly 
for fifteen sessions: October, 1793; May-October, 1797; May, 
1798; May-October, 1799; May, 1800; October, 1801-04-05; May- 
October, 1806; May. 1807; October, 1808-15. 

Died Oct. 21, 1833. Buried in Christ Church Yard. 

MUNSON, THOMAS. 

NORTON, DR. ASA. 

OLMSTED, ELEAZER. 

PATCHEN, ANDREW. 

A resident of Redding and a signer of the " Resolves," who 
was obliged to quit home soon after signing that document. He 
13 



202 

went first to Johnstown (?) in 1775, and from there to Long 
Island, and removed his effects there. The Conn. Committee of 
Safety attempted to capture him, but he secreted himself, and in 
August, 1776, was obliged to fly for protection to Gen. Howe on 
Staten Island. Here he entered the company of Guides [Guides 
and Pioneers?], and was immediately employed by Sir William 
Howe to carry dispatches and warrants for raising men to the 
Loyalists throughout Long Island. He was finally taken ])risoner, 
carried to Seabrooke [Saybrook?] and tried for his life, was 
acquitted, but kept in confinement till January, 1777, when he 
escaped and joined Col. Fanning's corps [King's American Regi- 
ment] on Long Island, and continued in service. In October, 
1777, he lost his cattle and sheep on Long Island, captured by a 
party under Capt. Ebenezer Deighton. For more than two years 
he was employed by Sir Henry Clinton on secret service in Con- 
necticut and elsewhere. When the French fleet came in 1778 
he tried to remove his effects from Brookhaven, L. L, to New York. 
For this purpose he obtained a pass from Gen. Tryon and Col. 
Fanning in April, and in May following placed his goods on board 
John Ming's sloop for removal, paying $32 for the service, and 
while lying at Fire Island Inlet, South Bay, ready to go out in the 
morning he and his vessel were captured by a whaleboat party 
under Capt. Ebenezer Deighton (probably) and carried to New 
London. Patchen's effects, — provisions, furniture, clothing, etc., 
— were inventoried by one of Capt. Deighton's sergeants, and 
afterward sold at vendue. Patchen himself was finally exchanged, 
returned to Long Island, and served in the King's American Regi- 
ment till discharged by Gen. Carleton Sept. 19, 1781, and during 
the following year was employed by the general in secret service 
in Connecticut and elsewhere. He left New York with the first 
fleet in April, 1783, and settled at Kingston, Nova Scotia, obtain- 
ing his lands there in August of that year. He was one of the 
first vestrymen of Trinity Church, Kingston. 

Mr. Patchen estimated the value of the live stock lost on Long 
Island at £68, and his loss on household furniture and provisions 
at £208, a total of £276. He presented claims for £170, and was 
allowed £40 thereon. 

PATCHEN, ASAEL. 

PERCY, EZRA. [Perry?] 

PICKET, JOHN. [Pickwit.] 

PICKET, JOHN, JR. 



203 

PICKET. NATPIANIEL.i 

PLATT, ABEL.i 

PLATT, HEZEKIAH. See town votes Feb. 5-19. 1781. 

PLATT, ISAx\C. See Rev. Soldiers. 

PLATT, JOSEPH.i See Rev. Soldiers. 

PLATT, JOSIAH.i 

PLATT, OBADIAH. 

See note to Lyon's list of signers of the Association. 

PLATT, TIMOTHY. 

PLATT, ZEBULON. See town vote Feb. 19, 1781. 

RAYMOND, JOHN. 

READ, DANIEL. 

One Daniel Read was a soldier in Capt. Zalmon Read's com- 
pany, 5tli Regt. Conn. Line, in the Northern Campaign, being dis- 
charged from service Nov. 28, 1775. The name does not appear 
again in the military records of the state, and it seems evident that 
this man became disaffected and went over to the enemy, for- 
feiting his property in consequence of this action, as shown by the 
records annexed : 

" On Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in 
Fairfield County shewing to the Adj'd County Court held at Fairfield 
in and for [said] County on the i^*- Tuesday of March 1777 — That 
there is Real Estate Lying in said Redding which Belongs to Daniel 
Read of said Redding who has put and Continues to hold and Screen 
himself under the protection of the Ministerial Army &c — A Writ 
was Ifsued out by Order of said Court Dated March 10^'' 1777 — To 
Seize and to Hold said Estate and to be Dealt with According to 
Law — the said Read was Called at this Court made Default of Ap- 
pearance—This Court have Considered the Evidence Relative to 
said Read's Screening himself As aforesaid, Do order that the Real 
Estate of said Read According to the Officer's Return on said Writ 
be Leafed out for the ufe and Benefit of this State and for that pur- 
pose of this Court has appointed Thaddeus Benedict — Redding." 

" On Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in 
Fairfield Co. — Shewing to Lemuel Sanford Esq"" — Justice of the 
peace for said County — that there are Goods Chatties & Effects in 



204 

said Redding whicli Belongs to Daniel Read of said Redding who 
has put and Continues to hold and Screen himself under the Pro- 
tection of the Ministerial Army &c — said Justice Ifsued a Writ 
Dated March 28'" 1777 — To Seize and to hold said Estate and to bo 
Dealt with According to Law — the said Read was Called at this 
Court — and made Default of Appearance — This Court having Con- 
sidered the Evidence Relative to said Read's Screening himself As 
aforesaid to Order that the Goods & Eflfects of the said Read accord- 
ing to the Officer's Return on said Writ be forfeited for the use and 
Benefit of this State — and that they be sold According to Law and 
that Exec" be Gran'i &c. 

Exc" Gran^i Dec. lo"! 1777." 

" Whereas the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in Fairfield 
County did Inform John Read Esq"" Justice of the Peace in said 
County — that there is Estate in. said Redding which Belongs to Daniel 
Read lately of said Redding — who has gone over to, put Joined & 
Continues to hold & Screen himself under the Protection of the 
Enemies of the United States of America, said Read was summon'd 
to appear at this Court, to show Reafon why his said Estate should 
not be Declared Forfeit &c As P Writ on file Dated Oct. 15, 1778 P 
Adjournment, the said Read was called at this Court, & made De- 
fault of Appearance. Thereupon this Court having Considered the 
Evidence Relative to said Read's Screening himself As Aforsaid, Do 
order & Direct that the Estate of said Read be Forfeited to & for 
the ufe & Benefit of this State & tliat the fame be Furtlier Dealt with 
According to Law." 

ROBBINS, EPHRABL See Rev. Soldiers. 

ROWELL, JAMES.i 

ROWLAND, ISRAEL. 

" Upon the memorial of Israel Rowland, of Redding in the county 
of Fairfield, shewing to this Assembly that in April last he was per- 
swaded and induced to believe that the country would be conquered, 
and that through fear only he joined the troops of the enemy, sup- 
posing they would remain in Redding .where they then were, and 
that he then reluctantly went away with the enemy from whom he 
never dared to return till about the 4*'! of December when relying on 
the faith of the proclamation of the Hon^"'*^ Gen' Putnam he returned 
to Redding and resigned himself to the authority, not supposing it 
necessary for him to go to Gen' Putnam, and was b}' the authority 
committed to goal where he is now a prisoner; and the memorialist 
prays this A^isembly to grant a pardon, as per n\emorial on file ; Re- 
solved by this Assembly that a pardon be granted, and free pardon is 
hereby granted to said Israel Rowland for his said offence upon his 
paying all cost that has arisen in the premises." 

[Rec. State Conn., v. i, p. 498; G. A., Jan. 8, 1778.] 



205 

SANFORD. EPHRAIM.2 

In a list of persons whose estates were ordered to be leased for 
the use and benefit of the state [Rev. War, vol. 34], appears the 
name of Ephraini Sanford. No public records are found relati,ng- 
to him. Sabine mentions an Ephraim Sanford, who, " in 1776, 
abandoned his farm, stock, and produce, and joined the royal 
army," but locates him in Salem, N. Y. 

SANFORD, JOHN. 1739-1784. 

Born April 26, 1739. Son-in-law of Rev. John Beach. 

That a family relationship to the Rev. John Beach Hiould tend 
to confirm and stimulate loyalty to the cause of the crown is not 
to be w^ondered at : to what extent John Sanford carried its mani- 
festations is unknown — perhaps no further than to be too openly 
outspoken in the expression of his sentiments. Whatever the 
occasion given for the course of procedure adopted he was placed 
under arrest as an enemy to America and sent as a prisoner to 
Mansfield, Conn., from whence he was finally paroled under bond, 
and returned to Redding, where he remained quietly till the close of 
the war. The state records make this reference to his case : 

"An order was given to tlie committee of prisoners at Mansfield, 
to take a bond of John Sanford [a person confined in Mansfield, an 
enemy to this country] for 1000 pounds, conditioned that whereas the 
said John Sanford is found guilty of being inimical and dangerous to 
this and the rest of the United States of Am^^. Ordered, to be re- 
moved and sent to the Governor and Committee of Safety to have 
his place of residence assigned, and hath for some time resided in 
Mansfield according to said order, and now moving for liberty to 
return to Reading for the settlement of his mother's estate, and 
promising his good behaviour — now if the said John Sanford shall 
well and truly return to Reading, dwell and abide within and not 
depart out of the limits of said Town, and shall do nor say nothing 
in prejudice of the interests or rights of this or any other of the rest 
of the UiTjited States of Am^ or any of the measures pursuing- by them 
for their defense, and shall not hold any correspondence with or give 
any intelligence to the enemies of said States, and shall repair to any 
place assigned by the Governor and Committee of Safety of this State, 
upon requisition, then the foregoing bond to be void, else, to remain 
in full force and virtue, and upon his executing said bond, to give 
said John Sanford a permit to return to Reading without molesta- 
tion e/c e/c." 

Mr. Sanford died April t8, 1784, and is buried in Christ Church 
Yard. 

[Beach-Sanford Family History.] ■ 



206 

SEELEY, NEHEMIAH. 

SEELEY, NEHEMIAH. JR. 

SEYMOUR, JOHN. 

SHERWOOD, JOHN. 

SMITH, J0HN.12 

This is the name (probably assumed) of the deserter who was 
shot on Gallows Hill. He was a youth of about seventeen years, 
an Englishman by birth, who had been a soldier with Burgoyne, 
was taken prisoner at Saratoga, and afterward enlisted in the 
American Army. The contrast between his condition as a well- 
fed, paid, clothed, and disciplined soldier of the British Army, and 
the privations he was compelled to endure in the American service, 
caused him to falter in loyalty to his new allegiance, and with hot- 
headed indiscretion he declared his intention of returning to the 
British, and made the attempt, for which he paid the forfeit of his 
life. 

ST. JOHN, NEHEMIAH.i 

STURGIS, BENJAMIN. [Sturges.] 

STURGIS, EBENEZER.i 

STURGIS, EBENEZER, 2d. 

See vote of the town Jan. 8, 1781. This evidently refers to 
Ebenezer, 2d, who was a resident. 

TAYLOR, GILEAD.2 

A Tory of Danbury whose estates were confiscated. Perhaps 
the same man who bought Jabez Williams' house and home-lot in 
Lonetown in 1784. 

TAYLOR, JABEZ, JR.i 

TAYLOR, PRESERVED. 

Preserved Taylor was an old resident of Redding — the father 
of eleven children born between 1765 and 1785. He went over to 
the enemy, but could not have remained with them long, as his 
residence in the town was practically continuous for at least twenty 
years. Measures were taken to confiscate his property, which were 
doubtless suspended upon his return : 



207 

" On Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in 
Fairfield [county] shewing the special County Court held at Fairfield 
in & for said County on the 6'^ Day of August 1777 — that there is 
Real Estate Lying in said Redding which Belongs to Preserved Taylor 
of said Redding who has put and Continues to hold and Screen him- 
self under the Protection of the Ministerial Army &c — A Writ was 
ifsued out by order of said Court Dated August 7^^ 1777 To Seize 
and to hold said Estate — and to be Dealt with According to Law — 
the said Taylor was Called at this Court made Default of Appear- 
ance — This Court have Considered the Evidences Relative to said 
Taylors Screening himself As aforesaid do order that the Real Estate 
of said Taylor According to the Officer's Return on said Writ be 
Leafed out for the ufe and Benefit of this State and for that purpose 
this Court has appointed Thad^ Benedict — Redding." 

" On Information of the Selectmen of the Town of Redding in 
Fairfield County Shewing to John Read Esq'" Justice of the peace 
for said County that there are Goods Chatties and Effects in said 
Redding which Belongs to Preserved Taylor of said Redding who 
has put and Continues to hold and Screen himself under the Pro- 
tection of the Ministerial Army &c said Justice Ifsued his writ Dated 
May 29th 1777 — To Seize and to hold said Estate to be Dealt with 
According to Law, the said Taylor Being Called at this Court made 
Default of Appearance — ■ This Court having Considered the Evidences 
Relative to said Taylor's Screening himself As aforesaid — Do order 
and Direct that the Goods and Effects of the said Taylor According 
to the officers Return on said W^rit Be Forfeited for the use and 
Benefit of this State, and that they be sold According to Law — and 
that Exc" be granted &c — 

Exc" Granted Dec. 12^'' 1777." 

No further record of forfeiture found. Taylor evidently re- 
turned after the publication of Gen. Ptitnam's proclamation. 

TAYLOR. STLAS.i 

THORNE, PETER.i 1757-1844. 

Settled in Nova Scotia, and died in Wilmot, in that province. 

TURNEY, DAVID. 

WHEELER, CALVIN.i 

WHEELER, ENOS. 

W'HEELER, LAZARUS. 

WHITLOCK, EBENEZER.i 



208 

WHITLOCK, EPHRAIM. - 

WHITLOCK, HEZEKIAH.i 
WHITLOCK, NEHEMIAH.i 
WILLIAMS, BENJAMIN.i 
WILLIAMS, EBENEZER. 

[Note. — Complete copies of the Loyalist claims may be found at the New York 
Public Library, New York city.] 



DEC 21 1904